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Sample records for high fracture toughness

  1. Deformation and fracture toughness in high-performance polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Pater, R.H.; Soucek, M.D.; Jang, B.Z.

    1993-12-31

    A systematic study was made of 10 principal high-performance thermoplastics and two semiinterpenetrating polymer networks (semi-IPNs). The fundamental tendency to undergo localized crazing or shear banding, as opposed to a more diffuse homogeneous shear-yielding deformation, was evaluated. Amorphous thermoplastics exhibited crazing as the primary mode of deformation. In contrast, semi-crystalline materials displayed both crazing and shear banding. Increasing the crystallinity increased diffuse shear yielding at the expense of craze growth. Another effect was an enlargement of the deformation zone. Some ordered polymers showed only diffuse shear yielding, whereas others displayed a combination of weak crazes and diffuse shear yielding. For a semi-IPN, increasing the degree of cross-linking decreased crazing, deformation zone size, and fracture toughness of an amorphous thermoplastic. Thus, crystallinity acts like cross-linking in reducing crazing, but, exerts the opposite effect on changing the size of the deformation zone. These results suggest that the reduction in fracture toughness by crystallinity is mainly due to decreased crazing, whereas reduction by cross-linking arises from both decreased crazing and diminished deformation zone. 43 refs., 42 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Increasing Metal Fracture Toughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawing, P. L.; Wood, W. H.; Sandefur, P. G. J.

    1982-01-01

    In technique developed at Langley Research Center several thin sheets of metal are diffusion-brazed together in vacuum furnace to create thick piece of metal that retains much of fracture toughness of its thin components. Technique is expected to make many of high-strength stainless steels, not currently suitable, usable at cryogenic temperatures.

  3. Dynamic fracture toughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, A. S.; Ramulu, M.; Dadkhah, M. S.; Yang, K.-H.; Kang, B. S. J.

    1986-01-01

    Dynamic fracture toughness versus crack velocity relations of Homalite-100, polycarbonate, hardened 4340 steel and reaction bonded silicon nitride are reviewed and discrepancies with published data and their probable causes are discussed. Data scatter in published data are attributed in part to the observed fluctuations in crack velocities. The results reaffirmed our previous conclusion that the dynamic fracture toughness versus crack velocity relation is specimen dependent and that the dynamic arrest stress intensity factor is not a unique material property.

  4. Process development for 9Cr nanostructured ferritic alloy (NFA) with high fracture toughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byun, Thak Sang; Yoon, Ji Hyun; Hoelzer, David T.; Lee, Yong Bok; Kang, Suk Hoon; Maloy, Stuart A.

    2014-06-01

    This article is to summarize the process development and key characterization results for the newly-developed Fe-9Cr based nanostructured ferritic alloys (NFAs) with high fracture toughness. One of the major drawbacks from pursuing ultra-high strength in the past development of NFAs is poor fracture toughness at high temperatures although a high fracture toughness is essential to prevent cracking during manufacturing and to mitigate or delay irradiation-induced embrittlement in irradiation environments. A study on fracture mechanism using the NFA 14YWT found that the low-energy grain boundary decohesion in fracture process at a high temperature (>200 °C) resulted in low fracture toughness. Lately, efforts have been devoted to explore an integrated process to enhance grain bonding. Two base materials were produced through mechanical milling and hot extrusion and designated as 9YWTV-PM1 and 9YWTV-PM2. Isothermal annealing (IA) and controlled rolling (CR) treatments in two phase region were used to enhance diffusion across the interfaces and boundaries. The PM2 alloy after CR treatments showed high fracture toughness (KJQ) at represented temperatures: 240-280 MPa √m at room temperature and 160-220 MPa √m at 500 °C, which indicates that the goal of 100 MPa √m over possible nuclear application temperature range has been well achieved. Furthermore, it is also confirmed by comparison that the CR treatments on 9YWTV-PM2 result in high fracture toughness similar to or higher than those of the conventional ferritic-martensitic steels such as HT9 and NF616.

  5. Fracture toughness measurements on a glass bonded sodalite high-level waste form.

    SciTech Connect

    DiSanto, T.; Goff, K. M.; Johnson, S. G.; O'Holleran, T. P.

    1999-05-19

    The electrometallurgical treatment of metallic spent nuclear fuel produces two high-level waste streams; cladding hulls and chloride salt. Argonne National Laboratory is developing a glass bonded sodalite waste form to immobilize the salt waste stream. The waste form consists of 75 Vol.% crystalline sodalite (containing the salt) with 25 Vol.% of an ''intergranular'' glassy phase. Microindentation fracture toughness measurements were performed on representative samples of this material using a Vickers indenter. Palmqvist cracking was confirmed by post-indentation polishing of a test sample. Young's modulus was measured by an acoustic technique. Fracture toughness, microhardness, and Young's modulus values are reported, along with results from scanning electron microscopy studies.

  6. Fracture toughness anisotropy in shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandler, Michael R.; Meredith, Philip G.; Brantut, Nicolas; Crawford, Brian R.

    2016-03-01

    The use of hydraulic fracturing to recover shale gas has focused attention on the fundamental fracture properties of gas-bearing shales, but there remains a paucity of available experimental data on their mechanical and physical properties. Such shales are strongly anisotropic, so that their fracture propagation trajectories depend on the interaction between their anisotropic mechanical properties and the anisotropic in situ stress field in the shallow crust. Here we report fracture toughness measurements on Mancos shale determined in all three principal fracture orientations: Divider, Short Transverse, and Arrester, using a modified short-rod methodology. Experimental results for a range of other sedimentary and carbonate rocks are also reported for comparison purposes. Significant anisotropy is observed in shale fracture toughness measurements at ambient conditions, with values, as high as 0.72 MPa m1/2 where the crack plane is normal to the bedding, and values as low as 0.21 MPa m1/2 where the crack plane is parallel to the bedding. For cracks propagating nonparallel to bedding, we observe a tendency for deviation toward the bedding-parallel orientation. Applying a maximum energy release rate criterion, we determined the conditions under which such deviations are more or less likely to occur under more generalized mixed-mode loading conditions. We find for Mancos shale that the fracture should deviate toward the plane with lowest toughness regardless of the loading conditions.

  7. TRITIUM EFFECTS ON WELDMENT FRACTURE TOUGHNESS

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, M; Michael Tosten, M; Scott West, S

    2006-07-17

    The effects of tritium on the fracture toughness properties of Type 304L stainless steel and its weldments were measured. Fracture toughness data are needed for assessing tritium reservoir structural integrity. This report provides data from J-Integral fracture toughness tests on unexposed and tritium-exposed weldments. The effect of tritium on weldment toughness has not been measured until now. The data include tests on tritium-exposed weldments after aging for up to three years to measure the effect of increasing decay helium concentration on toughness. The results indicate that Type 304L stainless steel weldments have high fracture toughness and are resistant to tritium aging effects on toughness. For unexposed alloys, weldment fracture toughness was higher than base metal toughness. Tritium-exposed-and-aged base metals and weldments had lower toughness values than unexposed ones but still retained good toughness properties. In both base metals and weldments there was an initial reduction in fracture toughness after tritium exposure but little change in fracture toughness values with increasing helium content in the range tested. Fracture modes occurred by the dimpled rupture process in unexposed and tritium-exposed steels and welds. This corroborates further the resistance of Type 304L steel to tritium embrittlement. This report fulfills the requirements for the FY06 Level 3 milestone, TSR15.3 ''Issue summary report for tritium reservoir material aging studies'' for the Enhanced Surveillance Campaign (ESC). The milestone was in support of ESC L2-1866 Milestone-''Complete an annual Enhanced Surveillance stockpile aging assessment report to support the annual assessment process''.

  8. Hydrogen fracture toughness tester completion

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, Michael J.

    2015-09-30

    The Hydrogen Fracture Toughness Tester (HFTT) is a mechanical testing machine designed for conducting fracture mechanics tests on materials in high-pressure hydrogen gas. The tester is needed for evaluating the effects of hydrogen on the cracking properties of tritium reservoir materials. It consists of an Instron Model 8862 Electromechanical Test Frame; an Autoclave Engineering Pressure Vessel, an Electric Potential Drop Crack Length Measurement System, associated computer control and data acquisition systems, and a high-pressure hydrogen gas manifold and handling system.

  9. Fracture toughness of anisotropic graphites

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, C.R.; Kehne, M.T.

    1985-01-01

    Fracture toughness measurements have been made at 0, 30, 45, 60, and 90/sup 0/ from the extrusion axis on a reasonably anisotropic graphite, grade AGOT. It was found that the fracture toughness did not vary appreciably with orientation. An observed variation in strength was found to be the result of defect orientation.

  10. Irradiation dose and temperature dependence of fracture toughness in high dose HT9 steel from the fuel duct of FFTF

    SciTech Connect

    Byun, Thak Sang; Toloczko, Mychailo B.; Saleh, Tarik A.; Maloy, Stuart A.

    2013-01-14

    To expand the knowledge base for fast reactor core materials, fracture toughness has been evaluated for high dose HT9 steel using miniature disk compact tension (DCT) specimens. The HT9 steel DCT specimens were machined from the ACO-3 fuel duct of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), which achieved high doses in the range of 3–148 dpa at 378–504 C. The static fracture resistance (J-R) tests have been performed in a servohydraulic testing machine in vacuum at selected temperatures including room temperature, 200 C, and each irradiation temperature. Brittle fracture with a low toughness less than 50 MPa pm occurred in room temperature tests when irradiation temperature was below 400 C, while ductile fracture with stable crack growth was observed when irradiation temperature was higher. No fracture toughness less than 100 MPa pm was measured when the irradiation temperature was above 430 C. It was shown that the influence of irradiation temperature was dominant in fracture toughness while the irradiation dose has only limited influence over the wide dose range 3–148 dpa. A slow decrease of fracture toughness with test temperature above room temperature was observed for the nonirradiated and high temperature (>430 *C) irradiation cases, which indicates that the ductile–brittle transition temperatures (DBTTs) in those conditions are lower than room temperature. A comparison with the collection of existing data confirmed the dominance of irradiation temperature in the fracture toughness of HT9 steels.

  11. Thermal annealing recovery of fracture toughness in HT9 steel after irradiation to high doses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byun, Thak Sang; Baek, Jong-Hyuk; Anderoglu, Osman; Maloy, Stuart A.; Toloczko, Mychailo B.

    2014-06-01

    The HT9 ferritic/martensitic steel with a nominal chemistry of Fe(bal.)12%Cr1%MoVW has been used as a primary core material for fast fission reactors such as FFTF because of its high resistance to radiation-induced swelling and embrittlement. Both static and dynamic fracture test results have shown that the HT9 steel can become brittle when it is exposed to high dose irradiation at a relatively low temperature (<430 °C). This article aims at a comprehensive discussion on the thermal annealing recovery of fracture toughness in the HT9 steel after irradiation up to 3148 dpa at 378504 °C. A specimen reuse technique has been established and applied to this study: the fracture specimens were tested Charpy specimens or broken halves of Charpy bars (13 × 3 × 4 mm). The post-anneal fracture test results indicated that much of the radiation-induced damage can be recovered by a simple thermal annealing schedule: the fracture toughness was incompletely recovered by 550 °C annealing, while nearly complete or complete recovery occurred after 650 °C annealing. This indicates that thermal annealing is a feasible damage mitigation technique for the reactor components made of HT9 steel. The partial recovery is probably due to the non-removable microstructural damages such as void or gas bubble formation, elemental segregation and precipitation.

  12. Thermal annealing recovery of fracture toughness in HT9 steel after irradation to high doses

    SciTech Connect

    Byun, Thak Sang; Baek, Jong-Hyuk; Anderoglu, Osman; Maloy, Stuart A.; Toloczko, Mychailo B.

    2013-08-03

    The HT9 ferritic/martensitic steel with a nominal chemistry of Fe(bal.)–12%Cr–1%MoVW has been used as a primary core material for fast fission reactors such as FFTF because of its high resistance to radiationinduced swelling and embrittlement. Both static and dynamic fracture test results have shown that the HT9 steel can become brittle when it is exposed to high dose irradiation at a relatively low temperature 430 °C). This article aims at a comprehensive discussion on the thermal annealing recovery of fracture toughness in the HT9 steel after irradiation up to 3–148 dpa at 378–504 °C. A specimen reuse technique has been established and applied to this study: the fracture specimens were tested Charpy specimens or broken halves of Charpy bars (13 3 4 mm). The post-anneal fracture test results indicated that much of the radiation-induced damage can be recovered by a simple thermal annealing schedule: the fracture toughness was incompletely recovered by 550 °C annealing, while nearly complete or complete recovery occurred after 650 °C annealing. This indicates that thermal annealing is a feasible damage mitigation technique for the reactor components made of HT9 steel. The partial recovery is probably due to the non-removable microstructural damages such as void or gas bubble formation, elemental segregation and precipitation.

  13. On the quantitative measurement of fracture toughness in high explosive and mock materials

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Cheng; Cady, Carl M; Rae, Philip J; Lovato, Manuel L

    2010-01-01

    Two approaches in measuring the fracture toughness of heterogeneous high explosives and their mocks are explored in this investigation. One is the global measurement according to the ASTM E 1820-06 standard, which is primarily developed for metallic materials to obtain quantitative measurement of parameters such as the stress intensity factor, the J-integral, and the crack-tip opening displacement (CTOD). The second approach is based on local measurements using digital image correlation (DIC). Detailed results and comparisons of the two strategies will be presented for the Mock 900-21, a mechanical simulant of the PBX 9501 high explosive. Cracking is the most dominant mechanical failure mechanism in high explosives (HE) and a key parameter for describing and predicting crack initiation and extension is the fracture toughness. Quantitative measurement of such material property poses challenges, and this is mainly because that the material is highly heterogeneous with a very complicated microstructure and the contrast of the mechanical properties of the constituents is also remarkably high. In this investigation, we explore two strategies in measuring the fracture toughness of heterogeneous high explosives and their mocks. The first approach is based on the global measurement according to the ASTM E 1820-06 standard, which is primarily developed for metallic materials to obtain quantitative measurement of parameters such as the stress intensity factor, the J-integral, and the crack-tip opening displacement (CTOD). However, there are difficulties in applying the ASTM standard on energetic solids that include identifying the moment of crack initiation and pinpointing exact crack length at each instant of time. The second approach is based on local measurements. We developed a technique for quantitatively identifying the location and extent of macroscopic cracks in heterogeneous high explosive and mock material. By combining such a technique with the displacement field

  14. Irradiation dose and temperature dependence of fracture toughness in high dose HT9 steel from the fuel duct of FFTF

    SciTech Connect

    Byun, Thak Sang; Toloczko, M; Maloy, S

    2013-01-01

    Static fracture toughness tests have been performed for high dose HT9 steel using miniature disk compact tension (DCT) specimens to expand the knowledge base for fast reactor core materials. The HT9 steel DCT specimens were from the ACO-3 duct of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), which achieved high doses in the range of 3 148 dpa at 378 504oC. The static fracture resistance (J-R) tests have been performed in a servohydraulic testing machine in vacuum at selected temperatures including room temperature, 200 C, and each irradiation temperature. Brittle fracture with a low toughness less than 50 MPa m occurred in room temperature tests when irradiation temperature was below 400 C, while ductile fracture with stable crack growth was observed in all tests at higher irradiation temperatures. No fracture toughness less than 100 MPa m was measured when the irradiation temperature was above 430 C. It was shown that the influence of irradiation temperature was dominant in fracture toughness while the irradiation dose has only limited influence over the dose range 3 148 dpa. A post upper-shelf behavior was observed for the non-irradiated and high temperature (>430 C) irradiation cases, which indicates that the ductile-brittle transition temperatures (DBTTs) in those conditions are lower than room temperature. A comparison with the collection of existing data confirmed the dominance of irradiation temperature in the fracture toughness of HT9 steels.

  15. Test-Free Fracture Toughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minnetyan, Levon; Chamis, Christos C. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Computational simulation results can give the prediction of damage growth and progression and fracture toughness of composite structures. The experimental data from literature provide environmental effects on the fracture behavior of metallic or fiber composite structures. However, the traditional experimental methods to analyze the influence of the imposed conditions are expensive and time consuming. This research used the CODSTRAN code to model the temperature effects, scaling effects and the loading effects of fiberbraided composite specimens with and without fiber-optic sensors on the damage initiation and energy release rates. The load-displacement relationship and fracture toughness assessment approach is compared with the test results from literature and it is verified that the computational simulation, with the use of established material modeling and finite element modules, adequately tracks the changes of fracture toughness and subsequent fracture propagation for any fiberbraided composite structure due to the change of fiber orientations, presence of large diameter optical fibers, and any loading conditions.

  16. Applicability of the fracture toughness master curve to irradiated highly embrittled steel and intergranular fracture

    SciTech Connect

    Nanstad, Randy K; Sokolov, Mikhail A; McCabe, Donald E

    2008-01-01

    The Heavy-Section Steel Irradiation (HSSI) Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has evaluated a submerged-arc (SA) weld irradiated to a high level of embrittlement and a temper embrittled base metal that exhibits significant intergranular fracture (IGF) relative to representation by the Master Curve. The temper embrittled steel revealed that the intergranular mechanism significantly extended the transition temperature range up to 150 C above To. For the irradiated highly embrittled SA weld study, a total of 21 1T compact specimens were tested at five different temperatures and showed the Master Curve to be nonconservative relative to the results, although that observation is uncertain due to evidence of intergranular fracture.

  17. Fracture Toughness and Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior of As-Cast High-Entropy Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifi, Mohsen; Li, Dongyue; Yong, Zhang; Liaw, Peter K.; Lewandowski, John J.

    2015-08-01

    The fracture toughness and fatigue crack growth behavior of two as-vacuum arc cast high-entropy alloys (HEAs) (Al0.2CrFeNiTi0.2 and AlCrFeNi2Cu) were determined. A microstructure examination of both HEA alloys revealed a two-phase structure consisting of body-centered cubic (bcc) and face-centered cubic (fcc) phases. The notched and fatigue precracked toughness values were in the range of those reported in the literature for two-phase alloys but significantly less than recent reports on a single phase fcc-HEA that was deformation processed. Fatigue crack growth experiments revealed high fatigue thresholds that decreased significantly with an increase in load ratio, while Paris law slopes exhibited metallic-like behavior at low R with significant increases at high R. Fracture surface examinations revealed combinations of brittle and ductile/dimpled regions at overload, with some evidence of fatigue striations in the Paris law regime.

  18. Irradiation dose and temperature dependence of fracture toughness in high dose HT9 steel from the fuel duct of FFTF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byun, Thak Sang; Toloczko, Mychailo B.; Saleh, Tarik A.; Maloy, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    To expand the knowledge base for fast reactor core materials, fracture toughness has been evaluated for high dose HT9 steel using miniature disk compact tension (DCT) specimens. The HT9 steel DCT specimens were machined from the ACO-3 fuel duct of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), which achieved high doses in the range of 3-148 dpa at 378-504 °C. The static fracture resistance (J-R) tests have been performed in a servohydraulic testing machine in vacuum at selected temperatures including room temperature, 200 °C, and each irradiation temperature. Brittle fracture with a low toughness less than 50 MPa √m occurred in room temperature tests when irradiation temperature was below 400 °C, while ductile fracture with stable crack growth was observed when irradiation temperature was higher. No fracture toughness less than 100 MPa √m was measured when the irradiation temperature was above 430 °C. It was shown that the influence of irradiation temperature was dominant in fracture toughness while the irradiation dose has only limited influence over the wide dose range 3-148 dpa. A slow decrease of fracture toughness with test temperature above room temperature was observed for the nonirradiated and high temperature (>430 °C) irradiation cases, which indicates that the ductile-brittle transition temperatures (DBTTs) in those conditions are lower than room temperature. A comparison with the collection of existing data confirmed the dominance of irradiation temperature in the fracture toughness of HT9 steels.

  19. Investigation of temperature dependence of fracture toughness in high-dose HT9 steel using small-specimen reuse technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Jong-Hyuk; Byun, Thak Sang; Maloy, Start A.; Toloczko, Mychailo B.

    2014-01-01

    The temperature dependence of fracture toughness in HT9 steel irradiated to 3-145 dpa at 380-503 °C was investigated using miniature three-point bend (TPB) fracture specimens. A miniature-specimen reuse technique has been established: the tested halves of subsize Charpy impact specimens with dimensions of 27 mm × 3 mm × 4 mm were reused for this fracture test campaign by cutting a notch with a diamond-saw in the middle of each half, and by fatigue-precracking to generate a sharp crack tip. It was confirmed that the fracture toughness of HT9 steel in the dose range depends more strongly on the irradiation temperature than the irradiation dose. At an irradiation temperature <430 °C, the fracture toughness of irradiated HT9 increased with the test temperature, reached an upper shelf of 180-200 MPa √{m} at 350-450 °C, and then decreased with the test temperature. At an irradiation temperature ⩾430 °C, the fracture toughness was nearly unchanged up to about 450 °C and decreased slowly with test temperatures in a higher temperature range. Such a rather monotonic test temperature dependence after high-temperature irradiation is similar to that observed for an archive material generally showing a higher degree of toughness. A brittle fracture without stable crack growth occurred in only a few specimens with relatively lower irradiation and test temperatures. In this discussion, these TPB fracture toughness data are compared with previously published data from 12.7 mm diameter disc compact tension (DCT) specimens.

  20. Investigation of temperature dependence of fracture toughness in high-dose HT9 steel using small-specimen reuse technique

    SciTech Connect

    Baek, Jong-Hyuk; Byun, Thak Sang; Maloy, S; Toloczko, M

    2014-01-01

    The temperature dependence of fracture toughness in HT9 steel irradiated to 3 145 dpa at 380 503 C was investigated using miniature three-point bend (TPB) fracture specimens. A miniature-specimen reuse technique has been established: the tested halves of subsize Charpy impact specimens with dimensions of 27 mm 3mm 4 mm were reused for this fracture test campaign by cutting a notch with a diamond-saw in the middle of each half, and by fatigue-precracking to generate a sharp crack tip. It was confirmed that the fracture toughness of HT9 steel in the dose range depends more strongly on the irradiation temperature than the irradiation dose. At an irradiation temperature <430 C, the fracture toughness of irradiated HT9 increased with the test temperature, reached an upper shelf of 180 200 MPa ffiffiffiffiffi m p at 350 450 C, and then decreased with the test temperature. At an irradiation temperatureP430 C, the fracture toughness was nearly unchanged up to about 450 C and decreased slowly with test temperatures in a higher temperature range. Such a rather monotonic test temperature dependence after high-temperature irradiation is similar to that observed for an archive material generally showing a higher degree of toughness. A brittle fracture without stable crack growth occurred in only a few specimens with relatively lower irradiation and test temperatures. In this discussion, these TPB fracture toughness data are compared with previously published data from 12.7 mm diameter disc compact tension (DCT) specimens.

  1. Investigation of temperature dependence of fracture toughness in high-dose HT9 steel using small-specimen reuse technique

    SciTech Connect

    Baek, Jong-Hyuk; Byun, Thak Sang; Maloy, Stuart A.; Toloczko, Mychailo B.

    2014-01-01

    The temperature dependence of fracture toughness in HT9 steel irradiated to 3–145 dpa at 380–503 degrees*C was investigated using miniature three-point bend (TPB) fracture specimens. A miniature-specimen reuse technique has been established: the tested halves of subsize Charpy impact specimens with dimensions of 27 mm *3mm* 4 mm were reused for this fracture test campaign by cutting a notch with a diamond-saw in the middle of each half, and by fatigue-precracking to generate a sharp crack tip. It was confirmed that the fracture toughness of HT9 steel in the dose range depends more strongly on the irradiation temperature than the irradiation dose. At an irradiation temperature <430 *degreesC, the fracture toughness of irradiated HT9 increased with the test temperature, reached an upper shelf of 180—200 MPa*m^.5 at 350–450 degrees*C, and then decreased with the test temperature. At an irradiation temperature >430 degrees*C, the fracture toughness was nearly unchanged up to about 450 *degreesC and decreased slowly with test temperatures in a higher temperature range. Such a rather monotonic test temperature dependence after high-temperature irradiation is similar to that observed for an archive material generally showing a higher degree of toughness. A brittle fracture without stable crack growth occurred in only a few specimens with relatively lower irradiation and test temperatures. In this discussion, these TPB fracture toughness data are compared with previously published data from 12.7 mm diameter disc compact tension (DCT) specimens.

  2. Evaluation of J-initiation fracture toughness of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene used in total joint replacements

    PubMed Central

    Varadarajan, R.; Rimnac, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    Fracture of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) total joint replacement components is a clinical concern. Thus, it is important to characterize the fracture resistance of UHMWPE. To determine J-initiation fracture toughness (JQ) for metals and metallic alloys, ASTM E1820 recommends a procedure based on an empirical crack blunting line. This approach has been found to overestimate the initiation toughness of tough polymers like UHMWPE. Therefore, in this study, a novel experimental approach based on crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) was utilized to evaluate JQ of UHMWPE materials. J-initiation fracture toughness was experimentally measured in ambient air and a physiologically-relevant 37°C PBS environment for three different formulations of UHMWPE and compared to the blunting line approach. The CTOD method was found to provide JQ values comparable to the blunting line approach for the UHMWPE materials and environments examined in this study. The CTOD method used in this study is based on experimental observation and, thus, does not rely on an empirical relationship or fracture surface measurements. Therefore, determining JQ using the experimentally based CTOD method proposed in this study may be a more reliable approach for UHMWPE and other tough polymers than the blunting line approach. PMID:20671815

  3. Evaluation of J-initiation fracture toughness of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene used in total joint replacements.

    PubMed

    Varadarajan, R; Rimnac, C M

    2008-08-01

    Fracture of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) total joint replacement components is a clinical concern. Thus, it is important to characterize the fracture resistance of UHMWPE. To determine J-initiation fracture toughness (J(Q)) for metals and metallic alloys, ASTM E1820 recommends a procedure based on an empirical crack blunting line. This approach has been found to overestimate the initiation toughness of tough polymers like UHMWPE. Therefore, in this study, a novel experimental approach based on crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) was utilized to evaluate J(Q) of UHMWPE materials. J-initiation fracture toughness was experimentally measured in ambient air and a physiologically-relevant 37°C PBS environment for three different formulations of UHMWPE and compared to the blunting line approach. The CTOD method was found to provide J(Q) values comparable to the blunting line approach for the UHMWPE materials and environments examined in this study. The CTOD method used in this study is based on experimental observation and, thus, does not rely on an empirical relationship or fracture surface measurements. Therefore, determining J(Q) using the experimentally based CTOD method proposed in this study may be a more reliable approach for UHMWPE and other tough polymers than the blunting line approach. PMID:20671815

  4. Fracture toughness curve shift method

    SciTech Connect

    Nanstad, R.K.; Sokolov, M.A.; McCabe, D.E.

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this task is to examine the technical basis for the currently accepted methods for shifting fracture toughness curves to account for irradiation damage, and to work through national codes and standards bodies to revise those methods, if a change is warranted. During this reporting period, data from all the relevant HSSI Programs were acquired and stored in a database and evaluated. The results from that evaluation have been prepared in a draft letter report and are summarized here. A method employing Weibull statistics was applied to analyze fracture toughness properties of unirradiated and irradiated pressure vessel steels. Application of the concept of a master curve for irradiated materials was examined and used to measure shifts of fracture toughness transition curves. It was shown that the maximum likelihood approach gave good estimations of the reference temperature, T{sub o}, determined by rank method and could be used for analyzing of data sets where application of the rank method did not prove to be feasible. It was shown that, on average, the fracture toughness shifts generally exceeded the Charpy 41-J shifts; a linear least-squares fit to the data set yielded a slope of 1.15. The observed dissimilarity was analyzed by taking into account differences in effects of irradiation on Charpy impact and fracture toughness properties. Based on these comparisons, a procedure to adjust Charpy 41-J shifts for achieving a more reliable correlation with the fracture toughness shifts was evaluated. An adjustment consists of multiplying the 41-J energy level by the ratio of unirradiated to irradiated Charpy upper shelves to determine an irradiated transition temperature, and then subtracting the unirradiated transition temperature determined at 41 J. For LUS welds, however, an unirradiated level of 20 J (15 ft-1b) was used for the corresponding adjustment for irradiated material.

  5. On the fracture toughness of advanced materials

    SciTech Connect

    Launey, Maximilien E.; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2008-11-24

    Few engineering materials are limited by their strength; rather they are limited by their resistance to fracture or fracture toughness. It is not by accident that most critical structures, such as bridges, ships, nuclear pressure vessels and so forth, are manufactured from materials that are comparatively low in strength but high in toughness. Indeed, in many classes of materials, strength and toughness are almost mutually exclusive. In the first instance, such resistance to fracture is a function of bonding and crystal structure (or lack thereof), but can be developed through the design of appropriate nano/microstructures. However, the creation of tough microstructures in structural materials, i.e., metals, polymers, ceramics and their composites, is invariably a compromise between resistance to intrinsic damage mechanisms ahead of the tip of a crack (intrinsic toughening) and the formation of crack-tip shielding mechanisms which principally act behind the tip to reduce the effective 'crack-driving force' (extrinsic toughening). Intrinsic toughening is essentially an inherent property of a specific microstructure; it is the dominant form of toughening in ductile (e.g., metallic) materials. However, for most brittle (e.g., ceramic) solids, and this includes many biological materials, it is largely ineffective and toughening conversely must be developed extrinsically, by such shielding mechanisms as crack bridging. From a fracture mechanics perspective, this results in toughening in the form of rising resistance-curve behavior where the fracture resistance actually increases with crack extension. The implication of this is that in many biological and high-strength advanced materials, toughness is developed primarily during crack growth and not for crack initiation. This is an important realization yet is still rarely reflected in the way that toughness is measured, which is invariably involves the use of single-value (crack-initiation) parameters such as the

  6. Fracture toughness of polyimide films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinkley, J. A.; Mings, S. L.

    1989-01-01

    Two aromatic polyimides and an aromatic polyamide-imide were tested in single edge notched tension. Fracture toughnesses, normalized to 25 micron film thickness ranged from 1.65 to 5.4 MPa m sup 1/2. LARC-TPI, a thermoplastic polyimide, showed evidence of crazing ahead of a growing crack whereas the other materials formed a shear yielded zone.

  7. Large fracture toughness boron-epoxy composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkins, A. G.

    1975-01-01

    The high tensile strengths of strong interfacial bonding may be combined with the large fracture toughness of weak interfacial bonding in brittle fiber/brittle matrix composites by intermittently coating the filaments before layup so as to have random alternate weak and strong regions. Appropriate coating materials enable Cook-Gordon Mode I interfacial debonding to take place, which produces very long pull-out lengths with an associated large contribution to toughness. Unidirectional boron-epoxy composites have been so made which have toughnesses greater than 200 kJ/sq m while retaining rule of mixtures tensile strengths. Similar trends have been observed for crossply layups.

  8. Test-Free Fracture Toughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minnetyan, Levon; Chamis, Christos C. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Computational simulation results can give the prediction of damage growth and progression and fracture toughness of composite structures. The experimental data from literature provide environmental effects on the fracture behavior of metallic or fiber composite structures. However, the traditional experimental methods to analyze the influence of the imposed conditions are expensive and time consuming. This research used the CODSTRAN code to model the temperature effects, scaling effects and the loading effects of fiber/braided composite specimens with and without fiber-optic sensors on the damage initiation and energy release rates. The load-displacement relationship and fracture toughness assessment approach is compared with the test results from literature and it is verified that the computational simulation, with the use of established material modeling and finite element modules, adequately tracks the changes of fracture toughness and subsequent fracture propagation for any fiber/braided composite structure due to the change of fiber orientations, presence of large diameter optical fibers, and any loading conditions.

  9. Influence of microstructure on fracture toughness of austempered ductile iron

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, P.P.; Putatunda, S.K.

    1997-07-01

    An investigation was carried out to examine the influence of microstructure on the plane strain fracture toughness of austempered ductile iron. Austempered ductile iron (ADI) alloyed with nickel, copper, and molybdenum was austenitized and subsequently austempered over a range of temperatures to produce different microstructures. The microstructures were characterized through optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Plane strain fracture toughness of all these materials was determined and was correlated with the microstructure. The results of the present investigation indicate that the lower bainitic microstructure results in higher fracture toughness than upper bainitic microstructure. Both volume fraction of retained austenite and its carbon content influence the fracture toughness. The retained austenite content of 25 vol pct was found to provide the optimum fracture toughness. It was further concluded that the carbon content of the retained austenite should be as high as possible to improve fracture toughness.

  10. Fracture toughness testing of bi-material joints with high strength mis-match

    SciTech Connect

    Kocak, M.; Hornet, P.; Cornec, A.; Schwalbe, K.H.

    1995-12-31

    This paper deals with the influence of strength mis-match on CTOD ({delta}{sub 5}) R-curves obtained from homogeneous and electron beam (EB) welded bimaterial CT and SENB specimens of two aluminum alloys. The R-curves of metal-metal bimaterial specimens are compared with the R-curves of each alloy to determine the effect of strength mismatch on the locally measured CTOD ({delta}{sub 5}) fracture toughness properties. The homogeneous specimens of two different aluminum alloys, namely 2024-FC and 2024-T351 with yield strengths of 80 and 360 MPa respectively, as well as EB welded bi-material 5 mm thick CT and SENB specimens (a/W = 0.15 and 0.5) have been tested at room temperature. The local CTOD ({delta}{sub 5}) fracture toughness measurements on such composite specimen configurations produced generally strength mis-match and geometry independent R-curves.

  11. Fracture toughness shifts in high-copper weldments (series 5 and 6)

    SciTech Connect

    Iskander, S.K.

    1995-10-01

    The specific activities to be performed in this task are the: (1) continuation of Phase 2 of the Fifth Irradiation Series, and (2) completion of the Sixth Irradiation Series, including testing nine irradiated Italian crack-arrest specimens. The test results of the Italian crack-arrest specimens are being analyzed, and full details will be published in a NUREG report currently in preparation. The crack-mouth opening displacement (CMOD) was measured at a distance greater than that prescribed in the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) {open_quotes}Test for Determining Plane-Strain Crack-Arrest Fracture Toughness, K{sub la}, of Ferritic Steels{close_quotes} (E 1221-88). A method for adjusting the CMOD to account for this has been developed and is presented. The correction was {approximately}4% for small specimens and {approximately}2% for the larger ones. As part of this task, irradiation of HSSI weld 73W to a high fluence [5 x 10{sup 19} neutrons/cm{sup 2} ( > 1 MeV)] will be performed to determine whether the K{sub Jc} curve shape change observed in the Fifth HSSI Series is exacerbated. The design and fabrication of the temperature and dosimetry verification capsules are performed under this task, but for purposes of continuity, their progress will be reported under Task 6, where the design of the new irradiation facilities and capsules is performed.

  12. The fracture toughness of soft tissues.

    PubMed

    Taylor, David; O'Mara, Niamh; Ryan, Eoin; Takaza, Michael; Simms, Ciaran

    2012-02-01

    Fracture toughness is important for any material, but to date there have been few investigations of this mechanical property in soft mammalian tissues. This paper presents new data on porcine muscle tissue and a detailed analysis of all previous work. The conclusion is that, in most cases, fracture toughness has not in fact been measured for these tissues. Reanalysis of the previous work shows that failure of the test specimens generally occurred at the material's ultimate strength, implying that no information about toughness can be obtained from the results. This finding applied to work on cartilage, artificial neocartilage, muscle and the TMJ disc. Our own data, which was also found to be invalid, gave measured fracture toughness values which were highly variable and showed a strong dependence on the crack growth increment. The net-section failure stress and failure energy were relatively constant in large specimens, independent of crack length, whilst for smaller specimens they showed a strong size effect. These findings are explained by the fact that the process zone size, estimated here using the critical distance parameter L, was similar to, or larger than, critical specimen dimensions (crack length and specimen width). Whilst this analysis casts doubt on much of the published literature, a useful finding is that soft tissues are highly tolerant of defects, able to withstand the presence of cracks several millimetres in length without significant loss of strength. PMID:22301183

  13. Fracture toughness testing of polymer matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, Joseph E.

    1992-01-01

    A review of the interlaminar fracture indicates that a standard specimen geometry is needed to obtain consistent fracture toughness measurements in polymer matrix composites. In general, the variability of measured toughness values increases as the toughness of the material increases. This variability could be caused by incorrect sizing of test specimens and/or inconsistent data reduction procedures. A standard data reduction procedure is therefore needed as well, particularly for the tougher materials. Little work has been reported on the effects of fiber orientation, fiber architecture, fiber surface treatment or interlaminar fracture toughness, and the mechanisms by which the fibers increase fracture toughness are not well understood. The little data that is available indicates that woven fiber reinforcement and fiber sizings can significantly increase interlaminar fracture toughness.

  14. Interlaminar fracture toughness of thermoplastic composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinkley, Jeffrey A.; Johnston, Norman J.; O'Brien, T. Kevin

    1989-01-01

    Edge delamination tension and double cantilever beam tests were used to characterize the interlaminar fracture toughness of continuous graphite-fiber composites made from experimental thermoplastic polyimides and a model thermoplastic. Residual thermal stresses, known to be significant in materials processed at high temperatures, were included in the edge delamination calculations. In the model thermoplastic system (polycarbonate matrix), surface properties of the graphite fiber were shown to be significant. Cricital strain energy release rates for two different fibers having similar nominal tensile properties differed by 30 to 60 percent. The reason for the difference is not clear. Interlaminar toughness values for the thermoplastic polyimide composites (LARC-TPI and polyimidesulfone) were 3 to 4 in-lb/sq in. Scanning electron micrographs of the EDT fracture surfaces suggest poor fiber/matrix bonding. Residual thermal stresses account for up to 32 percent of the strain energy release in composites made from these high-temperature resins.

  15. Interlaminar fracture toughness of thermoplastic composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinkley, J. A.; Johnston, N. J.; Obrien, T. K.

    1988-01-01

    Edge delamination tension and double cantilever beam tests were used to characterize the interlaminar fracture toughness of continuous graphite-fiber composites made from experimental thermoplastic polyimides and a model thermoplastic. Residual thermal stresses, known to be significant in materials processed at high temperatures, were included in the edge delamination calculations. In the model thermoplastic system (polycarbonate matrix), surface properties of the graphite fiber were shown to be significant. Critical strain energy release rates for two different fibers having similar nominal tensile properties differed by 30 to 60 percent. The reason for the difference is not clear. Interlaminar toughness values for the thermoplastic polyimide composites (LARC-TPI and polyimidesulfone) were 3 to 4 in-lb/sq in. Scanning electron micrographs of the EDT fracture surfaces suggest poor fiber/matrix bonding. Residual thermal stresses account for up to 32 percent of the strain energy release in composites made from these high-temperature resins.

  16. Fracture toughness of hot-pressed beryllium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemon, D. D.; Brown, W. F., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation into the fracture toughness, sustained-load flaw growth, and fatigue-crack propagation resistance of S200E hot-pressed beryllium at room temperature. It also reviews the literature pertaining to the influence of various factors on the fracture toughness of hot-pressed beryllium determined using fatigue-cracked specimens.

  17. Veins improve fracture toughness of insect wings.

    PubMed

    Dirks, Jan-Henning; Taylor, David

    2012-01-01

    During the lifetime of a flying insect, its wings are subjected to mechanical forces and deformations for millions of cycles. Defects in the micrometre thin membranes or veins may reduce the insect's flight performance. How do insects prevent crack related material failure in their wings and what role does the characteristic vein pattern play? Fracture toughness is a parameter, which characterises a material's resistance to crack propagation. Our results show that, compared to other body parts, the hind wing membrane of the migratory locust S. gregaria itself is not exceptionally tough (1.04±0.25 MPa√m). However, the cross veins increase the wing's toughness by 50% by acting as barriers to crack propagation. Using fracture mechanics, we show that the morphological spacing of most wing veins matches the critical crack length of the material (1132 µm). This finding directly demonstrates how the biomechanical properties and the morphology of locust wings are functionally correlated in locusts, providing a mechanically 'optimal' solution with high toughness and low weight. The vein pattern found in insect wings thus might inspire the design of more durable and lightweight artificial 'venous' wings for micro-air-vehicles. Using the vein spacing as indicator, our approach might also provide a basis to estimate the wing properties of endangered or extinct insect species. PMID:22927966

  18. Statistical analyses of fracture toughness results for two irradiated high-copper welds

    SciTech Connect

    Nanstad, R.K.; McCabe, D.E.; Haggag, F.M.; Bowman, K.O.; Downing, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    The objectives of the Heavy-Section Steel Irradiation Program Fifth Irradiation Series were to determine the effects of neutron irradiation on the transition temperature shift and the shape of the K{sub Ic} curve described in Sect. 6 of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Two submerged-arc welds with copper contents of 0.23 and 0.31% were commercially fabricated in 215-mm-thick plates. Charpy V-notch (CVN) impact, tensile, drop-weight, and compact specimens up to 203.2 mm thick (1T, 2T, 4T, 6T, and 8T C(T)) were tested to provide a large data base for unirradiated material. Similar specimens with compacts up to 4T were irradiated at about 288{degrees}C to a mean fluence of about 1.5 {times} 10{sup 19} neutrons/cm{sup 2} (>1 MeV) in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor. Both linear-elastic and elastic-plastic fracture mechanics methods were used to analyze all cleavage fracture results and local cleavage instabilities (pop-ins). Evaluation of the results showed that the cleavage fracture toughness values determined at initial pop-ins fall within the same scatter band as the values from failed specimens; thus, they were included in the data base for analysis (all data are designated K{sub Jc}).

  19. Fracture Toughness and Reliability in High-Temperature Structural Ceramics and Composites: Prospects and Challenges for the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, Sunil

    1999-01-01

    The importance of high fracture toughness and reliability in Si3N4, and SiC-based structural ceramics and ceramic matrix composites is reviewed. The potential of these ceramics and ceramic matrix composites for high temperature applications in defense and aerospace applications such as gas turbine engines, radomes, and other energy conversion hardware have been well recognized. Numerous investigations were pursued to improve fracture toughness and reliability by incorporating various reinforcements such as particulate-, whisker-, and continuous fiber into Si3N4 and SiC matrices. All toughening mechanisms, e.g. crack deflection, crack branching, crack bridging, etc., essentially redistribute stresses at the crack tip and increase the energy needed to propagate a crack through the composite material, thereby resulting in improved fracture toughness and reliability. Because of flaw insensitivity, continuous fiber reinforced ceramic composite (CFCC) was found to have the highest potential for higher operating temperature and longer service conditions. However, the ceramic fibers should display sufficient high temperature strength and creep resistance at service temperatures above 1000 'C. The greatest challenge to date is the development of high quality ceramic fibers with associate coatings able to maintain their high strength in oxidizing environment at high temperature. In the area of processing, critical issues are, preparation of optimum matrix precursors, precursor infiltration into fiber array, and matrix densification at a temperature, where grain crystallization and fiber degradation do not occur. A broad scope of effort is required for improved processing and properties with a better understanding of all candidate composite systems.

  20. Fracture-tough, high hardness stainless steel and method of making same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Gregory B. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A cryogenically-formed and tempered stainless steel is provided having improved fracture toughness and corrosion resistance at a given hardness level, such as, for example, of at least about Rc 60 for bearing applications. The steel consists essentially of, in weight %, about 21 to about 24% Co, about 11 to about 13% Cr, about 7 to about 9% Ni, about 0.1 to about 0.5% Mo, about 0.2 to about 0.3% V, about 0.28 to about 0.32% C, and the balance iron. The steel includes a cryogenically-formed martensitic microstructure tempered to include about 5 to about 10 volume % post-deformation retained austenite dispersed therein and M.sub.2 C-type carbides, where M is Cr, Mo, V, and/or Fe, dispersed in the microstructure.

  1. Fracture Toughness of Functionally Graded Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazari, Ali; Mohandesi, Jamshid Aghazadeh; Riahi, Shadi

    2012-04-01

    In this study, fracture toughness of functionally graded steels in both crack divider and crack arrester configurations has been studied. Spot-welded plain carbon steel and austenitic stainless steel with different thicknesses and arrangements were used as electrodes of electroslag remelting to produce functionally graded steels. Fracture toughness of the specimens in crack divider configuration was found to depend on the arrangements of the primary electrodes' pieces together with the type of the containing phases. In crack arrester configuration, the fracture toughness was found to depend on the crack tip position and the distance of the crack tip with respect to the bainitic or martensitic intermediate layers.

  2. Fracture toughness testing of polymer matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, Joseph E.

    1992-01-01

    The experimental techniques and associated data analysis methods used to measure the resistance to interlaminar fracture, or 'fracture toughness', of polymer matrix composite materials are described. A review in the use of energy techniques to characterize fracture behavior in elastic solids is given. An overview is presented of the types of approaches employed in the design of delamination-resistant composite materials.

  3. Tritium Effects on Fracture Toughness of Stainless Steel Weldments

    SciTech Connect

    MORGAN, MICHAEL; CHAPMAN, G. K.; TOSTEN, M. H.; WEST, S. L.

    2005-05-12

    The effects of tritium on the fracture toughness properties of Type 304L and Type 21-6-9 stainless steel weldments were measured. Weldments were tritium-charged-and-aged and then tested in order to measure the effect of the increasing decay helium content on toughness. The results were compared to uncharged and hydrogen-charged samples. For unexposed weldments having 8-12 volume percent retained delta ferrite, fracture toughness was higher than base metal toughness. At higher levels of weld ferrite, the fracture toughness decreased to values below that of the base metal. Hydrogen-charged and tritium-charged weldments had lower toughness values than similarly charged base metals and toughness decreased further with increasing weld ferrite content. The effect of decay helium content was inconclusive because of tritium off-gassing losses during handling, storage and testing. Fracture modes were dominated by the dimpled rupture process in unexposed weldments. In hydrogen and tritium-exposed weldments, the fracture modes depended on the weld ferrite content. At high ferrite contents, hydrogen-induced transgranular fracture of the weld ferrite phase was observed.

  4. Influence of gamma-irradiation sterilization and temperature on the fracture toughness of ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene.

    PubMed

    Pascaud, R S; Evans, W T; McCullagh, P J; FitzPatrick, D P

    1997-05-01

    Surface damage of the tibial plateau components of knee prostheses made from medical grade ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE) has been attributed to delamination wear caused by a fatigue fracture mechanism. It has been proposed that factors such as component design and method of sterilization contribute to such failure mechanisms. Understanding the fracture behaviour of UHMW-PE is therefore critical in optimizing the in vivo life-span of total joint components. The elastic-plastic fracture toughness parameter J was consequently determined for a commercial UHMW-PE at ambient and body temperatures, before and after gamma-irradiation sterilization in air at a minimum dose of 29 kGy. Both ductile stability theory and experimental data suggest that cracks propagate in a stable manner, although stability is affected by the sterilization process. Sterilization with gamma-irradiation results in a loss in fracture toughness JIc of 50% and a decrease in tearing modulus (Tm) of 30%. This dramatic reduction could result in a 50% decrease in the residual strength of the components, maximum permissible crack size under service loading and service life (assuming flaws such as fusion defects exist). The time required for a crack to grow from its original size to the maximum permissible size could be decreased by 30%, resulting in earlier failure. In terms of the design of joint replacement components the critical factor to envisage is the design stress level, which should be halved to account for the irradiation process. A scanning electron microscope study reveals that the material fails in layers parallel to the fracture surface. PMID:9158855

  5. Process for producing silicon nitride based articles of high fracture toughness and strength

    DOEpatents

    Huckabee, M.; Buljan, S.T.; Neil, J.T.

    1991-09-10

    A process for producing a silicon nitride-based article of improved fracture toughness and strength is disclosed. The process involves densifying to at least 98% of theoretical density a mixture including (a) a bimodal silicon nitride powder blend consisting essentially of about 10-30% by weight of a first silicon nitride powder of an average particle size of about 0.2 [mu]m and a surface area of about 8-12 m[sup 2]/g, and about 70-90% by weight of a second silicon nitride powder of an average particle size of about 0.4-0.6 [mu]m and a surface area of about 2-4 m[sup 2]/g, (b) about 10-50 percent by volume, based on the volume of the densified article, of refractory whiskers or fibers having an aspect ratio of about 3-150 and having an equivalent diameter selected to produce in the densified article an equivalent diameter ratio of the whiskers or fibers to grains of silicon nitride of greater than 1.0, and (c) an effective amount of a suitable oxide densification aid. Optionally, the mixture may be blended with a binder and injection molded to form a green body, which then may be densified by, for example, hot isostatic pressing.

  6. Process for producing silicon nitride based articles of high fracture toughness and strength

    DOEpatents

    Huckabee, Marvin; Buljan, Sergej-Tomislav; Neil, Jeffrey T.

    1991-01-01

    A process for producing a silicon nitride-based article of improved fracture toughness and strength. The process involves densifying to at least 98% of theoretical density a mixture including (a) a bimodal silicon nitride powder blend consisting essentially of about 10-30% by weight of a first silicon nitride powder of an average particle size of about 0.2 .mu.m and a surface area of about 8-12 m.sup.2 /g, and about 70-90% by weight of a second silicon nitride powder of an average particle size of about 0.4-0.6 .mu.m and a surface area of about 2-4 m.sup.2 /g, (b) about 10-50 percent by volume, based on the volume of the densified article, of refractory whiskers or fibers having an aspect ratio of about 3-150 and having an equivalent diameter selected to produce in the densified article an equivalent diameter ratio of the whiskers or fibers to grains of silicon nitride of greater than 1.0, and (c) an effective amount of a suitable oxide densification aid. Optionally, the mixture may be blended with a binder and injection molded to form a green body, which then may be densified by, for example, hot isostatic pressing.

  7. Fracture Toughness Properties of Gd123 Superconducting Bulks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, H.; Murakami, A.

    Fracture toughness properties of melt growth GdBa2Cu3Ox (Gd123) large single domain superconducting bulks with Ag2O of 10 wt% and Pt of 0.5 wt%; 45 mm in diameter and 25 mm in thickness with low void density were evaluated at 77 K through flexural tests of specimens cut from the bulks, and compared to those of a conventional Gd123 with voids. The densified Gd123 bulks were prepared with a seeding and temperature gradient method; first melt processed in oxygen, then crystal growth in air; two-step regulated atmosphere heat treatment. The plane strain fracture toughness, KIC was obtained by the three point flexure test of the specimens with through precrack, referring to the single edge pre-cracked beam (SEPB) method, according to the JIS-R-1607, Testing Methods for Fracture Toughness of High Performance Ceramics. The results show that the fracture toughness of the densified Gd123 bulk with low void density was higher than that of the standard Gd123 bulk with voids, as well as the flexural strength previously reported. We also compared the fracture toughness of as-grown bulks with that of annealed bulks. The relation between the microstructure and the fracture toughness of the Gd123 bulk was clearly shown.

  8. Survey of fracture toughness test methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W. F., Jr.; Jones, M. H.; Srawley, J. E.

    1968-01-01

    Comprehensive survey presents current methods of fracture toughness testing that are based on linear elastic fracture mechanics. General principles of the basic two dimensional crack stress field model are discussed in relation to real three dimensional specimens. Methods of test instrumentation and procedure are described.

  9. Fracture behavior of 9Cr nanostructured ferritic alloy with improved fracture toughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byun, Thak Sang; Yoon, Ji Hyun; Wee, Sung Hun; Hoelzer, David T.; Maloy, Stuart A.

    2014-06-01

    Nanostructured ferritic alloys (NFAs) have been considered as primary candidate materials for both fission and fusion reactors because of their excellent creep and irradiation resistances. It has been shown that high temperature fracture toughness could be significantly improved by appropriate thermo-mechanical treatments (TMTs). This article focuses on the static fracture behaviors of newly developed 9Cr NFAs with improved toughness. Optimal TMTs resulted in high fracture toughness at room temperature (>250 MPa √m) and in retaining higher than 100 MPa √m over a wide temperature range of 22-700 °C. Significant differences were found in fracture surfaces and fracture resistance (J-R) curves after different TMTs. Unique fracture surface features such as shallow nanoscale facets decorated with shear lips and flake-like grains were observed in high toughness specimens.

  10. Evaluation and significance of fracture toughness in ceramic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Mutoh, Y.

    1995-12-31

    Fracture toughness tests of several ceramic materials were carried out according to the various test methods, that is the Bridge indentation (BI, SEPB), Fatigue precrack (FP), Controlled surface flaw (CSF), Chevron notch (CN) and Indentation fracture (IF) methods. Mutual comparison of the test results was made to discuss the validity and applicability of each test method. Significance of the apparent fracture toughness with stable crack growth was discussed. The intrinsic fracture toughness can be obtained by the CSF method, in which a small surface crack is used. At high temperatures, since nonlinear deformation due to softening of glass phase and stable crack growth occur, nonlinear fracture mechanics approach should be applied. J{sub IC}-value is successfully evaluated according to the R-curve method.

  11. Dynamic fracture toughness evaluation by measurement of CTOD

    SciTech Connect

    Sharpe, W.N. Jr.; Douglas, A.S.; Shapiro, J.M.

    1988-02-01

    Quantification of the dynamic fracture toughness of structural materials is essential to a wide range of problems-from nuclear accidents to ordnance applications. However, the difficulties associated with accurate measurements of crack under dynamic loading are considerable. Thus there are no standardized procedures and few reliable results. A systematic study of the dynamic fracture toughness of SAE-01 tool steel, 4340 and HY100 steels, and a tungsten are described using the Interferometric Strain/Displacement Gage (ISDG) system which has very high frequency resolution. The ISDG system is used to measure the crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) 100 microns behind a fatigue crack tip in a three-point bend specimen. Static measurements on similar specimens serve to calibrate the method and ensure consistency with the accepted procedures for static fracture toughness testing. Finite element analyses are used to obtain full field information at the point of initiation and to assess the material characteristics which lead to changes in toughness with loading rate. The major advantage of the method is that information is obtained very close to the crack tip, so that stress wave loading effects are accounted for. Results show that 4340 steel, which is strain-rate insensitive, has no significant change in toughness with loading rate. Measurable toughness dependence on loading rate is found for HY-100 and tungsten, which are approximately 15 percent tougher under dynamic conditions. The SAE-01 tool steel shows a significant increase (50 percent) in fracture toughness for dynamic over static loading.

  12. Dynamic fracture toughness determined using molecular dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Swadener, J. G.; Baskes, M. I.; Nastasi, Michael Anthony,

    2004-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of fracture in crystalline silicon are conducted in order to determine the dynamic fracture toughness. The MD simulations show how the potential energy released during fracture is partitioned into surface energy, energy stored in defects and kinetic energy. First, the MD fracture simulations are shown to produce brittle fracture and be in reasonable agreement with experimental results. Then dynamic hcture toughness is calculated as the sum of the surface energy and the energy stored as defects directly from the MD models. Models oriented to produce fracture on either (111) or (101) planes are used. For the (101) fracture orientation, equilibrium crack speeds of greater than 80% of the Rayleigh wave speed are obtained. Crack speeds initially show a steep increase with increasing energy release rate followed by a much more gradual increase. No plateau in crack speed is observed for static energy release rates up to 20 J/m{sup 2}. At the point where the change in crack speed behavior occur, the dynamic fracture toughness (J{sub d}) is still within 10% of two times the surface energy (2{gamma}{sub 0}) and changing very slowly. From these MD simulations, it appears that the change in crack speed behavior is due to a change in the kinetic energy generation during dynamic fracture. In addition, MD simulations of facture in silicon with defects were conducted. The addition of defects increases the inelastic dissipation and the energy stored in defects.

  13. Fracture toughness of fibrous composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poe, C. C., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Laminates with various proportions of 0 deg, 45 deg, and 90 deg plies were fabricated from T300/5208 and T300/BP-907 graphite/epoxy prepreg tape material. The fracture toughness of each laminate orientation or lay-up was determined by testing center-cracked specimens, and it was also predicted with the general fracture-toughness parameter. The predictions were good except when crack-tip splitting was large, at which time the toughness and strengths tended to be underpredicted. By using predictions, a parametric study was also made of factors that influence fracture toughness. Fiber and matrix properties as well as lay-up were investigated. Without crack-tip splitting, fracture toughness increases in proportion to fiber strength and fiber volume fraction, increases linearly with E(22)/E(11), is largest when the modulus for non-0 deg fibers is greater than that of 0 deg fibers, and is smallest for 0(m)/90(p)(s) lay-ups. (The E(11) and E(22) are Young's moduli of the lamina parallel to and normal to the direction of the fibers, respectively). For a given proportion of 0 deg plies, the most notch-sensitive lay-ups are 0(m)/90(p)(s) and the least sensitive are 0(m)/45(n)(s) and alpha(s). Notch sensitivity increases with the proportion of 0 deg plies and decreases with alpha. Strong, tough matrix materials, which inhibit crack-tip splitting, generally lead to minimum fracture toughness.

  14. Fracture toughness of ultrashort pulse-bonded fused silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, S.; Naumann, F.; Zimmermann, F.; Tünnermann, A.; Nolte, S.

    2016-02-01

    We determined the bond interface strength of ultrashort pulse laser-welded fused silica for different processing parameters. To this end, we used a high repetition rate ultrashort pulse laser system to inscribe parallel welding lines with a specific V-shaped design into optically contacted fused silica samples. Afterward, we applied a micro-chevron test to measure the fracture toughness and surface energy of the laser-inscribed welding seams. We analyzed the influence of different processing parameters such as laser repetition rate and line separation on the fracture toughness and fracture surface energy. Welding the entire surface a fracture toughness of 0.71 {MPa} {m}^{1/2}, about 90 % of the pristine bulk material ({≈ } 0.8 {MPa} {m}^{1/2}), is obtained.

  15. Fracture Toughness Prediction for MWCNT Reinforced Ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Henager, Charles H.; Nguyen, Ba Nghiep

    2013-09-01

    This report describes the development of a micromechanics model to predict fracture toughness of multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) reinforced ceramic composites to guide future experimental work for this project. The modeling work described in this report includes (i) prediction of elastic properties, (ii) development of a mechanistic damage model accounting for matrix cracking to predict the composite nonlinear stress/strain response to tensile loading to failure, and (iii) application of this damage model in a modified boundary layer (MBL) analysis using ABAQUS to predict fracture toughness and crack resistance behavior (R-curves) for ceramic materials containing MWCNTs at various volume fractions.

  16. Effects of Laser Quenching on Impact Toughness and Fracture Morphologies of 40CrNiMo High Strength Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dejun, Kong; Lei, Zhang

    2014-10-01

    The surface of 40CrNiMo steel was quenched with a CO2 laser, Charpy impact test was conducted at temperatures of 20, 0, and -20 °C, and the impact absorption energies were measured. The fracture morphologies were observed with SEM, and the influence of microhardness, residual stress, and retained austenite on mechanical behavior of impact fracture after laser quenching was discussed. The results show that the hardened layer depth is more than 1 mm after laser quenching, and hardness is about 480-500 HV. The fracture morphology of the sample is dimple rupture at a temperature of 20 °C; with the lower temperature the fracture dimples become smaller. At a temperature of -20 °C, the fracture morphologies change from ductile to brittle, which is mainly cleavage fracture. The increase in surface hardness, production of compressive residual stress, and existence of retained austenite after laser quenching are the main mechanisms of increasing impact toughness.

  17. Fracture toughness of polybutadiene at cryogenic temperatures. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Burford, R.P.

    1983-04-01

    An estimate of fracture toughness of crosslined polybutadiene rubber at -180 degrees C has been made using the double torsin method. By using suitable specimen dimensions and strain rates, controlled crack propagatin can be achieved, together with a constant compliance to crack length ratio. Strain energy release rated for this polymer, crosslinked with either dicumyl peroxide or sulphur, were found to be an order of magnitude higher than for linear, glassy thermoplastics. Crazing is considered to contribute to the high toughness observed.

  18. Fracture toughness testing data. A bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, J. L., Jr.; Moya, N.; Stuhrke, W. F.

    1975-01-01

    This bibliography is comprised of approximately 800 reference citations related to the mechanics of failure in aerospace structures. Most of the references are for documents that include fracture toughness testing data and its application or documents on the availability and usefulness of fracture mechanics analysis methodology. The bibliography represents a search of the literature published in the period April 1962 through April 1974 and is largely limited to documents published in the United States.

  19. 10 CFR Appendix G to Part 50 - Fracture Toughness Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fracture Toughness Requirements G Appendix G to Part 50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES Pt. 50, App. G Appendix G to Part 50—Fracture Toughness Requirements I. Introduction and scope. II. Definitions. III. Fracture toughness tests....

  20. 10 CFR Appendix G to Part 50 - Fracture Toughness Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fracture Toughness Requirements G Appendix G to Part 50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES Pt. 50, App. G Appendix G to Part 50—Fracture Toughness Requirements I. Introduction and scope. II. Definitions. III. Fracture toughness tests....

  1. 10 CFR Appendix G to Part 50 - Fracture Toughness Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fracture Toughness Requirements G Appendix G to Part 50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES Pt. 50, App. G Appendix G to Part 50—Fracture Toughness Requirements I. Introduction and scope. II. Definitions. III. Fracture toughness tests....

  2. 10 CFR Appendix G to Part 50 - Fracture Toughness Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fracture Toughness Requirements G Appendix G to Part 50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES Pt. 50, App. G Appendix G to Part 50—Fracture Toughness Requirements I. Introduction and scope. II. Definitions. III. Fracture toughness tests....

  3. 10 CFR Appendix G to Part 50 - Fracture Toughness Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fracture Toughness Requirements G Appendix G to Part 50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES Pt. 50, App. G Appendix G to Part 50—Fracture Toughness Requirements I. Introduction and scope. II. Definitions. III. Fracture toughness tests....

  4. The development of in situ fracture toughness evaluation techniques in hydrogen environment

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jy-An John; Ren, Fei; Tan, Ting; Liu, Ken C

    2014-01-01

    Fracture behavior and fracture toughness are of great interest regarding reliability of hydrogen pipelines and storage tanks, however, many conventional fracture testing techniques are difficult to be realized under the presence of hydrogen, in addition to the inherited specimen size effect. Thus it is desired to develop novel in situ fracture toughness evaluation techniques to study the fracture behavior of structural materials in hydrogen environments. In this study, a torsional fixture was developed to utilize an emerging fracture testing technique, Spiral Notch Torsion Test (SNTT). The in situ testing results indicated that the exposure to H2 significantly reduces the fracture toughness of 4340 high strength steels by up to 50 percent. Furthermore, SNTT tests conducted in air demonstrated a significant fracture toughness reduction in samples subject to simulated welding heat treatment using Gleeble, which illustrated the effect of welding on the fracture toughness of this material.

  5. Fracture toughness of an Al-Li-Cu-In alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, J.A.; Gangloff, R.P. Virginia, University, Charlottesville )

    1992-06-01

    The crack initiation and growth fracture toughness of select AL-Li-Cu alloy variants are characterized and elucidated. Conventionally processed plates form large DC cast ingots are investigated to eliminate the variation in microstructure associated with laboratory scale and SPF-processed material. Fracture resistance is characterized using the J-integral method to establish crack initiation and growth behavior at 25 and -185 C. It is shown that state-of-the-art 2090-T81 has superior toughness compared to 2090 + In-T6 at both test temperatures, with the low toughness of 2090 + In-T6 associated with intersubgranular fracture attributed to a high density of subboundary precipitates. 21 refs.

  6. Fracture toughness of an Al-Li-Cu-In alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, John A.; Gangloff, Richard P.

    1992-01-01

    The crack initiation and growth fracture toughness of select AL-Li-Cu alloy variants are characterized and elucidated. Conventionally processed plates form large DC cast ingots are investigated to eliminate the variation in microstructure associated with laboratory scale and SPF-processed material. Fracture resistance is characterized using the J-integral method to establish crack initiation and growth behavior at 25 and -185 C. It is shown that state-of-the-art 2090-T81 has superior toughness compared to 2090 + In-T6 at both test temperatures, with the low toughness of 2090 + In-T6 associated with intersubgranular fracture attributed to a high density of subboundary precipitates.

  7. Fracture toughness and crack growth of Zerodur

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viens, Michael J.

    1990-01-01

    The fracture toughness and crack growth parameters of Zerodur, a low expansion glass ceramic material, were determined. The fracture toughness was determined using indentation techniques and was found to be 0.9 MPa x m(sup 1/2). The crack growth parameters were determined using indented biaxial specimens subjected to static and dynamic loading in an aqueous environment. The crack growth parameters n and 1n(B) were found to be 30.7 and -6.837, respectively. The crack growth parameters were also determined using indented biaxial specimens subjected to dynamic loading in an ambient 50 percent relative humidity environment. The crack growth parameters n and 1n(B) at 50 percent relative humidity were found to be 59.3 and -17.51, respectively.

  8. Measuring the Real Fracture Toughness of Ceramics: ASTM C 1421

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salem, Jonathan; Quinn, George; Jenkins, Michael

    ASTM C 1421 "Standard Test Methods for Determination of Fracture Toughness of Advanced Ceramics at Ambient Temperature" is a high-quality, technicallyrigorous, full-consensus standard that may have finally answered the question, "What is the 'real' fracture toughness of ceramics?" This document was eight years in the actual standardization process (although an estimated two decades of preparation work may have preceded the actual standardization process). Three different types of notch/crack geometries are employed in flexure beams: single edge precracked beam (SEPB); chevron-notched beam (CNB), and surface crack in flexure (SCF). Extensive experimental, analytical, and numerical evaluations were conducted in order to mitigate interferences that frequently lower the accuracy of fracture toughness test results. Several round robins (e.g. Versailles Advanced Materials and Standards {VAMAS}) verified and validated the choice of dimensions and test parameters included in the standard. In addition, the standard reference material NIST SRM 2100 was developed and can be used in concert with ASTM C 1421 to validate a fracture toughness test setup or test protocol.

  9. Fracture toughness of Alloy 600 and EN82H weld in air and water

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, W.J.; Brown, C.M.

    1999-06-01

    The fracture toughness of Alloy 600 and its weld, EN82H, was characterized in 54 C to 338 C air and hydrogenated water. Elastic-plastic J{sub IC} testing was performed due to the inherent high toughness of these materials. Alloy 600 exhibited excellent fracture toughness under all test conditions. While EN82H welds displayed excellent toughness in air and high temperature water, a dramatic toughness degradation occurred in water at temperatures below 149 C. Comparison of the cracking response in low temperature water with that for hydrogen-precharged specimens tested in air demonstrated that the loss in toughness is due to a hydrogen-induced intergranular cracking mechanism. At loading rates about approx. 1000 MPa {radical}m/h, the toughness in low temperature water is improved because there is insufficient time for hydrogen to embrittle grain boundaries. Electron fractographic examinations were performed to correlate macroscopic properties with key microstructural features and operative fracture mechanisms.

  10. Irradiation effects on fracture toughness of two high-copper submerged-arc welds, HSSI Series 5. Volume 1, Main report and Appendices A, B, C, and D

    SciTech Connect

    Nanstad, R.K.; Haggag, F.M.; McCabe, D.E.; Iskander, S.K.; Bowman, K.O.; Menke, B.H.

    1992-10-01

    The Fifth Irradiation Series in the Heavy-Section Steel Irradiation Program obtained a statistically significant fracture toughness data base on two high-copper (0.23 and 0.31 wt %) submerged-arc welds to determine the shift and shape of the K{sub Ic} curve as a consequence of irradiation. Compact specimens with thicknesses to 101.6 mm (4 in) in the irradiated condition and 203.2 mm (8 in) in the unirradiated condition were tested, in addition to Charpy impact, tensile, and drop-weight specimens. Irradiations were conducted at a nominal temperature of 288{degree}C and an average fluence of 1.5 {times} 10{sup 19} neutrons/cm{sup 2} (>l MeV). The Charpy 41-J temperature shifts are about the same as the corresponding drop-weight NDT temperature shifts. The irradiated welds exhibited substantial numbers of cleavage pop-ins. Mean curve fits using two-parameter (with fixed intercept) nonlinear and linearized exponential regression analysis revealed that the fracture toughness 100 MPa{lg_bullet}{radical}m shifts exceeded the Charpy 41-J shifts for both welds. Analyses of curve shape changes indicated decreases in the slopes of the fracture toughness curves, especially for the higher copper weld. Weibull analyses were performed to investigate development of lower bound curves to the data, including the use of a variable K{sub min} parameter which affects the curve shape.

