Science.gov

Sample records for high fidelity system

  1. High-Fidelity Simulations of Multiphysics Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, Frank

    2014-11-01

    A pacing theme in the high-fidelity simulations of multi-physics flows is the continual push towards constitutive models that reflect the underlying physics more closely than ever before. At the same time, to impact the design and understanding of real fluidic devices, these models must ultimately be developed in the setting of a highly flexible computational infrastructure capable of both massive parallelism and geometric flexibility. This theme is illustrated using two multi-physics simulations that provide new incite into the behavior of complex fluidic devices. In the first, a novel unstructured Volume-of-Fluid (VoF) method is applied to simulate the liquid fuel atomization processes in a complex high shear nozzle typical of realistic gas turbine injectors. The simulation make aggressive use of directional grid adaptation to support the local resolution of critical instability mechanisms associated with the atomization process. In a companion example, the prediction of flow field and noise in a subsonic jet is linked critically to modeling and resolution of the nozzle boundary layers.

  2. ARTEMIS: a high-fidelity NTW system simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollack, Ann F.; Chrysostomou, Andreas K.

    2001-09-01

    The Navy Theator Wide (NTW) Program is in the concept design stage. As the NTW Mission Technical Direction Agent, the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) is responsible for independent evaluation of system design concepts and technical approaches. To support this capability, JHU/APL has developed an integrated end-to-end simulation. The APL Area/Theater Engagement Missile-Ship Simulation - Theater Version (ARTEMIS-T) is built upon existing high-fidelity simulations of the NTW system components interfaced using the distributed High Level Architecture (HLA) developed by the Defense Modeling and Simulation Office (DMSO). Integration of these high-fidelity component simulations allows dynamic modeling of the closed-loop interactions crucial to an overall system understanding. ARTEMIS provides a tool for use throughout the program life-cycle, from requirements definition and design verification to flight test performance prediction to evaluation of new algorithms and technologies within a complete system setting.

  3. High fidelity microelectromechanical system electrodynamic micro-speaker characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturtzer, E.; Shahosseini, I.; Pillonnet, G.; Lefeuvre, E.; Lemarquand, G.

    2013-06-01

    This paper deals with the heterogeneous characterization of a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) electrodynamic micro-speaker. This MEMS micro-speaker consists of an optimized silicon structure based on a very light but very stiff membrane. The mobile part is suspended using soft suspension beams, also made of silicon, which enable large out-of-plane displacement. The electromagnetic motor is composed of a micro-assembly permanent ring magnet and of a deposit mobile planar coil fixed on the top of the silicon membrane. Previous publications have presented the MEMS as theoretically able to produce high fidelity and high efficiency over a wide bandwidth. The present study intends to validate the electrical, the mechanical, and the acoustic performance improvements. The characterization of the microfabricated micro-speaker showed that the electric impedance is flat over the entire audio bandwidth. Some results validates the performance improvements in terms of audio quality as compared to state of the art of the MEMS micro-speakers, such as the high out-of-plane membrane displacement over ±400 μm, the 80 dBSPL sound pressure level at 10 cm, the 2% maximal distortion level, and the useful bandwidth from 335 Hz to cutoff frequency.

  4. High-speed and high-fidelity system and method for collecting network traffic

    DOEpatents

    Weigle, Eric H.

    2010-08-24

    A system is provided for the high-speed and high-fidelity collection of network traffic. The system can collect traffic at gigabit-per-second (Gbps) speeds, scale to terabit-per-second (Tbps) speeds, and support additional functions such as real-time network intrusion detection. The present system uses a dedicated operating system for traffic collection to maximize efficiency, scalability, and performance. A scalable infrastructure and apparatus for the present system is provided by splitting the work performed on one host onto multiple hosts. The present system simultaneously addresses the issues of scalability, performance, cost, and adaptability with respect to network monitoring, collection, and other network tasks. In addition to high-speed and high-fidelity network collection, the present system provides a flexible infrastructure to perform virtually any function at high speeds such as real-time network intrusion detection and wide-area network emulation for research purposes.

  5. High Fidelity System Simulation of Multiple Components in Support of the UEET Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plybon, Ronald C.; VanDeWall, Allan; Sampath, Rajiv; Balasubramaniam, Mahadevan; Mallina, Ramakrishna; Irani, Rohinton

    2006-01-01

    The High Fidelity System Simulation effort has addressed various important objectives to enable additional capability within the NPSS framework. The scope emphasized High Pressure Turbine and High Pressure Compressor components. Initial effort was directed at developing and validating intermediate fidelity NPSS model using PD geometry and extended to high-fidelity NPSS model by overlaying detailed geometry to validate CFD against rig data. Both "feedforward" and feedback" approaches of analysis zooming was employed to enable system simulation capability in NPSS. These approaches have certain benefits and applicability in terms of specific applications "feedback" zooming allows the flow-up of information from high-fidelity analysis to be used to update the NPSS model results by forcing the NPSS solver to converge to high-fidelity analysis predictions. This apporach is effective in improving the accuracy of the NPSS model; however, it can only be used in circumstances where there is a clear physics-based strategy to flow up the high-fidelity analysis results to update the NPSS system model. "Feed-forward" zooming approach is more broadly useful in terms of enabling detailed analysis at early stages of design for a specified set of critical operating points and using these analysis results to drive design decisions early in the development process.

  6. High Fidelity System Modeling for High Quality Image Reconstruction in Clinical CT

    PubMed Central

    Do, Synho; Karl, William Clem; Singh, Sarabjeet; Kalra, Mannudeep; Brady, Tom; Shin, Ellie; Pien, Homer

    2014-01-01

    Today, while many researchers focus on the improvement of the regularization term in IR algorithms, they pay less concern to the improvement of the fidelity term. In this paper, we hypothesize that improving the fidelity term will further improve IR image quality in low-dose scanning, which typically causes more noise. The purpose of this paper is to systematically test and examine the role of high-fidelity system models using raw data in the performance of iterative image reconstruction approach minimizing energy functional. We first isolated the fidelity term and analyzed the importance of using focal spot area modeling, flying focal spot location modeling, and active detector area modeling as opposed to just flying focal spot motion. We then compared images using different permutations of all three factors. Next, we tested the ability of the fidelity terms to retain signals upon application of the regularization term with all three factors. We then compared the differences between images generated by the proposed method and Filtered-Back-Projection. Lastly, we compared images of low-dose in vivo data using Filtered-Back-Projection, Iterative Reconstruction in Image Space, and the proposed method using raw data. The initial comparison of difference maps of images constructed showed that the focal spot area model and the active detector area model also have significant impacts on the quality of images produced. Upon application of the regularization term, images generated using all three factors were able to substantially decrease model mismatch error, artifacts, and noise. When the images generated by the proposed method were tested, conspicuity greatly increased, noise standard deviation decreased by 90% in homogeneous regions, and resolution also greatly improved. In conclusion, the improvement of the fidelity term to model clinical scanners is essential to generating higher quality images in low-dose imaging. PMID:25390888

  7. Advances in coupled safety modeling using systems analysis and high-fidelity methods.

    SciTech Connect

    Fanning, T. H.; Thomas, J. W.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2010-05-31

    The potential for a sodium-cooled fast reactor to survive severe accident initiators with no damage has been demonstrated through whole-plant testing in EBR-II and FFTF. Analysis of the observed natural protective mechanisms suggests that they would be characteristic of a broad range of sodium-cooled fast reactors utilizing metal fuel. However, in order to demonstrate the degree to which new, advanced sodium-cooled fast reactor designs will possess these desired safety features, accurate, high-fidelity, whole-plant dynamics safety simulations will be required. One of the objectives of the advanced safety-modeling component of the Reactor IPSC is to develop a science-based advanced safety simulation capability by utilizing existing safety simulation tools coupled with emerging high-fidelity modeling capabilities in a multi-resolution approach. As part of this integration, an existing whole-plant systems analysis code has been coupled with a high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics code to assess the impact of high-fidelity simulations on safety-related performance. With the coupled capabilities, it is possible to identify critical safety-related phenomenon in advanced reactor designs that cannot be resolved with existing tools. In this report, the impact of coupling is demonstrated by evaluating the conditions of outlet plenum thermal stratification during a protected loss of flow transient. Outlet plenum stratification was anticipated to alter core temperatures and flows predicted during natural circulation conditions. This effect was observed during the simulations. What was not anticipated, however, is the far-reaching impact that resolving thermal stratification has on the whole plant. The high temperatures predicted at the IHX inlet due to thermal stratification in the outlet plenum forces heat into the intermediate system to the point that it eventually becomes a source of heat for the primary system. The results also suggest that flow stagnation in the

  8. High-fidelity modeling and simulation for wideband receiving system development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chen; Young, Anne

    2013-05-01

    Research experience has shown that it is expensive to design, build and test a RF/microwave system that is comprised of various RF/microwave components. In order to mitigate the problem, High-Fidelity Modeling and Simulation (HFM&S) is a practical approach that includes high-fidelity behavioural model (HFBM) of the receiving system and scenarios embedded with different Concept of Operations (CONOPS). HFM&S is also an essential way to develop receiving system specifications that can be used for system validation and verification. This paper presents the HFBM of a wideband digital receiver using Matlab/Simulink and the RF Toolbox/SimRF, and the use of the model to build a multi-channel receiving system that has a linear antenna array. The receiving system is installed on an UAV to intercept a ground-based emitter signal in a scenario that is built in Systems Tool Kit. Through the design and build of the UAV receiver and its deployment in a scenario, this paper demonstrates the following: what is meant by HFBM of a system and how it can simulate real hardware; how signal integrity in the HFM&S can be and should be retained; why amplitude and phase are important for signal waveform level M&S why the modern high performance computing technology should be used for signal waveform level M&S and

  9. High fidelity nuclear energy system optimization towards an environmentally benign, sustainable, and secure energy source.

    SciTech Connect

    Tsvetkov, Pavel Valeryevich; Rodriguez, Salvador B.; Ames, David E., II; Rochau, Gary Eugene

    2010-10-01

    A new high-fidelity integrated system method and analysis approach was developed and implemented for consistent and comprehensive evaluations of advanced fuel cycles leading to minimized Transuranic (TRU) inventories. The method has been implemented in a developed code system integrating capabilities of Monte Carlo N - Particle Extended (MCNPX) for high-fidelity fuel cycle component simulations. In this report, a Nuclear Energy System (NES) configuration was developed to take advantage of used fuel recycling and transmutation capabilities in waste management scenarios leading to minimized TRU waste inventories, long-term activities, and radiotoxicities. The reactor systems and fuel cycle components that make up the NES were selected for their ability to perform in tandem to produce clean, safe, and dependable energy in an environmentally conscious manner. The diversity in performance and spectral characteristics were used to enhance TRU waste elimination while efficiently utilizing uranium resources and providing an abundant energy source. A computational modeling approach was developed for integrating the individual models of the NES. A general approach was utilized allowing for the Integrated System Model (ISM) to be modified in order to provide simulation for other systems with similar attributes. By utilizing this approach, the ISM is capable of performing system evaluations under many different design parameter options. Additionally, the predictive capabilities of the ISM and its computational time efficiency allow for system sensitivity/uncertainty analysis and the implementation of optimization techniques.

  10. Developing Capture Mechanisms and High-Fidelity Dynamic Models for the MXER Tether System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canfield, Steven L.

    2007-01-01

    A team consisting of collaborators from Tennessee Technological University (TTU), Marshall Space Flight Center, BD Systems, and the University of Delaware (herein called the TTU team) conducted specific research and development activities in MXER tether systems during the base period of May 15, 2004 through September 30, 2006 under contract number NNM04AB13C. The team addressed two primary topics related to the MXER tether system: 1) Development of validated high-fidelity dynamic models of an elastic rotating tether and 2) development of feasible mechanisms to enable reliable rendezvous and capture. This contractor report will describe in detail the activities that were performed during the base period of this cycle-2 MXER tether activity and will summarize the results of this funded activity. The primary deliverables of this project were the quad trap, a robust capture mechanism proposed, developed, tested, and demonstrated with a high degree of feasibility and the detailed development of a validated high-fidelity elastic tether dynamic model provided through multiple formulations.

  11. The use of high fidelity CAD models as the basis for training on complex systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Kellie; Tanner, Steve

    1993-01-01

    During the design phases of large and complex systems such as NASA's Space Station Freedom (SSF), there are few, if any physical prototypes built. This is often due to their expense and the realization that the design is likely to change. This poses a problem for training, maintainability, and operations groups who are tasked to lay the foundation of plans for using these systems. The Virtual Reality and Visualization Laboratory at the Boeing Advanced Computing Group's Huntsville facility is supporting the use of high fidelity, detailed design models that are generated during the initial design phases, for use in training, maintainability and operations exercises. This capability was used in its non-immersive form to great effect at the SSF Critical Design Review (CDR) during February, 1993. Allowing the user to move about within a CAD design supports many efforts, including training and scenario study. We will demonstrate via a video of the Maintainability SSF CDR how this type of approach can be used and why it is so effective in conveying large amounts of information quickly and concisely. We will also demonstrate why high fidelity models are so important for this type of training system and how it's immersive aspects may be exploited as well.

  12. Overview of High-Fidelity Modeling Activities in the Numerical Propulsion System Simulations (NPSS) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veres, Joseph P.

    2002-01-01

    A high-fidelity simulation of a commercial turbofan engine has been created as part of the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation Project. The high-fidelity computer simulation utilizes computer models that were developed at NASA Glenn Research Center in cooperation with turbofan engine manufacturers. The average-passage (APNASA) Navier-Stokes based viscous flow computer code is used to simulate the 3D flow in the compressors and turbines of the advanced commercial turbofan engine. The 3D National Combustion Code (NCC) is used to simulate the flow and chemistry in the advanced aircraft combustor. The APNASA turbomachinery code and the NCC combustor code exchange boundary conditions at the interface planes at the combustor inlet and exit. This computer simulation technique can evaluate engine performance at steady operating conditions. The 3D flow models provide detailed knowledge of the airflow within the fan and compressor, the high and low pressure turbines, and the flow and chemistry within the combustor. The models simulate the performance of the engine at operating conditions that include sea level takeoff and the altitude cruise condition.

  13. High-fidelity composite adiabatic passage in nonlinear two-level systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Fu-Quan; Cao, Hui; Liu, Jie; Fu, Li-Bin

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the composite adiabatic passage (CAP) reported by B. T. Torosov et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 233001 (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.106.233001] in a nonlinear two-level system in which the level energies depend on the occupation of the levels, representing a mean-field type of interaction between the particles. A high-fidelity, fast, and robust quantum manipulation is achieved in the system. We consider the effect of interparticle interaction and find that it tends to increase the number of the pulse sequences. The CAP technique can suppress the nonadiabatic oscillations below the quantum-information benchmark 10-4, as long as there exist sufficiently long composite sequences. We analyze the robustness against the variations in the field parameters. The difference between the nonlinear and linear systems on the CAP technique is also discussed.

  14. High-Fidelity Lattice Physics Capabilities of the SCALE Code System Using TRITON

    SciTech Connect

    DeHart, Mark D

    2007-01-01

    Increasing complexity in reactor designs suggests a need to reexamine of methods applied in spent-fuel characterization. The ability to accurately predict the nuclide composition of depleted reactor fuel is important in a wide variety of applications. These applications include, but are not limited to, the design, licensing, and operation of commercial/research reactors and spent-fuel transport/storage systems. New complex design projects such as space reactors and Generation IV power reactors also require calculational methods that provide accurate prediction of the isotopic inventory. New high-fidelity physics methods will be required to better understand the physics associated with both evolutionary and revolutionary reactor concepts as they depart from traditional and well-understood light-water reactor designs. The TRITON sequence of the SCALE code system provides a powerful, robust, and rigorous approach for reactor physics analysis. This paper provides a detailed description of TRITON in terms of its key components used in reactor calculations.

  15. Development of an image capturing system for the reproduction of high-fidelity color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ejaz, Tahseen; Shoichi, Yokoi; Horiuchi, Tomohiro; Yokota, Tetsuya; Takaya, Masanori; Ohashi, Gosuke; Shimodaira, Yoshifumi

    2005-01-01

    An image capturing system for the reproduction of high-fidelity color color was developed and a set of three optical filters were designed for this purpose. Simulation was performed on the SOCS database containing the spectral reflectance data of various objects in the range of wavelength of 400nm ~ 700nm in order to calculate the CIELAB color difference ΔEab. The average color difference was found to be 1.049. The camera was mounted with the filters and color photographs of all the 24 color patches of the Macbeth chart were taken. The measured tristimulus values of the patches were compared with those of the digital images captured by the camera. The average ΔEab was found to be 5.916.

  16. Development of an image capturing system for the reproduction of high-fidelity color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ejaz, Tahseen; Shoichi, Yokoi; Horiuchi, Tomohiro; Yokota, Tetsuya; Takaya, Masanori; Ohashi, Gosuke; Shimodaira, Yoshifumi

    2004-12-01

    An image capturing system for the reproduction of high-fidelity color color was developed and a set of three optical filters were designed for this purpose. Simulation was performed on the SOCS database containing the spectral reflectance data of various objects in the range of wavelength of 400nm ~ 700nm in order to calculate the CIELAB color difference ΔEab. The average color difference was found to be 1.049. The camera was mounted with the filters and color photographs of all the 24 color patches of the Macbeth chart were taken. The measured tristimulus values of the patches were compared with those of the digital images captured by the camera. The average ΔEab was found to be 5.916.

  17. Nuclear fuel cycle system simulation tool based on high-fidelity component modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, David E.

    2014-02-01

    The DOE is currently directing extensive research into developing fuel cycle technologies that will enable the safe, secure, economic, and sustainable expansion of nuclear energy. The task is formidable considering the numerous fuel cycle options, the large dynamic systems that each represent, and the necessity to accurately predict their behavior. The path to successfully develop and implement an advanced fuel cycle is highly dependent on the modeling capabilities and simulation tools available for performing useful relevant analysis to assist stakeholders in decision making. Therefore a high-fidelity fuel cycle simulation tool that performs system analysis, including uncertainty quantification and optimization was developed. The resulting simulator also includes the capability to calculate environmental impact measures for individual components and the system. An integrated system method and analysis approach that provides consistent and comprehensive evaluations of advanced fuel cycles was developed. A general approach was utilized allowing for the system to be modified in order to provide analysis for other systems with similar attributes. By utilizing this approach, the framework for simulating many different fuel cycle options is provided. Two example fuel cycle configurations were developed to take advantage of used fuel recycling and transmutation capabilities in waste management scenarios leading to minimized waste inventories.

  18. Development of high-fidelity multiphysics system for light water reactor analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magedanz, Jeffrey W.

    There has been a tendency in recent years toward greater heterogeneity in reactor cores, due to the use of mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel, burnable absorbers, and longer cycles with consequently higher fuel burnup. The resulting asymmetry of the neutron flux and energy spectrum between regions with different compositions causes a need to account for the directional dependence of the neutron flux, instead of the traditional diffusion approximation. Furthermore, the presence of both MOX and high-burnup fuel in the core increases the complexity of the heat conduction. The heat transfer properties of the fuel pellet change with irradiation, and the thermal and mechanical expansion of the pellet and cladding strongly affect the size of the gap between them, and its consequent thermal resistance. These operational tendencies require higher fidelity multi-physics modeling capabilities, and this need is addressed by the developments performed within this PhD research. The dissertation describes the development of a High-Fidelity Multi-Physics System for Light Water Reactor Analysis. It consists of three coupled codes -- CTF for Thermal Hydraulics, TORT-TD for Neutron Kinetics, and FRAPTRAN for Fuel Performance. It is meant to address these modeling challenges in three ways: (1) by resolving the state of the system at the level of each fuel pin, rather than homogenizing entire fuel assemblies, (2) by using the multi-group Discrete Ordinates method to account for the directional dependence of the neutron flux, and (3) by using a fuel-performance code, rather than a Thermal Hydraulics code's simplified fuel model, to account for the material behavior of the fuel and its feedback to the hydraulic and neutronic behavior of the system. While the first two are improvements, the third, the use of a fuel-performance code for feedback, constitutes an innovation in this PhD project. Also important to this work is the manner in which such coupling is written. While coupling involves combining

  19. High fidelity nuclear energy system optimization towards an environmentally benign, sustainable, and secure energy source.

    SciTech Connect

    Tsvetkov, Pavel Valeryevich; Rodriguez, Salvador B.; Ames, David E., II; Rochau, Gary Eugene

    2009-09-01

    The impact associated with energy generation and utilization is immeasurable due to the immense, widespread, and myriad effects it has on the world and its inhabitants. The polar extremes are demonstrated on the one hand, by the high quality of life enjoyed by individuals with access to abundant reliable energy sources, and on the other hand by the global-scale environmental degradation attributed to the affects of energy production and use. Thus, nations strive to increase their energy generation, but are faced with the challenge of doing so with a minimal impact on the environment and in a manner that is self-reliant. Consequently, a revival of interest in nuclear energy has followed, with much focus placed on technologies for transmuting nuclear spent fuel. The performed research investigates nuclear energy systems that optimize the destruction of nuclear waste. In the context of this effort, nuclear energy system is defined as a configuration of nuclear reactors and corresponding fuel cycle components. The proposed system has unique characteristics that set it apart from other systems. Most notably the dedicated High-Energy External Source Transmuter (HEST), which is envisioned as an advanced incinerator used in combination with thermal reactors. The system is configured for examining environmentally benign fuel cycle options by focusing on minimization or elimination of high level waste inventories. Detailed high-fidelity exact-geometry models were developed for representative reactor configurations. They were used in preliminary calculations with Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtented (MCNPX) and Standardized Computer Analysis for Licensing Evaluation (SCALE) code systems. The reactor models have been benchmarked against existing experimental data and design data. Simulink{reg_sign}, an extension of MATLAB{reg_sign}, is envisioned as the interface environment for constructing the nuclear energy system model by linking the individual reactor and fuel component sub

  20. Development of a High Fidelity System Analysis Code for Generation IV Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Hongbin Zhang; Vincent Mousseau; Haihua Zhao

    2008-06-01

    Traditional nuclear reactor system analysis codes such as RELAP and TRAC employ an operator split methodology. In this approach, each of the physics (fluid flow, heat conduction and neutron diffusion) is solved separately and the coupling terms are done explicitly. This approach limits accuracy (first order in time at best) and makes the codes slow in running since the explicit coupling imposes stability restrictions on the time step size. These codes have been extensively tested and validated for the existing LWRs. However, for GEN IV nuclear reactor designs which tend to have long lasting transients resulting from passive safety systems, the performance is questionable and modern high fidelity simulation tools will be required. The requirement for accurate predictability is the motivation for a large scale overhaul of all of the models and assumptions in transient nuclear reactor safety simulation software. At INL we have launched an effort with the long term goal of developing a high fidelity system analysis code that employs modern physical models, numerical methods, and computer science for transient safety analysis of GEN IV nuclear reactors. Modern parallel solution algorithms will be employed through utilizing the nonlinear solution software package PETSc developed by Argonne National Laboratory. The physical models to be developed will have physically realistic length scales and time scales. The solution algorithm will be based on the physics-based preconditioned Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov solution methods. In this approach all of the physical models are solved implicitly and simultaneously in a single nonlinear system. This includes the coolant flow, nonlinear heat conduction, neutron kinetics, and thermal radiation, etc. Including modern physical models and accurate space and time discretizations will allow the simulation capability to be second order accurate in space and in time. This paper presents the current status of the development efforts as

  1. Applications of fidelity measures to complex quantum systems.

    PubMed

    Wimberger, Sandro

    2016-06-13

    We revisit fidelity as a measure for the stability and the complexity of the quantum motion of single-and many-body systems. Within the context of cold atoms, we present an overview of applications of two fidelities, which we call static and dynamical fidelity, respectively. The static fidelity applies to quantum problems which can be diagonalized since it is defined via the eigenfunctions. In particular, we show that the static fidelity is a highly effective practical detector of avoided crossings characterizing the complexity of the systems and their evolutions. The dynamical fidelity is defined via the time-dependent wave functions. Focusing on the quantum kicked rotor system, we highlight a few practical applications of fidelity measurements in order to better understand the large variety of dynamical regimes of this paradigm of a low-dimensional system with mixed regular-chaotic phase space. PMID:27140967

  2. A high-fidelity airbus benchmark for system fault detection and isolation and flight control law clearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goupil, Ph.; Puyou, G.

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a high-fidelity generic twin engine civil aircraft model developed by Airbus for advanced flight control system research. The main features of this benchmark are described to make the reader aware of the model complexity and representativeness. It is a complete representation including the nonlinear rigid-body aircraft model with a full set of control surfaces, actuator models, sensor models, flight control laws (FCL), and pilot inputs. Two applications of this benchmark in the framework of European projects are presented: FCL clearance using optimization and advanced fault detection and diagnosis (FDD).

  3. RF/microwave system high-fidelity modeling and simulation: application to airborne multi-channel receiver system for angle of arrival estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chen; Rajan, Sreeraman; Young, Anne; O'Regan, Christina

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, a high-fidelity RF modeling and simulation framework is demonstrated to model an airborne multi-channel receiver system that is used to estimate the angle of arrival (AoA) of received signals from a stationary emitter. The framework is based on System Tool Kit (STK®), Matlab and SystemVue®. The SystemVue-based multi-channel receiver estimates the AoA of incoming signals using adjacent channel amplitude and phase comparisons, and it estimates the Doppler frequency shift of the aircraft by processing the transmitted and received signals. The estimated AoA and Doppler frequency are compared with the ground-truth data provided by STK to validate the efficacy of the modeling process. Unlike other current RF electronic warfare simulation frameworks, the received signal described herein is formed using the received power, the propagation delay and the transmitted waveform, and does not require information such as Doppler frequency shift or radial velocity of the moving platform from the scenario; hence, the simulation is more computationally efficient. In addition, to further reduce the overall modeling and simulation time, since the high-fidelity model computation is costly, the high-fidelity electronic system model is evoked only when the received power is higher than a predetermined threshold.

  4. High-fidelity, 160 fs, 5 μJ pulses from an integrated Yb-fiber laser system with a fiber stretcher matching a simple grating compressor.

    PubMed

    Fernández, A; Jespersen, K; Zhu, L; Grüner-Nielsen, L; Baltuška, A; Galvanauskas, A; Verhoef, A J

    2012-03-01

    Although femtosecond microjoule Yb-fiber systems are attractive because of a straightforward power scalability, they inherently suffer from a lowered pulse fidelity as a result of complex dispersion and nonlinearity management. Here, we present an integrated Yb-fiber system delivering high-fidelity microjoule pulses compressible down to 160 fs. The system uses a dispersion compensating fiber stretcher that is specially designed to match the dispersion of a 1480 lines/mm grating compressor. Performance analysis suggests the further possibility of scaling the pulse energy to tens of microjoules without pulse quality deterioration using this dispersion management scheme. PMID:22378441

  5. High fidelity nanohole enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

    SciTech Connect

    Bahns, J. T.; Guo, Q.; Gray, S. K.; Jaeger, H. M.; Chen, L.; Montgomery, J. M.; Univ. of Chicago

    2009-01-01

    Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is a sensitive technique that can even detect single molecules. However, in many SERS applications, the strongly inhomogeneous distribution of intense local fields makes it very difficult for a quantitive assessment of the fidelity, or reproducibility of the signal, which limits the application of SERS. Herein, we report the development of exceptionally high-fidelity hole-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (HERS) from ordered, 2D hexagonal nanohole arrays. We take the fidelity f to be a measure of the percent deviation of the Raman peaks from measurement to measurement. Overall, area averaged fidelities for 12 gold array samples ranged from f {approx} 2-15% for HERS using aqueous R6G molecules. Furthermore, intensity modulations of the enhanced Raman spectra were measured for the first time as a function of polarization angle. The best of these measurements, which focus on static laser spots on the sample, could be consistent with even higher fidelities than the area-averaged results. Nanohole arrays in silver provided supporting polarization measurements and a more complete enhanced Raman fingerprint for phenylalanine molecules. We also carried out finite-difference time-domain calculations to assist in the interpretation of the experiments, identifying the polarization dependence as possibly arising from hole-hole interactions. Our results represent a step toward making quantitative and reproducible enhanced Raman measurements possible and also open new avenues for a large-scale source of highly uniform hot spots.

  6. Design and Optimization of Large Accelerator Systems through High-Fidelity Electromagnetic Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, Cho; Akcelik, Volkan; Candel, Arno; Chen, Sheng; Ge, Lixin; Kabel, Andreas; Lee, Lie-Quan; Li, Zenghai; Prudencio, Ernesto; Schussman, Greg; Uplenchwar1, Ravi; Xiao1, Liling; Ko1, Kwok; Austin, T.; Cary, J.R.; Ovtchinnikov, S.; Smith, D.N.; Werner, G.R.; Bellantoni, L.; /SLAC /TechX Corp. /Fermilab

    2008-08-01

    SciDAC1, with its support for the 'Advanced Computing for 21st Century Accelerator Science and Technology' (AST) project, witnessed dramatic advances in electromagnetic (EM) simulations for the design and optimization of important accelerators across the Office of Science. In SciDAC2, EM simulations continue to play an important role in the 'Community Petascale Project for Accelerator Science and Simulation' (ComPASS), through close collaborations with SciDAC CETs/Institutes in computational science. Existing codes will be improved and new multi-physics tools will be developed to model large accelerator systems with unprecedented realism and high accuracy using computing resources at petascale. These tools aim at targeting the most challenging problems facing the ComPASS project. Supported by advances in computational science research, they have been successfully applied to the International Linear Collider (ILC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in High Energy Physics (HEP), the JLab 12-GeV Upgrade in Nuclear Physics (NP), as well as the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) and the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) in Basic Energy Sciences (BES).

  7. Physics and Psychophysics of High-Fidelity Sound. Part III: The Components of a Sound-Reproducing System: Amplifiers and Loudspeakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossing, Thomas D.

    1980-01-01

    Described are the components for a high-fidelity sound-reproducing system which focuses on various program sources, the amplifier, and loudspeakers. Discussed in detail are amplifier power and distortion, air suspension, loudspeaker baffles and enclosures, bass-reflex enclosure, drone cones, rear horn and acoustic labyrinth enclosures, horn…

  8. The use of high-fidelity human patient simulation and the introduction of new anesthesia delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Dalley, Paul; Robinson, Brian; Weller, Jennifer; Caldwell, Catherine

    2004-12-01

    New anesthesia delivery systems are becoming increasingly complex. Although equipment is involved in a large proportion of intraoperative anesthesia problems (most also involving human error), the current methods of introducing new equipment into clinical practice have not been well studied. We designed a randomized, controlled, prospective study to investigate an alternative method of introducing new anesthesia equipment. Fifteen anesthesiology trainees were randomized to either the standard introduction to a Drager Fabius GS anesthesia delivery machine plus simulated clinical use of the new machine in a high-fidelity human patient simulator (HPS) (Group 1) or to the standard introduction alone (Group 2). We used a questionnaire to seek their opinion on the new equipment, and responses showed that both groups were comparable in their reported confidence to use the new equipment safely. All trainees were then tested in two simulated anesthetic crises with the new machine. Performance was analyzed in terms of time to resolve the emergency, by using analysis of videos by an independent rater. Group 1 resolved both crises significantly faster. HPS allowed us to detect design features that were common sources of error. PMID:15562063

  9. The High Fidelity Plasma Speaker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGall, James

    2014-10-01

    A plasma speaker is a device that uses ionized gas as the driving source of sound production, rather than the traditional magnetic coil and membrane setup found on a standard speaker. Similar to how lightning produces sound, or even a small static shock, a plasma speaker uses a modulating electric arc between two electrodes to produce sound. An electric circuit is built that allows the variance of the high voltage electric potential to be controlled by a 3.5 mm standard audio headphone jack, allowing sound energy to be transferred from the plasma to the air by means of pulse width modulation. For my summer project I have built two different models of plasma speakers and am working on a third. The speaker benefits from having a nearly massless driver, and I hypothesize that it should show a response rate faster than that of a traditional speaker and a decreased impulse response while having the drawbacks of inefficiency and a low maximum decibel output. The speakers are currently being optimized with magnetic stabilization of the plasma and will be tested soon for impulse response, frequency generation, efficiency, and audio coloration. Bridges for SUCCESS Grant at Salisbury University under Ph.D. Matthew Bailey.

  10. High-Fidelity Piezoelectric Audio Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, Stanley E.; Fox, Robert L.; Bryant, Robert G.

