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Sample records for high functioning adults

  1. Executive Function Impairments in High IQ Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Thomas E.; Reichel, Philipp C.; Quinlan, Donald M.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To demonstrate that high IQ adults diagnosed with ADHD suffer from executive function (EF) impairments that: a) can be identified with a combination of standardized measures and self-report data; and b) occur more commonly in this group than in the general population. Method: 157 ADHD adults with IQ greater than or equal to 120 were

  2. Humor in High-Functioning Autistic Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Bourgondien, Mary E.; Mesibov, Gary B.

    1987-01-01

    The study examined the humor used by nine older adolescent and adult autistic subjects participating in a social skills group. Participants in the designated joke time told jokes which were almost all riddles, many of them preriddles and having lexical and phonological ambiguity. (Author/DB)

  3. Thought Disorder in High-Functioning Autistic Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dykens, Elisabeth; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This evaluation of thought disorders in 11 high functioning autistic young adults and older adolescents found poverty of speech, poor reality testing, perceptual distortions, and areas of cognitive slippage. In comparison with a schizophrenic reference group, autistic subjects demonstrated more poverty of speech and less illogic as well as similar

  4. Phonological and Orthographic Spelling in High-Functioning Adult Dyslexics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, Nenagh; Parrila, Rauno K.; Kirby, John R.

    2009-01-01

    Despite a history of reading or spelling difficulties, some adults attain age-appropriate spelling skills and succeed at university. We compared the spelling of 29 such high-functioning dyslexics with that of 28 typical students, matched on general spelling ability, and controlling for vocabulary and non-verbal intelligence. Participants wrote

  5. Challenging Stereotypes: Sexual Functioning of Single Adults with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, E. Sandra; Nichols, Shana; Voyer, Susan D.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the sexual functioning of single adults (61 men, 68 women) with high functioning autism and Asperger syndrome living in the community with and without prior relationship experience. Participants completed an on-line questionnaire assessing autism symptoms, psychological functioning, and various aspects of sexual functioning. In

  6. Participation in Daily Activities of Young Adults with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCollum, Mary; LaVesser, Patti; Berg, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Young adults with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) struggle to assume adult roles. This research assessed the feasibility of using the Adolescent and Young Adult Activity Card Sort (AYA-ACS) with emerging adults with high functioning ASD. Two phases were utilized during this research: (1) comparing the activity participation reported by emerging…

  7. Parents' Criticisms and Attributions about Their Adult Children with High Functioning Autism or Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Stephanie; Weisman de Mamani, Amy; Mundy, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the criticism component of expressed emotion (EE) and attributions in parents of adults diagnosed with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder (S/SA) or high functioning autism/Asperger's. Consistent with study hypotheses, parents of adults diagnosed with autism/Asperger's disorder exhibited lower levels of high

  8. Theory of Mind and Central Coherence in Adults with High-Functioning Autism or Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaumont, Renae; Newcombe, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The study investigated theory of mind and central coherence abilities in adults with high-functioning autism (HFA) or Asperger syndrome (AS) using naturalistic tasks. Twenty adults with HFA/AS correctly answered significantly fewer theory of mind questions than 20 controls on a forced-choice response task. On a narrative task, there were no…

  9. Theory of Mind and Central Coherence in Adults with High-Functioning Autism or Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaumont, Renae; Newcombe, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The study investigated theory of mind and central coherence abilities in adults with high-functioning autism (HFA) or Asperger syndrome (AS) using naturalistic tasks. Twenty adults with HFA/AS correctly answered significantly fewer theory of mind questions than 20 controls on a forced-choice response task. On a narrative task, there were no

  10. Face Configuration Accuracy and Processing Speed among Adults with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faja, Susan; Webb, Sara Jane; Merkle, Kristen; Aylward, Elizabeth; Dawson, Geraldine

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigates the accuracy and speed of face processing employed by high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Two behavioral experiments measured sensitivity to distances between features and face recognition when performance depended on holistic versus featural information. Results suggest adults with ASD…

  11. Face Configuration Accuracy and Processing Speed among Adults with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faja, Susan; Webb, Sara Jane; Merkle, Kristen; Aylward, Elizabeth; Dawson, Geraldine

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigates the accuracy and speed of face processing employed by high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Two behavioral experiments measured sensitivity to distances between features and face recognition when performance depended on holistic versus featural information. Results suggest adults with ASD

  12. Participation in Daily Activities of Young Adults with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    McCollum, Mary; LaVesser, Patti; Berg, Christine

    2016-03-01

    Young adults with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) struggle to assume adult roles. This research assessed the feasibility of using the Adolescent and Young Adult Activity Card Sort (AYA-ACS) with emerging adults with high functioning ASD. Two phases were utilized during this research: (1) comparing the activity participation reported by emerging adults with an ASD and that reported by their caring adult; (2) examining the barriers to participation reported. Preliminary results demonstrate that the AYA-ACS appears to be a reliable and valid method of identifying emerging adults' participation strengths as well as personal and environmental challenges in a variety of age-appropriate activities. The AYA-ACS could assist service providers by providing an understanding of the challenges to participation faced by this population and aid in developing client centered interventions. PMID:26537910

  13. Perception of Dialect Variation by Young Adults with High-Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clopper, Cynthia G.; Rohrbeck, Kristin L.; Wagner, Laura

    2012-01-01

    The linguistic profile of people with Autism spectrum disorders typically involves intact perceptual processing, accompanied by deficits in the social functions of language. In a series of three experiments, the impact of this profile on the perception of regional dialect was examined. Young adults with High-Functioning Autism exhibited similar

  14. Brief Report: Feasibility of Social Cognition and Interaction Training for Adults with High Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner-Brown, Lauren M.; Perry, Timothy D.; Dichter, Gabriel S.; Bodfish, James W.; Penn, David L.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and utility of a group-based cognitive behavioral intervention to improve social-cognitive functioning in adults with high-functioning autism (HFA). We modified the treatment manual of a previously validated intervention, Social Cognition and Interaction Training (SCIT), for optimal use with

  15. Virtual reality social cognition training for young adults with high-functioning autism.

    PubMed

    Kandalaft, Michelle R; Didehbani, Nyaz; Krawczyk, Daniel C; Allen, Tandra T; Chapman, Sandra B

    2013-01-01

    Few evidence-based social interventions exist for young adults with high-functioning autism, many of whom encounter significant challenges during the transition into adulthood. The current study investigated the feasibility of an engaging Virtual Reality Social Cognition Training intervention focused on enhancing social skills, social cognition, and social functioning. Eight young adults diagnosed with high-functioning autism completed 10 sessions across 5weeks. Significant increases on social cognitive measures of theory of mind and emotion recognition, as well as in real life social and occupational functioning were found post-training. These findings suggest that the virtual reality platform is a promising tool for improving social skills, cognition, and functioning in autism. PMID:22570145

  16. Binding of Multiple Features in Memory by High-Functioning Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowler, Dermot M.; Gaigg, Sebastian B.; Gardiner, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Diminished episodic memory and diminished use of semantic information to aid recall by individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are both thought to result from diminished relational binding of elements of complex stimuli. To test this hypothesis, we asked high-functioning adults with ASD and typical comparison participants to study grids in

  17. Atypical Visual Orienting to Gaze- and Arrow-Cues in Adults with High Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlamings, Petra H. J. M.; Stauder, Johannes E. A.; van Son, Ilona A. M.; Mottron, Laurent

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigates visual orienting to directional cues (arrow or eyes) in adults with high functioning autism (n = 19) and age matched controls (n = 19). A choice reaction time paradigm is used in which eye-or arrow direction correctly (congruent) or incorrectly (incongruent) cues target location. In typically developing participants,

  18. The Modality Shift Experiment in Adults and Children with High Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Diane L.; Goldstein, Gerald; Minshew, Nancy J.

    2013-01-01

    This study used the modality shift experiment, a relatively simple reaction time measure to visual and auditory stimuli, to examine attentional shifting within and across modalities in 33 children and 42 adults with high-functioning autism as compared to matched numbers of age- and ability-matched typical controls. An exaggerated "modality shift

  19. Binding of Multiple Features in Memory by High-Functioning Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowler, Dermot M.; Gaigg, Sebastian B.; Gardiner, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Diminished episodic memory and diminished use of semantic information to aid recall by individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are both thought to result from diminished relational binding of elements of complex stimuli. To test this hypothesis, we asked high-functioning adults with ASD and typical comparison participants to study grids in…

  20. How Stimulus and Task Complexity Affect Monitoring in High-Functioning Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koolen, Sophieke; Vissers, Constance Th. W. M.; Egger, Jos I. M.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined whether individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are able to update and monitor working memory representations of visual input, and whether performance is influenced by stimulus and task complexity. 15 high-functioning adults with ASD and 15 controls were asked to allocate either elements of abstract figures or…

  1. Virtual Reality Social Cognition Training for Young Adults with High-Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandalaft, Michelle R.; Didehbani, Nyaz; Krawczyk, Daniel C.; Allen, Tandra T.; Chapman, Sandra B.

    2013-01-01

    Few evidence-based social interventions exist for young adults with high-functioning autism, many of whom encounter significant challenges during the transition into adulthood. The current study investigated the feasibility of an engaging Virtual Reality Social Cognition Training intervention focused on enhancing social skills, social cognition,…

  2. The Modality Shift Experiment in Adults and Children with High Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Diane L.; Goldstein, Gerald; Minshew, Nancy J.

    2013-01-01

    This study used the modality shift experiment, a relatively simple reaction time measure to visual and auditory stimuli, to examine attentional shifting within and across modalities in 33 children and 42 adults with high-functioning autism as compared to matched numbers of age- and ability-matched typical controls. An exaggerated "modality shift…

  3. Pragmatic Inferences in High-Functioning Adults with Autism and Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pijnacker, Judith; Hagoort, Peter; Buitelaar, Jan; Teunisse, Jan-Pieter; Geurts, Bart

    2009-01-01

    Although people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often have severe problems with pragmatic aspects of language, little is known about their pragmatic reasoning. We carried out a behavioral study on high-functioning adults with autistic disorder (n = 11) and Asperger syndrome (n = 17) and matched controls (n = 28) to investigate whether they

  4. Pragmatic Inferences in High-Functioning Adults with Autism and Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pijnacker, Judith; Hagoort, Peter; Buitelaar, Jan; Teunisse, Jan-Pieter; Geurts, Bart

    2009-01-01

    Although people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often have severe problems with pragmatic aspects of language, little is known about their pragmatic reasoning. We carried out a behavioral study on high-functioning adults with autistic disorder (n = 11) and Asperger syndrome (n = 17) and matched controls (n = 28) to investigate whether they…

  5. Perception of Talker Age by Young Adults with High-Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clopper, Cynthia G.; Rohrbeck, Kristin L.; Wagner, Laura

    2013-01-01

    People with high-functioning Autism (HFA) can accurately identify social categories from speech, but they have more difficulty connecting linguistic variation in the speech signal to social stereotypes associated with those categories. In the current study, the perception and evaluation of talker age by young adults with HFA was examined. The

  6. Sexual Behavior in High-Functioning Male Adolescents and Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellemans, Hans; Colson, Kathy; Verbraeken, Christine; Vermeiren, Robert; Deboutte, Dirk

    2007-01-01

    Group home caregivers of 24 institutionalized, male, high-functioning adolescents and young adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder, were interviewed with the Interview Sexuality Autism. Most subjects were reported to express sexual interest and to display some kind of sexual behavior. Knowledge of socio-sexual skills existed, but practical use was

  7. Virtual Reality Social Cognition Training for Young Adults with High-Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandalaft, Michelle R.; Didehbani, Nyaz; Krawczyk, Daniel C.; Allen, Tandra T.; Chapman, Sandra B.

    2013-01-01

    Few evidence-based social interventions exist for young adults with high-functioning autism, many of whom encounter significant challenges during the transition into adulthood. The current study investigated the feasibility of an engaging Virtual Reality Social Cognition Training intervention focused on enhancing social skills, social cognition,

  8. Brain Mapping of Language and Auditory Perception in High-Functioning Autistic Adults: A PET Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, R-A.; Behen, M. E.; Rothermel, R. D.; Chugani, D. C.; Muzik, O.; Mangner, T. J.; Chugani, H. T.

    1999-01-01

    A study used positron emission tomography (PET) to study patterns of brain activation during auditory processing in five high-functioning adults with autism. Results found that participants showed reversed hemispheric dominance during the verbal auditory stimulation and reduced activation of the auditory cortex and cerebellum. (CR)

  9. Independence of Hot and Cold Executive Function Deficits in High-Functioning Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, David L.; Ownsworth, Tamara; O'Donovan, Analise; Roberts, Jacqueline; Gullo, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) display diverse deficits in social, cognitive and behavioral functioning. To date, there has been mixed findings on the profile of executive function deficits for high-functioning adults (IQ > 70) with ASD. A conceptual distinction is commonly made between “cold” and “hot” executive functions. Cold executive functions refer to mechanistic higher-order cognitive operations (e.g., working memory), whereas hot executive functions entail cognitive abilities supported by emotional awareness and social perception (e.g., social cognition). This study aimed to determine the independence of deficits in hot and cold executive functions for high-functioning adults with ASD. Forty-two adults with ASD (64% male, aged 18–66 years) and 40 age and gender matched controls were administered The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT; emotion recognition and social inference), Letter Number Sequencing (working memory) and Hayling Sentence Completion Test (response initiation and suppression). Between-group analyses identified that the ASD group performed significantly worse than matched controls on all measures of cold and hot executive functions (d = 0.54 − 1.5). Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that the ASD sample performed more poorly on emotion recognition and social inference tasks than matched controls after controlling for cold executive functions and employment status. The findings also indicated that the ability to recognize emotions and make social inferences was supported by working memory and response initiation and suppression processes. Overall, this study supports the distinction between hot and cold executive function impairments for adults with ASD. Moreover, it advances understanding of higher-order impairments underlying social interaction difficulties for this population which, in turn, may assist with diagnosis and inform intervention programs. PMID:26903836

  10. Employment activities and experiences of adults with high-functioning autism and Aspergers Disorder.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Susanna; Costley, Debra; Warren, Anthony

    2014-10-01

    There is limited large-scale empirical research into the working lives of adults who have an autism spectrum disorder with no co-occurring intellectual disability. Drawing on data from a national survey, this report describes the employment activities and experiences of 130 adults with Asperger's Disorder (AD) and high functioning autism (HFA) in Australia. Outcome measures include current occupation; occupational skill level and alignment with educational attainment; type of job contract; hours of work; support received to find work; support received in the workplace; and positive and negative experiences of employment. The findings confirm and expand upon existing evidence that adults with AD and HFA, despite their capacity and willingness to work, face significant disadvantages in the labour market and a lack of understanding and support in employment settings. PMID:24715257

  11. Automatic facial responses to affective stimuli in high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Mathersul, Danielle; McDonald, Skye; Rushby, Jacqueline A

    2013-01-17

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate atypical behavioural responses to affective stimuli, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Investigating automatic responses to these stimuli may help elucidate these mechanisms. 18 high-functioning adults with ASDs and 18 typically developing controls viewed 54 extreme pleasant (erotica), extreme unpleasant (mutilations), and non-social neutral images from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS). Two-thirds of images received an acoustic startle probe 3s post-picture onset. Facial electromyography (EMG) activity (orbicularis, zygomaticus, corrugator), skin conductance (SCR) and cardiac responses were recorded. The adults with ASDs demonstrated typical affective startle modulation and automatic facial EMG responses but atypical autonomic (SCRs and cardiac) responses, suggesting a failure to orient to, or a deliberate effort to disconnect from, socially relevant stimuli (erotica, mutilations). These results have implications for neural systems known to underlie affective processes, including the orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala. PMID:23142408

  12. Theory of mind and central coherence in adults with high-functioning autism or Asperger syndrome.

    PubMed

    Beaumont, Renae; Newcombe, Peter

    2006-07-01

    The study investigated theory of mind and central coherence abilities in adults with high-functioning autism (HFA) or Asperger syndrome (AS) using naturalistic tasks. Twenty adults with HFA/AS correctly answered significantly fewer theory of mind questions than 20 controls on a forced-choice response task. On a narrative task, there were no differences in the proportion of mental state words between the two groups, although the participants with HFA/AS were less inclined to provide explanations for characters' mental states. No between-group differences existed on the central coherence questions of the forced-choice response task, and the participants with HFA/AS included an equivalent proportion of explanations for non-mental state phenomena in their narratives as did controls. These results support the theory of mind deficit account of autism spectrum disorders, and suggest that difficulties in mental state attribution cannot be exclusively attributed to weak central coherence. PMID:16908480

  13. Group social skills interventions for adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Spain, Debbie; Blainey, Sarah H

    2015-10-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are characterised by impairments in communication and social interaction. Social skills interventions have been found to ameliorate socio-communication deficits in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Little is known about the effectiveness of social skills interventions for adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (hf-ASD) - a clinical population who can present with more subtle core deficits, but comparable levels of impairment and secondary difficulties. A systematic review was undertaken to investigate the effectiveness of social skills interventions for adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders. Five studies met the pre-specified review inclusion criteria: two quasi-experimental comparative trials and three single-arm interventions. There was a degree of variation in the structure, duration and content of the social skills interventions delivered, as well as several methodological limitations associated with included studies. Nevertheless, narrative analysis tentatively indicates that group social skills interventions may be effective for enhancing social knowledge and understanding, improving social functioning, reducing loneliness and potentially alleviating co-morbid psychiatric symptoms. PMID:26045543

  14. Employment Activities and Experiences of Adults with High-Functioning Autism and Asperger's Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Susanna; Costley, Debra; Warren, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    There is limited large-scale empirical research into the working lives of adults who have an autism spectrum disorder with no co-occurring intellectual disability. Drawing on data from a national survey, this report describes the employment activities and experiences of 130 adults with Asperger's Disorder (AD) and high functioning autism

  15. Metacognition of agency and theory of mind in adults with high functioning autism.

    PubMed

    Zalla, Tiziana; Miele, David; Leboyer, Marion; Metcalfe, Janet

    2015-01-01

    We investigated metacognition of agency in adults with high functioning autism or Asperger Syndrome (HFA/AS) using a computer task in which participants moved the mouse to get the cursor to touch the downward moving X's and avoid the O's. They were then asked to make judgments of performance and judgments of agency. Objective control was either undistorted, or distorted by adding turbulence (i.e., random noise) or a time Lag between the mouse and cursor movements. Participants with HFA/AS used sensorimotor cues available in the turbulence and lag conditions to a lesser extent than control participants in making their judgments of agency. Furthermore, the failure to use these internal diagnostic cues to their own agency was correlated with decrements in a theory of mind task. These findings suggest that a reduced sensitivity to veridical internal cues about the sense of agency is related to mentalizing impairments in autism. PMID:25482271

  16. Pragmatic inferences in high-functioning adults with autism and Asperger syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pijnacker, Judith; Hagoort, Peter; Buitelaar, Jan; Teunisse, Jan-Pieter; Geurts, Bart

    2009-04-01

    Although people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often have severe problems with pragmatic aspects of language, little is known about their pragmatic reasoning. We carried out a behavioral study on high-functioning adults with autistic disorder (n = 11) and Asperger syndrome (n = 17) and matched controls (n = 28) to investigate whether they are capable of deriving scalar implicatures, which are generally considered to be pragmatic inferences. Participants were presented with underinformative sentences like "Some sparrows are birds". This sentence is logically true, but pragmatically inappropriate if the scalar implicature "Not all sparrows are birds" is derived. The present findings indicate that the combined ASD group was just as likely as controls to derive scalar implicatures, yet there was a difference between participants with autistic disorder and Asperger syndrome, suggesting a potential differentiation between these disorders in pragmatic reasoning. Moreover, our results suggest that verbal intelligence is a constraint for task performance in autistic disorder but not in Asperger syndrome. PMID:19052858

  17. A Behavioral Comparison of Male and Female Adults with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Meng-Chuan; Lombardo, Michael V.; Pasco, Greg; Ruigrok, Amber N. V.; Wheelwright, Sally J.; Sadek, Susan A.; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Autism spectrum conditions (ASC) affect more males than females in the general population. However, within ASC it is unclear if there are phenotypic sex differences. Testing for similarities and differences between the sexes is important not only for clinical assessment but also has implications for theories of typical sex differences and of autism. Using cognitive and behavioral measures, we investigated similarities and differences between the sexes in age- and IQ-matched adults with ASC (high-functioning autism or Asperger syndrome). Of the 83 (45 males and 38 females) participants, 62 (33 males and 29 females) met Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) cut-off criteria for autism in childhood and were included in all subsequent analyses. The severity of childhood core autism symptoms did not differ between the sexes. Males and females also did not differ in self-reported empathy, systemizing, anxiety, depression, and obsessive-compulsive traits/symptoms or mentalizing performance. However, adult females with ASC showed more lifetime sensory symptoms (p?=?0.036), fewer current socio-communication difficulties (p?=?0.001), and more self-reported autistic traits (p?=?0.012) than males. In addition, females with ASC who also had developmental language delay had lower current performance IQ than those without developmental language delay (p<0.001), a pattern not seen in males. The absence of typical sex differences in empathizing-systemizing profiles within the autism spectrum confirms a prediction from the extreme male brain theory. Behavioral sex differences within ASC may also reflect different developmental mechanisms between males and females with ASC. We discuss the importance of the superficially better socio-communication ability in adult females with ASC in terms of why females with ASC may more often go under-recognized, and receive their diagnosis later, than males. PMID:21695147

  18. A behavioral comparison of male and female adults with high functioning autism spectrum conditions.

    PubMed

    Lai, Meng-Chuan; Lombardo, Michael V; Pasco, Greg; Ruigrok, Amber N V; Wheelwright, Sally J; Sadek, Susan A; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Autism spectrum conditions (ASC) affect more males than females in the general population. However, within ASC it is unclear if there are phenotypic sex differences. Testing for similarities and differences between the sexes is important not only for clinical assessment but also has implications for theories of typical sex differences and of autism. Using cognitive and behavioral measures, we investigated similarities and differences between the sexes in age- and IQ-matched adults with ASC (high-functioning autism or Asperger syndrome). Of the 83 (45 males and 38 females) participants, 62 (33 males and 29 females) met Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) cut-off criteria for autism in childhood and were included in all subsequent analyses. The severity of childhood core autism symptoms did not differ between the sexes. Males and females also did not differ in self-reported empathy, systemizing, anxiety, depression, and obsessive-compulsive traits/symptoms or mentalizing performance. However, adult females with ASC showed more lifetime sensory symptoms (p = 0.036), fewer current socio-communication difficulties (p = 0.001), and more self-reported autistic traits (p = 0.012) than males. In addition, females with ASC who also had developmental language delay had lower current performance IQ than those without developmental language delay (p<0.001), a pattern not seen in males. The absence of typical sex differences in empathizing-systemizing profiles within the autism spectrum confirms a prediction from the extreme male brain theory. Behavioral sex differences within ASC may also reflect different developmental mechanisms between males and females with ASC. We discuss the importance of the superficially better socio-communication ability in adult females with ASC in terms of why females with ASC may more often go under-recognized, and receive their diagnosis later, than males. PMID:21695147

  19. Metacognition, metamemory, and mindreading in high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Grainger, Catherine; Williams, David M; Lind, Sophie E

    2014-08-01

    Metacognition refers to cognition about cognition and encompasses both knowledge of cognitive processes and the ability to monitor and control one's own cognitions. The current study aimed to establish whether metacognition is impaired in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). According to some theories, the ability to represent one's own mental states (an aspect of metacognition) relies on the same mechanism as the ability to represent others' mental states ("mindreading"). Given numerous studies have shown mindreading is impaired in ASD, there is good reason to predict concurrent impairments in metacognition. Metacognition is most commonly explored in the context of memory, often by assessing people's ability to monitor their memory processes. The current study addressed the question of whether people with ASD have difficulty monitoring the contents of their memory (alongside impaired mindreading). Eighteen intellectually high-functioning adults with ASD and 18 IQ- and age-matched neurotypical adults participated. Metamemory monitoring ability and mindreading ability were assessed by using a feeling-of-knowing task and the "animations" task, respectively. Participants also completed a self-report measure of metacognitive ability. In addition to showing impaired mindreading, participants with ASD made significantly less accurate feeling-of-knowing judgments than neurotypical adults, suggesting that metamemory monitoring (an aspect of metacognition) was impaired. Conversely, participants with ASD self-reported superior metacognitive abilities compared with those reported by neurotypical participants. This study provides evidence that individuals with ASD have metamemory monitoring impairments. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings for our current understanding of metacognition in ASD and typical development are discussed. PMID:24955572

  20. Prosody recognition in adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders: from psychoacoustics to cognition.

    PubMed

    Globerson, Eitan; Amir, Noam; Kishon-Rabin, Liat; Golan, Ofer

    2015-04-01

    Prosody is an important tool of human communication, carrying both affective and pragmatic messages in speech. Prosody recognition relies on processing of acoustic cues, such as the fundamental frequency of the voice signal, and their interpretation according to acquired socioemotional scripts. Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) show deficiencies in affective prosody recognition. These deficiencies have been mostly associated with general difficulties in emotion recognition. The current study explored an additional association between affective prosody recognition in ASD and auditory perceptual abilities. Twenty high-functioning male adults with ASD and 32 typically developing male adults, matched on age and verbal abilities undertook a battery of auditory tasks. These included affective and pragmatic prosody recognition tasks, two psychoacoustic tasks (pitch direction recognition and pitch discrimination), and a facial emotion recognition task, representing nonvocal emotion recognition. Compared with controls, the ASD group demonstrated poorer performance on both vocal and facial emotion recognition, but not on pragmatic prosody recognition or on any of the psychoacoustic tasks. Both groups showed strong associations between psychoacoustic abilities and prosody recognition, both affective and pragmatic, although these were more pronounced in the ASD group. Facial emotion recognition predicted vocal emotion recognition in the ASD group only. These findings suggest that auditory perceptual abilities, alongside general emotion recognition abilities, play a significant role in affective prosody recognition in ASD. PMID:25428545

  1. Alterations in brain structures underlying language function in young adults at high familial risk for schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Alan N.; Seidman, Larry J.; Jabbar, Gul A.; Mesholam-Gately, Raquelle; Thermenos, Heidi W.; Juelich, Richard; Proal, Ashley C.; Shenton, Martha; Kubicki, Marek; Mathew, Ian; Keshavan, Matcheri; DeLisi, Lynn E.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Neuroanatomical and cognitive alterations typical of schizophrenia (SZ) patients are observed to a lesser extent in their adolescent and adult first-degree relatives, likely reflecting neurodevelopmental abnormalities associated with genetic risk for the illness. The anatomical pathways for language are hypothesized to be abnormal and to underlie the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. Examining non-psychotic relatives at high familial risk (FHR) for schizophrenia may clarify if these deficits represent trait markers associated with genetic vulnerability, rather than specific markers resulting from the pathological process underlying schizophrenia. Methods T1 MRI scans from a 3T Siemens scanner of young adult FHR subjects (N=46) and controls with no family history of illness (i.e. at low genetic risk LRC; N=31) were processed using FreeSurfer 5.0. We explored volumetric and lateralization alterations in regions associated with language processing. An extensive neuropsychological battery of language measures was administered. Results No significant differences were observed between groups on any language measures. Controlling Intracranial volume, significantly smaller center Pars Triangularis (PT) (p<0.01) and right Pars Orbitalis (PO) (p < 0.01) volumes and reversal of the L > R Pars Orbitalis (p < 0.001) lateralization were observed in FHR subjects. In addition, the L Pars Triangularis and R Pars Orbitalis correlated with performance on tests of linguistic function in the FHR group. Conclusions Reduced volume and reversed structural asymmetry in language-related regions hypothesized to be altered in SZ are also found in first degree relatives at FHR, despite normal language performance. To clarify if these findings are endophenotypes for Sz, future studied would need to be performed of ill and well family members no longer within the age range of risk for illness to show these deficits segregate with schizophrenia within families. Moreover, measures of complex language need to be studied to determine if FHR individuals manifest impairments in some aspects of language function. PMID:22892286

  2. The Neuropsychology of Male Adults With High-Functioning Autism or Asperger Syndrome†

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, C Ellie; Happé, Francesca; Wheelwright, Sally J; Ecker, Christine; Lombardo, Michael V; Johnston, Patrick; Daly, Eileen; Murphy, Clodagh M; Spain, Debbie; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Sauter, Disa A; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Murphy, Declan G M

    2014-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is diagnosed on the basis of behavioral symptoms, but cognitive abilities may also be useful in characterizing individuals with ASD. One hundred seventy-eight high-functioning male adults, half with ASD and half without, completed tasks assessing IQ, a broad range of cognitive skills, and autistic and comorbid symptomatology. The aims of the study were, first, to determine whether significant differences existed between cases and controls on cognitive tasks, and whether cognitive profiles, derived using a multivariate classification method with data from multiple cognitive tasks, could distinguish between the two groups. Second, to establish whether cognitive skill level was correlated with degree of autistic symptom severity, and third, whether cognitive skill level was correlated with degree of comorbid psychopathology. Fourth, cognitive characteristics of individuals with Asperger Syndrome (AS) and high-functioning autism (HFA) were compared. After controlling for IQ, ASD and control groups scored significantly differently on tasks of social cognition, motor performance, and executive function (P's < 0.05). To investigate cognitive profiles, 12 variables were entered into a support vector machine (SVM), which achieved good classification accuracy (81%) at a level significantly better than chance (P < 0.0001). After correcting for multiple correlations, there were no significant associations between cognitive performance and severity of either autistic or comorbid symptomatology. There were no significant differences between AS and HFA groups on the cognitive tasks. Cognitive classification models could be a useful aid to the diagnostic process when used in conjunction with other data sources—including clinical history. Autism Res 2014, 7: 568–581. © 2014 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24903974

  3. Cognitive Profiles of Adults with Asperger's Disorder, High-Functioning Autism, and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified Based on the WAIS-III

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanai, Chieko; Tani, Masayuki; Hashimoto, Ryuichiro; Yamada, Takashi; Ota, Haruhisa; Watanabe, Hiromi; Iwanami, Akira; Kato, Nobumasa

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the cognitive profiles of high-functioning Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD) in adults based on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale III (WAIS-III). We examined cognitive profiles of adults with no intellectual disability (IQ greater than 70), and in adults with Asperger's disorder (AS; n = 47), high-functioning autism (HFA;

  4. Comparative Functional Literacy of Adult Performance Level Graduates and Wichita East High School Graduating Seniors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Deborah; Peppers, Jimmy

    1978-01-01

    Study compared fifty adult performance level (APL) graduates' scores to fifty high school graduates' scores for four APL knowledge areas. APL graduates scored significantly higher than high school graduates in consumer economics and occupational knowledge. No significant differences were recorded between groups in areas of community resources and

  5. Axonal deficits in young adults with High Functioning Autism and their impact on processing speed

    PubMed Central

    Lazar, Mariana; Miles, Laura M.; Babb, James S.; Donaldson, Jeffrey B.

    2014-01-01

    Microstructural white matter deficits in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) have been suggested by both histological findings and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) studies, which show reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) and increased mean diffusivity (MD). However, imaging reports are generally not consistent across studies and the underlying physiological causes of the reported differences in FA and MD remain poorly understood. In this study, we sought to further characterize white matter deficits in ASD by employing an advanced diffusion imaging method, the Diffusional Kurtosis Imaging (DKI), and a two-compartment diffusion model of white matter. This model differentially describes intra- and extra-axonal white matter compartments using Axonal Water Fraction (faxon) a measure reflecting axonal caliber and density, and compartment-specific diffusivity measures. Diagnostic utility of these measures and associations with processing speed performance were also examined. Comparative studies were conducted in 16 young male adults with High Functioning Autism (HFA) and 17 typically developing control participants (TDC). Significantly decreased faxon was observed in HFA compared to the control group in most of the major white matter tracts, including the corpus callosum, cortico-spinal tracts, and superior longitudinal, inferior longitudinal and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculi. Intra-axonal diffusivity (Daxon) was also found to be reduced in some of these regions. Decreased axial extra-axonal diffusivity (ADextra) was noted in the genu of the corpus callosum. Reduced processing speed significantly correlated with decreased faxon and Daxon in several tracts. faxon of the left cortico-spinal tract and superior longitudinal fasciculi showed good accuracy in discriminating the HFA and TDC groups. In conclusion, these findings suggest altered axonal microstructure in young adults with HFA which is associated with reduced processing speed. Compartment-specific diffusion metrics appear to improve specificity and sensitivity to white matter deficits in this population. PMID:24624327

  6. Selective impairment of cognitive empathy for moral judgment in adults with high functioning autism

    PubMed Central

    Torralva, Teresa; Rattazzi, Alexia; Marenco, Victoria; Roca, Mara; Manes, Facundo

    2013-01-01

    Faced with a moral dilemma, conflict arises between a cognitive controlled response aimed at maximizing welfare, i.e. the utilitarian judgment, and an emotional aversion to harm, i.e. the deontological judgment. In the present study, we investigated moral judgment in adult individuals with high functioning autism/Asperger syndrome (HFA/AS), a clinical population characterized by impairments in prosocial emotions and social cognition. In Experiment 1, we compared the response patterns of HFA/AS participants and neurotypical controls to moral dilemmas with low and high emotional saliency. We found that HFA/AS participants more frequently delivered the utilitarian judgment. Their perception of appropriateness of moral transgression was similar to that of controls, but HFA/AS participants reported decreased levels of emotional reaction to the dilemma. In Experiment 2, we explored the way in which demographic, clinical and social cognition variables including emotional and cognitive aspects of empathy and theory of mind influenced moral judgment. We found that utilitarian HFA/AS participants showed a decreased ability to infer other peoples thoughts and to understand their intentions, as measured both by performance on neuropsychological tests and through dispositional measures. We conclude that greater prevalence of utilitarianism in HFA/AS is associated with difficulties in specific aspects of social cognition. PMID:22689217

  7. Perception of emotions from facial expressions in high-functioning adults with autism

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Daniel P.; Adolphs, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    Impairment in social communication is one of the diagnostic hallmarks of autism spectrum disorders, and a large body of research has documented aspects of impaired social cognition in autism, both at the level of the processes and the neural structures involved. Yet one of the most common social communicative abilities in everyday life, the ability to judge somebody's emotion from their facial expression, has yielded conflicting findings. To investigate this issue, we used a sensitive task that has been used to assess facial emotion perception in a number of neurological and psychiatric populations. Fifteen high- functioning adults with autism and 19 control participants rated the emotional intensity of 36 faces displaying basic emotions. Every face was rated 6 times - once for each emotion category. The autism group gave ratings that were significantly less sensitive to a given emotion, and less reliable across repeated testing, resulting in overall decreased specificity in emotion perception. We thus demonstrate a subtle but specific pattern of impairments in facial emotion perception in people with autism. PMID:23022433

  8. Task Engagement in Young Adults with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders: Generalization Effects of Behavioral Skills Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmen, Annemiek; Didden, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a behavioral skills training package on task engagement in six young adults with high-functioning ASD who worked in a regular job-training setting. Experimental sessions were implemented in a small-group training format in a therapy room using unknown tasks. Data were collected on participant's off-task…

  9. Task Engagement in Young Adults with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders: Generalization Effects of Behavioral Skills Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmen, Annemiek; Didden, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a behavioral skills training package on task engagement in six young adults with high-functioning ASD who worked in a regular job-training setting. Experimental sessions were implemented in a small-group training format in a therapy room using unknown tasks. Data were collected on participant's off-task

  10. Effects of Related and Unrelated Context on Recall and Recognition by Adults with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowler, Dermot M.; Gaigg, Sebastian B.; Gardiner, John M.

    2008-01-01

    Memory in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterised by greater difficulties with recall rather than recognition and with a diminished use of semantic or associative relatedness in the aid of recall. Two experiments are reported that test the effects of item-context relatedness on recall and recognition in adults with high-functioning ASD…

  11. "Hath Charms to Soothe...": An Exploratory Study of How High-Functioning Adults with ASD Experience Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Rory; Hill, Elizabeth; Heaton, Pam

    2009-01-01

    Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 high-functioning adults on the autism spectrum, in order to examine the nature of their personal experiences of music. Consistent with the literature on typically developing people's engagement with music, the analysis showed that most participants exploit music for a wide range of purposes in the…

  12. Functional Imaging of Auditory Cortex in Adult Cats using High-field fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Trecia A.; Gati, Joseph S.; Hughes, Sarah M.; Nixon, Pam L.; Menon, Ravi S.; Lomber, Stephen G.

    2014-01-01

    Current knowledge of sensory processing in the mammalian auditory system is mainly derived from electrophysiological studies in a variety of animal models, including monkeys, ferrets, bats, rodents, and cats. In order to draw suitable parallels between human and animal models of auditory function, it is important to establish a bridge between human functional imaging studies and animal electrophysiological studies. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is an established, minimally invasive method of measuring broad patterns of hemodynamic activity across different regions of the cerebral cortex. This technique is widely used to probe sensory function in the human brain, is a useful tool in linking studies of auditory processing in both humans and animals and has been successfully used to investigate auditory function in monkeys and rodents. The following protocol describes an experimental procedure for investigating auditory function in anesthetized adult cats by measuring stimulus-evoked hemodynamic changes in auditory cortex using fMRI. This method facilitates comparison of the hemodynamic responses across different models of auditory function thus leading to a better understanding of species-independent features of the mammalian auditory cortex. PMID:24637937

  13. Functional imaging of auditory cortex in adult cats using high-field fMRI.

    PubMed

    Brown, Trecia A; Gati, Joseph S; Hughes, Sarah M; Nixon, Pam L; Menon, Ravi S; Lomber, Stephen G

    2014-01-01

    Current knowledge of sensory processing in the mammalian auditory system is mainly derived from electrophysiological studies in a variety of animal models, including monkeys, ferrets, bats, rodents, and cats. In order to draw suitable parallels between human and animal models of auditory function, it is important to establish a bridge between human functional imaging studies and animal electrophysiological studies. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is an established, minimally invasive method of measuring broad patterns of hemodynamic activity across different regions of the cerebral cortex. This technique is widely used to probe sensory function in the human brain, is a useful tool in linking studies of auditory processing in both humans and animals and has been successfully used to investigate auditory function in monkeys and rodents. The following protocol describes an experimental procedure for investigating auditory function in anesthetized adult cats by measuring stimulus-evoked hemodynamic changes in auditory cortex using fMRI. This method facilitates comparison of the hemodynamic responses across different models of auditory function thus leading to a better understanding of species-independent features of the mammalian auditory cortex. PMID:24637937

  14. Local Information Processing in Adults with High Functioning Autism and Asperger Syndrome: The Usefulness of Neuropsychological Tests and Self-Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spek, Annelies A.; Scholte, Evert M.; Van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina A.