  11. Effects of heat treatment on wear resistance and fracture toughness of duo-cast materials composed of high-chromium white cast iron and low-chromium steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chang Kyu; Lee, Sunghak; Jung, Jae-Young

    2006-03-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate effects of heat treatment on wear resistance and fracture toughness in duo-cast materials composed of a high-chromium white cast iron and a low-chromium steel as a wear-resistant part and a ductile part, respectively. Different size, volume fraction, and distribution of M7C3 carbides were employed in the wear-resistant part by changing the amount of chromium, and the volume fraction of martensite in the austenitic matrix was varied by the heat treatment. In the alloys containing a small amount of chromium, an interdendritic structure of eutectic M7C3 carbides was formed, and led to the improvement of wear resistance and fracture toughness. After the heat treatment, the selective wear of the matrix and the cracking or spalled-off carbides were considerably reduced since the hardness difference between carbides and matrix decreased by the increase in the matrix hardness, thereby leading to the improvement of the wear resistance. However, the fracture toughness of the heat-treated alloys was lower than that of the as-cast alloys because the matrix containing a considerable amount of martensite did not effectively prevent the crack propagation.

  12. Fracture Behavior of Silica- and Rubber-Nanoparticle-Toughed Epoxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labak, Amelia K.

    Particle-toughened crosslinked epoxies are popular materials for a variety of applications, including the microelectronics industry. For this application, the properties of these materials, such as a high fracture toughness and a low coefficient of thermal expansion, are highly appealing. In order to achieve these properties, inorganic particles are often added into the matrix. For this study, both inorganic and organic particles-toughened epoxies are investigated in the hopes of finding an optimized system. In particular, in this study, micron-sized silica and nano-sized rubbery block copolymers are added to an amine-cured epoxy matrix. A series of rubber-only and silica-only systems are investigated for their contribution to the fracture toughness. Then, a series of hybrid systems are investigated. The hypothesis is that the rubber will contribute toughness through rubber particle cavitation and matrix void growth and the silica will contribute toughness through crack pinning and bridging and particle debonding. In the hybrid systems, these mechanisms will take place at a different scale. Therefore, the nanoscale mechanisms of the rubber will be able to function at the same time as the micron sized mechanisms of the silica and the resultant toughness will be synergistically higher. The results from this study show an interesting contribution from the rubber particles both in the rubber-only systems and the hybrid system. Ultimately, there was a marked increase in the fracture toughness of the hybrid systems, although not synergistic. This increase indicates that it would be possible to create an optimized hybrid system from the combined addition of these particles.

  13. Determining Ductile Fracture Toughness in Metals

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xiang; Nanstad, Randy K; Sokolov, Mikhail A; Manneschmidt, Eric T

    2014-01-01

    Ductile fracture toughness determination, such as the J-integral versus crack growth resistance (J-R) curve, is a useful tool for evaluating material structural integrity in the presence of pre-existing defects. The J-R curve represents a way to calculate the work (energy) per unit fracture surface area needed to drive the crack growth. A typical J-R curve is shown in Fig. 1 from which the material fracture toughness near the initiation of stable crack growth (Jq) can be derived. In addition, tearing modulus (TR), representing the material resistance to stable crack growth, can be calculated based on the slope of the J-R curve between two exclusion lines (red dashed lines in Fig. 1). Since the introduction of the J-R curve, extensive efforts have been continuously devoted to develop simplified and reliable methods for determining the material J-R curve. This article briefly reviews three widely-used J-R curve test methods in metals, i.e. elastic unloading compliance (EUC), normalization, and direct current potential drop (DCPD). The main difference in these methods relates to the determination of the crack size. More details of performing the J-R curve determination can be found in ASTM standard E1820-11.

  14. TRITIUM AGING EFFECTS ON THE FRACTURE TOUGHNESS PROPERTIES OF FORGED STAINLESS STEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, M

    2008-04-14

    The fracture toughness properties of Type 21-6-9 stainless steel were measured for forgings in the unexposed, hydrogen-exposed, and tritium-exposed-and-aged conditions. Fracture toughness samples were cut from conventionally-forged and high-energy-rate-forged forward-extruded cylinders and mechanically tested at room temperature using ASTM fracture-toughness testing procedures. Some of the samples were exposed to either hydrogen or tritium gas (340 MPa, 623 K) prior to testing. Tritium-exposed samples were aged for up to seven years and tested periodically in order to measure the effect on fracture toughness of {sup 3}He from radioactive tritium decay. The results show that hydrogen-exposed and tritium-exposed samples had lower fracture- toughness values than unexposed samples and that fracture toughness decreased with increasing decay {sup 3}He content. Forged steels were more resistant to the embrittling effects of tritium and decay {sup 3}He than annealed steels, although their fracture-toughness properties depended on the degree of sensitization that occurred during processing. The fracture process was dominated by microvoid nucleation, growth and coalescence; however, the size and spacing of microvoids on the fracture surfaces were affected by hydrogen and tritium with the lowest-toughness samples having the smallest microvoids and finest spacing.

  15. Fracture toughness testing data: A technology survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuhrke, W. F.; Carpenter, J. L., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Technical abstracts for about 90 significant documents relating to fracture toughness testing for various structural materials including information on plane strain and the developing areas of mixed mode and plane stress test conditions are presented. An overview of the state-of-the-art represented in the documents that have been abstracted is included. The abstracts in the report are mostly for publications in the period April 1962 through April 1974. The purpose of this report is to provide, in quick reference form, a dependable source for current information in the subject field.

  16. Interphase effect on intralaminar fracture toughness

    SciTech Connect

    Hrivnak, J.A.; Dagastine, R.R.; McCullough, R.L.

    1996-12-31

    In fiber reinforced thermoset composites there is a growing body of experimental evidence which has pointed to a region at the fiber/matrix boundary with properties that differ from the fiber or matrix. This region extends beyond the two dimensional interface at the fiber/matrix boundary to have a finite thickness with chemical and structural property gradients. This leads to the concept of an interphase region. The interphase has a large effect on the thermal and mechanical properties of the composite such as fracture toughness, glass transition temperature and the coefficient of thermal expansion. Understanding the interphase region becomes crucial to tailoring a composite to a desired set of properties.

  17. Identifying Novel Clinical Surrogates to Assess Human Bone Fracture Toughness.

    PubMed

    Granke, Mathilde; Makowski, Alexander J; Uppuganti, Sasidhar; Does, Mark D; Nyman, Jeffry S

    2015-07-01

    Fracture risk does not solely depend on strength but also on fracture toughness; ie, the ability of bone material to resist crack initiation and propagation. Because resistance to crack growth largely depends on bone properties at the tissue level, including collagen characteristics, current X-ray based assessment tools may not be suitable to identify age-related, disease-related, or treatment-related changes in fracture toughness. To identify useful clinical surrogates that could improve the assessment of fracture resistance, we investigated the potential of (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and reference point indentation (RPI) to explain age-related variance in fracture toughness. Harvested from cadaveric femurs (62 human donors), single-edge notched beam (SENB) specimens of cortical bone underwent fracture toughness testing (R-curve method). NMR-derived bound water showed the strongest correlation with fracture toughness properties (r = 0.63 for crack initiation, r = 0.35 for crack growth, and r = 0.45 for overall fracture toughness; p < 0.01). Multivariate analyses indicated that the age-related decrease in different fracture toughness properties were best explained by a combination of NMR properties including pore water and RPI-derived tissue stiffness with age as a significant covariate (adjusted R(2)  = 53.3%, 23.9%, and 35.2% for crack initiation, crack growth, and overall toughness, respectively; p < 0.001). These findings reflect the existence of many contributors to fracture toughness and emphasize the utility of a multimodal assessment of fracture resistance. Exploring the mechanistic origin of fracture toughness, glycation-mediated nonenzymatic collagen crosslinks and intracortical porosity are possible determinants of bone fracture toughness and could explain the sensitivity of NMR to changes in fracture toughness. Assuming fracture toughness is clinically important to the ability of bone to resist fracture

  18. Identifying novel clinical surrogates to assess human bone fracture toughness

    PubMed Central

    Granke, Mathilde; Makowski, Alexander J; Uppuganti, Sasidhar; Does, Mark D; Nyman, Jeffry S

    2015-01-01

    Fracture risk does not solely depend on strength but also on fracture toughness, i.e. the ability of bone material to resist crack initiation and propagation. Because resistance to crack growth largely depends on bone properties at the tissue level including collagen characteristics, current X-ray based assessment tools may not be suitable to identify age-, disease-, or treatment-related changes in fracture toughness. To identify useful clinical surrogates that could improve the assessment of fracture resistance, we investigated the potential of 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and reference point indentation (RPI) to explain age-related variance in fracture toughness. Harvested from cadaveric femurs (62 human donors), single-edge notched beam (SENB) specimens of cortical bone underwent fracture toughness testing (R-curve method). NMR-derived bound water showed the strongest correlation with fracture toughness properties (r=0.63 for crack initiation, r=0.35 for crack growth, and r=0.45 for overall fracture toughness; p<0.01). Multivariate analyses indicated that the age-related decrease in different fracture toughness properties were best explained by a combination of NMR properties including pore water and RPI-derived tissue stiffness with age as a significant covariate (adjusted R2 = 53.3%, 23.9%, and 35.2% for crack initiation, crack growth, and overall toughness, respectively; p<0.001). These findings reflect the existence of many contributors to fracture toughness and emphasize the utility of a multimodal assessment of fracture resistance. Exploring the mechanistic origin of fracture toughness, glycation-mediated, non-enzymatic collagen crosslinks and intra-cortical porosity are possible determinants of bone fracture toughness and could explain the sensitivity of NMR to changes in fracture toughness. Assuming fracture toughness is clinically important to the ability of bone to resist fracture, our results suggest that improvements in fracture

  19. Reactor Material Program Fracture Toughness of Type 304 Stainless Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Awadalla, N.G.

    2001-03-28

    This report describes the experimental procedure for Type 304 Stainless Steel fracture toughness measurements and the application of results. Typical toughness values are given based on the completed test program for the Reactor Materials Program (RMP). Test specimen size effects and limitations of the applicability in the fracture mechanics methodology are outlined as well as a brief discussion on irradiation effects.

  20. The effect of microstructure on the fracture toughness of titanium alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanstone, R. H.; Low, J. R., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The high-strength titanium alloys are widely used in aircraft and aerospace structures due to their high strength to density ratios. In such applications, the fracture toughness rather than the strength is often the factor which requires larger size sections and lower useful payloads. The response of the strength and toughness of titanium alloys was analyzed generally without regard to the fracture mode or the effect of microstructure on the fracture mechanisms. Research on the fracture mechanisms in aluminum alloys and steels showed that the toughness may be improved by decreasing the sizes of inclusions and sub-micron precipitates. An investigation was conducted to study the fracture mechanisms in titanium alloys which may lead to suggestions for the improvement of the fracture toughness without a corresponding loss in strength.

  1. Fracture Toughness in Advanced Monolithic Ceramics - SEPB Versus SEVENB Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, S. R.; Gyekenyesi, J. P.

    2005-01-01

    Fracture toughness of a total of 13 advanced monolithic ceramics including silicon nitrides, silicon carbide, aluminas, and glass ceramic was determined at ambient temperature by using both single edge precracked beam (SEPB) and single edge v-notched beam (SEVNB) methods. Relatively good agreement in fracture toughness between the two methods was observed for advanced ceramics with flat R-curves; whereas, poor agreement in fracture toughness was seen for materials with rising R-curves. The discrepancy in fracture toughness between the two methods was due to stable crack growth with crack closure forces acting in the wake region of cracks even in SEVNB test specimens. The effect of discrepancy in fracture toughness was analyzed in terms of microstructural feature (grain size and shape), toughening exponent, and stable crack growth determined using back-face strain gaging.

  2. Laser notching ceramics for reliable fracture toughness testing

    SciTech Connect

    Barth, Holly D.; Elmer, John W.; Freeman, Dennis C.; Schaefer, Ronald D.; Derkach, Oleg; Gallegos, Gilbert F.

    2015-09-19

    A new method for notching ceramics was developed using a picosecond laser for fracture toughness testing of alumina samples. The test geometry incorporated a single-edge-V-notch that was notched using picosecond laser micromachining. This method has been used in the past for cutting ceramics, and is known to remove material with little to no thermal effect on the surrounding material matrix. This study showed that laser-assisted-machining for fracture toughness testing of ceramics was reliable, quick, and cost effective. In order to assess the laser notched single-edge-V-notch beam method, fracture toughness results were compared to results from other more traditional methods, specifically surface-crack in flexure and the chevron notch bend tests. Lastly, the results showed that picosecond laser notching produced precise notches in post-failure measurements, and that the measured fracture toughness results showed improved consistency compared to traditional fracture toughness methods.

  3. Laser notching ceramics for reliable fracture toughness testing

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Barth, Holly D.; Elmer, John W.; Freeman, Dennis C.; Schaefer, Ronald D.; Derkach, Oleg; Gallegos, Gilbert F.

    2015-09-19

    A new method for notching ceramics was developed using a picosecond laser for fracture toughness testing of alumina samples. The test geometry incorporated a single-edge-V-notch that was notched using picosecond laser micromachining. This method has been used in the past for cutting ceramics, and is known to remove material with little to no thermal effect on the surrounding material matrix. This study showed that laser-assisted-machining for fracture toughness testing of ceramics was reliable, quick, and cost effective. In order to assess the laser notched single-edge-V-notch beam method, fracture toughness results were compared to results from other more traditional methods, specificallymore » surface-crack in flexure and the chevron notch bend tests. Lastly, the results showed that picosecond laser notching produced precise notches in post-failure measurements, and that the measured fracture toughness results showed improved consistency compared to traditional fracture toughness methods.« less

  4. Fracture toughness evaluations of TP304 stainless steel pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Rudland, D.L.; Brust, F.W.; Wilkowski, G.M.

    1997-02-01

    In the IPIRG-1 program, the J-R curve calculated for a 16-inch nominal diameter, Schedule 100 TP304 stainless steel (DP2-A8) surface-cracked pipe experiment (Experiment 1.3-3) was considerably lower than the quasi-static, monotonic J-R curve calculated from a C(T) specimen (A8-12a). The results from several related investigations conducted to determine the cause of the observed toughness difference are: (1) chemical analyses on sections of Pipe DP2-A8 from several surface-cracked pipe and material property specimen fracture surfaces indicate that there are two distinct heats of material within Pipe DP2-A8 that differ in chemical composition; (2) SEN(T) specimen experimental results indicate that the toughness of a surface-cracked specimen is highly dependent on the depth of the initial crack, in addition, the J-R curves from the SEN(T) specimens closely match the J-R curve from the surface-cracked pipe experiment; (3) C(T) experimental results suggest that there is a large difference in the quasi-static, monotonic toughness between the two heats of DP2-A8, as well as a toughness degradation in the lower toughness heat of material (DP2-A8II) when loaded with a dynamic, cyclic (R = {minus}0.3) loading history.

  5. The shear fracture toughness, KIIc, of graphite

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Burchell, Timothy D.; Erdman, III, Donald L.

    2015-11-05

    In this study, the critical shear stress intensity factor, KIIc, here-in referred to as the shear fracture toughness, KIIc (MPa m), of two grades of graphite are reported. The range of specimen volumes was selected to elucidate any specimen size effect, but smaller volume specimen tests were largely unsuccessful, shear failure did not occur between the notches as expected. This was probably due to the specimen geometry causing the shear fracture stress to exceed the compressive failure stress. In subsequent testing the specimen geometry was altered to reduce the compressive footprint and the notches (slits) made deeper to reduce themore » specimen's ligament length. Additionally, we added the collection of Acoustic Emission (AE) during testing to assist with the identification of the shear fracture load. The means of KIIc from large specimens for PCEA and NBG-18 are 2.26 MPa m with an SD of 0.37 MPa m and 2.20 MPa m with an SD of 0.53 MPa m, respectively. The value of KIIc for both graphite grades was similar, although the scatter was large. In this work we found the ratio of KIIc/KIc ≈ 1.6. .« less

  6. Fracture toughness for copper oxide superconductors

    DOEpatents

    Goretta, K.C.; Kullberg, M.L.

    1993-04-13

    An oxide-based strengthening and toughening agent, such as tetragonal ZrO[sub 2] particles, has been added to copper oxide superconductors, such as superconducting YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub x] (123) to improve its fracture toughness (K[sub IC]). A sol-gel coating which is non-reactive with the superconductor, such as Y[sub 2]BaCuO[sub 5] (211) on the ZrO[sub 2] particles minimized the deleterious reactions between the superconductor and the toughening agent dispersed therethrough. Addition of 20 mole percent ZrO[sub 2] coated with 211 yielded a 123 composite with a K[sub IC] of 4.5 MPa(m)[sup 0.5].

  7. Fracture toughness for copper oxide superconductors

    DOEpatents

    Goretta, Kenneth C.; Kullberg, Marc L.

    1993-01-01

    An oxide-based strengthening and toughening agent, such as tetragonal Zro.sub.2 particles, has been added to copper oxide superconductors, such as superconducting YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.x (123) to improve its fracture toughness (K.sub.IC). A sol-gel coating which is non-reactive with the superconductor, such as Y.sub.2 BaCuO.sub.5 (211) on the ZrO.sub.2 particles minimized the deleterious reactions between the superconductor and the toughening agent dispersed therethrough. Addition of 20 mole percent ZrO.sub.2 coated with 211 yielded a 123 composite with a K.sub.IC of 4.5 MPa(m).sup.0.5.

  8. Irradiation effects on fracture toughness of two high-copper submerged-arc welds, HSSI series 5. Volume 2, Appendices E and F

    SciTech Connect

    Nanstad, R.K.; Haggag, F.M.; McCabe, D.E.; Iskander, S.K.; Bowman, K.O.; Menke, B.H.

    1992-10-01

    The Fifth Irradiation Series in the Heavy-Section Steel irradiation (HSSI) Program was aimed at obtaining a statistically significant fracture toughness data base on two weldments with high-copper contents to determine the shift and shape of the K{sub lc} curve as a consequence of irradiation. The program included irradiated Charpy V-notch impact, tensile, and drop-weight specimens in addition to compact fracture toughness specimens. Compact specimens with thicknesses of 25.4, 50.8, and 101.6 mm [1T C(T), 2T C(T), and 4T C(T), respectively] were irradiated. Additionally, unirradiated 6T C(T) and 8T C(T) specimens with the same K{sub lc} measuring capacity as the irradiated specimens were tested. The materials for this irradiation series were two weldments fabricated from special heats of weld wire with copper added to the melt. One lot of Linde 0124 flux was used for all the welds. Copper levels for the two welds are 0.23 and 0.31 wt %, while the nickel contents for both welds are 0.60 wt %. Twelve capsules of specimens were irradiated in the pool-side facility of the Oak Ridge Research Reactor at a nominal temperature of 288{degree}C and an average fluence of about 1.5 {times} 10{sup 19} neutrons/cm{sup 2} (> 1 MeV). This volume, Appendices E and F, contains the load-displacement curves and photographs of the fracture toughness specimens from the 72W weld (0.23 wt % Cu) and the 73 W weld (0.31 wt % Cu), respectively.

  9. Fracture toughness of advanced ceramics at room temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, George D.; Salem, Jonathan; Bar-On, Isa; Cho, Kyu; Foley, Michael; Fang, HO

    1992-01-01

    Results of round-robin fracture toughness tests on advanced ceramics are reported. A gas-pressure silicon nitride and a zirconia-toughened alumina were tested using three test methods: indentation fracture, indentation strength, and single-edge precracked beam. The latter two methods have produced consistent results. The interpretation of fracture toughness test results for the zirconia alumina composite is shown to be complicated by R-curve and environmentally assisted crack growth phenomena.

  10. Effects of irradiation to 4 dpa at 390 C on the fracture toughness of vanadium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Gruber, E.E.; Galvin, T.M.; Chopra, O.K.

    1998-09-01

    Fracture toughness J-R curve tests were conducted at room temperature on disk-shaped compact-tension DC(T) specimens of three vanadium alloys having a nominal composition of V-4Cr-4Ti. The alloys in the nonirradiated condition showed high fracture toughness; J{sub IC} could not be determined but is expected to be above 600 kJ/m{sup 2}. The alloys showed very poor fracture toughness after irradiation to 4 dpa at 390 C, e.g., J{sub IC} values of {approx}10 kJ/m{sup 2} or lower.

  11. Power mixture and green body for producing silicon nitride base articles of high fracture toughness and strength

    DOEpatents

    Huckabee, M.L.; Buljan, S.T.; Neil, J.T.

    1991-09-17

    A powder mixture and a green body for producing a silicon nitride-based article of improved fracture toughness and strength are disclosed. The powder mixture includes (a) a bimodal silicon nitride powder blend consisting essentially of about 10-30% by weight of a first silicon nitride powder of an average particle size of about 0.2 [mu]m and a surface area of about 8-12m[sup 2]g, and about 70-90% by weight of a second silicon nitride powder of an average particle size of about 0.4-0.6 [mu]m and a surface area of about 2-4 m[sup 2]/g, (b) about 10-50 percent by volume, based on the volume of the densified article, of refractory whiskers or fibers having an aspect ratio of about 3-150 and having an equivalent diameter selected to produce in the densified article an equivalent diameter ratio of the whiskers or fibers to grains of silicon nitride of greater than 1.0, and (c) an effective amount of a suitable oxide densification aid. The green body is formed from the powder mixture, an effective amount of a suitable oxide densification aid, and an effective amount of a suitable organic binder. No Drawings

  12. Power mixture and green body for producing silicon nitride base & articles of high fracture toughness and strength

    DOEpatents

    Huckabee, Marvin L.; Buljan, Sergej-Tomislav; Neil, Jeffrey T.

    1991-01-01

    A powder mixture and a green body for producing a silicon nitride-based article of improved fracture toughness and strength. The powder mixture includes 9a) a bimodal silicon nitride powder blend consisting essentially of about 10-30% by weight of a first silicon mitride powder of an average particle size of about 0.2 .mu.m and a surface area of about 8-12m.sup.2 g, and about 70-90% by weight of a second silicon nitride powder of an average particle size of about 0.4-0.6 .mu.m and a surface area of about 2-4 m.sup.2 /g, (b) about 10-50 percent by volume, based on the volume of the densified article, of refractory whiskers or fibers having an aspect ratio of about 3-150 and having an equivalent diameter selected to produce in the densified articel an equivalent diameter ratio of the whiskers or fibers to grains of silicon nitride of greater than 1.0, and (c) an effective amount of a suitable oxide densification aid. The green body is formed from the powder mixture, an effective amount of a suitable oxide densification aid, and an effective amount of a suitable organic binder.

  13. Predicting Fracture Toughness of TRIP 800 using Phase Properties Characterized by In-Situ High Energy X-Ray Diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Soulami, Ayoub; Choi, Kyoo Sil; Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Ren, Yang; Wang, Yan-Dong

    2010-05-01

    TRansformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steel is a typical representative of 1st generation advanced high strength steel (AHSS) which exhibits a combination of high strength and excellent ductility due to its multiphase microstructure. In this paper, we study the crack propagation behavior and fracture resistance of a TRIP 800 steel using a microstructure-based finite element method with the various phase properties characterized by in-situ high energy Xray diffraction (HEXRD) technique. Uniaxial tensile tests on the notched TRIP 800 sheet specimens were also conducted, and the experimentally measured tensile properties and R-curves (Resistance curves) were used to calibrate the modeling parameters and to validate the overall modeling results. The comparison between the simulated and experimentally measured results suggests that the micromechanics based modeling procedure can well capture the overall complex crack propagation behaviors and the fracture resistance of TRIP steels. The methodology adopted here may be used to estimate the fracture resistance of various multiphase materials.

  14. Relationship between fracture toughness, fracture path, and microstructure of 7050 aluminum alloy. Part 2: Multiple micromechanisms-based fracture toughness model

    SciTech Connect

    Gokhale, A.M.; Deshpande, N.U.; Denzer, D.K.; Liu, J.

    1998-04-01

    A multiple micromechanisms-based model is developed to quantitatively relate the fracture toughness of partially recrystallized 7XXX aluminum alloys to their fracture surface morphology. The model is verified using the experimental data on partially recrystallized 7050 alloy reported in the companion article. It is then used to obtain a quantitative relationship between the fracture toughness and microstructural attributes. The model relates fracture toughness to microstructural parameters such as degree of recrystallization, grain size of recrystallized grains, thickness of recrystallized regions, total surface area of the constituent particles per unit volume, and microstructural anisotropy. The model predicts the changes in the fracture toughness with the specimen orientation.

  15. Fracture toughness of irradiated candidate materials for ITER first wall/blanket structures: Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, D.J.; Pawel, J.E.; Grossbeck, M.L.; Rowcliffe, A.F.

    1996-04-01

    Disk compact specimens of candidate materials for first wall/blanket structures in ITER have been irradiated to damage levels of about 3 dpa at nominal irradiation temperatures of either 90 250{degrees}C. These specimens have been tested over a temperature range from 20 to 250{degrees}C to determine J-integral values and tearing moduli. The results show that irradiation at these temperatures reduces the fracture toughness of austenic stainless steels, but the toughness remains quite high. The toughness decreases as the temperature increases. Irradiation at 250{degrees}C is more damaging that at 90{degrees}C, causing larger decreases in the fracture toughness. The ferritic-martensitic steels HT-9 and F82H show significantly greater reductions in fracture toughness that the austenitic stainless steels.

  16. EFFECT OF TRITIUM AND DECAY HELIUM ON WELDMENT FRACTURE TOUGHNESS

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, M; Scott West, S; Michael Tosten, M

    2006-09-26

    The fracture toughness data collected in this study are needed to assess the long-term effects of tritium and its decay product on tritium reservoirs. The results show that tritium and decay helium have negative effects on the fracture toughness properties of stainless steel and its weldments. The data and report from this study has been included in a material property database for use in tritium reservoir modeling efforts like the Technology Investment Program ''Lifecycle Engineering for Tritium Reservoirs''. A number of conclusions can be drawn from the data: (1) For unexposed Type 304L stainless steel, the fracture toughness of weldments was two to three times higher than the base metal toughness. (2) Tritium exposure lowered the fracture toughness properties of both base metals and weldments. This was characterized by lower J{sub Q} values and lower J-da curves. (3) Tritium-exposed-and-aged base metals and weldments had lower fracture toughness values than unexposed ones but still retained good toughness properties.

  17. Correlations between ultrasonic and fracture toughness factors in metallic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, A.

    1978-01-01

    A heuristic mathematical basis was proposed for the experimental correlations found between ultrasonic propagation factors and fracture toughness factors in metallic materials. A crack extension model was developed wherein spontaneous stress (elastic) waves produced during microcracking are instrumental in promoting the onset of unstable crack extension. Material microstructural factors involved in the process are measurable by ultrasonic probing. Experimental results indicate that ultrasonic attenuation and velocity measurements will produce significant correlations with fracture toughness properties and also yield strength.

  18. Correlations between ultrasonic and fracture toughness factors in metallic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, A.

    1978-01-01

    A heuristic mathematical basis is proposed for the experimental correlations found between ultrasonic propagation factors and fracture toughness factors in metallic materials. A crack extension model is proposed wherein spontaneous stress (elastic) waves produced during microcracking are instrumental in promoting the onset of unstable crack extension. Material microstructural factors involved in this process are measurable by ultrasonic probing. Experimental results indicate that ultrasonic attenuation and velocity measurements will produce significant correlations with fracture toughness properties and also yield strength.

  19. Critical Fracture Toughness Measurements of an Antarctic Ice Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christmann, Julia; Müller, Ralf; Webber, Kyle; Isaia, Daniel; Schader, Florian; Kippstuhl, Sepp; Freitag, Johannes; Humbert, Angelika

    2014-05-01

    Fracture toughness is a material parameter describing the resistance of a pre-existing defect in a body to further crack extension. The fracture toughness of glacial ice as a function of density is important for modeling efforts aspire to predict calving behavior. In the presented experiments this fracture toughness is measured using an ice core from Kohnen Station, Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica. The samples were sawed in an ice lab at the Alfred Wegener Institute in Bremerhaven at -20°C and had the dimensions of standard test samples with thickness 14 mm, width 28 mm and length 126 mm. The samples originate from a depth of 94.6 m to 96 m. The grain size of the samples was also identified. The grain size was found to be rather uniform. The critical fracture toughness is determined in a four-point bending approach using single edge V-notch beam samples. The initial notch length was around 2.5 mm and was prepared using a drilling machine. The experimental setup was designed at the Institute of Materials Science at Darmstadt. In this setup the force increases linearly, until the maximum force is reached, where the specific sample fractures. This procedure was done in an ice lab with a temperature of -15°C. The equations to calculate the fracture toughness for pure bending are derived from an elastic stress analysis and are given as a standard test method to detect the fracture toughness. An X-ray computer tomography (CT scanner) was used to determine the ice core densities. The tests cover densities from 843 kg m-3 to 871 kg m-3. Thereby the influence of the fracture toughness on the density was analyzed and compared to previous investigations of this material parameter. Finally the dependence of the measured toughness on thickness, width, and position in the core cross-section was investigated.

  20. Absolute surface energies, fracture toughness, and cracking in nitrides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreyer, Cyrus E.; Janotti, Anderson; van de Walle, Chris G.

    2014-03-01

    Growth of high quality single crystals and epitaxial layers of GaN is critical for producing high-efficiency optoelectronic and power electronic devices. One of the fundamental material properties that govern growth of single crystals is the absolute surface energy of the crystallographic planes. Knowledge of these energies is required to understand and optimize growth rates of different facets in GaN, and provide fracture toughnesses for brittle fracture. By means of hybrid functional calculations, we have determined absolute surface energies for the non-polar {11-20} a and {10-10} m planes, and approximated values for polar (0001) + c and (000-1) - c planes in wurtzite GaN. For all surfaces, we consider low-energy bare and hydrogenated reconstructions under a variety of conditions relevant to experimental growth techniques. We find that the energies of the m and a planes are similar, and constant over the range of conditions studied. In contrast, the energies of the polar planes are strongly condition dependent. Even so, we find that the + c polar plane is systematically lower in energy than the - c plane. We have used our surface energies to determine brittle fracture toughnesses in AlN and GaN, as well as the critical thickness for cracking of AlGaN on GaN.

  1. A parametric study of fracture toughness of fibrous composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poe, C. C., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Impacts to fibrous composite laminates by objects with low velocities can break fibers giving crack-like damage. The damage may not extend completely through a thick laminate. The tension strength of these damage laminates is reduced much like that of cracked metals. The fracture toughness depends on fiber and matrix properties, fiber orientations, and stacking sequence. Accordingly, a parametric study was made to determine how fiber and matrix properties and fiber orientations affect fracture toughness and notch sensitivity. The values of fracture toughness were predicted from the elastic constants of the laminate and the failing strain of the fibers using a general fracture toughness parameter developed previously. For a variety of laminates, values of fracture toughness from tests of center-cracked specimens and values of residual strength from tests of thick laminates with surface cracks were compared to the predictions to give credibility to the study. In contrast to the usual behavior of metals, it is shown that both ultimate tensile strength and fracture toughness of composites can be increased without increasing notch sensitivity.

  2. Fracture toughness of metallic glasses: annealing-induced embrittlement.

    PubMed

    Rycroft, Chris H; Bouchbinder, Eran

    2012-11-01

    Quantitative understanding of the fracture toughness of metallic glasses, including the associated ductile-to-brittle (embrittlement) transitions, is not yet available. Here, we use a simple model of plastic deformation in glasses, coupled to an advanced Eulerian level set formulation for solving complex free-boundary problems, to calculate the fracture toughness of metallic glasses as a function of the degree of structural relaxation corresponding to different annealing times near the glass temperature. Our main result indicates the existence of an elastoplastic crack tip instability for sufficiently relaxed glasses, resulting in a marked drop in the toughness, which we interpret as annealing-induced embrittlement transition similar to experimental observations. PMID:23215386

  3. Fracture toughness of oxide-dispersion strengthened copper

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, D.J.

    1996-10-01

    The fracture toughness of an oxide-dispersion strengthened copper alloy AL-15 has been examined at room temperature and 250{degrees}C, in air and in vacuum (< 10{sup {minus}6} torr). Increasing test temperature causes a significant decrease in the fracture toughness of this material, in either air or vacuum environments. In addition, specimens oriented in the T-L orientation (crack growth parallel to the extrusion direction) show significantly lower toughness than those in the L-T orientation (crack growth perpendicular to the extrusion direction).

  4. Microstructure and Origin of Hot-Work Tool Steel Fracture Toughness Deviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podgornik, Bojan; Leskovšek, Vojteh

    2013-12-01

    Dies and tools used in hot metal forming are exposed to elevated temperatures and high contact pressures, and therefore to wear and fatigue. Fracture toughness is thus one of the main material properties used when selecting and optimizing heat treatment of tools. However, fracture toughness data alone is not sufficient and need to be supported by other material properties and features. The aim of the present research work was to correlate fracture toughness properties of hot-work tool steel, especially its variation to the local microstructure, microhardness, and composition and to establish methodology for proper evaluation of tool steel's fracture toughness. Research was performed on H11-type hot-work tool steel specimens, heat treated under the same conditions but displaying greatly different fracture toughness. Results show that the presence of any weak point, either in a form of non-metallic inclusions and/or large undissolved eutectic carbide clusters, located in the region of positive segregation with high microhardness will lead to considerable reduction in fracture toughness.

  5. The effect of temperature on the fracture toughness of Weldalite(TM) 049

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lach, Cynthia L.; Gangloff, Richard P.

    1991-01-01

    The uncertain effect of temperature is characterized on the deformation and fracture behavior of Weldalite(TM) 049 from cryogenic to elevated temperatures. Fracture resistance is measured and the determination of fracture mechanisms emphasized, including slip plane cracking, high angle boundary delamination, subgrain boundary cracking, and microvoid coalescence. Microstructure is controlled to produce either predominantly T(sub 1) or T(sub 1) + delta (after Blankenship and Starke) and to examine the effect of dislocation-precipitate interaction on fracture toughness.

  6. Interfacial fracture toughness of alumina/niobium systems

    SciTech Connect

    Stout, M.G. ); O'Dowd, N.P.; Shih, C.F. . Div. of Engineering)

    1991-01-01

    The interfacial fracture toughness of an alumina/niobium composite has been measured as a function of phase angle. The interface was formed by solid-state bonding bulk Coor's AD-999 fine-grain alumina with a commercial purity niobium at 1600{degrees}C for 0.5 hr under a pressure of 10.5 MPa. The alumina/niobium system has a number of features which makes it ideal for an investigation of interfacial fracture toughness. From HREM data we estimate that the width of the interface is no more than 10 atomic planes. Furthermore the thermal expansion coefficients of the two materials differ by less than 5% so residual stresses due to the bonding process are small. Using symmetric and asymmetric four point bend specimens we have measured the fracture toughness of homogenous alumina and that of the alumina/niobium bimaterial in combinations of in-plane shear and tension. The fracture toughness of the homogenous alumina is relatively insensitive to the loading phase. The measured fracture toughness K{sub c} of the interface, however, depended strongly on phase angle. We were unable to obtain valid alumina/niobium interfacial toughness data at negative phase angles as the fracture initiates in the alumina and not at the interface. In symmetric bending at a phase angle {approx}5{degrees}, we measured a nominal interface toughness of 4.0 MPa{radical}m, comparable to the homogeneous alumina. We found that the toughness increased with loading phase angle to a value of K{sub c} {approx} 9 MPa{radical}m at a phase between 25{degrees} and 40{degrees}. Preliminary calculations and experiments suggest that this effect is due to an asymmetric stress distribution, with respect to the interface, and plastic deformation in the niobium. 12 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Semi-interpenetrating polymer network's of polyimides: Fracture toughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Marion Glenn

    1988-01-01

    The objective was to improve the fracture toughness of the PMR-15 thermosetting polyimide by co-disolving LaRC-TPI, a thermoplastic polyimide. The co-solvation of a thermoplastic into a thermoset produces an interpenetration of the thermoplastic polymer into the thermoset polyimide network. A second research program was planned around the concept that to improve the fracture toughness of a thermoset polyimide polymer, the molecular weight between crosslink points would be an important macromolecular topological parameter in producing a fracture toughened semi-IPN polyimide.

  8. Microstructure and fracture toughness of Mn-stabilized cubic titanium trialuminide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zbroniec, Leszek Ireneusz

    This thesis project is related to the fracture toughness aspects of the mechanical behavior of the selected Mn-modified cubic Ll2 titanium trialuminicles. Fracture toughness was evaluated using two specimen types: Single-Edge-Precracked-Beam (SEPB) and Chevron-Notched-Beam (CNB). The material tested was in cast, homogenized and HIP-ed condition. In the preliminary stage of the project due to lack of the ASTM Standard for fracture toughness testing of the chevron-notched specimens in bending the analyses of the CNB configuration were done to establish the optimal chevron notch dimensions. Two types of alloys were investigated: (a) boron-free and boron doped low-Mn (9at.% Mn), as well as (b) boron-free and boron-doped high-Mn (14at.% Mn). Toughness was investigated in the temperature range from room temperature to 1000°C and was calculated from the maximum load. It has been found that toughness of coarse-grained "base" 9Mn-25Ti alloy exhibits a broad peak at the 200--500°C temperature range and then decreases with increasing temperature, reaching its room temperature value at 10000°C. However, the work of fracture (gammaWOF) and the stress intensity factor calculated from it (KIWOF) increases continuously with increasing temperature. Also the fracture mode dependence on temperature has been established. To understand the effect of environment on the fracture toughness of coarse-grained "base", boron-free 9Mn-25Ti alloy, the tests were carried out in vacuum (˜1.3 x 10-5 Pa), argon, oxygen, water and liquid nitrogen. It has been shown that fracture toughness at ambient temperature is not affected by the environments containing moisture (water vapor). It seems that at ambient temperatures these materials are completely immune to the water-vapor hydrogen embrittlement and their cause of brittleness is other than environment. To explore the influence of the grain size on fracture toughness the fracture toughness tests were also performed on the dynamically

  9. Fracture toughness of thick section dissimilar electron beam weld joints

    SciTech Connect

    Kocak, M.; Junghans, E.

    1994-12-31

    Microstructural investigations as well as crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) fracture toughness test based on elastic-plastic fracture mechanics were performed on single pass, full penetration similar and dissimilar electron beam (EB) welds of 40 mm thick 316L type austenitic steel and high alloyed fine tempered martensitic 9Cr 1Mo Nb V (P91 -ASTM A213) steel. The latter modified steel has been developed to fill up the gap between 12Cr steel and austenitic stainless steels with respect to the high temperature properties and better weldability. Furthermore, it shows a small thermal expansion coefficient and is not susceptible to stress corrosion cracking like the austenitic steel. The weldment properties were evaluated by microstructural analysis, microhardness, Charpy V- notch impact, and by newly developed flat microtensile specimens (0.5 mm thick). The dissimilar EB weld metal and HAZ of P91 steel has been shown to be microstructurally and mechanically distinct from both austenitic and martenistic parent metals. The use of microsized rectangular tensile specimens provides unique solution to the problem of the mechanical property determination of the narrow EB weld joint. The HAZ of the 9Cr1Mo steel exhibits extremely poor CTOD toughness properties in as-welded condition at room temperature. The CTOD values obtained were believed to be represent the intrinsic property of this zone, since the distance of the crack tip to the austenitic steel part was too large to receive a stress relaxation effect from low strength side on the crack tip (by accommodating the applied strains in the high toughness, lower strength 316L plate).

  10. Fracture toughness of irradiated candidate materials for ITER first wall/blanket structures

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, D.J.; Pawel, J.E.; Grossbeck, M.L.; Rowcliffe, A.F.; Shiba, Kiyoyuki

    1994-12-31

    Disk compact specimens of candidate materials for first wall/blanket structures in ITER have been irradiated to damage levels of about 3 dpa at nominal irradiation temperatures of either 90 or 250{degrees}C. These specimens have been tested over a temperature range from 20 to 250{degrees}C to determine J-integral values and tearing moduli. The results show that irradiation at these temperatures reduces the fracture toughness of austenitic stainless steels, but the toughness remains quite high. The toughness decreases as the test temperature increases. Irradiation at 250{degrees}C is more damaging than at 90{degrees}C, causing larger decreases in the fracture toughness. Ferritic-martensitic steels are embrittled by the irradiation, and show the lowest toughness at room temperature.

  11. THE EFFECT OF STRAIN RATE ON FRACTURE TOUGHNESS OF HUMAN CORTICAL BONE: A FINITE ELEMENT STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Ural, Ani; Zioupos, Peter; Buchanan, Drew; Vashishth, Deepak

    2011-01-01

    Evaluating the mechanical response of bone under high loading rates is crucial to understanding fractures in traumatic accidents or falls. In the current study, a computational approach based on cohesive finite element modeling was employed to evaluate the effect of strain rate on fracture toughness of human cortical bone. Two-dimensional compact tension specimen models were simulated to evaluate the change in initiation and propagation fracture toughness with increasing strain rate (range: 0.08 to 18 s−1). In addition, the effect of porosity in combination with strain rate was assessed using three-dimensional models of microcomputed tomography-based compact tension specimens. The simulation results showed that bone’s resistance against the propagation of fracture decreased sharply with increase in strain rates up to 1 s−1 and attained an almost constant value for strain rates larger than 1 s−1. On the other hand, initiation fracture toughness exhibited a more gradual decrease throughout the strain rates. There was a significant positive correlation between the experimentally measured number of microcracks and the fracture toughness found in the simulations. Furthermore, the simulation results showed that the amount of porosity did not affect the way initiation fracture toughness decreased with increasing strain rates, whereas it exacerbated the same strain rate effect when propagation fracture toughness was considered. These results suggest that strain rates associated with falls lead to a dramatic reduction in bone’s resistance against crack propagation. The compromised fracture resistance of bone at loads exceeding normal activities indicates a sharp reduction and/or absence of toughening mechanisms in bone during high strain conditions associated with traumatic fracture. PMID:21783112

  12. Relationship between fracture toughness, fracture path, and microstructure of 7050 aluminum alloy. Part 1: Quantitative characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Deshpande, N.U.; Gokhale, A.M.; Denzer, D.K.; Liu, J.

    1998-04-01

    The fracture toughness of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu-based 7XXX aluminum alloys decreases with an increase in the extent of recrystallization. In this contribution, the fracture path of plane-strain fracture-toughness specimens of 7050 alloy (a typical alloy of the 7XXX series) is quantitatively characterized as a function of degree of recrystallization, specimen orientation, and aging condition. The fracture path is quantitatively correlated to fracture toughness, and the bulk microstructural attributes estimated via sterological analysis. In the companion article, these quantitative data are used to develop and verify a multiple-fracture micromechanism-based model that relates the fracture toughness to a number of microstructural parameters of the partially recrystallized alloy plate.

  13. Fracture toughness of steel-fiber-reinforced bone cement.

    PubMed

    Kotha, S P; Li, C; Schmid, S R; Mason, J J

    2004-09-01

    Fractures in the bone-cement mantle (polymethyl methacrylate) have been linked to the failure of cemented total joint prostheses. The heat generated by the curing bone cement has also been implicated in the necrosis of surrounding bone tissue, leading to loosening of the implants. The addition of reinforcements may improve the fracture properties of bone cement and decrease the peak temperatures during curing. This study investigates the changes in the fracture properties and the temperatures generated in the ASTM F451 tests by the addition of 316L stainless steel fibers to bone cement. The influence of filler volume fraction (5-15% by volume) and aspect ratios (19, 46, 57) on the fracture toughness of the acrylic bone cement was assessed. Increasing the volume fraction of the steel fibers resulted in significant increases in the fracture toughness of the steel-fiber-reinforced composite. Fracture-toughness increases of up to 2.63 times the control values were obtained with the use of steel-fiber reinforcements. No clear trend in the fracture toughness was discerned for increasing aspect ratios of the reinforcements. There is a decrease in the peak temperatures reached during the curing of the steel-fiber-reinforced bone cement, though the decrease is too small to be clinically relevant. Large increases in the fatigue life of acrylic bone cement were also obtained by the addition of steel fibers. These results indicate that the use of steel fibers may enhance the durability of cemented joint prostheses. PMID:15293326

  14. Gas pressure sintering of silicon nitride to optimize fracture toughness

    SciTech Connect

    Tiegs, T.N.; Nunn, S.D.; Beavers, T.M.; Menchhofer, P.A.; Barker, D.L.; Coffey, D.W.

    1995-06-01

    Gas-pressure sintering (GPS) can be used to densify silicon nitride containing a wide variety of sintering additives. Parameters affecting the sintering behavior include densification temperature, densification time, grain growth temperature, grain growth time and heating rates. The Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}-6% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-2% A1{sub 2}O{sub 3} samples sintered to high densities at all conditions used in the present study, whereas the Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}-Sr{sub 2}La{sub 4}Yb{sub 4}(SiO{sub 4}){sub 6}O{sub 2} samples required the highest temperatures and longest times to achieve densities {ge}98 % T. D. The main effect on the fracture toughness for Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}-6% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-2% A1{sub 2}O{sub 3} samples was the use of a lower densification temperature, which was 1900C in the present study. For the Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}-Sr{sub 2}La{sub 4}Yb{sub 4}SiO4{sub 4}){sub 6}O{sub 2} composition, fracture toughness was sensitive to and improved by a slower heating rate (10c/min), a lower densification temperature (1900`), a higher grain growth temperature (2000C), and a longer grain growth time (2 h).

  15. The development of in situ fracture toughness evaluation techniques in hydrogen environment

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wang, John Jy-An; Ren, Fei; Tan, Tin; Liu, Ken

    2014-12-19

    Reliability of hydrogen pipelines and storage tanks is significantly influenced by the mechanical performance of the structural materials exposed in the hydrogen environment. Fracture behavior and fracture toughness are of specific interest since they are relevant to many catastrophic failures. However, many conventional fracture testing techniques are difficult to be realized under the presence of hydrogen. Thus it is desired to develop novel in situ techniques to study the fracture behavior of structural materials in hydrogen environments. In this study, special testing apparatus were designed to facilitate in situ fracture testing in H2. A torsional fixture was developed to utilizemore » an emerging fracture testing technique, Spiral Notch Torsion Test (SNTT). The design concepts will be discussed. Preliminary in situ testing results indicated that the exposure to H2 significantly reduces the fracture toughness of 4340 high strength steels by up to 50 percent. Furthermore, SNTT tests conducted in air demonstrated a significant fracture toughness reduction in samples subject to simulated welding heat treatment using Gleeble, which illustrated the effect of welding on the fracture toughness of this material.« less

  16. The development of in situ fracture toughness evaluation techniques in hydrogen environment

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, John Jy-An; Ren, Fei; Tan, Tin; Liu, Ken

    2014-12-19

    Reliability of hydrogen pipelines and storage tanks is significantly influenced by the mechanical performance of the structural materials exposed in the hydrogen environment. Fracture behavior and fracture toughness are of specific interest since they are relevant to many catastrophic failures. However, many conventional fracture testing techniques are difficult to be realized under the presence of hydrogen. Thus it is desired to develop novel in situ techniques to study the fracture behavior of structural materials in hydrogen environments. In this study, special testing apparatus were designed to facilitate in situ fracture testing in H2. A torsional fixture was developed to utilize an emerging fracture testing technique, Spiral Notch Torsion Test (SNTT). The design concepts will be discussed. Preliminary in situ testing results indicated that the exposure to H2 significantly reduces the fracture toughness of 4340 high strength steels by up to 50 percent. Furthermore, SNTT tests conducted in air demonstrated a significant fracture toughness reduction in samples subject to simulated welding heat treatment using Gleeble, which illustrated the effect of welding on the fracture toughness of this material.

  17. The fracture toughness of cancellous bone.

    PubMed

    Cook, R B; Zioupos, P

    2009-09-18

    The mechanical capacity and integrity of cancellous bone is crucial in osteoporosis, a condition which is set to become more prevalent with increasing lifespan and population sizes. The fracture toughness (FT) of cancellous bone has never been examined before and the conditions associated with the growth of a major crack through the lattice of cancellous bone, a cellular solid, may improve our understanding for structural integrity of this material. The aim of this study is to provide (i) basic data on cancellous bone FT and (ii) the experimental support for the hypothesis of Gibson, L.J., Ashby, M.F. [1997a. Chapter 10: Wood. In: Cellular Solids: Structure and Properties, second ed. Cambridge University Press, pp. 387-428; Gibson, L.J., Ashby, M.F., 1997b. Chapter 11: Cancellous Bone. In: Cellular Solids: Structure and Properties, second ed. Cambridge University Press, pp. 429-52] that the FT of cancellous bone tissue is governed by the density of the tissue to a power function of between one and two. 294 SENB and 121 DC(T) specimen were manufactured from 45 human femoral heads, 37 osteoporotic and 8 osteoarthritic, as well as 19 equine thoracic vertebrae. The samples were manufactured in two groups: the first aligned with the trabecular structure (A( parallel)), the second orientated at 90 degrees to the main trabecular orientation (A( perpendicular)). The samples were tested in either tensile or bending mode to provide values of the stress intensity factor (K). The results which were obtained show a strong and significant link between the density of the cancellous bone tissue and that the critical stress intensity values are governed by the density of the tissue to a power function of between 1 and 2 (K(Q) vs. apparent density: A( perpendicular)=1.58, A( parallel)=1.6). Our results provide some fundamental values for the critical stress intensity factor for cancellous bone and also support the previous hypothesis as set by Gibson, L.J., Ashby, M.F., 1997a

  18. The effect of strain rate on fracture toughness of human cortical bone: a finite element study.

    PubMed

    Ural, Ani; Zioupos, Peter; Buchanan, Drew; Vashishth, Deepak

    2011-10-01

    Evaluating the mechanical response of bone under high loading rates is crucial to understanding fractures in traumatic accidents or falls. In the current study, a computational approach based on cohesive finite element modeling was employed to evaluate the effect of strain rate on fracture toughness of human cortical bone. Two-dimensional compact tension specimen models were simulated to evaluate the change in initiation and propagation fracture toughness with increasing strain rate (range: 0.08-18 s(-1)). In addition, the effect of porosity in combination with strain rate was assessed using three-dimensional models of micro-computed tomography-based compact tension specimens. The simulation results showed that bone's resistance against the propagation of a crack decreased sharply with increase in strain rates up to 1 s(-1) and attained an almost constant value for strain rates larger than 1 s(-1). On the other hand, initiation fracture toughness exhibited a more gradual decrease throughout the strain rates. There was a significant positive correlation between the experimentally measured number of microcracks and the fracture toughness found in the simulations. Furthermore, the simulation results showed that the amount of porosity did not affect the way initiation fracture toughness decreased with increasing strain rates, whereas it exacerbated the same strain rate effect when propagation fracture toughness was considered. These results suggest that strain rates associated with falls lead to a dramatic reduction in bone's resistance against crack propagation. The compromised fracture resistance of bone at loads exceeding normal activities indicates a sharp reduction and/or absence of toughening mechanisms in bone during high strain conditions associated with traumatic fracture. PMID:21783112

  19. A joint fracture toughness evaluation of hot-pressed beryllium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conrad, H.; Sargent, G. A.; Brown, W. F., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Fracture toughness tests at room temperature were made on three-point bend specimens cut from hot-pressed beryllium obtained from two suppliers. The test specimens had dimensions conforming to ASTM fracture toughness standard E399-72. A total of 42 specimens were machined from each batch of material. Six specimens from each batch were then distributed to seven independent laboratories for testing. The test data from the laboratories were collected and analyzed for differences between the laboratories and the two batches of material. It is concluded that ASTM 399-72 can be used as a valid test procedure for determining the fracture toughness of beryllium, providing that Kf(max) in fatigue cracking could be up to 80 percent of the K(0) value.

  20. Fiber reinforced solids possessing great fracture toughness: The role of interfacial strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkins, A. G.

    1974-01-01

    The high tensile strength characteristic of strong interfacial filament/matrix bonding can be combined with the high fracture toughness of weak interfacial bonding, when the filaments are arranged to have alternate sections of high and low shear stress (and low and high toughness). Such weak and strong areas can be achieved by appropriate intermittent coating of the fibers. An analysis is presented for toughness and strength which demonstrates, in broad terms, the effects of varying the coating parameters of concern. Results show that the toughness of interfaces is an important parameter, differences in which may not be shown up in terms of interfacial strength. Some observations are made upon methods of measuring the components of toughness in composites.

  1. Fracture toughness and strength of 96% alumina

    SciTech Connect

    Price, D.B.; Chinn, R.E.; McNerney, K.R.; Brog, T.K.; Kim, C.Y.; Krutyholowa, M.W.; Chen, N.W.; Haun, M.J.

    1997-05-01

    There exists a need to understand the controlling factors that simultaneously impact strength and toughness in 96% alumina. The enhancement of both strength and toughness enables designers to extend the use limits and reliability for structural ceramics. This article presents mechanical property results from a group study examining the use of different alkaline-earth aluminosilicate intergranular compositions containing magnesium, calcium and strontium oxides (RO) in 96% alumina. Principal results address trends in indentation strength toughness and modulus of rupture. Trends in the data are presented relative to existing theories of thermal expansion mismatch toughening, grain-bridging crack-wake effect and crack deflection mechanisms. Strength is addressed in terms of strength after indentation, crack growth of indentation flaws and Weibull characterization for the strength distribution.

  2. A 3-Dimensional discrete fracture network generator to examine fracture-matrix interaction using TOUGH2

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, Kazumasa; Yongkoo, Seol

    2003-04-09

    Water fluxes in unsaturated, fractured rock involve the physical processes occurring at fracture-matrix interfaces within fracture networks. Modeling these water fluxes using a discrete fracture network model is a complicated effort. Existing preprocessors for TOUGH2 are not suitable to generate grids for fracture networks with various orientations and inclinations. There are several 3-D discrete-fracture-network simulators for flow and transport, but most of them do not capture fracture-matrix interaction. We have developed a new 3-D discrete-fracture-network mesh generator, FRACMESH, to provide TOUGH2 with information about the fracture network configuration and fracture-matrix interactions. FRACMESH transforms a discrete fracture network into a 3 dimensional uniform mesh, in which fractures are considered as elements with unique rock material properties and connected to surrounding matrix elements. Using FRACMESH, individual fractures may have uniform or random aperture distributions to consider heterogeneity. Fracture element volumes and interfacial areas are calculated from fracture geometry within individual elements. By using FRACMESH and TOUGH2, fractures with various inclinations and orientations, and fracture-matrix interaction, can be incorporated. In this paper, results of flow and transport simulations in a fractured rock block utilizing FRACMESH are presented.

  3. An innovative technique for evaluating fracture toughness of graphite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jy-An John; Liu, Ken C.

    2008-10-01

    Spiral notch torsion fracture toughness test (SNTT) was developed recently to measure the intrinsic fracture toughness ( KIC) of structural materials. The SNTT system operates by applying pure torsion to uniform cylindrical specimens with a notch line that spirals around the specimen at a 45° pitch. The KIC values are obtained with the aid of a three-dimensional finite-element computer code, TOR3D-KIC. The SNTT method is uniquely suitable for testing a wide variety of materials used extensively in pressure vessel and piping structural components and weldments, including others such as ceramics, their composites, and concrete.

  4. The interlaminar fracture toughness of woven graphite/epoxy composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Funk, Joan G.; Deaton, Jerry W.

    1989-01-01

    The interlaminar fracture toughness of 2-D graphite/epoxy woven composites was determined as a function of stacking sequence, thickness, and weave pattern. Plain, oxford, 5-harness satin, and 8-harness satin weaves of T300/934 material were evaluated by the double cantilever beam test. The fabric material had a G (sub Ic) ranging from 2 to 8 times greater than 0 degrees unidirectional T300/934 tape material. The interlaminar fracture toughness of a particular weave style was dependent on whether the stacking sequence was symmetric or asymmetric and, in some cases, on the fabric orientation.

  5. Small punch testing for fracture toughness measurement. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Foulds, J.R.; Woytowitz, P.J.; Parnell, T.K.

    1995-06-01

    The fracture toughness of the material of an operating power plant structural component affects the flaw tolerance of the component. A lower toughness implies a lower flaw tolerance, and generally results in an increased concern for component integrity and higher operation and maintenance costs. Often, the material fracture toughness is unknown because it was never specified or measured, or because service conditions have resulted in its degradation to an unknown extent. Examples of in- service degradation include temper embrittlement of steam turbine rotor low alloy steels exposed to elevated temperatures and neutron irradiation embrittlement of nuclear reactor pressure vessel steels. Conventional test methods for measuring toughness require the removal of large material samples from the in-service component, which is generally impractical. However, the recent development of miniature sample removal systems and the small punch test technique (which utilizes non-standard, miniature specimens of 0.5 mm or 0.020 in. thickness) now provides a convenient, practical, and virtually nondestructive means of evaluating the material of an in-service component for toughness and related mechanical properties. The small punch test method follows an approach that is based on the continuum material toughness concept wherein the criterion for fracture is defined and measured via the continuum stress-strain deformation properties of the material. The procedure specifically involves computing the {open_quotes}local{close_quotes} strain energy density accumulated at the location and time of crack initiation in the small punch test specimen using large-strain finite element analysis. Since the procedure also includes estimation of the material uniaxial tensile stress-strain behavior from the small punch load-displacement curve, both the fracture toughness and the uniaxial tensile behavior are determined from a single small punch test.

  6. On the development of a new fracture toughness procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, M.; Provan, J. W.

    1989-05-01

    The present ASTM test procedure for plane strain fracture toughness is time consuming, expensive, includes specimen thickness requirements, and provides no assurance of a valid K(sub IC). An attempt to circumvent the thickness limitations and to develop a simple, inexpensive method to determine plane strain fracture toughness is reported. A novel disc-shaped specimen geometry was investigated for the determination of the plane strain fracture toughness of metallic materials. The specimen has an axisymmetric notch on its upper face, is clamped on its periphery and is uniformly and perpendicularly loaded around the notch. The frozen stress photoelasticity method was applied to Araldite specimens with fatigue precracked notches to determine the stress intensity factors and the fracture mode. One configuration was retained and using the crack profile from the test, a finite element study was performed to determine the compliance of the specimen geometry. Finally, the fracture toughness of aluminium Al7075-T651 was determined by applying the critical load obtained from rupture tests.

  7. Fractal model for estimating fracture toughness of carbon nanotube reinforced aluminum oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Rishabh, Abhishek; Joshi, Milind R.; Balani, Kantesh

    2010-06-15

    The current work focuses on predicting the fracture toughness of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ceramic matrix composites using a modified Mandelbrot's fractal approach. The first step confirms that the experimental fracture toughness values fluctuate within the fracture toughness range predicted as per the modified fractal approach. Additionally, the secondary reinforcements [such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs)] have shown to enhance the fracture toughness of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Conventional fractural toughness evaluation via fractal approach underestimates the fracture toughness by considering the shortest crack path. Hence, the modified Mandelbrot's fractal approach considers the crack propagation along the CNT semicircumferential surface (three-dimensional crack path propagation) for achieving an improved fracture toughness estimation of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-CNT composite. The estimations obtained in the current approach range within 4% error regime of the experimentally measured fracture toughness values of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-CNT composite.

  8. Tough high performance composite matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pater, Ruth H. (Inventor); Johnston, Norman J. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    This invention is a semi-interpentrating polymer network which includes a high performance thermosetting polyimide having a nadic end group acting as a crosslinking site and a high performance linear thermoplastic polyimide. Provided is an improved high temperature matrix resin which is capable of performing in the 200 to 300 C range. This resin has significantly improved toughness and microcracking resistance, excellent processability, mechanical performance, and moisture and solvent resistances.

  9. Dynamic fracture toughnesses of reaction-bonded silicon nitride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, A. S.; Emery, A. F.; Liaw, B. M.

    1983-01-01

    The room-temperature dynamic fracture response of reaction-bonded silicon nitride is investigated using a hybrid experimental-numerical procedure. In this procedure, experimentally determined crack velocities are utilized to drive a dynamic finite-element code or dynamic finite-difference code in its generation mode in order to extract numerically the dynamic stress intensity factor of the fracturing specimen. Results show that the dynamic fracture toughness vs crack velocity relations of the two reaction-bonded silicon nitrides do not follow the general trend in those relations of brittle polymers and steel. A definite slow crack velocity during the initial phase of dynamic crack propagation is observed in reaction-bonded silicon nitride, which results in a nonunique dynamic fracture toughness vs crack velocity relation. In addition, it is found that a propagating crack will continue to propagate under a static stress intensity factor substantially lower than K(IC).

  10. The importance of fracture toughness in ultrafine and nanocrystalline bulk materials

    PubMed Central

    Pippan, R.; Hohenwarter, A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The suitability of high-strength ultrafine and nanocrystalline materials processed by severe plastic deformation methods and aimed to be used for structural applications will strongly depend on their resistance against crack growth. In this contribution some general available findings on the damage tolerance of this material class will be summarized. Particularly, the occurrence of a pronounced fracture anisotropy will be in the center of discussion. In addition, the great potential of this generated anisotropy to obtain high-strength materials with exceptionally high fracture toughness in specific loading and crack growth directions will be enlightened. IMPACT STATEMENT Severely plastically deformed materials are reviewed in light of their damage tolerance. The frequently observed toughness anisotropy allows unprecedented fracture toughness – strength combinations. PMID:27570712

  11. Toughness of carbon nanotubes conforms to classic fracture mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lin; Greenfeld, Israel; Wagner, H. Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Defects in crystalline structure are commonly believed to degrade the ideal strength of carbon nanotubes. However, the fracture mechanisms induced by such defects, as well as the validity of solid mechanics theories at the nanoscale, are still under debate. We show that the fracture toughness of single-walled nanotubes (SWNTs) conforms to the classic theory of fracture mechanics, even for the smallest possible vacancy defect (~2 Å). By simulating tension of SWNTs containing common types of defects, we demonstrate how stress concentration at the defect boundary leads to brittle (unstable) fracturing at a relatively low strain, degrading the ideal strength of SWNTs by up to 60%. We find that, owing to the SWNT’s truss-like structure, defects at this scale are not sharp and stress concentrations are finite and low. Moreover, stress concentration, a geometric property at the macroscale, is interrelated with the SWNT fracture toughness, a material property. The resulting SWNT fracture toughness is 2.7 MPa m0.5, typical of moderately brittle materials and applicable also to graphene. PMID:26989774

  12. Numerical modeling of ductile tearing effects on cleavage fracture toughness

    SciTech Connect

    Dodds, R.H. Jr.; Tang, M.; Anderson, T.L.

    1994-05-01

    Experimental studies demonstrate a significant effect of specimen size, a/W ratio and prior ductile tearing on cleavage fracture toughness values (J{sub c}) measured in the ductile-to-brittle transition region of ferritic materials. In the lower-transition region, cleavage fracture often occurs under conditions of large-scale yielding but without prior ductile crack extension. The increased toughness develops when plastic zones formed at the crack tip interact with nearby specimen surfaces which relaxes crack-tip constraint (stress triaxiality). In the mid-to-upper transition region, small amounts of ductile crack extension (often < 1-2 mm) routinely precede termination of the J-{Delta}a curve by brittle fracture. Large-scale yielding, coupled with small amounts of ductile tearing, magnifies the impact of small variations in microscale material properties on the macroscopic fracture toughness which contributes to the large amount scatter observed in measured J{sub c}-values. Previous work by the authors described a micromechanics fracture model to correct measured J{sub c}-values for the mechanistic effects of large-scale yielding. This new work extends the model to also include the influence of ductile crack extension prior to cleavage. The paper explores development of the new model, provides necessary graphs and procedures for its application and demonstrates the effects of the model on fracture data sets for two pressure vessel steels (A533B and A515).

  13. Toughness of carbon nanotubes conforms to classic fracture mechanics.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lin; Greenfeld, Israel; Wagner, H Daniel

    2016-02-01

    Defects in crystalline structure are commonly believed to degrade the ideal strength of carbon nanotubes. However, the fracture mechanisms induced by such defects, as well as the validity of solid mechanics theories at the nanoscale, are still under debate. We show that the fracture toughness of single-walled nanotubes (SWNTs) conforms to the classic theory of fracture mechanics, even for the smallest possible vacancy defect (~2 Å). By simulating tension of SWNTs containing common types of defects, we demonstrate how stress concentration at the defect boundary leads to brittle (unstable) fracturing at a relatively low strain, degrading the ideal strength of SWNTs by up to 60%. We find that, owing to the SWNT's truss-like structure, defects at this scale are not sharp and stress concentrations are finite and low. Moreover, stress concentration, a geometric property at the macroscale, is interrelated with the SWNT fracture toughness, a material property. The resulting SWNT fracture toughness is 2.7 MPa m(0.5), typical of moderately brittle materials and applicable also to graphene. PMID:26989774

  14. The feasibility of ranking material fracture toughness by ultrasonic attenuation measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, A.

    1975-01-01

    A preliminary study was conducted to assess the feasibility of ultrasonically ranking material fracture toughness. Specimens of two grades of maraging steel for which fracture toughness values were measured were subjected to ultrasonic probing. The slope of the attenuation coefficient versus frequency curve was empirically correlated with the plane strain fracture toughness value for each grade of steel.

  15. The feasibility of ranking material fracture toughness by ultrasonic attenuation measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, A.

    1975-01-01

    A preliminary study was conducted to assess the feasibility of ultrasonically ranking material fracture toughness. Specimens of two grades of maraging steel for which fracture toughness values were measured were subjected to ultrasonic probing. The slope of the attenuation coefficient vs frequency curve was empirically correlated with the plane strain fracture toughness value for each grade of steel.

  16. On the in vitro fracture toughness of human dentin

    SciTech Connect

    Imbeni, V.; Nalla, R.K.; Bosi, C.; Kinney, J.H.; Ritchie, R.O.

    2002-02-05

    The in vitro fracture toughness of human dention has been reported to be of the order of 3 MPa sqrt m. This result, however is based on a single study for a single orientation, and furthermore involves notched, rather than fatigue precracked, test samples.

  17. Effects of direct and indirect bleach on dentin fracture toughness.

    PubMed

    Tam, L E; Noroozi, A

    2007-12-01

    There are concerns that tooth-whitening procedures irreversibly damage tooth structure. We investigated the hypothesis that dental bleaches significantly affect dentin structural integrity. The objective was to evaluate the effects of peroxide bleaches on dentin fracture toughness. Compact test specimens, composed of human dentin, were used (n = 10/group). Bleach (16% or 10% carbamide peroxide or 3% hydrogen peroxide) or control material, containing 0.1% sodium fluoride, was applied directly or indirectly to dentin through enamel (6 hrs/day) for 2 or 8 weeks. Fracture toughness results were analyzed by ANOVA and Fisher's LSD test (p < 0.05). There were significant decreases in mean fracture toughness after two- and eight-week direct (19-34% and 61-68%, respectively) and indirect (up to 17% and 37%, respectively) bleach application. The in vitro reduction in dentin fracture toughness caused by the application of peroxide bleaches was greater for the direct application method, longer application time, and higher bleach concentration. PMID:18037654

  18. Size and Geometry Effects on Rock Fracture Toughness: Mode I Fracture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayatollahi, M. R.; Akbardoost, J.

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, the effects of specimen size and geometry on the apparent mode I fracture toughness ( K c) of an Iranian white marble (Neyriz) are studied. A number of fracture tests were conducted on center-cracked circular disk (CCCD) specimens with different radii to investigate the size effects on K c. The experimental results demonstrate that the apparent fracture toughness increases in bigger specimens. In order to explain the experimental results, the modified maximum tangential stress (MMTS) criterion is used, where higher order terms of the Williams' series expansion are included in the maximum tangential stress criterion. It is shown that the MMTS criterion provides good estimates for the apparent fracture toughness of Neyriz marble, obtained from fracture tests of edge-cracked triangular specimens. It is, therefore, concluded that the proposed criterion is able to account for the size and geometry effects on the fracture resistance of rocks simultaneously.

