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Sample records for high energy density

  1. High Energy Density Microwaves

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, R.M.

    1999-04-01

    These proceedings represent papers presented at the RF98 Workshop entitled `High Energy Density Microwaves` held in California in October, 1998. The topics discussed were predominantly accelerator{minus}related. The Workshop dealt, for the most part, with the generation and control of electron beams, the amplification of RF signals, the design of mode converters, and the effect of very high RF field gradients. This Workshop was designed to address the concerns of the microwave tube industry worldwide, the plasma physicists who deal with very high beam currents and gigawatts of RF power, and researchers in accelerator centers around the world. Papers were presented on multibeam klystrons, gyrotron development, plasmas in microwave tubes, RF breakdown, and alternatives to conventional linear coliders at 1 TeV and above. The Workshop was partially sponsored by the US Department of Energy. There were 46 papers presented at the conference,out of which 19 have been abstracted for the Energy,Science and Technology database.(AIP)

  2. High Energy Density Capacitors

    SciTech Connect

    2010-07-01

    BEEST Project: Recapping is developing a capacitor that could rival the energy storage potential and price of today’s best EV batteries. When power is needed, the capacitor rapidly releases its stored energy, similar to lightning being discharged from a cloud. Capacitors are an ideal substitute for batteries if their energy storage capacity can be improved. Recapping is addressing storage capacity by experimenting with the material that separates the positive and negative electrodes of its capacitors. These separators could significantly improve the energy density of electrochemical devices.

  3. High energy density electrochemical cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrne, J. J.; Williams, D. L.

    1970-01-01

    Primary cell has an anode of lithium, a cathode containing dihaloisocyanuric acid, and a nonaqueous electrolyte comprised of a solution of lithium perchlorate in methyl formate. It produces an energy density of 213 watt hrs/lb and can achieve a high current density.

  4. High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Remington, B A

    2004-11-11

    High-energy-density (HED) physics refers broadly to the study of macroscopic collections of matter under extreme conditions of temperature and density. The experimental facilities most widely used for these studies are high-power lasers and magnetic-pinch generators. The HED physics pursued on these facilities is still in its infancy, yet new regimes of experimental science are emerging. Examples from astrophysics include work relevant to planetary interiors, supernovae, astrophysical jets, and accreting compact objects (such as neutron stars and black holes). In this paper, we will review a selection of recent results in this new field of HED laboratory astrophysics and provide a brief look ahead to the coming decade.

  5. High-Energy-Density Capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slenes, Kirk

    2003-01-01

    Capacitors capable of storing energy at high densities are being developed for use in pulse-power circuits in such diverse systems as defibrillators, particle- beam accelerators, microwave sources, and weapons. Like typical previously developed energy-storage capacitors, these capacitors are made from pairs of metal/solid-dielectric laminated sheets that are wound and pressed into compact shapes to fit into cans, which are then filled with dielectric fluids. Indeed, these capacitors can be fabricated largely by conventional fabrication techniques. The main features that distinguish these capacitors from previously developed ones are improvements in (1) the selection of laminate materials, (2) the fabrication of the laminated sheets from these materials, and (3) the selection of dielectric fluids. In simplest terms, a high-performance laminated sheet of the type used in these capacitors is made by casting a dielectric polymer onto a sheet of aluminized kraft paper. The dielectric polymer is a siloxane polymer that has been modified with polar pendant groups to increase its permittivity and dielectric strength. Potentially, this polymer is capable of withstanding an energy density of 7.5 J/cm3, which is four times that of the previous state-of-the-art-capacitor dielectric film material. However, the full potential of this polymer cannot be realized at present because (1) at thicknesses needed for optimum performance (.8.0 m), the mechanical strength of a film of this polymer is insufficient for incorporation into a wound capacitor and (2) at greater thickness, the achievable energy density decreases because of a logarithmic decrease in dielectric strength with increasing thickness. The aluminized kraft paper provides the mechanical strength needed for processing of the laminate and fabrication of the capacitor, and the aluminum film serves as an electrode layer. Because part of the thickness of the dielectric is not occupied by the modified siloxane polymer, the

  6. Oxides having high energy densities

    DOEpatents

    Ceder, Gerbrand; Kang, Kisuk

    2013-09-10

    Certain disclosed embodiments generally relate to oxide materials having relatively high energy and/or power densities. Various aspects of the embodiments are directed to oxide materials having a structure B.sub.i(M.sub.jY.sub.k)O.sub.2, for example, a structure Li.sub.j(Ni.sub.jY.sub.k)O.sub.2 such as Li(Ni.sub.0.5Mn.sub.0.5)O.sub.2. In this structure, Y represents one or more atoms, each independently selected from the group consisting of alkaline earth metals, transition metals, Group 14 elements, Group 15, or Group 16 elements. In some embodiments, such an oxide material may have an O3 crystal structure, and/or a layered structure such that the oxide comprises a plurality of first, repeating atomic planes comprising Li, and a plurality of second, repeating atomic planes comprising Ni and/or Y.

  7. High Energy Density Electrolytic Capacitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, David A.

    1996-01-01

    A new type of electrolytic capacitor which combines an electrolytic capacitor anode with an electrochemical capacitor cathode was developed. The resulting capacitor has a four time higher energy density than standard electrolytic capacitors, with comparable electric performance. The prototype, a 480 microFarad, 200 V device, has an energy density exceeding 4 J/cc. Now a 680 microFarad 50 V, MIL-style all tantalum device has been constructed and is undergoing qualification testing. Pending a favorable outcome, work will begin on other ratings. The potential for commercially significant development exists in applying this technology to aluminum-based electrolytic capacitors. It is possible to at least double the energy density of aluminum electrolytics, while using existing manufacturing methods, and without adding material expense. Data presented include electrical characteristics and performance measurements of the 200 V and 50 V hybrid capacitors and results from ongoing qualification testing of the MIL-style tantalum capacitors.

  8. High energy density electrolytic capacitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, David A.

    1995-01-01

    Recently a new type of electrolytic capacitor was developed. This capacitor, the Evans Hybrid, combines an electrolytic capacitor anode with an electrochemical capacitors cathode. The resulting capacitor has four times the energy density of other electrolytic capacitors, with comparable electrical performance. The prototype, a 480 micro F, 200 V device, had an energy density exceeding 4 J/cc. Now, a 680 micro F, 50 V, MIL-style all tantalum device has been constructed and is undergoing qualification testing. Pending a favorable outcome, work will begin on other ratings. Potential for commercially significant development exists in applying this technology to aluminum-based electrolytic capacitors. It is possible to at least double the energy density of aluminum electrolytics, while using existing manufacturing methods, and without adding material expense. Data presented include electrical characteristics and performance measurements of the 200 V and 50 V Hybrid capacitors and results of ongolng qualification status of the MJL-style tantalum.

  9. Strongly Interacting Matter at High Energy Density

    SciTech Connect

    McLerran,L.

    2008-09-07

    This lecture concerns the properties of strongly interacting matter (which is described by Quantum Chromodynamics) at very high energy density. I review the properties of matter at high temperature, discussing the deconfinement phase transition. At high baryon density and low temperature, large N{sub c} arguments are developed which suggest that high baryonic density matter is a third form of matter, Quarkyonic Matter, that is distinct from confined hadronic matter and deconfined matter. I finally discuss the Color Glass Condensate which controls the high energy limit of QCD, and forms the low x part of a hadron wavefunction. The Glasma is introduced as matter formed by the Color Glass Condensate which eventually thermalizes into a Quark Gluon Plasma.

  10. High-energy-density composite flywheel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satchwell, D. L.; Towgood, D. A.

    1980-02-01

    A flywheel was designed and fabricated to demonstrate a high energy density of 80 w-h/kg in the rotor. The rotor design consists of a multiring, subcircular rim made of S-glass/epoxy composite and Kevlar/epoxy composite materials and mounted on a spoked hub made of graphite/epoxy composite materials.

  11. Laser Experiments for High Energy Density Science

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, G. Ravindra

    2010-11-23

    High energy density science probes some of the most basic scientific questions that cut across traditional disciplines. The advent of table top, terawatt, femtosecond lasers promises to revolutionize this area by the use of precise experimental techniques on the one hand and testing of models and computer simulations on the other. In this paper, we present some of our results on hot electron generation, giant magnetic fields and ultrafast plasma dynamics using such experiments and theoretical modeling.

  12. Alternative Approaches to High Energy Density Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, J.

    2016-03-01

    This paper explores selected approaches to High Energy Density (HED) fusion, beginning with discussion of ignition requirements at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The needed improvements to achieve ignition are closely tied to the ability to concentrate energy in the implosion, manifested in the stagnation pressure, Pstag . The energy that must be assembled in the imploded state to ignite varies roughly as Pstag -2, so among other requirements, there is a premium on reaching higher Pstag to achieve ignition with the available laser energy. The U.S. inertial confinement fusion program (ICF) is pursuing higher Pstag on NIF through improvements to capsule stability and symmetry. One can argue that recent experiments place an approximate upper bound on the ultimate ignition energy requirement. Scaling the implosions consistently in spatial, temporal and energy scales shows that implosions of the demonstrated quality ignite robustly at 9-15 times the current energy of NIF. While lasers are unlikely to reach that bounding energy, it appears that pulsed-power sources could plausibly do so, giving a range of paths forward for ICF depending on success in improving energy concentration. In this paper, I show the scaling arguments then discuss topics from my own involvement in HED fusion. The recent Viewfactor experiments at NIF have shed light on both the observed capsule drive deficit and errors in the detailed modelling of hohlraums. The latter could be important factors in the inability to achieve the needed symmetry and energy concentration. The paper then recounts earlier work in Fast Ignition and the uses of pulsed- power for HED and fusion applications. It concludes with a description of a method for improving pulsed-power driven hohlraums that could potentially provide a factor of 10 in energy at NIF-like drive conditions and reach the energy bound for indirect drive ICF.

  13. High energy density redox flow device

    DOEpatents

    Chiang, Yet-Ming; Carter, W. Craig; Ho, Bryan Y; Duduta, Mihai; Limthongkul, Pimpa

    2014-05-13

    Redox flow devices are described in which at least one of the positive electrode or negative electrode-active materials is a semi-solid or is a condensed ion-storing electroactive material, and in which at least one of the electrode-active materials is transported to and from an assembly at which the electrochemical reaction occurs, producing electrical energy. The electronic conductivity of the semi-solid is increased by the addition of conductive particles to suspensions and/or via the surface modification of the solid in semi-solids (e.g., by coating the solid with a more electron conductive coating material to increase the power of the device). High energy density and high power redox flow devices are disclosed. The redox flow devices described herein can also include one or more inventive design features. In addition, inventive chemistries for use in redox flow devices are also described.

  14. Surprises in High Energy Density Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, S. J.

    2010-01-01

    Edward Teller's work on what is now called High Energy Density Physics (HEDP) is not so well known as some of his work in other areas of physics. Yet he made substantial contributions since the 1940s and the models that he developed and the problems that he worked on are still relevant today. In this talk we shall look at two major areas in HEDP with the first treated more historically and the second more with a view to recent work that the author and others have undertaken which perhaps indicates future directions.

  15. High Energy Density Matter for Rocket Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrick, Patrick G.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the High Energy Density Matter (HEDM) program is to identify, develop, and exploit high energy atomic and molecular systems as energetic sources for rocket propulsion applications. It is a high risk, high payoff program that incorporates both basic and applied research, experimental and theoretical efforts, and science and engineering efforts. The HEDM program is co-sponsored by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR) and the Phillips Laboratory (PURKS). It includes both in-house and contracted University/Industry efforts. Technology developed by the HEDM program offers the opportunity for significant breakthroughs in propulsion system capabilities over the current state-of-the-art. One area of great interest is the use of cryogenic solids to increase the density of the propellant and to act as a stable matrix for storage of energetic materials. No cryogenic solid propellant has ever been used in a rocket, and there remain engineering challenges to such a propellant. However, these solids would enable a wide class of highly energetic materials by providing an environment that is at very low temperatures and is a physical barrier to recombination or energy loss reactions. Previous to our experiments only hydrogen atoms had been isolated in solid hydrogen. To date we have succeeded in trapping B, Al, Li, N, and Mg atoms in solid H2. Small molecules, such as B2 and LiB, are also of interest. Current efforts involve the search for new energetic small molecules, increasing free radical concentrations up to 5 mole percent, and scale-up for propulsion testing.

  16. High Energy Density Utracapacitors: Low-Cost, High Energy and Power Density, Nanotube-Enhanced Ultracapacitors

    SciTech Connect

    2010-04-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: FastCAP is improving the performance of an ultracapacitor—a battery-like electronic device that can complement, and possibly even replace, an HEV or EV battery pack. Ultracapacitors have many advantages over conventional batteries, including long lifespans (over 1 million cycles, as compared to 10,000 for conventional batteries) and better durability. Ultracapacitors also charge more quickly than conventional batteries, and they release energy more quickly. However, ultracapacitors have fallen short of batteries in one key metric: energy density—high energy density means more energy storage. FastCAP is redesigning the ultracapacitor’s internal structure to increase its energy density. Ultracapacitors traditionally use electrodes made of irregularly shaped, porous carbon. FastCAP’s ultracapacitors are made of tiny, aligned carbon nanotubes. The nanotubes provide a regular path for ions moving in and out of the ultracapacitor’s electrode, increasing the overall efficiency and energy density of the device.

  17. High energy density aluminum-oxygen cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudd, E. J.; Gibbons, D. W.

    1993-11-01

    An alternative to a secondary battery as the power source for vehicle propulsion is a fuel cell. An example of this is the metal-air fuel cell using metals such as aluminum, zinc, or iron. Aluminum is a particularly attractive candidate, having high energy and power densities, being environmentally acceptable, and having a large, established industrial base for production and distribution. An aluminum-oxygen system is currently under development for a UUV test vehicle, and recent work has focussed upon low corrosion aluminum alloys and an electrolyte management system for processing the by-products of the energy-producing reactions. This paper summarizes the progress made in both areas. Anode materials capable of providing high utilization factors over current densities ranging from S to 150 mA/sq cm have been identified. These materials are essential to realizing an acceptable mission life for the UUV. With respect to the electrolyte management system, a filter/precipitator unit has been successfully operated for over 250 hours in a large scale, half-cell system.

  18. High Energy Density aluminum/oxygen cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudd, E. J.; Gibbons, D. W.

    An alternative to a secondary battery as the power source for vehicle propulsion is a fuel cell, an example of which is the metal/air cell using metals such as aluminum, zinc, or iron. Aluminum is a particularly attractive candidate, with high energy and power densities, environmentally acceptable and having a large, established industrial base for production and distribution. An aluminum/oxygen system is currently under development for a prototype unmanned, undersea vehicle (UUV) for the US navy and recent work has focussed upon low corrosion aluminum alloys, and an electrolyte management system for processing the by-products of the energy-producing reactions. This paper summarizes the progress made in both areas. Anode materials capable of providing high utilization factors over current densities ranging from 5 to 150 mA/cm 2 have been identified, such materials being essential to realize mission life for the UUV. With respect to the electrolyte management system, a filter/precipitator unit has been successfully operated for over 250 h in a large scale, half-cell system.

  19. High energy density aluminum-oxygen cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudd, E. J.; Gibbons, D. W.

    1993-01-01

    An alternative to a secondary battery as the power source for vehicle propulsion is a fuel cell. An example of this is the metal-air fuel cell using metals such as aluminum, zinc, or iron. Aluminum is a particularly attractive candidate, having high energy and power densities, being environmentally acceptable, and having a large, established industrial base for production and distribution. An aluminum-oxygen system is currently under development for a UUV test vehicle, and recent work has focussed upon low corrosion aluminum alloys and an electrolyte management system for processing the by-products of the energy-producing reactions. This paper summarizes the progress made in both areas. Anode materials capable of providing high utilization factors over current densities ranging from S to 150 mA/sq cm have been identified. These materials are essential to realizing an acceptable mission life for the UUV. With respect to the electrolyte management system, a filter/precipitator unit has been successfully operated for over 250 hours in a large scale, half-cell system.

  20. Perspectives on High-Energy-Density Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, R. Paul

    2008-11-01

    Much of 21st century plasma physics will involve work to produce, understand, control, and exploit very non-traditional plasmas. High-energy density (HED) plasmas are often examples, variously involving strong Coulomb interactions and few particles per Debeye sphere, dominant radiation effects, strongly relativistic effects, or strongly quantum-mechanical behavior. Indeed, these and other modern plasma systems often fall outside the early standard theoretical definitions of ``plasma''. This presentation will focus on two types of HED plasmas that exhibit non-traditional behavior. Our first example will be the plasmas produced by extremely strong shock waves. Shock waves are present across the entire realm of plasma densities, often in space or astrophysical contexts. HED shock waves (at pressures > 1 Mbar) enable studies in many areas, from equations of state to hydrodynamics to radiation hydrodynamics. We will specifically consider strongly radiative shocks, in which the radiative energy fluxes are comparable to the mechanical energy fluxes that drive the shocks. Modern HED facilities can produce such shocks, which are also present in dense, energetic, astrophysical systems such as supernovae. These shocks are also excellent targets for advanced simulations due to their range of spatial scales and complex radiation transport. Our second example will be relativistic plasmas. In general, these vary from plasmas containing relativistic particle beams, produced for some decades in the laboratory, to the relativistic thermal plasmas present for example in pulsar winds. Laboratory HED relativistic plasmas to date have been those produced by laser beams of irradiance ˜ 10^18 to 10^22 W/cm^2 or by accelerator-produced HED electron beams. These have applications ranging from generation of intense x-rays to production of proton beams for radiation therapy to acceleration of electrons. Here we will focus on electron acceleration, a spectacular recent success and a rare

  1. Perspectives on high-energy-density physicsa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, R. P.

    2009-05-01

    Much of 21st century plasma physics will involve work to produce, understand, control, and exploit very nontraditional plasmas. High-energy-density (HED) plasmas are often examples, variously involving strong Coulomb interactions and ≪1 particles per Debye sphere, dominant radiation effects, and strongly relativistic or strongly quantum-mechanical behavior. Indeed, these and other modern plasma systems often fall outside the early standard theoretical definitions of "plasma." Here the specific ways in which HED plasmas differ from traditional plasmas are discussed. This is first done by comparison of important physical quantities across the parameter regime accessible by existing or contemplated experimental facilities. A specific discussion of some illustrative cases follows, including strongly radiative shocks and the production of relativistic, quasimonoenergetic beams of accelerated electrons.

  2. Simulation of High Energy Density Laboratory Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzik, Joyce

    2004-05-01

    High Energy Density plasmas are found in astrophysical environments, have been generated in past underground nuclear tests, and can be created in the laboratory by, e.g. laser or pulsed power experiments. These experiments can be used to validate simulation capabilities that are being developed to advance our understanding of plasma physics, and to develop predictive capabilities for HED plasma applications such as fusion energy. In this talk we will briefly introduce the subject of simulating HED plasmas using radiation hydrodynamics codes. We will give examples of simple test problems, showing how a problem is approached, including geometry specifications, simplifying assumptions, zoning, initial and boundary conditions, basic data on opacities and EOS, and illustrate sensitivities of results to variations. We will also show highlights of work at Los Alamos to validate codes, provide basic data, and develop applications, for example: 1) studying phenomena such as Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmeyer-Meshkov instabilities, ablation, and supersonic jets at the Omega laser in Rochester and the Sandia Z Machine; 2) quantum molecular dynamics simulations which have recently led to a semi-classical, particle-particle particle-mesh code that allows ultra-fast simulations involving tens of thousands of particles to calculate properties of hot dense plasmas; 3) efforts to experimentally demonstrate the physics basis for magnetized target fusion (MTF), a potentially low cost path to fusion, intermediate in plasma regime between magnetic and inertial fusion energy.

  3. High Energy Density Sciences with High Power Lasers at SACLA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodama, Ryosuke

    2013-10-01

    One of the interesting topics on high energy density sciences with high power lasers is creation of extremely high pressures in material. The pressures of more than 0.1 TPa are the energy density corresponding to the chemical bonding energy, resulting in expectation of dramatic changes in the chemical reactions. At pressures of more than TPa, most of material would be melted on the shock Hugoniot curve. However, if the temperature is less than 1eV or lower than a melting point at pressures of more than TPa, novel solid states of matter must be created through a pressured phase transition. One of the interesting materials must be carbon. At pressures of more than TPa, the diamond structure changes to BC and cubic at more than 3TPa. To create such novel states of matter, several kinds of isentropic-like compression techniques are being developed with high power lasers. To explore the ``Tera-Pascal Science,'' now we have a new tool which is an x-ray free electron laser as well as high power lasers. The XFEL will clear the details of the HED states and also efficiently create hot dense matter. We have started a new project on high energy density sciences using an XFEL (SACLA) in Japan, which is a HERMES (High Energy density Revolution of Matter in Extreme States) project.

  4. Superintense ion beam with high energy density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudnikov, Vadim; Dudnikova, Galina

    2008-04-01

    The energy density of ion beam accumulated in a storage ring can be increased dramatically with using of space charge compensation as was demonstrated in experiments [1]. The intensity of said superintense beam can be far greater than a space charge limit without space charge compensation. The model of secondary plasma build up with secondary ion-electron emission as a source of delayed electrons has been presented and discussed. This model can be used for explanation of bunched beam instability with electron surviving after gap, for prediction of e-cloud generation in coasting and long bunches beam, and can be important for pressure rise in worm and cold sections of storage rings. A fast desorption by ion of physically adsorbed molecules can explain a ``first pulse Instability''. Application of this model for e-p instability selfstabilization and superintense circulating beam accumulation is considered. Importance of secondary plasma for high perveance ion beam stabilization in ion implantation will be considered. Preliminary results of simulation of electron and ion accumulation will be presented. [1]. Belchenko et al., Xth International Particle Accelerator Conference, Protvino, 1977, Vol. 2, p. 287.

  5. Electrode/Dielectric Strip For High-Energy-Density Capacitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, Shiao-Ping S.

    1994-01-01

    Improved unitary electrode/dielectric strip serves as winding in high-energy-density capacitor in pulsed power supply. Offers combination of qualities essential for high energy density: high permittivity of dielectric layers, thinness, and high resistance to breakdown of dielectric at high electric fields. Capacitors with strip material not impregnated with liquid.

  6. Research on high energy density capacitor materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somoano, Robert

    1988-01-01

    The Pulsed Plasma thruster is the simplest of all electric propulsion devices. It is a pulsed device which stores energy in capacitors for each pulse. The lifetimes and energy densities of these capacitors are critical parameters to the continued use of these thrusters. This report presents the result of a research effort conducted by JPL into the materials used in capacitors and the modes of failure. The dominant failure mechanism was determined to be material breakdown precipitated by heat build-up within the capacitors. The presence of unwanted gas was identified as the source of the heat. An aging phenomena was discovered in polycarbonate based capacitors. CO build-up was noted to increase with the number of times the capacitor had been discharged. Improved quality control was cited as being essential for the improvement of capacitor lifetimes.

  7. Highly Compressed Ion Beam for High Energy Density Science

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A.; Barnard, J.J.; Briggs, R.J.; Callahan, D.A.; Caporaso, G.J.; Celata, C.M.; Davidson, R.C.; Faltens, A.; Grisham, L.; Grote, D.P.; Henestroza, E.; Kaganovich I.; Lee, E.P.; Lee, R.W.; Leitner, M.; Logan, B.G.; Nelson, S.D.; Olson, C.L.; Penn, G.; Reginato,L.R.; Renk, T.; Rose, D.; Seessler, A.; Staples, J.W.; Tabak, M.; Thoma,C.; Waldron, W.; Welch, D.R.; Wurtele, J.; Yu, S.S.

    2005-05-16

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory is developing the intense ion beams needed to drive matter to the High Energy Density regimes required for Inertial Fusion Energy and other applications. An interim goal is a facility for Warm Dense Matter studies, wherein a target is heated volumetrically without being shocked, so that well-defined states of matter at 1 to 10 eV are generated within a diagnosable region. In the approach they are pursuing, low to medium mass ions with energies just above the Bragg peak are directed onto thin target ''foils,'' which may in fact be foams with mean densities 1% to 10% of solid. This approach complements that being pursued at GSI Darmstadt, wherein high-energy ion beams deposit a small fraction of their energy in a cylindrically target. They present the beam requirements for Warm Dense Matter experiments. The authors discuss neutralized drift compression and final focus experiments and modeling. They describe suitable accelerator architectures based on Drift-Tube Linac, RF, single-gap, Ionization-Front Accelerator, and Pulse-Line Ion Accelerator concepts. The last of these is being pursued experimentally. Finally, they discuss plans toward a user facility for target experiments.

  8. Ultra high energy density and fast discharge nanocomposite capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Haixiong; Sodano, Henry A.

    2013-04-01

    Nanocomposites containing high dielectric permittivity ceramics embedded in high breakdown strength polymers are currently of considerable interest as a solution for the development of high energy density capacitors. However, the improvement of dielectric permittivity comes at expense of the breakdown strength leading to limit the final energy density. Here, an ultra-high energy density nanocomposite was fabricated based on high aspect ratio barium strontium titanate nanowires. The pyroelectric phase Ba0.2Sr0.8TiO3 was chosen for the nanowires combined with quenched PVDF to fabricate high energy density nanocomposite. The energy density with 7.5% Ba0.2Sr0.8TiO3 nanowires reached 14.86 J/cc at 450 MV/m, which represented a 42.9% increase in comparison to the PVDF with an energy density of 10.4 J/cc at the same electric field. The capacitors have 1138% greater than higher energy density than commercial biaxial oriented polypropylene capacitors (1.2 J/cc at 640). These results demonstrate that the high aspect ratio nanowires can be used to produce nanocomposite capacitors with greater performance than the neat polymers thus providing a novel process for the development of future pulsed-power capacitors.

  9. High-Energy-Density Electrolytic Capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, Shiao-Ping S.; Lewis, Carol R.

    1993-01-01

    Reductions in weight and volume make new application possible. Supercapacitors and improved ultracapacitors advanced electrolytic capacitors developed for use as electric-load-leveling devices in such applications as electric vehicle propulsion systems, portable power tools, and low-voltage pulsed power supplies. One primary advantage: offer power densities much higher than storage batteries. Capacitors used in pulse mode, with short charge and discharge times. Derived from commercially available ultracapacitors. Made of lightweight materials; incorporate electrode/electrolyte material systems capable of operation at voltages higher than previous electrode/electrolyte systems. By use of innovative designs and manufacturing processes, made in wide range of rated capacitances and in rated operating potentials ranging from few to several hundred volts.

  10. High energy density propulsion systems and small engine dynamometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hays, Thomas

    2009-07-01

    Scope and Method of Study. This study investigates all possible methods of powering small unmanned vehicles, provides reasoning for the propulsion system down select, and covers in detail the design and production of a dynamometer to confirm theoretical energy density calculations for small engines. Initial energy density calculations are based upon manufacturer data, pressure vessel theory, and ideal thermodynamic cycle efficiencies. Engine tests are conducted with a braking type dynamometer for constant load energy density tests, and show true energy densities in excess of 1400 WH/lb of fuel. Findings and Conclusions. Theory predicts lithium polymer, the present unmanned system energy storage device of choice, to have much lower energy densities than other conversion energy sources. Small engines designed for efficiency, instead of maximum power, would provide the most advantageous method for powering small unmanned vehicles because these engines have widely variable power output, loss of mass during flight, and generate rotational power directly. Theoretical predictions for the energy density of small engines has been verified through testing. Tested values up to 1400 WH/lb can be seen under proper operating conditions. The implementation of such a high energy density system will require a significant amount of follow-on design work to enable the engines to tolerate the higher temperatures of lean operation. Suggestions are proposed to enable a reliable, small-engine propulsion system in future work. Performance calculations show that a mature system is capable of month long flight times, and unrefueled circumnavigation of the globe.

  11. Hybrid system for rechargeable magnesium battery with high energy density.

    PubMed

    Chang, Zheng; Yang, Yaqiong; Wang, Xiaowei; Li, Minxia; Fu, Zhengwen; Wu, Yuping; Holze, Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    One of the main challenges of electrical energy storage (EES) is the development of environmentally friendly battery systems with high safety and high energy density. Rechargeable Mg batteries have been long considered as one highly promising system due to the use of low cost and dendrite-free magnesium metal. The bottleneck for traditional Mg batteries is to achieve high energy density since their output voltage is below 2.0 V. Here, we report a magnesium battery using Mg in Grignard reagent-based electrolyte as the negative electrode, a lithium intercalation compound in aqueous solution as the positive electrode, and a solid electrolyte as a separator. Its average discharge voltage is 2.1 V with stable discharge platform and good cycling life. The calculated energy density based on the two electrodes is high. These findings open another door to rechargeable magnesium batteries. PMID:26173624

  12. Hybrid system for rechargeable magnesium battery with high energy density

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Zheng; Yang, Yaqiong; Wang, Xiaowei; Li, Minxia; Fu, Zhengwen; Wu, Yuping; Holze, Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    One of the main challenges of electrical energy storage (EES) is the development of environmentally friendly battery systems with high safety and high energy density. Rechargeable Mg batteries have been long considered as one highly promising system due to the use of low cost and dendrite-free magnesium metal. The bottleneck for traditional Mg batteries is to achieve high energy density since their output voltage is below 2.0 V. Here, we report a magnesium battery using Mg in Grignard reagent-based electrolyte as the negative electrode, a lithium intercalation compound in aqueous solution as the positive electrode, and a solid electrolyte as a separator. Its average discharge voltage is 2.1 V with stable discharge platform and good cycling life. The calculated energy density based on the two electrodes is high. These findings open another door to rechargeable magnesium batteries. PMID:26173624

  13. Fourth International Conference on High Energy Density Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Beg, Farhat

    2015-01-06

    The Fourth International Conference on High Energy Density Physics (ICHED 2013) was held in Saint Malo, France, at the Palais du Grand Large on 25-28 June 2013 (http://web.luli.polytechnique.fr/ICHED2013/). This meeting was the fourth in a series which was first held in 2008. This conference covered all the important aspects of High Energy Density Physics including fundamental topics from strong-field physics to creating new states of matter (including radiation-dominated, high-pressure quantum and relativistic plasmas) and ultra-fast lattice dynamics on the timescale of atomic transitions.

  14. High-Energy-Density Cost-Effective Graphene Supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuilov, Vladimir; Ying Mu, Ying; Hedayat, Nader; Solovyov, Vyacheslav; Sensor CAT at Stony Brook Team

    We introduce a cost-effective graphene platelet composite material as a replacement of an expensive reduced graphene oxide for electrodes in high energy density supercapacitors. We have tested a low size supercapacitor prototypes with the graphene platelets electrodes and newly developed polymer-gel Li + ion electrolyte. We discuss the ways how to increase the capacitance and the energy densities of the supercapacitor significantly. A working prototype for testing the concept of the high voltage supercapacitor has been developed as well. The first test done up to 10 V showed excellent performance of the multy-cell multi-layer high voltage test assembly.

  15. High Energy Density Regenerative Fuel Cell Systems for Terrestrial Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Kenneth A.

    1999-01-01

    Regenerative Fuel Cell System (RFCS) technology for energy storage has been a NASA power system concept for many years. Compared to battery-based energy storage systems, RFCS has received relatively little attention or resources for development because the energy density and electrical efficiency were not sufficiently attractive relative to advanced battery systems. Even today, RFCS remains at a very low technology readiness level (TRL of about 2 indicating feasibility has been demonstrated). Commercial development of the Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells for automobiles and other terrestrial applications and improvements in lightweight pressure vessel design to reduce weight and improve performance make possible a high energy density RFCS energy storage system. The results from this study of a lightweight RFCS energy storage system for a remotely piloted, solar-powered, high altitude aircraft indicate an energy density up to 790 w-h/kg with electrical efficiency of 53.4% is attainable. Such an energy storage system would allow a solar-powered aircraft to carry hundreds of kilograms of payload and remain in flight indefinitely for use in atmospheric research, earth observation, resource mapping. and telecommunications. Future developments in the areas of hydrogen and oxygen storage, pressure vessel design, higher temperature and higher- pressure fuel cell operation, unitized regenerative fuel cells, and commercial development of fuel cell technology will improve both the energy density and electrical efficiency of the RFCS.

  16. High Energy Density Physics on LULI2000 Laser Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, M.; Benuzzi-Mounaix, A.; Ozaki, N.; Ravasio, A.; Vinci, T.; Lepape, S.; Tanaka, K.; Riley, D.

    2006-07-01

    We present here a summary of some High Density Energy Physics experiments performed on the new facility LULI 2000. First, different flyer plate targets scheme have been tested loading shock in fused-quartz plate. Temperature data along the Hugoniot curve have been obtained. Second, a strongly coupled and degenerated Aluminium plasma has been probed by X-ray Thomson scattering. Compton shift from electrons has been observed in various density conditions.