    2011-01-01

    Local information processing in 42 adults with high functioning autism, 41 adults with Asperger syndrome and 41 neurotypical adults was examined. Contrary to our expectations, the disorder groups did not outperform the neurotypical group in the neuropsychological measures of local information processing. In line with our hypotheses, the

  15. An investigation into the relationship between age and physiological function in highly active older adults

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, Ross D; Carter, Scott; Velloso, Cristiana P; Duggal, Niharika A; Lord, Janet M; Lazarus, Norman R; Harridge, Stephen D R

    2015-01-01

    Despite extensive research, the relationship between age and physiological function remains poorly characterised and there are currently no reliable markers of human ageing. This is probably due to a number of confounding factors, particularly in studies of a cross-sectional nature. These include inter-subject genetic variation, as well as inter-generational differences in nutrition, healthcare and insufficient levels of physical activity as well as other environmental factors. We have studied a cohort of highly and homogeneously active older male (n = 84) and female (n = 41) cyclists aged 55–79 years who it is proposed represent a model for the study of human ageing free from the majority of confounding factors, especially inactivity. The aim of the study was to identify physiological markers of ageing by assessing the relationship between function and age across a wide range of indices. Each participant underwent a detailed physiological profiling which included measures of cardiovascular, respiratory, neuromuscular, metabolic, endocrine and cognitive functions, bone strength, and health and well-being. Significant associations between age and function were observed for many functions. The maximal rate of oxygen consumption ( showed the closest association with age (r = −0.443 to −0.664; P < 0.001), but even here the variance in age for any given level was high, precluding the clear identification of the age of any individual. The results of this cross-sectional study suggest that even when many confounding variables are removed the relationship between function and healthy ageing is complex and likely to be highly individualistic and that physical activity levels must be taken into account in ageing studies. Key Points The relationship between age and physiological function remains poorly defined and there are no physiological markers that can be used to reliably predict the age of an individual. This could be due to a variety of confounding genetic and lifestyle factors, and in particular to ill-defined and low levels of physical activity. This study assessed the relationship between age and a diverse range of physiological functions in a cohort of highly active older individuals (cyclists) aged 55–79 years in whom the effects of lifestyle factors would be ameliorated. Significant associations between age and function were observed for many functions. was most closely associated with age, but even here the variance in age for any given level was high, precluding the clear identification of the age of any individual. The data suggest that the relationship between human ageing and physiological function is highly individualistic and modified by inactivity. PMID:25565071

  16. Adult Functional Competency: A Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Univ., Austin. Div. of Extension.

    The Adult Performance Level (APL) project summary specifies the competencies which are functional to economic and educational success in society and describes devices developed for assessing those competencies. The APL theory of functional competency identifies adult needs in general knowledge areas (consumer economics, occupational knowledge,

  17. Autism and Schizophrenia in High Functioning Adults: Behavioral Differences and Overlap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spek, Annelies A.; Wouters, Saskia G. M.

    2010-01-01

    Several recent studies have demonstrated a genetical overlap between autism and schizophrenia. However, at a behavioral level it remains unclear which features can validly distinguish adults with autism from an adult schizophrenia group. To this end, the present study compared 21 individuals with the autistic disorder and 21 individuals with

  18. Autism and Schizophrenia in High Functioning Adults: Behavioral Differences and Overlap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spek, Annelies A.; Wouters, Saskia G. M.

    2010-01-01

    Several recent studies have demonstrated a genetical overlap between autism and schizophrenia. However, at a behavioral level it remains unclear which features can validly distinguish adults with autism from an adult schizophrenia group. To this end, the present study compared 21 individuals with the autistic disorder and 21 individuals with…

  19. High Intensity Training Improves Health and Physical Function in Middle Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Adamson, Simon; Lorimer, Ross; Cobley, James N.; Lloyd, Ray; Babraj, John

    2014-01-01

    High intensity training (HIT) is effective at improving health; however, it is unknown whether HIT also improves physical function. This study aimed to determine whether HIT improves metabolic health and physical function in untrained middle aged individuals. Fourteen (three male and eleven female) untrained individuals were recruited (control group n = 6: age 42 8 y, weight 64 10 kg, BMI 24 2 kgm?2 or HIT group n = 8: age 43 8 y, weight 80 8 kg, BMI 29 5 kgm?2). Training was performed twice weekly, consisting of 10 6-second sprints with a one minute recovery between each sprint. Metabolic health (oral glucose tolerance test), aerobic capacity (incremental time to exhaustion on a cycle ergometer) and physical function (get up and go test, sit to stand test and loaded 50 m walk) were determined before and after training. Following eight weeks of HIT there was a significant improvement in aerobic capacity (8% increase in VO2 peak; p < 0.001), physical function (11%27% respectively; p < 0.05) and a reduction in blood glucose area under the curve (6% reduction; p < 0.05). This study demonstrates for the first time the potential of HIT as a training intervention to improve skeletal muscle function and glucose clearance as we age. PMID:24833513

  20. The Use of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient in Differentiating High-Functioning Adults with Autism, Adults with Schizophrenia and a Neurotypical Adult Control Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wouters, Saskia G. M.; Spek, Annelies A.

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared 21 high functioning individuals with autism, 21 individuals with schizophrenia and 21 healthy individuals in self-reported features of autism, as measured by the Autism-spectrum Quotient (AQ). The individuals with autism reported impairment on all AQ subscales, compared to the neurotypical group. The schizophrenia group

  1. The Use of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient in Differentiating High-Functioning Adults with Autism, Adults with Schizophrenia and a Neurotypical Adult Control Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wouters, Saskia G. M.; Spek, Annelies A.

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared 21 high functioning individuals with autism, 21 individuals with schizophrenia and 21 healthy individuals in self-reported features of autism, as measured by the Autism-spectrum Quotient (AQ). The individuals with autism reported impairment on all AQ subscales, compared to the neurotypical group. The schizophrenia group…

  2. Functional decline in older adults.

    PubMed

    Colón-Emeric, Cathleen S; Whitson, Heather E; Pavon, Juliessa; Hoenig, Helen

    2013-09-15

    Functional disability is common in older adults. It is often episodic and is associated with a high risk of subsequent health decline. The severity of disability is determined by physical impairments caused by underlying medical conditions, and by external factors such as social support, financial support, and the environment. When multiple health conditions are present, they often result in greater disability than expected because the patient's ability to compensate for one problem may be affected by comorbid conditions. Evaluation of functional disability is most effective when the physician determines the course of the disability, associated symptoms, effects on specific activities, and coping mechanisms the patient uses to compensate for the functional problem. Underlying health conditions, impairments, and contextual factors (e.g., finances, social support) should be identified using validated screening tools. Interventions should focus on increasing the patient's capacity to cope with task demands and reducing the demands of the task itself. Interventions for functional decline in older adults are almost always multifactorial because they must address multiple conditions, impairments, and contextual factors. PMID:24134046

  3. Use of Prosody and Information Structure in High Functioning Adults with Autism in Relation to Language Ability

    PubMed Central

    DePape, Anne-Marie R.; Chen, Aoju; Hall, Geoffrey B. C.; Trainor, Laurel J.

    2012-01-01

    Abnormal prosody is a striking feature of the speech of those with Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but previous reports suggest large variability among those with ASD. Here we show that part of this heterogeneity can be explained by level of language functioning. We recorded semi-spontaneous but controlled conversations in adults with and without ASD and measured features related to pitch and duration to determine (1) general use of prosodic features, (2) prosodic use in relation to marking information structure, specifically, the emphasis of new information in a sentence (focus) as opposed to information already given in the conversational context (topic), and (3) the relation between prosodic use and level of language functioning. We found that, compared to typical adults, those with ASD with high language functioning generally used a larger pitch range than controls but did not mark information structure, whereas those with moderate language functioning generally used a smaller pitch range than controls but marked information structure appropriately to a large extent. Both impaired general prosodic use and impaired marking of information structure would be expected to seriously impact social communication and thereby lead to increased difficulty in personal domains, such as making and keeping friendships, and in professional domains, such as competing for employment opportunities. PMID:22470358

  4. Group Social Skills Interventions for Adults with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spain, Debbie; Blainey, Sarah H.

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are characterised by impairments in communication and social interaction. Social skills interventions have been found to ameliorate socio-communication deficits in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Little is known about the effectiveness of social skills interventions for adults with

  5. Group Social Skills Interventions for Adults with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spain, Debbie; Blainey, Sarah H.

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are characterised by impairments in communication and social interaction. Social skills interventions have been found to ameliorate socio-communication deficits in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Little is known about the effectiveness of social skills interventions for adults with…

  6. Normal Visual Acuity and Electrophysiological Contrast Gain in Adults with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Tebartz van Elst, Ludger; Bach, Michael; Blessing, Julia; Riedel, Andreas; Bubl, Emanuel

    2015-01-01

    A common neurodevelopmental disorder, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), is defined by specific patterns in social perception, social competence, communication, highly circumscribed interests, and a strong subjective need for behavioral routines. Furthermore, distinctive features of visual perception, such as markedly reduced eye contact and a tendency to focus more on small, visual items than on holistic perception, have long been recognized as typical ASD characteristics. Recent debate in the scientific community discusses whether the physiology of low-level visual perception might explain such higher visual abnormalities. While reports of this enhanced, “eagle-like” visual acuity contained methodological errors and could not be substantiated, several authors have reported alterations in even earlier stages of visual processing, such as contrast perception and motion perception at the occipital cortex level. Therefore, in this project, we have investigated the electrophysiology of very early visual processing by analyzing the pattern electroretinogram-based contrast gain, the background noise amplitude, and the psychophysical visual acuities of participants with high-functioning ASD and controls with equal education. Based on earlier findings, we hypothesized that alterations in early vision would be present in ASD participants. This study included 33 individuals with ASD (11 female) and 33 control individuals (12 female). The groups were matched in terms of age, gender, and education level. We found no evidence of altered electrophysiological retinal contrast processing or psychophysical measured visual acuities. There appears to be no evidence for abnormalities in retinal visual processing in ASD patients, at least with respect to contrast detection. PMID:26379525

  7. Normal Visual Acuity and Electrophysiological Contrast Gain in Adults with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Tebartz van Elst, Ludger; Bach, Michael; Blessing, Julia; Riedel, Andreas; Bubl, Emanuel

    2015-01-01

    A common neurodevelopmental disorder, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), is defined by specific patterns in social perception, social competence, communication, highly circumscribed interests, and a strong subjective need for behavioral routines. Furthermore, distinctive features of visual perception, such as markedly reduced eye contact and a tendency to focus more on small, visual items than on holistic perception, have long been recognized as typical ASD characteristics. Recent debate in the scientific community discusses whether the physiology of low-level visual perception might explain such higher visual abnormalities. While reports of this enhanced, "eagle-like" visual acuity contained methodological errors and could not be substantiated, several authors have reported alterations in even earlier stages of visual processing, such as contrast perception and motion perception at the occipital cortex level. Therefore, in this project, we have investigated the electrophysiology of very early visual processing by analyzing the pattern electroretinogram-based contrast gain, the background noise amplitude, and the psychophysical visual acuities of participants with high-functioning ASD and controls with equal education. Based on earlier findings, we hypothesized that alterations in early vision would be present in ASD participants. This study included 33 individuals with ASD (11 female) and 33 control individuals (12 female). The groups were matched in terms of age, gender, and education level. We found no evidence of altered electrophysiological retinal contrast processing or psychophysical measured visual acuities. There appears to be no evidence for abnormalities in retinal visual processing in ASD patients, at least with respect to contrast detection. PMID:26379525

  8. Intra-individual lap time variation of the 400-m walk, an early mobility indicator of executive function decline in high-functioning older adults?

    PubMed

    Tian, Qu; Resnick, Susan M; Ferrucci, Luigi; Studenski, Stephanie A

    2015-12-01

    Higher intra-individual lap time variation (LTV) of the 400-m walk is cross-sectionally associated with poorer attention in older adults. Whether higher LTV predicts decline in executive function and whether the relationship is accounted for by slower walking remain unanswered. The main objective of this study was to examine the relationship between baseline LTV and longitudinal change in executive function. We used data from 347 participants aged 60 years and older (50.7% female) from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Longitudinal assessments of executive function were conducted between 2007 and 2013, including attention (Trails A, Digit Span Forward Test), cognitive flexibility and set shifting (Trails B, Delta TMT: Trials B minus Trials A), visuoperceptual speed (Digit Symbol Substitution Test), and working memory (Digit Span Backward Test). LTV and mean lap time (MLT) were obtained from the 400-m walk test concurrent with the baseline executive function assessment. LTV was computed as variability of lap time across ten 40-m laps based on individual trajectories. A linear mixed-effects model was used to examine LTV in relation to changes in executive function, adjusted for age, sex, education, and MLT. Higher LTV was associated with greater decline in performance on Trails B (??=?4.322, p?function measures (all p?>?0.05). In high-functioning older adults, higher LTV in the 400-m walk predicts executive function decline involving cognitive flexibility and set shifting over a long period of time. High LTV may be an early indicator of executive function decline independent of MLT. PMID:26561401

  9. Atypical delayed auditory feedback effect and Lombard effect on speech production in high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Lin, I-Fan; Mochida, Takemi; Asada, Kosuke; Ayaya, Satsuki; Kumagaya, Shin-Ichiro; Kato, Masaharu

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show impaired social interaction and communication, which may be related to their difficulties in speech production. To investigate the mechanisms of atypical speech production in this population, we examined feedback control by delaying the auditory feedback of their own speech, which degraded speech fluency. We also examined feedforward control by adding loud pink noise to the auditory feedback, which led to increased vocal effort in producing speech. The results of Japanese speakers show that, compared with neurotypical (NT) individuals, high-functioning adults with ASD (including Asperger’s disorder, autistic disorder, and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified) were more affected by delayed auditory feedback but less affected by external noise. These findings indicate that, in contrast to NT individuals, those with ASD relied more on feedback control than on feedforward control in speech production, which is consistent with the hypothesis that this population exhibits attenuated Bayesian priors. PMID:26441607

  10. Atypical delayed auditory feedback effect and Lombard effect on speech production in high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Lin, I-Fan; Mochida, Takemi; Asada, Kosuke; Ayaya, Satsuki; Kumagaya, Shin-Ichiro; Kato, Masaharu

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show impaired social interaction and communication, which may be related to their difficulties in speech production. To investigate the mechanisms of atypical speech production in this population, we examined feedback control by delaying the auditory feedback of their own speech, which degraded speech fluency. We also examined feedforward control by adding loud pink noise to the auditory feedback, which led to increased vocal effort in producing speech. The results of Japanese speakers show that, compared with neurotypical (NT) individuals, high-functioning adults with ASD (including Asperger's disorder, autistic disorder, and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified) were more affected by delayed auditory feedback but less affected by external noise. These findings indicate that, in contrast to NT individuals, those with ASD relied more on feedback control than on feedforward control in speech production, which is consistent with the hypothesis that this population exhibits attenuated Bayesian priors. PMID:26441607

  11. Emerging perspectives on adolescents and young adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders, violence, and criminal law.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Matthew D; Haque, Omar Sultan; Northrup, Eli C; Lawer, Lindsay; Bursztajn, Harold J

    2012-01-01

    As the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) has increased, attention has shifted toward consideration of ASDs in adolescence and adulthood, as well as public health repercussions for this population. Since the social and emotional deficits within ASDs may be salient during incidents of unintended criminal or violent behavior, one area of focus is involvement of adolescents and young adults with ASD in the criminal justice system. Without a thorough understanding of how and why individuals with ASDs may exhibit criminal behavior, judicial and legislative state systems have begun to develop policies lacking a substantial evidence base. In this article, we attempt to synthesize the literature on one type of ASD (high functioning) and criminal behavior. Three specific deficits characteristic of individuals with ASDs (theory of mind, emotion regulation, and moral reasoning) are examined as potential confluent forces leading to criminal behavior among individuals with ASDs. Legal and policy recommendations are presented. PMID:22635288

  12. High-frequency dual mode pulsed wave Doppler imaging for monitoring the functional regeneration of adult zebrafish hearts.

    PubMed

    Kang, Bong Jin; Park, Jinhyoung; Kim, Jieun; Kim, Hyung Ham; Lee, Changyang; Hwang, Jae Youn; Lien, Ching-Ling; Shung, K Kirk

    2015-02-01

    Adult zebrafish is a well-known small animal model for studying heart regeneration. Although the regeneration of scars made by resecting the ventricular apex has been visualized with histological methods, there is no adequate imaging tool for tracking the functional recovery of the damaged heart. For this reason, high-frequency Doppler echocardiography using dual mode pulsed wave Doppler, which provides both tissue Doppler (TD) and Doppler flow in a same cardiac cycle, is developed with a 30 MHz high-frequency array ultrasound imaging system. Phantom studies show that the Doppler flow mode of the dual mode is capable of measuring the flow velocity from 0.1 to 15 cm s(-1) with high accuracy (p-value = 0.974 > 0.05). In the in vivo study of zebrafish, both TD and Doppler flow signals were simultaneously obtained from the zebrafish heart for the first time, and the synchronized valve motions with the blood flow signals were identified. In the longitudinal study on the zebrafish heart regeneration, the parameters for diagnosing the diastolic dysfunction, for example, E/Em < 10, E/A < 0.14 for wild-type zebrafish, were measured, and the type of diastolic dysfunction caused by the amputation was found to be similar to the restrictive filling. The diastolic function was fully recovered within four weeks post-amputation. PMID:25505135

  13. Social Interest in High-Functioning Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher-Watson, Sue; Leekam, Susan R.; Findlay, John M.

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are principally characterized by impairments in social functioning. Experimental investigation often is conducted using methods measuring social attention, social cognition, and social communication. In this study, we instead measured interest in social information, making a distinction between basic-level

  14. High Resolution Methylome Analysis Reveals Widespread Functional Hypomethylation during Adult Human Erythropoiesis*

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yiting; Mo, Yongkai; Ebenezer, David; Bhattacharyya, Sanchari; Liu, Hui; Sundaravel, Sriram; Giricz, Orsolya; Wontakal, Sandeep; Cartier, Jessy; Caces, Bennett; Artz, Andrew; Nischal, Sangeeta; Bhagat, Tushar; Bathon, Kathleen; Maqbool, Shahina; Gligich, Oleg; Suzuki, Masako; Steidl, Ulrich; Godley, Lucy; Skoultchi, Art; Greally, John; Wickrema, Amittha; Verma, Amit

    2013-01-01

    Differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells to red cells requires coordinated expression of numerous erythroid genes and is characterized by nuclear condensation and extrusion during terminal development. To understand the regulatory mechanisms governing these widespread phenotypic changes, we conducted a high resolution methylomic and transcriptomic analysis of six major stages of human erythroid differentiation. We observed widespread epigenetic differences between early and late stages of erythropoiesis with progressive loss of methylation being the dominant change during differentiation. Gene bodies, intergenic regions, and CpG shores were preferentially demethylated during erythropoiesis. Epigenetic changes at transcription factor binding sites correlated significantly with changes in gene expression and were enriched for binding motifs for SCL, MYB, GATA, and other factors not previously implicated in erythropoiesis. Demethylation at gene promoters was associated with increased expression of genes, whereas epigenetic changes at gene bodies correlated inversely with gene expression. Important gene networks encoding erythrocyte membrane proteins, surface receptors, and heme synthesis proteins were found to be regulated by DNA methylation. Furthermore, integrative analysis enabled us to identify novel, potential regulatory areas of the genome as evident by epigenetic changes in a predicted PU.1 binding site in intron 1 of the GATA1 gene. This intronic site was found to be conserved across species and was validated to be a novel PU.1 binding site by quantitative ChIP in erythroid cells. Altogether, our study provides a comprehensive analysis of methylomic and transcriptomic changes during erythroid differentiation and demonstrates that human terminal erythropoiesis is surprisingly associated with hypomethylation of the genome. PMID:23306203

  15. A Systematic Review of Behavioral Intervention Research on Adaptive Skill Building in High-Functioning Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmen, Annemiek; Didden, Robert; Lang, Russell

    2012-01-01

    This review involved a systematic search and analysis of behavioral intervention studies aimed at improving adaptive skills in high-functioning young adults with autism spectrum disorders. Through electronic databases and hand searching, 20 studies were identified meeting pre-determined inclusion criteria. Studies were summarized and analysed in

  16. A Systematic Review of Behavioral Intervention Research on Adaptive Skill Building in High-Functioning Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmen, Annemiek; Didden, Robert; Lang, Russell

    2012-01-01

    This review involved a systematic search and analysis of behavioral intervention studies aimed at improving adaptive skills in high-functioning young adults with autism spectrum disorders. Through electronic databases and hand searching, 20 studies were identified meeting pre-determined inclusion criteria. Studies were summarized and analysed in…

  17. The Influences of Face Inversion and Facial Expression on Sensitivity to Eye Contact in High-Functioning Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vida, Mark D.; Maurer, Daphne; Calder, Andrew J.; Rhodes, Gillian; Walsh, Jennifer A.; Pachai, Matthew V.; Rutherford, M. D.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the influences of face inversion and facial expression on sensitivity to eye contact in high-functioning adults with and without an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants judged the direction of gaze of angry, fearful, and neutral faces. In the typical group only, the range of directions of gaze leading to the perception of eye…

  18. Sexual Well-Being of a Community Sample of High-Functioning Adults on the Autism Spectrum Who Have Been in a Romantic Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, E. Sandra; Nichols, Shana; Voyer, Susan D.; Reilly, Georgianna

    2013-01-01

    This study explored factors (gender, age, relationship status, symptomatology) associated with the sexual well-being of 141 (56 men and 85 women) adults with high-functioning autism and Asperger syndrome (HFA/AS) living in the community. Participants completed an online survey consisting of a measure of autistic symptoms as well as measures of…

  19. The Influences of Face Inversion and Facial Expression on Sensitivity to Eye Contact in High-Functioning Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vida, Mark D.; Maurer, Daphne; Calder, Andrew J.; Rhodes, Gillian; Walsh, Jennifer A.; Pachai, Matthew V.; Rutherford, M. D.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the influences of face inversion and facial expression on sensitivity to eye contact in high-functioning adults with and without an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants judged the direction of gaze of angry, fearful, and neutral faces. In the typical group only, the range of directions of gaze leading to the perception of eye

  20. Sexual Well-Being of a Community Sample of High-Functioning Adults on the Autism Spectrum Who Have Been in a Romantic Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, E. Sandra; Nichols, Shana; Voyer, Susan D.; Reilly, Georgianna

    2013-01-01

    This study explored factors (gender, age, relationship status, symptomatology) associated with the sexual well-being of 141 (56 men and 85 women) adults with high-functioning autism and Asperger syndrome (HFA/AS) living in the community. Participants completed an online survey consisting of a measure of autistic symptoms as well as measures of

  1. Perinatal Protein Malnutrition Affects Mitochondrial Function in Adult and Results in a Resistance to High Fat Diet-Induced Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Jousse, Cline; Muranishi, Yuki; Parry, Laurent; Montaurier, Christophe; Even, Patrick; Launay, Jean-Marie; Carraro, Valrie; Maurin, Anne-Catherine; Averous, Julien; Chaveroux, Cdric; Bruhat, Alain; Mallet, Jacques; Morio, Batrice; Fafournoux, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological findings indicate that transient environmental influences during perinatal life, especially nutrition, may have deleterious heritable health effects lasting for the entire life. Indeed, the fetal organism develops specific adaptations that permanently change its physiology/metabolism and that persist even in the absence of the stimulus that initiated them. This process is termed nutritional programming. We previously demonstrated that mothers fed a Low-Protein-Diet (LPD) during gestation and lactation give birth to F1-LPD animals presenting metabolic consequences that are different from those observed when the nutritional stress is applied during gestation only. Compared to control mice, adult F1-LPD animals have a lower body weight and exhibit a higher food intake suggesting that maternal protein under-nutrition during gestation and lactation affects the energy metabolism of F1-LPD offspring. In this study, we investigated the origin of this apparent energy wasting process in F1-LPD and demonstrated that minimal energy expenditure is increased, due to both an increased mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle and an increased mitochondrial density in White Adipose Tissue. Importantly, F1-LPD mice are protected against high-fat-diet-induced obesity. Clearly, different paradigms of exposure to malnutrition may be associated with differences in energy expenditure, food intake, weight and different susceptibilities to various symptoms associated with metabolic syndrome. Taken together these results demonstrate that intra-uterine environment is a major contributor to the future of individuals and disturbance at a critical period of development may compromise their health. Consequently, understanding the molecular mechanisms may give access to useful knowledge regarding the onset of metabolic diseases. PMID:25118945

  2. A method for high purity intestinal epithelial cell culture from adult human and murine tissues for the investigation of innate immune function

    PubMed Central

    Graves, Christina L.; Harden, Scott W.; LaPato, Melissa; Nelson, Michael; Amador, Byron; Sorenson, Heather; Frazier, Charles J.; Wallet, Shannon M.

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) serve as an important physiologic barrier between environmental antigens and the host intestinal immune system. Thus, IECs serve as a first line of defense and may act as sentinel cells during inflammatory insults. Despite recent renewed interest in IEC contributions to host immune function, the study of primary IEC has been hindered by lack of a robust culture technique, particularly for small intestinal and adult tissues. Here, a novel adaptation for culture of primary IEC is described for human duodenal organ donor tissue as well as duodenum and colon of adult mice. These epithelial cell cultures display characteristic phenotypes and are of high purity. In addition, the innate immune function of human primary IEC, specifically with regard to Toll-like receptor (TLR) expression and microbial ligand responsiveness, is contrasted with a commonly used intestinal epithelial cell line (HT-29). Specifically, TLR expression at the mRNA level and production of cytokine (IFNγ and TNFα) in response to TLR agonist stimulation is assessed. Differential expression of TLRs as well as innate immune responses to ligand stimulation is observed in human-derived cultures compared to that of HT-29. Thus, use of this adapted method to culture primary epithelial cells from adult human donors and from adult mice will allow for more appropriate studies of IECs as innate immune effectors. PMID:25193428

  3. A Nationwide Survey on Quality of Life and Associated Factors of Adults with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamio, Yoko; Inada, Naoko; Koyama, Tomonori

    2013-01-01

    The psychosocial outcomes of individuals with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD) appear to be diverse and are often poor relative to their intellectual or language level. To identify predictive variables that are potentially ameliorable by therapeutic intervention, this study investigated self-reported psychosocial quality of life

  4. Local vs. global approaches to reproducing the Rey Osterrieth Complex Figure by children, adolescents, and adults with high-functioning autism.

    PubMed

    Kuschner, Emily S; Bodner, Kimberly E; Minshew, Nancy J

    2009-12-01

    Individuals with autism have an atypical pattern of visual processing. Various studies have provided evidence that individuals with autism perceive the details of stimuli before the gestalt, the reverse of the typical pattern of visual processing. This study used the Rey Osterreith Complex Figure (ROCF) task and an objective scoring system to examine local/global processing approaches to its reproduction in 37 individuals diagnosed with high-functioning autism (HFA) compared to 49 age-, IQ-, and gender-matched typically developing controls (TD). The sample was divided into children (aged 8-14 years) and adolescents/adults (aged 15-47 years) to assess age effects. Results showed no difference in overall performance on the ROCF between HFA and TD children. TD participants displayed improved organizational and planning skills with age and a shift to global processing approaches, but there were no differences in performance between children and adolescents/adults with HFA. There was no evidence of enhanced local processing in either HFA group. These findings suggest that HFA individuals with average IQ scores do not have the clinically demonstrable evidence of the enhanced local processing thought to reflect increased local brain connectivity in more severely autistic individuals. The deficient global processing of the HFA adults reflects dependence of performance on impaired strategic problem-solving abilities, which has been demonstrated to result from under development of neural connectivity between visuo-spatial and frontal brain regions in HFA adults. PMID:19950303

  5. Divergent muscle functional and architectural responses to two successive high intensity resistance exercise sessions in competitive weightlifters and resistance trained adults.

    PubMed

    Storey, Adam; Wong, Samantha; Smith, Heather K; Marshall, Paul

    2012-10-01

    Peak force (PF), contractile rate of force development (RFD) and contractile impulse (CI) are of great importance to competitive weightlifters (WL). These athletes routinely perform successive bouts of high-intensity resistance exercise (HIRE) within the same day (double-day training) with the aim of improving muscular function and weightlifting performance. The purpose of this investigation was to determine and compare the PF, contractile RFD and CI responses to double-day training between WL and resistance trained (RT) adults (n = 16 per group). Furthermore, we sought to establish whether acute changes in muscle function were associated with acute changes in muscle architecture. Isometric front squat PF, contractile RFD, CI and the pennation angle (?(p)), anatomical and physiological thickness of the m. vastus lateralis (VL) were determined before and after two equivalent HIRE sessions separated by 4-6 h rest. Each session consisted of ten single repetitions of the dynamic barbell front squat interspersed with 2-min rest, using a load equivalent to 90% of the pre-session PF. Weightlifters demonstrated greater PF at all time points when compared to RT adults and exhibited no significant within or between session changes in PF, contractile RFD or CI. Conversely, RT adults demonstrated within- and between-session decreases in PF and between-session increases in contractile RFD and CI. As no correlations were found between the relative within-session changes in muscle function and the concomitant changes in muscle architecture, other factors must contribute to the divergent responses in PF, contractile RFD and CI between WL and RT adults. PMID:22350356

  6. High-intensity interval training on an aquatic treadmill in adults with osteoarthritis: effect on pain, balance, function, and mobility.

    PubMed

    Bressel, Eadric; Wing, Jessica E; Miller, Andrew I; Dolny, Dennis G

    2014-08-01

    Although aquatic exercise is considered a potentially effective treatment intervention for people with osteoarthritis (OA), previous research has focused primarily on calisthenics in a shallow pool with the inherent limitations on regulating exercise intensity. The purpose of this study was to quantify the efficacy of a 6-week aquatic treadmill exercise program on measures of pain, balance, function, and mobility. Eighteen participants (age = 64.5 10.2 years) with knee OA completed a non-exercise control period followed by a 6-week exercise period. Outcome measures included visual analog scales for pain, posturography for balance, sit-to-stand test for function, and a 10-m walk test for mobility. The exercise protocol included balance training and high-intensity interval training (HIT) in an aquatic treadmill using water jets to destabilize while standing and achieve high ratings of perceived exertion (14-19) while walking. In comparison with pretests, participants displayed reduced joint pain (pre = 50.3 24.8 mm vs. post = 15.8 10.6 mm), improved balance (equilibrium pre = 66.6 11.0 vs. post = 73.5 7.1), function (rising index pre = 0.49 0.19% vs. post = 0.33 0.11%), and mobility (walk pre = 8.6 1.4 s vs. post = 7.8 1.1 s) after participating in the exercise protocol (p = 0.03-0.001). The same benefits were not observed after the non-exercise control period. Adherence to the exercise protocol was exceptional and no participants reported adverse effects, suggesting that aquatic treadmill exercise that incorporates balance and HIT training was well tolerated by patients with OA and may be effective at managing symptoms of OA. PMID:25057845

  7. Influence of an Early Recovery Telehealth Intervention on Physical Activity and Functioning following Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery (CABS) among Older Adults with High Disease Burden

    PubMed Central

    Barnason, Susan; Zimmerman, Lani; Schulz, Paula; Tu, Chunhao

    2009-01-01

    Background Older adults with poor functioning preoperatively are at risk for delayed recovery and more impaired outcomes following CABS. Purpose To determine if a 6-week early recovery telehealth intervention, designed to improve self-efficacy and management related to symptoms following CABS, was effective in improving outcomes (physical activity, physiological and psychological functioning) for older adults (> 65 years old) with higher disease burden. Design A descriptive, repeated measures experimental design was used. Follow-up data was collected at 3- and 6-weeks and 3-months after CABS. Sample Subjects were drawn from a larger randomized clinical trial (RCT). Parent study subjects who had high disease burden preoperatively [physical component score of <50 on the Medical Outcome Study Short Form 36 (MOS SF-36) and a RISKO score of > 6], were included (N=55); with 23 subjects in the early recovery intervention group and 31 subjects in the usual care group (n=31). Subjects ranged from 6585 years old (M=71.6 + 5.1). Findings There was a significant main effect by group [F(1,209)=4.66, p<.05), the intervention group had a least square means of 27.9 kcal/kg/day of energy expenditure compared to the usual care group of 26.6 kcal/kg/day per the RT3 accelerometer. Both groups had significantly improved physical [F(2,171)=3.26, p<.05] and role-physical [F(2,171)=6.64, p<.005] functioning over time. Conclusions The subgroup of CABS subjects with high disease burden was responsive to an early recovery telehealth intervention. Improving patients physical activity and functioning can reduce morbidity and mortality associated with poor functioning after cardiac events. PMID:19944870

  8. Social Skills Training for Young Adults with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gantman, Alexander; Kapp, Steven K.; Orenski, Kaely; Laugeson, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the psychosocial difficulties common among young adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), little to no evidence-based social skills interventions exist for this population. Using a randomized controlled trial (RCT) design, the current study tested the effectiveness of an evidence-based, caregiver-assisted social skills intervention

  9. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Adults with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder: What Does Self-Report with the OCI-R Tell Us?

    PubMed

    Cadman, Tim; Spain, Debbie; Johnston, Patrick; Russell, Ailsa; Mataix-Cols, David; Craig, Michael; Deeley, Quinton; Robertson, Dene; Murphy, Clodagh; Gillan, Nicola; Wilson, C Ellie; Mendez, Maria; Ecker, Christine; Daly, Eileen; Findon, James; Glaser, Karen; Happ, Francesca; Murphy, Declan

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about the symptom profile of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in individuals who have autism spectrum disorders (ASD). It is also unknown whether self-report questionnaires are useful in measuring OCD in ASD. We sought to describe the symptom profiles of adults with ASD, OCD, and ASD?+?OCD using the Obsessive Compulsive Inventory-Revised (OCI-R), and to assess the utility of the OCI-R as a screening measure in a high-functioning adult ASD sample. Individuals with ASD (n?=?171), OCD (n?=?108), ASD?+?OCD (n?=?54) and control participants (n?=?92) completed the OCI-R. Individuals with ASD?+?OCD reported significantly higher levels of obsessive-compulsive symptoms than those with ASD alone. OCD symptoms were not significantly correlated with core ASD repetitive behaviors as measured on the ADI-R or ADOS-G. The OCI-R showed good psychometric properties and corresponded well with clinician diagnosis of OCD. Receiver operating characteristic analysis suggested cut-offs for OCI-R Total and Checking scores that discriminated well between ASD?+?versus -OCD, and fairly well between ASD-alone and OCD-alone. OCD manifests separately from ASD and is characterized by a different profile of repetitive thoughts and behaviors. The OCI-R appears to be useful as a screening tool in the ASD adult population. Autism Res 2015, 8: 477-485. 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25663563

  10. High-dose statin use does not impair aerobic capacity or skeletal muscle function in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Stock, Anthoney A.; Harman, S. Mitchell

    2008-01-01

    3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins) are lipid-lowering agents widely employed for atherosclerosis prevention. HMG-CoA reductase blockade reduces skeletal muscle coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) levels and mitochondrial respiratory chain activities and may produce mild to severe skeletal muscle myopathy. This study investigated whether high-dose statin treatment would result in measurably decreased exercise capacity in older men and women. Maximal oxygen consumption, aerobic endurance, oxygen uptake kinetics, maximal strength, muscular power, and muscular endurance were measured before and after 12 weeks of statin treatment (simvastatin, 80mg/day) in nine men and one woman, ages 5576years, with LDL-cholesterol levels >3.3mmol/l (mean?=?4.2??0.2mmol/l). Myalgia symptoms were assessed every 4weeks. As expected, statin treatment resulted in significant decreases in LDL- and total-cholesterol levels (P?function. No subject reported symptoms of myalgia, cramps, or weakness during the study. In the absence of myalgia or myopathic symptoms, high-dose simvastatin treatment did not impair exercise capacity in hyperlipidemic older individuals. We conclude that decreases in intramuscular CoQ10, in most patients on high dose statin treatment may not be clinically relevant, due to inter-individual variability in the degree of CoQ10 depletion, sensitivity of muscle to decreases in CoQ10, or both. PMID:19424852

  11. Functional neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Praag, Henriette; Schinder, Alejandro F.; Christie, Brian R.; Toni, Nicolas; Palmer, Theo D.; Gage, Fred H.

    2002-02-01

    There is extensive evidence indicating that new neurons are generated in the dentate gyrus of the adult mammalian hippocampus, a region of the brain that is important for learning and memory. However, it is not known whether these new neurons become functional, as the methods used to study adult neurogenesis are limited to fixed tissue. We use here a retroviral vector expressing green fluorescent protein that only labels dividing cells, and that can be visualized in live hippocampal slices. We report that newly generated cells in the adult mouse hippocampus have neuronal morphology and can display passive membrane properties, action potentials and functional synaptic inputs similar to those found in mature dentate granule cells. Our findings demonstrate that newly generated cells mature into functional neurons in the adult mammalian brain.