  19. Dynamic fracture-toughness evaluation by measurement of CTOD (Crack Tip Opening Displacement). Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Sharpe, W.N.; Douglas, A.S.; Shapiro, J.M.

    1988-03-15

    Quantification of the dynamic fracture toughness of structural materials is essential to a wide range of problems - from nuclear accidents to ordnance applications. However, the difficulties associated with accurate measurements of cracks under dynamic loading are considerable. Thus there are no standardized procedures and few reliable results. This work describes a systematic study of the dynamic fracture toughness of SAE-01 tool steel, 4340 and HY100 steels and a tungsten, using the ISDG (Interferometric Strain/Displacement Gage) system which has very-high-frequency resolution. The major advantage of the method is that information is obtained very close to the crack tip, so that stress wave loading effects are accounted for. A detailed error analysis gives an uncertainty of -10% to +20% in the determination of fracture toughness, which compares with + or - 20% for published work.

  20. Fracture capacity of HFIR vessel with random crack size and toughness

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S.J.

    1994-09-01

    The probability of fracture versus a range of applied hoop stresses along the High Flux Isotope Reactor vessel is obtained as an estimate of its fracture capacity. Both the crack size and the fracture toughness are assumed to be random variables and subject to assumed distribution functions. Possible hoop stress is based on the numerical solution of the vessel response by applying a point pressure-pulse at the center of the fluid volume within the vessel. Both the fluid-structure interaction and radiation embrittlement are taken into consideration. Elastic fracture mechanics is used throughout the analysis. The probability function of fracture for a single crack due to either a variable crack depth or a variable toughness is derived. Both the variable crack size and the variable toughness are assumed to follow known distributions. The probability of vessel fracture with multiple number of cracks is then obtained as a function of the applied hoop stress. The probability of fracture function is, then, extended to include different levels of confidence and variability. It, therefore, enables one to estimate the high confidence and low probability fracture capacity of the reactor vessel under a range of accident loading conditions.

  1. Crack growth rates and fracture toughness of irradiated austenitic stainless steels in BWR environments.

    SciTech Connect

    Chopra, O. K.; Shack, W. J.

    2008-01-21

    In light water reactors, austenitic stainless steels (SSs) are used extensively as structural alloys in reactor core internal components because of their high strength, ductility, and fracture toughness. However, exposure to high levels of neutron irradiation for extended periods degrades the fracture properties of these steels by changing the material microstructure (e.g., radiation hardening) and microchemistry (e.g., radiation-induced segregation). Experimental data are presented on the fracture toughness and crack growth rates (CGRs) of wrought and cast austenitic SSs, including weld heat-affected-zone materials, that were irradiated to fluence levels as high as {approx} 2x 10{sup 21} n/cm{sup 2} (E > 1 MeV) ({approx} 3 dpa) in a light water reactor at 288-300 C. The results are compared with the data available in the literature. The effects of material composition, irradiation dose, and water chemistry on CGRs under cyclic and stress corrosion cracking conditions were determined. A superposition model was used to represent the cyclic CGRs of austenitic SSs. The effects of neutron irradiation on the fracture toughness of these steels, as well as the effects of material and irradiation conditions and test temperature, have been evaluated. A fracture toughness trend curve that bounds the existing data has been defined. The synergistic effects of thermal and radiation embrittlement of cast austenitic SS internal components have also been evaluated.

  2. Fracture toughness and fracture behavior of SA508-III steel at different temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jia-hua; Wang, Lei; Liu, Yang; Song, Xiu; Luo, Jiong; Yuan, Dan

    2014-12-01

    The fracture toughness of SA508-III steel was studied in the temperature range from room temperature to 320°C using the J-integral method. The fracture behavior of the steel was also investigated. It was found that the conditional fracture toughness ( J Q) of the steel first decreased and then increased with increasing test temperature. The maximum and minimum values of J Q were 517.4 kJ/m2 at 25°C and 304.5 kJ/m2 at 180°C, respectively. Dynamic strain aging (DSA) was also observed to occur when the temperature exceeded 260°C with a certain strain rate. Both the dislocation density and the number of small dislocation cells effectively increased because of the occurrence of DSA; as a consequence, crack propagation was more strongly inhibited in the steel. Simultaneously, an increasing number of fine carbides precipitated under high stress at temperatures greater than 260°C. Thus, the deformation resistance of the steel was improved and the J Q was enhanced.

  3. Fracture Toughness of Advanced Structural Ceramics: Applying ASTM C1421

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Swab, Jeffrey J.; Tice, Jason; Wereszczak, Andrew A.; Kraft, Reuben H.

    2014-11-03

    The three methods of determining the quasi-static Mode I fracture toughness (KIc) (surface crack in flexure – SC, single-edge precracked beam – PB, and chevron notched beam – VB) found in ASTM C1421 were applied to a variety of advanced ceramic materials. All three methods produced valid and comparable KIc values for the Al2O3, SiC, Si3N4 and SiAlON ceramics examined. However, not all methods could successfully be applied to B4C, ZrO2 and WC ceramics due to a variety of material factors. The coarse-grained microstructure of one B4C hindered the ability to observe and measure the precracks generated in the SCmore » and PB methods while the transformation toughening in the ZrO2 prevented the formation of the SC and PB precracks and thus made it impossible to use either method on this ceramic. The high strength and elastic modulus of the WC made it impossible to achieve stable crack growth using the VB method because the specimen stored a tremendous amount of energy prior to fracture. Even though these methods have passed the rigors of the standardization process there are still some issues to be resolved when the methods are applied to certain classes of ceramics. We recommend that at least two of these methods be employed to determine the KIc, especially when a new or unfamiliar ceramic is being evaluated.« less

  4. Fracture toughness of experimental dental composites aged in ethanol.

    PubMed

    Ferracane, J L; Berge, H X

    1995-07-01

    Fracture toughness (KIc) is an intrinsic property which may be related to the ability of a restorative material to resist fracture and abrasion. This property may change for a dental composite restorative due to the effects of various oral solvents. The hypothesis to be tested was that aging in ethanol would cause a reduction in the fracture toughness of dental composites, and that the extent of this reduction might be dependent upon certain compositional variables. The fracture toughnesses of three series of experimental composites with various degrees of conversion, filler volume, and percent of silane-treated fillers were compared after the composites were aged for periods of one month and six months in 75% ethanol/water, a solvent which serves as a food-simulating liquid. An unfilled Bis-GMA/TEGDMA resin served as the control. All composites, with the exception of one subjected to a post-light-curing heat treatment, experienced a significant reduction (from 30 to 56%) in KIc after being aged in 75% ethanol for six months. A similar reduction in KIc of 58% for the unfilled resin suggested that the reduction for the composites was due to a weakening of the resin matrix, which facilitated crack propagation. A simultaneous reduction in microhardness was also demonstrated. One month of aging in ethanol also produced large reductions in KIc for specimens with insufficient cure and minimal filler volume, suggesting that the properties of the resin matrix predominated for these composites.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7560394

  5. Fracture toughness of SiC/Al metal matrix composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flom, Yury; Parker, B. H.; Chu, H. P.

    1989-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to evaluate fracture toughness of SiC/Al metal matrix composite (MMC). The material was a 12.7 mm thick extrusion of 6061-T6 aluminum alloy with 40 v/o SiC particulates. Specimen configuration and test procedure conformed to ASTM E399 Standard for compact specimens. It was found that special procedures were necessary to obtain fatigue cracks of controlled lengths in the preparation of precracked specimens for the MMC material. Fatigue loading with both minimum and maximum loads in compression was used to start the precrack. The initial precracking would stop by self-arrest. Afterwards, the precrack could be safely extended to the desired length by additional cyclic tensile loading. Test results met practically all the E399 criteria for the calculation of plane strain fracture toughness of the material. A valid K sub IC value of the SiC/Al composite was established as K sub IC = 8.9 MPa square root of m. The threshold stress intensity under which crack would cease to grow in the material was estimated as delta K sub th = 2MPa square root of m for R = 0.09 using the fatigue precracking data. Fractographic examinations show that failure occurred by the micromechanism involved with plastic deformation although the specimens broke by brittle fracture. The effect of precracking by cyclic loading in compression on fracture toughness is included in the discussion.

  6. Influence of the microstructure on the fracture toughness and fracture mechanisms of forging steels microalloyed with titanium with ferrite-perlite structures

    SciTech Connect

    Linaza, M.A.; Romero, J.L.; Rodriguez-Ibabe, J.M.; Urcola, J.J. )

    1993-08-15

    Titanium addition to vanadium microalloyed forging steels is one of the ways proposed to improve fracture toughness. Fine TiN particles inhibit austenite grain growth after recrystallization at the high temperatures used to forge these steels. TiN particles, however, can be formed in the liquid, and as their sizes exceed one micron, they could act as cleavage nucleation sites, impairing the fracture toughness. The present work reports fracture toughness results obtained in Ti treated microalloyed forging steels, showing that in coarse microstructures cleavage is nucleated in coarse TiN particles, but that after refining the microstructure, voids originate at the same particles, resulting in ductile rupture.

  7. Strength and Fracture Toughness of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrolyte Material Improved

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Choi, Sung R.

    2002-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are being developed for various applications in the automobile, power-generation, and aeronautics industries. Recently, the NASA Glenn Research Center has been exploring the possibility of using SOFC's for aeropropulsion under its Zero Carbon Dioxide Emission Technology (ZCET) Program. 10-mol% yttriastabilized zirconia (10YSZ) is a very good anionic conductor at high temperatures and is, therefore, used as an oxygen solid electrolyte in SOFC. However, it has a high thermal expansion coefficient, low thermal shock resistance, low fracture toughness, and poor mechanical strength. For aeronautic applications, the thin ceramic electrolyte membrane of the SOFC needs to be strong and tough. Therefore, we have been investigating the possibility of enhancing the strength and fracture toughness of the 10YSZ electrolyte without degrading its electrical conductivity to an appreciable extent. We recently demonstrated that the addition of alumina to zirconia electrolyte increases its strength as well as its fracture toughness. Zirconia-alumina composites containing 0 to 30 mol% of alumina were fabricated by hot pressing. The hot pressing procedure was developed and various hot pressing parameters were optimized, resulting in dense, crackfree panels of composite materials. Cubic zirconia and a-alumina were the only phases detected, indicating that there was no chemical reaction between the constituents during hot pressing at elevated temperatures. Flexure strength sf and fracture toughness K(sub IC) of the various zirconia-alumina composites were measured at room temperature as well as at 1000 C in air. Both properties showed systematic improvement with increased alumina addition at room temperature and at 1000 C. Use of these modified electrolytes with improved strength and fracture toughness should prolong the life and enhance the performance of SOFC in aeronautics and other applications.

  8. High strength, tough alloy steel

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, Gareth; Rao, Bangaru V. N.

    1979-01-01

    A high strength, tough alloy steel is formed by heating the steel to a temperature in the austenite range (1000.degree.-1100.degree. C.) to form a homogeneous austenite phase and then cooling the steel to form a microstructure of uniformly dispersed dislocated martensite separated by continuous thin boundary films of stabilized retained austenite. The steel includes 0.2-0.35 weight % carbon, at least 1% and preferably 3-4.5% chromium, and at least one other substitutional alloying element, preferably manganese or nickel. The austenite film is stable to subsequent heat treatment as by tempering (below 300.degree. C.) and reforms to a stable film after austenite grain refinement.

  9. HYDROGEN EFFECTS ON THE FRACTURE TOUGHNESS PROPERTIES OF FORGED STAINLESS STEELS

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, M

    2008-03-28

    The effect of hydrogen on the fracture toughness properties of Types 304L, 316L and 21-6-9 forged stainless steels was investigated. Fracture toughness samples were fabricated from forward-extruded forgings. Samples were uniformly saturated with hydrogen after exposure to hydrogen gas at 34 MPa or 69 and 623 K prior to testing. The fracture toughness properties were characterized by measuring the J-R behavior at ambient temperature in air. The results show that the hydrogen-charged steels have fracture toughness values that were about 50-60% of the values measured for the unexposed steels. The reduction in fracture toughness was accompanied by a change in fracture appearance. Both uncharged and hydrogen-charged samples failed by microvoid nucleation and coalescence, but the fracture surfaces of the hydrogen-charged steels had smaller microvoids. Type 316L stainless steel had the highest fracture toughness properties and the greatest resistance to hydrogen degradation.

  10. Fracture toughness of brittle materials determined with chevron notch specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shannon, J. L., Jr.; Bubsey, R. T.; Pierce, W. S.; Munz, D.

    1981-01-01

    Short bar, short rod, and four-point-bend chevron-notch specimens were used to determine the plane strain fracture toughness of hot-pressed silicon nitride and sintered aluminum oxide brittle ceramics. The unique advantages of this specimen type are: (1) the production of a sharp natural crack during the early stage of test loading, so that no precracking is required, and (2) the load passes through a maximum at a constant, material-independent crack length-to-width ratio for a specific geometry, so that no post-test crack measurement is required. The plane strain fracture toughness is proportional to the maximum test load and functions of the specimen geometry and elastic compliance. Although results obtained for silicon nitride are in good mutual agreement and relatively free of geometry and size effects, aluminum oxide results were affected in both these respects by the rising crack growth resistance curve of the material.

  11. A new basis for the determination of fracture toughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banerjee, S.

    1979-01-01

    A study is presented which shows that the growth of the plastic zone and the constraint in a compact tension specimen depends significantly on specimen width. The analysis permits the estimation of the contribution of the growth of plastic zone to the deviation from linearity. The contribution of the crack growth to the deviation from linearity is evaluated from the analysis of a typical R-curve data. A combination of these two analyses enables one to define a very simple procedure for the determination of fracture toughness. The fracture toughness is defined as the stress intensity value at which the crack extension starts. The good agreement between analytical results and experimental KQ and KIC values determined over a wide range of thicknesses, widths, and materials justifies the proposed procedures. The KIC determined according to this procedure is independent of specimen width and such a procedure enhances the range of applicability of the K concept to a wider combination of configurations and materials.

  12. Ductile iron data base: correlations between microstructure and fracture toughness: Background document for draft ASTM ductile iron specification

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, P.; Lombrozo, P.

    1987-02-01

    A computer data base was generated to relate ductile iron fracture toughness with microstructural parameters, chemistry, and mechanical properties. Such relationships are considered necessary before a ductile iron material specification can be generated for spent nuclear fuel containers. Although scatter exists in the available data and more data are desirable, tentative conclusions can be drawn. In particular, ductile iron with high ferrite content (>80%) and spherical graphite nodules shows relatively high fracture toughness values suggesting its suitability for use in spent nuclear fuel casks. A material specification based upon nodule count (or the inversely related nodule spacing) may ensure a minimum fracture toughness in ductile iron. Increasing nodule spacing (decreasing count) increases the fracture toughness. Other relationships between mechanical properties and microstructure/chemistry are evaluated.

  13. Effect of initiation chemistry on the fracture toughness, fatigue strength, and residual monomer content of a novel high-viscosity, two-solution acrylic bone cement.

    PubMed

    Hasenwinkel, Julie M; Lautenschlager, Eugene P; Wixson, Richard L; Gilbert, Jeremy L

    2002-03-01

    Porous-free, two-solution bone cements have been developed in our laboratory as an alternative to commercial powder/liquid formulations. Each pair of solutions consist of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) powder dissolved in methyl methacrylate (MMA) monomer, with benzoyl peroxide (BPO) added to one solution as the initiator and N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine (DMPT) added to the other as the activator. When mixed, the solutions polymerize via a free radical reaction, which is governed by the concentrations of initiator and activator and their molar stoichiometry. Previous work by the authors has demonstrated that these two-solution cement compositions are comparable to Simplex P bone cement in polymerization exotherm, setting time, and flexural mechanical properties. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of BPO and DMPT concentrations, along with their molar ratio, on the fracture toughness, fatigue strength, and residual monomer content of the experimental compositions. The results showed that fracture toughness and fatigue strength for the solution cements were comparable to Simplex P and were not significantly affected by the BPO concentration or the BPO:DMPT molar ratio; however, the highest DMPT concentration yielded significantly lower values for both variables. Residual monomer content was significantly affected by both the individual concentrations of BPO and DMPT and their molar ratios. The two-solution cements had significantly higher residual monomer contents versus Simplex P; however, this can be attributed to their higher initial monomer concentration rather than a lower degree of conversion. PMID:11774298

  14. Measurement of fracture toughness of an ice core from Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christmann, J.; Müller, R.; Webber, K. G.; Isaia, D.; Schader, F. H.; Kipfstuhl, S.; Freitag, J.; Humbert, A.

    2014-09-01

    The critical fracture toughness is a material parameter describing the resistance of a cracked body to further crack extension. It is an important parameter to simulate and predict the break-up behaviour of ice shelves from calving of single icebergs to the disintegration of entire ice shelves over a wide range of length scales. The fracture toughness values are calculated with equations that are derived from an elastic stress analysis. Additionally, an X-ray computer tomography (CT scanner) was used to identify the density as a function of depth. The critical fracture toughness of 91 Antarctic inland ice samples with densities between 840 to 870 kg m-3 has been determined by applying a four-point-bending technique on single edge v-notched beam samples. The examined ice core was drilled 70 m north of Kohnen Station, Dronnning Maud Land (75°00' S, 00°04' E, 2882 m). Supplementary data are available at doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.835321.

  15. Effect of hydride orientation on fracture toughness of Zircaloy-4 cladding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Hsiao-Hung; Tsay, Leu-Wen

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen embrittlement is one of the major degradation mechanisms for high burnup fuel cladding during reactor service and spent fuel dry storage, which is related to the hydrogen concentration, morphology and orientation of zirconium hydrides. In this work, the J-integral values for X-specimens with different hydride orientations are measured to evaluate the fracture toughness of Zircaloy-4 (Zry-4) cladding. The toughness values for Zry-4 cladding with various percentages of radial hydrides are much smaller than those with circumferential hydrides only in the same hydrogen content level at 25 °C. The fractograghic features reveal that the crack path is influenced by the orientation of zirconium hydride. Moreover, the fracture toughness measurements for X-specimens at 300 °C are not sensitive to a variation in hydride orientation but to hydrogen concentration.

  16. Results of ASTM round robin testing for mode 1 interlaminar fracture toughness of composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, T. Kevin; Martin, Roderick H.

    1992-01-01

    The results are summarized of several interlaboratory 'round robin' test programs for measuring the mode 1 interlaminar fracture toughness of advanced fiber reinforced composite materials. Double Cantilever Beam (DCB) tests were conducted by participants in ASTM committee D30 on High Modulus Fibers and their Composites and by representatives of the European Group on Fracture (EGF) and the Japanese Industrial Standards Group (JIS). DCB tests were performed on three AS4 carbon fiber reinforced composite materials: AS4/3501-6 with a brittle epoxy matrix; AS4/BP907 with a tough epoxy matrix; and AS4/PEEK with a tough thermoplastic matrix. Difficulties encountered in manufacturing panels, as well as conducting the tests are discussed. Critical issues that developed during the course of the testing are highlighted. Results of the round robin testing used to determine the precision of the ASTM DCB test standard are summarized.

  17. On the study of crack-initiation fracture toughness of fiber glass asphalt shingles

    SciTech Connect

    Shiao, M.L.

    1999-07-01

    The fracture behavior of fiber glass asphalt shingles was examined by measuring their J-integral fracture toughness at crack initiation. The corresponding fracture mechanisms were also studied by in situ fracture observation and by scanning electron microscopy. The applicability of using J-integral fracture toughness to characterize asphalt shingles was discussed and its relationships to other mechanical properties was established. The results indicated that the fracture toughness at crack initiation can be accurately measured for fiber glass shingles and the values may be used to characterize their cracking resistance. Fracture toughness measured from various shingle samples was found to correlate to the shingle's tensile toughness and to its tear strength. Preliminary results on fracture mechanisms suggested that failure in the asphalt coatings by micro-cavitation may be the controlling event leading to crack advance. The importance of the glass fiber mat on a shingle's resistance to fracture was also discussed.

  18. Fracture toughness of Cu-Sn intermetallic thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakrisnan, B.; Chum, C. C.; Li, M.; Chen, Z.; Cahyadi, T.

    2003-03-01

    Intermetallic compounds (IMCs) are formed as a result of interaction between solder and metallization to form joints in electronic packaging. These joints provide mechanical and electrical contacts between components. The knowledge of fracture strength of the IMCs will facilitate predicting the overall joint property, as it is more disposed to failure at the joint compared to the solder because of its brittle characteristics. The salient feature of this paper is the measurement of the fracture toughness and the critical energy-release rate of Cu3Sn and Cu6Sn5 intermetallic thin films, which is the result of the interaction between Sn from the solder and Cu from the metallization. To achieve the objective, a controlled buckling test was used. A buckling test in the current work refers to one that displays large transverse displacement caused by axial compressive loading on a slender beam. The stress and strain along the beam can be easily calculated by the applied displacement. Fracture-toughness values of Cu3Sn and Cu6Sn5 are 2.85 MPa √m ± 0.17 MPa √m and 2.36 MPa √m ± 0.15 MPa √m, respectively. Corresponding critical energy-release rate values are 65.5 J/m2 ± 8.0 J/m2 and 55.9 J/m2 ± 7.3 J/m2, respectively. The values obtained were much higher than the ones measured in bulk intermetallic samples but correlated well with those values obtained from conventional fracture-toughness specimens when fracture was confined within the intermetallic layers. Hence, the controlled buckling test is a promising fast and effective way to elucidate mechanical properties of thin films.

  19. Temperature dependence of fracture toughness in HT9 steel neutron-irradiated up to 145 dpa

    SciTech Connect

    Baek, Jong-Hyuk; Byun, Thak Sang; Maloy, S; Toloczko, M

    2014-01-01

    The temperature dependence of fracture toughness in HT9 steel irradiated to high doses was investigated using miniature three-point bend (TPB) fracture specimens. These specimens were from the ACO-3 fuel duct wall of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), in which irradiation doses were in the range of 3.2 144.8 dpa and irradiation temperatures in the range of 380.4 502.6 oC. A miniature specimen reuse technique has been established for this investigation: the specimens used were the tested halves of miniature Charpy impact specimens (~13 3 4 mm) with diamond-saw cut in the middle. The fatigue precracking for specimens and fracture resistance (J-R) tests were carried out in a MTS servo-hydraulic testing machine with a vacuum furnace following the standard procedure described in the ASTM Standard E 1820-09. For each of five irradiated and one archive conditions, 7 to 9 J-R tests were performed at selected temperatures ranging from 22 C to 600 C. The fracture toughness of the irradiated HT9 steel was strongly dependent on irradiation temperatures rather than irradiation dose. When the irradiation temperature was below about 430 C, the fracture toughness of irradiated HT9 increased with test temperature, reached an upper shelf of 180 200 MPa m at 350 450 C and then decreased with test temperature. When the irradiation temperature 430 C, the fracture toughness was nearly unchanged until about 450 C and decreased with test temperature in higher temperature range. Similar test temperature dependence was observed for the archive material although the highest toughness values are lower after irradiation. Ductile stable crack growth occurred except for a few cases where both the irradiation temperature and test temperature are relatively low.

  20. Fracture toughness testing for the MC3478/79 retaining nut

    SciTech Connect

    Merten, C.W.

    1986-11-30

    A subsize, three-point bend specimen was developed for determining the fracture toughness of the maraging 350 steel used in the MC3478/79 retaining nuts. A comparison of test conditions and results with criteria for fracture toughness testing indicated that a valid value for K/sub Ic/ was obtained. Using the subsize test specimen, four heat-treating processes were evaluated. Scanning electron microscopy studies were performed in an attempt to correlate fracture surface appearance to fracture toughness. These studies suggested that as fracture toughness increases, the tendency toward quasi-cleavage decreases and dimple size increases.

  1. Heat Treatment Effect on Fracture Toughness of F82H Irradiated in HFIR

    SciTech Connect

    Stoller, Roger E; Sokolov, Mikhail A; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu; Hirose, Takanori; Odette, G.R.; Okubo, N.; Jitsukawa, Shiro; Sawai, T.

    2011-01-01

    Irradiation hardening and fracture toughness of reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic steel F82H after irradiation were investigated with a focus on changing the fracture toughness transition temperature as a result of several heat treatments. The specimens were standard F82H-IEA (IEA), F82H-IEA with several heat treatments (Mod1 series) and a heat of F82H (Mod3) containing 0.1 % tantalum. The specimens were irradiated up to 20 dpa at 300oC in the High Flux Isotope Reactor under a collaborative research program between JAEA/US-DOE. The results of hardness tests showed that irradiation hardening of IEA was comparable with that of Mod3. However, the fracture toughness-transition temperature of Mod3 was lower than that of IEA. The transition temperature of Mod1 was also lower than that of the IEA heat. These results suggest that optimization of specifications on the heat treatment condition and modification of the minor alloying elements seem to be effective to reduce the fracture toughness-transition temperature after irradiation.

  2. The effect of electric discharge machined notches on the fracture toughness of several structural alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Joyce, J.A.; Link, R.E.

    1993-09-01

    Recent computational studies of the stress and strain fields at the tip of very sharp notches have shown that the stress and strain fields are very weakly dependent on the initial geometry of the notch once the notch has been blunted to a radius that is 6 to 10 times the initial root radius. It follows that if the fracture toughness of a material is sufficiently high so that fracture initiation does not occur in a specimen until the crack-tip opening displacement (CTOD) reaches a value from 6 to 10 times the size of the initial notch tip diameter, then the fracture toughness will be independent of whether a fatigue crack or a machined notch served as the initial crack. In this experimental program the fracture toughness (J{sub Ic} and J resistance (J-R) curve, and CTOD) for several structure alloys was measured using specimens with conventional fatigue cracks and with EDM machined notches. The results of this program have shown, in fact, that most structural materials do not achieve initiation CTOD values on the order of 6 to 10 times the radius of even the smallest EDM notch tip presently achievable. It is found furthermore that tougher materials do not seem to be less dependent on the type of notch tip present. Some materials are shown to be much more dependent on the type of notch tip used, but no simple pattern is found that relates this observed dependence to the material strength toughness, or strain hardening rate.

  3. Fracture Toughness of Advanced Structural Ceramics: Applying ASTM C1421

    SciTech Connect

    Swab, Jeffrey J.; Tice, Jason; Wereszczak, Andrew A.; Kraft, Reuben H.

    2014-11-03

    The three methods of determining the quasi-static Mode I fracture toughness (KIc) (surface crack in flexure – SC, single-edge precracked beam – PB, and chevron notched beam – VB) found in ASTM C1421 were applied to a variety of advanced ceramic materials. All three methods produced valid and comparable KIc values for the Al2O3, SiC, Si3N4 and SiAlON ceramics examined. However, not all methods could successfully be applied to B4C, ZrO2 and WC ceramics due to a variety of material factors. The coarse-grained microstructure of one B4C hindered the ability to observe and measure the precracks generated in the SC and PB methods while the transformation toughening in the ZrO2 prevented the formation of the SC and PB precracks and thus made it impossible to use either method on this ceramic. The high strength and elastic modulus of the WC made it impossible to achieve stable crack growth using the VB method because the specimen stored a tremendous amount of energy prior to fracture. Even though these methods have passed the rigors of the standardization process there are still some issues to be resolved when the methods are applied to certain classes of ceramics. We recommend that at least two of these methods be employed to determine the KIc, especially when a new or unfamiliar ceramic is being evaluated.

  4. Interlaminar shear fracture toughness and fatigue thresholds for composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Brien, T. Kevin; Murri, Gretchen B.; Salpekar, Satish A.

    1989-01-01

    Static and cyclic end notched flexure tests were conducted on a graphite epoxy, a glass epoxy, and graphite thermoplastic to determine their interlaminar shear fracture toughness and fatigue thresholds for delamination in terms of limiting values of the mode II strain energy release rate, G-II, for delamination growth. The influence of precracking and data reduction schemes are discussed. Finite element analysis indicated that the beam theory calculation for G-II with the transverse shear contribution included was reasonably accurate over the entire range of crack lengths. Cyclic loading significantly reduced the critical G-II for delamination. A threshold value of the maximum cyclic G-II below which no delamination occurred after one million cycles was identified for each material. Also, residual static toughness tests were conducted on glass epoxy specimens that had undergone one million cycles without delamination. A linear mixed-mode delamination criteria was used to characterize the static toughness of several composite materials; however, a total G threshold criterion appears to characterize the fatigue delamination durability of composite materials with a wide range of static toughness.

  5. Interlaminar shear fracture toughness and fatigue thresholds for composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, T. Kevin; Murri, Gretchen B.; Salpekar, Satish A.

    1987-01-01

    Static and cyclic end notched flexure tests were conducted on a graphite epoxy, a glass epoxy, and graphite thermoplastic to determine their interlaminar shear fracture toughness and fatigue thresholds for delamination in terms of limiting values of the mode II strain energy release rate, G-II, for delamination growth. The influence of precracking and data reduction schemes are discussed. Finite element analysis indicated that the beam theory calculation for G-II with the transverse shear contribution included was reasonably accurate over the entire range of crack lengths. Cyclic loading significantly reduced the critical G-II for delamination. A threshold value of the maximum cyclic G-II below which no delamination occurred after one million cycles was identified for each material. Also, residual static toughness tests were conducted on glass epoxy specimens that had undergone one million cycles without delamination. A linear mixed-mode delamination criteria was used to characterize the static toughness of several composite materials; however, a total G threshold criterion appears to characterize the fatigue delamination durability of composite materials with a wide range of static toughness.

  6. Improved fracture toughness corrosion-resistant bearing material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bamberger, E. N.; Nahm, A. H.

    1986-01-01

    A development program was performed to establish whether a corrosion-resistant bearing material, such as a 14Cr steel, could be modified to allow carburization, thereby providing the excellent fracture toughness characteristics feasible with this process. The alloy selected for investigation was AMS 5749. Several modifications were made including the addition of a small amount of nickel for austenite stabilization. While some promising results were achieved, the primary objective of an acceptable combination of case hardness and microstructure was not attained. Because the high chromium content presents a serious problem in achieving a viable carburizing cycle, a number of experimental steels having lower chromium contents (8 to 12%) were produced in laboratory quantities and evaluated. The results were basically the same as those initially obtained with the modified AMS 5749. Corrosion tests were performed on AMS 5749, AISI M50, and 52100 bearing steels as well as some of the lower chromium steels. These tests showed that a reduced chromium level (10 to 12%) provided essentially the same corrosion protection as the 14Cr steels.

  7. Aspects of the Fracture Toughness of Carbon Nanotube Modified Epoxy Polymer Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirjalili, Vahid

    Epoxy resins used in fibre reinforced composites exhibit a brittle fracture behaviour, because they show no sign of damage prior to a catastrophic failure. Rubbery materials and micro-particles have been added to epoxy resins to improve their fracture toughness, which reduces strength and elastic properties. In this research, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are investigated as a potential toughening agent for epoxy resins and carbon fibre reinforced composites, which can also enhance strength and elastic properties. More specifically, the toughening mechanisms of CNTs are investigated theoretically and experimentally. The effect of aligned and randomly oriented carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on the fracture toughness of polymers was modelled using Elastic Plastic Fracture Mechanics. Toughening from CNT pull-out and rupture were considered, depending on the CNTs critical length. The model was used to identify the effect of CNTs geometrical and mechanical properties on the fracture toughness of CNT-modified epoxies. The modelling results showed that a uniform dispersion and alignment of a high volume fraction of CNTs normal to the crack growth plane would lead to the maximum fracture toughness enhancement. To achieve a uniform dispersion, the effect of processing on the dispersion of single walled and multi walled CNTs in epoxy resins was investigated. An instrumented optical microscope with a hot stage was used to quantify the evolution of the CNT dispersion during cure. The results showed that the reduction of the resin viscosity at temperatures greater than 100 °C caused an irreversible re-agglomeration of the CNTs in the matrix. The dispersion quality was then directly correlated to the fracture toughness of the modified resin. It was shown that the fine tuning of the ratio of epoxy resin, curing agent and CNT content was paramount to the improvement of the base resin fracture toughness. For the epoxy resin (MY0510 from Hexcel), an improvement of 38% was achieved with 0.3 wt

  8. Measuring the Fracture Toughness of TZM and ODS Molybdenum Alloys Using Standard and Sub-Sized Bend Specimens

    SciTech Connect

    Cockeram, B. V.

    2002-12-01

    Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) and TZM molybdenum have excellent creep resistance and strength at high temperatures in inert atmospheres. Fracture toughness and tensile testing was performed at temperatures between -150 degrees C and 450 degrees C to characterize 6.35 mm thick plate material of ODS and TZM molybdenum. A transition from low fracture toughness values (5.8 to 29.6 MPa square root m) to values greater than 30 MPa square root m is observed for TZM molybdenum in the longitudinal orientation at 100 degrees C and in the transverse orientation at 150 degrees C. These results are consistent with data reported in literature for molybdenum. A transition to low fracture toughness values (less than 30 MPa square root m) was not observed for longitudinal ODS molybdenum at temperatures greater than or equal to -150 degrees C, while a transition to low fracture toughness values (12.6 to 25.4 MPa square root m) was observed for the transverse orientation at room-temperature. The fi ne spacing of La-oxide precipitates that are present in ODS molybdenum result in a transition temperature that is significantly lower than any molybdenum alloy reported to date, with upper bound fracture toughness values that bound the literature data. A comparison of fracture toughness values obtained using a 1T, 0.5T, and 0.25T Charpy shows that a 0.5T Charpy could be used as a sub-sized specimen geometry.

  9. Fracture fragility of HFIR vessel caused by random crack size or random toughness

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Shih-Jung; Proctor, L.D.

    1993-11-01

    This report discuses the probability of fracture (fracture fragility) versus a range of applied hoop stresses along the HFIR vessel which is obtained as an estimate of its fracture capacity. Both the crack size and the fracture toughness are assumed to be random variables that follow given distribution functions. Possible hoop stress is based on the numerical solution of the vessel response by applying a point pressure-pulse it the center of the fluid volume within the vessel. Both the fluid-structure interaction and radiation embrittlement are taken into consideration. Elastic fracture mechanics is used throughout the analysis. The probability of vessel fracture for a single crack caused by either a variable crack depth or a variable toughness is first derived. Then the probability of fracture with multiple number of cracks is obtained. The probability of fracture is further extended to include different levels of confidence and variability. It, therefore, enables one to estimate the high confidence and low probability capacity accident load.

  10. Dependence of Fracture Toughness on Crystallographic Orientation in Single-Crystalline Cubic (β) Silicon Carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Pharr, M.; Katoh, Y.; Bei, H.

    2006-01-01

    Along with other desirable properties, the ability of silicon carbide (SiC) to retain high strength after elevated temperature exposures to neutron irradiation renders it potentially applicable in fusion and advanced fission reactors. However, properties of the material such as room temperature fracture toughness must be thoroughly characterized prior to such practical applications. The objective of this work is to investigate the dependence of fracture toughness on crystallographic orientation for single-crystalline β-SiC. X-ray diffraction was first performed on the samples to determine the orientation of the crystal. Nanoindentation was used to determine a hardness of 39.1 and 35.2 GPa and elastic modulus of 474 and 446 GPa for the single-crystalline and polycrystalline samples, respectively. Additionally, crack lengths and indentation diagonals were measured via a Vickers micro-hardness indenter under a load of 100 gf for different crystallographic orientations with indentation diagonals aligned along fundamental cleavage planes. Upon examination of propagation direction of cracks, the cracks usually did not initiate and propagate from the corners of the indentation where the stresses are concentrated but instead from the indentation sides. Such cracks clearly moved along the {1 1 0} family of planes (previously determined to be preferred cleavage plane), demonstrating that the fracture toughness of SiC is comparatively so much lower along this set of planes that the lower energy required to cleave along this plane overpowers the stress-concentration at indentation corners. Additionally, fracture toughness in the <1 1 0> direction was 1.84 MPa·m1/2, lower than the 3.46 MPa·m1/2 measured for polycrystalline SiC (which can serve as an average of a spectrum of orientations), further demonstrating that single-crystalline β-SiC has a strong fracture toughness anisotropy.

  11. Effect of environment on fracture toughness of 96 wt pct alumina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Tikare, Veena; Salem, Jonathan A.

    1993-01-01

    An effort is made to deepen understanding of environmental effects on the fracture toughness of an alumina composition that contains a residual glassy phase, by ascertaining the fracture toughness under atmospheric conditions in such varied environments as air distilled water, silicone oil, and liquid nitrogen. Fracture toughness was determined via the single-edge-precracked beam technique. Weibull strength parameters are compared for polished specimens tested both in air and silicone environments.

  12. Interrelation of material microstructure, ultrasonic factors, and fracture toughness of two phase titanium alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, A.; Hull, D. R.

    1982-01-01

    The pivotal role of an alpha-beta phase microstructure in governing fracture toughness in a titanium alloy, Ti-662, is demonstrated. The interrelation of microstructure and fracture toughness is demonstrated using ultrasonic measurement techniques originally developed for nondestructive evaluation and material property characterization. It is shown that the findings determined from ultrasonic measurements agree with conclusions based on metallurgical, metallographic, and fractographic observations concerning the importance of alpha-beta morphology in controlling fracture toughness in two phase titanium alloys.

  13. The effects of neutron irradiation on fracture toughness of austenitic stainless steels.

    SciTech Connect

    Chopra, O. K.; Gruber, E. E.; Shack, W. J.

    1999-05-21

    Austenitic stainless steels are used extensively as structural alloys in reactor pressure vessel internal components because of their superior fracture toughness properties. However, exposure to high levels of neutron irradiation for extended periods leads to significant reduction in the fracture resistance of these steels. This paper presents results of fracture toughness J-R curve tests on four heats of Type 304 stainless steel that were irradiated to fluence levels of {approx}0.3 and 0.9 x 10{sup 21} n cm{sup {minus}2} (E >1 MeV) at {approx}288 C in a helium environment in the Halden heavy water boiling reactor. The tests were performed on 1/4-T compact tension specimens in air at 288 C; crack extensions were determined by both DC potential and elastic unloading compliance techniques.

  14. Structural basis for the fracture toughness of the shell of the conch Strombus gigas.

    PubMed

    Kamat, S; Su, X; Ballarini, R; Heuer, A H

    2000-06-29

    Natural composite materials are renowned for their mechanical strength and toughness: despite being highly mineralized, with the organic component constituting not more than a few per cent of the composite material, the fracture toughness exceeds that of single crystals of the pure mineral by two to three orders of magnitude. The judicious placement of the organic matrix, relative to the mineral phase, and the hierarchical structural architecture extending over several distinct length scales both play crucial roles in the mechanical response of natural composites to external loads. Here we use transmission electron microscopy studies and beam bending experiments to show that the resistance of the shell of the conch Strombus gigas to catastrophic fracture can be understood quantitatively by invoking two energy-dissipating mechanisms: multiple microcracking in the outer layers at low mechanical loads, and crack bridging in the shell's tougher middle layers at higher loads. Both mechanisms are intimately associated with the so-called crossed lamellar microarchitecture of the shell, which provides for 'channel' cracking in the outer layers and uncracked structural features that bridge crack surfaces, thereby significantly increasing the work of fracture, and hence the toughness, of the material. Despite a high mineral content of about 99% (by volume) of aragonite, the shell of Strombus gigas can thus be considered a 'ceramic plywood' and can guide the biomimetic design of tough, lightweight structures. PMID:10890440

  15. Structural basis for the fracture toughness of the shell of the conch Strombus gigas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamat, S.; Su, X.; Ballarini, R.; Heuer, A. H.

    2000-06-01

    Natural composite materials are renowned for their mechanical strength and toughness: despite being highly mineralized, with the organic component constituting not more than a few per cent of the composite material, the fracture toughness exceeds that of single crystals of the pure mineral by two to three orders of magnitude. The judicious placement of the organic matrix, relative to the mineral phase, and the hierarchical structural architecture extending over several distinct length scales both play crucial roles in the mechanical response of natural composites to external loads. Here we use transmission electron microscopy studies and beam bending experiments to show that the resistance of the shell of the conch Strombus gigas to catastrophic fracture can be understood quantitatively by invoking two energy-dissipating mechanisms: multiple microcracking in the outer layers at low mechanical loads, and crack bridging in the shell's tougher middle layers at higher loads. Both mechanisms are intimately associated with the so-called crossed lamellar microarchitecture of the shell, which provides for `channel' cracking in the outer layers and uncracked structural features that bridge crack surfaces, thereby significantly increasing the work of fracture, and hence the toughness, of the material. Despite a high mineral content of about 99% (by volume) of aragonite, the shell of Strombus gigas can thus be considered a `ceramic plywood', and can guide the biomimetic design of tough, lightweight structures.

  16. Experimental Determination of the Fracture Toughness and Brittleness of the Mancos Shale, Utah.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandler, Mike; Meredith, Phil; Crawford, Brian

    2013-04-01

    The hydraulic fracturing of Gas-Shales has become a topic of interest since the US Shale Gas Revolution, and is increasingly being investigated across Europe. A significant issue during hydraulic fracturing is the risk of fractures propagating further than desired into aquifers or faults. This occured at Preese Hall, UK in April and May 2011 when hydraulic fractures propagated into an adjacent fault causing 2.3ML and 1.7ML earthquakes [1]. A rigorous understanding of how hydraulic fractures propagate under in-situ conditions is therefore important for treatment design, both to maximise gas accessed, and to minimise risks due to fracture overextension. Fractures will always propagate along the path of least resistance, but the direction and extent of this path is a complex relationship between the in-situ stress-field, the anisotropic mechanical properties of the rock, and the pore and fracturing pressures [2]. It is possible to estimate the anisotropic in-situ stress field using an isolated-section hydraulic fracture test, and the pore-pressure using well logs. However, the anisotropic mechanical properties of gas-shales remain poorly constrained, with a wide range of reported values. In particular, there is an extreme paucity of published data on the Fracture Toughness of soft sediments such as shales. Mode-I Fracture Toughness is a measure of a material's resistance to dynamic tensile fracture propagation. Defects such as pre-existing microcracks and pores in a material can induce high local stress concentrations, causing fracture propagation and material failure under substantially lower stress than its bulk strength. The mode-I stress intensity factor, KI, quantifies the concentration of stress at the crack tip. For linear elastic materials the Fracture Toughness is defined by the critical value of this stress intensity factor; KIc, beyond which rapid catastrophic crack growth occurs. However, rocks such as shales are relatively ductile and display significant

  17. Determination of dynamic fracture toughness using a new experimental technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cady, Carl M.; Liu, Cheng; Lovato, Manuel L.

    2015-09-01

    In other studies dynamic fracture toughness has been measured using Charpy impact and modified Hopkinson Bar techniques. In this paper results will be shown for the measurement of fracture toughness using a new test geometry. The crack propagation velocities range from ˜0.15 mm/s to 2.5 m/s. Digital image correlation (DIC) will be the technique used to measure both the strain and the crack growth rates. The boundary of the crack is determined using the correlation coefficient generated during image analysis and with interframe timing the crack growth rate and crack opening can be determined. A comparison of static and dynamic loading experiments will be made for brittle polymeric materials. The analysis technique presented by Sammis et al. [1] is a semi-empirical solution, however, additional Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics analysis of the strain fields generated as part of the DIC analysis allow for the more commonly used method resembling the crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) experiment. It should be noted that this technique was developed because limited amounts of material were available and crack growth rates were to fast for a standard CTOD method.

  18. In situ tensile fracture toughness of surficial cohesive marine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Bruce D.; Barry, Mark A.; Boudreau, Bernard P.; Jumars, Peter A.; Dorgan, Kelly M.

    2012-02-01

    This study reports the first in situ measurements of tensile fracture toughness, K IC, of soft, surficial, cohesive marine sediments. A newly developed probe continuously measures the stress required to cause tensile failure in sediments to depths of up to 1 m. Probe measurements are in agreement with standard laboratory methods of K IC measurements in both potter's clay and natural sediments. The data comprise in situ depth profiles from three field sites in Nova Scotia, Canada. Measured K IC at two muddy sites (median grain size of 23-50 μm) range from near zero at the sediment surface to >1,800 Pa m1/2 at 0.2 m depth. These profiles also appear to identify the bioturbated/mixed depth. K IC for a sandy site (>90% sand) is an order of magnitude lower than for the muddy sediments, and reflects the lack of cohesion/adhesion. A comparison of K IC, median grain size, and porosity in muddy sediments indicates that consolidation increases fracture strength, whereas inclusion of sand causes weakening; thus, sand-bearing layers can be easily identified in K IC profiles. K IC and vane-measured shear strength correlate strongly, which suggests that the vane measurements should perhaps be interpreted as shear fracture toughness, rather than shear strength. Comparison of in situ probe-measured values with K IC of soils and gelatin shows that sediments have a K IC range intermediate between denser compacted soils and softer, elastic gelatin.

  19. Fracture-tough, corrosion-resistant bearing steels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Gregory B.

    1990-01-01

    The fundamental principles allowing design of stainless bearing steels with enhanced toughness and stress corrosion resistance has involved both investigation of basic phenomena in model alloys and evaluation of a prototype bearing steel based on a conceptual design exercise. Progress in model studies has included a scanning Auger microprobe (SAM) study of the kinetics of interfacial segregation of embrittling impurities which compete with the kinetics of alloy carbide precipitation in secondary hardening steels. These results can define minimum allowable carbide precipitation rates and/or maximum allowable free impurity contents in these ultrahigh strength steels. Characterization of the prototype bearing steel designed to combine precipitated austenite transformation toughening with secondary hardening shows good agreement between predicted and observed solution treatment response including the nature of the high temperature carbides. An approximate equilibrium constraint applied in the preliminary design calculations to maintain a high martensitic temperature proved inadequate, and the solution treated alloy remained fully austenitic down to liquid nitrogen temperature rather than transforming above 200 C. The alloy can be martensitically transformed by cryogenic deformation, and material so processed will be studied further to test predicted carbide and austenite precipitation behavior. A mechanistically-based martensitic kinetic model was developed and parameters are being evaluated from available kinetic data to allow precise control of martensitic temperatures of high alloy steels in future designs. Preliminary calculations incorporating the prototype stability results suggest that the transformation-toughened secondary-hardening martensitic-stainless design concept is still viable, but may require lowering Cr content to 9 wt. pct. and adding 0.5 to 1.0 wt. pct. Al. An alternative design approach based on strain-induced martensitic transformation during

  20. Fracture toughness studies of rubber-toughened polycarbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S.W.

    1993-01-01

    Polycarbonate was toughened with preformed core/shell particles. The fracture toughness at different toughener levels and temperatures was measured according to a J-integral procedure using compact tension test specimens. An extensive critique of the J-integral procedures was made and compared in this study. The fracture toughness J[sub IC] of unmodified polycarbonate in Mode I is 2.68 kJ/m[sup 2] at a crosshead speed of 5.08 mm/min with the specimen thickness ranging from 3.175 to 9.525 mm, at temperatures ranging from [minus]20 to 23[degrees]C. Under the same conditions, the J[sub IC] of rubber-toughened polycarbonates were 4.88, 5.68, 7.70, and 7.46 kJ/m[sup 2], at toughener levels of 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 parts, respectively, by weight per hundred parts (phr) of polycarbonate. The maximum toughness was realized at 7.5 phr of toughener and began to decrease at 10 phr. Tensile stress-strain curves indicated that the modulus is retained at all toughener levels. The ultimate stress and strain, however, steadily decreased. Fracture surfaces of test specimens were examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and analyzed to elucidate the toughening mechanism. This indicated polycarbonate deforms through shear-yielding with or without the second phase. The fracture surface of broken tensile bars showed limited cavity volume compared to the compact tension specimens. The reason for this appears to be the higher crack speed accompanying fracture in the bars. The failure mechanism and the degree of toughening from the rubbery domains are different in the compact tension specimen and tensile bar specimen: with the compact tension specimens, dilatational deformation involving cavitation is dominant. The cavitation is initiated by interfacial debonding around the particles. In this, shear-yielding is limited. In the fracture of the tensile bar specimens, shear-yielding is dominant with limited dilatational deformation involving cavitation.

  1. Monitoring crack extension in fracture toughness tests by ultrasonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klima, S. J.; Fisher, D. M.; Buzzard, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    An ultrasonic method was used to observe the onset of crack extension and to monitor continued crack growth in fracture toughness specimens during three-point bend tests. A 20-MHz transducer was used with commercially available equipment to detect average crack extension less than 0.09 mm. The material tested was a 300-grade maraging steel in the annealed condition. A crack extension resistance curve was developed to demonstrate the usefulness of the ultrasonic method for minimizing the number of tests required to generate such curves.

  2. Double Cantilever Beam Fracture Toughness Testing of Several Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessler, Jeff A.; Adams, Donald F.

    1992-01-01

    Double-cantilever beam fracture toughness tests were performed by the Composite Materials Research Group on several different unidirectional composite materials provided by NASA Langley Research Center. The composite materials consisted of Hercules IM-7 carbon fiber and various matrix resin formulations. Multiple formulations of four different families of matrix resins were tested: LaRC - ITPI, LaRC - IA, RPT46T, and RP67/RP55. Report presents the materials tested and pertinent details supplied by NASA. For each material, three replicate specimens were tested. Multiple crack extensions were performed on each replicate.

  3. Monitoring crack extension in fracture toughness tests by ultrasonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klima, S. J.; Fisher, D. M.; Buzzard, R. J.

    1975-01-01

    An ultrasonic method was used to observe the onset of crack extension and to monitor continued crack growth in fracture toughness specimens during three point bend tests. A 20 MHz transducer was used with commercially available equipment to detect average crack extension less than 0.09 mm. The material tested was a 300-grade maraging steel in the annealed condition. A crack extension resistance curve was developed to demonstrate the usefulness of the ultrasonic method for minimizing the number of tests required to generate such curves.

  4. On the feasibility of quantitative ultrasonic determination of fracture toughness: A literature review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fu, L. S.

    1980-01-01

    The three main topics covered are: (1) fracture toughness and microstructure, (2) quantitative ultrasonic and microstructure; and (3) scattering and related mathematical methods. Literature in these areas is reviewed to give insight to the search of a theoretical foundation for quantitative ultrasonic measurement of fracture toughness. The literature review shows that fracture toughness is inherently related to the microstructure and in particular, it depends upon the spacing of inclusions or second particles and the aspect ratio of second phase particles. There are indications that ultrasonic velocity attenuation measurements can be used to determine fracture toughness. The leads to a review of the mathematical models available in solving boundary value problems related to microstructural factors that govern facture toughness and wave motion. A framework towards the theoretical study for the quantitative determination of fracture toughness is described and suggestions for future research are proposed.

  5. Fracture Toughness Testing of ASTM A285 Steel for Fracture Analysis of Savannah River Site Storage Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, K.H.

    2001-05-15

    The fracture toughness properties of A285 steels are being measured at specific material and test conditions for application to elastic-plastic fracture mechanics analysis of storage tanks at the Department of Energy Savannah River Site.

  6. High strength and high toughness steel

    DOEpatents

    Parker, Earl R.; Zackay, Victor F.

    1979-01-01

    A structural steel which possess both high strength and high toughness and has particular application of cryogenic uses. The steel is produced by the utilization of thermally induced phase transformation following heating in a three-phase field in iron-rich alloys of the Fe-Ni-Ti system, with a preferred composition of 12% nickel, 0.5% titanium, the remainder being iron.

  7. Fracture toughness of hydroxyapatite/mica composite, packed hydroxyapatite, alumina ceramics, silicon nitride and -carbide.

    PubMed

    Nordström, E G; Yokobori, A T; Yokobori, T; Aizawa, Y

    1998-01-01

    By using the fracture toughness estimation method based on two-dimensional map, it was found that the ductility of the high porosity hydroxyapatite/mice composite was comparable with silicon carbide. It was measured to be higher than that of packed hydroxyapatite. Alumina ceramics with more than 96% aluminium oxide showed a higher fracture toughness than the composite material. When bending strength was compared, the strength of the composite was two or three times lower than that of packed hydroxyapatite and much lower than the other studied materials. The composite material showed high porosity, which in turn gives it a lower bending strength. However, the high porosity is more favourable for biocompatibility. PMID:9713684

  8. Comparison of fracture toughness (KIC) and strain energy release rate (G) of selected nuclear graphites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Se-Hwan

    2016-08-01

    The fracture behaviors of six nuclear graphite grades for a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), which differed in coke particle size and forming method, were characterized based on the ASTM standard graphite fracture toughness test method (ASTM D 7779-11) at room temperature. The G appeared to show good correlation with the fracture surface roughness and the G-Δa curves appeared to describe the fracture process well from crack initiation to failure. Comparison of the local (KIC) and gross (GIC, G-Δa) fracture parameters showed that the resistance to crack initiation and propagation was higher in the extruded or vibration molded medium particle size grades (PCEA, NBG-17, NBG-18: EVM group) than in the iso-molded fine particle size grades (IG-110, IG-430, NBG-25: IMF group). The ASTM may need to provide a guideline for G-Δa curve analysis. The KIC appeared to increase with specimen thickness (size).

  9. Processing and testing of high toughness silicon nitride ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tikare, Veena; Sanders, William A.; Choi, Sung R.

    1993-01-01

    High toughness silicon nitride ceramics were processed with the addition of small quantities of beta-Si3N4 whiskers in a commercially available alpha-Si3N4 powder. These whiskers grew preferentially during sintering resulting in large, elongated beta-grains, which acted to toughen the matrix by crack deflection and grain pullout. The fracture toughness of these samples seeded with beta-Si3N4 whiskers ranged from 8.7 to 9.5 MPa m(exp 0.5) depending on the sintering additives.

  10. Microstructural effects on the dynamic fracture toughness of cellulose-fiber-reinforced polypropylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemons, Craig Merrill

    Natural fiber reinforced thermoplastics are a rapidly growing, commercially interesting area. Unlike their glass reinforced counterparts, microstructure and dynamic fracture behavior of natural fiber reinforced thermoplastics have hardly been investigated. We characterized the microstructure of cellulose fiber reinforced polypropylene and determined its effect on dynamic fracture toughness. Scanning electron microscopy of the fracture surfaces and x-ray diffraction were used to investigate fiber orientation in injection molded composites. The polypropylene matrix was removed by solvent extraction, and the lengths of the residual fibers were optically determined. Fiber lengths were reduced by one-half when compounded in a high-intensity thermokinetic mixer and then injection molded. At low fiber contents, there was little fiber orientation; at high fiber contents, a layered structure arose exhibiting differing fiber orientations through the thickness of the injection molded specimen. Scanning electron microscopy of acid etched specimens revealed spherulitic structure emanating from cellulose fibers (i.e. transcrystallinity) in injection molded composites containing less than 5% fibers. The etching procedure failed to provide any matrix surface relief in high fiber content composites. To better understand fracture under impact loading, dynamic fracture analysis was performed based on linear elastic fracture mechanics. Dynamic critical energy release rates and dynamic critical stress intensity factors were deduced from instrumented Charpy impact test measurements. Dynamic fracture toughness increased with cellulose content and with orientation of fibers perpendicular to the crack plane. To better control composite microstructure, model laminates of highly aligned plies were produced and tested. Dynamic fracture toughness decreased with fiber alignment angle. A simple model successfully related the microstructure to the dynamic fracture toughness. Increasing test

  11. Microscale resolution fracture toughness profiling at the zirconia-porcelain interface in dental prostheses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunt, Alexander J. G.; Mohanty, Gaurav; Neo, Tee K.; Michler, Johann; Korsunsky, Alexander M.

    2015-12-01

    The high failure rate of the Yttria Partially Stabilized Zirconia (YPSZ)-porcelain interface in dental prostheses is influenced by the micro-scale mechanical property variation in this region. To improve the understanding of this behavior, micro-scale fracture toughness profiling by nanoindentation micropillar splitting is reported for the first time. Sixty 5 μm diameter micropillars were machined within the first 100 μm of the interface. Berkovich nanoindentation provided estimates of the bulk fracture toughness of YPSZ and porcelain that matched the literature values closely. However, the large included tip angle prevented precise alignment of indenter with the pillar center. Cube corner indentation was performed on the remainder of the pillars and calibration between nanoindentation using different tip shapes was used to determine the associated conversion factors. YPSZ micropillars failed by gradual crack propagation and bulk values persisted to within 15 μm from the interface, beyond which scatter increased and a 10% increase in fracture toughness was observed that may be associated with grain size variation at this location. Micropillars straddling the interface displayed preferential fracture within porcelain parallel to the interface at a location where nano-voiding has previously been observed and reported. Pure porcelain micropillars exhibited highly brittle failure and a large reduction of fracture toughness (by up to ~90%) within the first 50 μm of the interface. These new insights constitute a major advance in understanding the structure-property relationship of this important bi-material interface at the micro-scale, and will improve micromechanical modelling needed to optimize current manufacturing routes and reduce failure.

  12. Effects of tensile loading on upper shelf fracture toughness

    SciTech Connect

    Joyce, J.A.; Link, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    Constraint has been an important consideration in fracture mechanics from the earliest work that was done to develop the 1974 version of the ASTM Standard E399. O`Dowd and Shih (1991) have proposed that the difference in crack tip stress fields can be quantified in terms of a field quantity that they have call Q. The Q quantity is a function of J, the crack shape and size, the structural geometry, mode of loading and on the level of deformation and can only be calculated from a high resolution elastic-plastic computational analysis. A similar, simpler, but more controversial approach has been suggested by Betegon and Hancock (1991), who use the non-singular term of the elastic, crack singularity solution, called the T-Stress, as a measure of elastic-plastic crack tip constraint. The objective of this work is to develop some upper shelf, elastic-plastic experimental results to attempt to investigate the applicability of the Q and T stress parameters to the correlation of upper shelf initiation toughness and J resistance curves. The first objective was to obtain upper shelf J resistance curves, J{sub Ic}, and tearing resistance results for a range of applied constraint. The J-Q and J-T stress loci were developed and compared with the expectations of the O`Dowd and Shih and the Betegon and Hancock analyses. Constraint was varied by changing the crack length and also by changing the mode of loading from bending to predominantly tensile. The principle conclusions of this work are that J{sub Ic} does not appear to be dependent on T stress or Q while the material tearing resistance is dependent on T stress and Q, with the tearing modulus increasing as constraint decreases.

  13. A single fracture toughness parameter for fibrous composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poe, C. C., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    A general fracture toughness parameter Qc was previously derived and verified to be a material constant, independent of layup, for centrally cracked boron aluminum composite specimens. The specimens were made with various proportions of 0 and + or - 45 degree plies. A limited amount of data indicated that the ratio Qc/epsilon tuf' where epsilon tuf is the ultimate tensile strain of the fibers, might be a constant for all composite laminates, regardless of material and layup. In that case, a single value of Qc/epsilon tuf could be used to predict the fracture toughness of all fibrous composite laminates from only the elastic constants and epsilon tuf. Values of Qc/epsilon tuf were calculated for centrally cracked specimens made from graphite/polyimide, graphite/epoxy, E glass/epoxy, boron/epoxy, and S glass graphite/epoxy materials with numerous layups. Within ordinary scatter, the data indicate that Qc/epsilon tuf is a constant for all laminates that did not split extensively at the crack tips or have other deviate failure modes.

  14. Fracture toughness of copper-base alloys for ITER applications: A preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, D.J.; Zinkle, S.J.; Rowcliffe, A.F.

    1997-04-01

    Oxide-dispersion strengthened copper alloys and a precipitation-hardened copper-nickel-beryllium alloy showed a significant reduction in toughness at elevated temperature (250{degrees}C). This decrease in toughness was much larger than would be expected from the relatively modest changes in the tensile properties over the same temperature range. However, a copper-chromium-zirconium alloy strengthened by precipitation showed only a small decrease in toughness at the higher temperatures. The embrittled alloys showed a transition in fracture mode, from transgranular microvoid coalescence at room temperature to intergranular with localized ductility at high temperatures. The Cu-Cr-Zr alloy maintained the ductile microvoid coalescence failure mode at all test temperatures.

  15. Comparison of Intralaminar and Interlaminar Mode-I Fracture Toughness of Unidirectional IM7/8552 Graphite/Epoxy Composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Czabaj, Michael W.; Ratcliffe, James

    2012-01-01

    The intralaminar and interlaminar mode-I fracture-toughness of a unidirectional IM7/8552 graphite/epoxy composite were measured using compact tension (CT) and double cantilever beam (DCB) test specimens, respectively. Two starter crack geometries were considered for both the CT and DCB specimen configurations. In the first case, starter cracks were produced by 12.5 micron thick, Teflon film inserts. In the second case, considerably sharper starter cracks were produced by fatigue precracking. For each specimen configuration, use of the Teflon film starter cracks resulted in initially unstable crack growth and artificially high initiation fracture-toughness values. Conversely, specimens with fatigue precracks exhibited stable growth onset and lower initiation fracture toughness. For CT and DCB specimens with fatigue precracks, the intralaminar and interlaminar initiation fracture toughnesses were approximately equal. However, during propagation, the CT specimens exhibited more extensive fiber bridging, and rapidly increasing R-curve behavior as compared to the DCB specimens. Observations of initiation and propagation of intralaminar and interlaminar fracture, and the measurements of fracture toughness, were supported by fractographic analysis using scanning electron microscopy.

  16. Fracture toughness testing of V-4Cr-4Ti at 25{degrees}C and -196{degrees}C

    SciTech Connect

    Li, H.X.; Kurtz, R.J.

    1996-10-01

    Measurements of the fracture toughness of the production-scale heat (832665) of V-4Cr-4Ti have been performed at 25{degrees}C and {minus}196{degrees}C using compact tension (CT) specimens. Test specimens were vacuum annealed at either 1000{degrees}C for 1 hour (HT1) or 1050{degrees}C for two hours (HT2). Specimens given the HT1 treatment were annealed after final machining, whereas the HT2 specimens received the 1050{degrees}C anneal at Teledyne Wah Chang prior to final machining. Following machining HT2 specimens were then vacuum annealed at 180{degrees}C for two hours to remove hydrogen. Specimens treated using HT1 had a partially recrystallized microstructure and those treated using HT2 had a fully recrystallized microstructure. The fracture toughness at 25{degrees}C was determined by J-integral tests and at {minus}196{degrees}C by ASTM E 399 type tests. Toughness values obtained at {minus}196{degrees}C were converted to J-integral values for comparison to the 25{degrees}C data. The 25{degrees}C fracture toughness was very high with none of the specimens giving valid results per ASTM criteria. Specimens fractured by microvoid coalescence. The fracture toughness at {minus}196{degrees}C was much lower than that at 25{degrees}C and the fracture surface showed predominantly cleavage features. The present results show a transition from ductile to brittle behavior with decreasing test temperature which is not observed from one-third scale Charpy impact tests. The fracture toughness at {minus}196{degrees}C was still quite high, however, at about 75 kJ/m{sup 2}. Delaminations in planes normal to the thickness direction were seen at both test temperatures. Fracture surfaces inside the delaminations exhibited nearly 100% cleavage facets. The cause of the brittle delaminations was not determined, but will be a subject for further investigation.

  17. Characterization of tensile strength and fracture toughness of nuclear graphite NBG-18 using subsize specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, J. H.; Byun, T. S.; Strizak, J. P.; Snead, L. L.

    2011-05-01

    The mechanical properties of NBG-18 nuclear grade graphite were characterized using small specimen test techniques and statistical treatment on the test results. New fracture strength and toughness test techniques were developed to use subsize cylindrical specimens with glued heads and to reuse their broken halves. Three sets of subsize cylindrical specimens of different sizes were tested to obtain tensile fracture strength and fracture toughness. The mean fracture strength decreased as the specimen size increased. The fracture strength data indicate that in the given diameter range the size effect is not significant and much smaller than that predicted by the Weibull moduli estimated for individual specimen groups of the Weibull distribution. Further, no noticeable size effect existed in the fracture toughness data. The mean values of the fracture toughness datasets were in a narrow range of 1.21-1.26 MPa√m.

  18. Assessments of Fracture Toughness of Monolithic Ceramics-SEPB Versus SEVNB Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Gyekenyesi, John P.

    2006-01-01

    Fracture toughness of a total of 13 advanced monolithic ceramics including silicon nitrides, silicon carbide, aluminas, and glass ceramic was determined at ambient temperature by using both single edge precracked beam (SEPB) and single edge v-notched beam (SEVNB) methods. Relatively good agreement in fracture toughness between the two methods was observed for advanced ceramics with flat R-curves; whereas, poor agreement in fracture toughness was seen for materials with rising R-curves. The discrepancy in fracture toughness between the two methods was due to stable crack growth with crack closure forces acting in the wake region of cracks even in SEVNB test specimens. The effect of discrepancy in fracture toughness was analyzed in terms of microstructural feature (grain size and shape), toughening exponent in R-curve, and stable crack growth determined using back-face strain gaging.

  19. Fracture toughness of Alloy 690 and EN52 weld in air and water

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, C.M.; Mills, W.J.

    1999-06-01

    The effect of low and high temperature water with high hydrogen on the fracture toughness of Alloy 690 and its weld, EN52, was characterized using elastic-plastic J{sub IC} methodology. While both materials display excellent fracture resistance in air and elevated temperature (>93 C) water, a dramatic degradation in toughness is observed in 54 C water. The loss of toughness is associated with a hydrogen-induced intergranular cracking mechanism where hydrogen is picked up from the water. Comparison of the cracking behavior in low temperature water with that for hydrogen-precharged specimens tested in air indicates that the critical local hydrogen content required to cause low temperature embrittlement is on the order of 120 to 160 ppm. Loading rate studies show that the cracking resistance is significantly improved at rates above ca. 1000 MPa{radical}m/h because there is insufficient time to produce grain boundary embrittlement. Electron fractographic examinations were performed to correlate cracking behavior with microstructural features and operative fracture mechanics.

  20. Fracture toughness and fatigue crack growth in rapidly quenched Nb-Cr-Ti in situ composites

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, K.S.; Davidson, D.L.; Anton, D.L.

    1997-09-01

    In situ composites based on the Nb-Cr-Ti ternary system were processed by rapid solidification in order to reduce the size of the reinforcing intermetallic phase. Two-phase microstructures with small Cr{sub 2}Nb particles in a Nb(Cr, Ti) solid solution alloy matrix were produced for several compositions that previous work showed to produce high toughness composites in cast materials. The fracture and fatigue behaviors of these composites were characterized at ambient temperature. The results indicate that the fracture resistance increases with a decreasing volume of Cr{sub 2}Nb particles. Fracture toughnesses of the rapidly solidified materials with their smaller particle sizes were lower than for conventionally processed composites with larger particles of the intermetallic compound. The fatigue crack growth rate curves exhibit steep slopes and a low critical stress intensity factor at fracture. The lack of fracture and fatigue resistance is attributed to the continguity of the intermetallic particles and the absence of plastic flow in the Nb solid solution matrix. The matrix alloy appears to be embrittled by (1) the rapid solidification processing that prevented plastic relaxation of residual stresses, (2) a high oxygen content, and (3) the constraint caused by the hard Cr{sub 2}Nb particles.

  1. Mode II Interlaminar Fracture Toughness and Fatigue Characterization of a Graphite Epoxy Composite Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Brien, T. Kevin; Johnston, William M.; Toland, Gregory J.

    2010-01-01

    Mode II interlaminar fracture toughness and delamination onset and growth characterization data were generated for IM7/8552 graphite epoxy composite materials from two suppliers for use in fracture mechanics analyses. Both the fracture toughness testing and the fatigue testing were conducted using the End-notched Flexure (ENF) test. The ENF test for mode II fracture toughness is currently under review by ASTM as a potential standard test method. This current draft ASTM protocol was used as a guide to conduct the tests on the IM7/8552 material. This report summarizes the test approach, methods, procedures and results of this characterization effort.

  2. Effects of constraint on upper shelf fracture toughness

    SciTech Connect

    Joyce, J.A.; Link, R.E.