  17. Determination of the nuclear level density at high excitation energy

    SciTech Connect

    Chbihi, A.; Sobotka, L.G.; Nicolis, N.G.; Sarantites, D.G.; Stracener, D.W.; Majka, Z. ); Hensley, D.C.; Beene, J.R.; Halbert, M.L. )

    1991-02-01

    Evaporation simulations are presented to illustrate the problems associated with the determination of the nuclear level density constant at high excitation energy from evaporation spectra. The methods of using either the total (whole chain) spectra or the difference (from two different initial excitation energies) spectra are discussed. Data from the study of the reaction 701 MeV {sup 28}Si+{sup 100}Mo are presented and both methods are used to extract the level density constant. We find that in order to reproduce the slopes of the light particle spectra the level density constant must have a value near 1/10{ital A}-- 1 / 11 {ital A} for excited nuclei with statistical temperatures in the range of 3.5 to 5.5 MeV. This presumes that the only parameter adjustment required to treat the decay of highly exited nuclei is the level density constant. If this is so, the shapes of the evaporation spectra imply a reduction in the level density constant from the value required to explain the decay of less highly excited nuclei, a conclusion reached by others. However, the reduced level density constant leads to an overproduction of deuterons and tritons. This suggests that a more complicated set of parameter adjustments may be required to treat the decay of highly excited nuclei.

  18. Frontiers for Discovery in High Energy Density Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, R. C.; Katsouleas, T.; Arons, J.; Baring, M.; Deeney, C.; Di Mauro, L.; Ditmire, T.; Falcone, R.; Hammer, D.; Hill, W.; Jacak, B.; Joshi, C.; Lamb, F.; Lee, R.; Logan, B. G.; Melissinos, A.; Meyerhofer, D.; Mori, W.; Murnane, M.; Remington, B.; Rosner, R.; Schneider, D.; Silvera, I.; Stone, J.; Wilde, B.; Zajc. W.

    2004-07-20

    The report is intended to identify the compelling research opportunities of high intellectual value in high energy density physics. The opportunities for discovery include the broad scope of this highly interdisciplinary field that spans a wide range of physics areas including plasma physics, laser and particle beam physics, nuclear physics, astrophysics, atomic and molecular physics, materials science and condensed matter physics, intense radiation-matter interaction physics, fluid dynamics, and magnetohydrodynamics

  19. A novel high energy density rechargeable lithium/air battery.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Imanishi, Nobuyuki; Shimonishi, Yuta; Hirano, Atsushi; Takeda, Yasuo; Yamamoto, Osamu; Sammes, Nigel

    2010-03-14

    A novel rechargeable lithium/air battery was fabricated, which consisted of a water-stable multilayer Li-metal anode, acetic acid-water electrolyte, and a fuel-cell analogous air-diffusion cathode and possessed a high energy density of 779 W h kg(-1), twice that of the conventional graphite/LiCoO(2) cell. PMID:20177608

  20. Design for a High Energy Density Kelvin-Helmholtz Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Hurricane, O A

    2007-10-29

    While many high energy density physics (HEDP) Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov instability experiments have been fielded as part of basic HEDP and astrophysics studies, not one HEDP Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) experiment has been successfully performed. Herein, a design for a novel HEDP x-ray driven KH experiment is presented along with supporting radiation-hydrodynamic simulation and theory.

  1. Zinc-oxygen primary cell yields high energy density

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graff, C. B.

    1968-01-01

    Zinc-oxygen primary cell yields high energy density for battery used as an auxiliary power source in space vehicle systems. Maximum reliability and minimum battery weight is achieved by using a stacking configuration of 23 series-connected modules with 6 parallel-connected cells per module.

  2. Local thermodynamic equilibrium in rapidly heated high energy density plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Aslanyan, V.; Tallents, G. J.

    2014-06-15

    Emission spectra and the dynamics of high energy density plasmas created by optical and Free Electron Lasers (FELs) depend on the populations of atomic levels. Calculations of plasma emission and ionization may be simplified by assuming Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE), where populations are given by the Saha-Boltzmann equation. LTE can be achieved at high densities when collisional processes are much more significant than radiative processes, but may not be valid if plasma conditions change rapidly. A collisional-radiative model has been used to calculate the times taken by carbon and iron plasmas to reach LTE at varying densities and heating rates. The effect of different energy deposition methods, as well as Ionization Potential Depression are explored. This work shows regimes in rapidly changing plasmas, such as those created by optical lasers and FELs, where the use of LTE is justified, because timescales for plasma changes are significantly longer than the times needed to achieve an LTE ionization balance.

  3. Local thermodynamic equilibrium in rapidly heated high energy density plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslanyan, V.; Tallents, G. J.

    2014-06-01

    Emission spectra and the dynamics of high energy density plasmas created by optical and Free Electron Lasers (FELs) depend on the populations of atomic levels. Calculations of plasma emission and ionization may be simplified by assuming Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE), where populations are given by the Saha-Boltzmann equation. LTE can be achieved at high densities when collisional processes are much more significant than radiative processes, but may not be valid if plasma conditions change rapidly. A collisional-radiative model has been used to calculate the times taken by carbon and iron plasmas to reach LTE at varying densities and heating rates. The effect of different energy deposition methods, as well as Ionization Potential Depression are explored. This work shows regimes in rapidly changing plasmas, such as those created by optical lasers and FELs, where the use of LTE is justified, because timescales for plasma changes are significantly longer than the times needed to achieve an LTE ionization balance.

  4. Theoretically predicted Fox-7 based new high energy density molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanta, Susanta

    2016-08-01

    Computational investigation of CHNO based high energy density molecules (HEDM) are designed with FOX-7 (1, 1-dinitro 2, 2-diamino ethylene) skeleton. We report structures, stability and detonation properties of these new molecules. A systematic analysis is presented for the crystal density, activation energy for nitro to nitrite isomerisation and the C-NO2 bond dissociation energy of these molecules. The Atoms in molecules (AIM) calculations have been performed to interpret the intra-molecular weak H-bonding interactions and the stability of C-NO2 bonds. The structure optimization, frequency and bond dissociation energy calculations have been performed at B3LYP level of theory by using G03 quantum chemistry package. Some of the designed molecules are found to be more promising HEDM than FOX-7 molecule, and are proposed to be candidate for synthetic purpose.

  5. Collapsing Bubble in Metal for High Energy Density Physics Study

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, S F; Barnard, J J; Leung, P T; Yu, S S

    2011-04-13

    This paper presents a new idea to produce matter in the high energy density physics (HEDP) regime in the laboratory using an intense ion beam. A gas bubble created inside a solid metal may collapse by driving it with an intense ion beam. The melted metal will compress the gas bubble and supply extra energy to it. Simulations show that the spherical implosion ratio can be about 5 and at the stagnation point, the maximum density, temperature and pressure inside the gas bubble can go up to nearly 2 times solid density, 10 eV and a few megabar (Mbar) respectively. The proposed experiment is the first to permit access into the Mbar regime with existing or near-term ion facilities, and opens up possibilities for new physics gained through careful comparisons of simulations with measurements of quantities like stagnation radius, peak temperature and peak pressure at the metal wall.

  6. High energy-density science on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, E.M.; Cauble, R.; Remington, B.A.

    1997-08-01

    The National Ignition Facility, as well as its French counterpart Le Laser Megajoule, have been designed to confront one of the most difficult and compelling problem in shock physics - the creation of a hot, compassed DT plasma surrounded and confined by cold, nearly degenerate DT fuel. At the same time, these laser facilities will present the shock physics community with unique tools for the study of high energy density matter at states unreachable by any other laboratory technique. Here we describe how these lasers can contribute to investigations of high energy density in the area of material properties and equations of state, extend present laboratory shock techniques such as high-speed jets to new regimes, and allow study of extreme conditions found in astrophysical phenomena.

  7. High Density Thermal Energy Storage with Supercritical Fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganapathi, Gani B.; Wirz, Richard

    2012-01-01

    A novel approach to storing thermal energy with supercritical fluids is being investigated, which if successful, promises to transform the way thermal energy is captured and utilized. The use of supercritical fluids allows cost-affordable high-density storage with a combination of latent heat and sensible heat in the two-phase as well as the supercritical state. This technology will enhance penetration of several thermal power generation applications and high temperature water for commercial use if the overall cost of the technology can be demonstrated to be lower than the current state-of-the-art molten salt using sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate eutectic mixtures.

  8. Looking for high energy density compounds among polynitraminecubanes.

    PubMed

    Chi, Wei-Jie; Li, Lu-Lin; Li, Bu-Tong; Wu, Hai-Shun

    2013-02-01

    Based on fully optimized geometric structures at DFT-B3LYP/6-311G** level, we calculated electronic structures, heats of formation, strain energies, bond dissociation energies and detonation performance (detonation velocity and detonation pressure) for a series of polynitraminecubanes. Our results have shown that energy gaps of cubane derivatives are much higher than that of triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB), which means that cubane derivatives may be more sensitive than TATB. Polynitraminecubanes have high and positive heats of formation, and a good linear relationship between heats of formation and nitramine group numbers was presented. As the number of nitramine groups in the molecule increases, the enthalpies of combustion values are increasingly negative, but the specific enthalpy of combustion values decreases. It is found that all cubane derivatives have high strain energies, which are affected by the number and position of nitramine group. The calculated bond dissociation energies of C-NHNO(2) and C-C bond show that the C-C bond should be the trigger bond in the pyrolysis process. It is found that detonation velocity (D), detonation pressure (P) and molecule density (ρ) have good linear relationship with substituented group numbers. Heptanitraminecubane and octanitraminecubane have good detonation performance over 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane (HMX), and they can be regarded as potential candidates of high energy density compounds (HEDCs). The results have not only shown that these compounds may be used as HEDCs, but also provide some useful information for further investigation. PMID:22961623

  9. Present and Future Capabilities of High Energy Density Experiments*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matzen, M. Keith

    2002-04-01

    In recent years, experiments on high energy lasers and pulsed power facilities have successfully reached extreme conditions of temperature and pressure in the laboratory, allowing replication of conditions relevant to areas of high energy density (HED) plasma physics (for example, astrophysics, planetary interiors, stellar physics, and Inertial Confinement Fusion). Experiments in these areas are now routinely providing high quality data in the areas of high energy density hydrodynamics and implosions, radiation transport, and equation-of-state. Current facilities include pulsed-power accelerators, such as the Z facility at Sandia National Laboratories, and high-energy lasers, such as the 60-beam Omega laser at the Laboratory of Laser Energetics at Rochester, as well as other MA-class pulsed-power facilities and kJ-class lasers worldwide. These facilities routinely conduct experiments at radiation temperatures of 200 eV and pressures up to 40 MBar. New facilities, such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and the refurbished Z facility, will extend the experimental regimes to higher temperatures and densities. The National Petawatt laser initiative is examining the physics regimes that could be explored by coupling energetic short-pulse lasers (multi-kJ energies at ps pulse widths) to experiments on these large HED facilities. We will review capabilities of the existing HED facilities, highlight examples of recent experimental results in HED plasma physics, discuss new regimes that might be achievable on next-generation facilities (e.g. NIF and refurbished Z), and explore the potential applications resulting from coupling multi-PW laser pulses with HED plasmas produced on these facilities. *Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  10. High energy density capacitors for low cost applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyore, Omokhodion David

    Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and its copolymers with trifluoroethylene, hexafluoropropylene and chlorotrifluoroethylene are the most widely investigated ferroelectric polymers, due to their relatively high electromechanical properties and potential to achieve high energy density. [Bauer, 2010; Zhou et al., 2009] The research community has focused primarily on melt pressed or extruded films of PVDF-based polymers to obtain the highest performance with energy density up to 25 Jcm-3. [Zhou et al., 2009] Solution processing offers an inexpensive, low temperature alternative, which is also easily integrated with flexible electronics. This dissertation focuses on the fabrication of solution-based polyvinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene metal-insulator-metal capacitors on flexible substrates using a photolithographic process. Capacitors were optimized for maximum energy density, high dielectric strength and low leakage current density. It is demonstrated that with the right choice of solvent, electrodes, spin-casting and annealing conditions, high energy density thin film capacitors can be fabricated repeatably and reproducibly. The high electric field dielectric constants were measured and the reliabilities of the polymer capacitors were also evaluated via time-zero breakdown and time-dependent breakdown techniques. Chapter 1 develops the motivation for this work and provides a theoretical overview of dielectric materials, polarization, leakage current and dielectric breakdown. Chapter 2 is a literature review of polymer-based high energy density dielectrics and covers ferroelectric polymers, highlighting PVDF and some of its derivatives. Chapter 3 summarizes some preliminary experimental work and presents materials and electrical characterization that support the rationale for materials selection and process development. Chapter 4 discusses the fabrication of solution-processed PVDF-HFP and modification of its properties by photo-crosslinking. It is followed by a

  11. Lithium-Based High Energy Density Flow Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); West, William C. (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Systems and methods in accordance with embodiments of the invention implement a lithium-based high energy density flow battery. In one embodiment, a lithium-based high energy density flow battery includes a first anodic conductive solution that includes a lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon complex dissolved in a solvent, a second cathodic conductive solution that includes a cathodic complex dissolved in a solvent, a solid lithium ion conductor disposed so as to separate the first solution from the second solution, such that the first conductive solution, the second conductive solution, and the solid lithium ionic conductor define a circuit, where when the circuit is closed, lithium from the lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon complex in the first conductive solution dissociates from the lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon complex, migrates through the solid lithium ionic conductor, and associates with the cathodic complex of the second conductive solution, and a current is generated.

  12. High Energy Density Physics and Exotic Acceleration Schemes

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, T.; Colby, E.; /SLAC

    2005-09-27

    The High Energy Density and Exotic Acceleration working group took as our goal to reach beyond the community of plasma accelerator research with its applications to high energy physics, to promote exchange with other disciplines which are challenged by related and demanding beam physics issues. The scope of the group was to cover particle acceleration and beam transport that, unlike other groups at AAC, are not mediated by plasmas or by electromagnetic structures. At this Workshop, we saw an impressive advancement from years past in the area of Vacuum Acceleration, for example with the LEAP experiment at Stanford. And we saw an influx of exciting new beam physics topics involving particle propagation inside of solid-density plasmas or at extremely high charge density, particularly in the areas of laser acceleration of ions, and extreme beams for fusion energy research, including Heavy-ion Inertial Fusion beam physics. One example of the importance and extreme nature of beam physics in HED research is the requirement in the Fast Ignitor scheme of inertial fusion to heat a compressed DT fusion pellet to keV temperatures by injection of laser-driven electron or ion beams of giga-Amp current. Even in modest experiments presently being performed on the laser-acceleration of ions from solids, mega-amp currents of MeV electrons must be transported through solid foils, requiring almost complete return current neutralization, and giving rise to a wide variety of beam-plasma instabilities. As keynote talks our group promoted Ion Acceleration (plenary talk by A. MacKinnon), which historically has grown out of inertial fusion research, and HIF Accelerator Research (invited talk by A. Friedman), which will require impressive advancements in space-charge-limited ion beam physics and in understanding the generation and transport of neutralized ion beams. A unifying aspect of High Energy Density applications was the physics of particle beams inside of solids, which is proving to

  13. Rationally designed polyimides for high-energy density capacitor applications.

    PubMed

    Ma, Rui; Baldwin, Aaron F; Wang, Chenchen; Offenbach, Ido; Cakmak, Mukerrem; Ramprasad, Rampi; Sotzing, Gregory A

    2014-07-01

    Development of new dielectric materials is of great importance for a wide range of applications for modern electronics and electrical power systems. The state-of-the-art polymer dielectric is a biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP) film having a maximal energy density of 5 J/cm(3) and a high breakdown field of 700 MV/m, but with a limited dielectric constant (∼2.2) and a reduced breakdown strength above 85 °C. Great effort has been put into exploring other materials to fulfill the demand of continuous miniaturization and improved functionality. In this work, a series of polyimides were investigated as potential polymer materials for this application. Polyimide with high dielectric constants of up to 7.8 that exhibits low dissipation factors (<1%) and high energy density around 15 J/cm(3), which is 3 times that of BOPP, was prepared. Our syntheses were guided by high-throughput density functional theory calculations for rational design in terms of a high dielectric constant and band gap. Correlations of experimental and theoretical results through judicious variations of polyimide structures allowed for a clear demonstration of the relationship between chemical functionalities and dielectric properties. PMID:24911181

  14. Relaxor-ferroelectric superlattices: high energy density capacitors.

    PubMed

    Ortega, N; Kumar, A; Scott, J F; Chrisey, Douglas B; Tomazawa, M; Kumari, Shalini; Diestra, D G B; Katiyar, R S

    2012-11-01

    We report the breakdown electric field and energy density of laser ablated BaTiO(3)/Ba((1-x))Sr(x)TiO(3) (x = 0.7) (BT/BST) relaxor-ferroelectric superlattices (SLs) grown on (100) MgO single crystal substrates. The dielectric constant shows a frequency dispersion below the dielectric maximum temperature (T(m)) with a merger above T(m) behaving similarly to relaxors. It also follows the basic criteria of relaxor ferroelectrics such as low dielectric loss over wide temperature and frequency, and 50 K shift in T(m) with change in probe frequency; the loss peaks follow a similar trend to the dielectric constant except that they increase with increase in frequency (~40 kHz), and satisfy the nonlinear Vogel-Fulcher relation. Well-saturated ferroelectric hysteresis and 50-80% dielectric saturation are observed under high electric field (~1.65 MV cm(-1)). The superlattices demonstrate an 'in-built' field in as grown samples at low probe frequency (<1 kHz), whereas it becomes more symmetric and centered with increase in the probe frequency system (>1 kHz) which rules out the effect of any space charge and interfacial polarization. The P-E loops show around 12.24 J cm(-3) energy density within the experimental limit, but extrapolation of this data suggests that the potential energy density could reach 46 J cm(-3). The current density versus applied electric field indicates an exceptionally high breakdown field (5.8-6.0 MV cm(-1)) and low current density (~10-25 mA cm(-2)) near the breakdown voltage. The current-voltage characteristics reveal that the space charge limited conduction mechanism prevails at very high voltage. PMID:23053172

  15. High energy density interpenetrating networks from ionic networks and silicone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Liyun; Madsen, Frederikke B.; Hvilsted, Søren; Skov, Anne L.

    2015-04-01

    The energy density of dielectric elastomers (DEs) is sought increased for better exploitation of the DE technology since an increased energy density means that the driving voltage for a certain strain can be lowered in actuation mode or alternatively that more energy can be harvested in generator mode. One way to increase the energy density is to increase dielectric permittivity of the elastomer. A novel silicone elastomer system with high dielectric permittivity was prepared through the development of interpenetrating networks from ionically assembled silicone polymers and covalently crosslinked silicones. The system has many degrees of freedom since the ionic network is formed from two polymers (amine and carboxylic acid functional, respectively) of which the chain lengths can be varied, as well as the covalent silicone elastomer with many degrees of freedom arising from amongst many the varying content of silica particles. A parameter study is performed to elucidate which compositions are most favorable for the use as dielectric elastomers. The elastomers were furthermore shown to be self-repairing upon electrical breakdown.

  16. New potential high energy density compounds: Oxadiaziridine derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jing; Chi, Wei-Jie

    2014-10-01

    The -CN, -N3, -NF2, -NH2, -NHNO2, -NO2, and -ONO2 derivatives of oxadiaziridine were studied using B3LYP/6-311G** level of density functional theory. The gas phase heats of formation of oxadiaziridine derivatives were calculated by isodesmic reaction. All these compounds have high and positive heats of formation due to strain energies of small ring. Detonation properties were calculated via Kamlet-Jacobes equations and specific impulse. The effects of substituent groups on detonation performance were discussed. The impact sensitivity was estimated according to the "available free space per molecule in unit cell" and "energy gaps" methods. The similar conclusions were given by two different methods. The effects of substituents on impact sensitivity were discussed. According to the given estimations of detonation performance and sensitivity, some oxadiaziridine derivatives may be considered promising high energies materials.

  17. High-energy density physics at Los Alamos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrnes, P.

    1993-03-01

    This brochure describes the facilities of the Above Ground Experiments 2 (AGEX 2) and the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) programs at Los Alamo. Combined, these programs represent, an unparalleled capability to address important issues in high-energy density physics that are critical to the future defense, energy, and research needs of the United States. The mission of the AGEX 2 program at Los Alamos is to provide additional experimental opportunities for the nuclear weapons program. For this purpose we have assembled at Los Alamos the broadest array of high-energy density physics facilities of any laboratory in the world. Inertial confinement fusion seeks to achieve thermonuclear burn on a laboratory scale through the implosion of a small quantity of deuterium and tritium fuel to very high pressure and temperature. The Los Alamos ICF program is focused on target physics. With the largest scientific computing center in the world, We can perform calculations of unprecedented sophistication and precision. We field experiments at facilities worldwide--including our own Trident and Mercury lasers--to confirm our understanding and to provide the necessary data base to proceed toward the historic goal of controlled fusion in the laboratory. The ultrahigh magnetic fields produced in our high explosive pulsed-power generators can be used in a wide variety of solid state physics and temperature superconductor studies. The structure and dynamics of planetary atmospheres can be simulated through the compression of gas mixtures.

  18. Pulsed power drivers for ICF and high energy density physics

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, J.J.; Matzen, M.K.; McDaniel, D.H.

    1995-12-31

    Nanosecond Pulsed Power Science and Technology has its origins in the 1960s and over the past decade has matured into a flexible and robust discipline capable of addressing key physics issues of importance to ICF and high Energy Density Physics. The major leverage provided by pulsed power is its ability to generate and deliver high energy and high power at low cost and high efficiency. A low-cost, high-efficiency driver is important because of the very large capital investment required for multi-megajoule ignition-class systems. High efficiency is of additional importance for a commercially viable inertial fusion energy option. Nanosecond pulsed power has been aggressively and successfully developed at Sandia over the past twenty years. This effort has led to the development of unique multi-purpose facilities supported by highly capable diagnostic, calculational and analytic capabilities. The Sandia Particle-beam Fusion Program has evolved as part of an integrated national ICF Program. It applies the low-cost, high-efficiency leverage provided by nanosecond pulsed power systems to the longer-term goals of the national program, i.e., the Laboratory Microfusion Facility and Inertial Fusion Energy. A separate effort has led to the application of nanosecond pulsed power to the generation of intense, high-energy laboratory x-ray sources for application to x-ray laser and radiation effects science research. Saturn is the most powerful of these sources to date. It generates {approximately}500 kilojoules of x-rays from a magnetically driven implosion (Z-pinch). This paper describes results of x-ray physics experiments performed on Saturn, plans for a new Z-pinch drive capability for PBFA-II, and a design concept for the proposed {approximately}15 MJ Jupiter facility. The opportunities for ICF-relevant research using these facilities will also be discussed.

  19. Aromatic Polyurea Possessing High Electrical Energy Density and Low Loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakur, Yash; Lin, Minren; Wu, Shan; Zhang, Q. M.

    2016-07-01

    We report the development of a dielectric polymer, poly (ether methyl ether urea) (PEMEU), which possesses a dielectric constant of 4 and is thermally stable up to 150°C. The experimental results show that the ether units are effective in softening the rigid polymer and making it thermally processable, while the high dipole moment of urea units and glass structure of the polymer leads to a low dielectric loss and low conduction loss. As a result, PEMEU high quality thin films can be fabricated which exhibit exceptionally high breakdown field of >1.5 GV/m, and a low conduction loss at fields up to the breakdown. Consequently, the PEMEU films exhibit a high charge-discharge efficiency of 90% and a high discharged energy density of 36 J/cm3.

  20. High energy density capacitors using nano-structure multilayer technology

    SciTech Connect

    Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Johnson, G.W.; O`Brien, D.W.

    1992-08-01

    Today, many pulse power and industrial applications are limited by capacitor performance. While incremental improvements are anticipated from existing capacitor technologies, significant advances are needed in energy density to enable these applications for both the military and for American economic competitiveness. We propose a program to research and develop a novel technology for making high voltage, high energy density capacitors. Nano-structure multilayer technologies developed at LLNL may well provide a breakthrough in capacitor performance. Our controlled sputtering techniques are capable of laying down extraordinarily smooth sub-micron layers of dielectric and conductor materials. With this technology, high voltage capacitors with an order of magnitude improvement in energy density may be achievable. Well-understood dielectrics and new materials will be investigated for use with this technology. Capacitors developed by nano-structure multilayer technology are inherently solid state, exhibiting extraordinary mechanical and thermal properties. The conceptual design of a Notepad capacitor is discussed to illustrate capacitor and capacitor bank design and performance with this technology. We propose a two phase R&D program to address DNA`s capacitor needs for electro-thermal propulsion and similar pulse power programs. Phase 1 will prove the concept and further our understanding of dielectric materials and design tradeoffs with multilayers. Nano-structure multilayer capacitors will be developed and characterized. As our materials research and modeling prove successful, technology insertion in our capacitor designs will improve the possibility for dramatic performance improvements. In Phase 2, we will make Notepad capacitors, construct a capacitor bank and demonstrate its performance in a meaningful pulse power application. We will work with industrial partners to design full scale manufacturing and move this technology to industry for volume production.

  1. High energy density Z-pinch plasmas using flow stabilization

    SciTech Connect

    Shumlak, U. Golingo, R. P. Nelson, B. A. Bowers, C. A. Doty, S. A. Forbes, E. G. Hughes, M. C. Kim, B. Knecht, S. D. Lambert, K. K. Lowrie, W. Ross, M. P. Weed, J. R.

    2014-12-15

    The ZaP Flow Z-Pinch research project[1] at the University of Washington investigates the effect of sheared flows on MHD instabilities. Axially flowing Z-pinch plasmas are produced that are 100 cm long with a 1 cm radius. The plasma remains quiescent for many radial Alfvén times and axial flow times. The quiescent periods are characterized by low magnetic mode activity measured at several locations along the plasma column and by stationary visible plasma emission. Plasma evolution is modeled with high-resolution simulation codes – Mach2, WARPX, NIMROD, and HiFi. Plasma flow profiles are experimentally measured with a multi-chord ion Doppler spectrometer. A sheared flow profile is observed to be coincident with the quiescent period, and is consistent with classical plasma viscosity. Equilibrium is determined by diagnostic measurements: interferometry for density; spectroscopy for ion temperature, plasma flow, and density[2]; Thomson scattering for electron temperature; Zeeman splitting for internal magnetic field measurements[3]; and fast framing photography for global structure. Wall stabilization has been investigated computationally and experimentally by removing 70% of the surrounding conducting wall to demonstrate no change in stability behavior.[4] Experimental evidence suggests that the plasma lifetime is only limited by plasma supply and current waveform. The flow Z-pinch concept provides an approach to achieve high energy density plasmas,[5] which are large, easy to diagnose, and persist for extended durations. A new experiment, ZaP-HD, has been built to investigate this approach by separating the flow Z-pinch formation from the radial compression using a triaxial-electrode configuration. This innovation allows more detailed investigations of the sheared flow stabilizing effect, and it allows compression to much higher densities than previously achieved on ZaP by reducing the linear density and increasing the pinch current. Experimental results and

  2. High energy density Z-pinch plasmas using flow stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumlak, U.; Golingo, R. P.; Nelson, B. A.; Bowers, C. A.; Doty, S. A.; Forbes, E. G.; Hughes, M. C.; Kim, B.; Knecht, S. D.; Lambert, K. K.; Lowrie, W.; Ross, M. P.; Weed, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    The ZaP Flow Z-Pinch research project[1] at the University of Washington investigates the effect of sheared flows on MHD instabilities. Axially flowing Z-pinch plasmas are produced that are 100 cm long with a 1 cm radius. The plasma remains quiescent for many radial Alfvén times and axial flow times. The quiescent periods are characterized by low magnetic mode activity measured at several locations along the plasma column and by stationary visible plasma emission. Plasma evolution is modeled with high-resolution simulation codes - Mach2, WARPX, NIMROD, and HiFi. Plasma flow profiles are experimentally measured with a multi-chord ion Doppler spectrometer. A sheared flow profile is observed to be coincident with the quiescent period, and is consistent with classical plasma viscosity. Equilibrium is determined by diagnostic measurements: interferometry for density; spectroscopy for ion temperature, plasma flow, and density[2]; Thomson scattering for electron temperature; Zeeman splitting for internal magnetic field measurements[3]; and fast framing photography for global structure. Wall stabilization has been investigated computationally and experimentally by removing 70% of the surrounding conducting wall to demonstrate no change in stability behavior.[4] Experimental evidence suggests that the plasma lifetime is only limited by plasma supply and current waveform. The flow Z-pinch concept provides an approach to achieve high energy density plasmas,[5] which are large, easy to diagnose, and persist for extended durations. A new experiment, ZaP-HD, has been built to investigate this approach by separating the flow Z-pinch formation from the radial compression using a triaxial-electrode configuration. This innovation allows more detailed investigations of the sheared flow stabilizing effect, and it allows compression to much higher densities than previously achieved on ZaP by reducing the linear density and increasing the pinch current. Experimental results and scaling

  3. Characterizing high-energy-density propellants for space propulsion applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokan, Timothy S.; Olds, John R.; Seitzman, Jerry M.; Ludovice, Peter J.

    2009-10-01

    A technique for computationally determining the thermophysical properties of high-energy-density matter (HEDM) propellants is presented. HEDM compounds are of interest in the liquid rocket engine industry due to their high density and high energy content relative to existing industry-standard propellants. In order to accurately model rocket engine performance, cost and weight in a conceptual design environment, several thermodynamic and physical properties are required over a range of temperatures and pressures. The approach presented here combines quantum mechanical and molecular dynamic (MD) calculations and group additivity methods. A method for improving the force field model coefficients used in the MD is included. This approach is used to determine thermophysical properties for two HEDM compounds of interest: quadricyclane and 2-azido-N,N-dimethylethanamine (DMAZ). The modified force field approach provides results that more accurately match experimental data than the unmodified approach. Launch vehicle and Lunar lander case studies are presented to quantify the system level impact of employing quadricyclane and DMAZ rather than industry standard propellants. In both cases, the use of HEDM propellants provides reductions in vehicle mass compared to industry standard propellants. The results demonstrate that HEDM propellants can be an attractive technology for future launch vehicle and Lunar lander applications.

  4. High Energy Density Science at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R W

    2007-10-19

    High energy density science (HEDS), as a discipline that has developed in the United States from National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA)-sponsored laboratory research programs, is, and will remain, a major component of the NNSA science and technology strategy. Its scientific borders are not restricted to NNSA. 'Frontiers in High Energy Density Physics: The X-Games of Contemporary Science' identified numerous exciting scientific opportunities in this field, while pointing to the need for a overarching interagency plan for its evolution. Meanwhile, construction of the first x-ray free-electron laser, the Office-of-Science-funded Linear Coherent Light Source-LCLS: the world's first free electron x-ray laser, with 100-fsec time resolution, tunable x-ray energies, a high rep rate, and a 10 order-of-magnitude increase in brightness over any other x-ray source--led to the realization that the scientific needs of NNSA and the broader scientific community could be well served by an LCLS HEDS endstation employing both short-pulse and high-energy optical lasers. Development of this concept has been well received in the community. NNSA requested a workshop on the applicability of LCLS to its needs. 'High Energy Density Science at the LCLS: NNSA Defense Programs Mission Need' was held in December 2006. The workshop provided strong support for the relevance of the endstation to NNSA strategic requirements. The range of science that was addressed covered a wide swath of the vast HEDS phase space. The unique possibilities provided by the LCLS in areas of intense interest to NNSA Defense Programs were discussed. The areas of focus included warm dense matter and equations of state, hot dense matter, and behavior of high-pressure materials under conditions of high strain-rate and extreme dynamic loading. Development of new and advanced diagnostic techniques was also addressed. This report lays out the relevant science, as brief summaries (Ch. II), expanded descriptions (Ch. V), and a

  5. High energy density capacitor testing for the AFWL SHIVA

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.L.; Reinovsky, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    The SHIVA II Prime upgrade consists of replacing the existing 3.3 kJ, 1.85 ..mu..F capacitors with plug-in higher energy density capacitors. Based on capacitor development work by manufacturers it appears that a nominal 6 ..mu..F, 60 kV capacitor in an 11'' x 14'' can is near the limits of current technology. Using the 6 ..mu..F, 10.8 kJ capacitor results in a factor of 3 increase in stored energy at no increase in operational voltage. The equivalent system capacitance will then be 864 ..mu..F at 120 kV (+-60 kV) or 6.22 MJ. The best testing technique is one which duplicates, as nearly as reasonable, the actual parameters the capacitors would see in the full-scale system. Lifetime testing and analysis of small samples of high energy density (HED) discharge capacitors at the AFWL were conducted to find a component suitable for upgrading the SHIVA capacitor bank to a 6 MJ facility. Evaluation was performed with discharge conditions of approximately 250 kA per capacitor at 60 to 70% reversal and < 2 ..mu..s quarter period. Dielectric systems including Kraft paper with caster oil impregnant and Kraft paper, polypropylene with DiOctyl Phthalate (DOP) impregnant were tested.