  12. Functional Neuroscience of Psychopathic Personality in Adults.

    PubMed

    Seara-Cardoso, Ana; Viding, Essi

    2015-12-01

    Psychopathy is a personality disorder that involves a constellation of traits including callous-unemotionality, manipulativeness, and impulsiveness. Here we review recent advances in the research of functional neural correlates of psychopathic personality traits in adults. We first provide a concise overview of functional neuroimaging findings in clinical samples diagnosed with the PCL-R. We then review studies with community samples that have focused on how individual differences in psychopathic traits (variously measured) relate to individual differences in brain function. Where appropriate, we draw parallels between the findings from these studies and those with clinical samples. Extant data suggest that individuals with high levels of psychopathic traits show lower activity in affect-processing brain areas to emotional/salient stimuli, and that attenuated activity may be dependent on the precise content of the task. They also seem to show higher activity in regions typically associated with reward processing and cognitive control in tasks involving moral processing, decision making, and reward. Furthermore, affective-interpersonal and lifestyle-antisocial facets of psychopathy appear to be associated with different patterns of atypical neural activity. Neuroimaging findings from community samples typically mirror those observed in clinical samples, and largely support the notion that psychopathy is a dimensional construct. PMID:25041571

  13. A descriptive study of colorectal function in adults with Prader-Willi Syndrome: high prevalence of constipation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Some patients with Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) have symptoms of constipation, but bowel function in PWS has never been systematically evaluated. The aim of the present study was to describe colorectal function in PWS by means of validated techniques. Methods Twenty-one patients with PWS (14 women, age 1747 (median?=?32)) were evaluated with the Rome III constipation criteria, stool diary, digital rectal examination, rectal diameter assessed from transabdominal ultrasound, and total gastrointestinal transit time (GITT) determined with radio-opaque markers. Results were compared with those of healthy controls. Results Among PWS patients able to provide information for Rome III criteria, 8/20 (40%) fulfilled the criteria for constipation. Most commonly reported symptoms were a feeling of obstructed defecation (8/19, 42%), <3 defecations per week (8/17, 47%), straining during defecation (7/19, 37%) and lumpy or hard stools (6/19, 32%). Rectal diameter did not differ between PWS (median 3.56 centimeters, range 2.245.36) and healthy controls (median 3.42 centimeters, range 2.674.72) (p?=?0.96), but more PWS patients (13/20; 65%) than healthy controls (3/25; 12%) (p?3days in 5/21 (24%) of PWS and none of the controls (p?=?0.047). Conclusion Constipation is very common in PWS. Patients with PWS have an increased prevalence of prolonged GITT and palpable stools in the rectum at digital rectal examination. PMID:24708524

  14. Functional Literacy of Young Guyanese Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Zellyne

    2000-01-01

    Describes the rationale, development, and administration of the test used for measuring levels of achievement in functional literacy in Guyana. Draws attention to the difficulty of attracting funding for literacy programmes from international aid agencies, given the inflated adult literacy rate that is reported for Guyana in international

  15. Functional Assessment of Cardiac Responses of Adult Zebrafish (Danio rerio) to Acute and Chronic Temperature Change Using High-Resolution Echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Cua, Michelle; Sheng, Xiaoye; Rayani, Kaveh; Beg, Mirza F.; Sarunic, Marinko V.; Tibbits, Glen F.

    2016-01-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an important organism as a model for understanding vertebrate cardiovascular development. However, little is known about adult ZF cardiac function and how contractile function changes to cope with fluctuations in ambient temperature. The goals of this study were to: 1) determine if high resolution echocardiography (HRE) in the presence of reduced cardiodepressant anesthetics could be used to accurately investigate the structural and functional properties of the ZF heart and 2) if the effect of ambient temperature changes both acutely and chronically could be determined non-invasively using HRE in vivo. Heart rate (HR) appears to be the critical factor in modifying cardiac output (CO) with ambient temperature fluctuation as it increases from 78 ± 5.9 bpm at 18°C to 162 ± 9.7 bpm at 28°C regardless of acclimation state (cold acclimated CA– 18°C; warm acclimated WA– 28°C). Stroke volume (SV) is highest when the ambient temperature matches the acclimation temperature, though this difference did not constitute a significant effect (CA 1.17 ± 0.15 μL at 18°C vs 1.06 ± 0.14 μl at 28°C; WA 1.10 ± 0.13 μL at 18°C vs 1.12 ± 0.12 μl at 28°C). The isovolumetric contraction time (IVCT) was significantly shorter in CA fish at 18°C. The CA group showed improved systolic function at 18°C in comparison to the WA group with significant increases in both ejection fraction and fractional shortening and decreases in IVCT. The decreased early peak (E) velocity and early peak velocity / atrial peak velocity (E/A) ratio in the CA group are likely associated with increased reliance on atrial contraction for ventricular filling. PMID:26730947

  16. Functional Assessment of Cardiac Responses of Adult Zebrafish (Danio rerio) to Acute and Chronic Temperature Change Using High-Resolution Echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ling; Genge, Christine E; Cua, Michelle; Sheng, Xiaoye; Rayani, Kaveh; Beg, Mirza F; Sarunic, Marinko V; Tibbits, Glen F

    2016-01-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an important organism as a model for understanding vertebrate cardiovascular development. However, little is known about adult ZF cardiac function and how contractile function changes to cope with fluctuations in ambient temperature. The goals of this study were to: 1) determine if high resolution echocardiography (HRE) in the presence of reduced cardiodepressant anesthetics could be used to accurately investigate the structural and functional properties of the ZF heart and 2) if the effect of ambient temperature changes both acutely and chronically could be determined non-invasively using HRE in vivo. Heart rate (HR) appears to be the critical factor in modifying cardiac output (CO) with ambient temperature fluctuation as it increases from 78 5.9 bpm at 18C to 162 9.7 bpm at 28C regardless of acclimation state (cold acclimated CA- 18C; warm acclimated WA- 28C). Stroke volume (SV) is highest when the ambient temperature matches the acclimation temperature, though this difference did not constitute a significant effect (CA 1.17 0.15 ?L at 18C vs 1.06 0.14 ?l at 28C; WA 1.10 0.13 ?L at 18C vs 1.12 0.12 ?l at 28C). The isovolumetric contraction time (IVCT) was significantly shorter in CA fish at 18C. The CA group showed improved systolic function at 18C in comparison to the WA group with significant increases in both ejection fraction and fractional shortening and decreases in IVCT. The decreased early peak (E) velocity and early peak velocity / atrial peak velocity (E/A) ratio in the CA group are likely associated with increased reliance on atrial contraction for ventricular filling. PMID:26730947

  17. Spatial Navigation Impairments Among Intellectually High-Functioning Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorder: Exploring Relations With Theory of Mind, Episodic Memory, and Episodic Future Thinking

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that spatial navigation relies on the same neural network as episodic memory, episodic future thinking, and theory of mind (ToM). Such findings have stimulated theories (e.g., the scene construction and self-projection hypotheses) concerning possible common underlying cognitive capacities. Consistent with such theories, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by concurrent impairments in episodic memory, episodic future thinking, and ToM. However, it is currently unclear whether spatial navigation is also impaired. Hence, ASD provides a test case for the scene construction and self-projection theories. The study of spatial navigation in ASD also provides a test of the extreme male brain theory of ASD, which predicts intact or superior navigation (purportedly a systemizing skill) performance among individuals with ASD. Thus, the aim of the current study was to establish whether spatial navigation in ASD is impaired, intact, or superior. Twenty-seven intellectually high-functioning adults with ASD and 28 sex-, age-, and IQ-matched neurotypical comparison adults completed the memory island virtual navigation task. Tests of episodic memory, episodic future thinking, and ToM were also completed. Participants with ASD showed significantly diminished performance on the memory island task, and performance was positively related to ToM and episodic memory, but not episodic future thinking. These results suggest that (contra the extreme male brain theory) individuals with ASD have impaired survey-based navigation skillsthat is, difficulties generating cognitive maps of the environmentand adds weight to the idea that scene construction/self-projection are impaired in ASD. The theoretical and clinical implications of these results are discussed. PMID:24364620

  18. Spatial navigation impairments among intellectually high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder: exploring relations with theory of mind, episodic memory, and episodic future thinking.

    PubMed

    Lind, Sophie E; Williams, David M; Raber, Jacob; Peel, Anna; Bowler, Dermot M

    2013-11-01

    Research suggests that spatial navigation relies on the same neural network as episodic memory, episodic future thinking, and theory of mind (ToM). Such findings have stimulated theories (e.g., the scene construction and self-projection hypotheses) concerning possible common underlying cognitive capacities. Consistent with such theories, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by concurrent impairments in episodic memory, episodic future thinking, and ToM. However, it is currently unclear whether spatial navigation is also impaired. Hence, ASD provides a test case for the scene construction and self-projection theories. The study of spatial navigation in ASD also provides a test of the extreme male brain theory of ASD, which predicts intact or superior navigation (purportedly a systemizing skill) performance among individuals with ASD. Thus, the aim of the current study was to establish whether spatial navigation in ASD is impaired, intact, or superior. Twenty-seven intellectually high-functioning adults with ASD and 28 sex-, age-, and IQ-matched neurotypical comparison adults completed the memory island virtual navigation task. Tests of episodic memory, episodic future thinking, and ToM were also completed. Participants with ASD showed significantly diminished performance on the memory island task, and performance was positively related to ToM and episodic memory, but not episodic future thinking. These results suggest that (contra the extreme male brain theory) individuals with ASD have impaired survey-based navigation skills--that is, difficulties generating cognitive maps of the environment--and adds weight to the idea that scene construction/self-projection are impaired in ASD. The theoretical and clinical implications of these results are discussed. PMID:24364620

  19. Monolayer culture of adult rat pancreatic islets on extracellular matrix: modulation of B-cell function by chronic exposure to high glucose.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, N; Corcos, A P; Sarel, I; Cerasi, E

    1991-10-01

    Studies in vivo indicate that chronic hyperglycemia is deleterious for insulin secretion. We have used an improved islet monolayer culture system to study chronic modulations of B-cell function. Adult rat islets maintained over several weeks on extracellular matrix in the presence of 11.1 mM glucose responded to an acute stimulation with 16.7 mM glucose by a 5- to 8-fold increase in insulin secretion. When cultured in the presence of higher glucose concentrations, the response to an acute glucose stimulus diminished time and dose dependently. In islets desensitized by exposure to 33.3 mM glucose for 1 week, reduction of the glucose level to 11.1 mM reversed the desensitization within 2 weeks. This desensitization was not limited to the glucose stimulus; responses to other nutrient secretagogues, such as glyceraldehyde and alpha-ketoisocaproic acid, were also reduced. In contrast, responses of insulin secretion to nonnutrient stimulators (tolbutamide and quinine) and amplifiers (isobutylmethylxanthine and carbachol) showed no desensitization in islets exposed to 33.3 mM glucose. Desensitization similar to that caused by 33.3 mM glucose could be induced by 11.1 mM glucose together with 0.1 mM isobutylmethylxanthine. High glucose also caused a time-dependent loss in compact monolayer organization with disruption of cell contacts. Our studies suggest that 1) generation of the reduced insulin response may be related to the prolonged high insulin secretion rate; 2) expression of the functional change is specific to the nutrient stimulus-secretion coupling; and 3) modifications in intercellular contacts may be involved in B-cell desensitization. PMID:1717241

  20. Nutraceutical intervention improves older adults' cognitive functioning.

    PubMed

    Small, Brent J; Rawson, Kerri S; Martin, Christina; Eisel, Sarah L; Sanberg, Cyndy D; McEvoy, Cathy L; Sanberg, Paul R; Shytle, R Douglas; Tan, Jun; Bickford, Paula C

    2014-02-01

    Interventions to improve the cognitive health of older adults are of critical importance. In the current study, we conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial using a pill-based nutraceutical (NT-020) that contained a proprietary formulation of blueberry, carnosine, green tea, vitamin D3, and Biovin to evaluate the impact on changes in multiple domains of cognitive functioning. One hundred and five cognitively intact adults aged 65-85 years of age (M=73.6 years) were randomized to receive NT-020 (n=52) or a placebo (n=53). Participants were tested with a battery of cognitive performance tests that were classified into six broad domains--episodic memory, processing speed, verbal ability, working memory, executive functioning, and complex speed at baseline and 2 months later. The results indicated that persons taking NT-020 improved significantly on two measures of processing speed across the 2-month test period in contrast to persons on the placebo whose performance did not change. None of the other cognitive ability measures were related to intervention group. The results also indicated that the NT-020 was well tolerated by older adults, and the presence of adverse events or symptoms did not differ between the NT-020 and placebo groups. Overall, the results of the current study were promising and suggest the potential for interventions like these to improve the cognitive health of older adults. PMID:24134194

  1. Nutraceutical intervention improves older adults' cognitive functioning.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Small BJ; Rawson KS; Martin C; Eisel SL; Sanberg CD; McEvoy CL; Sanberg PR; Shytle RD; Tan J; Bickford PC

    2014-02-01

    Interventions to improve the cognitive health of older adults are of critical importance. In the current study, we conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial using a pill-based nutraceutical (NT-020) that contained a proprietary formulation of blueberry, carnosine, green tea, vitamin D3, and Biovin to evaluate the impact on changes in multiple domains of cognitive functioning. One hundred and five cognitively intact adults aged 65-85 years of age (M=73.6 years) were randomized to receive NT-020 (n=52) or a placebo (n=53). Participants were tested with a battery of cognitive performance tests that were classified into six broad domains--episodic memory, processing speed, verbal ability, working memory, executive functioning, and complex speed at baseline and 2 months later. The results indicated that persons taking NT-020 improved significantly on two measures of processing speed across the 2-month test period in contrast to persons on the placebo whose performance did not change. None of the other cognitive ability measures were related to intervention group. The results also indicated that the NT-020 was well tolerated by older adults, and the presence of adverse events or symptoms did not differ between the NT-020 and placebo groups. Overall, the results of the current study were promising and suggest the potential for interventions like these to improve the cognitive health of older adults.

  2. Nutraceutical Intervention Improves Older Adults' Cognitive Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Rawson, Kerri S.; Martin, Christina; Eisel, Sarah L.; Sanberg, Cyndy D.; McEvoy, Cathy L.; Sanberg, Paul R.; Shytle, R. Douglas; Tan, Jun; Bickford, Paula C.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Interventions to improve the cognitive health of older adults are of critical importance. In the current study, we conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial using a pill-based nutraceutical (NT-020) that contained a proprietary formulation of blueberry, carnosine, green tea, vitamin D3, and Biovin to evaluate the impact on changes in multiple domains of cognitive functioning. One hundred and five cognitively intact adults aged 65–85 years of age (M=73.6 years) were randomized to receive NT-020 (n=52) or a placebo (n=53). Participants were tested with a battery of cognitive performance tests that were classified into six broad domains—episodic memory, processing speed, verbal ability, working memory, executive functioning, and complex speed at baseline and 2 months later. The results indicated that persons taking NT-020 improved significantly on two measures of processing speed across the 2-month test period in contrast to persons on the placebo whose performance did not change. None of the other cognitive ability measures were related to intervention group. The results also indicated that the NT-020 was well tolerated by older adults, and the presence of adverse events or symptoms did not differ between the NT-020 and placebo groups. Overall, the results of the current study were promising and suggest the potential for interventions like these to improve the cognitive health of older adults. PMID:24134194

  3. Dietary Patterns High in Red Meat, Potato, Gravy, and Butter Are Associated with Poor Cognitive Functioning but Not with Rate of Cognitive Decline in Very Old Adults1234

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Karen; Adamson, Ashley; Kirkwood, Thomas; Hill, Tom R; Siervo, Mario; Mathers, John C; Jagger, Carol

    2016-01-01

    Background: Healthy dietary patterns (DPs) have been linked to better cognition and reduced risk of dementia in older adults, but their role in cognitive functioning and decline in the very old (aged ≥85 y) is unknown. Objective: We investigated the association between previously established DPs from the Newcastle 85+ Study and global and attention-specific cognition over 5 y. Methods: We followed up with 302 men and 489 women (1921 birth cohort from Northeast United Kingdom) for change in global cognition [measured by the Standardized Mini-Mental State Examination (SMMSE)] over 5 y and attention (assessed by the cognitive drug research attention battery) over 3 y. We used 2-step clustering to derive DPs and mixed models to determine the relation between DPs and cognition in the presence of the dementia susceptibility gene. Results: Previously, we characterized 3 DPs that differed in intake of red meat, potato, gravy, and butter and varied with key health measures. When compared with participants in DP1 (high red meat) and DP3 (high butter), participants in DP2 (low meat) had higher SMMSE scores at baseline (P < 0.001) and follow-ups, and better initial attention (P < 0.05). Membership in DP1 and DP3 was associated with overall worse SMMSE scores (β = 0.09, P = 0.01 and β = 0.08, P = 0.02, respectively) than membership in DP2 after adjustment for sociodemographic factors, lifestyle, multimorbidity, and body mass index (BMI). Additional adjustment for apolipoprotein (apoE) ε4 genotype attenuated the association to nonsignificant in women but not in men in DP1 (β = 0.13, P = 0.02). Participants in DP1 and DP3 also had overall worse concentration (β = 0.04, P = 0.002 and β = 0.028, P = 0.03, respectively) and focused attention (β = 0.02, P = 0.01 and β = 0.02, P = 0.03, respectively), irrespective of apoE ε4 genotype, but similar rate of decline in all cognitive measures over time. Conclusion: DPs high in red meat, potato, gravy (DP1), or butter (DP3) were associated with poor cognition but not with the rate of cognitive decline in very old adults. PMID:26740685

  4. High-Intensity Progressive Resistance Training Increases Strength With No Change in Cardiovascular Function and Autonomic Neural Regulation in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Kanegusuku, Hlcio; Queiroz, Andria C; Silva, Valdo J; de Mello, Marco T; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos; Forjaz, Cludia L

    2015-07-01

    To investigate reasons for the age-related reduction in physical function, we determined the relationships between muscle size, strength, and power with 6-min walk distance (6MWD) and timed up-and-go performance in 49 young (23 3.1 years) and 66 healthy, mobile older adults (72 5 years). While muscle mass, determined by DXA and MRI, did not correlate with performance in the older adults, power per body mass, determined from a countermovement jump, did correlate. The 40% lower jumping power observed in older adults (p < .05) was due to a lower take-off velocity, which explained 34% and 42% of the variance in 6MWD in older women and men, respectively (p < .01). The lower velocity was partly attributable to the higher body mass to maximal force ratio, but most was due to a lower intrinsic muscle speed. While changes in muscle function explain part of the age-related reduction in functional performance, ~60% of the deficit remains to be explained. PMID:25007720

  5. Factors Associated with the Questions about Behavior Function for Functional Assessment of Low and High Rate Challenging Behaviors in Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Wilkins, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    The assessment of maintaining variables with the goal of developing prosocial intervention plans has become a driving force in the intellectual disabilities (ID) literature. One particularly crucial variable is whether the behavior is low or high rate and whether the challenging behavior is best characterized by self-injury or aggression. Because

  6. Age Trajectories of Functional Activation Under Conditions of Low and High Processing Demands: An Adult Lifespan fMRI Study of the Aging Brain

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Kristen M.; Rodrigue, Karen M.; Bischof, Grard N.; Hebrank, Andrew C.; Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia A.; Park, Denise C.

    2014-01-01

    We examined functional activation across the adult lifespan in 316 healthy adults aged 2089 years on a judgment task that, across conditions, drew upon both semantic knowledge and ability to modulate neural function in response to cognitive challenge. Activation in core regions of the canonical semantic network (e.g., left IFG) were largely age-invariant, consistent with cognitive aging studies that show verbal knowledge is preserved across the lifespan. However, we observed a steady linear increase in activation with age in regions outside the core network, possibly as compensation to maintain function. Under conditions of increased task demands, we observed a stepwise reduction across the lifespan of modulation of activation to increasing task demands in cognitive control regions (frontal, parietal, anterior cingulate), paralleling the neural equivalent of processing resources described by cognitive aging theories. Middle-age was characterized by decreased modulation to task-demand in subcortical regions (caudate, nucleus accumbens, thalamus), and very old individuals showed reduced modulation to task difficulty in midbrain/brainstem regions (ventral tegmental, substantia nigra). These novel findings suggest aging of activation to demand follows a gradient along the dopaminergic/nigrostriatal system, with earliest manifestation in fronto-parietal regions, followed by deficits in subcortical nuclei in middle-age and then to midbrain/brainstem dopaminergic regions in the very old. PMID:25284304

  7. Adult Children's Education and Parents' Functional Limitations in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Yahirun, Jenjira J; Sheehan, Connor M; Hayward, Mark D

    2016-04-01

    This article asks how adult children's education influences older parents' physical health in Mexico, a context where older adults often lack access to institutional resources and rely on kin, primarily children, as a main source of support. Using logistic and negative binomial regression models and data from the first wave of the Mexican Health and Aging Study (N = 9,661), we find that parents whose children all completed high school are less likely to report any functional limitations as well as fewer limitations compared to parents with no children who completed high school. This association remains significant even after accounting for parent and offspring-level characteristics, including parents' income that accounts for children's financial transfers to parents. Future research should aim to understand the mechanisms that explain the association between adult children's education and changes to parents' health over time. PMID:26966254

  8. Camp Campus: College Preparation for Adolescents and Young Adults with High-Functioning Autism, Asperger Syndrome, and Other Social Communication Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Retherford, Kristine S.; Schreiber, Linda R.

    2015-01-01

    Camp Campus is a 1-week campus experience for juniors or seniors in high school or high school graduates who are diagnosed with high-functioning autism, Asperger syndrome, or a related social communication disorder and who plan to attend college. Participants experience campus life by partaking of campus services, living and dining on campus,…

  9. Camp Campus: College Preparation for Adolescents and Young Adults with High-Functioning Autism, Asperger Syndrome, and Other Social Communication Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Retherford, Kristine S.; Schreiber, Linda R.

    2015-01-01

    Camp Campus is a 1-week campus experience for juniors or seniors in high school or high school graduates who are diagnosed with high-functioning autism, Asperger syndrome, or a related social communication disorder and who plan to attend college. Participants experience campus life by partaking of campus services, living and dining on campus,

  10. Eustachian Tube Function in Adults Without Middle Ear Disease

    PubMed Central

    Swarts, J. Douglas; Alper, Cuneyt M.; Mandel, Ellen M.; Villardo, Richard; Doyle, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives We sought to develop normative values for 5 eustachian tube function (ETF) test protocols in adults without otitis media (OM). Methods Twenty adults (19 to 48 years of age) without a recent history of OM (5 had OM in childhood) underwent unilateral myringotomy and were evaluated for ETF by use of the forced response, inflation, deflation, forcible sniff, and Valsalva test protocols. When possible, these tests were repeated on a second day. Results Normative values for the parameters of these protocols in adult subjects without a recent history of OM were developed. Between-day data for the forced response test were highly correlated. A percentage of these tests showed eustachian tube constriction during swallowing an abnormal condition. The percent reduction in applied pressures for the inflation and deflation tests was high, indicative of good ETF. Few subjects had a positive sniff test, whereas most had a positive Valsalva test, and the results for both tests were effort-dependent. Conclusions Results of ETF tests in adults with and without recent OM have not been published. Normative data are now available for comparison with ETF test results in adults with OM. These protocols will be used to evaluate the efficacy of surgical procedures designed to improve ETF. PMID:21585150

  11. Predicting premorbid memory functioning in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Duff, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Assessing cognitive change during a single visit requires the comparison of estimated premorbid abilities and current neuropsychological functioning. Although premorbid intellect has been widely examined, estimating premorbid memory abilities has received less attention. The current study used demographic variables and an estimate of premorbid intellect to predict premorbid memory abilities in a sample of 95 community-dwelling, cognitively intact older adults. These prediction formulae were then applied to a sample of 74 individuals with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment to look for discrepancies between premorbid and current memory abilities. Despite minimal differences between premorbid and current memory abilities in the intact sample, large and statistically significant differences were observed in the impaired sample. Although validation in larger samples is needed, the current estimates of premorbid memory abilities may aid clinicians in determining change across time. PMID:21154041

  12. Functional Impacts of Adult Literacy Programme on Rural Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mbah, Blessing Akaraka

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the functional impacts of adult literacy programme among rural women participants in Ishielu Local Government Area (LGA) of Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Descriptive survey design was used for the study. The population of the study was made up of 115 adult instructors and 2,408 adult learners giving a total of 2,623. The sample…

  13. Brief Report: Examining Driving Behavior in Young Adults with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders--A Pilot Study Using a Driving Simulation Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reimer, Bryan; Fried, Ronna; Mehler, Bruce; Joshi, Gagan; Bolfek, Anela; Godfrey, Kathryn M.; Zhao, Nan; Goldin, Rachel; Biederman, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Although it is speculated that impairments associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) will adversely affect driving performance, little is known about the actual extent and nature of the presumed deficits. Ten males (18-24years of age) with a diagnosis of high functioning autism and 10 age matched community controls were recruited for a

  14. The Perspective of Young Adult Siblings of Individuals with Asperger Syndrome and High Functioning Autism: An Exploration of Grief and Implications for Developmental Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allgood, Nicole R.

    2010-01-01

    Asperger syndrome (AS) and high functioning autism are complex developmental disabilities that have a significant impact on the individual and his/her family. Asperger syndrome is characterized by challenges with understanding non-verbal communication, difficulties with social relationships, and restricted interests. Having a brother or sister

  15. Children's Executive Function and High-Calorie, Low-Nutrient Food Intake: Mediating Effects of Child-Perceived Adult Fast Food Intake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tate, Eleanor B.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Chou, Chih-Ping; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Pentz, Mary Ann; Riggs, Nathaniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study tested the relationships among child executive function (EF), child-perceived parent fast food intake, and child self-reported subsequent consumption of high-calorie, low-nutrient (HCLN) food. Design: One year and 6-month longitudinal observation from a larger randomized controlled trial. Setting. Southern California

  16. Children's Executive Function and High-Calorie, Low-Nutrient Food Intake: Mediating Effects of Child-Perceived Adult Fast Food Intake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tate, Eleanor B.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Chou, Chih-Ping; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Pentz, Mary Ann; Riggs, Nathaniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study tested the relationships among child executive function (EF), child-perceived parent fast food intake, and child self-reported subsequent consumption of high-calorie, low-nutrient (HCLN) food. Design: One year and 6-month longitudinal observation from a larger randomized controlled trial. Setting. Southern California…

  17. Brief Report: Examining Driving Behavior in Young Adults with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders--A Pilot Study Using a Driving Simulation Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reimer, Bryan; Fried, Ronna; Mehler, Bruce; Joshi, Gagan; Bolfek, Anela; Godfrey, Kathryn M.; Zhao, Nan; Goldin, Rachel; Biederman, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Although it is speculated that impairments associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) will adversely affect driving performance, little is known about the actual extent and nature of the presumed deficits. Ten males (18-24 years of age) with a diagnosis of high functioning autism and 10 age matched community controls were recruited for a…

  18. Cognitive functioning of the prelingually deaf adults.

    PubMed

    Pokorski, Mieczys?aw; Klima?ska, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Deafness is a model of brain adaptation to sensory deprivation which entails psychomotor and cognitive domains. This study seeks to determine the level of emotional intelligence, assessed from the ability to discern emotions from facial expressions, visual and mental attention, and non-verbal fluency in the deaf people as compared with the hearing counterparts. Participants were 29 prelingually deaf, hearing loss of >70 dB, communicating only in sign language, and 30 hearing persons. The age range of all subjects was 40-50 years. Psychometric tools consisted of the Emotional Intelligence Scale-Faces, the d2 Test of Attention, and the Figural Fluency Test. Data elaboration took gender into account. The findings were that both deaf women and men defined significantly fewer emotions as known, compared with the hearing persons. However, the deaf men, but not women, were able to properly recognize a higher percentage of emotions associated with a definite face look, among the emotions they knew. There were no appreciable differences in attention indices between the deaf and hearing men, but deaf women's total performance on attention was worse. By contrast, deaf women, but not men, fared better in non-verbal fluency, compared with their hearing counterparts. We conclude that, on the whole, prelingual deafness does not impede cognitive functioning in adult age. The nature of detecting and executing of cognitive tasks, despite gender and task-specific variations, is preserved. Brain networks are able to compensate for the missing auditory input. PMID:25310953

  19. Functions of autobiographical memory in Taiwanese and American emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Liao, Hsiao-Wen; Bluck, Susan; Alea, Nicole; Cheng, Ching-Ling

    2016-04-01

    The study addresses cultural and person-level factors contributing to emerging adult's use of memory to serve adaptive functions. The focus is on three functions: self-continuity, social-bonding and directing-behaviour. Taiwanese (N = 85, 52 women) and American (N = 95, 51 women) emerging adults completed the Thinking about Life Experiences scale, and measures of trait personality, self-concept clarity and future time perspective. Findings show that individuals from both cultures use memory to serve these three functions, but Taiwanese individuals use memory more frequently than Americans to maintain self-continuity. Culture also interacted with person-level factors: in Taiwan, but not America, memory is more frequently used to create self-continuity in individuals high in conscientiousness. Across cultures, having lower self-concept clarity was related to greater use of memory to create self-continuity. Findings are discussed in terms of how memory serves functions in context and specific aspects of the Taiwanese and American cultural context that may predict the functional use of memory in emerging adulthood. PMID:25738659

  20. Systemic vascular function is associated with muscular power in adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Age-associated loss of muscular strength and muscular power are critical determinants of loss of physical function and progression to disability in older adults. In this study, we examined the association of systemic vascular function and measures of muscle strength and power in older adults. Measu...

  1. Functional Outcomes in the Treatment of Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Lenard A.; Spencer, Thomas J.; Levine, Louise R.; Ramsey, Janet L.; Tamura, Roy; Kelsey, Douglas; Ball, Susan G.; Allen, Albert J.; Biederman, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Objective: ADHD is associated with significant functional impairment in adults. The present study examined functional outcomes following 6-month double-blind treatment with either atomoxetine or placebo. Method: Patients were 410 adults (58.5% male) with "DSM-IV"--defined ADHD. They were randomly assigned to receive either atomoxetine 40 mg/day to

  2. Health-Related Variables and Functional Fitness among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkin, Linda D.; Haddock, Bryan L.

    2010-01-01

    This study assesses the functional fitness of a convenient sample of older adults (greater than 70 years), to examine correlations between functional fitness and several other health-related variables and to compare with criterion performance data as established by Rikli and Jones (2001). One hundred and seven community-dwelling older adults with…

  3. Health-Related Variables and Functional Fitness among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkin, Linda D.; Haddock, Bryan L.

    2010-01-01

    This study assesses the functional fitness of a convenient sample of older adults (greater than 70 years), to examine correlations between functional fitness and several other health-related variables and to compare with criterion performance data as established by Rikli and Jones (2001). One hundred and seven community-dwelling older adults with

  4. Error Pattern Relationships of Developmental Readers and Functionally Illiterate Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Sheldon Noel

    Oral reading errors of functionally illiterate adults were compared with those of younger readers at the same achievement level. The sample consisted of 34 second- and third-grade pupils and 31 functionally illiterate adults; all subjects were reading between grade levels 2.5 and 4.0 for both word recognition and comprehension, as measured by the

  5. Functional Impairment and Occupational Outcome in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gjervan, Bjorn; Torgersen, Terje; Nordahl, Hans M.; Rasmussen, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    Objective: ADHD is associated with poor functional outcomes. The objectives were to investigate the prevalence of functional impairment and occupational status in a clinically referred sample of adults with ADHD and explore factors predicting occupational outcome. Method: A sample of 149 adults with a confirmed diagnosis of ADHD participated in

  6. Linked alterations in gray and white matter morphology in adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder: A multimodal brain imaging study

    PubMed Central

    Itahashi, Takashi; Yamada, Takashi; Nakamura, Motoaki; Watanabe, Hiromi; Yamagata, Bun; Jimbo, Daiki; Shioda, Seiji; Kuroda, Miho; Toriizuka, Kazuo; Kato, Nobumasa; Hashimoto, Ryuichiro

    2014-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that a broad range of behavioral anomalies in people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can be linked with morphological and functional alterations in the brain. However, the neuroanatomical underpinnings of ASD have been investigated using either structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and the relationships between abnormalities revealed by these two modalities remain unclear. This study applied a multimodal data-fusion method, known as linked independent component analysis (ICA), to a set of structural MRI and DTI data acquired from 46 adult males with ASD and 46 matched controls in order to elucidate associations between different aspects of atypical neuroanatomy of ASD. Linked ICA identified two composite components that showed significant between-group differences, one of which was significantly correlated with age. In the other component, participants with ASD showed decreased gray matter (GM) volumes in multiple regions, including the bilateral fusiform gyri, bilateral orbitofrontal cortices, and bilateral pre- and post-central gyri. These GM changes were linked with a pattern of decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) in several white matter tracts, such as the bilateral inferior longitudinal fasciculi, bilateral inferior fronto-occipital fasciculi, and bilateral corticospinal tracts. Furthermore, unimodal analysis for DTI data revealed significant reductions of FA along with increased mean diffusivity in those tracts for ASD, providing further evidence of disrupted anatomical connectivity. Taken together, our findings suggest that, in ASD, alterations in different aspects of brain morphology may co-occur in specific brain networks, providing a comprehensive view for understanding the neuroanatomy of this disorder. PMID:25610777

  7. Function of GATA Factors in the Adult Mouse Liver

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Rena; Rebolledo-Jaramillo, Boris; Zong, Yiwei; Wang, Liqing; Russo, Pierre; Hancock, Wayne; Stanger, Ben Z.; Hardison, Ross C.; Blobel, Gerd A.

    2013-01-01

    GATA transcription factors and their Friend of Gata (FOG) cofactors control the development of diverse tissues. GATA4 and GATA6 are essential for the expansion of the embryonic liver bud, but their expression patterns and functions in the adult liver are unclear. We characterized the expression of GATA and FOG factors in whole mouse liver and purified hepatocytes. GATA4, GATA6, and FOG1 are the most prominently expressed family members in whole liver and hepatocytes. GATA4 chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) identified 4409 occupied sites, associated with genes enriched in ontologies related to liver function, including lipid and glucose metabolism. However, hepatocyte-specific excision of Gata4 had little impact on gross liver architecture and function, even under conditions of regenerative stress, and, despite the large number of GATA4 occupied genes, resulted in relatively few changes in gene expression. To address possible redundancy between GATA4 and GATA6, both factors were conditionally excised. Surprisingly, combined Gata4,6 loss did not exacerbate the phenotype resulting from Gata4 loss alone. This points to the presence of an unusually robust transcriptional network in adult hepatocytes that ensures the maintenance of liver function. PMID:24367609

  8. Function of GATA factors in the adult mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Rena; Rebolledo-Jaramillo, Boris; Zong, Yiwei; Wang, Liqing; Russo, Pierre; Hancock, Wayne; Stanger, Ben Z; Hardison, Ross C; Blobel, Gerd A

    2013-01-01

    GATA transcription factors and their Friend of Gata (FOG) cofactors control the development of diverse tissues. GATA4 and GATA6 are essential for the expansion of the embryonic liver bud, but their expression patterns and functions in the adult liver are unclear. We characterized the expression of GATA and FOG factors in whole mouse liver and purified hepatocytes. GATA4, GATA6, and FOG1 are the most prominently expressed family members in whole liver and hepatocytes. GATA4 chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) identified 4409 occupied sites, associated with genes enriched in ontologies related to liver function, including lipid and glucose metabolism. However, hepatocyte-specific excision of Gata4 had little impact on gross liver architecture and function, even under conditions of regenerative stress, and, despite the large number of GATA4 occupied genes, resulted in relatively few changes in gene expression. To address possible redundancy between GATA4 and GATA6, both factors were conditionally excised. Surprisingly, combined Gata4,6 loss did not exacerbate the phenotype resulting from Gata4 loss alone. This points to the presence of an unusually robust transcriptional network in adult hepatocytes that ensures the maintenance of liver function. PMID:24367609

  9. Effects of a High-Intensity Functional Exercise Program on Dependence in Activities of Daily Living and Balance in Older Adults with Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Toots, Annika; Littbrand, Håkan; Lindelöf, Nina; Wiklund, Robert; Holmberg, Henrik; Nordström, Peter; Lundin-Olsson, Lillemor; Gustafson, Yngve; Rosendahl, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the effects of a high-intensity functional exercise program on independence in activities of  daily living (ADLs) and balance in older people with dementia and whether exercise effects differed between dementia types. Design Cluster-randomized controlled trial: Umeå Dementia and Exercise (UMDEX) study. Setting Residential care facilities, Umeå, Sweden. Participants Individuals aged 65 and older with a dementia diagnosis, a Mini-Mental State Examination score of 10 or greater, and dependence in ADLs (N = 186). Intervention Ninety-three participants each were allocated to the high-intensity functional exercise program, comprising lower limb strength and balance exercises, and 93 to a seated control activity. Measurements Blinded assessors measured ADL independence using the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) and Barthel Index (BI) and balance using the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) at baseline and 4 (directly after intervention completion) and 7 months. Results Linear mixed models showed no between-group effect on ADL independence at 4 (FIM=1.3, 95% confidence interval (CI)=−1.6–4.3; BI=0.6, 95% CI=−0.2–1.4) or 7 (FIM=0.8, 95% CI=−2.2–3.8; BI=0.6, 95% CI=−0.3–1.4) months. A significant between-group effect on balance favoring exercise was observed at 4 months (BBS=4.2, 95% CI=1.8–6.6). In interaction analyses, exercise effects differed significantly between dementia types. Positive between-group exercise effects were found in participants with non-Alzheimer's dementia according to the FIM at 7 months and BI and BBS at 4 and 7 months. Conclusion In older people with mild to moderate dementia living in residential care facilities, a 4-month high-intensity functional exercise program appears to slow decline in ADL independence and improve balance, albeit only in participants with non-Alzheimer's dementia. PMID:26782852

  10. Cognitive Functioning and Work Success in Adults with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leather, Carol; Hogh, Henriette; Seiss, Ellen; Everatt, John

    2011-01-01

    Dyslexic adults completed questionnaires designed to investigate relationships between cognitive functioning, especially executive aspects, and work success. The study was designed to determine whether quantitative support could be provided for the model of adult dyslexic success derived from the work of Gerber and his colleagues (Gerber,

  11. Lung function abnormalities in HIV-infected adults and children.

    PubMed

    Calligaro, Gregory L; Gray, Diane M

    2015-01-01

    Despite the advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART), the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic remains a global health crisis with a high burden of respiratory disease among infected persons. While the early complications of the epidemic were dominated by opportunistic infections, improved survival has led to the emergence of non-infectious conditions that are associated with chronic respiratory symptoms and pulmonary disability. Obstructive ventilatory defects and reduced diffusing capacity are common findings in adults, and the association between HIV and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is increasingly recognized. There is synergism between viral factors, opportunistic infections, conventional influences like tobacco smoke and biomass fuel exposure, and potentially, the immunological effects of ART on the development of HIV-associated chronic obstructive lung disease. Pulmonary function data for HIV-infected infants and children are scarce, but shows that bronchiectasis and obliterative bronchiolitis with severe airflow limitation are major problems, particularly in the developing world. However, studies from these regions are sorely lacking. There is thus a major unmet need to understand the influences of chronic HIV infection on the lung in both adults and children, and to devise strategies to manage and prevent these diseases in HIV-infected individuals. It is important for clinicians working with HIV-infected individuals to have an appreciation of their effects on measurements of lung function. This review therefore summarizes the lung function abnormalities described in HIV-positive adults and children, with an emphasis on obstructive lung disease, and examines potential pathogenic links between HIV and the development of chronic pulmonary disability. PMID:25251876

  12. The Effects of Face Expertise Training on the Behavioral Performance and Brain Activity of Adults with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faja, Susan; Webb, Sara Jane; Jones, Emily; Merkle, Kristen; Kamara, Dana; Bavaro, Joshua; Aylward, Elizabeth; Dawson, Geraldine

    2012-01-01

    The effect of expertise training with faces was studied in adults with ASD who showed initial impairment in face recognition. Participants were randomly assigned to a computerized training program involving either faces or houses. Pre- and post-testing included standardized and experimental measures of behavior and event-related brain potentials

  13. Civic Engagement for Older Adults With Functional Limitations: Piloting an Intervention for Adult Day Health Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabelko-Schoeny, Holly; Anderson, Keith A.; Spinks, Katie

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Past research has demonstrated the importance of civic engagement for older adults, yet previous studies have not focused specifically on the potential benefits of civic engagement for older adults with functional limitations. This pilot study explored the feasibility and effectiveness of an intervention designed to promote civic

  14. Multiple roads lead to Rome: combined high-intensity aerobic and strength training vs. gross motor activities leads to equivalent improvement in executive functions in a cohort of healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Berryman, Nicolas; Bherer, Louis; Nadeau, Sylvie; Lauzire, Slna; Lehr, Lora; Bobeuf, Florian; Lussier, Maxime; Kergoat, Marie Jeanne; Vu, Thien Tuong Minh; Bosquet, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    The effects of physical activity on cognition in older adults have been extensively investigated in the last decade. Different interventions such as aerobic, strength, and gross motor training programs have resulted in improvements in cognitive functions. However, the mechanisms underlying the relationship between physical activity and cognition are still poorly understood. Recently, it was shown that acute bouts of exercise resulted in reduced executive control at higher relative exercise intensities. Considering that aging is characterized by a reduction in potential energy ([Formula: see text] max?-?energy cost of walking), which leads to higher relative walking intensity for the same absolute speed, it could be argued that any intervention aimed at reducing the relative intensity of the locomotive task would improve executive control while walking. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of a short-term (8weeks) high-intensity strength and aerobic training program on executive functions (single and dual task) in a cohort of healthy older adults. Fifty-one participants were included and 47 (age, 70.7??5.6) completed the study which compared the effects of three interventions: lower body strength + aerobic training (LBS-A), upper body strength + aerobic training (UBS-A), and gross motor activities (GMA). Training sessions were held 3 times every week. Both physical fitness (aerobic, neuromuscular, and body composition) and cognitive functions (RNG) during a dual task were assessed before and after the intervention. Even though the LBS-A and UBS-A interventions increased potential energy to a higher level (Effect size: LBS-A-moderate, UBS-A-small, GMA-trivial), all groups showed equivalent improvement in cognitive function, with inhibition being more sensitive to the intervention. These findings suggest that different exercise programs targeting physical fitness and/or gross motor skills may lead to equivalent improvement in cognition in healthy older adults. Such results call for further investigation of the multiple physiological pathways by which physical exercise can impact cognition in older adults. PMID:25194940

  15. Functional brown adipose tissue in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Virtanen, Kirsi A; Lidell, Martin E; Orava, Janne; Heglind, Mikael; Westergren, Rickard; Niemi, Tarja; Taittonen, Markku; Laine, Jukka; Savisto, Nina-Johanna; Enerbck, Sven; Nuutila, Pirjo

    2009-04-01

    Using positron-emission tomography (PET), we found that cold-induced glucose uptake was increased by a factor of 15 in paracervical and supraclavicular adipose tissue in five healthy subjects. We obtained biopsy specimens of this tissue from the first three consecutive subjects and documented messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels of the brown-adipocyte marker, uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). Together with morphologic assessment, which showed numerous multilocular, intracellular lipid droplets, and with the results of biochemical analysis, these findings document the presence of substantial amounts of metabolically active brown adipose tissue in healthy adult humans. PMID:19357407

  16. 1 in 8 American Adults Still Have High Cholesterol: CDC

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 1 in 8 American Adults Still Have High Cholesterol: CDC Many don't meet targets, and expert ... adults continue to have high levels of total cholesterol, while even more have low levels of "good" ...