    2003-01-01

    ModalMax is a very innovative means of harnessing the vibration of a piezoelectric actuator to produce an energy efficient low-profile device with high-bandwidth high-fidelity audio response. The piezoelectric audio device outperforms many commercially available speakers made using speaker cones. The piezoelectric device weighs substantially less (4 g) than the speaker cones which use magnets (10 g). ModalMax devices have extreme fabrication simplicity. The entire audio device is fabricated by lamination. The simplicity of the design lends itself to lower cost. The piezoelectric audio device can be used without its acoustic chambers and thereby resulting in a very low thickness of 0.023 in. (0.58 mm). The piezoelectric audio device can be completely encapsulated, which makes it very attractive for use in wet environments. Encapsulation does not significantly alter the audio response. Its small size (see Figure 1) is applicable to many consumer electronic products, such as pagers, portable radios, headphones, laptop computers, computer monitors, toys, and electronic games. The audio device can also be used in automobile or aircraft sound systems.

  11. Finding the Needle in the Haystack: High-Fidelity Models of Planetary Systems for Simulating Exoplanet Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lincowski, Andrew; Roberge, Aki; Stark, Christopher C.; Wilkins, Ashlee N.; Nesvold, Erika; Haystacks Team

    2015-01-01

    Future missions to characterize exoplanets will require instruments tailored to the problem of finding a habitable exoplanet: suppressing the bright star while still directly observing planets at small angular separations. This problem is compounded by interplanetary dust, which will likely be a significant source of astrophysical background noise. Instrument parameters must be constrained with detailed performance simulations, which must then be analyzed to determine if the instruments are capable of discerning the desired exoplanet characteristics. One valuable characteristic is the mass of the planet. A constraint on a planet's mass can quickly show if it is likely to be a rocky terrestrial planet, which may have the potential to form life as we know it. Unfortunately, it is difficult to measure the masses of small planets with traditional indirect techniques (e.g. radial velocity).A planet's gravitational effects on nearby interplanetary dust (or 'exozodi') can be more easily observed than the planet itself. A single observation of a planetary disk could constrain the mass of an exoplanet if the dust distribution varies sufficiently to be distinguished by future instruments. The NASA Haystacks team (PI: A. Roberge) has completed preliminary high-fidelity spectral image cubes of our entire Solar System at visible and near-infrared wavelengths, including star & planet spectra and scattered light from dust. In addition to these models, we present new planetary system architectures designed to test whether we can distinguish between mini-Neptune-mass planets and Earth-mass planets by their effects on the dust structure. These spectral image cubes will be processed through instrument simulators, allowing comparison of known disk structure with simulated observations of the disk. The results will help inform future exoplanet telescope missions in development (e.g. WFIRST/AFTA and ATLAST).Spectral image cubes will be available for download from a NASA website once

  12. Geometry Control System for Exploratory Shape Optimization Applied to High-Fidelity Aerodynamic Design of Unconventional Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon, Hugo

    This thesis represents a step forward to bring geometry parameterization and control on par with the disciplinary analyses involved in shape optimization, particularly high-fidelity aerodynamic shape optimization. Central to the proposed methodology is the non-uniform rational B-spline, used here to develop a new geometry generator and geometry control system applicable to the aerodynamic design of both conventional and unconventional aircraft. The geometry generator adopts a component-based approach, where any number of predefined but modifiable (parametric) wing, fuselage, junction, etc., components can be arbitrarily assembled to generate the outer mold line of aircraft geometry. A unique Python-based user interface incorporating an interactive OpenGL windowing system is proposed. Together, these tools allow for the generation of high-quality, C2 continuous (or higher), and customized aircraft geometry with fast turnaround. The geometry control system tightly integrates shape parameterization with volume mesh movement using a two-level free-form deformation approach. The framework is augmented with axial curves, which are shown to be flexible and efficient at parameterizing wing systems of arbitrary topology. A key aspect of this methodology is that very large shape deformations can be achieved with only a few, intuitive control parameters. Shape deformation consumes a few tenths of a second on a single processor and surface sensitivities are machine accurate. The geometry control system is implemented within an existing aerodynamic optimizer comprising a flow solver for the Euler equations and a sequential quadratic programming optimizer. Gradients are evaluated exactly with discrete-adjoint variables. The algorithm is first validated by recovering an elliptical lift distribution on a rectangular wing, and then demonstrated through the exploratory shape optimization of a three-pronged feathered winglet leading to a span efficiency of 1.22 under a height

  13. A Parallel, High-Fidelity Radar Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horsley, M.; Fasenfest, B.

    2010-09-01

    Accurate modeling of Space Surveillance sensors is necessary for a variety of applications. Accurate models can be used to perform trade studies on sensor designs, locations, and scheduling. In addition, they can be used to predict system-level performance of the Space Surveillance Network to a collision or satellite break-up event. A high fidelity physics-based radar simulator has been developed for Space Surveillance applications. This simulator is designed in a modular fashion, where each module describes a particular physical process or radar function (radio wave propagation & scattering, waveform generation, noise sources, etc.) involved in simulating the radar and its environment. For each of these modules, multiple versions are available in order to meet the end-users needs and requirements. For instance, the radar simulator supports different atmospheric models in order to facilitate different methods of simulating refraction of the radar beam. The radar model also has the capability to use highly accurate radar cross sections generated by the method of moments, accelerated by the fast multipole method. To accelerate this computationally expensive model, it is parallelized using MPI. As a testing framework for the radar model, it is incorporated into the Testbed Environment for Space Situational Awareness (TESSA). TESSA is based on a flexible, scalable architecture, designed to exploit high-performance computing resources and allow physics-based simulation of the SSA enterprise. In addition to the radar models, TESSA includes hydrodynamic models of satellite intercept and debris generation, orbital propagation algorithms, optical brightness calculations, optical system models, object detection algorithms, orbit determination algorithms, simulation analysis and visualization tools. Within this framework, observations and tracks generated by the new radar model are compared to results from a phenomenological radar model. In particular, the new model will be

  14. High-Fidelity Roadway Modeling and Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Jie; Papelis, Yiannis; Shen, Yuzhong; Unal, Ozhan; Cetin, Mecit

    2010-01-01

    Roads are an essential feature in our daily lives. With the advances in computing technologies, 2D and 3D road models are employed in many applications, such as computer games and virtual environments. Traditional road models were generated by professional artists manually using modeling software tools such as Maya and 3ds Max. This approach requires both highly specialized and sophisticated skills and massive manual labor. Automatic road generation based on procedural modeling can create road models using specially designed computer algorithms or procedures, reducing the tedious manual editing needed for road modeling dramatically. But most existing procedural modeling methods for road generation put emphasis on the visual effects of the generated roads, not the geometrical and architectural fidelity. This limitation seriously restricts the applicability of the generated road models. To address this problem, this paper proposes a high-fidelity roadway generation method that takes into account road design principles practiced by civil engineering professionals, and as a result, the generated roads can support not only general applications such as games and simulations in which roads are used as 3D assets, but also demanding civil engineering applications, which requires accurate geometrical models of roads. The inputs to the proposed method include road specifications, civil engineering road design rules, terrain information, and surrounding environment. Then the proposed method generates in real time 3D roads that have both high visual and geometrical fidelities. This paper discusses in details the procedures that convert 2D roads specified in shape files into 3D roads and civil engineering road design principles. The proposed method can be used in many applications that have stringent requirements on high precision 3D models, such as driving simulations and road design prototyping. Preliminary results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  15. Status report on multigroup cross section generation code development for high-fidelity deterministic neutronics simulation system.

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, W. S.; Lee, C. H.

    2008-05-16

    Under the fast reactor simulation program launched in April 2007, development of an advanced multigroup cross section generation code was initiated in July 2007, in conjunction with the development of the high-fidelity deterministic neutron transport code UNIC. The general objectives are to simplify the existing multi-step schemes and to improve the resolved and unresolved resonance treatments. Based on the review results of current methods and the fact that they have been applied successfully to fast critical experiment analyses and fast reactor designs for last three decades, the methodologies of the ETOE-2/MC{sup 2}-2/SDX code system were selected as the starting set of methodologies for multigroup cross section generation for fast reactor analysis. As the first step for coupling with the UNIC code and use in a parallel computing environment, the MC{sup 2}-2 code was updated by modernizing the memory structure and replacing old data management package subroutines and functions with FORTRAN 90 based routines. Various modifications were also made in the ETOE-2 and MC{sup 2}-2 codes to process the ENDF/B-VII.0 data properly. Using the updated ETOE-2/MC{sup 2}-2 code system, the ENDF/B-VII.0 data was successfully processed for major heavy and intermediate nuclides employed in sodium-cooled fast reactors. Initial verification tests of the MC{sup 2}-2 libraries generated from ENDF/B-VII.0 data were performed by inter-comparison of twenty-one group infinite dilute total cross sections obtained from MC{sup 2}-2, VIM, and NJOY. For almost all nuclides considered, MC{sup 2}-2 cross sections agreed very well with those from VIM and NJOY. Preliminary validation tests of the ENDF/B-VII.0 libraries of MC{sup 2}-2 were also performed using a set of sixteen fast critical benchmark problems. The deterministic results based on MC{sup 2}-2/TWODANT calculations were in good agreement with MCNP solutions within {approx}0.25% {Delta}{rho}, except a few small LANL fast assemblies

  16. High-fidelity flash lidar model development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hines, Glenn D.; Pierrottet, Diego F.; Amzajerdian, Farzin

    2014-06-01

    NASA's Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technologies (ALHAT) project is currently developing the critical technologies to safely and precisely navigate and land crew, cargo and robotic spacecraft vehicles on and around planetary bodies. One key element of this project is a high-fidelity Flash Lidar sensor that can generate three-dimensional (3-D) images of the planetary surface. These images are processed with hazard detection and avoidance and hazard relative navigation algorithms, and then are subsequently used by the Guidance, Navigation and Control subsystem to generate an optimal navigation solution. A complex, high-fidelity model of the Flash Lidar was developed in order to evaluate the performance of the sensor and its interaction with the interfacing ALHAT components on vehicles with different configurations and under different flight trajectories. The model contains a parameterized, general approach to Flash Lidar detection and reflects physical attributes such as range and electronic noise sources, and laser pulse temporal and spatial profiles. It also provides the realistic interaction of the laser pulse with terrain features that include varying albedo, boulders, craters slopes and shadows. This paper gives a description of the Flash Lidar model and presents results from the Lidar operating under different scenarios.

  17. High-Fidelity Flash Lidar Model Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, Glenn D.; Pierrottet, Diego F.; Amzajerdian, Farzin

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technologies (ALHAT) project is currently developing the critical technologies to safely and precisely navigate and land crew, cargo and robotic spacecraft vehicles on and around planetary bodies. One key element of this project is a high-fidelity Flash Lidar sensor that can generate three-dimensional (3-D) images of the planetary surface. These images are processed with hazard detection and avoidance and hazard relative navigation algorithms, and then are subsequently used by the Guidance, Navigation and Control subsystem to generate an optimal navigation solution. A complex, high-fidelity model of the Flash Lidar was developed in order to evaluate the performance of the sensor and its interaction with the interfacing ALHAT components on vehicles with different configurations and under different flight trajectories. The model contains a parameterized, general approach to Flash Lidar detection and reflects physical attributes such as range and electronic noise sources, and laser pulse temporal and spatial profiles. It also provides the realistic interaction of the laser pulse with terrain features that include varying albedo, boulders, craters slopes and shadows. This paper gives a description of the Flash Lidar model and presents results from the Lidar operating under different scenarios.

  18. Linear digital imaging system fidelity analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Stephen K.

    1989-01-01

    The combined effects of imaging gathering, sampling and reconstruction are analyzed in terms of image fidelity. The analysis is based upon a standard end-to-end linear system model which is sufficiently general so that the results apply to most line-scan and sensor-array imaging systems. Shift-variant sampling effects are accounted for with an expected value analysis based upon the use of a fixed deterministic input scene which is randomly shifted (mathematically) relative to the sampling grid. This random sample-scene phase approach has been used successfully by the author and associates in several previous related papers.

  19. High fidelity simulations of infrared imagery with animated characters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Näsström, F.; Persson, A.; Bergström, D.; Berggren, J.; Hedström, J.; Allvar, J.; Karlsson, M.

    2012-06-01

    High fidelity simulations of IR signatures and imagery tend to be slow and do not have effective support for animation of characters. Simplified rendering methods based on computer graphics methods can be used to overcome these limitations. This paper presents a method to combine these tools and produce simulated high fidelity thermal IR data of animated people in terrain. Infrared signatures for human characters have been calculated using RadThermIR. To handle multiple character models, these calculations use a simplified material model for the anatomy and clothing. Weather and temperature conditions match the IR-texture used in the terrain model. The calculated signatures are applied to the animated 3D characters that, together with the terrain model, are used to produce high fidelity IR imagery of people or crowds. For high level animation control and crowd simulations, HLAS (High Level Animation System) has been developed. There are tools available to create and visualize skeleton based animations, but tools that allow control of the animated characters on a higher level, e.g. for crowd simulation, are usually expensive and closed source. We need the flexibility of HLAS to add animation into an HLA enabled sensor system simulation framework.

  20. Status report on high fidelity reactor simulation.

    SciTech Connect

    Palmiotti, G.; Smith, M.; Rabiti, C.; Lewis, E.; Yang, W.; Leclere,M.; Siegel, A.; Fischer, P.; Kaushik, D.; Ragusa, J.; Lottes, J.; Smith, B.

    2006-12-11

    This report presents the effort under way at Argonne National Laboratory toward a comprehensive, integrated computational tool intended mainly for the high-fidelity simulation of sodium-cooled fast reactors. The main activities carried out involved neutronics, thermal hydraulics, coupling strategies, software architecture, and high-performance computing. A new neutronics code, UNIC, is being developed. The first phase involves the application of a spherical harmonics method to a general, unstructured three-dimensional mesh. The method also has been interfaced with a method of characteristics. The spherical harmonics equations were implemented in a stand-alone code that was then used to solve several benchmark problems. For thermal hydraulics, a computational fluid dynamics code called Nek5000, developed in the Mathematics and Computer Science Division for coupled hydrodynamics and heat transfer, has been applied to a single-pin, periodic cell in the wire-wrap geometry typical of advanced burner reactors. Numerical strategies for multiphysics coupling have been considered and higher-accuracy efficient methods proposed to finely simulate coupled neutronic/thermal-hydraulic reactor transients. Initial steps have been taken in order to couple UNIC and Nek5000, and simplified problems have been defined and solved for testing. Furthermore, we have begun developing a lightweight computational framework, based in part on carefully selected open source tools, to nonobtrusively and efficiently integrate the individual physics modules into a unified simulation tool.

  1. Random ambience using high fidelity images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu, Nur Azman; Sahib, Shahrin

    2011-06-01

    Most of the secure communication nowadays mandates true random keys as an input. These operations are mostly designed and taken care of by the developers of the cryptosystem. Due to the nature of confidential crypto development today, pseudorandom keys are typically designed and still preferred by the developers of the cryptosystem. However, these pseudorandom keys are predictable, periodic and repeatable, hence they carry minimal entropy. True random keys are believed to be generated only via hardware random number generators. Careful statistical analysis is still required to have any confidence the process and apparatus generates numbers that are sufficiently random to suit the cryptographic use. In this underlying research, each moment in life is considered unique in itself. The random key is unique for the given moment generated by the user whenever he or she needs the random keys in practical secure communication. An ambience of high fidelity digital image shall be tested for its randomness according to the NIST Statistical Test Suite. Recommendation on generating a simple 4 megabits per second random cryptographic keys live shall be reported.

  2. A generalized fidelity amplitude for open systems.

    PubMed

    Gorin, T; Moreno, H J; Seligman, T H

    2016-06-13

    We consider a central system which is coupled via dephasing to an open system, i.e. an intermediate system which in turn is coupled to another environment. Considering the intermediate and far environment as one composite system, the coherences in the central system are given in the form of fidelity amplitudes for a certain perturbed echo dynamics in the composite environment. On the basis of the Born-Markov approximation, we derive a master equation for the reduction of that dynamics to the intermediate system alone. In distinction to an earlier paper (Moreno et al 2015 Phys. Rev. A 92, 030104. (doi:10.1103/PhysRevA.92.030104)), where we discussed the stabilizing effect of the far environment on the decoherence in the central system, we focus here on the possibility of using the measurable coherences in the central system for probing the open quantum dynamics in the intermediate system. We illustrate our results for the case of chaotic dynamics in the near environment, where we compare random matrix simulations with our analytical result. PMID:27140969

  3. A proposal of monitoring and forecasting system for crustal activity in and around Japan using a large-scale high-fidelity finite element simulation codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hori, T.; Ichimura, T.

    2015-12-01

    Here we propose a system for monitoring and forecasting of crustal activity, especially great interplate earthquake generation and its preparation processes in subduction zone. Basically, we model great earthquake generation as frictional instability on the subjecting plate boundary. So, spatio-temporal variation in slip velocity on the plate interface should be monitored and forecasted. Although, we can obtain continuous dense surface deformation data on land and partly at the sea bottom, the data obtained are not fully utilized for monitoring and forecasting. It is necessary to develop a physics-based data analysis system including (1) a structural model with the 3D geometry of the plate interface and the material property such as elasticity and viscosity, (2) calculation code for crustal deformation and seismic wave propagation using (1), (3) inverse analysis or data assimilation code both for structure and fault slip using (1)&(2). To accomplish this, it is at least necessary to develop highly reliable large-scale simulation code to calculate crustal deformation and seismic wave propagation for 3D heterogeneous structure. Actually, Ichimura et al. (2014, SC14) has developed unstructured FE non-linear seismic wave simulation code, which achieved physics-based urban earthquake simulation enhanced by 10.7 BlnDOF x 30 K time-step. Ichimura et al. (2013, GJI) has developed high fidelity FEM simulation code with mesh generator to calculate crustal deformation in and around Japan with complicated surface topography and subducting plate geometry for 1km mesh. Further, for inverse analyses, Errol et al. (2012, BSSA) has developed waveform inversion code for modeling 3D crustal structure, and Agata et al. (2015, this meeting) has improved the high fidelity FEM code to apply an adjoint method for estimating fault slip and asthenosphere viscosity. Hence, we have large-scale simulation and analysis tools for monitoring. Furthermore, we are developing the methods for

  4. Paleomagnetic recording fidelity of nonideal magnetic systems

    PubMed Central

    Muxworthy, Adrian R; Krása, David; Williams, Wyn; Almeida, Trevor P

    2014-01-01

    A suite of near-identical magnetite nanodot samples produced by electron-beam lithography have been used to test the thermomagnetic recording fidelity of particles in the 74–333 nm size range; the grain size range most commonly found in rocks. In addition to controlled grain size, the samples had identical particle spacings, meaning that intergrain magnetostatic interactions could be controlled. Their magnetic hysteresis parameters were indicative of particles thought not to be ideal magnetic recorders; however, the samples were found to be excellent thermomagnetic recorders of the magnetic field direction. They were also found to be relatively good recorders of the field intensity in a standard paleointensity experiment. The samples' intensities were all within ∼15% of the expected answer and the mean of the samples within 3% of the actual field. These nonideal magnetic systems have been shown to be reliable records of the geomagnetic field in terms of both direction and intensity even though their magnetic hysteresis characteristics indicate less than ideal magnetic grains. Key Points Nonideal magnetic systems accurately record field direction Weak-field remanences more stable than strong-field remanences PMID:26300699

  5. The Need for High Fidelity Lunar Regolith Simulants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.

    2007-01-01

    The case is made for the need to have high fidelity lunar regolith simulants to verify the performance of structures and mechanisms to be used on the lunar surface. Minor constituents will in some cases have major consequences. Small amounts of sulfur in the regolith can poison catalysts, and metallic iron on the surface of nano-sized dust particles may cause a dramatic increase in its toxicity. So the definition of a high fidelity simulant is application dependent. For example, in situ resource utilization will require high fidelity in chemistry, meaning careful attention to the minor components and phases; but some other applications, such as the abrasive effects on suit fabrics, might be relatively insensitive to minor component chemistry. The lunar environment itself will change the surface chemistry of the simulant, so to have a high fidelity simulant at must be used in a high fidelity simulated environment to get a high fidelity simulation. Research must be conducted to determine how sensitive technologies will be to minor components and environmental factors before they can be dismissed as unimportant.

  6. High fidelity wireless network evaluation for heterogeneous cognitive radio networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Lei; Sagduyu, Yalin; Yackoski, Justin; Azimi-Sadjadi, Babak; Li, Jason; Levy, Renato; Melodia, Tammaso

    2012-06-01

    We present a high fidelity cognitive radio (CR) network emulation platform for wireless system tests, measure- ments, and validation. This versatile platform provides the configurable functionalities to control and repeat realistic physical channel effects in integrated space, air, and ground networks. We combine the advantages of scalable simulation environment with reliable hardware performance for high fidelity and repeatable evaluation of heterogeneous CR networks. This approach extends CR design only at device (software-defined-radio) or lower-level protocol (dynamic spectrum access) level to end-to-end cognitive networking, and facilitates low-cost deployment, development, and experimentation of new wireless network protocols and applications on frequency- agile programmable radios. Going beyond the channel emulator paradigm for point-to-point communications, we can support simultaneous transmissions by network-level emulation that allows realistic physical-layer inter- actions between diverse user classes, including secondary users, primary users, and adversarial jammers in CR networks. In particular, we can replay field tests in a lab environment with real radios perceiving and learning the dynamic environment thereby adapting for end-to-end goals over distributed spectrum coordination channels that replace the common control channel as a single point of failure. CR networks offer several dimensions of tunable actions including channel, power, rate, and route selection. The proposed network evaluation platform is fully programmable and can reliably evaluate the necessary cross-layer design solutions with configurable op- timization space by leveraging the hardware experiments to represent the realistic effects of physical channel, topology, mobility, and jamming on spectrum agility, situational awareness, and network resiliency. We also provide the flexibility to scale up the test environment by introducing virtual radios and establishing seamless signal

  7. Experimental quantum error correction with high fidelity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jingfu; Gangloff, Dorian; Moussa, Osama; Laflamme, Raymond

    2011-09-01

    More than ten years ago a first step toward quantum error correction (QEC) was implemented [Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.81.2152 81, 2152 (1998)]. The work showed there was sufficient control in nuclear magnetic resonance to implement QEC, and demonstrated that the error rate changed from ɛ to ˜ɛ2. In the current work we reproduce a similar experiment using control techniques that have been since developed, such as the pulses generated by gradient ascent pulse engineering algorithm. We show that the fidelity of the QEC gate sequence and the comparative advantage of QEC are appreciably improved. This advantage is maintained despite the errors introduced by the additional operations needed to protect the quantum states.

  8. Experimental quantum error correction with high fidelity

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Jingfu; Gangloff, Dorian; Moussa, Osama; Laflamme, Raymond

    2011-09-15

    More than ten years ago a first step toward quantum error correction (QEC) was implemented [Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2152 (1998)]. The work showed there was sufficient control in nuclear magnetic resonance to implement QEC, and demonstrated that the error rate changed from {epsilon} to {approx}{epsilon}{sup 2}. In the current work we reproduce a similar experiment using control techniques that have been since developed, such as the pulses generated by gradient ascent pulse engineering algorithm. We show that the fidelity of the QEC gate sequence and the comparative advantage of QEC are appreciably improved. This advantage is maintained despite the errors introduced by the additional operations needed to protect the quantum states.

  9. The Need for High Fidelity Lunar Regolith Simulants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.

    2008-01-01

    The case is made for the need to have high fidelity lunar regolith simulants to verify the performance of structures, mechanisms, and processes to be used on the lunar surface. Minor constituents will in some cases have major consequences. Small amounts of sulfur in the regolith can poison catalysts, and metallic iron on the surface of nano-sized dust particles may cause a dramatic increase in its toxicity. So the definition of a high fidelity simulant is application-dependent. For example, in situ resource utilization will require high fidelity in chemistry, meaning careful attention to the minor components and phases; but some other applications, such as the abrasive effects on suit fabrics, might be relatively insensitive to minor component chemistry while abrasion of some metal components may be highly dependent on trace components. The lunar environment itself will change the surface chemistry of the simulant, so to have a high fidelity simulant it must be used in a high fidelity simulated environment to get an accurate simulation. Research must be conducted to determine how sensitive technologies will be to minor components and environmental factors before they can be dismissed as unimportant.

  10. High-Fidelity Coding with Correlated Neurons

    PubMed Central

    da Silveira, Rava Azeredo; Berry, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Positive correlations in the activity of neurons are widely observed in the brain. Previous studies have shown these correlations to be detrimental to the fidelity of population codes, or at best marginally favorable compared to independent codes. Here, we show that positive correlations can enhance coding performance by astronomical factors. Specifically, the probability of discrimination error can be suppressed by many orders of magnitude. Likewise, the number of stimuli encoded—the capacity—can be enhanced more than tenfold. These effects do not necessitate unrealistic correlation values, and can occur for populations with a few tens of neurons. We further show that both effects benefit from heterogeneity commonly seen in population activity. Error suppression and capacity enhancement rest upon a pattern of correlation. Tuning of one or several effective parameters can yield a limit of perfect coding: the corresponding pattern of positive correlation leads to a ‘lock-in’ of response probabilities that eliminates variability in the subspace relevant for stimulus discrimination. We discuss the nature of this pattern and we suggest experimental tests to identify it. PMID:25412463

  11. Using interference for high fidelity quantum state transfer in optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying-Dan; Clerk, Aashish A.

    2012-02-01

    We present a theoretical study of a two-cavity optomechanical system (e.g. a single mechanical resonator coupled to both a microwave and an optical cavity), investigating how interference can be used to perform mechanically-mediated quantum state transfer between the two cavities. We show that this optomechanical system possesses an effective ``mechanically-dark'' mode which is immune to mechanical dissipation; utilizing this feature allows highly efficient transfer of intra-cavity states, as well as of itinerant photon states. Simple analytic expressions for the fidelity of transferring both Gaussian and non-Gaussian states are provided. Our work has relevance to ongoing experimental efforts in quantum optomechanics (e.g., C. A. Regal and K. W. Lehnert, J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 264, 012025 (2011); A. H. Safavi-Naeini and O. Painter, New J. Phys. 13, 013017 (2011)).

  12. Is high fidelity human patient (mannequin) simulation, simulation of learning?

    PubMed

    McGarry, Denise; Cashin, Andrew; Fowler, Cathrine

    2014-08-01

    This paper explores the application of evaluation of high fidelity human patient (mannequin) simulation emerging in nursing education. The ramifications for use in mental health nursing are examined. A question is posed: Is high fidelity human patient (mannequin) simulation limited to being a "simulation of learning"? Explicit research that traces learning outcomes from mannequin, to clinical practice and hence consumer outcomes, is absent in mental health. Piecing together research from psychology addressing cognitive load theory and considering the capacity for learners to imitate desired behaviour without experiencing deep learning, the possibility is real that simulation of learning is the outcome of high fidelity human patient (mannequin) simulation applications to mental health nursing. PMID:24837517

  13. High-fidelity polarization storage in a gigahertz bandwidth quantum memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    England, D. G.; Michelberger, P. S.; Champion, T. F. M.; Reim, K. F.; Lee, K. C.; Sprague, M. R.; Jin, X.-M.; Langford, N. K.; Kolthammer, W. S.; Nunn, J.; Walmsley, I. A.

    2012-06-01

    We demonstrate a dual-rail optical Raman memory inside a polarization interferometer; this enables us to store polarization-encoded information at GHz bandwidths in a room-temperature atomic ensemble. By performing full process tomography on the system, we measure up to 97 ± 1% process fidelity for the storage and retrieval process. At longer storage times, the process fidelity remains high, despite a loss of efficiency. The fidelity is 86 ± 4% for 1.5 μs storage time, which is 5000 times the pulse duration. Hence, high fidelity is combined with a large time-bandwidth product. This high performance, with an experimentally simple setup, demonstrates the suitability of the Raman memory for integration into large-scale quantum networks.

  14. High-fidelity linear optical quantum computing with polarization encoding

    SciTech Connect

    Spedalieri, Federico M.; Lee, Hwang; Dowling, Jonathan P.

    2006-01-15

    We show that the KLM scheme [Knill, Laflamme, and Milburn, Nature 409, 46 (2001)] can be implemented using polarization encoding, thus reducing the number of path modes required by half. One of the main advantages of this new implementation is that it naturally incorporates a loss detection mechanism that makes the probability of a gate introducing a non-detected error, when non-ideal detectors are considered, dependent only on the detector dark-count rate and independent of its efficiency. Since very low dark-count rate detectors are currently available, a high-fidelity gate (probability of error of order 10{sup -6} conditional on the gate being successful) can be implemented using polarization encoding. The detector efficiency determines the overall success probability of the gate but does not affect its fidelity. This can be applied to the efficient construction of optical cluster states with very high fidelity for quantum computing.

  15. High fidelity quantum memory via dynamical decoupling: theory and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Xinhua; Suter, Dieter; Lidar, Daniel A.

    2011-08-01

    Quantum information processing requires overcoming decoherence—the loss of 'quantumness' due to the inevitable interaction between the quantum system and its environment. One approach towards a solution is quantum dynamical decoupling—a method employing strong and frequent pulses applied to the qubits. Here we report on the first experimental test of the concatenated dynamical decoupling (CDD) scheme, which invokes recursively constructed pulse sequences. Using nuclear magnetic resonance, we demonstrate a near order of magnitude improvement in the decay time of stored quantum states. In conjunction with recent results on high fidelity quantum gates using CDD, our results suggest that quantum dynamical decoupling should be used as a first layer of defense against decoherence in quantum information processing implementations, and can be a stand-alone solution in the right parameter regime.

  16. Performance and workload effects for full versus partial automation in a high-fidelity multi-task system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scallen, Stephen Francis

    This thesis evaluated theoretical predictions concerning performance and workload effects of the implementation of adaptive allocation. Five experiments are reported in which adaptive allocation was implemented in a multiple task aviation simulation with component tracking, monitoring, and target identification sub-tasks. Experiments 1 and 2 empirically determined input values for the tracking task which produced controlled levels of tracking difficulty. Experiment 3 exposed pilots and non pilots to single, dual, and multiple task combinations under independent and linked sub-tasks configurations. Results indicated that performance on all sub-tasks was sensitive to the number of concurrent tasks and further indicated that the non-linked system configuration contributed to reduced pilot efficiency. Experiment 4 implemented adaptive allocation for the tracking sub-task based on a model which identified an increase in tracking error during the initial presentation of a target. During initial target presentation, tracking control was either fully or partially allocated to the system for a brief period, after which full control was returned. Results indicated performance benefits on all tasks for both full and partial adaptive allocation strategies and confirmed that an independent task configuration may underestimate pilot efficiency. Experiment 5 extended the implementation of adaptive allocation to include adaptive display layout. It compared functional grouping of sub-tasks displays based on principles of perceptual and processing proximity. Results provided support for the implementation of adaptive display design in general but failed to support the specific layouts derived from the proximity conception.

  17. High-fidelity teleportation between light and atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Hammerer, K.; Polzik, E. S.; Cirac, J. I.

    2006-12-15

    We show how high-fidelity quantum teleportation of light to atoms can be achieved in the same setup as was used in the recent experiment [J. Sherson et al., Nature 443, 557, 2006], where such an interspecies quantum state transfer was demonstrated for the first time. Our improved protocol takes advantage of the rich multimode entangled structure of the state of atoms and scattered light and requires simple postprocessing of homodyne detection signals and squeezed light in order to achieve fidelities up to 90% (85%) for teleportation of coherent (qubit) states under realistic experimental conditions. The remaining limitation is due to atomic decoherence and light losses.

  18. Aerothermal Anchoring of CBAERO Using High Fidelity CFD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinney, David J.

    2007-01-01

    The Configuration Based Aerodynamics (CBAERO) software package is used to predict the convective and radiative heating environments for the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). A limited number of high fidelity CFD solutions are used to "anchor" the engineering level estimates obtained using CBAERO.

  19. High Fidelity: Investing in Evaluation Training. Ask the Team

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fetters, Jenni

    2013-01-01

    High-quality training is a crucial investment in establishing and maintaining implementation fidelity as well as building educators' trust in the new process. Training approaches for educator evaluation vary both in format (i.e., how it's delivered) and content (i.e., what is provided). Train-the-trainer sessions, online professional learning…

  20. Carbonate minerals as high fidelity recorders of the longevity and scale of the aqueous system within CM carbonaceous chondrite parent bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M.; Lindgren, P.; Sofe, M. R.