  6. Creating High Energy Density Jets in Laboratory Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coker, Robert

    2005-04-01

    A new experimental platform for the investigation of high Mach-number, high energy-density jets has been developed at the University of Rochester's Omega laser facility. Assuming the scalability of the Euler equations, the resulting mm-sized jets should scale to astrophysical objects such as Herbig-Haro objects and jet-driven supernovae that may involve jets with similar internal Mach numbers. This scalability still holds in the presence of radiation as long as the relative importance of radiative cooling is similar. In these experiments, either direct or indirect laser drive is used to launch a strong shock into a 125 micron thick titanium foil target that caps a 700 micron thick titanium washer. After the shock breaks out into the 300 micron diameter cylindrical hole in the washer, a dense, well-collimated jet with an energy density of more than 0.1 MJ per cc is formed. The jet is then imaged as it propagates for 100s of ns down a cylinder of low-density polymer foam. The experiments are diagnosed by point-projection with a micro-dot vanadium backligher. The field of view is several mm and the resolution is 15 microns. The X-ray radiographs show the hydrodynamically unstable jet and the bow shock driving into the surrounding foam. Such complex experimental data provide a challenge to hydrocodes and so are being used to test the hydrodynamic simulations of these types of flows. Initial comparisons between the data and LANL and AWE simulations will be shown. However, the high Reynolds numbers of both the laboratory and astrophysical jets suggest that, given sufficient time and shear, turbulence should develop; this cannot be reliably modeled by present, resolution-limited simulations. Future work concerning the applicability of the Omega experiments to astrophysical objects and the quantitative study of turbulent mixing via subgrid-scale models will be discussed.

  7. Strongly Interacting Matter at Very High Energy Density

    SciTech Connect

    McLerran, L.

    2011-06-05

    The authors discuss the study of matter at very high energy density. In particular: what are the scientific questions; what are the opportunities to makes significant progress in the study of such matter and what facilities are now or might be available in the future to answer the scientific questions? The theoretical and experimental study of new forms of high energy density matter is still very much a 'wild west' field. There is much freedom for developing new concepts which can have order one effects on the way we think about such matter. It is also a largely 'lawless' field, in that concepts and methods are being developed as new information is generated. There is also great possibility for new experimental discovery. Most of the exciting results from RHIC experiments were unanticipated. The methods used for studying various effects like flow, jet quenching, the ridge, two particle correlations etc. were developed as experiments evolved. I believe this will continue to be the case at LHC and as we use existing and proposed accelerators to turn theoretical conjecture into tangible reality. At some point this will no doubt evolve into a precision science, and that will make the field more respectable, but for my taste, the 'wild west' times are the most fun.

  8. Frontiers in plasma science: a high energy density perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remington, Bruce

    2015-11-01

    The potential for ground-breaking research in plasma physics in high energy density (HED) regimes is compelling. The combination of HED facilities around the world spanning microjoules to megajoules, with time scales ranging from femtoseconds to microseconds enables new regimes of plasma science to be experimentally probed. The ability to shock and ramp compress samples and simultaneously probe them allows dense, strongly coupled, Fermi degenerate plasmas relevant to planetary interiors to be studied. Shock driven hydrodynamic instabilities evolving into turbulent flows relevant to the dynamics of exploding stars are being probed. The physics and dynamics of magnetized plasmas relevant to astrophysics and inertial confinement fusion are also starting to be studied. High temperature, high velocity interacting flows are being probed for evidence of astrophysical collisionless shock formation. Turbulent, high magnetic Reynolds number flows are being experimentally generated to look for evidence of the turbulent magnetic dynamo effect. And new results from thermonuclear reactions in dense hot plasmas relevant to stellar interiors are starting to emerge. A selection of examples providing a compelling vision for frontier plasma science in the coming decade will be presented. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  9. Observations of shear flows in high-energy-density plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, Eric C.

    The research discussed in this thesis represents work toward the demonstration of experimental designs for creating a Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) unstable shear layer in a high-energy-density (HED) plasma. Such plasmas are formed by irradiating materials with several kilo-Joules of laser light over a few nanoseconds, and are defined as having an internal pressure greater than one-million atmospheres. Similar plasmas exist in laboratory fusion experiments and in the astrophysical environment. The KH instability is a fundamental fluid instability that arises when strong velocity gradients exist at the interface between two fluids. The KH instability is important because it drives the mixing of fluids and initiates the transition to turbulence in the flow. Until now, the evolution of the KH instability has remained relatively unexplored in the HED regime This thesis presents the observations and analysis of two novel experiments carried out using two separate laser facilities. The first experiment used 1.4 kJ from the Nike laser to generate a supersonic flow of Al plasma over a low-density, rippled foam surface. The Al flow interacted with the foam and created distinct features that resulted from compressible effects. In this experiment there is little evidence of the KH instability. Nevertheless, this experimental design has perhaps pioneered a new method for generating a supersonic shear flow that has the potential to produce the KH instability if more laser energy is applied. The second experiment was performed on the Omega laser. In this case 4.3 kJ of laser energy drove a blast wave along a rippled foam/plastic interface. In response to the vorticity deposited and the shear flow established by the blast wave, the interface rolls up into large vorticies characteristic of the KH instability. The Omega experiment was the first HED experiment to capture the evolution of the KH instability.

  10. Sodium pentazolate: A nitrogen rich high energy density material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, Brad A.; Oleynik, Ivan I.

    2016-01-01

    Sodium pentazolates NaN5 and Na2N5, new high energy density materials, are discovered during first principles crystal structure search for the compounds of varying amounts of elemental sodium and nitrogen. The pentazole anion (N5-) is stabilized in the condensed phase by sodium Na+ cations at pressures exceeding 20 GPa, and becomes metastable upon release of pressure. The sodium azide (NaN3) precursor is predicted to undergo a chemical transformation above 50 GPa into sodium pentazolates NaN5 and Na2N5. The calculated Raman spectrum of NaN5 is in agreement with the experimental Raman spectrum of a previously unidentified substance appearing upon compression and heating of NaN3.

  11. CENTER FOR PULSED POWER DRIVEN HIGH ENERGY DENSITY PLASMA STUDIES

    SciTech Connect

    Professor Bruce R. Kusse; Professor David A. Hammer

    2007-04-18

    This annual report summarizes the activities of the Cornell Center for Pulsed-Power-Driven High-Energy-Density Plasma Studies, for the 12-month period October 1, 2005-September 30, 2006. This period corresponds to the first year of the two-year extension (awarded in October, 2005) to the original 3-year NNSA/DOE Cooperative Agreement with Cornell, DE-FC03-02NA00057. As such, the period covered in this report also corresponds to the fourth year of the (now) 5-year term of the Cooperative Agreement. The participants, in addition to Cornell University, include Imperial College, London (IC), the University of Nevada, Reno (UNR), the University of Rochester (UR), the Weizmann Institute of Science (WSI), and the P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute (LPI), Moscow. A listing of all faculty, technical staff and students, both graduate and undergraduate, who participated in Center research activities during the year in question is given in Appendix A.

  12. Ammonia-(Dinitramido)boranes: High-Energy-Density Materials.

    PubMed

    Bélanger-Chabot, Guillaume; Rahm, Martin; Haiges, Ralf; Christe, Karl O

    2015-09-28

    Two ammonia-(dinitramido)boranes were synthesized by the reaction of dinitroamine with ammonia-borane. These compounds are the first reported examples of (dinitramido)boranes. Ammonia-mono(dinitramido)borane is a perfectly oxygen-balanced high-energy-density material (HEDM) composed of an ammonia-BH2 fuel group and a strongly oxidizing dinitramido ligand. Although it is thermally not stable enough for practical applications, its predicted specific impulse as a solid rocket propellant would be 333 s. Its predicted performance as an explosive matches that of pentaerythtritol tetranitrate (PETN) and significantly exceeds that of trinitrotoluene (TNT). Its structure was established by X-ray crystallography and vibrational and multinuclear NMR spectroscopy. Additionally, the over-oxidized ammoniabis(dinitramido)borane was detected by NMR spectroscopy. PMID:26276906

  13. HIGH ENERGY DENSITY PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS WITH INTENSE HEAVY ION BEAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Henestroza, E.; Leitner, M.; Logan, B.G.; More, R.M.; Roy, P.K.; Ni, P.; Seidl, P.A.; Waldron, W.L.; Barnard, J.J.

    2010-03-16

    The US heavy ion fusion science program has developed techniques for heating ion-beam-driven warm dense matter (WDM) targets. The WDM conditions are to be achieved by combined longitudinal and transverse space-charge neutralized drift compression of the ion beam to provide a hot spot on the target with a beam spot size of about 1 mm, and pulse length about 1-2 ns. As a technique for heating volumetric samples of matter to high energy density, intense beams of heavy ions are capable of delivering precise and uniform beam energy deposition dE/dx, in a relatively large sample size, and the ability to heat any solid-phase target material. Initial experiments use a 0.3 MeV K+ beam (below the Bragg peak) from the NDCX-I accelerator. Future plans include target experiments using the NDCX-II accelerator, which is designed to heat targets at the Bragg peak using a 3-6 MeV lithium ion beam. The range of the beams in solid matter targets is about 1 micron, which can be lengthened by using porous targets at reduced density. We have completed the fabrication of a new experimental target chamber facility for WDM experiments, and implemented initial target diagnostics to be used for the first target experiments in NDCX-1. The target chamber has been installed on the NDCX-I beamline. The target diagnostics include a fast multi-channel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, VISAR, and high-speed gated cameras. Initial WDM experiments will heat targets by compressed NDCX-I beams and will explore measurement of temperature and other target parameters. Experiments are planned in areas such as dense electronegative targets, porous target homogenization and two-phase equation of state.

  14. HIGH ENERGY DENSITY PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS WITH INTENSE HEAVY ION BEAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Bieniosek, F.M.; Henestroza, E.; Leitner, M.; Logan, B.G.; More, R.M.; Roy, P.K.; Ni, P.; Seidl, P.A.; Waldron, W.L.; Barnard, J.J.

    2008-08-01

    The US heavy ion fusion science program has developed techniques for heating ion-beam-driven warm dense matter (WDM) targets. The WDM conditions are to be achieved by combined longitudinal and transverse space-charge neutralized drift compression of the ion beam to provide a hot spot on the target with a beam spot size of about 1 mm, and pulse length about 1-2 ns. As a technique for heating volumetric samples of matter to high energy density, intense beams of heavy ions are capable of delivering precise and uniform beam energy deposition dE/dx, in a relatively large sample size, and the ability to heat any solid-phase target material. Initial experiments use a 0.3 MeV K+ beam (below the Bragg peak) from the NDCX-I accelerator. Future plans include target experiments using the NDCX-II accelerator, which is designed to heat targets at the Bragg peak using a 3-6 MeV lithium ion beam. The range of the beams in solid matter targets is about 1 micron, which can be lengthened by using porous targets at reduced density. We have completed the fabrication of a new experimental target chamber facility for WDM experiments, and implemented initial target diagnostics to be used for the first target experiments in NDCX-1. The target chamber has been installed on the NDCX-I beamline. The target diagnostics include a fast multi-channel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, VISAR, and high-speed gated cameras. Initial WDM experiments will heat targets by compressed NDCX-I beams and will explore measurement of temperature and other target parameters. Experiments are planned in areas such as dense electronegative targets, porous target homogenization and two-phase equation of state.

  15. Stability of Magnetically Implode Liners for High Energy Density Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Reinovsky, R.E.; Anderson, W.E.; Atchison, W.L.; Bartsch, R.R.; Clark, D.A.; Ekdahl, C.E.; Faehl, R.J.; Goforth, J.H.; Keinigs, R.K.; Lindemuth, I.R.; Morgan, D.; Rodriguez, G.; Tasker, D.G.; Trainor, R.J.; Shlachter, J.S.

    1998-10-18

    Magnetically imploded cylindrical metal shells (z-pinch liners) are attractive drivers for a wide variety of hydrodynamics and material properties experiments. The ultimate utility of liners depends on the acceleration of near-solid density shells to velocities exceeding 20 km/sec with good azimuthal symmetry and axial uniformity. Two pulse power systems (Ranchero and Atlas) currently operational or under development at Los Alamos provide electrical energy adequate to accelerate {approximately}50 gr. liners to 1-2 MJ/cm kinetic energy. As in all z-pinches, the outer surface of a magnetically imploded liner is unstable to magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) modes during acceleration. Large-scale distortion in the liners from RT modes growing from glide plane interactions or initial imperfections could make liners unusable for man experiments. On the other hand, material strength in the liner should, from first principles, reduce the growth rate of RT modes - and can render some combinations of wavelength and amplitude analytically stable. The growth of instabilities in both soft aluminum liners and in high strength aluminum alloy liners has been studied analytically, computationally and experimentally at liner kinetic energies up to 100 KJ/cm on the Pegasus capacitor bank using driving currents up to 12 MA.

  16. THE IRON OPACITY PROJECT: High-Energy-Density Plasma Opacities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palay, E.; Orban, C.; Nahar, S.; Pradhan, A.; Pinnsonoault, M.; Bailey, J.

    2013-05-01

    Opacity governs radiation flow in plasma sources. Accurate opacities are needed to model unobservable laboratory and astrophysical conditions. High-energy-density (HED) plasma conditions prevalent in stellar interiors can now be recreated in the laboratory. The Z-pinch fusion device at the Sandia National Lab can reproduce temperatures and densities near the boundary where radiation transport changes from diffusion to convection inside the Sun. To benchmark theoretical opacities experiments are essential to resolve the outstanding discrepancy in solar abundances. The most common volatile elements C, N, O, Ne, etc. have been spectroscopically measured to be up to 50% lower than the standard abundances. This introduces conflict in the derived values of basic solar parameters such as the radiation/convection boundary, sound speed, and the primordial He abundance with precisely measured oscillations of the Sun through Helioseismology. A potential solution is increment of stellar opacities, which has inverse but complex relation with abundacnes, at least 30%. New iron opacity calculations include hitherto neglected atomic physics of fine structure and resonances which are largely treated as lines in existing opacities calculations. Preliminary results on radiative transitions in Ne Partial support: DOE,NSF.

  17. Plasma polymerized high energy density dielectric films for capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamagishi, F. G.

    1983-01-01

    High energy density polymeric dielectric films were prepared by plasma polymerization of a variety of gaseous monomers. This technique gives thin, reproducible, pinhole free, conformable, adherent, and insoluble coatings and overcomes the processing problems found in the preparation of thin films with bulk polymers. Thus, devices are prepared completely in a vacuum environment. The plasma polymerized films prepared all showed dielectric strengths of greater than 1000 kV/cm and in some cases values of greater than 4000 kV/cm were observed. The dielectric loss of all films was generally less than 1% at frequencies below 10 kHz, but this value increased at higher frequencies. All films were self healing. The dielectric strength was a function of the polymerization technique, whereas the dielectric constant varied with the structure of the starting material. Because of the thin films used (thickness in the submicron range) surface smoothness of the metal electrodes was found to be critical in obtaining high dielectric strengths. High dielectric strength graft copolymers were also prepared. Plasma polymerized ethane was found to be thermally stable up to 150 C in the presence of air and 250 C in the absence of air. No glass transitions were observed for this material.

  18. Thermal transport measurements in high-energy-density matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ping, Yuan

    2015-11-01

    Thermal conductivity is one of the most fundamental physical properties of matter. It determines the heat transport rate and has an enormous impact on a variety of mechanical, electrical, chemical, and nuclear systems. Thermal conduction is important in high energy density (HED) matter such as laboratory fusion plasmas, planetary cores, compact stars, and other celestial objects. Examples are in the ablation and instability growth in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsules, in energy loss from ICF hot spot, and in the evolution of Earth's core-mantle boundary. Despite the importance of thermal conductivity in HED systems, experimental measurements under relevant conditions are scarce and challenging. We have developed a method of differential heating for thermal conductivity measurements. In this talk, experimental designs will be described for four different platforms: optical laser heating, proton heating, laser-generated x-ray heating and XFEL heating. Data from various facilities will be presented and comparison with models will be discussed. This work was performed under DOE contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 with support from OFES Early Career program and LLNL LDRD program.

  19. Metrology Challenges for High Energy Density Science Target Manufacture

    SciTech Connect

    Seugling, R M; Bono, M J; Davis, P

    2009-02-19

    Currently, High Energy Density Science (HEDS) experiments are used to support and qualify predictive physics models. These models assume ideal conditions such as energy (input) and device (target) geometry. The experiments rely on precision targets constructed from components with dimensions in the millimeter range, while having micrometer-scale, functional features, including planar steps, sine waves, and step-joint geometry on hemispherical targets. Future target designs will likely have features and forms that rival or surpass current manufacturing and characterization capability. The dimensional metrology of these features is important for a number of reasons, including qualification of sub-components prior to assembly, quantification of critical features on the as-built assemblies and as a feedback mechanism for fabrication process development. Variations in geometry from part to part can lead to functional limitations, such as unpredictable instabilities during an experiment and the inability to assemble a target from poorly matched sub-components. Adding to the complexity are the large number and variety of materials, components, and shapes that render any single metrology technique difficult to use with low uncertainty. Common materials include metal and glass foams, doped transparent and opaque plastics and a variety of deposited and wrought metals. A suite of metrology tools and techniques developed to address the many critical issues relevant to the manufacture of HEDS targets including interferometry, x-ray radiography and contact metrology are presented including two sided interferometry for absolute thickness metrology and low force probe technology for micrometer feature coordinate metrology.

  20. Looking for high energy density compounds among polynitraminepurines.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ting; Sun, Guangdong; Chi, Weijie; Li, Butong; Wu, Haishun

    2013-09-01

    A series of purine derivatives with nitramine groups are calculated by using density functional theory (DFT). The molecular theory density, heats of formation, bond dissociation energies and detonation performance are investigated at DFT-B3LYP/6-311G** level. The isodesmic reaction method is employed to calculate the HOFs of the energies obtained from electronic structure calculations. Results show that the position of nitramine groups can influence the values of HOFs. The bond dissociation energies and the impact sensitivity are analyzed to investigate the thermal stability of the purine derivatives. The calculated bond dissociation energies of ring-NHNO2 and NH-NO2 bond show that the NH-NO2 bond should be the trigger bond in pyrolysis processes. The H50 of most compounds are larger than that of CL-20 and RDX. PMID:23708652

  1. Characterizing high-energy-density propellants for space propulsion applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokan, Timothy

    There exists wide ranging research interest in high-energy-density matter (HEDM) propellants as a potential replacement for existing industry standard fuels for liquid rocket engines. The U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army Research Lab, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, and the NASA Glenn Research Center each either recently concluded or currently has ongoing programs in the synthesis and development of these potential new propellants. In order to perform conceptual designs using these new propellants, most conceptual rocket engine powerhead design tools (e.g. NPSS, ROCETS, and REDTOP-2) require several thermophysical properties of a given propellant over a wide range of temperature and pressure. These properties include enthalpy, entropy, density, viscosity, and thermal conductivity. Very little thermophysical property data exists for most of these potential new HEDM propellants. Experimental testing of these properties is both expensive and time consuming and is impractical in a conceptual vehicle design environment. A new technique for determining these thermophysical properties of potential new rocket engine propellants is presented. The technique uses a combination of three different computational methods to determine these properties. Quantum mechanics and molecular dynamics are used to model new propellants at a molecular level in order to calculate density, enthalpy, and entropy. Additivity methods are used to calculate the kinematic viscosity and thermal conductivity of new propellants. This new technique is validated via a series of verification experiments of HEDM compounds. Results are provided for two HEDM propellants: quadricyclane and 2-azido-N,N-dimethylethanamine (DMAZ). In each case, the new technique does a better job than the best current computational methods at accurately matching the experimental data of the HEDM compounds of interest. A case study is provided to help quantify the vehicle level impacts of using HEDM

  2. Replacing critical rare earth materials in high energy density magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCallum, R. William

    2012-02-01

    High energy density permanent magnets are crucial to the design of internal permanent magnet motors (IPM) for hybride and electric vehicles and direct drive wind generators. Current motor designs use rare earth permanent magnets which easily meet the performance goals, however, the rising concerns over cost and foreign control of the current supply of rare earth resources has motivated a search for non-rare earth based permanent magnets alloys with performance metrics which allow the design of permanent magnet motors and generators without rare earth magnets. This talk will discuss the state of non-rare-earth permanent magnets and efforts to both improve the current materials and find new materials. These efforts combine first principles calculations and meso-scale magnetic modeling with advance characterization and synthesis techniques in order to advance the state of the art in non rare earth permanent magnets. The use of genetic algorithms in first principle structural calculations, combinatorial synthesis in the experimental search for materials, atom probe microscopy to characterize grain boundaries on the atomic level, and other state of the art techniques will be discussed. In addition the possibility of replacing critical rare earth elements with the most abundant rare earth Ce will be discussed.

  3. Upgrading of biorenewables to high energy density fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, John C; Batista, Enrique R; Chen, Weizhong; Currier, Robert P; Dirmyer, Matthew R; John, Kevin D; Kim, Jin K; Keith, Jason; Martin, Richard L; Pierpont, Aaron W; Silks Ill, L. A. "" Pete; Smythe, Mathan C; Sutton, Andrew D; Taw, Felicia L; Trovitch, Ryan J; Vasudevan, Kalyan V; Waidmann, Christopher R; Wu, Ruilian; Baker, R. Thomas; Schlaf, Marcel

    2010-12-07

    According to a recent report, lignocellulose is the most abundant renewable biological resource on earth, with an annual production of {approx} 200 x 10{sup 9} tons. Conversion of lignocellulosics derived from wood, agricultural wastes, and woody grasses into liquid fuels and value-added chemical feedstocks is an active area of research that has seen an explosion of effort due to the need to replace petroleum based sources. The carbohydrates D-glucose (C{sub 6}), L-arabinose (C{sub 5}), and D-xylose (C{sub 5}) are readily obtained from the hydrolysis of lignocellulose and constitute the most abundant renewable organic carbon source on the planet. Because they are naturally produced on such a large scale, these sugars have the greatest potential to displace petrochemical derived transportation fuel. Recent efforts in our laboratories aimed towards the production of high energy density transportation fuels from carbohydrates have been structured around the parameters of selective carbohydrate carbon chain extension chemistries, low reaction temperatures, and the desired use of water or neat substrate as the solvent. Some of our efforts in this regard will be presented.

  4. Atlas Pulsed Power Facility for High Energy Density Physics Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.B.; Ballard, E.O.; Barr, G.W.; Bowman, D.W.; Chochrane, J.C.; Davis, H.A.; Elizondo, J.M.; Gribble, R.F.; Griego, J.R.; Hicks, R.D.; Hinckley, W.B.; Hosack, K.W.; Nielsen, K.E.; Parker, J.V.; Parsons, M.O.; Rickets, R.L.; Salazar, H.R.; Sanchez, P.G.; Scudder, D.W.; Shapiro, C.; Thompson, M.C.; Trainor, R.J.; Valdez, G.A.; Vigil, B.N.; Watt, R.G.; Wysock, F.J.

    1999-06-07

    The Atlas facility, now under construction at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), will provide a unique capability for performing high-energy-density experiments in support of weapon-physics and basic-research programs. It is intended to be an international user facility, providing opportunities for researchers from national laboratories and academic institutions around the world. Emphasizing institutions around the world. Emphasizing hydrodynamic experiments, Atlas will provide the capability for achieving steady shock pressures exceeding 10-Mbar in a volume of several cubic centimeters. In addition, the kinetic energy associated with solid liner implosion velocities exceeding 12 km/s is sufficient to drive dense, hydrodynamic targets into the ionized regime, permitting the study of complex issues associated with strongly-coupled plasmas. The primary element of Atlas is a 23-MJ capacitor bank, comprised of 96 separate Marx generators housed in 12 separate oil-filled tanks, surrounding a central target chamber. Each tank will house two, independently-removable maintenance units, with each maintenance unit consisting of four Marx modules. Each Marx module has four capacitors that can each be charged to a maximum of 60 kilovolts. When railgap switches are triggered, the marx modules erect to a maximum of 240 kV. The parallel discharge of these 96 Marx modules will deliver a 30-MA current pulse with a 4-5-{micro}s risetime to a cylindrical, imploding liner via 24 vertical, tri-plate, oil-insulated transmission lines. An experimental program for testing and certifying all Marx and transmission line components has been completed. A complete maintenance module and its associated transmission line (the First Article) are now under construction and testing. The current Atlas schedule calls for construction of the machine to be complete by August, 2000. Acceptance testing is scheduled to begin in November, 2000, leading to initial operations in January, 2001.

  5. High Energy Density Studies at the OMEGA laser facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehly, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    The primary emphasis of the scientific program at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics is laser-driven inertial confinement fusion. We report on high-energy-density (HED) experiments that use the OMEGA laser to produce multi-megabar shocks in materials of interest to the national fusion effort and the associated HED sciences. We present measurements of the behavior of shocked diamond, in both the single-crystal and ultranano-crystalline forms used as an ablator material in fusion capsules. Using the impedance-matching technique both the Hugoniot and release behaviors are measured with respect to multiple reference materials. The release of shocked diamond into liquid deuterium is also measured. We present the results of sound-speed measurements in shocked quartz which is also used as a reference for sound speed measurements in CH and fused silica. This is done using an unsteady wave analysis that tracks the propagation of small perturbations in shock pressure as they traverse the shocked material from `piston' to shock front. The arrival times of these perturbations, as compared to the same in a reference material, provides the sound speed in the shock material. We also present results of optical and x-ray probing of shock waves in foam targets and solid targets, as well as the release plumes of shock material after shock breakout. The import of these measurements to the fusion program and basic HED science will be discussed and plans for future work presented. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inertial Confinement Fusion under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC52-08NA28302.

  6. Average transverse momentum and energy density in high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnett, T. H.; Dake, S.; Fuki, M.; Gregory, J. C.; Hayashi, T.; Holynski, R.; Iwai, J.; Jones, W. V.; Jurak, A.; Lord, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Emulsion chambers were used to measure the transverse momenta of photons or pi(0) mesons produced in high-energy cosmic-ray nucleus-nucleus collisions. A group of events having large average transverse momenta has been found which apparently exceeds the expected limiting values. Analysis of the events at early interaction times, of the order of 1 fm/c, indicates that the observed transverse momentum increases with both rapidity density and energy density.

  7. Cross-checking the symmetry energy at high densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong, Gao-Chan

    2016-04-01

    By considering both the effects of the nucleon-nucleon short-range correlations and the isospin-dependent in-medium inelastic baryon-baryon scattering cross section in the transport model, two unrelated Au + Au experimental measurements at 400 MeV/nucleon beam energy are simultaneously analyzed, and a mildly soft symmetry energy (L (ρ0)=37 MeV) at supra-saturation densities is obtained. This result is compatible with recent result [Phys. Rev. C 92, 064304 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevC.92.064304] shown by comparing the available data on the electric dipole polarizability with the theoretical predictions.

  8. Ferroelectric polymer networks with high energy density and improved discharged efficiency for dielectric energy storage.

    PubMed

    Khanchaitit, Paisan; Han, Kuo; Gadinski, Matthew R; Li, Qi; Wang, Qing

    2013-01-01

    Ferroelectric polymers are being actively explored as dielectric materials for electrical energy storage applications. However, their high dielectric constants and outstanding energy densities are accompanied by large dielectric loss due to ferroelectric hysteresis and electrical conduction, resulting in poor charge-discharge efficiencies under high electric fields. To address this long-standing problem, here we report the ferroelectric polymer networks exhibiting significantly reduced dielectric loss, superior polarization and greatly improved breakdown strength and reliability, while maintaining their fast discharge capability at a rate of microseconds. These concurrent improvements lead to unprecedented charge-discharge efficiencies and large values of the discharged energy density and also enable the operation of the ferroelectric polymers at elevated temperatures, which clearly outperforms the melt-extruded ferroelectric polymer films that represents the state of the art in dielectric polymers. The simplicity and scalability of the described method further suggest their potential for high energy density capacitors. PMID:24276519

  9. Density Functional Theory in High Energy Density Physics: phase-diagram and electrical conductivity of water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattsson, Thomas R.

    2007-06-01

    Atomistic simulations employing Density Functional Theory (DFT) have recently emerged as a powerful way of increasing our understanding of materials and processes in high energy density physics. Knowledge of the properties of water (equation of state, electrical conductivity, diffusion, low-energy opacity) is essential for correctly describing the physics of giant planets as well as shock waves in water. Although a qualitative picture of water electrical conductivity has emerged, the necessary quantitative information is scarce over a wide range of temperature and density. Since experiments can only access certain areas of phase space, and often require modeling as a part of the analysis, Quantum Molecular Dynamics simulations play a vital role. Using finite-temperature density functional theory (FT-DFT), we have investigated the structure and electronic conductivity of water across three phase transitions (molecular liquid/ ionic liquid/ superionic/ electronic liquid). The ionic contribution to the conduction is calculated from proton diffusion and the electronic contribution is calculated using the Kubo-Greenwood formula. The calculations are performed with VASP, a plane-wave pseudo-potential code. There is a rapid transition to ionic conduction at 2000 K and 2 g/cm^3, whereas electronic conduction dominates at temperatures at and above 6000 K&[tilde;1]. Contrary to earlier results using the Car-Parrinello method&[tilde;2], we predict that the fluid bordering the superionic phase is conducting above 4000 K and 100 GPa. Our comprehensive use of FT-DFT explains the new findings. The calculated conductivity is compared to experimental data. I gratefully acknowledge Mike Desjarlais, my collaborator in this effort. The LDRD office at Sandia supported this work. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL

  10. High Energy Density Physics:. the Laser Field of Tomorrow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, Richard R.

    2013-03-01

    Ever since its invention, the laser has become an increasingly important tool for physics research. Indeed, the laser has made it possible to not only study many extant physical phenomena, but also to actually produce matter in conditions that don't exist in nature, or more precisely, don't exist on the earth. In this lecture, I discuss how the development of lasers that produce ultra-short (˜fsec) and ultra-intense (≥1020 W/cm2) laser pulses actually produce plasmas that are at a density and temperature that exist only in stars. In doing so I discuss some of the basics of these extreme pulses interacting with electrons, yielding surprisingly intriguing physical phenomena. Finally, I argue that this field is an essential element in any comprehensive physical research endeavor, explicitly citing its fundamental relationship with the development of clean, unlimited fusion energy power.

  11. Fabrication and demonstration of high energy density lithium ion microbatteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ke

    density on a limited footprint area. In chapter 4, Li-ion batteries based on the LiMn2O4-TiP 2O7 couple are manufactured on flexible paper substrates; where the use of light-weight paper substrates significantly increase the gravimetric energy density of this electrode couple as compared to traditional metal current collectors. In chapter 5, a novel nanowire growth mechanism will be explored to grow interdigitated metal oxide nanowire micro battery electrodes. The growth kinetics of this mechanism is systematically studied to understand how to optimize the growth process to produce electrodes with improved electrochemical properties.

  12. Publications of Proceedings for the RF 2005 7th Workshop on High Energy Density and High Power RF

    SciTech Connect

    Luhmann, Jr, N C

    2006-01-01

    The University of California, Davis hosted the High Energy Density and High Power RF 7th Workshop on High Energy Density and High Power RF in Kalamata, Greece, 13-17 June, 2005. The Proceedings cost was supported by these funds from the U.S. Department of Energy. The Proceedings was published through the American Institute of Physics.

  13. First principles prediction of an insensitive high energy density material.

    PubMed

    Hirshberg, Barak; Denekamp, Chagit

    2013-10-28

    A new high performance yet insensitive explosive is proposed, based on an extensive computational study of tris(tetrazolyl)amine in the solid state and in the gas phase. The calculations for the solid state employ the PBE density functional with empirical dispersion correction while the gas phase calculations use the higher level of B3LYP and MP2. Two stable crystalline structures of tris(tertrazolyl)amine were located belonging to P1 and P21 space groups. The crystal structures obtained reveal that solid tris(tertrazolyl)amine is organized in layers with a very small interlayer spacing, due to π stacking, as well as significant inter and intra-molecular hydrogen bonding. Application of these results to the calculation of the detonation velocity and pressure indicate high performance for both phases, especially the P21 phase. At the same time the small value found for the interlayer spacing and the significant hydrogen bonding suggest relatively high stability. These results point to a promising new explosive material with a balance between high performance and insensitivity. PMID:24042364

  14. Laser Driven Radiative Shocks in High Energy Density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manka, C.; Lunsford, R.; Nikitin, S.; Laming, M.; Zabatakis, D.; Grun, J.

    2008-03-01

    The long time over which oscillations associated with radiative shocks within the interstellar medium occur makes direct observation of these instabilities highly problematic. A velocity dependant cooling instability is thought to cause fluctuations in the propagation velocity of such shocks. An experiment at NRL investigates and perhaps validates the applicability of present analytic models to various multidimensional radiative shock instabilities. The PHAROS laser at NRL is used to create the relevant shock front by ablative acceleration of an aluminized Mylar foil that covers a small gas filled tunnel in a PMMA block. As this shock propagates along the tunnel, a secondary shock is launched into the walls of the tunnel and the progress of this shock into the PMMA block preserves a continuous record of the primary shock's velocity as it travels the length of the tunnel. The density gradient associated with the shock in the PMMA is recorded using dark field shadowgraphy on a SIM-8 multi-channel high speed framing camera. The tunnel shock velocity is determined from the shape of the shock launched into the PMMA block for any time prior to the instant at which the image frame was taken, providing documentation of any oscillations in the velocity of the shock.

  15. Integration of high capacity materials into interdigitated mesostructured electrodes for high energy and high power density primary microbatteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikul, James H.; Liu, Jinyun; Braun, Paul V.; King, William P.