    1995-12-31

    The upper shelf fracture toughness and tearing resistance of two structural steels, HY-100 and ASTM A533, Gr. B, were determined over a wide range of applied constraint. The constraint conditions were varied by changes in specimen geometry and loading mode. Bend specimens with shallow and deep cracks, compact specimens, and single and double edge notched tension specimens were used in this study. A rotation correction was developed for the single edge notch tension specimen which greatly improved the behavior of the J-R curves determined using this specimen. The experimental results were used to investigate the applicability of the Q and T stress parameters to the correlation of upper shelf initiation toughness, J{sub Ic}, and tearing resistance, T{sub mat}. The J-Q and J-T stress loci, and corresponding plots of material tearing resistance plotted against Q and T, were developed and compared with the expectations of the O`Dowd and Shih and the Betegon and Hancock analyses. The principle conclusions of this work are that J{sub Ic} does not appear to be dependent on T stress or Q while the material tearing resistance, T{sub mat}, is dependent on T stress and Q, with the tearing modulus increasing as constraint decreases.

  3. Tough, High-Performance, Thermoplastic Addition Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pater, Ruth H.; Proctor, K. Mason; Gleason, John; Morgan, Cassandra; Partos, Richard

    1991-01-01

    Series of addition-type thermoplastics (ATT's) exhibit useful properties. Because of their addition curing and linear structure, ATT polymers have toughness, like thermoplastics, and easily processed, like thermosets. Work undertaken to develop chemical reaction forming stable aromatic rings in backbone of ATT polymer, combining high-temperature performance and thermo-oxidative stability with toughness and easy processibility, and minimizing or eliminating necessity for tradeoffs among properties often observed in conventional polymer syntheses.

  4. Fracture toughness and Charpy impact properties of several RAFMS before and after irradiation in HFIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, M. A.; Tanigawa, H.; Odette, G. R.; Shiba, K.; Klueh, R. L.

    2007-08-01

    As part of the development of candidate reduced-activation ferritic steels for fusion applications, several steels, namely F82H, 9Cr-2WVTa steels and F82H weld metal, are being investigated in the joint DOE-JAEA collaboration program. Within this program, three capsules containing a variety of specimen designs were irradiated at two design temperatures in the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). Two capsules, RB-11J and RB-12J, were irradiated in the HFIR removable beryllium positions with europium oxide (Eu 2O 3) thermal neutron shields in place. Specimens were irradiated up to 5 dpa. Capsule JP25 was irradiated in the HFIR target position to 20 dpa. The design temperatures were 300 °C and 500 °C. Precracked third-sized V-notch Charpy (3.3 × 3.3 × 25.4 mm) and 0.18 T DC(T) specimens were tested to determine transition and ductile shelf fracture toughness before and after irradiation. The master curve methodology was applied to evaluate the fracture toughness transition temperature, T0. Irradiation induced shifts of T0 and reductions of JQ were compared with Charpy V-notch impact properties. Fracture toughness and Charpy shifts were also compared to hardening results.

  5. Fracture toughness of solid oxide fuel cell anode substrates determined by a double-torsion technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pećanac, G.; Wei, J.; Malzbender, J.

    2016-09-01

    Planar solid oxide fuel cell anode substrates are exposed to high mechanical loads during assembly, start-up, steady-state operation and thermal cycling. Hence, characterization of mechanical stability of anode substrates under different oxidation states and at relevant temperatures is essential to warrant a reliable operation of solid oxide fuel cells. As a basis for mechanical assessment of brittle supports, two most common anode substrate material variants, NiO-3YSZ and NiO-8YSZ, were analyzed in this study with respect to their fracture toughness at room temperature and at a typical stack operation temperature of 800 °C. The study considered both, oxidized and reduced materials' states, where also an outlook is given on the behavior of the re-oxidized state that might be induced by malfunctions of sealants or other functional components. Aiming at the improvement of material's production, different types of warm pressed and tape cast NiO-8YSZ substrates were characterized in oxidized and reduced states. Overall, the results confirmed superior fracture toughness of 3YSZ compared to 8YSZ based composites in the oxidized state, whereas in the reduced state 3YSZ based composites showed similar fracture toughness at room temperature, but a higher value at 800 °C compared to 8YSZ based composites. Complementary microstructural analysis aided the interpretation of mechanical characterization.

  6. [Research on bending strength and fracture toughness of alumina-glass composite].

    PubMed

    Luo, X; Zhao, Y; Tian, J; Chao, Y; Zhang, S; Zhang, Y

    1998-12-01

    To develop a new ceramic material that can be machined and infiltrated with glass, a porous alumina blank sintered at 1350 degrees C was made of high purity, super fine alpha-alumina and then infiltrated with glass in this study. The density, bending strength and fracture toughness of the partially sintered alumina and alumina-glass composite were determined. The results indicated that the porous alumina density was 2.12 g/cm3, the three point bending strength 102 MPa, the fracture toughness 1.61 MPam1/2; that the alumina-glass composite density was 3.85 g/cm3, the three point bending strength 385 MPa, and the fracture toughness 4.05 MPam1/2. By SEM and EDXA analysis, lanthanum boroslicate glass was completely infiltrated into the 3 mm thick porous alumina blank for 6 h at 1150 degrees C. These suggest that the new developed alumina blank is suited for clinical use. PMID:10743233

  7. Fracture toughness of Ti-6Al-4V after welding and postweld heat treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Murthy, K.K.; Sundaresan, S.

    1997-02-01

    The fracture toughness (J{sub IC}) of the fusion zone of Ti-6Al-4V alloy welds was studied in terms of microstructural changes in the as-welded condition and following postweld heat treatment. Gas tungsten arc and electron beam welds were produced in sheet material over a limited range of heat input and subsequently heat treated at 700 C and 900 C. In the as-welded condition, the weld microstructure was a mixture of diffusional and martensitic alpha phases, whose proportion varied wit heat input and cooling rate. The fusion zone exhibited low ductility resulting from the highly acicular microstructure and a large prior-beta grain size. Postweld heat treatment tempered the martensite and coarsened the microstructure, but a beneficial effect on ductility was realized only after treatment at 900 C. Fracture toughness in the as-welded condition was greater than for the base metal and was attributed to the lamellar microstructure of the fusion zone and absence of continuous alpha film along the grain boundaries. Postweld heat treatment at 700 C reduced the fracture toughness considerably and, as in the case of ductility, it was necessary to heat treat at 900 C to produce an improvement.

  8. The Effect of Neutron Irradiation on the Fracture Toughness of Graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Burchell, Timothy D; Strizak, Joe P

    2012-01-01

    As part of our irradiated graphite recycle program a small quantity of PCEA grade graphite was irradiated in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at ORNL. The graphite will provide the raw material for future recycle experiments. The geometry of the irradiated graphite allowed us to study the effects of neutron irradiation on the Critical Stress Intensity Factor, KIc, of graphite. The specimens where irradiated in two groups of 6 at an irradiation temperature of 900 C in rabbit capsules to doses of 6.6 and 10.2 DPA, respectively. Following a full suite of pre-and post-irradiation examination, which included dimensions, mass, electrical resistivity, elastic constants, and thermal expansion (to 800 C) the samples were notched and tested to determine their KIc using the newly approved ATSM test method for SENB fracture toughness of graphite. Here we report the irradiation induced changes in the dimensions, elastic constants, resistivity, and coefficient of thermal expansion of PCEA graphite. Moreover, irradiation induced changes in the Critical Stress Intensity Factor, KIc, or fracture toughness, are reported and discussed. Very little work on the effect of neutron irradiation on the fracture toughness of graphite has previously be performed or reported.

  9. Fracture toughness and crack-resistance curve behavior in metallic glass-matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Launey, Maximilien E.; Hofmann, Douglas C.; Suh, Jin-Yo; Kozachkov, Henry; Johnson, William L.; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2009-05-26

    Nonlinear-elastic fracture mechanics methods are used to assess the fracture toughness of bulk metallic glass (BMG) composites; results are compared with similar measurements for other monolithic and composite BMG alloys. Mechanistically, plastic shielding gives rise to characteristic resistance?curve behavior where the fracture resistance increases with crack extension. Specifically, confinement of damage by second?phase dendrites is shown to result in enhancement of the toughness by nearly an order of magnitude relative to unreinforced glass.

  10. Application of fracture toughness scaling models to the ductile-to- brittle transition

    SciTech Connect

    Link, R.E.; Joyce, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    An experimental investigation of fracture toughness in the ductile-brittle transition range was conducted. A large number of ASTM A533, Grade B steel, bend and tension specimens with varying crack lengths were tested throughout the transition region. Cleavage fracture toughness scaling models were utilized to correct the data for the loss of constraint in short crack specimens and tension geometries. The toughness scaling models were effective in reducing the scatter in the data, but tended to over-correct the results for the short crack bend specimens. A proposed ASTM Test Practice for Fracture Toughness in the Transition Range, which employs a master curve concept, was applied to the results. The proposed master curve over predicted the fracture toughness in the mid-transition and a modified master curve was developed that more accurately modeled the transition behavior of the material. Finally, the modified master curve and the fracture toughness scaling models were combined to predict the as-measured fracture toughness of the short crack bend and the tension specimens. It was shown that when the scaling models over correct the data for loss of constraint, they can also lead to non-conservative estimates of the increase in toughness for low constraint geometries.

  11. Dynamic Fracture Initiation Toughness of ASTM A533, Grade B Steel Plate

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, S.M.; Link, R.E.

    1999-05-01

    The dynamic fracture toughness of an ASTM A533, Grade B steel plate was determined at several temperatures in the ductile-brittle transition region. Crack-tip loading rates ranged from approximately 10(sup3) to 10(sup5) MPa m/s. The fracture toughness was shown to decrease with increased loading rate. The dynamic fracture toughness was compared with results from previous investigations, and it was shown that the decrease in toughness due to increased loading rate at the highest test temperature was not as severe as reported in previous investigations. It was also shown that the reference temperature. T(sub0) was better index of the fracture toughness vs. temperature relationship than the nil-ductility temperature, RT(subNDT), for this material.

  12. Biaxial loading effects on fracture toughness of reactor pressure vessel steel

    SciTech Connect

    McAfee, W.J.; Bass, B.R.; Bryson, J.W. Jr.; Pennell, W.E.

    1995-03-01

    The preliminary phases of a program to develop and evaluate fracture methodologies for assessing crack-tip constraint effects on fracture toughness of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels have been completed by the Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program. Objectives were to investigate effect of biaxial loading on fracture toughness, quantify this effect through existing stress-based, dual-parameter, fracture-toughness correlations, or propose and verify alternate correlations. A cruciform beam specimen with 2-D, shallow, through-thickness flaw and a special loading fixture was designed and fabricated. Tests were performed using biaxial loading ratios of 0:1 (uniaxial), 0.6:1, and 1:1 (equi-biaxial). Critical fracture-toughness values were calculated for each test. Biaxial loading of 0.6:1 resulted in a reduction in the lower bound fracture toughness of {approximately}12% as compared to that from the uniaxial tests. The biaxial loading of 1:1 yielded two subsets of toughness values; one agreed well with the uniaxial data, while one was reduced by {approximately}43% when compared to the uniaxial data. Results were evaluated using J-Q theory and Dodds-Anderson (D-A) micromechanical scaling model. The D-A model predicted no biaxial effect, while the J-Q method gave inconclusive results. When applied to the 1:1 biaxial data, these constraint methodologies failed to predict the observed reduction in fracture toughness obtained in one experiment. A strain-based constraint methodology that considers the relationship between applied biaxial load, the plastic zone width in the crack plane, and fracture toughness was formulated and applied successfully to the data. Evaluation of this dual-parameter strain-based model led to the conclusion that it has the capability of representing fracture behavior of RPV steels in the transition region, including the effects of out-of-plane loading on fracture toughness. This report is designated as HSST Report No. 150.

  13. Bending and fracture toughness of woven self-reinforced composite poly(methyl methacrylate).

    PubMed

    Wright, D D; Lautenschlager, E P; Gilbert, J L

    1997-09-15

    Loosening remains an impediment to the long-term success of total hip replacements despite numerous improvements in the materials used. In cemented prostheses, fatigue and fracture of bone cement have been implicated in the failure of these devices. A new material, self-reinforced composite poly(methyl methacrylate). (SRC-PMMA), has been developed. SRC-PMMA is formed by a novel processing method that will be described. The composite consists of high strength, highly oriented PMMA fibers embedded in a matrix of PMMA. Using a woven form of SRC-PMMA, an in vitro physical and mechanical evaluation was performed to assess the feasibility of its use in an orthopedic prosthesis. Three different weaves of SRC-PMMA were evaluated in bending and fracture toughness in air, after immersion for 30 days in 37 degrees C saline, and after gamma irradiation followed by immersion. Bending modulus and strength were decreased by gamma irradiation followed by saline immersion. The effect of saline immersion alone on bending strength and modulus was negligible. Saline immersion and gamma irradiation followed by saline immersion was shown to have little or no effect on the fracture toughness of woven SRC-PMMA. Differences in the fracture processes of the different weaves were found and can be related to the differing orientation of fibers to the fracture toughness pre-crack. Optimally incorporated SRC-PMMA absorbs the same amount of water as bone cement. Comparison to previous and current work with bone cement controls shows that SRC-PMMA is a material equal to or better than bone cement in all tests performed. It deserves further consideration as a candidate biomaterial. PMID:9294760

  14. Strength-toughness requirements for thick-walled high pressure vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapp, Joseph A.

    1992-05-01

    The strength and toughness requirements of materials used in high pressure vessels has been the subject of some discussion in the meetings of the Materials Task Group of the Special Working Group - High Pressure Vessels. A fracture mechanics analysis has been performed to theoretically establish the required toughness for a high pressure vessel. The analysis is based on the validity requirement for plane-strain fracture of fracture toughness test specimens. This means that at fracture, the crack length, uncracked ligament, and vessel length must each be greater than fifty times the crack tip plastic zone since for brittle fracture to occur. For high pressure piping applications, the limiting physical dimension is the uncracked ligament, since it can be assumed that the other dimensions are always greater than fifty times the crack tip plastic zone. To perform the fracture mechanics analysis, several parameters must be known, including vessel dimensions, material strength, degree of autofrettage, and design pressure. Remarkably, the results of the analysis show that the effects of radius ratio, pressure, and degree of autofrettage can be ignored when establishing strength and toughness requirements for design code purposes. The only parameters that enter into the calculation are yield strength, toughness and vessel thickness. The final results can easily be represented as a graph of yield strength against toughness on which several curves, one for each vessel thickness, are plotted.

  15. Improving fracture toughness of dental nanocomposites by interface engineering and micromechanics

    PubMed Central

    Chan, K.S.; Lee, Y-D; Nicolella, D. P.; Furman, B. R.; Wellinghoff, S.; Rawls, H.R.

    2007-01-01

    The fracture toughness of dental nanocomposites fabricated by various methods of mixing, silanization, and loadings of nanoparticles had been characterized using fatigue-precracked compact-tension specimens. The fracture mechanisms near the crack tip were characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The near-tip fracture processes in the nanocomposties were identified to involve several sequences of fracture events, including: (1) particle bridging, (2) debonding at the poles of particle/matrix interface, and (3) crack deflection around the particles. Analytical and finite-element methods were utilized to model the observed sequences of fracture events to identify the source of fracture toughness in the dental nanocomposites. Theoretical results indicated that silanization and nanoparticle loadings improved the fracture toughness of dental nanocomposites by a factor of 2 to 3 through a combination of enhanced interface toughness by silanization, crack deflection, as well as crack bridging. A further increase in the fracture toughness of the nanocomposites can be achieved by increasing the fracture toughness of the matrix, nano-filled particles, or the interface. PMID:18670579

  16. Biaxial loading and shallow-flaw effects on crack-tip constraint and fracture-toughness

    SciTech Connect

    Pennell, W.E.; Bass, B.R.; Bryson, J.W.; McAfee, W.J.; Theiss, T.J.; Rao, M.C.

    1993-12-01

    Uniaxial tests of single-edged notched bend (SENB) specimens with both deep- and shallow-flaws have shown elevated fracture-toughness for the shallow flaws. The elevation in fracture-toughness for shallow flaws has been shown to be the result of reduced constraint at the crack-tip. Biaxial loading has the potential to increase constraint at the crack-tip and thereby reduce some of the shallow-flaw, fracture-toughness elevation. Biaxial fracture-toughness tests have shown that the shallow-flaw, fracture-toughness elevation is reduced but not eliminated by biaxial loading. Dual-parameter, fracture-toughness correlations have been proposed to reflect the effect of crack-tip constraint on fracture-toughness. Test results from the uniaxial and biaxial tests were analyzed using the dual-parameter technology. Discrepancies between analysis results and cleavage initiation site data from fractographic examinations indicate that the analysis models are in need of further refinement. Addition of a precleavage, ductile-tearing element to the analysis model has the potential to resolve the noted discrepancies.

  17. Estimation of fracture toughness of cast stainless steels during thermal aging in LWR systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chopra, O.K. )

    1991-06-01

    A procedure and correlations are presented for predicting the change in fracture toughness of cast stainless steel components due to thermal aging during service in light water rectors (LWRs) at 280--330{degrees}C (535--625{degrees}F). The fracture toughness J-R curve and Charpy-impact energy of aged cast stainless steels are estimated from known mineral in formation. Fracture toughness of a specific cast stainless steel is estimated from the extent and kinetics of thermal embrittlement. The extent of thermal embrittlement is characterized by the room-temperature normalized'' Charpy-impact energy. A correlation for the extent of embrittlement at saturation,'' i.e., the minimum impact energy that would be achieved for the material after long-term aging, is given in terms of a material parameter, {Phi}, which is determined from the chemical composition. The fracture toughness J-R curve for the material is then obtained from correlations between room-temperature Charpy-impact energy and fracture toughness parameters. Fracture toughness as a function of time and temperature of reactor service is estimated from the kinetics of thermal embrittlement, which is determined from chemical composition. A common lower-bound'' J-R curve for cast stainless steels with unknown chemical composition is also defined for a given material specification, ferrite content, and temperature. Examples for estimating impact strength and fracture toughness of cast stainless steel components during reactor service are describes. 24 refs., 39 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Shape and size of methane bubbles in muddy aquatic sediments and their dependence on sediment fracture toughness: a modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsman, Regina

    2014-05-01

    Shallow gassy marine sediments abundantly found on continental margins of Israel and worldwide, are a source of a major concern for their contribution to the destabilization of coastal and marine infrastructure, air pollution, and global warming. Bubbles are different in the different sediment types. Size of the bubbles residing in the fine-grained muddy sediment exceeds significantly the grain size of sediment, and its shape can be approximated by a large oblate spheroid surrounded by sediment saturated with water. Experimental results indicate that bubble growth is accompanied by fracturing of the fine-grained muddy sediment. Modeling reveals that fracture toughness of the muddy sediments significantly affects bubble shape and size evolution prior its ascent. Small fracture toughness is responsible for generation of the small bubbles with highly asymmetric configuration and with fracturing concentrated mostly on the bubble head. In contrast, bigger fracture toughness is responsible for generation of the large, more symmetric bubbles. Moreover, growing bubble demonstrates a positive allometry resulting in a bigger rate of growth of its surface area that is responsible for the effectiveness of the solute supply from pore water to the bubble interior. This scaling demonstrates a strong correlation with sediment fracture toughness as well. Cross-section of the buoyant bubbles evolves from the elliptic profile to the one resembling an 'inverted tear drop'. Calculated bubbles characteristics in different sediments types demonstrate a good agreement with values reported in the literature.

  19. Dynamic Fracture Initiation Toughness at Elevated Temperatures With Application to the New Generation of Titanium Aluminide Alloys. Chapter 8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shazly, Mostafa; Prakash, Vikas; Draper, Susan; Shukla, Arun (Editor)

    2006-01-01

    Recently, a new generation of titanium aluminide alloy, named Gamma-Met PX, has been developed with better rolling and post-rolling characteristics. I'revious work on this alloy has shown the material to have higher strengths at room and elevated temperatures when compared with other gamma titanium aluminides. In particular, this new alloy has shown increased ductility at elevated temperatures under both quasi-static and high strain rate uniaxial compressive loading. However, its high strain rate tensile ductility at room and elevated temperatures is limited to approx. 1%. In the present chapter, results of a study to investigate the effects of loading rate and test temperature on the dynamic fracture initiation toughness in Gamma-Met PX are presented. Modified split Hopkinson pressure bar was used along with high-speed photography to determine the crack initiation time. Three-point bend dynamic fracture experiments were conducted at impact speeds of approx. 1 m/s and tests temperatures of up-to 1200 C. The results show that thc dynamic fracture initiation toughness decreases with increasing test temperatures beyond 600 C. Furthermore, thc effect of long time high temperature air exposure on the fracture toughness was investigated. The dynamic fracture initiation toughness was found to decrease with increasing exposure time. The reasons behind this drop are analyzed and discussed.

  20. Physical and mechanical modelling of neutron irradiation effect on ductile fracture. Part 1. Prediction of fracture strain and fracture toughness of austenitic steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margolin, Boris; Sorokin, Alexander; Smirnov, Valeriy; Potapova, Vera

    2014-09-01

    A physical-and-mechanical model of ductile fracture has been developed to predict fracture toughness and fracture strain of irradiated austenitic steels taking into account stress-state triaxiality and radiation swelling. The model is based on criterion of plastic collapse of a material unit cell controlled by strain hardening of a material and criterion of voids coalescence due to channel shearing of voids. The model takes into account deformation voids nucleation and growth of deformation and vacancy voids. For justification of the model experimental data on fracture strain and fracture toughness of austenitic steel 18Cr-10Ni-Ti grade irradiated up to maximal dose 150 dpa with various swelling were used. Experimental data on fracture strain and fracture toughness were compared with the results predicted by the model. It has been shown that for prediction of the swelling effect on fracture toughness the dependence of process zone size on swelling should be taken into account.

  1. Influence of pre-strain on fracture toughness and stable crack growth in low carbon steels

    SciTech Connect

    Miyata, Takashi; Tagawa, Tetsuya; Aihara, Syuji

    1997-12-31

    Experimental investigations demonstrate a significant effect of pre-strain on fracture toughness and stable crack growth resistance of a low carbon structural steel. Fracture toughness, Ji for the onset of stable ductile crack growth is decreased to one half with a 9% pre-strain due to cold rolling. The characteristic distance model for ductile crack initiation was applied to analyze parameters affecting the degradation of fracture resistance. The model predicts that value of Ji is given as a linear function of yield strength and ductility of the material. In order to confirm the theoretical prediction, notched round bar tensile tests were performed and ductility under a high triaxial stress state was measured. Critical plastic strain for micro-void coalescence is significantly decreased with increasing pre-strain. Degradation in Ji due to pre-strain can be well explained by the characteristic distance model. To clarify micro-mechanisms of degradation in ductility due to pre-strain, fracture process in notched round bar specimens was investigated emphasizing the role of micro-void nucleation and growth. Experimental observation indicates that the significant decrease of the critical strain due to pre-strain is attributed to the increase of void nucleation sites under a high triaxial stress state.

  2. Optimizing strength and fracture toughness of a cast titanium alloy through heat treatment and microstructure control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Amy C.

    The relationship between the microstructure and tensile ductility and fracture toughness for cast Ti-5111 was determined and compared to that of hot-rolled and annealed Ti-5111. Graphite mold cast Ti-5111 plate material was examined in the as-received condition and after six different heat treatments involving elevated temperature anneals followed by an air or furnace cool. Three investment cast Ti-5111 plates were also examined after annealing followed by either a fan cool, air cool, or furnace cool. All castings developed a lamellar colony microstructure consisting of aligned lamellae of alpha and beta phases. Altering the cooling rate from the annealing temperature had the most influence on the microstructure such that plates with a slower cooling rate typically developed coarser grain boundary alpha, larger alpha colonies, thicker alpha laths, and greater volume fractions of alpha phase. The average prior beta grain size for the graphite mold cast specimens ranged from 920 mum to 1360 mum, while that for the investment cast specimens was approximately 1750 mum. The tensile behavior of the castings was characterized by a crack initiation and propagation process where the ductility was often limited by the strain required to initiate a large crack. The cracks formed along planar slip bands that crossed alpha colonies or in some cases, entire prior beta grains. Thus, reducing the alpha colony size and prior beta grain size should improve the casting ductility by limiting the length of slip-induced cracks. Due to the large grain and colony sizes present in the castings, the strength and ductility was observed to be sensitive to specimen size such that a smaller tensile diameter (i.e. 3.2 mm as compared to 12.5 mm) decreased the tensile and yield strengths due to the high fraction of large grains located on the specimen surface that can yield by predominantly single slip. The scatter in ductility values in the smaller specimens was significantly greater as a result

  3. Acoustic Emission Methodology to Evaluate the Fracture Toughness in Heat Treated AISI D2 Tool Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostafavi, Sajad; Fotouhi, Mohamad; Motasemi, Abed; Ahmadi, Mehdi; Sindi, Cevat Teymuri

    2012-10-01

    In this article, fracture toughness behavior of tool steel was investigated using Acoustic Emission (AE) monitoring. Fracture toughness ( K IC) values of a specific tool steel was determined by applying various approaches based on conventional AE parameters, such as Acoustic Emission Cumulative Count (AECC), Acoustic Emission Energy Rate (AEER), and the combination of mechanical characteristics and AE information called sentry function. The critical fracture toughness values during crack propagation were achieved by means of relationship between the integral of the sentry function and cumulative fracture toughness (KICUM). Specimens were selected from AISI D2 cold-work tool steel and were heat treated at four different tempering conditions (300, 450, 525, and 575 °C). The results achieved through AE approaches were then compared with a methodology proposed by compact specimen testing according to ASTM standard E399. It was concluded that AE information was an efficient method to investigate fracture characteristics.

  4. Effects of Heating Rate on Microstructure and Fracture Toughness of Railway Wheel Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Xuechong; Qi, Ji; Gao, Jianyu; Wen, Lei; Jiang, Bo; Chen, Gang; Zhao, Hai

    2016-02-01

    The microstructure and fracture toughness K IC (or K Q) of railway wheel steel with 0.53 wt pct C were studied under various heating rates. The effects of the heating rate on the grain size and the relation between the grain size and the fracture toughness were discussed. The results show that rapid heating not only refines the grains but can also result in more homogeneous grains. The cleavage fracture toughness strongly relates to the grains with larger size. It can be observed that under different heating rates, the fracture toughness K Q increases with decreasing average diameter of the top 5 pct grains D 5. K Q (MPa m1/2) = 194.3-29.8 ln( D 5) when D 5 is in the range of 30 to 73 μm. This result can be interpreted by the cleavage fracture critical event, which is grain-sized crack propagation controlled.

  5. The fracture toughness of borides formed on boronized cold work tool steels

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, Ugur; Sen, Saduman

    2003-06-15

    In this study, the fracture toughness of boride layers of two borided cold work tool steels have been investigated. Boriding was carried out in a salt bath consisting of borax, boric acid, ferro-silicon and aluminum. Boriding was performed at 850 and 950 deg. C for 2 to 7 h. The presence of boride phases were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Hardness and fracture toughness of borides were measured via Vickers indenter. Increasing of boriding time and temperature leads to reduction of fracture toughness of borides. Metallographic examination showed that boride layer formed on cold work tool steels was compact and smooth.

  6. Fracture toughness testing of core from the Cambro-Ordovician Section on the Oak Ridge Reservation

    SciTech Connect

    Lemiszki, P.J.; Landes, J.D.

    1996-10-01

    The modified ring test was used to determine the mode I fracture toughness of bedrock cores from the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation in east Tennessee. Low porosity sandstones, limestones, and dolostones from the lower part of the Paleozoic section in Copper Creek and Whiteoak Mountain thrust sheets were sampled. In general, the average mode I fracture toughness decreases from sandstone, dolostone, and limestone. The fracture toughness of the limestones varies between rock units, which is related to different sedimentologic characteristics. Quality of results was evaluated by testing cores of Berea Sandstone and Indiana Limestone, which produced results similar to published results.

  7. Effect of microstructure and notch root radius on fracture toughness of an aluminum metal matrix composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manoharan, M.; Lewandowski, J. J.

    1989-01-01

    Recent results on the effects of matrix aging condition (matrix temper) and notch root radius on the measured fracture toughness of a SiC particulate reinforced aluminum alloy are reviewed. Stress intensity factors at catastrophic fracture were obtained for both underaged and overaged composites reveal. The linear relation found between apparent fracture toughness and the square root of the notch root radius implies a linear dependence of the crack opening displacement on the notch root radius. The results suggest a strain controlled fracture process, and indicate that there are differences in the fracture micromechanisms of the two aging conditions.

  8. Master Curve and Conventional Fracture Toughness of Modified 9Cr-1Mo Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Ji-Hyun, Yoon; Sung-Ho, Kim; Bong-Sang, Lee; Woo-Seog, Ryu; Jonghwa, Chang

    2006-07-01

    Modified 9Cr-1Mo steel is a primary candidate material for reactor pressure vessel of Very High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (VHTR) in Korean Nuclear Hydrogen Development and Demonstration (NHDD) program. In this study, T0 reference temperature, J-R fracture resistance and Charpy impact properties were evaluated for commercial Grade 91 steel as preliminary tests for the selection of the RPV material for VHTR. The fracture toughness of the modified 9Cr-1Mo steel was compared with those of SA508-Gr.3. The objective of this study was to obtain pre-irradiation fracture toughness properties of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel as reference data for the radiation effects investigation. The results are as follows. Charpy impact properties of the modified 9Cr-1Mo steel were similar to those of SA508-Gr.3. T0 reference temperatures were measured as -67.7 deg C and -72.4 deg C from the tests with standard PCVN (pre-cracked Charpy V-notch) and half sized PCVN specimens respectively, which were similar to results for SA508-Gr.3. The K{sub Jc} values of modified 9Cr-1Mo with test temperatures are successfully expressed with the Master Curve. The J-R fracture resistance of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel at room temperature was almost the same as that of SA508-Gr.3. On the other hand it was a little bit higher at an elevated temperature. (authors)

  9. Influence of crack depth on the fracture toughness of reactor pressure vessel steel

    SciTech Connect

    Theiss, T.J.; Bryson, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    The Heavy Section Steel Technology Program (HSST) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is investigating the influence of flaw depth on the fracture toughness of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steel. Recently, it has been shown that, in notched beam testing, shallow cracks tend to exhibit an elevated toughness as a result of a loss of constraint at the crack tip. The loss of constraint takes place when interaction occurs between the elastic-plastic crack-tip stress field and the specimen surface nearest the crack tip. An increased shallow-crack fracture toughness is of interest to the nuclear industry because probabilistic fracture-mechanics evaluations show that shallow flaws play a dominant role in the probability of vessel failure during postulated pressurized-thermal-shock (PTS) events. Tests have been performed on beam specimens loaded in 3-point bending using unirradiated reactor pressure vessel material (A533 B). Testing has been conducted using specimens with a constant beam depth (W = 94 mm) and within the lower transition region of the toughness curve for A533 B. Test results indicate a significantly higher fracture toughness associated with the shallow flaw specimens compared to the fracture toughness determined using deep-crack (a/W = 0.5) specimens. Test data also show little influence of thickness on the fracture toughness for the current test temperature ({minus}60{degree}C). 21 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Simplified data reduction methods for the ECT test for mode 3 interlaminar fracture toughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jian; Obrien, T. Kevin

    1995-01-01

    Simplified expressions for the parameter controlling the load point compliance and strain energy release rate were obtained for the Edge Crack Torsion (ECT) specimen for mode 3 interlaminar fracture toughness. Data reduction methods for mode 3 toughness based on the present analysis are proposed. The effect of the transverse shear modulus, G(sub 23), on mode 3 interlaminar fracture toughness characterization was evaluated. Parameters influenced by the transverse shear modulus were identified. Analytical results indicate that a higher value of G(sub 23) results in a low load point compliance and lower mode 3 toughness estimation. The effect of G(sub 23) on the mode 3 toughness using the ECT specimen is negligible when an appropriate initial delamination length is chosen. A conservative estimation of mode 3 toughness can be obtained by assuming G(sub 23) = G(sub 12) for any initial delamination length.

  11. Fracture Toughness Determination of Cracked Chevron Notched Brazilian Disc Rock Specimen via Griffith Energy Criterion Incorporating Realistic Fracture Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yuan; Dai, Feng; Zhao, Tao; Xu, Nu-wen; Liu, Yi

    2016-08-01

    The cracked chevron notched Brazilian disc (CCNBD) specimen has been suggested by the International Society for Rock Mechanics to measure the mode I fracture toughness of rocks, and has been widely adopted in laboratory tests. Nevertheless, a certain discrepancy has been observed in results when compared with those derived from methods using straight through cracked specimens, which might be due to the fact that the fracture profiles of rock specimens cannot match the straight through crack front as assumed in the measuring principle. In this study, the progressive fracturing of the CCNBD specimen is numerically investigated using the discrete element method (DEM), aiming to evaluate the impact of the realistic cracking profiles on the mode I fracture toughness measurements. The obtained results validate the curved fracture fronts throughout the fracture process, as reported in the literature. The fracture toughness is subsequently determined via the proposed G-method originated from Griffith's energy theory, in which the evolution of the realistic fracture profile as well as the accumulated fracture energy is quantified by DEM simulation. A comparison between the numerical tests and the experimental results derived from both the CCNBD and the semi-circular bend (SCB) specimens verifies that the G-method incorporating realistic fracture profiles can contribute to narrowing down the gap between the fracture toughness values measured via the CCNBD and the SCB method.

  12. Indentation fracture toughness of sintered silicon carbide in the Palmqvist crack regime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Zhuang; Ghosh, Asish; Kobayashi, Albert S.; Bradt, Richard C.

    1989-01-01

    The fracture toughness of a sintered dense alpha-SiC was estimated by the Vickers indentation microfracture method in the low-load Palmqvist crack regime. It was observed that the use of simultaneously obtained Vickers hardnesses does not yield reliable fracture toughness values, nor does application of the median-crack-derived equations. It is necessary to utilize a load-independent, crack-free hardness value with this toughness estimation method. Although several of the curve-fitting equations yield similar toughnesses, it is concluded for the Palmqvist crack system in this alpha-SiC that the Niihara-Morena-Hasselman (1982) equation is the only one which yields fracture toughness values in agreement with conventional measurement techniques.

  13. Effect of water and ice on strength and fracture toughness of intermittently bonded boron-epoxy composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkins, A. G.; Mai, Y. W.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of water and ice on the strength and fracture toughness of boron-epoxy composites with polyurethane intermittent bonding have been investigated. Neither simple soaking in water nor soaking followed by freezing and thawing have marked effects on the strength of the fully-coated composites, but they have disastrous effects on the uncoated composites. Toughness is affected only marginally, with some small reductions in the fully-coated samples, and with essentially no effect on the uncoated composites. An analysis is presented which explains adequately the experimental strength and toughness results obtained, and which is based on an argument that water absorption reduces the interfacial shear strength only of the uncoated areas and not those regions coated by the polyurethane varnish. The results indicate that the advantages of appropriate intermittent bonding (i.e., high strength combined with high toughness) are retained in wet conditions so that such composites may be favorably used in such adverse environmental conditions.

  14. Cryogenic Fracture Toughness Evaluation of an Investment Cast Aluminum-Beryllium Alloy for Structural Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamwell, Wayne; McGill, Preston

    2006-01-01

    This document is a viewgraph presentation that details the fracture toughness of Aluminum-Beryllium Alloy for use in structures at cryogenic temperatures. Graphs and charts are presented in the presentation

  15. Modeling fracture toughness of functionally graded steels in crack divider configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghazadeh Mohandesi, J.; Nazari, A.; Vishkasogheh, Mehdi Hamid; Abedi, Mohammad

    2010-10-01

    Fracture toughness of functionally graded steels in crack divider configuration has been modeled. By utilizing plain carbon and austenitic stainless steel slices with various thicknesses and arrangements as electroslag remelting electrodes, functionally graded steels were produced. The fracture toughness of the functionally graded steels was found to depend on the type, volume fraction and position of the phases present. According to the area under the stress-strain curve of each layer in the functionally graded composites, a mathematical model has been presented for fracture toughness prediction using the rule of mixtures. In addition, the fracture toughness of the composites has been simulated by the 3D dynamic finite element method. There is good agreement between experimental results and those acquired from the numerical and mathematical models.

  16. Effect of Elevated Temperature and Loading Rate on Delamination Fracture Toughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeder, J. R.; Allen, D. H.; Bradley, W. L.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of temperature and loading rate on delamination growth were studied. The delamination fracture toughness of IM7/K3B was measured at 149 C, 177 C, and 204 C. At each temperature the tests were performed with a variety of loading rates so that the delamination initiated over the range of time from 0.5 sec to 24 hrs. The double cantilever beam (DCB) test was used to measure fracture toughness. The results showed that the delamination resistance is a complicated function of both time and temperature with the effect of temperature either increasing or decreasing the fracture toughness depending on the time scale. The results also showed that the fracture toughness changed by as much as a factor of three as the time scale changed over the five orders of magnitude tested.

  17. Fracture toughness of brittle materials determined with chevron notch specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shannon, J. L., Jr.; Bursey, R. T.; Munz, D.; Pierce, W. S.

    1980-01-01

    The use of chevron-notch specimens for determining the plane strain fracture toughness (K sub Ic) of brittle materials is discussed. Three chevron-notch specimens were investigated: short bar, short rod, and four-point-bend. The dimensionless stress intensity coefficient used in computing K sub Ic is derived for the short bar specimen from the superposition of ligament-dependent and ligament-independent solutions for the straight through crack, and also from experimental compliance calibrations. Coefficients for the four-point-bend specimen were developed by the same superposition procedure, and with additional refinement using the slice model of Bluhm. Short rod specimen stress intensity coefficients were determined only by experimental compliance calibration. Performance of the three chevron-notch specimens and their stress intensity factor relations were evaluated by tests on hot-pressed silicon nitride and sintered aluminum oxide. Results obtained with the short bar and the four-point-bend specimens on silicon nitride are in good agreement and relatively free of specimen geometry and size effects within the range investigated. Results on aluminum oxide were affected by specimen size and chevron-notch geometry, believed due to a rising crack growth resistance curve for the material. Only the results for the short bar specimen are presented in detail.

  18. Microstructural effects on fracture toughness of polycrystalline ceramics in combined mode I and mode II loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, D.; Shetty, D. K.

    1988-01-01

    Fracture toughness of polycrystalline alumina and ceria partially-stabilized tetragonal zirconia (CeO2-TZP) ceramics were assessed in combined mode I and mode II loading using precracked disk specimens in diametral compression. Stress states ranging from pure mode I, combined mode I and mode II, and pure mode II were obtained by aligning the center crack at specific angles relative to the loading diameter. The resulting mixed-mode fracture toughness envelope showed significant deviation to higher fracture toughness in mode II relative to the predictions of the linear elastic fracture mechanics theory. Critical comparison with corresponding results on soda-lime glass and fracture surface observations showed that crack surface resistance arising from grain interlocking and abrasion was the main source of the increased fracture toughness in mode II loading of the polycrystalline ceramics. The normalized fracture toughness for pure mode II loading, (KII/KIc), increased with increasing grain size for the CeO2-TZP ceramics. Quantitative fractography confirmed an increased percentage of transgranular fracture of the grains in mode II loading.

  19. The effects of specimen geometry and size on the fracture toughness of nuclear graphites

    SciTech Connect

    Romanoski, G.R.; Burchell, T.D.

    1991-01-01

    In a joint Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)/Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) study, various fracture toughness techniques were applied to Toyo Tanso grade IG-110 graphite to establish if specimen geometry influences on fracture toughness. The test geometries investigated were: compact tension (CT), disc compact tension (DCT), short rod (SR), chevron-notched short-red (CNSR), cylindrical bend specimen (BS), and centrally slotted disc (CSD). Specimen geometries which allow slow crack propagation, such as the CNSR and CT, yielded higher fracture toughness values than those where fracture is very rapid, e.g., the CSD. In a further ORNL study, the CNSR specimen geometry was selected to investigate the effect of specimen size on fracture toughness. Three specimen sizes and three grades of graphite were examined: Great Lakes Carbon grade H-451, Stackpole grade 2020, and Toyo Tanso grade IG-110. Grade H-451 was the toughest graphite, while Stackpole 2020 was the least tough. Fracture toughness increased with increasing specimen size for all graphites tested. This result was attributed to rising R-curve behavior. 13 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Fracture toughness of plasma-sprayed thermal barrier ceramics: Influence of processing, microstructure, and thermal aging

    SciTech Connect

    Dwivedi, Gopal; Viswanathan, Vaishak; Sampath, Sanjay; Shyam, Amit; Lara-Curzio, Edgar

    2014-06-09

    Fracture toughness has become one of the dominant design parameters that dictates the selection of materials and their microstructure to obtain durable thermal barrier coatings (TBCs). Much progress has been made in characterizing the fracture toughness of relevant TBC compositions in bulk form, and it has become apparent that this property is significantly affected by process-induced microstructural defects. In this investigation, a systematic study of the influence of coating microstructure on the fracture toughness of atmospheric plasma sprayed (APS) TBCs has been carried out. Yttria partially stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings were fabricated under different spray process conditions inducing different levels of porosity and interfacial defects. Fracture toughness was measured on free standing coatings in as-processed and thermally aged conditions using the double torsion technique. Results indicate significant variance in fracture toughness among coatings with different microstructures including changes induced by thermal aging. Comparative studies were also conducted on an alternative TBC composition, Gd2Zr2O7 (GDZ), which as anticipated shows significantly lower fracture toughness compared to YSZ. Furthermore, the results from these studies not only point towards a need for process and microstructure optimization for enhanced TBC performance but also a framework for establishing performance metrics for promising new TBC compositions.

  1. Fracture toughness of plasma-sprayed thermal barrier ceramics: Influence of processing, microstructure, and thermal aging

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dwivedi, Gopal; Viswanathan, Vaishak; Sampath, Sanjay; Shyam, Amit; Lara-Curzio, Edgar

    2014-06-09

    Fracture toughness has become one of the dominant design parameters that dictates the selection of materials and their microstructure to obtain durable thermal barrier coatings (TBCs). Much progress has been made in characterizing the fracture toughness of relevant TBC compositions in bulk form, and it has become apparent that this property is significantly affected by process-induced microstructural defects. In this investigation, a systematic study of the influence of coating microstructure on the fracture toughness of atmospheric plasma sprayed (APS) TBCs has been carried out. Yttria partially stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings were fabricated under different spray process conditions inducing different levelsmore » of porosity and interfacial defects. Fracture toughness was measured on free standing coatings in as-processed and thermally aged conditions using the double torsion technique. Results indicate significant variance in fracture toughness among coatings with different microstructures including changes induced by thermal aging. Comparative studies were also conducted on an alternative TBC composition, Gd2Zr2O7 (GDZ), which as anticipated shows significantly lower fracture toughness compared to YSZ. Furthermore, the results from these studies not only point towards a need for process and microstructure optimization for enhanced TBC performance but also a framework for establishing performance metrics for promising new TBC compositions.« less

  2. Biaxial loading and shallow-flaw effects on crack-tip constraint and fracture-toughness

    SciTech Connect

    Pennell, W.E.; Bass, B.R.; Bryson, J.W.; McAfee, W.J.; Theiss, T.J.; Rao, M.C.

    1994-04-01

    Uniaxial tests of single-edged notched bend (SENB) specimens with both deep- and shallow-flaws have shown elevated fracturetoughness for the shallow flaws. The elevation in fracture-toughness for shallow flaws has been shown to be the result of reduced constraint at the crack-tip. Biaxial loading has the potential to increase constraint at the crack-tip and thereby reduce some of the shallow-flaw, fracture-toughness elevation. Biaxial fracture-toughness tests have shown that the shallow-flaw, fracture-toughness elevation is reduced but not eliminated by biaxial loading. Dual-parameter, fracture-toughness correlations have been proposed to reflect the effect of crack-tip constraint on fracture-toughness. Test results from the uniaxial and biaxial tests were analyzed using the dual-parameter technology. Discrepancies between analysis results and cleavage initiation site data from fractographic examinations indicate that the analysis models are in need of further refinement. Addition of a precleavage, ductile-tearing element to the analysis model has the potential to resolve the noted discrepancies.

  3. TRITIUM AGING EFFECTS ON THE FRACTURE TOUGHNESS PROPERTIES OF STAINLESS STEEL BASE METAL AND WELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, M.

    2009-07-30

    Tritium reservoirs are constructed from welded stainless steel forgings. While these steels are highly resistant to the embrittling effects of hydrogen isotopes and helium from tritium decay; they are not immune. Tritium embrittlement is an enhanced form of hydrogen embrittlement because of the presence of helium-3 from tritium decay which nucleates as nanometer-sized bubbles on dislocations, grain boundaries, and other microstructural defects. Steels with decay helium bubble microstructures are hardened and less able to deform plastically and become more susceptible to embrittlement by hydrogen and its isotopes. Ductility, elongation-to-failure, and fracture toughness are reduced by exposures to tritium and the reductions increase with time as helium-3 builds into the material from tritium permeation and radioactive decay. Material and forging specifications have been developed for optimal material compatibility with tritium. These specifications cover composition, mechanical properties, and select microstructural characteristics like grain size, flow-line orientation, inclusion content, and ferrite distribution. For many years, the forming process of choice for reservoir manufacturing was high-energy-rate forging (HERF), principally because the DOE forging facility owned only HERF hammers. Today, some reservoir forgings are being made that use a conventional, more common process known as press forging (PF or CF). One of the chief differences between the two forging processes is strain rate: Conventional hydraulic or mechanical forging presses deform the metal at 4-8 ft/s, about ten-fold slower than the HERF process. The material specifications continue to provide successful stockpile performance by ensuring that the two forging processes produce similar reservoir microstructures. While long-term life storage tests have demonstrated the general tritium compatibility of tritium reservoirs, fracture-toughness properties of both conventionally forged and high

  4. Fracture toughness of austenitic stainless steel weld metal at 4 K

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwin, G.M.

    1984-08-01

    Selection of the welding processess and weld filler metals for fabrication of a large toroidal superconducting magnet is described. Data available in the literature are collected and compared with data generated in this study for three welding processes, shielded metal arc (SMA), gas tungsten arc (GTA), and flux cored arc (FCA) welds had the highest fracture toughness as measured by K/sub Ic/ estimated from J/sub Ic/. The SMA and FCA welds had about the same toughness, below the GTA values but above the average from the literature. The fracture mode for all three processes was typified by ductile dimples. The fracture morphology of the FCA weld specimens was influenced by the solidification substructure, and small particles were found to be nucleation sites for void formation, especially for the GTA welds. All three welding processes were deemed adequate for the intended service and were used to fabricate the large magnet. A trunnion-type turning fixture eliminated the need for welding in the vertical and overhead positions. The GTA process was used for all root passes, and the horizontal welds were filled by the SMA process. Over 80% of the welds were done in the flat position with the FCA process, and its high deposition rate and ease of operation are credited with contributing greatly to the success of the effort.

  5. Factors influencing the Mode I interlaminar fracture toughness of a rubber toughened thermoplastic matrix composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, D. S.; Yee, A. F.

    1989-01-01

    The use of a rubber modified thermoplastic resin has been investigated as a method to improve the Mode I interlaminar fracture toughness of a unidirectional continuous carbon fiber composite. Test results show that the improvement in the fracture toughness is less than expected due to rubber particle agglomeration, solvent and molding induced crystallization of the matrix and poor fiber/matrix adhesion. The plastic zone in composites utilizing tough matrices can extend well beyond a single interfibrillar spacing. However, the development of the plastic zone is limited due to the failure of the fiber/matrix interface. In order to fully evaluate the potential of tough composites using toughened matrices, any improvement made in the matrix toughness must be coupled with improvements in the fiber/matrix adhesion.

  6. Ab initio-based fracture toughness estimates and transgranular traction-separation modelling of zirconium hydrides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsson, P. A. T.; Kese, K.; Kroon, M.; Alvarez Holston, A.-M.

    2015-06-01

    In this work we report the results of an ab initio study of the transgranular fracture toughness and cleavage of brittle zirconium hydrides. We use the Griffith-Irwin relation to assess the fracture toughness using calculated surface energy and estimated isotropic Voigt-Reuss-Hill averages of the elastic constants. The calculated fracture toughness values are found to concur well with experimental data, which implies that fracture is dominated by cleavage failure. To investigate the cleavage energetics, we model the decohesion process. To describe the interplanar interaction we adopt Rose’s universal binding energy relation, which is found to reproduce the behaviour accurately. The modelling shows that the work of fracture and ductility decreases with increasing hydrogen content.

  7. FRACTURE TOUGHNESS OF 9Cr-1MoV AND THERMALLY AGED ALLOY 617 FOR ADVANCED REACTOR APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Nanstad, Randy K; Sokolov, Mikhail A; Chen, Xiang

    2012-01-01

    Nickel-base Alloy 617 is being considered as a structural material for application in the secondary heat exchanger of the New Generation Nuclear Plant, a very high temperature gas-cooled reactor. Thermal aging of Alloy 617 plate and welds is being performed with tensile, Charpy impact, and fracture toughness tests conducted at temperatures to 950 C. Results of testing for thermal aging to 5,300 h have been obtained and are presented; varying effects of thermal aging temperature and time on fracture toughness are observed. The 9Cr-1MoV (Grade 91) ferritic steel is a candidate for structural applications in the sodium fast reactor. Fracture toughness testing of unaged Grade 91 steel has been performed to evaluate specimen size effects in preparation for future testing of the material in the thermally aged condition. Results for material in the mill-annealed and heat treated conditions are presented and show that this heat of Grade 91 steel does not indicate a small specimen bias on the fracture toughness Master Curve reference temperature.

  8. Improving the fracture toughness and the strength of epoxy using nanomaterials - a review of the current status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domun, N.; Hadavinia, H.; Zhang, T.; Sainsbury, T.; Liaghat, G. H.; Vahid, S.

    2015-06-01

    The incorporation of nanomaterials in the polymer matrix is considered to be a highly effective technique to improve the mechanical properties of resins. In this paper the effects of the addition of different nanoparticles such as single-walled CNT (SWCNT), double-walled CNT (DWCNT), multi-walled CNT (MWCNT), graphene, nanoclay and nanosilica on fracture toughness, strength and stiffness of the epoxy matrix have been reviewed. The Young's modulus (E), ultimate tensile strength (UTS), mode I (GIC) and mode II (GIIC) fracture toughness of the various nanocomposites at different nanoparticle loadings are compared. The review shows that, depending on the type of nanoparticles, the integration of the nanoparticles has a substantial effect on mode I and mode II fracture toughness, strength and stiffness. The critical factors such as maintaining a homogeneous dispersion and good adhesion between the matrix and the nanoparticles are highlighted. The effect of surface functionalization, its relevancy and toughening mechanism are also scrutinized and discussed. A large variety of data comprised of the mechanical properties of nanomaterial toughened composites reported to date has thus been compiled to facilitate the evolution of this emerging field, and the results are presented in maps showing the effect of nanoparticle loading on mode I fracture toughness, stiffness and strength.

  9. Improving the fracture toughness and the strength of epoxy using nanomaterials--a review of the current status.

    PubMed

    Domun, N; Hadavinia, H; Zhang, T; Sainsbury, T; Liaghat, G H; Vahid, S

    2015-06-21

    The incorporation of nanomaterials in the polymer matrix is considered to be a highly effective technique to improve the mechanical properties of resins. In this paper the effects of the addition of different nanoparticles such as single-walled CNT (SWCNT), double-walled CNT (DWCNT), multi-walled CNT (MWCNT), graphene, nanoclay and nanosilica on fracture toughness, strength and stiffness of the epoxy matrix have been reviewed. The Young's modulus (E), ultimate tensile strength (UTS), mode I (GIC) and mode II (GIIC) fracture toughness of the various nanocomposites at different nanoparticle loadings are compared. The review shows that, depending on the type of nanoparticles, the integration of the nanoparticles has a substantial effect on mode I and mode II fracture toughness, strength and stiffness. The critical factors such as maintaining a homogeneous dispersion and good adhesion between the matrix and the nanoparticles are highlighted. The effect of surface functionalization, its relevancy and toughening mechanism are also scrutinized and discussed. A large variety of data comprised of the mechanical properties of nanomaterial toughened composites reported to date has thus been compiled to facilitate the evolution of this emerging field, and the results are presented in maps showing the effect of nanoparticle loading on mode I fracture toughness, stiffness and strength. PMID:26006766

  10. Optimization of the strength-fracture toughness relation in particulate-reinforced aluminum composites via control of the matrix microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, I.; McNelley, T. R.; Nagarajan, R.; Quiles, F. N.

    1998-09-01

    The evolution of the microstructure and mechanical properties of a 17.5 vol. pct SiC particulate-reinforced aluminum alloy 6092-matrix composite has been studied as a function of postfabrication processing and heat treatment. It is demonstrated that, by the control of particulate distribution, matrix grain, and substructure and of the matrix precipitate state, the strength-toughness combination in the composite can be optimized over a wide range of properties, without resorting to unstable, underaged (UA) matrix microstructures, which are usually deemed necessary to produce a higher fracture toughness than that displayed in the peak-aged condition. Further, it is demonstrated that, following an appropriate combination of thermomechanical processing and unconventional heat treatment, the composite may possess better stiffness, strength, and fracture toughness than a similar unreinforced alloy. In the high- and low-strength matrix microstructural conditions, the matrix grain and substructure were found to play a substantial role in determining fracture properties. However, in the intermediate-strength regime, properties appeared to be optimizable by the utilization of heat treatments only. These observations are rationalized on the basis of current understanding of the grain size dependence of fracture toughness and the detailed microstructural features resulting from thermomechanical treatments.

  11. Fracture and fracture toughness of nanopolycrystalline metals produced by severe plastic deformation

    PubMed Central

    Hohenwarter, A.; Pippan, R.

    2015-01-01

    The knowledge of the fracture of bulk metallic materials developed in the last 50 years is mostly based on materials having grain sizes, d, in the range of some micrometres up to several hundred micrometres regarding the possibilities of classical metallurgical methods. Nowadays, novel techniques provide access to much smaller grain sizes, where severe plastic deformation (SPD) is one of the most significant techniques. This opens the door to extend basic research in fracture mechanics to the nanocrystalline (NC) grain size regime. From the technological point of view, there is also the necessity to evaluate standard fracture mechanics data of these new materials, such as the fracture toughness, in order to allow their implementation in engineering applications. Here, an overview of recent results on the fracture behaviour of several different ultrafine-grained (d<1 μm) and NC (d<100 nm) metals and alloys covering examples of body- and face-centred cubic structures produced by SPD will be given. PMID:25713459

  12. TRITIUM AND DECAY HELIUM EFFECTS ON THE FRACTURE TOUGHNESS PROPERTIES OF STAINLESS STEEL WELDMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, M; Scott West, S; Michael Tosten, M

    2007-08-31

    J-Integral fracture toughness tests were conducted on tritium-exposed-and-aged Types 304L and 21-6-9 stainless steel weldments in order to measure the combined effects of tritium and its decay product, helium-3 on the fracture toughness properties. Initially, weldments have fracture toughness values about three times higher than base-metal values. Delta-ferrite phase in the weld microstructure improved toughness provided no tritium was present in the microstructure. After a tritium-exposure-and-aging treatment that resulted in {approx}1400 atomic parts per million (appm) dissolved tritium, both weldments and base metals had their fracture toughness values reduced to about the same level. The tritium effect was greater in weldments (67 % reduction vs. 37% reduction) largely because the ductile discontinuous delta-ferrite interfaces were embrittled by tritium and decay helium. Fracture toughness values decreased for both base metals and weldments with increasing decay helium content in the range tested (50-200 appm).

  13. Effect of tritium and decay helium on the fracture toughness properties of stainless steel weldments

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, M. J.; West, S.; Tosten, M. H.

    2008-07-15

    J-Integral fracture toughness tests were conducted on tritium-exposed-and- aged Types 304L and 21-6-9 stainless steel weldments in order to measure the combined effects of tritium and its decay product, helium-3 on the fracture toughness properties. Initially, weldments have fracture toughness values about three times higher than base-metal values. Delta-ferrite phase in the weld microstructure improved toughness provided no tritium was present in the microstructure. After a tritium-exposure-and-aging treatment that resulted in {approx}1400 atomic parts per million (appm) dissolved tritium, both weldments and base metals had their fracture toughness values reduced to about the same level. The tritium effect was greater in weldments (67 % reduction vs. 37% reduction) largely because the ductile discontinuous delta-ferrite phase was embrittled by tritium and decay helium. For both base metals and weldments, fracture toughness values decreased with increasing decay helium content in the range tested (50-800 appm). (authors)

  14. Fracture Toughness Measurements and Assessment of Thin Walled Conduit Alloys in a Cicc Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, R. P.; Han, K.; Toplosky, V. J.

    2008-03-01

    The Series-Connected Hybrid Magnets under construction at the NHMFL use Cable-in-Conduct-Conductor (CICC) technology. The 4 K mechanical properties of the conduit are extremely important to the performance and reliability of the magnets. We have measured tensile and fracture toughness of two candidate conduit alloys (Haynes 242 and modified 316LN) in various metallurgical states, with emphasis on the final state of production. To assess the material in its final production state, non-standard specimens are removed directly from the round-corner rectangular conduit and tested after exposure to a simulated Nb3Sn reaction heat treatment. Non-standard middle-tension (MT) fracture toughness specimens enable toughness evaluation of the base metal, welds and weld/base transitional region in the as-fabricated conduit with final dimensions not suitable for conventional fracture toughness specimens. Although fracture toughness tests of the thin walled conduit fail to meet ASTM test validity requirements they provide a qualitative evaluation and estimate of the fracture toughness of the conduit and the welds.

  15. FRACTURE TOUGHNESS MEASUREMENTS AND ASSESSMENT OF THIN WALLED CONDUIT ALLOYS IN A CICC APPLICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, R. P.; Han, K.; Toplosky, V. J.

    2008-03-03

    The Series-Connected Hybrid Magnets under construction at the NHMFL use Cable-in-Conduct-Conductor (CICC) technology. The 4 K mechanical properties of the conduit are extremely important to the performance and reliability of the magnets. We have measured tensile and fracture toughness of two candidate conduit alloys (Haynes 242 and modified 316LN) in various metallurgical states, with emphasis on the final state of production. To assess the material in its final production state, non-standard specimens are removed directly from the round-corner rectangular conduit and tested after exposure to a simulated Nb{sub 3}Sn reaction heat treatment. Non-standard middle-tension (MT) fracture toughness specimens enable toughness evaluation of the base metal, welds and weld/base transitional region in the as-fabricated conduit with final dimensions not suitable for conventional fracture toughness specimens. Although fracture toughness tests of the thin walled conduit fail to meet ASTM test validity requirements they provide a qualitative evaluation and estimate of the fracture toughness of the conduit and the welds.

  16. Dependence of fracture toughness of molybdenum laser welds on processing parameters and in-situ oxygen gettering

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, L.E.; Jellison, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    Fracture toughness properties have been determined for laser welds in different grades of molybdenum. The fracture toughness of welds in sintered molybdenum was consistently less than the fracture toughness of welds in vacuum arc remelted molybdenum. These differences cannot be attributed to oxygen content, since the oxygen level was nominally the same for all grades of molybdenum examined in this program. Alloy additions of titanium by means of physically deposited coatings significantly improved the fracture toughness of welds in sintered molybdenum, whereas titanium additions to welds in vacuum arc remelted molybdenum decreased the fracture toughness slightly. Pulsed laser welds exhibited fine columnar structures and, in the case of sintered molybdenum, superior fracture toughness when compared with continuous wave laser welds. 6 figures, 3 tables.

  17. Mechanical properties and fracture toughness of rail steels and thermite welds at low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuan-qing; Zhou, Hui; Shi, Yong-jiu; Feng, Bao-rui

    2012-05-01

    Brittle fracture occurs frequently in rails and thermite welded joints, which intimidates the security and reliability of railway service. Railways in cold regions, such as Qinghai-Tibet Railway, make the problem of brittle fracture in rails even worse. A series of tests such as uniaxial tensile tests, Charpy impact tests, and three-point bending tests were carried out at low temperature to investigate the mechanical properties and fracture toughness of U71Mn and U75V rail steels and their thermite welds. Fracture micromechanisms were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) on the fracture surfaces of the tested specimens. The ductility indices (percentage elongation after fracture and percentage reduction of area) and the toughness indices (Charpy impact energy A k and plane-strain fracture toughness K IC) of the two kinds of rail steels and the corresponding thermite welds all decrease as the temperature decreases. The thermite welds are more critical to fracture than the rail steel base metals, as indicated by a higher yield-to-ultimate ratio and a much lower Charpy impact energy. U71Mn rail steel is relatively higher in toughness than U75V, as demonstrated by larger A k and K IC values. Therefore, U71Mn rail steel and the corresponding thermite weld are recommended in railway construction and maintenance in cold regions.

  18. Fracture toughness of irradiated Zr-2.5Nb pressure tube from Indian PHWR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Priti Kotak; Dubey, J. S.; Shriwastaw, R. S.; Dhotre, M. P.; Bhandekar, A.; Pandit, K. M.; Anantharaman, S.; Singh, R. N.; Chakravartty, J. K.

    2015-03-01

    Fracture toughness of irradiated Zr-2.5Nb alloy pressure tube, fabricated by the cold pilgering and stress relieving route, was evaluated using disk compact tension type specimens. These specimens were punched out from the irradiated pressure tube (S-07), which was in service for about 8 effective full power years of reactor operation in the Kakrapar Atomic Power Station-2 (KAPS-2). The tests were carried out remotely inside a lead shielded enclosure. Crack growth during the test was measured using the direct current potential drop technique. The irradiated pressure tube showed low fracture toughness at 25 °C. The fracture toughness increased with increase in temperature up to 250 °C but was practically unaffected with further increase in temperature up to 300 °C. This paper discusses the fracture behavior of irradiated Indian pressure tube material and compares it with other data available.

  19. Significance of locally intensified strain aging to the fracture toughness of welded steel structures

    SciTech Connect

    Dawes, M.G.

    1995-12-31

    A review of past studies shows that tests on specimens notched after welding can give overestimates of the fracture toughness that occurs at the tips of flaws present during welding. This situation results from locally intensified straining and aging embrittlement (LISAE), which has been shown to trigger low stress brittle fractures in both notched and welded wide plate tension tests, and welded structures in service. Although the relative susceptibilities of steels to strain aging embrittlement are sometimes assessed by testing bulk strained and aged samples, the results of such tests may be optimistic. A summary is given of work to develop a fracture toughness test method for LISAE. The new test will give increased confidence and accuracy in fracture assessments, be of use in selecting tough materials, and aid the development of materials that are resistant to LISAE.

  20. Fracture toughness evaluation of fusion reactor structural steels at low temperatures by small punch tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misawa, T.; Nagata, S.; Aoki, N.; Ishizaka, J.; Hamaguchi, Y.

    1989-12-01

    A small punch (SP) test using miniaturized specimens has been performed for cryogenic austenitic steels at 4.2, 77 and 293 K to evaluate fracture toughness in a fusion material program. An SP testing cryostat for load versus deflection curve measurements has been successfully constructed. A universal relationship between valid fracture toughness, JIC, and equivalent fracture strain, ¯ge qf, for austenitic steels at different test temperatures has been confirmed and empirical parameters for that relation have been determined using a linear regression model. A linear correlation between valid JIC and ¯ge qf has been clarified for austenitic steels at low temperatures, where the regression coefficient is found to be 845 kJ/m 2. Using the results of the SP test above room temperature, a new attempt at statistical analysis has been proposed to estimate the relative change in fracture toughness due to neutron irradiation.

  1. Extrapolation of Fracture Toughness Data for HT9 Irradiated at 360-390°C

    SciTech Connect

    Gelles, David S.; Kurtz, Richard J.

    2007-05-01

    Following irradiation in the FFTF-AC01 test at 360°C to 5.5 x 1022 n/cm2, two HT9 samples tested at 30°C were measured to have fracture toughness levels of 28.2 and 31.9 MPa m1/2, respectively, whereas a third identical specimen tested at 205°C gave 126 MPa m1/2. Based on testing of notched tensile specimens from the same irradiation test, the low toughness was a result of brittle fracture. A similar low level of toughness has also been demonstrated in HT9 following irradiation at 250°C and therefore such behavior is reproducible. Using ASTM Standard E1921-02, which characterizes the fracture toughness of ferritic steels that experience onset of cleavage cracking at instabilities, it is shown that these data can be analyzed by a Master Curve approach, and that the trend of the fracture toughness over a wider range of temperatures can be estimated. Master Curve analysis demonstrates that toughness will remain low over a wide range of temperatures near 30°C, but will degrade only slightly when temperatures drop to –10°C.

  2. Fracture toughness testing of Linde 1092 reactor vessel welds in the transition range using Charpy-sized specimens

    SciTech Connect

    Pavinich, W.A.; Yoon, K.K.; Hour, K.Y.; Hoffman, C.L.

    1999-10-01

    The present reference toughness method for predicting the change in fracture toughness can provide over estimates of these values because of uncertainties in initial RT{sub NDT} and shift correlations. It would be preferable to directly measure fracture toughness. However, until recently, no standard method was available to characterize fracture toughness in the transition range. ASTM E08 has developed a draft standard that shows promise for providing lower bound transition range fracture toughness using the master curve approach. This method has been successfully implemented using 1T compact fracture specimens. Combustion Engineering reactor vessel surveillance programs do not have compact fracture specimens. Therefore, the CE Owners Group developed a program to validate the master curve method for Charpy-sized and reconstituted Charpy-sized specimens for future application on irradiated specimens. This method was validated for Linde 1092 welds using unirradiated Charpy-sized and reconstituted Charpy-sized specimens by comparison of results with those from compact fracture specimens.

  3. Correlations among ultrasonic propagation factors and fracture toughness properties of metallic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, A.

    1976-01-01

    Empirical evidence was developed to show that a close relation exists among fracture toughness, yield strength, and ultrasonic attenuation properties of metallic materials. The evidence was obtained by ultrasonic probing of specimens of two maraging steels and a titanium alloy. It was concluded that nondestructive ultrasonic methods can be used to indirectly evaluate fracture-related material properties. The results suggest that these nondestructive ultrasonic measurements can also serve as an adjunct to destructive testing, measurement, and analysis of fracture properties.

  4. Fracture toughness of stoichiometric, non-stoichiometric and ternary-alloyed Al{sub 2}Ti

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, J.C.; Lukitsch, M.J.; Ambrow, C.E.; Benci, J.E.

    1997-12-31

    Polycrystalline stoichiometric Al{sub 2}Ti was produced via casting or powder metallurgy and further processed yielding material in six conditions. The fracture toughness of the six material conditions was determined from the critical load to initiate cracks with a Vickers indenter. The results show a strong dependence on material condition. Powder processed Al{sub 2}Ti exhibits the highest fracture toughness value among the material conditions studied. Polycrystalline non-stoichiometric Al{sub 2{+-}y}Ti{sub 1{+-}y} and ternary-alloyed Al{sub 2}Ti + X were prepared in as-cast and cast and annealed conditions. Each material condition exhibited a multiphase microstructure. The composition of the phases present in each alloy was analyzed with SEM/EDS. Fracture toughness values of cast and annealed stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric binary alloys are 20--30% greater than as-cast stoichiometric Al{sub 2}Ti. For the ternary alloys, the fracture toughness values show a strong dependence on the ternary element used and heat treatment condition. The fracture toughness values of three hot forged ternary alloys were also determined.