    2011-12-01

    by Fe,Ni sulphides and Mg,Fe phyllosilicates. The good correspondence between the complexity of the record of carbonate, silicate and sulphide mineralization of CMs and their degree of aqueous alteration shows that the carbonates preserve a high fidelity record of parent body evolution. The greater variety of carbonate minerals present in the highly altered CMs shows that solution compositions changed significantly during alteration and as mineral sequences and compositions vary little on the centimeter scale, water/rock ratios must have been high. The challenge remains to reconcile such a dynamic aqueous system with evidence from bulk meteorite compositions for little or no fluid flow.

  1. High-fidelity phototaxis in biflagellate algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leptos, Kyriacos; Chioccioli, Maurizio; Furlan, Silvano; Pesci, Adriana; Goldstein, Raymond

    2015-11-01

    The single-cell alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a motile biflagellate that can swim towards light for its photosynthetic requirements, a behavior referred to as phototaxis. The cell responds upon light stimulation through its rudimentary eye - the eyespot - by changing the beating amplitude of its two flagella accordingly - a process called the photoresponse. All this occurs in a coordinated fashion as Chlamydomonas spins about its body axis while swimming, thus experiencing oscillating intensities of light. We use high-speed video microscopy to measure the flagellar dynamics of the photoresponse on immobilized cells and interpret the results with a mathematical model of adaptation similar to that used previously for Volvox. These results are incorporated into a model of phototactic steering to yield trajectories that are compared to those obtained by three-dimensional tracking. Implications of these results for the evolution of multicellularity in the Volvocales are discussed.

  2. Engineering High-Fidelity Residue Separations for Selective Harvest

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin L. Kenney; Christopher T. Wright; Reed L. Hoskinson; J. Rochard Hess; David J. Muth, Jr.

    2006-07-01

    Composition and pretreatment studies of corn stover and wheat stover anatomical fractions clearly show that some corn and wheat stover anatomical fractions are of higher value than others as a biofeedstock. This premise, along with soil sustainability and erosion control concerns, provides the motivation for the selective harvest concept for separating and collecting the higher value residue fractions in a combine during grain harvest. This study recognizes the analysis of anatomical fractions as theoretical feedstock quality targets, but not as practical targets for developing selective harvest technologies. Rather, practical quality targets were established that identified the residue separation requirements of a selective harvest combine. Data are presented that shows that a current grain combine is not capable of achieving the fidelity of residue fractionation established by the performance targets. However, using a virtual engineering approach, based on an understanding of the fluid dynamics of the air stream separation, the separation fidelity can be significantly improved without significant changes to the harvester design. A virtual engineering model of a grain combine was developed and used to perform simulations of the residue separator performance. The engineered residue separator was then built into a selective harvest test combine, and tests performed to evaluate the separation fidelity. Field tests were run both with and without the residue separator installed in the test combine, and the chaff and straw residue streams were collected during harvest of Challis soft white spring wheat. The separation fidelity accomplished both with and without the residue separator was quantified by laboratory screening analysis. The screening results showed that the engineered baffle separator did a remarkable job of effecting high-fidelity separation of the straw and chaff residue streams, improving the chaff stream purity and increasing the straw stream yield.

  3. Small convolution kernels for high-fidelity image restoration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reichenbach, Stephen E.; Park, Stephen K.

    1991-01-01

    An algorithm is developed for computing the mean-square-optimal values for small, image-restoration kernels. The algorithm is based on a comprehensive, end-to-end imaging system model that accounts for the important components of the imaging process: the statistics of the scene, the point-spread function of the image-gathering device, sampling effects, noise, and display reconstruction. Subject to constraints on the spatial support of the kernel, the algorithm generates the kernel values that restore the image with maximum fidelity, that is, the kernel minimizes the expected mean-square restoration error. The algorithm is consistent with the derivation of the spatially unconstrained Wiener filter, but leads to a small, spatially constrained kernel that, unlike the unconstrained filter, can be efficiently implemented by convolution. Simulation experiments demonstrate that for a wide range of imaging systems these small kernels can restore images with fidelity comparable to images restored with the unconstrained Wiener filter.

  4. High-Fidelity Simulation for Advanced Cardiac Life Support Training

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Lindsay E.; Storjohann, Tara D.; Spiegel, Jacqueline J.; Beiber, Kellie M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To determine whether a high-fidelity simulation technique compared with lecture would produce greater improvement in advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) knowledge, confidence, and overall satisfaction with the training method. Design. This sequential, parallel-group, crossover trial randomized students into 2 groups distinguished by the sequence of teaching technique delivered for ACLS instruction (ie, classroom lecture vs high-fidelity simulation exercise). Assessment. Test scores on a written examination administered at baseline and after each teaching technique improved significantly from baseline in all groups but were highest when lecture was followed by simulation. Simulation was associated with a greater degree of overall student satisfaction compared with lecture. Participation in a simulation exercise did not improve pharmacy students’ knowledge of ACLS more than attending a lecture, but it was associated with improved student confidence in skills and satisfaction with learning and application. Conclusions. College curricula should incorporate simulation to complement but not replace lecture for ACLS education. PMID:23610477

  5. High-fidelity simulation and safety: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Shearer, Jennifer E

    2013-01-01

    Previous reviews of simulation relating to critical thinking and efficacy called for more research on the effects of simulation and safety. Safety, as a skill performance outcome of high-fidelity simulation, is reviewed. Data included studies of nursing education that linked safety dimensions with high-fidelity simulation at all student levels. Only primary sources published since 2007 were included. This integrative review evaluates data using scores to assign value to the evidence, analyzes data within categories defined as safety behaviors, and compares evidence using a matrix of factors and outcomes. Definitions of safety and measurement tools are critiqued. Findings reveal that simulation-enhanced clinical experiences may decrease medication errors. Any evidence about perceived improvement in safer communication has not been translated into practice. Knowledge and attitudes of safety may be improved with simulation, depending on the students' educational levels. More comparative studies are needed to support theoretical models of simulation. PMID:23181458

  6. Simulation System Fidelity Assessment at the Vertical Motion Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beard, Steven D.; Reardon, Scott E.; Tobias, Eric L.; Aponso, Bimal L.

    2013-01-01

    Fidelity is a word that is often used but rarely understood when talking about groundbased simulation. Assessing the cueing fidelity of a ground based flight simulator requires a comparison to actual flight data either directly or indirectly. Two experiments were conducted at the Vertical Motion Simulator using the GenHel UH-60A Black Hawk helicopter math model that was directly compared to flight data. Prior to the experiment the simulator s motion and visual system frequency responses were measured, the aircraft math model was adjusted to account for the simulator motion system delays, and the motion system gains and washouts were tuned for the individual tasks. The tuned motion system fidelity was then assessed against the modified Sinacori criteria. The first experiments showed similar handling qualities ratings (HQRs) to actual flight for a bob-up and sidestep maneuvers. The second experiment showed equivalent HQRs between flight and simulation for the ADS33 slalom maneuver for the two pilot participants. The ADS33 vertical maneuver HQRs were mixed with one pilot rating the flight and simulation the same while the second pilot rated the simulation worse. In addition to recording HQRs on the second experiment, an experimental Simulation Fidelity Rating (SFR) scale developed by the University of Liverpool was tested for applicability to engineering simulators. A discussion of the SFR scale for use on the Vertical Motion Simulator is included in this paper.

  7. Optical metrology for high fidelity LCD-TV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Michael E.; Kosmowski, Bogdan B.

    2006-02-01

    The current status of optical metrology of LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) is reviewed in general and shortcomings of characterization of the visual performance of LCD-screens when high visual fidelity is a prime issue are described. We introduce instrumentation, procedures and evaluations for assessment of the visual properties of LCD-TV screens as a solid basis for a clear and objective rating of their performance. Identification of visual artifacts, color and gray-scale fidelity over the complete viewing-cone and under realistic ambient illumination as well as balanced response times between gray-levels are topics of this paper. A novel approach for scanning of the viewing-directions with simultaneous acquisition of 9 spectra is introduced as a solution for the dilemma of speed of measurement and colorimetric precision.

  8. High Fidelity Tape Transfer Printing Based On Chemically Induced Adhesive Strength Modulation

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Kyoseung; Chen, Song; Li, Yuhang; Kammoun, Mejdi; Peng, Yun; Xu, Minwei; Gao, Yang; Song, Jizhou; Zhang, Yingchun; Ardebili, Haleh; Yu, Cunjiang

    2015-01-01

    Transfer printing, a two-step process (i.e. picking up and printing) for heterogeneous integration, has been widely exploited for the fabrication of functional electronics system. To ensure a reliable process, strong adhesion for picking up and weak or no adhesion for printing are required. However, it is challenging to meet the requirements of switchable stamp adhesion. Here we introduce a simple, high fidelity process, namely tape transfer printing(TTP), enabled by chemically induced dramatic modulation in tape adhesive strength. We describe the working mechanism of the adhesion modulation that governs this process and demonstrate the method by high fidelity tape transfer printing several types of materials and devices, including Si pellets arrays, photodetector arrays, and electromyography (EMG) sensors, from their preparation substrates to various alien substrates. High fidelity tape transfer printing of components onto curvilinear surfaces is also illustrated. PMID:26553110

  9. High Fidelity Tape Transfer Printing Based On Chemically Induced Adhesive Strength Modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sim, Kyoseung; Chen, Song; Li, Yuhang; Kammoun, Mejdi; Peng, Yun; Xu, Minwei; Gao, Yang; Song, Jizhou; Zhang, Yingchun; Ardebili, Haleh; Yu, Cunjiang

    2015-11-01

    Transfer printing, a two-step process (i.e. picking up and printing) for heterogeneous integration, has been widely exploited for the fabrication of functional electronics system. To ensure a reliable process, strong adhesion for picking up and weak or no adhesion for printing are required. However, it is challenging to meet the requirements of switchable stamp adhesion. Here we introduce a simple, high fidelity process, namely tape transfer printing(TTP), enabled by chemically induced dramatic modulation in tape adhesive strength. We describe the working mechanism of the adhesion modulation that governs this process and demonstrate the method by high fidelity tape transfer printing several types of materials and devices, including Si pellets arrays, photodetector arrays, and electromyography (EMG) sensors, from their preparation substrates to various alien substrates. High fidelity tape transfer printing of components onto curvilinear surfaces is also illustrated.

  10. High Fidelity Tape Transfer Printing Based On Chemically Induced Adhesive Strength Modulation.

    PubMed

    Sim, Kyoseung; Chen, Song; Li, Yuhang; Kammoun, Mejdi; Peng, Yun; Xu, Minwei; Gao, Yang; Song, Jizhou; Zhang, Yingchun; Ardebili, Haleh; Yu, Cunjiang

    2015-01-01

    Transfer printing, a two-step process (i.e. picking up and printing) for heterogeneous integration, has been widely exploited for the fabrication of functional electronics system. To ensure a reliable process, strong adhesion for picking up and weak or no adhesion for printing are required. However, it is challenging to meet the requirements of switchable stamp adhesion. Here we introduce a simple, high fidelity process, namely tape transfer printing (TTP), enabled by chemically induced dramatic modulation in tape adhesive strength. We describe the working mechanism of the adhesion modulation that governs this process and demonstrate the method by high fidelity tape transfer printing several types of materials and devices, including Si pellets arrays, photodetector arrays, and electromyography (EMG) sensors, from their preparation substrates to various alien substrates. High fidelity tape transfer printing of components onto curvilinear surfaces is also illustrated. PMID:26553110

  11. High-fidelity dispersive readout using squeezed light. Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamal, Archana; Didier, Nicolas; Boutin, Samuel; Gustavsson, Simon; Kerman, Andrew J.; Oliver, William D.; Orlando, Terry P.; Blais, Alexandre; Clerk, Aashish A.

    2015-03-01

    Protocols employing squeezed radiation for quantum measurement have been realized in a gamut of systems. The central idea is to squeeze noise associated with the measured observable to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) beyond the standard shot noise limit of detection. A similar strategy may be exploited to achieve fast, high-fidelity dispersive readout of superconducting qubits. Nonetheless, most of the reported schemes would require small dispersive shifts and/or encode information in vacuum fluctuations of the output quadrature, limiting their applicability in circuit-QED (cQED). In this talk, I will present further details on a new scheme using two-mode squeezing to dramatically enhance SNR in cQED measurement, in a setup where the qubit couples to two readout modes. I will discuss how the scheme is not limited to small dispersive couplings, and how it is robust even against various imperfections. Details on implementation of this protocol in practical cQED setups will also be discussed. This work was sponsored by the Army Research Office (ARO) and by the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Research & Engineering (ASDR&E). Opinions, interpretations, conclusions and recommendations are those of the author and are not necessarily endorsed by the United States Government

  12. Composite pulses for high-fidelity population inversion in optically dense, inhomogeneously broadened atomic ensembles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demeter, Gabor

    2016-02-01

    We derive composite pulse sequences that achieve high-fidelity excitation of two-state systems in an optically dense, inhomogeneously broadened ensemble. The composite pulses are resistant to distortions due to the backaction of the medium they propagate in and are able to create high-fidelity inversion to optical depths α z >10 . They function well with smooth pulse shapes used for coherent control of optical atomic transitions in quantum computation and communication. They are an intermediary solution between single π -pulse excitation schemes and adiabatic passage schemes, being far more error tolerant than the former but still considerably faster than the latter.

  13. High-fidelity quantum state evolution in imperfect photonic integrated circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mower, Jacob; Harris, Nicholas C.; Steinbrecher, Gregory R.; Lahini, Yoav; Englund, Dirk

    2015-09-01

    We propose and analyze the design of a programmable photonic integrated circuit for high-fidelity quantum computation and simulation. We demonstrate that the reconfigurability of our design allows us to overcome two major impediments to quantum optics on a chip: it removes the need for a full fabrication cycle for each experiment and allows for compensation of fabrication errors using numerical optimization techniques. Under a pessimistic fabrication model for the silicon-on-insulator process, we demonstrate a dramatic fidelity improvement for the linear optics controlled-not and controlled-phase gates and, showing the scalability of this approach, the iterative phase estimation algorithm built from individually optimized gates. We also propose and simulate an experiment that the programmability of our system would enable: a statistically robust study of the evolution of entangled photons in disordered quantum walks. Overall, our results suggest that existing fabrication processes are sufficient to build a quantum photonic processor capable of high-fidelity operation.

  14. Designing High Fidelity Simulation to Maximize Student Registered Nursing Decision-Making Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deckers, Cathleen

    2011-01-01

    The current healthcare environment is a complex system of patients, procedures, and equipment that strives to deliver safe and effective medical care. High fidelity simulation provides healthcare educators with a tool to create safety conscious practitioners utilizing an environment that replicates practice without risk to patients. Using HFS…

  15. Demonstration of deterministic and high fidelity squeezing of quantum information

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, Jun-ichi; Takei, Nobuyuki; Furusawa, Akira; Hayashi, Toshiki; Akiyama, Takayuki; Huck, Alexander; Andersen, Ulrik L.

    2007-12-15

    By employing a recent proposal [R. Filip, P. Marek, and U.L. Andersen, Phys. Rev. A 71, 042308 (2005)] we experimentally demonstrate a universal, deterministic, and high-fidelity squeezing transformation of an optical field. It relies only on linear optics, homodyne detection, feedforward, and an ancillary squeezed vacuum state, thus direct interaction between a strong pump and the quantum state is circumvented. We demonstrate three different squeezing levels for a coherent state input. This scheme is highly suitable for the fault-tolerant squeezing transformation in a continuous variable quantum computer.

  16. Installing the Communities that Care Prevention System: Implementation Progress and Fidelity in a Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinby, Rose K.; Hanson, Koren; Brooke-Weiss, Blair; Arthur, Michael W.; Hawkins, J. David; Fagan, Abigail A.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the degree to which high fidelity implementation of the Communities That Care (CTC) prevention operating system was reached during the first 18 months of intervention in 12 communities in the Community Youth Development Study, a 5-year group randomized controlled trial designed to test the efficacy of the CTC system. CTC…

  17. High Fidelity of Base Paring by 2-Selenothymidine in DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Hassan, A.; Sheng, J; Zhang, W; Huang, Z

    2010-01-01

    The base pairs are the contributors to the sequence-dependent recognition of nucleic acids, genetic information storage, and high fidelity of DNA polymerase replication. However, the wobble base pairing, where T pairs with G instead of A, reduces specific base-pairing recognition and compromises the high fidelity of the enzymatic polymerization. Via the selenium atomic probing at the 2-position of thymidine, we have investigated the wobble discrimination by manipulating the steric and electronic effects at the 2-exo position, providing a unique chemical strategy to enhance the base pair specificity. We report here the first synthesis of the novel 2-Se-thymidine ({sup Se}T) derivative, its phosphoramidite, and the Se-DNAs. Our biophysical and structural studies of the 2-Se-T DNAs reveal that the bulky 2-Se atom with a weak hydrogen-bonding ability can largely increase mismatch discriminations (including T/G wobble and T/C mismatched base pairs) while maintaining the {sup Se}T/A virtually identical to the native T/A base pair. The 2-Se atom bulkiness and the electronic effect are probably the main factors responsible for the discrimination against the formation of the wobble {sup Se}T/G base pair. Our investigations provide a potential novel tool to investigate the specific recognition of base pairs, which is the basis of high fidelity during replication, transcription, and translation. Furthermore, this Se-atom-specific substitution and probing are useful for X-ray crystal structure and function studies of nucleic acids.

  18. Simulation Basics: How to Conduct a High-Fidelity Simulation.

    PubMed

    Willhaus, Janet

    2016-02-01

    Well-planned and conducted health care simulation scenarios provide opportunities for staff development in areas such as communication, patient care, and teamwork. Consideration of resources, the location for the training, preparation of learners, and use of either a high-fidelity mannequin or a trained actor (eg, a standardized patient) are all part of the operational attentions needed to conduct a simulation training scenario. In order for participants to meet training objectives, the execution of the simulation session must be both planned and purposeful. PMID:26909456

  19. High-fidelity numerical simulation of the dynamic beam equation

    SciTech Connect

    Mattsson, Ken Stiernström, Vidar

    2015-04-01

    A high-fidelity finite difference approximation of the dynamic beam equation is derived. Different types of well-posed boundary conditions are analysed. The boundary closures are based on the summation-by-parts (SBP) framework and the boundary conditions are imposed using a penalty (SAT) technique, to guarantee linear stability. The resulting SBP–SAT approximation leads to fully explicit time integration. The accuracy and stability properties of the newly derived SBP–SAT approximations are demonstrated for both 1-D and 2-D problems.

  20. High-fidelity geometric modeling for biomedical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Zeyun; Holst, Michael J.; Andrew McCammon, J.

    2008-07-01

    We describe a combination of algorithms for high fidelity geometric modeling and mesh generation. Although our methods and implementations are application-neutral, our primary target application is multiscale biomedical models that range in scales across the molecular, cellular, and organ levels. Our software toolchain implementing these algorithms is general in the sense that it can take as input a molecule in PDB/PQR forms, a 3D scalar volume, or a user-defined triangular surface mesh that may have very low quality. The main goal of our work presented is to generate high quality and smooth surface triangulations from the aforementioned inputs, and to reduce the mesh sizes by mesh coarsening. Tetrahedral meshes are also generated for finite element analysis in biomedical applications. Experiments on a number of bio-structures are demonstrated, showing that our approach possesses several desirable properties: feature-preservation, local adaptivity, high quality, and smoothness (for surface meshes). The availability of this software toolchain will give researchers in computational biomedicine and other modeling areas access to higher-fidelity geometric models.

  1. Patterns of communication in high-fidelity simulation.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Judy K; Nelson, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    High-fidelity simulation is commonplace in nursing education. However, critical thinking, decision making, and psychomotor skills scenarios are emphasized. Scenarios involving communication occur in interprofessional or intraprofessional settings. The importance of effective nurse-patient communication is reflected in statements from the American Nurses Association and Quality and Safety Education for Nurses, and in the graduate outcomes of most nursing programs. This qualitative study examined the patterns of communication observed in video recordings of a medical-surgical scenario with 71 senior students in a baccalaureate program. Thematic analysis revealed patterns of (a) focusing on tasks, (b) communicating-in-action, and (c) being therapeutic. Additional categories under the patterns included missing opportunities, viewing the "small picture," relying on informing, speaking in "medical tongues," offering choices…okay?, feeling uncomfortable, and using therapeutic techniques. The findings suggest the importance of using high-fidelity simulation to develop expertise in communication. In addition, the findings reinforce the recommendation to prioritize communication aspects of scenarios and debriefing for all simulations. PMID:25545143

  2. Enhancing pediatric clinical competency with high-fidelity simulation.

    PubMed

    Birkhoff, Susan D; Donner, Carol

    2010-09-01

    In today's tertiary pediatric hospital setting, the increased complexity of patient care demands seamless coordination and collaboration among multidisciplinary team members. In an effort to enhance patient safety, clinical competence, and teamwork, simulation-based learning has become increasingly integrated into pediatric clinical practice as an innovative educational strategy. The simulated setting provides a risk-free environment where learners can incorporate cognitive, psychomotor, and affective skill acquisition without fear of harming patients. One pediatric university hospital in Southeastern Pennsylvania has enhanced the traditional American Heart Association (AHA) Pediatric Advanced Life Support (PALS) course by integrating high-fidelity simulation into skill acquisition, while still functioning within the guidelines and framework of the AHA educational standards. However, very little research with reliable standardized testing methods has been done to measure the effect of simulation-based learning. This article discusses the AHA guidelines for PALS, evaluation of PALS and nursing clinical competencies, communication among a multidisciplinary team, advantages and disadvantages of simulation, incorporation of high-fidelity simulation into pediatric practice, and suggestions for future practice. PMID:20506930

  3. High Fidelity Simulation of Primary Atomization in Diesel Engine Sprays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivey, Christopher; Bravo, Luis; Kim, Dokyun

    2014-11-01

    A high-fidelity numerical simulation of jet breakup and spray formation from a complex diesel fuel injector at ambient conditions has been performed. A full understanding of the primary atomization process in fuel injection of diesel has not been achieved for several reasons including the difficulties accessing the optically dense region. Due to the recent advances in numerical methods and computing resources, high fidelity simulations of atomizing flows are becoming available to provide new insights of the process. In the present study, an unstructured un-split Volume-of-Fluid (VoF) method coupled to a stochastic Lagrangian spray model is employed to simulate the atomization process. A common rail fuel injector is simulated by using a nozzle geometry available through the Engine Combustion Network. The working conditions correspond to a single orifice (90 μm) JP-8 fueled injector operating at an injection pressure of 90 bar, ambient condition at 29 bar, 300 K filled with 100% nitrogen with Rel = 16,071, Wel = 75,334 setting the spray in the full atomization mode. The experimental dataset from Army Research Lab is used for validation in terms of spray global parameters and local droplet distributions. The quantitative comparison will be presented and discussed. Supported by Oak Ridge Associated Universities and the Army Research Laboratory.

  4. Rapid high-fidelity visualisation of multispectral 3D mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tudor, Philip M.; Christy, Mark

    2011-06-01

    Mobile LIDAR scanning typically provides captured 3D data in the form of 3D 'Point Clouds'. Combined with colour imagery these data produce coloured point clouds or, if further processed, polygon-based 3D models. The use of point clouds is simple and rapid, but visualisation can appear ghostly and diffuse. Textured 3D models provide high fidelity visualisation, but their creation is time consuming, difficult to automate and can modify key terrain details. This paper describes techniques for the visualisation of fused multispectral 3D data that approach the visual fidelity of polygon-based models with the rapid turnaround and detail of 3D point clouds. The general approaches to data capture and data fusion are identified as well as the central underlying mathematical transforms, data management and graphics processing techniques used to support rapid, interactive visualisation of very large multispectral 3D datasets. Performance data with respect to real-world 3D mapping as well as illustrations of visualisation outputs are included.

  5. High Fidelity Simulations of Unsteady Flow through Turbopumps and Flowliners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiris, Cetin C.; Kwak, dochan; Chan, William; Housman, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    High fidelity computations were carried out to analyze the orbiter LH2 feedline flowliner. Computations were performed on the Columbia platform which is a 10,240-processor supercluster consisting of 20 Altix nodes with 512 processor each. Various computational models were used to characterize the unsteady flow features in the turbopump, including the orbiter Low-Pressure-Fuel-Turbopump (LPFTP) inducer, the orbiter manifold and a test article used to represent the manifold. Unsteady flow originating from the orbiter LPFTP inducer is one of the major contributors to the high frequency cyclic loading that results in high cycle fatigue damage to the gimbal flowliners just upstream of the LPFTP. The flow fields for the orbiter manifold and representative test article are computed and analyzed for similarities and differences. The incompressible Navier-Stokes flow solver INS3D, based on the artificial compressibility method, was used to compute the flow of liquid hydrogen in each test article.

  6. High-Fidelity Measurements of Long-Lived Flux Qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hover, David; Macklin, Chris; O'Brien, Kevin; Sears, Adam; Yoder, Jonilyn; Gudmundsen, Ted; Kerman, Jamie; Bolkhovsky, Vladimir; Tolpygo, Sergey; Fitch, George; Weir, Terry; Kamal, Archana; Gustavsson, Simon; Yan, Fei; Birenbaum, Jeff; Siddiqi, Irfan; Orlando, Terry; Clarke, John; Oliver, Will

    2015-03-01

    We report on high-fidelity dispersive measurements of a long-lived flux qubit using a Josephson superconducting traveling wave parametric amplifier (JTWPA). A capacitively shunted flux qubit that incorporates high-Q MBE aluminum will have longer relaxation and dephasing times when compared to a conventional flux qubit, while also maintaining the large anharmonicity necessary for complex gate operations. The JTWPA relies on a Josephson junction embedded transmission line to deliver broadband, nonreciprocal gain with large dynamic range. This research was funded in part by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI), Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA); and by the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Research & Engineering under Air Force Contract number FA8721-05-C-0002. All statements of fact, opinion or conclusions contained herein are those of the authors and should not be construed as representing the official views or policies of

  7. Process to Create High-Fidelity Lunar Dust Simulants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gustafson, Robert

    2010-01-01

    A method was developed to create high-fidelity lunar dust simulants that better match the unique properties of lunar dust than the existing simulants. The new dust simulant is designed to more closely approximate the size, morphology, composition, and other important properties of lunar dust (including the presence of nanophase iron). A two-step process is required to create this dust simulant. The first step is to prepare a feedstock material that contains a high percentage of agglutinate-like particles with iron globules (including nanophase iron). The raw material selected must have the proper mineralogical composition. In the second processing step, the feedstock material from the first step is jet-milled to reduce the particle size to a range consistent with lunar dust.

  8. Automating Initial Guess Generation for High Fidelity Trajectory Optimization Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Villa, Benjamin; Lantoine, Gregory; Sims, Jon; Whiffen, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Many academic studies in spaceflight dynamics rely on simplified dynamical models, such as restricted three-body models or averaged forms of the equations of motion of an orbiter. In practice, the end result of these preliminary orbit studies needs to be transformed into more realistic models, in particular to generate good initial guesses for high-fidelity trajectory optimization tools like Mystic. This paper reviews and extends some of the approaches used in the literature to perform such a task, and explores the inherent trade-offs of such a transformation with a view toward automating it for the case of ballistic arcs. Sample test cases in the libration point regimes and small body orbiter transfers are presented.

  9. Adaptive resolution refinement for high-fidelity continuum parameterizations

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.W.; Khamayseh, A.; Jean, B.A.

    1996-10-01

    This paper describes an algorithm the adaptively samples a parametric continuum so that a fidelity metric is satisfied. Using the divide-and-conquer strategy of adaptive sampling eliminates the guesswork of traditional uniform parameterization techniques. The space and time complexity of parameterization are increased in a controllable manner so that a desired fidelity is obtained.

  10. High-Fidelity Simulation as an Experiential Model for Teaching Root Cause Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Quraishi, Sadeq A.; Kimatian, Stephen J.; Murray, W. Bosseau; Sinz, Elizabeth H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of high-fidelity simulation for teaching root cause analysis (RCA) in graduate medical education. Methods Thirty clinical anesthesiology-1 through clinical anesthesiology-3 residents were randomly assigned to 2 groups: group A participants received a 10-minute lecture on RCA and participated in a simulation exercise where a medical error occurs, and group B participants received the 10-minute lecture on RCA only. Participants completed baseline, postintervention, and 6-month follow-up assessments, and they were evaluated on their attitude toward as well as understanding of RCA and “systems-based” care. Results All 30 residents completed the surveys. Baseline attitudes and knowledge scores were similar between groups. Postintervention knowledge scores were also similar between groups; however, group B was significantly more skeptical (P < .001) about the use of RCA and “systems improvement” strategies. Six months later, group A demonstrated retained knowledge scores and unchanged attitude, whereas group B demonstrated significantly worse knowledge scores (P  =  .001) as well as continued skepticism toward a systems-based approach (P < .001) to medical error reduction. Conclusion High-fidelity simulation in conjunction with focused didactics is an effective strategy for teaching RCA and systems theory in graduate medical education. Our findings also suggest that there is greater retention of knowledge and increased positive attitude toward systems improvement when focused didactics are coupled with a high-fidelity simulation exercise. PMID:23205203

  11. Observational Requirements for High-Fidelity Reverberation Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horne, Keith; Peterson, Bradley M.; Collier, Stefan J.; Netzer, Hagai

    2004-01-01

    We present a series of simulations to demonstrate that high-fidelity velocity-delay maps of the emission-line regions in active galactic nuclei can be obtained from time-resolved spectrophotometric data sets like those that will arise from the proposed Kronos satellite. While previous reverberation-mapping experiments have established the size scale R of the broad emission-line regions from the mean time delay tau = R/c between the line and continuum variations and have provided strong evidence for supermassive black holes, the detailed structure and kinematics of the broad-line region remain ambiguous and poorly constrained. Here we outline the technical improvements that will be required to successfully map broad-line regions by reverberation techniques. For typical AGN continuum light curves, characterized by power-law power spectra P (f) is proportional to f(exp -alpha) with a = -1.5 +/- 0.5, our simulations show that a small UV/optical spectrometer like Kronos will clearly distinguish between currently viable alternative kinematic models. From spectra sampled at time intervals Delta t and sustained for a total duration T(sub dur), we can reconstruct high-fidelity velocity-delay maps with velocity resolution comparable to that of the spectra, and delay resolution Delta tau approx. 2 Delta t, provided T(sub dur) exceeds the broad-line region light crossing time by at least a factor of three. Even very complicated kinematical models, such as a Keplerian flow with superimposed spiral wave pattern, are resolved in maps from our simulated Kronos datasets. Reverberation mapping with Kronos data is therefore likely deliver the first clear maps of the geometry and kinematics in the broad emission-line regions 1-100 microarcseconds from supermassive black holes.

  12. High fidelity chemistry and radiation modeling for oxy -- combustion scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul Sater, Hassan A.

    To account for the thermal and chemical effects associated with the high CO2 concentrations in an oxy-combustion atmosphere, several refined gas-phase chemistry and radiative property models have been formulated for laminar to highly turbulent systems. This thesis examines the accuracies of several chemistry and radiative property models employed in computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations of laminar to transitional oxy-methane diffusion flames by comparing their predictions against experimental data. Literature review about chemistry and radiation modeling in oxy-combustion atmospheres considered turbulent systems where the predictions are impacted by the interplay and accuracies of the turbulence, radiation and chemistry models. Thus, by considering a laminar system we minimize the impact of turbulence and the uncertainties associated with turbulence models. In the first section of this thesis, an assessment and validation of gray and non-gray formulations of a recently proposed weighted-sum-of-gray gas model in oxy-combustion scenarios was undertaken. Predictions of gas, wall temperatures and flame lengths were in good agreement with experimental measurements. The temperature and flame length predictions were not sensitive to the radiative property model employed. However, there were significant variations between the gray and non-gray model radiant fraction predictions with the variations in general increasing with decrease in Reynolds numbers possibly attributed to shorter flames and steeper temperature gradients. The results of this section confirm that non-gray model predictions of radiative heat fluxes are more accurate than gray model predictions especially at steeper temperature gradients. In the second section, the accuracies of three gas-phase chemistry models were assessed by comparing their predictions against experimental measurements of temperature, species concentrations and flame lengths. The chemistry was modeled employing the Eddy

  13. High-fidelity qubit measurement with a microwave-photon counter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govia, Luke C. G.; Pritchett, Emily J.; Xu, Canran; Plourde, B. L. T.; Vavilov, Maxim G.; Wilhelm, Frank K.; McDermott, R.