  17. Validity and reliability of the Nintendo Wii Balance Board to assess standing balance and sensory integration in highly functional older adults.

    PubMed

    Scaglioni-Solano, Pietro; Aragn-Vargas, Luis F

    2014-06-01

    Standing balance is an important motor task. Postural instability associated with age typically arises from deterioration of peripheral sensory systems. The modified Clinical Test of Sensory Integration for Balance and the Tandem test have been used to screen for balance. Timed tests present some limitations, whereas quantification of the motions of the center of pressure (CoP) with portable and inexpensive equipment may help to improve the sensitivity of these tests and give the possibility of widespread use. This study determines the validity and reliability of the Wii Balance Board (Wii BB) to quantify CoP motions during the mentioned tests. Thirty-seven older adults completed three repetitions of five balance conditions: eyes open, eyes closed, eyes open on a compliant surface, eyes closed on a compliant surface, and tandem stance, all performed on a force plate and a Wii BB simultaneously. Twenty participants repeated the trials for reliability purposes. CoP displacement was the main outcome measure. Regression analysis indicated that the Wii BB has excellent concurrent validity, and Bland-Altman plots showed good agreement between devices with small mean differences and no relationship between the difference and the mean. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) indicated modest-to-excellent test-retest reliability (ICC=0.64-0.85). Standard error of measurement and minimal detectable change were similar for both devices, except the 'eyes closed' condition, with greater standard error of measurement for the Wii BB. In conclusion, the Wii BB is shown to be a valid and reliable method to quantify CoP displacement in older adults. PMID:24445863

  18. A Maternal High Fat Diet Programmes Endothelial Function and Cardiovascular Status in Adult Male Offspring Independent of Body Weight, Which is Reversed by Maternal Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Clint; Vickers, Mark H.; Segovia, Stephanie A.; Zhang, Xiaohuan D.; Reynolds, Clare M.

    2015-01-01

    Maternal high fat intake during pregnancy and lactation can result in obesity and adverse cardio-metabolic status in offspring independent of postnatal diet. While it is clear that maternal high fat intake can cause hypertension in adult offspring, there is little evidence regarding the role of dietary interventions in terms of reversing these adverse effects. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is an omega 6 fatty acid with beneficial effects in obesity and metabolic status. However, the impact of CLA supplementation in the context of pregnancy disorders and high fat diet-induced developmental programming of offspring cardio-metabolic dysfunction has not been investigated. We have utilised a model of maternal overnutrition to examine the effects of CLA supplementation on programmed endothelial dysfunction during adulthood. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a purified control diet (CON) or purified control diet supplemented with 1% CLA (of total fat), a purified high fat (HF) diet (45%kcal from fat) and a purified HF diet supplemented with 1% CLA (of total fat) (HFCLA). All dams were fed ad libitum throughout pregnancy and lactation. Offspring were fed a standard chow diet from weaning (day 21) until the end of the study (day 150). Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured at day 85 and 130 by tail cuff plethysmography. At day 150, offspring mesenteric vessels were mounted on a pressure myograph and vascular responses to agonist-induced constriction and endothelium-dependent vasodilators were investigated. SBP was increased at day 85 and 130 in HF and HFCLA adult male offspring compared to CON and CLA groups with no effect of CLA supplementation. An overall effect of a maternal HF diet was observed in adult male vessels with a reduced vasoconstrictor response to phenylephrine and blunted vasodilatory response to acetylcholine (ACh). Furthermore, HF and HFCLA offspring displayed a reduction in nitric oxide pathway function and an increased compensatory EDHF function when compared to CON and CLA groups. These data suggest that a maternal HF diet causes a developmental programming of endothelial dysfunction and hypertension in male offspring which can be partially improved by maternal CLA supplementation, independent of offspring body weight. PMID:25695432

  19. Trait Routinization, Functional and Cognitive Status in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zisberg, Anna; Zysberg, Leehu; Young, Heather M.; Schepp, Karen G.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the associations between trait routinization and functional and cognitive as well as demographic indicators. A sample of American older adults living independently in a retirement community (n = 80) were assessed regarding their functional status, cognitive status, and preference for routine. Robust associations between…

  20. Trait Routinization, Functional and Cognitive Status in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zisberg, Anna; Zysberg, Leehu; Young, Heather M.; Schepp, Karen G.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the associations between trait routinization and functional and cognitive as well as demographic indicators. A sample of American older adults living independently in a retirement community (n = 80) were assessed regarding their functional status, cognitive status, and preference for routine. Robust associations between

  1. A Functional-Notional Syllabus for Adult Learners of Irish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, David, Comp.; And Others

    The first functional-notional syllabus for adult learners of Irish, written in Irish and English, is presented. The syllabus begins with an introductory section about functional-notional syllabi, their definitions and implications, and the characteristics of this syllabus. The second section provides the general aims and specific behavioral…

  2. Functional Literacy in the Context of Adult Education. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Josef, Ed.

    In presenting the work of participants before and during the Symposium, the report begins with an introduction giving an overall view of concepts, projects, and problems of functional literacy with reference to other sections of the report. The keynote lecture deals with functional literacy in the context of adult education--results and innovative…

  3. A Functional-Notional Syllabus for Adult Learners of Irish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, David, Comp.; And Others

    The first functional-notional syllabus for adult learners of Irish, written in Irish and English, is presented. The syllabus begins with an introductory section about functional-notional syllabi, their definitions and implications, and the characteristics of this syllabus. The second section provides the general aims and specific behavioral

  4. Sensitivity and Specificity of Eustachian Tube Function Tests in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, William J.; Swarts, J. Douglas; Banks, Julianne; Casselbrant, Margaretha L; Mandel, Ellen M; Alper, Cuneyt M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Determine if Eustachian Tube (ET) function (ETF) tests can identify ears with physician-diagnosed ET dysfunction (ETD) in a mixed population at high sensitivity and specificity and define the inter-relatedness of ETF test parameters. Methods ETF was evaluated using the Forced-Response, Inflation-Deflation, Valsalva and Sniffing tests in 15 control ears of adult subjects after unilateral myringotomy (Group I) and in 23 ears of 19 adult subjects with ventilation tubes inserted for ETD (Group II). Data were analyzed using logistic regression including each parameter independently and then a step-down Discriminant Analysis including all ETF test parameters to predict group assignment. Factor Analysis operating over all parameters was used to explore relatedness. Results The Discriminant Analysis identified 4 ETF test parameters (Valsalva, ET opening pressure, dilatory efficiency and % positive pressure equilibrated) that together correctly assigned ears to Group II at a sensitivity of 95% and a specificity of 83%. Individual parameters representing the efficiency of ET opening during swallowing showed moderately accurate assignments of ears to their respective groups. Three factors captured approximately 98% of the variance among parameters, the first had negative loadings of the ETF structural parameters, the second had positive loadings of the muscle-assisted ET opening parameters and the third had negative loadings of the muscle-assisted ET opening parameters and positive loadings of the structural parameters. Discussion These results show that ETF tests can correctly assign individual ears to physician-diagnosed ETD with high sensitivity and specificity and that ETF test parameters can be grouped into structural-functional categories. PMID:23868429

  5. Neuropsychological Functioning in Adults with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambery, Fiona Z.; Russell, Ailsa J.; Perry, Katie; Morris, Robin; Murphy, Declan G. M.

    2006-01-01

    There is some consensus in the literature regarding the cognitive profile of people with Asperger syndrome (AS). Findings to date suggest that a proportion of people with AS have higher verbal than performance IQ, a non-verbal learning disability (NVLD) and impairments in some aspects of executive function (EF). However, there are few published

  6. Competitive GABA(A) receptor antagonists increase the proportion of functional high-affinity alpha6 subunit-containing receptors in granule cells of adult rat cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Wall, Mark J

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the properties of alpha6 subunit-containing GABA(A) receptors, whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were made from granule cells in adult rat cerebellar slices. In control, only currents evoked by low concentrations of GABA were significantly reduced in amplitude by furosemide, the alpha6 subunit-containing receptor antagonist. However, in the presence of competitive GABA(A) receptor antagonists, the furosemide block of currents evoked by higher GABA concentrations was markedly increased. Zinc, which preferentially blocks alpha6 subunit-containing receptors, also produced an increased block in the presence of bicuculline. To investigate whether similar effects occurred at synaptic receptors, inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) were recorded. In most cells, furosemide produced little or no reduction in evoked IPSC amplitude. However in the presence of SR95531, a competitive antagonist, furosemide markedly reduced IPSC amplitude. One hypothesis, which could account for these observations, is that competitive antagonists prevent the continual activation of alpha6beta2/3gamma2 receptors by endogenous GABA and thus prevent their desensitisation. This hypothesis appears feasible as prolonged applications of low concentrations of GABA to recombinant alpha6beta2gamma2s receptors resulted in their desensitisation. PMID:12559122

  7. Executive and Visuo-Motor Function in Adolescents and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachse, Michael; Schlitt, Sabine; Hainz, Daniela; Ciaramidaro, Angela; Schirman, Shella; Walter, Henrik; Poustka, Fritz; Bolte, Sven; Freitag, Christine M.

    2013-01-01

    This study broadly examines executive (EF) and visuo-motor function in 30 adolescent and adult individuals with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in comparison to 28 controls matched for age, gender, and IQ. ASD individuals showed impaired spatial working memory, whereas planning, cognitive flexibility, and inhibition were spared.

  8. Executive and Visuo-Motor Function in Adolescents and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachse, Michael; Schlitt, Sabine; Hainz, Daniela; Ciaramidaro, Angela; Schirman, Shella; Walter, Henrik; Poustka, Fritz; Bolte, Sven; Freitag, Christine M.

    2013-01-01

    This study broadly examines executive (EF) and visuo-motor function in 30 adolescent and adult individuals with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in comparison to 28 controls matched for age, gender, and IQ. ASD individuals showed impaired spatial working memory, whereas planning, cognitive flexibility, and inhibition were spared.…

  9. Screen High-Risk Adults for Tuberculosis, Experts Say

    MedlinePLUS

    ... fullstory_157664.html Screen High-Risk Adults for Tuberculosis, Experts Say Up to 10 percent of those ... HealthDay News) -- Adults at greater risk for latent tuberculosis infection should be screened for the condition, the ...

  10. Isolation, Culture, and Functional Characterization of Adult Mouse Cardiomyoctyes

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Evan Lee; Balla, Cristina; Franchino, Hannabeth; Melman, Yonathan

    2013-01-01

    The use of primary cardiomyocytes (CMs) in culture has provided a powerful complement to murine models of heart disease in advancing our understanding of heart disease. In particular, the ability to study ion homeostasis, ion channel function, cellular excitability and excitation-contraction coupling and their alterations in diseased conditions and by disease-causing mutations have led to significant insights into cardiac diseases. Furthermore, the lack of an adequate immortalized cell line to mimic adult CMs, and the limitations of neonatal CMs (which lack many of the structural and functional biomechanics characteristic of adult CMs) in culture have hampered our understanding of the complex interplay between signaling pathways, ion channels and contractile properties in the adult heart strengthening the importance of studying adult isolated cardiomyocytes. Here, we present methods for the isolation, culture, manipulation of gene expression by adenoviral-expressed proteins, and subsequent functional analysis of cardiomyocytes from the adult mouse. The use of these techniques will help to develop mechanistic insight into signaling pathways that regulate cellular excitability, Ca2+ dynamics and contractility and provide a much more physiologically relevant characterization of cardiovascular disease. PMID:24084584

  11. A Selected Bibliography of Functional Literacy Materials for Adult Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Joann La Perla; Wallace, Virginia A.

    This document is a selected, annotated bibliography of materials published in the area of coping skills for adults with functional reading skills. Publications are listed alphabetically by title under the following general topics: general coping skills; newspapers; occupational information; consumer economics; pregnancy and parenting; housing;…

  12. Functional Learning among Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafon, Peggy; Chasseigne, Gerard; Mullet, Etienne

    2004-01-01

    This study examined age-related differences in functional learning performance manifested among children, adolescents, and young adults placed in a two-cue ecology involving cues with direct relation and inverse relations with the criterion. On each trial, participants were instructed to consider the values taken by two cues, predict from these

  13. Figuring Out Function: Children's and Adults' Use of Ownership Information in Judgments of Artifact Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banerjee, Konika; Kominsky, Jonathan F.; Fernando, Madhawee; Keil, Frank C.

    2015-01-01

    Across 3 experiments, we found evidence that information about who owns an artifact influenced 5- to 10-year-old children's and adults' judgments about that artifact's primary function. Children's and adults' use of ownership information was underpinned by their inference that owners are typically familiar with owned artifacts and are therefore…

  14. Figuring Out Function: Children's and Adults' Use of Ownership Information in Judgments of Artifact Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banerjee, Konika; Kominsky, Jonathan F.; Fernando, Madhawee; Keil, Frank C.

    2015-01-01

    Across 3 experiments, we found evidence that information about who owns an artifact influenced 5- to 10-year-old children's and adults' judgments about that artifact's primary function. Children's and adults' use of ownership information was underpinned by their inference that owners are typically familiar with owned artifacts and are therefore

  15. Motor function in adults with Asperger's disorder: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Sahlander, Carina; Mattsson, Monica; Bejerot, Susanne

    2008-01-01

    In the original description of Asperger's disorder (AD), clumsiness was an associated feature. Several studies of children have shown deficits in motor control, whereas research regarding adults is scarce. The aim of the present study was to compare motor function in adults with AD, with a normal comparison group. Gross and fine motor skills were examined by a standardized, norm referenced test developed for children, but also used in young adults, the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOTMP). In addition, a questionnaire regarding the participants' physical activity during leisure time was administered. We found that adults (age 21-35) with AD (N = 15) performed significantly worse than the normal comparison group (N = 29) in six of eight subtests in the BOTMP. Males with AD were less physically active than males in the comparison group. Among females, physical activity did not differ between the groups. There was a positive association between physical activity and gross motor function in the AD group. Participants with AD were encouraged by the assessments. Physical coaching may be an important future field for improving quality of life in adults with AD. PMID:18432510

  16. Effects of long-term methylphenidate treatment in adolescent and adult rats on hippocampal shape, functional connectivity and adult neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    van der Marel, K; Bouet, V; Meerhoff, G F; Freret, T; Boulouard, M; Dauphin, F; Klomp, A; Lucassen, P J; Homberg, J R; Dijkhuizen, R M; Reneman, L

    2015-11-19

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is a widely prescribed stimulant drug for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents. Its use in this age group raises concerns regarding the potential interference with ongoing neurodevelopmental processes. Particularly the hippocampus is a highly plastic brain region that continues to develop postnatally and is involved in cognition and emotional behavior, functions known to be affected by MPH. In this study, we assessed whether hippocampal structure and function were affected by chronic oral MPH treatment and whether its effects were different in adolescent or adult rats. Using behavioral testing, resting-state functional MRI, post-mortem structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and immunohistochemistry, we assessed MPH's effects on recognition memory, depressive-like behavior, topological features of functional connectivity networks, hippocampal shape and markers for hippocampal neurogenesis and proliferation. Object recognition memory was transiently impaired in adolescent treated rats, while in animals treated during adulthood, increased depressive-like behavior was observed. Neurogenesis was increased in adolescent treated rats, whereas cell proliferation was decreased following adult treatment. Adolescent treated rats showed inward shape deformations adjacent to ventral parahippocampal regions known to be involved in recognition memory, whereas such deformations were not observed in adult treated animals. Irrespective of the age of treatment, MPH affected topological features of ventral hippocampal functional networks. Thus, chronic oral treatment with a therapeutically relevant dose of MPH preferentially affected the ventral part of the hippocampus and induced contrasting effects in adolescent and adult rats. The differences in behavior were paralleled by opposite effects on adult neurogenesis and granule cell proliferation. PMID:25934041

  17. Functional food awareness and perceptions in relation to information sources in older adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The functional food industry has experienced innovative and economic expansion, yet research into consumer perceptions of functional foods and their associated health claims is limited. Among consumers, older adults could benefit from functional foods due to age-related issues pertaining to food and health. The purpose of this research was to identify the need for information related to functional foods among older adults (?60years old) and to assess awareness and perceptions of health claims on functional food packages. Methods Community-dwelling older adults (n?=?200) completed a researcher administered questionnaire designed to collect information about functional foods including current consumption, motivating factors for consumption, perceived need for information, sources of information for functional foods and awareness of health claims. Results Prevalence of functional food consumption among participants was 93.0%. Increased awareness and knowledge was the most commonly reported factor that would promote functional food consumption (85.5%) and 63.5% of participants wanted more information about functional foods with preferred sources being newspapers/magazines/books (68.5%) and food labels (66.1%). Participants were predominately (93.5%) aware of health claims on functional foods and those with more education were more likely to report being aware of health claims (p?=?0.045). Conclusions Although functional food consumption among older adults in this sample is high, there is a need for further information regarding functional foods. These results inform stakeholders regarding the potential for information to influence functional food acceptance among older adult consumers. PMID:24886306

  18. Functional Language Networks in Sedentary and Physically Active Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Zlatar, Zvinka Z.; Towler, Stephen; McGregor, Keith M.; Dzierzewski, Joseph M.; Bauer, Andrew; Phan, Stephanie; Cohen, Matthew; Marsiske, Michael; Manini, Todd M.; Crosson, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have identified consistent age-related changes during various cognitive tasks, such that older individuals display more positive and less negative task-related activity than young adults. Recently, evidence shows that chronic physical exercise may alter aging-related changes in brain activity; however, the effect of exercise has not been studied for the neural substrates of language function. Additionally, the potential mechanisms by which aging alters neural recruitment remain understudied. To address these points, the present study enrolled elderly adults who were either sedentary or physically active to characterize the neural correlates of language function during semantic fluency between these groups in comparison to a young adult sample. Participants underwent fMRI during semantic fluency and transcranial magnetic stimulation to collect the ipsilateral silent period, a measure of interhemispheric inhibition. Results indicated that sedentary older adults displayed reductions in negative task-related activity compared to the active old group in areas of the attention network. Longer interhemispheric inhibition was associated with more negative task-related activity in the right and left posterior perisylvian cortex, suggesting that sedentary aging may result in losses in task facilitatory cortical inhibition. However, these losses may be mitigated by regular engagement in physical exercise. PMID:23458438

  19. Basal ganglia function, stuttering, sequencing, and repair in adult songbirds.

    PubMed

    Kubikova, Lubica; Bosikova, Eva; Cvikova, Martina; Lukacova, Kristina; Scharff, Constance; Jarvis, Erich D

    2014-01-01

    A pallial-basal-ganglia-thalamic-pallial loop in songbirds is involved in vocal motor learning. Damage to its basal ganglia part, Area X, in adult zebra finches has been noted to have no strong effects on song and its function is unclear. Here we report that neurotoxic damage to adult Area X induced changes in singing tempo and global syllable sequencing in all animals, and considerably increased syllable repetition in birds whose song motifs ended with minor repetitions before lesioning. This stuttering-like behavior started at one month, and improved over six months. Unexpectedly, the lesioned region showed considerable recovery, including immigration of newly generated or repaired neurons that became active during singing. The timing of the recovery and stuttering suggest that immature recovering activity of the circuit might be associated with stuttering. These findings indicate that even after juvenile learning is complete, the adult striatum plays a role in higher level organization of learned vocalizations. PMID:25307086

  20. Regulation and Function of Adult Neurogenesis: From Genes to Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Aimone, James B.; Li, Yan; Lee, Star W.; Clemenson, Gregory D.; Deng, Wei; Gage, Fred H.

    2014-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus is a notable process due not only to its uniqueness and potential impact on cognition but also to its localized vertical integration of different scales of neuroscience, ranging from molecular and cellular biology to behavior. This review summarizes the recent research regarding the process of adult neurogenesis from these different perspectives, with particular emphasis on the differentiation and development of new neurons, the regulation of the process by extrinsic and intrinsic factors, and their ultimate function in the hippocampus circuit. Arising from a local neural stem cell population, new neurons progress through several stages of maturation, ultimately integrating into the adult dentate gyrus network. The increased appreciation of the full neurogenesis process, from genes and cells to behavior and cognition, makes neurogenesis both a unique case study for how scales in neuroscience can link together and suggests neurogenesis as a potential target for therapeutic intervention for a number of disorders. PMID:25287858

  1. Regulation and Function of Adult Neurogenesis. From Genes to Cognition

    SciTech Connect

    Aimone, J. B.; Li, Y.; Lee, S. W.; Clemenson, G. D.; Deng, W.; Gage, F. H.

    2014-10-01

    Adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus is a notable process due not only to its uniqueness and potential impact on cognition but also to its localized vertical integration of different scales of neuroscience, ranging from molecular and cellular biology to behavior. Our review summarizes the recent research regarding the process of adult neurogenesis from these different perspectives, with particular emphasis on the differentiation and development of new neurons, the regulation of the process by extrinsic and intrinsic factors, and their ultimate function in the hippocampus circuit. Arising from a local neural stem cell population, new neurons progress through several stages of maturation, ultimately integrating into the adult dentate gyrus network. Furthermore, the increased appreciation of the full neurogenesis process, from genes and cells to behavior and cognition, makes neurogenesis both a unique case study for how scales in neuroscience can link together and suggests neurogenesis as a potential target for therapeutic intervention for a number of disorders.

  2. Regulation and Function of Adult Neurogenesis. From Genes to Cognition

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Aimone, J. B.; Li, Y.; Lee, S. W.; Clemenson, G. D.; Deng, W.; Gage, F. H.

    2014-10-01

    Adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus is a notable process due not only to its uniqueness and potential impact on cognition but also to its localized vertical integration of different scales of neuroscience, ranging from molecular and cellular biology to behavior. Our review summarizes the recent research regarding the process of adult neurogenesis from these different perspectives, with particular emphasis on the differentiation and development of new neurons, the regulation of the process by extrinsic and intrinsic factors, and their ultimate function in the hippocampus circuit. Arising from a local neural stem cell population, new neurons progress through several stages ofmore » maturation, ultimately integrating into the adult dentate gyrus network. Furthermore, the increased appreciation of the full neurogenesis process, from genes and cells to behavior and cognition, makes neurogenesis both a unique case study for how scales in neuroscience can link together and suggests neurogenesis as a potential target for therapeutic intervention for a number of disorders.« less

  3. FUNCTIONAL LIMITATIONS AND ADIPOKINES IN HIV-INFECTED OLDER ADULTS

    PubMed Central

    SHAH, K.N.; MAJEED, Z.; YANG, H.; GUIDO, J.J.; HILTON, T.N.; POLESSKAYA, O.; HALL, W.J.; LUQUE, A.E.

    2015-01-01

    Background There is a significant increase in the number of HIV-infected older adults (HOA). This population may experience functional decline at a much younger age. Little is known about the relationship between functional limitations and systemic adipokines in HOA. Objective Our study aimed to evaluate the relationship between functional limitations and systemic adipokine levels in HOA population. Design Cross-sectional. Setting Academic hospital-based infectious disease clinic. Participants The study investigated community-dwelling HIV-infected adults >50 years old and compared this group with age, gender and BMI comparable healthy controls. Measurements We measured functional status, body composition and plasma concentrations of adipokines. Results Fifty-four HOA were studied (mean: age 57 years, BMI 29 kg/m2, CD4 604, duration of HIV 17 years) and compared with thirty-two age, gender and BMI comparable healthy controls. The HOA group showed significantly higher functional limitations compared to the age, gender and BMI comparable controls (p<0.05). Levels of adipokines were significantly different between the two groups (p<0.05). Multiple regression analyses indicated that adiponectin and visfatin were significantly correlated with several physical function measures after controlling for age, sex, and metabolic comorbidities. Adiponectin was negatively correlated with functional limitations, and this relationship was stronger in the control group compared to the HOA group. Conversely, visfatin was positively correlated with functional limitations only in the HOA group. Conclusion HOA have significant functional limitations and alteration in adipokine levels compared to controls. Adiponectin and visfatin were associated with functional limitations. Visfatin was a correlate of physical function only in the HOA group. Prospective longitudinal studies could provide further insight on the role of adipokines in HIV-related functional decline. PMID:26312240

  4. Risk Factors for Functional Decline in Older Adults with Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Dunlop, Dorothy D.; Semanik, Pamela; Song, Jing; Manheim, Larry M.; Shih, Vivian; Chang, Rowland W.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives. Functional limitation is a major driver of medical costs. This study evaluates the prevalence of functional limitation among adults with arthritis, the frequency of functional decline over two years, and investigates factors amenable to public health intervention that predict functional decline. Methods. Longitudinal data (19982000) from a cohort of 5715 adults 65 years or older with arthritis from a national probability sample are analyzed. Function was defined from ability to perform instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) and basic ADL tasks. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) from multiple logistic regression estimated the association between functional decline with comorbid conditions, health behaviors, and economic factors. Results. Overall, 19.7% of this cohort had functional limitation at baseline, including 12.9% with ADL limitations. Over the subsequent two years, function declined in 13.6% of those at risk. Functional decline was most frequent among older women (15.0%) and minorities with arthritis (18.0% Hispanics, 18.7% African Americans). Lack of regular vigorous physical activity (RVPA), the most prevalent risk factor (65%), almost doubled the odds of functional decline (AOR=1.9 95% CI =1.5, 2.4) controlling for all risk factors. If all subjects engaged in RVPA, the expected functional decline could be reduced as much as 36%. Other significant predictors included cognitive impairment, depressive symptoms, diabetes, physical limitations, no alcohol use, stroke, and vision impairment. Conclusions. Lack of RVPA is a potentially modifiable risk factor, which could substantially reduce functional decline and associated health care costs. Prevention/intervention programs should include RVPA, weight maintenance, and medical intervention for health needs. PMID:15818691

  5. Low level methylmercury exposure affects neuropsychological function in adults

    PubMed Central

    Yokoo, Edna M; Valente, Joaquim G; Grattan, Lynn; Schmidt, Srgio Lus; Platt, Illeane; Silbergeld, Ellen K

    2003-01-01

    Background The neurotoxic effects of methylmercury (MeHg) have been demonstrated in both human and animal studies. Both adult and fetal brains are susceptible to the effects of MeHg toxicity. However, the specific effects of adult exposures have been less well-documented than those of children with prenatal exposures. This is largely because few studies of MeHg exposures in adults have used sensitive neurological endpoints. The present study reports on the results of neuropsychological testing and hair mercury concentrations in adults (>17 yrs) living in fishing communities of Baixada Cuiabana (Mato Grosso) in the Pantanal region of Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in six villages on the Cuiaba River. Participants included 129 men and women older than 17 years of age. They were randomly selected in proportion to the age range and number of inhabitants in each village. Questionnaire information was collected on demographic variables, including education, occupation, and residence history. Mercury exposure was determined by analysis of hair using flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The neurocognitive screening battery included tests from the Wechsler Memory Scale and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Concentrated Attention Test of the Toulouse-Pierron Factorial Battery, the Manual Ability Subtests of the Tests of Mechanical Ability, and the Profile of Mood States. Results Mercury exposures in this population were associated with fish consumption. The hair mercury concentration in the 129 subjects ranged from 0.56 to 13.6 ?g/g; the mean concentration was 4.2 2.4 micrograms/g and the median was 3.7 ?g/g. Hair mercury levels were associated with detectable alterations in performance on tests of fine motor speed and dexterity, and concentration. Some aspects of verbal learning and memory were also disrupted by mercury exposure. The magnitude of the effects increased with hair mercury concentration, consistent with a dose-dependent effect. Conclusions This study suggests that adults exposed to MeHg may be at risk for deficits in neurocognitive function. The functions disrupted in adults, namely attention, fine-motor function and verbal memory, are similar to some of those previously reported in children with prenatal exposures. PMID:12844364

  6. Resistance Training Congruent With Minimal Guidelines Improves Function in Older Adults: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Gennuso, Keith P.; Zalewski, Kathryn; Cashin, Susan E.; Strath, Scott J.

    2016-01-01

    Background To examine the effectiveness of the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) and the American Heart Association (AHA) resistance training (RT) guidelines to improve physical function and functional classification in older adults with reduced physical abilities. Methods Twenty-five at-risk older adults were randomized to a control (CON = 13) or 8-week resistance training intervention arm (RT = 12). Progressive RT included 8 exercises for 1 set of 10 repetitions at a perceived exertion of 5–6 performed twice a week. Individuals were assessed for physical function and functional classification change (low, moderate or high) by the short physical performance battery (SPPB) and muscle strength measures. Results Postintervention, significant differences were found between groups for SPPB—Chair Stand [F(1,22) = 9.14, P < .01, η = .29] and SPPB—Total Score [F(1,22) = 7.40, P < .05, η = .25]. Functional classification was improved as a result of the intervention with 83% of participants in the RT group improving from low to moderate functioning or moderate to high functioning. Strength significantly improved on all exercises in the RT compared with the CON group. Conclusions A RT program congruent with the current ASCM and AHA guidelines is effective to improve overall physical function, functional classification, and muscle strength for older adults with reduced physical abilities. PMID:23074076

  7. DISTINCT FUNCTIONS OF SOCIAL SUPPORT AND COGNITIVE FUNCTION AMONG OLDER ADULTS

    PubMed Central

    Sims, Regina C.; Hosey, Megan; Levy, Shellie-Anne; Whitfield, Keith E.; Katzel, Leslie I.; Waldstein, Shari R.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Study Context Social support has been shown to buffer cognitive decline in older adults; however, few studies have examined the association of distinct functions of perceived social support and cognitive function. The current study examined the relations between distinct functions of social support and numerous cognitive domains in older adults. Methods Data were derived from a cross-sectional, correlational study of cardiovascular risk factors, cognitive function, and neuroimaging. The participants were 175 older adults with a mean age of 66.32. A number of neuropsychological tests and the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List were administered. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to determine cross-sectional relations of social support to cognitive function after controlling for age, gender, education, depressive symptomatology, systolic blood pressure, body-mass index, total cholesterol, and fasting glucose. Results No significant positive relations were found between distinct functions of social support and cognitive function in any domain; however, inverse relations emerged such that greater social support across several functions was associated with poorer nonverbal memory and response inhibition. Conclusion Results suggest that the receipt of social support may be a burden for some older adults. Within the current study, fluid cognitive abilities reflected this phenomenon. The mechanism through which social support is associated with poorer cognitive function in some domains deserves further exploration. PMID:24467699

  8. Functional disability of adults in Brazil: prevalence and associated factors

    PubMed Central

    de Andrade, Keitty Regina Cordeiro; Silva, Marcus Tolentino; Galvão, Taís Freire; Pereira, Maurício Gomes

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence and factors associated with functional disability in adults in Brazil. METHODS We used information from the health supplement of the National Household Sample Survey in 2008. The dependent variable was the functional disability among adults of 18 to 65 years, measured by the difficulty of walking about 100 meters; independent variables were: health plan membership, region of residence, state of domicile, education level, household income, economic activity, self-perception of health, hospitalization, chronic diseases, age group, sex, and color. We calculated the gross odds ratios (OR), and their respective confidence intervals (95%), and adjusted them for variables of study by ordinal logistic regression, following hierarchical model. Sample weights were considered in all calculations. RESULTS We included 18,745 subjects, 74.0% of whom were women. More than a third of adults reported having functional disability. The disability was significantly higher among men (OR = 1.17; 95%CI 1.09;1.27), people from 35 to 49 years (OR = 1.30; 95%CI 1.17;1.45) and 50 to 65 years (OR = 1.38; 95%CI 1.24;1.54); economically inactive individuals (OR = 2.21; 95%CI 1.65;2.96); adults who reported heart disease (OR = 1.13; 95%CI 1.03;1.24), diabetes mellitus (OR = 1.16; 95%CI 1.05;1.29), arterial systemic hypertension (OR = 1.10; 95%CI 1.02;1.18), and arthritis/rheumatism (OR = 1.24; 95%CI 1.15;1.34); and participants who were admitted in the last 12 months (OR = 2.35; 95%CI 1.73;3.2). CONCLUSIONS Functional disability is common among Brazilian adults. Hospitalization is the most strongly associated factor, followed by economic activity, and chronic diseases. Sex, age, education, and income are also associated. Results indicate specific targets for actions that address the main factors associated with functional disabilities and contribute to the projection of interventions for the improvement of the well-being and promotion of adults’ quality of life. PMID:26759965

  9. Executive function and bilingualism in young and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Kousaie, Shanna; Sheppard, Christine; Lemieux, Maude; Monetta, Laura; Taler, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that being bilingual results in advantages on executive control processes and disadvantages on language tasks relative to monolinguals. Furthermore, the executive function advantage is thought to be larger in older than younger adults, suggesting that bilingualism may buffer against age-related changes in executive function. However, there are potential confounds in some of the previous research, as well as inconsistencies in the literature. The goal of the current investigation was to examine the presence of a bilingual advantage in executive control and a bilingual disadvantage on language tasks in the same sample of young and older monolingual anglophones, monolingual francophones, and French/English bilinguals. Participants completed a series of executive function tasks, including a Stroop task, a Simon task, a sustained attention to response task (SART), the Wisconsin Card Sort Test (WCST), and the digit span subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, and language tasks, including the Boston Naming Test (BNT), and category and letter fluency. The results do not demonstrate an unequivocal advantage for bilinguals on executive function tasks and raise questions about the reliability, robustness and/or specificity of previous findings. The results also did not demonstrate a disadvantage for bilinguals on language tasks. Rather, they suggest that there may be an influence of the language environment. It is concluded that additional research is required to fully characterize any language group differences in both executive function and language tasks. PMID:25120442

  10. Executive function and bilingualism in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Kousaie, Shanna; Sheppard, Christine; Lemieux, Maude; Monetta, Laura; Taler, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that being bilingual results in advantages on executive control processes and disadvantages on language tasks relative to monolinguals. Furthermore, the executive function advantage is thought to be larger in older than younger adults, suggesting that bilingualism may buffer against age-related changes in executive function. However, there are potential confounds in some of the previous research, as well as inconsistencies in the literature. The goal of the current investigation was to examine the presence of a bilingual advantage in executive control and a bilingual disadvantage on language tasks in the same sample of young and older monolingual anglophones, monolingual francophones, and French/English bilinguals. Participants completed a series of executive function tasks, including a Stroop task, a Simon task, a sustained attention to response task (SART), the Wisconsin Card Sort Test (WCST), and the digit span subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, and language tasks, including the Boston Naming Test (BNT), and category and letter fluency. The results do not demonstrate an unequivocal advantage for bilinguals on executive function tasks and raise questions about the reliability, robustness and/or specificity of previous findings. The results also did not demonstrate a disadvantage for bilinguals on language tasks. Rather, they suggest that there may be an influence of the language environment. It is concluded that additional research is required to fully characterize any language group differences in both executive function and language tasks. PMID:25120442

  11. Functional significance of mononuclear phagocyte populations generated through adult hematopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Gutknecht, Michael F; Bouton, Amy H

    2014-12-01

    Tissue homeostasis requires a complete repertoire of functional macrophages in peripheral tissues. Recent evidence indicates that many resident tissue macrophages are seeded during embryonic development and persist through adulthood as a consequence of localized proliferation. Mononuclear phagocytes are also produced during adult hematopoiesis; these cells are then recruited to sites throughout the body, where they function in tissue repair and remodeling, resolution of inflammation, maintenance of homeostasis, and disease progression. The focus of this review is on mononuclear phagocytes that comprise the nonresident monocyte/macrophage populations in the body. Key features of monocyte differentiation are presented, focusing primarily on the developmental hierarchy that is established through this process, the markers used to identify discrete cell populations, and novel, functional attributes of these cells. These features are then explored in the context of the tumor microenvironment, where mononuclear phagocytes exhibit extensive plasticity in phenotype and function. PMID:25225678

  12. Functional significance of mononuclear phagocyte populations generated through adult hematopoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Gutknecht, Michael F.; Bouton, Amy H.