  5. Effect of Retained Austenite on the Fracture Toughness of Quenching and Partitioning (Q&P)-Treated Sheet Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Riming; Li, Wei; Zhou, Shu; Zhong, Yong; Wang, Li; Jin, Xuejun

    2014-04-01

    Fracture toughness K IC was measured by double edge-notched tension (DENT) specimens with fatigue precracks on quenching and partitioning (Q&P)-treated high-strength (ultimate tensile strength [UTS] superior to 1200 MPa) sheet steels consisting of 4 to 10 vol pct of retained austenite. Crack extension force, G IC, evaluated from the measured K IC, is used to analyze the role of retained austenite in different fracture behavior. Meanwhile, G IC is deduced by a constructed model based on energy absorption by martensite transformation (MT) behavior of retained austenite in Q&P-treated steels. The tendency of the change of two results is in good agreement. The Q&P-treated steel, quenched at 573 K (300 °C), then partitioned at 573 K (300 °C), holding for 60 seconds, has a fracture toughness of 74.1 MPa·m1/2, which is 32 pct higher than quenching and tempering steel (55.9 MPa·m1/2), and 16 pct higher than quenching and austempering (QAT) steel (63.8 MPa·m1/2). MT is found to occur preferentially at the tips of extension cracks on less stable retained austenite, which further improves the toughness of Q&P steels; on the contrary, the MT that occurs at more stable retained austenite has a detrimental effect on toughness.

  6. Bone Fragility Beyond Strength and Mineral Density: Raman Spectroscopy Predicts Femoral Fracture Toughness in a Murine Model of Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Inzana, Jason A.; Maher, Jason R.; Takahata, Masahiko; Schwarz, Edward M.; Berger, Andrew J.; Awad, Hani A.

    2012-01-01

    Clinical prediction of bone fracture risk primarily relies on measures of bone mineral density (BMD). BMD is strongly correlated with bone strength, but strength is independent of fracture toughness, which refers to the bone’s resistance to crack initiation and propagation. In that sense, fracture toughness is more relevant to assessing fragility-related fracture risk, independent of trauma. We hypothesized that bone biochemistry, determined by Raman spectroscopy, predicts bone fracture toughness better than BMD. This hypothesis was tested in tumor necrosis factor-transgenic mice (TNF-tg), which develop inflammatory-erosive arthritis and osteoporosis. The left femurs of TNF-tg and wild type (WT) littermates were measured with Raman spectroscopy and micro-computed tomography. Fracture toughness was assessed by cutting a sharp notch into the anterior surface of the femoral mid-diaphysis and propagating the crack under 3 point bending. Femoral fracture toughness of TNF-tg mice was significantly reduced compared to WT controls (p=0.04). A Raman spectrum-based prediction model of fracture toughness was generated by partial least squares regression (PLSR). Raman spectrum PLSR analysis produced strong predictions of fracture toughness, while BMD was not significantly correlated and produced very weak predictions. Raman spectral components associated with mineralization quality and bone collagen were strongly leveraged in predicting fracture toughness, reiterating the limitations of mineralization density alone. PMID:23261243

  7. Fracture toughness improvements of dental ceramic through use of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thin-film coatings

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Ryan N.; Stoner, Brian R.; Thompson, Jeffrey Y.; Scattergood, Ronald O.; Piascik, Jeffrey R.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate strengthening mechanisms of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thin film coatings as a viable method for improving fracture toughness of all-ceramic dental restorations. Methods Bars (2×2×15mm, n=12) were cut from porcelain (ProCAD, Ivoclar-Vivadent) blocks and wet-polished through 1200-grit using SiC abrasive. A Vickers indenter was used to induce flaws with controlled size and geometry. Depositions were performed via radio frequency magnetron sputtering (5mT, 25ºC, 30:1 Ar/O2 gas ratio) with varying powers of substrate bias. Film and flaw properties were characterized by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Flexural strength was determined by three-point bending. Fracture toughness values were calculated from flaw size and fracture strength. Results Data show improvements in fracture strength of up to 57% over unmodified specimens. XRD analysis shows that films deposited with higher substrate bias displayed a high %monoclinic volume fraction (19%) compared to non-biased deposited films (87%), and resulted in increased film stresses and modified YSZ microstructures. SEM analysis shows critical flaw sizes of 67±1μm leading to fracture toughness improvements of 55% over unmodified specimens. Significance Data supports surface modification of dental ceramics with YSZ thin film coatings to improve fracture toughness. Increase in construct strength was attributed to increase in compressive film stresses and modified YSZ thin film microstructures. It is believed that this surface modification may lead to significant improvements and overall reliability of all-ceramic dental restorations. PMID:23764025

  8. The relative contributions of non-enzymatic glycation and cortical porosity on the fracture toughness of aging bone.

    PubMed

    Tang, S Y; Vashishth, D

    2011-01-11

    The risk of fracture increases with age due to the decline of bone mass and bone quality. One of the age-related changes in bone quality occurs through the formation and accumulation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) due to non-enzymatic glycation (NEG). However as a number of other changes including increased porosity occur with age and affect bone fragility, the relative contribution of AGEs on the fracture resistance of aging bone is unknown. Using a high-resolution nonlinear finite element model that incorporate cohesive elements and micro-computed tomography-based 3d meshes, we investigated the contribution of AGEs and cortical porosity on the fracture toughness of human bone. The results show that NEG caused a 52% reduction in propagation fracture toughness (R-curve slope). The combined effects of porosity and AGEs resulted in an 88% reduction in propagation toughness. These findings are consistent with previous experimental results. The model captured the age-related changes in the R-curve toughening by incorporating bone quantity and bone quality changes, and these simulations demonstrate the ability of the cohesive models to account for the irreversible dynamic crack growth processes affected by the changes in post-yield material behavior. By decoupling the matrix-level effects due to NEG and intracortical porosity, we are able to directly determine the effects of NEG on fracture toughness. The outcome of this study suggests that it may be important to include the age-related changes in the material level properties by using finite element analysis towards the prediction of fracture risk. PMID:21056419

  9. On the distance criterion for failure at the tips of cracks, minimum fracture toughness, and non-dimensional toughness parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neville, D. J.

    T HE PRESENT paper describes a distance criterion for failure at the tips of cracks in materials showing plasticity which, for stress-controlled cleavage on the lower shelf of toughness, is based on consideration of plasticity local to individual crack-initiation sites rather than on the distance from the remote crack tip to a crack-initiation site. For the upper shelf, consideration is of conditions local to voids, but the thermodynamic balance determining the moment of failure is for the macrocrack rather than microcracks, and a criterion of strain is used rather than a criterion of stress. This new criterion of distance or critical distance leads to a good description of temperature-dependent changes in toughness, on the lower shelf where failure is caused by stress-controlled cleavage and on the upper shelf where fracture runs by a strain-controlled ductile mechanism as well as in the region of transition in between, and always on the basis that these changes are due to temperature-dependent changes in yield strength and Young's modulus. A non-dimensional toughness parameter is observed. The present work is in agreement with many accepted ideas about fracture. The significance of the self-similarity of the distributions of stress and strain at the tips of cracks and the over-riding importance of crack-opening displacement in the determination of conditions for propagation are emphasised.

  10. A fractographic study of the edge-sliding mode in fracture toughness testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, D. L.; Chisholm, D. B.

    1976-01-01

    A fractographic study of Mode II fracture surfaces has been conducted for the purpose of identifying the microstructural mechanisms responsible for fracture in the edge-sliding mode. A compact shear (CS) specimen was employed to generate the fracture surfaces and also to establish Mode II fracture toughness values for Ti-6Al-4V, A533-B steel, and several aluminum alloys. In all tests, one of the two edge cracks sustained complete Mode II fracture while the other exhibited only a limited amount of subcritical crack growth. Mode II fracture surfaces, which were unique in appearance, have been examined by optical and scanning electron microscopy. It was determined that shear (or parabolic) microvoid coalescence was the dominant mechanism for Mode II fracture. It was also established that most of the surface abrasions were created by the relative sliding of the fracture surfaces during unstable fracture rather than the crack initiation process.

  11. Fracture toughness of V-5Cr-5Ti alloy at room temperature and 100{degrees}C

    SciTech Connect

    Li, H.; Jones, R.H.; Hirth, J.P.

    1994-09-01

    The critical mixed-mode I/III fracture toughness, J-integrals (J{sub MC}), at room temperature (RT) and 100{degrees}C were examined for a V-5Cr-5Ti alloy. Fracture toughness at 100{degrees}C was evaluated with a J-integral test and at RT with a K (the stress intensity factor) test. The determination of J{sub MC} was made using modified compact-tension specimens. Different ratios of tension/shear stress were achieved by varying the principal axis of the crack plane between 0 and 45 from the load line. Crack angles used in this study were 0, 15, and 45 degrees. A specimen with 0 degree crack angle is the same as a standard mode I compact tension specimen. In this limit, J{sub MC} becomes J{sub IC}. Specimens were annealed at 1125{degrees}C for 1 hour in a vacuum of 10{sup {minus}7} torr. J{sub MC} and mixed-mode tearing moduli (T{sub M}) were determined at 100{degrees}C with the single specimen technique. Crack lengths were calculated with partial unloading compliances. The J{sub MC} values at RT were calculated from critical stress intensity factors (K{sub C}). The results showed that at RT the V-5Cr-5Ti alloy was brittle and experienced unstable crack growth with a mixture of intergranular, cleavage and some microvoid coalescence (MVC) fracture while at 100{degrees}C it exhibited high fracture toughness and fractured with a mixture of MVC and intergranular failure. SEM investigation showed that some cleavage facets initiated at grain boundaries. The results suggest a low intergranular fracture strength and tendency towards cleavage fracture at room temperature. Preliminary data from Auger electron microscopy showed significant sulfur segregation on grain boundaries. The possible mechanism which might reduce intergranular fracture strength is discussed.

  12. Planar Porous Graphene Woven Fabric/Epoxy Composites with Exceptional Electrical, Mechanical Properties, and Fracture Toughness.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xu; Sun, Xinying; Wang, Zhenyu; Shen, Xi; Wu, Ying; Kim, Jang-Kyo

    2015-09-30

    Planar interconnected graphene woven fabrics (GWFs) are prepared by template-based chemical vapor deposition and the GWFs are employed as multifunctional filler for epoxy-based composites. Apart from flexibility, transparency, lightweight, and high electrical conductivity, the GWFs have unique morphological features consisting of orthogonally interweaved, inherently percolated, hollow graphene tubes (GTs). The orthogonal GT structure means that the GWF/epoxy composites hold significant anisotropy in mechanical and fracture properties. The composites with 0.62 wt % graphene deliver a combination of excellent electrical and fracture properties: e.g., an electrical conductivity of ~0.18 S/cm; and fracture toughness of 1.67 and 1.78 MPa·m(1/2) when loaded along the 0° and 45° directions relative to the GT direction, respectively, equivalent to notable 57% and 67% rises compared to the solid epoxy. Unique fracture processes in GWF/epoxy composites are identified by in situ examinations, revealing crack tip blunting that occurs when the crack impinges GTs, especially those at 45° to the crack growth direction, as well as longitudinal tearing of hollow GTs as the two major toughening mechanisms. PMID:26331902

  13. An Improved Approach to Fracture Toughness Assessment of Brittle Coating on Ductile Substrate Systems under Indentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demidova, Natalia V.

    Fracture toughness is an important material property that determines the structural integrity of a component with pre-existing or service-generated flaws. In the present research, an indentation-based method and the associated fracture mechanics model are proposed for fracture toughness assessment of brittle coating/ductile substrate systems. The proposed models consider well-developed radial/median cracks generated under sharp indentation, despite that the crack formation process may have gone through crack initiation and propagation phases. For generality, the geometry of a well-developed crack is assumed to be semi-elliptical in shape. The driving force of the crack is considered to stem from the residual plastic zone expansion under the indenter, as well as the far-field Boussinesq (elastic) stress. Three well-defined configurations are studied. For the first configuration, a crack with a depth of less than 7% of the coating thickness is considered. In this case, the problem is treated as the one for the monolithic material with the coating material properties. For the second configuration, a crack that runs deeper than 7% of the coating thickness but is still within the coating layer is analyzed. In this case, the composite hardness is introduced into the analysis to account for the influence of the substrate material properties; and furthermore, an interface correction factor is proposed to take into account the presence of the coating/substrate interface and its influence on the stress intensity factor of the well-developed elliptical cracks. For the third configuration, a crack penetrating into the substrate is considered. In this case, based on the condition of deformation compatibility across the coating/substrate interface, the bulk modulus for the coating/substrate system is introduced into the analysis. A series of indentation tests are conducted on a WC/10Co/4Cr coating/1080 low carbon steel substrate specimen, which is a brittle coating on a ductile

  14. High toughness-high strength iron alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. R.; Witzke, W. R. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An iron alloy is provided which exhibits strength and toughness characteristics at cryogenic temperatures. The alloy consists essentially of about 10 to 16 percent by weight nickel, about 0.1 to 1.0 percent by weight aluminum, and 0 to about 3 percent by weight copper, with the balance being essentially iron. The iron alloy is produced by a process which includes cold rolling at room temperature and subsequent heat treatment.

  15. The effects of radiation on the interlaminar fracture toughness of a graphite/epoxy composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Funk, J. G.; Sykes, G. F.

    1986-01-01

    An experimental study is made of the effect of electron irradiation (10 to the 10th rad), simulating a 30-year geosynchronous orbit exposure, on the fracture toughness of a graphite/epoxy composite, T300/934. The double cantilever beam (DBC) test is used to determine Mode I (peel) critical strain energy release rate and the edge delamination tension (EDT) test is used to determine mixed Mode I and II (peel and shear) critical strain energy release rate. It is found that the electron interaction of the epoxy matrix material enhances the fracture toughness properties of the composite and that the test temperature has a significant effect on the fracture toughness of both baseline and irradiated material.

  16. Effects of radiation on the interlaminar fracture toughness of a graphite/epoxy composite

    SciTech Connect

    Funk, J.G.; Sykes, G.F.

    1986-01-01

    An experimental study is made of the effect of electron irradiation (10 to the 10th rad), simulating a 30-year geosynchronous orbit exposure, on the fracture toughness of a graphite/epoxy composite, T300/934. The double cantilever beam (DBC) test is used to determine Mode I (peel) critical strain energy release rate and the edge delamination tension (EDT) test is used to determine mixed Mode I and II (peel and shear) critical strain energy release rate. It is found that the electron interaction of the epoxy matrix material enhances the fracture toughness properties of the composite and that the test temperature has a significant effect on the fracture toughness of both baseline and irradiated material. 13 references.

  17. Effect of WC/Co coherency phase boundaries on Fracture toughness of the nanocrystalline cemented carbides

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Hongxian; Song, Xiaoyan; Yin, Fuxing; Zhang, Yongguang

    2016-01-01

    The effect of coherency WC/Co phase boundaries on the fracture toughness of the nanocrystalline WC-Co cemented carbides is studied by MD simulation method. The simulation results show that the nanocrystalline WC-Co cemented carbides with coherency WC/Co phase boundaries has higher fracture toughness than that without coherency WC/Co phase boundaries. Moreover, the mechanism of why coherency WC/Co phase boundaries can improve the fracture toughness of the nanocrystalline cemented carbides is also investigated. It is found the fact that the separation energy of the coherent WC/Co phase boundary is larger than that of the incoherent WC/Co phase boundaries is the main reason for this excellent mechanical property. PMID:27485922

  18. Effect of WC/Co coherency phase boundaries on Fracture toughness of the nanocrystalline cemented carbides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Hongxian; Song, Xiaoyan; Yin, Fuxing; Zhang, Yongguang

    2016-08-01

    The effect of coherency WC/Co phase boundaries on the fracture toughness of the nanocrystalline WC-Co cemented carbides is studied by MD simulation method. The simulation results show that the nanocrystalline WC-Co cemented carbides with coherency WC/Co phase boundaries has higher fracture toughness than that without coherency WC/Co phase boundaries. Moreover, the mechanism of why coherency WC/Co phase boundaries can improve the fracture toughness of the nanocrystalline cemented carbides is also investigated. It is found the fact that the separation energy of the coherent WC/Co phase boundary is larger than that of the incoherent WC/Co phase boundaries is the main reason for this excellent mechanical property.

  19. Development of plane strain fracture toughness test for ceramics using Chevron notched specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bubsey, R. T.; Shannon, J. L., Jr.; Munz, D.

    1983-01-01

    Chevron-notched four-point-bend and short-bar specimens have been used to determine the fracture toughness of sintered aluminum oxide and hot-pressed silicon nitride ceramics. The fracture toughness for Si3N4 is found to be essentially independent of the specimen size and chevron notch configuration, with values ranging from 4.6 to 4.9 MNm exp -3/2. In contrast, significant specimen size and notch geometry effects have been observed for Al2O3, with the fracture toughness ranging from 3.1 to 4.7 MNm exp -3/2. These effects are attributed to a rising crack growth resistance curve for the Al2O3 tested.

  20. Strength, Fracture Toughness, Fatigue, and Standardization Issues of Free-standing Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Zhu, Dong-Ming; Miller, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    Strength, fracture toughness and fatigue behavior of free-standing thick thermal barrier coatings of plasma-sprayed ZrO2-8wt % Y2O3 were determined at ambient and elevated temperatures in an attempt to establish a database for design. Strength, in conjunction with deformation (stress-strain behavior), was evaluated in tension (uniaxial and trans-thickness), compression, and uniaxial and biaxial flexure; fracture toughness was determined in various load conditions including mode I, mode II, and mixed modes I and II; fatigue or slow crack growth behavior was estimated in cyclic tension and dynamic flexure loading. Effect of sintering was quantified through approaches using strength, fracture toughness, and modulus (constitutive relations) measurements. Standardization issues on test methodology also was presented with a special regard to material's unique constitutive relations.

  1. Recommendations for the determination of valid mode II fracture toughnesses K{sub IIc}

    SciTech Connect

    Hiese, W.; Kalthoff, J.F.

    1999-07-01

    From a discussion of the sizes of the plastic zones at the tip of a crack under shear (Mode II) and tensile (Mode I) conditions of loading, hypotheses on specimen size requirements are derived for determining valid values of the shear fracture toughness K{sub IIc}. The following conclusions are drawn: The minimum specimen thickness for a K{sub IIc} test can be smaller, but the minimum in-plane specimen dimensions should be larger than for a K{sub Ic} test. For verification of these hypotheses, Mode II and additionally Mode I fracture toughnesses were determined for the aluminum alloy 7075 and the tool steel 90 MnCrV 8. Measurements were performed with specimens of different sizes with respect to the size of the crack tip plastic zones. The obtained data are in good agreement with the derived criteria for measuring Mode II fracture toughnesses K{sub IIc} and confirm their validity.

  2. Moisture-heat effects on unidirectional composite laminates fracture toughness and fatigue crack growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fusheng; Pzinz, R.; Zichy, J. H.

    1993-04-01

    The heat-moisture effect on interlaminar fracture toughness of T300/914C graphite/epoxy unidirectional composite laminates is investigated under mode I opening loading witb DCB specimen. The fracture toughness in moisture-heat conditioning increases, and the glass transition temperature decreases. SEM fractographs revealed no discernible difference in the fracture surface morphology of moisture-heat and dry conditioned specimens. No fiber bridging occurs in the testing. Delamination fatigue crack growth experiments are carried out on T300/914C graphite/epoxy unidirectional laminates. It is found that the mode I cyclic crack growth rate yields a power low relationship between da/dN and the maximum cyclic strain energy release rate. The crack growth rate of the moisture-heat conditioned specimen is lower than that of the dry conditioned. The environmental effects are explained on the basis of fractography and fracture mechanisms and fracture mechanics.

  3. Slippery but Tough: The Rapid Fracture of Lubricated Frictional Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayart, E.; Svetlizky, I.; Fineberg, J.

    2016-05-01

    We study the onset of friction for rough contacting blocks whose interface is coated with a thin lubrication layer. High speed measurements of the real contact area and stress fields near the interface reveal that propagating shear cracks mediate lubricated frictional motion. While lubricants reduce interface resistances, surprisingly they significantly increase the energy dissipated Γ during rupture. Moreover, lubricant viscosity affects the onset of friction but has no effect on Γ . Fracture mechanics provide a new way to view the otherwise hidden complex dynamics of the lubrication layer.

  4. Slippery but Tough: The Rapid Fracture of Lubricated Frictional Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Bayart, E; Svetlizky, I; Fineberg, J

    2016-05-13

    We study the onset of friction for rough contacting blocks whose interface is coated with a thin lubrication layer. High speed measurements of the real contact area and stress fields near the interface reveal that propagating shear cracks mediate lubricated frictional motion. While lubricants reduce interface resistances, surprisingly they significantly increase the energy dissipated Γ during rupture. Moreover, lubricant viscosity affects the onset of friction but has no effect on Γ. Fracture mechanics provide a new way to view the otherwise hidden complex dynamics of the lubrication layer. PMID:27232023

  5. A moving-load controlled-displacement fracture-toughness testing machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujari, V. K.; Finnie, I.; Hauser, F. E.

    1981-06-01

    A testing procedure using a moving-load controlled-displacement fracture-toughness testing machine is described. It provides simple means for studying fracture-toughness gradients in structural materials caused by varying thickness, heat-treatment variations, mechanical working gradients, welding, and different corrosive environments. The energy-release rate at the onset of crack propagation and the plane-strain fracture toughness can be measured directly without compliance calibration or stress-intensity evaluation. Specimens made of 7075-76 aluminum-alloy were used in the testing, both at constant and linearly varying net-section thickness. The large number of fracture-toughness points obtained allowed the probability distribution of toughness values to be studied with the curve showing a normal distribution. It is concluded that the strain-energy release-rate expression derived for this system is independent of crack length and the specimen geometry is simple. Furthermore, the technique of controlled crack propagation (discrete jump) provides a large number of data points along the specimen length.

  6. Study of Damage and Fracture Toughness Due to Influence of Creep and Fatigue of Commercially Pure Copper by Monotonic and Cyclic Indentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Sabita; Prakash, Raghu V.

    2013-01-01

    Fracture toughness is the ability of a component containing a flow to resist fracture. In the current study, the Ball indentation (BI) test technique, which is well acknowledged as an alternative approach to evaluate mechanical properties of materials due to its semi-nondestructive, fast, and high accurate qualities is used to estimate damage and the fracture toughness for copper samples subjected to varying levels of creep and fatigue. The indentation fracture toughness shows the degradation of Cu samples when they are subjected to different creep conditions. Axial fatigue cycling increases the strength at the mid-gauge section compared to other regions of the samples due to initial strain hardening. The advancement of indentation depth with indentation fatigue cycles experiences transient stage, i.e., jump in indentation depth has been observed, which may be an indication of failure and followed by a steady state with almost constant depth propagation with indentation cycles.

  7. Increased fracture toughness of graphite-epoxy composites through intermittent interlaminar bonding. [Mylar interlayer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Felbeck, D. K.; Jea, L. C.

    1980-01-01

    Intermittent interlaminar bonding, which can lead to a large increase in the fracture surface area, was achieved through the introduction of thin perforated Mylar between the layers of a multi-layer continuous-filament graphite-epoxy composite. For the best optimum condition included in this study, fracture toughness was increased from about 100 kJ/sq m for untreated specimens to an average of about 500 kJ/sq m, while tensile strength dropped from 500 MPa to 400 MPa, and elastic modulus remained the same at about 75 GPa. An approximate analysis is presented to explain the observed improvement in toughness.

  8. Identification of Fracture Toughness for Discrete Damage Mechanics Analysis of Glass-Epoxy Laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbero, E. J.; Cosso, F. A.; Martinez, X.

    2014-08-01

    A methodology for determination of the intralaminar fracture toughness is presented, based on fitting discrete damage mechanics (DDM) model predictions to available experimental data. DDM is constitutive model that, when incorporated into commercial finite element software via user material subroutines, is able to predict intralaminar transverse and shear damage initiation and evolution in terms of the fracture toughness of the composite. The applicability of the DDM model is studied by comparison to available experimental data for Glass-Epoxy laminates. Sensitivity of the DDM model to h- and p-refinement is studied. Also, the effect of in-situ correction of strength is highlighted.

  9. Simplified composite micromechanics equations for strength, fracture toughness and environmental effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.

    1984-01-01

    A unified set of composite micromechanics equations of simple form is summarized and described. This unified set includes composite micromechanics equations for predicting: (1) ply in-plane uniaxial strengths; (2) through-the-thickness strength (interlaminar and flexural); (3) in-plane fracture toughness; (4) in-plane impact resistance; and (5) through-the-thickness (interlaminar and flexural) impact resistance. Equations are also included for predicting the hygrothermal effects on strength, fracture toughness and impact resistance. Several numerical examples are worked out to illustrate the ease of use of the various composite micromechanics equations.

  10. Recommendations for the shallow-crack fracture toughness testing task within the HSST (Heavy-Section Steel Technology) Program

    SciTech Connect

    Theiss, T.J. )

    1990-09-01

    Recommendations for Heavy-Section Steel Technology Program's investigation into the influence of crack depth on the fracture toughness of a steel prototypic of those in a reactor pressure vessel are included in this report. The motivation for this investigation lies in the fact that probabilistic fracture mechanics evaluations show that shallow flaws play a dominant role in the likelihood of vessel failure, and shallow-flaw specimens have exhibited an elevated toughness compared with conventional deep-notch fracture toughness specimens. Accordingly, the actual margin of safety of vessels may be greater than that predicted using existing deep-notch fracture-toughness results. The primary goal of the shallow-crack project is to investigate the influence of crack depth on fracture toughness under conditions prototypic of a reactor vessel. A limited data base of fracture toughness values will be assembled using a beam specimen of prototypic reactor vessel material and with a depth of 100 mm (4 in.). This will permit comparison of fracture-toughness data from deep-cracked and shallow-crack specimens, and this will be done for several test temperatures. Fracture-toughness data will be expressed in terms of the stress-intensity factor and crack-tip-opening displacement. Results of this investigation are expected to improve the understanding of shallow-flaw behavior in pressure vessels, thereby providing more realistic information for application to the pressurized-thermal shock issues. 33 refs., 17 figs.

  11. The effect of crack instability/stability on fracture toughness of brittle materials

    SciTech Connect

    Baratta, F.I.

    1997-12-31

    This paper summarizes three recent experimental works coauthored by the present author regarding the effect of crack instability/stability on fracture toughness, and also includes the necessary formulae for predicting stability. Two recent works have shown that unstable crack extension resulted in apparent increases in fracture toughness compared to that determined during stable crack growth. In the first investigation a quasi-brittle polymer, polymethylmethacrylate, was examined. In the second, a more brittle metallic material, tungsten, was tested. In both cases the transition from unstable to stable behavior was predicted based on stability analyses. The third investigation was conducted on a truly brittle ceramic material, hot pressed silicon nitride. These three papers showed that fracture toughness test results conducted on brittle materials vary according to whether the material fractures in an unstable or stable manner. Suggestions for achieving this important yet difficult phenomenon of stable crack growth, which is necessary when determining the fracture toughness variation occurring during unstable/stable crack advance, are presented, as well as recommendations for further research.

  12. Evaluation of Fracture Toughness of Tantalum Carbide Ceramic Layer: A Vickers Indentation Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Ke; Xu, Yunhua; Zhao, Nana; Zhong, Lisheng; Shang, Zhao; Shen, Liuliu; Wang, Juan

    2016-06-01

    A tantalum carbide (TaC) ceramic layer was produced on gray cast iron matrix by in situ technique comprising a casting process and a subsequent heat treatment at 1135 °C for 45 min. Indentation fracture toughness in TaC ceramic layer was determined by the Vickers indentation test for various loads. A Niihara approach was chosen to assess the fracture toughness of TaC ceramic layer under condition of the Palmqvist mode in the experiment. The results reveal that K IC evaluation of TaC ceramic layer by the Vickers indentation method strongly depends on the selection of crack system and K IC equations. The critical indentation load for Vickers crack initiation in TaC ceramic layer lies between 1 and 2 N and the cracks show typical intergranular fracture characteristics. Indentation fracture toughness calculated by the indentation method is independent of the indentation load on the specimen. The fracture toughness of TaC ceramic layer is 6.63 ± 0.34 MPa m1/2, and the toughening mechanism is mainly crack deflection.

  13. Evaluation of Fracture Toughness of Tantalum Carbide Ceramic Layer: A Vickers Indentation Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Ke; Xu, Yunhua; Zhao, Nana; Zhong, Lisheng; Shang, Zhao; Shen, Liuliu; Wang, Juan

    2016-07-01

    A tantalum carbide (TaC) ceramic layer was produced on gray cast iron matrix by in situ technique comprising a casting process and a subsequent heat treatment at 1135 °C for 45 min. Indentation fracture toughness in TaC ceramic layer was determined by the Vickers indentation test for various loads. A Niihara approach was chosen to assess the fracture toughness of TaC ceramic layer under condition of the Palmqvist mode in the experiment. The results reveal that K IC evaluation of TaC ceramic layer by the Vickers indentation method strongly depends on the selection of crack system and K IC equations. The critical indentation load for Vickers crack initiation in TaC ceramic layer lies between 1 and 2 N and the cracks show typical intergranular fracture characteristics. Indentation fracture toughness calculated by the indentation method is independent of the indentation load on the specimen. The fracture toughness of TaC ceramic layer is 6.63 ± 0.34 MPa m1/2, and the toughening mechanism is mainly crack deflection.

  14. Directionally Solidified NiAl-Based Alloys Studied for Improved Elevated-Temperature Strength and Room-Temperature Fracture Toughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. Daniel; Raj, Sai V.; Locci, Ivan E.; Salem, Jonathan A.

    2000-01-01

    Efforts are underway to replace superalloys used in the hot sections of gas turbine engines with materials possessing better mechanical and physical properties. Alloys based on the intermetallic NiAl have demonstrated potential; however, they generally suffer from low fracture resistance (toughness) at room temperature and from poor strength at elevated temperatures. Directional solidification of NiAl alloyed with both Cr and Mo has yielded materials with useful toughness and elevated-temperature strength values. The intermetallic alloy NiAl has been proposed as an advanced material to extend the maximum operational temperature of gas turbine engines by several hundred degrees centigrade. This intermetallic alloy displays a lower density (approximately 30-percent less) and a higher thermal conductivity (4 to 8 times greater) than conventional superalloys as well as good high-temperature oxidation resistance. Unfortunately, unalloyed NiAl has poor elevated temperature strength (approximately 50 MPa at 1027 C) and low room-temperature fracture toughness (about 5 MPa). Directionally solidified NiAl eutectic alloys are known to possess a combination of high elevated-temperature strength and good room-temperature fracture toughness. Research has demonstrated that a NiAl matrix containing a uniform distribution of very thin Cr plates alloyed with Mo possessed both increased fracture toughness and elevated-temperature creep strength. Although attractive properties were obtained, these alloys were formed at low growth rates (greater than 19 mm/hr), which are considered to be economically unviable. Hence, an investigation was warranted of the strength and toughness behavior of NiAl-(Cr,Mo) directionally solidified at faster growth rates. If the mechanical properties did not deteriorate with increased growth rates, directional solidification could offer an economical means to produce NiAl-based alloys commercially for gas turbine engines. An investigation at the NASA Glenn

  15. Fast reactor irradiation effects on fracture toughness of Si3N4 in comparison with MgAl2O4 and yttria stabilized ZrO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tada, K.; Watanabe, M.; Tachi, Y.; Kurishita, H.; Nagata, S.; Shikama, T.

    2016-04-01

    Fracture toughness of silicon nitride (Si3N4), magnesia-alumina spinel (MgAl2O4) and yttria stabilized zirconia (8 mol%Y2O3-ZrO2) was evaluated by the Vickers-indentation technique after the fast reactor irradiation up to 55 dpa (displacement per atom) at about 700 °C in the Joyo. The change of the fracture toughness by the irradiation was correlated with nanostructural evolution by the irradiation, which was examined by transmission electron microscopy. The observed degradation of fracture toughness in Si3N4 is thought to be due to the relatively high density of small-sized of the irradiation induced defects, which should be resulted from a large amount of transmutation gases of hydrogen and helium. Observed improvement of fracture toughness in MgAl2O4 was due to the blocking of crack propagation by the antiphase boundaries. The radiation effects affected the fracture toughness of yttria stabilized zirconia at 55 dpa, suggesting that the generated high density voids would affect the propagation of cracks.

  16. Notch Fracture Toughness of Glasses: Dependence on Rate, Age, and Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasoya, Manish; Rycroft, Chris H.; Bouchbinder, Eran

    2016-08-01

    Understanding the fracture toughness (resistance) of glasses is a fundamental problem of prime theoretical and practical importance. Here we theoretically study its dependence on the loading rate, the age (history) of the glass, and the notch radius ρ . Reduced-dimensionality analysis suggests that the notch fracture toughness results from a competition between the initial, age- and history-dependent, plastic relaxation time scale τ0pl and an effective loading time scale τext(K˙ I,ρ ) , where K˙ I is the tensile stress-intensity-factor rate. The toughness is predicted to scale with √{ρ } independently of ξ ≡τext/τ0pl for ξ ≪1 , to scale as T √{ρ }log (ξ ) for ξ ≫1 (related to thermal activation, where T is the temperature), and to feature a nonmonotonic behavior in the crossover region ξ ˜O (1 ) (related to plastic yielding dynamics). These predictions are verified using 2D computations, providing a unified picture of the notch fracture toughness of glasses. The theory highlights the importance of time-scale competition and far-from-steady-state elasto-viscoplastic dynamics for understanding the toughness and shows that the latter varies quite significantly with the glass age (history) and applied loading rate. Experimental support for bulk metallic glasses is presented, and possible implications for applications are discussed.

  17. Effects of Temperature on Mode II Fracture Toughness of Multidirectional CFRP Laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyoung Soo; Wang, Wen Xue; Takao, Yoshihiro; Ben, Goichi

    End notched flexure (ENF) tests were performed to investigate the effects of temperature and fiber orientation on Mode II interlaminar fracture behavior, GIIC (GII at the crack initiation), of carbon fiber-reinforced epoxy composites, T800H/#3631. The values of GIIC for three kinds of laminates, [012//012], [22.5/-22.5/08/-22.5/22.5//-22.5/22.5/08/22.5/-22.5] and [45/-45/08/-45/45//-45/45/08/45/-45], with a pre-cracked interface, that is // in each laminate, were obtained at three temperatures, i.e. -100°C, 25°C and 150°C. It is shown that GIIC is obviously affected by the temperature and fiber orientation. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation was also carried out to investigate the fracture surface. SEM analysis suggested that the decreased Mode II interlaminar fracture toughness for all kinds of specimens at high temperature could be attributed to temperature-induced matrix property change or fiber-matrix interfacial weakening.

  18. Adhesion and interfacial fracture toughness between hard and soft materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahbar, Nima; Wolf, Kurt; Orana, Argjenta; Fennimore, Roy; Zong, Zong; Meng, Juan; Papandreou, George; Maryanoff, Cynthia; Soboyejo, Wole

    2008-11-01

    This paper presents the results of a combined experimental and theoretical study of adhesion between hard and soft layers that are relevant to medical devices such as drug-eluting stents and semiconductor applications. Brazil disk specimens were used to measure the interfacial fracture energies between model parylene C and 316L stainless steel over a wide range of mode mixities. The trends in the overall fracture energies are predicted using a combination of adhesion theories and fracture mechanics concepts. The measured interfacial fracture energies are shown to be in good agreement with the predictions.

  19. Reference point indentation is not indicative of whole mouse bone measures of stress intensity fracture toughness

    PubMed Central

    Carriero, Alessandra; Bruse, Jan L.; Oldknow, Karla J.; Millán, José Luis; Farquharson, Colin; Shefelbine, Sandra J.

    2014-01-01

    Bone fragility is a concern for aged and diseased bone. Measuring bone toughness and understanding fracture properties of the bone are critical for predicting fracture risk associated with age and disease and for preclinical testing of therapies. A reference point indentation technique (BioDent) has recently been developed to determine bone's resistance to fracture in a minimally invasive way by measuring the indentation distance increase (IDI) between the first and last indentations over cyclic indentations in the same position. In this study, we investigate the relationship between fracture toughness KC and reference point indentation parameters (i.e. IDI, total indentation distance (TID) and creep indentation distance (CID)) in bones from 38 mice from six types (C57Bl/6, Balb, oim/oim, oim/+, Phospho1−/− and Phospho1 wild type counterpart). These mice bone are models of healthy and diseased bone spanning a range of fracture toughness from very brittle (oim/oim) to ductile (Phospho1−/−). Left femora were dissected, notched and tested in 3-point bending until complete failure. Contralateral femora were dissected and indented in 10 sites of their anterior and posterior shaft surface over 10 indentation cycles. IDI, TID and CID were measured. Results from this study suggest that reference point indentation parameters are not indicative of stress intensity fracture toughness in mouse bone. In particular, the IDI values at the anterior mid-diaphysis across mouse types overlapped, making it difficult to discern differences between mouse types, despite having extreme differences in stress intensity based toughness measures. When more locations of indentation were considered, the normalised IDIs could distinguish between mouse types. Future studies should investigate the relationship of the reference point indentation parameters for mouse bone in other material properties of the bone tissue in order to determine their use for measuring bone quality. PMID:25280470

  20. Fatigue crack growth characteristics and fracture toughness of {gamma}-TiAl base alloy sheet material

    SciTech Connect

    Behr, R.; Wanner, A.; Clemens, H.; Glatz, W.

    1995-07-01

    Room temperature tension-tension fatigue crack growth experiments were performed on single edge notch specimens of Ti-48Al-2Cr sheet materials produced on industrial scale with different microstructures ranging from near gamma to fully lamellar. Crack extension was monitored using a travelling optical microscope and a DC potential method. Crack paths and fracture surfaces were investigated by SEM. Fracture toughness data were determined by monotonic loading of previously fatigued samples.

  1. The effect of mixed mode precracking on the mode 1 fracture toughness of composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shankar, Prashanth; Bascom, Williard D.; Nairn, John A.

    1993-01-01

    We subjected double cantilever beam specimens from four different composite materials to mixed-mode precracking. Three different precracking mode 1 to mode 2 ratios were used--1 to 4, 1 to 1, and 4 to 1. Following precracking the specimens were tested for mode I fracture toughness. The mixed-mode precracking often influenced the mode 1 toughness and its influence persisted for as much as 60 mm of mode 1 crack growth. We tested composites with untoughened matrices, composites with rubber-toughened matrices, and composites with interlayer toughening. Depending on material type and precracking mode ratio, the precracking could cause either a significant increase or a significant decrease in the mode 1 fracture toughness.

  2. Fracture Toughness Properties of Savannah River Site Storage Tank ASTM A285 Low Carbon Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, K.H.

    2002-05-22

    A materials test program was developed to measure mechanical properties of ASTM A285 Grade B low carbon steel for application to structural and flaw stability analysis of storage tanks at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). Under this plan, fracture toughness and tensile testing are being performed at conditions that are representative of storage tank

  3. 75 FR 10410 - Alternate Fracture Toughness Requirements for Protection Against Pressurized Thermal Shock Events...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ..., 2010 (75 FR 5495). The February 3, 2010 document corrected a final rule published on January 4, 2010 (75 FR 13), that amends the NRC's regulations to provide alternate fracture toughness requirements for... document published on February 3, 2010 (75 FR 5495). Therefore, the NRC finds that notice and...

  4. Microstructure and Fracture Toughness of FeNiCr-TiC Composite Produced by Thermite Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Wenjun; Shi, Chaoliang

    The microstructures of the FeNiCr-TiC composite produced by the rapid solidification thermite process were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The effects of aging treatment on the microstructure and fracture toughness of the composite were examined. Results showed that the FeNiCr-TiC composite was composed of ferrite (α-FeNiCr), TiC and NiAl (β phase). TiC particles in the matrix were in the shape of polygon and uniformly distributed, and their size was less than 3 µm. The β phase was coherent with the ferrite matrix, and its average size was about 50 nm. The fracture toughness of composite was 22 MPa·m1/2 without aging. When the aging temperature was below 600°C, the fracture toughness of the composite had higher plateau values and reached the maximum of 32 MPa·m1/2 at aging temperature 500°C due to the precipitation of NiAl phase on the nanometer scale. The fracture toughness decreased rapidly aged at 650°C, and then kept homology value in the range of 700 to 900°C, which was attributed to the precipitation of needle-shaped carbide (Cr/Fe)7C3 at the grain boundaries.

  5. THE IMPORTANCE OF MICROSTRUCTURAL VARIATIONS ON THE FRACTURE TOUGHNESS OF HUMAN DENTIN

    PubMed Central

    Ivancik, J.; Arola, D.

    2012-01-01

    The crack growth resistance of human dentin was characterized as a function of relative distance from the DEJ and the corresponding microstructure. Compact tension specimens were prepared from the coronal dentin of caries-free 3rd molars. The specimens were sectioned from either the outer, middle or inner dentin. Stable crack extension was achieved under Mode I quasi-static loading, with the crack oriented in-plane with the tubules, and the crack growth resistance was characterized in terms of the initiation (Ko), growth (Kg) and plateau (Kp) toughness. A hybrid approach was also used to quantify the contribution of dominant mechanisms to the overall toughness. Results showed that human dentin exhibits increasing crack growth resistance with crack extension in all regions, and that the fracture toughness of inner dentin (2.2±0.5 MPa•m0.5) was significantly lower than that of middle (2.7±0.2 MPa•m0.5) and outer regions (3.4±0.3 MPa•m0.5). Extrinsic toughening, composed mostly of crack bridging, was estimated to cause an average increase in the fracture energy of 26% in all three regions. Based on these findings, dental restorations extended into deep dentin are much more likely to cause tooth fracture due to the greater potential for introduction of flaws and decrease in fracture toughness with depth. PMID:23131531

  6. 75 FR 5495 - Alternate Fracture Toughness Requirements for Protection Against Pressurized Thermal Shock Events...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-03

    ... (75 FR 13), that amends the NRC's regulations to provide alternate fracture toughness requirements for....Lesar@nrc.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In FR doc. E9-31146, published on January 4, 2010, make the... relevant material group given in Table 5. TR03FE10.008 where: m is the slope of a plot of all of the...

  7. Microstructure and fracture toughness of the in-situ NiAl-Ni(3)Al intermetallic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Qian

    1997-11-01

    increase with increasing crack extension, forming a very special shape which can be called "HOOP HEAD". Particularly, a critical value (Jsb{Ivc}) of the fracture energy for a CNB test can be simply calculated by a horizontal line tangent to the "HOOP HEAD". It is shown that fracture toughness of Nisb3Al/NiAl increases with increasing volume fraction of Nisb3Al in the in-situ composites according to a general formula Ksb{Ivc}=6.1+0.7Vsbsp{d}{0.75} (Mpasurdm) (where Vsb{d} - volume % of Nisb3Al). In some Nisb3Al/NiAl composite alloys the Nisb5Alsb3 fine particles are formed (so-called "mat-like structure") which exhibits very high Vickers microhardness ({≈}690 kg/mmsp2). The significant yield strength of {≈}1150 kg/mmsp2 in the aged Nisb{65.9}Alsb{34.1} in-situ composite is also attributed to this needle-like structure of Nisb5Asb3. It is worth pointing out that a very high yield strength (sigmasb{YS}≈1150MPa) is combined in aged alloys with a reasonable value of fracture toughness ({≈}13 MPasurdm). It indicates that such a new promising alloy can be yielded by an economic and simple casting method followed by a proper heat treatment as shown in this research. The highest Weibull's modulus m ≈ 23.8 for Nisb{63.7}Alsb{36.3}\\ ({≈}17 vol.% Nisb3Al) indicates that this alloy is a very reliable material for engineering design even with lower fracture toughness value (Ksb{Ivm}sp{W}≈8 MPasurdm). The lowest Weibull's modulus m ≈ 5.8 for Nisb{73.2}Alsb{26.8}\\ ({≈}99 vol.% Nisb3Al) means that the fracture toughness of this alloy is highly variable and no single value for Ksb{Ivm}sp{W} be assigned easily.

  8. A novel pillar indentation splitting test for measuring fracture toughness of thin ceramic coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Sebastiani, Marco; Johanns, K. E.; Herbert, Erik G.; Carassiti, Fabio; Pharr, George Mathews

    2014-05-16

    Fracture toughness is an important material property that plays a role in determining the in-service mechanical performance and adhesion of thin ceramic films. Unfortunately, measuring thin film fracture toughness is affected by influences from the substrate and the large residual stresses that can exist in the films. In this paper, we explore a promising new technique that potentially overcomes these problems based on nanoindentation testing of micro-pillars produced by focused ion beam milling of the films. By making the pillar diameter approximately equal to its length, the residual stress in the pillar’s upper portion is almost fully relaxed, and when indented with a sharp Berkovich indenter, the pillars fracture by splitting at reproducible loads that are readily quantified by a sudden displacement excursion in the load displacement behavior. Cohesive finite element simulations are used to analyze and develop, for a given material, a simple relation between the critical load at failure, pillar radius, and fracture toughness. The main novel aspect of this work is that neither crack geometries nor crack sizes need to be measured post test. Furthermore, the residual stress can be measured at the same time with toughness, by comparing the indentation results from the stress-free pillars and the as-deposited film. The method is tested on three different hard coatings formed by physical vapor deposition: titanium nitride, chromium nitride, and a CrAlN/Si3N4 nanocomposite. Results compare well to independently measured values of fracture toughness for the three brittle films. The technique offers several benefits over existing methods.

  9. A novel pillar indentation splitting test for measuring fracture toughness of thin ceramic coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebastiani, M.; Johanns, K. E.; Herbert, E. G.; Carassiti, F.; Pharr, G. M.

    2015-06-01

    The fracture toughness of thin ceramic films is an important material property that plays a role in determining the in-service mechanical performance and adhesion of this important class of engineering materials. Unfortunately, measurement of thin film fracture toughness is affected by influences from the substrate and the large residual stresses that can exist in the films. In this paper, we explore a promising new technique that potentially overcomes these issues based on nanoindentation testing of micro-pillars produced by focused ion beam milling of the films. By making the pillar diameter approximately equal to its length, the residual stress in the upper portion of the pillar is almost fully relaxed, and when indented with a sharp Berkovich indenter, the pillars fracture by splitting at reproducible loads that are readily quantified by a sudden displacement excursion in the load displacement behaviour. Cohesive finite element simulations are used for analysis and development of a simple relationship between the critical load at failure, pillar radius and fracture toughness for a given material. The main novel aspect of this work is that neither crack geometries nor crack sizes need to be measured post test. In addition, the residual stress can be measured at the same time with toughness, by comparison of the indentation results obtained on the stress-free pillars and the as-deposited film. The method is tested on three different hard coatings created by physical vapour deposition, namely titanium nitride, chromium nitride and a CrAlN/Si3N4 nanocomposite. Results compare well to independently measured values of fracture toughness for the three brittle films. The technique offers several benefits over existing methods.

  10. A novel pillar indentation splitting test for measuring fracture toughness of thin ceramic coatings

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sebastiani, Marco; Johanns, K. E.; Herbert, Erik G.; Carassiti, Fabio; Pharr, George Mathews

    2014-05-16

    Fracture toughness is an important material property that plays a role in determining the in-service mechanical performance and adhesion of thin ceramic films. Unfortunately, measuring thin film fracture toughness is affected by influences from the substrate and the large residual stresses that can exist in the films. In this paper, we explore a promising new technique that potentially overcomes these problems based on nanoindentation testing of micro-pillars produced by focused ion beam milling of the films. By making the pillar diameter approximately equal to its length, the residual stress in the pillar’s upper portion is almost fully relaxed, and whenmore » indented with a sharp Berkovich indenter, the pillars fracture by splitting at reproducible loads that are readily quantified by a sudden displacement excursion in the load displacement behavior. Cohesive finite element simulations are used to analyze and develop, for a given material, a simple relation between the critical load at failure, pillar radius, and fracture toughness. The main novel aspect of this work is that neither crack geometries nor crack sizes need to be measured post test. Furthermore, the residual stress can be measured at the same time with toughness, by comparing the indentation results from the stress-free pillars and the as-deposited film. The method is tested on three different hard coatings formed by physical vapor deposition: titanium nitride, chromium nitride, and a CrAlN/Si3N4 nanocomposite. Results compare well to independently measured values of fracture toughness for the three brittle films. The technique offers several benefits over existing methods.« less

  11. Impact of surface finishes on the flexural strength and fracture toughness of In-Ceram Zirconia.

    PubMed

    Manawi, Manal; Ozcan, Mutlu; Madina, Manal; Cura, Cenk; Valandro, Luiz Felipe

    2012-01-01

    Dental restorations made of zirconia are usually selectively adjusted chairside to eliminate occlusal or internal interferences that can impair the mechanical properties of ceramic framework material. Effects of polishing procedures on zirconia after chipping or simply glazing the monolithic zirconia restorations are not known. This study evaluated the effects of different surface treatment procedures--namely, glazing or grinding, finishing, and polishing regimens--on the flexural strength and fracture toughness of a zirconia core material. Forty zirconia specimens were prepared and divided into two main groups (n = 20) according to the type of surface treatment (glazed or ground, finished, and polished). Each group was further divided into two subgroups (n = 10) according to type of mechanical test (flexural strength and fracture toughness). The roughness measurements were performed before mechanical testing. Qualitative evaluation of representative specimens of each subgroup was performed using SEM. The surface roughness mean (μm; ± standard deviations) recorded for the glazed specimens (0.94 ± 0.2) was significantly lower than that of the finished and polished group (3.01 ± 0.1) (P < 0.05). The glazed zirconia showed significantly higher flexural strength (385.4 ± 45.4 MPa) and fracture toughness (6.07 ± 1 MPa.m½) values than the ground, finished, polished zirconia (302.4 ± 47.6 MPa and 2.14 ± 0.5 MPa.m½) (P = 0.002 and P < 0.001 for flexural strength and fracture toughness, respectively). A smooth topographic pattern after glazing could not be obtained after finishing and polishing. Grinding, finishing, and polishing markedly decreased the flexural strength and fracture toughness of zirconia compared to the glazed groups. PMID:22414507

  12. Effect of Mixed-Mode Ratio on Cryogenic Interlaminar Fracture Toughness of Woven Fabric Glass/Epoxy Laminates

    SciTech Connect

    Shindo, Y.; Horiguchi, K.; Kumagai, S.; Shinohe, D.

    2004-06-28

    This paper summarizes the results of an experimental and analytical study conducted to investigate the effect of mixed-mode ratio on the cryogenic interlaminar fracture toughness of woven fabric glass/epoxy laminates. Interlaminar fracture tests were performed and a three-dimensional finite element analysis was carried out to obtain critical strain energy release rates. The cryogenic interlaminar fracture toughness increased upon the introduction of the mode II component.

  13. HYDROGEN EFFECTS ON FRACTURE TOUGHNESS OF TYPE 316L STAINLESS STEEL FROM 175 K TO 425 K

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, M; Glenn Chapman, G

    2009-05-04

    The effects of hydrogen on the fracture-toughness properties of Type 316L stainless steel from 175 K to 425 K were measured. Fracture-toughness samples were fabricated from Type 316L stainless steel forgings and hydrogen-charged with hydrogen at 34 MPa and 623 K for two weeks prior to testing. The effect of hydrogen on the J-Integral vs. crack extension behavior was measured at various temperatures by fracturing non-charged and hydrogen-charged samples in an environmental chamber. Hydrogen-charged steels had lower toughness values than non-charged ones, but still retained good toughness properties. The fracture-toughness values of hydrogen-charged samples tested near ambient temperature were about 70% of non-charged values. For hydrogen-charged samples tested at 225 K and 425 K, the fracture-toughness values were 50% of the non-charged values. In all cases, fracture occurred by microvoid nucleation and coalescence, although the hydrogen-charged samples had smaller and more closely spaced microvoids. The results suggest that hydrogen effects on toughness are greater at 225 K than they are at ambient temperature because of strain-induced martensite formation. At 425 K, the hydrogen effects on toughness are greater than they are at ambient temperature because of the higher mobility of hydrogen.

  14. Analysis of fracture toughness of explosion-hardened martensitic steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moskvitina, L. V.

    2015-10-01

    In this work we study a shift of the following nonlinear states: tempering + abatement + 10 GPa shock loading + welding thermocycle. As a result the self-organized HAZ metal structure with elements of self-similarity on different scales is found. The fractal analysis shows how formed defects affect the HAZ metal hardness of 14H2GMR steel with the martensitic structure of static fracture. The statistical analysis of stereometric parameters of fracture shows a higher energy intensity of static fracture in specimens treated by explosion. The multifractal analysis reveals hardness of the grid dislocation structure induced by explosion in the air-hardening zone. The homogeneity of the dislocation structure related to carbides increases the resistance of HAZ metal of static fracture.

  15. Temperature dependence of fracture toughness of the cubic (L1{sub 2}) titanium trialuminides

    SciTech Connect

    Varin, R.A.; Zbroniec, L.

    1997-12-31

    Fracture toughness vs. temperature of the cubic (L1{sub 2}), Mn- modified titanium trialuminide (based on Al{sub 3}Ti) was investigated in air at the temperature range up to 1,000 C. Toughness calculated from the maximum load exhibits a broad peak (K{sub Q} {approx} 7--10 MPam{sup 0.5}) at the 200--500 C temperature range and then decreases with increasing temperature, reaching a room temperature value of {approximately}4.5 MPam{sup 0.5} at 1,000 C. However, the work of fracture ({gamma}{sub WOF}, J/m{sup 2}) and the stress intensity factor calculated from it (K{sub 1WOF}) increases continuously with increasing temperature. Fracture modes exhibit a gradual transition from transgranular cleavage at room temperature to predominantly intergranular failure at the 800--1,000 C range.

  16. Fracture toughness/Young's modulus correlation for low-density fibrous silica bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, D. J.

    1983-01-01

    Fracture toughness and static Young's modulus were measured for the low-density silic fiber materials used as tiles in the thermal protection system of the Space Shuttle. The fracture behavior was found to be in excellent agreement with a previously formulated micromechanical model and allowed both (density) classes of tile material to be correlated to a single function. A similar correlation was also found between strength and Young's modulus, which is the basis of a nondestructive evaluation test for these materials. It was shown that the value of Young's modulus determined from a dynamic test can be substantially greater than that determined in a static mechanical test. This effect must be taken into account in the correlation. Finally, it was also determined that these materials have significant variations in Kc, both within and between production units, so that the strength variability in these materials is dependent on both fracture toughness and flaw-size variations.

  17. Fracture Toughness of Veneering Ceramics for Fused to Metal (PFM) and Zirconia Dental Restorative Materials

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Janet B.; Quinn, George D.; Sundar, Veeraraghaven

    2010-01-01

    Veneering ceramics designed to be used with modern zirconia framework restorations have been reported to fracture occasionally in vivo. The fracture toughness of such veneering ceramics was measured and compared to that of conventional feldspathic porcelain veneering ceramics for metal framework restorations. The fracture toughness of the leucite free veneer was measured to be 0.73 MPa m ± 0.02 MPa m, which is less than that for the porcelain fused to metal (PFM) veneering ceramic: 1.10 MPa ± 0.2 MPa. (Uncertainties are one standard deviation unless otherwise noted.) The surface crack in flexure (SCF) method was suitable for both materials, but precrack identification was difficult for the leucite containing feldspathic porcelain PFM veneer. PMID:21833158

  18. Fracture toughness of the sidewall fluorinated carbon nanotube-epoxy interface

    SciTech Connect

    Ganesan, Yogeeswaran; Peng, Cheng; Zhang, Jiangnan; Cate, Avery; Lou, Jun E-mail: jlou@rice.edu; Salahshoor, Hossein; Rahbar, Nima E-mail: jlou@rice.edu; Khabashesku, Valery

    2014-06-14

    The effects of carbon nanotube (CNT) sidewall fluorination on the interface toughness of the CNT epoxy interface have been comprehensively investigated. Nanoscale quantitative single-CNT pull-out experiments have been conducted on individual fluorinated CNTs embedded in an epoxy matrix, in situ, within a scanning electron microscope (SEM) using an InSEM{sup ®} nanoindenter assisted micro-device. Equations that were derived using a continuum fracture mechanics model have been applied to compute the interfacial fracture energy values for the system. The interfacial fracture energy values have also been independently computed by modeling the fluorinated graphene-epoxy interface using molecular dynamics simulations and adhesion mechanisms have been proposed.

  19. Fracture toughness and fatigue crack growth of oxide dispersion strengthened copper

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, D.J.; Gieseke, B.G.

    1996-04-01

    The fracture toughness and fatigue crack growth behavior of copper dispersion strengthened with aluminum oxide (0.15 wt % Al) was examined. In the unirradiated condition, the fracture toughness was about 45 kJ/m{sup 2} (73 MPa{radical}m) at room temperature, but decreased significantly to only 3 Kj/m{sup 2} (20 MPa{radical}m), at 250{degrees}C. After irradiation at approximately 250{degrees}C to about 2.5 displacements per atom (dpa), the toughness was very low, about 1 kJ/m{sup 2} (48 MOa{radical}m), and at 250{degrees}C the toughness was very low, about 1kJ/m{sup 2} (12 mPa{radical}m). The fatigue crack growth rate of unirradiated material at room temperature is similiar to other candidate structural alloys such as V-4Cr-4Ti and 316L stainless steel. The fracture properties of this material at higher temperatures and in controlled environments need further investigation, in both irradiated and unirradiated conditions.

  20. An experimental and numerical investigation of specimen size requirements for cleavage fracture toughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, T. L.; Dodds, R. H., Jr.

    1994-09-01

    Cleavage fracture toughness can be influenced by specimen dimensions. Crack tip constraint can relax in small specimens, resulting in higher apparent toughness. Moreover, there is a statistical sampling effect, where thicker specimens tend to have lower toughness than thin specimens due to an increased sample volume. In deeply notched bend and compact specimens, theoretical modeling, finite element analysis, and experimental data indicate that the results will not be significantly influenced by crack tip constraint as long as the following specimen size requirements are met: a/W greater than 0.5, B greater than or equal to MJ(c)/sigma(y), B/b greater than or equal to 1 where a is the crack length, W is the specimen width, B is the specimen thickness, b is the uncracked ligament, J(c) is the critical 3 value, sigma(y) is the effective yield strength and M is a dimensionless constant. These size requirements are conservative if M is set equal to 100; M- 50 appears to be adequate for many materials, but the authors recommend the stricter requirement until fracture validation is performed. When specimens meet the above requirements, fracture toughness should not be influenced by size, provided statistical thickness effects are taken into account.

  1. Fracture Anisotropy and Toughness in the Mancos Shale: Implications for crack-growth geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandler, M. R.; Meredith, P. G.; Brantut, N.; Crawford, B. R.

    2013-12-01

    The hydraulic fracturing of gas-shales has drawn attention to the fundamental fracture properties of shales. Fracture propagation is dependent on a combination of the in-situ stress field, the fracturing fluid and pressure, and the mechanical properties of the shale. However, shales are strongly anisotropic, and there is a general paucity of available experimental data on the anisotropic mechanical properties of shales in the scientific literature. The mode-I stress intensity factor, KI, quantifies the concentration of stress at crack tips. The Fracture Toughness of a linear elastic material is then defined as the critical value of this stress intensity factor; KIc, beyond which rapid catastrophic crack growth occurs. However, shales display significant non-linearity, which produces hysteresis during experimental cyclic loading. This allows for the calculation of a ductility coefficient using the residual displacement after successive loading cycles. From this coefficient, a ductility corrected Fracture Toughness value, KIcc can be determined. In the Mancos Shale this ductility correction can be as large as 60%, giving a Divider orientation KIcc value of 0.8 MPa.m0.5. Tensile strength and mode-I Fracture Toughness have been experimentally determined for the Mancos Shale using the Brazil Disk and Short-Rod methodologies respectively. The three principal fracture orientations; Arrester, Divider and Short-Transverse were all analysed. A significant anisotropy is observed in the tensile strength, with the Arrester value being 1.5 times higher than the Short-Transverse value. Even larger anisotropy is observed in the Fracture Toughness, with KIcc in the Divider and Arrester orientations being around 1.8 times that in the Short-Transverse orientation. For both tensile strength and fracture toughness, the Short-Transverse orientation, where the fracture propagates in the bedding plane in a direction parallel to the bedding, is found to have significantly lower values than

  2. AGING AND THE REDUCTION IN FRACTURE TOUGHNESS OF HUMAN DENTIN

    PubMed Central

    Nazari, A.; Bajaj, D.; Zhang, D.; Romberg, E.; Arola, D.

    2009-01-01

    An evaluation of the crack growth resistance of human coronal dentin was performed on tissue obtained from patients between ages 18 and 83. Stable crack extension was achieved over clinically relevant lengths (0 ≤ a ≤1 mm) under Mode I quasi-static loading and perpendicular to the nominal tubule direction. Results distinguished that human dentin exhibits an increase in crack growth resistance with extension (i.e. rising R-curve) and that there is a significant reduction in both the initiation (Ko) and plateau (Kp) components of toughness with patient age. In the young dentin (18≤age≤35) there was a 25 % increase in the crack growth resistance from the onset of extension (Ko =1.34 MPa·m0.5) to the maximum or “plateau” toughness (Kp = 1.65 MPa·m0.5). In comparison, the crack growth resistance of the old dentin (55≤age) increased with extension by less than 10 % from Ko = 1.08 MPa·m0.5 to Kp = 1.17 MPa·m0.5. In young dentin toughening was achieved by a combination of inelastic deformation of the mineralized collagen matrix and microcracking of the peritubular cuffs. These mechanisms facilitated further toughening via the development of unbroken ligaments of tissue and posterior crack-bridging. Microstructural changes with aging decreased the capacity for near-tip inelastic deformation and microcracking of the tubules, which in turn suppressed the formation of unbroken ligaments and the degree of extrinsic toughening. PMID:19627862

  3. Effect of si on Microstructure and Fracture Toughness of Directionally Solidified nb Silicide Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Meiling; Wang, Yuye; Li, Shusuo; Jiang, Liwu; Han, Yafang

    Nb-xSi(x=3,9,16)-22Ti-3Cr-3Al-2Hf (at.%) have been successfully prepared by directional solidification in an optical floating zone furnace. Microstructure analysis and phases identification of the alloys were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Electro Probe Micro Analyzer (EPMA) and Energy Disperse Spectroscopy (EDS). Fracture toughness specimens without pre-crack were prepared, room temperature fracture toughness of alloys was tested by three-point bending method, and fracture mechanism was studied. The results showed that with increasing Si content, Nb5Si3 phase gradually increased and the phase transformed from γ-Nb5Si3 to the stable α-Nb5Si3 phase and β-Nb5Si3 phase. There appeared the Ti-rich Nb5Si3 phase when the Si content is 16 at%. In addition, more micro-cracks generated in the Ti-rich Nb5Si3 phase, which seriously affected room temperature fracture toughness of the alloys.

  4. Comparisons of various configurations of the edge delamination test for interlaminar fracture toughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, T. K.; Johnston, N. J.; Raju, I. S.; Morris, D. H.; Simonds, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Various configurations of Edge Delamination Tension (EDT) test specimens, of both brittle (T300/5208) and toughened-matrix (T300/BP907) graphite reinforced composite laminates, were manufactured and tested. The mixed-mode interlaminar fracture toughness, G sub C, was measured using (30/30 sub 2/30/90 sub N)sub s, n=1 or 2, (35/-35/0/90) sub s and (35/0/-35/90) sub s layups designed to delaminate at low tensile strains. Laminates were made without inserts so that delaminations would form naturally between the central 90 deg plies and the adjacent angle plies. Laminates were also made with Teflon inserts implanted between the 90 deg plies and the adjacent angle (theta) plies at the straight edge to obtain a planar fracture surface. In addition, interlaminar tension fracture toughness, GIc, was measured from laminates with the same layup but with inserts in the midplane, between the central 90 deg plies, at the straight edge. All of the EDT configurations were useful for ranking the delamination resistance of composites with different matrix resins. Furthermore, the variety of layups and configurations available yield interlaminar fracture toughness measurements needed to generate delamination failure criteria. The influence of insert thickness and location, and coupon size on G sub c values were evaluated.

  5. Effects of Cryogenic Temperature on Fracture Toughness of Core-Shell Rubber (CSR) Toughened Epoxy Nanocomposites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, J.; Cannon, S. A.; Magee, D.; Schneider, J. A.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of core-shell rubber (CSR) nanoparticles on the mechanical properties and fracture toughness of an epoxy resin at ambient and liquid nitrogen (LN2) temperatures. Varying amounts of Kane Ace MX130 toughening agent were added to a commercially available EPON 862/Epikure W epoxy resin. Elastic modulus was calculated using quasi-static tensile data. Fracture toughness was evaluated by the resulting breaking energy measured in Charpy impact tests conducted on an instrumented drop tower. The size and distribution of the CSR nanoparticles were characterized using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS). Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was used to study the fracture surface morphology. The addition of the CSR nanoparticles increased the breaking energy with negligible change in elastic modulus and ultimate tensile stress (UTS). At ambient temperature the breaking energy increased with increasing additions of the CSR nanoparticles, while at LN2 temperatures, it reached a maximum at 5 wt% CSR concentration. KEY WORDS: liquid nitrogen (LN2) properties, fracture toughness, core-shell rubber (CSR).

  6. Evaluation of static and dynamic fracture toughness in ductile cast iron

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Toshiro; Yamada, Shinya . Dept. of Production Systems Engineering)

    1994-11-01

    Ductile cast irons have been explored as a cask (container for spent nuclear fuel) material because of their low cost and good formability. The cask, which is a huge casting with 400-mm thickness and 100-Mg weight, envelops the nuclear material. Therefore, the fracture toughness of cask must be evaluated not only under the static loading condition but also under the dynamic loading condition to ensure its safety against an accident during the transport. In this article, crack extension behavior and fracture toughness of ductile cast iron were examined by three-point bend tests, where various detection methods of crack initiation under static and dynamic loading conditions were adopted. Loading on the specimens was interrupted at various displacement points, and the final fracture surfaces of the specimen were observed via scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Crack-tip opening displacement (CTOD) obtained under the dynamic loading conditions was smaller than that under the static loading condition in ferritic ductile cast iron, and CTOD additionally decreased with increasing pearlite content in the matrix. The relationship between J([Delta]C) obtained by the compliance changing rate method and J(R) established by the intersection of the crack extension resistance curve and the theoretical blunting line varied with pearlite content. The average value of J([Delta]C) and J(R), that is J(mid), was proposed to define the fracture toughness of ductile cast iron; J(mid) was considered to be a reasonable measure for the fracture toughness of ductile cast iron, irrespective of loading condition and the pearlite content in the matrix.

  7. Bone tissue heterogeneity is associated with fracture toughness: a polarization Raman spectroscopy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makowski, Alexander J.; Granke, Mathilde; Uppuganti, Sasidhar; Mahadevan-Jansen, Anita; Nyman, Jeffry S.

    2015-02-01

    Polarization Raman Spectroscopy has been used to demonstrate microstructural features and collagen fiber orientation in human and mouse bone, concurrently measuring both organization and composition; however, it is unclear as to what extent these measurements explain the mechanical quality of bone. In a cohort of age and gender matched cadaveric cortical bone samples (23-101 yr.), we show homogeneity of both composition and structure are associated with the age related decrease in fracture toughness. 64 samples were machined into uniform specimens and notched for mechanical fracture toughness testing and polished for Raman Spectroscopy. Fingerprint region spectra were acquired on wet bone prior to mechanical testing by sampling nine different microstructural features spaced in a 750x750 μm grid in the region of intended crack propagation. After ASTM E1820 single edge notched beam fracture toughness tests, the sample was dried in ethanol and the osteonal-interstitial border of one osteon was samples in a 32x32 grid of 2μm2 pixels for two orthogonal orientations relative to the long bone axis. Standard peak ratios from the 9 separate microstructures show heterogeneity between structures but do not sufficiently explain fracture toughness; however, peak ratios from mapping highlight both lamellar contrast (ν1Phos/Amide I) and osteon-interstitial contrast (ν1Phos/Proline). Combining registered orthogonal maps allowed for multivariate analysis of underlying biochemical signatures. Image entropy and homogeneity metrics of single principal components significantly explain resistance to crack initiation and propagation. Ultimately, a combination of polarization content and multivariate Raman signatures allowed for the association of microstructural tissue heterogeneity with fracture resistance.

  8. Elevated temperature fracture toughness of Al-Cu-Mg-Ag sheet: Characterization and modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, M.J.; Gangloff, R.P.