    2014-12-01

    High-fidelity, efficient quantum nondemolition readout of quantum bits is integral to the goal of quantum computation. As superconducting circuits approach the requirements of scalable, universal fault tolerance, qubit readout must also meet the demand of simplicity to scale with growing system size. Here we propose a fast, high-fidelity, scalable measurement scheme based on the state-selective ring-up of a cavity followed by photodetection with the recently introduced Josephson photomultiplier (JPM), a current-biased Josephson junction. This scheme maps qubit state information to the binary digital output of the JPM, circumventing the need for room-temperature heterodyne detection and offering the possibility of a cryogenic interface to superconducting digital control circuitry. Numerics show that measurement contrast in excess of 95% is achievable in a measurement time of 140 ns. We discuss perspectives to scale this scheme to enable readout of multiple qubit channels with a single JPM.

  14. High fidelity, radiation tolerant analog-to-digital converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Charles Chang-I (Inventor); Linscott, Ivan Richard (Inventor); Inan, Umran S. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Techniques for an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) using pipeline architecture includes a linearization technique for a spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR) over 80 deciBels. In some embodiments, sampling rates exceed a megahertz. According to a second approach, a switched-capacitor circuit is configured for correct operation in a high radiation environment. In one embodiment, the combination yields high fidelity ADC (>88 deciBel SFDR) while sampling at 5 megahertz sampling rates and consuming <60 milliWatts. Furthermore, even though it is manufactured in a commercial 0.25-.mu.m CMOS technology (1 .mu.m=12.sup.-6 meters), it maintains this performance in harsh radiation environments. Specifically, the stated performance is sustained through a highest tested 2 megarad(Si) total dose, and the ADC displays no latchup up to a highest tested linear energy transfer of 63 million electron Volts square centimeters per milligram at elevated temperature (131 degrees C.) and supply (2.7 Volts, versus 2.5 Volts nominal).

  15. High-fidelity simulation for continuing education in nurse anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Cannon-Diehl, M Roseann; Rugari, Susan M; Jones, Terri S

    2012-06-01

    Simulation represents a true paradigm shift in teaching and learning that has revolutionized healthcare education. However, few continuing education opportunities for anesthesia providers exist using simulation of any type. This article explores the usefulness of high-fidelity simulation (HFS) as a valuable tool for continuing education and reports the results of a needs assessment conducted among 22 practicing nurse anesthetists. The questions related to their exposure to HFS and asked them to rank their experience with 11 anesthesia events. Next, respondents were asked to rank a similar list of anesthesia events that would be useful for continuing education using simulation. Of participants, 71% ranked advanced cardiac life support scenarios, anesthesia machine mishaps, and malignant hyperthermia as highly effective choices for using HFS. Eighty-one percent of participants identified that they envision simulation as a valuable tool to assess competency, but respondents had mixed written responses when asked if simulation should be used for recertification. This needs assessment represents a beginning, grassroots attempt to establish nurse anesthetists' perceptions related to using HFS as a tool for continuing education. PMID:22848980

  16. Computer-Based versus High-Fidelity Mannequin Simulation in Developing Clinical Judgment in Nursing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Beverly J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if students learn clinical judgment as effectively using computer-based simulations as when using high-fidelity mannequin simulations. There was a single research questions for this study: What is the difference in clinical judgment between participants completing high-fidelity human simulator mannequin…

  17. Room temperature high-fidelity holonomic single-qubit gate on a solid-state spin

    PubMed Central

    Arroyo-Camejo, Silvia; Lazariev, Andrii; Hell, Stefan W.; Balasubramanian, Gopalakrishnan

    2014-01-01

    At its most fundamental level, circuit-based quantum computation relies on the application of controlled phase shift operations on quantum registers. While these operations are generally compromised by noise and imperfections, quantum gates based on geometric phase shifts can provide intrinsically fault-tolerant quantum computing. Here we demonstrate the high-fidelity realization of a recently proposed fast (non-adiabatic) and universal (non-Abelian) holonomic single-qubit gate, using an individual solid-state spin qubit under ambient conditions. This fault-tolerant quantum gate provides an elegant means for achieving the fidelity threshold indispensable for implementing quantum error correction protocols. Since we employ a spin qubit associated with a nitrogen-vacancy colour centre in diamond, this system is based on integrable and scalable hardware exhibiting strong analogy to current silicon technology. This quantum gate realization is a promising step towards viable, fault-tolerant quantum computing under ambient conditions. PMID:25216026

  18. Room temperature high-fidelity holonomic single-qubit gate on a solid-state spin.

    PubMed

    Arroyo-Camejo, Silvia; Lazariev, Andrii; Hell, Stefan W; Balasubramanian, Gopalakrishnan

    2014-01-01

    At its most fundamental level, circuit-based quantum computation relies on the application of controlled phase shift operations on quantum registers. While these operations are generally compromised by noise and imperfections, quantum gates based on geometric phase shifts can provide intrinsically fault-tolerant quantum computing. Here we demonstrate the high-fidelity realization of a recently proposed fast (non-adiabatic) and universal (non-Abelian) holonomic single-qubit gate, using an individual solid-state spin qubit under ambient conditions. This fault-tolerant quantum gate provides an elegant means for achieving the fidelity threshold indispensable for implementing quantum error correction protocols. Since we employ a spin qubit associated with a nitrogen-vacancy colour centre in diamond, this system is based on integrable and scalable hardware exhibiting strong analogy to current silicon technology. This quantum gate realization is a promising step towards viable, fault-tolerant quantum computing under ambient conditions. PMID:25216026

  19. Framework for Multidisciplinary Analysis, Design, and Optimization with High-Fidelity Analysis Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orr, Stanley A.; Narducci, Robert P.

    2009-01-01

    A plan is presented for the development of a high fidelity multidisciplinary optimization process for rotorcraft. The plan formulates individual disciplinary design problems, identifies practical high-fidelity tools and processes that can be incorporated in an automated optimization environment, and establishes statements of the multidisciplinary design problem including objectives, constraints, design variables, and cross-disciplinary dependencies. Five key disciplinary areas are selected in the development plan. These are rotor aerodynamics, rotor structures and dynamics, fuselage aerodynamics, fuselage structures, and propulsion / drive system. Flying qualities and noise are included as ancillary areas. Consistency across engineering disciplines is maintained with a central geometry engine that supports all multidisciplinary analysis. The multidisciplinary optimization process targets the preliminary design cycle where gross elements of the helicopter have been defined. These might include number of rotors and rotor configuration (tandem, coaxial, etc.). It is at this stage that sufficient configuration information is defined to perform high-fidelity analysis. At the same time there is enough design freedom to influence a design. The rotorcraft multidisciplinary optimization tool is built and substantiated throughout its development cycle in a staged approach by incorporating disciplines sequentially.

  20. Supporting the lecturer to deliver high-fidelity simulation.

    PubMed

    Dowie, Iwan; Phillips, Cheryl

    In response to a shortage of clinical practice placements for pre-registration nurses and midwives, nursing faculties have been examining alternative ways to support students to develop their clinical skills, with simulation being one of the more popular methods. In a nursing context, simulation is often used to replicate a clinical setting, such as a hospital ward or the patient's home. Some universities have introduced clinical suites that enable replication of clinical environments and offer the use of human patient simulators to mimic patient-focused scenarios. This article describes a small informal review that aimed to identify how lecturers felt about simulation in one faculty using high-fidelity simulated scenarios to inform the development of a subsequent research study. The results indicate that although many staff use simulation and believe it is a beneficial approach to learning, many also lack confidence and do not feel sufficiently prepared in its use. Most participants felt that the development of a simulation module for lecturers would increase their confidence. PMID:21905378

  1. High Fidelity Failure Analysis for a Composite Fuselage Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jain; Davila, Carlos G.; Chen, Tzi-Kang

    2001-01-01

    A high fidelity delamination failure analysis was developed by combining a local failure analysis with a global full-scale finite element structural analysis to address strength and delamination failure in a single package. The methodology was demonstrated through a local three-dimensional pull-off failure analysis and a geometrically nonlinear structural analysis of a five-foot composite helicopter fuselage section. Pull-off specimens were used to identify potential debonding failure of co-cured skin-stringer/frame fuselage structures. An investigation of the failed pull-off specimens was performed to determine the location of the failure initiation. Three-dimensional strain energy release rate analysis indicates that the delamination initiation and growth is controlled by Mode 1 opening mode. The bending moment at the delamination tip was identified as the crucial factor controlling the failure. The geometrically nonlinear structural analysis of a five-foot composite fuselage section was performed using a detailed finite element model. Loads were applied along the periphery of the subcomponent using displacement fields generated from solutions of a full-vehicle model.

  2. The Creation of a CPU Timer for High Fidelity Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dick, Aidan A.

    2011-01-01

    Using C and C++ programming languages, a tool was developed that measures the efficiency of a program by recording the amount of CPU time that various functions consume. By inserting the tool between lines of code in the program, one can receive a detailed report of the absolute and relative time consumption associated with each section. After adapting the generic tool for a high-fidelity launch vehicle simulation program called MAVERIC, the components of a frequently used function called "derivatives ( )" were measured. Out of the 34 sub-functions in "derivatives ( )", it was found that the top 8 sub-functions made up 83.1% of the total time spent. In order to decrease the overall run time of MAVERIC, a launch vehicle simulation program, a change was implemented in the sub-function "Event_Controller ( )". Reformatting "Event_Controller ( )" led to a 36.9% decrease in the total CPU time spent by that sub-function, and a 3.2% decrease in the total CPU time spent by the overarching function "derivatives ( )".

  3. High-fidelity state detection and tomography of a single-ion Zeeman qubit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keselman, A.; Glickman, Y.; Akerman, N.; Kotler, S.; Ozeri, R.

    2011-07-01

    We demonstrate high-fidelity Zeeman qubit state detection in a single trapped 88Sr+ ion. Qubit readout is performed by shelving one of the qubit states to a metastable level using a narrow linewidth diode laser at 674 nm, followed by state-selective fluorescence detection. The average fidelity reached for the readout of the qubit state is 0.9989(1). We then measure the fidelity of state tomography, averaged over all possible single-qubit states, which is 0.9979(2). We also fully characterize the detection process using quantum process tomography. This readout fidelity is compatible with recent estimates of the detection error threshold required for fault-tolerant computation, whereas high-fidelity state tomography opens the way for high-precision quantum process tomography.

  4. Computer image generation: Reconfigurability as a strategy in high fidelity space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartholomew, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    The demand for realistic, high fidelity, computer image generation systems to support space simulation is well established. However, as the number and diversity of space applications increase, the complexity and cost of computer image generation systems also increase. One strategy used to harmonize cost with varied requirements is establishment of a reconfigurable image generation system that can be adapted rapidly and easily to meet new and changing requirements. The reconfigurability strategy through the life cycle of system conception, specification, design, implementation, operation, and support for high fidelity computer image generation systems are discussed. The discussion is limited to those issues directly associated with reconfigurability and adaptability of a specialized scene generation system in a multi-faceted space applications environment. Examples and insights gained through the recent development and installation of the Improved Multi-function Scene Generation System at Johnson Space Center, Systems Engineering Simulator are reviewed and compared with current simulator industry practices. The results are clear; the strategy of reconfigurability applied to space simulation requirements provides a viable path to supporting diverse applications with an adaptable computer image generation system.

  5. A high fidelity real-time simulation of a small turboshaft engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballin, Mark G.

    1988-01-01

    A high-fidelity component-type model and real-time digital simulation of the General Electric T700-GE-700 turboshaft engine were developed for use with current generation real-time blade-element rotor helicopter simulations. A control system model based on the specification fuel control system used in the UH-60A Black Hawk helicopter is also presented. The modeling assumptions and real-time digital implementation methods particular to the simulation of small turboshaft engines are described. The validity of the simulation is demonstrated by comparison with analysis-oriented simulations developed by the manufacturer, available test data, and flight-test time histories.

  6. High-fidelity gates in quantum dot spin qubits

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Teck Seng; Coppersmith, S. N.; Friesen, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Several logical qubits and quantum gates have been proposed for semiconductor quantum dots controlled by voltages applied to top gates. The different schemes can be difficult to compare meaningfully. Here we develop a theoretical framework to evaluate disparate qubit-gating schemes on an equal footing. We apply the procedure to two types of double-dot qubits: the singlet–triplet and the semiconducting quantum dot hybrid qubit. We investigate three quantum gates that flip the qubit state: a DC pulsed gate, an AC gate based on logical qubit resonance, and a gate-like process known as stimulated Raman adiabatic passage. These gates are all mediated by an exchange interaction that is controlled experimentally using the interdot tunnel coupling g and the detuning ϵ, which sets the energy difference between the dots. Our procedure has two steps. First, we optimize the gate fidelity (f) for fixed g as a function of the other control parameters; this yields an that is universal for different types of gates. Next, we identify physical constraints on the control parameters; this yields an upper bound that is specific to the qubit-gate combination. We show that similar gate fidelities should be attainable for singlet-triplet qubits in isotopically purified Si, and for hybrid qubits in natural Si. Considerably lower fidelities are obtained for GaAs devices, due to the fluctuating magnetic fields ΔB produced by nuclear spins. PMID:24255105

  7. High fidelity readout of a transmon qubit using a superconducting low-inductance undulatory galvanometer microwave amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yanbing; Srinivasan, Srikanth J.; Hover, D.; Zhu, Shaojiang; McDermott, R.; Houck, A. A.

    2014-11-01

    We report high-fidelity, quantum non-demolition, single-shot readout of a superconducting transmon qubit using a dc-biased superconducting low-inductance undulatory galvanometer (SLUG) amplifier. The SLUG improves the system signal-to-noise ratio by 6.5 dB in a 20 MHz window compared with a bare high electron mobility transistor amplifier. An optimal cavity drive pulse is chosen using a genetic search algorithm, leading to a maximum combined readout and preparation fidelity of 91.9% with a measurement time of {{T}meas}=200 ns. Using post-selection to remove preparation errors caused by heating, we realize a combined preparation and readout fidelity of 94.3%.

  8. High fidelity replication of surface texture and geometric form of a high aspect ratio aerodynamic test component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton, Karl; Fleming, Leigh; Goodhand, Martin; Racasan, Radu; Zeng, Wenhan

    2016-06-01

    This paper details, assesses and validates a technique for the replication of a titanium wind tunnel test aerofoil in polyurethane resin. Existing resin replication techniques are adapted to overcome the technical difficulties associated with casting a high aspect ratio component. The technique is shown to have high replication fidelity over all important length-scales. The blade chord was accurate to 0.02%, and the maximum blade thickness was accurate to 2.5%. Important spatial and amplitude areal surface texture parameter were accurate to within 2%. Compared to an existing similar system using correlation areal parameters the current technique is shown to have lower fidelity and this difference is discussed. The current technique was developed for the measurement of boundary layer flow ‘laminar to turbulent’ transition for gas turbine compressor blade profiles and this application is illustrated.

  9. Novel approaches to high fidelity qubit state measurement in circuit quantum electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginossar, Eran

    2011-03-01

    Qubit state measurement (`readout') in solid state systems is an open problem, which is currently the subject of intensive experimental and theoretical research. Achieving high fidelity in a single-shot measurement is an interesting quantum control problem, as well as an important component for the successful implementation of quantum information protocols. For superconducting qubits we can distinguish between linear dispersive and nonlinear methods, the latter relying on the bistability of a nonlinear resonator. In the context of circuit quantum electrodynamics, the transmon qubit is strongly coupled to a linear resonator and described by a generalized Jaynes-Cummings model (JCM) with external drive and dissipation. Recent novel approaches to achieve high-fidelity readout in the dispersive regime rely on the intrinsic nonlinearity of the JCM and its ultimate linearity in the high excitation regime. In the degenerate regime we rely on the photon blockade and precise transient dynamics of the system. This regime presents a theoretical challenge and the driven damped JCM model exhibits a dynamical phase transition. Another proposed approach extends the Josephson Bifurcation Amplifier and employs the dynamical effects of frequency chirping of the drive on the coupled qubit-resonator system. We will discuss the physics of these different regimes and describe the readout schemes which have been demonstrated by recent experiments and quantum simulations, as well as the role of quantum fluctuations and optimal control.

  10. Physics and Psychophysics of High-Fidelity Sound. Part 1: Perception of Sound and Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossing, Thomas D.

    1979-01-01

    Presents the first of a series of articles that discuss the perception of sound and music. This series of articles is intended to provide an introduction to the broad subject of high-fidelity sound recording and reproduction. (HM)

  11. High-Fidelity Simulation for Neonatal Nursing Education: An Integrative Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Allyson

    2015-01-01

    The lack of safe avenues to develop neonatal nursing competencies using human subjects leads to the notion that simulation education for neonatal nurses might be an ideal form of education. This integrative literature review compares traditional, teacher-centered education with high-fidelity simulation education for neonatal nurses. It examines the theoretical frameworks used in neonatal nursing education and outlines the advantages of this type of training, including improving communication and teamwork; providing an innovative pedagogical approach; and aiding in skill acquisition, confidence, and participant satisfaction. The importance of debriefing is also examined. High-fidelity simulation is not without disadvantages, including its significant cost, the time associated with training, the need for very complex technical equipment, and increased faculty resource requirements. Innovative uses of high-fidelity simulation in neonatal nursing education are suggested. High-fidelity simulation has great potential but requires additional research to fully prove its efficacy. PMID:26803016

  12. Cultured High-Fidelity Three-Dimensional Human Urogenital Tract Carcinomas and Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, Thomas J. (Inventor); Prewett, Tacey L. (Inventor); Spaulding, Glenn F. (Inventor); Wolf, David A. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    Artificial high-fidelity three-dimensional human urogenital tract carcinomas are propagated under in vitro-microgravity conditions from carcinoma cells. Artificial high-fidelity three-dimensional human urogenital tract carcinomas are also propagated from a coculture of normal urogenital tract cells inoculated with carcinoma cells. The microgravity culture conditions may be microgravity or simulated microgravity created in a horizontal rotating wall culture vessel.

  13. Creation of a Rapid High-Fidelity Aerodynamics Module for a Multidisciplinary Design Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, Muktha; Whittecar, William; Edwards, Stephen; Mavris, Dimitri N.

    2012-01-01

    In the traditional aerospace vehicle design process, each successive design phase is accompanied by an increment in the modeling fidelity of the disciplinary analyses being performed. This trend follows a corresponding shrinking of the design space as more and more design decisions are locked in. The correlated increase in knowledge about the design and decrease in design freedom occurs partly because increases in modeling fidelity are usually accompanied by significant increases in the computational expense of performing the analyses. When running high fidelity analyses, it is not usually feasible to explore a large number of variations, and so design space exploration is reserved for conceptual design, and higher fidelity analyses are run only once a specific point design has been selected to carry forward. The designs produced by this traditional process have been recognized as being limited by the uncertainty that is present early on due to the use of lower fidelity analyses. For example, uncertainty in aerodynamics predictions produces uncertainty in trajectory optimization, which can impact overall vehicle sizing. This effect can become more significant when trajectories are being shaped by active constraints. For example, if an optimal trajectory is running up against a normal load factor constraint, inaccuracies in the aerodynamic coefficient predictions can cause a feasible trajectory to be considered infeasible, or vice versa. For this reason, a trade must always be performed between the desired fidelity and the resources available. Apart from this trade between fidelity and computational expense, it is very desirable to use higher fidelity analyses earlier in the design process. A large body of work has been performed to this end, led by efforts in the area of surrogate modeling. In surrogate modeling, an up-front investment is made by running a high fidelity code over a Design of Experiments (DOE); once completed, the DOE data is used to create a

  14. Extensible Adaptable Simulation Systems: Supporting Multiple Fidelity Simulations in a Common Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLaughlin, Brian J.; Barrett, Larry K.

    2012-01-01

    Common practice in the development of simulation systems is meeting all user requirements within a single instantiation. The Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) presents a unique challenge to establish a simulation environment that meets the needs of a diverse user community while also spanning a multi-mission environment over decades of operation. In response, the JPSS Flight Vehicle Test Suite (FVTS) is architected with an extensible infrastructure that supports the operation of multiple observatory simulations for a single mission and multiple mission within a common system perimeter. For the JPSS-1 satellite, multiple fidelity flight observatory simulations are necessary to support the distinct user communities consisting of the Common Ground System development team, the Common Ground System Integration & Test team, and the Mission Rehearsal Team/Mission Operations Team. These key requirements present several challenges to FVTS development. First, the FVTS must ensure all critical user requirements are satisfied by at least one fidelity instance of the observatory simulation. Second, the FVTS must allow for tailoring of the system instances to function in diverse operational environments from the High-security operations environment at NOAA Satellite Operations Facility (NSOF) to the ground system factory floor. Finally, the FVTS must provide the ability to execute sustaining engineering activities on a subset of the system without impacting system availability to parallel users. The FVTS approach of allowing for multiple fidelity copies of observatory simulations represents a unique concept in simulator capability development and corresponds to the JPSS Ground System goals of establishing a capability that is flexible, extensible, and adaptable.

  15. Development of High Fidelity, Fuel-Like Thermal Simulators for Non-Nuclear Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.; Dickens, Ricky; Adams, Mike; Davis, Joe; Kapernick, Richard

    2007-01-30

    Non-nuclear testing can be a valuable tool in the development of a space nuclear power or propulsion system. In a non-nuclear test bed, electric heaters are used to simulate the heat from nuclear fuel. Work at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center seeks to develop high fidelity thermal simulators that not only match the static power profile that would be observed in an operating, fueled nuclear reactor, but also match the dynamic fuel pin performance during feasible transients. Comparison between the fuel pins and thermal simulators is made at the outer fuel clad surface, which corresponds to the outer sheath surface in the thermal simulator. The thermal simulators that are currently being developed are designed to meet the geometric and power requirements of a proposed surface power reactor design, accommodate testing of various axial power profiles, and incorporate imbedded instrumentation. Static and dynamic fuel pin performances for a proposed reactor design have been determined using SINDA/FLUINT thermal analysis software, and initial comparison has been made between the expected nuclear performance and the performance of conceptual thermal simulator designs. Through a series of iterative analysis, a conceptual high fidelity design will be developed, followed by engineering design, fabrication, and testing to validate the overall design process. Although the resulting thermal simulator will be designed for a specific reactor concept, establishing this rigorous design process will assist in streamlining the thermal simulator development for other reactor concepts. This paper presents the current status of high fidelity thermal simulator design relative to a SNAP derivative reactor design that could be applied for Lunar surface power.

  16. Multidisciplinary High-Fidelity Analysis and Optimization of Aerospace Vehicles. Part 2; Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, J. L.; Weston, R. P.; Samareh, J. A.; Mason, B. H.; Green, L. L.; Biedron, R. T.

    2000-01-01

    An objective of the High Performance Computing and Communication Program at the NASA Langley Research Center is to demonstrate multidisciplinary shape and sizing optimization of a complete aerospace vehicle configuration by using high-fidelity finite-element structural analysis and computational fluid dynamics aerodynamic analysis in a distributed, heterogeneous computing environment that includes high performance parallel computing. A software system has been designed and implemented to integrate a set of existing discipline analysis codes, some of them computationally intensive, into a distributed computational environment for the design of a high-speed civil transport configuration. The paper describes both the preliminary results from implementing and validating the multidisciplinary analysis and the results from an aerodynamic optimization. The discipline codes are integrated by using the Java programming language and a Common Object Request Broker Architecture compliant software product. A companion paper describes the formulation of the multidisciplinary analysis and optimization system.

  17. High-fidelity teleportation beyond the no-cloning limit and entanglement swapping for continuous variables.

    PubMed

    Takei, Nobuyuki; Yonezawa, Hidehiro; Aoki, Takao; Furusawa, Akira

    2005-06-10

    We experimentally demonstrate continuous-variable quantum teleportation beyond the no-cloning limit. We teleport a coherent state and achieve the fidelity of 0.70 +/- 0.02 that surpasses the no-cloning limit of 2/3. Surpassing the limit is necessary to transfer the nonclassicality of an input quantum state. By using our high-fidelity teleporter, we demonstrate entanglement swapping, namely, teleportation of quantum entanglement, as an example of transfer of nonclassicality. PMID:16090375

  18. High Fidelity Simulations of Large-Scale Wireless Networks (Plus-Up)

    SciTech Connect

    Onunkwo, Uzoma

    2015-11-01

    Sandia has built a strong reputation in scalable network simulation and emulation for cyber security studies to protect our nation’s critical information infrastructures. Georgia Tech has preeminent reputation in academia for excellence in scalable discrete event simulations, with strong emphasis on simulating cyber networks. Many of the experts in this field, such as Dr. Richard Fujimoto, Dr. George Riley, and Dr. Chris Carothers, have strong affiliations with Georgia Tech. The collaborative relationship that we intend to immediately pursue is in high fidelity simulations of practical large-scale wireless networks using ns-3 simulator via Dr. George Riley. This project will have mutual benefits in bolstering both institutions’ expertise and reputation in the field of scalable simulation for cyber-security studies. This project promises to address high fidelity simulations of large-scale wireless networks. This proposed collaboration is directly in line with Georgia Tech’s goals for developing and expanding the Communications Systems Center, the Georgia Tech Broadband Institute, and Georgia Tech Information Security Center along with its yearly Emerging Cyber Threats Report. At Sandia, this work benefits the defense systems and assessment area with promise for large-scale assessment of cyber security needs and vulnerabilities of our nation’s critical cyber infrastructures exposed to wireless communications.

  19. Multidisciplinary High-Fidelity Analysis and Optimization of Aerospace Vehicles. Part 1; Formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, J. L.; Townsend, J. C.; Salas, A. O.; Samareh, J. A.; Mukhopadhyay, V.; Barthelemy, J.-F.

    2000-01-01

    An objective of the High Performance Computing and Communication Program at the NASA Langley Research Center is to demonstrate multidisciplinary shape and sizing optimization of a complete aerospace vehicle configuration by using high-fidelity, finite element structural analysis and computational fluid dynamics aerodynamic analysis in a distributed, heterogeneous computing environment that includes high performance parallel computing. A software system has been designed and implemented to integrate a set of existing discipline analysis codes, some of them computationally intensive, into a distributed computational environment for the design of a highspeed civil transport configuration. The paper describes the engineering aspects of formulating the optimization by integrating these analysis codes and associated interface codes into the system. The discipline codes are integrated by using the Java programming language and a Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) compliant software product. A companion paper presents currently available results.

  20. High-fidelity readout scheme for rare-earth solid-state quantum computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walther, A.; Rippe, L.; Yan, Y.; Karlsson, J.; Serrano, D.; Nilsson, A. N.; Bengtsson, S.; Kröll, S.

    2015-08-01

    We propose and analyze a high-fidelity readout scheme for a single-instance approach to quantum computing in rare-earth-ion-doped crystals. The scheme is based on using different elements as qubit and readout ions, where the readout ions are doped into the material at a much lower concentration than the qubit ions. It is shown that by allowing the qubit ion sitting closest to a readout ion to act as a readout buffer, the readout error can be reduced by more than an order of magnitude. The scheme is shown to be robust against certain experimental variations, such as varying detection efficiencies, and we use the scheme to predict the attainable quantum fidelity of a controlled not (cnot) gate in these solid-state systems. In addition, we discuss the potential scalability of the protocol to larger qubit systems. The results are based on parameters which we believe are experimentally feasible with current technology and which can be simultaneously realized.

  1. The design and implementation of a high-fidelity Raman imaging microscope.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, S R; Kidder, L H; Herne, T M; Levin, I W; Lewis, E N

    1996-10-01

    We describe a Raman imaging microscope that produces high-fidelity, large format Raman images and Raman spectra from samples as small as 1 micron in size. Laser illumination is delivered to the object by means of an infinity corrected microscope objective, either by a galvanometer scanning system or a widefield fibre optic. Wavelength selection of Raman scattered emission is achieved by an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF), which maintains image fidelity and provides either continuous or random wavelength selection. The collimated AOTF output is imaged first by a tube lens and then by a projection lens onto a cooled silicon CCD array. Instrument features, including factors that determine the system's spatial and spectral resolution, and design considerations are discussed in detail. Images and spectra of test objects and samples that demonstrate the capability of this imaging spectrometer are presented. The potential of intrinsic chemical imaging is discussed in terms of its use in the analyses of a variety of chemical and biological samples. PMID:8923757

  2. Development of High Fidelity, Fuel-Like Thermal Simulators for Non-Nuclear Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg-Sitton, S. M.; Farmer, J.; Dixon, D.; Kapernick, R.; Dickens, R.; Adams, M.

    2007-01-01

    Non-nuclear testing can be a valuable tool in development of a space nuclear power or propulsion system. In a non-nuclear test bed, electric heaters are used to simulate the heat from nuclear fuel. Work at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center seeks to develop high fidelity thermal simulators that not only match the static power profile that would be observed in an operating, fueled nuclear reactor, but to also match the dynamic fuel pin performance during feasible transients. Comparison between the fuel pins and thermal simulators is made at the fuel clad surface, which corresponds to the sheath surface in the thermal simulator. Static and dynamic fuel pin performance was determined using SINDA-FLUINT analysis, and the performance of conceptual thermal simulator designs was compared to the expected nuclear performance. Through a series of iterative analysis, a conceptual high fidelity design will be developed, followed by engineering design, fabrication, and testing to validate the overall design process. Although the resulting thermal simulator will be designed for a specific reactor concept, establishing this rigorous design process will assist in streamlining the thermal simulator development for other reactor concepts.

  3. Clusters of specialized detector cells provide sensitive and high fidelity receptor signaling in the intact endothelium.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Calum; Saunter, Christopher D; Girkin, John M; McCarron, John G

    2016-05-01

    Agonist-mediated signaling by the endothelium controls virtually all vascular functions. Because of the large diversity of agonists, each with varying concentrations, background noise often obscures individual cellular signals. How the endothelium distinguishes low-level fluctuations from noise and decodes and integrates physiologically relevant information remains unclear. Here, we recorded changes in intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations in response to acetylcholine in areas encompassing hundreds of endothelial cells from inside intact pressurized arteries. Individual cells responded to acetylcholine with a concentration-dependent increase in Ca(2+) signals spanning a single order of magnitude. Interestingly, however, intercellular response variation extended over 3 orders of magnitude of agonist concentration, thus crucially enhancing the collective bandwidth of endothelial responses to agonists. We also show the accuracy of this collective mode of detection is facilitated by spatially restricted clusters of comparably sensitive cells arising from heterogeneous receptor expression. Simultaneous stimulation of clusters triggered Ca(2+) signals that were transmitted to neighboring cells in a manner that scaled with agonist concentration. Thus, the endothelium detects agonists by acting as a distributed sensing system. Specialized clusters of detector cells, analogous to relay nodes in modern communication networks, integrate populationwide inputs, and enable robust noise filtering for efficient high-fidelity signaling.-Wilson, C., Saunter, C. D., Girkin, J. M., McCarron, J. G. Clusters of specialized detector cells provide sensitive and high fidelity receptor signaling in the intact endothelium. PMID:26873937

  4. Clusters of specialized detector cells provide sensitive and high fidelity receptor signaling in the intact endothelium

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Calum; Saunter, Christopher D.; Girkin, John M.; McCarron, John G.