    2016-05-01

    Microbatteries are increasingly important for powering electronic systems, however, the volumetric energy density of microbatteries lags behind that of conventional format batteries. This paper reports a primary microbattery with energy density 45.5 μWh cm-2 μm-1 and peak power 5300 μW cm-2 μm-1, enabled by the integration of large volume fractions of high capacity anode and cathode chemistry into porous micro-architectures. The interdigitated battery electrodes consist of a lithium metal anode and a mesoporous manganese oxide cathode. The key enabler of the high energy and power density is the integration of the high capacity manganese oxide conversion chemistry into a mesostructured high power interdigitated bicontinuous cathode architecture and an electrodeposited dense lithium metal anode. The resultant energy density is greater than previously reported three-dimensional microbatteries and is comparable to commercial conventional format lithium-based batteries.

  16. The National Ignition Facility: A New Era in High Energy Density Science

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, E

    2009-06-10

    The National Ignition Facility, the world's most energetic laser system, is now operational. This talk will describe NIF, the ignition campaign, and new opportunities in fusion energy and high energy density science enabled by NIF.

  17. High Energy Density Science with Ultrarelativistic Electron Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Chan

    2001-10-01

    An intense, high-energy electron or positron beam can have focused intensities rivaling those of today's most powerful lasers. For example, the 5 ps (FWHM), 50 GeV beam at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center at 1 kA and focused to a 3 micron rms spot size gives intensities of > 10^20 W/cm^2 at a repetition rate of 10 Hz. Unlike a ps or fs laser pulse, the particle beam can readily bore through several mm of steel due to the rigidity of its flux component. However, the same particle beam can be manipulated quite strongly by a plasma that is a million times less dense than air! This is because of the incredibly strong collective fields induced in the plasma by the Coulomb force of the beam. The collective fields in turn react back onto the beam leading to many clearly-observable phenomena. The beam can be: (1) deflected leading focusing, defocusing, or even steering of the beam; (2) undulated causing the emission of spontaneous betatron x-ray radiation and; (3) accelerated or de-accelerated by the plasma fields. Using the 28.5 GeV electron and positron beams from the SLAC linac we have carried out a series of experiments that demonstrate clearly the above mentioned effects. The results are compared with theoretical predictions and 3D, one-to-one PIC code simulations using the code OSIRIS. These phenomena may have practical application in future technologies including optical elements in particle beam lines, synchrotron light sources, and ultra-high gradient accelerators.

  18. High energy-density liquid rocket fuel performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rapp, Douglas C.

    1990-01-01

    A fuel performance database of liquid hydrocarbons and aluminum-hydrocarbon fuels was compiled using engine parametrics from the Space Transportation Engine Program as a baseline. Propellant performance parameters are introduced. General hydrocarbon fuel performance trends are discussed with respect to hydrogen-to-carbon ratio and heat of formation. Aluminum-hydrocarbon fuel performance is discussed with respect to aluminum metal loading. Hydrocarbon and aluminum-hydrocarbon fuel performance is presented with respect to fuel density, specific impulse and propellant density specific impulse.

  19. High energy-density liquid rocket fuel performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rapp, Douglas C.

    1990-01-01

    A fuel performance database of liquid hydrocarbons and aluminum-hydrocarbon fuels was compiled using engine parametrics from the Space Transportation Engine Program as a baseline. Propellant performance parameters are introduced. General hydrocarbon fuel performance trends are discussed with respect to hydrogen-to-carbon ratio and heat of formation. Aluminum-hydrocarbon fuel performance is discussed with respect to aluminum metal loading. Hydrocarbon and aluminum-hydrocarbon fuel performance is presented with respect to fuel density, specific impulse, and propellant density specific impulse.

  20. High-energy side-peak emission of exciton-polariton condensates in high density regime

    PubMed Central

    Horikiri, Tomoyuki; Yamaguchi, Makoto; Kamide, Kenji; Matsuo, Yasuhiro; Byrnes, Tim; Ishida, Natsuko; Löffler, Andreas; Höfling, Sven; Shikano, Yutaka; Ogawa, Tetsuo; Forchel, Alfred; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

    2016-01-01

    In a standard semiconductor laser, electrons and holes recombine via stimulated emission to emit coherent light, in a process that is far from thermal equilibrium. Exciton-polariton condensates–sharing the same basic device structure as a semiconductor laser, consisting of quantum wells coupled to a microcavity–have been investigated primarily at densities far below the Mott density for signatures of Bose-Einstein condensation. At high densities approaching the Mott density, exciton-polariton condensates are generally thought to revert to a standard semiconductor laser, with the loss of strong coupling. Here, we report the observation of a photoluminescence sideband at high densities that cannot be accounted for by conventional semiconductor lasing. This also differs from an upper-polariton peak by the observation of the excitation power dependence in the peak-energy separation. Our interpretation as a persistent coherent electron-hole-photon coupling captures several features of this sideband, although a complete understanding of the experimental data is lacking. A full understanding of the observations should lead to a development in non-equilibrium many-body physics. PMID:27193700

  1. High-energy side-peak emission of exciton-polariton condensates in high density regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horikiri, Tomoyuki; Yamaguchi, Makoto; Kamide, Kenji; Matsuo, Yasuhiro; Byrnes, Tim; Ishida, Natsuko; Löffler, Andreas; Höfling, Sven; Shikano, Yutaka; Ogawa, Tetsuo; Forchel, Alfred; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

    2016-05-01

    In a standard semiconductor laser, electrons and holes recombine via stimulated emission to emit coherent light, in a process that is far from thermal equilibrium. Exciton-polariton condensates–sharing the same basic device structure as a semiconductor laser, consisting of quantum wells coupled to a microcavity–have been investigated primarily at densities far below the Mott density for signatures of Bose-Einstein condensation. At high densities approaching the Mott density, exciton-polariton condensates are generally thought to revert to a standard semiconductor laser, with the loss of strong coupling. Here, we report the observation of a photoluminescence sideband at high densities that cannot be accounted for by conventional semiconductor lasing. This also differs from an upper-polariton peak by the observation of the excitation power dependence in the peak-energy separation. Our interpretation as a persistent coherent electron-hole-photon coupling captures several features of this sideband, although a complete understanding of the experimental data is lacking. A full understanding of the observations should lead to a development in non-equilibrium many-body physics.

  2. High-energy side-peak emission of exciton-polariton condensates in high density regime.

    PubMed

    Horikiri, Tomoyuki; Yamaguchi, Makoto; Kamide, Kenji; Matsuo, Yasuhiro; Byrnes, Tim; Ishida, Natsuko; Löffler, Andreas; Höfling, Sven; Shikano, Yutaka; Ogawa, Tetsuo; Forchel, Alfred; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

    2016-01-01

    In a standard semiconductor laser, electrons and holes recombine via stimulated emission to emit coherent light, in a process that is far from thermal equilibrium. Exciton-polariton condensates-sharing the same basic device structure as a semiconductor laser, consisting of quantum wells coupled to a microcavity-have been investigated primarily at densities far below the Mott density for signatures of Bose-Einstein condensation. At high densities approaching the Mott density, exciton-polariton condensates are generally thought to revert to a standard semiconductor laser, with the loss of strong coupling. Here, we report the observation of a photoluminescence sideband at high densities that cannot be accounted for by conventional semiconductor lasing. This also differs from an upper-polariton peak by the observation of the excitation power dependence in the peak-energy separation. Our interpretation as a persistent coherent electron-hole-photon coupling captures several features of this sideband, although a complete understanding of the experimental data is lacking. A full understanding of the observations should lead to a development in non-equilibrium many-body physics. PMID:27193700

  3. High energy density plasma science with an ultrarelativistic electron beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, C.; Blue, B.; Clayton, C. E.; Dodd, E.; Huang, C.; Marsh, K. A.; Mori, W. B.; Wang, S.; Hogan, M. J.; O'Connell, C.; Siemann, R.; Watz, D.; Muggli, P.; Katsouleas, T.; Lee, S.

    2002-05-01

    An intense, high-energy electron or positron beam can have focused intensities rivaling those of today's most powerful laser beams. For example, the 5 ps (full-width, half-maximum), 50 GeV beam at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) at 1 kA and focused to a 3 micron rms spot size gives intensities of >1020 W/cm-2 at a repetition rate of >10 Hz. Unlike a ps or fs laser pulse which interacts with the surface of a solid target, the particle beam can readily tunnel through tens of cm of steel. However, the same particle beam can be manipulated quite effectively by a plasma that is a million times less dense than air! This is because of the incredibly strong collective fields induced in the plasma by the Coulomb force of the beam. The collective fields in turn react back onto the beam leading to many clearly observable phenomena. The beam paraticles can be: (1) Deflected leading to focusing, defocusing, or even steering of the beam; (2) undulated causing the emission of spontaneous betatron x-ray radiation and; (3) accelerated or decelerated by the plasma fields. Using the 28.5 GeV electron beam from the SLAC linac a series of experiments have been carried out that demonstrate clearly many of the above mentioned effects. The results can be compared with theoretical predictions and with two-dimensional and three-dimensional, one-to-one, particle-in-cell code simulations. These phenomena may have practical applications in future technologies including optical elements in particle beam lines, synchrotron light sources, and ultrahigh gradient accelerators.

  4. Plasma (Accretion) Disks with High Magnetic Energy Densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseau, F.; Coppi, B.

    2006-04-01

    ``Corrugated'' plasma disks can form in the dominant gravity of a central object when the peak plasma pressure in the disk is of the same order as that of the pressure of the ``external'' magnetic field, while the magnetic field resulting from internal plasma currents is of the same order as the external field. The corrugation refers to a periodic variation of the plasma density in a region around the equatorial plane. The considered structure represents a transition between a ``classical'' accretion disk and a ``rings sequence'' configuration^2. The common feature of the ``corrugated'' and the ``rings sequence'' configurations is the ``crystal'' structure of the magnetic surfaces that consist of a sequence of pairs of oppositely directed toroidal current density filaments. The connection between the characteristics of these configurations and those of the marginally stable ballooning modes that can be found in a model accretion disk is pointed out and analyzed.

  5. Quantitative simulation and density reconstruction in high-energy X-ray radiograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Li; Xu, Haibo

    2014-03-01

    Numerical radiograph using Monte Carlo method is used to study fidelity of density reconstruction in high-energy X-ray radiography. A density reconstruction method for a polyenergetic X-ray source and an object composed of different materials is proposed. The method includes energy spectrum, angular spectrum and spot size of photon source. And it includes mass absorption coefficients explicitly in density reconstruction as well. A constrained conjugate gradient algorithm and variation regularization are applied to determine material edges and density reconstruction of a French test object. It shows that the method is valid for density reconstruction and energy spectrum of imaging photons is important in obtaining accurate material densities in high-energy X-ray radiograph.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of novel high energy density capacitors for green energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puli, Venkata S.; Kumar, Ashok; Katiyar, Ram S.

    2011-03-01

    We have developed lead free high energy density capacitor materials, Ba(Zr 0.2 Ti 0.8) O3 (1 - x) (Ba 0.7 Ca 0.3) Ti O3 x [x = 0.10,0.15,0.20 (B ZT(1 - x) B CTx ] with high dielectric constant and moderate breakdown voltage. The ceramic materials were prepared using high energy ball milling for 4 hours at 400 rpm. The ball milled powders were calcined at 1250o C for 10hrs. Ceramic pellets having 13mm diameter were prepared using hydraulic press (2 ton) and sintered at 1400o C-1500o C for 4 hrs. X-ray diffraction studies of the sintered pellets revealed the rhombohedral/pseudo cubic crystal structure. The crystal structure was further confirmed by Raman spectra and TEM analysis. High dielectric constant and moderate polarization (~ Ps ~ 15-25 μ C/cm2) were obtained in the sintered pellets. The SEM images revealed monolithic grain growth in samples sintered at 1500o C. Preliminary data show moderate breakdown field ~ 15-20 kV/cm and energy density of 0.12-0.3 J/cm3 for all compositions. Details of the results will be presented.

  7. Achieving tunable sensitivity in composite high-energy density materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashkeev, Sergey; Tsyshevsky, Roman; Kuklja, Maija

    2015-06-01

    Laser irradiation provides a unique opportunity for selective, predictive, and controlled initiation of energetic materials. We propose a consistent micro-scale mechanism of photoexcitation at the interface, formed by a molecular energetic material and a metal oxide. A specific PETN-MgO model composite is used to illustrate and explain seemingly puzzling experiments on selective laser initiation of energetic materials, which reported that the presence of metal oxide additives triggered the photoinitiation by an unusually low energy. We suggest that PETN photodecomposition is catalyzed by oxygen vacancies (F0 centers) at the MgO surface. The proposed model suggests ways to tune sensitivity of energetic molecular materials to photoinitiation. Our quantum-chemical calculations suggest that the structural defects (e.g., oxygen vacancies) strongly interact with the molecular material (e.g., adsorbed energetic molecules) by inducing a charge transfer at the interface and hence play an imperative role in governing both energy absorption and energy release in the system. Our approach and conclusions provide a solid basis for novel design of energetic interfaces with desired properties and offers a new perspective in the field of explosive materials and devices.

  8. Ambipolar zinc-polyiodide electrolyte for a high-energy density aqueous redox flow battery

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Bin; Nie, Zimin; Vijayakumar, M.; Li, Guosheng; Liu, Jun; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Wang, Wei

    2015-02-24

    Large-scale energy storage systems are crucial for substantial deployment of renewable energy sources. Energy storage systems with high energy density, high safety, and low cost and environmental friendliness are desired. To overcome the major limitations of the current aqueous redox flow battery systems, namely lower energy density (~25 Wh L-1) and presence of strong acids and/or other hazardous, a high energy density aqueous zinc/polyiodide flow battery (ZIB) is designed with near neutral ZnI2 solutions as catholytes. The energy density of ZIB could reach 322 Wh L-1 at the solubility limit of ZnI2 in water (~7 M). We demonstrate charge and discharge energy densities of 245.9 Wh/L and 166.7 Wh L-1 with ZnI2 electrolyte at 5.0 M, respectively. The addition of ethanol (EtOH) in ZnI2 electrolyte can effectively mitigate the growth of zinc dendrite at the anode and improve the stability of catholytes with wider temperature window (-20 to 50°C), which enable ZIB system to be a promising alternative as a high-energy and high- safety stationary energy storage system.

  9. Ambipolar zinc-polyiodide electrolyte for a high-energy density aqueous redox flow battery

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Bin; Nie, Zimin; Vijayakumar, M.; Li, Guosheng; Liu, Jun; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Wang, Wei

    2015-02-24

    Large-scale energy storage systems are crucial for substantial deployment of renewable energy sources. Energy storage systems with high energy density, high safety, and low cost and environmental friendliness are desired. To overcome the major limitations of the current aqueous redox flow battery systems, namely lower energy density (~25 Wh L-1) and presence of strong acids and/or other hazardous, a high energy density aqueous zinc/polyiodide flow battery (ZIB) is designed with near neutral ZnI2 solutions as catholytes. The energy density of ZIB could reach 322 Wh L-1 at the solubility limit of ZnI2 in water (~7 M). We demonstrate charge and discharge energy densities of 245.9 Wh/L and 166.7 Wh L-1 with ZnI2 electrolyte at 5.0 M, respectively. The addition of ethanol (EtOH) in ZnI2 electrolyte can effectively mitigate the growth of zinc dendrite at the anode and improve the stability of catholytes with wider temperature window (-20 to 50°C), which enable ZIB system to be a promising alternative as a high-energy and high- safety stationary energy storage system.

  10. Ambipolar zinc-polyiodide electrolyte for a high-energy density aqueous redox flow battery

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Li, Bin; Nie, Zimin; Vijayakumar, M.; Li, Guosheng; Liu, Jun; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Wang, Wei

    2015-02-24

    Large-scale energy storage systems are crucial for substantial deployment of renewable energy sources. Energy storage systems with high energy density, high safety, and low cost and environmental friendliness are desired. To overcome the major limitations of the current aqueous redox flow battery systems, namely lower energy density (~25 Wh L-1) and presence of strong acids and/or other hazardous, a high energy density aqueous zinc/polyiodide flow battery (ZIB) is designed with near neutral ZnI2 solutions as catholytes. The energy density of ZIB could reach 322 Wh L-1 at the solubility limit of ZnI2 in water (~7 M). We demonstrate charge andmore » discharge energy densities of 245.9 Wh/L and 166.7 Wh L-1 with ZnI2 electrolyte at 5.0 M, respectively. The addition of ethanol (EtOH) in ZnI2 electrolyte can effectively mitigate the growth of zinc dendrite at the anode and improve the stability of catholytes with wider temperature window (-20 to 50°C), which enable ZIB system to be a promising alternative as a high-energy and high- safety stationary energy storage system.« less

  11. High Energy Density and High Temperature Multilayer Capacitor Films for Electric Vehicle Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treufeld, Imre; Song, Michelle; Zhu, Lei; Baer, Eric; Snyder, Joe; Langhe, Deepak

    2015-03-01

    Multilayer films (MLFs) with high energy density and high temperature capability (>120 °C) have been developed at Case Western Reserve University. Such films offer a potential solution for electric car DC-link capacitors, where high ripple currents and high temperature tolerance are required. The current state-of-the-art capacitors used in electric cars for converting DC to AC use biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP), which can only operate at temperatures up to 85 °C requiring an external cooling system. The polycarbonate (PC)/poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) MLFs have a higher permittivity compared to that of BOPP (2.3), leading to higher energy density. They have good mechanical stability and reasonably low dielectric losses at 120 °C. Nonetheless, our preliminary dielectric measurements show that the MLFs exhibit appreciable dielectric losses (20%) at 120 °C, which would, despite all the other advantages, make them not suitable for practical applications. Our preliminary data showed that dielectric losses of the MLFs at 120 °C up to 400 MV/m and 1000 Hz originate mostly from impurity ionic conduction. This work is supported by the NSF PFI/BIC Program (IIP-1237708).

  12. High energy density capacitors for power electronic applications using nano-structure multilayer technology

    SciTech Connect

    Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Johnson, G.W.

    1995-09-01

    Power electronics applications are currently limited by capacitor size and performance. Only incremental improvements are anticipated in existing capacitor technologies, while significant performance advances are required in energy density and overall performance to meet the technical needs of the applications which are important for U.S. economic competitiveness. One application, the Power Electronic Building Block (PEBB), promises a second electronics revolution in power electronic design. High energy density capacitors with excellent electrical thermal and mechanical performance represent an enabling technology in the PEBB concept. We propose a continuing program to research and develop LLNL`s nano-structure multilayer technologies for making high voltage, high energy density capacitors. Our controlled deposition techniques are capable of synthesizing extraordinarily smooth sub-micron thick layers of dielectric and conductor materials. We have demonstrated that, with this technology, high voltage capacitors with an order of magnitude improvement in energy density are achievable.

  13. High-energy-density electron jet generation from an opening gold cone filled with near-critical-density plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, T. P. Shao, F. Q.; Zou, D. B.; Ge, Z. Y.; Zhang, G. B.; Wang, W. Q.; Li, X. H.; Liu, J. X.; Ouyang, J. M.; Yu, W.; Luan, S. X.; Wang, J. W.; Wong, A. Y.

    2015-01-14

    By using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, we propose a scheme for strong coupling of a petawatt laser with an opening gold cone filled with near-critical-density plasmas. When relevant parameters are properly chosen, most laser energy can be fully deposited inside the cone with only 10% leaving the tip opening. Due to the asymmetric ponderomotive acceleration by the strongly decayed laser pulse, high-energy-density electrons with net laser energy gain are accumulated inside the cone, which then stream out of the tip opening continuously, like a jet. The jet electrons are fully relativistic, with speeds around 0.98−0.998 c and densities at 10{sup 20}/cm{sup 3} level. The jet can keep for a long time over 200 fs, which may have diverse applications in practice.

  14. High energy density battery based on complex hydrides

    DOEpatents

    Zidan, Ragaiy

    2016-04-26

    A battery and process of operating a battery system is provided using high hydrogen capacity complex hydrides in an organic non-aqueous solvent that allows the transport of hydride ions such as AlH.sub.4.sup.- and metal ions during respective discharging and charging steps.

  15. High-energy-density electron beam from interaction of two successive laser pulses with subcritical-density plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. W.; Yu, W.; Yu, M. Y.; Xu, H.; Ju, J. J.; Luan, S. X.; Murakami, M.; Zepf, M.; Rykovanov, S.

    2016-02-01

    It is shown by particle-in-cell simulations that a narrow electron beam with high energy and charge density can be generated in a subcritical-density plasma by two consecutive laser pulses. Although the first laser pulse dissipates rapidly, the second pulse can propagate for a long distance in the thin wake channel created by the first pulse and can further accelerate the preaccelerated electrons therein. Given that the second pulse also self-focuses, the resulting electron beam has a narrow waist and high charge and energy densities. Such beams are useful for enhancing the target-back space-charge field in target normal sheath acceleration of ions and bremsstrahlung sources, among others.

  16. Report of the Interagency Task Force on High Energy Density Physics

    SciTech Connect

    2007-08-01

    Identifies the needs for improving Federal stewardship of specific aspects of high energy density physics, particularly the study of high energy density plasmas in the laboratory, and strengthening university activities in this latter discipline. The report articulates how HEDP fits into the portfolio of federally funded missions and includes agency actions to be taken that are necessary to further this area of study consistent with Federal priorities and plans, while being responsive to the needs of the scientific community.

  17. Collaborative Comparison of High-Energy-Density Physics Codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatenejad, M.; Fryer, C.; Fryxell, B.; Lamb, D.; Myra, E.; Wohlbier, J.

    2011-10-01

    We will describe a collaborative effort involving the Flash Center for Computational Science, The Center for Radiative Shock Hydrodynamics (CRASH), LANL, and LLNL to compare several sophisticated radiation-hydrodynamics codes on a variety of HEDP test problems and experiments. Currently we are comparing efforts to simulate ongoing radiative shock experiments being conducted by CRASH at the OMEGA laser facility that are relevant to a wide range of astrophysical problems. The experiments drive a collapsed planar radiative shock through a Xenon-filled shock tube. Attempts to simulate these experiments have uncovered various challenges to obtaining agreement with experimental results. We will present the results of code-to-code comparisons that have enabled us to understand the impact of differences in numerical methods, physical approximations, microphysical parameters, etc. This work was supported in part by the US Department of Energy.

  18. Thulium heat source for high-endurance and high-energy density power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, C. E.; Kammeraad, J. E.; Vankonynenburg, R.; Vansant, J. H.

    1991-05-01

    We are studying the performance characteristics of radioisotope heat source designs for high-endurance and high-energy-density power systems that use thulium-170. Heat sources in the power range of 5 to 50 kW(sub th) coupled with a power conversion efficiency of approximately 30 percent, can easily satisfy current missions for autonomous underwater vehicles. New naval missions will be possible because thulium isotope power systems have a factor of one-to-two hundred higher endurance and energy density than chemical and electrochemical systems. Thulium-170 also has several other attractive features, including the fact that it decays to stable ytterbium-170 with a half-life of four months. For terrestrial applications, refueling on that time scale should be acceptable in view of the advantage of its benign decay. The heat source designs we are studying account for the requirements of isotope production, shielding, and integration with power conversion components. These requirements are driven by environmental and safety considerations. Thulium is present in the form of thin refractory thulia disks that allow power conversion at high peak temperature. We give estimates of power system state points, performance, mass, and volume characteristics. Monte Carlo radiation analysis provides a detailed assessment of shield requirements and heat transfer under normal and distressed conditions is also considered.

  19. Thulium heat source for high-endurance and high-energy density power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, C.E.; Kammeraad, J.E.; Van Konynenburg, R.; VanSant, J.H.

    1991-05-01

    We are studying the performance characteristics of radioisotope heat source designs for high-endurance and high-energy-density power systems that use thulium-170. Heat sources in the power range of 5--50 kW{sub th} coupled with a power conversion efficiency of {approximately}30%, can easily satisfy current missions for autonomous underwater vehicles. New naval missions will be possible because thulium isotope power systems have a factor of one-to-two hundred higher endurance and energy density than chemical and electrochemical systems. Thulium-170 also has several other attractive features, including the fact that it decays to stable ytterbium-170 with a half-life of four months. For terrestrial applications, refueling on that time scale should be acceptable in view of the advantage of its benign decay. The heat source designs we are studying account for the requirements of isotope production, shielding, and integration with power conversion components. These requirements are driven by environmental and safety considerations. Thulium is present in the form of thin refractory thulia disks that allow power conversion at high peak temperature. We give estimates of power system state points, performance, mass, and volume characteristics. Monte Carlo radiation analysis provides a detailed assessment of shield requirements and heat transfer under normal and distressed conditions is also considered. 11 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Talbot-Lau X-ray Deflectometer electron density diagnostic for laser and pulsed power high energy density plasma experiments

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Valdivia, M. P.; Stutman, D.; Stoeckl, C.; Mileham, C.; Begishev, I.; Theobald, W.; Bromage, J.; Regan, S. P.; Klein, S. R.; Munoz-Cordoves, G.; et al

    2016-04-21

    Talbot-Lau X-ray Deflectometry has been developed as an electron density diagnostic for High Energy Density plasmas. The technique can deliver x-ray refraction, attenuation, elemental composition, and scatter information from a single Moiré image. An 8 keV Talbot-Lau interferometer was deployed using laser and x-pinch backlighters. Grating survival and electron density mapping was demonstrated for 25-29 J, 8-30 ps laser pulses using copper foil targets. Moire pattern formation and grating survival was also observed using a copper x-pinch driven at 400 kA, ~1 kA/ns. Lastly, these results demonstrate the potential of TXD as an electron density diagnostic for HED plasmas.

  1. Energy Confinement of High-Density Pellet-Fueled Plasmas in the Alcator C Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwald, M.; Gwinn, D.; Milora, S.; Parker, J.; Parker, R.; Wolfe, S.; Besen, M.; Camacho, F.; Fairfax, S.; Fiore, C.; Foord, M.; Gandy, R.; Gomez, C.; Granetz, R.; Labombard, B.; Lipschultz, B.; Lloyd, B.; Marmar, E.; McCool, S.; Pappas, D.; Petrasso, R.; Pribyl, P.; Rice, J.; Schuresko, D.; Takase, Y.; Terry, J.; Watterson, R.

    1984-07-01

    A series of pellet-fueling experiments has been carried out on the Alcator C tokamak. High-speed hydrogen pellets penetrate to within a few centimeters of the magnetic axis, raise the plasma density, and produce peaked density profiles. Energy confinement is observed to increase over similar discharges fueled only by gas puffing. In this manner record values of electron density, plasma pressure, and Lawson number (n τ) have been achieved.

  2. A high-energy-density, high-Mach number single jet experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, J. F.; Dittrich, T. R.; Elliott, J. B.; Glendinning, S. G.; Cotrell, D. L.

    2011-08-15

    A high-energy-density, x-ray-driven, high-Mach number (M{>=} 17) single jet experiment shows constant propagation speeds of the jet and its bowshock into the late time regime. The jet assumes a characteristic mushroom shape with a stalk and a head. The width of the head and the bowshock also grow linearly in time. The width of the stalk decreases exponentially toward an asymptotic value. In late time images, the stalk kinks and develops a filamentary nature, which is similar to experiments with applied magnetic fields. Numerical simulations match the experiment reasonably well, but ''exterior'' details of the laser target must be included to obtain a match at late times.

  3. Toward high-energy-density, high-efficiency, and moderate-temperature chip-scale thermophotovoltaics

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Walker R.; Bermel, Peter; Pilawa-Podgurski, Robert C. N.; Marton, Christopher H.; Jensen, Klavs F.; Senkevich, Jay J.; Joannopoulos, John D.; Soljačić, Marin; Celanovic, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    The challenging problem of ultra-high-energy-density, high-efficiency, and small-scale portable power generation is addressed here using a distinctive thermophotovoltaic energy conversion mechanism and chip-based system design, which we name the microthermophotovoltaic (μTPV) generator. The approach is predicted to be capable of up to 32% efficient heat-to-electricity conversion within a millimeter-scale form factor. Although considerable technological barriers need to be overcome to reach full performance, we have performed a robust experimental demonstration that validates the theoretical framework and the key system components. Even with a much-simplified μTPV system design with theoretical efficiency prediction of 2.7%, we experimentally demonstrate 2.5% efficiency. The μTPV experimental system that was built and tested comprises a silicon propane microcombustor, an integrated high-temperature photonic crystal selective thermal emitter, four 0.55-eV GaInAsSb thermophotovoltaic diodes, and an ultra-high-efficiency maximum power-point tracking power electronics converter. The system was demonstrated to operate up to 800 °C (silicon microcombustor temperature) with an input thermal power of 13.7 W, generating 344 mW of electric power over a 1-cm2 area. PMID:23440220

  4. The National Ignition Facility - Applications for Inertial Fusion Energy and High Energy Density Science

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, E.M.; Hogan, W.J.

    1999-08-12

    Over the past several decades, significant and steady progress has been made in the development of fusion energy and its associated technology and in the understanding of the physics of high-temperature plasmas. While the demonstration of net fusion energy (fusion energy production exceeding that required to heat and confine the plasma) remains a task for the next millennia and while challenges remain, this progress has significantly increased confidence that the ultimate goal of societally acceptable (e.g. cost, safety, environmental considerations including waste disposal) central power production can be achieved. This progress has been shared by the two principal approaches to controlled thermonuclear fusion--magnetic confinement (MFE) and inertial confinement (ICF). ICF, the focus of this article, is complementary and symbiotic to MFE. As shown, ICF invokes spherical implosion of the fuel to achieve high density, pressures, and temperatures, inertially confining the plasma for times sufficient long (t {approx} 10{sup -10} sec) that {approx} 30% of the fuel undergoes thermonuclear fusion.

  5. Exploration of Plasma Jets Approach to High Energy Density Physics. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Chiping

    2013-08-26

    High-energy-density laboratory plasma (HEDLP) physics is an emerging, important area of research in plasma physics, nuclear physics, astrophysics, and particle acceleration. While the HEDLP regime occurs at extreme conditions which are often found naturally in space but not on the earth, it may be accessible by colliding high intensity plasmas such as high-energy-density plasma jets, plasmoids or compact toroids from plasma guns. The physics of plasma jets is investigated in the context of high energy density laboratory plasma research. This report summarizes results of theoretical and computational investigation of a plasma jet undergoing adiabatic compression and adiabatic expansion. A root-mean-squared (rms) envelope theory of plasma jets is developed. Comparison between theory and experiment is made. Good agreement between theory and experiment is found.

  6. High-Energy Ions from Near-Critical Density Plasmas via Magnetic Vortex Acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, Tatsufumi; Bulanov, Sergei V.; Esirkepov, Timur Zh.; Kando, Masaki

    2010-09-24

    Ultraintense laser pulses propagating in near-critical density plasmas generate magnetic dipole vortex structures. In the region of decreasing plasma density, the vortex expands both in forward and lateral directions. The magnetic field pressure pushes electrons and ions to form a density jump along the vortex axis and induces a longitudinal electric field. This structure moves together with the expanding dipole vortex. The background ions located ahead of the electric field are accelerated to high energies. The energy scaling of ions generated by this magnetic vortex acceleration mechanism is derived and corroborated using particle-in-cell simulations.

  7. Development of a high-density energy-storage capacitor for Nova

    SciTech Connect

    Haskell, D.K.; Cooper, R.A.; Sevigny, J.A.; Merritt, B.T.; Carder, B.M.; Whitham, K.

    1981-10-22

    This paper covers Maxwell's approach to developing energy storage capacitors. Based on previous capacitor designs of 3 KJ, 5 KJ and 10 KJ, the final Nova 12.5 KJ capacitor evolved. At the outset of the Nova capacitor development program, a relatively new dielectric system, polypropylene-paper-DOP, seemed to show superiority in volumetric efficiency, life, and more importantly cost. However, as a result of studies performed at Maxwell, a high-density, energy-storage capacitor was developed utilizing new high-quality, high-density paper and caster oil as the dielectric. Test data have demonstrated that the Maxwell 12.5 KJ capacitor exceeds all LLNL's qualification requirements.

  8. Ambipolar zinc-polyiodide electrolyte for a high-energy density aqueous redox flow battery.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Nie, Zimin; Vijayakumar, M; Li, Guosheng; Liu, Jun; Sprenkle, Vincent; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Redox flow batteries are receiving wide attention for electrochemical energy storage due to their unique architecture and advantages, but progress has so far been limited by their low energy density (~25 Wh l(-1)). Here we report a high-energy density aqueous zinc-polyiodide flow battery. Using the highly soluble iodide/triiodide redox couple, a discharge energy density of 167 Wh l(-1) is demonstrated with a near-neutral 5.0 M ZnI2 electrolyte. Nuclear magnetic resonance study and density functional theory-based simulation along with flow test data indicate that the addition of an alcohol (ethanol) induces ligand formation between oxygen on the hydroxyl group and the zinc ions, which expands the stable electrolyte temperature window to from -20 to 50 °C, while ameliorating the zinc dendrite. With the high-energy density and its benign nature free from strong acids and corrosive components, zinc-polyiodide flow battery is a promising candidate for various energy storage applications. PMID:25709083

  9. Ambipolar zinc-polyiodide electrolyte for a high-energy density aqueous redox flow battery

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bin; Nie, Zimin; Vijayakumar, M.; Li, Guosheng; Liu, Jun; Sprenkle, Vincent; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Redox flow batteries are receiving wide attention for electrochemical energy storage due to their unique architecture and advantages, but progress has so far been limited by their low energy density (~25 Wh l−1). Here we report a high-energy density aqueous zinc-polyiodide flow battery. Using the highly soluble iodide/triiodide redox couple, a discharge energy density of 167 Wh l−1 is demonstrated with a near-neutral 5.0 M ZnI2 electrolyte. Nuclear magnetic resonance study and density functional theory-based simulation along with flow test data indicate that the addition of an alcohol (ethanol) induces ligand formation between oxygen on the hydroxyl group and the zinc ions, which expands the stable electrolyte temperature window to from −20 to 50 °C, while ameliorating the zinc dendrite. With the high-energy density and its benign nature free from strong acids and corrosive components, zinc-polyiodide flow battery is a promising candidate for various energy storage applications. PMID:25709083

  10. High Energy-Density Plasma Production from Plasma-Filled Rod-Pinch Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumer, J. W.; Weber, B. V.; Mosher, D.; Apruzese, J. P.