    2014-01-01

    Tissue homeostasis requires a complete repertoire of functional macrophages in peripheral tissues. Recent evidence indicates that many resident tissue macrophages are seeded during embryonic development and persist through adulthood as a consequence of localized proliferation. Mononuclear phagocytes are also produced during adult hematopoiesis; these cells are then recruited to sites throughout the body, where they function in tissue repair and remodeling, resolution of inflammation, maintenance of homeostasis, and disease progression. The focus of this review is on mononuclear phagocytes that comprise the nonresident monocyte/macrophage populations in the body. Key features of monocyte differentiation are presented, focusing primarily on the developmental hierarchy that is established through this process, the markers used to identify discrete cell populations, and novel, functional attributes of these cells. These features are then explored in the context of the tumor microenvironment, where mononuclear phagocytes exhibit extensive plasticity in phenotype and function. PMID:25225678

  13. Impact of Interpersonal Trauma on the Social Functioning of Adults With First-Episode Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Stain, Helen J.; Brnnick, Kolbjrn; Hegelstad, Wenche T. V.; Joa, Inge; Johannessen, Jan O.; Langeveld, Johannes; Mawn, Lauren; Larsen, Tor K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Social functioning is an important treatment outcome for psychosis, and yet, we know little about its relationship to trauma despite high rates of trauma in people with psychosis. Childhood trauma is likely to disrupt the acquisition of interpersonal relatedness skills including the desire for affiliation and thus lead to impaired social functioning in adulthood. Aims: We hypothesized that childhood trauma would be a predictor of poor social functioning for adults with psychosis and that further trauma in adulthood would moderate this relationship. Method: A first-episode psychosis sample aged 1565 years (N = 233) completed measures of social functioning (Lehmans Quality of Life Interview and Strauss Carpenter Functioning Scale) and trauma (Brief Betrayal Trauma Survey), as well as clinical assessments. Results: Childhood trauma (any type) was associated with poorer premorbid functioning and was experienced by 61% of our sample. There were no associations with clinical symptoms. Interpersonal trauma in childhood was a significant predictor of social functioning satisfaction in adulthood, but this was not the case for interpersonal trauma in adulthood. However, 45% of adults who reported childhood interpersonal trauma also experienced adulthood interpersonal trauma. Conclusion: Our results emphasize the importance of early relationship experience such as interpersonal trauma, on the social functioning of adults with psychosis. We recommend extending our research by examining the impact of interpersonal childhood trauma on occupational functioning in psychosis. PMID:24282322

  14. Rfx6 maintains the functional identity of adult pancreatic ? cells.

    PubMed

    Piccand, Julie; Strasser, Perrine; Hodson, David J; Meunier, Aline; Ye, Tao; Keime, Cline; Birling, Marie-Christine; Rutter, Guy A; Gradwohl, Grard

    2014-12-24

    Increasing evidence suggests that loss of ? cell characteristics may cause insulin secretory deficiency in diabetes, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we show that Rfx6, whose mutation leads to neonatal diabetes in humans, is essential to maintain key features of functionally mature ? cells in mice. Rfx6 loss in adult ? cells leads to glucose intolerance, impaired ? cell glucose sensing, and defective insulin secretion. This is associated with reduced expression of core components of the insulin secretion pathway, including glucokinase, the Abcc8/SUR1 subunit of KATP channels and voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels, which are direct targets of Rfx6. Moreover, Rfx6 contributes to the silencing of the vast majority of "disallowed" genes, a group usually specifically repressed in adult ? cells, and thus to the maintenance of ? cell maturity. These findings raise the possibility that changes in Rfx6 expression or activity may contribute to ? cell failure in humans. PMID:25497096

  15. Cognitive function in older adults according to current socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Michael; Gale, Shawn D; Erickson, Lance D; Brown, Bruce L; Woody, Parker; Hedges, Dawson W

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive function may be influenced by education, socioeconomic status, sex, and health status. Furthermore, aging interacts with these factors to influence cognition and dementia risk in late life. Factors that may increase or decrease successful cognitive aging are of critical importance, particularly if they are modifiable. The purpose of this study was to determine if economic status in late life is associated with cognition independent of socioeconomic status in early life. Cross-sectional demographic, socioeconomic, and cognitive function data were obtained in 2592 older adults (average age 71.6 years) from the Center for Disease Control's National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and analyzed with linear regression modeling. Cognitive function, as measured with a test of processing speed, was significantly associated with poverty index scores after adjusting for educational attainment as an estimate of childhood socioeconomic status, ethnic background, age, health status, and sex (P < 0.001). Our findings suggest that current economic status is independently associated with cognitive function in adults over age 60 years. PMID:25565407

  16. Functional Status and Social Contact Among Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Pavela, Gregory

    2015-11-01

    This article tests whether functional status is associated with likelihood of social contact among older adults. Data come from the Second Longitudinal Study on Aging, a longitudinal nationally representative sample of 9,447 noninstitutionalized individuals aged 70 and over at baseline in 1995. Functional status is measured using an index of activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). Social contact is measured by asking respondents whether they had gotten together socially or talked on the phone with friends/neighbors or family in the past 2 weeks. Greater number of functional limitations is associated with a decreased likelihood of social contact at follow-up via the phone with friends (odd ratio [OR] = 0.94, p < .01) and family (OR = 0.96, p < .01), and a decreased likelihood of getting together with friends (OR = 0.93, p < .01) and family (OR = 0.97, p < .01). Results indicate that functional limitations have a broad impact on self-reported social contact among older adults. PMID:25651594

  17. Visual function affects prosocial behaviors in older adults.

    PubMed

    Teoli, Dac A; Smith, Merideth D; Leys, Monique J; Jain, Priyanka; Odom, J Vernon

    2016-02-01

    Eye-related pathological conditions such as glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, and age-related macular degeneration commonly lead to decreased peripheral/central field, decreased visual acuity, and increased functional disability. We sought to answer if relationships exist between measures of visual function and reported prosocial behaviors in an older adult population with eye-related diagnoses. The sample consisted of adults, aged ≥60 years old, at an academic hospital's eye institute. Vision ranged from normal to severe impairment. Medical charts determined the visual acuities, ocular disease, duration of disease (DD), and visual fields (VF). Measures of giving help were via validated questionnaires on giving formal support (GFS) and giving informal support; measures of help received were perceived support (PS) and informal support received (ISR). ISR had subscales: tangible support (ISR-T), emotional support (ISR-E), and composite (ISR-C). Visual acuities of the better and worse seeing eyes were converted to LogMAR values. VF information converted to a 4-point rating scale of binocular field loss severity. DD was in years. Among 96 participants (mean age 73.28; range 60-94), stepwise regression indicated a relationship of visual variables to GFS (p < 0.05; Multiple R (2) = 0.1679 with acuity-better eye, VF rating, and DD), PS (p < 0.05; Multiple R (2) = 0.2254 with acuity-better eye), ISR-C (p < 0.05; Multiple R (2) = 0.041 with acuity-better eye), and ISR-T (p < 0.05; Multiple R (2) = 0.1421 with acuity-better eye). The findings suggest eye-related conditions can impact levels and perceptions of support exchanges. Our data reinforces the importance of visual function as an influence on prosocial behavior in older adults. PMID:25939988

  18. Advanced Echocardiography in Adult Zebrafish Reveals Delayed Recovery of Heart Function after Myocardial Cryoinjury

    PubMed Central

    Kossack, Mandy; Juergensen, Lonny; Fuchs, Dieter; Katus, Hugo A.; Hassel, David

    2015-01-01

    Translucent zebrafish larvae represent an established model to analyze genetics of cardiac development and human cardiac disease. More recently adult zebrafish are utilized to evaluate mechanisms of cardiac regeneration and by benefiting from recent genome editing technologies, including TALEN and CRISPR, adult zebrafish are emerging as a valuable in vivo model to evaluate novel disease genes and specifically validate disease causing mutations and their underlying pathomechanisms. However, methods to sensitively and non-invasively assess cardiac morphology and performance in adult zebrafish are still limited. We here present a standardized examination protocol to broadly assess cardiac performance in adult zebrafish by advancing conventional echocardiography with modern speckle-tracking analyses. This allows accurate detection of changes in cardiac performance and further enables highly sensitive assessment of regional myocardial motion and deformation in high spatio-temporal resolution. Combining conventional echocardiography measurements with radial and longitudinal velocity, displacement, strain, strain rate and myocardial wall delay rates after myocardial cryoinjury permitted to non-invasively determine injury dimensions and to longitudinally follow functional recovery during cardiac regeneration. We show that functional recovery of cryoinjured hearts occurs in three distinct phases. Importantly, the regeneration process after cryoinjury extends far beyond the proposed 45 days described for ventricular resection with reconstitution of myocardial performance up to 180 days post-injury (dpi). The imaging modalities evaluated here allow sensitive cardiac phenotyping and contribute to further establish adult zebrafish as valuable cardiac disease model beyond the larval developmental stage. PMID:25853735

  19. Preserved Microvascular Endothelial Function in Young, Obese Adults with Functional Loss of Nitric Oxide Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Harrell, John W.; Johansson, Rebecca E.; Evans, Trent D.; Sebranek, Joshua J.; Walker, Benjamin J.; Eldridge, Marlowe W.; Serlin, Ronald C.; Schrage, William G.

    2015-01-01

    Data indicate endothelium-dependent dilation (EDD) may be preserved in the skeletal muscle microcirculation of young, obese adults. Preserved EDD might be mediated by compensatory mechanisms, impeding insight into preclinical vascular dysfunction. We aimed to determine the functional roles of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX) toward EDD in younger obese adults. We first hypothesized EDD would be preserved in young, obese adults. Further, we hypothesized a reduced contribution of NOS in young, obese adults would be replaced by increased COX signaling. Microvascular EDD was assessed with Doppler ultrasound and brachial artery infusion of acetylcholine (ACh) in younger (27 ± 1 year) obese (n = 29) and lean (n = 46) humans. Individual and combined contributions of NOS and COX were examined with intra-arterial infusions of l-NMMA and ketorolac, respectively. Vasodilation was quantified as an increase in forearm vascular conductance (ΔFVC). Arterial endothelial cell biopsies were analyzed for protein expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). ΔFVC to ACh was similar between groups. After l-NMMA, ΔFVC to ACh was greater in obese adults (p < 0.05). There were no group differences in ΔFVC to ACh with ketorolac. With combined NOS-COX inhibition, ΔFVC was greater in obese adults at the intermediate dose of ACh. Surprisingly, arterial endothelial cell eNOS and phosphorylated eNOS were similar between groups. Younger obese adults exhibit preserved EDD and eNOS expression despite functional dissociation of NOS-mediated vasodilation and similar COX signaling. Compensatory NOS- and COX-independent vasodilatory mechanisms conceal reduced NOS contributions in otherwise healthy obese adults early in life, which may contribute to vascular dysfunction. PMID:26733880

  20. Functional involvement of cerebral cortex in adult sleepwalking.

    PubMed

    Oliviero, A; Della Marca, G; Tonali, P A; Pilato, F; Saturno, E; Dileone, M; Rubino, M; Di Lazzaro, V

    2007-08-01

    The pathophysiology of adult sleepwalking is still poorly understood. However, it is widely accepted that sleepwalking is a disorder of arousal. Arousal circuits widely project to the cortex, including motor cortex. We hypothesized that functional abnormality of these circuits could lead to changes in cortical excitability in sleepwalkers, even during wakefulness. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to examine the excitability of the human motor cortex during wakefulness in a group of adult sleepwalkers. When compared with the healthy control group, short interval intracortical inhibition (SICI), cortical silent period (CSP) duration, and short latency afferent inhibition (SAI) were reduced in adult sleepwalkers during wakefulness. Mean CSP duration was shorter in patients than in controls (80.9 +/- 41 ms vs. 139.4 +/- 37 ms; p = 0.0040). Mean SICI was significantly reduced in patients than in controls (73.5 +/- 38.4% vs. 36.7 +/- 13.1%; p = 0.0061). Mean SAI was also significantly reduced in patients than in controls (65.8 +/- 14.2% vs. 42.8 +/- 16.9%; p = 0.0053). This neurophysiological study suggests that there are alterations in sleepwalkers consistent with an impaired efficiency of inhibitory circuits during wakefulness. This inhibitory impairment could represent the neurophysiological correlate of brain "abnormalities" of sleepwalkers like "immaturity" of some neural circuits, synapses, or receptors. PMID:17351721

  1. Structural and Functional Rich Club Organization of the Brain in Children and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Grayson, David S.; Ray, Siddharth; Carpenter, Samuel; Iyer, Swathi; Dias, Taciana G. Costa; Stevens, Corinne; Nigg, Joel T.; Fair, Damien A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) have proposed that the brains white matter is organized as a rich club, whereby the most highly connected regions of the brain are also highly connected to each other. Here we use both functional and diffusion-weighted MRI in the human brain to investigate whether the rich club phenomena is present with functional connectivity, and how this organization relates to the structural phenomena. We also examine whether rich club regions serve to integrate information between distinct brain systems, and conclude with a brief investigation of the developmental trajectory of rich-club phenomena. In agreement with prior work, both adults and children showed robust structural rich club organization, comprising regions of the superior medial frontal/dACC, medial parietal/PCC, insula, and inferior temporal cortex. We also show that these regions were highly integrated across the brains major networks. Functional brain networks were found to have rich club phenomena in a similar spatial layout, but a high level of segregation between systems. While no significant differences between adults and children were found structurally, adults showed significantly greater functional rich club organization. This difference appeared to be driven by a specific set of connections between superior parietal, insula, and supramarginal cortex. In sum, this work highlights the existence of both a structural and functional rich club in adult and child populations with some functional changes over development. It also offers a potential target in examining atypical network organization in common developmental brain disorders, such as ADHD and Autism. PMID:24505468

  2. Functional Imaging of Working Memory and Peripheral Endothelial Function in Middle-Aged Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzales, Mitzi M.; Tarumi, Takashi; Tanaka, Hirofumi; Sugawara, Jun; Swann-Sternberg, Tali; Goudarzi, Katayoon; Haley, Andreana P.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between a prognostic indicator of vascular health, flow-mediated dilation (FMD), and working memory-related brain activation in healthy middle-aged adults. Forty-two participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while completing a 2-Back working memory task. Brachial artery

  3. Functional Imaging of Working Memory and Peripheral Endothelial Function in Middle-Aged Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzales, Mitzi M.; Tarumi, Takashi; Tanaka, Hirofumi; Sugawara, Jun; Swann-Sternberg, Tali; Goudarzi, Katayoon; Haley, Andreana P.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between a prognostic indicator of vascular health, flow-mediated dilation (FMD), and working memory-related brain activation in healthy middle-aged adults. Forty-two participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while completing a 2-Back working memory task. Brachial artery…

  4. Switching roles: the functional plasticity of adult tissue stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wabik, Agnieszka; Jones, Philip H

    2015-05-01

    Adult organisms have to adapt to survive, and the same is true for their tissues. Rates and types of cell production must be rapidly and reversibly adjusted to meet tissue demands in response to both local and systemic challenges. Recent work reveals how stem cell (SC) populations meet these requirements by switching between functional states tuned to homoeostasis or regeneration. This plasticity extends to differentiating cells, which are capable of reverting to SCs after injury. The concept of the niche, the micro-environment that sustains and regulates stem cells, is broadening, with a new appreciation of the role of physical factors and hormonal signals. Here, we review different functions of SCs, the cellular mechanisms that underlie them and the signals that bias the fate of SCs as they switch between roles. PMID:25812989

  5. Sexual Functioning in Young Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zebrack, Brad J.; Foley, Sallie; Wittmann, Daniela; Leonard, Marcia

    2009-01-01

    Background Studies of sexuality or sexual behavior in childhood cancer survivors tend to examine relationships or achievement of developmental milestones but not physiological response to cancer or treatment. The purpose of this study is to (1) identify prevalence and risk factors for sexual dysfunction in childhood cancer survivors, and (2) examine the extent to which sexual dysfunction may be associated with health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and psychosocial outcomes. Methods Five hundred ninety-nine survivors age 18-39 years completed standardized measures of sexual functioning, HRQOL, psychological distress and life satisfaction. Descriptive statistics assessed prevalence of sexual symptoms. Bivariate analyses identified correlates of sexual symptoms and examined associations between symptoms and HRQOL/psychosocial outcomes. Results Most survivors appear to be doing well, although 52% of female survivors and 32% of male survivors reported at least “a little of a problem” in one or more areas of sexual functioning. Mean symptom score for females was more than twice that of males. Sexual symptoms were associated with reporting health problems. Significant associations between sexual functioning and HRQOL outcomes were observed, with gender differences in strengths of association suggesting that males find sexual symptoms more distressing than do females. Conclusions While most survivors appear to be doing well in this important life domain, some young adult survivors report sexual concerns. While female survivors may report more sexual symptoms than male survivors, males may experience more distress associated with sexual difficulties. Better specified measures of sexual function, behavior and outcomes are needed for this young adult population. PMID:19862693

  6. Analysis of nephron composition and function in the adult zebrafish kidney.

    PubMed

    McCampbell, Kristen K; Springer, Kristin N; Wingert, Rebecca A

    2014-01-01

    The zebrafish model has emerged as a relevant system to study kidney development, regeneration and disease. Both the embryonic and adult zebrafish kidneys are composed of functional units known as nephrons, which are highly conserved with other vertebrates, including mammals. Research in zebrafish has recently demonstrated that two distinctive phenomena transpire after adult nephrons incur damage: first, there is robust regeneration within existing nephrons that replaces the destroyed tubule epithelial cells; second, entirely new nephrons are produced from renal progenitors in a process known as neonephrogenesis. In contrast, humans and other mammals seem to have only a limited ability for nephron epithelial regeneration. To date, the mechanisms responsible for these kidney regeneration phenomena remain poorly understood. Since adult zebrafish kidneys undergo both nephron epithelial regeneration and neonephrogenesis, they provide an outstanding experimental paradigm to study these events. Further, there is a wide range of genetic and pharmacological tools available in the zebrafish model that can be used to delineate the cellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate renal regeneration. One essential aspect of such research is the evaluation of nephron structure and function. This protocol describes a set of labeling techniques that can be used to gauge renal composition and test nephron functionality in the adult zebrafish kidney. Thus, these methods are widely applicable to the future phenotypic characterization of adult zebrafish kidney injury paradigms, which include but are not limited to, nephrotoxicant exposure regimes or genetic methods of targeted cell death such as the nitroreductase mediated cell ablation technique. Further, these methods could be used to study genetic perturbations in adult kidney formation and could also be applied to assess renal status during chronic disease modeling. PMID:25145398

  7. Analysis of Nephron Composition and Function in the Adult Zebrafish Kidney

    PubMed Central

    McCampbell, Kristen K.; Springer, Kristin N.; Wingert, Rebecca A.

    2014-01-01

    The zebrafish model has emerged as a relevant system to study kidney development, regeneration and disease. Both the embryonic and adult zebrafish kidneys are composed of functional units known as nephrons, which are highly conserved with other vertebrates, including mammals. Research in zebrafish has recently demonstrated that two distinctive phenomena transpire after adult nephrons incur damage: first, there is robust regeneration within existing nephrons that replaces the destroyed tubule epithelial cells; second, entirely new nephrons are produced from renal progenitors in a process known as neonephrogenesis. In contrast, humans and other mammals seem to have only a limited ability for nephron epithelial regeneration. To date, the mechanisms responsible for these kidney regeneration phenomena remain poorly understood. Since adult zebrafish kidneys undergo both nephron epithelial regeneration and neonephrogenesis, they provide an outstanding experimental paradigm to study these events. Further, there is a wide range of genetic and pharmacological tools available in the zebrafish model that can be used to delineate the cellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate renal regeneration. One essential aspect of such research is the evaluation of nephron structure and function. This protocol describes a set of labeling techniques that can be used to gauge renal composition and test nephron functionality in the adult zebrafish kidney. Thus, these methods are widely applicable to the future phenotypic characterization of adult zebrafish kidney injury paradigms, which include but are not limited to, nephrotoxicant exposure regimes or genetic methods of targeted cell death such as the nitroreductase mediated cell ablation technique. Further, these methods could be used to study genetic perturbations in adult kidney formation and could also be applied to assess renal status during chronic disease modeling. PMID:25145398

  8. A bidirectional relationship between physical activity and executive function in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Michael; McMinn, David; Allan, Julia L.

    2015-01-01

    Physically active lifestyles contribute to better executive function. However, it is unclear whether high levels of executive function lead people to be more active. This study uses a large sample and multi-wave data to identify whether a reciprocal association exists between physical activity and executive function. Participants were 4555 older adults tracked across four waves of the English Longitudinal Study of Aging. In each wave executive function was assessed using a verbal fluency test and a letter cancelation task and participants reported their physical activity levels. Fixed effects regressions showed that changes in executive function corresponded with changes in physical activity. In longitudinal multilevel models low levels of physical activity led to subsequent declines in executive function. Importantly, poor executive function predicted reductions in physical activity over time. This association was found to be over 50% larger in magnitude than the contribution of physical activity to changes in executive function. This is the first study to identify evidence for a robust bidirectional link between executive function and physical activity in a large sample of older adults tracked over time. PMID:25628552

  9. Adolescent social defeat alters markers of adult dopaminergic function

    PubMed Central

    Novick, Andrew M.; Forster, Gina L.; Tejani-Butt, Shanaz M.; Watt, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Stressful experiences during adolescence can alter the trajectory of neural development and contribute to psychiatric disorders in adulthood. We previously demonstrated that adolescent male rats exposed to repeated social defeat stress show changes in mesocorticolimbic dopamine content both at baseline and in response to amphetamine when tested in adulthood. In the present study we examined whether markers of adult dopamine function are also compromised by adolescent experience of social defeat. Given that the dopamine transporter as well as dopamine D1 receptors act as regulators of psychostimulant action, are stress sensitive and undergo changes during adolescence, quantitative autoradiography was used to measure [3H]-GBR12935 binding to the dopamine transporter and [3H]-SCH23390 binding to dopamine D1 receptors, respectively. Our results indicate that social defeat during adolescence led to higher dopamine transporter binding in the infralimbic region of the medial prefrontal cortex and higher dopamine D1 receptor binding in the caudate putamen, while other brain regions analyzed were comparable to controls. Thus it appears that social defeat during adolescence causes specific changes to the adult DA system, which may contribute to behavioral alterations and increased drug seeking. PMID:21741457

  10. Linguistic Skills of Adult Native Speakers, as a Function of Age and Level of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulder, Kimberley; Hulstijn, Jan H.

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed, in a sample of 98 adult native speakers of Dutch, how their lexical skills and their speaking proficiency varied as a function of their age and level of education and profession (EP). Participants, categorized in terms of their age (18-35, 36-50, and 51-76 years old) and the level of their EP (low versus high), were tested on

  11. Binge Drinking Impairs Vascular Function in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Goslawski, Melissa; Piano, Mariann R.; Bian, Jing-Tan; Church, Emily; Szczurek, Mary; Phillips, Shane A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The study aimed to assess whether young binge drinkers have impaired macrovascular and microvascular function and cardiovascular (CV) disease risk factors compared to age-matched alcohol abstainers. Background Binge drinking rates are highest on college campuses and among 18- to 25-year-olds; however, macrovascular and microvascular endothelial function in young adults with a history of repeated binge drinking (?5 standard drinks in 2 hrs. in men; ?4 standard drinks in 2 hrs. in women) has not been investigated Methods We evaluated the cardiovascular profile, brachial artery endothelial-dependent flow mediated vasodilation (FMD), and flow independent nitroglycerin (NTG)-mediated dilation and vasoreactivity of resistance arteries (isolated from gluteal fat biopsies) in abstainers and binge drinkers. Results Men and women (1825 years of age, abstainers [A] n = 17, binge drinkers [BD] n = 19) were enrolled. Among the BD group, past-month average number of binge episodes was 6 1, and average duration of binge drinking behavior was 4 0.6 years. FMD and NTG-mediated dilations were significantly lower in the BD (FMD: 8.4% 0.7, P = 0.022; NTG: 19.6% 2, P = 0.009) than the A group (FMD: 11 0.7%; NTG: 28.6 2%). ACh- and SNP-induced dilation in resistance arteries was not significantly different between the A and BD groups. However, ET-1-induced constriction was significantly enhanced in the BD group compared to the A group (P = 0.032). No differences between groups were found in blood pressure, lipoproteins, and C-reactive protein. Conclusions Alterations in the macrocirculation and microcirculation may represent early clinical manifestations of CV risk in otherwise healthy young binge drinkers. This study has important clinical implications for screening young adults for a repeated history of binge drinking. PMID:23623907

  12. Ventilatory Function in Young Adults and Dietary Antioxidant Intake

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Larsen, Vanessa; Amigo, Hugo; Bustos, Patricia; Bakolis, Ioannis; Rona, Roberto J.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary antioxidants may protect against poor ventilatory function. We assessed the relation between ventilatory function and antioxidant components of diet in young Chileans. Forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and the ratio FEV1/FVC were measured in 1232 adults aged 22–28 years, using a Vitalograph device. Dietary intake was ascertained with a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) designed for this study, from which nutrient and flavonoid intakes were estimated. Dietary patterns were derived with Principal Component Analysis (PCA). After controlling for potential confounders, dietary intake of total catechins was positively associated with FVC (Regression coefficient (RC) of highest vs. lowest quintile of intake 0.07; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.15; p per trend 0.006). Total fruit intake was related to FVC (RC of highest vs. lowest quintile 0.08; 95% CI 0.003 to 0.15; p per trend 0.02). Intake of omega 3 fatty acids was associated with a higher FEV1 (RC for highest vs. lowest quintile 0.08; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.15 L; p per trend 0.02) and with FVC 0.08 (RC in highest vs. lowest quintile of intake 0.08, 95% CI 0.001 to 0.16; p per trend 0.04). Our results show that fresh fruits, flavonoids, and omega 3 fatty acids may contribute to maintain ventilatory function. PMID:25884660

  13. Suicidal ideation and its determinants in Korean adults: The role of physical activity and functional limitations.

    PubMed

    Park, S M

    2015-12-01

    The recognition of suicide as a major public health problem has suggested the need to identify risk factors that have implications for preventive intervention. In the suicidal process, suicidal ideation is a key stage in the pathway leading to eventual suicide. This study investigated the influence of physical activity and functional limitations on suicidal ideation among young and middle-aged adults in a high suicidal society. Data for the current study were obtained from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2009 (KNHANES), a cross-sectional study conducted by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The survey conducted face-to-face interviews with young adults (n=2326) and middle-aged adults (n=3396). Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, the relationship of physical activity and functional limitations with suicidal ideation in young and middle-aged adults was assessed. A notable outcome was that the absence of a regular walking was correlated with increased suicidal ideation in middle-aged women. The other major finding was that young women and middle-aged adults with functional limitations had a high rate of suicidal thoughts. Multiple intervention approaches, including informational, social and behavioural approaches, are needed to promote regular walking in middle-aged women. For instance, mass media campaigns, community walking groups and individually adapted health behaviour modification may provide opportunities for positive intervention. Additionally, another important public health implication from these findings is the need for a suicide-intervention support system that includes screening for suicide risk in healthcare settings, especially among young women with physical limitations. PMID:25434531

  14. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of internet addiction in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Sepede, Gianna; Tavino, Margherita; Santacroce, Rita; Fiori, Federica; Salerno, Rosa Maria; Di Giannantonio, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To report the results of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies pertaining internet addiction disorder (IAD) in young adults. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review on PubMed, focusing our attention on fMRI studies involving adult IAD patients, free from any comorbid psychiatric condition. The following search words were used, both alone and in combination: fMRI, internet addiction, internet dependence, functional neuroimaging. The search was conducted on April 20th, 2015 and yielded 58 records. Inclusion criteria were the following: Articles written in English, patients’ age ≥ 18 years, patients affected by IAD, studies providing fMRI results during resting state or cognitive/emotional paradigms. Structural MRI studies, functional imaging techniques other than fMRI, studies involving adolescents, patients with comorbid psychiatric, neurological or medical conditions were excluded. By reading titles and abstracts, we excluded 30 records. By reading the full texts of the 28 remaining articles, we identified 18 papers meeting our inclusion criteria and therefore included in the qualitative synthesis. RESULTS: We found 18 studies fulfilling our inclusion criteria, 17 of them conducted in Asia, and including a total number of 666 tested subjects. The included studies reported data acquired during resting state or different paradigms, such as cue-reactivity, guessing or cognitive control tasks. The enrolled patients were usually males (95.4%) and very young (21-25 years). The most represented IAD subtype, reported in more than 85% of patients, was the internet gaming disorder, or videogame addiction. In the resting state studies, the more relevant abnormalities were localized in the superior temporal gyrus, limbic, medial frontal and parietal regions. When analyzing the task related fmri studies, we found that less than half of the papers reported behavioral differences between patients and normal controls, but all of them found significant differences in cortical and subcortical brain regions involved in cognitive control and reward processing: Orbitofrontal cortex, insula, anterior and posterior cingulate cortex, temporal and parietal regions, brain stem and caudate nucleus. CONCLUSION: IAD may seriously affect young adults’ brain functions. It needs to be studied more in depth to provide a clear diagnosis and an adequate treatment. PMID:26981230

  15. New York State Adult Functional Literacy Models. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Barbara R.

    This report discusses a nationwide study of Adult Performance Level (APL) which involved sixteen projects in seven states and was conducted to (1) examine the University of Texas at Austin's APL study and describe the results and recommendations in terms of the adult needs in New York State; (2) examine several New York State Adult Basic Education

  16. Affecting Rhomboid-3 function causes a dilated heart in adult Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lin; Lee, Teresa; Lin, Na; Wolf, Matthew J

    2010-05-01

    Drosophila is a well recognized model of several human diseases, and recent investigations have demonstrated that Drosophila can be used as a model of human heart failure. Previously, we described that optical coherence tomography (OCT) can be used to rapidly examine the cardiac function in adult, awake flies. This technique provides images that are similar to echocardiography in humans, and therefore we postulated that this approach could be combined with the vast resources that are available in the fly community to identify new mutants that have abnormal heart function, a hallmark of certain cardiovascular diseases. Using OCT to examine the cardiac function in adult Drosophila from a set of molecularly-defined genomic deficiencies from the DrosDel and Exelixis collections, we identified an abnormally enlarged cardiac chamber in a series of deficiency mutants spanning the rhomboid 3 locus. Rhomboid 3 is a member of a highly conserved family of intramembrane serine proteases and processes Spitz, an epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like ligand. Using multiple approaches based on the examination of deficiency stocks, a series of mutants in the rhomboid-Spitz-EGF receptor pathway, and cardiac-specific transgenic rescue or dominant-negative repression of EGFR, we demonstrate that rhomboid 3 mediated activation of the EGF receptor pathway is necessary for proper adult cardiac function. The importance of EGF receptor signaling in the adult Drosophila heart underscores the concept that evolutionarily conserved signaling mechanisms are required to maintain normal myocardial function. Interestingly, prior work showing the inhibition of ErbB2, a member of the EGF receptor family, in transgenic knock-out mice or individuals that received herceptin chemotherapy is associated with the development of dilated cardiomyopathy. Our results, in conjunction with the demonstration that altered ErbB2 signaling underlies certain forms of mammalian cardiomyopathy, suggest that an evolutionarily conserved signaling mechanism may be necessary to maintain post-developmental cardiac function. PMID:20523889

  17. Affecting Rhomboid-3 Function Causes a Dilated Heart in Adult Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lin; Lee, Teresa; Lin, Na; Wolf, Matthew J.