    2016-01-01

    Agonist-mediated signaling by the endothelium controls virtually all vascular functions. Because of the large diversity of agonists, each with varying concentrations, background noise often obscures individual cellular signals. How the endothelium distinguishes low-level fluctuations from noise and decodes and integrates physiologically relevant information remains unclear. Here, we recorded changes in intracellular Ca2+ concentrations in response to acetylcholine in areas encompassing hundreds of endothelial cells from inside intact pressurized arteries. Individual cells responded to acetylcholine with a concentration-dependent increase in Ca2+ signals spanning a single order of magnitude. Interestingly, however, intercellular response variation extended over 3 orders of magnitude of agonist concentration, thus crucially enhancing the collective bandwidth of endothelial responses to agonists. We also show the accuracy of this collective mode of detection is facilitated by spatially restricted clusters of comparably sensitive cells arising from heterogeneous receptor expression. Simultaneous stimulation of clusters triggered Ca2+ signals that were transmitted to neighboring cells in a manner that scaled with agonist concentration. Thus, the endothelium detects agonists by acting as a distributed sensing system. Specialized clusters of detector cells, analogous to relay nodes in modern communication networks, integrate populationwide inputs, and enable robust noise filtering for efficient high-fidelity signaling.—Wilson, C., Saunter, C. D., Girkin, J. M., McCarron, J. G. Clusters of specialized detector cells provide sensitive and high fidelity receptor signaling in the intact endothelium. PMID:26873937

  5. High Fidelity Thermal Simulators for Non-Nuclear Testing: Analysis and Initial Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.; Dickens, Ricky; Dixon, David

    2007-01-01

    Non-nuclear testing can be a valuable tool in the development of a space nuclear power system, providing system characterization data and allowing one to work through various fabrication, assembly and integration issues without the cost and time associated with a full ground nuclear test. In a non-nuclear test bed, electric heaters are used to simulate the heat from nuclear fuel. Testing with non-optimized heater elements allows one to assess thermal, heat transfer, and stress related attributes of a given system, but fails to demonstrate the dynamic response that would be present in an integrated, fueled reactor system. High fidelity thermal simulators that match both the static and the dynamic fuel pin performance that would be observed in an operating, fueled nuclear reactor can vastly increase the value of non-nuclear test results. With optimized simulators, the integration of thermal hydraulic hardware tests with simulated neutronie response provides a bridge between electrically heated testing and fueled nuclear testing, providing a better assessment of system integration issues, characterization of integrated system response times and response characteristics, and assessment of potential design improvements' at a relatively small fiscal investment. Initial conceptual thermal simulator designs are determined by simple one-dimensional analysis at a single axial location and at steady state conditions; feasible concepts are then input into a detailed three-dimensional model for comparison to expected fuel pin performance. Static and dynamic fuel pin performance for a proposed reactor design is determined using SINDA/FLUINT thermal analysis software, and comparison is made between the expected nuclear performance and the performance of conceptual thermal simulator designs. Through a series of iterative analyses, a conceptual high fidelity design can developed. Test results presented in this paper correspond to a "first cut" simulator design for a potential

  6. SPARTAN: A High-Fidelity Simulation for Automated Rendezvous and Docking Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turbe, Michael A.; McDuffie, James H.; DeKock, Brandon K.; Betts, Kevin M.; Carrington, Connie K.

    2007-01-01

    bd Systems (a subsidiary of SAIC) has developed the Simulation Package for Autonomous Rendezvous Test and ANalysis (SPARTAN), a high-fidelity on-orbit simulation featuring multiple six-degree-of-freedom (6DOF) vehicles. SPARTAN has been developed in a modular fashion in Matlab/Simulink to test next-generation automated rendezvous and docking guidance, navigation,and control algorithms for NASA's new Vision for Space Exploration. SPARTAN includes autonomous state-based mission manager algorithms responsible for sequencing the vehicle through various flight phases based on on-board sensor inputs and closed-loop guidance algorithms, including Lambert transfers, Clohessy-Wiltshire maneuvers, and glideslope approaches The guidance commands are implemented using an integrated translation and attitude control system to provide 6DOF control of each vehicle in the simulation. SPARTAN also includes high-fidelity representations of a variety of absolute and relative navigation sensors that maybe used for NASA missions, including radio frequency, lidar, and video-based rendezvous sensors. Proprietary navigation sensor fusion algorithms have been developed that allow the integration of these sensor measurements through an extended Kalman filter framework to create a single optimal estimate of the relative state of the vehicles. SPARTAN provides capability for Monte Carlo dispersion analysis, allowing for rigorous evaluation of the performance of the complete proposed AR&D system, including software, sensors, and mechanisms. SPARTAN also supports hardware-in-the-loop testing through conversion of the algorithms to C code using Real-Time Workshop in order to be hosted in a mission computer engineering development unit running an embedded real-time operating system. SPARTAN also contains both runtime TCP/IP socket interface and post-processing compatibility with bdStudio, a visualization tool developed by bd Systems, allowing for intuitive evaluation of simulation results. A

  7. High Fidelity Virtual Environments: Does Shader Quality or Higher Polygon Count Models Increase Presence and Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, Scott

    This research study investigated the effects of high fidelity graphics on both learning and presence, or the "sense of being there," inside a Virtual Learning Environment (VLE). Four versions of a VLE on the subject of the element mercury were created, each with a different combination of high and low fidelity polygon models and high and low fidelity shaders. A total of 76 college age (18+ years of age) participants were randomly assigned to one of the four conditions. The participants interacted with the VLE and then completed several posttest measures on learning, presence, and attitudes towards the VLE experience. Demographic information was also collected, including age, computer gameplay experience, number of virtual environments interacted with, gender and time spent in this virtual environment. The data was analyzed as a 2 x 2 between subjects ANOVA. The main effects of shader fidelity and polygon fidelity were both non-significant for both learning and all presence subscales inside the VLE. In addition, there was no significant interaction between shader fidelity and model fidelity. However, there were two significant results on the supplementary variables. First, gender was found to have a significant main effect on all the presence subscales. Females reported higher average levels of presence than their male counterparts. Second, gameplay hours, or the number of hours a participant played computer games per week, also had a significant main effect on participant score on the learning measure. The participants who reported playing 15+ hours of computer games per week, the highest amount of time in the variable, had the highest score as a group on the mercury learning measure while those participants that played 1-5 hours per week had the lowest scores.

  8. Challenges in the development of high-fidelity LWR core neutronics tools

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.; Forget, B.

    2013-07-01

    Modern computing has made possible the solution of extremely large-scale reactor simulations, and the literature has numerous examples of high-resolution methods (often Monte Carlo) applied to full-core reactor problems. However, there are currently no examples in the literature of application of such 'High-Fidelity' or 'First Principles' methods to operating Light Water Reactor (LWR) analysis. This paper seeks to remind code developers, project managers, and analysts of the many important aspects of LWR simulation that must be incorporated to produce truly high-fidelity analysis tools. The authors offer a monetary prize to the first person (or group) that successfully solves a new two-cycle operational PWR depletion benchmark problem using high-fidelity tools and demonstrates acceptable accuracy by comparison with measured operational plant data (open source) provided to the reactor analysis community. (authors)

  9. A low complexity, low spur digital IF conversion circuit for high-fidelity GNSS signal playback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Fei; Ying, Rendong

    2016-01-01

    A low complexity high efficiency and low spur digital intermediate frequency (IF) conversion circuit is discussed in the paper. This circuit is key element in high-fidelity GNSS signal playback instrument. We analyze the spur performance of a finite state machine (FSM) based numerically controlled oscillators (NCO), by optimization of the control algorithm, a FSM based NCO with 3 quantization stage can achieves 65dB SFDR in the range of the seventh harmonic. Compare with traditional lookup table based NCO design with the same Spurious Free Dynamic Range (SFDR) performance, the logic resource require to implemented the NCO is reduced to 1/3. The proposed design method can be extended to the IF conversion system with good SFDR in the range of higher harmonic components by increasing the quantization stage.

  10. An Automatic Medium to High Fidelity Low-Thrust Global Trajectory Toolchain; EMTG-GMAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beeson, Ryne T.; Englander, Jacob A.; Hughes, Steven P.; Schadegg, Maximillian

    2015-01-01

    Solving the global optimization, low-thrust, multiple-flyby interplanetary trajectory problem with high-fidelity dynamical models requires an unreasonable amount of computational resources. A better approach, and one that is demonstrated in this paper, is a multi-step process whereby the solution of the aforementioned problem is solved at a lower-fidelity and this solution is used as an initial guess for a higher-fidelity solver. The framework presented in this work uses two tools developed by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center: the Evolutionary Mission Trajectory Generator (EMTG) and the General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT). EMTG is a medium to medium-high fidelity low-thrust interplanetary global optimization solver, which now has the capability to automatically generate GMAT script files for seeding a high-fidelity solution using GMAT's local optimization capabilities. A discussion of the dynamical models as well as thruster and power modeling for both EMTG and GMAT are given in this paper. Current capabilities are demonstrated with examples that highlight the toolchains ability to efficiently solve the difficult low-thrust global optimization problem with little human intervention.

  11. High-fidelity cataract surgery simulation and third world blindness.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ajay; Strauss, Glenn H

    2015-04-01

    The burden of global cataract blindness continues to rise, because the number of surgical ophthalmologists is insufficient, and they are unevenly distributed. There is an urgent need to train surgeons quickly and comprehensively in high-quality, low-cost cataract removal techniques. The authors suggest manual small-incision cataract surgery as a safe alternative to phacoemulsification cataract surgery in the developing world. They discuss the development of a novel, full-immersion, physics-based surgical training simulator as the centerpiece of a scalable, comprehensive training system for manual small-incision cataract surgery. PMID:24996918

  12. High-Fidelity Cataract Surgery Simulation and Third World Blindness

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ajay

    2015-01-01

    The burden of global cataract blindness continues to rise, because the number of surgical ophthalmologists is insufficient, and they are unevenly distributed. There is an urgent need to train surgeons quickly and comprehensively in high-quality, low-cost cataract removal techniques. The authors suggest manual small-incision cataract surgery as a safe alternative to phacoemulsification cataract surgery in the developing world. They discuss the development of a novel, full-immersion, physics-based surgical training simulator as the centerpiece of a scalable, comprehensive training system for manual small-incision cataract surgery. PMID:24996918

  13. Use of High Fidelity Methods in Multidisciplinary Optimization-A Preliminary Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guruswamy, Guru P.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Multidisciplinary optimization is a key element of design process. To date multidiscipline optimization methods that use low fidelity methods are well advanced. Optimization methods based on simple linear aerodynamic equations and plate structural equations have been applied to complex aerospace configurations. However, use of high fidelity methods such as the Euler/ Navier-Stokes for fluids and 3-D (three dimensional) finite elements for structures has begun recently. As an activity of Multidiscipline Design Optimization Technical Committee (MDO TC) of AIAA (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics), an effort was initiated to assess the status of the use of high fidelity methods in multidisciplinary optimization. Contributions were solicited through the members MDO TC committee. This paper provides a summary of that survey.

  14. Design of High-Fidelity Testing Framework for Secure Electric Grid Control

    SciTech Connect

    Yoginath, Srikanth B; Perumalla, Kalyan S

    2014-01-01

    A solution methodology and implementation components are presented that can uncover unwanted, unintentional or unanticipated effects on electric grids from changes to actual electric grid control software. A new design is presented to leapfrog over the limitations of current modeling and testing techniques for cyber technologies in electric grids. We design a fully virtualized approach in which actual, unmodified operational software under test is enabled to interact with simulated surrogates of electric grids. It enables the software to influence the (simulated) grid operation and vice versa in a controlled, high fidelity environment. Challenges in achieving such capability include achieving low-overhead time control mechanisms in hypervisor schedulers, network capture and time-stamping, translation of network packets emanating from grid software into discrete events of virtual grid models, translation back from virtual sensors/actuators into data packets to control software, and transplanting the entire system onto an accurately and efficiently maintained virtual-time plane.

  15. High-Fidelity Simulation Meets Athletic Training Education: An Innovative Collaborative Teaching Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Elizabeth; Edwards, Taylor; Racchini, James

    2014-01-01

    High-fidelity simulation is frequently used in nursing education to provide students with simulated experiences prior to and throughout clinical coursework that involves direct patient care. These high-tech exercises take advantage of the benefits of a standardized patient or mock patient encounter, while eliminating some of the drawbacks…

  16. A high-throughput assay for the comprehensive profiling of DNA ligase fidelity

    PubMed Central

    Lohman, Gregory J. S.; Bauer, Robert J.; Nichols, Nicole M.; Mazzola, Laurie; Bybee, Joanna; Rivizzigno, Danielle; Cantin, Elizabeth; Evans, Thomas C.

    2016-01-01

    DNA ligases have broad application in molecular biology, from traditional cloning methods to modern synthetic biology and molecular diagnostics protocols. Ligation-based detection of polynucleotide sequences can be achieved by the ligation of probe oligonucleotides when annealed to a complementary target sequence. In order to achieve a high sensitivity and low background, the ligase must efficiently join correctly base-paired substrates, while discriminating against the ligation of substrates containing even one mismatched base pair. In the current study, we report the use of capillary electrophoresis to rapidly generate mismatch fidelity profiles that interrogate all 256 possible base-pair combinations at a ligation junction in a single experiment. Rapid screening of ligase fidelity in a 96-well plate format has allowed the study of ligase fidelity in unprecedented depth. As an example of this new method, herein we report the ligation fidelity of Thermus thermophilus DNA ligase at a range of temperatures, buffer pH and monovalent cation strength. This screen allows the selection of reaction conditions that maximize fidelity without sacrificing activity, while generating a profile of specific mismatches that ligate detectably under each set of conditions. PMID:26365241

  17. A high-throughput assay for the comprehensive profiling of DNA ligase fidelity.

    PubMed

    Lohman, Gregory J S; Bauer, Robert J; Nichols, Nicole M; Mazzola, Laurie; Bybee, Joanna; Rivizzigno, Danielle; Cantin, Elizabeth; Evans, Thomas C

    2016-01-29

    DNA ligases have broad application in molecular biology, from traditional cloning methods to modern synthetic biology and molecular diagnostics protocols. Ligation-based detection of polynucleotide sequences can be achieved by the ligation of probe oligonucleotides when annealed to a complementary target sequence. In order to achieve a high sensitivity and low background, the ligase must efficiently join correctly base-paired substrates, while discriminating against the ligation of substrates containing even one mismatched base pair. In the current study, we report the use of capillary electrophoresis to rapidly generate mismatch fidelity profiles that interrogate all 256 possible base-pair combinations at a ligation junction in a single experiment. Rapid screening of ligase fidelity in a 96-well plate format has allowed the study of ligase fidelity in unprecedented depth. As an example of this new method, herein we report the ligation fidelity of Thermus thermophilus DNA ligase at a range of temperatures, buffer pH and monovalent cation strength. This screen allows the selection of reaction conditions that maximize fidelity without sacrificing activity, while generating a profile of specific mismatches that ligate detectably under each set of conditions. PMID:26365241

  18. High fidelity modeling of thermal relaxation and dissociation of oxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Andrienko, Daniil A. Boyd, Iain D.

    2015-11-15

    A master equation study of vibrational relaxation and dissociation of oxygen is conducted using state-specific O{sub 2}–O transition rates, generated by extensive trajectory simulations. Both O{sub 2}–O and O{sub 2}–O{sub 2} collisions are concurrently simulated in the evolving nonequilibrium gas system under constant heat bath conditions. The forced harmonic oscillator model is incorporated to simulate the state-to-state relaxation of oxygen in O{sub 2}–O{sub 2} collisions. The system of master equations is solved to simulate heating and cooling flows. The present study demonstrates the importance of atom-diatom collisions due to the extremely efficient energy randomization in the intermediate O{sub 3} complex. It is shown that the presence of atomic oxygen has a significant impact on vibrational relaxation time at temperatures observed in hypersonic flow. The population of highly-excited O{sub 2} vibrational states is affected by the amount of atomic oxygen when modeling the relaxation under constant heat bath conditions. A model of coupled state-to-state vibrational relaxation and dissociation of oxygen is also discussed.

  19. High fidelity modeling of thermal relaxation and dissociation of oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrienko, Daniil A.; Boyd, Iain D.

    2015-11-01

    A master equation study of vibrational relaxation and dissociation of oxygen is conducted using state-specific O2-O transition rates, generated by extensive trajectory simulations. Both O2-O and O2-O2 collisions are concurrently simulated in the evolving nonequilibrium gas system under constant heat bath conditions. The forced harmonic oscillator model is incorporated to simulate the state-to-state relaxation of oxygen in O2-O2 collisions. The system of master equations is solved to simulate heating and cooling flows. The present study demonstrates the importance of atom-diatom collisions due to the extremely efficient energy randomization in the intermediate O3 complex. It is shown that the presence of atomic oxygen has a significant impact on vibrational relaxation time at temperatures observed in hypersonic flow. The population of highly-excited O2 vibrational states is affected by the amount of atomic oxygen when modeling the relaxation under constant heat bath conditions. A model of coupled state-to-state vibrational relaxation and dissociation of oxygen is also discussed.

  20. High fidelity qubit readout with the superconducting low-inductance undulatory galvanometer microwave amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hover, D.; Zhu, S.; Thorbeck, T.; Ribeill, G. J.; Sank, D.; Kelly, J.; Barends, R.; Martinis, John M.; McDermott, R.

    2014-04-01

    We describe the high fidelity dispersive measurement of a superconducting qubit using a microwave amplifier based on the Superconducting Low-inductance Undulatory Galvanometer (SLUG). The SLUG preamplifier achieves gain of 19 dB and yields a signal-to-noise ratio improvement of 9 dB over a state-of-the-art HEMT amplifier. We demonstrate a separation fidelity of 99% at 700 ns compared to 59% with the HEMT alone. The SLUG displays a large dynamic range, with an input saturation power corresponding to 700 photons in the readout cavity.

  1. High fidelity qubit readout with the superconducting low-inductance undulatory galvanometer microwave amplifier

    SciTech Connect

    Hover, D.; Zhu, S.; Thorbeck, T.; Ribeill, G. J.; McDermott, R.; Sank, D.; Kelly, J.; Barends, R.; Martinis, John M.

    2014-04-14

    We describe the high fidelity dispersive measurement of a superconducting qubit using a microwave amplifier based on the Superconducting Low-inductance Undulatory Galvanometer (SLUG). The SLUG preamplifier achieves gain of 19 dB and yields a signal-to-noise ratio improvement of 9 dB over a state-of-the-art HEMT amplifier. We demonstrate a separation fidelity of 99% at 700 ns compared to 59% with the HEMT alone. The SLUG displays a large dynamic range, with an input saturation power corresponding to 700 photons in the readout cavity.

  2. Amplified light storage with high fidelity based on electromagnetically induced transparency in rubidium atomic vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wei; Wang, Gang; Tang, Guoyu; Xue, Yan

    2016-06-01

    By using slow and stored light based on electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), we theoretically realize the storage of optical pulses with enhanced efficiency and high fidelity in ensembles of warm atoms in 85Rb vapor cells. The enhancement of storage efficiency is achieved by introducing a pump field beyond three-level configuration to form a N-type scheme, which simultaneously inhibits the undesirable four-wave mixing effect while preserves its fidelity. It is shown that the typical storage efficiency can be improved from 29% to 53% with the application of pump field. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this efficiency decreases with storage time and increases over unity with optical depth.

  3. The Validity and Incremental Validity of Knowledge Tests, Low-Fidelity Simulations, and High-Fidelity Simulations for Predicting Job Performance in Advanced-Level High-Stakes Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lievens, Filip; Patterson, Fiona

    2011-01-01

    In high-stakes selection among candidates with considerable domain-specific knowledge and experience, investigations of whether high-fidelity simulations (assessment centers; ACs) have incremental validity over low-fidelity simulations (situational judgment tests; SJTs) are lacking. Therefore, this article integrates research on the validity of…

  4. Exploring Interprofessional Education through a High-Fidelity Human Patient Simulation Scenario: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossler, Kelly Lynn

    2013-01-01

    High-fidelity human patient simulation has emerged as a valuable medium to reinforce educational content within programs of nursing. As simulation learning experiences have been identified as augmenting both didactic lecture content and clinical learning, these experiences have expanded to incorporate interprofessional education. Review of…

  5. Developing High-Fidelity Health Care Simulation Scenarios: A Guide for Educators and Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alinier, Guillaume

    2011-01-01

    The development of appropriate scenarios is critical in high-fidelity simulation training. They need to be developed to address specific learning objectives, while not preventing other learning points from emerging. Buying a patient simulator, finding a volunteer to act as the patient, or even obtaining ready-made scenarios from another simulation…

  6. Debriefing after High-Fidelity Simulation and Knowledge Retention: A Quasi-Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Susan L.

    2013-01-01

    High-fidelity simulation (HFS) use in nursing education has been a frequent research topic in recent years. Previous research included studies on the use of HFS with nursing students, focusing on their feelings of self-confidence and anxiety. However, research focused specifically on the debriefing portion of HFS was limited. This quantitative,…

  7. Structural Basis of High-Fidelity DNA Synthesis by Yeast DNA Polymerase δ

    SciTech Connect

    Swan, M.; Johnson, R; Prakash, L; Prakash, S; Aggarwal, A

    2009-01-01

    DNA polymerase ? (Pol ?) has a crucial role in eukaryotic replication. Now the crystal structure of the yeast DNA Pol ? catalytic subunit in complex with template primer and incoming nucleotide is presented at 2.0-A resolution, providing insight into its high fidelity and a framework to understand the effects of mutations involved in tumorigenesis.

  8. Progress in the Utilization of High-Fidelity Simulation in Basic Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helyer, Richard; Dickens, Peter

    2016-01-01

    High-fidelity patient simulators are mainly used to teach clinical skills and remain underutilized in teaching basic sciences. This article summarizes our current views on the use of simulation in basic science education and identifies pitfalls and opportunities for progress.

  9. Becoming a High-Fidelity--"Super"--Imitator: What Are the Contributions of Social and Individual Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subiaul, Francys; Patterson, Eric M.; Schilder, Brian; Renner, Elizabeth; Barr, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to other primates, human children's imitation performance goes from low to high fidelity soon after infancy. Are such changes associated with the development of other forms of learning? We addressed this question by testing 215 children (26-59 months) on two social conditions (imitation, emulation)--involving a demonstration--and two…

  10. The Effects of Utilizing High-Fidelity Simulation in Medical Residency Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saleta, Jennifer M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of utilizing high-fidelity simulation on the team performance, perceived level of learning, and satisfaction of resident physicians in a simulated cardiac resuscitation scenario. This study was significant because it filled a gap in the literature about how methods of education impact healthcare…

  11. High-Fidelity Patient Simulators to Expose Undergraduate Students to the Clinical Relevance of Physiology Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, David M.; Bellew, Christine; Cheng, Zixi J.; Cendán, Juan C.; Kibble, Jonathan D.

    2014-01-01

    The use of high-fidelity patient simulators (HFPSs) has expanded throughout medical, nursing, and allied health professions education in the last decades. These manikins can be programmed to represent pathological states and are used to teach clinical skills as well as clinical reasoning. First, the students are typically oriented either to the…

  12. Assessing the significance of fidelity as a figure of merit in quantum state reconstruction of discrete and continuous-variable systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandarino, Antonio; Bina, Matteo; Porto, Carmen; Cialdi, Simone; Olivares, Stefano; Paris, Matteo G. A.

    2016-06-01

    We experimentally address the significance of fidelity as a figure of merit in quantum state reconstruction of discrete (DV) and continuous-variable (CV) quantum optical systems. In particular, we analyze the use of fidelity in quantum homodyne tomography of CV states and maximum-likelihood polarization tomography of DV ones, focusing attention on nonclassicality, entanglement, and quantum discord as a function of fidelity to a target state. Our findings show that high values of fidelity, despite well quantifying geometrical proximity in the Hilbert space, may be obtained for states displaying opposite physical properties, e.g., quantum or semiclassical features. In particular, we analyze in detail the quantum-to-classical transition for squeezed thermal states of a single-mode optical system and for Werner states of a two-photon polarization qubit system.

  13. System Performance and Policymaking in West European Education: Effectiveness, Efficiency, Responsiveness, and Fidelity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coombs, Fred S.; Luschen, Gunther

    1976-01-01

    One cannot gauge or understand the performance of an educational system by examining the output of that system alone. Presents and discusses four constructs--effectiveness, efficiency, responsiveness, and fidelity--which relate the output of an educational system to the important educational, economic, political and social factors which influence…

  14. Evolution Properties of Atomic Fidelity in the Combined Multi-Atom-Cavity Field System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ju-Xia; Zhang, Xiao-Juan; Zhang, Xiu-Xing

    2015-06-01

    The atom fidelity is investigated in a system consisting of Mtwo-level atoms and M single-mode fields by use of complete quantum theory and numerical evaluation method. The influences of various system parameters on the evolution of atomic fidelity are studied. The results show that the atomic fidelity evolves in a Rabi oscillation manner. The oscillation frequency is mainly modulated by the coupling strength between atoms and light field, the atomic transition probabilities and the average photon numbers. Other factors hardly impact on the atomic fidelity. The present results may provide a useful approach to the maintenance of the atomic fidelity in the atom cavity field systems. Supported by the National Nature Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11304230, Nature Science Foundation of Shaanxi Province under Grant No. 2013JM1006, the Project of Education Department of Shaanxi Provincial Government under Grant No. 2013JK0634, the Special Subject Construction of Weinan Normal University under Grant Nos. 14TSXK06 and 15ZRRC14

  15. In-Group Ostracism Increases High-Fidelity Imitation in Early Childhood.

    PubMed

    Watson-Jones, Rachel E; Whitehouse, Harvey; Legare, Cristine H

    2016-01-01

    The Cyberball paradigm was used to examine the hypothesis that children use high-fidelity imitation as a reinclusion behavior in response to being ostracized by in-group members. Children (N = 176; 5- to 6-year-olds) were either included or excluded by in- or out-group members and then shown a video of an in-group or an out-group member enacting a social convention. Participants who were excluded by their in-group engaged in higher-fidelity imitation than those who were included by their in-group. Children who were included by an out-group and those who were excluded by an out-group showed no difference in imitative fidelity. Children ostracized by in-group members also displayed increased anxiety relative to children ostracized by out-group members. The data are consistent with the proposal that high-fidelity imitation functions as reinclusion behavior in the context of in-group ostracism. PMID:26573906

  16. Test Before You Fly - High Fidelity Planetary Environment Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craven, Paul; Ramachandran, Narayanan; Vaughn, Jason; Schneider, Todd; Nehls, Mary

    2012-01-01

    The lunar surface environment will present many challenges to the survivability of systems developed for long duration lunar habitation and exploration of the lunar, or any other planetary, surface. Obstacles will include issues pertaining especially to the radiation environment (solar plasma and electromagnetic radiation) and lunar regolith dust. The Planetary Environments Chamber is one piece of the MSFC capability in Space Environmental Effects Test and Analysis. Comprised of many unique test systems, MSFC has the most complete set of SEE test capabilities in one location allowing examination of combined space environmental effects without transporting already degraded, potentially fragile samples over long distances between tests. With this system, the individual and combined effects of the lunar radiation and regolith environment on materials, sub-systems, and small systems developed for the lunar return can be investigated. This combined environments facility represents a unique capability to NASA, in which tests can be tailored to any one aspect of the lunar environment (radiation, temperature, vacuum, regolith) or to several of them combined in a single test.

  17. High-fidelity simulation in the nonmedical domain: practices and potential transferable competencies for the medical field

    PubMed Central

    Carron, Pierre-Nicolas; Trueb, Lionel; Yersin, Bertrand

    2011-01-01

    Simulation is a promising pedagogical tool in the area of medical education. High- fidelity simulators can reproduce realistic environments or clinical situations. This allows for the practice of teamwork and communication skills, thereby enhancing reflective reasoning and experiential learning. Use of high-fidelity simulators is not limited to the medical and aeronautical fields, but has developed in a large number of nonmedical organizations as well. The techniques and pedagogical tools which have evolved through the use of nonmedical simulations serve not only as teaching examples but also as avenues which can help further the evolution of the concept of high-fidelity simulation in the field of medicine. This paper presents examples of high-fidelity simulations in the military, maritime, and aeronautical fields. We compare the implementation of high-fidelity simulation in the medical and nonmedical domains, and discuss the possibilities and limitations of simulators in medicine, based on recent nonmedical applications. PMID:23745086

  18. A High-Fidelity Batch Simulation Environment for Integrated Batch and Piloted Air Combat Simulation Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, Kenneth H.; McManus, John W.; Chappell, Alan R.

    1992-01-01

    A batch air combat simulation environment known as the Tactical Maneuvering Simulator (TMS) is presented. The TMS serves as a tool for developing and evaluating tactical maneuvering logics. The environment can also be used to evaluate the tactical implications of perturbations to aircraft performance or supporting systems. The TMS is capable of simulating air combat between any number of engagement participants, with practical limits imposed by computer memory and processing power. Aircraft are modeled using equations of motion, control laws, aerodynamics and propulsive characteristics equivalent to those used in high-fidelity piloted simulation. Databases representative of a modern high-performance aircraft with and without thrust-vectoring capability are included. To simplify the task of developing and implementing maneuvering logics in the TMS, an outer-loop control system known as the Tactical Autopilot (TA) is implemented in the aircraft simulation model. The TA converts guidance commands issued by computerized maneuvering logics in the form of desired angle-of-attack and wind axis-bank angle into inputs to the inner-loop control augmentation system of the aircraft. This report describes the capabilities and operation of the TMS.

  19. Direct assessment of transcription fidelity by high-resolution RNA sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Imashimizu, Masahiko; Oshima, Taku; Lubkowska, Lucyna; Kashlev, Mikhail

    2013-01-01

    Cancerous and aging cells have long been thought to be impacted by transcription errors that cause genetic and epigenetic changes. Until now, a lack of methodology for directly assessing such errors hindered evaluation of their impact to the cells. We report a high-resolution Illumina RNA-seq method that can assess noncoded base substitutions in mRNA at 10−4–10−5 per base frequencies in vitro and in vivo. Statistically reliable detection of changes in transcription fidelity through ∼103 nt DNA sites assures that the RNA-seq can analyze the fidelity in a large number of the sites where errors occur. A combination of the RNA-seq and biochemical analyses of the positions for the errors revealed two sequence-specific mechanisms that increase transcription fidelity by Escherichia coli RNA polymerase: (i) enhanced suppression of nucleotide misincorporation that improves selectivity for the cognate substrate, and (ii) increased backtracking of the RNA polymerase that decreases a chance of error propagation to the full-length transcript after misincorporation and provides an opportunity to proofread the error. This method is adoptable to a genome-wide assessment of transcription fidelity. PMID:23925128

  20. High fidelity, low cost moulage as a valid simulation tool to improve burns education.

    PubMed

    Pywell, M J; Evgeniou, E; Highway, K; Pitt, E; Estela, C M

    2016-06-01

    Simulation allows the opportunity for repeated practice in controlled, safe conditions. Moulage uses materials such as makeup to simulate clinical presentations. Moulage fidelity can be assessed by face validity (realism) and content validity (appropriateness). The aim of this project is to compare the fidelity of professional moulage to non-professional moulage in the context of a burns management course. Four actors were randomly assigned to a professional make-up artist or a course faculty member for moulage preparation such that two actors were in each group. Participants completed the actor-based burn management scenarios and answered a ten-question Likert-scale questionnaire on face and content validity. Mean scores and a linear mixed effects model were used to compare professional and non-professional moulage. Cronbach's alpha assessed internal consistency. Twenty participants experienced three out of four scenarios and at the end of the course completed a total of 60 questionnaires. Professional moulage had higher average ratings for face (4.30 v 3.80; p=0.11) and content (4.30 v 4.00; p=0.06) validity. Internal consistency of face (α=0.91) and content (α=0.85) validity questions was very good. The fidelity of professionally prepared moulage, as assessed by content validity, was higher than non-professionally prepared moulage. We have shown that using professional techniques and low cost materials we can prepare quality high fidelity moulage simulations. PMID:26810642

  1. Bioelectric Control of a 757 Class High Fidelity Aircraft Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgensen, Charles; Wheeler, Kevin; Stepniewski, Slawomir; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents results of a recent experiment in fine grain Electromyographic (EMG) signal recognition, We demonstrate bioelectric flight control of 757 class simulation aircraft landing at San Francisco International Airport. The physical instrumentality of a pilot control stick is not used. A pilot closes a fist in empty air and performs control movements which are captured by a dry electrode array on the arm, analyzed and routed through a flight director permitting full pilot outer loop control of the simulation. A Vision Dome immersive display is used to create a VR world for the aircraft body mechanics and flight changes to pilot movements. Inner loop surfaces and differential aircraft thrust is controlled using a hybrid neural network architecture that combines a damage adaptive controller (Jorgensen 1998, Totah 1998) with a propulsion only based control system (Bull & Kaneshige 1997). Thus the 757 aircraft is not only being flown bioelectrically at the pilot level but also demonstrates damage adaptive neural network control permitting adaptation to severe changes in the physical flight characteristics of the aircraft at the inner loop level. To compensate for accident scenarios, the aircraft uses remaining control surface authority and differential thrust from the engines. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time real time bioelectric fine-grained control, differential thrust based control, and neural network damage adaptive control have been integrated into a single flight demonstration. The paper describes the EMG pattern recognition system and the bioelectric pattern recognition methodology.