    2008-04-01

    The Plasma-Filled Rod-Pinch diode (PFRP) concentrates a 100-ns, 500-kA, >MeV electron-beam onto the tip of a tapered tungsten rod, generating a High Energy Density Plasma (HEDP). The HEDP (warm dense plasma) is created by deposition of a high-power-density (40 TW/cm^2) electron-beam into solid-density tungsten. The diode current and voltage has been shown to be controllably modified between 260 kA and 1.8 MV to 770 kA and 0.45 MV by increasing the initial plasma-fill density. At the time of peak energy density, analytic estimates using a 0-d self-similar MHD model predict a solid-density (20 g/cm^3) tungsten plasma with 25 eV temperature, 16 Mbar pressure, and 2.4 MJ/cm^3 thermal energy density prior to rapid plasma expansion (after about 10 ns). Temperature and ionization state increase after this time as the rod-tip rapidly expands. This PFRP approach may have advantages for HEDP research. Various applications include high-fluence flash radiography and the study of equation-of-state of materials. Current research results will be presented.

  11. A Fiber Supercapacitor with High Energy Density Based on Hollow Graphene/Conducting Polymer Fiber Electrode.

    PubMed

    Qu, Guoxing; Cheng, Jianli; Li, Xiaodong; Yuan, Demao; Chen, Peining; Chen, Xuli; Wang, Bin; Peng, Huisheng

    2016-05-01

    A hollow graphene/conducting polymer composite fiber is created with high mechanical and electronic properties and used to fabricate novel fiber-shaped supercapacitors that display high energy densities and long life stability. The fiber supercapacitors can be woven into flexible powering textiles that are particularly promising for portable and wearable electronic devices. PMID:27001216

  12. Graphene and carbon nanotube composite electrodes for supercapacitors with ultra-high energy density.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Qian; Tang, Jie; Ma, Jun; Zhang, Han; Shinya, Norio; Qin, Lu-Chang

    2011-10-21

    We describe a graphene and single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) composite film prepared by a blending process for use as electrodes in high energy density supercapacitors. Specific capacitances of 290.6 F g(-1) and 201.0 F g(-1) have been obtained for a single electrode in aqueous and organic electrolytes, respectively, using a more practical two-electrode testing system. In the organic electrolyte the energy density reached 62.8 Wh kg(-1) and the power density reached 58.5 kW kg(-1). The addition of single-walled carbon nanotubes raised the energy density by 23% and power density by 31% more than the graphene electrodes. The graphene/CNT electrodes exhibited an ultra-high energy density of 155.6 Wh kg(-1) in ionic liquid at room temperature. In addition, the specific capacitance increased by 29% after 1000 cycles in ionic liquid, indicating their excellent cyclicity. The SWCNTs acted as a conductive additive, spacer, and binder in the graphene/CNT supercapacitors. This work suggests that our graphene/CNT supercapacitors can be comparable to NiMH batteries in performance and are promising for applications in hybrid vehicles and electric vehicles. PMID:21887427

  13. An x-ray backlit Talbot-Lau deflectometer for high-energy-density electron density diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdivia, M. P.; Stutman, D.; Stoeckl, C.; Theobald, W.; Mileham, C.; Begishev, I. A.; Bromage, J.; Regan, S. P.

    2016-02-01

    X-ray phase-contrast techniques can measure electron density gradients in high-energy-density plasmas through refraction induced phase shifts. An 8 keV Talbot-Lau interferometer consisting of free standing ultrathin gratings was deployed at an ultra-short, high-intensity laser system using K-shell emission from a 1-30 J, 8 ps laser pulse focused on thin Cu foil targets. Grating survival was demonstrated for 30 J, 8 ps laser pulses. The first x-ray deflectometry images obtained under laser backlighting showed up to 25% image contrast and thus enabled detection of electron areal density gradients with a maximum value of 8.1 ± 0.5 × 1023 cm-3 in a low-Z millimeter sized sample. An electron density profile was obtained from refraction measurements with an error of <8%. The 50 ± 15 μm spatial resolution achieved across the full field of view was found to be limited by the x-ray source-size, similar to conventional radiography.

  14. An x-ray backlit Talbot-Lau deflectometer for high-energy-density electron density diagnostics

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Valdivia, M. P.; Stutman, D.; Stoeckl, C.; Theobald, W.; Mileham, C.; Begishev, I. A.; Bromage, J.; Regan, S. P.

    2016-02-10

    X-ray phase-contrast techniques can measure electron density gradients in high-energy-density plasmas through refraction induced phase shifts. An 8 keV Talbot-Lau interferometer consisting of free standing ultrathin gratings was deployed at an ultra-short, high-intensity laser system using K-shell emission from a 1-30 J, 8 ps laser pulse focused on thin Cu foil targets. Grating survival was demonstrated for 30 J, 8 ps laser pulses. The first x-ray deflectometry images obtained under laser backlighting showed up to 25% image contrast and thus enabled detection of electron areal density gradients with a maximum value of 8.1 ± 0.5 × 1023 cm₋3 in amore » low-Z millimeter sized sample. An electron density profile was obtained from refraction measurements with an error of <8%. We found the 50 ± 15 μm spatial resolution achieved across the full field of view was limited by the x-ray source-size, similar to conventional radiography.« less

  15. An x-ray backlit Talbot-Lau deflectometer for high-energy-density electron density diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Valdivia, M P; Stutman, D; Stoeckl, C; Theobald, W; Mileham, C; Begishev, I A; Bromage, J; Regan, S P

    2016-02-01

    X-ray phase-contrast techniques can measure electron density gradients in high-energy-density plasmas through refraction induced phase shifts. An 8 keV Talbot-Lau interferometer consisting of free standing ultrathin gratings was deployed at an ultra-short, high-intensity laser system using K-shell emission from a 1-30 J, 8 ps laser pulse focused on thin Cu foil targets. Grating survival was demonstrated for 30 J, 8 ps laser pulses. The first x-ray deflectometry images obtained under laser backlighting showed up to 25% image contrast and thus enabled detection of electron areal density gradients with a maximum value of 8.1 ± 0.5 × 10(23) cm(-3) in a low-Z millimeter sized sample. An electron density profile was obtained from refraction measurements with an error of <8%. The 50 ± 15 μm spatial resolution achieved across the full field of view was found to be limited by the x-ray source-size, similar to conventional radiography. PMID:26931847

  16. Shock waves in a Z-pinch and the formation of high energy density plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, H. U.; Wessel, F. J.; Ney, P.; Presura, R.; Ellahi, Rahmat; Shukla, P. K.

    2012-12-15

    A Z-pinch liner, imploding onto a target plasma, evolves in a step-wise manner, producing a stable, magneto-inertial, high-energy-density plasma compression. The typical configuration is a cylindrical, high-atomic-number liner imploding onto a low-atomic-number target. The parameters for a terawatt-class machine (e.g., Zebra at the University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada Terawatt Facility) have been simulated. The 2-1/2 D MHD code, MACH2, was used to study this configuration. The requirements are for an initial radius of a few mm for stable implosion; the material densities properly distributed, so that the target is effectively heated initially by shock heating and finally by adiabatic compression; and the liner's thickness adjusted to promote radial current transport and subsequent current amplification in the target. Since the shock velocity is smaller in the liner, than in the target, a stable-shock forms at the interface, allowing the central load to accelerate magnetically and inertially, producing a magneto-inertial implosion and high-energy density plasma. Comparing the implosion dynamics of a low-Z target with those of a high-Z target demonstrates the role of shock waves in terms of compression and heating. In the case of a high-Z target, the shock wave does not play a significant heating role. The shock waves carry current and transport the magnetic field, producing a high density on-axis, at relatively low temperature. Whereas, in the case of a low-Z target, the fast moving shock wave preheats the target during the initial implosion phase, and the later adiabatic compression further heats the target to very high energy density. As a result, the compression ratio required for heating the low-Z plasma to very high energy densities is greatly reduced.

  17. US Heavy Ion Beam Research for High Energy Density Physics Applications and Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, R.C.; Logan, B.G.; Barnard, J.J.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Briggs, R.J.; et al.

    2005-09-19

    Key scientific results from recent experiments, modeling tools, and heavy ion accelerator research are summarized that explore ways to investigate the properties of high energy density matter in heavy-ion-driven targets, in particular, strongly-coupled plasmas at 0.01 to 0.1 times solid density for studies of warm dense matter, which is a frontier area in high energy density physics. Pursuit of these near-term objectives has resulted in many innovations that will ultimately benefit heavy ion inertial fusion energy. These include: neutralized ion beam compression and focusing, which hold the promise of greatly improving the stage between the accelerator and the target chamber in a fusion power plant; and the Pulse Line Ion Accelerator (PLIA), which may lead to compact, low-cost modular linac drivers.

  18. Coaxial wet-spun yarn supercapacitors for high-energy density and safe wearable electronics.

    PubMed

    Kou, Liang; Huang, Tieqi; Zheng, Bingna; Han, Yi; Zhao, Xiaoli; Gopalsamy, Karthikeyan; Sun, Haiyan; Gao, Chao

    2014-01-01

    Yarn supercapacitors have great potential in future portable and wearable electronics because of their tiny volume, flexibility and weavability. However, low-energy density limits their development in the area of wearable high-energy density devices. How to enhance their energy densities while retaining their high-power densities is a critical challenge for yarn supercapacitor development. Here we propose a coaxial wet-spinning assembly approach to continuously spin polyelectrolyte-wrapped graphene/carbon nanotube core-sheath fibres, which are used directly as safe electrodes to assembly two-ply yarn supercapacitors. The yarn supercapacitors using liquid and solid electrolytes show ultra-high capacitances of 269 and 177 mF cm(-2) and energy densities of 5.91 and 3.84 μWh cm(-2), respectively. A cloth supercapacitor superior to commercial capacitor is further interwoven from two individual 40-cm-long coaxial fibres. The combination of scalable coaxial wet-spinning technology and excellent performance of yarn supercapacitors paves the way to wearable and safe electronics. PMID:24786366

  19. Coaxial wet-spun yarn supercapacitors for high-energy density and safe wearable electronics

    PubMed Central

    Kou, Liang; Huang, Tieqi; Zheng, Bingna; Han, Yi; Zhao, Xiaoli; Gopalsamy, Karthikeyan; Sun, Haiyan; Gao, Chao

    2014-01-01

    Yarn supercapacitors have great potential in future portable and wearable electronics because of their tiny volume, flexibility and weavability. However, low-energy density limits their development in the area of wearable high-energy density devices. How to enhance their energy densities while retaining their high-power densities is a critical challenge for yarn supercapacitor development. Here we propose a coaxial wet-spinning assembly approach to continuously spin polyelectrolyte-wrapped graphene/carbon nanotube core-sheath fibres, which are used directly as safe electrodes to assembly two-ply yarn supercapacitors. The yarn supercapacitors using liquid and solid electrolytes show ultra-high capacitances of 269 and 177 mF cm−2 and energy densities of 5.91 and 3.84 μWh cm−2, respectively. A cloth supercapacitor superior to commercial capacitor is further interwoven from two individual 40-cm-long coaxial fibres. The combination of scalable coaxial wet-spinning technology and excellent performance of yarn supercapacitors paves the way to wearable and safe electronics. PMID:24786366

  20. Coaxial wet-spun yarn supercapacitors for high-energy density and safe wearable electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kou, Liang; Huang, Tieqi; Zheng, Bingna; Han, Yi; Zhao, Xiaoli; Gopalsamy, Karthikeyan; Sun, Haiyan; Gao, Chao

    2014-05-01

    Yarn supercapacitors have great potential in future portable and wearable electronics because of their tiny volume, flexibility and weavability. However, low-energy density limits their development in the area of wearable high-energy density devices. How to enhance their energy densities while retaining their high-power densities is a critical challenge for yarn supercapacitor development. Here we propose a coaxial wet-spinning assembly approach to continuously spin polyelectrolyte-wrapped graphene/carbon nanotube core-sheath fibres, which are used directly as safe electrodes to assembly two-ply yarn supercapacitors. The yarn supercapacitors using liquid and solid electrolytes show ultra-high capacitances of 269 and 177 mF cm-2 and energy densities of 5.91 and 3.84 μWh cm-2, respectively. A cloth supercapacitor superior to commercial capacitor is further interwoven from two individual 40-cm-long coaxial fibres. The combination of scalable coaxial wet-spinning technology and excellent performance of yarn supercapacitors paves the way to wearable and safe electronics.

  1. Structured block copolymer thin film composites for ultra-high energy density capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samant, Saumil; Hailu, Shimelis; Grabowski, Christopher; Durstock, Michael; Raghavan, Dharmaraj; Karim, Alamgir

    2014-03-01

    Development of high energy density capacitors is essential for future applications like hybrid vehicles and directed energy weaponry. Fundamentally, energy density is governed by product of dielectric permittivity ɛ and breakdown strength Vbd. Hence, improvements in energy density are greatly reliant on improving either ɛ or Vbd or a combination of both. Polymer films are widely used in capacitors due to high Vbd and low loss but they suffer from very low permittivities. Composite dielectrics offer a unique opportunity to combine the high ɛ of inorganic fillers with the high Vbd of a polymer matrix. For enhancement of dielectric properties, it is essential to improve matrix-filler interaction and control the spatial distribution of fillers for which nanostructured block copolymers BCP act as ideal templates. We use Directed Self-assembly of block copolymers to rapidly fabricate highly aligned BCP-TiO2 composite nanostructures in thin films under dynamic thermal gradient field to synergistically combine the high ɛ of functionalized TiO2 and high Vbd of BCP matrix. The results of impact of BCP morphology, processing conditions and concentration of TiO2 on capacitor performance will be reported. U.S. Air Force of Scientific Research under contract FA9550-12-1-0306

  2. Ionic liquid enabled FeS2 for high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Evans, Tyler; Piper, Daniela Molina; Kim, Seul Cham; Han, Sang Sub; Bhat, Vinay; Oh, Kyu Hwan; Lee, Se-Hee

    2014-11-19

    High-energy-density FeS2 cathodes en-abled by a bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (TFSI-) anion-based room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) electrolyte are demonstrated. A TFSI-based ionic liquid (IL) significantly mitigates polysulfide dissolution, and therefore the parasitic redox shuttle mechanism, that plagues sulfur-based electrode chemistries. FeS2 stabilization with a TFSI(-) -based IL results in one of the highest energy density cathodes, 542 W h kg(-1) (normalized to cathode composite mass), reported to date. PMID:25236752

  3. Measurements of Ion Stopping Around the Bragg Peak in High-Energy-Density Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frenje, J. A.; Grabowski, P. E.; Li, C. K.; Séguin, F. H.; Zylstra, A. B.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Petrasso, R. D.; Glebov, V. Yu; Sangster, T. C.

    2015-11-01

    For the first time, quantitative measurements of ion stopping at energies around the Bragg peak (or peak ion stopping, which occurs at an ion velocity comparable to the average thermal electron velocity), and its dependence on electron temperature (Te ) and electron number density (ne ) in the range of 0.5-4.0 keV and 3 ×1022 to 3 ×1023 cm-3 have been conducted, respectively. It is experimentally demonstrated that the position and amplitude of the Bragg peak varies strongly with Te with ne . The importance of including quantum diffraction is also demonstrated in the stopping-power modeling of high-energy-density plasmas.

  4. Focusing dynamics of high-energy density, laser-driven ion beams.

    PubMed

    Chen, S N; d'Humières, E; Lefebvre, E; Romagnani, L; Toncian, T; Antici, P; Audebert, P; Brambrink, E; Cecchetti, C A; Kudyakov, T; Pipahl, A; Sentoku, Y; Borghesi, M; Willi, O; Fuchs, J

    2012-02-01

    The dynamics of the focusing of laser-driven ion beams produced from concave solid targets was studied. Most of the ion beam energy is observed to converge at the center of the cylindrical targets with a spot diameter of 30  μm, which can be very beneficial for applications requiring high beam energy densities. Also, unbalanced laser irradiation does not compromise the focusability of the beam. However, significant filamentation occurs during the focusing, potentially limiting the localization of the energy deposition region by these beams at focus. These effects could impact the applicability of such high-energy density beams for applications, e.g., in proton-driven fast ignition. PMID:22400936

  5. A High Power Density Single-Phase PWM Rectifier With Active Ripple Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Ruxi; Wang, Fei; Boroyevich, Dushan; Burgos, Rolando; Lai, Rixin; Ning, Puqi; Rajashekara, Kaushik

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that single-phase pulse width modulation rectifiers have second-order harmonic currents and corresponding ripple voltages on the dc bus. The low-frequency harmonic current is normally filtered using a bulk capacitor in the bus, which results in low power density. However, pursuing high power density in converter design is a very important goal in the aerospace applications. This paper studies methods for reducing the energy storage capacitor for single-phase rectifiers. The minimum ripple energy storage requirement is derived independently of a specific topology. Based on theminimum ripple energy requirement, the feasibility of the active capacitor s reduction schemes is verified. Then, we propose a bidirectional buck boost converter as the ripple energy storage circuit, which can effectively reduce the energy storage capacitance. The analysis and design are validated by simulation and experimental results.

  6. Antiferroelectric Thin-Film Capacitors with High Energy-Storage Densities, Low Energy Losses, and Fast Discharge Times.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Chang Won; Amarsanaa, Gantsooj; Won, Sung Sik; Chae, Song A; Lee, Dae Su; Kim, Ill Won

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrate a capacitor with high energy densities, low energy losses, fast discharge times, and high temperature stabilities, based on Pb(0.97)Y(0.02)[(Zr(0.6)Sn(0.4))(0.925)Ti(0.075)]O3 (PYZST) antiferroelectric thin-films. PYZST thin-films exhibited a high recoverable energy density of U(reco) = 21.0 J/cm(3) with a high energy-storage efficiency of η = 91.9% under an electric field of 1300 kV/cm, providing faster microsecond discharge times than those of commercial polypropylene capacitors. Moreover, PYZST thin-films exhibited high temperature stabilities with regard to their energy-storage properties over temperatures ranging from room temperature to 100 °C and also exhibited strong charge-discharge fatigue endurance up to 1 × 10(7) cycles. PMID:26606502

  7. High energy density micro-fiber based nickel electrode for aerospace batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Francisco, J.; Chiappetti, D.; Coates, D.

    1996-11-01

    The nickel electrode is the specific energy limiting component in battery systems such as nickel-hydrogen, nickel-metal hydride and nickel-zinc. Lightweight, high energy density nickel electrodes have been developed which deliver in excess of 180 mAh/g at the one-hour discharge rate. These electrodes are based on a highly porous, nickel micro-fiber (< 10 micron diameter) substrate, electrochemically impregnated with nickel-hydroxide active material. Electrodes are being tested both as a flooded half-cell and in full nickel-hydrogen and nickel-metal hydride cells. The electrode technology developed is applicable to commercial nickel-based batteries for applications such as electric vehicles, cellular telephones and laptop computers and for low-cost, high energy density military and aerospace applications.

  8. High energy density micro-fiber based nickel electrode for aerospace batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Francisco, J.; Chiappetti, D.; Coates, D.

    1996-02-01

    The nickel electrode is the specific energy limiting component in battery systems such as nickel-hydrogen, nickel-metal hydride and nickel-zinc. Lightweight, high energy density nickel electrodes have been developed which deliver in excess of 180 mAh/g at the one-hour discharge rate. These electrodes are based on a highly porous, nickel micro-fiber (less than 10 micron diameter) substrate, electrochemically impregnated with nickel-hydroxide active material. Electrodes are being tested both as a flooded half-cell and in full nickel-hydrogen and nickel-metal hydride cells. The electrode technology developed is applicable to commercial nickel-based batteries for applications such as electric vehicles, cellular telephones and laptop computers and for low-cost, high energy density military and aerospace applications.

  9. High energy density micro-fiber based nickel electrode for aerospace batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francisco, Jennifer; Chiappetti, Dennis; Coates, Dwaine

    1996-01-01

    The nickel electrode is the specific energy limiting component in battery systems such as nickel-hydrogen, nickel-metal hydride and nickel-zinc. Lightweight, high energy density nickel electrodes have been developed which deliver in excess of 180 mAh/g at the one-hour discharge rate. These electrodes are based on a highly porous, nickel micro-fiber (less than 10 micron diameter) substrate, electrochemically impregnated with nickel-hydroxide active material. Electrodes are being tested both as a flooded half-cell and in full nickel-hydrogen and nickel-metal hydride cells. The electrode technology developed is applicable to commercial nickel-based batteries for applications such as electric vehicles, cellular telephones and laptop computers and for low-cost, high energy density military and aerospace applications.

  10. Experimental design to generate strong shear layers in a high-energy-density plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, E. C.; Drake, R. P.; Aglitskiy, Y.; Gillespie, R. S.; Grosskopf, M. J.; Weaver, J. L.; Velikovich, A. L.; Visco, A.; Ditmar, J. R.

    2010-06-01

    The development of a new experimental system for generating a strong shear flow in a high-energy-density plasma is described in detail. The targets were designed with the goal of producing a diagnosable Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability, which plays an important role in the transition turbulence but remains relatively unexplored in the high-energy-density regime. To generate the shear flow the Nike laser was used to drive a flow of Al plasma over a low-density foam surface with an initial perturbation. The interaction of the Al and foam was captured with a spherical crystal imager using 1.86 keV X-rays. The selection of the individual targets components is discussed and results are presented.

  11. Advanced intermediate temperature sodium-nickel chloride batteries with ultra-high energy density

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Kim, Jin Yong; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Chang, Hee -Jung; Canfield, Nathan L.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2016-02-11

    Here we demonstrate for the first time that planar Na-NiCl2 batteries can be operated at an intermediate temperature of 190°C with ultra-high energy density. A specific energy density of 350 Wh/kg, which is 3 times higher than that of conventional tubular Na-NiCl2 batteries operated at 280°C, was obtained for planar Na-NiCl2 batteries operated at 190°C over a long-term cell test (1000 cycles). The high energy density and superior cycle stability are attributed to the slower particle growth of the cathode materials (NaCl and Ni) at 190°C. The results reported in this work demonstrate that planar Na-NiCl2 batteries operated at anmore » intermediate temperature could greatly benefit this traditional energy storage technology by improving battery energy density, cycle life and reducing material costs.« less

  12. Tailoring the dipole properties in dielectric polymers to realize high energy density with high breakdown strength and low dielectric loss

    SciTech Connect

    Thakur, Yash; Lin, Minren; Wu, Shan; Zhang, Q. M. E-mail: qxz1@psu.edu; Cheng, Zhaoxi; Jeong, D.-Y. E-mail: qxz1@psu.edu

    2015-03-21

    High energy density polymer materials are desirable for a broad range of modern power electronic systems. Here, we report the development of a new class of polymer dielectrics based on polyurea and polythiourea, which possess high thermal stability. By increasing the dipole density, the dielectric constant of meta-phenylene polyurea and methylene polythiourea can be increased to 5.7, compared with aromatic polyurea and aromatic polythiourea, which have a dielectric constant in the range of 4.1–4.3. The random dipoles with high dipolar moment and amorphous structure of these polyurea and polythiourea based polymers provide strong scattering to the charge carriers, resulting in low losses even at high electric fields. Consequently, this new class of polymers exhibit a linear dielectric response to the highest field measured (>700 MV/m) with a high breakdown strength, achieving high energy density (>13 J/cm{sup 3}) with high efficiency (>90%)

  13. Highly biocompatible, nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite synthesized in a solvothermal process driven by high energy density microwave radiation.

    PubMed

    Smolen, Dariusz; Chudoba, Tadeusz; Malka, Iwona; Kedzierska, Aleksandra; Lojkowski, Witold; Swieszkowski, Wojciech; Kurzydlowski, Krzysztof Jan; Kolodziejczyk-Mierzynska, Małgorzata; Lewandowska-Szumiel, Małgorzata

    2013-01-01

    A microwave, solvothermal synthesis of highly biocompatible hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanopowder was developed. The process was conducted in a microwave radiation field having a high energy density of 5 W/mL and over a time less than 2 minutes. The sample measurements included: powder X-ray diffraction, density, specific surface area, and chemical composition. The morphology and structure were investigated by scanning electron microscopy as well as transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The thermal behavior analysis was conducted using a simultaneous thermal analysis technique coupled with quadruple mass spectrometry. Additionally, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy tests of heated samples were performed. A degradation test and a biocompatibility study in vitro using human osteoblast cells were also conducted. The developed method enables the synthesis of pure, fully crystalline hexagonal HAp nanopowder with a specific surface area close to 240 m(2)/g and a Ca/P molar ratio equal to 1.57. TEM measurements showed that this method results in particles with an average grain size below 6 nm. A 28-day degradation test conducted according to the ISO standard indicated a 22% loss of initial weight and a calcium ion concentration at 200 μmol/dm(3) in the tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane hydrochloride test solution. The cytocompatibility of the obtained material was confirmed in a culture of human bone derived cells, both in an indirect test using the material extract, and in direct contact. A quantitative analysis was based on the 2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide. Viability assay as well as on DNA content measurements in the PicoGreen test. Indirect observations were performed at one point in time according to the ISO standard for in vitro cytotoxicity (ie, after 24 hours of cell exposure to the extracts). The direct contact tests were completed at three time points: after 24 hours, on day 7, and on day 14 of a culture in an

  14. Highly biocompatible, nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite synthesized in a solvothermal process driven by high energy density microwave radiation

    PubMed Central

    Smolen, Dariusz; Chudoba, Tadeusz; Malka, Iwona; Kedzierska, Aleksandra; Lojkowski, Witold; Swieszkowski, Wojciech; Kurzydlowski, Krzysztof Jan; Kolodziejczyk-Mierzynska, Małgorzata; Lewandowska-Szumiel, Małgorzata

    2013-01-01

    A microwave, solvothermal synthesis of highly biocompatible hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanopowder was developed. The process was conducted in a microwave radiation field having a high energy density of 5 W/mL and over a time less than 2 minutes. The sample measurements included: powder X-ray diffraction, density, specific surface area, and chemical composition. The morphology and structure were investigated by scanning electron microscopy as well as transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The thermal behavior analysis was conducted using a simultaneous thermal analysis technique coupled with quadruple mass spectrometry. Additionally, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy tests of heated samples were performed. A degradation test and a biocompatibility study in vitro using human osteoblast cells were also conducted. The developed method enables the synthesis of pure, fully crystalline hexagonal HAp nanopowder with a specific surface area close to 240 m2/g and a Ca/P molar ratio equal to 1.57. TEM measurements showed that this method results in particles with an average grain size below 6 nm. A 28-day degradation test conducted according to the ISO standard indicated a 22% loss of initial weight and a calcium ion concentration at 200 μmol/dm3 in the tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane hydrochloride test solution. The cytocompatibility of the obtained material was confirmed in a culture of human bone derived cells, both in an indirect test using the material extract, and in direct contact. A quantitative analysis was based on the 2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide. Viability assay as well as on DNA content measurements in the PicoGreen test. Indirect observations were performed at one point in time according to the ISO standard for in vitro cytotoxicity (ie, after 24 hours of cell exposure to the extracts). The direct contact tests were completed at three time points: after 24 hours, on day 7, and on day 14 of a culture in an osteogenic

  15. Twin engineering for high critical current densities and twin boundary energy measurement in melt processed YBCO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Linfeng

    It has been proven that twin boundaries in YBa2Cu 3O7-delta (YBCO) are effective flux pinning centers. By increasing the twin density of a YBCO sample, it is possible to achieve a high critical current density (Jc). In this work, twin engineering for high critical current densities and strong flux pinning has been achieved in melt processed YBCO by increasing the annealing temperature up to 680°C. When the isothermal oxygenation temperature increases from 450°C to 680°C, the average twin boundary spacing of the samples decreases significantly, and its critical current density and flux pinning force are greatly increased. The prerequisites for twin boundary engineering for high critical current densities and strong flux pinning are also pointed out. For the first time, temperature dependent twin boundary energies (gammatw's) of melt processed YBCO are measured by the twin spacing method and the twin tip or shape method, and the geometrical factor alpha in the twin spacing method is estimated. As expected, the twin boundary energy of YBCO decreases with increasing temperature. In addition, the correlation between Jc and the concentrations of Y2BaCuO5 (211) and Samarium (Sm) in the melt-textured growth (MTG) YBCO has been studied, as well as the distributions of 211 and Sm in the MTG YBCO pellets. All our results can be applied towards microstructure tailoring for a high Jc and strong flux pinning in YBCO, especially in bulk YBCO samples.

  16. Strongly Interacting Matter Matter at Very High Energy Density: 3 Lectures in Zakopane

    SciTech Connect

    McLerran, L.

    2010-06-09

    These lectures concern the properties of strongly interacting matter at very high energy density. I begin with the Color Glass Condensate and the Glasma, matter that controls the earliest times in hadronic collisions. I then describe the Quark Gluon Plasma, matter produced from the thermalized remnants of the Glasma. Finally, I describe high density baryonic matter, in particular Quarkyonic matter. The discussion will be intuitive and based on simple structural aspects of QCD. There will be some discussion of experimental tests of these ideas.

  17. Realizing both high energy and high power densities by twisting three carbon-nanotube-based hybrid fibers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ye; Zhao, Yang; Cheng, Xunliang; Weng, Wei; Ren, Jing; Fang, Xin; Jiang, Yishu; Chen, Peining; Zhang, Zhitao; Wang, Yonggang; Peng, Huisheng

    2015-09-14

    Energy storage devices, such as lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors, are required for the modern electronics. However, the intrinsic characteristics of low power densities in batteries and low energy densities in supercapacitors have limited their applications. How to simultaneously realize high energy and power densities in one device remains a challenge. Herein a fiber-shaped hybrid energy-storage device (FESD) formed by twisting three carbon nanotube hybrid fibers demonstrates both high energy and power densities. For the FESD, the energy density (50 mWh cm(-3) or 90 Wh kg(-1) ) many times higher than for other forms of supercapacitors and approximately 3 times that of thin-film batteries; the power density (1 W cm(-3) or 5970 W kg(-1) ) is approximately 140 times of thin-film lithium-ion battery. The FESD is flexible, weaveable and wearable, which offers promising advantages in the modern electronics. PMID:26352028

  18. Two-Dimensional Mesoporous Carbon Electrode for High Energy Density Electrochemical Supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Kalubarme, Ramchandra S; Park, Chan-Jin; Shirage, Parasharam M

    2015-02-01

    Mesoporous carbon (MPC) with highly textured, reproducible and uniform structure is prepared by silica-sol template assisted method, as new carbonaceous supercapacitor materials with high energy density. High resolution transmission electron microscopy studies revealed that the MPC consisted of textured structure of carbon on the sheets like domains and exhibited a specific surface area of 1412 m2 g-1. The symmetric supercapacitor of MPC exhibits an excellent cyclability over 5000 cycles and high energy density of 84.6 Wh kg-1, with a cell potential of 1.6 V and a large specific capacitance of 238 F g-1 in neutral electrolyte. The enhanced performance of the carbon material as a supercapacitor electrode is due to the synergetic effect possibly contributed from the fast ion transportation during fast charge/discharge and better utilization of carbon. PMID:26353641

  19. Defect-Engineered Graphene for High-Energy- and High-Power-Density Supercapacitor Devices.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jingyi; Childress, Anthony S; Karakaya, Mehmet; Dandeliya, Sushmita; Srivastava, Anurag; Lin, Ye; Rao, Apparao M; Podila, Ramakrishna

    2016-09-01

    Defects are often written off as performance limiters. Contrary to this notion, it is shown that controlling the defect configuration in graphene is critical to overcome a fundamental limitation posed by quantum capacitance and opens new channels for ion diffusion. Defect-engineered graphene flexible pouch capacitors with energy densities of 500% higher than the state-of-the-art supercapacitors are demonstrated. PMID:27299300

  20. The Dawn of a New Era for High Energy Density Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, E; McCrory, R; Meyerhofer, D; Keane, C

    2009-02-26

    The field of High Energy Density (HED) physics is on the verge of a revolutionary event - the achievement of fusion ignition in the laboratory. New laser facilities, the OMEGA Extended Performance (EP) laser at the University of Rochester and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, greatly extend the range of high energy density (HED) plasma conditions (including ignition) accessible in the laboratory. These conditions are among the most extreme obtainable, with pressures in excess of {approx}1,000,000 atmospheres. Experiments at these facilities will elucidate fundamental new science in astrophysics, materials science, laser-matter interactions, and other areas. The demonstration of fusion ignition will be the culmination of decades of research, and for the first time, will open the burning plasma regime to laboratory exploration. Ignition will spur the development of advanced options for clean, environmentally sustainable energy.