    2010-01-01

    Drosophila is a well recognized model of several human diseases, and recent investigations have demonstrated that Drosophila can be used as a model of human heart failure. Previously, we described that optical coherence tomography (OCT) can be used to rapidly examine the cardiac function in adult, awake flies. This technique provides images that are similar to echocardiography in humans, and therefore we postulated that this approach could be combined with the vast resources that are available in the fly community to identify new mutants that have abnormal heart function, a hallmark of certain cardiovascular diseases. Using OCT to examine the cardiac function in adult Drosophila from a set of molecularly-defined genomic deficiencies from the DrosDel and Exelixis collections, we identified an abnormally enlarged cardiac chamber in a series of deficiency mutants spanning the rhomboid 3 locus. Rhomboid 3 is a member of a highly conserved family of intramembrane serine proteases and processes Spitz, an epidermal growth factor (EGF)–like ligand. Using multiple approaches based on the examination of deficiency stocks, a series of mutants in the rhomboid-Spitz–EGF receptor pathway, and cardiac-specific transgenic rescue or dominant-negative repression of EGFR, we demonstrate that rhomboid 3 mediated activation of the EGF receptor pathway is necessary for proper adult cardiac function. The importance of EGF receptor signaling in the adult Drosophila heart underscores the concept that evolutionarily conserved signaling mechanisms are required to maintain normal myocardial function. Interestingly, prior work showing the inhibition of ErbB2, a member of the EGF receptor family, in transgenic knock-out mice or individuals that received herceptin chemotherapy is associated with the development of dilated cardiomyopathy. Our results, in conjunction with the demonstration that altered ErbB2 signaling underlies certain forms of mammalian cardiomyopathy, suggest that an evolutionarily conserved signaling mechanism may be necessary to maintain post-developmental cardiac function. PMID:20523889

  18. Functional role of adult hippocampal neurogenesis as a therapeutic strategy for mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Jun, Heechul; Mohammed Qasim Hussaini, Syed; Rigby, Michael J; Jang, Mi-Hyeon

    2012-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis, the process of generating new neurons from neural stem cells, plays significant roles in synaptic plasticity, memory, and mood regulation. In the mammalian brain, it continues to occur well into adulthood in discrete regions, namely, the hippocampus and olfactory bulb. During the past decade, significant progress has been made in understanding the mechanisms regulating adult hippocampal neurogenesis and its role in the etiology of mental disorders. In addition, adult hippocampal neurogenesis is highly correlated with the remission of the antidepressant effect. In this paper, we discuss three major psychiatric disorders, depression, schizophrenia, and drug addiction, in light of preclinical evidence used in establishing the neurobiological significance of adult neurogenesis. We interpret the significance of these results and pose questions that remain unanswered. Potential treatments which include electroconvulsive therapy, deep brain stimulation, chemical antidepressants, and exercise therapy are discussed. While consensus lacks on specific mechanisms, we highlight evidence which indicates that these treatments may function via an increase in neural progenitor proliferation and changes to the hippocampal circuitry. Establishing a significant role of adult neurogenesis in the pathogenicity of psychiatric disorders may hold the key to potential strategies toward effective treatment. PMID:23346419

  19. The relationship between functional health literacy and health promoting behaviors among older adults

    PubMed Central

    Reisi, Mahnoush; Javadzade, Seyed Homamodin; Heydarabadi, Akbar Babaei; Mostafavi, Firouzeh; Tavassoli, Elahe; Sharifirad, Gholamreza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Health literacy is a measure of individual's ability to read, comprehend, and act on medical instructions. Older adults are one of the most important at risk groups affected by the impact of inadequate health literacy. Health promoting behaviors in older adults have potential impact on their health and quality of life and reduce the costs incurred to health care. Given the paucity of information health literacy and health promoting behavior, the purpose of this study was to examine health literacy level in older adults and the relationship between health literacy and health promoting behaviors. Materials and Method: A cross-sectional survey of 354 older adults was conducted in Isfahan. The method of sampling was clustering. Health literacy was measured using the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (TOFHLA). Data were collected via home interviewing. Health promoting behaviors were measured based on self-reported smoking status, exercise, and consumption of fruit and vegetables. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and one-way ANOVA and ?2 tests under SPSS 18 software. Results: The sample group averaged 67 6.97 years in age. Approximately 79.6% of adults were found to have inadequate health literacy. They tended to be older, have fewer years of schooling, lower household income, and being female Individuals with inadequate health literacy were more likely to report limitations in activity and lower consumption of fruit and vegetables (P < 0.001). No significant association was found between health literacy and smoking status. Conclusion: Considering high prevalence of inadequate health literacy among older adults, and its inverse relationship with some health promoting behaviors. Simple educational materials and effective interventions for low health literacy people can improve health promotion in society and mitigate the adverse health effects of low health literacy. PMID:25540792

  20. Early Adult to Midlife Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Cognitive Function

    PubMed Central

    Yaffe, Kristine; Vittinghoff, Eric; Pletcher, Mark J.; Hoang, Tina D.; Launer, Lenore J.; Whitmer, Rachel A.; Coker, Laura H.; Sidney, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Background Studies have linked midlife and late-life cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) to cognitive function, yet little is known about CVRF exposure in early adulthood and subsequent cognitive function. In addition, most studies rely on single assessments of CVRFs, which may not accurately reflect long-term exposure. We sought to determine the association between cumulative exposure to CVRFs from early to middle adulthood and cognitive function at midlife. Methods and Results In a prospective study of 3381 adults (age, 1830 years at baseline) with 25 years of follow-up, we assessed cognitive function at year 25 (20102011) with the Digit Symbol Substitution Test, Stroop Test, and Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test analyzed with standardized z scores. The primary predictor was 25-year cumulative exposure estimated by areas under the curve for resting systolic and diastolic blood pressures, fasting blood glucose, and total cholesterol. Higher cumulative systolic and diastolic blood pressures and fasting blood glucose were consistently associated with worse cognition on all 3 tests. These associations were significant primarily for exposures above recommended guidelines; cognitive test z scores were between 0.06 and 0.30 points less, on average, for each 1-SD increase in risk factor area under the curve after adjustment for age, race, sex, and education (P<0.05 for all). Fewer significant associations were observed for cholesterol. Conclusions Cumulative exposure to CVRFs from early to middle adulthood, especially above recommended guidelines, was associated with worse cognition in midlife. The meaning of this association and whether it warrants more aggressive treatment of CVRFs earlier in life require further investigation. PMID:24687777

  1. High altitude hypoxia and blood pressure dysregulation in adult chickens.

    PubMed

    Herrera, E A; Salinas, C E; Blanco, C E; Villena, M; Giussani, D A

    2013-02-01

    Although it is accepted that impaired placental perfusion in complicated pregnancy can slow fetal growth and programme an increased risk of cardiovascular dysfunction at adulthood, the relative contribution of reductions in fetal nutrition and in fetal oxygenation as the triggering stimulus remains unclear. By combining high altitude (HA) with the chick embryo model, we have previously isolated the direct effects of HA hypoxia on embryonic growth and cardiovascular development before hatching. This study isolated the effects of developmental hypoxia on cardiovascular function measured in vivo in conscious adult male and female chickens. Chick embryos were incubated, hatched and raised at sea level (SL, nine males and nine females) or incubated, hatched and raised at HA (seven males and seven females). At 6 months of age, vascular catheters were inserted under general anaesthesia. Five days later, basal blood gas status, basal cardiovascular function and cardiac baroreflex responses were investigated. HA chickens had significantly lower basal arterial PO2 and haemoglobin saturation, and significantly higher haematocrit than SL chickens, independent of the sex of the animal. HA chickens had significantly lower arterial blood pressure than SL chickens, independent of the sex of the animal. Although the gain of the arterial baroreflex was decreased in HA relative to SL male chickens, it was increased in HA relative to SL female chickens. We show that development at HA lowers basal arterial blood pressure and alters baroreflex sensitivity in a sex-dependent manner at adulthood. PMID:25080183

  2. Maturation and Functional Integration of New Granule Cells into the Adult Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Toni, Nicolas; Schinder, Alejandro F

    2015-01-01

    The adult hippocampus generates functional dentate granule cells (GCs) that release glutamate onto target cells in the hilus and cornus ammonis (CA)3 region, and receive glutamatergic and ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic inputs that tightly control their spiking activity. The slow and sequential development of their excitatory and inhibitory inputs makes them particularly relevant for information processing. Although they are still immature, new neurons are recruited by afferent activity and display increased excitability, enhanced activity-dependent plasticity of their input and output connections, and a high rate of synaptogenesis. Once fully mature, new GCs show all the hallmarks of neurons generated during development. In this review, we focus on how developing neurons remodel the adult dentate gyrus and discuss key aspects that illustrate the potential of neurogenesis as a mechanism for circuit plasticity and function. PMID:26637288

  3. Predicting Cognitive Function from Clinical Measures of Physical Function and Health Status in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Bolandzadeh, Niousha; Kording, Konrad; Salowitz, Nicole; Davis, Jennifer C.; Hsu, Liang; Chan, Alison; Sharma, Devika; Blohm, Gunnar; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Current research suggests that the neuropathology of dementia—including brain changes leading to memory impairment and cognitive decline—is evident years before the onset of this disease. Older adults with cognitive decline have reduced functional independence and quality of life, and are at greater risk for developing dementia. Therefore, identifying biomarkers that can be easily assessed within the clinical setting and predict cognitive decline is important. Early recognition of cognitive decline could promote timely implementation of preventive strategies. Methods We included 89 community-dwelling adults aged 70 years and older in our study, and collected 32 measures of physical function, health status and cognitive function at baseline. We utilized an L1–L2 regularized regression model (elastic net) to identify which of the 32 baseline measures were strongly predictive of cognitive function after one year. We built three linear regression models: 1) based on baseline cognitive function, 2) based on variables consistently selected in every cross-validation loop, and 3) a full model based on all the 32 variables. Each of these models was carefully tested with nested cross-validation. Results Our model with the six variables consistently selected in every cross-validation loop had a mean squared prediction error of 7.47. This number was smaller than that of the full model (115.33) and the model with baseline cognitive function (7.98). Our model explained 47% of the variance in cognitive function after one year. Discussion We built a parsimonious model based on a selected set of six physical function and health status measures strongly predictive of cognitive function after one year. In addition to reducing the complexity of the model without changing the model significantly, our model with the top variables improved the mean prediction error and R-squared. These six physical function and health status measures can be easily implemented in a clinical setting. PMID:25734446

  4. Genetic and functional characterization of clonally derived adult human brown adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Shinoda, Kosaku; Luijten, Ineke H N; Hasegawa, Yutaka; Hong, Haemin; Sonne, Si B; Kim, Miae; Xue, Ruidan; Chondronikola, Maria; Cypess, Aaron M; Tseng, Yu-Hua; Nedergaard, Jan; Sidossis, Labros S; Kajimura, Shingo

    2015-04-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) acts in mammals as a natural defense system against hypothermia, and its activation to a state of increased energy expenditure is believed to protect against the development of obesity. Even though the existence of BAT in adult humans has been widely appreciated, its cellular origin and molecular identity remain elusive largely because of high cellular heterogeneity within various adipose tissue depots. To understand the nature of adult human brown adipocytes at single cell resolution, we isolated clonally derived adipocytes from stromal vascular fractions of adult human BAT from two individuals and globally analyzed their molecular signatures. We used RNA sequencing followed by unbiased genome-wide expression analyses and found that a population of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)-positive human adipocytes possessed molecular signatures resembling those of a recruitable form of thermogenic adipocytes (that is, beige adipocytes). In addition, we identified molecular markers that were highly enriched in UCP1-positive human adipocytes, a set that included potassium channel K3 (KCNK3) and mitochondrial tumor suppressor 1 (MTUS1). Further, we functionally characterized these two markers using a loss-of-function approach and found that KCNK3 and MTUS1 were required for beige adipocyte differentiation and thermogenic function. The results of this study present new opportunities for human BAT research, such as facilitating cell-based disease modeling and unbiased screens for thermogenic regulators. PMID:25774848

  5. Genetic and functional characterization of clonally derived adult human brown adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Shinoda, Kosaku; Luijten, Ineke H N; Hasegawa, Yutaka; Hong, Haemin; Sonne, Si B; Kim, Miae; Xue, Ruidan; Chondronikola, Maria; Cypess, Aaron M; Tseng, Yu-Hua; Nedergaard, Jan; Sidossis, Labros S; Kajimura, Shingo

    2015-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) acts in mammals as a natural defense system against hypothermia, and its activation to a state of increased energy expenditure is believed to protect against the development of obesity. Even though the existence of BAT in adult humans has been widely appreciated18, its cellular origin and molecular identity remain elusive largely because of high cellular heterogeneity within various adipose tissue depots. To understand the nature of adult human brown adipocytes at single cell resolution, we isolated clonally derived adipocytes from stromal vascular fractions of adult human BAT from two individuals and globally analyzed their molecular signatures. We used RNA sequencing followed by unbiased genome-wide expression analyses and found that a population of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)-positive human adipocytes possessed molecular signatures resembling those of a recruitable form of thermogenic adipocytes (that is, beige adipocytes). In addition, we identified molecular markers that were highly enriched in UCP1-positive human adipocytes, a set that included potassium channel K3 (KCNK3) and mitochondrial tumor suppressor 1 (MTUS1). Further, we functionally characterized these two markers using a loss-of-function approach and found that KCNK3 and MTUS1 were required for beige adipocyte differentiation and thermogenic function. The results of this study present new opportunities for human BAT research, such as facilitating cell-based disease modeling and unbiased screens for thermogenic regulators. PMID:25774848

  6. Kidney function changes with aging in adults: comparison between cross-sectional and longitudinal data analyses in renal function assessment.

    PubMed

    Chung, Sang M; Lee, David J; Hand, Austin; Young, Philip; Vaidyanathan, Jayabharathi; Sahajwalla, Chandrahas

    2015-12-01

    The study evaluated whether the renal function decline rate per year with age in adults varies based on two primary statistical analyses: cross-section (CS), using one observation per subject, and longitudinal (LT), using multiple observations per subject over time. A total of 16628 records (3946 subjects; age range 30-92 years) of creatinine clearance and relevant demographic data were used. On average, four samples per subject were collected for up to 2364?days (mean: 793?days). A simple linear regression and random coefficient models were selected for CS and LT analyses, respectively. The renal function decline rates per year were 1.33 and 0.95?ml/min/year for CS and LT analyses, respectively, and were slower when the repeated individual measurements were considered. The study confirms that rates are different based on statistical analyses, and that a statistically robust longitudinal model with a proper sampling design provides reliable individual as well as population estimates of the renal function decline rates per year with age in adults. In conclusion, our findings indicated that one should be cautious in interpreting the renal function decline rate with aging information because its estimation was highly dependent on the statistical analyses. From our analyses, a population longitudinal analysis (e.g. random coefficient model) is recommended if individualization is critical, such as a dose adjustment based on renal function during a chronic therapy. Copyright 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26301459

  7. Educational Attainment and Adult Mortality in the United States: A Systematic Analysis of Functional Form*

    PubMed Central

    Montez, Jennifer Karas; Hummer, Robert A.; Hayward, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    A vast literature has documented the inverse association between educational attainment and U.S. adult mortality risk, but given little attention to identifying the optimal functional form of the association. A theoretical explanation of the association hinges on our ability to empirically describe it. Using the 1979–1998 National Longitudinal Mortality Study for non-Hispanic white and black adults aged 25–100 years during the mortality follow-up period (N=1,008,215), we evaluated 13 functional forms across race-gender-age subgroups to determine which form(s) best captured the association. Results revealed that a functional form that includes a linear decline in mortality risk from 0–11 years of education, followed by a step-change reduction in mortality risk upon attainment of a high school diploma, at which point mortality risk resumes a linear decline but with a steeper slope than that prior to a high school diploma was generally preferred. The findings provide important clues for theoretical development of explanatory mechanisms: an explanation for the selected functional form may require integrating a credentialist perspective to explain the step-change reduction in mortality risk upon attainment of a high school diploma, with a human capital perspective to explain the linear declines before and after a high school diploma. PMID:22246797

  8. Stalking, and Social and Romantic Functioning among Adolescents and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Mark; Newton, Naomi; Kaur, Archana

    2007-01-01

    We examine the nature and predictors of social and romantic functioning in adolescents and adults with ASD. Parental reports were obtained for 25 ASD adolescents and adults (13-36 years), and 38 typical adolescents and adults (13-30 years). The ASD group relied less upon peers and friends for social (OR = 52.16, p less than 0.01) and romantic

  9. GATA4 Deficiency Impairs Ovarian Function in Adult Mice1

    PubMed Central

    Kyrönlahti, Antti; Vetter, Melanie; Euler, Rosemarie; Bielinska, Malgorzata; Jay, Patrick Y.; Anttonen, Mikko; Heikinheimo, Markku; Wilson, David B.

    2011-01-01

    Transcription factor GATA4 is expressed in granulosa cells and, to a lesser extent, in other ovarian cell types. Studies of mutant mice have shown that interactions between GATA4 and its cofactor, ZFPM2 (also termed FOG2), are required for proper development of the fetal ovary. The role of GATA4 in postnatal ovarian function, however, has remained unclear, in part because of prenatal lethality of homozygous mutations in the Gata4 gene in mice. To circumvent this limitation, we studied ovarian function in two genetically engineered mouse lines: C57BL/6 (B6) female mice heterozygous for a Gata4-null allele, and 129;B6 female mice in which Gata4 is deleted specifically in proliferating granulosa cells using the Cre-loxP recombination system and Amhr2-cre. Female B6 Gata4+/− mice had delayed puberty but normal estrous cycle lengths and litter size. Compared to wild-type mice, the ovaries of gonadotropin-stimulated B6 Gata4+/− mice were significantly smaller, released fewer oocytes, produced less estrogen, and expressed less mRNA for the putative GATA4 target genes Star, Cyp11a1, and Cyp19. Gata4 conditional knockout (cKO) mice had a more severe phenotype, including impaired fertility and cystic ovarian changes. Like Gata4+/− mice, the ovaries of gonadotropin-stimulated cKO mice released fewer oocytes and expressed less Cyp19 than those of control mice. Our findings, coupled with those of other investigators, support the premise that GATA4 is a key transcriptional regulator of ovarian somatic cell function in both fetal and adult mice. PMID:21248289

  10. High Blood Pressure: Unique to Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... diuretics (water pills), vasodilators (drugs that relax your blood vessels), and lifestyle changes. Limit your intake of salt and eat foods high in fiber and potassium. Get regular exercise and lose weight if you need to. Avoid alcohol, or use it in moderation, (maximum of one ...

  11. Pilates Method for Lung Function and Functional Capacity in Obese Adults.

    PubMed

    Niehues, Janaina Rocha; Gonzáles, Inês; Lemos, Robson Rodrigues; Haas, Patrícia

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is defined as the condition in which the body mass index (BMI) is ≥ 30 kg/m2 and is responsible for decreased quality of life and functional limitations. The harmful effects on ventilatory function include reduced lung capacity and volume; diaphragmatic muscle weakness; decreased lung compliance and stiffness; and weakness of the abdominal muscles, among others. Pilates is a method of resistance training that works with low-impact muscle exercises and is based on isometric exercises. The current article is a review of the literature that aims to investigate the hypothesis that the Pilates method, as a complementary method of training, might be beneficial to pulmonary function and functional capacity in obese adults. The intent of the review was to evaluate the use of Pilates as an innovative intervention in the respiratory dysfunctions of obese adults. In studies with other populations, it has been observed that Pilates can be effective in improving chest capacity and expansion and lung volume. That finding is due to the fact that Pilates works through the center of force, made ​​up of the abdominal muscles and gluteus muscles lumbar, which are responsible for the stabilization of the static and dynamic body that is associated with breath control. It has been observed that different Pilates exercises increase the activation and recruitment of the abdominal muscles. Those muscles are important in respiration, both in expiration and inspiration, through the facilitation of diaphragmatic action. In that way, strengthening the abdominal muscles can help improve respiratory function, leading to improvements in lung volume and capacity. The results found in the current literature review support the authors' observations that Pilates promotes the strengthening of the abdominal muscles and that improvements in diaphragmatic function may result in positive outcomes in respiratory function, thereby improving functional capacity. However, the authors did not find specific studies with obese people, justifying the need for future studies. PMID:26393994

  12. Age and Gender Effects on Wideband Absorbance in Adults with Normal Outer and Middle Ear Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazlan, Rafidah; Kei, Joseph; Ya, Cheng Li; Yusof, Wan Nur Hanim Mohd; Saim, Lokman; Zhao, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the effects of age and gender on wideband energy absorbance in adults with normal middle ear function. Method: Forty young adults (14 men, 26 women, aged 20-38 years), 31 middle-aged adults (16 men, 15 women, aged 42-64 years), and 30 older adults (20 men, 10 women, aged 65-82 years) were assessed. Energy absorbance

  13. Age and Gender Effects on Wideband Absorbance in Adults with Normal Outer and Middle Ear Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazlan, Rafidah; Kei, Joseph; Ya, Cheng Li; Yusof, Wan Nur Hanim Mohd; Saim, Lokman; Zhao, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the effects of age and gender on wideband energy absorbance in adults with normal middle ear function. Method: Forty young adults (14 men, 26 women, aged 20-38 years), 31 middle-aged adults (16 men, 15 women, aged 42-64 years), and 30 older adults (20 men, 10 women, aged 65-82 years) were assessed. Energy absorbance…

  14. The associations of physical activity and television watching with change in kidney function in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Marquis; Newman, Anne B.; Madero, Magdalena; Patel, Kushang V.; Shlipak, Michael G.; Cooper, Jennifer; Johansen, Kirsten L.; Navaneethan, Sankar D.; Fried, Linda F

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Physical activity (PA) may play a role in preserving kidney health. The purpose of this study was to determine if PA and sedentary behavior are associated with incident chronic kidney disease (CKD) and change in kidney function in older adults. METHODS The Health, Aging and Body Composition study is a prospective cohort of 3,075 well-functioning older adults. PA and television watching was measured by self-report and serum cystatin C was used to estimate glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). CKD was defined as an eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73m2. Rapid kidney function decline was defined as an annual loss in eGFR of >3ml/min/1.73m2. Discrete survival analysis was used to determine if baseline PA and television watching were related to 10-year cumulative incidence of CKD and rapid decline in kidney function. RESULTS Individuals who reported watching television >3 hours/day had a higher risk of incident CKD (HR 1.34; 95% CI: 1.09, 1.65) and experiencing a rapid decline in kidney function (HR 1.26; 95% CI 1.05, 1.52) compared to individuals who watched television < 2 hours/day. PA was not related to either outcome. CONCLUSIONS High levels of television watching are associated with declining kidney function; the mechanisms that underlie this association need further study. PMID:24762526

  15. Enrichment Effects on Adult Cognitive Development: Can the Functional Capacity of Older Adults Be Preserved and Enhanced?

    PubMed

    Hertzog, Christopher; Kramer, Arthur F; Wilson, Robert S; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2008-10-01

    In this monograph, we ask whether various kinds of intellectual, physical, and social activities produce cognitive enrichment effects-that is, whether they improve cognitive performance at different points of the adult life span, with a particular emphasis on old age. We begin with a theoretical framework that emphasizes the potential of behavior to influence levels of cognitive functioning. According to this framework, the undeniable presence of age-related decline in cognition does not invalidate the view that behavior can enhance cognitive functioning. Instead, the course of normal aging shapes a zone of possible functioning, which reflects person-specific endowments and age-related constraints. Individuals influence whether they function in the higher or lower ranges of this zone by engaging in or refraining from beneficial intellectual, physical, and social activities. From this point of view, the potential for positive change, or plasticity, is maintained in adult cognition. It is an argument that is supported by newer research in neuroscience showing neural plasticity in various aspects of central nervous system functioning, neurochemistry, and architecture. This view of human potential contrasts with static conceptions of cognition in old age, according to which decline in abilities is fixed and individuals cannot slow its course. Furthermore, any understanding of cognition as it occurs in everyday life must make a distinction between basic cognitive mechanisms and skills (such as working-memory capacity) and the functional use of cognition to achieve goals in specific situations. In practice, knowledge and expertise are critical for effective functioning, and the available evidence suggests that older adults effectively employ specific knowledge and expertise and can gain new knowledge when it is required. We conclude that, on balance, the available evidence favors the hypothesis that maintaining an intellectually engaged and physically active lifestyle promotes successful cognitive aging. First, cognitive-training studies have demonstrated that older adults can improve cognitive functioning when provided with intensive training in strategies that promote thinking and remembering. The early training literature suggested little transfer of function from specifically trained skills to new cognitive tasks; learning was highly specific to the cognitive processes targeted by training. Recently, however, a new generation of studies suggests that providing structured experience in situations demanding executive coordination of skills-such as complex video games, task-switching paradigms, and divided attention tasks-train strategic control over cognition that does show transfer to different task environments. These studies suggest that there is considerable reserve potential in older adults' cognition that can be enhanced through training. Second, a considerable number of studies indicate that maintaining a lifestyle that is intellectually stimulating predicts better maintenance of cognitive skills and is associated with a reduced risk of developing Alzheimer's disease in late life. Our review focuses on longitudinal evidence of a connection between an active lifestyle and enhanced cognition, because such evidence admits fewer rival explanations of observed effects (or lack of effects) than does cross-sectional evidence. The longitudinal evidence consistently shows that engaging in intellectually stimulating activities is associated with better cognitive functioning at later points in time. Other studies show that meaningful social engagement is also predictive of better maintenance of cognitive functioning in old age. These longitudinal findings are also open to important rival explanations, but overall, the available evidence suggests that activities can postpone decline, attenuate decline, or provide prosthetic benefit in the face of normative cognitive decline, while at the same time indicating that late-life cognitive changes can result in curtailment of activities. Given the complexity of the dynamic reciprocal relationships between stimulating activities and cognitive function in old age, additional research will be needed to address the extent to which observed effects validate a causal influence of an intellectually engaged lifestyle on cognition. Nevertheless, the hypothesis that an active lifestyle that requires cognitive effort has long-term benefits for older adults' cognition is at least consistent with the available data. Furthermore, new intervention research that involves multimodal interventions focusing on goal-directed action requiring cognition (such as reading to children) and social interaction will help to address whether an active lifestyle enhances cognitive function. Third, there is a parallel literature suggesting that physical activity, and aerobic exercise in particular, enhances older adults' cognitive function. Unlike the literature on an active lifestyle, there is already an impressive array of work with humans and animal populations showing that exercise interventions have substantial benefits for cognitive function, particularly for aspects of fluid intelligence and executive function. Recent neuroscience research on this topic indicates that exercise has substantial effects on brain morphology and function, representing a plausible brain substrate for the observed effects of aerobic exercise and other activities on cognition. Our review identifies a number of areas where additional research is needed to address critical questions. For example, there is considerable epidemiological evidence that stress and chronic psychological distress are negatively associated with changes in cognition. In contrast, less is known about how positive attributes, such as self-efficacy, a sense of control, and a sense of meaning in life, might contribute to preservation of cognitive function in old age. It is well known that certain personality characteristics such as conscientiousness predict adherence to an exercise regimen, but we do not know whether these attributes are also relevant to predicting maintenance of cognitive function or effective compensation for cognitive decline when it occurs. Likewise, more information is needed on the factors that encourage maintenance of an active lifestyle in old age in the face of elevated risk for physiological decline, mechanical wear and tear on the body, and incidence of diseases with disabling consequences, and whether efforts to maintain an active lifestyle are associated with successful aging, both in terms of cognitive function and psychological and emotional well-being. We also discuss briefly some interesting issues for society and public policy regarding cognitive-enrichment effects. For example, should efforts to enhance cognitive function be included as part of a general prevention model for enhancing health and vitality in old age? We also comment on the recent trend of business marketing interventions claimed to build brain power and prevent age-related cognitive decline, and the desirability of direct research evidence to back claims of effectiveness for specific products. PMID:26162004

  16. Clinical Assessment of Functional Movement in Adults with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Christopher T.; Horvat, Michael; Williams, Michael; Blasch, Bruce B.

    2007-01-01

    Adults with visual impairments have significantly more health risks than do sighted adults because of a number of factors, including the lower mineral density of their femoral neck bones, which is indicative of reduced weight-bearing exercise; their lesser maximal strength; and their higher rates of stroke, osteoporosis, depression, hypertension,…

  17. Implications of Self-Directed Learning for Functionally Illiterate Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kratz, Russel J.

    Findings of an investigation of ten public school adult basic education (ABE) programs in New York State indicate important implications for ABE programs which foster self-directed learning. Because of the significant relationship between the fostering and student preference for self-directed learning, adult educators should plan ABE programs to…

  18. Investigating the function of play bows in adult pet dogs (Canis lupus familiaris).

    PubMed

    Byosiere, Sarah-Elizabeth; Espinosa, Julia; Smuts, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    Play bows are a common, highly stereotyped canine behavior widely considered to be a 'play signal,' but only one study has researched their function. Bekoff (1995) found that play bows function as behavioral modifiers to help clarify playful intent before or after easily misinterpretable behaviors, such as bite-shakes. To further examine the function of play bows, the current study analyzed five types of behaviors displayed by the bower and the partner immediately before and after a play bow during dyadic play. We found that play bows most often occurred after a brief pause in play. Synchronous behaviors by the bower and the partner, or vulnerable/escape behaviors by the bower (such as running away) and complementary offensive behaviors by the partner (such as chasing) occurred most often after the play bow. These results indicate that during adult dog dyadic play, play bows function to reinitiate play after a pause rather than to mediate offensive or ambiguous actions. PMID:26923096

  19. Neuropsychological correlates of performance based functional status in elder adult protective services referrals for capacity assessments.

    PubMed

    Schillerstrom, Jason E; Birkenfeld, Elizabeth M; Yu, Anne S; Le, Minh-Phuong T; Goldstein, Daniel J; Royall, Donald R

    2013-01-01

    We have previously described high rates of executive function impairment in clients referred by Adult Protective Services (APS) to geriatric psychiatry for decision-making capacity assessments. The purpose of this study was to determine the independent relationship between neuropsychological screening instruments, particularly instruments sensitive to executive function, and performance-based functional tasks in elder referrals. Our retrospective medical review (n = 75/157 referrals completed all neuropsychological and functional assessments) revealed that only the Executive Interview (EXIT25) contributed independent variance to money management performance (R(2) = 0.29, p < 0.001), telephone use ability (R(2) = 0.39, p < 0.001), and summed performance (R(2) = 0.45, p < 0.001). Executive instruments may specifically inform decision-making capacity assessments. PMID:23768413

  20. Lifestyle Engagement Affects Cognitive Status Differences and Trajectories on Executive Functions in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    de Frias, Cindy M.; Dixon, Roger A.

    2014-01-01

    The authors first examined the concurrent moderating role of lifestyle engagement on the relation between cognitive status (cognitively elite, cognitively normal [CN], and cognitively impaired [CI]) and executive functioning (EF) in older adults. Second, the authors examined whether baseline participation in lifestyle activities predicted differential 4.5-year stabilities and transitions in cognitive status. Participants (initial N = 501; 5390 years) were from the Victoria Longitudinal Study. EF was represented by a 1-factor structure. Lifestyle activities were measured in multiple domains of engagement (e.g., cognitive, physical, and social). Two-wave status stability groups included sustained normal aging, transitional early impairment, and chronic impairment. Hierarchical regressions showed that baseline participation in social activities moderated cognitive status differences in EF. CI adults with high (but not low) social engagement performed equivalently to CN adults on EF. Longitudinally, logistic regressions showed that engagement in physical activities was a significant predictor of stability of cognitive status. CI adults who were more engaged in physical activities were more likely to improve in their cognitive status over time than their more sedentary peers. Participation in cognitive activities was a significant predictor of maintenance in a higher cognitive status group. Given that lifestyle engagement plays a detectable role in healthy, normal, and impaired neuropsychological aging, further research in activity-related associations and interventions is recommended. PMID:24323561

  1. Discrete-Trial Functional Analysis and Functional Communication Training with Three Adults with Intellectual Disabilities and Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chezan, Laura C.; Drasgow, Erik; Martin, Christian A.

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a sequence of two studies on the use of discrete-trial functional analysis and functional communication training. First, we used discrete-trial functional analysis (DTFA) to identify the function of problem behavior in three adults with intellectual disabilities and problem behavior. Results indicated clear patterns of problem

  2. Natural History of Thyroid Function in Adults with Down Syndrome--10-Year Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasher, V.; Gomez, G.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The natural history of thyroid function in adults with Down syndrome (DS) is unknown. Method: This study investigated annual thyroid function tests in 200 adults with DS over a 10-year period. Results: Transient and persistent thyroid dysfunction was common. The 5- and 10-year incidence of definite hypothyroidism was 0.9%-1.64% and…

  3. Natural History of Thyroid Function in Adults with Down Syndrome--10-Year Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasher, V.; Gomez, G.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The natural history of thyroid function in adults with Down syndrome (DS) is unknown. Method: This study investigated annual thyroid function tests in 200 adults with DS over a 10-year period. Results: Transient and persistent thyroid dysfunction was common. The 5- and 10-year incidence of definite hypothyroidism was 0.9%-1.64% and

  4. A Comparative Survey of Seven Adult Functional Literacy Programs in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Edmun B.

    A study compares the adult functional literacy campaigns and programs developed in seven African nations: the Gambia, Liberia, Mali, Burundi, Rwanda, Kenya, and Seychelles. After an introductory chapter outlining the background of African adult functional literacy efforts and some of the constraints on them, the second chapter gives an overview of

  5. Parental Divorce and Family Functioning: Effects on Differentiation Levels of Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Patrick; Throngren, Jill M.; Smith, Adina J.

    2001-01-01

    Study examines the effect of parental divorce and various dimensions of functioning in the family of origin on young adult development. Results indicate that parental divorce and family functioning significantly affect differentiation levels of young adults. Implications of the results for counselors and future researchers are provided. (Contains…

  6. Obesity's Effects on the Onset of Functional Impairment among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Kristi Rahrig

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: This study has two purposes. First, it determines if there is a relationship between body weight and the onset of functional impairment across time among this sample of older adults. More specifically, it examines if obese older adults are more likely to experience the onset of functional impairment. Second, it explores how health

  7. Parental Divorce and Family Functioning: Effects on Differentiation Levels of Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Patrick; Throngren, Jill M.; Smith, Adina J.

    2001-01-01

    Study examines the effect of parental divorce and various dimensions of functioning in the family of origin on young adult development. Results indicate that parental divorce and family functioning significantly affect differentiation levels of young adults. Implications of the results for counselors and future researchers are provided. (Contains

  8. Older Adults in Cardiac Rehabilitation: A New Strategy for Enhancing Physical Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rejeski, W. Jack; Foy, Capri Gabrielle; Brawley, Lawrence R.; Brubaker, Peter H.; Focht, Brian C.; Norris, James L., III; Smith, Marci L.

    2002-01-01

    Contrasted the effect of a group-mediated cognitive- behavioral intervention (GMCB) versus traditional cardiac rehabilitation (CRP) upon changes in objective and self-reported physical function of older adults after 3 months of exercise therapy. Both groups improved significantly. Adults with lower function at the outset of the intervention

  9. Health. Nevada Competency-Based Adult High School Diploma Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevada Univ., Las Vegas. Coll. of Education.

    This document is one of ten curriculum guides developed by the Nevada Competency-Based Adult High School Diploma (CBAHSD) Project. This curriculum guide on health is divided into ten topics. The topics included are Nutrition, Reproduction, Menstruation, Contraception, Alcohol Abuse, Tobacco, Immunization, Disease, Accident Prevention, and…

  10. Health. Nevada Competency-Based Adult High School Diploma Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevada Univ., Las Vegas. Coll. of Education.

    This document is one of ten curriculum guides developed by the Nevada Competency-Based Adult High School Diploma (CBAHSD) Project. This curriculum guide on health is divided into ten topics. The topics included are Nutrition, Reproduction, Menstruation, Contraception, Alcohol Abuse, Tobacco, Immunization, Disease, Accident Prevention, and

  11. Neural stem cells from adult hippocampus develop essential properties of functional CNS neurons.

    PubMed

    Song, Hong-jun; Stevens, Charles F; Gage, Fred H

    2002-05-01

    Neural stem cells are present both in the developing nervous system and in the adult nervous system of all mammals, including humans. Little is known, however, about the extent to which stem cells in adults can give rise to new neurons. We used immunocytochemistry, electron microscopy, fluorescence microscopy (FM imaging) and electrophysiology to demonstrate that progeny of adult rat neural stem cells, when co-cultured with primary neurons and astrocytes from neonatal hippocampus, develop into electrically active neurons and integrate into neuronal networks with functional synaptic transmission. We also found that functional neurogenesis from adult stem cells is possible in co-culture with astrocytes from neonatal and adult hippocampus. These studies show that neural stem cells derived from adult tissues, like those derived from embryonic tissues, retain the potential to differentiate into functional neurons with essential properties of mature CNS neurons. PMID:11953752

  12. Pilot study on executive function and adaptive skills in adolescents and young adults with mitochondrial disease.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Hope

    2012-12-01

    High-functioning adolescents and young adults with mitochondrial disease are now attempting transitions to postsecondary environments. This pilot and case study explores factors that interfere with their successful transition through behavior-rating scales addressing academic skills and behavior. In the Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition, Spearman correlation matrices showed that students' attitude to school was associated with depression and anxiety. Mothers' reports linked internalizing disorders with somatic symptoms. Two case studies, with Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function profiles, show the role executive functions play in academic success. Attention to both cognitive and psychiatric concerns may increase success in academics and enhance the sense of well-being in older students with mitochondrial disease. PMID:22628220

  13. The Developmental Significance of Late Adolescent Substance Use for Early Adult Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Englund, Michelle M.; Siebenbruner, Jessica; Oliva, Elizabeth M.; Egeland, Byron; Chung, Chu-Ting; Long, Jeffrey D.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the predictive significance of late adolescent substance use groups (i.e., abstainers, experimental users, at-risk users, and abusers) for early adult adaptation. Participants (N = 159) were drawn from a prospective longitudinal study of first-born children of low-income mothers. At 17.5 years of age participants were assigned to substance use groups based on their level of substance use involvement. At 26 years, early adult competence was assessed in the areas of education, work, romantic relationships, and global adaptation. Results indicate that 17.5 year substance use group membership significantly predicted high school completion, regular involvement in a long-term romantic relationship, good or better work ethic, and good or better global adjustment at 26 years when controlling for gender; IQ; 16 year internalizing and externalizing behavior problems, parental monitoring, and peer competence; and current substance use at 26 years. Group comparisons indicate that late adolescent substance use experimenters were significantly more likely in early adulthood to have (a) a high school diploma or higher level of education compared to abstainers (OR = 8.83); (b) regular involvement in long-term romantic relationships (OR = 3.23), and good or better global adaptation (OR = 4.08) compared to at-risk users; and (c) good or better work ethic (OR = 4.04) compared to abusers. This research indicates that patterns of late adolescent substance use has implications for early adult functioning in salient developmental domains. PMID:23025264

  14. High throughout reproducible cantilever functionalization

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Barbara R; Lee, Ida

    2014-11-25

    A method for functionalizing cantilevers is provided that includes providing a holder having a plurality of channels each having a width for accepting a cantilever probe and a plurality of probes. A plurality of cantilever probes are fastened to the plurality of channels of the holder by the spring clips. The wells of a well plate are filled with a functionalization solution, wherein adjacent wells in the well plate are separated by a dimension that is substantially equal to a dimension separating adjacent channels of the plurality of channels. Each cantilever probe that is fastened within the plurality of channels of the holder is applied to the functionalization solution that is contained in the wells of the well plate.

  15. High throughput reproducible cantilever functionalization

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Barbara R; Lee, Ida

    2014-01-21

    A method for functionalizing cantilevers is provided that includes providing a holder having a plurality of channels each having a width for accepting a cantilever probe and a plurality of probes. A plurality of cantilever probes are fastened to the plurality of channels of the holder by the spring clips. The wells of a well plate are filled with a functionalization solution, wherein adjacent wells in the well plate are separated by a dimension that is substantially equal to a dimension separating adjacent channels of the plurality of channels. Each cantilever probe that is fastened within the plurality of channels of the holder is applied to the functionalization solution that is contained in the wells of the well plate.

  16. Loss of function of the yellow-e gene causes dehydration-induced mortality of adult Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Noh, Mi Young; Kramer, Karl J; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam; Beeman, Richard W; Kanost, Michael R; Arakane, Yasuyuki

    2015-03-15

    Yellow protein (dopachrome conversion enzyme, DCE) is involved in the melanin biosynthetic pathway that significantly accelerates pigmentation reactions in insects. Recent studies have suggested that the insect yellow genes represent a rapidly evolving gene family generating functionally diverse paralogs, but the exact physiological functions of several yellow genes are still not understood. To study the function(s) of one of the yellow genes, yellow-e (TcY-e), in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, we performed real-time PCR to analyze its developmental and tissue-specific expression, and utilized immunohistochemistry to identify the localization of the TcY-e protein in adult cuticle. Injection of double-stranded RNA for TcY-e (dsTcY-e) into late instar larvae had no effect on larval-pupal molting or pupal development. The pupal cuticle, including that lining the setae, gin traps and urogomphi, underwent normal tanning. Adult cuticle tanning including that of the head, mandibles and legs viewed through the translucent pupal cuticle was initiated on schedule (pupal days 4-5), indicating that TcY-e is not required for pupal or pharate adult cuticle pigmentation in T. castaneum. The subsequent pupal-adult molt, however, was adversely affected. Although pupal cuticle apolysis and slippage were evident, some of the adults (~25%) were unable to shed their exuvium and died entrapped in their pupal cuticle. In addition, the resulting adults rapidly became highly desiccated. Interestingly, both the failure of the pupal-adult molt and desiccation-induced mortality were prevented by maintaining the dsTcY-e-treated insects at 100% relative humidity (rh). However, when the high humidity-rescued adults were removed from 100% rh and transferred to 50% rh, they rapidly dehydrated and died, whereas untreated beetles thrived throughout development at 50% rh. We also observed that the body color of the high humidity-rescued dsTcY-e-adults was slightly darker than that of control animals. These results support the hypothesis that TcY-e has a role not only in normal body pigmentation in T. castaneum adults but also has a vital waterproofing function. PMID:25614237

  17. Characterising the Profile of Everyday Executive Functioning and Relation to IQ in Adults with Williams Syndrome: Is the BRIEF Adult Version a Valid Rating Scale?

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Melanie A.

    2015-01-01

    Although there is evidence of a distinct profile of executive dysfunction in Williams syndrome (WS), a rare genetically based neurodevelopmental disorder, the utility of informant reports of everyday executive function (EF) impairments and their relation to intelligence is not yet clear. Here we aimed to evaluate the functional impact of executive dysfunction in adults with WS and to establish the validity of child and adult versions of the most commonly used rating scale for EF assessment, the Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). We were also interested in whether distinct components of everyday EF relate to intelligence in WS. Parent report child (BRIEF-C) and adult (BRIEF-A) ratings were collected on 20 adults with WS (aged 18.5 to 53 years), with a mean IQ of 60.95 (SD = 17.67). Neuropsychological measures of EF included: The Shape School Test (Espy, 2007); select subdomains of EF from the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities, Australian Adaptation (WJ III COG); and select subdomains from the Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales, Second EditionParent Survey (Vineland-II). Results showed that the BRIEF-A, but not the BRIEF-C, was the most highly correlated with neuropsychological measures of EF, suggesting that it was a valid measure of the profile of EF impairments in adults with WS. The profile of everyday EF dysfunction revealed relative impairments in monitoring, working memory, planning and organisation in WS. In addition, both neuropsychological and rating scale measures showed an association between the shifting component of EF and intelligence. These findings indicate that the BRIEF-A is a valid measure of the multidimensional nature of real-world impairments in EF, and highlight its utility as a less labor intensive and low-cost screening tool for measuring specific EF impairments that could become the focus of targeted intervention in adults with WS. PMID:26355600

  18. Effects of Growth Hormone–Releasing Hormone on Cognitive Function in Adults With Mild Cognitive Impairment and Healthy Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Laura D.; Barsness, Suzanne M.; Borson, Soo; Merriam, George R.; Friedman, Seth D.; Craft, Suzanne; Vitiello, Michael V.