  2. High Fidelity Probe and Mitigation of Mirror Thermal Fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalermsongsak, Tara

    Thermal noise arising from mechanical loss in high reflective dielectric coatings is a significant source of noise in precision optical measurements. In particular, Advanced LIGO, a large scale interferometer aiming to observed gravitational wave, is expected to be limited by coating thermal noise in the most sensitive region around 30-300 Hz. Various theoretical calculations for predicting coating Brownian noise have been proposed. However, due to the relatively limited knowledge of the coating material properties, an accurate approximation of the noise cannot be achieved. A testbed that can directly observed coating thermal noise close to Advanced LIGO band will serve as an indispensable tool to verify the calculations, study material properties of the coating, and estimate the detector's performance. This dissertation reports a setup that has sensitivity to observe wide band (10Hz to 1kHz) thermal noise from fused silica/tantala coating at room temperature from fixed-spacer Fabry-Perot cavities. Important fundamental noises and technical noises associated with the setup are discussed. The coating loss obtained from the measurement agrees with results reported in the literature. The setup serves as a testbed to study thermal noise in high reflective mirrors from different materials. One example is a heterostructure of Al xGa1-xAs (AlGaAs). An optimized design to minimize thermo-optic noise in the coating is proposed and discussed in this work.

  3. Modeling methods for high-fidelity rotorcraft flight mechanics simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mansur, M. Hossein; Tischler, Mark B.; Chaimovich, Menahem; Rosen, Aviv; Rand, Omri

    1992-01-01

    The cooperative effort being carried out under the agreements of the United States-Israel Memorandum of Understanding is discussed. Two different models of the AH-64 Apache Helicopter, which may differ in their approach to modeling the main rotor, are presented. The first model, the Blade Element Model for the Apache (BEMAP), was developed at Ames Research Center, and is the only model of the Apache to employ a direct blade element approach to calculating the coupled flap-lag motion of the blades and the rotor force and moment. The second model was developed at the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology and uses an harmonic approach to analyze the rotor. The approach allows two different levels of approximation, ranging from the 'first harmonic' (similar to a tip-path-plane model) to 'complete high harmonics' (comparable to a blade element approach). The development of the two models is outlined and the two are compared using available flight test data.

  4. High-Fidelity Coupled Monte-Carlo/Thermal-Hydraulics Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Aleksandar; Sanchez, Victor; Ivanov, Kostadin

    2014-06-01

    Monte Carlo methods have been used as reference reactor physics calculation tools worldwide. The advance in computer technology allows the calculation of detailed flux distributions in both space and energy. In most of the cases however, those calculations are done under the assumption of homogeneous material density and temperature distributions. The aim of this work is to develop a consistent methodology for providing realistic three-dimensional thermal-hydraulic distributions by coupling the in-house developed sub-channel code SUBCHANFLOW with the standard Monte-Carlo transport code MCNP. In addition to the innovative technique of on-the fly material definition, a flux-based weight-window technique has been introduced to improve both the magnitude and the distribution of the relative errors. Finally, a coupled code system for the simulation of steady-state reactor physics problems has been developed. Besides the problem of effective feedback data interchange between the codes, the treatment of temperature dependence of the continuous energy nuclear data has been investigated.

  5. High Fidelity Simulations of Large-Scale Wireless Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Onunkwo, Uzoma; Benz, Zachary

    2015-11-01

    The worldwide proliferation of wireless connected devices continues to accelerate. There are 10s of billions of wireless links across the planet with an additional explosion of new wireless usage anticipated as the Internet of Things develops. Wireless technologies do not only provide convenience for mobile applications, but are also extremely cost-effective to deploy. Thus, this trend towards wireless connectivity will only continue and Sandia must develop the necessary simulation technology to proactively analyze the associated emerging vulnerabilities. Wireless networks are marked by mobility and proximity-based connectivity. The de facto standard for exploratory studies of wireless networks is discrete event simulations (DES). However, the simulation of large-scale wireless networks is extremely difficult due to prohibitively large turnaround time. A path forward is to expedite simulations with parallel discrete event simulation (PDES) techniques. The mobility and distance-based connectivity associated with wireless simulations, however, typically doom PDES and fail to scale (e.g., OPNET and ns-3 simulators). We propose a PDES-based tool aimed at reducing the communication overhead between processors. The proposed solution will use light-weight processes to dynamically distribute computation workload while mitigating communication overhead associated with synchronizations. This work is vital to the analytics and validation capabilities of simulation and emulation at Sandia. We have years of experience in Sandia’s simulation and emulation projects (e.g., MINIMEGA and FIREWHEEL). Sandia’s current highly-regarded capabilities in large-scale emulations have focused on wired networks, where two assumptions prevent scalable wireless studies: (a) the connections between objects are mostly static and (b) the nodes have fixed locations.

  6. A High-Fidelity Simulation of a Generic Commercial Aircraft Engine and Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Ryan D.; Csank, Jeffrey; Lavelle, Thomas M.; Litt, Jonathan S.; Guo, Ten-Huei

    2010-01-01

    A new high-fidelity simulation of a generic 40,000 lb thrust class commercial turbofan engine with a representative controller, known as CMAPSS40k, has been developed. Based on dynamic flight test data of a highly instrumented engine and previous engine simulations developed at NASA Glenn Research Center, this non-proprietary simulation was created especially for use in the development of new engine control strategies. C-MAPSS40k is a highly detailed, component-level engine model written in MATLAB/Simulink (The MathWorks, Inc.). Because the model is built in Simulink, users have the ability to use any of the MATLAB tools for analysis and control system design. The engine components are modeled in C-code, which is then compiled to allow faster-than-real-time execution. The engine controller is based on common industry architecture and techniques to produce realistic closed-loop transient responses while ensuring that no safety or operability limits are violated. A significant feature not found in other non-proprietary models is the inclusion of transient stall margin debits. These debits provide an accurate accounting of the compressor surge margin, which is critical in the design of an engine controller. This paper discusses the development, characteristics, and capabilities of the C-MAPSS40k simulation

  7. Attenuation of Human Enterovirus 71 High-Replication-Fidelity Variants in AG129 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Tao

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT In a screen for ribavirin resistance, a novel high-fidelity variant of human enterovirus 71 (EV71) with the single amino acid change L123F in its RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp or 3D) was identified. Based on the crystal structure of EV71 RdRp, L123 locates at the entrance of the RNA template binding channel, which might form a fidelity checkpoint. EV71 RdRp-L123F variants generated less progeny in a guanidine resistance assay and virus populations with lower mutation frequencies in cell culture passage due to their higher replication fidelity. However, compared with wild-type viruses, they did not show growth defects. In vivo infections further revealed that high-fidelity mutations L123F and G64R (previously reported) negatively impacted EV71 fitness and greatly reduced viral pathogenicity alone or together in AG129 mice. Interestingly, a variant with double mutations, RG/B4-G64R/L123F (where RG/B4 is an EV71 genotype B4 virus constructed by reverse genetics [RG])showed higher fidelity in vitro and less virulence in vivo than any one of the above two single mutants. The 50% lethal dose (LD50) of the double mutant increased more than 500 times compared with the LD50 of wild-type RG/B4 in mice. The results indicated that these high-fidelity variants exhibited an attenuated pathogenic phenotype in vivo and offer promise as a live attenuated EV71 vaccine. IMPORTANCE The error-prone nature of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of RNA viruses during replication results in quasispecies and aids survival of virus populations under a wide range of selective pressures. Virus variants with higher replication fidelity exhibit lower genetic diversity and attenuated pathogenicity in vivo. Here, we identified a novel high-fidelity mutation L123F in the RdRp of human enterovirus 71 (EV71). We further elucidated that EV71 variants with the RdRp-L123F mutation and/or the previously identified high-fidelity mutation RdRp-G64R were attenuated in an AG129 mouse model

  8. Ultrafast high-fidelity initialization of a quantum-dot spin qubit without magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mar, Jonathan D.; Baumberg, Jeremy J.; Xu, Xiulai; Irvine, Andrew C.; Williams, David A.

    2014-12-01

    We demonstrate the initialization of a single quantum-dot hole spin with high fidelity (lower bound >97 %), on picosecond time scales, and without the need for magnetic fields. Using the initialization scheme based on rapid electric-field ionization of a resonantly excited exciton, this is achieved by employing a self-assembled quantum dot with a low conduction-to-valence band offset ratio, allowing control of the relative electron and hole tunneling rates over three orders of magnitude. This large difference in tunneling rates could permit spin-storage efficiencies >99.5 % by fast-switching to a low electric-field condition. Our results may provide a practical route towards ultrafast high-fidelity initialization of individual quantum-dot hole spins for the implementation of quantum error correction in a scalable spin-based quantum computer.

  9. Band-selective shaped pulse for high fidelity quantum control in diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Yan-Chun; Xing, Jian; Liu, Gang-Qin; Jiang, Qian-Qing; Li, Wu-Xia; Zhang, Fei-Hao; Gu, Chang-Zhi; Pan, Xin-Yu; Long, Gui-Lu

    2014-06-30

    High fidelity quantum control of qubits is crucially important for realistic quantum computing, and it becomes more challenging when there are inevitable interactions between qubits. We introduce a band-selective shaped pulse, refocusing BURP (REBURP) pulse, to cope with the problems. The electron spin of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond is flipped with high fidelity by the REBURP pulse. In contrast with traditional rectangular pulses, the shaped pulse has almost equal excitation effect in a sharply edged region (in frequency domain). So the three sublevels of host {sup 14}N nuclear spin can be flipped accurately simultaneously, while unwanted excitations of other sublevels (e.g., of a nearby {sup 13}C nuclear spin) is well suppressed. Our scheme can be used for various applications such as quantum metrology, quantum sensing, and quantum information process.

  10. High-fidelity simulation and the development of clinical judgment: students' experiences.

    PubMed

    Lasater, Kathie

    2007-06-01

    Nursing education programs across the country are making major capital investments in alternative learning strategies, such as human patient simulators; yet, little research exists to affirm this new innovation. At the same time, nursing programs must become even more effective in the development of students' clinical judgment to better prepare graduates to take on increasingly complex care management. This qualitative study examined the experiences of students in one nursing program's first term of using high-fidelity simulation as part of its regular curriculum. On the basis of these experiences, it seems that high-fidelity simulation has potential to support and affect the development of clinical judgment in nursing students and to serve as a value-added adjunct to their clinical practica. PMID:17580739

  11. Experimental demonstration of high fidelity entanglement distribution over decoherence channels via qubit transduction.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hyang-Tag; Hong, Kang-Hee; Kim, Yoon-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Quantum coherence and entanglement, which are essential resources for quantum information, are often degraded and lost due to decoherence. Here, we report a proof-of-principle experimental demonstration of high fidelity entanglement distribution over decoherence channels via qubit transduction. By unitarily switching the initial qubit encoding to another, which is insensitive to particular forms of decoherence, we have demonstrated that it is possible to avoid the effect of decoherence completely. In particular, we demonstrate high-fidelity distribution of photonic polarization entanglement over quantum channels with two types of decoherence, amplitude damping and polarization-mode dispersion, via qubit transduction between polarization qubits and dual-rail qubits. These results represent a significant breakthrough in quantum communication over decoherence channels as the protocol is input-state independent, requires no ancillary photons and symmetries, and has near-unity success probability. PMID:26487083

  12. Terascale High-Fidelity Simulations of Turbulent Combustion with Detailed Chemistry: Spray Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Rutland, Christopher J.

    2009-04-26

    The Terascale High-Fidelity Simulations of Turbulent Combustion (TSTC) project is a multi-university collaborative effort to develop a high-fidelity turbulent reacting flow simulation capability utilizing terascale, massively parallel computer technology. The main paradigm of the approach is direct numerical simulation (DNS) featuring the highest temporal and spatial accuracy, allowing quantitative observations of the fine-scale physics found in turbulent reacting flows as well as providing a useful tool for development of sub-models needed in device-level simulations. Under this component of the TSTC program the simulation code named S3D, developed and shared with coworkers at Sandia National Laboratories, has been enhanced with new numerical algorithms and physical models to provide predictive capabilities for turbulent liquid fuel spray dynamics. Major accomplishments include improved fundamental understanding of mixing and auto-ignition in multi-phase turbulent reactant mixtures and turbulent fuel injection spray jets.

  13. Rotorcraft brownout mitigation through flight path optimization using a high fidelity rotorcraft simulation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfred, Jillian Samantha

    Brownout conditions often occur during approach, landing, and take off in a desert environment and involve the entrainment and mobilization of loose sediment and dust into the rotor flow field. For this research, a high fidelity flight dynamics model is used to perform a study on brownout mitigation through operational means of flight path. In order for the high fidelity simulation to model an approach profile, a method for following specific profiles was developed. An optimization study was then performed using this flight dynamics model in a comprehensive brownout simulation. The optimization found a local shallow optimum approach and a global steep optimum approach minimized the intensity of the resulting brownout clouds. These results were consistent previous mitigation studies and operational methods. The results also demonstrated that the addition of a full rotorcraft model into the brownout simulation changed the characteristics of the velocity flow field, and hence changing the character of the brownout cloud that was produced.

  14. Experimental demonstration of high fidelity entanglement distribution over decoherence channels via qubit transduction

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hyang-Tag; Hong, Kang-Hee; Kim, Yoon-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Quantum coherence and entanglement, which are essential resources for quantum information, are often degraded and lost due to decoherence. Here, we report a proof-of-principle experimental demonstration of high fidelity entanglement distribution over decoherence channels via qubit transduction. By unitarily switching the initial qubit encoding to another, which is insensitive to particular forms of decoherence, we have demonstrated that it is possible to avoid the effect of decoherence completely. In particular, we demonstrate high-fidelity distribution of photonic polarization entanglement over quantum channels with two types of decoherence, amplitude damping and polarization-mode dispersion, via qubit transduction between polarization qubits and dual-rail qubits. These results represent a significant breakthrough in quantum communication over decoherence channels as the protocol is input-state independent, requires no ancillary photons and symmetries, and has near-unity success probability. PMID:26487083

  15. Band-selective shaped pulse for high fidelity quantum control in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yan-Chun; Xing, Jian; Zhang, Fei-Hao; Liu, Gang-Qin; Jiang, Qian-Qing; Li, Wu-Xia; Gu, Chang-Zhi; Long, Gui-Lu; Pan, Xin-Yu

    2014-06-01

    High fidelity quantum control of qubits is crucially important for realistic quantum computing, and it becomes more challenging when there are inevitable interactions between qubits. We introduce a band-selective shaped pulse, refocusing BURP (REBURP) pulse, to cope with the problems. The electron spin of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond is flipped with high fidelity by the REBURP pulse. In contrast with traditional rectangular pulses, the shaped pulse has almost equal excitation effect in a sharply edged region (in frequency domain). So the three sublevels of host 14N nuclear spin can be flipped accurately simultaneously, while unwanted excitations of other sublevels (e.g., of a nearby 13C nuclear spin) is well suppressed. Our scheme can be used for various applications such as quantum metrology, quantum sensing, and quantum information process.

  16. High-fidelity projective read-out of a solid-state spin quantum register.

    PubMed

    Robledo, Lucio; Childress, Lilian; Bernien, Hannes; Hensen, Bas; Alkemade, Paul F A; Hanson, Ronald

    2011-09-29

    Initialization and read-out of coupled quantum systems are essential ingredients for the implementation of quantum algorithms. Single-shot read-out of the state of a multi-quantum-bit (multi-qubit) register would allow direct investigation of quantum correlations (entanglement), and would give access to further key resources such as quantum error correction and deterministic quantum teleportation. Although spins in solids are attractive candidates for scalable quantum information processing, their single-shot detection has been achieved only for isolated qubits. Here we demonstrate the preparation and measurement of a multi-spin quantum register in a low-temperature solid-state system by implementing resonant optical excitation techniques originally developed in atomic physics. We achieve high-fidelity read-out of the electronic spin associated with a single nitrogen-vacancy centre in diamond, and use this read-out to project up to three nearby nuclear spin qubits onto a well-defined state. Conversely, we can distinguish the state of the nuclear spins in a single shot by mapping it onto, and subsequently measuring, the electronic spin. Finally, we show compatibility with qubit control: we demonstrate initialization, coherent manipulation and single-shot read-out in a single experiment on a two-qubit register, using techniques suitable for extension to larger registers. These results pave the way for a test of Bell's inequalities on solid-state spins and the implementation of measurement-based quantum information protocols. PMID:21937989

  17. High-fidelity DNA histograms in neoplastic progression in Barrett's esophagus.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chenggong; Zhang, Xiaoqi; Huang, Qin; Klein, Michael; Goyal, Raj K

    2007-05-01

    This study describes the high-fidelity DNA histograms in different stages of neoplastic progression to Barrett's adenocarcinoma (BAC). High-fidelity DNA histograms were obtained with image cytometry on sections, and were classified based on DNA index values of the peaks into diploid, mild aneuploid, moderate aneuploid and severe aneuploid. Heterogeneity index (HI) representing cells with different DNA content and the 5N exceeding cell fraction were determined. One hundred and eighty-seven cases, including 34 normal gastrointestinal mucosa (control), 66 Barrett's-specialized intestinal metaplasia (SIM), 22 low-grade dysplasia (LGD), 22 high-grade dysplasia (HGD) and 43 BAC were investigated. Controls showed sharp diploid peaks with HI values less than 13, and no 5N exceeding nuclei. SIM showed a spectrum of histograms including diploid, mild aneuploid and moderate aneuploid histograms. The frequency and severity of aneuploidy increased with worsening histological grades of dysplasia. All BAC cases were aneuploid, with moderate or severe aneuploidy. Marked elevated HI values (>20) and 5N exceeding fractions (>5%) were found in 5%, 32%, 50% and 88% of cases with SIM, LGD, HGD and BAC, respectively. The high-fidelity DNA histograms suggest that (1) Barrett's SIM may already be dysplastic in nature, and all BAC may be markedly aneuploid; and (2) elevated cellular DNA heterogeneity and 5N fractions may be markers of progressive chromosomal changes and 'unstable aneuploidy' that identifies progressive lesions. PMID:17310216

  18. Demonstration of a High-Fidelity Predictive/Preview Display Technique for Telerobotic Servicing in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Won S.; Bejczy, Antal K.

    1993-01-01

    A highly effective predictive/preview display technique for telerobotic servicing in space under several seconds communication time delay has been demonstrated on a large laboratory scale in May 1993, involving the Jet Propulsion Laboratory as the simulated ground control station and, 2500 miles away, the Goddard Space Flight Center as the simulated satellite servicing set-up. The technique is based on a high-fidelity calibration procedure that enables a high-fidelity overlay of 3-D graphics robot arm and object models over given 2-D TV camera images of robot arm and objects. To generate robot arm motions, the operator can confidently interact in real time with the graphics models of the robot arm and objects overlaid on an actual camera view of the remote work site. The technique also enables the operator to generate high-fidelity synthetic TV camera views showing motion events that are hidden in a given TV camera view or for which no TV camera views are available. The positioning accuracy achieved by this technique for a zoomed-in camera setting was about +/-5 mm, well within the allowable +/-12 mm error margin at the insertion of a 45 cm long tool in the servicing task.

  19. Using High-Fidelity Simulation and Eye Tracking to Characterize EHR Workflow Patterns among Hospital Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Doberne, Julie W.; He, Ze; Mohan, Vishnu; Gold, Jeffrey A.; Marquard, Jenna; Chiang, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Modern EHR systems are complex, and end-user behavior and training are highly variable. The need for clinicians to access key clinical data is a critical patient safety issue. This study used a mixed methods approach employing a high-fidelity EHR simulation environment, eye and screen tracking, surveys, and semi-structured interviews to characterize typical EHR usage by hospital physicians (hospitalists) as they encounter a new patient. The main findings were: 1) There were strong similarities across the groups in the information types the physicians looked at most frequently, 2) While there was no overall difference in case duration between the groups, we observed two distinct workflow types between the groups with respect to gathering information in the EHR and creating a note, and 3) A majority of the case time was devoted to note composition in both groups. This has implications for EHR interface design and raises further questions about what individual user workflows exist in the EHR. PMID:26958287

  20. Terascale High-Fidelity Simulations of Turbulent Combustion with Detailed Chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Raghurama Reddy; Roberto Gomez; Junwoo Lim; Yang Wang; Sergiu Sanielevici

    2004-10-15

    This SciDAC project enabled a multidisciplinary research consortium to develop a high fidelity direct numerical simulation (DNS) software package for the simulation of turbulent reactive flows. Within this collaboration, the authors, based at CMU's Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center (PSC), focused on extensive new developments in Sandia National Laboratories' "S3D" software to address more realistic combustion features and geometries while exploiting Terascale computational possibilities. This work significantly advances the state-of-the-art of DNS of turbulent reacting flows.

  1. SOWFA Super-Controller: A High-Fidelity Tool for Evaluating Wind Plant Control Approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, P.; Gebraad, P.; van Wingerden, J. W.; Lee, S.; Churchfield, M.; Scholbrock, A.; Michalakes, J.; Johnson, K.; Moriarty, P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new tool for testing wind plant controllers in the Simulator for Offshore Wind Farm Applications (SOWFA). SOWFA is a high-fidelity simulator for the interaction between wind turbine dynamics and the fluid flow in a wind plant. The new super-controller testing environment in SOWFA allows for the implementation of the majority of the wind plant control strategies proposed in the literature.

  2. Fluid/Structure Interaction Studies of Aircraft Using High Fidelity Equations on Parallel Computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guruswamy, Guru; VanDalsem, William (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Abstract Aeroelasticity which involves strong coupling of fluids, structures and controls is an important element in designing an aircraft. Computational aeroelasticity using low fidelity methods such as the linear aerodynamic flow equations coupled with the modal structural equations are well advanced. Though these low fidelity approaches are computationally less intensive, they are not adequate for the analysis of modern aircraft such as High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) and Advanced Subsonic Transport (AST) which can experience complex flow/structure interactions. HSCT can experience vortex induced aeroelastic oscillations whereas AST can experience transonic buffet associated structural oscillations. Both aircraft may experience a dip in the flutter speed at the transonic regime. For accurate aeroelastic computations at these complex fluid/structure interaction situations, high fidelity equations such as the Navier-Stokes for fluids and the finite-elements for structures are needed. Computations using these high fidelity equations require large computational resources both in memory and speed. Current conventional super computers have reached their limitations both in memory and speed. As a result, parallel computers have evolved to overcome the limitations of conventional computers. This paper will address the transition that is taking place in computational aeroelasticity from conventional computers to parallel computers. The paper will address special techniques needed to take advantage of the architecture of new parallel computers. Results will be illustrated from computations made on iPSC/860 and IBM SP2 computer by using ENSAERO code that directly couples the Euler/Navier-Stokes flow equations with high resolution finite-element structural equations.

  3. The incorporation of high fidelity simulation training into hemodialysis nursing education: an Australian unit's experience.

    PubMed

    Dunbar-Reid, Kylie; Sinclair, Peter M; Hudson, Denis

    2011-01-01

    A high-fidelity hemodialysis simulation program has been introduced and evaluated in a Far North Queensland dialysis unit. This program engages and challenges hemodialysis staff across the learning continuum. It provides a realistic, safe, and controlled learning environment for nurses to develop essential hemodialysis competencies while posing no threat to patient safety. This teaching method combined with clinical experience is a positive step forward in meeting future educational needs of the renal workforce. PMID:22338939

  4. High-Fidelity Buckling Analysis of Composite Cylinders Using the STAGS Finite Element Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilburger, Mark W.

    2014-01-01

    Results from previous shell buckling studies are presented that illustrate some of the unique and powerful capabilities in the STAGS finite element analysis code that have made it an indispensable tool in structures research at NASA over the past few decades. In particular, prototypical results from the development and validation of high-fidelity buckling simulations are presented for several unstiffened thin-walled compression-loaded graphite-epoxy cylindrical shells along with a discussion on the specific methods and user-defined subroutines in STAGS that are used to carry out the high-fidelity simulations. These simulations accurately account for the effects of geometric shell-wall imperfections, shell-wall thickness variations, local shell-wall ply-gaps associated with the fabrication process, shell-end geometric imperfections, nonuniform applied end loads, and elastic boundary conditions. The analysis procedure uses a combination of nonlinear quasi-static and transient dynamic solution algorithms to predict the prebuckling and unstable collapse response characteristics of the cylinders. Finally, the use of high-fidelity models in the development of analysis-based shell-buckling knockdown (design) factors is demonstrated.

  5. GIS Data Based Automatic High-Fidelity 3D Road Network Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Jie; Shen, Yuzhong

    2011-01-01

    3D road models are widely used in many computer applications such as racing games and driving simulations_ However, almost all high-fidelity 3D road models were generated manually by professional artists at the expense of intensive labor. There are very few existing methods for automatically generating 3D high-fidelity road networks, especially those existing in the real world. This paper presents a novel approach thai can automatically produce 3D high-fidelity road network models from real 2D road GIS data that mainly contain road. centerline in formation. The proposed method first builds parametric representations of the road centerlines through segmentation and fitting . A basic set of civil engineering rules (e.g., cross slope, superelevation, grade) for road design are then selected in order to generate realistic road surfaces in compliance with these rules. While the proposed method applies to any types of roads, this paper mainly addresses automatic generation of complex traffic interchanges and intersections which are the most sophisticated elements in the road networks

  6. Development and evaluation of a high-fidelity canine patient simulator for veterinary clinical training.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Daniel J; Militello, Roberta; Schoeffler, Gretchen L; Rogers, Catherine L

    2012-01-01

    High-fidelity human patient simulators have been used for decades in medical education to provide opportunities for students to practice technical skills, diagnostic and therapeutic planning, and communication skills in a safe environment. A high-fidelity canine patient simulator (CPS) was developed using components from a human patient simulator and a low-fidelity foam core canine mannequin. Ninety-six veterinary students participated in cardiopulmonary arrest scenarios in groups of three to five students. Afterwards, participants were asked to complete an anonymous online survey describing their experiences. A total of 70 students (73%) completed the survey. All of the students (100%) felt that the simulator session expanded their cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) knowledge base, and 97% responded that their skills and abilities had improved. Students also expressed positive opinions about the CPS, with 89% agreeing or strongly agreeing that the CPS was realistic and 73% agreeing or strongly agreeing that the scenarios generated emotions similar to real clinical situations. Most participants (98.5%) agreed or strongly agreed that the simulator was an engaging learning experience. Students commonly commented that the simulations allowed them to practice communication and teamwork skills and were more effective than paper-based, problem-oriented learning opportunities and lecture. Students also commented that they wanted more opportunities to participate in simulation exercises. These results suggest that high-fidelity veterinary simulation is an engaging educational methodology that addresses some limitations of other forms of problem-based learning. More studies are needed to quantitatively determine the effectiveness of this novel veterinary educational technology in comparison with more traditional approaches. PMID:22433738

  7. High-fidelity gate operations for quantum computing beyond dephasing time limits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, Alexandre M.; Sarthour, Roberto S.; Oliveira, Ivan S.; Suter, Dieter

    2015-12-01

    The implementation of quantum gates with fidelities that exceed the threshold for reliable quantum computing requires robust gates whose performance is not limited by the precision of the available control fields. The performance of these gates also should not be affected by the noisy environment of the quantum register. Here we use randomized benchmarking of quantum gate operations to compare the performance of different families of gates that compensate errors in the control field amplitudes and decouple the system from the environmental noise. We obtain average fidelities of up to 99.8%, which exceeds the threshold value for some quantum error correction schemes as well as the expected limit from the dephasing induced by the environment.

  8. High-fidelity continuous-variable quantum teleportation toward multistep quantum operations

    SciTech Connect

    Yukawa, Mitsuyoshi; Furusawa, Akira; Benichi, Hugo

    2008-02-15

    The progress in quantum operations of continuous-variable (CV) schemes can be reduced to that in CV quantum teleportation. The fidelity of quantum teleportation of an optical setup is limited by the finite degree of quantum correlation that can be prepared with a pair of finitely squeezed states. Reports of improvement of squeezing level have appeared recently, and we adopted the improved methods in our experimental system of quantum teleportation. As a result, we teleported a coherent state with a fidelity F=0.83{+-}0.01, which is better than any other figures reported to date, to our knowledge. In this paper, we introduce a measure n{sub s}, the number of teleportations expected to be carried out sequentially. Our result corresponds to n{sub s}=5.0{+-}0.4. It suggests that our improvement would enable us to proceed toward more advanced quantum operations involving multiple steps.

  9. The Importance of Water for High Fidelity Information Processing and for Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoehler, Tori M.; Pohorille, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Is water an absolute prerequisite for life? Life depends on a variety of non-covalent interactions among molecules, the nature of which is determined as much by the solvent in which they occur as by the molecules themselves. Catalysis and information processing, two essential functions of life, require non-covalent molecular recognition with very high specificity. For example, to correctly reproduce a string consisting of 600,000 units of information (e.g ., 600 kilobases, equivalent to the genome of the smallest free living terrestrial organisms) with a 90% success rate requires specificity > 107 : 1 for the target molecule vs. incorrect alternatives. Such specificity requires (i) that the correct molecular association is energetically stabilized by at least 40 kJ/mol relative to alternatives, and (ii) that the system is able to sample among possible states (alternative molecular associations) rapidly enough to allow the system to fall under thermodynamic control and express the energetic stabilization. We argue that electrostatic interactions are required to confer the necessary energetic stabilization vs. a large library of molecular alternatives, and that a solvent with polarity and dielectric properties comparable to water is required for the system to sample among possible states and express thermodynamic control. Electrostatic associations can be made in non-polar solvents, but the resulting complexes are too stable to be "unmade" with sufficient frequency to confer thermodynamic control on the system. An electrostatic molecular complex representing 3 units of information (e.g., 3 base pairs) with specificity > 107 per unit has a stability in non-polar solvent comparable to that of a carbon-carbon bond at room temperature. These considerations suggest that water, or a solvent with properties very like water, is necessary to support high-fidelity information processing, and can therefore be considered a critical prerequisite for life.

  10. Simulation Manikin Modifications for High-Fidelity Training of Advanced Airway Procedures.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Jan; Generoso, Jose R; Latoures, Renee; Acar, Yahya; Fidler, Richard L

    2016-05-01

    Thoracic anesthesia procedures are challenging to master during anesthesia training. A Laerdal ALS Simulator® manikin was modified by adding a bronchial tree module to create fidelity to the fourth generation. After modification, placement of endotracheal tubes up to 8.0 mm is possible by direct laryngoscopy, video laryngoscopy, and fiberoptically; in addition, it allows fiberoptically guided insertion of endobronchial blockers. Insertion of left and right 35-Fr double-lumen tubes permits double- and single-lung ventilation with continuous positive airway pressure and positive end-expiratory pressure. This anatomical modification created a high-fidelity training tool for thoracic anesthesia that has been incorporated into educational curricula for anesthesia. PMID:26752178

  11. High-fidelity single-shot three-qubit gates via machine learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahedinejad, Ehsan; Ghosh, Joydip; Sanders, Barry C.

    Three-qubit quantum gates play a crucial role in quantum error correction and quantum information processing. Here I discuss how to generate policies for quantum control to design three-qubit gates namely, Toffoli, Controlled-Not-Not and Fredkin gates for an architecture of nearest-neighbor-coupled superconducting artificial atoms. The resulted fidelity for each gate is above the 99.9% which is the threshold fidelity for fault-tolerant quantum computing. We test our policy in the presence of decoherence-induced noise as well as show its robustness under random external noise. The three-qubit gates are designed via our machine learning algorithm called Subspace-Selective Self-Adaptive Differential Evolution (SuSSADE). NSERC, AITF and University of Calgarys Eyes High Fellowship Program.

  12. High-Fidelity Qubit Measurement using a Superconducting Low-Inductance Undulatory Galvanometer Microwave Amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorbeck, Ted; Hover, David; Zhu, Shaojiang; Ribeill, Guilhem; Sank, Daniel; Barends, Rami; Martinis, John; McDermott, Robert

    2014-03-01

    We describe a high-fidelity dispersive measurement of a superconducting Xmon qubit using a microwave amplifier based on the Superconducting Low-inductance Undulatory Galvanometer (SLUG). We will show a qubit measurement fidelity of 99% in 700 ns with the SLUG, compared to 60% without the SLUG. The SLUG amplifier has a gain of 19 dB at 6.6 GHZ. It also improves the signal-to-noise ratio by 9 dB, compared the same circuit without the SLUG. Also, the SLUG amplifier has a large dynamic range, with an input saturation power corresponding to around 600 photons in the readout cavity. All of these properties make the SLUG a promising microwave amplifier for more complex quantum circuits.

  13. Controlled tunneling-induced dephasing of Rabi rotations for high-fidelity hole spin initialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardelt, P.-L.; Simmet, T.; Müller, K.; Dory, C.; Fischer, K. A.; Bechtold, A.; Kleinkauf, A.; Riedl, H.; Finley, J. J.