    1997-09-01

    The plane-strain initiation fracture toughness (K{sub JlCi}) and plane-stress crack growth resistance of two Al-Cu-Mg-Ag alloy sheets are characterized as a function of temperature by a J-integral method. For AA2519 + Mg + Ag, K{sub JlCi} decreases from 32.5 MPa {radical}m at 250 C to 28.5 MPa {radical}m at 175 C, while K{sub JlCi} for a lower Cu variant increases from 34.2 MPa {radical}m at 25 C to 36.0 Mpa {radical}m at 150 C. Crack-tip damage in AA2519 + Mg + Ag evolves by nucleation and growth of voids from large undissolved Al{sub 2}Cu particles, but fracture resistance is controlled by void sheeting coalescence associated with dispersoids. Quantitative fractography, three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction of fracture surfaces, and metallographic crack profiles indicate that void sheeting is retarded as temperature increases from 25 C to 150 C, consistent with a rising fracture resistance. Primary microvoids nucleate from smaller constituent particles in the low Cu alloy, and fracture strain increases. A strain-controlled micromechanical model accurately predicts K{sub JlCi} as a function of temperature, but includes a critical distance parameter (l*) that is not definable a priori. Nearly constant initiation toughness for AA2519 + Mg + Ag is due to rising fracture strain with temperature, which balances the effects of decreasing flow strength, work hardening, and elastic modulus on the crack-tip strain distribution. Ambient temperature toughnesses of the low Cu variant are comparable to those of AA2519 + Mg + Ag, despite increased fracture strain, because of reduced constituent spacing and l*.

  9. The effect of microstructure and strength on the fracture toughness of an 18 Ni, 300 grade maraging steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Psioda, J. A.; Low, J. R., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A 300 grade maraging steel was chosen as a vehicle by which to understand the inverse relationship between strength and toughness in high strength alloys such as the 18 Ni maraging steels. The 18 Ni, 300 grade maraging material was a commercial grade consumable-electrode, vacuum arc remelted heat obtained in the form of forged and annealed plate. The matrix contained a population of second-phase impurity inclusions which was a product of the casting and hot working processes. These inclusions did not change with subsequent precipitation hardening. Changes in microstructure resulting in strength increases were brought about by variations in aging temperature and time. Maximum strength was attained in the 300 grade maraging steel by aging at 427 C (800 F) for 100 hours. Tensile, fatigue precracked Charpy impact, and plane-strain fracture toughness tests were performed at room temperature, 20 C (68 F). With increasing strength the fracture toughness decreases as smaller and smaller inclusions act as sites for void initiation.

  10. Fracture toughness and structure of martensitic class steels

    SciTech Connect

    Golovinskaya, T.M.; Dmitrieva, E.A.; Kaminskii, A.A.; Rudis, T.V.

    1985-05-01

    In this paper the authors present results of a study of the influence of heat-treatment conditions of structural steels with intense decomposition of the metastable structures in tempering after hardening and with decomposition delayed by the addition of the alloy elements molybdenum and vanadium on the crack resistance, structural changes, and micromechanism of fracture. Investigation was made using the martensitic class steels 37KhN3A, 30KhGSA, and 30Kh3SNMVF.

  11. High-toughness graphite/epoxy composite material experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Felbeck, David K.

    1993-01-01

    This experiment was designed to measure the effect of near-earth space exposure on three mechanical properties of specially toughened 5208/T300 graphite/epoxy composite materials. The properties measured are elastic modulus, strength, and fracture toughness. Six toughness specimens and nine tensile specimens were mounted on an external frame during the 5.8-year orbit of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). Three identical sets of specimens were manufactured at the outset: the flight set, a zero-time non-flight set, and a total-time non-flight set.

  12. High Temperature Fracture Characteristics of a Nanostructured Ferritic Alloy (NFA)

    SciTech Connect

    Byun, Thak Sang; Kim, Jeoung H; Ji Hyun, Yoon; Hoelzer, David T

    2010-01-01

    High temperature fracture behavior has been investigated for the nanostructured ferritic alloy 14YWT (SM10). The fracture toughness of the alloy was above 140 MPa m at low temperatures, room temperature (RT) and 200 C, but decreased to a low fracture toughness range of 52 82 MPa m at higher temperatures up to 700 C. This behavior was explained by the fractography results indicating that the unique nanostructure of 14YWT alloy produced shallow plasticity layers at high temperatures and a low-ductility grain boundary debonding occurred at 700 C.

  13. Influence of casting size and graphite nodule refinement on fracture toughness of austempered ductile iron

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.C.; Hsu, C.H.; Chang, C.C.; Feng, H.P.

    1998-10-01

    Casting size affects the solidification cooling rate and microstructure of casting materials. Graphite nodules existing in the structure of ductile iron are an inherent and inert second phase that cannot be modified in subsequent heat-treatment processing. The matrix and the fineness of the second phase undoubtedly have some impact on the fracture toughness of the as-cast material, as does the subsequent heat treatment, as it alters the microstructure. This research applied austempering heat treatment to ductile iron of different section sizes and graphite nodule finenesses. The influence of these variables on the plane strain fracture toughness (K{sub IC}) of the castings so treated was compared to that of the as-cast state. Metallography, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction analysis were performed to correlate the properties attained to the microstructural observation.

  14. Aging effects on the fracture toughness of SiC whisker reinforced 2XXX aluminum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnaparkhi, P. L.; Rack, H. J.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of aging (at 150 C) time on the fracture toughness behavior of a 2XXX alloy (Al-3.55Cu-1.29Mg-0.01Fe-trace Mn) reinforced with 5 vol pct F-8 SiC whiskers was investigated by measuring hardness and electrical conductivity followed by fracture toughness tests on center-cracked specimens. The ageing time-hardening response plots showed that, independent of whisker orientation, the initial rapid increase in hardness was followed by a more gradual increase, with a broad hardness peak between 32 and 128 hrs of aging. Coincident with the hardness changes, the electrical conductivity initially decreased, reached a minimum, and then increased at aging times beyond 32 hrs. Examination by SEM indicated that the initial increase in hardness and decrease in conductivity was due to the GPB zone formation, while the subsequent increase in electrical conductivity and decrease in hardness (overaging) was due to S nucleation and growth.

  15. A Practical Test Method for Mode I Fracture Toughness of Adhesive Joints with Dissimilar Substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Boeman, R.G.; Erdman, D.L.; Klett, L.B.; Lomax, R.D.

    1999-09-27

    A practical test method for determining the mode I fracture toughness of adhesive joints with dissimilar substrates will be discussed. The test method is based on the familiar Double Cantilever Beam (DCB) specimen geometry, but overcomes limitations in existing techniques that preclude their use when testing joints with dissimilar substrates. The test method is applicable to adhesive joints where the two bonded substrates have different flexural rigidities due to geometric and/or material considerations. Two specific features discussed are the use of backing beams to prevent substrate damage and a compliance matching scheme to achieve symmetric loading conditions. The procedure is demonstrated on a modified DCB specimen comprised of SRIM composite and thin-section, e-coat steel substrates bonded with an epoxy adhesive. Results indicate that the test method provides a practical means of characterizing the mode I fracture toughness of joints with dissimilar substrates.

  16. Translaminar Fracture Toughness of a Composite Wing Skin Made of Stitched Warp-knit Fabric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masters, John E.

    1997-01-01

    A series of tests were conducted to measure the fracture toughness of carbon/epoxy composites. The composites were made from warp-knit carbon fabric and infiltrated with epoxy using a resin-film-infusion process. The fabric, which was designed by McDonnell Douglas for the skin of an all-composite subsonic transport wing, contained fibers in the 0 deg, +/-45 deg, and 90 deg directions. Layers of fabric were stacked and stitched together with Kevlar yarn to form a 3-dimensional preform. Three types of test specimens were evaluated: compact tension, center notch tension, and edge notch tension. The effects of specimen size and crack length on fracture toughness were measured for each specimen type. These data provide information on the effectiveness of the test methods and on general trends in the material response. The scope of the investigation was limited by the material that was available.

  17. Method for predicting the fracture toughness of pipeline steels within a wide temperature range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baron, A. A.

    2015-03-01

    Eight pipeline steels in the as-is state are studied. A linear relation between yield strength σ0.2 and Brinell hardness HB is found within the temperature range 77 ≤ T ≤ 293 K. A technique is developed to predict the hardness at low temperatures from HB 293 at room temperature. A generalized relationship between K Ic , T / K Ic , 243 and HB T / HB 243 ( K Ic , T and HB T are the fracture toughness and the Brinell hardness at any temperature, respectively, K Ic , 243 and HB 243 are the same at the phase-transition temperature (243 K)) is found. This relationship is used to propose a new fast method for estimating the fracture toughness of pipeline steels from the results of testing standard small samples in liquid nitrogen.

  18. Strength and fracture toughness of heterogeneous blocks with joint lognormal modulus and failure strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimas, Leon S.; Veneziano, Daniele; Buehler, Markus J.

    2016-07-01

    We obtain analytical approximations to the probability distribution of the fracture strengths of notched one-dimensional rods and two-dimensional plates in which the stiffness (Young's modulus) and strength (failure strain) of the material vary as jointly lognormal random fields. The fracture strength of the specimen is measured by the elongation, load, and toughness at two critical stages: when fracture initiates at the notch tip and, in the 2D case, when fracture propagates through the entire specimen. This is an extension of a previous study on the elastic and fracture properties of systems with random Young's modulus and deterministic material strength (Dimas et al., 2015a). For 1D rods our approach is analytical and builds upon the ANOVA decomposition technique of (Dimas et al., 2015b). In 2D we use a semi-analytical model to derive the fracture initiation strengths and regressions fitted to simulation data for the effect of crack arrest during fracture propagation. Results are validated through Monte Carlo simulation. Randomness of the material strength affects in various ways the mean and median values of the initial strengths, their log-variances, and log-correlations. Under low spatial correlation, material strength variability can significantly increase the effect of crack arrest, causing ultimate failure to be a more predictable and less brittle failure mode than fracture initiation. These insights could be used to guide design of more fracture resistant composites, and add to the design features that enhance material performance.

  19. Development of high strength high toughness third generation advanced high strength steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martis, Codrick John

    Third generation advanced high strength steels (AHSS's) are emerging as very important engineering materials for structural applications. These steels have high specific strength and thus will contribute significantly to weight reduction in automotive and other structural component. In this investigation two such low carbon low alloy steels (LCLA) with high silicon content (1.6-2wt %) has been developed. These two steel alloys were subjected to single step and two step austempering in the temperature range of 260-399°C to obtain desired microstructures and mechanical properties. Austempering heat treatment was carried out for 2 hours in a molten salt bath. The microstructures were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and optical metallography. Quantitative analysis was carried out by image analysis technique. The effect of austempering temperature on the mechanical properties of these two alloys was examined. The influence of microstructures on the mechanical properties of alloys was also studied. Austempering heat treatment resulted in fine carbide free bainitic ferrite and high carbon austenite microstructure in the samples austempered above Ms temperature, whereas tempered martensite and austenite microstructure was obtained in samples austempered below Ms temperature. Yield strength, tensile strength and fracture toughness were found to increase as the austempering temperature decreases, whereas ductility increases as the austempering temperature increases. Tensile strength in the range of 1276MPa -1658 MPa and the fracture toughness in the range of 80-141MPa√m were obtained in these two steels. Volume fractions of different phases present and their lath sizes are related to the mechanical properties. Austempered samples consisting of mixed microstructure of bainitic ferrite and tempered martensite phases resulted in the exceptional combination of strength and toughness.

  20. Effects of stitching on fracture toughness of uniweave textile graphite/epoxy laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sankar, Bhavani V.; Sharma, Suresh

    1995-01-01

    The effects of through-the-thickness stitching on impact damage resistance, impact damage tolerance, and Mode 1 and Mode 2 fracture toughness of textile graphite/epoxy laminates were studied experimentally. Graphite/epoxy laminates were fabricated from AS4 graphite uniweave textiles and 3501-6 epoxy using Resin Transfer Molding. The cloths were stitched with Kevlar(tm) and glass yarns before resin infusion. Delamination was implanted during processing to simulate impact damage. Sublaminate buckling tests were performed in a novel fixture to measure Compression After Impact (CAI) strength of stitched laminates. The results show that CAI strength can be improved up to 400% by through-the-thickness stitching. Double Cantilever Beam tests were performed to study the effect of stitching on Mode 1 fracture toughness G(sub 1c). It was found that G(sub 1c) increased 30 times for a low stitching density of 16 stitches/sq in. Mode 2 fracture toughness was measured by testing the stitched beams in End Notch Flexure tests. Unlike in the unstitiched beams, crack propagation in the stitched beams was steady. The current formulas for ENF tests were not found suitable for determining G(sub 2C) for stitched beams. Hence two new methods were developed - one based on crack area measured from ultrasonic C-scanning and the other based on equivalent crack area measured from the residual stiffness of the specimen. The G(sub 2c) was found to be at least 5-15 times higher for the stitched laminates. The mechanisms by which stitching increases the CAI strength and fracture toughness are discussed.

  1. Sharply notch cylindrical tension specimen for screening plane-strain fracture toughness. I - Influence of fundamental testing variables on notch strength. II Applications in aluminum alloy quality assurance of fracture toughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, M. H.; Bubsey, R. T.; Brown, W. F., Jr.; Bucci, R. J.; Collis, S. F.; Kohm, R. F.; Kaufman, J. G.

    1977-01-01

    A description is presented of studies which have been conducted to establish an improved technology base for a use of the sharply notched cylindrical specimen in quality assurance tests of aluminum alloy products. The results are presented of an investigation of fundamental variables associated with specimen preparation and testing, taking into account the influence of the notch root radius, the eccentricity of loading, the specimen diameter, and the notch depth on the sharp notch strength. Attention is given to the statistical procedures which are necessary to establish correlations between the sharp notch strength and the plane-strain fracture toughness for high-strength aluminum alloys.

  2. Effects of Thermal Aging on Material Properties, Stress Corrosion Cracking, and Fracture Toughness of AISI 316L Weld Metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, Timothy; Forsström, Antti; Saukkonen, Tapio; Ballinger, Ronald; Hänninen, Hannu

    2016-06-01

    Thermal aging and consequent embrittlement of materials are ongoing issues in cast stainless steels, as well as duplex, and high-Cr ferritic stainless steels. Spinodal decomposition is largely responsible for the well-known "748 K (475 °C) embrittlement" that results in drastic reductions in ductility and toughness in these materials. This process is also operative in welds of either cast or wrought stainless steels where δ-ferrite is present. While the embrittlement can occur after several hundred hours of aging at 748 K (475 °C), the process is also operative at lower temperatures, at the 561 K (288 °C) operating temperature of a boiling water reactor (BWR), for example, where ductility reductions have been observed after several tens of thousands of hours of exposure. An experimental program was carried out in order to understand how spinodal decomposition may affect changes in material properties in Type 316L BWR piping weld metals. The study included material characterization, nanoindentation hardness, double-loop electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation (DL-EPR), Charpy-V, tensile, SCC crack growth, and in situ fracture toughness testing as a function of δ-ferrite content, aging time, and temperature. SCC crack growth rates of Type 316L stainless steel weld metal under simulated BWR conditions showed an approximate 2 times increase in crack growth rate over that of the unaged as-welded material. In situ fracture toughness measurements indicate that environmental exposure can result in a reduction of toughness by up to 40 pct over the corresponding at-temperature air-tested values. Material characterization results suggest that spinodal decomposition is responsible for the degradation of material properties measured in air, and that degradation of the in situ properties may be a result of hydrogen absorbed during exposure to the high-temperature water environment.

  3. Effects of Thermal Aging on Material Properties, Stress Corrosion Cracking, and Fracture Toughness of AISI 316L Weld Metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, Timothy; Forsström, Antti; Saukkonen, Tapio; Ballinger, Ronald; Hänninen, Hannu

    2016-08-01

    Thermal aging and consequent embrittlement of materials are ongoing issues in cast stainless steels, as well as duplex, and high-Cr ferritic stainless steels. Spinodal decomposition is largely responsible for the well-known "748 K (475 °C) embrittlement" that results in drastic reductions in ductility and toughness in these materials. This process is also operative in welds of either cast or wrought stainless steels where δ-ferrite is present. While the embrittlement can occur after several hundred hours of aging at 748 K (475 °C), the process is also operative at lower temperatures, at the 561 K (288 °C) operating temperature of a boiling water reactor (BWR), for example, where ductility reductions have been observed after several tens of thousands of hours of exposure. An experimental program was carried out in order to understand how spinodal decomposition may affect changes in material properties in Type 316L BWR piping weld metals. The study included material characterization, nanoindentation hardness, double-loop electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation (DL-EPR), Charpy-V, tensile, SCC crack growth, and in situ fracture toughness testing as a function of δ-ferrite content, aging time, and temperature. SCC crack growth rates of Type 316L stainless steel weld metal under simulated BWR conditions showed an approximate 2 times increase in crack growth rate over that of the unaged as-welded material. In situ fracture toughness measurements indicate that environmental exposure can result in a reduction of toughness by up to 40 pct over the corresponding at-temperature air-tested values. Material characterization results suggest that spinodal decomposition is responsible for the degradation of material properties measured in air, and that degradation of the in situ properties may be a result of hydrogen absorbed during exposure to the high-temperature water environment.

  4. Effect of specimen size on the fracture toughness of V-4Cr-4Ti

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, R.J.; Jones, R.H.; Li, Huaxin

    1996-04-01

    J-R curves were generated using the single specimen unload-compliance technique on four specimens of V-4Cr-4Ti to determine the effect of specimen dimensions on the fracture behavior. Ductile crack initiation and growth was observed in the 6.35 mm thick specimens but not in the 12.70 mm thick specimens. The J-R curves determined from these tests were not valid per ASTM validity criteria so quantitative measures of the resistance to ductile crack initiation and growth were not obtained. These data suggests that standard fracture toughness tests were performed with small-scale DCT specimens may also not be valid.

  5. The effect of microstructure on the fracture toughness of titanium alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanstone, R. H.; Low, J. R., Jr.; Shannon, J. L., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The microstructure of the alpha titanium alloy Ti-5Al-2.5Sn and the metastable beta titanium alloy Beta 3 was examined. The material was from normal and extra low interstitial grade plates which were either air-cooled or furnace-cooled from an annealing treatment. Beta 3 was studied in alpha-aged and omega-aged plates which were heat treated to similar strength levels. Tensile and plane strain fracture toughness tests were conducted at room temperature on the alpha-aged material. The microstructure and fracture mechanisms of alloys were studied using optical metallography, electron microscopy, microprobe analyses, and texture pole figures. Future experiments are described.

  6. Measurement of the fracture toughness of polycrystalline bubbly ice from an Antarctic ice core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christmann, J.; Muller, R.; Webber, K. G.; Isaia, D.; Schader, F. H.; Kipfstuhl, S.; Freitag, J.; Humbert, A.

    2015-05-01

    The critical fracture toughness is a material parameter describing the resistance of a cracked body to further crack extension. It is an important parameter for simulating and predicting the breakup behavior of ice shelves from the calving of single icebergs to the disintegration of entire ice shelves over a wide range of length scales. The fracture toughness values are calculated with equations that are derived from an elastic stress analysis. Additionally, an X-ray computer tomography (CT scanner) was used to identify the density as a function of depth. The critical fracture toughness of 91 Antarctic bubbly ice samples with densities between 840 and 870 kg m-3 has been determined by applying a four-point bending technique on single-edge v-notched beam samples. The examined ice core was drilled 70 m north of Kohnen Station, Dronnning Maud Land (75°00' S, 00°04' E; 2882 m). Supplementary data are available at Effect of weld metal mismatch on joint efficiency and measured fracture toughness

    SciTech Connect

    Yee, R.; Malik, L.; Morrison, J.

    1997-12-31

    Fracture toughness tests of deep-notched and shallow-notched SENB specimens at various sub-zero temperatures were conducted to study the effect of weld metal mismatch on measured fracture toughness. Tensile tests of cross-weld tensile specimens were also conducted to study the effect of weld metal mismatch on joint efficiency. These specimens were machined from butt welds that were fabricated with the same welding consumable and welding procedure using HSLA 100 steel plates heat treated to different tensile strengths. No significant differences were found between the joint efficiencies and ductilities of the cross-weld tensile specimens with overmatching weld metal and those of specimens with up to 9% weld metal undermatch in terms of yield strength (3% in terms of ultimate tensile strength). Furthermore, 100% joint efficiency was still achieved in the cross-weld tensile specimens with intact reinforcements and 17% undermatching weld metal in terms of yield strength (9% in terms of ultimate tensile strength). No correlation was found between the degree of weld metal mismatch and the measured fracture toughness of the SENB specimens.

  7. Fracture toughness testing and toughening mechanisms of some commercial cobalt-free hardfacing alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Cockeram, B.V.

    1998-04-27

    Hardfacing alloys are weld deposited to provide a wear resistant surface for structural base materials. Commercial low cobalt hardfacing alloys are being evaluated to reduce plant activation levels. Since hardfacing alloys typically must be resistant to cracking to assure adequate in service performance, fracture toughness is a critical material property. Fracture toughness (K{sub IC}) measurements of Fe base, Ni-base, and Co-base hardfacing were performed in accordance with ASTM E399-90 procedure in an effort to identify a tough cobalt-free alternative. Reduced scatter in K{sub IC} data was observed for the Fe base hardfacing, and the 95% lower bound K{sub IC} values were generally higher than the Ni-base Hardfacing alloys. Preliminary crack growth data obtained during precracking indicate that the Ni-base hardfacing possess better fatigue crack growth resistance. However, none of the Fe-base or Ni-base hardfacing have K{sub IC} values that are comparable to the reference Co-base hard facing. The test specimens were machined from thick (0.5 inches) weld deposits, and the microstructures of the test specimens are compared with the more prototypic, thinner deposits. Microstructural and fractographic examinations are used to characterize the fracture mechanisms and delineate the operative toughening mechanisms. Crack deflection and crack bridging toughening mechanisms are shown to be relevant for most of the commercial hardfacing.

  8. Strength, Fracture Toughness, and Slow Crack Growth of Zirconia/alumina Composites at Elevated Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Bansal, Narottam P.

    2003-01-01

    Various electrolyte materials for solid oxide fuel cells were fabricated by hot pressing 10 mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia (10-YSZ) reinforced with two different forms of alumina particulates and platelets each containing 0 to 30 mol% alumina. Flexure strength and fracture toughness of platelet composites were determined as a function of alumina content at 1000 C in air and compared with those of particulate composites determined previously. In general, elevated-temperature strength and fracture toughness of both composite systems increased with increasing alumina content. For a given alumina content, flexure strength of particulate composites was greater than that of platelet composites at higher alumina contents (greater than or equal to 20 mol%), whereas, fracture toughness was greater in platelet composites than in particulate composites, regardless of alumina content. The results of slow crack growth (SCG) testing, determined at 1000 C via dynamic fatigue testing for three different composites including 0 mol% (10-YSZ matrix), 30 mol % particulate and 30 mol% platelet composites, showed that susceptibility to SCG was greatest with SCG parameter n = 6 to 8 for both 0 and 30 mol% particulate composites and was least with n = 33 for the 30 mol% platelet composite.

  9. The Effect of Curing Temperature on the Fracture Toughness of Fiberglass Epoxy Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Thomas J.

    The curing reaction in a thermoset polymer matrix composite is often accelerated by the addition of heat in an oven or autoclave. The heat added increases the rate of the polymerization reaction and cross-linking in the material. The cure cycle used (temperature, pressure and time) can therefore alter the final material properties. This research focuses on how the curing temperature (250, 275, 300 °F) affects the yield strength and the mode I interlaminar fracture toughness, GI, of a unidirectional S-2 glass epoxy composite. The test method that was used for the tension test was ASTM D3039 and the test method for the mode I interlaminar fracture toughness, the double cantilever beam (DCB) test, was ASTM D5528. The DCB specimens were fabricated with a non-adhesive insert at the midplane of the composite that serves as the initiatior of the delamination. Opening forces were then applied to the specimen, causing the crack propagation. The results show that increasing the cure temperature by 50 °F increased the tensile strength by 10% (86.54 - 94.73 ksi) and decreased the fracture toughness 20% (506.23 - 381.31 J/m 2). Thus, the curing temperature can cause a trade-off between these two properties, which means that the curing cycle will need to be altered based on the intended use and the required material properties.

  10. Grain growth and fracture toughness of fine-grained silicon carbide ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Y.W.; Mitomo, Mamoru; Hirotsuru, Hideki

    1995-11-01

    Fine-grained silicon carbide ceramics with an average grain size of 0.11 {micro}m were liquid-phase sintered from fine {beta}-SiC powder by hot pressing. The hot-pressed materials were subsequently annealed to enhance grain growth. The diameters and aspect ratios of grains in the hot-pressed and annealed materials were measured on polished and etched surfaces. The bimodal grain size distribution in annealed materials was obtained at 1,850 C without appreciable phase transformation. The average diameter and average aspect ratio increased with annealing time. The fracture toughness of a fine-grained silicon carbide ceramic determined by the Vickers indentation method was 1.9 MPa {center_dot} m{sup 1/2}. The fracture toughness increased to 6.1 MPa {center_dot} m{sup 1/2} after grain growth by annealing at 1,850 C for 12 h. Higher fracture toughness of annealed materials is due to bridging by elongated grains as evidenced by R-curve-like behavior.

  11. Master curve characterization of the fracture toughness behavior in SA508 Gr.4N low alloy steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ki-Hyoung; Kim, Min-Chul; Lee, Bong-Sang; Wee, Dang-Moon

    2010-08-01

    The fracture toughness properties of the tempered martensitic SA508 Gr.4N Ni-Mo-Cr low alloy steel for reactor pressure vessels were investigated by using the master curve concept. These results were compared to those of the bainitic SA508 Gr.3 Mn-Mo-Ni low alloy steel, which is a commercial RPV material. The fracture toughness tests were conducted by 3-point bending with pre-cracked charpy (PCVN) specimens according to the ASTM E1921-09c standard method. The temperature dependency of the fracture toughness was steeper than those predicted by the standard master curve, while the bainitic SA508 Gr.3 steel fitted well with the standard prediction. In order to properly evaluate the fracture toughness of the Gr.4N steels, the exponential coefficient of the master curve equation was changed and the modified curve was applied to the fracture toughness test results of model alloys that have various chemical compositions. It was found that the modified curve provided a better description for the overall fracture toughness behavior and adequate T0 determination for the tempered martensitic SA508 Gr.4N steels.

  12. Cleavage fracture and irradiation embrittlement of fusion reactor alloys: mechanisms, multiscale models, toughness measurements and implications to structural integrity assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odette, G. R.; Yamamoto, T.; Rathbun, H. J.; He, M. Y.; Hribernik, M. L.; Rensman, J. W.

    2003-12-01

    We describe the highly efficient master curves-shifts (MC-Δ T) method to measure and apply cleavage fracture toughness, KJc ( T), data and show that it is applicable to 9Cr martensitic steels. A reference temperature, T0, indexes the invariant MC shape on an absolute temperature scale. Then, T0 shifts (Δ T) are used to account for various effects of size and geometry, loading rate and irradiation embrittlement (Δ Ti). The paper outlines a multiscale model, relating atomic to structural scale fracture processes, that underpins the MC-Δ T method. At the atomic scale, we propose that the intrinsic microarrest toughness, Kμ( T), of the body-centered cubic ferrite lattice dictates an invariant shape of the macroscopic KJc ( T) curve. KJc ( T) can be modeled in terms of the true stress-strain ( σ- ɛ) constitutive law, σ ( T, ɛ), combined with a temperature-dependent critical local stress, σ*( T) and stressed volume, V*. The local fracture properties, σ*( T)- V*, are governed by coarse-scale brittle trigger particles and Kμ( T). Irradiation (and high strain rate) induced increases in the yield stress, Δ σy, lead to Δ Ti, with typical Δ Ti/Δ σy≈0.6±0.15 °C/MPa. However, Δ Ti associated with decreases in σ* and V* can result from a number of potential non-hardening embrittlement (NHE) mechanisms, including a large amount of He on grain boundaries. Estimates based on available data suggest that this occurs at >500-700 appm bulk He. Hardening and NHE are synergistic, and can lead to very large Δ Ti. NHE is signaled by large (>1 °C/MPa), or even negative, values of Δ Ti/Δ σy (for Δ σy<0), and is often coupled with increasing amounts of intergranular fracture. The measured and effective fracture toughness pertinent to structures almost always depends on the size and geometry of the cracked body, and is typically significantly greater than KJc . Size and geometry effects arise from both weakest link statistics, related to the volume under high

  13. Effect of initial delamination on Mode 1 and Mode 2 interlaminar fracture toughness and fatigue fracture threshold

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murri, Gretchen Bostaph; Martin, Roderick H.

    1991-01-01

    Static and fatigue double-cantilever beam (DCB) and end-notch flexure (ENF) tests were conducted to determine the effect of the simulated initial delamination in interlaminar fracture toughness, G(sub c), and fatigue fracture threshold, G(sub th). Unidirectional, 24-ply specimens of S2/SP250 glass/epoxy were tested using Kapton inserts of four different thickness - 13, 25, 75, and 130 microns, at the midplane at one end, or with tension or shear precracks, to simulate an initial delamination. To determine G(sub c), the fatigue fracture threshold below which no delamination growth would occur in less than 1 x 10(exp 6) cycles, fatigue tests were conducted by cyclically loading specimens until delamination growth was detected. Consistent values of model 1 fracture toughness, G(sub Ic), were measured from DCB specimens with inserts of thickness 75 microns or thinner, or with shear precracks. The fatigue DCB tests gave similar values of G(sub Ith) for the 13, 25, and 75 microns specimens. Results for the shear precracked specimens were significantly lower that for specimens without precracks. Results for both the static and fatigue ENF tests showed that measured G(IIc) and G(IIth) values decreased with decreasing insert thickness, so that no limiting thickness could be determined. Results for specimens with inserts of 75 microns or thicker were significantly higher than the results for precracked specimens or specimens with 13 or 25 microns inserts.

  14. Height-tapered double cantilever beam specimen for study of rate effects on fracture toughness of composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yaniv, Gershon; Daniel, Isaac M.

    1988-01-01

    Loading rate effects on the mode I delamination fracture toughness of AS4/3501-6 graphite/epoxy are presently studied by means of a height-tapered double-cantilever beam specimen whose height contour is designed to furnish a slightly decreasing compliance with increasing crack length, in order to yield a stable and smooth crack propagation at high loading rates. This specimen geometry also allows much higher crack propagation velocities to be obtained with either uniform or width-tapered double cantilever beam specimens.

  15. Fracture toughness ov conventional or photopolymerized glass ionomer/dentin interfaces.

    PubMed

    Tam, L E; Dev, S; Pilliar, R M

    1995-01-01

    Several new light-cured glass-ionomer materials have been developed for restorative use. It is not yet clear, however, whether the ability of the conventional glass ionomers to bond chemically to dentin has been preserved in the new light-cured glass ionomers whose chemical compositions have been modified. The fracture toughness test was recently introduced as an appropriate method of measuring the fracture resistance of an interface. We have applied this test to the glass ionomer/dentin interface for the first time. Ten mini short-rod fracture-toughness specimens were fabricated for each group. Each specimen contained a chevron-shaped glass ionomer/dentin interface along its midplane. After 24 hours in 37 degrees C water, the specimens were tested by loading at 0.5 mm/min. The interfacial Kic results (MPa X m (1/2)) (SD), analyzed by ANOVA and Fisher's LSD test (P<0.05), were: Chem-fil II, 0.17 (0.04); Vitremer, 0.18 (0.15); Fuji II LC, 0.33 (0.16). There were no significant differences in interfacial Kic between the conventional and light-cured glass ionomers. Interfacial Kic's for a light-cured glass ionomer were, however, significantly higher when an intermediary dentin bonding agent was used. SEM examinations of the fractured surfaces indicated that crack propagation generally occurred along the bond interface, and indicated the formation of a resin-infiltrated layer when the dentin bonding agents were used. It was concluded that the fracture-toughness test could be a useful measure of the integrity of the glass ionomer/dentin interface. The clinical effect of an intermediary layer between the glass ionomer and the tooth structure is, however, unknown and requires further investigation. PMID:8700782

  16. Results of fracture mechanics analyses of the ederer cranes in the device assembly facility using reduced static fracture-toughness values

    SciTech Connect

    Dalder, E. N. C.

    1996-11-01

    The effects of a decreased static fracture-toughness value from that used in the previous fracture-mechanics analyses of the Ederer cranes in the Device Assembly Facility were examined to see what effects, if any, would be exerted on the fatigue crack growth and fracture behavior of the cranes. In particular, the behavior of the same 3 critical locations on the lower flanges of the load beams of the Ederer 5 ton and 4 ton cranes, were examined, with the reduced static fracture-toughness value.

  17. Experimental analysis of quasi-static and dynamic fracture initiation toughness of gy4 armor steel material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Peng; Guo, Zitao

    Quasi-static and dynamic fracture initiation toughness of gy4 armour steel material are investigated using three point bend specimen. The modified split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) apparatus with digital image correlation (DIC) system is applied to dynamic loading experiments. Full-field deformation measurements are obtained by using DIC to elucidate on the strain fields associated with the mechanical response. A series of experiments are conducted at different strain rate ranging from 10-3 s-1 to 103 s-1, and the loading rate on the fracture initiation toughness is investigated. Specially, the scanning electron microscope imaging technique is used to investigate the fracture failure micromechanism of fracture surfaces. The gy4 armour steel material fracture toughness is found to be sensitive to strain rate and higher for dynamic loading as compared to quasi-static loading. This work is supported by National Nature Science Foundation under Grant 51509115.

  18. Measurement of fracture toughness by nanoindentation methods: Recent advances and future challenges

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sebastiani, Marco; Johanns, K. E.; Herbert, Erik G.; Pharr, George M.

    2015-04-30

    In this study, we describe recent advances and developments for the measurement of fracture toughness at small scales by the use of nanoindentation-based methods including techniques based on micro-cantilever beam bending and micro-pillar splitting. A critical comparison of the techniques is made by testing a selected group of bulk and thin film materials. For pillar splitting, cohesive zone finite element simulations are used to validate a simple relationship between the critical load at failure, the pillar radius, and the fracture toughness for a range of material properties and coating/substrate combinations. The minimum pillar diameter required for nucleation and growth ofmore » a crack during indentation is also estimated. An analysis of pillar splitting for a film on a dissimilar substrate material shows that the critical load for splitting is relatively insensitive to the substrate compliance for a large range of material properties. Experimental results from a selected group of materials show good agreement between single cantilever and pillar splitting methods, while a discrepancy of ~25% is found between the pillar splitting technique and double-cantilever testing. It is concluded that both the micro-cantilever and pillar splitting techniques are valuable methods for micro-scale assessment of fracture toughness of brittle ceramics, provided the underlying assumptions can be validated. Although the pillar splitting method has some advantages because of the simplicity of sample preparation and testing, it is not applicable to most metals because their higher toughness prevents splitting, and in this case, micro-cantilever bend testing is preferred.« less

  19. Measurement of fracture toughness by nanoindentation methods: Recent advances and future challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Sebastiani, Marco; Johanns, K. E.; Herbert, Erik G.; Pharr, George M.

    2015-04-30

    In this study, we describe recent advances and developments for the measurement of fracture toughness at small scales by the use of nanoindentation-based methods including techniques based on micro-cantilever beam bending and micro-pillar splitting. A critical comparison of the techniques is made by testing a selected group of bulk and thin film materials. For pillar splitting, cohesive zone finite element simulations are used to validate a simple relationship between the critical load at failure, the pillar radius, and the fracture toughness for a range of material properties and coating/substrate combinations. The minimum pillar diameter required for nucleation and growth of a crack during indentation is also estimated. An analysis of pillar splitting for a film on a dissimilar substrate material shows that the critical load for splitting is relatively insensitive to the substrate compliance for a large range of material properties. Experimental results from a selected group of materials show good agreement between single cantilever and pillar splitting methods, while a discrepancy of ~25% is found between the pillar splitting technique and double-cantilever testing. It is concluded that both the micro-cantilever and pillar splitting techniques are valuable methods for micro-scale assessment of fracture toughness of brittle ceramics, provided the underlying assumptions can be validated. Although the pillar splitting method has some advantages because of the simplicity of sample preparation and testing, it is not applicable to most metals because their higher toughness prevents splitting, and in this case, micro-cantilever bend testing is preferred.

  1. Fracture Toughness and Strength in a New Class of Bainitic Chromium-Tungsten Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, S. X.; Sikka, V. K.

    2006-06-01

    This project dealt with developing an understanding of the toughening and stengthening mechanisms for a new class of Fe-3Cr-W(V) steels developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in collaboration with Nooter Corporation and other industrial partners. The new steele had 50% higher tensile strength up to 650 degrees Celsius than currently used steels and the potential for not requiring any postweld heat treatment (PWHT) and for reducing equipment weight by 25%. This project was closely related to the Nooter project described in the report Development of a New Class of Fe-3Cr-W(V) Ferritic steels for Industrial Process Applications (ORNL/TM-2005/82). The project was carried out jointly by the University of Pittsburgh and ORNL. The University of Pittsburgh carried out fracture toughness measurements and microstructural analysis on base metal and welded plates prepared at ORNL. The project focused on three areas. The first dealt with detailed microstructural analysis of base compositions of 3Cr-3WV and 3Cr-3WBV(Ta) in both normalized (N) and normalized and tempered (NT) conditions. The second aspect of the prject dealt with determining tensile properties and fracture toughness values of K{subIC} at room temperature for both 3Cr-3Wv and 3Cr-3WV(Ta) compositions. The third focus of the project was to measure the fracture toughness values of the base metal and the heat-affectged zone (HAZ) of a plate of Fe-3Cr-W(Mo)V steel plate welded by the gas tungsten are (GTA) process. The HAZ toughness was measured in both the as-welded and the PWHT condition.

  2. Correlation of fracture toughness with impurity components. Final contract report

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, K.; Smith, F.W.

    1992-03-23

    This investigation was sponsored by the Los Alamos National Laboratory in an effort to understand better the phenomenon of stress assisted diffusion in cracked structures operating in corrosive environments. Work done on the extension of the existing ``Coupled Thermomechanical Diffusion`` theory to enable the prediction of diffusion of a solute species in stressed solids in the presence of cracks is presented here. Mathematical formalism is provided to support the intuitive notion that a singular solution for the concentration field can exist in crack tip neighborhoods driven by singular solutions for stresses that have been obtained within the framework of classical Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics. It has been shown that under certain limiting assumptions, a singular solution for the concentration profile of the kind 1/{radical}r emerges from the governing equations. Both steady state and transient solutions were obtained. A numerical simulation using quarter point finite elements was carried out and the results obtained also indicated the presence of this singularity. A singular solution for the concentration profiles of diffusing species in crack tip neighborhoods was obtained by Gdoutos and Aifantis. The order of the singularity obtained in their investigation was different from that discovered in the present work as were the governing differential equations and the underlying assumptions of their model. In order to determine the reasons for the differences, a detailed study was undertaken comparing the two theories and their underlying assumptions, methodology and results. These comparisons also form part of the present work.

  3. Interfacial fracture toughness between bovine cortical bone and cements.

    PubMed

    Lucksanasombool, P; Higgs, W A J; Higgs, R J E D; Swain, M V

    2003-03-01

    To evaluate the bonding strength of the interfaces within the cemented arthroplasty system, various mechanical tests have been used. Conventional push-out and pull-out tests cannot reveal the actual bonding property of the interface because of the significant influence of surface roughness on the measured adhesion and the failure to account for the mismatch of elastic modulus across the interface. An alternative fracture mechanics approach, which considers the mix of opening and shear modes of the crack tip loading associated with the testing system and the elastic mismatch of materials across the interface, was used to evaluate the bonding ability of various cements. The four-point bend interfacial delamination test by Charalambides et al. (J. Appl. Mech. 56 (1989) 77; Mech. Mater. 8 (1990) 269) was used to quantify the bonding ability of cements. This method is arguably more suitable since the applied loading mode is comparable to the nature of loading within the prosthetic system, which is primarily bending. The bovine bone specimens were polished to mirror finish to eliminate bonding by mechanical interlocking. The results revealed minimal bonding for the conventional bone cement (PMMA) whereas substantial bonding was evident for the glass-ionomer cements tested. However, only the conventional glass-ionomer cements showed evidence of bonding on testing, while the resin-modified glass-ionomer cement (poly-HEMA) did not. The latter appeared to debond before testing because of excessive expansion stresses associated with swelling in water. PMID:12527256

  4. A study of the effect of subcritical crack growth on the geometry dependence on nonlinear fracture toughness parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, D. L.; Poulose, P. K.; Liebowitz, H.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of subcritical crack growth on the geometry dependence of nonlinear fracture toughness parameters was studied by comparing the toughness values for different specimen geometries at the onset of subcritical crack growth and at the initiation of unstable crack propagation. Center-cracked thin sheet specimens of 2024-T3 and 7075-T6 aluminum alloys were tested by varying the specimen length L, width w, and crack length-to-width ratio c/w. When the onset of unstable crack propagation was selected as the critical point, the nonlinear energy toughness and the R curve toughness increased with increasing w and decreasing L and c/w. However, when the onset of subcritical crack growth was taken as the critical point, energy toughness and the linear toughness values were independent of these geometrical variables.

  5. Composite Interlaminar Shear Fracture Toughness, G(sub 2c): Shear Measurement of Sheer Myth?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OBrien, T. Kevin

    1997-01-01

    The concept of G2c as a measure of the interlaminar shear fracture toughness of a composite material is critically examined. In particular, it is argued that the apparent G2c as typically measured is inconsistent with the original definition of shear fracture. It is shown that interlaminar shear failure actually consists of tension failures in the resin rich layers between plies followed by the coalescence of ligaments created by these failures and not the sliding of two planes relative to one another that is assumed in fracture mechanics theory. Several strain energy release rate solutions are reviewed for delamination in composite laminates and structural components where failures have been experimentally documented. Failures typically occur at a location where the mode 1 component accounts for at least one half of the total G at failure. Hence, it is the mode I and mixed-mode interlaminar fracture toughness data that will be most useful in predicting delamination failure in composite components in service. Although apparent G2c measurements may prove useful for completeness of generating mixed-mode criteria, the accuracy of these measurements may have very little influence on the prediction of mixed-mode failures in most structural components.

  6. Inference equations for fracture toughness testing: Numerical analysis and experimental verification

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y.Y.; Kirk, M.T.; Reemsnyder, H.S.

    1997-12-31

    The currently codified fracture toughness testing procedures, e.g., ASTM E 813, E 1152, E 1290, and BSI 7448:Part 1 use a set of inference equations to obtain J and CTOD from the measurements of global displacement and load. These inference equations were originally developed by assuming homogeneous and perfectly plastic material properties. Inaccurate results may be obtained when these inference equations are applied to non-homogeneous specimens and materials with strain hardening. A systematic study of the relationship between crack driving force (J and CTOD) and the remote load and displacement is conducted using finite element method. The relationship derived from the study is compared with the inference equations used in the current standards. The accuracy of the currently codified J and CTOD inference equations and those proposed in recent years is examined. Compared with the codified inference equations, the new equations can be applied to a wide range of crack depth (0.1 {le} a/W {le} 0.5). The new CTOD inference equations provide much more accurate CTOD values for high strain hardening material than is possible using the current standards. The accuracy of the codified inference equations and the new equations is expressed in terms of weld width, strain hardening rate, and mismatch levels. The CTOD inference equations are tested through corroboration with experimentally measured values of CTOD in an unwelded HSLA structural steel. The new equations provide better agreement with the experimental measurements than the codified equations.

  7. Development of a methodology for the assessment of shallow-flaw fracture in nuclear reactor pressure vessels: Generation of biaxial shallow-flaw fracture toughness data

    SciTech Connect

    McAfee, W.J.; Bass, B.R.; Bryson, J.W.

    1998-07-01

    A technology to determine shallow-flaw fracture toughness of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels is being developed for application to the safety assessment of RPVs containing postulated shallow-surface flaws. Shallow-flaw fracture toughness of RPV material has been shown to be higher than that for deep flaws, because of the relaxation of crack-tip constraint. This report describes the preliminary test results for a series of cruciform specimens with a uniform depth surface flaw. These specimens are all of the same size with the same depth flaw. Temperature and biaxial load ratio are the independent variables. These tests demonstrated that biaxial loading could have a pronounced effect on shallow-flaw fracture toughness in the lower transition temperature region for RPV materials. Through that temperature range, the effect of full biaxial (1:1) loading on uniaxial, shallow-flaw toughness varied from no effect near the lower shelf to a reduction of approximately 58% at higher temperatures.

  8. Improving the toughness of ultrahigh strength steel

    SciTech Connect

    Soto, Koji

    2002-08-15

    The ideal structural steel combines high strength with high fracture toughness. This dissertation discusses the toughening mechanism of the Fe/Co/Ni/Cr/Mo/C steel, AerMet 100, which has the highest toughness/strength combination among all commercial ultrahigh strength steels. The possibility of improving the toughness of this steel was examined by considering several relevant factors.

  9. J-integral fracture toughness, Tearing modulus and tensile properties of Vitamin E stabilized radiation crosslinked UHMWPE.

    PubMed

    Bellare, Anuj; Dorfman, Robert; Samuel, Ashwanth; Thornhill, Thomas S

    2016-08-01

    Radiation crosslinking of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) increases its wear resistance in total joint replacement prostheses. Unfortunately, it is accompanied by a dose-dependent decrease in several mechanical properties. In this study, the tensile properties and fracture behavior of radiation crosslinked, Vitamin E stabilized UHMWPE was studied as a function of radiation dose. The Rice and Sorensen model, applicable to elastic-plastic materials, was utilized to obtain the initial crack driving force, J1c, steady state J-integral fracture toughness, Jss and the Tearing modulus. Tensile tests showed the dependence of tensile properties on radiation dose. Jss of non-crosslinked UHMWPE was higher than for crosslinked UHMWPE׳s but there was no dose dependent change in Jss whereas there was almost no change in J1c over the entire dose range. Finally, a monotonic decrease in Tearing modulus was observed with radiation dose. PMID:27128734

  10. Fatigue crack growth rate of Ti-6Al-4V considering the effects of fracture toughness and crack closure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Junhong; Yang, Shuo; Lin, Jiewei

    2015-03-01

    Fatigue fracture is one of the main failure modes of Ti-6Al-4V alloy, fracture toughness and crack closure have strong effects on the fatigue crack growth(FCG) rate of Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The FCG rate of Ti-6Al-4V is investigated by using experimental and analytical methods. The effects of stress ratio, crack closure and fracture toughness on the FCG rate are studied and discussed. A modified prediction model of the FCG rate is proposed, and the relationship between the fracture toughness and the stress intensity factor(SIF) range is redefined by introducing a correcting coefficient. Notched plate fatigue tests (including the fracture toughness test and the FCG rate test) are conducted to investigate the influence of affecting factors on the FCG rate. Comparisons between the predicted results of the proposed model, the Paris model, the Walker model, the Sadananda model, and the experimental data show that the proposed model gives the best agreement with the test data particularly in the near-threshold region and the Paris region, and the corresponding calculated fatigue life is also accurate in the same regions. By considering the effects of fracture toughness and crack closure, the novel FCG rate prediction model not only improves the estimating accuracy, but also extends the adaptability of the FCG rate prediction model in engineering.

  11. Effects of toughness anisotropy and combined tension, torsion, and bending loads on fracture behavior of ferritic nuclear pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Mohan, R.; Marshall, C.; Ghadiali, N.; Wilkowski, G.

    1997-04-01

    This paper summarizes work on angled through-wall-crack initiation and combined loading effects on ferritic nuclear pipe performed as part of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s research program entitled {open_quotes}Short Cracks In Piping an Piping Welds{close_quotes}. The reader is referred to Reference 1 for details of the experiments and analyses conducted as part of this program. The major impetus for this work stemmed from the observation that initially circumferentially oriented cracks in carbon steel pipes exhibited a high tendency to grow at a different angle when the cracked pipes were subjected to bending or bending plus pressure loads. This failure mode was little understood, and the effect of angled crack grown from an initially circumferential crack raised questions about how cracks in a piping system subjected to combined loading with torsional stresses would behave. There were three major efforts undertaken in this study. The first involved a literature review to assess the causes of toughness anisotropy in ferritic pipes and to develop strength and toughness data as a function of angle from the circumferential plane. The second effort was an attempt to develop a screening criterion based on toughness anisotropy and to compare this screening criterion with experimental pipe fracture data. The third and more significant effort involved finite element analyses to examine why cracks grow at an angle and what is the effect of combined loads with torsional stresses on a circumferentially cracked pipe. These three efforts are summarized.

  12. Fracture Toughness and Slow Crack Growth Behavior of Ni-YSZ and YSZ as a Function of Porosity and Temperature.

    SciTech Connect

    Radovic, Miladin; Lara-Curzio, Edgar; Nelson, George

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we report on the fracture toughness of YSZ and Ni-YSZ and slow-crack growth behavior of Ni-YSZ at 20C and 800C. Results are presented for tests carried out in air for YSZ and in a gas mixture of 4%H2 and 96%Ar for Ni-YSZ containing various levels of porosity. The double-torsion test method was utilized to determine the fracture toughness from the peak load obtained during fast loading test specimens that had been precracked, while crack velocity versus stress intensity curves were obtained in the double torsion using hte load relaxation method. It was found that fracture toughness of these materials decreases with temperature and int he case of Ni-YSZ it also decreases with increasing porosity. The effect of temperature and microstructure, which was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy, on the fracture behavior of these materials, is discussed.

  13. The significance of crack-resistance curves to the mixed-mode fracture toughness of human cortical bone

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmermann, Elizabeth A.; Launey, Maximilien E.; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2010-03-25

    The majority of fracture mechanics studies on the toughness of bone have been performed under tensile loading. However, it has recently been shown that the toughness of human cortical bone in the transverse (breaking) orientation is actually much lower in shear (mode II) than in tension (mode I); a fact that is physiologically relevant as in vivo bone is invariably loaded multiaxially. Since bone is a material that derives its fracture resistance primarily during crack growth through extrinsic toughening mechanisms, such as crack deflection and bridging, evaluation of its toughness is best achieved through measurements of the crack-resistance or R-curve, which describes the fracture toughness as a function of crack extension. Accordingly, in this study, we attempt to measure for the first time the R-curve fracture toughness of human cortical bone under physiologically relevant mixed-mode loading conditions. We show that the resulting mixed-mode (mode I + II) toughness depends strongly on the crack trajectory and is the result of the competition between the paths of maximum mechanical driving force and 'weakest' microstructural resistance.

  14. The significance of crack-resistance curves to the mixed-mode fracture toughness of human cortical bone

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Elizabeth A.; Launey, Maximilien E.; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2011-01-01

    The majority of fracture mechanics studies on the toughness of bone have been performed under tensile loading. However, it has recently been shown that the toughness of human cortical bone in the transverse (breaking) orientation is actually much lower in shear (mode II) than in tension (mode I); a fact that is physiologically relevant as in vivo bone is invariably loaded multiaxially. Since bone is a material that derives its fracture resistance primarily during crack growth through extrinsic toughening mechanisms, such as crack deflection and bridging, evaluation of its toughness is best achieved through measurements of the crack-resistance or R-curve, which describes the fracture toughness as a function of crack extension. Accordingly, in this study, we attempt to measure for the first time the R-curve fracture toughness of human cortical bone under physiologically relevant mixed-mode loading conditions. We show that the resulting mixed-mode (mode I + II) toughness depends strongly on the crack trajectory and is the result of the competition between the paths of maximum mechanical driving force and “weakest” microstructural resistance. PMID:20409579

  15. Inverse measurement of stiffness by the normalization technique for J-integral fracture toughness

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Eric

    2012-06-07

    The single specimen normalization technique for J-integral fracture toughness has been successfully employed by several researchers to study the strongly non-linear fracture response of ductile semicrystalline polymers. As part of the normalization technique the load and the plastic component of displacement are normalized. The normalized data is then fit with a normalization function that approximates a power law for small displacements that are dominated by blunting and smoothly transitions to a linear relationship for large displacements that are dominated by stable crack extension. Particularly for very ductile polymers the compliance term used to determine the plastic displacement can dominate the solution and small errors in determining the elastic modulus can lead to large errors in the normalization or even make it ill-posed. This can be further complicated for polymers where the elastic modulus is strong strain rate dependent and simply using a 'quasistatic' modulus from a dogbone measurement may not equate to the dominant strain rate in the compact tension specimen. The current work proposes directly measuring the compliance of the compact tension specimen in the solution of J-integral fracture toughness and then solving for the elastic modulus. By comparison with a range of strain rate data the dominant strain rate can then be determined.

  16. PREDICTION OF CHARACTERISTIC LENGTH AND FRACTURE TOUGHNESS IN DUCTILE-BRITTLE TRANSITION

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, P

    2008-04-15

    Finite element method was used to analyze the three-point bend experimental data of A533B-1 pressure vessel steel obtained by Sherry, Lidbury, and Beardsmore [1] from -160 to -45 C within the ductile-brittle transition regime. As many researchers have shown, the failure stress ({sigma}{sub f}) of the material could be approximated as a constant. The characteristic length, or the critical distance (r{sub c}) from the crack tip, at which {sigma}{sub f} is reached, is shown to be temperature dependent based on the crack tip stress field calculated by the finite element method. With the J-A{sub 2} two-parameter constraint theory in fracture mechanics, the fracture toughness (J{sub C} or K{sub JC}) can be expressed as a function of the constraint level (A{sub 2}) and the critical distance r{sub c}. This relationship is used to predict the fracture toughness of A533B-1 in the ductile-brittle transition regime with a constant {sigma}{sub f} and a set of temperature-dependent r{sub c}. It can be shown that the prediction agrees well with the test data for wide range of constraint levels from shallow cracks (a/W= 0.075) to deep cracks (a/W= 0.5), where a is the crack length and W is the specimen width.

  17. Fracture toughness determination using spiral-grooved cylindrical specimen and pure torsional loading

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Jy-An; Liu, Kenneth C.

    2003-07-08

    A method for determining fracture toughness K.sub.IC of materials ranging from metallic alloys, brittle ceramics and their composites, and weldments. A cylindrical specimen having a helical V-groove with a 45.degree. pitch is subjected to pure torsion. This loading configuration creates a uniform tensile-stress crack-opening mode, and a transverse plane-strain state along the helical groove. The full length of the spiral groove is equivalent to the thickness of a conventional compact-type specimen. K.sub.IC values are determined from the fracture torque and crack length measured from the test specimen using a 3-D finite element program (TOR3D-KIC) developed for the purpose. In addition, a mixed mode (combined tensile and shear stress mode) fracture toughness value can be determined by varying the pitch of the helical groove. Since the key information needed for determining the K.sub.IC value is condensed in the vicinity of the crack tip, the specimen can be significantly miniaturized without the loss of generality.

  18. Mode I Fracture Toughness Prediction for Multiwalled-Carbon-Nanotube Reinforced Ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Henager, Charles H.

    2015-08-27

    This article develops a multiscale model to predict fracture toughness of multiwalled-carbon-nanotube (MWCNT) reinforced ceramics. The model bridges different scales from the scale of a MWCNT to that of a composite domain containing a macroscopic crack. From the nano, micro to meso scales, Eshelby-Mori-Tanaka models combined with a continuum damage mechanics approach are explored to predict the elastic damage behavior of the composite as a function of MWCNT volume fraction. MWCNTs are assumed to be randomly dispersed in a ceramic matrix subject to cracking under loading. A damage variable is used to describe matrix cracking that causes reduction of the elastic modulus of the matrix. This damage model is introduced in a modified boundary layer modeling approach to capture damage initiation and development at a tip of a pre-existing crack. Damage and fracture are captured only in a process window containing the crack tip under plane strain Mode I loading. The model is validated against the published experimental fracture toughness data for a MWCNT 3 mol% yttria stabilized zirconia composite system. In addition, crack resistance curves as a function of MWCNT content are predicted and fitted by a power law as observed in the experiments on zirconia.

  19. Fracture toughness of low-pressure chemical-vapor-deposited polycrystalline silicon carbide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatty, V.; Kahn, H.; Trevino, J.; Zorman, C. A.; Mehregany, M.; Ballarini, R.; Heuer, A. H.

    2006-01-01

    The fracture toughness of thin-film polycrystalline silicon carbide (poly-SiC) deposited on silicon (Si) wafers via low-pressure chemical-vapor deposition (LPCVD) has been measured on a scale useful for micromachined devices; the results are compared to previous studies on poly-SiC thin films deposited by atmospheric pressure chemical-vapor deposition (APCVD) [Bellante et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071920 (2005)]. Samples in this study included those with and without silicon dioxide (SiO2) sacrificial release layers. The LPCVD processing technique induces residual tensile stresses in the films. Doubly clamped microtensile specimens were fabricated using standard micromachining processes, and microindentation was used to initiate atomically sharp precracks. The residual stresses in the films create stress intensity factors K at the crack tips; upon release, the precracks whose K exceeded a critical value, KIC, propagated to failure. The fracture toughness KIC was the same for both types of devices, 2.9+/-0.2 MPa m1/2 for the SiC on Si samples and 3.0+/-0.2 MPa m1/2 for the SiC on SiO2/Si samples, and similar to that found for APCVD poly-SiC, 2.8<=KIC<=3.4 MPa m1/2 [Bellante et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071920 (2005)], indicating that KIC is truly a structure-insensitive material property. The fracture toughness of poly-SiC compares favorably with that for polysilicon, 0.85+/-0.05 MPa m1/2 [Kahn et al., Science 298, 1215 (2002)].

  20. THE EFFECTS OF HYDROGEN, TRITIUM, AND HEAT TREATMENT ON THE DEFORMATION AND FRACTURE TOUGHNESS PROPERTIES OF STAINLESS STEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, M.; Tosten, M.; Chapman, G.

    2013-09-06

    The deformation and fracture toughness properties of forged stainless steels pre-charged with tritium were compared to the deformation and fracture toughness properties of the same steels heat treated at 773 K or 873 K and precharged with hydrogen. Forged stainless steels pre-charged with tritium exhibit an aging effect: Fracture toughness values decrease with aging time after precharging because of the increase in concentration of helium from tritium decay. This study shows that forged stainless steels given a prior heat treatment and then pre-charged with hydrogen also exhibit an aging effect: Fracture toughness values decrease with increasing time at temperature. A microstructural analysis showed that the fracture toughness reduction in the heat-treated steels was due to patches of recrystallized grains that form within the forged matrix during the heat treatment. The combination of hydrogen and the patches of recrystallized grains resulted in more deformation twinning. Heavy deformation twinning on multiple slip planes was typical for the hydrogen-charged samples; whereas, in the non-charged samples, less twinning was observed and was generally limited to one slip plane. Similar effects occur in tritium pre-charged steels, but the deformation twinning is brought on by the hardening associated with decay helium bubbles in the microstructure.

  1. Analytical solution to a fracture problem in a tough layered structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamamoto, Yukari; Okumura, Ko

    2008-08-01

    Nacre causes the shining beauty of pearl due to its remarkable layered structure, which is also strong. We reconsider a simplified layered model of nacre proposed previously [Okumura and de Gennes, Eur. Phys. J. E 4, 121 (2001)] and obtain an analytical solution to a fundamental crack problem. The result asserts that the fracture toughness is enhanced due to a large displacement around the crack tip (even if the crack-tip stress is not reduced). The derivation offers ideas for solving a number of boundary problems for partial differential equations important in many fields.

  2. Fracture toughness of titanium–cement interfaces: effects of fibers and loading angles

    PubMed Central

    Khandaker, Morshed; Utsaha, Khatri Chhetri; Morris, Tracy

    2014-01-01

    Ideal implant–cement or implant–bone interfaces are required for implant fixation and the filling of tissue defects created by disease. Micron- to nanosize osseointegrated features, such as surface roughness, fibers, porosity, and particles, have been fused with implants for improving the osseointegration of an implant with the host tissue in orthopedics and dentistry. The effects of fibers and loading angles on the interface fracture toughness of implant–cement specimens with and without fibers at the interface are not yet known. Such studies are important for the design of a long-lasting implant for orthopedic applications. The goal of this study was to improve the fracture toughness of an implant–cement interface by deposition of micron- to nanosize fibers on an implant surface. There were two objectives in the study: 1) to evaluate the influence of fibers on the fracture toughness of implant–cement interfaces with and without fibers at the interfaces, and 2) to evaluate the influence of loading angles on implant–cement interfaces with and without fibers at the interfaces. This study used titanium as the implant, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) as cement, and polycaprolactone (PCL) as fiber materials. An electrospinning unit was fabricated for the deposition of PCL unidirectional fibers on titanium (Ti) plates. The Evex tensile test stage was used to determine the interface fracture toughness (KC) of Ti–PMMA with and without PCL fibers at 0°, 45°, and 90° loading angles, referred to in this article as tension, mixed, and shear tests. The study did not find any significant interaction between fiber and loading angles (P>0.05), although there was a significant difference in the KC means of Ti–PMMA samples for the loading angles (P<0.05). The study also found a significant difference in the KC means of Ti–PMMA samples with and without fibers (P<0.05). The results showed that the addition of the micron- to nanosize PCL fibers on Ti improved the

  3. Martensitic stainless steel AISI 420—mechanical properties, creep and fracture toughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brnic, J.; Turkalj, G.; Canadija, M.; Lanc, D.; Krscanski, S.

    2011-11-01

    In this paper some experimental results and analyses regarding the behavior of AISI 420 martensitic stainless steel under different environmental conditions are presented. That way, mechanical properties like ultimate tensile strength and 0.2 percent offset yield strength at lowered and elevated temperatures as well as short-time creep behavior for selected stress levels at selected elevated temperatures of mentioned material are shown. The temperature effect on mentioned mechanical properties is also presented. Fracture toughness was calculated on the basis of Charpy impact energy. Experimentally obtained results can be of importance for structure designers.

  4. A compendium of sources of fracture toughness and fatigue crack growth data for metallic alloys. II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, C. M.; Seward, S. K.

    1982-01-01

    A compendium is presented of sources for metallic alloy fracture toughness and fatigue crack growth data, which concentrates on technical reports as the primary source of references and updates the previous Hudson and Seward (1978) compendium references on technical journals. Where available, the accession numbers which are used as code numbers for the ordering of the reports from their publishers are given. The sources of these reports include the AIAA Technical Information Service, the Defense Technical Information Center, the National Technical Information Service, and NASA.

  5. Fracture mechanics characterization of welds: Fatigue life analysis of notches at welds: J(sub Ic) fracture toughness tests for weld metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Underwood, John H.

    1995-03-01

    In this report two methods of fracture analysis of welds will be emphasized, one addressing fatigue life testing and analysis of notches at welds, and the other addressing the final fracture of the welded component and the fracture toughness tests used to characterize final fracture. These fatigue and fracture methods will be described by referring to recent work from the technical literature and from the U.S. Army Armament Research, Development, and Engineering Center, primarily fracture case study and fracture test method development investigations. A brief general summary will be given of fatigue and fracture methods and concepts that have application to welded structures. Specific fatigue crack initiation tests and analysis methods will be presented, using example results from a welded stainless steel box beam of a cannon carriage. Recent improvements and simplifications in J.integral fracture toughness tests will be described, particularly those related to welds. Fracture toughness measurements for various stainless steel weld metals and heat treatments will also be described.

  6. High toughness carbon cloth composites for low temperature applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronca, Sara; Forte, Giuseppe; Mascia, Leno; Rastogi, Sanjay

    2016-05-01

    Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymers based on a thermoplastic, high performance matrix such as Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene have been produced using two different routes and it was found that in-situ polymerization of the matrix is a possible way forward to achieve a combination of high strength and high toughness in composites.

  7. Experimental study of the fracture toughness of a ceramic/ceramic-matrix composite sandwich structure

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Z.; Taya, M.; Dunn, M.L.; Watanabe, Ryuzo

    1995-06-01

    A hybrid experimental-numerical approach has been used to measure the fracture resistance of a sandwich structure consisting of a 304 stainless steel/partially stabilized zirconia ceramic-matrix composite crack-arresting layer embedded in a partially stabilized zirconia ceramic specimen. The mode 1 fracture toughness increases significantly when the crack propagates from the ceramic into the ceramic-matrix composite region. The increased toughening due to the stainless steel particles is explained reasonably well by a toughening model based on processing-induced thermal residual stresses. In addition, several experimental modifications were made to the chevron-notch wedge-loaded double cantilever beam specimen to overcome numerous problems encountered in generating a precrack in the small, brittle specimens used in this study.

  8. Fracture Toughness Evaluation of Space Shuttle External Tank Thermal Protection System Polyurethane Foam Insulation Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGill, Preston; Wells, Doug; Morgan, Kristin

    2006-01-01

    Experimental evaluation of the basic fracture properties of Thermal Protection System (TPS) polyurethane foam insulation materials was conducted to validate the methodology used in estimating critical defect sizes in TPS applications on the Space Shuttle External Fuel Tank. The polyurethane foam found on the External Tank (ET) is manufactured by mixing liquid constituents and allowing them to react and expand upwards - a process which creates component cells that are generally elongated in the foam rise direction and gives rise to mechanical anisotropy. Similarly, the application of successive foam layers to the ET produces cohesive foam interfaces (knitlines) which may lead to local variations in mechanical properties. This study reports the fracture toughness of BX-265, NCFI 24-124, and PDL-1034 closed-cell polyurethane foam as a function of ambient and cryogenic temperatures and knitline/cellular orientation at ambient pressure.

  9. Measurement of ultra thin film fracture toughness by nano-indentation: A numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, Benjamin

    As the individual layers of interconnect structures decrease in size, it becomes increasingly difficult to determine the fracture toughness, and hence the reliability, of these layers. After a layer is thinner than ˜500nm, it becomes difficult to determine the fracture toughness directly with traditional methods. Using nano-indentation, it is possible to extract the cohesive and adhesive fracture energies of these films without elaborate experimental setups. There are, however, several issues with this approach. Nano-indentation creates cracks both within the film (the cohesive cracks) and between the film and the substrate (the adhesive cracks) as well as significant plastic deformation of the film and substrate. Using SIMULA Abaqus Standard, a commercial finite element analysis tool, 2D and 3D models were created to examine the deformation characteristics associated with the nano-indentation process. The models either have pre-existing stationary cracks, or simulated by cohesive zone surfaces to account for crack nucleation and growth. The 2D model is axi-symmetric and only accounts for the adhesive crack. It is used primarily as a test the cohesive zone model and to begin to determine experimental testing limits. The 3D model is a one sixth slice of the area indented. Both cohesive and adhesive cracks are modeled and the interaction between the two cracks is investigated. While there are many parameters controlling the crack initiation and propagation process, several trends were identified. The domain of practical testing should be between one and three film thickness, so as to avoid the confluence of the indenter plastic process zone on the propagating crack front. When excursion on the load-indentation depth happens, the fracture energy is about 20% of the associated work done by the indenter (or the area under the excursion segment). The FEM simulation showed the general role of film thickness, toughness and modulus on the initiation and propagation of both

  10. Influence of loading rate and hydrogen content on fracture toughness of Zr-2.5Nb pressure tube material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bind, A. K.; Singh, R. N.; Khandelwal, H. K.; Sunil, S.; Avinash, G.; Chakravartty, J. K.; Ståhle, P.

    2015-10-01

    For the safety assessment of PHWR, it is required to study the flaw tolerance capacity of the pressure tubes as a function of the loading rate. In this work, the effect of loading rate and hydrogen content on the fracture behaviour of a Zr-2.5Nb alloy pressure tube was investigated between 25 and 300 °C. For the as received material, the pulling rate only had an effect on fracture toughness at 25 °C whereas for hydrided material the pulling rate affected fracture toughness in the transition regime. For all pulling rates, hydrided materials showed typical S curve behavior with an increase in lower shelf, upper shelf and transition temperature with pulling rate. The number of axial splits on fracture surfaces increased with an increase in the pulling rate and a decrease in temperature and fracture toughness was found to decrease with an increase in the number of axial splits. The reduction in fracture toughness is attributed to a localised deformation between axial splits.