    2013-01-01

    Background Growth hormone–releasing hormone (GHRH), growth hormone, and insulinlike growth factor 1 have potent effects on brain function, their levels decrease with advancing age, and they likely play a role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease. Previously, we reported favorable cognitive effects of short-term GHRH administration in healthy older adults and provided preliminary evidence to suggest a similar benefit in adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Objective To examine the effects of GHRH on cognitive function in healthy older adults and in adults with MCI. Design Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Setting Clinical Research Center, University of Washington School of Medicine in Seattle. Participants A total of 152 adults (66 with MCI) ranging in age from 55 to 87 years (mean age, 68 years); 137 adults (76 healthy participants and 61 participants with MCI) successfully completed the study. Intervention Participants self-administered daily subcutaneous injections of tesamorelin (Theratechnologies Inc), a stabilized analog of human GHRH (1 mg/d), or placebo 30 minutes before bedtime for 20 weeks. At baseline, at weeks 10 and 20 of treatment, and after a 10-week washout (week 30), blood samples were collected, and parallel versions of a cognitive battery were administered. Before and after the 20-week intervention, participants completed an oral glucose tolerance test and a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan to measure body composition. Main Outcome Measures Primary cognitive outcomes were analyzed using analysis of variance and included 3 composites reflecting executive function, verbal memory, and visual memory. Executive function was assessed with Stroop Color-Word Interference, Task Switching, the Self-Ordered Pointing Test, and Word Fluency, verbal memory was assessed with Story Recall and the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test, and visual memory was assessed with the Visual-Spatial Learning Test and Delayed Match-to-Sample. Results The intent-to-treat analysis indicated a favorable effect of GHRH on cognition (P=.03), which was comparable in adults with MCI and healthy older adults. The completer analysis showed a similar pattern, with a more robust GHRH effect (P=.002). Subsequent analyses indicated a positive GHRH effect on executive function (P=.005) and a trend showing a similar treatment-related benefit in verbal memory (P=.08). Treatment with GHRH increased insulinlike growth factor 1 levels by 117% (P<.001), which remained within the physiological range, and reduced percent body fat by 7.4% (P<.001). Treatment with GHRH increased fasting insulin levels within the normal range by 35% in adults with MCI (P<.001) but not in healthy adults. Adverse events were mild and were reported by 68% of GHRH-treated adults and 36% of those who received placebo. Conclusions Twenty weeks of GHRH administration had favorable effects on cognition in both adults with MCI and healthy older adults. Longer-duration treatment trials are needed to further examine the therapeutic potential of GHRH administration on brain health during normal aging and “pathological aging.” Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00257712 PMID:22869065

  19. Cocaine and MDMA Induce Cellular and Molecular Changes in Adult Neurogenic Systems: Functional Implications

    PubMed Central

    Capilla-Gonzalez, Vivian; Hernandez-Rabaza, Vicente

    2011-01-01

    The capacity of the brain to generate new adult neurons is a recent discovery that challenges the old theory of an immutable adult brain. A new and fascinating field of research now focuses on this regenerative process. The two brain systems that constantly produce new adult neurons, known as the adult neurogenic systems, are the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus and the lateral ventricules/olfactory bulb system. Both systems are involved in memory and learning processes. Different drugs of abuse, such as cocaine and MDMA, have been shown to produce cellular and molecular changes that affect adult neurogenesis. This review summarizes the effects that these drugs have on the adult neurogenic systems. The functional relevance of adult neurogenesis is obscured by the functions of the systems that integrate adult neurons. Therefore, we explore the effects that cocaine and MDMA produce not only on adult neurogenesis, but also on the DG and olfactory bulbs. Finally, we discuss the possible role of new adult neurons in cocaine- and MDMA-induced impairments. We conclude that, although harmful drug effects are produced at multiple physiological and anatomical levels, the specific consequences of reduced hippocampus neurogenesis are unclear and require further exploration.

  20. DOES FAMILY OF ORIGIN FUNCTIONING PREDICT ADULT SOMATIC COMPLAINTS?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has long been believed that adult somatic complaints are associated with early family dysfunction. Yet few studies have examined this hypothesis in community samples, where medically unexplained symptom complaints are estimated to be very common. Given the potential population-wide impact of subt...

  1. The Human Function Compunction: Teleological Explanation in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelemen, Deborah; Rosset, Evelyn

    2009-01-01

    Research has found that children possess a broad bias in favor of teleological--or purpose-based--explanations of natural phenomena. The current two experiments explored whether adults implicitly possess a similar bias. In Study 1, undergraduates judged a series of statements as "good" (i.e., correct) or "bad" (i.e., incorrect) explanations for

  2. Neighborhood Psychosocial Hazards and the Association of Cumulative Lead Dose With Cognitive Function in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Bandeen-Roche, Karen; McAtee, Matthew; Bolla, Karen; Todd, Andrew C.; Schwartz, Brian S.

    2009-01-01

    Before the 1970s, today's older Americans were exposed to high levels of lead in the environment. The authors previously reported that lifetime cumulative lead dose was associated with lower cognitive test performance in older adults. Experiments suggest that environmental stress may intensify the detrimental influence of lead. No large, population-based studies of this question have been done. The authors evaluated whether cross-sectional associations of tibia lead with cognitive function were modified by neighborhood psychosocial hazards in the Baltimore Memory Study (20012005), a longitudinal cohort study of determinants of cognitive decline. Tibia lead was measured via 109Cd-induced K-shell X-ray fluorescence. Neighborhood psychosocial hazards were measured independently of study subjects. Complete data were available among 1,001 demographically diverse adults aged 5070 years, randomly selected from 65 contiguous neighborhoods in Baltimore City. Hierarchical mixed-effects regression models showed that neighborhood psychosocial hazards exacerbated the adverse associations of tibia lead in 3 of 7 cognitive domains after adjustment for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, testing technician, and time of day (language, P = 0.039; processing speed, P = 0.067; executive functioning, P = 0.025). The joint occurrence of environmental stress and lead exposure across the life span may partially explain persistent racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities in cognitive function in late life. PMID:19155330

  3. Association between reported education and intellectual functioning in an ethnically diverse adult psychiatric inpatient sample.

    PubMed

    Baker, F M; Fujii, Daryl; Hishinuma, Earl S

    2002-01-01

    Patients' pre-existing survival skills, educational attainment, and intellectual functioning should be included in the development and implementation of treatment planning for adult psychiatric inpatients. When considering culturally diverse inpatient populations with possible cultural and language barriers, these variables may attain additional importance. Utilizing a sample (N = 60) primarily consisting of Asian/Pacific Islander inpatients, the present study investigated: (a) the rate at which professionals from different disciplines inquired about educational attainment; (b) the association between self-reported education and standardized measures of intelligence; and (c) the correspondence between different IQ scores. Axis 1 diagnoses included schizophrenia (N = 19; 32%), schizoaffective disorder or bipolar disorder (N = 23; 38%), and organic or substance-related disorders (N = 18; 30%). Thirty-five percent of the sample (N = 21) had dual diagnoses. The results indicated that only psychologists who administered IQ tests consistently inquired about educational attainment. An expected overall positive association between self-reported education and standardized intelligence measures was found. High correlations between the Test of Nonverbal Intelligence, 2nd edition (TONI-2) and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Test-Revised (WAISQ-R) IQs suggested that both tests were valid in the assessment of intellectual functioning. Implications included the need for more systematic assessment and incorporation of pre-existing skill-based information and the utility of self-reported education and different measures of intellectual functioning (including TONI-2). PMID:11837353

  4. High prevalence of thymic tissue in adults with human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection.

    PubMed Central

    McCune, J M; Loftus, R; Schmidt, D K; Carroll, P; Webster, D; Swor-Yim, L B; Francis, I R; Gross, B H; Grant, R M

    1998-01-01

    The thymus in adults infected with the HIV-1 is generally thought to be inactive, both because of age-related involution and viral destruction. We have revisited the question of thymic function in adults, using chest-computed tomography (CT) to measure thymic tissue in HIV-1-seropositive (n = 99) or HIV-1-seronegative (n = 32) subjects, and correlating these results with the level of circulating CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells that are phenotypically described as naive thymic emigrants. Abundant thymic tissue was detectable in many (47/99) HIV-1-seropositive adults, aged 20-59. Independent of age, radiographic demonstration of thymic tissue was significantly associated with both a higher CD4(+) T cell count (P = 0.02) and a higher percentage and absolute number of circulating naive (CD45RA+CD62L+) CD4(+) T cells (P < 0.04). The prevalence of an abundant thymus was especially high in younger HIV-1-seropositive adults ( 40 yr) regardless of CD4 count (P = 0.03). These studies suggest that the thymus is functional in some but not all adults with HIV-1 disease. PMID:9616201

  5. Community Environmental Factors Are Associated With Disability in Older Adults With Functional Limitations: The MOST Study

    PubMed Central

    Jette, Alan M.; LaValley, Michael P.; Lewis, Cora E.; Torner, James C.; Nevitt, Michael C.; Felson, Dave T.

    2010-01-01

    Background There is limited evidence supporting the hypothesized environmentdisability link. The objectives of this study were to (a) identify the prevalence of community mobility barriers and transportation facilitators and (b) examine whether barriers and facilitators were associated with disability among older adults with functional limitations. Methods Four hundred and thirty-five participants aged 65+ years old with functional limitations were recruited from the Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study, a prospective study of community-dwelling adults with or at risk of developing symptomatic knee osteoarthritis. Presence of community barriers and facilitators was ascertained by the Home and Community Environment survey. Two domains of disability, (a) daily activity limitation (DAL) and (b) daily activity frequency (DAF), were assessed with the Late-Life Disability Instrument. Covariates included age, gender, education, race, comorbidity, body mass index, knee pain, and functional limitation. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine adjusted associations of community factors with presence of DAL and DAF. Results Approximately one third of the participants lived in a community with high mobility barriers and low transportation facilitators. High mobility barriers was associated with greater odds of DAL (odds ratio [OR] = 2.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.23.1) after adjusting for covariates, and high transportation facilitators was associated with lower odds of DAL (OR = 0.5, 95% CI 0.30.8) but not with DAF in adjusted models. Conclusion People with functional limitations who live in communities that were more restrictive felt more limited in doing daily activities but did not perform these daily activities any less frequently. PMID:19995830

  6. Dietary Patterns Derived by Cluster Analysis are Associated with Cognitive Function among Korean Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jihye; Yu, Areum; Choi, Bo Youl; Nam, Jung Hyun; Kim, Mi Kyung; Oh, Dong Hoon; Yang, Yoon Jung

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate major dietary patterns among older Korean adults through cluster analysis and to determine an association between dietary patterns and cognitive function. This is a cross-sectional study. The data from the Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort Study was used. Participants included 765 participants aged 60 years and over. A quantitative food frequency questionnaire with 106 items was used to investigate dietary intake. The Korean version of the MMSE-KC (Mini-Mental Status Examination–Korean version) was used to assess cognitive function. Two major dietary patterns were identified using K-means cluster analysis. The “MFDF” dietary pattern indicated high consumption of Multigrain rice, Fish, Dairy products, Fruits and fruit juices, while the “WNC” dietary pattern referred to higher intakes of White rice, Noodles, and Coffee. Means of the total MMSE-KC and orientation score of the participants in the MFDF dietary pattern were higher than those of the WNC dietary pattern. Compared with the WNC dietary pattern, the MFDF dietary pattern showed a lower risk of cognitive impairment after adjusting for covariates (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.44–0.94). The MFDF dietary pattern, with high consumption of multigrain rice, fish, dairy products, and fruits may be related to better cognition among Korean older adults. PMID:26035243

  7. Effects of Computer versus Paper Administration of an Adult Functional Writing Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jing; White, Sheida; McCloskey, Michael; Soroui, Jaleh; Chun, Young

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the comparability of paper and computer versions of a functional writing assessment administered to adults 16 and older. Three writing tasks were administered in both paper and computer modes to volunteers in the field test of an assessment of adult literacy in 2008. One set of analyses examined mode effects on scoring by

  8. Effect of Atomoxetine on Executive Function Impairments in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Thomas E.; Holdnack, James; Saylor, Keith; Adler, Lenard; Spencer, Thomas; Williams, David W.; Padival, Anoop K.; Schuh, Kory; Trzepacz, Paula T.; Kelsey, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effect of atomoxetine on ADHD-related executive functions over a 6-month period using the Brown Attention-Deficit Disorder Scale (BADDS) for Adults, a normed, 40-item, self-report scale in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Method: In a randomized, double-blind clinical trial, adults with ADHD

  9. Functional Literacy in Older Adults: Proactive Approaches to Research and Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasworm, Carol; Courtenay, Bradley C.

    Two separate research projects were undertaken in Georgia and Texas to examine the current and future needs of older adults for functional literacy and to analyze the involvement of adult basic education (ABE) programs to better serve those needs. The projects involved literature reviews; mail-out surveys; and one-on-one interviews with senior…

  10. Physical activity in prefrail older adults: confidence and satisfaction related to physical function

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined the hypothesis that physical activity will have favorable effects on measures of self-efficacy for a 400-m walk and satisfaction with physical functioning in older adults 701 years of age who have deficits in mobility. We randomized a total of 412 adults aged 70–89 years at elevated risk...

  11. Shared and Distinctive Origins and Correlates of Adult Attachment Representations: The Developmental Organization of Romantic Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haydon, Katherine C.; Collins, W. A.; Salvatore, Jessica E.; Simpson, Jeffry A.; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2012-01-01

    To test proposals regarding the hierarchical organization of adult attachment, this study examined developmental origins of generalized and romantic attachment representations and their concurrent associations with romantic functioning. Participants (N = 112) in a 35-year prospective study completed the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) and Current

  12. Shared and Distinctive Origins and Correlates of Adult Attachment Representations: The Developmental Organization of Romantic Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haydon, Katherine C.; Collins, W. A.; Salvatore, Jessica E.; Simpson, Jeffry A.; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2012-01-01

    To test proposals regarding the hierarchical organization of adult attachment, this study examined developmental origins of generalized and romantic attachment representations and their concurrent associations with romantic functioning. Participants (N = 112) in a 35-year prospective study completed the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) and Current…

  13. Effect of Atomoxetine on Executive Function Impairments in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Thomas E.; Holdnack, James; Saylor, Keith; Adler, Lenard; Spencer, Thomas; Williams, David W.; Padival, Anoop K.; Schuh, Kory; Trzepacz, Paula T.; Kelsey, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effect of atomoxetine on ADHD-related executive functions over a 6-month period using the Brown Attention-Deficit Disorder Scale (BADDS) for Adults, a normed, 40-item, self-report scale in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Method: In a randomized, double-blind clinical trial, adults with ADHD…

  14. Effect of iodinated contrast media on thyroid function in adults.

    PubMed

    van der Molen, Aart J; Thomsen, Henrik S; Morcos, Sameh K

    2004-05-01

    Excess free iodide in the blood (ingested or injected) may cause thyrotoxicosis in patients at risk. Iodinated contrast medium solutions contain small amounts of free iodide and may be of significance for patients at risk. The free iodide may also interfere with nuclear medicine diagnostic studies and treatment. Therefore the Contrast Media Safety Committee of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology reviewed the literature on this subject in order to prepare guidelines. A report and guidelines were prepared based on an extensive Medline search. The report was discussed with the participants attending the Tenth European Symposium on Urogenital Radiology, Uppsala, Sweden, September 2003. Contrast medium induced thyrotoxicosis is rare. Contrast medium injection does not affect thyroid function tests (e.g., T3, T4, TSH) in patients with a normal thyroid. Routine monitoring of thyroid function tests before contrast medium injection in patients with a normal thyroid is not indicated even in areas where there is dietary iodine deficiency. Patients at risk of developing thyrotoxicosis after contrast medium injection are patients with Graves' disease and patients with multinodular goiter with thyroid autonomy, especially elderly patients and patients living in areas of iodine deficiency. Patients at high-risk should be carefully monitored by endocrinologists after contrast medium examinations. Prophylaxis in these groups is not generally recommended, although it may offer some protection in selected high-risk individuals. The free iodide load of contrast media injections interferes with iodide uptake in the thyroid and therefore compromises diagnostic thyroid scintigraphy and radio-iodine treatment of thyroid malignancies for 2 months after administration of contrast media. Simple guidelines on the subject are proposed. PMID:14997334

  15. Brief Report: Biochemical Correlates of Clinical Impairment in High Functioning Autism and Asperger's Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinhans, Natalia M.; Richards, Todd; Weaver, Kurt E.; Liang, Olivia; Dawson, Geraldine; Aylward, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Amygdala dysfunction has been proposed as a critical contributor to social impairment in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The current study investigated biochemical abnormalities in the amygdala in 20 high functioning adults with autistic disorder or Asperger's disorder and 19 typically developing adults matched on age and IQ. Magnetic resonance

  16. Brief Report: Biochemical Correlates of Clinical Impairment in High Functioning Autism and Asperger's Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinhans, Natalia M.; Richards, Todd; Weaver, Kurt E.; Liang, Olivia; Dawson, Geraldine; Aylward, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Amygdala dysfunction has been proposed as a critical contributor to social impairment in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The current study investigated biochemical abnormalities in the amygdala in 20 high functioning adults with autistic disorder or Asperger's disorder and 19 typically developing adults matched on age and IQ. Magnetic resonance…

  17. Becoming Social: Interventions with Youth Who Have High-Functioning Autism and Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blacher, Jan; Howell, Erica

    2008-01-01

    Many adults come up short on social skills. Some of these may be co-workers, friends, or family members who make occasional blunders. Some of these individuals may experience marked social skills deficits throughout life, as is the case with young adults who are diagnosed with High Functioning Autism or Asperger Syndrome (HFA/AS). Following years…

  18. The effects of vitamin D and calcium supplementation on pancreatic beta cell function, insulin sensitivity and glycemia in adults at high risk for diabetes. The CaDDM Randomized Controlled Trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Suboptimal vitamin D and calcium status has been associated with higher risk of type 2 diabetes in observational studies but evidence from trials is lacking. The objective of this trial was to determine whether vitamin D supplementation, with or without calcium, improves glucose homeostasis in adult...

  19. Functional mitochondrial analysis in acute brain sections from adult rats reveals mitochondrial dysfunction in a rat model of migraine

    PubMed Central

    Fried, Nathan T.; Moffat, Cynthia; Seifert, Erin L.

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in many neurological disorders that only develop or are much more severe in adults, yet no methodology exists that allows for medium-throughput functional mitochondrial analysis of brain sections from adult animals. We developed a technique for quantifying mitochondrial respiration in acutely isolated adult rat brain sections with the Seahorse XF Analyzer. Evaluating a range of conditions made quantifying mitochondrial function from acutely derived adult brain sections from the cortex, cerebellum, and trigeminal nucleus caudalis possible. Optimization of this technique demonstrated that the ideal section size was 1 mm wide. We found that sectioning brains at physiological temperatures was necessary for consistent metabolic analysis of trigeminal nucleus caudalis sections. Oxygen consumption in these sections was highly coupled to ATP synthesis, had robust spare respiratory capacities, and had limited nonmitochondrial respiration, all indicative of healthy tissue. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this technique by identifying a decreased spare respiratory capacity in the trigeminal nucleus caudalis of a rat model of chronic migraine, a neurological disorder that has been associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. This technique allows for 24 acutely isolated sections from multiple brain regions of a single adult rat to be analyzed simultaneously with four sequential drug treatments, greatly advancing the ability to study mitochondrial physiology in adult neurological disorders. PMID:25252946

  20. Spatial Cognition in Adult and Aged Mice Exposed to High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Kesby, James P; Kim, Jane J; Scadeng, Miriam; Woods, Gina; Kado, Deborah M; Olefsky, Jerrold M; Jeste, Dilip V; Achim, Cristian L; Semenova, Svetlana

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with a decline in multiple aspects of cognitive function, with spatial cognition being particularly sensitive to age-related decline. Environmental stressors, such as high-fat diet (HFD) exposure, that produce a diabetic phenotype and metabolic dysfunction may indirectly lead to exacerbated brain aging and promote the development of cognitive deficits. The present work investigated whether exposure to HFD exacerbates age-related cognitive deficits in adult versus aged mice. Adult (5 months old) and aged (15 months old) mice were exposed to control diet or HFD for three months prior to, and throughout, behavioral testing. Anxiety-like behavior in the light-dark box test, discrimination learning and memory in the novel object/place recognition tests, and spatial learning and memory in the Barnes maze test were assessed. HFD resulted in significant gains in body weight and fat mass content with adult mice gaining significantly more weight and adipose tissue due to HFD than aged mice. Weight gain was attributed to food calories sourced from fat, but not total calorie intake. HFD increased fasting insulin levels in all mice, but adult mice showed a greater increase relative to aged mice. Behaviorally, HFD increased anxiety-like behavior in adult but not aged mice without significantly affecting spatial cognition. In contrast, aged mice fed either control or HFD diet displayed deficits in novel place discrimination and spatial learning. Our results suggest that adult mice are more susceptible to the physiological and anxiety-like effects of HFD consumption than aged mice, while aged mice displayed deficits in spatial cognition regardless of dietary influence. We conclude that although HFD induces systemic metabolic dysfunction in both adult and aged mice, overall cognitive function was not adversely affected under the current experimental conditions. PMID:26448649

  1. Spatial Cognition in Adult and Aged Mice Exposed to High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Kesby, James P.; Kim, Jane J.; Scadeng, Miriam; Woods, Gina; Kado, Deborah M.; Olefsky, Jerrold M.; Jeste, Dilip V.; Achim, Cristian L.; Semenova, Svetlana

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with a decline in multiple aspects of cognitive function, with spatial cognition being particularly sensitive to age-related decline. Environmental stressors, such as high-fat diet (HFD) exposure, that produce a diabetic phenotype and metabolic dysfunction may indirectly lead to exacerbated brain aging and promote the development of cognitive deficits. The present work investigated whether exposure to HFD exacerbates age-related cognitive deficits in adult versus aged mice. Adult (5 months old) and aged (15 months old) mice were exposed to control diet or HFD for three months prior to, and throughout, behavioral testing. Anxiety-like behavior in the light-dark box test, discrimination learning and memory in the novel object/place recognition tests, and spatial learning and memory in the Barnes maze test were assessed. HFD resulted in significant gains in body weight and fat mass content with adult mice gaining significantly more weight and adipose tissue due to HFD than aged mice. Weight gain was attributed to food calories sourced from fat, but not total calorie intake. HFD increased fasting insulin levels in all mice, but adult mice showed a greater increase relative to aged mice. Behaviorally, HFD increased anxiety-like behavior in adult but not aged mice without significantly affecting spatial cognition. In contrast, aged mice fed either control or HFD diet displayed deficits in novel place discrimination and spatial learning. Our results suggest that adult mice are more susceptible to the physiological and anxiety-like effects of HFD consumption than aged mice, while aged mice displayed deficits in spatial cognition regardless of dietary influence. We conclude that although HFD induces systemic metabolic dysfunction in both adult and aged mice, overall cognitive function was not adversely affected under the current experimental conditions. PMID:26448649

  2. Assessing Function and Endurance in Adults with Spinal and Bulbar Muscular Atrophy: Validity of the Adult Myopathy Assessment Tool

    PubMed Central

    Harris-Love, Michael O.; Fernandez-Rhodes, Lindsay; Joe, Galen; Shrader, Joseph A.; Kokkinis, Angela; La Pean Kirschner, Alison; Auh, Sungyoung; Chen, Cheunju; Li, Li; Levy, Ellen; Davenport, Todd E.; Di Prospero, Nicholas A.; Fischbeck, Kenneth H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. The adult myopathy assessment tool (AMAT) is a performance-based battery comprised of functional and endurance subscales that can be completed in approximately 30 minutes without the use of specialized equipment. The purpose of this study was to determine the construct validity and internal consistency of the AMAT with a sample of adults with spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA). Methods. AMAT validity was assessed in 56-male participants with genetically confirmed SBMA (mean age, 53??10 years). The participants completed the AMAT and assessments for disease status, strength, and functional status. Results. Lower AMAT scores were associated with longer disease duration (r = ?0.29; P < 0.03) and lower serum androgen levels (r = 0.490.59; P < 0.001). The AMAT was significantly correlated with strength and functional status (r = 0.820.88; P < 0.001). The domains of the AMAT exhibited good internal consistency (Cronbach's ??=?0.770.89; P < 0.001). Conclusions. The AMAT is a standardized, performance-based tool that may be used to assess functional limitations and muscle endurance. The AMAT has good internal consistency, and the construct validity of the AMAT is supported by its significant associations with hormonal, strength, and functional characteristics of adults with SBMA. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT00303446. PMID:24876969

  3. Functional Neuroanatomy of Executive Function after Neonatal Brain Injury in Adults Who Were Born Very Preterm

    PubMed Central

    Kalpakidou, Anastasia K.; Allin, Matthew P. G.; Walshe, Muriel; Giampietro, Vincent; McGuire, Philip K.; Rifkin, Larry; Murray, Robin M.; Nosarti, Chiara

    2014-01-01

    Individuals who were born very preterm (VPT; <33 gestational weeks) are at risk of experiencing deficits in tasks involving executive function in childhood and beyond. In addition, the type and severity of neonatal brain injury associated with very preterm birth may exert differential effects on executive functioning by altering its neuroanatomical substrates. Here we addressed this question by investigating with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) the haemodynamic response during executive-type processing using a phonological verbal fluency and a working memory task in VPT-born young adults who had experienced differing degrees of neonatal brain injury. 12 VPT individuals with a history of periventricular haemorrhage and ventricular dilatation (PVH+VD), 17 VPT individuals with a history of uncomplicated periventricular haemorrhage (UPVH), 13 VPT individuals with no history of neonatal brain injury and 17 controls received an MRI scan whilst completing a verbal fluency task with two cognitive loads (‘easy’ and ‘hard’ letters). Two groups of VPT individuals (PVH+VD; n = 10, UPVH; n = 8) performed an n-back task with three cognitive loads (1-, 2-, 3-back). Results demonstrated that VPT individuals displayed hyperactivation in frontal, temporal, and parietal cortices and in caudate nucleus, insula and thalamus compared to controls, as demands of the verbal fluency task increased, regardless of type of neonatal brain injury. On the other hand, during the n-back task and as working memory load increased, the PVH+VD group showed less engagement of the frontal cortex than the UPVH group. In conclusion, this study suggests that the functional neuroanatomy of different executive-type processes is altered following VPT birth and that neural activation associated with specific aspects of executive function (i.e., working memory) may be particularly sensitive to the extent of neonatal brain injury. PMID:25438043

  4. The impact of sustained engagement on cognitive function in older adults: the Synapse Project.

    PubMed

    Park, Denise C; Lodi-Smith, Jennifer; Drew, Linda; Haber, Sara; Hebrank, Andrew; Bischof, Grard N; Aamodt, Whitley

    2014-01-01

    In the research reported here, we tested the hypothesis that sustained engagement in learning new skills that activated working memory, episodic memory, and reasoning over a period of 3 months would enhance cognitive function in older adults. In three conditions with high cognitive demands, participants learned to quilt, learned digital photography, or engaged in both activities for an average of 16.51 hr a week for 3 months. Results at posttest indicated that episodic memory was enhanced in these productive-engagement conditions relative to receptive-engagement conditions, in which participants either engaged in nonintellectual activities with a social group or performed low-demand cognitive tasks with no social contact. The findings suggest that sustained engagement in cognitively demanding, novel activities enhances memory function in older adulthood, but, somewhat surprisingly, we found limited cognitive benefits of sustained engagement in social activities. PMID:24214244

  5. The human function compunction: teleological explanation in adults.

    PubMed

    Kelemen, Deborah; Rosset, Evelyn

    2009-04-01

    Research has found that children possess a broad bias in favor of teleological--or purpose-based--explanations of natural phenomena. The current two experiments explored whether adults implicitly possess a similar bias. In Study 1, undergraduates judged a series of statements as "good" (i.e., correct) or "bad" (i.e., incorrect) explanations for why different phenomena occur. Judgments occurred in one of three conditions: fast speeded, moderately speeded, or unspeeded. Participants in speeded conditions judged significantly more scientifically unwarranted teleological explanations as correct (e.g., "the sun radiates heat because warmth nurtures life"), but were not more error-prone on control items (e.g., unwarranted physical explanations such as "hills form because floodwater freezes"). Study 2 extended these findings by examining the relationship between different aspects of adults' "promiscuous teleology" and other variables such as scientific knowledge, religious beliefs, and inhibitory control. Implications of these findings for scientific literacy are discussed. PMID:19200537

  6. Physical Activity and Depressive Symptoms Interact to Predict Executive Functioning Among Community Dwelling Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Segerstrom, Suzanne C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical activity is beneficial for the executive functioning (EF) of older adults, but may be particularly protective of EF when they are cognitively vulnerable, such as during depressive episodes. Intervention studies support more potent effects of physical activity on EF among clinically depressed older adults, though these results may have limited generalizability to the daily mood and physical activity of healthy, community dwelling older adults. Methods The current study aimed to test whether physical activity among older adults was more protective of EF during periods of cognitive vulnerability due to mildly elevated depressive symptoms. Longitudinal data from 150 generally healthy, community dwelling older adults were collected semi-annually and analyzed with multilevel modeling. Results Physical activity was more protective of EF within individuals during periods of relatively elevated depressive symptoms. Conclusions The power of physical activity to protect EF during periods of cognitive vulnerability may extend to community dwelling older adults with non-clinical levels of depressive symptoms. PMID:26524235

  7. Adolescent and Adult Alcohol Attitudes in a High Alcohol Consumption Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Haan, Laura; Thompson, Kevin M.

    2003-01-01

    The study examines alcohol-related attitudes among adolescents and adults in a high consumption community, exploring whether adolescents and adults hold similar or different views regarding adolescent drinking. Data were gathered from adults in a Midwestern city via random telephone survey of 487 adults (30% with children under the age of 21).

  8. Comparing the Functioning of Youth and Adult Partnerships for Health Promotion.

    PubMed

    Brown, Louis D; Redelfs, Alisha H; Taylor, Thomas J; Messer, Reanna L

    2015-09-01

    Youth partnerships are a promising but understudied strategy for prevention and health promotion. Specifically, little is known about how the functioning of youth partnerships differs from that of adult partnerships. Accordingly, this study compared the functioning of youth partnerships with that of adult partnerships. Several aspects of partnership functioning, including leadership, task focus, cohesion, participation costs and benefits, and community support, were examined. Standardized partnership functioning surveys were administered to participants in three smoke-free youth coalitions (n=44; 45% female; 43% non-Hispanic white; mean age=13) and in 53 Communities That Care adult coalitions (n=673; 69% female; 88% non-Hispanic white; mean age=49). Multilevel regression analyses showed that most aspects of partnership functioning did not differ significantly between youth and adult partnerships. These findings are encouraging given the success of the adult partnerships in reducing community-level rates of substance use and delinquency. Although youth partnership functioning appears to be strong enough to support effective prevention strategies, youth partnerships faced substantially more participation difficulties than adult partnerships. Strategies that youth partnerships can use to manage these challenges, such as creative scheduling and increasing opportunities for youth to help others directly, are discussed. PMID:26066568

  9. Long-Term Consequences of Adolescent Gang Membership for Adult Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Karl G.; Hawkins, J. David

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the possible public health consequences of adolescent gang membership for adult functioning. Methods. Data were drawn from the Seattle Social Development Project, a longitudinal study focusing on the development of positive and problem outcomes. Using propensity score matching and logistic regression analyses, we assessed the effects of adolescent gang membership on illegal behavior, educational and occupational attainment, and physical and mental health at the ages of 27, 30, and 33 years. Results. In comparison with their nongang peers, who had been matched on 23 confounding risk variables known to be related to selection into gang membership, those who had joined a gang in adolescence had poorer outcomes in multiple areas of adult functioning, including higher rates of self-reported crime, receipt of illegal income, incarceration, drug abuse or dependence, poor general health, and welfare receipt and lower rates of high school graduation. Conclusions. The finding that adolescent gang membership has significant consequences in adulthood beyond criminal behavior indicates the public health importance of the development of effective gang prevention programs. PMID:24625155

  10. Adult Male Circumcision: Effects on Sexual Function and Sexual Satisfaction in Kisumu, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Krieger, John N.; Mehta, Supriya D.; Bailey, Robert C.; Agot, Kawango; Ndinya-Achola, Jeckoniah O.; Parker, Corette; Moses, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Male circumcision is being promoted for HIV prevention in high-risk heterosexual populations. However, there is a concern that circumcision may impair sexual function. Aim To assess adult male circumcisions effect on mens sexual function and pleasure. Methods Participants in a controlled trial of circumcision to reduce HIV incidence in Kisumu, Kenya were uncircumcised, HIV negative, sexually active men, aged 1824 years, with a hemoglobin ?9.0 mmol/L. Exclusion criteria included foreskin covering less than half the glans, a condition that might unduly increase surgical risks, or a medical indication for circumcision. Participants were randomized 1:1 to either immediate circumcision or delayed circumcision after 2 years (control group). Detailed evaluations occurred at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Main Outcome Measures (i) Sexual function between circumcised and uncircumcised men; and (ii) sexual satisfaction and pleasure over time following circumcision. Results Between February 2002 and September 2005, 2,784 participants were randomized, including the 100 excluded from this analysis because they crossed over, were not circumcised within 30 days of randomization, did not complete baseline interviews, or were outside the age range. For the circumcision and control groups, respectively, rates of any reported sexual dysfunction decreased from 23.6% and 25.9% at baseline to 6.2% and 5.8% at month 24. Changes over time were not associated with circumcision status. Compared to before they were circumcised, 64.0% of circumcised men reported their penis was much more sensitive, and 54.5% rated their ease of reaching orgasm as much more at month 24. Conclusions Adult male circumcision was not associated with sexual dysfunction. Circumcised men reported increased penile sensitivity and enhanced ease of reaching orgasm. These data indicate that integration of male circumcision into programs to reduce HIV risk is unlikely to adversely effect male sexual function. PMID:18761593

  11. Alarming high prevalence of metabolic syndrome among Jordanian adults

    PubMed Central

    Obeidat, Ahmad A.; Ahmad, Mousa N.; Haddad, Fares H.; Azzeh, Firas S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the prevalence and the individual components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Jordanian adults. Methods: In this cross sectional study, 630 adult subjects (308 men and 322 women) aged between 20-70 years were recruited from the clinics at the King Hussein Medical Center. The diagnosis of MetS was made according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria-2005. Blood samples were collected after 10-12 hours overnight fasting and serum was obtained for biochemical analysis. Results: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome according to IDF criteria was 51% (46.4% in men and 55.3% in women). Prevalence of increased waist circumference in the total sample was 71.6%, 46% for high blood pressure, 42.4% for elevated fasting blood glucose, 43.5% for low high density lipoprotein, and 50.2% for hypertriglyceridemia. Conclusion: The prevalence and individual components of MetS in Jordan were high. Screening of MetS is needed at national level to reduce the incidence of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). PMID:26870100

  12. Brain Training Game Boosts Executive Functions, Working Memory and Processing Speed in the Young Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Nouchi, Rui; Taki, Yasuyuki; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Nozawa, Takayuki; Kambara, Toshimune; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Miyauchi, Carlos Makoto; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nouchi, Haruka; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2013-01-01

    Background Do brain training games work? The beneficial effects of brain training games are expected to transfer to other cognitive functions. Yet in all honesty, beneficial transfer effects of the commercial brain training games in young adults have little scientific basis. Here we investigated the impact of the brain training game (Brain Age) on a wide range of cognitive functions in young adults. Methods We conducted a double-blind (de facto masking) randomized controlled trial using a popular brain training game (Brain Age) and a popular puzzle game (Tetris). Thirty-two volunteers were recruited through an advertisement in the local newspaper and randomly assigned to either of two game groups (Brain Age, Tetris). Participants in both the Brain Age and the Tetris groups played their game for about 15 minutes per day, at least 5 days per week, for 4 weeks. Measures of the cognitive functions were conducted before and after training. Measures of the cognitive functions fell into eight categories (fluid intelligence, executive function, working memory, short-term memory, attention, processing speed, visual ability, and reading ability). Results and Discussion Our results showed that commercial brain training game improves executive functions, working memory, and processing speed in young adults. Moreover, the popular puzzle game can engender improvement attention and visuo-spatial ability compared to playing the brain training game. The present study showed the scientific evidence which the brain training game had the beneficial effects on cognitive functions (executive functions, working memory and processing speed) in the healthy young adults. Conclusions Our results do not indicate that everyone should play brain training games. However, the commercial brain training game might be a simple and convenient means to improve some cognitive functions. We believe that our findings are highly relevant to applications in educational and clinical fields. Trial Registration UMIN Clinical Trial Registry 000005618. PMID:23405164

  13. Functional Dissociation of Adult-Born Neurons Along the Dorsoventral Axis of the Dentate Gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Melody V.; Hen, Ren

    2014-01-01

    Adult-born granule cells in the mammalian dentate gyrus have long been implicated in hippocampal dependent spatial learning and behavioral effects of chronic antidepressant treatment. Although recent anatomical and functional evidence indicates a dissociation of the dorsal and ventral regions of the hippocampus, it is not known if adult neurogenesis within each region specifically contributes to distinct functions or whether adult-born cells along the entire dorsoventral axis are required for these behaviors. We examined the role of distinct subpopulations of adult-born hippocampal granule cells in learning- and anxiety-related behaviors using low-dose focal x-irradiation directed specifically to the dorsal or ventral dentate gyrus. Our findings indicate a functional dissociation between adult-born neurons along the longitudinal axis of the dentate gyrus wherein new neurons in the dorsal dentate gyrus are required for timely acquisition of contextual discrimination while immature neurons in the ventral dentate gyrus are necessary for anxiolytic/antidepressant-related effects of fluoxetine. Interestingly, when contexts are presented with altered temporal cues, or fluoxetine is administered alongside chronic glucocorticoid treatment, this dissociation is abrogated such that adult-born neurons across the entire dorsoventral extent of the dentate gyrus appear to contribute to these behaviors. Our results suggest that individual subpopulations of adult-born hippocampal neurons may be sufficient to mediate distinct behaviors in certain conditions, but are required to act in concert in more challenging situations. PMID:24550158