    2015-09-01

    We report the subpicosecond initialization of a single heavy hole spin in a self-assembled quantum dot with >98.5 % fidelity and without external magnetic field. Using an optically addressable charge and spin storage device we tailor the relative electron and hole tunneling escape time scales from the dot and simultaneously achieve high-fidelity initialization, long hole storage times, and high-efficiency readout via a photocurrent signal. We measure electric-field-dependent Rabi oscillations of the neutral and charged exciton transitions in the ultrafast tunneling regime and demonstrate that tunneling-induced dephasing (TID) of excitonic Rabi rotations is the major source for the intensity damping of Rabi oscillations in the low Rabi frequency, low temperature regime. Our results are in very good quantitative agreement with quantum-optical simulations revealing that TID can be used to precisely measure tunneling escape times and extract changes in the Coulomb binding energies for different charge configurations of the quantum dot. Finally, we demonstrate that for subpicosecond electron tunneling escape, TID of a coherently driven exciton transition facilitates ultrafast hole spin initialization with near-unity fidelity.

  14. Visualization of Brain Microstructure Through Spherical Harmonics Illumination of High Fidelity Spatio-Angular Fields.

    PubMed

    Bista, Sujal; Zhuo, Jiachen; Gullapalli, Rao P; Varshney, Amitabh

    2014-12-01

    Diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) is gaining rapid adoption in the medical imaging community due to its ability to measure the non-Gaussian property of water diffusion in biological tissues. Compared to traditional diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), DKI can provide additional details about the underlying microstructural characteristics of the neural tissues. It has shown promising results in studies on changes in gray matter and mild traumatic brain injury where DTI is often found to be inadequate. The DKI dataset, which has high-fidelity spatio-angular fields, is difficult to visualize. Glyph-based visualization techniques are commonly used for visualization of DTI datasets; however, due to the rapid changes in orientation, lighting, and occlusion, visually analyzing the much more higher fidelity DKI data is a challenge. In this paper, we provide a systematic way to manage, analyze, and visualize high-fidelity spatio-angular fields from DKI datasets, by using spherical harmonics lighting functions to facilitate insights into the brain microstructure. PMID:26356965

  15. High-fidelity simulations for clean and efficient combustion of alternative fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oefelein, J. C.; Chen, J. H.; Sankaran, R.

    2009-07-01

    There is an urgent and growing demand for high-fidelity simulations that capture complex turbulence-chemistry interactions in propulsion and power systems, and in particular, that capture and discriminate the effects of fuel variability. This project addresses this demand using the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) technique (led by Oefelein) and the Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) technique (led by Chen). In particular, we are conducting research under the INCITE program that is tightly coupled with funded projects established under the DOE Basic Energy Sciences and Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy programs that will provide the foundational science required to develop a predictive modeling capability for design of advanced engines for transportation. Application of LES provides the formal ability to treat the full range of multidimensional time and length scales that exist in turbulent reacting flows in a computationally feasible manner and thus provides a way to simulate reacting flow phenomena in complex internal-combustion engine geometries at device relevant conditions. Application of DNS provides a way to study fundamental issues related to small-scale combustion processes in canonical configurations to understand dynamics that occur over a range of reactive-diffusive scales. Here we describe the challenges and present representative examples of the types of simulations each respective tool has been used for as part of the INCITE program. We focus on recent experiences on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) National Center for Computational Sciences (NCCS) Cray-XT Platform (i.e., Jaguar).

  16. High fidelity simulation of nucleate boiling and transition to critical heat flux on enhanced structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdani, Miad; Alahyari, Abbas; Radcliff, Thomas; Soteriou, Marios

    2015-11-01

    Surface enhancement is often is the primary approach for improved heat transfer performance of two-phase thermal systems particularly when they operate in nucleate boiling regime. This paper exploits the modeling capability developed by Yazdani et al. for simulation of nucleate boiling and transition to critical heat flux to study the nucleation phenomenon on various enhanced structures. The multi-scale of two-phase flow associated with boiling phenomena is addressed through combination of deterministic CFD for the macro-scale transport, asymptotic based representation of micro-layer, and stochastic representation of surface roughness so as to allow a high-fidelity simulation of boiling on an arbitrary surface. In addition, given the excessive complexity of surface structures often used for enhancement of boiling heat transfer, a phase-field-based method is developed to generate the structures where the numerical parameters in the phase-field model determine the topology of a given structure. The ``generated'' structure is then embedded into the two-phase flow model through virtual boundary method for the boiling simulation. The model is validated against experimental data for the boiling curve and the critical heat flux as well as nucleation and bubble dynamics characteristics.

  17. High-Fidelity Two-Qubit Gates in a Surface Ion Trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobser, Daniel; Blain, Matthew; Blume-Kohout, Robin; Fortier, Kevin; Mizrahi, Jonathan; Nielsen, Erik; Rudinger, Kenneth; Sterk, Jonathan; Stick, Daniel; Maunz, Peter

    2016-05-01

    Microfabricated surface traps are capable of supporting a variety of exotic trapping geometries and provide a scalable system for trapped ion Quantum Information Processing (QIP). However, the feasibility of using surface traps for QIP has long been a point of contention because the close proximity of the ions to trap electrodes increases heating rates and might lead to laser-induced charging of the trap. As surface traps continue to evolve at a remarkable rate, their performance is rapidly approaching that of macroscopic electrode traps. Using Sandia's High-Optical-Access surface trap, we demonstrate robust single-qubit gates, both laser- and microwave-based. Our gates are accurately characterized by Gate Set Tomography (GST) and we report the first diamond norm measurements near the fault-tolerance threshold. Extending these techniques, we've realized a Mølmer-Sørensen two-qubit gate that is stable for several hours. This stability has allowed us to perform the first GST measurements of a two-qubit gate, yielding a process fidelity of 99.58(6)%. This work was supported by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program at Sandia National Laboratories.

  18. Network-aware scalable video monitoring system for emergency situations with operator-managed fidelity control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Hadhrami, Tawfik; Nightingale, James M.; Wang, Qi; Grecos, Christos

    2014-05-01

    In emergency situations, the ability to remotely monitor unfolding events using high-quality video feeds will significantly improve the incident commander's understanding of the situation and thereby aids effective decision making. This paper presents a novel, adaptive video monitoring system for emergency situations where the normal communications network infrastructure has been severely impaired or is no longer operational. The proposed scheme, operating over a rapidly deployable wireless mesh network, supports real-time video feeds between first responders, forward operating bases and primary command and control centers. Video feeds captured on portable devices carried by first responders and by static visual sensors are encoded in H.264/SVC, the scalable extension to H.264/AVC, allowing efficient, standard-based temporal, spatial, and quality scalability of the video. A three-tier video delivery system is proposed, which balances the need to avoid overuse of mesh nodes with the operational requirements of the emergency management team. In the first tier, the video feeds are delivered at a low spatial and temporal resolution employing only the base layer of the H.264/SVC video stream. Routing in this mode is designed to employ all nodes across the entire mesh network. In the second tier, whenever operational considerations require that commanders or operators focus on a particular video feed, a `fidelity control' mechanism at the monitoring station sends control messages to the routing and scheduling agents in the mesh network, which increase the quality of the received picture using SNR scalability while conserving bandwidth by maintaining a low frame rate. In this mode, routing decisions are based on reliable packet delivery with the most reliable routes being used to deliver the base and lower enhancement layers; as fidelity is increased and more scalable layers are transmitted they will be assigned to routes in descending order of reliability. The third tier

  19. The Kepler End-to-End Model: Creating High-Fidelity Simulations to Test Kepler Ground Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryson, Stephen T.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Peters, Dan J.; Tenenbaum, Peter P.; Klaus, Todd C.; Gunter, Jay P.; Cote, Miles T.; Caldwell, Douglas A.

    2010-01-01

    The Kepler mission is designed to detect the transit of Earth-like planets around Sun-like stars by observing 100,000 stellar targets. Developing and testing the Kepler ground-segment processing system, in particular the data analysis pipeline, requires high-fidelity simulated data. This simulated data is provided by the Kepler End-to-End Model (ETEM). ETEM simulates the astrophysics of planetary transits and other phenomena, properties of the Kepler spacecraft and the format of the downlinked data. Major challenges addressed by ETEM include the rapid production of large amounts of simulated data, extensibility and maintainability.

  20. A cost effective and high fidelity fluoroscopy simulator using the Image-Guided Surgery Toolkit (IGSTK)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Ren Hui; Jenkins, Brad; Sze, Raymond W.; Yaniv, Ziv

    2014-03-01

    The skills required for obtaining informative x-ray fluoroscopy images are currently acquired while trainees provide clinical care. As a consequence, trainees and patients are exposed to higher doses of radiation. Use of simulation has the potential to reduce this radiation exposure by enabling trainees to improve their skills in a safe environment prior to treating patients. We describe a low cost, high fidelity, fluoroscopy simulation system. Our system enables operators to practice their skills using the clinical device and simulated x-rays of a virtual patient. The patient is represented using a set of temporal Computed Tomography (CT) images, corresponding to the underlying dynamic processes. Simulated x-ray images, digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs), are generated from the CTs using ray-casting with customizable machine specific imaging parameters. To establish the spatial relationship between the CT and the fluoroscopy device, the CT is virtually attached to a patient phantom and a web camera is used to track the phantom's pose. The camera is mounted on the fluoroscope's intensifier and the relationship between it and the x-ray source is obtained via calibration. To control image acquisition the operator moves the fluoroscope as in normal operation mode. Control of zoom, collimation and image save is done using a keypad mounted alongside the device's control panel. Implementation is based on the Image-Guided Surgery Toolkit (IGSTK), and the use of the graphics processing unit (GPU) for accelerated image generation. Our system was evaluated by 11 clinicians and was found to be sufficiently realistic for training purposes.

  1. Effects of High-Fidelity Human Patient Simulation Experience on Self-Efficacy, Motivation and Learning of First Semester Associate Degree Nursing Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuznar, Kathleen A.

    2009-01-01

    One of the newest methodologies in nursing education is high-fidelity human patient simulation (HPS). Many nursing educators have embraced the method as it offers a strategy to facilitate cognitive, affective, and psychomotor outcomes. Despite their popularity, however, HPS systems are costly and, in an era of cost containment and tuition…

  2. Fidelity decay and entropy production in many-particle systems after random interaction quench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haldar, Sudip Kumar; Chavda, N. D.; Vyas, Manan; Kota, V. K. B.

    2016-04-01

    We analyze the effect of spin degree of freedom on fidelity decay and entropy production of a many-particle fermionic (bosonic) system in a mean-field, quenched by a random two-body interaction preserving many-particle spin S. The system Hamiltonian is represented by embedded Gaussian orthogonal ensemble (EGOE) of random matrices (for time-reversal and rotationally invariant systems) with one plus two-body interactions preserving S for fermions/bosons. EGOE are paradigmatic models to study the dynamical transition from integrability to chaos in interacting many-body quantum systems. A simple general picture, in which the variances of the eigenvalue density play a central role, is obtained for describing the short-time dynamics of fidelity decay and entropy production. Using some approximations, an EGOE formula for the time (t sat) for the onset of saturation of entropy, is also derived. These analytical EGOE results are in good agreement with numerical calculations. Moreover, both fermion and boson systems show significant spin dependence on the relaxation dynamics of the fidelity and entropy.

  3. Click Reaction on Solid Phase Enables High Fidelity Synthesis of Nucleobase-Modified DNA.

    PubMed

    Tolle, Fabian; Rosenthal, Malte; Pfeiffer, Franziska; Mayer, Günter

    2016-03-16

    The post-synthetic functionalization of nucleic acids via click chemistry (CuAAC) has seen tremendous implementation, extending the applicability of nucleobase-modified nucleic acids in fields like fluorescent labeling, nanotechnology, and in vitro selection. However, the production of large quantities of high-density functionalized material via solid phase synthesis has been hampered by oxidative by-product formation associated with the alkaline workup conditions. Herein, we describe a rapid and cost-effective protocol for the high fidelity large-scale production of nucleobase-modified nucleic acids, exemplified with a recently described nucleobase-modified aptamer. PMID:26850226

  4. Development of a High Fidelity Dynamic Module of the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) Using Adams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphreys, B. T.; Thompson, W. K.; Lewandowski, B. E.; Cadwell, E. E.; Newby, N. J.; Fincke, R. S.; Sheehan, C.; Mulugeta, L.

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) implements well-vetted computational models to predict and assess spaceflight health and performance risks, and enhance countermeasure development. DAP provides expertise and computation tools to its research customers for model development, integration, or analysis. DAP is currently supporting the NASA Exercise Physiology and Countermeasures (ExPC) project by integrating their biomechanical models of specific exercise movements with dynamic models of the devices on which the exercises were performed. This presentation focuses on the development of a high fidelity dynamic module of the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) on board the ISS. The ARED module, illustrated in the figure below, was developed using the Adams (MSC Santa Ana, California) simulation package. The Adams package provides the capabilities to perform multi rigid body, flexible body, and mixed dynamic analyses of complex mechanisms. These capabilities were applied to accurately simulate: Inertial and mass properties of the device such as the vibration isolation system (VIS) effects and other ARED components, Non-linear joint friction effects, The gas law dynamics of the vacuum cylinders and VIS components using custom written differential state equations, The ARED flywheel dynamics, including torque limiting clutch. Design data from the JSC ARED Engineering team was utilized in developing the model. This included solid modeling geometry files, component/system specifications, engineering reports and available data sets. The Adams ARED module is importable into LifeMOD (Life Modeler, Inc., San Clemente, CA) for biomechanical analyses of different resistive exercises such as squat and dead-lift. Using motion capture data from ground test subjects, the ExPC developed biomechanical exercise models in LifeMOD. The Adams ARED device module was then integrated with the exercise subject model into one integrated dynamic model. This presentation will describe the

  5. Automatic 3D high-fidelity traffic interchange modeling using 2D road GIS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jie; Shen, Yuzhong

    2011-03-01

    3D road models are widely used in many computer applications such as racing games and driving simulations. However, almost all high-fidelity 3D road models were generated manually by professional artists at the expense of intensive labor. There are very few existing methods for automatically generating 3D high-fidelity road networks, especially for those existing in the real world. Real road network contains various elements such as road segments, road intersections and traffic interchanges. Among them, traffic interchanges present the most challenges to model due to their complexity and the lack of height information (vertical position) of traffic interchanges in existing road GIS data. This paper proposes a novel approach that can automatically produce 3D high-fidelity road network models, including traffic interchange models, from real 2D road GIS data that mainly contain road centerline information. The proposed method consists of several steps. The raw road GIS data are first preprocessed to extract road network topology, merge redundant links, and classify road types. Then overlapped points in the interchanges are detected and their elevations are determined based on a set of level estimation rules. Parametric representations of the road centerlines are then generated through link segmentation and fitting, and they have the advantages of arbitrary levels of detail with reduced memory usage. Finally a set of civil engineering rules for road design (e.g., cross slope, superelevation) are selected and used to generate realistic road surfaces. In addition to traffic interchange modeling, the proposed method also applies to other more general road elements. Preliminary results show that the proposed method is highly effective and useful in many applications.

  6. Evaluating Intervention Fidelity: An Example from a High-Intensity Interval Training Study

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Kathryn L.; Weston, Matthew; Batterham, Alan M.

    2015-01-01

    Aim Intervention fidelity refers to the degree to which an experimental manipulation has been implemented as intended, but simple, robust methods for quantifying fidelity have not been well documented. Therefore, we aim to illustrate a rigorous quantitative evaluation of intervention fidelity, using data collected during a high-intensity interval training intervention. Design Single-group measurement study. Methods Seventeen adolescents (mean age ± standard deviation [SD] 14.0 ± 0.3 years) attended a 10-week high-intensity interval training intervention, comprising two exercise sessions per week. Sessions consisted of 4-7 45-s maximal effort repetitions, interspersed with 90-s rest. We collected heart rate data at 5-s intervals and recorded the peak heart rate for each repetition. The high-intensity exercise criterion was ≥90% of individual maximal heart rate. For each participant, we calculated the proportion of total exercise repetitions exceeding this threshold. A linear mixed model was applied to properly separate the variability in peak heart rate between- and within-subjects. Results are presented both as intention to treat (including missed sessions) and per protocol (only participants with 100% attendance; n=8). Results For intention to treat, the median (interquartile range) proportion of repetitions meeting the high-intensity criterion was 58% (42% to 68%). The mean peak heart rate was 85% of maximal, with a between-subject SD of 7.8 (95% confidence interval 5.4 to 11.3) percentage points and a within-subject SD of 15.1 (14.6 to 15.6) percentage points. For the per protocol analysis, the median proportion of high-intensity repetitions was 68% (47% to 86%). The mean peak heart rate was 91% of maximal, with between- and within-subject SDs of 3.1 (-1.3 to 4.6) and 3.4 (3.2 to 3.6) percentage points, respectively. Conclusions Synthesising information on exercise session attendance and compliance (exercise intensity) quantifies the intervention dose and

  7. Creating NDA working standards through high-fidelity spent fuel modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Skutnik, Steven E; Gauld, Ian C; Romano, Catherine E; Trellue, Holly

    2012-01-01

    The Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) is developing advanced non-destructive assay (NDA) techniques for spent nuclear fuel assemblies to advance the state-of-the-art in safeguards measurements. These measurements aim beyond the capabilities of existing methods to include the evaluation of plutonium and fissile material inventory, independent of operator declarations. Testing and evaluation of advanced NDA performance will require reference assemblies with well-characterized compositions to serve as working standards against which the NDA methods can be benchmarked and for uncertainty quantification. To support the development of standards for the NGSI spent fuel NDA project, high-fidelity modeling of irradiated fuel assemblies is being performed to characterize fuel compositions and radiation emission data. The assembly depletion simulations apply detailed operating history information and core simulation data as it is available to perform high fidelity axial and pin-by-pin fuel characterization for more than 1600 nuclides. The resulting pin-by-pin isotopic inventories are used to optimize the NDA measurements and provide information necessary to unfold and interpret the measurement data, e.g., passive gamma emitters, neutron emitters, neutron absorbers, and fissile content. A key requirement of this study is the analysis of uncertainties associated with the calculated compositions and signatures for the standard assemblies; uncertainties introduced by the calculation methods, nuclear data, and operating information. An integral part of this assessment involves the application of experimental data from destructive radiochemical assay to assess the uncertainty and bias in computed inventories, the impact of parameters such as assembly burnup gradients and burnable poisons, and the influence of neighboring assemblies on periphery rods. This paper will present the results of high fidelity assembly depletion modeling and uncertainty analysis from independent

  8. High-Fidelity Universal Gate Set for ^{9}Be^{+} Ion Qubits.

    PubMed

    Gaebler, J P; Tan, T R; Lin, Y; Wan, Y; Bowler, R; Keith, A C; Glancy, S; Coakley, K; Knill, E; Leibfried, D; Wineland, D J

    2016-08-01

    We report high-fidelity laser-beam-induced quantum logic gates on magnetic-field-insensitive qubits comprised of hyperfine states in ^{9}Be^{+} ions with a memory coherence time of more than 1 s. We demonstrate single-qubit gates with an error per gate of 3.8(1)×10^{-5}. By creating a Bell state with a deterministic two-qubit gate, we deduce a gate error of 8(4)×10^{-4}. We characterize the errors in our implementation and discuss methods to further reduce imperfections towards values that are compatible with fault-tolerant processing at realistic overhead. PMID:27541451

  9. High-Fidelity Micromechanics Model Developed for the Response of Multiphase Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aboudi, Jacob; Pindera, Marek-Jerzy; Arnold, Steven M.

    2002-01-01

    A new high-fidelity micromechanics model has been developed under funding from the NASA Glenn Research Center for predicting the response of multiphase materials with arbitrary periodic microstructures. The model's analytical framework is based on the homogenization technique, but the method of solution for the local displacement and stress fields borrows concepts previously employed in constructing the higher order theory for functionally graded materials. The resulting closed-form macroscopic and microscopic constitutive equations, valid for both uniaxial and multiaxial loading of periodic materials with elastic and inelastic constitutive phases, can be incorporated into a structural analysis computer code. Consequently, this model now provides an alternative, accurate method.

  10. We have a high-fidelity simulator, now what? Making the most of simulators.

    PubMed

    Leigh, Gwen; Hurst, Helen

    2008-01-01

    High-fidelity simulators are becoming the tool of choice in preparing today's nursing students for the clinical setting. Many colleges of nursing have purchased these simulators but they remain unused partly due to the reluctance of faculty learning to operate them. The College of Nursing and Allied Health Professions at the University of Louisiana at Lafayette has three simulation labs with 6 SimMans, 8 Nursing Kelly VitalSims, 4 Simbabies, and 2 NOELLE birthing simulators. This article describes methods to maximize the use of simulators, dispel reservations of faculty, and provides hints on how to build successful scenarios and how to encourage their use. PMID:18976230

  11. High-Fidelity Universal Gate Set for 9Be+ Ion Qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaebler, J. P.; Tan, T. R.; Lin, Y.; Wan, Y.; Bowler, R.; Keith, A. C.; Glancy, S.; Coakley, K.; Knill, E.; Leibfried, D.; Wineland, D. J.

    2016-08-01

    We report high-fidelity laser-beam-induced quantum logic gates on magnetic-field-insensitive qubits comprised of hyperfine states in 9Be+ ions with a memory coherence time of more than 1 s. We demonstrate single-qubit gates with an error per gate of 3.8 (1 )×10-5 . By creating a Bell state with a deterministic two-qubit gate, we deduce a gate error of 8 (4 )×10-4. We characterize the errors in our implementation and discuss methods to further reduce imperfections towards values that are compatible with fault-tolerant processing at realistic overhead.

  12. High-fidelity rapid ground-state loading of an ultracold gas into an optical lattice.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Shumpei; Nakamura, Katsuhiro; del Campo, Adolfo

    2014-08-01

    A protocol is proposed for the rapid coherent loading of a Bose-Einstein condensate into the ground state of an optical lattice, without residual excitation associated with the breakdown of adiabaticity. The driving potential required to assist the rapid loading is derived using the fast-forward technique, and generates the ground state in any desired short time. We propose an experimentally feasible loading scheme using a bichromatic lattice potential, which approximates the fast-forward driving potential with high fidelity. PMID:25148323

  13. Suppressing Leakage in High Fidelity Single Qubit Gates for Superconducting Qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Z.; Kelly, J.; Quintana, C.; Barends, R.; Campbell, B.; Chen, Y.; Chiaro, B.; Dunsworth, A.; Fowler, A. G.; Lucero, E.; Jeffrey, E.; Megrant, A.; Mutus, J.; Neeley, M.; Neill, C.; O'Malley, P. J. J.; Roushan, P.; Sank, D.; Vainsencher, A.; Wenner, J.; White, T.; Korotkov, A. N.; Martinis, J. M.

    Recent results show that superconducting qubits are approaching the threshold for fault tolerant quantum error correction. However, leakage into non-qubit states remains a significant hurdle because leakage errors are highly detrimental for error correction schemes such as the surface code. I will demonstrate that with a simple addition to DRAG pulse shaping, leakage can be suppressed to the 10-5 level while simultaneously maintaining 10-3 gate fidelity. I will also show that the remaining leakage errors are due to heating of the qubit, suggesting further avenues for improvement. The work was supported by Google Inc., and by the NSFGRF under Grant No. DGE 1144085.

  14. High-fidelity AFM scanning stage based on multilayer ceramic capacitors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian; Zhang, Lian Sheng; Feng, Zhi Hua

    2016-05-01

    A kind of multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs) has been verified to have good micro-actuating properties, thus making them good candidates for nano-positioning. In this paper, we successfully employed the MLCCs as lateral scanners for a tripod scanning stage. The MLCC-based lateral scanners display hysteresis under 1.5% and a nonlinearity less than 2% even with the simplest open-loop voltage drive. The developed scanning stage was integrated into a commercial AFM to evaluate its imaging performance. Experimental results showed that sample images with high fidelities were obtained. SCANNING 38:184-190, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26367125

  15. High-fidelity frequency down-conversion of visible entangled photon pairs with superconducting single-photon detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Ikuta, Rikizo; Kato, Hiroshi; Kusaka, Yoshiaki; Yamamoto, Takashi; Imoto, Nobuyuki; Miki, Shigehito; Yamashita, Taro; Terai, Hirotaka; Wang, Zhen; Fujiwara, Mikio; Sasaki, Masahide; Koashi, Masato

    2014-12-04

    We experimentally demonstrate a high-fidelity visible-to-telecommunicationwavelength conversion of a photon by using a solid-state-based difference frequency generation. In the experiment, one half of a pico-second visible entangled photon pair at 780 nm is converted to a 1522-nm photon. Using superconducting single-photon detectors with low dark count rates and small timing jitters, we observed a fidelity of 0.93±0.04 after the wavelength conversion.

  16. Research on characteristic spectrum extracting and matching for high-fidelity reproduction.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sheng-wei; Liu, Zhen; Wu, Ming-guang; Zhang, Zhen-jie

    2014-06-01

    Reconstructing the spectrum rapidly and accurately is the key to the research on high-fidelity reproduction. A characteristic spectrum extracting and matching method for high-fidelity printing is proposed aiming at the problem of complex conversion between spectrum and ink combination caused by multi-color. The method filters and extracts feature bands of primary ink through derivative spectrum, and a characteristic spectrum multi-threshold coding method is proposed. Considering the problem of subarea judgment in hi-fi printing, an average derivative spectrum is taken as characteristic spectrum of each subarea and a spectrum matching method between target spectrum and average derivative spectrum of sub-spaces is proposed. The results show that the feature bands extracted can represent spectral characteristic of primary color significantly and the precision of color conversion model based on feature bands is higher than the model based on full bands. The spectrum matching method can achieve a high accuracy in sub-space judgments and greatly improve the efficiency of color convention. The spectrum extracting and matching method has the high practicability. PMID:25358178

  17. Mixed-Species Logic Gates and High-Fidelity Universal Gate Set for Trapped-Ion Qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Ting Rei

    2016-05-01

    Precision control over hybrid physical systems at the quantum level is important for the realization of many quantum-based technologies. For trapped-ions, a hybrid system formed of different species introduces extra degrees of freedom that can be exploited to expand and refine the control of the system. We demonstrate an entangling gate between two atomic ions of different elements that can serve as an important building block of quantum information processing (QIP), quantum networking, precision spectroscopy, metrology, and quantum simulation. An entangling geometric phase gate between a 9 Be+ ion and a 25 Mg+ ion is realized through an effective spin-spin interaction generated by state-dependent forces. A mixed-species Bell state is thereby created with a fidelity of 0 . 979(1) . We use the gate to construct a SWAP gate that interchanges the quantum states of the two dissimilar qubits. We also report a high-fidelity universal gate set for 9 Be+ ion qubits, achieved through a combination of improved laser beam quality and control, improved state preparation, and reduced electric potential noise on trap electrodes. Supported by Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI) Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA), ONR, and the NIST Quantum Information Program.

  18. A high-quality high-fidelity visualization of the September 11 attack on the World Trade Center.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Paul; Popescu, Voicu; Hoffmann, Christoph; Irfanoglu, Ayhan

    2008-01-01

    In this application paper, we describe the efforts of a multidisciplinary team towards producing a visualization of the September 11 Attack on the North Tower of New York's World Trade Center. The visualization was designed to meet two requirements. First, the visualization had to depict the impact with high fidelity, by closely following the laws of physics. Second, the visualization had to be eloquent to a nonexpert user. This was achieved by first designing and computing a finite-element analysis (FEA) simulation of the impact between the aircraft and the top 20 stories of the building, and then by visualizing the FEA results with a state-of-the-art commercial animation system. The visualization was enabled by an automatic translator that converts the simulation data into an animation system 3D scene. We built upon a previously developed translator. The translator was substantially extended to enable and control visualization of fire and of disintegrating elements, to better scale with the number of nodes and number of states, to handle beam elements with complex profiles, and to handle smoothed particle hydrodynamics liquid representation. The resulting translator is a powerful automatic and scalable tool for high-quality visualization of FEA results. PMID:18467766

  19. High-Fidelity Replica Molding of Glassy Liquid Crystalline Polymer Microstructures.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hangbo; Wie, Jeong Jae; Copic, Davor; Oliver, C Ryan; Orbaek White, Alvin; Kim, Sanha; Hart, A John

    2016-03-01

    Liquid crystalline polymers have recently been engineered to exhibit complex macroscopic shape adaptivity, including optically- and thermally driven bending, self-sustaining oscillation, torsional motion, and three-dimensional folding. Miniaturization of these novel materials is of great interest for both fundamental study of processing conditions and for the development of shape-changing microdevices. Here, we present a scalable method for high-fidelity replica molding of glassy liquid crystalline polymer networks (LCNs), by vacuum-assisted replica molding, along with magnetic field-induced control of the molecular alignment. We find that an oxygen-free environment is essential to establish high-fidelity molding with low surface roughness. Identical arrays of homeotropic and polydomain LCN microstructures are fabricated to assess the influence of molecular alignment on the elastic modulus (E = 1.48 GPa compared to E = 0.54 GPa), and side-view imaging is used to quantify the reversible thermal actuation of individual LCN micropillars by high-resolution tracking of edge motion. The methods and results from this study will be synergistic with future advances in liquid crystalline polymer chemistry, and could enable the scalable manufacturing of stimuli-responsive surfaces for applications including microfluidics, tunable optics, and surfaces with switchable wetting and adhesion. PMID:26943057

  20. High-fidelity readout and control of a nuclear spin qubit in silicon.

    PubMed

    Pla, Jarryd J; Tan, Kuan Y; Dehollain, Juan P; Lim, Wee H; Morton, John J L; Zwanenburg, Floris A; Jamieson, David N; Dzurak, Andrew S; Morello, Andrea

    2013-04-18

    Detection of nuclear spin precession is critical for a wide range of scientific techniques that have applications in diverse fields including analytical chemistry, materials science, medicine and biology. Fundamentally, it is possible because of the extreme isolation of nuclear spins from their environment. This isolation also makes single nuclear spins desirable for quantum-information processing, as shown by pioneering studies on nitrogen-vacancy centres in diamond. The nuclear spin of a (31)P donor in silicon is very promising as a quantum bit: bulk measurements indicate that it has excellent coherence times and silicon is the dominant material in the microelectronics industry. Here we demonstrate electrical detection and coherent manipulation of a single (31)P nuclear spin qubit with sufficiently high fidelities for fault-tolerant quantum computing. By integrating single-shot readout of the electron spin with on-chip electron spin resonance, we demonstrate quantum non-demolition and electrical single-shot readout of the nuclear spin with a readout fidelity higher than 99.8 percent-the highest so far reported for any solid-state qubit. The single nuclear spin is then operated as a qubit by applying coherent radio-frequency pulses. For an ionized (31)P donor, we find a nuclear spin coherence time of 60 milliseconds and a one-qubit gate control fidelity exceeding 98 percent. These results demonstrate that the dominant technology of modern electronics can be adapted to host a complete electrical measurement and control platform for nuclear-spin-based quantum-information processing. PMID:23598342

  1. Relations between quantum correlations, purity and teleportation fidelity for the two-qubit Heisenberg XYZ system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Meng; Li, Yan-Biao; Wu, Fang-Ping

    2014-07-01

    Quantifying and understanding quantum correlations may give a direct reply for many issues regarding the interesting behaviors of quantum system. To explore the quantum correlations in quantum teleportation, we have used a two-qubit Heisenberg XYZ system with spin-orbit interaction as a quantum channel to teleport an unknown state. By using different measures and standard teleportation protocols, we have derived the analytical expressions for quantum discord, entanglement of formation, purity, and maximal teleportation fidelity of the system. We compare their different characteristics and analyze the relationships between these quantities.