  11. Fracture toughness of boron/aluminum laminates with various proportions of 0 deg and plus or minus 45 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poe, C. C., Jr.; Sova, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    The fracture toughness of boron/aluminum laminates was measured on sheet specimens containing central slits of various lengths that represent cracks. The specimens were loaded axially and had various widths. The sheets were made with five laminate orientation. Fracture toughness was calculated for each laminate orientation. Specimens began failing at the ends of the slit with what appeared to be tensile failures of fibers in the primary load carrying laminae. A general fracture toughness parameter independent of laminate orientation was derived on the basis of fiber failure in the principal load carrying laminae. The value of this parameter was proportional to the critical value of the stress intensity factor. The constant of proportionality depended only on the elastic constants of the laminates.

  12. Interlaminar fracture toughness: Three-dimensional finite element modeling for end-notch and mixed-mode flexure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, P. L. N.; Chamis, C. C.

    1985-01-01

    A computational procedure is described for evaluating End-Notch-Flexure (ENF) and Mixed-Mode-Flexure (MMF) interlaminar fracture toughness in unidirectional fiber composites. The procedure consists of a three-dimensional finite element analysis in conjunction with the strain energy release rate concept and with composite micromechanics. The procedure is used to analyze select cases of ENF and MMF. The strain energy release rate predicted by this procedure is in good agreement with limited experimental data. The procedure is used to identify significant parameters associated with interlaminar fracture toughness. It is also used to determine the critical strain energy release rate and its attendant crack length in ENF and/or MMF. This computational procedure has considerable versatility/generality and provides extensive information about interlaminar fracture toughness in fiber composites.

  13. Compressive fatigue and fracture toughness behavior of injectable, settable bone cements.

    PubMed

    Harmata, Andrew J; Uppuganti, Sasidhar; Granke, Mathilde; Guelcher, Scott A; Nyman, Jeffry S

    2015-11-01

    Bone grafts used to repair weight-bearing tibial plateau fractures often experience cyclic loading, and there is a need for bone graft substitutes that prevent failure of fixation and subsequent morbidity. However, the specific mechanical properties required for resorbable grafts to optimize structural compatibility with native bone have yet to be established. While quasi-static tests are utilized to assess weight-bearing ability, compressive strength alone is a poor indicator of in vivo performance. In the present study, we investigated the effects of interfacial bonding on material properties under conditions that re-capitulate the cyclic loading associated with weight-bearing fractures. Dynamic compressive fatigue properties of polyurethane (PUR) composites made with either unmodified (U-) or polycaprolactone surface-modified (PCL-) 45S5 bioactive glass (BG) particles were compared to a commercially available calcium sulfate and phosphate-based (CaS/P) bone cement at physiologically relevant stresses (5-30 MPa). Fatigue resistance of PCL-BG/polymer composite was superior to that of the U-BG/polymer composite and the CaS/P cement at higher stress levels for each of the fatigue failure criteria, related to modulus, creep, and maximum displacement, and was comparable to human trabecular bone. Steady state creep and damage accumulation occurred during the fatigue life of the PCL-BG/polymer and CaS/P cement, whereas creep of U-BG/polymer primarily occurred at a low number of loading cycles. From crack propagation testing, fracture toughness or resistance to crack growth was significantly higher for the PCL-BG composite than for the other materials. Finally, the fatigue and fracture toughness properties were intermediate between those of trabecular and cortical bone. These findings highlight the potential of PCL-BG/polyurethane composites as weight-bearing bone grafts. PMID:26282077

  14. Fracture toughness determination of ceramic and resin-based dental composites.

    PubMed

    Kvam, K

    1992-01-01

    A new method has been developed for Klc determinations of brittle materials with precracks introduced by indentations. A reference glass, five ceramic materials, and one resin-based composite were tested. Knoop hardness indentations were made with a load of 49 N in a line from edge to edge vertical to the long axis on one surface of four-point flexure bars, to make a continuous crack under the indentations. Five specimens of each material were fractured in a four-point bend test with the line of indentations placed in the zone of constant and maximum tensile stress. Separate unfractured specimens were ground and polished to expose and measure the preformed continuous crack. The mean of six crack-depth measurements was used together with the fracture load and the dimensions of the bend specimens to calculate the fracture toughness, Klc of each material. The determined Klc value (x +/- SD) for the reference glass was 0.81 +/- .24 MPa m1/2 and corresponds to previous studies. The resin-based composite material, Silux Plus, had a value of 1.04 +/- 0.14 MPa m1/2. The Klc values (MPa m1/2) were 0.94 +/- 0.31 for Dicor, 1.41 +/- 0.18 for Cerestore, 1.50 +/- 0.29 for NBK-1000, 1.60 +/- 0.17 for Vitadur-N and 2.14 +/- 0.14 for Hi-Ceram. Hi-Ceram had significantly higher Klc values than the other materials. The new method seemed to be of value in determining the fracture toughness of non-metallic dental materials. PMID:1550892

  15. A New Test Method for Determining the Strength and Fracture Toughness of Cement Mortar and Concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jy-An John; Liu, Ken C; Naus, Dan J

    2010-01-01

    The Spiral Notch Torsion Fracture Toughness Test (SNTT) was developed recently to determine the intrinsic fracture toughness (KIC) of structural materials. The SNTT system operates by applying pure torsion to uniform cylindrical specimens with a notch line that spirals around the specimen at a 45 a pitch. KIC values are obtained with the aid of a three-dimensional finite-element computer code, TOR3D-KIC. The SNTT method is uniquely suitable for testing a wide variety of materials used extensively in pressure vessel and piping structural components and weldments. Application of the method to metallic, ceramic, and graphite materials has been demonstrated. One important characteristic of SNTT is that neither a fatigue precrack or a deep notch are required for the evaluation of brittle materials, which significantly reduces the sample size requirement. In this paper we report results for a Portland cement-based mortar to demonstrate applicability of the SNTT method to cementitious materials. The estimated KIC of the tested mortar samples with compressive strength of 34.45 MPa was found to be 0.19 MPa m^(1/2).

  16. Micromechanical modeling of temperature-dependent initiation fracture toughness in advanced aluminum alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, M.J.; Somerday, B.P.; Gangloff, R.P.; Lach, C.L.

    1997-12-31

    The temperature dependence of the plane-strain initiation fracture toughness (K{sub JICi}) is modeled micromechanically for a variety of advanced aluminum alloys that fail by microvoid processes. Materials include precipitation-hardened ingot metallurgy, spray formed, submicron-grain-size powder metallurgy, and metal-matrix composite alloys. A critical-plastic-strain-controlled model, employing tensile yield strength, elastic modulus, work hardening, and reduction of area measurements, successfully predicts K{sub JICi} versus temperature for eight alloys, providing a strong confirmation of this approach. Modeling shows that K{sub JICi} is controlled by the interplay between the temperature dependencies of the intrinsic failure locus {bar {var_epsilon}}{sub f}{sup p}({sigma}{sub m}/{sigma}{sub fl}) and the crack-tip stress/strain fields governed by alloy flow properties. Uncertainties in {bar {var_epsilon}}{sub f}{sup p}({sigma}{sub m}/{sigma}{sub fl}), as well as the critical distance (volume) for crack-tip damage evolution, hinder absolute predictions of K{sub JICi}. Critical distance (calculated from the model) correlates with the nearest-neighbor spacing of void-nucleating particles and with the extent of primary void growth determined from quantitative fractography. These correlations suggest a means to predict absolute plane-strain fracture toughness.

  17. Developing an Innovative Field Expedient Fracture Toughness Testing Protocol for Concrete Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jy-An John; Liu, Ken C; Naus, Dan J

    2008-09-01

    The Spiral Notch Torsion Fracture Toughness Test (SNTT) was developed recently to determine the intrinsic fracture toughness (KIC) of structural materials. The SNTT system operates by applying pure torsion to uniform cylindrical specimens with a notch line that spirals around the specimen at a 45 pitch. KIC values are obtained with the aid of a three-dimensional finite-element computer code, TOR3D-KIC. The SNTT method is uniquely suitable for testing a wide variety of materials used extensively in pressure vessel and piping structural components and weldments. Application of the method to metallic, ceramic, and graphite materials has been demonstrated. One important characteristic of SNTT is that neither a fatigue precrack or a deep notch are required for the evaluation of brittle materials, which significantly reduces the sample size requirement. In this paper we report results for a Portland cement-based mortar to demonstrate applicability of the SNTT method to cementitious materials. The estimated KIC of the tested mortar samples with compressive strength of 34.45 MPa was found to be 0.19 MPa m.

  18. Fracture toughness of the nickel-alumina laminates by digital image-correlation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mekky, Waleed

    The purpose of this work is to implement the digital image correlation technique (DIC) in composite laminate fracture testing. The latter involves measuring the crack opening displacement (COD) during stable crack propagation and characterizing the strain development in a constrained nickel layer under applied loading. The major challenge to measure the COD of alternated metal/ceramic layers is the elastic-mismatch effect. This leads to oscillating COD measurement. Smoothing the result with built-in modules of commercial software leads to a loss of data accuracy. A least-squares fitting routine for the data output gave acceptable COD profiles. The behavior of a single Ni ligament sandwiched between two Al2O3 layers was determined for two Ni thicknesses (0.125 and 0.25mm). Modeling of the behavior via a modified Bridgman approach for rectangular cross section samples, proved limited as different mechanisms are operating. Nevertheless, the behavior is however captured to a point, but the model underestimates the results vis a vis experimental ones. The fracture-resistance curves for Nickel/Alumina laminates were developed experimentally and modeled via LEFM using the weight function approach and utilizing single-ligament-, and COD-, data. The crack-tip toughness was found to increase with Ni layer thickness due to crack-tip-shielding. The crack-initiation-toughness was estimated from the stress field and the crack-opening-displacement of the main crack.

  19. Cryogenic Fracture Toughness Improvement for the Super Lightweight Tank's Main Structural Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, P. S.; Stanton, W. P.

    2002-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center has developed a two-step (TS) artificial aging technique that can significantly enhance cryogenic fracture toughness and resistance to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in aluminum-copper-lithium alloy 2195. The new TS aging treatment consists of exposures at 132 C (270 F)/20 hr + 138 C (280 F)/42 hr, which can be readily applied to flight hardware production. TS aging achieves the same yield strength levels as conventional aging, while providing much improved ductility in the short transverse direction. After TS aging, five previously rejected lots of alloy 2195 (lots 950M029B, 960M030F, 960M030J, 960M030K, and 960M030L) passed simulated service testing for use in the super lightweight tank program. Each lot exhibited higher fracture toughness at cryogenic temperature than at ambient temperature. Their SCC resistance was also enhanced. All SCC specimens passed the minimum 10-day requirement in 3.5-percent sodium chloride alternate immersion at a stress of 45 ksi. The SCC lives ranged from 57 to 83 days, with an average of 70 days.

  20. Impact resistance and interlaminar fracture toughness of through-the-thickness reinforced graphite/epoxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dexter, H. B.; Funk, J. G.

    1986-01-01

    Five through-the-thickness stitch configurations are analyzed to determine the effect of impact resistance and interlaminar fracture toughness on T3000/3501-6 graphite/epoxy. The test specimens were stitched with either polyester or Kevlar yarns and with various stitch parameters. Tension and compression mechanical, impact and compression-after-impact, and double cantilever beam tests were conducted. It is observed that the stitched laminates have tension and compression strengths 20-25 percent lower than the strengths of unstitched laminates, the tension strength of stitched laminates is reduced with increasing number of stitches, and the compression strength increases as the number of stitches are increased. The impact data reveal that the Kevlar stitched laminates have less damage than unstitched laminates; the most effective configuration for suppressing impact damage and improving interlaminar fracture toughness consists of Kevlar yarns 1/4 inch apart with eight stitches per inch. The mode 1 critical strain energy release rate for the 1/4 inch Kevlar eight stitch laminate was calculated as 30 times higher than that of the unstitched.

  1. Evaluation of the Edge Crack Torsion (ECT) Test for Mode 3 Interlaminar Fracture Toughness of Laminated Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jian; Lee, Edward W.; OBrien, T. Kevin; Lee, Shaw Ming

    1996-01-01

    An analytical and experimental investigation was carried out on G40-800/R6376 graphite epoxy laminates to evaluate the Edge Crack Torsion (ECT) test as a candidate for a standard Mode 3 interlaminar fracture toughness test for laminated composites. The ECT test consists of a (90/(+/- 45)(sub 3)/(+/- 45)(sub 3)/90))(sub s) laminate with a delamination introduced by a non-adhesive film at the mid-plane along one edge and loaded in a special fixture to create torsion along the length of the laminate. Dye penetrate enhanced X-radiograph of failed specimens revealed that the delamination initiated at the middle of the specimen length and propagated in a self similar manner along the laminate mid-plane. A three-dimensional finite element analysis was performed that indicated that a pure Mode 3 delamination exists at the middle of specimen length away from both ends. At the ends near the loading point a small Mode 2 component exists. However, the magnitude of this Mode 2 strain energy release rate at the loading point is small compared to the magnitude of Mode 3 component in the mid-section of the specimen. Hence, the ECT test yielded the desired Mode 3 delamination. The Mode 3 fracture toughness was obtained from a compliance calibration method and was in good agreement with the finite element results. Mode 2 End-Notched Flexure (ENF) tests and Mode 1 Double Cantilever Beam (DCB) tests were also performed for the same composite material. The Mode 1 fracture toughness was much smaller than both the Mode 2 and Mode 3 fracture toughness. The Mode 2 fracture toughness was found to be 75% of the Mode 3 fracture toughness.

  2. The effect of microstructure and strength on the fracture toughness of an 18 ni, 300 grade maraging steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Psioda, J. A.; Low, J. R., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Methods for increasing the strength of maraging steels are discussed. An investigation was conducted to systematically vary the strength of 18 weight percent nickel, 300 grade maraging steel, to isolate any attending microstructural changes, and to study the effects of these changes on the fracture toughness of the alloy. A study aimed at determining the aging behavior of the program alloy was carried out to provide data by which to estimate yield strength. The effects of various alloying materials on the strength of the maraging steel are examined. The mechanical properties of the 300 grade maraging steel were determined by tension tests, fatigue precracked Charpy impact tests, and plane strain fracture toughness tests.

  3. Fracture toughness of CIP-HIP (cold isostatic pressed - hot isostatic pressed) beryllium at elevated temperatures. Final report, 13 May 1980-13 February 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, L.M.; Jones, A.H.

    1986-04-01

    The fracture toughness of CIP-HIP (cold isostatic pressed-hot isostatic pressed) beryllium was determined using the short-bar fracture-toughness (K/sub IcSB/) method. The K/sub IcSB/ value measured was 10.96 MPa x the square root of m at room temperature. This falls well within the expected range of 9 to 12 MPa x the square root of m as observed from previous fracture toughness measurements of beryllium. Toughness increased rapidly between 400 F and 500 F reaching a value of 16.7 MPa x the square root of m at 500 F.

  4. Leaf cellulose density as the key determinant of inter- and intra-specific variation in leaf fracture toughness in a species-rich tropical forest.

    PubMed

    Kitajima, Kaoru; Wright, S Joseph; Westbrook, Jared W

    2016-06-01

    Leaves as the main photosynthetic organ of plants must be well protected against various hazards to achieve their optimal lifespans. Yet, within-species variation and the material basis of leaf strength have been explored for very few species. Here, we present a large dataset of leaf fracture toughness from a species-rich humid tropical forest on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, reporting both among- and within-species variation in relation to light environment (sun-lit canopy versus shaded understorey) and ontogeny (seedlings versus adults). In this dataset encompassing 281 free-standing woody species and 428 species-light combinations, lamina fracture toughness varied ca 10 times. A central objective of our study was to identify generalizable patterns in the structural and material basis for interspecific variation in leaf lamina fracture toughness. The leaf lamina is a heterogeneous structure in which strong materials in cell walls, such as cellulose and lignin, contribute disproportionately to fracture toughness. We found significant increases in leaf fracture toughness from shade to sun and from seedling leaves to adult leaves. Both within and across species, leaf fracture toughness increased with total bulk density (dry biomass per unit volume) and cellulose mass concentration, but decreased with mass concentrations of lignin and hemicelluose. These bivariate relationships shift between light environments, but leaf cellulose density (cellulose mass per unit leaf volume) exhibits a common relationship with lamina fracture toughness between light environments and through ontogeny. Hence, leaf cellulose density is probably a universal predictor of leaf fracture toughness. PMID:27274796

  5. Evaluation of the Fracture Toughness of a SMSS Subjected to Common Heat Treatment Cycles in an Aggressive Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieta, G.; Leite, R.; Kwietniewski, C.; Clarke, T.; Strohaecker, T.

    2010-12-01

    Supermartensitic stainless steels (SMSS) are an alternative to corrosion-prone carbon steels and expensive duplex stainless steels in offshore tubing applications for the oil and gas industry. Due to their differentiated alloying, SMSS exhibit superior toughness, corrosion resistance, and weldability properties when compared with another viable option, conventional martensitic stainless steels. However, when cathodically protected in a seawater environment they can be susceptible to embrittlement due to hydrogen charging. In the present study, SMSS samples were removed from deep water pipelines and their fracture toughness in the as-received condition and with different heat treatments was evaluated. Tests were carried out in air and in harsh environmental and loading conditions, which were ensured by subjecting specimens to cathodic overprotection, simulating effects seen in structures with complex geometries, and to incremental step loads in a synthetic seawater environment, thus favoring hydrogen diffusion to the precrack tip. The fracture surfaces of the specimens were analyzed in order to identify hydrogen-induced embrittlement and fracture toughness values of specimens tested in air were compared to values obtained in environment-assisted experiments. The influence of microstructure was evaluated by control of the retained austenite and δ-ferrite contents of the specimens. The results show a significant drop in the fracture toughness of steel in the studied environment, with a fracture mode which is clearly more brittle and dependent on microstructural characteristics of the samples.

  6. Effects of thermal aging on fracture toughness and charpy-impact strength of stainless steel pipe welds.

    SciTech Connect

    Gavenda, D. J.; Michaud, W. F.; Galvin, T. M.; Burke, W. F.; Chopra, O. K.; Energy Technology

    1996-06-05

    The degradation of fracture toughness, tensile, and Charpy-impact properties of Type 308 stainless steel (SS) pipe welds due to thermal aging has been characterized at room temperature and 290 C. Thermal aging of SS welds results in moderate decreases in Charpy-impact strength and fracture toughness. For the various welds in this study, upper-shelf energy decreased by 50-80 J/cm{sup 2}. The decrease in fracture toughness J-R curve or JIC is relatively small. Thermal aging had little or no effect on the tensile strength of the welds. Fracture properties of SS welds are controlled by the distribution and morphology of second-phase particles. Failure occurs by the formation and growth of microvoids near hard inclusions; such processes are relatively insensitive to thermal aging. The ferrite phase has little or no effect on the fracture properties of the welds. Differences in fracture resistance of the welds arise from differences in the density and size of inclusions. Mechanical-property data from the present study are consistent with results from other investigations. The existing data have been used to establish minimum expected fracture properties for SS welds.

  7. Effects of thermal aging on fracture toughness and Charpy-impact strength of stainless steel pipe welds

    SciTech Connect

    Gavenda, D.J.; Michaud, W.F.; Galvin, T.M.; Burke, W.F.; Chopra, O.K.

    1996-05-01

    Degradation of fracture toughness, tensile, and Charpy-impact properties of Type 304 and 304/308 SS pipe welds due to thermal aging was studied at room temperature and 290 C. Thermal aging of SS welds results in moderate decreases in charpy-impact strength and fracture toughness. Upper-shelf energy decreased by 50-80 J/cm{sup 2}. Decrease in fracture toughness J-R curve or J{sub IC} is relatively small. Thermal aging had no or little effect on tensile strength of the welds. Fracture properties of SS welds are controlled by the distribution and morphology of second-phase particles. Failure occurs by formation and growth of microvoids near hard inclusions; such processes are relatively insensitive to thermal aging. The ferrite phase has little or no effect on fracture properties of the welds. Differences in fracture resistance of the welds arise from differences in the density and size of inclusions. Mechanical-property data from the present study are consistent with results from other investigations. The existing data have been used to establish minimum expected fracture properties for SS welds.

  8. Role of matrix/reinforcement interfaces in the fracture toughness of brittle materials toughened by ductile reinforcements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, L.; Abbaschian, R.

    1992-10-01

    Crack interactions with ductile reinforcements, especially behavior of a crack tip at the interface, have been studied using MoSi2 composites reinforced with Nb foils. Effects of fracture energy of interfaces on toughness of the composites have also been investigated. Variation of interfacial bonding was achieved by depositing an oxide coating or by the development of a reaction prod- uct layer between the reinforcement and matrix. Toughness was measured using bend tests on chevron-notched specimens. It has been established that as a crack interacts with a ductile re- inforcement, three mechanisms compcte: interfacial debonding, multiple matrix fracture, and direct crack propagation through the reinforcement. Decohesion length at the matrix/reinforcement interface depends on the predominant mechanism. Furthermore, the results add to the evidence that the extent to which interfacial bonding is conducive to toughness of the composites depends on the criterion used to describe the toughness and that ductility of the ductile reinforcement is also an important factor in controlling toughness of the composites. Loss of ductility of the ductile reinforcement due to inappropriate processing could result in little improvement in tough- ness of the composites.

  9. TOUGH-RDCA modeling of multiple fracture interactions in caprock during CO2 injection into a deep brine aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Peng-Zhi; Rutqvist, Jonny; Feng, Xia-Ting; Yan, Fei

    2014-04-01

    The interaction between multiple fractures (e.g., hydraulic fractures and pre-existing natural fractures) is important in the analysis of a number of geoengineering applications, such as in the evaluation of the stability and integrity of caprock during underground CO2 sequestration. Here, we present new developments and applications of a model for analyzing coupled multiphase fluid flow and geomechanical processes during fracturing involving multiple fractures and their interactions. Based on a numerical code, i.e., rock discontinuous cellular automaton (RDCA), we introduce a discontinuous displacement function for representing multiple discontinuities, and develop an algorithm to deal with a propagating fracture that interacts with other discontinuities. By applying multiphase fluid pressure to fracture surfaces, the RDCA has the ability to simulate multiphase fluid flow-driven fracturing. The RDCA technique incorporates the discontinuity of the crack independently of the mesh, such that the cracks can be arbitrarily located within an element. This method does not require any remeshing for multiple cracks growth, an aspect that greatly reduces the complexity and improves efficiency in modeling multiple-fracture propagation. The RDCA is integrated with the TOUGH2 multiphase flow and heat-transport simulator by a sequential coupling algorithm, using mixed FORTRAN and C++ programming. The coupled TOUGH2 and RDCA code is applied to simulate the multiple fracture interaction in caprock induced by CO2 injection into a deep brine aquifer. The simulation results show hydraulic fracture trajectory, fracture aperture, and pressures as a function of injection time. Fluid flow (driven by CO2 injection) into natural fractures and their transition to hydraulic fractures is simulated. The injection pressure profile shows the complexity of the fracturing and its impact on CO2 migration and caprock integrity.

  10. Effect of boron and carbon on the fracture toughness of IN 718 superalloy at room temperature and 650 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Lin; Chaturvedi, Mahesh C.; Chen, Daolun

    2005-08-01

    The effect of B and C microadditions on the fracture toughness of IN 718 superalloy was investigated at room temperature (RT) and at 650 °C. At RT, the fracture toughness was observed to increase with increasing B and C concentrations. C had a relatively weak effect on the fracture toughness at 650 °C, but the influence of B was significant. At RT the highest fracture toughness value was obtained for the alloy with 29 ppm B and 225 ppm C at RT, and at 650 °C the alloy with 60 ppm B and 40 ppm C had the highest fracture toughness. An increase in the concentration of B to 100 ppm, however, resulted in a reduction in the fracture toughness at 650 °C. Fractographic observations showed that the formation and coalescence of microvoids was the predominant fracture mechanism at RT. In contrast, at 650 °C, the fracture surface exhibited intergranular cracking in the alloy with lower B concentrations and transgranular cracking coupled with fine dimples in the alloy with higher B concentrations. It is suggested that B impedes intergranular cracking by increasing the cohesion of grain boundaries and improving the grain boundary stabilization. The RT increase in the fracture toughness of the material caused by the addition of C is attributed to the formation of intergranular and intragranular carbides that increased the resistance to the plastic deformation.

  11. Effect of heat treatment on microstructure and fracture toughness of a V-5Cr-5Ti alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Li, H.; Hamilton, M.L.; Jones, R.H.

    1995-04-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of heat treatment on microstructure and fracture toughness in the range of {minus}50 to 100{degrees}C for a V-5Cr-5Ti alloy. Fracture toughness and impact tests were performed on a V-5Cr-5Ti alloy. Specimens annealed at 1125{degree}C for 1 h and furnace cooled in a vacuum of 1.33 x 10{sup {minus}5} Pa were brittle at room temperature and experienced a mixture of intergranular and cleavage fracture. The ductile to brittle transition temperature was estimated to be about 20{degree}C. When some specimens were given an additional annealing at 890{degree}C for 24 h, they became very ductile at room temperature and fractured by microvoid coalescence.

  12. Effect of Heat Treatment, Pre-stress and Surface Hardening on Fracture Toughness of Micro-Alloyed Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nag Chaudhury, Joydeb

    2014-01-01

    Micro-alloyed steels are being increasingly accepted by industry in various fields of application and are available with a wide variety of microstructures. Extensive literature is available on their microstructure-property relationships. The superior mechanical properties of micro-alloyed steels are caused by fine-grained microstructures and precipitation of micro-alloying elements such as V, Ti and Nb that led to an improvement in yield strength, in the product of tensile strength and total elongation and in Charpy V-notch impact energy as well. The microstructural changes caused by heat treatment or residual stress state caused by surface hardening or mechanical means may influence the fracture toughness of these micro-alloyed steels. It is in this context that the present work begins with experimental determination of quasi-static initiation fracture toughness ( J 1c) of low carbon (0.19%) micro-alloyed steel in as-rolled condition without any heat treatment. The study further explores the effect of normalizing, shot-peening and cyaniding followed by shot-peening on fracture toughness of as-rolled steel under study. The normalizing heat treatment, shot-peening and cyaniding followed by shot-peening—each indicates a positive influence on initiation fracture toughness. Results, when compared, show that cyaniding followed by shot-peening have led to a 2.7 times increase in J 1c. Cyaniding followed by shot-peening may therefore be considered as having the most positive influence on initiation fracture toughness in as-rolled condition for the type of micro-alloyed steel under study. Although initiation fracture toughness is in general known to decrease with increase in yield strength in LEFM arena, the micro-alloyed steel under study when normalized displayed simultaneous improvement in yield strength and J 1c. All these observed effects of normalizing, shot-peening and cyaniding on initiation fracture toughness (elastic-plastic fracture mechanics) were explained

  13. Loading rate effects on strength and fracture toughness of pipe steels used in Task 1 of the IPIRG program

    SciTech Connect

    Marschall, C.W.; Landow, M.P.; Wilkowski, G.M.

    1993-10-01

    Material characterization tests were conducted on laboratory specimens machined from pipes to determine the effect of dynamic loading (i.e., rates comparable to those for high amplitude seismic events) on tensile properties and fracture resistance at 288 C (550 F). Specimens were fabricated from seven different pipes, including carbon steels and stainless steels (both base metal and weld metal), which were to be subjected to full-scale pipe tests in IPIRG Task 1.0. For the stainless steels tested at 288 C (550 F), tensile strength was unchanged, while yield strength and fracture resistance were increased. The increase in fracture resistance was modest for the wrought base metals and substantial for the weld metal and the cast base metal. The carbon steels tested were sensitive to dynamic strain aging, and hence the strength and toughness was affected by both temperature and strain rate effects. The carbon steel base metal and welds exhibited ultimate tensile strength values at 288 C (550 F) that were greater than at room temperature. Furthermore, the ultimate tensile strength at 288 C (550 F) was lowered significantly by increased strain rate and, in the carbon steel base metals, increased strain rate also lowered the fracture resistance, substantially in the base metal of one pipe. In comparing these results to the IPIRG pipe test results to date, it was found that the trends of these tests agree well with the Subtask 1.2 quasi-static and dynamic pipe fracture experiments. Loads measured in the Subtask 1.1 pipe experiments were, however, somewhat higher than would have been expected by the trends observed in the laboratory tests.

  14. An Evaluation of Fracture Toughness of Vinyl Ester Composites Cured under Microwave Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, H.; Chan, W. L.; Trada, M.; Baddeley, D.

    2007-12-01

    The shrinkage of vinyl ester particulate composites has been reduced by curing the resins under microwave conditions. The reduction in the shrinkage of the resins by microwaves will enable the manufacture of large vinyl ester composite items possible (H.S. Ku, G. Van Erp, J.A.R. Ball, and S. Ayers, Shrinkage Reduction of Thermoset Fibre Composites during Hardening using Microwaves Irradiation for Curing, Proceedings, Second World Engineering Congress, Kuching, Malaysia, 2002a, 22-25 July, p 177-182; H.S. Ku, Risks Involved in Curing Vinyl Ester Resins Using Microwaves Irradiation. J. Mater. Synth. Proces. 2002b, 10(2), p 97-106; S.H. Ku, Curing Vinyl Ester Particle Reinforced Composites Using Microwaves. J. Comp. Mater., (2003a), 37(22), p 2027-2042; S.H. Ku and E. Siores, Shrinkage Reduction of Thermoset Matrix Particle Reinforced Composites During Hardening Using Microwaves Irradiation, Trans. Hong Kong Inst. Eng., 2004, 11(3), p 29-34). In tensile tests, the yield strengths of samples cured under microwave conditions obtained are within 5% of those obtained by ambient curing; it is also found that with 180 W microwave power, the tensile strengths obtained for all duration of exposure to microwaves are also within the 5% of those obtained by ambient curing. While, with 360 W microwave power, the tensile strengths obtained for all duration of exposure to microwaves are 5% higher than those obtained by ambient curing. Whereas, with 540 W microwave power, the tensile strengths obtained for most samples are 5% below those obtained by ambient curing (H. Ku, V.C. Puttgunta, and M. Trada, Young’s Modulus of Vinyl Ester Composites Cured by Microwave Irradiation: Preliminary Results, J. Electromagnet. Waves Appl., 2007, 20(14), p. 1911-1924). This project, using 33% by weight fly ash reinforced vinyl ester composite [VE/FLYSH (33%)], is to further investigate the difference in fracture toughness between microwave cured vinyl ester particulate composites and those cured

  15. Processing and properties of ceramic nanocomposites designed for improved fracture toughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuntz, Joshua D.

    2005-11-01

    Nanocrystalline-matrix ceramic composites specifically designed for applications requiring improved fracture toughness were investigated. While the models and theory of toughening mechanisms for microcrystalline composites are well developed, the same cannot be said for their nanocrystalline counterparts. The mechanisms of ductile-phase toughening, fiber toughening, transformation toughening, and microcrack toughening have been fully investigated in microcrystalline-matrix ceramics. Both ductile-phase toughening and fiber toughening are theoretically viable as toughening mechanisms in nanocrystalline ceramics. The experimental demonstration of these mechanisms has been investigated through alumina-matrix nanocomposites with second phases of niobium (ductile-phase toughening) and carbon nanotubes (fiber toughening). The difficulty in producing fully consolidated ceramic composites that retain a nanocrystalline structure is the main hurdle to thorough investigations in this area. Thus, much of the research currently in the literature on so-called "nanocomposites" has been on materials with microcrystalline matrices and nanometric second phases. Using novel processing techniques, fully dense composites with nanocrystalline matrices were produced from commercially available starting powders. The consolidation technique, which allowed the retention of the nanocrystalline grain size, was spark plasma sintering (SPS). SPS is a moderate-pressure sintering method based on the theory of plasma momentarily generated in the gaps between powder materials by electrical discharge during DC pulsing. It has been proposed that the on--off DC pulse energizing method could generate (1) spark plasma, (2) spark impact pressure, (3) Joule heating, and (4) an electrical-field diffusion effect. SPS can rapidly consolidate powders to full density through the combined actions of rapid heating, applying pressure, and proposed powder surface cleaning. Al2O3-10 vol.% Nb ductile-phase toughened

  16. Estimation of fracture toughness of cast stainless steels during thermal aging in LWR systems - Revison 1.

    SciTech Connect

    Chopra, O. K.; Energy Technology

    1994-10-05

    This report presents a revision of the procedure and correlations presented earlier in NUREG/CR-4513, ANL-90/42 (June 1991) for predicting the change in mechanical properties of cast stainless steel components due to thermal aging during service in light water reactors at 280-330 C (535-625 F). The correlations presented in this report are based on an expanded data base and have been optimized with mechanical-property data on cast stainless steels aged up to {approx}58,000 h at 290-350 C (554-633 F). The correlations for estimating the change in tensile stress, including the Ramberg/Osgood parameters for strain hardening, are also described. The fracture toughness J-R curve, tensile stress, and Charpy-impact energy of aged cast stainless steels are estimated from known material information. Mechanical properties of a specific cast stainless steel are estimated from the extent and kinetics of thermal embrittlement. Embrittlement of cast stainless steels is characterized in terms of room-temperature Charpy-impact energy. The extent or degree of thermal embrittlement at 'saturation,' i.e., the minimum impact energy that can be achieved for a material after long-term aging, is determined from the chemical composition of the steel. Charpy-impact energy as a function of time and temperature of reactor service is estimated from the kinetics of thermal embrittlement, which are also determined from the chemical composition. The initial impact energy of the unaged steel is required for these estimations. Initial tensile flow stress is needed for estimating the flow stress of the aged material. The fracture toughness J-R curve for the material is then obtained by correlating room-temperature Charpy-impact energy with fracture toughness parameters. The values of JIC are determined from the estimated J-R curve and flow stress. A common 'predicted lower-bound' J-R curve for cast stainless steels of unknown chemical composition is also defined for a given grade of steel, range of

  17. Fracture toughness and mechanical properties of C-Mn steels exposed to wet H{sub 2}S environments

    SciTech Connect

    Cayard, M.S.; Joia, C.J.B.; Bezerra, P.S.; Assun, F.C.R.

    1999-11-01

    C-Mn steel is heavily utilized in the oil and gas industry, primarily in upstream operations and downstream refining. Many of these vessels are exposed to wet hydrogen sulfide environments and as a consequence become damaged. Assessment of these damaged vessels is a key point for continued safe operations. This paper addresses several of the key material properties of C-Mn steels required to perform such assessments. Guidelines on the influence of welding, stress relief treatments, crack location and hydrogen charging on the mechanical properties and fracture toughness are detailed. Results showed elongation and reduction in area were greatly affected by hydrogen charging, however, yield and tensile strength were only mildly affected. Regarding toughness, the parent metal and heat affected regions of hydrogen charged material exhibited a factor of three decrease in toughness compared to baseline values, while the toughness of the weld metal remained relatively unchanged.

  18. Fracture Toughness, Mechanical Property, And Chemical Characterization Of A Critical Modification To The NASA SLS Solid Booster Internal Material System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pancoast, Justin; Garrett, William; Moe, Gulia

    2015-01-01

    A modified propellant-liner-insulation (PLI) bondline in the Space Launch System (SLS) solid rocket booster required characterization for flight certification. The chemical changes to the PLI bondline and the required additional processing have been correlated to mechanical responses of the materials across the bondline. Mechanical properties testing and analyses included fracture toughness, tensile, and shear tests. Chemical properties testing and analyses included Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, cross-link density, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography (GC), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and wave dispersion X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF). The testing identified the presence of the expected new materials and found the functional bondline performance of the new PLI system was not significantly changed from the old system.

  19. Biaxial loading and shallow-flaw effects on crack-tip constraint and fracture toughness

    SciTech Connect

    Bass, B.R.; Bryson, J.W.; Theiss, T.J.; Rao, M.C.

    1994-01-01

    A program to develop and evaluate fracture methodologies for the assessment of crack-tip constraint effects on fracture toughness of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels has been initiated in the Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program. Crack-tip constraint is an issue that significantly impacts fracture mechanics technologies employed in safety assessment procedures for commercially licensed nuclear RPVs. The focus of studies described herein is on the evaluation of two stressed-based methodologies for quantifying crack-tip constraint (i.e., J-Q theory and a micromechanical scaling model based on critical stressed volumes) through applications to experimental and fractographic data. Data were utilized from single-edge notch bend (SENB) specimens and HSST-developed cruciform beam specimens that were tested in HSST shallow-crack and biaxial testing programs. Results from applications indicate that both the J-Q methodology and the micromechanical scaling model can be used successfully to interpret experimental data from the shallow- and deep-crack SENB specimen tests. When applied to the uniaxially and biaxially loaded cruciform specimens, the two methodologies showed some promising features, but also raised several questions concerning the interpretation of constraint conditions in the specimen based on near-tip stress fields. Fractographic data taken from the fracture surfaces of the SENB and cruciform specimens are used to assess the relevance of stress-based fracture characterizations to conditions at cleavage initiation sites. Unresolved issues identified from these analyses require resolution as part of a validation process for biaxial loading applications. This report is designated as HSST Report No. 142.

  20. Tensile, low cycle fatigue and fracture toughness behaviour of type 316L steel irradiated to 0.3 dpa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josefsson, Bertil; Bergenlid, Ulf

    1994-09-01

    The effect of a low dose neutron irradiation on the tensile, low cycle fatigue and fracture toughness properties of type 316L steel plate and weld material was investigated. The specimens were irradiated at a temperature of about 35°C to a neutron fluence of approximately 2.5 × 10 20 n/cm 2 ( E > 1 MeV). The testing was performed at 75, 250 and 450°C. Irradiated tensile specimens showed a substantial radiation hardening combined with some reduction of elongations. There was no significant effect of the irradiation on the low cycle fatigue endurances. The fracture toughness of the TIG weld specimens was roughly half of that of the 316L plate and electron beam weld. Some reductions of toughness owing to the irradiation were observed.

  1. The shear fracture toughness, KIIc, of graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Burchell, Timothy D.; Erdman, III, Donald L.

    2015-11-05

    In this study, the critical shear stress intensity factor, KIIc, here-in referred to as the shear fracture toughness, KIIc (MPa m), of two grades of graphite are reported. The range of specimen volumes was selected to elucidate any specimen size effect, but smaller volume specimen tests were largely unsuccessful, shear failure did not occur between the notches as expected. This was probably due to the specimen geometry causing the shear fracture stress to exceed the compressive failure stress. In subsequent testing the specimen geometry was altered to reduce the compressive footprint and the notches (slits) made deeper to reduce the specimen's ligament length. Additionally, we added the collection of Acoustic Emission (AE) during testing to assist with the identification of the shear fracture load. The means of KIIc from large specimens for PCEA and NBG-18 are 2.26 MPa m with an SD of 0.37 MPa m and 2.20 MPa m with an SD of 0.53 MPa m, respectively. The value of KIIc for both graphite grades was similar, although the scatter was large. In this work we found the ratio of KIIc/KIc ≈ 1.6. .

  2. Fracture toughness and corrosion resistance of semisolid AlSi5 alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Pola, A.; Montesano, L.; Gelfi, M.; Roberti, R.

    2011-05-04

    The aim of this work was to investigate fracture toughness and corrosion resistance of semisolid AlSi5 castings, compared to samples obtained from conventional casting operations. In order to have a semisolid microstructure, the melt alloy was treated by means of ultrasound during solidification and then poured into permanent moulds. Mechanical properties of semisolid and conventional castings were compared by means of ultimate tensile strength (R{sub m}), yield stress (Rp{sub 02}) and hardness (HV) measurements. Fracture mechanics tests were carried out on Single Edge Notched Bend (SENB) specimens, machined from castings, and pre-cracked by fatigue. These tests were performed to determine the effect of the microstructure on the J-Integral resistance (J-R) behavior and to deeply understand the ductile fracture behaviour of semisolid parts. The J-Integral versus spaced crack extension (J-{Delta}a) curves showed an improved resistance of the semisolid microstructure, due to the higher ductility. Finally, the corrosion behaviour of semisolid samples was compared to that of castings coming from solidification of fully liquid alloy by means of electrochemical potentiodynamic polarization tests. It was observed that the globular microstructure offers better quality, in terms of higher mechanical properties, as a consequence of a more uniform distribution of the solute.

  3. Effect of tempering on quasi-static and impact fracture toughness and mechanical properties for 5140 H steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klepaczko, J. R.; Solecki, A.

    1984-05-01

    The effects of various thermal treatments, i.e., oil quench and different tempering conditions, on quasi-static and impact fracture toughness, stress-strain characteristics, hardness, and Charpy energy of 5140 H steel were examined. During quasi-static and impact loading notched round tensile specimens were used with a prefatigued crack. A specially designed device together with a pendulum hammer and electronic measuring system was used enabling testing of the opening mode fracture toughness at loading rates up to K1 = 3 x 106 MPa√m per second. It has been found that within the region of the lower tempering temperatures, 500 K≤ 650 K, the critical stress intensity factor KIc determined from impact testing is lower than that obtained during slow loading, whereas at the higher tempering temperatures, 650 K ≤ T* ≤ 900 K, dynamic KIu values show a tendency to be higher than their quasi-static counterparts. This behavior was analyzed quantitatively using the Hahn-Rosenfield model which relates tensile properties to fracture toughness. A good agreement was found between quasi-static experimental results and the model. The relation between Charpy energy Kv and the critical stress intensity factor KIc was also evaluated. Changes of the fracture toughness are discussed within the framework of SEM fractographs taken after quasi-static and impact tests.

  4. Materials Reliability Program: Fracture Toughness Testing of Decommissioned PWR Core Internals Material Samples (MRP-160) Non-Proprietary Version

    SciTech Connect

    M. E. Krug; R. P. Shogan

    2005-09-30

    Pressurised water reactor (PWR) cores operate under extreme envrionmental conditions due to coolant chemistry, operating temperature and neutron exposure. Extending the life of PWRs requires detailed knowledge of teh changes in mechanical and corrosion properties of teh structural austenitic stainless steel components adjacent to the fuel. This report contains results of fracture toughness testing of samples machined from decommissioned PWR reactor internals.

  5. Correlation of the microstructure and fracture toughness of the heat-affected zones of an SA 508 steel

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S.; Kang, S.Y.; Oh, S.J.; Kwon, S.J.; Lee, S.; Kim, J.H.; Hong, J.H.

    2000-04-01

    In this study, microstructures of a heat-affected zone (HAZ) of an SA 508 steel were identified by Moessbauer spectroscopy in conjunction with microscopic observations, and were correlated with fracture toughness. Specimens with the peak temperature raised to 1350 C showed mostly martensite. With the peak temperature raised to 900 C, the martensite fraction was reduced, while bainite or martensite islands were formed because of the slow cooling from the lower austenite region and the increase in the prior austenite grain size. As the martensite fraction present inside the HAZ increased, hardness and strength tended to increase, whereas fracture toughness decreased. The microstructures were not changed much from the base metal because of the minor tempering effect when it was raised to 650 C or 700 C. However, fracture toughness of the subcritical HAZ with the peak temperature raised to 650 C to 700 C was seriously reduced after postweld heat treatment (PWHT) because carbide particles were of primary importance in initiating voids. Thus, the most important microstructural factors affecting fracture toughness were the martensite fraction before PWHT and the carbide fraction after PWHT.

  6. An ORMOSIL-Containing Orthodontic Acrylic Resin with Concomitant Improvements in Antimicrobial and Fracture Toughness Properties

    PubMed Central

    Rueggeberg, Frederick A.; Niu, Li-na; Mettenberg, Donald; Yiu, Cynthia K. Y.; Blizzard, John D.; Wu, Christine D.; Mao, Jing; Drisko, Connie L.; Pashley, David H.; Tay, Franklin R.

    2012-01-01

    Global increase in patients seeking orthodontic treatment creates a demand for the use of acrylic resins in removable appliances and retainers. Orthodontic removable appliance wearers have a higher risk of oral infections that are caused by the formation of bacterial and fungal biofilms on the appliance surface. Here, we present the synthetic route for an antibacterial and antifungal organically-modified silicate (ORMOSIL) that has multiple methacryloloxy functionalities attached to a siloxane backbone (quaternary ammonium methacryloxy silicate, or QAMS). By dissolving the water-insoluble, rubbery ORMOSIL in methyl methacrylate, QAMS may be copolymerized with polymethyl methacrylate, and covalently incorporated in the pressure-processed acrylic resin. The latter demonstrated a predominantly contact-killing effect on Streptococcus mutans ATCC 36558 and Actinomyces naselundii ATCC 12104 biofilms, while inhibiting adhesion of Candida albicans ATCC 90028 on the acrylic surface. Apart from its favorable antimicrobial activities, QAMS-containing acrylic resins exhibited decreased water wettability and improved toughness, without adversely affecting the flexural strength and modulus, water sorption and solubility, when compared with QAMS-free acrylic resin. The covalently bound, antimicrobial orthodontic acrylic resin with improved toughness represents advancement over other experimental antimicrobial acrylic resin formulations, in its potential to simultaneously prevent oral infections during appliance wear, and improve the fracture resistance of those appliances. PMID:22870322

  7. Weldability of high toughness Fe-12% Ni alloys containing Ti, Al or Nb

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devletian, J. H.; Stephens, J. R.; Witzke, W. R.

    1977-01-01

    Three exceptionally high-toughness Fe-12%Ni alloys designed for cryogenic service were welded using the GTA welding process. Evaluation of weldability included equivalent energy (KIed) fracture toughness tests, transverse-weld tensile tests at -196 and 25 C and weld crack sensitivity tests. The Fe-12%Ni-0.25%Ti alloy proved extremely weldable for cryogenic applications, having weld and HAZ properties comparable with those of the wrought base alloy. The Fe-12%Ni-0.5%Al had good weld properties only after the weld joint was heat treated. The Fe-12%Ni-0.25%Nb alloy was not considered weldable for cryogenic use because of its poor weld joint properties at -196 C and its susceptibility to hot cracking.

  8. Interlaminar fracture toughness of composites. II - Refinement of the edge delamination test and application to thermoplastics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, N. J.; Obrien, T. K.; Morris, D. H.; Simonds, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    The mixed mode interlaminar fracture toughness, G(c), is obtained for the two thermoplastic matrices UDEL P1700 polysulfone and ULTEM polyetherimide by means of edge delamination tensile (EDT) tests on unnotched, eleven-ply graphite fiber reinforced composite specimens. A novel method is used to obtain the stiffness parameter employed in the closed form equation for the calculation of G(c), decreasing the number of stiffness measurements required and simplifying the calculations. The G(Ic) values from double cantilever beam (DCB) measurements on composites of the two thermoplastics were similar to each other, but slightly higher than the G(c) data obtained by EDT. Interfacial resin/fiber failures predominated in both the EDT and DCB tests.

  9. Analysis of precracking parameters and fracture toughness for ceramic single-edge-precracked-beam specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Chulya, Abhisak; Salem, Jonathan A.

    1992-01-01

    The single-edge-precracked-beam (SEPB) method involves creation of a straight-through crack from an indentation crack. The straight-through crack is developed by applying a controlled bending load to a specimen via a precracking fixture. The fixture induces the following sequence: (1) stable growth of the indentation crack; (2) pop-in; and finally, (3) arrest-thereby forming a straight-through precrack. The effects of indentation load on precracking load as well as precrack size were studied for experimental variables such as specimen width, fixture span, and material. Finite element analysis was used to obtain the stress distribution and stress intensity factor, thus providing a quantitative prediction of the precracking load and precrack size for silicon nitride, alumina, silicon cabide, and two SiC whisker-reinforced silicon nitrides. Fracture toughness values obtained from the SEPB method were compared with those obtained from other methods.

  10. Crack diffusion coefficient - A candidate fracture toughness parameter for short fiber composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mull, M. A.; Chudnovsky, A.; Moet, A.

    1987-01-01

    In brittle matrix composites, crack propagation occurs along random trajectories reflecting the heterogeneous nature of the strength field. Considering the crack trajectory as a diffusive process, the 'crack diffusion coefficient' is introduced. From fatigue crack propagation experiments on a set of identical SEN polyester composite specimens, the variance of the crack tip position along the loading axis is found to be a linear function of the effective 'time'. The latter is taken as the effective crack length. The coefficient of proportionality between variance of the crack trajectory and the effective crack length defines the crack diffusion coefficient D which is found in the present study to be 0.165 mm. This parameter reflects the ability of the composite to deviate the crack from the energetically most efficient path and thus links fracture toughness to the microstructure.

  11. Fracture Toughness of Thin Plates by the Double-Torsion Test Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salem, Jonathan A.; Radovic, Miladin; Lara-Curzio, Edgar; Nelson, George

    2006-01-01

    Double torsion testing can produce fracture toughness values without crack length measurement that are comparable to those measured via standardized techniques such as the chevron-notch, surface-crack-in-flexure and precracked beam if the appropriate geometry is employed, and the material does not exhibit increasing crack growth resistance. Results to date indicate that 8 < W/d < 80 and L/W > 2 are required if crack length is not considered in stress intensity calculations. At L/W = 2, the normalized crack length should be 0.35 < a/L < 0.65; whereas for L/W = 3, 0.2 < a/L < 0.75 is acceptable. In addition, the load-points need to roll to reduce friction. For an alumina exhibiting increasing crack growth resistance, values corresponding to the plateau of the R-curve were measured. For very thin plates (W/d > 80) nonlinear effects were encountered.

  12. Simultaneous enhancement of toughness, ductility, and strength of nanocrystalline ceramics at high strain-rates

    SciTech Connect

    Mo Yifei; Szlufarska, Izabela

    2007-04-30

    Molecular dynamics simulations of tensile testing have been performed on nc-SiC. Reduction of grain size promotes simultaneous enhancement of ductility, toughness, and strength. nc-SiC fails by intergranular fracture preceded by atomic level necking. Conventionally, high strain-rate deformations of ceramics are limited by diffusion time scales, since diffusion prevents premature cavitation and failure. The authors report a nondiffusional mechanism for suppressing premature cavitation, which is based on unconstrained plastic flow at grain boundaries. Based on the composite's rule of mixture, they estimate Young's modulus of random high-angle grain boundaries in nc-SiC to be about 130 GPa.

  13. A Proposal for the Maximum KIC for Use in ASME Code Flaw and Fracture Toughness Evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Kirk, Mark; Stevens, Gary; Erickson, Marjorie A; Yin, Shengjun

    2011-01-01

    Nonmandatory Appendices A [1] and G [2] of Section XI of the ASME Code use the KIc curve (indexed to the material reference transition temperature, RTNDT) in reactor pressure vessel (RPV) flaw evaluations, and for the purpose of establishing RPV pressure-temperature (P-T) limits. Neither of these appendices places an upper-limit on the KIc value that may be used in these assessments. Over the years, it has often been suggested by some of the members of the ASME Section XI Code committees that are responsible for maintaining Appendices A and G that there is a practical upper limit of 200 ksi in (220 MPa m) [4]. This upper limit is not well recognized by all users of the ASME Code, is not explicitly documented within the Code itself, and the one source known to the authors where it is defended [4] relies on data that is either in error, or is less than 220 MPa m. However, as part of the NRC/industry pressurized thermal shock (PTS) re-evaluation effort, empirical models were developed that propose common temperature dependencies for all ferritic steels operating on the upper shelf. These models relate the fracture toughness properties in the transition regime to those on the upper shelf and, combined with data for a wide variety of RPV steels and welds on which they are based, suggest that the practical upper limit of 220 MPa m exceeds the upper shelf fracture toughness of most RPV steels by a considerable amount, especially for irradiated steels. In this paper, available models and data are used to propose upper bound limits of applicability on the KIc curve for use in ASME Code, Section XI, Nonmandatory Appendices A and G evaluations that are consistent with available data for RPV steels.

  14. Designing metallic glass matrix composites with high toughness and tensile ductility.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Douglas C; Suh, Jin-Yoo; Wiest, Aaron; Duan, Gang; Lind, Mary-Laura; Demetriou, Marios D; Johnson, William L

    2008-02-28

    The selection and design of modern high-performance structural engineering materials is driven by optimizing combinations of mechanical properties such as strength, ductility, toughness, elasticity and requirements for predictable and graceful (non-catastrophic) failure in service. Highly processable bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) are a new class of engineering materials and have attracted significant technological interest. Although many BMGs exhibit high strength and show substantial fracture toughness, they lack ductility and fail in an apparently brittle manner in unconstrained loading geometries. For instance, some BMGs exhibit significant plastic deformation in compression or bending tests, but all exhibit negligible plasticity (<0.5% strain) in uniaxial tension. To overcome brittle failure in tension, BMG-matrix composites have been introduced. The inhomogeneous microstructure with isolated dendrites in a BMG matrix stabilizes the glass against the catastrophic failure associated with unlimited extension of a shear band and results in enhanced global plasticity and more graceful failure. Tensile strengths of approximately 1 GPa, tensile ductility of approximately 2-3 per cent, and an enhanced mode I fracture toughness of K(1C) approximately 40 MPa m(1/2) were reported. Building on this approach, we have developed 'designed composites' by matching fundamental mechanical and microstructural length scales. Here, we report titanium-zirconium-based BMG composites with room-temperature tensile ductility exceeding 10 per cent, yield strengths of 1.2-1.5 GPa, K(1C) up to approximately 170 MPa m(1/2), and fracture energies for crack propagation as high as G(1C) approximately 340 kJ m(-2). The K(1C) and G(1C) values equal or surpass those achievable in the toughest titanium or steel alloys, placing BMG composites among the toughest known materials. PMID:18305540

  15. Fracture toughness curve shift in low upper-shelf welds (series 8)

    SciTech Connect

    Iskander, S.K.; Nanstad, R.K.; Manneschmidt, E.T.

    1995-10-01

    This task examines the fracture toughness curve shifts and changes in shape for irradiated welds with low CVN upper-shelf energy (USE). The information developed under this task will augment information obtained from other HSSI tasks performed on two high-USE weldments under the Fifth and Sixth Irradiation Series and on a commercial, low USE under the Tenth Irradiation Series. The results will provide an expanded basis for accounting for irradiation-induced embrittlement in RPV materials. Three low-USE welds have been ordered from ABB-Combustion Engineering (ABB-CE), Chattanooga, Tennessee, and two of them have been delivered to ORNL. ABB-CE fabricated the welds for the Fifth and Sixth Series. Preliminary results of mechanical and chemical tests from these two welds are presented below. The Linde 80 flux was used for all three welds. One weld, Weld 1, was made with the 73W weld wire. Weld wire 73W had copper added to the melt to reduce the variations that are associated with copper-coated weld wire. The other two welds were fabricated with a commercially available copper-coated weld wire, L-TEC 44 heat 44112. One of these two welds, Weld 2, has a target copper level of 0.31 %. This copper level could not be attained using the copper-coated wire, and the coating will be stripped from the wire, which contains 0.07 % Cu. To attain the target copper level, supplemental copper will be added to the weld puddle using an ABB-CE proprietary process. This will slightly delay the delivery of weld 2, the expected delivery date is now the end of April 1995. Weld 3 was fabricated with the same heat of the L-TEC 44 copper-coated weld wire as weld 2, but with supplemental copper added to the weld puddle, which resulted in a weldment containing an average of 0.424 % Cu. The semiannual report for October 1993 through March 1994 discusses the reasons for the above choices of copper content and welding wire.

  16. Micro and nano MgO particles for the improvement of fracture toughness of bone-cement interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Khandaker, Morshed; Li, Yanling; Morris, Tracy

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether inclusion of magnesium oxide (MgO) in micro and nanoparticulate forms in poly Methyl MethAcrylate (PMMA) cement has any influence on the fracture toughness of bone-cement interfaces. An interfacial fracture mechanics technique was used to compare the values of fracture toughness (KIC) among bone-PMMA, bone-PMMA with micro MgO particles and bone-PMMA with nano MgO particles interfaces. This study found that the values of KIC of bone-PMMA with micro MgO particles and bone–PMMA with nano MgO particles interfaces were significantly higher when compared to the values of KIC of the bone-PMMA interface (p<0.0001). Results indicated that the addition of the micro and nano MgO particles to PMMA improved the quality of bone-cement union. PMID:23332232

  17. Numerical Investigation of Dynamic Rock Fracture Toughness Determination Using a Semi-Circular Bend Specimen in Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Y.; Dai, F.; Xu, N. W.; Zhao, T.

    2016-03-01

    The International Society for Rock Mechanics (ISRM) has suggested a notched semi-circular bend technique in split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) testing to determine the dynamic mode I fracture toughness of rock. Due to the transient nature of dynamic loading and limited experimental techniques, the dynamic fracture process associated with energy partitions remains far from being fully understood. In this study, the dynamic fracturing of the notched semi-circular bend rock specimen in SHPB testing is numerically simulated for the first time by the discrete element method (DEM) and evaluated in both microlevel and energy points of view. The results confirm the validity of this DEM model to reproduce the dynamic fracturing and the feasibility to simultaneously measure key dynamic rock fracture parameters, including initiation fracture toughness, fracture energy, and propagation fracture toughness. In particular, the force equilibrium of the specimen can be effectively achieved by virtue of a ramped incident pulse, and the fracture onset in the vicinity of the crack tip is found to synchronize with the peak force, both of which guarantee the quasistatic data reduction method employed to determine the dynamic fracture toughness. Moreover, the energy partition analysis indicates that simplifications, including friction energy neglect, can cause an overestimation of the propagation fracture toughness, especially under a higher loading rate.

  18. Heat-affected zone fracture toughness of 420-500 MPa yield strength steels: Effects of chemical composition and welding conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Tronskar, J.P. )

    1993-02-01

    During the last five years, high-strength steels with yield strengths in the range 420 to 500 MPa have attracted considerable interest within the offshore industry, primarily due to the potential for weight saving and reduction in volume of weld metal through the use of reduced section thicknesses. With respect to chemical composition these steels are developed following much the same philosophy as for the modern normalized structural steels. Due to the increased stress level in these higher strength steels, it is anticipated that brittle fracture initiation occurring in the coarse-gained HAZ will be more critical for these steels than for the lower strength normalized grades. The objective of this paper is to present the results from several experimental investigations carried out at VERITEC during the last five years to study the factors affecting the crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) fracture toughness of the heat-affected zone (HAZ) in structural steels in the yield strength range 420-500 MPa. Typical CTOD fracture toughnesses of the HAZ in normalized 350-MPa yield strength steels used in offshore structures are also presented for comparison. The results of the investigations confirm that the same chemical compositional factors which are known to influence the HAZ fracture toughness of normalized steels are also important for the 420-500-MPa yield strength steels. It is demonstrated that the width of the HAZ is important for the initiation of brittle fracture of pop-in and that this width must exceed a certain minimum value for such events to occur.

  19. Fracture toughness of calcium-modified ultrahigh-strength 4340 steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita, Yoshiyuki

    1990-10-01

    Commercial and low-sulfur 4340 steels have been studied to determine the effect of calcium treatment on modifying the morphology of nonmetallic inclusions and plane-strain fracture toughness ( K IC ) of the ultrahigh-strength, low-alloy steels at commercial heat level. The significant conclusions are as follows: (1) for the low-sulfur 4340 steel, the addition of calcium in the molten steel gave rise to the formation of finely distributed, spherical, calcium-sulfide (CaS) inclusions with a mean diameter of 1.3 μm; (2) in comparing the calcium-modified 4340 steel with commercial 4340 steel, the calcium-modified steel not only had an improved K IC by about 25 MPa•m1/2 in the longitudinal (L) orientation and by about 30 MPa • m1/2 in the transverse (T) orientation, but also had increased fracture ductility and Charpy impact energy at similar strength levels; and (3) for the commercial 4340 steel, the calcium treatment was not very effective in modifying the morphology of the inclusions on improving the mechanical properties of the steel. The beneficial effect of calcium modification coupled with low sulfur content on the K Ic is briefly discussed in terms of a crack extension model involving the formation of voids at the inclusion sites and their growth and eventual linking-up through the rupture of the intervening ligaments by localized shear.

  20. The effect of carbide precipitate morphology on fracture toughness in low-tempered steels containing Ni.

    PubMed

    Krawczyk, J; Bała, P; Pacyna, J

    2010-03-01

    Nickel is known to increase the resistance to cleavage fracture of iron and decrease a ductile-to-brittle transition temperature. The medium-carbon, low-alloy martensitic steels attain the best combination of properties in low-tempered condition, with tempered martensite, retained austenite and transition carbides in the microstructure. This paper is focused on the influence of Ni addition (from 0.35 to 4.00%) on the microstructure and fracture toughness of structural steels after tempering. In this research, four model alloys of different concentration of Ni and constant concentration of carbon and other elements were used. All samples were in as-quenched and tempered conditions. Quenching was performed in oil at room temperature. After quenching, samples were tempered at 200 degrees C for 2 h. The microstructure of the investigated steels was analyzed using JEM200CX transmission electron microscope. An increase of nickel content in the investigated structural steels causes a decrease of epsilon carbide concentration in their microstructure after tempering. In these steels, cementite precipitates independently in the boundaries of martensite needles and in the twin boundaries in the areas where the Fe(2.4)C carbide has been dissolved. These results will be used to design new technologies of tempering of structural steels with nickel addition. PMID:20500408

  1. Translaminar fracture toughness test methods and results from interlaboratory tests of carbon/epoxy laminates

    SciTech Connect

    Underwood, J.H.; Kortschot, M.T.; Lloyd, W.R.; Eidinoff, H.L.; Wilson, D.A.; Ashbaugh, N.

    1995-12-31

    Fracture tests were performed with carbon/polymer laminates and analyzed for the purpose of developing translaminar fracture toughness test and analysis procedures. Notched specimens were tested of two types of symmetrical layups--quasi-isotropic [0/45/90] and [0/90]; two carbon fiber/epoxy materials--a relatively brittle T300 fiber/976 epoxy and a tougher AS4 fiber/977-2 epoxy; two laminate thicknesses--2 mm and 4 mm; and three specimen configurations--the standard three-point bend and compact configurations, and an extended compact specimen with arm-height to specimen-width ratio of 1.9. Stress and displacement expressions were obtained for the extended compact specimen, including those for stress intensity factor, K, and crack mouth opening displacement, V, in terms of relative notch length, a/W, and for a/W in terms of V. Relationships for the bending stresses that control self-similar and off-axis cracking for the extended compact specimen were derived.

  2. Effect of processing on fracture toughness of silicon carbide as determined by Vickers indentations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dannels, Christine M.; Dutta, Sunil

    1989-01-01

    Several alpha-SiC materials were processed by hot isostatic pressing (HIPing) and by sintering an alpha-SiC powder containing boron and carbon. Several beta-SiC materials were processed by HIPing a beta-SiC powder with boron and carbon additions. The fracture toughnesses K(sub 1c) of these beta- and alpha-SiC materials were estimated from measurements of Vickers indentations. The three formulas used to estimate K(sub 1c) from the indentation fracture patterns resulted in three ranges of K(sub 1c) estimates. Furthermore, each formula measured the effects of processing differently. All three estimates indicated that fine-grained HIPed alpha-SiC has a higher K(sub 1c) than coarsed-grained sintered alpha-SiC. Hot isostatically pressed beta-SiC, which had an ultrafine grain structure, exhibited a K(sub 1c) comparable to that of HIPed alpha-SiC.

  3. Determination of dynamic fracture-initiation toughness using a novel impact bend test procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Yokoyama, T. . Faculty of Engineering Okayama Univ. of Science . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1993-11-01

    A novel impact bend test procedure is described for determining the dynamic fracture-initiation toughness, K[sub Id], at a loading rate (stress intensity factor rate), K[sub I], of the order of 10[sup 6] MPa [radical]m/s. A special arrangement of the split Hopkinson pressure bar is adopted to measure accurately dynamic loads applied to a fatigue-precracked bend specimen. The dynamic stress intensity factor history for the bend specimen is evaluated by means of a dynamic finite element technique. The onset of crack initiation is detected using a string gage attached on the side of the specimen near a crack tip. The value of K[sub Id] is determined from the critical dynamic stress intensity factor at crack initiation. A series of dynamic fracture tests is carried out on a 7075-T6 aluminum alloy, a Ti-6246 alloy and an AISI 4340 steel. The K[sub Id] values obtained for the three structural materials are compared with the corresponding values obtained under quasi-static loading conditions.

  4. Fracture Mechanism and Toughness Optimization of Macroscopic Thick Graphene Oxide Film

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Shibing; Chen, Bin; Feng, Jiachun

    2015-01-01

    Combined high strength and toughness of film materials are rather important for their industrial applications. As a new class of films, graphene oxide films (GOFs) attract intense attention in many applications but are frequently divergent, inconsistent, and poorly reproducible in their mechanical properties. In this study, we first demonstrate that different chemical compositions and assembly structures probably are responsible for the difference in elongations between cast GOFs and filtration GOFs. Comprehensive analysis of the morphologies and mechanical properties indicates that the enhanced elongation of the thick cast GOFs is mainly attributed to the presence of a unique skin-wrinkles-skin structure, which more easily forms in cast GOFs than in filtration counterparts. On the basis of this finding, we attempt to optimize the strength-toughness performance of the cast GOFs by adjusting their structures. With an appropriate thickness of 12.5 μm, the GOFs can achieve an ultrahigh toughness up to 4.37 MJ m−3, which is even comparable to the polymer-toughening graphene/GO-based paper-like materials. Such an optimization of the mechanical properties from the perspective of skin-wrinkles-skin structure appears to be a universal approach that could be extended to a variety of other film materials. PMID:26310835

  5. Fracture Mechanism and Toughness Optimization of Macroscopic Thick Graphene Oxide Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Shibing; Chen, Bin; Feng, Jiachun

    2015-08-01

    Combined high strength and toughness of film materials are rather important for their industrial applications. As a new class of films, graphene oxide films (GOFs) attract intense attention in many applications but are frequently divergent, inconsistent, and poorly reproducible in their mechanical properties. In this study, we first demonstrate that different chemical compositions and assembly structures probably are responsible for the difference in elongations between cast GOFs and filtration GOFs. Comprehensive analysis of the morphologies and mechanical properties indicates that the enhanced elongation of the thick cast GOFs is mainly attributed to the presence of a unique skin-wrinkles-skin structure, which more easily forms in cast GOFs than in filtration counterparts. On the basis of this finding, we attempt to optimize the strength-toughness performance of the cast GOFs by adjusting their structures. With an appropriate thickness of 12.5 μm, the GOFs can achieve an ultrahigh toughness up to 4.37 MJ m-3, which is even comparable to the polymer-toughening graphene/GO-based paper-like materials. Such an optimization of the mechanical properties from the perspective of skin-wrinkles-skin structure appears to be a universal approach that could be extended to a variety of other film materials.