  1. A Microelectromechanical High-Density Energy Storage/Rapid Release System

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, M. Steven; Allen, Jim J.; Meeks, Kent D.; Jensen, Brian D.; Miller, Sam L.

    1999-07-21

    One highly desirable characteristic of electrostatically driven microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) is that they consume very little power. The corresponding drawback is that the force they produce may be inadequate for many applications. It has previously been demonstrated that gear reduction units or microtransmissions can substantially increase the torque generated by microengines. Operating speed, however, is also reduced by the transmission gear ratio. Some applications require both high speed and high force. If this output is only required for a limited period of time, then energy could be stored in a mechanical system and rapidly released upon demand. We have designed, fabricated, and demonstrated a high-density energy storage/rapid release system that accomplishes this task. Built using a 5-level surface micromachining technology, the assembly closely resembles a medieval crossbow. Energy releases on the order of tens of nanojoules have already been demonstrated, and significantly higher energy systems are under development.

  2. A novel high-density power energy harvesting methodology for transmission line online monitoring devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yadong; Xie, Xiaolei; Hu, Yue; Qian, Yong; Sheng, Gehao; Jiang, Xiuchen; Liu, Yilu

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a novel energy-harvesting model which takes the primary current, secondary turns, dimension, the magnitude of magnetic flux density B, and the core loss resistance into consideration systematically. The relationship among the potential maximum output power, the dimension of energy harvesting coil (EHC), the load type of EHC, and the secondary turns is predicted by theoretical analysis and further verified by experiments. A high power density harvester is also developed and tested. It is shown that the power density of this novel harvester is 0.7 mW/g at 10 A, which is more than 2 times powerful than the traditional ones. Hence, it could lighten the half weight of the harvester at the same conditions.

  3. Density functional theory screening of gas-treatment strategies for stabilization of high energy-density lithium metal anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Stephan L.; Morgan, Benjamin J.; Passerini, Stefano; Teobaldi, Gilberto

    2015-11-01

    To explore the potential of molecular gas treatment of freshly cut lithium foils in non-electrolyte-based passivation of high-energy-density Li anodes, density functional theory (DFT) has been used to study the decomposition of molecular gases on metallic lithium surfaces. By combining DFT geometry optimization and Molecular Dynamics, the effects of atmospheric (N2, O2, CO2) and hazardous (F2, SO2) gas decomposition on Li(bcc) (100), (110), and (111) surfaces on relative surface energies, work functions, and emerging electronic and elastic properties are investigated. The simulations suggest that exposure to different molecular gases can be used to induce and control reconstructions of the metal Li surface and substantial changes (up to over 1 eV) in the work function of the passivated system. Contrary to the other considered gases, which form metallic adlayers, SO2 treatment emerges as the most effective in creating an insulating passivation layer for dosages ≤1 mono-layer. The substantial Li → adsorbate charge transfer and adlayer relaxation produce marked elastic stiffening of the interface, with the smallest change shown by nitrogen-treated adlayers.

  4. Advanced intermediate temperature sodium-nickel chloride batteries with ultra-high energy density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Kim, Jin Y.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Chang, Hee Jung; Canfield, Nathan L.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2016-02-01

    Sodium-metal halide batteries have been considered as one of the more attractive technologies for stationary electrical energy storage, however, they are not used for broader applications despite their relatively well-known redox system. One of the roadblocks hindering market penetration is the high-operating temperature. Here we demonstrate that planar sodium-nickel chloride batteries can be operated at an intermediate temperature of 190 °C with ultra-high energy density. A specific energy density of 350 Wh kg-1, higher than that of conventional tubular sodium-nickel chloride batteries (280 °C), is obtained for planar sodium-nickel chloride batteries operated at 190 °C over a long-term cell test (1,000 cycles), and it attributed to the slower particle growth of the cathode materials at the lower operating temperature. Results reported here demonstrate that planar sodium-nickel chloride batteries operated at an intermediate temperature could greatly benefit this traditional energy storage technology by improving battery energy density, cycle life and reducing material costs.

  5. Advanced intermediate temperature sodium-nickel chloride batteries with ultra-high energy density.

    PubMed

    Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Kim, Jin Y; Meinhardt, Kerry D; Chang, Hee Jung; Canfield, Nathan L; Sprenkle, Vincent L

    2016-01-01

    Sodium-metal halide batteries have been considered as one of the more attractive technologies for stationary electrical energy storage, however, they are not used for broader applications despite their relatively well-known redox system. One of the roadblocks hindering market penetration is the high-operating temperature. Here we demonstrate that planar sodium-nickel chloride batteries can be operated at an intermediate temperature of 190 °C with ultra-high energy density. A specific energy density of 350 Wh kg(-1), higher than that of conventional tubular sodium-nickel chloride batteries (280 °C), is obtained for planar sodium-nickel chloride batteries operated at 190 °C over a long-term cell test (1,000 cycles), and it attributed to the slower particle growth of the cathode materials at the lower operating temperature. Results reported here demonstrate that planar sodium-nickel chloride batteries operated at an intermediate temperature could greatly benefit this traditional energy storage technology by improving battery energy density, cycle life and reducing material costs. PMID:26864635

  6. Advanced intermediate temperature sodium–nickel chloride batteries with ultra-high energy density

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Kim, Jin Y.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Chang, Hee Jung; Canfield, Nathan L.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2016-01-01

    Sodium-metal halide batteries have been considered as one of the more attractive technologies for stationary electrical energy storage, however, they are not used for broader applications despite their relatively well-known redox system. One of the roadblocks hindering market penetration is the high-operating temperature. Here we demonstrate that planar sodium–nickel chloride batteries can be operated at an intermediate temperature of 190 °C with ultra-high energy density. A specific energy density of 350 Wh kg−1, higher than that of conventional tubular sodium–nickel chloride batteries (280 °C), is obtained for planar sodium–nickel chloride batteries operated at 190 °C over a long-term cell test (1,000 cycles), and it attributed to the slower particle growth of the cathode materials at the lower operating temperature. Results reported here demonstrate that planar sodium–nickel chloride batteries operated at an intermediate temperature could greatly benefit this traditional energy storage technology by improving battery energy density, cycle life and reducing material costs. PMID:26864635

  7. The high-energy-density counterpropagating shear experiment and turbulent self-heating

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Doss, F. W.; Fincke, J. R.; Loomis, E. N.; Welser-Sherrill, L.; Flippo, K. A.

    2013-12-06

    The counterpropagating shear experiment has previously demonstrated the ability to create regions of shockdriven shear, balanced symmetrically in pressure and experiencing minimal net drift. This allows for the creation of a high-Mach-number high-energy-density shear environment. New data from the counterpropagating shear campaign is presented, and both hydrocode modeling and theoretical analysis in the context of a Reynolds-averaged-Navier-Stokes model suggest turbulent dissipation of energy from the supersonic flow bounding the layer is a significant driver in its expansion. A theoretical minimum shear flow Mach number threshold is suggested for substantial thermal-turbulence coupling.

  8. A high-energy-density redox flow battery based on zinc/polyhalide chemistry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liqun; Lai, Qinzhi; Zhang, Jianlu; Zhang, Huamin

    2012-05-01

    Zn and the Art of Battery Development: A zinc/polyhalide redox flow battery employs Br(-) /ClBr(2-) and Zn/Zn(2+) redox couples in its positive and negative half-cells, respectively. The performance of the battery is evaluated by charge-discharge cycling tests and reveals a high energy efficiency of 81%, based on a Coulombic efficiency of 96% and voltage efficiency of 84%. The new battery technology can provide high performance and energy density at an acceptable cost. PMID:22262638

  9. The high-energy-density counterpropagating shear experiment and turbulent self-heating

    SciTech Connect

    Doss, F. W.; Fincke, J. R.; Loomis, E. N.; Welser-Sherrill, L.; Flippo, K. A.

    2013-12-15

    The counterpropagating shear experiment has previously demonstrated the ability to create regions of shock-driven shear, balanced symmetrically in pressure, and experiencing minimal net drift. This allows for the creation of a high-Mach-number high-energy-density shear environment. New data from the counterpropagating shear campaign is presented, and both hydrocode modeling and theoretical analysis in the context of a Reynolds-averaged-Navier-Stokes model suggest turbulent dissipation of energy from the supersonic flow bounding the layer is a significant driver in its expansion. A theoretical minimum shear flow Mach number threshold is suggested for substantial thermal-turbulence coupling.

  10. High energy density rechargeable magnesium battery using earth-abundant and non-toxic elements

    PubMed Central

    Orikasa, Yuki; Masese, Titus; Koyama, Yukinori; Mori, Takuya; Hattori, Masashi; Yamamoto, Kentaro; Okado, Tetsuya; Huang, Zhen-Dong; Minato, Taketoshi; Tassel, Cédric; Kim, Jungeun; Kobayashi, Yoji; Abe, Takeshi; Kageyama, Hiroshi; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu

    2014-01-01

    Rechargeable magnesium batteries are poised to be viable candidates for large-scale energy storage devices in smart grid communities and electric vehicles. However, the energy density of previously proposed rechargeable magnesium batteries is low, limited mainly by the cathode materials. Here, we present new design approaches for the cathode in order to realize a high-energy-density rechargeable magnesium battery system. Ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 demonstrates a high reversible capacity exceeding 300 mAh·g−1 at a voltage of approximately 2.4 V vs. Mg. Further, the electronic and crystal structure of ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 changes during the charging and discharging processes, which demonstrates the (de)insertion of magnesium in the host structure. The combination of ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 with a magnesium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide–triglyme electrolyte system proposed in this work provides a low-cost and practical rechargeable magnesium battery with high energy density, free from corrosion and safety problems. PMID:25011939

  11. High energy density rechargeable magnesium battery using earth-abundant and non-toxic elements.

    PubMed

    Orikasa, Yuki; Masese, Titus; Koyama, Yukinori; Mori, Takuya; Hattori, Masashi; Yamamoto, Kentaro; Okado, Tetsuya; Huang, Zhen-Dong; Minato, Taketoshi; Tassel, Cédric; Kim, Jungeun; Kobayashi, Yoji; Abe, Takeshi; Kageyama, Hiroshi; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu

    2014-01-01

    Rechargeable magnesium batteries are poised to be viable candidates for large-scale energy storage devices in smart grid communities and electric vehicles. However, the energy density of previously proposed rechargeable magnesium batteries is low, limited mainly by the cathode materials. Here, we present new design approaches for the cathode in order to realize a high-energy-density rechargeable magnesium battery system. Ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 demonstrates a high reversible capacity exceeding 300 Ah · g(-1) at a voltage of approximately 2.4 V vs. Mg. Further, the electronic and crystal structure of ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 changes during the charging and discharging processes, which demonstrates the (de)insertion of magnesium in the host structure. The combination of ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 with a magnesium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide-triglyme electrolyte system proposed in this work provides a low-cost and practical rechargeable magnesium battery with high energy density, free from corrosion and safety problems. PMID:25011939

  12. High energy density rechargeable magnesium battery using earth-abundant and non-toxic elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orikasa, Yuki; Masese, Titus; Koyama, Yukinori; Mori, Takuya; Hattori, Masashi; Yamamoto, Kentaro; Okado, Tetsuya; Huang, Zhen-Dong; Minato, Taketoshi; Tassel, Cédric; Kim, Jungeun; Kobayashi, Yoji; Abe, Takeshi; Kageyama, Hiroshi; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu

    2014-07-01

    Rechargeable magnesium batteries are poised to be viable candidates for large-scale energy storage devices in smart grid communities and electric vehicles. However, the energy density of previously proposed rechargeable magnesium batteries is low, limited mainly by the cathode materials. Here, we present new design approaches for the cathode in order to realize a high-energy-density rechargeable magnesium battery system. Ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 demonstrates a high reversible capacity exceeding 300 mAh.g-1 at a voltage of approximately 2.4 V vs. Mg. Further, the electronic and crystal structure of ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 changes during the charging and discharging processes, which demonstrates the (de)insertion of magnesium in the host structure. The combination of ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 with a magnesium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide-triglyme electrolyte system proposed in this work provides a low-cost and practical rechargeable magnesium battery with high energy density, free from corrosion and safety problems.

  13. Measurements of continuous mix evolution in a high energy density shear flow

    SciTech Connect

    Loomis, E. Doss, F.; Flippo, K.; Fincke, J.

    2014-04-15

    We report on the novel integration of streaked radiography into a counter-flowing High Energy Density (HED) shear environment that continually measures a growing mix layer of Al separating two low-density CH foams. Measurements of the mix width allow us to validate compressible turbulence models and with streaked imaging, make this possible with a minimal number of experiments on large laser facilities. In this paper, we describe how the HED counter-flowing shear layer is created and diagnosed with streaked radiography. We then compare the streaked data to previous two-dimensional, single frame radiography and radiation hydrodynamic simulations of the experiment with inline compressible turbulent mix models.

  14. Pulse Power Capability Of High Energy Density Capacitors Based on a New Dielectric Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winsor, Paul; Scholz, Tim; Hudis, Martin; Slenes, Kirk M.

    1999-01-01

    A new dielectric composite consisting of a polymer coated onto a high-density metallized Kraft has been developed for application in high energy density pulse power capacitors. The polymer coating is custom formulated for high dielectric constant and strength with minimum dielectric losses. The composite can be wound and processed using conventional wound film capacitor manufacturing equipment. This new system has the potential to achieve 2 to 3 J/cu cm whole capacitor energy density at voltage levels above 3.0 kV, and can maintain its mechanical properties to temperatures above 150 C. The technical and manufacturing development of the composite material and fabrication into capacitors are summarized in this paper. Energy discharge testing, including capacitance and charge-discharge efficiency at normal and elevated temperatures, as well as DC life testing were performed on capacitors manufactured using this material. TPL (Albuquerque, NM) has developed the material and Aerovox (New Bedford, MA) has used the material to build and test actual capacitors. The results of the testing will focus on pulse power applications specifically those found in electro-magnetic armor and guns, high power microwave sources and defibrillators.

  15. Large laser sparks for laboratory simulation of high-energy-density events in planetary atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babankova, Dagmar; Juha, Libor; Civias, Svatopluk; Bittner, Michal; Cihelka, Jaroslav; Bartnik, Andrzej; Fiedorowicz, Henryk; Mikolajczyk, Janusz; Ryc, Leszek; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Skala, Jiri; Ullschmied, Jiri

    2005-09-01

    Single ≤1 kJ pulses from a high-power laser are focused into molecular gases to create large laser sparks. This provides a unique way to mimic the chemical effects of high-energy-density events in planetary atmospheres (cometary impact, lightning) matching the natural energy-density, its spatio-temporal evolution and plasma-volume scaling of such events in a fully-controlled laboratory environment. Some chemical reactions initiated by laser-induced dielectric breakdown (LIDB) in both pure molecular gases and mixtures related to the chemical evolution of the Earth's early atmosphere were studied. Most of the experiments were carried out in a static gas cell. However, an initial series of experiments was also performed with a gas-puff target placed within a vacuum interaction chamber. Under these dynamic conditions the hot core of a laser spark can be directly investigated.

  16. Mixed metal oxides as alternate cathodes for high energy density electric propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Papp, J.E.

    1995-12-31

    Silver (II) oxide is currently the Navy`s cathode of choice in high energy density, high rate batteries for torpedo and mobile target applications, for medium rate applications such as Seal Delivery Vehicles, and may be useful for low rate, long endurance UUV missions. While it is certainly a versatile material, silver (II) oxide is expensive to produce and has a lower faradaic (storage) capacity than desired. New research being conducted at the NUWC electric propulsion laboratory is focused toward developing new, lower cost cathode materials with energy densities at least comparable to silver (II) oxide. Mixed metal oxides, with silver (II) oxide as one component, are under investigation. Other materials, without a silver component, are also being considered. This poster will illustrate recent developments in the modification of the silver (II) oxide cathode for Navy applications.

  17. Activated Microporous Carbon Derived from Almond Shells for High Energy Density Asymmetric Supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chun; Yang, Shaoran; Cai, Junjie; Zhang, Qiaobao; Zhu, Ying; Zhang, Kaili

    2016-06-22

    Via the activation treatment of carbonized almond shells with HNO3 and KOH, activated microporous carbon (AMC-3 and AMC-2) was successfully synthesized. These two AMC electrodes demonstrate remarkable electrochemical behaviors such as high rate capability, high specific capacitance, and excellent cycle stability when serving as electrodes for supercapacitors. More importantly, through the use of a Zn-Ni-Co ternary oxide (ZNCO) positive electrode and the AMC negative electrode, asymmetric supercapacitors (ASC) were assembled that deliver superior energy density (53.3 Wh kg(-1) at a power density of 1126.1 W kg(-1) for ASC-2 and 53.6 Wh kg(-1) at a power density of 1124.5 W kg(-1) for ASC-3) and excellent stability (82.7% and 83.4% specific capacitance retention for ZNCO//AMC ASC-2 and ZNCO//AMC ASC-3, respectively, after 5000 cycles). Through these two methods, low-cost, renewable, and environmentally friendly electrode materials can be provided for high energy density supercapacitors. PMID:27253880

  18. Aromatic poly(arylene ether urea) with high dipole moment for high thermal stability and high energy density capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Zhaoxi; Lin, Minren; Wu, Shan; Thakur, Yash; Zhou, Yue; Jeong, Dae-Yong; Shen, Qundong; Zhang, Q. M.

    2015-05-01

    Developing dielectric polymers with higher dielectric constant without sacrificing loss and thermal stability is of great importance for next generation of high energy density capacitors. We show here that by replacing the CH2 group in the aromatic polyurea (ArPU) with the polar ether group, thus raising the dipole moment of the molecular unit, poly(arylene ether urea) (PEEU) shows an increased dielectric constant of 4.7, compared with 4.2 of ArPU. Moreover, PEEU maintains the low dielectric loss and is thermally stable up to 250 °C. As a result, the polymer delivers 13 J/cm3 discharged energy density at room temperature and 9 J/cm3 at 120 °C. The high quality films perform well in terms of both breakdown strength (at 700 MV/m at room temperature) and leakage current from room temperature to elevated temperature. At 120 °C, the breakdown strength is 600 MV/m and the conductivity is 1.58 × 10-14 S/cm measured under 100 MV/m.

  19. The impact of Hall physics on magnetized high energy density plasma jets

    SciTech Connect

    Gourdain, P.-A.; Seyler, C. E.; Atoyan, L.; Greenly, J. B.; Hammer, D. A.; Kusse, B. R.; Pikuz, S. A.; Potter, W. M.; Schrafel, P. C.; Shelkovenko, T. A.

    2014-05-15

    Hall physics is often neglected in high energy density plasma jets due to the relatively high electron density of such jets (n{sub e} ∼ 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3}). However, the vacuum region surrounding the jet has much lower densities and is dominated by Hall electric field. This electric field redirects plasma flows towards or away from the axis, depending on the radial current direction. A resulting change in the jet density has been observed experimentally. Furthermore, if an axial field is applied on the jet, the Hall effect is enhanced and ignoring it leads to serious discrepancies between experimental results and numerical simulations. By combining high currents (∼1 MA) and magnetic field helicity (15° angle) in a pulsed power generator such as COBRA, plasma jets can be magnetized with a 10 T axial field. The resulting field enhances the impact of the Hall effect by altering the density profile of current-free plasma jets and the stability of current-carrying plasma jets (e.g., Z-pinches)

  20. The impact of Hall physics on magnetized high energy density plasma jetsa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourdain, P.-A.; Seyler, C. E.; Atoyan, L.; Greenly, J. B.; Hammer, D. A.; Kusse, B. R.; Pikuz, S. A.; Potter, W. M.; Schrafel, P. C.; Shelkovenko, T. A.

    2014-05-01

    Hall physics is often neglected in high energy density plasma jets due to the relatively high electron density of such jets (ne ˜ 1019 cm-3). However, the vacuum region surrounding the jet has much lower densities and is dominated by Hall electric field. This electric field redirects plasma flows towards or away from the axis, depending on the radial current direction. A resulting change in the jet density has been observed experimentally. Furthermore, if an axial field is applied on the jet, the Hall effect is enhanced and ignoring it leads to serious discrepancies between experimental results and numerical simulations. By combining high currents (˜1 MA) and magnetic field helicity (15° angle) in a pulsed power generator such as COBRA, plasma jets can be magnetized with a 10 T axial field. The resulting field enhances the impact of the Hall effect by altering the density profile of current-free plasma jets and the stability of current-carrying plasma jets (e.g., Z-pinches).

  1. High-density capacitors pack more energy in a smaller space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerner, E. J.

    1985-05-01

    Attention is given to the design features and performance characteristics of novel high density capacitor banks which furnish a tenfold energy increase over conventional capacitors, to values of the order of 100 J/kg or 0.28 J/cu cm. The essential feature of the new design is the replacement of plastic dielectric films interleaved with oil-soaked films by a paperless film system that uses perfluorocarbon rather than oil.

  2. Novel LLM series high density energy materials: Synthesis, characterization, and thermal stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagoria, Philip; Zhang, Maoxi; Tsyshevskiy, Roman; Kuklja, Maija

    Novel high density energy materials must satisfy specific requirements, such as an increased performance, reliably high stability to external stimuli, cost-efficiency and ease of synthesis, be environmentally benign, and be safe for handling and transportation. During the last decade, the attention of researchers has drifted from widely used nitroester-, nitramine-, and nitroaromatic-based explosives to nitrogen-rich heterocyclic compounds. Good thermal stability, the low melting point, high density, and moderate sensitivity make heterocycle materials attractive candidates for use as oxidizers in rocket propellants and fuels, secondary explosives, and possibly as melt-castable ingredients of high explosive formulations. In this report, the synthesis, characterization, and results of quantum-chemical DFT study of thermal stability of LLM-191, LLM-192 and LLM-200 high density energy materials are presented. Work performed under the auspices of the DOE by the LLNL (Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344). This research is supported in part by ONR (Grant N00014-12-1-0529) and NSF. We used NSF XSEDE (Grant DMR-130077) and DOE NERSC (Contract DE-AC02-05CH11231) resources.

  3. Two-dimensional vanadyl phosphate ultrathin nanosheets for high energy density and flexible pseudocapacitors.

    PubMed

    Wu, Changzheng; Lu, Xiuli; Peng, Lele; Xu, Kun; Peng, Xu; Huang, Jianliu; Yu, Guihua; Xie, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Two-dimensional materials have been an ideal material platform for constructing flexible ultrathin-film supercapacitors, offering great advantages of flexibility, ultra-thinness and even transparency. Exploring new two-dimensional pseudocapacitive materials with high electrochemical activity is needed to achieve flexible ultrathin-film supercapacitors with higher energy densities. Here we report an inorganic graphene analogue, α1-vanadyl phosphate ultrathin nanosheets with less than six atomic layers, as a promising material to construct a flexible ultrathin-film pseudocapacitor in all-solid-state. The material exhibits a high potential plateau of ~ 1.0 V in aqueous solutions, approaching the electrochemical potential window of water (1.23 V). The as-established flexible supercapacitor achieves a high redox potential (1.0 V) and a high areal capacitance of 8,360.5 μF cm(-2), leading to a high energy density of 1.7 mWh cm(-2) and a power density of 5.2 mW cm(-2). PMID:24026224

  4. Visualizing fast electron energy transport into laser-compressed high-density fast-ignition targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarrott, L. C.; Wei, M. S.; McGuffey, C.; Solodov, A. A.; Theobald, W.; Qiao, B.; Stoeckl, C.; Betti, R.; Chen, H.; Delettrez, J.; Döppner, T.; Giraldez, E. M.; Glebov, V. Y.; Habara, H.; Iwawaki, T.; Key, M. H.; Luo, R. W.; Marshall, F. J.; McLean, H. S.; Mileham, C.; Patel, P. K.; Santos, J. J.; Sawada, H.; Stephens, R. B.; Yabuuchi, T.; Beg, F. N.

    2016-05-01

    Recent progress in kilojoule-scale high-intensity lasers has opened up new areas of research in radiography, laboratory astrophysics, high-energy-density physics, and fast-ignition (FI) laser fusion. FI requires efficient heating of pre-compressed high-density fuel by an intense relativistic electron beam produced from laser-matter interaction. Understanding the details of electron beam generation and transport is crucial for FI. Here we report on the first visualization of fast electron spatial energy deposition in a laser-compressed cone-in-shell FI target, facilitated by doping the shell with copper and imaging the K-shell radiation. Multi-scale simulations accompanying the experiments clearly show the location of fast electrons and reveal key parameters affecting energy coupling. The approach provides a more direct way to infer energy coupling and guide experimental designs that significantly improve the laser-to-core coupling to 7%. Our findings lay the groundwork for further improving efficiency, with 15% energy coupling predicted in FI experiments using an existing megajoule-scale laser driver.

  5. α MnMoO₄/graphene hybrid composite: high energy density supercapacitor electrode material.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Debasis; Giri, Soumen; Moniruzzaman, Md; Basu, Tanya; Mandal, Manas; Das, Chapal Kumar

    2014-07-28

    A unique and cost effective hydrothermal procedure has been carried out for the synthesis of hexahedron shaped α MnMoO4 and its hybrid composite with graphene using three different weight percentages of graphene. Characterization techniques, such as XRD, Raman and FTIR analysis, established the phase and formation of the composite. The electrochemical characterization of the pseudocapacitive MnMoO4 and the MnMoO4/graphene composites in 1 M Na2SO4 displayed highest specific capacitances of 234 F g(-1) and 364 F g(-1), respectively at a current density of 2 A g(-1). Unlike many other pseudocapacitive electrode materials our prepared materials responded in a wide range of working potentials of (-)1 V to (+)1 V, which indeed resulted in a high energy density without substantial loss of power density. The highest energy densities of 130 Wh kg(-1) and 202.2 Wh kg(-1) were achieved, respectively for the MnMoO4 and the MnMoO4/graphene composite at a constant power delivery rate of 2000 W kg(-1). The synergistic effect of the graphene with the pseudocapacitive MnMoO4 caused an increased cycle stability of 88% specific capacitance retention after 1000 consecutive charge discharge cycles at 8 A g(-1) constant current density, which was higher than the virgin MnMoO4 with 84% specific capacitance retention. PMID:24921461

  6. Theory and High-Energy-Density Laser Experiments Relevant to Accretion Processes in Cataclysmic Variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krauland, Christine; Drake, R.; Loupias, B.; Falize, E.; Busschaert, C.; Ravasio, A.; Yurchak, R.; Pelka, A.; Koenig, M.; Kuranz, C. C.; Plewa, T.; Huntington, C. M.; Kaczala, D. N.; Klein, S.; Sweeney, R.; Villete, B.; Young, R.; Keiter, P. A.

    2012-05-01

    We present results from high-energy-density (HED) laboratory experiments that explore the contribution of radiative shock waves to the evolving dynamics of the cataclysmic variable (CV) systems in which they reside. CVs can be classified under two main categories, non-magnetic and magnetic. In the process of accretion, both types involve strongly radiating shocks that provide the main source of radiation in the binary systems. This radiation can cause varying structure to develop depending on the optical properties of the material on either side of the shock. The ability of high-intensity lasers to create large energy densities in targets of millimeter-scale volume makes it feasible to create similar radiative shocks in the laboratory. We provide an overview of both CV systems and their connection to the designed and executed laboratory experiments preformed on two laser facilities. Available data and accompanying simulations will likewise be shown. Funded by the NNSA-DS and SC-OFES Joint Prog. in High-Energy-Density Lab. Plasmas, by the Nat. Laser User Facility Prog. in NNSA-DS and by the Predictive Sci. Acad. Alliances Prog. in NNSA-ASC, under grant numbers are DE-FG52-09NA29548, DE-FG52-09NA29034, and DE-FC52-08NA28616.

  7. Interpolating moving least-squares methods for fitting potential energy surfaces : computing high-density potential energy surface data from low-density ab initio data points.

    SciTech Connect

    Dawes, R.; Thompson, D. L.; Guo, Y.; Wagner, A. F.; Minkoff, M.; Chemistry; Univ. of Missouri-Columbia; Oklahoma State Univ.

    2007-05-11

    A highly accurate and efficient method for molecular global potential energy surface (PES) construction and fitting is demonstrated. An interpolating-moving-least-squares (IMLS)-based method is developed using low-density ab initio Hessian values to compute high-density PES parameters suitable for accurate and efficient PES representation. The method is automated and flexible so that a PES can be optimally generated for classical trajectories, spectroscopy, or other applications. Two important bottlenecks for fitting PESs are addressed. First, high accuracy is obtained using a minimal density of ab initio points, thus overcoming the bottleneck of ab initio point generation faced in applications of modified-Shepard-based methods. Second, high efficiency is also possible (suitable when a huge number of potential energy and gradient evaluations are required during a trajectory calculation). This overcomes the bottleneck in high-order IMLS-based methods, i.e., the high cost/accuracy ratio for potential energy evaluations. The result is a set of hybrid IMLS methods in which high-order IMLS is used with low-density ab initio Hessian data to compute a dense grid of points at which the energy, Hessian, or even high-order IMLS fitting parameters are stored. A series of hybrid methods is then possible as these data can be used for neural network fitting, modified-Shepard interpolation, or approximate IMLS. Results that are indicative of the accuracy, efficiency, and scalability are presented for one-dimensional model potentials as well as for three-dimensional (HCN) and six-dimensional (HOOH) molecular PESs

  8. Investigation of efficient shock acceleration of ions using high energy lasers in low density targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antici, P.; Gauthier, M.; D'Humieres, E.; Albertazzi, B.; Beaucourt, C.; Böker, J.; Chen, S.; Dervieux, V.; Feugeas, J. L.; Glesser, M.; Levy, A.; Nicolai, P.; Romagnani, L.; Tikhonchuk, V.; Pepin, H.; Fuchs, J.

    2012-10-01

    Intense research is being conducted on sources of laser-accelerated ions and their applications that have the potential of becoming novel particle sources. In most experiments, a high intensity and short laser pulse interacts with a solid density target. It was recently shown that a promising way to accelerate ions to higher energies and in a collimated beam is to use under-dense or near-critical density targets instead of solid ones. In these conditions, simulations have revealed that protons are predicted to be accelerated by a collisionless shock mechanism that significantly increases their energy. We present recent experiments performed on the 100 TW LULI laser (France) and the TITAN facility at LLNL, USA. The near critical density plasma was prepared by exploding thin solid foils by a long laser pulse. The plasma density profile was controlled by varying the target thickness and the delay between the long and the short laser pulse. When exploding the target, we obtained proton energies that are comparable if not higher than what was obtained under similar laser conditions, but with solid targets which make them a promising candidate for an efficient proton source.

  9. Design and simulation of high-energy-density shear experiments on OMEGA and the NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doss, F. W.; Devolder, B.; di Stefano, C.; Flippo, K. A.; Kline, J. L.; Kot, L.; Loomis, E. N.; Merritt, E. C.; Perry, T. S.; MacLaren, S. A.; Wang, P.; Zhou, Y. K.

    2015-11-01

    High-energy-density shear experiments have been performed by LANL at the OMEGA Laser Facility and National Ignition Facility (NIF). The experiments have been simulated using the LANL radiation-hydrocode RAGE and have been used to assess turbulence models' ability to function in the high-energy-density, inertial-fusion-relevant regime. Beginning with the basic configuration of two counter-oriented shock-driven flows of > 100 km/s, which initiate a strong shear instability across an initially solid density, 20 micron thick Al plate, variations of the experiment have been performed and are studied. These variations have included increasing the fluid density (by modifying the metal plate material from Al to Ti), imposing sinusoidal perturbations on the plate, and directly modifying the plate's intrinsic surface roughness. In addition to examining the shear-induced mixing, the simulations reveal other physics, such as how the interaction of our indirect-drive halfraums with a mated shock tube's ablator impedes a stagnation-driven shock. This work is conducted by the US DOE by LANL under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396, and NIF facility operations by LLNL under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  10. Differential heating: A versatile method for thermal conductivity measurements in high-energy-density matter

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ping, Y.; Fernandez-Panella, A.; Sio, H.; Correa, A.; Shepherd, R.; Landen, O.; London, R. A.; Sterne, P. A.; Whitley, H. D.; Fratanduono, D.; et al

    2015-09-04

    We propose a method for thermal conductivity measurements of high energy density matter based on differential heating. A temperature gradient is created either by surface heating of one material or at an interface between two materials by different energy deposition. The subsequent heat conduction across the temperature gradient is observed by various time-resolved probing techniques. Conceptual designs of such measurements using laser heating, proton heating, and x-ray heating are presented. As a result, the sensitivity of the measurements to thermal conductivity is confirmed by simulations.

  11. Differential heating: A versatile method for thermal conductivity measurements in high-energy-density matter

    SciTech Connect

    Ping, Y.; Fernandez-Panella, A.; Correa, A.; Shepherd, R.; Landen, O.; London, R. A.; Sterne, P. A.; Whitley, H. D.; Fratanduono, D.; Collins, G. W.; Sio, H.; Boehly, T. R.

    2015-09-15

    We propose a method for thermal conductivity measurements of high energy density matter based on differential heating. A temperature gradient is created either by surface heating of one material or at an interface between two materials by different energy deposition. The subsequent heat conduction across the temperature gradient is observed by various time-resolved probing techniques. Conceptual designs of such measurements using laser heating, proton heating, and x-ray heating are presented. The sensitivity of the measurements to thermal conductivity is confirmed by simulations.