  2. Construction of a reusable, high-fidelity model to enhance extracorporeal membrane oxygenation training through simulation.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Jess L; Grisham, Lisa M; Scott, Jeanne; Mogan, Chris; Prescher, Hannes; Biffar, David; Jarred, John; Meyer, Robyn J; Hamilton, Allan J

    2014-04-01

    Initiation of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is stressful, especially for inexperienced extracorporeal life support providers. The main objective of this study was to create a novel, reusable mannequin for high-fidelity simulation of ECMO initiation. We modified a Laerdal neonatal mannequin (SimNewB; Stavanger, Norway) so that it could be used to simulate an ECMO initiation. A simulation of a neonatal patient suffering from meconium aspiration was performed in the pediatric intensive care unit, and participants included new extracorporeal life support specialists in addition to the composition of the clinical ECMO team. A total of 17 individuals participated in the neonatal ECMO initiation simulation. Questionnaire results showed that 88% of participants felt better prepared to assist in an ECMO initiation after the simulation. All participants (100%) agreed that the modified mannequin and the environment were realistic and that this simulation helps teamwork and communication in future initiations of ECMO. Simulation can be used for the prevention, identification, and reduction of anxiety-related crisis situations that novice providers may infrequently encounter during routine clinical use of mechanical circulatory support. Use of a reusable, high-fidelity mannequin may be beneficial for effective team training of complex pediatric ECMO-related procedures. PMID:24675629

  3. Incorporating Non-Linear Sorption into High Fidelity Subsurface Reactive Transport Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matott, L. S.; Rabideau, A. J.; Allen-King, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    A variety of studies, including multiple NRC (National Research Council) reports, have stressed the need for simulation models that can provide realistic predictions of contaminant behavior during the groundwater remediation process, most recently highlighting the specific technical challenges of "back diffusion and desorption in plume models". For a typically-sized remediation site, a minimum of about 70 million grid cells are required to achieve desired cm-level thickness among low-permeability lenses responsible for driving the back-diffusion phenomena. Such discretization is nearly three orders of magnitude more than is typically seen in modeling practice using public domain codes like RT3D (Reactive Transport in Three Dimensions). Consequently, various extensions have been made to the RT3D code to support efficient modeling of recently proposed dual-mode non-linear sorption processes (e.g. Polanyi with linear partitioning) at high-fidelity scales of grid resolution. These extensions have facilitated development of exploratory models in which contaminants are introduced into an aquifer via an extended multi-decade "release period" and allowed to migrate under natural conditions for centuries. These realistic simulations of contaminant loading and migration provide high fidelity representation of the underlying diffusion and sorption processes that control remediation. Coupling such models with decision support processes is expected to facilitate improved long-term management of complex remediation sites that have proven intractable to conventional remediation strategies.

  4. Concept and modeling analysis of a high fidelity multimode deformable mirror.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chao; Li, Yun; Wang, Anding; Xing, Tingwen

    2015-06-10

    Conventional deformable mirrors (DM) cannot meet the requirement of aberration controlling for advanced lithography tools. This paper illustrates an approach using the property that deformation of a thin plate is similar to optical modes to realize a high fidelity multimode deformable mirror whose deformation has characteristics of optical aberration modes. The way to arrange actuators is also examined. In this paper, a 36-actuator deformable mirror is taken as an example to generate low-order Zernike modes. The result shows that this DM generates the fourth fringe Zernike mode (Z4) defocus, and primary aberration Z5-Z8 with an error less than 0.5%, generates the fifth-order aberration Z10-Z14, and generates the seventh-order aberration Z17-Z20 with an error less than 1.1%. The high fidelity replication of the Zernike mode indicates that the DM satisfies the demand of controlling aberrations corresponding to the first 20 Zernike modes in an advanced lithography tool. PMID:26192845

  5. A practical discrete-adjoint method for high-fidelity compressible turbulence simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishnampet, Ramanathan; Bodony, Daniel J.; Freund, Jonathan B.

    2015-03-01

    Methods and computing hardware advances have enabled accurate predictions of complex compressible turbulence phenomena, such as the generation of jet noise that motivates the present effort. However, limited understanding of underlying physical mechanisms restricts the utility of such predictions since they do not, by themselves, indicate a route to design improvements. Gradient-based optimization using adjoints can circumvent the flow complexity to guide designs, though this is predicated on the availability of a sufficiently accurate solution of the forward and adjoint systems. These are challenging to obtain, since both the chaotic character of the turbulence and the typical use of discretizations near their resolution limits in order to efficiently represent its smaller scales will amplify any approximation errors made in the adjoint formulation. Formulating a practical exact adjoint that avoids such errors is especially challenging if it is to be compatible with state-of-the-art simulation methods used for the turbulent flow itself. Automatic differentiation (AD) can provide code to calculate a nominally exact adjoint, but existing general-purpose AD codes are inefficient to the point of being prohibitive for large-scale turbulence simulations. Here, we analyze the compressible flow equations as discretized using the same high-order workhorse methods used for many high-fidelity compressible turbulence simulations, and formulate a practical space-time discrete-adjoint method without changing the basic discretization. A key step is the definition of a particular discrete analog of the continuous norm that defines our cost functional; our selection leads directly to an efficient Runge-Kutta-like scheme, though it would be just first-order accurate if used outside the adjoint formulation for time integration, with finite-difference spatial operators for the adjoint system. Its computational cost only modestly exceeds that of the flow equations. We confirm that its

  6. A practical discrete-adjoint method for high-fidelity compressible turbulence simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Vishnampet, Ramanathan; Bodony, Daniel J.; Freund, Jonathan B.

    2015-03-15

    Methods and computing hardware advances have enabled accurate predictions of complex compressible turbulence phenomena, such as the generation of jet noise that motivates the present effort. However, limited understanding of underlying physical mechanisms restricts the utility of such predictions since they do not, by themselves, indicate a route to design improvements. Gradient-based optimization using adjoints can circumvent the flow complexity to guide designs, though this is predicated on the availability of a sufficiently accurate solution of the forward and adjoint systems. These are challenging to obtain, since both the chaotic character of the turbulence and the typical use of discretizations near their resolution limits in order to efficiently represent its smaller scales will amplify any approximation errors made in the adjoint formulation. Formulating a practical exact adjoint that avoids such errors is especially challenging if it is to be compatible with state-of-the-art simulation methods used for the turbulent flow itself. Automatic differentiation (AD) can provide code to calculate a nominally exact adjoint, but existing general-purpose AD codes are inefficient to the point of being prohibitive for large-scale turbulence simulations. Here, we analyze the compressible flow equations as discretized using the same high-order workhorse methods used for many high-fidelity compressible turbulence simulations, and formulate a practical space–time discrete-adjoint method without changing the basic discretization. A key step is the definition of a particular discrete analog of the continuous norm that defines our cost functional; our selection leads directly to an efficient Runge–Kutta-like scheme, though it would be just first-order accurate if used outside the adjoint formulation for time integration, with finite-difference spatial operators for the adjoint system. Its computational cost only modestly exceeds that of the flow equations. We confirm that

  7. High Resolution/High Fidelity Seismic Imaging and Parameter Estimation for Geological Structure and Material Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Ru-Shan Wu; Xiao-Bi Xie

    2008-06-08

    Our proposed work on high resolution/high fidelity seismic imaging focused on three general areas: (1) development of new, more efficient, wave-equation-based propagators and imaging conditions, (2) developments towards amplitude-preserving imaging in the local angle domain, in particular, imaging methods that allow us to estimate the reflection as a function of angle at a layer boundary, and (3) studies of wave inversion for local parameter estimation. In this report we summarize the results and progress we made during the project period. The report is divided into three parts, totaling 10 chapters. The first part is on resolution analysis and its relation to directional illumination analysis. The second part, which is composed of 6 chapters, is on the main theme of our work, the true-reflection imaging. True-reflection imaging is an advanced imaging technology which aims at keeping the image amplitude proportional to the reflection strength of the local reflectors or to obtain the reflection coefficient as function of reflection-angle. There are many factors which may influence the image amplitude, such as geometrical spreading, transmission loss, path absorption, acquisition aperture effect, etc. However, we can group these into two categories: one is the propagator effect (geometric spreading, path losses); the other is the acquisition-aperture effect. We have made significant progress in both categories. We studied the effects of different terms in the true-amplitude one-way propagators, especially the terms including lateral velocity variation of the medium. We also demonstrate the improvements by optimizing the expansion coefficients in different terms. Our research also includes directional illumination analysis for both the one-way propagators and full-wave propagators. We developed the fast acquisition-aperture correction method in the local angle-domain, which is an important element in the true-reflection imaging. Other developments include the super

  8. PCR-Based Seamless Genome Editing with High Efficiency and Fidelity in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yilan; Yang, Maohua; Chen, Jinjin; Yan, Daojiang; Cheng, Wanwan; Wang, Yanyan; Thygesen, Anders; Chen, Ruonan; Xing, Jianmin; Wang, Qinhong; Ma, Yanhe

    2016-01-01

    Efficiency and fidelity are the key obstacles for genome editing toolboxes. In the present study, a PCR-based tandem repeat assisted genome editing (TRAGE) method with high efficiency and fidelity was developed. The design of TRAGE is based on the mechanism of repair of spontaneous double-strand breakage (DSB) via replication fork reactivation. First, cat-sacB cassette flanked by tandem repeat sequence was integrated into target site in chromosome assisted by Red enzymes. Then, for the excision of the cat-sacB cassette, only subculturing is needed. The developed method was successfully applied for seamlessly deleting, substituting and inserting targeted genes using PCR products. The effects of different manipulations including sucrose addition time, subculture times in LB with sucrose and stages of inoculation on the efficiency were investigated. With our recommended procedure, seamless excision of cat-sacB cassette can be realized in 48 h efficiently. We believe that the developed method has great potential for seamless genome editing in E. coli. PMID:27019283

  9. Assessment of high-fidelity collision models in the direct simulation Monte Carlo method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, Andrew B.

    Advances in computer technology over the decades has allowed for more complex physics to be modeled in the DSMC method. Beginning with the first paper on DSMC in 1963, 30,000 collision events per hour were simulated using a simple hard sphere model. Today, more than 10 billion collision events can be simulated per hour for the same problem. Many new and more physically realistic collision models such as the Lennard-Jones potential and the forced harmonic oscillator model have been introduced into DSMC. However, the fact that computer resources are more readily available and higher-fidelity models have been developed does not necessitate their usage. It is important to understand how such high-fidelity models affect the output quantities of interest in engineering applications. The effect of elastic and inelastic collision models on compressible Couette flow, ground-state atomic oxygen transport properties, and normal shock waves have therefore been investigated. Recommendations for variable soft sphere and Lennard-Jones model parameters are made based on a critical review of recent ab-initio calculations and experimental measurements of transport properties.

  10. High-Fidelity Entangling Gates for Two-Electron Spin Qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerfontaine, Pascal; Mehl, Sebastian; Divincenzo, David P.; Bluhm, Hendrik

    High fidelity gate operations for manipulating individual and multiple qubits are a prerequisite for fault-tolerant quantum information processing. Recently, we have shown that single-qubit gates for singlet-triplet qubits in GaAs can be pulse-engineered to reduce systematic errors and mitigate magnetic field fluctuations from the abundant nuclear spins, leading to experimentally demonstrated gate fidelities of 98.5%. We expect that a similar approach will be successful for two-qubit gates. We now describe short gating sequences for exchange-based two-qubit gates, showing that gate infidelities below 0.1% can be reached in realistic quantum dot setups. Additionally, we perform numerical pulse optimization to fully take the experimentally important imperfections into account, minimizing systematic errors and noise sensitivity. Since transferring the optimal control pulses to an experimental setting will inevitably incur systematic errors, we discuss how these errors can be calibrated on the experiment Supported by the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, Alfried Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach Foundation, DFG Grant BL 1197/2- 1, and the Deutsche Telekom Foundation.

  11. High Fidelity Simulations for Unsteady Flow Through the Orbiter LH2 Feedline Flowliner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiris, Cetin C.; Kwak, Dochan; Chan, William; Housman, Jeffrey

    2005-01-01

    High fidelity computations were carried out to analyze the orbiter M2 feedline flowliner. Various computational models were used to characterize the unsteady flow features in the turbopump, including the orbiter Low-Pressure-Fuel-Turbopump (LPFTP) inducer, the orbiter manifold and a test article used to represent the manifold. Unsteady flow originating from the orbiter LPFTP inducer is one of the major contributors to the high frequency cyclic loading that results in high cycle fatigue damage to the gimbal flowliners just upstream of the LPFTP. The flow fields for the orbiter manifold and representative test article are computed and analyzed for similarities and differences. An incompressible Navier-Stokes flow solver INS3D, based on the artificial compressibility method, was used to compute the flow of liquid hydrogen in each test article.

  12. Fabrication of high fidelity, high index three-dimensional photonic crystals using a templating approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yongan

    In this dissertation, we demonstrate the fabrication of high fidelity 3D photonic crystal through polymer template fabrication, backfilling and template removal to obtain high index inversed inorganic photonic crystals (PCs). Along the line, we study the photoresist chemistry to minimize the shrinkage, backfilling strategies for complete infiltration, and template removal at high and low temperatures to minimize crack-formation. Using multibeam interference lithography (MBIL), we fabricate diamond-like photonic structures from commercially available photoresist, SU-8, epoxy functionalized polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS), and narrowly distributed poly(glycidyl methacrylate)s (PGMA). The 3D structure from PGMA shows the lowest shrinkage in the [111] direction, 18%, compared to those fabricated from the SU-8 (41%) and POSS (48%) materials under the same conditions. To fabricate a photonic crystal with large and complete photonic bandgap, it often requires backfilling of high index inorganic materials into a 3D polymer template. We have studied different backfilling methods to create three different types of high index, inorganic 3D photonic crystals. Using SU-8 structures as templates, we systematically study the electrodeposition technique to create inversed 3D titania crystals. We find that 3D SU-8 template is completely infiltrated with titania sol-gel through a two-stage process: a conformal coating of a thin layer of films occurs at the early electrodeposition stage (< 60 min), followed by bottom-up deposition. After calcination at 500°C to remove the polymer template, inversed 3D titania crystals are obtained. The optical properties of the 3D photonic crystals characterized at various processing steps matches with the simulated photonic bandgaps (PBGs) and the SEM observation, further supporting the complete filling by the wet chemistry. Since both PGMA and SU-8 decompose at a temperature above 400°C, leading to the formation of defects and cracks

  13. Evaluating the impact of scenario-based high-fidelity patient simulation on academic metrics of student success.

    PubMed

    Sportsman, Susan; Schumacker, Randall E; Hamilton, Patti

    2011-01-01

    Despite the ongoing nursing shortage, nurse educators are responsible for preparing students to practice in highly complex health care systems. As nurse educators explore new learning strategies to support an increase in student admissions, they must also evaluate the impact of these strategies on the quality of the educational experience. The study reported here evaluated the impact of scenario-based, high-fidelity patient simulation used to increase student admissions in an associate degree and baccalaureate nursing program in north-central Texas upon students' sense of their own clinical competence, graduating grade point average (GPA), and performance on standardized exit examinations. These are measures commonly used by nurse educators as metrics of success. PMID:21923008

  14. Improvements of ModalMax High-Fidelity Piezoelectric Audio Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E.

    2005-01-01

    ModalMax audio speakers have been enhanced by innovative means of tailoring the vibration response of thin piezoelectric plates to produce a high-fidelity audio response. The ModalMax audio speakers are 1 mm in thickness. The device completely supplants the need to have a separate driver and speaker cone. ModalMax speakers can perform the same applications of cone speakers, but unlike cone speakers, ModalMax speakers can function in harsh environments such as high humidity or extreme wetness. New design features allow the speakers to be completely submersed in salt water, making them well suited for maritime applications. The sound produced from the ModalMax audio speakers has sound spatial resolution that is readily discernable for headset users.

  15. High-fidelity transfer and storage of photon states in a single nuclear spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Sen; Wang, Ya; Rao, D. D. Bhaktavatsala; Hien Tran, Thai; Momenzadeh, Ali S.; Markham, M.; Twitchen, D. J.; Wang, Ping; Yang, Wen; Stöhr, Rainer; Neumann, Philipp; Kosaka, Hideo; Wrachtrup, Jörg

    2016-08-01

    Long-distance quantum communication requires photons and quantum nodes that comprise qubits for interaction with light and good memory capabilities, as well as processing qubits for the storage and manipulation of photons. Owing to the unavoidable photon losses, robust quantum communication over lossy transmission channels requires quantum repeater networks. A necessary and highly demanding prerequisite for these networks is the existence of quantum memories with long coherence times to reliably store the incident photon states. Here we demonstrate the high-fidelity (∼98%) coherent transfer of a photon polarization state to a single solid-state nuclear spin that has a coherence time of over 10 s. The storage process is achieved by coherently transferring the polarization state of a photon to an entangled electron–nuclear spin state of a nitrogen–vacancy centre in diamond. The nuclear spin-based optical quantum memory demonstrated here paves the way towards an absorption-based quantum repeater network.

  16. Molecular dipolar crystals as high-fidelity quantum memory for hybrid quantum computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabl, P.; Zoller, P.

    2007-10-01

    We study collective excitations of rotational and spin states of an ensemble of polar molecules, which are prepared in a dipolar crystalline phase, as a candidate for a high-fidelity quantum memory. While dipolar crystals are formed in the high-density limit of cold clouds of polar molecules under one- and two-dimensional trapping conditions, the crystalline structure protects the molecular qubits from detrimental effects of short-range collisions. We calculate the lifetime of the quantum memory by identifying the dominant decoherence mechanisms, and estimate their effects on gate operations, when a molecular ensemble qubit is transferred to a superconducting strip line cavity (circuit QED). In the case of rotational excitations coupled by dipole-dipole interactions we identify phonons as the main limitation of the lifetime of qubits. We study specific setups and conditions, where the coupling to the phonon modes is minimized. Detailed results are presented for a one-dimensional dipolar chain.

  17. Digital spall radiograph analysis system: Report on simulated three- dimensional digital spall image reconstruction fidelity

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, C.L.

    1990-01-01

    This report describes progress on work to develop a cost effective, rapid response system for measuring momentum and kinetic energy of spall for the Advanced Technology Assessment Center (ATAC) Armor/Anti-Armor (A{sup 3}) program at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The system will exploit data contained in two sets of simultaneous co-planar flash radiographs taken along the center line of anticipated spall motion. Data contained in each set (which is proportional to the mass and z- number of the spall material intersected by the exposing x-ray at each point) is digitized and used to construct a three dimensional model (called the reconstructed spall image) that approximates the original spall cloud. From the model the mass of spall fragments is computed. The two sets of radiographs, separated in time, represent the spall configuration at two instants of time. Spall fragments from the first instant are matched with those from the second instant to determine velocity. Evaluation of the fidelity of candidate reconstruction algorithms is the highest priority task in this development program for the obvious reason that the efficacy of the projected spall analysis system depends upon the fidelity of the reconstruction techniques. The purpose of this document is to report the results of analysis of the fidelity of best reconstruction procedure (for one radiograph set) investigated to date. The reconstruction procedure uses data from four simultaneous radiographs representing two sides and two diagonals of a cube. The procedure makes use of an available space algorithm, two probabilistic devices (a mass placement probability heuristic, and a mass clumping heuristic), and a stochastic procedure for mass that cannot be placed by the algorithm or either of the heuristics. The procedure is fully described in the body of the report.

  18. Development and verification of a high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics model of canine nasal airflow.

    PubMed

    Craven, Brent A; Paterson, Eric G; Settles, Gary S; Lawson, Michael J

    2009-09-01

    The canine nasal cavity contains a complex airway labyrinth, dedicated to respiratory air conditioning, filtering of inspired contaminants, and olfaction. The small and contorted anatomical structure of the nasal turbinates has, to date, precluded a proper study of nasal airflow in the dog. This study describes the development of a high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the canine nasal airway from a three-dimensional reconstruction of high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging scans of the canine anatomy. Unstructured hexahedral grids are generated, with large grid sizes ((10-100) x 10(6) computational cells) required to capture the details of the nasal airways. High-fidelity CFD solutions of the nasal airflow for steady inspiration and expiration are computed over a range of physiological airflow rates. A rigorous grid refinement study is performed, which also illustrates a methodology for verification of CFD calculations on complex unstructured grids in tortuous airways. In general, the qualitative characteristics of the computed solutions for the different grid resolutions are fairly well preserved. However, quantitative results such as the overall pressure drop and even the regional distribution of airflow in the nasal cavity are moderately grid dependent. These quantities tend to converge monotonically with grid refinement. Lastly, transient computations of canine sniffing were carried out as part of a time-step study, demonstrating that high temporal accuracy is achievable using small time steps consisting of 160 steps per sniff period. Here we demonstrate that acceptable numerical accuracy (between approximately 1% and 15%) is achievable with practical levels of grid resolution (approximately 100 x 10(6) computational cells). Given the popularity of CFD as a tool for studying flow in the upper airways of humans and animals, based on this work we recommend the necessity of a grid dependence study and quantification of numerical error when

  19. Using "The Burns Suite" as a Novel High Fidelity Simulation Tool for Interprofessional and Teamwork Training.

    PubMed

    Sadideen, Hazim; Wilson, David; Moiemen, Naiem; Kneebone, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Educational theory highlights the importance of contextualized simulation for effective learning. The authors recently published the concept of "The Burns Suite" (TBS) as a novel tool to advance the delivery of burns education for residents/clinicians. Effectively, TBS represents a low-cost, high-fidelity, portable, immersive simulation environment. Recently, simulation-based team training (SBTT) has been advocated as a means to improve interprofessional practice. The authors aimed to explore the role of TBS in SBTT. A realistic pediatric burn resuscitation scenario was designed based on "advanced trauma and life support" and "emergency management of severe burns" principles, refined utilizing expert opinion through cognitive task analysis. The focus of this analysis was on nontechnical and interpersonal skills of clinicians and nurses within the scenario, mirroring what happens in real life. Five-point Likert-type questionnaires were developed for face and content validity. Cronbach's alpha was calculated for scale reliability. Semistructured interviews captured responses for qualitative thematic analysis allowing for data triangulation. Twenty-two participants completed TBS resuscitation scenario. Mean face and content validity ratings were high (4.4 and 4.7 respectively; range 4-5). The internal consistency of questions was high. Qualitative data analysis revealed two new themes. Participants reported that the experience felt particularly authentic because the simulation had high psychological and social fidelity, and there was a demand for such a facility to be made available to improve nontechnical skills and interprofessional relations. TBS provides a realistic, novel tool for SBTT, addressing both nontechnical and interprofessional team skills. Recreating clinical challenge is crucial to optimize SBTT. With a better understanding of the theories underpinning simulation and interprofessional education, future simulation scenarios can be designed to provide

  20. High Fidelity Simulations of Plume Impingement to the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lumpkin, Forrest E., III; Marichalar, Jeremiah; Stewart, Benedicte D.

    2012-01-01

    With the retirement of the Space Shuttle, the United States now depends on recently developed commercial spacecraft to supply the International Space Station (ISS) with cargo. These new vehicles supplement ones from international partners including the Russian Progress, the European Autonomous Transfer Vehicle (ATV), and the Japanese H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV). Furthermore, to carry crew to the ISS and supplement the capability currently provided exclusively by the Russian Soyuz, new designs and a refinement to a cargo vehicle design are in work. Many of these designs include features such as nozzle scarfing or simultaneous firing of multiple thrusters resulting in complex plumes. This results in a wide variety of complex plumes impinging upon the ISS. Therefore, to ensure safe "proximity operations" near the ISS, the need for accurate and efficient high fidelity simulation of plume impingement to the ISS is as high as ever. A capability combining computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) techniques has been developed to properly model the large density variations encountered as the plume expands from the high pressure in the combustion chamber to the near vacuum conditions at the orbiting altitude of the ISS. Details of the computational tools employed by this method, including recent software enhancements and the best practices needed to achieve accurate simulations, are discussed. Several recent examples of the application of this high fidelity capability are presented. These examples highlight many of the real world, complex features of plume impingement that occur when "visiting vehicles" operate in the vicinity of the ISS.

  1. Surrogate Modeling of High-Fidelity Fracture Simulations for Real-Time Residual Strength Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spear, Ashley D.; Priest, Amanda R.; Veilleux, Michael G.; Ingraffea, Anthony R.; Hochhalter, Jacob D.

    2011-01-01

    A surrogate model methodology is described for predicting in real time the residual strength of flight structures with discrete-source damage. Starting with design of experiment, an artificial neural network is developed that takes as input discrete-source damage parameters and outputs a prediction of the structural residual strength. Target residual strength values used to train the artificial neural network are derived from 3D finite element-based fracture simulations. A residual strength test of a metallic, integrally-stiffened panel is simulated to show that crack growth and residual strength are determined more accurately in discrete-source damage cases by using an elastic-plastic fracture framework rather than a linear-elastic fracture mechanics-based method. Improving accuracy of the residual strength training data would, in turn, improve accuracy of the surrogate model. When combined, the surrogate model methodology and high-fidelity fracture simulation framework provide useful tools for adaptive flight technology.

  2. Surrogate Modeling of High-Fidelity Fracture Simulations for Real-Time Residual Strength Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spear, Ashley D.; Priest, Amanda R.; Veilleux, Michael G.; Ingraffea, Anthony R.; Hochhalter, Jacob D.

    2011-01-01

    A surrogate model methodology is described for predicting, during flight, the residual strength of aircraft structures that sustain discrete-source damage. Starting with design of experiment, an artificial neural network is developed that takes as input discrete-source damage parameters and outputs a prediction of the structural residual strength. Target residual strength values used to train the artificial neural network are derived from 3D finite element-based fracture simulations. Two ductile fracture simulations are presented to show that crack growth and residual strength are determined more accurately in discrete-source damage cases by using an elastic-plastic fracture framework rather than a linear-elastic fracture mechanics-based method. Improving accuracy of the residual strength training data does, in turn, improve accuracy of the surrogate model. When combined, the surrogate model methodology and high fidelity fracture simulation framework provide useful tools for adaptive flight technology.

  3. Collective efficacy in a high-fidelity simulation of an airline operations center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jinkerson, Shanna

    This study investigated the relationships between collective efficacy, teamwork, and team performance. Participants were placed into teams, where they worked together in a high-fidelity simulation of an airline operations center. Each individual was assigned a different role to represent different jobs within an airline (Flight Operations Coordinator, Crew Scheduling, Maintenance, Weather, Flight Scheduling, or Flight Planning.) Participants completed a total of three simulations with an After Action Review between each. Within this setting, both team performance and teamwork behaviors were shown to be positively related to expectations for subsequent performance (collective efficacy). Additionally, teamwork and collective efficacy were not shown to be concomitantly related to subsequent team performance. A chi-square test was used to evaluate existence of performance spirals, and they were not supported. The results of this study were likely impacted by lack of power, as well as a lack of consistency across the three simulations.

  4. High-fidelity spatially resolved multiphoton counting for quantum imaging applications.

    PubMed

    Chrapkiewicz, Radosław; Wasilewski, Wojciech; Banaszek, Konrad

    2014-09-01

    We present a method for spatially resolved multiphoton counting based on an intensified camera with the retrieval of multimode photon statistics fully accounting for nonlinearities in the detection process. The scheme relies on one-time quantum tomographic calibration of the detector. Faithful, high-fidelity reconstruction of single- and two-mode statistics of multiphoton states is demonstrated for coherent states and their statistical mixtures. The results consistently exhibit classical values of the Mandel parameter and the noise reduction factor in contrast to raw statistics of camera photo-events. Detector operation is reliable for illumination levels up to the average of one detected photon per an event area-substantially higher than in previous approaches to characterize quantum statistical properties of light with spatial resolution. PMID:25166081

  5. The centricity of presence in scenario-based high fidelity human patient simulation: a model.

    PubMed

    Dunnington, Renee M

    2015-01-01

    Enhancing immersive presence has been shown to have influence on learning outcomes in virtual types of simulation. Scenario-based human patient simulation, a mixed reality form, may pose unique challenges for inducing the centricity of presence among participants in simulation. A model for enhancing the centricity of presence in scenario-based human patient simulation is presented here. The model represents a theoretical linkage among the interaction of pedagogical, individual, and group factors that influence the centricity of presence among participants in simulation. Presence may have an important influence on the learning experiences and learning outcomes in scenario-based high fidelity human patient simulation. This report is a follow-up to an article published in 2014 by the author where connections were made to the theoretical basis of presence as articulated by nurse scholars. PMID:25520467

  6. High-Fidelity Modeling for Health Monitoring in Honeycomb Sandwich Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luchinsky, Dimitry G.; Hafiychuk, Vasyl; Smelyanskiy, Vadim; Tyson, Richard W.; Walker, James L.; Miller, Jimmy L.

    2011-01-01

    High-Fidelity Model of the sandwich composite structure with real geometry is reported. The model includes two composite facesheets, honeycomb core, piezoelectric actuator/sensors, adhesive layers, and the impactor. The novel feature of the model is that it includes modeling of the impact and wave propagation in the structure before and after the impact. Results of modeling of the wave propagation, impact, and damage detection in sandwich honeycomb plates using piezoelectric actuator/sensor scheme are reported. The results of the simulations are compared with the experimental results. It is shown that the model is suitable for analysis of the physics of failure due to the impact and for testing structural health monitoring schemes based on guided wave propagation.

  7. Controllable high-fidelity quantum state transfer and entanglement generation in circuit QED

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Peng; Yang, Xu-Chen; Mei, Feng; Xue, Zheng-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    We propose a scheme to realize controllable quantum state transfer and entanglement generation among transmon qubits in the typical circuit QED setup based on adiabatic passage. Through designing the time-dependent driven pulses applied on the transmon qubits, we find that fast quantum sate transfer can be achieved between arbitrary two qubits and quantum entanglement among the qubits also can also be engineered. Furthermore, we numerically analyzed the influence of the decoherence on our scheme with the current experimental accessible systematical parameters. The result shows that our scheme is very robust against both the cavity decay and qubit relaxation, the fidelities of the state transfer and entanglement preparation process could be very high. In addition, our scheme is also shown to be insensitive to the inhomogeneous of qubit-resonator coupling strengths. PMID:26804326

  8. Theoretical framing of high-fidelity simulation with Carper's fundamental patterns of knowing in nursing.

    PubMed

    McGovern, Barb; Lapum, Jennifer; Clune, Laurie; Martin, Lori Schindel

    2013-01-01

    Many nursing programs integrate high-fidelity simulation(HFS) into the curriculum. The manikins used are modeled to resemble humans and are programmed to talk and reproduce physiological functions via computer interfaces.When HFS design negates a theoretical framework consistent with the interpersonal and relational nature of nursing,it can problematically focus simulation on psychomotor skills and the physical body. This article highlights a theorized approach to HFS design informed by Carper's seminal work on the fundamental patterns of knowing in nursing(i.e., empirics, esthetics, personal knowing, and ethics). It also describes how a team of Canadian nurse educators adopted these patterns of knowing as a theoretical lens to frame scenarios, learning objectives, and debriefing probes in the context of maternal and newborn assessment. Institutions and practitioners can draw on Carper's work to facilitate focusing on the whole person and expanding the epistemological underpinnings of HFS in nursing and other disciplines. PMID:23244195

  9. Structural basis of high-fidelity DNA synthesis by yeast DNA polymerase [delta

    SciTech Connect

    Swan, Michael K.; Johnson, Robert E.; Prakash, Louise; Prakash, Satya; Aggarwal, Aneel K.

    2009-09-25

    DNA polymerase {delta} (Pol {delta}) is a high-fidelity polymerase that has a central role in replication from yeast to humans. We present the crystal structure of the catalytic subunit of yeast Pol {delta} in ternary complex with a template primer and an incoming nucleotide. The structure, determined at 2.0-{angstrom} resolution, catches the enzyme in the act of replication, revealing how the polymerase and exonuclease domains are juxtaposed relative to each other and how a correct nucleotide is selected and incorporated. The structure also reveals the 'sensing' interactions near the primer terminus, which signal a switch from the polymerizing to the editing mode. Taken together, the structure provides a chemical basis for the bulk of DNA synthesis in eukaryotic cells and a framework for understanding the effects of cancer-causing mutations in Pol {delta}.

  10. High-Fidelity Reproduction of Spatiotemporal Visual Signals for Retinal Prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Jepson, Lauren H.; Hottowy, Pawel; Weiner, Geoffrey A.; Dabrowski, Władys1aw; Litke, Alan M.; Chichilnisky, E.J.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Natural vision relies on spatiotemporal patterns of electrical activity in the retina. We investigated the feasibility of veridically reproducing such patterns with epiretinal prostheses. Multielectrode recordings and visual and electrical stimulation were performed on populations of identified ganglion cells in isolated peripheral primate retina. Electrical stimulation patterns were designed to reproduce recorded waves of activity elicited by a moving visual stimulus. Electrical responses in populations of ON parasol cells exhibited high spatial and temporal precision, matching or exceeding the precision of visual responses measured in the same cells. Computational readout of electrical and visual responses produced similar estimates of stimulus speed, confirming the fidelity of electrical stimulation for biologically relevant visual signals. These results suggest the possibility of producing rich spatiotemporal patterns of retinal activity with a prosthesis and that temporal multiplexing may aid in reproducing the neural code of the retina. PMID:24910077