  6. Fatigue and fracture toughness of acrylic bone cements modified with long-chain amine activators.

    PubMed

    Deb, S; Lewis, G; Janna, S W; Vazquez, B; San Roman, J

    2003-11-01

    The composition of acrylic bone cement has been identified as one of the important parameters affecting its mechanical properties and may, in turn, ultimately influence the longevity of a cemented arthroplasty. Our aim in this study was to determine the influence of change of one compositional variable, the activator, on the fatigue performance and fracture toughness of specimens of the fully cured cement. To that end, three sets of cements were prepared, containing either the conventional activator, 4-N,N dimethyl p-toluidine (DMPT), or novel ones that are tertiary amines based on long-chain fatty acids, that is, 4-N,N dimethylaminobenzyl oleate (DMAO) and 4-N,N dimethylaminobenzyl laurate (DMAL). In the fatigue tests, the specimens were subjected to tension-tension loading, and the results (number of cycles to failure, Nf) were analyzed using the linearized form of the three-parameter Weibull equation. The fracture toughness (KIc) tests were conducted with rectangular compact tension specimens. All fracture surfaces were subsequently examined with scanning electron microscopy. We found that the Weibull mean fatigue lives for specimens fabricated using the DMPT, DMAL, and DMAO containing cements were 272,823, 453,551, and 583,396 cycles, respectively. The corresponding values for KIc were 1.94 +/- 0.05, 2.06 +/- 0.09, and 2.00 +/- 0.07 MPa radical m, respectively. Statistical analyses showed that for both the DMAL- and DMAO-containing cements, the mean values of Nf were significantly higher compared to the corresponding value for the DMPT-containing cement (Mann-Whitney test; alpha < 0.10). This result is attributed to the higher molecular weights of the former cements compared to the latter. The same trend was found for the mean KIc values (Mann-Whitney test; alpha < 0.05), with the trend being explained in terms of the differences seen in the crack morphologies. These results thus demonstrate that these novel amines are viable alternatives to DMPT for

  7. Ductile fracture toughness of modified A 302 Grade B Plate materials, data analysis. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, D.E.; Manneschmidt, E.T.; Swain, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of this work was to develop ductile fracture toughness data in the form of J-R curves for modified A302 grade B plate materials typical of those used in reactor pressure vessels. A previous experimental study on one heat of A302 grade B plate showed decreasing J-R curves with increased specimen thickness. This characteristic has not been observed in tests made on recent production materials of A533 grade B and A508 class 2 pressure vessel steels. It was unknown if the departure from norm for the material was a generic characteristic for all heats of A302 grade B steels or unique to that particular plate. Seven heats of modified A302 grade B steel and one heat of vintage A533 grade B steel were tested for chemical content, tensile properties, Charpy transition temperature curves, drop-weight nil-ductility transition (NDT) temperature, and J-R curves. Tensile tests were made in the three principal orientations and at four temperatures, ranging from room temperature to 550F. Charpy V-notch transition temperature curves were obtained in longitudinal, transverse, and short transverse orientations. J-R curves were made using four specimen sizes (1/2T, 1T, 2T, and 4T). The fracture mechanics-based evaluation method covered three test orientations and three test temperatures (80, 400, and 550F). However, the coverage of these variables was contingent upon the amount of material provided. Drop-weight NDT temperature was determined for the T-L orientation only. None of the heats of modified A302 grade B showed size effects of any consequence on the J-R curve behavior. Crack orientation effects were present, but none were severe enough to be reported as atypical. A test temperature increase from 180 to 550F produced the usual loss in J-R curve fracture toughness. Generic J-R curves and curve fits were generated to represent each heat of material. This volume deals with the evaluation of data and the discussion of technical findings. 8 refs., 18 figs., 8 tabs.

  8. 2015 Accomplishments-Tritium aging studies on stainless steel. Effects of hydrogen isotopes, crack orientation, and specimen geometry on fracture toughness

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on the effects of hydrogen isotopes, crack orientation, and specimen geometry on the fracture toughness of stainless steels. Fracture toughness variability was investigated for Type 21-6-9 stainless steel using the 7K0004 forging. Fracture toughness specimens were cut from the forging in two different geometric configurations: arc shape and disc shape. The fracture toughness properties were measured at ambient temperature before and after exposure to hydrogen gas and compared to prior studies. There are three main conclusions that can be drawn from the results. First, the fracture toughness properties of actual reservoir forgings and contemporary heats of steel are much higher than those measured in earlier studies that used heats of steel from the 1980s and 1990s and forward extruded forgings which were designed to simulate reservoir microstructures. This is true for as-forged heats as well as forged heats exposed to hydrogen gas. Secondly, the study confirms the well-known observation that cracks oriented parallel to the forging grain flow will propagate easier than those oriented perpendicular to the grain flow. However, what was not known, but is shown here, is that this effect is more pronounced, particularly after hydrogen exposures, when the forging is given a larger upset. In brick forgings, which have a relatively low amount of upset, the fracture toughness variation with specimen orientation is less than 5%; whereas, in cup forgings, the fracture toughness is about 20% lower than that forging to show how specimen geometry affects fracture toughness values. The American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) specifies minimum specimen section sizes for valid fracture toughness values. However, sub-size specimens have long been used to study tritium effects because of the physical limitation of diffusing hydrogen isotopes into stainless steel at mild temperatures so as to not disturb the underlying forged microstructure. This study shows

  9. The limit of strength and toughness of steel

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Zhen

    2001-12-17

    The ideal structural steel combines high strength with high fracture toughness. This dissertation discusses the governing principles of strength and toughness, along with the approaches that can be used to improve these properties and the inherent limits to how strong and tough a steel can be.

  10. Development of high toughness, high strength aluminide-bonded carbide ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Becher, P.F.; Plucknett, K.P.; Tiegs, T.N.

    1997-04-01

    Cemented carbides are widely used in applications where resistance to abrasion and wear are important, particularly in combination with high strength and stiffness. In the present case, ductile aluminides have been used as a binder phase to fabricate dense carbide cermets by either sintering of mixed powders or a melt-infiltration sintering process. The choice of an aluminide binder was based on the exceptional high temperature strength and chemical stability exhibited by these alloys. For example, TiC-based composites with a Ni{sub 3}Al binder phase exhibit improved oxidation resistance, Young`s moduli > 375 GPa, high fracture strengths (> 1 GPa) that are retained to {ge} 900{degrees}C, and fracture toughness values of 10 to 15 MPa{radical}m, identical to that measured in commercial cobalt-bonded WC with the same test method. The thermal diffusivity values at 200{degrees}C for these composites are {approximately} 0.070 to 0.075 cm{sup 2}/s while the thermal expansion coefficients rise with Ni3Al content from {approximately} 8 to {approximately}11 x 10{sup {minus}6}/{degrees}C over the range of 8 to 40 vol. % Ni{sub 3}Al. The oxidation and acidic corrosion resistances are quite promising as well. Finally, these materials also exhibit good electrical conductivity allowing them to be sectioned and shaped by electrical discharge machining (EDM) processes.

  11. Effect of Li level, artificial aging, and TiB2 reinforcement on the fracture toughness of Weldalite (tm) 049-type alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Plane strain fracture toughness (K sub IC) was evaluated for Weldalite (tm) 049 with and without TiB2 reinforcement. For the nonreinforced variant, changes in toughness were measured for various aging conditions and lithium levels. Toughness testing was carried out on fatigue precracked compact tension (CT) specimens at 24 C, as per ASTM standard E-399. Toughness was measured as a function of aging time at 160 C for the two Weldalite 049(1.3) heats. The composition of these heats differed only in that 0.03 wt pct. Ti was added to one as an additional grain refiner. Both heats showed a decrease in toughness with increasing aging time, although toughness values for one were significantly higher than for the other. This greater toughness may be due to a subtle change in the grain size resulting for the presence of Ti or, alternatively, to differences in texture or substructure formed during extrusion.

  12. Dentin Bonding Testing Using a Mini-interfacial Fracture Toughness Approach.

    PubMed

    Pongprueksa, P; De Munck, J; Karunratanakul, K; Barreto, B C; Van Ende, A; Senawongse, P; Van Meerbeek, B

    2016-03-01

    Measurement of interfacial fracture toughness (iFT) is considered a more valid method to assess bonding effectiveness as compared with conventional bond strength testing. Common fracture toughness tests are, however, laborious and require a relatively bulky specimen size. This study aimed to evaluate a new simplified and miniaturized iFT (mini-iFT) test. Four dentin adhesives, representing the main adhesive classes, and 1 glass ionomer cement were applied onto flat dentin. Mini-iFT (1.5 × 2.0 × 16 to 18 mm) and microtensile bond strength (µTBS; 1.5 × 1.5 × 16 to 18 mm) specimens were prepared from the same tooth. For the mini-iFT specimens, a single notch was cut at the adhesive-dentin interface with a 150-µm diamond blade under water cooling; the specimens were loaded until failure in a 4-point bending test setup. Finite element analysis was used to analyze stress distribution during mini-iFT testing. The correlation between the mean mini-iFT and µTBS was examined and found to be significant; a strong positive correlation was found (r(2) = 0.94, P = 0.004). Weibull data analysis suggested the mini-iFT to vary less than the µTBS. Both the mini-iFT and the µTBS revealed the same performance order, with the 3-step etch-and-rinse adhesive outperforming the 2-step self-etch and 2-step etch-and-rinse adhesive, followed by the 1-step SE adhesive and, finally, the glass ionomer cement. Scanning electron microscopy failure analysis revealed the adhesive-dentin interface to fail more at the actual interface with the mini-iFT test, while µTBS specimens failed more within dentin and composite. This finding was corroborated by finite element analysis showing stress to concentrate at the interface during mini-iFT loading and crack propagation. In conclusion, the new mini-iFT test appeared more discriminative and valid than the µTBS to assess bonding effectiveness; the latter test nevertheless remains more versatile. Specimen size and workload were alike, making the

  13. Ductile fracture toughness of modified A 302 grade B plate materials. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, D.E.; Manneschmidt, E.T.; Swain, R.L.

    1997-02-01

    The objective of this work was to develop ductile fracture toughness data in the form of J-R curves for modified A 302 grade B plate materials typical of those used in fabricating reactor pressure vessels. A previous experimental study at Materials Engineering Associates (MEA) on one particular heat of A 302 grade B plate showed decreasing J-R curves with increased specimen thickness. This characteristic has not been observed in numerous tests made on the more recent production materials of A 533 grade B and A 508 class 2 pressure vessel steels. It was unknown if the departure from norm for the MEA material was a generic characteristic for all heats of A 302 grade B steels or just unique to that one particular plate. Seven heats of modified A 302 grade B steel and one heat of vintage A 533 grade B steel were provided to this project by the General Electric Company of San Jose, California. All plates were tested for chemical content, tensile properties, Charpy transition temperature curves, drop-weight nil-ductility transition (NDT) temperature, and J-R curves. Tensile tests were made in the three principal orientations and at four temperatures, ranging from room temperature to 550{degrees}F (288{degrees}C). Charpy V-notch transition temperature curves were obtained in longitudinal, transverse, and short transverse orientations. J-R curves were made using four specimen sizes (1/2T, IT, 2T, and 4T). None of the seven heats of modified A 302 grade showed size effects of any consequence on the J-R curve behavior. Crack orientation effects were present, but none were severe enough to be reported as atypical. A test temperature increase from 180 to 550{degrees}F (82 to 288{degrees}C) produced the usual loss in J-R curve fracture toughness. Generic J-R curves and mathematical curve fits to the same were generated to represent each heat of material. This volume is a compilation of all data developed.

  14. Influence of specimen size/type on the fracture toughness of five irradiated RPV materials

    SciTech Connect

    Sokolov, Mikhail A; Lucon, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    The Heavy-Section Steel Irradiation (HSSI) Program had previously irradiated five reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels/welds at fast neutron fluxes of about 4 to 8 x 1011 n/cm2/s (>1 MeV) to fluences from 0.5 to 3.4 1019 n/cm2 and at 288 °C. The unirradiated fracture toughness tests were performed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory with 12.7-mm and 25.4-mm thick (0.5T and 1T) compact specimens, while the HSSI Program provided tensile and 5 x 10-mm three-point bend specimens to SCK-CEN for irradiation in the in-pile section of the Belgian Reactor BR2 at fluxes > 1013 n/cm2/s and subsequent testing by SCK-CEN. The BR2 irradiations were conducted at about 2 and 4 x 1013 n/cm2/s with irradiation temperature between 295 °C and 300 °C (water temperature), and to fluences between 6 and 10 x 1019n/cm2. The irradiation-induced shifts of the Master Curve reference temperatures, ΔT0, for most of the materials deviated from the embrittlement correlations much more than expected, motivating the testing of 5 x 10-mm three-point bend specimens of all five materials in the unirradiated condition to eliminate specimen size and geometry as a variable. Tests of the unirradiated small bend specimens resulted in Master Curve reference temperatures, T0, 25 °C to 53 °C lower than those from the larger compact specimens, meaning that the irradiation-induced reference temperature shifts, ΔT0, were larger than the initial measurements, resulting in much improved agreement between the measured and predicted fracture toughness shifts.

  15. Improvement of the fracture toughness of hydroxyapatite (HAp) by incorporation of carboxyl functionalized single walled carbon nanotubes (CfSWCNTs) and nylon.

    PubMed

    Khanal, S P; Mahfuz, H; Rondinone, A J; Leventouri, Th

    2016-03-01

    The potential of improving the fracture toughness of synthetic hydroxyapatite (HAp) by incorporating carboxyl functionalized single walled carbon nanotubes (CfSWCNTs) and polymerized ε-caprolactam (nylon) was studied. A series of HAp samples with CfSWCNTs concentrations varying from 0 to 1.5 wt.%, without, and with nylon addition was prepared. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) were used to characterize the samples. The three point bending test was applied to measure the fracture toughness of the composites. A reproducible value of 3.6±0.3 MPa.√m was found for samples containing 1 wt.% CfSWCNTs and nylon. This value is in the range of the cortical bone fracture toughness. Increase of the CfSWCNTs content results to decrease of the fracture toughness, and formation of secondary phases. PMID:26706523

  16. Improvement of the fracture toughness of hydroxyapatite (HAp) by incorporation of carboxyl functionalized single walled carbon nanotubes (CfSWCNTs) and nylon

    SciTech Connect

    Khanal, Suraj P.; Mahfuz, Hassan; Rondinone, Adam Justin; Leventouri, Th.

    2015-11-12

    The potential of improving the fracture toughness of synthetic hydroxyapatite (HAp) by incorporating carboxyl functionalized single walled carbon nanotubes (CfSWCNTs) and polymerized ε-caprolactam (nylon) was researched. A series of HAp samples with CfSWCNTs concentrations varying from 0 to 1.5 wt.%, without, and with nylon addition was prepared. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) were used to characterize the samples. The three point bending test was applied to measure the fracture toughness of the composites. A reproducible value of 3.6 ± 0.3 MPa.√m was found for samples containing 1 wt.% CfSWCNTs and nylon. This value is in the range of the cortical bone fracture toughness. Lastly, the increase of the CfSWCNTs content results to decrease of the fracture toughness, and formation of secondary phases.

  17. Improvement of the fracture toughness of hydroxyapatite (HAp) by incorporation of carboxyl functionalized single walled carbon nanotubes (CfSWCNTs) and nylon

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Khanal, Suraj P.; Mahfuz, Hassan; Rondinone, Adam Justin; Leventouri, Th.

    2015-11-12

    The potential of improving the fracture toughness of synthetic hydroxyapatite (HAp) by incorporating carboxyl functionalized single walled carbon nanotubes (CfSWCNTs) and polymerized ε-caprolactam (nylon) was researched. A series of HAp samples with CfSWCNTs concentrations varying from 0 to 1.5 wt.%, without, and with nylon addition was prepared. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) were used to characterize the samples. The three point bending test was applied to measure the fracture toughness of the composites. A reproducible value of 3.6 ± 0.3 MPa.√m was found for samples containing 1 wt.% CfSWCNTs and nylon. This valuemore » is in the range of the cortical bone fracture toughness. Lastly, the increase of the CfSWCNTs content results to decrease of the fracture toughness, and formation of secondary phases.« less

  18. The effect of Si content on the fracture toughness of CrAlN/Si3N4 coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, S.; Wheeler, J. M.; Davis, C. E.; Clegg, W. J.; Zeng, X. T.

    2016-01-01

    CrAlN/Si3N4 nanocomposite coatings with different Si contents were deposited to understand how Si influences the microstructure and mechanical behaviour of the coatings, in particular, the fracture toughness. The coating composition, chemical bonding, microstructure, and mechanical properties were studied by energy dispersive spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and nanoindentation, respectively. Using a micro double cantilever beam sample, it was found that the fracture toughness of CrAlN/Si3N4 coatings was higher than that of both the CrN and CrAlN coatings and increased with increasing Si content. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy suggested that this was caused by the suppression of cracking at columnar boundaries.

  19. Effects of Core-Shell Rubber (CSR) Nanoparticles on the Fracture Toughness of an Epoxy Resin at Cryogenic Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, J.; Cannon, S. A.; Schneider, J. A.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of core-shell rubber (CSR) nanoparticles on the fracture toughness of an epoxy resin at liquid nitrogen (LN2) temperatures. Varying amounts of Kane Ace (Registered TradeMark) MX130 toughening agent were added to a commercially available EPON 862/W epoxy resin. Resulting fracture toughness was evaluated by the use of Charpy impact tests conducted on an instrumented drop tower. The size and distribution of the CSR nanoparticles were characterized using Transmission Electric Microscopy (TEM) and Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS). Up to nominal 4.6% addition of the CSR nanoparticles, resulted in a nearly 5 times increase in the measured breaking energy. However, further increases in the amount of CSR nanoparticles had no appreciable affect on the breaking energy.

  20. Highly tough and transparent layered composites of nanocellulose and synthetic silicate.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chun-Nan; Yang, Quanling; Takeuchi, Miyuki; Saito, Tsuguyuki; Isogai, Akira

    2014-01-01

    A highly tough and transparent film material was prepared from synthetic saponite (SPN) nanoplatelets of low aspect ratios and nanofibrillar cellulose. The nanofibrillar cellulose was chemically modified by topological surface oxidation using 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyl-1-oxyl (TEMPO) as a catalyst. Both synthetic SPN nanoplatelets and TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibrils (TOCNs) have abundant negative charges in high densities on their surfaces and are dispersed in water at the individual nanoelement level. Layered nanocomposite structures of the SPN nanoplatelets and TOCNs were formed through a simple cast-drying process of the mixed aqueous dispersions. The TOCN/SPN composites with 0-50% w/w SPN content were optically transparent. Mechanical properties of the TOCN/SPN composites varied depending on the SPN content. The composite with 10% w/w SPN content (5.6% volume fraction) exhibited characteristic mechanical properties: Young's modulus of 14 GPa, tensile strength of 420 MPa, and strain-to-failure of 10%. The work of fracture of the composites increased from 4 to 30 MJ m(-3)- or by more than 700%--as the SPN content was increased from 0 to 10% w/w. This surprising improvement in toughness was interpreted based on a model for fracture of polymer composites reinforced with low-aspect-ratio platelets. PMID:24201761

  1. Tough, high performance, addition-type thermoplastic polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pater, Ruth H. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A tough, high performance polyimide is provided by reacting a triple bond conjugated with an aromatic ring in a bisethynyl compound with the active double bond in a compound containing a double bond activated toward the formation of a Diels-Adler type adduct, especially a bismaleimide, a biscitraconimide, or a benzoquinone, or mixtures thereof. Addition curing of this product produces a high linear polymeric structure and heat treating the highly linear polymeric structure produces a thermally stable aromatic addition-type thermoplastic polyimide, which finds utility in the preparation of molding compounds, adhesive compositions, and polymer matrix composites.

  2. Critical level of intergranular fracture to affect the toughness of embrittled 2.25Cr-1Mo steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, M. A.; Knott, J. F.; Bowen, P.

    2004-10-01

    In general, the low-temperature brittle fracture mode of unembrittled ferritic steel is transgranular cleavage. During temper embrittlement, impurity elements, such as sulfur (S), phosphorus (P), antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), and tin (Sn), segregate to prior austenite grain boundaries, which results in a decrease in the grain boundary cohesive strength. As a result, the brittle transgranular cleavage fracture mode changes to intergranular decohesion in association with the decrease in the critical fracture (stress (σ F) as well as the fracture toughness (K). However, the appearance of intergranular facets on the fracture surface does not cause a decrease in the K and σ F values. In this work, quenched and fully tempered 2.25Cr-1Mo steel (in an unembrittled condition that exhibits almost 100% brittle transgranular cleavage fracture) has been embrittled for 24, 96, and 210 h at 520 °C to produce different proportions of intergranular fracture. These unembrittled and embrittled steel specimens were tested to measure K (at -120 and -196 °C) and σ F (at -196 °C). The experimental results and detailed fractographic observations show that the K and σ F values decrease with an increase in the area fraction of intergranular fracture, provided that the area fraction of the intergranular facet on the brittle fracture surface exceeded a certain critical level, approximately 20 22%.

  3. Effect of a Home Bleaching Agent on the Fracture Toughness of Resin Composites, Using Short Rod Design

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri, R.; Fani, M.; Barfi Ghasrodashti, AR.; Nouri Yadkouri, N.; Mousavi, SM.

    2014-01-01

    Statement of Problem: Resin composites are brittle materials and their major shortcomings are manifested in their sensitivity to flaws and defects. Although various mechanical properties of resin composites have been described, few studies are available on assessing the effect of bleaching agents on resin composites using the short rod design. Purpose: To place various resin composites into distilled water at 37°C for 21 days and determine the effect of immersion time in distilled water, with and without exposure to 10% carbamide peroxide by employing short rod design fracture toughness test. Materials and Method: Specimens were prepared from three resin composites; Rok (SDI), Esthet (Dentsply), and Estelite (Tokuyama). For each material, a total of 24 disc-shaped specimens were prepared using a custom-made mould. Specimens were randomly divided into 3 groups of 8 and conditioned in 37°C distilled water for either 24 hours, or 21 days. 21 day specimens were tested both with and without applying bleaching agent; Polanight (SDI). Study group specimens were bleached for 21 days, 2 hours a day. The specimens were loaded using a universal testing machine with a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm per minute. The maximum load at specimen failure was recorded and the KIc (MPa. M 0.5) was calculated. Results: Statistical analysis using two-way ANOVA showed a significant relationship between material and time (p< 0.05).Tukey’s test showed that after 24 h of immersion in distilled water, Rok revealed the highest KIc followed by Esthet and Estelite. The bleaching agent significantly improved the fracture toughness values of Esthet while it decreased that of Estelite. Conclusion: The fracture toughness of the resin composites was affected by the bleaching agent and distilled water. In comparison with Rok and Estelite, fracture toughness of Esthet was increased due to aging and application of bleaching agent. PMID:24883344

  4. Fracture toughness of the IEA heat of F82H ferritic/martensitic stainless steel as a function of loading mode

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Huaxin; Gelles, D.S.; Hirth, J.P.

    1997-04-01

    Mode I and mixed-mode I/III fracture toughness tests were performed for the IEA heat of the reduced activation ferritic/martensitic stainless steel F82H at ambient temperature in order to provide comparison with previous measurements on a small heat given a different heat treatment. The results showed that heat to heat variations and heat treatment had negligible consequences on Mode I fracture toughness, but behavior during mixed-mode testing showed unexpected instabilities.

  5. Comparison tests and experimental compliance calibration of the proposed standard round compact plane strain fracture toughness specimen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, D. M.; Buzzard, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    Standard round specimen fracture test results compared satisfactorily with results from standard rectangular compact specimens machined from the same material. The location of the loading pin holes was found to provide adequate strength in the load bearing region for plane strain fracture toughness testing. Excellent agreement was found between the stress intensity coefficient values obtained from compliance measurements and the analytic solution proposed for inclusion in the standard test method. Load displacement measurements were made using long armed displacement gages and hollow loading cylinders. Gage points registered on the loading hole surfaces through small holes in the walls of the loading cylinders.

  6. Tensile properties and translaminar fracture toughness of glass fiber reinforced unsaturated polyester resin composites aged in distilled and salt water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiman, Gozali, M. Hulaifi; Setyawan, Paryanto Dwi

    2016-03-01

    Glass fiber reinforced polymer has been widely used in chemical industry and transportation due to lightweight and cost effective manufacturing. However due to the ability to absorb water from the environment, the durability issue is of interest for up to days. This paper investigated the water uptake and the effect of absorbed water on the tensile properties and the translaminar fracture toughness of glass fiber reinforced unsaturated polyester composites (GFRP) aged in distilled and salt water up to 30 days at a temperature of 50°C. It has been shown that GFRP absorbed more water in distilled water than in salt water. In distilled water, the tensile strength of GFRP tends to decrease steeply at 7 days and then slightly recovered for further immersion time. In salt water, the tensile strength tends to decrease continually up to 30 days immersion. The translaminar fracture toughness of GFRP aged in both distilled and salt-water shows the similar behavior. The translaminar fracture toughness increases after 7 days immersion and then tends to decrease beyond that immersion time. In the existence of ionics content in salt water, it causes more detrimental effect on the mechanical properties of fiberglass/unsaturated polyester composites compared to that of distilled water.

  7. Determination of fracture toughness of calcium phosphate coatings deposited onto Ti6Al4V substrate by using indentation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydin, Ibrahim; Cetinel, Hakan; Pasinli, Ahmet

    2012-09-01

    In this study, fracture toughness values of calcium phosphate (CaP) coatings deposited onto Ti6Al4V substrate were determined by using Vickers indentation method. In this new patent holding method, the activation processes were performed with NaOH and NaOH+H2O2 on the Ti6Al4V material surface. Thicknesses of CaP coatings were measured from cross-sections of the samples by using optical microscopy. Vickers indentation tests were performed by using microhardness tester. Young's modulus values of the coatings were determined by using ultra microhardness tester. As a result, fracture toughness (K1C) values of the CaP coatings produced by using two different activation processes, were calculated by using experimental study results. These were found to be 0.43 MPa m1/2 and 0.39 MPa m1/2, respectively. It was determined that the CaP coating on Ti6Al4V activated by NaOH+H2O2 had higher fracture toughness than the CaP coating on Ti6Al4V activated by NaOH.

  8. Effect of Interface Control on Mode I Interlaminar Fracture Toughness of Woven C/C Composite Laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hojo, Masaki; Yamao, Taketoshi; Tanaka, Mototsugu; Ochiai, Shojiro; Iwashita, Norio; Sawada, Yoshihiro

    Effects of fiber/matrix interface and matrix microstructure on the mode I interlaminar fracture toughness of C/C composite materials were investigated by coating bismaleimide-triazine co-polymer (BT-resin) on the surface of carbon fiber and changing the heat-treatment temperature (HTT). For the case of laminates with HTT of 1600°C (carbonized C/C composites), the initial fracture toughness, GIC, was insensitive to BT-resin coating. Moreover, the fracture toughness during crack propagation, GIR, increased by coating BT-resin. On the other hand, both GIC and GIR decreased with BT-resin coating for the laminates with HTT of 2500°C. While both GIC and GIR are insensitive to HTT for laminates without BT-resin coating, they both decreased by increasing HTT for laminates with BT-resin coating. The difference of the effects of interface control and HTT was discussed on the basis of microscopic mechanism consideration. Comparison between in-plane and interlaminar strength indicated the possibility to optimize the interface control.

  9. Report Number 1: Metallurgical characterization of the HAZ in A516-70 and evaluation of fracture toughness specimens

    SciTech Connect

    Lundin, C.D.; Zhou, G.; Khan, K.K.

    1995-07-01

    An extensive study has been conducted on A516 grade 70 steel to investigate the effect of shallow cracks in weldment HAZs. Charpy V-notch (CVN) and crack-tip opening displacement (CTOD) tests were utilized to characterize the fracture toughness behavior of the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of A516-70 SMAW weldments. The test results are explained on the basis of microstructural features in the HAZ and fractographic examination. Optical light microscopy (OLM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used for these evaluations. A computer-assisted imaging system was also utilized and it proved to be a powerful tool for fracture surface analysis. It was evident from the testing of thermally simulated HAZs of A516-70, that the CGHAZ has the lowest toughness. The need for welding techniques to create actual weld HAZs without an influence from secondary weld passes was addressed during the course of this investigation. A welding procedure was developed which is capable of producing ``singular`` HAZs in actual welds. The ``singular`` HAZ technique produced a non-overlapped continuous HAZ through the full plate thickness. A good correlation was found between thermally simulated HAZ behavior and ``singular`` HAZ behavior in terms of fracture toughness, hardness and microstructure.

  10. Evaluation of fracture toughness master curve shifts for JMTR irradiated F82H using small specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, T.; Odette, G. R.; Gragg, D.; Kurishita, H.; Matsui, H.; Yang, W. J.; Narui, M.; Yamazaki, M.

    2007-08-01

    Small to ultra-small 1/3 size pre-cracked Charpy and 1.65 × 1.65 × 9 mm deformation and fracture minibeam (DFMB) specimens of the F82H IEA heat were irradiated to 0.02 and 0.12 dpa at 290 °C in the Japanese Materials Test Reactor. Nominal cleavage transition temperature shifts, based on the measured toughness, KJm( T), data (Δ Tm) as well as reference temperature shifts (Δ T0) found after size-adjusting the KJm( T) data yielded Δ Tm/0 ≈ 27 ± 10 and 44 ± 10 at the two doses, respectively. Using measured yield stress changes (Δ σy), the C0 = Δ T0/Δ σy = 0.58 ± 0.14 at 0.12 dpa, is in good agreement with data in the literature. The dynamic transition temperature shift, Δ Td, derived from DFMB tests, was ≈30 ± 20 °C at 0.1 dpa, also in good agreement with the estimated Δ T0 shifts. The Δ Td and Δ T0 are also in excellent agreement with a Δ T0 = C 0Δ σy (dpa, Ti) hardening-shift model, where the Δ σy (dpa, Ti) was found by fitting a large database of tensile properties.

  11. Fracture toughness results and preliminary analysis for International Cooperative Test Program on specimens containing surface cracks

    SciTech Connect

    Reuter, W.G.; Elfer, N.C.; Hull, D.A.; Newman, J.C. Jr.; Munz, D.; Panontin, T.L.

    1997-12-31

    Specimens containing surface cracks were tested in either tension or bending to compare the stress intensity factor at failure with plane strain fracture toughness (K{sub Ic}) in an International Cooperative Test Program. The material was heat treated to {sigma}{sub ys} = 1 587 MPa and K{sub Ic} = 54 MPa m{sub 1/2}. Because substantial stable crack growth occurred for some specimens, the test plan was modified to include detecting the onset of crack growth. It is shown that P{sub max} and the original fatigue precrack size cannot be employed to calculate K{sub max} for comparison with K{sub Ic} when significant stable crack growth occurs. However, using P{sub init} (load at which stable crack growth is initiated) and the original fatigue precrack size to calculate K{sub max} or K{sub {phi}=30{degree}} provides a very useful comparison with K{sub Ic}. The influence of variations in fatigue precrack configuration on test results are also discussed.

  12. Baseline Fracture Toughness and CGR testing of alloys X-750 and XM-19 (EPRI Phase I)

    SciTech Connect

    J. H. Jackson; S. P. Teysseyre

    2012-02-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) formed an agreement to test representative alloys used as reactor structural materials as a pilot program toward establishing guidelines for future ATR NSUF research programs. This report contains results from the portion of this program established as Phase I (of three phases) that entails baseline fracture toughness, stress corrosion cracking (SCC), and tensile testing of selected materials for comparison to similar tests conducted at GE Global Research. The intent of this Phase I research program is to determine baseline properties for the materials of interest prior to irradiation, and to ensure comparability between laboratories using similar testing techniques, prior to applying these techniques to the same materials after having been irradiated at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). The materials chosen for this research are the nickel based super alloy X-750, and nitrogen strengthened austenitic stainless steel XM-19. A spare core shroud upper support bracket of alloy X-750 was purchased by EPRI from Southern Co. and a section of XM-19 plate was purchased by EPRI from GE-Hitachi. These materials were sectioned at GE Global Research and provided to INL.

  13. Baseline Fracture Toughness and CGR testing of alloys X-750 and XM-19 (EPRI Phase I)

    SciTech Connect

    J. H. Jackson; S. P. Teysseyre

    2012-10-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) formed an agreement to test representative alloys used as reactor structural materials as a pilot program toward establishing guidelines for future ATR NSUF research programs. This report contains results from the portion of this program established as Phase I (of three phases) that entails baseline fracture toughness, stress corrosion cracking (SCC), and tensile testing of selected materials for comparison to similar tests conducted at GE Global Research. The intent of this Phase I research program is to determine baseline properties for the materials of interest prior to irradiation, and to ensure comparability between laboratories using similar testing techniques, prior to applying these techniques to the same materials after having been irradiated at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). The materials chosen for this research are the nickel based super alloy X-750, and nitrogen strengthened austenitic stainless steel XM-19. A spare core shroud upper support bracket of alloy X-750 was purchased by EPRI from Southern Co. and a section of XM-19 plate was purchased by EPRI from GE-Hitachi. These materials were sectioned at GE Global Research and provided to INL.

  14. Evaluation of the Fracture Toughness on the Surface Layer in HIP-Sintered Silicon Nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takamatsu, Tohru; Miyoshi, Yoshio; Tanabe, Hirotaka; Segawa, Muneyoshi

    To clarify the validity of evaluation of the threshold value of fracture toughness Kth on the surface layer of ceramics by sphere indentation test, indenters of various diameters 2R were used for sphere indentation tests with using Si3N4 specimens made by HIP-sintering and numerical calculation of the stress intensity factor KI was performed for surface cracks under ball-plate contact loading. The crack length ci was estimated from experimental results using KI, where ci is the length of the crack leading to a ring crack and the conditions for ring crack initiation were assumed to be KI>Kth. The average values of ci increased with increasing 2R in the case of small 2R, but the averages of ci gradually approached a constant value in cases with large 2R. The constant value of ci was estimated as 7.9-8.6 μm using Kth=5.3 MPa·m½ and was almost equivalent to the grain size of the test material. The same results were obtained in the previous study with Si3N4 specimens made by gas-pressure-sintering. Therefore, sphere indentation tests can be used to evaluate Kth of ceramics using KI for surface cracks.

  15. Pulsed holographic microscopy as a measurement method of dynamic fracture toughness for fast propagating cracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Shinichi; Homma, Hiroomi; Kusaka, Riichiro

    A METHOD OF pulsed holographic microscopy is applied to take instantaneous microscopic photographs of the neighborhoods of crack tips propagating through PMMA or through AISI 4340 steel specimens at a speed of several hundred meters per second. The cracks are in the opening mode. A fast propagating crack is recorded as a hologram at an instant during its propagation. A microscopic photograph of the crack is taken with a conventional microscope to magnify the reconstructed image from the hologram. From the microscopic photograph, crack opening displacement (COD) is measured along the crack in the vicinity of the crack tip. The COD is of the order often to one hundred microns, and in proportion to the square root of the distance from the crack tip. The dynamic fracture toughness KID is obtained using the formula for COD in the singular stress field of a fast propagating crack. Simultaneous KID measurement both through pulsed holographic microscopy and through the caustic method is furthermore carried out with PMMA specimens. The values of KID obtained through pulsed holographic microscopy are in agreement with those through the caustic method. Microcracks accompanied by a main crack are also photographed with the method of pulsed holographic microscopy.

  16. Interlaminar Fracture Toughness Evaluation in Glass/Epoxy Composites Using Acoustic Emission and Finite Element Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeedifar, Milad; Fotouhi, Mohamad; Najafabadi, Mehdi Ahmadi; Toudeshky, Hossein Hosseini

    2015-01-01

    Delamination is one of the most common modes of failure in laminated composites and it leads to the loss of structural strength and stiffness. In this paper, mode I, mode II, and mixed of these pure modes were investigated using mechanical data, Finite Element Method (FEM) and Acoustic Emission (AE) signals. Experimental data were obtained from in situ monitoring of glass/epoxy laminated composites with different lay-ups when subjected to different modes of failure. The main objective was to investigate the behavior of delamination propagation and to evaluate the critical value of the strain energy which is required for onset of the delamination ( G C). For the identification of interlaminar fracture toughness of the specimens, four methods were used: (a) ASTM standard methods, (b) FEM analysis, (c) AE method, and (d) sentry function method which is a function of mechanical and AE behaviors of the specimens. The results showed that the G C values obtained by the sentry function method and FEM analysis were in a close agreement with the results of nonlinearity methods which is recommended in the ASTM standards. It was also found that the specimens under different loading conditions and various lay-up have different G C values. These differences are related to different stress components distribution in the specimens which induce various damage mechanisms. Accordingly, stress components distribution obtained from FEM analyses were in agreement with SEM observations of the damaged surfaces of the specimens.

  17. Wide range stress intensity factor expressions for ASTM E 399 standard fracture toughness specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srawley, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    For each of the two types of specimens, bend and compact, described previously for plane strain fracture toughness of materials, E 399, a polynominal expression is given for calculation of the stress intensity factor, K, from the applied force, P, and the specimen dimensions. It is explicitly stated, however, that these expressions should not be used outside the range of relative crack length, a/W, from 0.45 to 0.55. While this range is sufficient for the purpose of E 399, the same specimen types are often used for other purposes over a much wider range of a/W; for example, in the study of fatigue crack growth. Expressions are presented which are at least as accurate as those in E 399-74, and which cover much wider ranges of a/W: for the three-point bend specimen from 0 to 1; and for the compact specimen from 0.2 to 1. The range has to be restricted for the compact specimen because of the proximity of the loading pin holes to the crackline, which causes the stress intensity factor to be sensitive to small variations in dimensions when a/W is small. This is a penalty inherently associated with the compactness of the specimen.

  18. TOUGH2 software qualification

    SciTech Connect

    Pruess, K.; Simmons, A.; Wu, Y.S.; Moridis, G.

    1996-02-01

    TOUGH2 is a numerical simulation code for multi-dimensional coupled fluid and heat flow of multiphase, multicomponent fluid mixtures in porous and fractured media. It belongs to the MULKOM ({open_quotes}MULti-KOMponent{close_quotes}) family of codes and is a more general version of the TOUGH simulator. The MULKOM family of codes was originally developed with a focus on geothermal reservoir simulation. They are suited to modeling systems which contain different fluid mixtures, with applications to flow problems arising in the context of high-level nuclear waste isolation, oil and gas recovery and storage, and groundwater resource protection. TOUGH2 is essentially a subset of MULKOM, consisting of a selection of the better tested and documented MULKOM program modules. The purpose of this package of reports is to provide all software baseline documents necessary for the software qualification of TOUGH2.

  19. Effects of high magnetic fields on the microstructure and toughness of cryogenic /sup 9/Ni steel

    SciTech Connect

    Fior, G.O.; Fultz, B.; Morris, J.W. Jr.

    1983-06-01

    Commercial 9Ni cryogenic steel was heat-treated to develop thermally unstable retained austenite. Some of this austenite was transformed to martensite by exposing the material to: (1) cryogenic temperatures, and (2) cryogenic temperatures plus 17 T magnetic fields. Those specimens exposed to the high magnetic fields consistently had the lower Charpy toughness. X-ray crystallography showed that the magnetic exposure caused additional ..gamma.. ..-->.. ..cap alpha..' transformation. Scanning electron fractography indicated that this additional ..gamma.. ..-->.. ..cap alpha..' transformation resulted in additional quasi-cleavage fracture, and therefore a lower toughness. It is shown that the equilibrium thermodynamics of the coexistence of magnetic phases in magnetic fields cannot account for the large increases in the amount of ..gamma.. ..-->.. ..cap alpha..' transformation caused by the magnetic field. We therefore propose that our ..gamma.. ..-->.. ..cap alpha..' transformation is a process with an activation barrier that may be overcome by magnetic exposure. The effect of the ..gamma.. ..-->.. ..cap alpha..' transformation on the Charpy energy was mostly temperature-independent, however. This suggests that the mechanism of fracture associated with the ..gamma.. ..-->.. ..cap alpha..' transformation is not thermally activated.

  20. A New Paradigm for Designing High-Fracture-Energy Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fine, M. E.; Vaynman, S.; Isheim, D.; Chung, Y.-W.; Bhat, S. P.; Hahin, C. H.

    2010-12-01

    The steels used for structural and other applications ideally should have both high strength and high toughness. Most high-strength steels contain substantial carbon content that gives poor weldability and toughness. A theoretical study is presented that was inspired by the early work of Weertman on the effect that single or clusters of solute atoms with slightly different atom sizes have on dislocation configurations in metals. This is of particular interest for metals with high Peierls stress. Misfit centers that are coherent and coplanar in body-centered cubic (bcc) metals can provide sufficient twisting of nearby screw dislocations to reduce the Peierls stress locally and to give improved dislocation mobility and hence better toughness at low temperatures. Therefore, the theory predicts that such nanoscale misfit centers in low-carbon steels can give both precipitation hardening and improved ductility and fracture toughness. To explore the validity of this theory, we measured the Charpy impact fracture energy as a function of temperature for a series of low-carbon Cu-precipitation-strengthened steels. Results show that an addition of 0.94 to 1.49 wt pct Cu and other accompanying elements results in steels with high Charpy impact energies down to cryogenic temperatures (198 K [-75 °C]) with no distinct ductile-to-brittle transition. The addition of 0.1 wt pct Ti results in an additional increase in impact toughness, with Charpy impact fracture energies ranging from 358 J (machine limit) at 248 K (-25 °C) to almost 200 J at 198 K (-75 °C). Extending this concept of using coherent and coplanar misfit centers to decrease the Peierls stress locally to other than bcc iron-based systems suggests an intriguing possibility of developing ductile hexagonal close-packed alloys and intermetallics.

  1. Characterization of the Fracture Toughness of TRIP 800 Sheet Steels Using Microstructure-Based Finite Element Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Soulami, Ayoub; Choi, Kyoo Sil; Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2009-04-01

    Recently, several studies conducted by automotive industry revealed the tremendous advantages of Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS). TRansformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steel is one of the typical representative of AHSS. This kind of materials exhibits high strength as well as high formability. Analyzing the crack behaviour in TRIP steels is a challenging task due to the microstructure level inhomogeneities between the different phases (Ferrite, Bainite, Austenite, Martensite) that constitute these materials. This paper aims at investigating the fracture resistance of TRIP steels. For this purpose, a micromechanical finite element model is developed based on the actual microstructure of a TRIP 800 steel. Uniaxial tensile tests on TRIP 800 sheet notched specimens were also conducted and tensile properties and R-curves (Resistance curves) were determined. The comparison between simulation and experimental results leads us to the conclusion that the method using microstructure-based representative volume element (RVE) captures well enough the complex behavior of TRIP steels. The effect of phase transformation, which occurs during the deformation process, on the toughness is observed and discussed.

  2. Effect of minor reactive metal additions on fracture toughness of iron: 12-percent nickel alloy at-196 deg and 25 deg C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witzke, W. R.; Stephens, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    The slow bend precracked Charpy fracture toughness and tensile behavior of arc-melted and hot-rolled Fe-12Ni alloys containing up to 4 atomic percent reactive metal additions were determined at -196 C and 25 C after water quenching from three annealing temperatures. The fracture toughness of Fe-12Ni at -196 C was improved by small amounts of Al, Ce, Hf, La, Nb, Ta, Ti, V, Y, and Zr, but not by Si. Cryogenic toughness was improved up to 7.5 times that of binary Fe-12Ni and varied with the reactive metal, its concentration, and the annealing temperature.

  3. Analysis of a New High-Toughness Ultra-high-Strength Martensitic Steel by Transmission Electron Microscopy and Atom Probe Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartshorne, Matthew I.; McCormick, Caroline; Schmidt, Michael; Novotny, Paul; Isheim, Dieter; Seidman, David N.; Taheri, Mitra L.

    2016-04-01

    The microstructure of a new martensitic high-strength steel (Fe-0.40C-3.81Ni-1.31Cr-1.50Si-0.75Mn-0.52Mo-0.51Cu-0.30V) with high fracture toughness is characterized by transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography (APT). MC, M6C, and M23C6 precipitates form inside the martensitic lath matrix. The fracture toughness is insensitive to the dissolution of M23C6 precipitates at austenitizing temperatures above 1164 K (891 °C). APT reveals that solute segregation at the prior austenite grain boundaries (PAGB) is not uniform, with C, Mo, Si, Ni, and/or P enrichment varying at different areas of the PAGB. Si depletion is detected in the same area as the highest C enrichment. Carbon also segregates at lath boundaries. Segregation of C indicates the presence of retained austenite films at both PAGB and lath boundaries. Regions enriched in C up to 10 pct were found within the laths; however, no regions were enriched to the level expected of cementite or ɛ-carbide. The observed C distribution and high fracture toughness indicates that the tempering behavior is significantly different than that observed in 300M steel. The effect of Si, Ni, and Cu on the formation and stabilization of the regions of C enrichment and retained austenite require further study, as it may be key to the increased toughness.

  4. Processing and characterization of zeta-Ta4C 3-x: A high toughness tantalum carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sygnatowicz, Michael M.

    Tantalum carbides are commonly processed by hot-pressing, canned hot-isostatic-pressing, or spark-plasma sintering because of their high melting temperatures and low diffusivities. This study reports processing of dense ζ-Ta4C 3-x by reaction sintering of a Ta and TaC powder mixture (C/Ta atomic ratio = 0.66). ζ-Ta4C3-x is of interest due to its rhombohedral (trigonal) crystal structure that may be characterized as a polytype with both face-centered-cubic (fcc) and hexagonal-close-packed (hcp) Ta stacking sequences interrupted by stacking faults and missing carbon layers. This structure leads to easy cleaving on the basal planes and high fracture toughness. A key step in processing is the hydrogenation of the Ta powder to produce beta-TaH x, a hard and brittle phase that enables efficient comminution during milling and production of small, equiaxed Ta particles that can be packed to high green density with the TaC powder. Studies of phase evolution by quantitative X-ray diffraction during sintering revealed several intermediate reactions: (a) decomposition of beta-TaHx to Ta, (b) diffusion of C from gamma-TaC to Ta leading to the formation of α-Ta2Cy' with the kinetics described by the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov (JMAK) equation with an exponent, n = 0.5, and an activation energy of 221 kJ/mole, (c) equilibration of α-Ta2Cy' and gamma-TaC 0.78 phases, and (d) formation of ζ-Ta4C2.56 from the equilibrated α-Ta2C and gamma-TaC0.78 phases with the kinetics characterized by a higher JMAK exponent ( n ≈ 3) and higher activation energy (1089 kJ/mole). The microstructure showed evidence of nucleation and growth of the ζ-Ta4C 2.56 phase in both the α-Ta2C and gamma-TaC0.78 parent phases with distinct difference in the morphology due to the different number of variants of the habit plane. A hot-pressed and hot-isostatic-pressed (HIPed) material (C/Ta atomic ratio = 0.66), having formed 95 w% ζ-phase, attained a fracture toughness of 15.6 +/- 0.5 MPa√m and a

  5. An Experimental Investigation of the Effects of Vacuum Environment on the Fatigue Life, Fatigue-Crack-Growth Behavior, and Fracture Toughness of 7075-T6 Aluminum Alloy. Ph.D. Thesis - North Carolina State Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, C. M.

    1972-01-01

    Axial load fatigue life, fatigue-crack propagation, and fracture toughness tests were conducted on 0.090-inch thick specimens made of 7075-T6 aluminum alloy. The fatigue life and fatigue-crack propagation experiments were conducted at a stress ratio of 0.02. Maximum stresses ranged from 33 to 60 ksi in the fatigue life experiments, and from 10 to 40 ksi in the fatigue-crack propagation experiments, and fatigue life experiments were conducted at gas pressures of 760, 0.5, 0.05, and 0.00000005 torr. Fatigue-crack-growth and fracture toughness experiments were conducted at gas pressures of 760 and 5 x 10 to the minus 8th power torr. Residual stress measurements were made on selected fatigue life specimens to determine the effect of such stresses on fatigue life. Analysis of the results from the fatigue life experiments indicated that fatigue life progressively increased as the gas pressure decreased. Analysis of the results from the fatigue-crack-growth experiments indicates that at low values of stress-intensity range, the fatigue crack growth rates were approximately twice as high in air as in vacuum. Fracture toughness data showed there was essentially no difference in the fracture toughness of 7075-T6 in vacuum and in air.

  6. Fracture toughness and fatigue crack propagation rate of short fiber reinforced epoxy composites for analogue cortical bone.

    PubMed

    Chong, Alexander C M; Miller, Forrest; Buxton, McKee; Friis, Elizabeth A

    2007-08-01

    Third-generation mechanical analogue bone models and synthetic analogue cortical bone materials manufactured by Pacific Research Laboratories, Inc. (PRL) are popular tools for use in mechanical testing of various orthopedic implants and biomaterials. A major issue with these models is that the current third-generation epoxy-short fiberglass based composite used as the cortical bone substitute is prone to crack formation and failure in fatigue or repeated quasistatic loading of the model. The purpose of the present study was to compare the tensile and fracture mechanics properties of the current baseline (established PRL "third-generation" E-glass-fiber-epoxy) composite analogue for cortical bone to a new composite material formulation proposed for use as an enhanced fourth-generation cortical bone analogue material. Standard tensile, plane strain fracture toughness, and fatigue crack propagation rate tests were performed on both the third- and fourth-generation composite material formulations using standard ASTM test techniques. Injection molding techniques were used to create random fiber orientation in all test specimens. Standard dog-bone style tensile specimens were tested to obtain ultimate tensile strength and stiffness. Compact tension fracture toughness specimens were utilized to determine plane strain fracture toughness values. Reduced thickness compact tension specimens were also used to determine fatigue crack propagation rate behavior for the two material groups. Literature values for the same parameters for human cortical bone were compared to results from the third- and fourth-generation cortical analogue bone materials. Tensile properties of the fourth-generation material were closer to that of average human cortical bone than the third-generation material. Fracture toughness was significantly increased by 48% in the fourth-generation composite as compared to the third-generation analogue bone. The threshold stress intensity to propagate the crack

  7. Fracture toughness and time-dependent strength behavior of low-doped silicon nitrides for applications at 1400 C

    SciTech Connect

    Klemm, H. ); Pezzotti, G. )

    1994-02-01

    The influence of small additions of three selected oxides on the microstructure and the mechanical behavior of high-purity silicon nitride was systematically investigated. Dense silicon nitride bodies doped respectively with SiO[sub 2], Y[sub 2]O[sub 3], and Yb[sub 2]O[sub 3] were fabricated by hot isostatic pressing (HIP). Two different compositions of the intergranular phase were examined for Y[sub 2]O[sub 3] and Yb[sub 2]O[sub 3] in comparison with the same volume of pure SiO[sub 2]. Only in the material with the higher Y[sub 2]O[sub 3] and Yb[sub 2]O[sub 3] content was an improved level of fracture toughness obtained. The mechanical properties at 1,400 C were evaluated with emphasis placed on time-dependent strength and deformation behavior. The materials containing only SiO[sub 2] or doped with the small amount of Y[sub 2]O[sub 3] showed linear elastic K[sub I]-controlled fracture behavior of 1,400 C and the critical phenomenon for failure was subcritical crack growth (SCG) from preexisting defects. In the materials with additions of Yb[sub 2]O[sub 3] or the larger amount of Y[sub 2]O[sub 3], crack extension was governed by creep crack growth as a result of the exhibited strong creep effects. In the silicon nitride doped with 1.7 vol% Yb[sub 2]O[sub 3], however, a considerably improved creep behavior as a consequence of crystallization processes in the intergranular phase (Yb[sub 2]Si[sub 2]O[sub 7]) caused by both thermal treatment and stress-initiated effects during the mechanical testing at 1,400 C was found.

  8. Effect of decreased hot-rolling reduction treatment on fracture toughness of low-alloy structural steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita, Yoshiyuki

    1990-09-01

    Commercial low-alloy structural steels, 0.45 pct C (AISI 1045 grade), 0.40 pct C-Cr-Mo (AISI 4140 grade), and 0.40 pct C-Ni-Cr-Mo (AISI 4340 grade), have been studied to determine the effect of the decreased hot-rolling reduction treatment (DHRRT) from 98 to 80 pct on fracture toughness of quenched and highly tempered low-alloy structural steels. The significant conclusions are as follows: (1) the sulfide inclusions were modified through the DHRRT from a stringer (mean aspect ratio: 16.5 to 17.6) to an ellipse (mean aspect ratio: 3.8 to 4.5), independent of the steels studied; (2) the DHRRT significantly improved J Ic in the long-transverse and shorttransverse orientations, independent of the steels studied; and (3) the shelf energy in the Charpy V-notch impact test is also greatly improved by the DHRRT, independent of testing orientation and steels studied; however, (4) the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature was only slightly affected by the DHRRT. The beneficial effect on the J Ic is briefly discussed in terms of a crack extension model involving the formation of voids at the inclusion sites and their growth and eventual linking up through the rupture of the intervening ligaments by local shear.

  9. Double Cantilever Beam and End Notched Flexure Fracture Toughness Testing of Two Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessler, Jeff A.; Adams, Donald F.

    1993-01-01

    Two different unidirectional composite materials were provided by NASA Langley Research Center and tested by the Composite Materials Research Group within the Department of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Wyoming. Double cantilever beam and end notched flexure tests were performed to measure the mode I (crack opening) and mode II (sliding or shear) interlaminar fracture toughness of the two materials. The two composites consisted of IM7 carbon fiber combined with either RP46 resin toughened with special formulation of LaRC IA resin, known as JJS1356; or PES chain extended thermoplastic resin known as JJS1361. Double Cantilever Beam Specimen Configuration and Test Methods As received from NASA, the test specimens were nominally 0.5 inch wide, 6 inches long, and 0.2 inch thick. A 1 inch long Kapton insert at the midplane of one end of the specimen (placed during laminate fabrication) facilitated crack initiation and extension. It was noted that the specimens provided were smaller than the nominal 1.5 inch wide, 9.0 inch long configuration specified. Similarly, the Kapton inserts were of greater length than those in the present specimens. Hence, the data below should not be compared directly to those generated with the referenced methods. No preconditioning was performed on the specimens prior to testing. In general, the methodology was used for the present work. Crack opening loads were introduced to the specimens via piano hinges attached to the main specimen faces at a single end of each specimen. Hinges were bolted to the specimens using the technique presented. The cracks were extended a small distance from the end of the Kapton insert prior to testing. Just before precracking, the sides of the specimens were coated with water-soluble typewriter correction fluid to aid in crack visualization. Scribe marks were then made in the coating at half-inch intervals.

  10. Fracture toughness of bleached enamel: Effect of applying three different nanobiomaterials by nanoindentation test

    PubMed Central

    Khoroushi, Maryam; Mazaheri, Hamid; Saneie, Tahere; Samimi, Pouran

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite the absence of dispute about the efficacy of bleaching agents, a prime concern is about their compromising effect on the enamel structure. This in vitro study investigated whether the addition of three different biomaterials, including nano-bioactive glass (n-BG)/nano-hydroxy apetite (n-HA)/nano-amorphous calcium phosphate (n-ACP), to bleaching agents can affect the fracture toughness (FT) and vickers hardness number (VHN) of bovine enamel. Materials and Methods: The crowns of the newly extracted permanent bovine incisors teeth were separated from the root and sectioned along their central line; one half serving as the control specimen and the other half as the test specimen. After mounting and polishing procedure, all the control specimens (C) were subjected to nano-indentation test to obtain the baseline values of FT. Then, the control specimens were exposed to a 38% hydrogen peroxide for four times, each time for 10 min. The test specimens were divided into three groups and treated as follows, with the same protocol used for the control specimens: Group 1; ACP + hydrogen peroxide (HP) mixed gel; Group 2 BG + HP mixed gel; and Group 3 HA + HP mixed gel. FT measurements with nano-indentation were carried out subsequent to bleaching experiments. Data were analyzed using SPSS and Kruskal–Wallis test (α = 0.05). Results: A significant difference in young's modulus (YM), VHN, and FT at baseline and subsequent to bleaching in control group was observed. However, no significant differences were found in YM, VHN, and FT between the test groups, compared to the respective baseline values. Conclusion: Under the limitations of the current study, it can be concluded that the n-HA, n-ACP, and n-BG could be potential biomaterials used to reduce the adverse effects of tooth bleaching. PMID:27307669

  11. Fatigue crack growth rates and fracture toughness of rapidly solidified Al-8. 5 pct Fe-1. 2 pct V-1. 7 pct Si alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Hariprasad, S.; Sastry, S.M.L.; Jerina, K.L. . Mechanical Engineering Dept.); Lederich, R.J. )

    1994-05-01

    The room-temperature fatigue crack growth rates (FCGR) and fracture toughness were evaluated for different crack plane Orientations of an Al-8.5 pct Fe-1.2 pct V-1.7 pct Si alloy produced by planar flow casting (PFC) and atomized melt deposition (AMD) processes. For the alloy produced by the PFC process, properties were determined in six different orientations, including the short transverse directions S-T and S-L. Diffusion bonding and adhesive bonding methods were used to prepare specimens for determining FCGR and fracture toughness in the short transverse direction. Interparticle boundaries control fracture properties in the alloy produced by PFC. Fracture toughness of the PFC alloy varies from 13.4 MPa[radical][bar m] to 30.8 MPa[radical][bar m], depending on the orientation of the crack plane relative to the interparticle boundaries. Fatigue crack growth resistance and fracture toughness are greater in the L-T, L-S, and T-S directions than in the T-L, S-T, and S-L orientations. The alloy produced by AMD does not exhibit anisotropy in fracture toughness and fatigue crack growth resistance in the as-deposited condition or in the extruded condition. The fracture toughness varies from 17.2 MPa[radical][bar m] to 18.5 MPa[radical][bar m] for the as-deposited condition and from 19.8 MPa[radical][bar m] to 21.0 MPa[radical][bar m] for the extruded condition. Fracture properties are controlled by intrinsic factors in the alloy produced by AMD. Fatigue crack growth rates of the AMD alloy are comparable to those of the PFC alloy in the L-T orientation. The crack propagation modes were studied by optical metallographic examination of crack-microstructure interactions and scanning electron microscopy of the fracture surfaces.

  12. Fatigue crack growth rates and fracture toughness of rapidly solidified Al-8.5 pct Fe-1.2 pct V-1.7 pct Si alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hariprasad, S.; Sastry, S. M. L.; Jerina, K. L.; Lederich, R. J.

    1994-05-01

    The room-temperature fatigue crack growth rates (FCGR) and fracture toughness were evaluated for different crack plane orientations of an Al-8.5 Pct Fe-1.2 Pct V-1.7 Pct Si alloy produced by planar flow casting (PFC) and atomized melt deposition (AMD) processes. For the alloy produced by the PFC process, properties were determined in six different orientations, including the short transverse directions S-T and S-L. Diffusion bonding and adhesive bonding methods were used to prepare specimens for determining FCGR and fracture toughness in the short transverse direction. Interparticle boundaries control fracture properties in the alloy produced by PFC. Fracture toughness of the PFC alloy varies from 13.4 MPa√m to 30.8 MPa√m, depending on the orientation of the crack plane relative to the interparticle boundaries. Fatigue crack growth resistance and fracture toughness are greater in the L-T, L-S, and T-S directions than in the T-L, S-T, and S-L orientations. The alloy produced by AMD does not exhibit anisotropy in fracture toughness and fatigue crack growth resistance in the as-deposited condition or in the extruded condition. The fracture toughness varies from 17.2 MPa√m to 18.5 MPa√m for the as-deposited condition and from 19.8 MPa√m to 21.0 MPa√m for the extruded condition. Fracture properties are controlled by intrinsic factors in the alloy produced by AMD. Fatigue crack growth rates of the AMD alloy are comparable to those of the PFC alloy in the L-T orientation. The crack propagation modes were studied by optical metallographic examination of crack-microstructure interactions and scanning electron microscopy of the fracture surfaces.

  13. Effect of prestrain on stretch-zone formation during ductile fracture of Cu-strengthened high-strength low-alloy steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivaprasad, S.; Tarafder, S.; Ranganath, V. R.; Das, S. K.; Ray, K. K.

    2002-12-01

    The effects of prestrain on the ductile fracture behavior of two varieties of Cu-strengthened high-strength low-alloy (HSLA) steels have been investigated through stretch-zone geometry measurements. It is noted that the ductile fracture-initiation toughness of both the steels remained unaltered up to prestrains of ˜2 pct, beyond which the toughness decreased sharply. A methodology for estimating the stretch-zone dimensions is proposed. Fracture-toughness estimations through stretch-zone width (SZW) and stretch-zone depth (SZD) measurements revealed that the nature of the variation of ductile fracture toughness with prestrain can be better predicted through SZD rather than the SZW measurements. However, for the specimen geometries and prestrain levels that were investigated, none of these methods were found suitable for quantifying the initiation fracture toughness.

  14. Mode I fracture toughness behavior of hydro-thermally aged carbon fibre reinforced DGEBA-HHPA-PES systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessi, Sabina; Pitarresi, Giuseppe; Spadaro, Giuseppe; Tumino, Davide

    2012-07-01

    In this work the Mode I fracture toughness behavior of unidirectional CFRP laminates is investigated by means of Double Cantilever Beam (DCB) tests. The composite samples were manufactured by thermal curing after impregnation of a Carbon fabric with a DGEBA epoxy and anhydride HHPA curing agent. One resin batch was also mixed with a PES thermoplastic monomer to enhance the matrix toughness. Two lots of samples, toughened and untoughened, were then left to soak in hot water to achieve various degrees of aging. The influence of matrix toughening and hydrothermal aging on the delamination behavior of the composite have then been assessed and correlated with characterization data from Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis (DMTA) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM).

  15. Bone fracture toughness and strength correlate with collagen cross-link maturity in a dose-controlled lathyrism mouse model

    PubMed Central

    McNerny, Erin M. B.; Gong, Bo; Morris, Michael D.; Kohn, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Collagen cross-linking is altered in many diseases of bone, and enzymatic collagen cross-links are important to bone quality as evidenced by losses of strength following lysyl oxidase inhibition (lathyrism). We hypothesized that cross-links also contribute directly to bone fracture toughness. A mouse model of lathyrism using subcutaneous injection of up to 500mg/kg β-aminopropionitrile (BAPN) was developed and characterized (60 animals across 4 dosage groups). Three weeks of 150 or 350 mg/kg BAPN treatment in young growing mice significantly reduced cortical bone fracture toughness, strength, and pyridinoline cross-link content. Ratios reflecting relative cross-link maturity were positive regressors of fracture toughness (HP/[DHLNL+HLNL] r2=0.208, p<0.05; [HP+LP]/[DHNL+HLNL] r2=0.196, p<0.1), whereas quantities of mature pyridinoline cross-links were significant positive regressors of tissue strength (lysyl pyridinoline r2=0.159, p=0.014; hydroxylysyl pyridinoline r2=0.112, p<0.05). Immature and pyrrole cross-links, which were not significantly reduced by BAPN, did not correlate with mechanical properties. The effect of BAPN treatment on mechanical properties was dose specific, with the greatest impact found at the intermediate (350mg/kg) dose. Calcein labeling was used to define locations of new bone formation, allowing for the identification of regions of normally cross-linked (preexisting) and BAPN treated (newly formed, cross-link-deficient) bone. Raman spectroscopy revealed spatial differences due to relative tissue age and effects of cross-link inhibition. Newly deposited tissues had lower mineral/matrix, carbonate/phosphate and Amide I cross-link (matrix maturity) ratios compared to preexisting tissues. BAPN treatment did not affect mineral measures, but significantly increased the cross-link (matrix maturity) ratio compared to newly formed control tissue. Our study reveals that spatially localized effects of short term BAPN cross-link inhibition can alter

  16. Comparative fatigue behavior and toughness of remelted and annealed highly crosslinked polyethylenes.

    PubMed

    Medel, Francisco J; Peña, P; Cegoñino, José; Gómez-Barrena, E; Puértolas, J A

    2007-11-01

    Highly cross-linked polyethylenes (HXLPEs) have been incorporated into the hip replacement armamentarium based on their improved wear resistance. However, two different methods of thermal treatment separate the orthopedic community as strategies to control potential long-term oxidation, and controversy remains with problems in the long-term use of acetabular liners (long-term oxidation, rim fracture after impingement, etc.). Meanwhile, the mechanical properties of HXLPEs that may alleviate these problems are still unclear. On the other hand, HXLPEs are scarcely used in knee replacements, as there exists concern about the probably reduced fatigue and fracture performances of these materials. Thus, our aim was to compare the effects of both thermal treatment regimes on mechanical properties and to associate these findings with the material microstructure. The fatigue behavior of annealed and remelted HXLPEs was characterized using short-term cyclic stress-strain, long-term fatigue, and fatigue crack propagation tests. On the other hand, impact tests, tensile experiments, and the J-integral multispecimen method allowed us to assess toughness. Microstructure features such as crosslink density, crystallinity percentage, and lamellar thickness were investigated by swelling measurements, differential scanning calorimetry, and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. This study confirms that annealing preserves mechanical properties better than remelting from both fatigue and fracture resistance points of view, and it remarks that a suitable selection of irradiation and stabilization conditions is needed to achieve optimal mechanical performances of ultra high molecular weight polyethylenes for each specific total joint replacement. PMID:17680670

  17. Effect of Embedded Piezoelectric Sensors on Fracture Toughness and Fatigue Resistance of Composite Laminates Under Mode I Loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murri, Gretchen B.

    2006-01-01

    Double-cantilevered beam (DCB) specimens of a glass/epoxy composite material with embedded piezoelectric sensors were tested both statically and under fatigue loading to determine the effect of the embedded material on the Mode I fracture toughness and fatigue resistance compared to baseline data without the embedded elements. A material known as LaRC-Macrofiber Composite (LaRC-MFC (TradeMark)), or MFC, was embedded at the midplane of the specimen during the layup. Specimens were manufactured with the embedded MFC material either at the loaded end of the specimen to simulate an initial delamination; or with the MFC material located at the delaminating interface, with a Teflon film at the loaded end to simulate an initial delamination. There were three types of specimens with the embedded material at the delaminating interface: co-cured with no added adhesive; cured with a paste adhesive applied to the embedded element; or cured with a film adhesive added to the embedded material. Tests were conducted with the sensors in both the passive and active states. Results were compared to baseline data for the same material without embedded elements. Interlaminar fracture toughness values (G(sub Ic)) for the passive condition showed little change when the MFC was at the insert end. Passive results varied when the MFC was at the delaminating interface. For the co-cured case and with the paste adhesive, G(sub Ic) decreased compared to the baseline toughness, whereas, for the film adhesive case, G(sub Ic) was significantly greater than the baseline toughness, but the failure was always catastrophic. When the MFC was in the active state, G(sub Ic) was generally lower compared to the passive results. Fatigue tests showed little effect of the embedded material whether it was active or passive compared to baseline values.

  18. 3D Printing: 3D Printing of Highly Stretchable and Tough Hydrogels into Complex, Cellularized Structures.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sungmin; Sycks, Dalton; Chan, Hon Fai; Lin, Shaoting; Lopez, Gabriel P; Guilak, Farshid; Leong, Kam W; Zhao, Xuanhe

    2015-07-15

    X. Zhao and co-workers develop on page 4035 a new biocompatible hydrogel system that is extremely tough and stretchable and can be 3D printed into complex structures, such as the multilayer mesh shown. Cells encapsulated in the tough and printable hydrogel maintain high viability. 3D-printed structures of the tough hydrogel can sustain high mechanical loads and deformations. PMID:26172844

  19. Grain refinement of high strength steels to improve cryogenic toughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rush, H. F.

    1985-01-01

    Grain-refining techniques using multistep heat treatments to reduce the grain size of five commercial high-strength steels were investigated. The goal of this investigation was to improve the low-temperature toughness as measured by Charpy V-notch impact test without a significant loss in tensile strength. The grain size of four of five alloys investigated was successfully reduced up to 1/10 of original size or smaller with increases in Charpy impact energy of 50 to 180 percent at -320 F. Tensile properties were reduced from 0 to 25 percent for the various alloys tested. An unexpected but highly beneficial side effect from grain refining was improved machinability.

  20. A nondestructive method for estimation of the fracture toughness of CrMoV rotor steels based on ultrasonic nonlinearity.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hyunjo; Nahm, Seung-Hoon; Jhang, Kyung-Young; Nam, Young-Hyun

    2003-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to develop a nondestructive method for estimating the fracture toughness (K(IC)) of CrMoV steels used as the rotor material of steam turbines in power plants. To achieve this objective, a number of CrMoV steel samples were heat-treated, and the fracture appearance transition temperature (FATT) was determined as a function of aging time. Nonlinear ultrasonics was employed as the theoretical basis to explain the harmonic generation in a damaged material, and the nonlinearity parameter of the second harmonic wave was the experimental measure used to be correlated to the fracture toughness of the rotor steel. The nondestructive procedure for estimating the K(IC) consists of two steps. First, the correlations between the nonlinearity parameter and the FATT are sought. The FATT values are then used to estimate K(IC) using the K(IC) versus excess temperature (i.e., T-FATT) correlation that is available in the literature for CrMoV rotor steel. PMID:12919690