  12. Tin-based inorganic-organic hybrid polymers for high energy-density applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Huan; Kuma, Arun; Pilania, Ghanshyam; Ramprasad, Rampi

    2014-03-01

    In one of our recent works[1], an organotin polymer was synthesized and suggested to be promising polymeric dielectric, simultaneously exhibiting a high dielectric constant ɛ and a high band gap Eg. Motivated by this result, we study a family of inorganic-organic hybrid polymers based on -(SnF2) x-(CH2) y - as the repeating structural unit (x = 2 , y = 4 , 8 , and 12). The stable structures of these hybrid polymers, predicted by the minima-hopping method, are studied by first-principles calculations at the level of density functional theory. Our calculations show that these polymers are wide band gap materials (up to 6.07 eV). In addition, their dielectric constants are between 4.6 and 7.8, well above that of polypropylene (ɛ ~= 2 . 2), the standard dielectric material for high energy-density capacitors. Therefore, we suggest that the hybrid polymers based on -(SnF2) x-(CH2) y - are promising candidates for high energy-density applications. Our work is supported by the Office of Naval Research through the Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI).

  13. Rare isotope accelerator project in Korea and its application to high energy density sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, M.; Chung, Y. S.; Kim, S. K.; Lee, B. J.; Hoffmann, D. H. H.

    2014-01-01

    As a national science project, the Korean government has recently established the Institute for Basic Science (IBS) with the goal of conducting world-class research in basic sciences. One of the core facilities for the IBS will be the rare isotope accelerator which can produce high-intensity rare isotope beams to investigate the fundamental properties of nature, and also to support a broad research program in material sciences, medical and biosciences, and future nuclear energy technologies. The construction of the accelerator is scheduled to be completed by approximately 2017. The design of the accelerator complex is optimized to deliver high average beam current on targets, and to maximize the production of rare isotope beams through the simultaneous use of Isotope Separation On-Line (ISOL) and In-Flight Fragmentation (IFF) methods. The proposed accelerator is, however, not optimal for high energy density science, which usually requires very high peak currents on the target. In this study, we present possible beam-plasma experiments that can be done within the scope of the current accelerator design, and we also investigate possible future extension paths that may enable high energy density science with intense pulsed heavy ion beams.

  14. Pie-like electrode design for high-energy density lithium–sulfur batteries

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhen; Zhang, Jin Tao; Chen, Yu Ming; Li, Ju; Lou, Xiong Wen (David)

    2015-01-01

    Owing to the overwhelming advantage in energy density, lithium–sulfur (Li–S) battery is a promising next-generation electrochemical energy storage system. Despite many efforts in pursuing long cycle life, relatively little emphasis has been placed on increasing the areal energy density. Herein, we have designed and developed a ‘pie' structured electrode, which provides an excellent balance between gravimetric and areal energy densities. Combining lotus root-like multichannel carbon nanofibers ‘filling' and amino-functionalized graphene ‘crust', the free-standing paper electrode (S mass loading: 3.6 mg cm−2) delivers high specific capacity of 1,314 mAh g−1 (4.7 mAh cm−2) at 0.1 C (0.6 mA cm−2) accompanied with good cycling stability. Moreover, the areal capacity can be further boosted to more than 8 mAh cm−2 by stacking three layers of paper electrodes with S mass loading of 10.8 mg cm−2. PMID:26608228

  15. Pie-like electrode design for high-energy density lithium-sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhen; Zhang, Jin Tao; Chen, Yu Ming; Li, Ju; Lou, Xiong Wen (David)

    2015-11-01

    Owing to the overwhelming advantage in energy density, lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery is a promising next-generation electrochemical energy storage system. Despite many efforts in pursuing long cycle life, relatively little emphasis has been placed on increasing the areal energy density. Herein, we have designed and developed a `pie' structured electrode, which provides an excellent balance between gravimetric and areal energy densities. Combining lotus root-like multichannel carbon nanofibers `filling' and amino-functionalized graphene `crust', the free-standing paper electrode (S mass loading: 3.6 mg cm-2) delivers high specific capacity of 1,314 mAh g-1 (4.7 mAh cm-2) at 0.1 C (0.6 mA cm-2) accompanied with good cycling stability. Moreover, the areal capacity can be further boosted to more than 8 mAh cm-2 by stacking three layers of paper electrodes with S mass loading of 10.8 mg cm-2.

  16. Measurements of ion stopping around the Bragg peak in high-energy-density plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Frenje, J. A.; Grabowski, P. E.; Li, C. K.; Seguin, F. H.; Zylstra, A. B.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Petrasso, R. D.; Glebov, V. Yu; Sangster, T. C.

    2015-11-09

    For the first time, quantitative measurements of ion stopping at energies about the Bragg peak (or peak ion stopping, which occurs at an ion velocity comparable to the average thermal electron velocity), and its dependence on electron temperature (Te) and electron number density (ne) in the range of 0.5 – 4.0 keV and 3 × 1022 – 3 × 1023 cm-3 have been conducted, respectively. It is experimentally demonstrated that the position and amplitude of the Bragg peak varies strongly with Te with ne. As a result, the importance of including quantum diffraction is also demonstrated in the stopping-power modeling of High-Energy-Density Plasmas.

  17. Measurements of ion stopping around the Bragg peak in high-energy-density plasmas

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Frenje, J. A.; Grabowski, P. E.; Li, C. K.; Seguin, F. H.; Zylstra, A. B.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Petrasso, R. D.; Glebov, V. Yu; Sangster, T. C.

    2015-11-09

    For the first time, quantitative measurements of ion stopping at energies about the Bragg peak (or peak ion stopping, which occurs at an ion velocity comparable to the average thermal electron velocity), and its dependence on electron temperature (Te) and electron number density (ne) in the range of 0.5 – 4.0 keV and 3 × 1022 – 3 × 1023 cm-3 have been conducted, respectively. It is experimentally demonstrated that the position and amplitude of the Bragg peak varies strongly with Te with ne. As a result, the importance of including quantum diffraction is also demonstrated in the stopping-power modelingmore » of High-Energy-Density Plasmas.« less

  18. Measurements of Ion Stopping Around the Bragg Peak in High-Energy-Density Plasmas.

    PubMed

    Frenje, J A; Grabowski, P E; Li, C K; Séguin, F H; Zylstra, A B; Gatu Johnson, M; Petrasso, R D; Glebov, V Yu; Sangster, T C

    2015-11-13

    For the first time, quantitative measurements of ion stopping at energies around the Bragg peak (or peak ion stopping, which occurs at an ion velocity comparable to the average thermal electron velocity), and its dependence on electron temperature (T(e)) and electron number density (n(e)) in the range of 0.5-4.0 keV and 3×10(22) to 3×10(23) cm(-3) have been conducted, respectively. It is experimentally demonstrated that the position and amplitude of the Bragg peak varies strongly with T(e) with n(e). The importance of including quantum diffraction is also demonstrated in the stopping-power modeling of high-energy-density plasmas. PMID:26613448

  19. High-Energy Density science at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glenzer, S. H.; Fletcher, L. B.; Hastings, J. B.

    2016-03-01

    The Matter in Extreme Conditions end station at the Linac Coherent Light Source holds great promise for novel pump-probe experiments to make new discoveries in high- energy density science. In recent experiments we have demonstrated the first spectrally- resolved measurements of plasmons using a seeded 8-keV x-ray laser beam. Forward x-ray Thomson scattering spectra from isochorically heated solid aluminum show a well-resolved plasmon feature that is down-shifted in energy by 19 eV from the incident 8 keV elastic scattering feature. In this spectral range, the simultaneously measured backscatter spectrum shows no spectral features indicating observation of collective plasmon oscillations on a scattering length comparable to the screening length. This technique is a prerequisite for Thomson scattering measurements in compressed matter where the plasmon shift is a sensitive function of the free electron density and where the plasmon intensity provides information on temperature.

  20. Sulphur-impregnated flow cathode to enable high-energy-density lithium flow batteries.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongning; Zou, Qingli; Liang, Zhuojian; Liu, Hao; Li, Quan; Lu, Yi-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Redox flow batteries are promising technologies for large-scale electricity storage, but have been suffering from low energy density and low volumetric capacity. Here we report a flow cathode that exploits highly concentrated sulphur-impregnated carbon composite, to achieve a catholyte volumetric capacity 294 Ah l(-1) with long cycle life (>100 cycles), high columbic efficiency (>90%, 100 cycles) and high energy efficiency (>80%, 100 cycles). The demonstrated catholyte volumetric capacity is five times higher than the all-vanadium flow batteries (60 Ah l(-1)) and 3-6 times higher than the demonstrated lithium-polysulphide approaches (50-117 Ah l(-1)). Pseudo-in situ impedance and microscopy characterizations reveal superior electrochemical and morphological reversibility of the sulphur redox reactions. Our approach of exploiting sulphur-impregnated carbon composite in the flow cathode creates effective interfaces between the insulating sulphur and conductive carbon-percolating network and offers a promising direction to develop high-energy-density flow batteries. PMID:25565112

  1. Sulphur-impregnated flow cathode to enable high-energy-density lithium flow batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hongning; Zou, Qingli; Liang, Zhuojian; Liu, Hao; Li, Quan; Lu, Yi-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Redox flow batteries are promising technologies for large-scale electricity storage, but have been suffering from low energy density and low volumetric capacity. Here we report a flow cathode that exploits highly concentrated sulphur-impregnated carbon composite, to achieve a catholyte volumetric capacity 294 Ah l-1 with long cycle life (>100 cycles), high columbic efficiency (>90%, 100 cycles) and high energy efficiency (>80%, 100 cycles). The demonstrated catholyte volumetric capacity is five times higher than the all-vanadium flow batteries (60 Ah l-1) and 3-6 times higher than the demonstrated lithium-polysulphide approaches (50-117 Ah l-1). Pseudo-in situ impedance and microscopy characterizations reveal superior electrochemical and morphological reversibility of the sulphur redox reactions. Our approach of exploiting sulphur-impregnated carbon composite in the flow cathode creates effective interfaces between the insulating sulphur and conductive carbon-percolating network and offers a promising direction to develop high-energy-density flow batteries.

  2. Novel high energy density materials: Synthesis by megabar hot pressing. LDRD final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenzana, H.E.; Yoo, C.S.; Lipp, M.; Barbee, T. III; McMahan, A.K.; Mailhiot, C.

    1996-04-01

    The goal of this work was to demonstrate proof-of-principle existence of a new class of high energy density materials (HEDMs). These proposed novel solids are derived from first and second row elements arranged in a uniform, three-dimensional network. Thus, every bond in these systems is energetic, in contrast to conventional energetic materials that store energy only within individual molecules. Recent predictions have suggested that a number of possible compounds including a polymeric form of nitrogen can be synthesized at high pressures and recovered metastably at ambient conditions. Specifically, polymeric nitrogen is predicted to have an energy density about three times that of a typical explosive. Such extended solid HEDMs offer dramatic new opportunities as explosives, monopropellants, or as environmentally clean fuels. The authors utilized the laser heated diamond anvil cell as the synthesis route for establishing proof-of-principle existence. They conducted high pressure studies of pure molecular nitrogen samples and completely revised the previously published equation-of-state. They also pursued studies of carbon monoxide, a compound that is isoelectronic with nitrogen and exhibits very similar high pressure phase transformations. Carbon monoxide polymerizes under pressure into a solid that can be recovered and may be energetic.

  3. Strongly Driven Magnetic Reconnection in a Magnetized High-Energy-Density Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiksel, G.; Barnak, D. H.; Chang, P.-Y.; Haberberger, D.; Hu, S. X.; Ivancic, S.; Nilson, P. M.; Fox, W.; Deng, W.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Germaschewski, K.

    2014-10-01

    Magnetic reconnection in a magnetized high-energy-density plasma is characterized by measuring the dynamics of the plasma density and magnetic field between two counter-propagating and colliding plasma flows. The density and magnetic field were profiled using the 4 ω angular filter refractometry and fast proton deflectometry diagnostics, respectively. The plasma flows are created by irradiating oppositely placed plastic targets with 1.8-kJ, 2-ns laser beams on the OMEGA EP Laser System. The two plumes are magnetized by an externally controlled magnetic field with an x-type null point geometry with B = 0 at the midplane and B = 8 T at the targets. The interaction region is pre-filled with a low-density background plasma. The counterflowing super-Alfvénic plasma plumes sweep up and compress the magnetic field and the background plasma into a pair of magnetized ribbons, which collide, stagnate, and reconnect at the midplane, allowing for the first detailed observation of a stretched current sheet in laser-driven reconnection experiments. The measurements are in good agreement with first-principles particle-in-cell simulations. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944 and NLUF Grant DE-SC0008655.

  4. Modeling and simulations of diphasic composites for development of high energy density dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Sandeep Kesharsingh

    This doctoral research is focused on analytical and numerical modeling of diphasic composites for use in high energy density capacitors for pulsed power applications. An analytical model is presented based on an equivalent capacitance/impedance circuit used to express the effective permittivity of a composite dielectric with complex-shaped inclusions as functions of frequency and inclusion volume fraction. Zero-three (0-3) types of composites are investigated using this model. The results of this model are compared with different known effective medium theories (Maxwell Garnett, logarithmic, Bruggeman, series, and parallel mixing rules). Model predictions are also compared with published experimental data and are found to be in good agreement. Electrostatic field distribution characteristics and energy storage magnitudes for diphasic dielectrics containing high-permittivity inclusions in a low permittivity host phase (0-3 composite) have been evaluated analytically and numerically. Field distribution and energy storage were studied as a function of dielectric contrast (ratio of inclusion to host permittivity) and inclusion volume fraction. Information obtained from these studies was used to consider optimized diphasic dielectric traits that would lead to increases in energy density and breakdown behavior. Results of these simulations were also compared to the Maxwell Garnett (MG) mixing rule and the upper limit of applicability of the MG formulation in terms of inclusion volume fraction was established. It was determined that this limit was a function of the dielectric contrast.

  5. Development of high energy density fuels from mild gasification of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    The overall objective of the program is the determination of the minimal processing requirements to produce High Energy Density Fuels (HEDF), meeting a minimal energy density of 130,000 Btu/gal (conventional jet fuels have energy densities in the vicinity of 115,000--120,000 Btu/gal) and having acceptable advanced fuel specifications in accordance with the three defined categories of HEDF. The program encompasses assessing current technology capability; selecting acceptable processing and refining schemes; and generating samples of advanced test fuels. A task breakdown structure was developed containing eight key tasks. This report summarizes the work that Amoco Oil Company (AOC), as key subcontractor, performed in the execution of Task 4, Proposed Upgrading Schemes for Advanced Fuel. The intent of the Task 4 study was to represent all the candidate processing options, that were either studied in the experimental efforts of Task 3 or were available from the prior art in the open literature, in a linear program (LP) model. The LP model would allow scaling of the bench-scale Task 3 results to commercial scale and would perform economic evaluations on any combination of the processes which might be used to make HEDF. Section 2.0 of this report summarizes the process and economic bases used. Sections 3.0 and 4.0 details the economics and processing sensitivities for HEDF production. 1 ref., 15 figs., 9 tabs.

  6. High-Energy-Density Poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile) Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Fei; Xu, Zhuo; Xia, Weimin; Ye, Hongjun; Wei, Xiaoyong; Zhang, Zhicheng

    2013-12-01

    The dielectric response of poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile) (PSAN) thin films fabricated by a solution casting process was investigated in this work. Linear dielectric behavior was obtained in PSAN films under an electric field at frequencies from 100 Hz to 1 MHz and temperature of -50°C to 100°C. The polymer films exhibited an intermediate dielectric permittivity of 4 and low dielectric loss (tan δ) of 0.027. Under 400 MV/m, the energy density of the PSAN films was 6.8 J/cm3, which is three times higher than that of biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP) (about 1.6 J/cm3). However, their charge-discharge efficiency (about 90%) was rather close to that of BOPP. The calculated effective dielectric permittivity of the PSAN films under high electric field was as high as 9, which may be attributed to the improved displacement of the cyanide groups (-CN) polarized at high electric fields. These high-performance features make PSAN attractive for high-energy-density capacitor applications.

  7. Graphene-wrapped sulfur nanospheres with ultra-high sulfur loading for high energy density lithium-sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ya; Guo, Jinxin; Zhang, Jun; Su, Qingmei; Du, Gaohui

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery with high theoretical energy density is one of the most promising energy storage systems for electric vehicles and intermittent renewable energy. However, due to the poor conductivity of the active material, considerable weight of the electrode is occupied by the conductive additives. Here we report a graphene-wrapped sulfur nanospheres composite (S-nanosphere@G) with sulfur content up to 91 wt% as the high energy density cathode material for Li-S battery. The sulfur nanospheres with diameter of 400-500 nm are synthesized through a solution-based approach with the existence of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). Then the sulfur nanospheres are uniformly wrapped by conductive graphene sheets through the electrostatic interaction between graphene oxide and PVP, followed by reducing of graphene oxide with hydrazine. The design of graphene wrapped sulfur nanoarchitecture provides flexible conductive graphene coating with void space to accommodate the volume expansion of sulfur and to minimize polysulfide dissolution. As a result, the S-nanosphere@G nanocomposite with 91 wt% sulfur shows a reversible initial capacity of 970 mA h g-1 and an average columbic efficiency > 96% over 100 cycles at a rate of 0.2 C. Taking the total mass of electrode into account, the S-nanosphere@G composite is a promising cathode material for high energy density Li-S batteries.

  8. Energetic multifunctionalized nitraminopyrazoles and their ionic derivatives: ternary hydrogen-bond induced high energy density materials.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ping; Parrish, Damon A; Shreeve, Jean'ne M

    2015-04-15

    Diverse functionalization was introduced into the pyrazole framework giving rise to a new family of ternary hydrogen-bond induced high energy density materials. By incorporating extended cationic interactions, nitramine-based ionic derivatives exhibit good energetic performance and enhanced molecular stability. Performance parameters including heats of formation and detonation properties were calculated by using Gaussian 03 and EXPLO5 v6.01 programs, respectively. It is noteworthy to find that 5-nitramino-3,4-dinitropyrazole, 4, has a remarkable measured density of 1.97 g cm(-3) at 298 K, which is consistent with its crystal density (2.032 g cm(-3), 150 K), and ranks highest among azole-based CHNO compounds. Energetic evaluation indicates that, in addition to the molecular compound 4, some ionic derivatives, 9, 11, 12, 17, 19, and 22, also have high densities (1.83-1.97 g cm(-3)), excellent detonation pressures and velocities (P, 35.6-41.6 GPa; vD, 8880-9430 m s(-1)), as well as acceptable impact and friction sensitivities (IS, 4-30 J; FS, 40-240 N). These attractive features highlight the application potential of nitramino hydrogen-bonded interactions in the design of advanced energetic materials. PMID:25807076

  9. High Energy Density Thermal Batteries: Thermoelectric Reactors for Efficient Automotive Thermal Storage

    SciTech Connect

    2011-11-15

    HEATS Project: Sheetak is developing a new HVAC system to store the energy required for heating and cooling in EVs. This system will replace the traditional refrigerant-based vapor compressors and inefficient heaters used in today’s EVs with efficient, light, and rechargeable hot-and-cold thermal batteries. The high energy density thermal battery—which does not use any hazardous substances—can be recharged by an integrated solid-state thermoelectric energy converter while the vehicle is parked and its electrical battery is being charged. Sheetak’s converters can also run on the electric battery if needed and provide the required cooling and heating to the passengers—eliminating the space constraint and reducing the weight of EVs that use more traditional compressors and heaters.

  10. 2D quasi-ordered nitrogen-enriched porous carbon nanohybrids for high energy density supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Kan, Kan; Wang, Lei; Yu, Peng; Jiang, Baojiang; Shi, Keying; Fu, Honggang

    2016-05-21

    Two-dimensional (2D) quasi-ordered nitrogen-enriched porous carbon (QNPC) nanohybrids, with the characteristics of an ultrathin graphite nanosheet framework and thick quasi-ordered nitrogen-doped carbon cladding with a porous texture, have been synthesized via an in situ polymerization assembly method. In the synthesis, the expandable graphite (EG) is enlarged by an intermittent microwave method, and then aniline monomers are intercalated into the interlayers of the expanded EG with the assistance of a vacuum. Subsequently, the intercalated aniline monomers could assemble on the interlayer surface of the expanded EG, accompanied by the in situ polymerization from aniline monomers to polyaniline. Meanwhile, the expanded EG could be exfoliated to graphite nanosheets. By subsequent pyrolysis and activation processes, the QNPC nanohybrids could be prepared. As supercapacitor electrodes, a typical QNPC12-700 sample derived from the precursor containing an EG content of 12%, with a high level of nitrogen doping of 5.22 at%, offers a high specific capacitance of 305.7 F g(-1) (1 A g(-1)), excellent rate-capability and long-term stability. Notably, an extremely high energy density of 95.7 Wh kg(-1) at a power density of 449.7 W kg(-1) in an ionic liquid electrolyte can be achieved. The unique structural features and moderate heteroatom doping of the QNPC nanohybrids combines electrochemical double layer and faradaic capacitance contributions, which make these nanohybrids ideal candidates as electrode materials for high-performance energy storage devices. PMID:27122446

  11. Impact of olfactory and auditory priming on the attraction to foods with high energy density.

    PubMed

    Chambaron, S; Chisin, Q; Chabanet, C; Issanchou, S; Brand, G

    2015-12-01

    \\]\\Recent research suggests that non-attentively perceived stimuli may significantly influence consumers' food choices. The main objective of the present study was to determine whether an olfactory prime (a sweet-fatty odour) and a semantic auditory prime (a nutritional prevention message), both presented incidentally, either alone or in combination can influence subsequent food choices. The experiment included 147 participants who were assigned to four different conditions: a control condition, a scented condition, an auditory condition or an auditory-scented condition. All participants remained in the waiting room during15 min while they performed a 'lure' task. For the scented condition, the participants were unobtrusively exposed to a 'pain au chocolat' odour. Those in the auditory condition were exposed to an audiotape including radio podcasts and a nutritional message. A third group of participants was exposed to both olfactory and auditory stimuli simultaneously. In the control condition, no stimulation was given. Following this waiting period, all participants moved into a non-odorised test room where they were asked to choose, from dishes served buffet-style, the starter, main course and dessert that they would actually eat for lunch. The results showed that the participants primed with the odour of 'pain au chocolat' tended to choose more desserts with high energy density (i.e., a waffle) than the participants in the control condition (p = 0.06). Unexpectedly, the participants primed with the nutritional auditory message chose to consume more desserts with high energy density than the participants in the control condition (p = 0.03). In the last condition (odour and nutritional message), they chose to consume more desserts with high energy density than the participants in the control condition (p = 0.01), and the data reveal an additive effect of the two primes. PMID:26119807

  12. Note: Experimental platform for magnetized high-energy-density plasma studies at the omega laser facility.

    PubMed

    Fiksel, G; Agliata, A; Barnak, D; Brent, G; Chang, P-Y; Folnsbee, L; Gates, G; Hasset, D; Lonobile, D; Magoon, J; Mastrosimone, D; Shoup, M J; Betti, R

    2015-01-01

    An upgrade of the pulsed magnetic field generator magneto-inertial fusion electrical discharge system [O. Gotchev et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 043504 (2009)] is described. The device is used to study magnetized high-energy-density plasma and is capable of producing a pulsed magnetic field of tens of tesla in a volume of a few cubic centimeters. The magnetic field is created by discharging a high-voltage capacitor through a small wire-wound coil. The coil current pulse has a duration of about 1 μs and a peak value of 40 kA. Compared to the original, the updated version has a larger energy storage and improved switching system. In addition, magnetic coils are fabricated using 3-D printing technology which allows for a greater variety of the magnetic field topology. PMID:25638132

  13. Note: Experimental platform for magnetized high-energy-density plasma studies at the omega laser facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiksel, G.; Agliata, A.; Barnak, D.; Brent, G.; Chang, P.-Y.; Folnsbee, L.; Gates, G.; Hasset, D.; Lonobile, D.; Magoon, J.; Mastrosimone, D.; Shoup, M. J.; Betti, R.

    2015-01-01

    An upgrade of the pulsed magnetic field generator magneto-inertial fusion electrical discharge system [O. Gotchev et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 043504 (2009)] is described. The device is used to study magnetized high-energy-density plasma and is capable of producing a pulsed magnetic field of tens of tesla in a volume of a few cubic centimeters. The magnetic field is created by discharging a high-voltage capacitor through a small wire-wound coil. The coil current pulse has a duration of about 1 μs and a peak value of 40 kA. Compared to the original, the updated version has a larger energy storage and improved switching system. In addition, magnetic coils are fabricated using 3-D printing technology which allows for a greater variety of the magnetic field topology.

  14. A novel zirconium Kα imager for high energy density physics research.

    PubMed

    Akli, K U; Sanchez del Rio, M; Jiang, S; Storm, M S; Krygier, A; Stephens, R B; Pereira, N R; Baronova, E O; Theobald, W; Ping, Y; McLean, H S; Patel, P K; Key, M H; Freeman, R R

    2011-12-01

    We report on the development and characterization of a zirconium Kα imager for high energy density physics research. The imager consists of a spherically bent quartz crystal operating at 15.7 keV photon energy. We compare the performance of the imager in terms of integrated reflectivity (R(int)) and temperature dependent collection efficiency (η(Te)) to that of the widely used Cu Kα imager. Our collisional-radiative simulations show that the new imager can be reliably used up to 250 eV plasma temperature. Monte Carlo simulations show that for a 25 μm thick tracer layer of zirconium, the contribution to Kα production from photo-pumping is only 2%. We present, for the first time, 2D spatially resolved images of zirconium plasmas generated by a high intensity short pulse laser interacting with Zr solid targets. PMID:22225215

  15. Note: Experimental platform for magnetized high-energy-density plasma studies at the omega laser facility

    SciTech Connect

    Fiksel, G.; Agliata, A.; Barnak, D.; Brent, G.; Chang, P. -Y.; Folnsbee, L.; Gates, G.; Hasset, D.; Lonobile, D.; Magoon, J.; Mastrosimone, D.; Shoup, III, M. J.; Betti, R.

    2015-01-12

    Here, an upgrade of the pulsed magnetic field generator magneto-inertial fusion electrical discharge system [O. Gotchev et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 043504 (2009)] is described. The device is used to study magnetized high-energy-density plasma and is capable of producing a pulsed magnetic field of tens of tesla in a volume of a few cubic centimeters. The magnetic field is created by discharging a high-voltage capacitor through a small wire-wound coil. The coil current pulse has a duration of about 1 μs and a peak value of 40 kA. Compared to the original, the updated version has a larger energy storage and improved switching system. In addition, magnetic coils are fabricated using 3-D printing technology which allows for a greater variety of the magnetic field topology.

  16. Equation of State Models for Low-Z Materials at High Energy Densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khishchenko, Konstantin V.

    2013-10-01

    Models of thermodynamic properties of materials over a wide range of parameters are necessary for numerical simulations of processes at high energy densities including mixing in fusion plasmas. Accuracy of calculation results is determined mainly by adequacy of equation of state (EOS) of a medium. In the present work, different wide-range EOS models for low-Z elements and compounds are considered, such as Thomas-Fermi or Hartree-Fock-Slater plasma models. A semiempirical model of thermodynamic potential free energy with taking into account polymorphic phase transformations, melting, evaporation and ionization is presented. EOS calculations are carried out for hydrogen, deuterium, lithium, beryllium, carbon and hydrocarbon compounds in a broad region of the phase diagram. Obtained results are compared with available data of experiments at high pressures and temperatures in shock and release waves.

  17. Laser driven high energy density radiative blast waves launched in clustered gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsson-Robbie, Stefan; Doyle, Hugo; Lowe, Hazel; Price, Chris; Bigourd, Damien; Patankar, Siddharth; Mecseki, Katalin; Booth, Nicola; Scott, Robbie; Moore, Alastair; Hohenberger, Matthias; Rodriguez, Rafael; Gumbrell, Edward; Symes, Daniel; Smith, Roland

    2012-10-01

    Intense lasers deposit energy efficiently in clustered gases creating hot plasma with low density, conditions ideal for launching radiative blast waves (BWs) of interest for laboratory astrophysics (LA). We report measurements in a range of gases irradiated by the Astra-Gemini laser with energies >10J. Optical imaging, self emission and temporally resolved x-ray spectra are used to characterise BW evolution. The high repetition rate of the laser allows us to explore the influence of atomic number and density on the BW dynamics. Altering the emitted radiation and opacity of the medium has a strong effect on the BW profile and energy loss. Strongly radiative BWs exhibit shell thinning, increasing their susceptibility to instabilities. We have demonstrated the onset of a velocity instability, driven by the exchange of energy between the shock and precursor in krypton BWs. We discuss the threshold conditions for this behaviour and the potential to study spatial shock front instabilities. Our results will be compared to simulations and analytical calculations with a view to designing scalable LA experiments.

  18. Dynamics of magnetic fields in high-energy-density plasmas for fusion and astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Lan; Ji, H.; Fox, W.; Hill, K.; Efthimion, P.; Nilson, P.; Igumenshchev, I.; Froula, D.; Betti, R.; Meyerhofer, D.; Fiksel, G.; Blackman, E.; Schneider, M.; Chen, H.; Smalyuk, V.; Li, H.; Casner, A.

    2015-11-01

    An overview of our recent experimental and theoretical work on the dynamics of magnetic fields in high-energy-density plasmas will be presented. This includes: (1) precision mapping of the self-generated magnetic fields in the coronal plasma and the Nernst effect on their evolution, (2) characterizing the strong magnetic field generated by a laser-driven capacitor-coil target using ultrafast proton radiography, and (3) creating MHD turbulence in Rayleigh-Taylor unstable plasmas. The experimental results are compared with resistive MHD simulations providing a stringent test for their predictions. Applications in relevance to ignition target designs in inertial confinement fusion, material strength studies in high-energy-density physics, and astrophysical systems such as plasma dynamos and magnetic reconnection will be discussed. Future experiments proposed on the National Ignition Facility will be described. This material is supported in part by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award No. DE-NA0001944, and the National Laser Users Facility under Grant No. DE-NA0002205.

  19. Tailoring Dielectric Properties and Energy Density of Ferroelectric Polymer Nanocomposites by High-k Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guanyao; Huang, Xingyi; Jiang, Pingkai

    2015-08-19

    High dielectric constant (k) polymer nanocomposites have shown great potential in dielectric and energy storage applications in the past few decades. The introduction of high-k nanomaterials into ferroelectric polymers has proven to be a promising strategy for the fabrication of high-k nanocomposites. One-dimensional large-aspect-ratio nanowires exhibit superiority in enhancing k values and energy density of polymer nanocomposites in comparison to their spherical counterparts. However, the impact of their intrinsic properties on the dielectric properties of polymer nanocomposites has been seldom investigated. Herein, four kinds of nanowires (Na2Ti3O7, TiO2, BaTiO3, and SrTiO3) with different inherent characteristics are elaborately selected to fabricate high-k ferroelectric polymer nanocomposites. Dopamine functionalization facilitates the excellent dispersion of these nanowires in the ferroelectric polymer matrix because of the strong polymer/nanowire interfacial adhesion. A thorough comparative study on the dielectric properties and energy storage capability of the nanowires-based nanocomposites has been presented. The results reveal that, among the four types of nanowires, BaTiO3 NWs show the best potential in improving the energy storage capability of the proposed nanocomposites, resulting from the most signficant increase of k while retaining the rather low dielectric loss and leakage current. PMID:26225887

  20. Three-dimensional modeling and analysis of a high energy density Kelvin-Helmholtz experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Raman, K. S.; Hurricane, O. A.; Park, H.-S.; Remington, B. A.; Robey, H.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Drake, R. P.; Krauland, C. M.; Kuranz, C. C.; Hansen, J. F.; Harding, E. C.

    2012-09-15

    A recent series of experiments on the OMEGA laser provided the first controlled demonstration of the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability in a high-energy-density physics context [E. C. Harding et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 045005, (2009); O. A. Hurricane et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 056305, (2009)]. We present 3D simulations which resolve previously reported discrepancies between those experiments and the 2D simulation used to design them. Our new simulations reveal a three-dimensional mechanism behind the low density 'bubble' structures which appeared in the experimental x-ray radiographs at late times but were completely absent in the 2D simulations. We also demonstrate that the three-dimensional expansion of the walls of the target is sufficient to explain the 20% overprediction by 2D simulation of the late-time growth of the KH rollups. The implications of these results for the design of future experiments are discussed.

  1. Subsonic and Supersonic shear flows in laser driven high-energy-density plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, E. C.; Drake, R. P.; Gillespie, R. S.; Grosskopf, M. J.; Kuranz, C. C.; Visco, A.; Ditmar, J. R.; Aglitskiy, Y.; Weaver, J. L.; Velikovich, A. L.; Hurricane, O. A.; Hansen, J. F.; Remington, B. A.; Robey, H. F.; Bono, M. J.; Plewa, T.

    2009-05-01

    Shear flows arise in many high-energy-density (HED) and astrophysical systems, yet few laboratory experiments have been carried out to study their evolution in these extreme environments. Fundamentally, shear flows can initiate mixing via the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability and may eventually drive a transition to turbulence. We present two dedicated shear flow experiments that created subsonic and supersonic shear layers in HED plasmas. In the subsonic case the Omega laser was used to drive a shock wave along a rippled plastic interface, which subsequently rolled-upped into large KH vortices. In the supersonic shear experiment the Nike laser was used to drive Al plasma across a low-density foam surface also seeded with a ripple. Unlike the subsonic case, detached shocks developed around the ripples in response to the supersonic Al flow.

  2. Schlieren technique applied to the arc temperature measurement in a high energy density cutting torch

    SciTech Connect

    Prevosto, L.; Mancinelli, B.; Artana, G.; Kelly, H.

    2010-01-15

    Plasma temperature and radial density profiles of the plasma species in a high energy density cutting arc have been obtained by using a quantitative schlieren technique. A Z-type two-mirror schlieren system was used in this research. Due to its great sensibility such technique allows measuring plasma composition and temperature from the arc axis to the surrounding medium by processing the gray-level contrast values of digital schlieren images recorded at the observation plane for a given position of a transverse knife located at the exit focal plane of the system. The technique has provided a good visualization of the plasma flow emerging from the nozzle and its interactions with the surrounding medium and the anode. The obtained temperature values are in good agreement with those values previously obtained by the authors on the same torch using Langmuir probes.

  3. Generation of high-energy-density ion bunches by ultraintense laser-cone-target interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, X. H.; Zhuo, H. B. Ma, Y. Y.; Zou, D. B.; Yu, T. P.; Ge, Z. Y.; Yin, Y.; Shao, F. Q.; Yu, W.; Xu, H.; Borghesi, M.

    2014-06-15

    A scheme in which carbon ion bunches are accelerated to a high energy and density by a laser pulse (∼10{sup 21} W/cm{sup 2}) irradiating cone targets is proposed and investigated using particle-in-cell simulations. The laser pulse is focused by the cone and drives forward an ultrathin foil located at the cone's tip. In the course of the work, best results were obtained employing target configurations combining a low-Z cone with a multispecies foil transversely shaped to match the laser intensity profile.

  4. Basic Phenomena In High Energy-Density Beam Welding And Cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arata, Yoshiaki

    1983-08-01

    Essential features in the dynamic behaviours of welding and cutting processes with high energy density beams are reviewed and clarified by the efficient usage of various cineradiographic diagnosises. Formation of a deep beam hole in the weld pool are described and the important effect of the front wall characters in the beam hole is demonstrated on the natures of deep penetration and defect formations such as spiking and porosity. The cutting process is also interpreted in the frame of the same physical viewpoint with the welding. A new and efficient suppression method of spiking, porosity and humping are examined and confirmed using Tandem Electron Beam developed by the author.

  5. Supersonic shear flows in laser driven high-energy-density plasmas created by the Nike laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, E. C.; Drake, R. P.; Gillespie, R. S.; Grosskopf, M. J.; Ditmar, J. R.; Aglitskiy, Y.; Weaver, J. L.; Velikovich, A. L.; Plewa, T.

    2008-11-01

    In high-energy-density (HED) plasmas the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability plays an important role in the evolution of Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) and Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) unstable interfaces, as well as material interfaces that experience the passage one or multiple oblique shocks. Despite the potentially important role of the KH instability few experiments have been carried out to explore its behavior in the high-energy-density regime. We report on the evolution of a supersonic shear flow that is generated by the release of a high velocity (>100 km/s) aluminum plasma onto a CRF foam (ρ = 0.1 g/cc) surface. In order to seed the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability various two-dimensional sinusoidal perturbations (λ = 100, 200, and 300 μm with peak-to-valley amplitudes of 10, 20, and 30 μm respectively) have been machined into the foam surface. This experiment was performed using the Nike laser at the Naval Research Laboratory.

  6. Transition metal sulfides grown on graphene fibers for wearable asymmetric supercapacitors with high volumetric capacitance and high energy density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Weihua; Lai, Ting; Lai, Jianwei; Xie, Haoting; Ouyang, Liuzhang; Ye, Jianshan; Yu, Chengzhong

    2016-06-01

    Fiber shaped supercapacitors are promising candidates for wearable electronics because they are flexible and light-weight. However, a critical challenge of the widespread application of these energy storage devices is their low cell voltages and low energy densities, resulting in limited run-time of the electronics. Here, we demonstrate a 1.5 V high cell voltage and high volumetric energy density asymmetric fiber supercapacitor in aqueous electrolyte. The lightweight (0.24 g cm‑3), highly conductive (39 S cm‑1), and mechanically robust (221 MPa) graphene fibers were firstly fabricated and then coated by NiCo2S4 nanoparticles (GF/NiCo2S4) via the solvothermal deposition method. The GF/NiCo2S4 display high volumetric capacitance up to 388 F cm‑3 at 2 mV s‑1 in a three-electrode cell and 300 F cm‑3 at 175.7 mA cm‑3 (568 mF cm‑2 at 0.5 mA cm‑2) in a two-electrode cell. The electrochemical characterizations show 1000% higher capacitance of the GF/NiCo2S4 as compared to that of neat graphene fibers. The fabricated device achieves high energy density up to 12.3 mWh cm‑3 with a maximum power density of 1600 mW cm‑3, outperforming the thin-film lithium battery. Therefore, these supercapacitors are promising for the next generation flexible and wearable electronic devices.

  7. Transition metal sulfides grown on graphene fibers for wearable asymmetric supercapacitors with high volumetric capacitance and high energy density

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Weihua; Lai, Ting; Lai, Jianwei; Xie, Haoting; Ouyang, Liuzhang; Ye, Jianshan; Yu, Chengzhong

    2016-01-01

    Fiber shaped supercapacitors are promising candidates for wearable electronics because they are flexible and light-weight. However, a critical challenge of the widespread application of these energy storage devices is their low cell voltages and low energy densities, resulting in limited run-time of the electronics. Here, we demonstrate a 1.5 V high cell voltage and high volumetric energy density asymmetric fiber supercapacitor in aqueous electrolyte. The lightweight (0.24 g cm−3), highly conductive (39 S cm−1), and mechanically robust (221 MPa) graphene fibers were firstly fabricated and then coated by NiCo2S4 nanoparticles (GF/NiCo2S4) via the solvothermal deposition method. The GF/NiCo2S4 display high volumetric capacitance up to 388 F cm−3 at 2 mV s−1 in a three-electrode cell and 300 F cm−3 at 175.7 mA cm−3 (568 mF cm−2 at 0.5 mA cm−2) in a two-electrode cell. The electrochemical characterizations show 1000% higher capacitance of the GF/NiCo2S4 as compared to that of neat graphene fibers. The fabricated device achieves high energy density up to 12.3 mWh cm−3 with a maximum power density of 1600 mW cm−3, outperforming the thin-film lithium battery. Therefore, these supercapacitors are promising for the next generation flexible and wearable electronic devices. PMID:27248510

  8. Transition metal sulfides grown on graphene fibers for wearable asymmetric supercapacitors with high volumetric capacitance and high energy density.

    PubMed

    Cai, Weihua; Lai, Ting; Lai, Jianwei; Xie, Haoting; Ouyang, Liuzhang; Ye, Jianshan; Yu, Chengzhong

    2016-01-01

    Fiber shaped supercapacitors are promising candidates for wearable electronics because they are flexible and light-weight. However, a critical challenge of the widespread application of these energy storage devices is their low cell voltages and low energy densities, resulting in limited run-time of the electronics. Here, we demonstrate a 1.5 V high cell voltage and high volumetric energy density asymmetric fiber supercapacitor in aqueous electrolyte. The lightweight (0.24 g cm(-3)), highly conductive (39 S cm(-1)), and mechanically robust (221 MPa) graphene fibers were firstly fabricated and then coated by NiCo2S4 nanoparticles (GF/NiCo2S4) via the solvothermal deposition method. The GF/NiCo2S4 display high volumetric capacitance up to 388 F cm(-3) at 2 mV s(-1) in a three-electrode cell and 300 F cm(-3) at 175.7 mA cm(-3) (568 mF cm(-2) at 0.5 mA cm(-2)) in a two-electrode cell. The electrochemical characterizations show 1000% higher capacitance of the GF/NiCo2S4 as compared to that of neat graphene fibers. The fabricated device achieves high energy density up to 12.3 mWh cm(-3) with a maximum power density of 1600 mW cm(-3), outperforming the thin-film lithium battery. Therefore, these supercapacitors are promising for the next generation flexible and wearable electronic devices. PMID:27248510

  9. High contrast Kr gas jet Kα x-ray source for high energy density physics experimentsa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kugland, N. L.; Neumayer, P.; Döppner, T.; Chung, H.-K.; Constantin, C. G.; Girard, F.; Glenzer, S. H.; Kemp, A.; Niemann, C.

    2008-10-01

    A high contrast 12.6keV Kr Kα source has been demonstrated on the petawatt-class Titan laser facility using strongly clustering Kr gas jet targets. The contrast ratio (Kα to continuum) is 65, with a competitive ultrashort pulse laser to x-ray conversion efficiency of 10-5. Filtered shadowgraphy indicates that the Kr Kα and Kβ x rays are emitted from a roughly 1×2mm2 emission volume, making this source suitable for area backlighting and scattering. Spectral calculations indicate a typical bulk electron temperature of 50-70eV (i.e., mean ionization state 13-16), based on the observed ratio of Kα to Kβ. Kr gas jets provide a debris-free high energy Kα source for time-resolved diagnosis of dense matter.

  10. Towards an effective nonlinear Quantum Mechanics for High Energy-density (HED) Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahajan, Swadesh

    2015-11-01

    A relativistic quantum framework is presented for dealing with high energy density matter, in particular, an assembly of particles in the field of an electromagnetic (EM) wave of arbitrary magnitude. Two different approaches are presented: 1) A Statistical Mechanical model for the HED matter is developed - Principal steps involve solving the eigenvalue problem for a quantum relativistic particle in the presence of arbitrary strength EM field. The resulting energy eigenvalue (dependent on the magnitudes A, ω and k) defines the appropriate Boltzmann factor to construct expressions for physical variables for a weakly interacting system of these field-dressed particles. The fluid equations are the conservation laws, 2) Second, an equivalent nonlinear quantum mechanics is constructed to represent a hot fluid with and without internal degrees of freedom (like spin). Representative initial results are displayed and discussed: 1) fundamental changes in the particle energy momentum relationship 2) The EM wave induces anisotropy in the energy momentum tensor, 3) the EM wave splits the spin-degenerate states, 4) the propagation characteristics of the EM wave are modified by thermal and field effects causing differential self-induced transparency, 5) Particle trapping and ``pushing'' by the high amplitude EM wave. Attempts will be made to highlight testable predictions. Research supported by the U.S. Dept. of Energy Grant DE-FG02-04ER-54742.

  11. High energy efficiency and high power density proton exchange membrane fuel cells: Electrode kinetics and mass transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, Supramaniam; Velev, Omourtag A.; Parthasathy, Arvind; Manko, David J.; Appleby, A. John

    1991-01-01

    The development of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell power plants with high energy efficiencies and high power densities is gaining momentum because of the vital need of such high levels of performance for extraterrestrial (space, underwater) and terrestrial (power source for electric vehicles) applications. Since 1987, considerable progress has been made in achieving energy efficiencies of about 60 percent at a current density of 200 mA/sq cm and high power densities (greater than 1 W/sq cm) in PEM fuel cells with high (4 mg/sq cm) or low (0.4 mg/sq cm) platinum loadings in electrodes. The following areas are discussed: (1) methods to obtain these high levels of performance with low Pt loading electrodes - by proton conductor impregnation into electrodes, localization of Pt near front surface; (2) a novel microelectrode technique which yields electrode kinetic parameters for oxygen reduction and mass transport parameters; (3) demonstration of lack of water transport from anode to cathode; (4) modeling analysis of PEM fuel cell for comparison with experimental results and predicting further improvements in performance; and (5) recommendations of needed research and development for achieving the above goals.

  12. High-Energy Density science with an ultra-bright x-ray laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glenzer, Siegfried

    2015-11-01

    This talk will review recent progress in high-energy density physics using the world's brightest x-ray source, the Linac Coherent Light Source, SLAC's free electron x-ray laser. These experiments investigate laser-driven matter in extreme conditions where powerful x-ray scattering and imaging techniques have been applied to resolve ionic interactions at atomic (Ångstrom) scale lengths and to visualize the formation of dense plasma states. Major research areas include dynamic compression experiments of solid targets to determine structural properties and to discover and characterize phase transitions at mega-bar pressures. A second area studies extreme fields produced by high-intensity radiation where fundamental questions of laboratory plasmas can be related to cosmological phenomena. Each of these areas takes advantage of the unique properties of the LCLS x-ray beam. They include small foci for achieving high intensity or high spatial resolution, high photon flux for dynamic structure factor measurements in single shots, and high spectral bandwidth to resolve plasmon (Langmuir) waves or ion acoustic waves in dense plasmas. We will further describe new developments of ultrafast pump-probe technique at high repetition rates. These include studies on dense cryogenic hydrogen that have begun providing fundamental insights into the physical properties of matter in extreme conditions that are important for astrophysics, fusion experiments and generation of radiation sources. This work was supported by DOE Office of Science, Fusion Energy Science under FWP 100182.

  13. Bubbler---A Novel Ultra High Power Density Energy Harvesting Method Based on Reverse Electrowetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Tsung-Hsing

    A novel approach to direct conversion of mechanical energy into electrical energy has been proposed and experimentally and theoretically investigated. The method combines previously demonstrated reverse electrowetting on dielectric (REWOD) phenomenon with the fast self-oscillating process of bubble growth and collapse inside a conductive liquid placed in contact with a dielectric-covered electrode. Fast bubble dynamics, used in conjunction with REWOD, can enable extremely high power densities, in excess of 10 kW/m2. The method can be scaled in power from microwatts to tens of watts, and can enable direct coupling to a wide range of mechanical energy sources, which make it particularly attractive for energy harvesting applications. We believe that this approach can enable extraction of useful energy from various non-traditional sources including thermal expansion of buildings, human motion, and vehicle and machinery movement. Also, this makes the fabrication of small light-weight energy harvesting devices capable of producing a wide range of power outputs feasible.

  14. Extra-galactic high-energy transients: event rate density and luminosity function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hui; Zhang, Bing; Li, Zhuo

    2015-08-01

    Several types of extra-galactic high-energy transients have been discovered, which include high-luminosity and low-luminosity long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), short-duration GRBs, supernova shock breakouts (SBOs), and tidal disruption events (TDEs) without or with a relativistic jet. In this paper, we apply a unified method to systematically study the reshift-dependent event rate densities and luminosity functions of these extra-galactic high-energy transients. We consider star formation history as the tracer of the redshift distribution for long GRBs and SBOs. For short GRBs, we consider the compact star merger model to introduce several possible merger delay time distribution models. For TDEs, we consider the mass distribution of supermassive black holes as a function of redshift. We derive some empirical formulae for the redshift-dependent event rate density for different types of transients. Based on the observed events, we derive the local specific event rate density, ρ0,L ∝ dρ0/dL for each type of transient, which represents its luminosity function. All the transients are consistent with having a single power law luminosity function, except the high luminosity long GRBs (HL-lGRBs), whose luminosity function can be well described by a broken power law. The total event rate density for a particular transient depends on the luminosity threshold, and we obtain the following values in units of Gpc-3 yr-1: 2.82^{+0.41}_{-0.36} for HL-lGRBs above 4×1049 erg s-1 218^{+130}_{-86} for low luminosity long GRBs above 6×1046 erg s-1 3.18^{+0.88}_{-0.70}, 2.87^{+0.80}_{-0.64}, and 6.25^{+1.73}_{-1.38} above 5×1049 erg s-1 for short GRBs with three different merger delay models (Gaussian, log-normal, and power law); 2.0^{+2.6}_{-1.3}×104 above 9×1043 erg s-1 for SBOs, 3.0^{+1.0}_{-0.8}×105 for normal TDEs above 1042 erg s-1 and 6.2^{+8.2}_{-4.0} above 3×1047 erg s-1for TDE jets as discovered by Swift. Intriguingly, the global specific event rate densities

  15. Titanium carbonitride films on cemented carbide cutting tool prepared by pulsed high energy density plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Wenran; Liu, Chizi; Chen, Guangliang; Zhang, Guling; Gu, Weichao; Niu, Erwu; Yang, Si-Ze

    2007-03-01

    Hard films prepared by pulsed high energy density plasma (PHEDP) are characterized by high film/substrate adhesive strength, and high wear resistance. Titanium carbonitride (TiCN) films were deposited onto YG11C (ISO G20) cemented carbide cutting tool substrates by PHEDP at room temperature. XRD, XPS, SEM, AES, etc. were adopted to analyze the phases (elements) composition, microstructure and the interface of the films, respectively. The results show that, the uniform dense films are composed of grains ranging from 70 to 90 nm. According to the AES result, there is a broad transition layer between the film and the substrate, due to the ion implantation effect of the PHEDP. The transition layer is favorable for the film/substrate adhesion.

  16. Extragalactic High-energy Transients: Event Rate Densities and Luminosity Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hui; Zhang, Bing; Li, Zhuo

    2015-10-01

    Several types of extragalactic high-energy transients have been discovered, which include high-luminosity and low-luminosity long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), short-duration GRBs, supernova shock breakouts (SBOs), and tidal disruption events (TDEs) without or with an associated relativistic jet. In this paper, we apply a unified method to systematically study the redshift-dependent event rate densities and the global luminosity functions (GLFs; ignoring redshift evolution) of these transients. We introduce some empirical formulae for the redshift-dependent event rate densities for different types of transients and derive the local specific event rate density, which also represents its GLF. Long GRBs (LGRBs) have a large enough sample to reveal features in the GLF, which is best charaterized as a triple power law (PL). All the other transients are consistent with having a single-power-law (SPL) LF. The total event rate density depends on the minimum luminosity, and we obtain the following values in units of Gpc‑3 yr‑1: {0.8}-0.1+0.1 for high-luminosity LGRBs above 1050 erg s‑1 {164}-65+98 for low-luminosity LGRBs above 5 × 1046 erg s‑1 {1.3}-0.3+0.4, {1.2}-0.3+0.4, and {3.3}-0.8+1.0 above 1050 erg s‑1 for short GRBs with three different merger delay models (Gaussian, lognormal, and PL); {1.9}-1.2+2.4× {10}4 above 1044 erg s‑1 for SBOs, {4.8}-2.1+3.2× {10}2 for normal TDEs above 1044 erg s‑1 and {0.03}-0.02+0.04 above 1048 erg s‑1 for TDE jets as discovered by Swift. Intriguingly, the GLFs of different kinds of transients, which cover over 12 orders of magnitude, are consistent with an SPL with an index of ‑1.6.

  17. Extragalactic High-energy Transients: Event Rate Densities and Luminosity Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hui; Zhang, Bing; Li, Zhuo

    2015-10-01

    Several types of extragalactic high-energy transients have been discovered, which include high-luminosity and low-luminosity long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), short-duration GRBs, supernova shock breakouts (SBOs), and tidal disruption events (TDEs) without or with an associated relativistic jet. In this paper, we apply a unified method to systematically study the redshift-dependent event rate densities and the global luminosity functions (GLFs; ignoring redshift evolution) of these transients. We introduce some empirical formulae for the redshift-dependent event rate densities for different types of transients and derive the local specific event rate density, which also represents its GLF. Long GRBs (LGRBs) have a large enough sample to reveal features in the GLF, which is best charaterized as a triple power law (PL). All the other transients are consistent with having a single-power-law (SPL) LF. The total event rate density depends on the minimum luminosity, and we obtain the following values in units of Gpc-3 yr-1: {0.8}-0.1+0.1 for high-luminosity LGRBs above 1050 erg s-1 {164}-65+98 for low-luminosity LGRBs above 5 × 1046 erg s-1 {1.3}-0.3+0.4, {1.2}-0.3+0.4, and {3.3}-0.8+1.0 above 1050 erg s-1 for short GRBs with three different merger delay models (Gaussian, lognormal, and PL); {1.9}-1.2+2.4× {10}4 above 1044 erg s-1 for SBOs, {4.8}-2.1+3.2× {10}2 for normal TDEs above 1044 erg s-1 and {0.03}-0.02+0.04 above 1048 erg s-1 for TDE jets as discovered by Swift. Intriguingly, the GLFs of different kinds of transients, which cover over 12 orders of magnitude, are consistent with an SPL with an index of -1.6.

  18. Development of a Big Area BackLighter for high energy density experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flippo, K. A.; Kline, J. L.; Doss, F. W.; Loomis, E. N.; Emerich, M.; Devolder, B.; Murphy, T. J.; Fournier, K. B.; Kalantar, D. H.; Regan, S. P.; Barrios, M. A.; Merritt, E. C.; Perry, T. S.; Tregillis, I. L.; Welser-Sherrill, L.; Fincke, J. R.

    2014-09-01

    A very large area (7.5 mm2) laser-driven x-ray backlighter, termed the Big Area BackLighter (BABL) has been developed for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to support high energy density experiments. The BABL provides an alternative to Pinhole-Apertured point-projection Backlighting (PABL) for a large field of view. This bypasses the challenges for PABL in the equatorial plane of the NIF target chamber where space is limited because of the unconverted laser light that threatens the diagnostic aperture, the backlighter foil, and the pinhole substrate. A transmission experiment using 132 kJ of NIF laser energy at a maximum intensity of 8.52 × 1014 W/cm2 illuminating the BABL demonstrated good conversion efficiency of >3.5% into K-shell emission producing ˜4.6 kJ of high energy x rays, while yielding high contrast images with a highly uniform background that agree well with 2D simulated spectra and spatial profiles.

  19. Graphene/heparin template-controlled polyaniline nanofibers composite for high energy density supercapacitor electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moniruzzaman Sk, Md; Yue, Chee Yoon; Jena, Rajeeb Kumar

    2014-12-01

    Graphene/PANI nanofibers composites are prepared for the first time using a novel in situ polymerization method based on the chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline using heparin as a soft template. The even dispersion of individual graphene sheet within the polymer nanofibers matrix enhances the kinetics for both charge transfer and ion transport throughout the electrode. This novel G25PNF75 composite (weight ratio of GO:PANI = 25:75) shows a high specific capacitance of 890.79 F g-1 and an excellent energy density of 123.81 Wh kg-1 at a constant discharge current of 0.5 mA. The composite exhibits excellent cycle life with 88.78% specific capacitance retention after 1000 charge-discharge cycles. The excellent performance of the composite is due to the synergistic combination of graphene which provides good electrical conductivity and mechanical stability, and PANI nanofiber which provides good redox activity that consequently contributed such high energy density.

  20. Fe-catalyzed carbon nanotubes for high-energy density carbon-based supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmett, Robert; Karakaya, Mehmet; Roberts, Mark; Arcilla-Velez, Margarita; Podila, Ramakrishna; Rao, Apparao

    2014-03-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are one of the most suitable supercapacitor electrode materials due to their high mechanical strength, electrical conductivity, and surface area. Albeit these unique properties of CNTs, energy density of carbon-based double layer capacitors is limited by the inability of CNTs to actively participate in redox processes. Here, we show that electrochemical characteristics of CNTs can be improved by activating the residual Fe catalyst to participate in Faradaic charge storage via Fe2+ ->Fe3+ redox process. By using traditional liquid injection chemical vapor deposited CNTs which contains 5.7 wt.% residual Fe catalyst (R. Andrews et al.,, Chem. Phys. Letters, 303, 467-474 (1999)), the capacitance of CNT electrodes can be increased from 20 F/g to 150 F/g, in the range of -0.2 to 1.2 V. The use of Fe containing CNTs to manufacture supercapacitor electrodes with increased energy density and charge capacity of with high charge/discharge rates with extremely long-term cycle stability will be discussed. Research supported by US NSF CMMI Grant1246800.

  1. ZaP-HD: High Energy Density Z-Pinch Plasmas using Sheared Flow Stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golingo, R. P.; Shumlak, U.; Nelson, B. A.; Claveau, E. L.; Doty, S. A.; Forbes, E. G.; Hughes, M. C.; Kim, B.; Ross, M. P.; Weed, J. R.

    2015-11-01

    The ZaP-HD flow Z-pinch project investigates scaling the flow Z-pinch to High Energy Density Plasma, HEDP, conditions by using sheared flow stabilization. ZaP used a single power supply to produce 100 cm long Z-pinches that were quiescent for many radial Alfven times and axial flow-through times. The flow Z-pinch concept provides an approach to achieve HED plasmas, which are dimensionally large and persist for extended durations. The ZaP-HD device replaces the single power supply from ZaP with two separate power supplies to independently control the plasma flow and current in the Z-pinch. Equilibrium is determined by diagnostic measurements of the density with interferometry and digital holography, the plasma flow and temperature with passive spectroscopy, the magnetic field with surface magnetic probes, and plasma emission with optical imaging. The diagnostics fully characterize the plasma from its initiation in the coaxial accelerator, through the pinch, and exhaust from the assembly region. The plasma evolution is modeled with high resolution codes: Mach2, WARPX, and NIMROD. Experimental results and scaling analyses are presented. This work is supported by grants from the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration.

  2. Nonlinear dielectric thin films for high-power electric storage with energy density comparable with electrochemical supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Yao, Kui; Chen, Shuting; Rahimabady, Mojtaba; Mirshekarloo, Meysam Sharifzadeh; Yu, Shuhui; Tay, Francis Eng Hock; Sritharan, Thirumany; Lu, Li

    2011-09-01

    Although batteries possess high energy storage density, their output power is limited by the slow movement of charge carriers, and thus capacitors are often required to deliver high power output. Dielectric capacitors have high power density with fast discharge rate, but their energy density is typically much lower than electrochemical supercapacitors. Increasing the energy density of dielectric materials is highly desired to extend their applications in many emerging power system applications. In this paper, we review the mechanisms and major characteristics of electric energy storage with electrochemical supercapacitors and dielectric capacitors. Three types of in-house-produced ferroic nonlinear dielectric thin film materials with high energy density are described, including (Pb(0.97)La(0.02))(Zr(0.90)Sn(0.05)Ti(0.05))O(3) (PLZST) antiferroelectric ceramic thin films, Pb(Zn(1/3)Nb(2/3))O(3-)Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O(3-)PbTiO(3) (PZN-PMN-PT) relaxor ferroelectric ceramic thin films, and poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)-based polymer blend thin films. The results showed that these thin film materials are promising for electric storage with outstandingly high power density and fairly high energy density, comparable with electrochemical supercapacitors. PMID:21937333

  3. Studies of high energy density physics and laboratory astrophysics driven by intense lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Li, Y. T.; Chen, L. M.; Dong, Q. L.; Zhong, J. Y.; Wang, W. M.; Sheng, Z. M.; Zhao, G.

    2016-05-01

    Laser plasmas are capable of creating unique physical conditions with extreme high energy density, which are not only closely relevant to inertial fusion energy studies, but also to laboratory simulation of some astrophysical processes. In this paper, we highlight some recent progress made by our research teams. The first part is about directional hot electron beam generation and transport for fast ignition of inertial confinement fusion, as well as a new scheme of fast ignition by use of a strong external DC magnetic field. The second part concerns laboratory modeling of some astrophysical phenomena, including 1) studies of the topological structure of magnetic reconnection/annihilation that relates closely to geomagnetic substorms, loop-top X-ray source and mass ejection in solar flares, and 2) magnetic field generation and evolution in collisionless shock formation.

  4. Reduced entropic model for studies of multidimensional nonlocal transport in high-energy-density plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Del Sorbo, D.; Feugeas, J.-L.; Nicolaï, Ph.; Olazabal-Loumé, M.; Dubroca, B.; Guisset, S.; Touati, M.; Tikhonchuk, V.

    2015-08-15

    Hydrodynamic simulations of high-energy-density plasmas require a detailed description of energy fluxes. For low and intermediate atomic number materials, the leading mechanism is the electron transport, which may be a nonlocal phenomenon requiring a kinetic modeling. In this paper, we present and test the results of a nonlocal model based on the first angular moments of a simplified Fokker-Planck equation. This multidimensional model is closed thanks to an entropic relation (the Boltzman H-theorem). It provides a better description of the electron distribution function, thus enabling studies of small scale kinetic effects within the hydrodynamic framework. Examples of instabilities of electron plasma and ion-acoustic waves, driven by the heat flux, are presented and compared with the classical formula.

  5. Reduced entropic model for studies of multidimensional nonlocal transport in high-energy-density plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Sorbo, D.; Feugeas, J.-L.; Nicolaï, Ph.; Olazabal-Loumé, M.; Dubroca, B.; Guisset, S.; Touati, M.; Tikhonchuk, V.

    2015-08-01

    Hydrodynamic simulations of high-energy-density plasmas require a detailed description of energy fluxes. For low and intermediate atomic number materials, the leading mechanism is the electron transport, which may be a nonlocal phenomenon requiring a kinetic modeling. In this paper, we present and test the results of a nonlocal model based on the first angular moments of a simplified Fokker-Planck equation. This multidimensional model is closed thanks to an entropic relation (the Boltzman H-theorem). It provides a better description of the electron distribution function, thus enabling studies of small scale kinetic effects within the hydrodynamic framework. Examples of instabilities of electron plasma and ion-acoustic waves, driven by the heat flux, are presented and compared with the classical formula.

  6. Characterization of spatially resolved high resolution x-ray spectrometers for high energy density physics and light source experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, K. W. Bitter, M.; Delgado-Aparacio, L.; Efthimion, P.; Pablant, N. A.; Lu, J.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Chen, H.; Magee, E.

    2014-11-15

    A high resolution 1D imaging x-ray spectrometer concept comprising a spherically bent crystal and a 2D pixelated detector is being optimized for diagnostics of small sources such as high energy density physics (HEDP) and synchrotron radiation or x-ray free electron laser experiments. This instrument is used on tokamak experiments for Doppler measurements of ion temperature and plasma flow velocity profiles. Laboratory measurements demonstrate a resolving power, E/ΔE of order 10 000 and spatial resolution better than 10 μm. Initial tests of the high resolution instrument on HEDP plasmas are being performed.

  7. A stencil printed, high energy density silver oxide battery using a novel photopolymerizable poly(acrylic acid) separator.

    PubMed

    Braam, Kyle; Subramanian, Vivek

    2015-01-27

    A novel photopolymerized poly(acrylic acid) separator is demonstrated in a printed, high-energy-density silver oxide battery. The printed battery demonstrates a high capacity of 5.4 mA h cm(-2) at a discharge current density of 2.75 mA cm(-2) (C/2 rate) while delivering good mechanical flexibility and robustness. PMID:25475759

  8. A low cost, high energy density and long cycle life potassium-sulfur battery for grid-scale energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Bowden, Mark E.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Liu, Jun

    2015-08-15

    Alkali metal-sulfur batteries are attractive for energy storage applications because of their high energy density. Among the batteries, lithium-sulfur batteries typically use liquid in the battery electrolyte, which causes problems in both performance and safety. Sodium-sulfur batteries can use a solid electrolyte such as beta alumina but this requires a high operating temperature. Here we report a novel potassium-sulfur battery with K+-conducting beta-alumina as the electrolyte. Our studies indicate that liquid potassium exhibits much better wettability on the surface of beta-alumina compared to liquid sodium at lower temperatures. Based on this observation, we develop a potassium-sulfur battery that can operate at as low as 150°C with excellent performance. In particular, the battery shows excellent cycle life with negligible capacity fade in 1000 cycles because of the dense ceramic membrane. This study demonstrates a new battery with a high energy density, long cycle life, low cost and high safety, which is ideal for grid-scale energy storage.

  9. High power densities from high-temperature material interactions. [in thermionic energy conversion and metallic fluid heat pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, J. F.

    1981-01-01

    Thermionic energy conversion (TEC) and metallic-fluid heat pipes (MFHPs), offering unique advantages in terrestrial and space energy processing by virtue of operating on working-fluid vaporization/condensation cycles that accept great thermal power densities at high temperatures, share complex materials problems. Simplified equations are presented that verify and solve such problems, suggesting the possibility of cost-effective applications in the near term for TEC and MFHP devices. Among the problems discussed are: the limitation of alkali-metal corrosion, protection against hot external gases, external and internal vaporization, interfacial reactions and diffusion, expansion coefficient matching, and creep deformation.

  10. Talbot-Lau X-ray Moiré deflectometry Diagnostic for High Energy Density Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdivia Leiva, Maria Pia; Stutman, Dan; Finkenthal, Michael

    2013-10-01

    A Talbot-Lau (TL) x-ray interferometer measures beam angular deviations due to refraction index gradients within objects along its path. By tilting one of the gratings in the interferometer by small angles, Moiré patterns which enable the detection of density gradients in low-Z matter are obtained. In addition to the detection of both sharp and smooth density gradients this technique makes also possible the identification of micro structures within an object. The sensitivity and spatial resolution is adequate to characterize High Energy Density Laboratory Plasmas (HEDLP). The technique allows for the simultaneous acquisition of x-ray attenuation, refraction, and scatter information from a single x-ray image. Experimental and simulated results acquired show a clear advantage of the TL Moiré single image based phase-retrieval technique over the attenuation and propagation methods. Additionally, the method makes use of extended, polychromatic, incoherent, line and continuum x-ray sources, thus allowing for less demanding backlighters than those typically used in HEDLP radiography. Work supported by U.S. DOE/NNSA grant DENA0001835.