  14. Functional Brain Activation Associated with Inhibitory Control Deficits in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Coxon, James P; Goble, Daniel J; Leunissen, Inge; Van Impe, Annouchka; Wenderoth, Nicole; Swinnen, Stephan P

    2016-01-01

    In young adults, canceling an initiated action depends on the right inferior frontal cortex (IFC), presupplementary motor area (preSMA), and the basal ganglia. Older adults show response inhibition deficits, but how this relates to functional brain activation remains unclear. Using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging, we tested whether older adults (N = 20) exhibit overactivation during stop-signal inhibition as shown for attentional control tasks, or reduced activity compared with young adults (N = 20). We used a modified stop-signal task involving coupled bimanual responses and manipulated whether both or just one hand was cued to stop. Stop-task difficulty was matched across groups. We found a group by condition interaction in supramarginal gyrus, anterior insula, rIFC, and preSMA, with activation increasing for successful Stop versus Go trials in the young adults only. Comparing the groups on Stop trials revealed preSMA and striatum hypoactivity for older adults. White matter tracts connecting rIFC, preSMA, and the subthalamic nuclei were associated with stronger activation of preSMA in older adults, suggesting that maintenance of the brain's structure has positive implications for brain function. PMID:25085883

  15. Behavior Modification of Adult Illiterates and Functional Illiterates Who Learned To Read.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warsh, Herman Enoch

    The present study examined some effects of literacy achievement on the lives of 184 of the 215 adults who had successfully completed literacy training between 1962 and 1966 in the Flint, Michigan, Adult High School. Interviews and public records were used to gather data on student background, experiences during literary training, participants'…

  16. Behavior Modification of Adult Illiterates and Functional Illiterates Who Learned To Read.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warsh, Herman Enoch

    The present study examined some effects of literacy achievement on the lives of 184 of the 215 adults who had successfully completed literacy training between 1962 and 1966 in the Flint, Michigan, Adult High School. Interviews and public records were used to gather data on student background, experiences during literary training, participants'

  17. Exploring Functional Disability in Older Adults with Low Vision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travis, Linda A.; Boerner, Kathrin; Reinhardt, Joann P.; Horowitz, Amy

    2004-01-01

    This article reports on a study that explored the prevalence and predictors of functional disability that are due to visual problems as opposed to functional disability that is due to other health problems. It also discusses the implications for psychosocial and rehabilitative interventions that target different types of disability. (Contains 5

  18. Fasting Glucose and Glucose Tolerance as Potential Predictors of Neurocognitive Function among Non-diabetic Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Shellie-Anne T.; Katzel, Leslie I.; Rosenberger, William F.; Manukyan, Zorayr; Whitfield, Keith E.; Waldstein, Shari R.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Significant evidence has demonstrated that Type 2 diabetes mellitus and related pre-cursors are associated with diminished neurocognitive function and risk of dementia among older adults. However, very little research has examined relations of glucose regulation to neurocognitive function among older adults free of these conditions. The primary aim of this investigation was to examine associations among fasting glucose, glucose tolerance, and neurocognitive function among non-diabetic older adults. The secondary aim was to examine age, gender, and education as potential effect modifiers. Methods The study employed a cross-sectional, correlational study design. Participants were 172 older adults with a mean age of 64.43 years (SD = 13.09). The sample was 58% male and 87% White. Participants completed an oral glucose tolerance test as part of a larger study. Trained psychometricians administered neuropsychological tests that assessed performance in the domains of response inhibition, nonverbal memory, verbal memory, attention and working memory, visuoconstructional abilities, visuospatial abilities, psychomotor speed and executive function, and motor speed and manual dexterity. Linear multiple regressions were run to test study aims. Results No significant main effects of fasting glucose and 2-hour glucose emerged for performance on any neurocognitive test; however, significant interactions were present. Higher fasting glucose was associated with poorer short-term verbal memory performance among men, but unexpectedly better response inhibition and long-term verbal memory performance for participants over age 70. Higher 2-hour glucose values were associated with reduced divided attention performance among participants with less than a high school education. Conclusions Mixed findings suggest that glucose levels may be both beneficial and deleterious to neurocognition among non-diabetic older adults. Additional studies with healthy older adults are needed to confirm this unexpected pattern of associations; however, findings have implications for the importance of maintaining healthy glucose levels in older adulthood. PMID:25562529

  19. High-resolution interferometric imaging of stress propagation in pediatric and adult skulls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conerty, Michelle D.; Castracane, James; Clow, Lawrence P., Jr.; Koltai, Peter J.; Mouzakes, Jason

    1997-05-01

    Variations based on bone growth and development make stress and fracture propagation differ greatly in pediatric skulls as compared to adult skulls. Differentiating the stress propagation between the pediatric and adult skulls can improve diagnostic prediction when presented with direct frontal impact on a pediatric skull, a fairly common occurrence in the clinical environment. Critical diagnostic information can be learned from an in depth study of stress propagation as a function of impact force at critical locations on the periorbital region of the human skull. The Division of Pediatric Otolaryngology at Albany Medical College and InterScience, Inc. are utilizing electronic speckle pattern interferometry detection (ESPI) and high resolution imaging to evaluate and compare stress propagation in pediatric and adult skulls. A dual detection ESPI system was developed which integrates a medium resolution (2/3') CCD capable of real-time image processing, with a high resolution, megapixel detector capable of limited real time acquisition and image processing in software. Options to allow for high speed detection include integrating a custom, high performance image intensifier with the megapixel detector leg to be used as a high speed gate. The dual optical layout will allow for continuous and pulsed ESPI evaluation of calibrated impacts at specific landmarks on the skull. The goal of this work is to produce a full quantitative analysis of the stress propagation in pediatric versus adult skulls for a better understanding of bone dynamics. The work presented below concentrates on the development of the dual detection ESPI system and initial results achieved with an adult cadaver skull.

  20. A Quantitative Review of Cognitive Functioning in Homeless Adults

    PubMed Central

    Depp, Colin A; Vella, Lea; Orff, Henry J; Twamley, Elizabeth W

    2014-01-01

    Homeless people experience elevated rates of risk factors for cognitive impairment. We reviewed available peer-reviewed studies reporting data from objective measures of cognition in samples identified as homeless. Pooled sample-weighted estimates of global cognitive screening measures, full scale IQ, and pre-morbid IQ were calculated, in addition to pooled sample characteristics to understand the representativeness of available studies. A total of 24 unique studies were identified, with 2969 subjects. The pooled estimate for the frequency of cognitive impairment was 25%, and the mean full scale IQ score was 85, one standard deviation below the mean of the normal population. Cognitive impairment was found to common among homeless adults, and may be a transdiagnostic problem that impedes rehabilitative efforts in this population. Comparatively little data is available about cognition in homeless women and unsheltered persons. PMID:25594792

  1. Conjugated linoleic acid prevents high glucose-induced hypertrophy and contractile dysfunction in adult rat cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Aloud, Basma Milad; Raj, Pema; O'Hara, Kimberley; Shao, Zongjun; Yu, Liping; Anderson, Hope D; Netticadan, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with increased risk and incidence of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, independently of other risk factors typically associated with diabetes such as coronary artery disease and hypertension. This promotes the development of a distinct condition of the heart muscle known as diabetic cardiomyopathy. We have previously shown that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) prevents endothelin-1-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. However, the effects of CLA in preventing alterations in cardiomyocyte structure and function due to high glucose are unknown. We therefore hypothesized that CLA will have protective effects in an in vitro model of diabetic cardiomyopathy using adult rat cardiomyocytes exposed to high glucose. Our results demonstrate that subjecting adult rat cardiomyocytes to high glucose (25 mmol/L) for 24 hours significantly impaired the contractile function as evidenced by decreases in maximal velocity of shortening, peak shortening, and maximal velocity of relengthening. High glucose-induced contractile dysfunction was inhibited by pretreatment with CLA (30 ?mol/L; 1 hour). In addition to contractile aberrations, exposing adult rat cardiomyocytes to high glucose for 48 hours induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. High glucose-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy was likewise prevented by CLA. The antihypertrophic effects of CLA were abolished when cardiomyocytes were pretreated with the pharmacologic inhibitor of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?, GW9662 (1 ?mol/L). In conclusion, our findings show that exposing cardiomyocytes to high glucose results in cardiomyocyte functional and structural abnormalities, and these abnormalities are prevented by pretreatment with CLA and mediated, in part, by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? activation. PMID:26826429

  2. Health-Related Stigma as a Determinant of Functioning in Young Adults with Narcolepsy

    PubMed Central

    Kapella, Mary C.; Berger, Barbara E.; Vern, Boris A.; Vispute, Sachin; Prasad, Bharati; Carley, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Symptoms of narcolepsy tend to arise during adolescence or young adulthood, a formative time in human development during which people are usually completing their education and launching a career. Little is known about the impact of narcolepsy on the social aspects of health-related quality of life in young adults. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between health-related stigma, mood (anxiety and depression) and daytime functioning in young adults with narcolepsy compared to those without narcolepsy. Young adults (age 1835) with narcolepsy (N = 122) and without narcolepsy (N = 93) were mailed a packet that included questionnaires and a self-addressed postage paid envelope. The questionnaire included demographic information and a composite of instruments including the SF 36, Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ), Fife Stigma Scale (FSS), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Variable associations were assessed using descriptive statistics, ANOVA, Mann-Whitney U Test, correlations, stepwise multiple regression and path analysis. Young adults with narcolepsy perceived significantly more stigma and lower mood and health-related quality of life than young adults without narcolepsy (p<0.01). Health-related stigma was directly and indirectly associated with lower functioning through depressed mood. Fifty-two percent of the variance in functioning was explained by the final model in the young adults with narcolepsy. Health-related stigma in young adults with narcolepsy is at a level consistent with other chronic medical illnesses. Health-related stigma may be an important determinant of functioning in young adults with narcolepsy. Future work is indicated toward further characterizing stigma and developing interventions that address various domains of stigma in people with narcolepsy. PMID:25898361

  3. Health-related stigma as a determinant of functioning in young adults with narcolepsy.

    PubMed

    Kapella, Mary C; Berger, Barbara E; Vern, Boris A; Vispute, Sachin; Prasad, Bharati; Carley, David W

    2015-01-01

    Symptoms of narcolepsy tend to arise during adolescence or young adulthood, a formative time in human development during which people are usually completing their education and launching a career. Little is known about the impact of narcolepsy on the social aspects of health-related quality of life in young adults. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between health-related stigma, mood (anxiety and depression) and daytime functioning in young adults with narcolepsy compared to those without narcolepsy. Young adults (age 18-35) with narcolepsy (N = 122) and without narcolepsy (N = 93) were mailed a packet that included questionnaires and a self-addressed postage paid envelope. The questionnaire included demographic information and a composite of instruments including the SF 36, Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ), Fife Stigma Scale (FSS), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Variable associations were assessed using descriptive statistics, ANOVA, Mann-Whitney U Test, correlations, stepwise multiple regression and path analysis. Young adults with narcolepsy perceived significantly more stigma and lower mood and health-related quality of life than young adults without narcolepsy (p<0.01). Health-related stigma was directly and indirectly associated with lower functioning through depressed mood. Fifty-two percent of the variance in functioning was explained by the final model in the young adults with narcolepsy. Health-related stigma in young adults with narcolepsy is at a level consistent with other chronic medical illnesses. Health-related stigma may be an important determinant of functioning in young adults with narcolepsy. Future work is indicated toward further characterizing stigma and developing interventions that address various domains of stigma in people with narcolepsy. PMID:25898361

  4. Psychiatric Comorbidity and Functioning in a Clinically Referred Population of Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joshi, Gagan; Wozniak, Janet; Petty, Carter; Martelon, Mary Kate; Fried, Ronna; Bolfek, Anela; Kotte, Amelia; Stevens, Jonathan; Furtak, Stephannie L.; Bourgeois, Michelle; Caruso, Janet; Caron, Ashley; Biederman, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    To systematically examine the patterns of psychiatric comorbidity and functioning in clinically referred adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Psychiatrically referred adults with and without ASD were compared on measures assessing for psychiatric comorbidity and psychosocial functioning. Sixty-three adults with ASD participated in the…

  5. Psychiatric Comorbidity and Functioning in a Clinically Referred Population of Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joshi, Gagan; Wozniak, Janet; Petty, Carter; Martelon, Mary Kate; Fried, Ronna; Bolfek, Anela; Kotte, Amelia; Stevens, Jonathan; Furtak, Stephannie L.; Bourgeois, Michelle; Caruso, Janet; Caron, Ashley; Biederman, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    To systematically examine the patterns of psychiatric comorbidity and functioning in clinically referred adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Psychiatrically referred adults with and without ASD were compared on measures assessing for psychiatric comorbidity and psychosocial functioning. Sixty-three adults with ASD participated in the

  6. Parenting Style, Perfectionism, and Creativity in High-Ability and High-Achieving Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Angie L.; Lambert, Amber D.; Speirs Neumeister, Kristie L.

    2012-01-01

    The current study explores the potential relationships among perceived parenting style, perfectionism, and creativity in a high-ability and high-achieving young adult population. Using data from 323 honors college students at a Midwestern university, bivariate correlations suggested positive relationships between (a) permissive parenting style and

  7. Mothers' exercise during pregnancy programs vasomotor function in adult offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The intrauterine environment is influenced by maternal behavior and known to influence lifelong atherosclerotic disease susceptibility in offspring. The purpose of this investigation was to test the hypothesis that maternal exercise during pregnancy increases endothelial function in offs...

  8. Project REALISTIC: Determination of Adult Functional Literacy Skill Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sticht, Thomas G.; And Others

    1972-01-01

    Project REALISTIC, sponsored by the Department of the Army under contract with the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO), was designed to determine functional literacy levels for selected military jobs having civilian counterparts. (MM)

  9. Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids improve brain function and structure in older adults.

    PubMed

    Witte, A Veronica; Kerti, Lucia; Hermannstädter, Henrike M; Fiebach, Jochen B; Schreiber, Stephan J; Schuchardt, Jan Philipp; Hahn, Andreas; Flöel, Agnes

    2014-11-01

    Higher intake of seafish or oil rich in long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-n3-FA) may be beneficial for the aging brain. We tested in a prospective interventional design whether high levels of supplementary LC-n3-FA would improve cognition, and addressed potential mechanisms underlying the effects. Sixty-five healthy subjects (50-75 years, 30 females) successfully completed 26 weeks of either fish oil (2.2 g/day LC-n3-FA) or placebo intake. Before and after the intervention period, cognitive performance, structural neuroimaging, vascular markers, and blood parameters were assayed. We found a significant increase in executive functions after LC-n3-FA compared with placebo (P = 0.023). In parallel, LC-n3-FA exerted beneficial effects on white matter microstructural integrity and gray matter volume in frontal, temporal, parietal, and limbic areas primarily of the left hemisphere, and on carotid intima media thickness and diastolic blood pressure. Improvements in executive functions correlated positively with changes in omega-3-index and peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and negatively with changes in peripheral fasting insulin. This double-blind randomized interventional study provides first-time evidence that LC-n3-FA exert positive effects on brain functions in healthy older adults, and elucidates underlying mechanisms. Our findings suggest novel strategies to maintain cognitive functions into old age. PMID:23796946

  10. Influence of hyperoxia and mechanical ventilation in lung inflammation and diaphragm function in aged versus adult rats.

    PubMed

    Andrade, P V; dos Santos, J M; Silva, H C A; Wilbert, D D; Cavassani, S S; Oliveira-Jnior, I S

    2014-04-01

    Although assist ventilation with FIO2 0.21 is the preferable mode of ventilation in the intensive care unit, sometimes controlled ventilation with hyperoxia is needed. But the impact of this setting has not been extensively studied in elderly subjects. We hypothesized that a high fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO(2)) and controlled mechanical ventilation (CMV) is associated with greater deleterious effects in old compared to adult subjects. Adult and old rats were submitted to CMV with low tidal volume (6 ml/kg) and FiO(2) 1 during 3 or 6 h. Arterial blood gas samples were measured at 0, 60 and 180 min (four groups: old and adult rats, 3 or 6 h of CMV), and additionally at 360 min (two groups: old and adult rats, 6 h of CMV). Furthermore, total protein content (TPC) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) in bronchoalveolar lavage were assessed; lung tissue was used for malondialdehyde and histological analyses, and the diaphragm for measurement of contractile function. Arterial blood gas analysis showed an initial (60 min) greater PaO(2) in elderly versus adult animals; after that time, elderly animals had lowers pH and PaO(2), and greater PaCO(2). After 3 h of CMV, TPC and TNF-? levels were higher in the old compared with the adult group (P?adult animals (P?function and increasing lung inflammation. PMID:24158570

  11. Alterations in Platelet Functions During Aging: Clinical Correlations with Thrombo-Inflammatory Disease in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Mohebali, Donya; Kaplan, David; Carlisle, McKenzie; Supiano, Mark A.; Rondina, Matthew T.

    2014-01-01

    Platelets possess a dynamic functional repertoire that mediates hemostatic and inflammatory responses. Many of these functions are altered in older adults, promoting a pro-thrombotic and pro-inflammatory milieu and contributing to an increased risk of adverse clinical events. This review summarizes, drawing primarily from human studies, key aspects of aging-related changes in platelets. The relationship between altered platelet functions and thrombotic and inflammatory disorders in older adults is highlighted. Established and developing anti-platelet therapies for the treatment of thrombotic and inflammatory disorders are also discussed in light of these data. PMID:24512275

  12. Alteration of mitochondrial function in adult rat offspring of malnourished dams

    PubMed Central

    Reusens, Brigitte; Theys, Nicolas; Remacle, Claude

    2011-01-01

    Under-nutrition as well as over-nutrition during pregnancy has been associated with the development of adult diseases such as diabetes and obesity. Both epigenetic modifications and programming of the mitochondrial function have been recently proposed to explain how altered intrauterine metabolic environment may produce such a phenotype. This review aims to report data reported in several animal models of fetal malnutrition due to maternal low protein or low calorie diet, high fat diet as well as reduction in placental blood flow. We focus our overview on the ? cell. We highlight that, notwithstanding early nutritional events, mitochondrial dysfunctions resulting from different alteration by diet or gender are programmed. This may explain the higher propensity to develop obesity and diabetes in later life. PMID:21954419

  13. Optimizing the benefits of exercise on physical function in older adults.

    PubMed

    Buford, Thomas W; Anton, Stephen D; Clark, David J; Higgins, Torrance J; Cooke, Matthew B

    2014-06-01

    As the number of older adults continues to rise worldwide, the prevention of physical disability among seniors is an increasingly important public health priority. Physical exercise is among the best known methods of preventing disability, but accumulating evidence indicates that considerable variability exists in the responsiveness of older adults to standard training regimens. Accordingly, a need exists to develop tailored interventions to optimize the beneficial effects of exercise on the physical function of older adults at risk for becoming disabled. The present review summarizes the available literature related to the use of adjuvant or alternative strategies intended to enhance the efficacy of exercise in improving the physical function of older adults. Within this work, we also discuss potential future research directions in this area. PMID:24361365

  14. Optimizing the Benefits of Exercise on Physical Function in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Buford, Thomas W.; Anton, Stephen D.; Clark, David J.; Higgins, Torrance J.; Cooke, Matthew B.

    2014-01-01

    As the number of older adults continues to rise worldwide, the prevention of physical disability among seniors is an increasingly important public health priority. Physical exercise is among the best known methods of preventing disability, but accumulating evidence indicates that considerable variability exists in the responsiveness of older adults to standard training regimens. Accordingly, a need exists to develop tailored interventions to optimize the beneficial effects of exercise on the physical function of older adults at risk for becoming disabled. The present review summarizes the available literature related to the use of adjuvant or alternative strategies intended to enhance the efficacy of exercise in improving the physical function of older adults. Within this work, we also discuss potential future research directions in this area. PMID:24361365

  15. Autocrine Action of IGF2 Regulates Adult β-Cell Mass and Function.

    PubMed

    Modi, Honey; Jacovetti, Cecile; Tarussio, David; Metref, Salima; Madsen, Ole D; Zhang, Fu-Ping; Rantakari, Pia; Poutanen, Matti; Nef, Serge; Gorman, Tracy; Regazzi, Romano; Thorens, Bernard

    2015-12-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2), produced and secreted by adult β-cells, functions as an autocrine activator of the β-cell insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor signaling pathway. Whether this autocrine activity of IGF2 plays a physiological role in β-cell and whole-body physiology is not known. Here, we studied mice with β-cell-specific inactivation of Igf2 (βIGF2KO mice) and assessed β-cell mass and function in aging, pregnancy, and acute induction of insulin resistance. We showed that glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) was markedly reduced in old female βIGF2KO mice; glucose tolerance was, however, normal because of increased insulin sensitivity. While on a high-fat diet, both male and female βIGF2KO mice displayed lower GSIS compared with control mice, but reduced β-cell mass was observed only in female βIGF2KO mice. During pregnancy, there was no increase in β-cell proliferation and mass in βIGF2KO mice. Finally, β-cell mass expansion in response to acute induction of insulin resistance was lower in βIGF2KO mice than in control mice. Thus, the autocrine action of IGF2 regulates adult β-cell mass and function to preserve in vivo GSIS in aging and to adapt β-cell mass in response to metabolic stress, pregnancy hormones, and acute induction of insulin resistance. PMID:26384384

  16. Functional Changes in Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krakovsky, Gina; Huth, Myra Martz; Lin, Li; Levin, Ron S.

    2007-01-01

    Children with multiple handicaps, including cerebral palsy (CP), often lose or regress in their functional ability through adolescence and young adulthood. The purpose of this study was to examine functional and psychosocial changes in children, adolescents, and young adults with CP. A retrospective chart review and a prospective telephone…

  17. Functional Analysis and Treatment of Problem Behavior of Elderly Adults in Long-Term Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer-Moore, Kimberly J.; Dixon, Mark R.

    2007-01-01

    Functional analyses were conducted for the problem behavior of 3 older adults in a long-term care setting. Two of the problem behaviors were maintained by attention, and a third was maintained by escape from demands. Function-based interventions were implemented that resulted in decreases in problem behavior in each case. Implications for the use…

  18. Atypical Cerebral Lateralisation in Adults with Compensated Developmental Dyslexia Demonstrated Using Functional Transcranial Doppler Ultrasound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illingworth, Sarah; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.

    2009-01-01

    Functional transcranial Doppler ultrasound (fTCD) is a relatively new and non-invasive technique that assesses cerebral lateralisation through measurements of blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral arteries. In this study fTCD was used to compare functional asymmetry during a word generation task between a group of 30 dyslexic adults and a

  19. Functional Analysis and Treatment of Problem Behavior of Elderly Adults in Long-Term Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer-Moore, Kimberly J.; Dixon, Mark R.

    2007-01-01

    Functional analyses were conducted for the problem behavior of 3 older adults in a long-term care setting. Two of the problem behaviors were maintained by attention, and a third was maintained by escape from demands. Function-based interventions were implemented that resulted in decreases in problem behavior in each case. Implications for the use

  20. Flexibility Training and Functional Ability in Older Adults: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Stathokostas, Liza; Little, Robert M. D.; Vandervoort, A. A.; Paterson, Donald H.

    2012-01-01

    Background. As indicated in a recent systematic review relating to Canada's Physical Activity Guidelines for Older Adults, exercise interventions in older adults can maintain or improve functional abilities. Less is known about the role of flexibility in the maintenance or improvement of functional abilities, and there currently does not exist a synthesis of the literature supporting a consensus on flexibility training prescription. Purpose. To systematically review the effects of flexibility-specific training interventions on measures of functional outcomes in healthy older adults over the age of 65 years. Methods. Five electronic databases were searched for intervention studies involving concepts related to aging, flexibility, functional outcomes, and training interventions. After evaluating the articles for relevance, 22 studies were considered. Results. The results suggested that while flexibility-specific interventions may have effects on range of motion (ROM) outcomes, there is conflicting information regarding both the relationship between flexibility interventions and functional outcomes or daily functioning. Conclusions. Due to the wide range of intervention protocols, body parts studied, and functional measurements, conclusive recommendations regarding flexibility training for older adults or the validity of flexibility training interventions as supplements to other forms of exercise, or as significant positive influences on functional ability, require further investigation. PMID:23209904

  1. Relation between Fluid Intelligence and Frontal Lobe Functioning in Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isingrini, Michel; Vazou, Florence

    1997-01-01

    Examines relationships among normal aging, intelligence, and frontal lobe functioning. Results, based on intelligence tasks and frontal lobe functioning tasks administered to 107 adults from two age groups, indicate significant age differences in favor of the young on the intelligence tests, with a fluid component on measures of frontal lobe…

  2. Oral Narrative Skills in French Adults Who Are Functionally Illiterate: Linguistic Features and Discourse Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eme, Elsa; Lacroix, Agnes; Almecija, Yves

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the nature and extent of oral language difficulties encountered by adults who are functionally illiterate. Method: Fifty-two men and women identified as functionally illiterate, together with a group of control individuals of comparable age, sex, and socioprofessional background, produced a narrative intended for an absent

  3. Atypical Cerebral Lateralisation in Adults with Compensated Developmental Dyslexia Demonstrated Using Functional Transcranial Doppler Ultrasound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illingworth, Sarah; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.

    2009-01-01

    Functional transcranial Doppler ultrasound (fTCD) is a relatively new and non-invasive technique that assesses cerebral lateralisation through measurements of blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral arteries. In this study fTCD was used to compare functional asymmetry during a word generation task between a group of 30 dyslexic adults and a…

  4. A new multichannel near infrared spectrophotometry system for functional studies of the brain in adults and neonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haensse, Daniel; Szabo, Peter; Brown, Derek; Fauchre, Jean-Claude; Niederer, Peter; Bucher, Hans-Ulrich; Wolf, Martin

    2005-06-01

    We have designed a versatile, multi-channel near-infrared spectrophotometry (NIRS) instrument for the purpose of mapping neuronal activation in the neonatal and adult brain in response to motor, tactile, and visual stimulation. The optical linearity, stability, and high signal to noise ratio (>70 dB) of the instrument were demonstrated using an in vitro validation procedure. In vivo measurements on the adult forearm were also performed. Changes in oxygenation, induced by arterial occlusion of the forearm, were recorded and were shown to compare well with measurements acquired using a conventional NIRS instrument. To demonstrate the capabilities of the instrument, functional measurements in adults and neonates were performed. The instrument exhibited the capability to differentiate with a spatial resolution in the order of cm, local activation patterns associated with a finger tapping sequence.

  5. Structure of reflective functioning and adult attachment scales: overlap and distinctions.

    PubMed

    Jessee, Allison; Mangelsdorf, Sarah C; Wong, Maria S; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J; Brown, Geoffrey L

    2016-04-01

    This investigation examined the structure of reflective functioning (RF) - an understanding of the links between mental states and behaviors - and adult attachment scales. Both RF and traditional adult attachment scales were coded based on 194 prebirth Adult Attachment Interviews (AAI). Correlational and factor analyses indicated considerable overlap between RF and traditional AAI coding. Exploratory factor analyses of RF and AAI state-of-mind scales indicated that RF loaded, along with coherence of mind, on the primary factor distinguishing between individuals categorized as secure and dismissing. These findings indicate substantial overlap between RF and AAI scales; however, the magnitude of the correlations between these scales indicates that they are not redundant. PMID:26754258

  6. More Young Adults at Risk for High Blood Pressure | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... young adults have high blood pressure. NIH-funded analysis indicates higher risk for young adults than previously ... 12 ounces of beer or five ounces of wine.) Finally, quit smoking. Among other things, smoking damages ...

  7. THE EFFECT OF PLAUSIBILITY ON SENTENCE COMPREHENSION AMONG OLDER ADULTS AND ITS RELATION TO COGNITIVE FUNCTIONS

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jungmee; Campanelli, Luca; Goral, Mira; Marton, Klara; Eichorn, Naomi; Obler, Loraine K.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Study Context Older adults show age-related decline in complex-sentence comprehension. This has been attributed to a decrease in cognitive abilities that may support language processing, such as working memory (e.g., Caplan, DeDe, Waters, & Michaud, 2011,Psychology and Aging, 26, 439450). The authors examined whether older adults have difficulty comprehending semantically implausible sentences and whether specific executive functions contribute to their comprehension performance. Methods Forty-two younger adults (aged 1835) and 42 older adults (aged 5575) were tested on two experimental tasks: a multiple negative comprehension task and an information processing battery. Results Both groups, older and younger adults, showed poorer performance for implausible sentences than for plausible sentences; however, no interaction was found between plausibility and age group. A regression analysis revealed that inhibition efficiency, as measured by a task that required resistance to proactive interference, predicted comprehension of implausible sentences in older adults only. Consistent with the compensation hypothesis, the older adults with better inhibition skills showed better comprehension than those with poor inhibition skills. Conclusion The findings suggest that semantic implausibility, along with syntactic complexity, increases linguistic and cognitive processing loads on auditory sentence comprehension. Moreover, the contribution of inhibitory control to the processing of semantic plausibility, particularly among older adults, suggests that the relationship between cognitive ability and language comprehension is strongly influenced by age. PMID:25978447

  8. Mouse model of CADASIL reveals novel insights into Notch3 function in adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ehret, Fanny; Vogler, Steffen; Pojar, Sherin; Elliott, David A; Bradke, Frank; Steiner, Barbara; Kempermann, Gerd

    2015-03-01

    Could impaired adult hippocampal neurogenesis be a relevant mechanism underlying CADASIL (cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy)? Memory symptoms in CADASIL, the most common hereditary form of vascular dementia, are usually thought to be primarily due to vascular degeneration and white matter lacunes. Since adult hippocampal neurogenesis, a process essential for the integration of new spatial memory occurs in a highly vascularized niche, we considered dysregulation of adult neurogenesis as a potential mechanism for the manifestation of dementia in CADASIL. Analysis in aged mice overexpressing Notch3 with a CADASIL mutation, revealed vascular deficits in arteries of the hippocampal fissure but not in the niche of the dentate gyrus. At 12 months of age, cell proliferation and survival of newborn neurons were reduced not only in CADASIL mice but also in transgenic controls overexpressing wild type Notch3. At 6 months, hippocampal neurogenesis was altered in CADASIL mice independent of overt vascular abnormalities in the fissure. Further, we identified Notch3 expression in hippocampal precursor cells and maturing neurons in vivo as well as in cultured hippocampal precursor cells. Overexpression and knockdown experiments showed that Notch3 signaling negatively regulated precursor cell proliferation. Notch3 overexpression also led to deficits in KCl-induced precursor cell activation. This suggests a cell-autonomous effect of Notch3 signaling in the regulation of precursor proliferation and activation and a loss-of-function effect in CADASIL. Consequently, besides vascular damage, aberrant precursor cell proliferation and differentiation due to Notch3 dysfunction might be an additional independent mechanism for the development of hippocampal dysfunction in CADASIL. PMID:25555543

  9. The Functional Profile of Young Adults with Suspected Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tal-Saban, Miri; Zarka, Salman; Grotto, Itamar; Ornoy, Asher; Parush, Shula

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the non-academic and academic functioning of young adults with DCD, and investigated the emotional influences and the role of strategy use within this population. A random sample of 2379 adolescents and young adults aged 19-25 (1081 males [45.4%]; mean age = 20.68, SD = 3.42) was used to develop the instruments. From this sample, three

  10. Food insecurity and cognitive function in Puerto Rican adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food insecurity is associated with nutrient inadequacy and a variety of unfavorable health outcomes. However, little is known about whether food security is associated with lower cognitive function in the elderly. We investigated the prevalence of food insecurity in a representative sample of 1358 P...

  11. Aspects of Cognitive Functioning in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Elizabeth A.; Small, Brent J.

    2006-01-01

    Recently, more attention is being given to identifying aging-related and dementia-related pathological changes in performance and cognition among persons with intellectual disabilities (ID). This literature review examines age-related differences in specific aspects of cognitive functioning and cognitive performance of people with ID and

  12. Obesity in older adults: relationship to functional limitation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose of review This review is intended to provide a critical overview of recent investigations of obesity among older persons with emphasis upon associated functional limitations, potential for intervention, and a future research agenda. Recent findings Obesity is growing in prevalence among...

  13. Pulse Wave Velocity and Cognitive Function in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Wenjun; Cruickshanks, Karen J; Schubert, Carla R; Carlsson, Cynthia M; Chappell, Richard J; Klein, Barbara EK; Klein, Ronald; Acher, Charles W

    2013-01-01

    Arterial stiffness may be associated with cognitive function. In this study, pulse wave velocity (PWV) was measured from the carotid to femoral (CF-PWV) and from the carotid to radial (CR-PWV) with the Complior SP System (Alam Medical, Vincennes, France). Cognitive function was measured by six tests of executive function, psychomotor speed, memory, and language fluency. A total of 1433 participants were included (mean age 75 years, 43% men). Adjusting for age, sex, education, pulse rate, hemoglobin A1C, HDL cholesterol, hypertension, CVD history, smoking ,drinking, and depression symptoms, a CF-PWV > 12 m/s was associated with a lower Mini-Mental State Examination score (coefficient: ?0.31, se: 0.11, p=0.005), fewer words recalled on Auditory Verbal Learning Test (coefficient: ?1.10, se: 0.43, p=0.01), and lower score on the composite cognition score (coefficient: ?0.10, se: 0.05, p=0.04) and marginally significantly associated with longer time to complete Trail Making Test-B (coefficient: 6.30, se: 3.41, p=0.06), CF-PWV was not associated with Trail Making Test-A, Digit Symbol Substation Test, or Verbal Fluency Test. No associations were found between CR-PWV and cognitive performance measures. Higher large artery stiffness was associated with worse cognitive function, and longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these associations. PMID:23632267

  14. Can Particulate Pollution Affect Lung Function in Healthy Adults?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accompanying editorial to paper from Harvard by Rice et al. entitled "Long-Term Exposure to Traffic Emissions and Fine Particulate Matter and Lung Function Decline in the Framingham Heart StudyBy almost any measure the Clean Air Act and its amendments has to be considered as one...

  15. Aerobic and Cognitive Exercise (ACE) Pilot Study for Older Adults: Executive Function Improves with Cognitive Challenge While Exergaming.

    PubMed

    Barcelos, Nicole; Shah, Nikita; Cohen, Katherine; Hogan, Michael J; Mulkerrin, Eamon; Arciero, Paul J; Cohen, Brian D; Kramer, Arthur F; Anderson-Hanley, Cay

    2015-11-01

    Dementia cases are increasing worldwide; thus, investigators seek to identify interventions that might prevent or ameliorate cognitive decline in later life. Extensive research confirms the benefits of physical exercise for brain health, yet only a fraction of older adults exercise regularly. Interactive mental and physical exercise, as in aerobic exergaming, not only motivates, but has also been found to yield cognitive benefit above and beyond traditional exercise. This pilot study sought to investigate whether greater cognitive challenge while exergaming would yield differential outcomes in executive function and generalize to everyday functioning. Sixty-four community based older adults (mean age=82) were randomly assigned to pedal a stationary bike, while interactively engaging on-screen with: (1) a low cognitive demand task (bike tour), or (2) a high cognitive demand task (video game). Executive function (indices from Trails, Stroop and Digit Span) was assessed before and after a single-bout and 3-month exercise intervention. Significant group × time interactions were found after a single-bout (Color Trails) and after 3 months of exergaming (Stroop; among 20 adherents). Those in the high cognitive demand group performed better than those in the low cognitive dose condition. Everyday function improved across both exercise conditions. Pilot data indicate that for older adults, cognitive benefit while exergaming increased concomitantly with higher doses of interactive mental challenge. PMID:26581789

  16. High-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy in adults.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Masaji

    2015-01-01

    High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) oxygen therapy comprises an air/oxygen blender, an active humidifier, a single heated circuit, and a nasal cannula. It delivers adequately heated and humidified medical gas at up to 60L/min of flow and is considered to have a number of physiological effects: reduction of anatomical dead space, PEEP effect, constant fraction of inspired oxygen, and good humidification. While there have been no big randomized clinical trials, it has been gaining attention as an innovative respiratory support for critically ill patients. Most of the available data has been published in the neonatal field. Evidence with critically ill adults are poor; however, physicians apply it to a variety of patients with diverse underlying diseases: hypoxemic respiratory failure, acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, post-extubation, pre-intubation oxygenation, sleep apnea, acute heart failure, patients with do-not-intubate order, and so on. Many published reports suggest that HFNC decreases breathing frequency and work of breathing and reduces needs of escalation of respiratory support in patients with diverse underlying diseases. Some important issues remain to be resolved, such as its indication, timing of starting and stopping HFNC, and escalating treatment. Despite these issues, HFNC oxygen therapy is an innovative and effective modality for the early treatment of adults with respiratory failure with diverse underlying diseases. PMID:25866645

  17. Limited Health Literacy and Decline in Executive Function in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sequeira, Shwetha S.; Eggermont, Laura H. P.; Silliman, Rebecca A.; Bickmore, Timothy W.; Henault, Lori E.; Winter, Michael R.; Nelson, Kerrie; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K.

    2013-01-01

    Limited health literacy is associated with worse executive function, but the association between limited health literacy and decline in executive function has not been established because of a lack of longitudinal studies. The authors aimed to examine this association by studying a prospective cohort in the setting of a randomized controlled trial to promote walking in older adults. Participants were community-dwelling older adults (65 years of age or older) who scored 2 or more on the Mini-Cog, without depression (score of less than 15 on the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire), and who completed baseline and 12-month evaluations (n = 226). Health literacy was measured using the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Executive function measured at baseline and 12 months using the Trail Making Test (TMT), Controlled Oral Word Association Test, and Category Fluency. The associations between health literacy and 12-month decline in each test of executive function were modeled using multivariate linear regression. Health literacy was found to be limited in 37% of participants. Limited health literacy was associated with reduced performance on all 3 executive function tests. In fully adjusted models, limited health literacy was associated with greater 12-month decline in performance on the TMT than higher health literacy (p = .01). In conclusion, older adults with limited health literacy are at risk for more rapid decline in scores on the TMT, a measure of executive function. PMID:24093352

  18. Acute effect of a high nitrate diet on brain perfusion in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Presley, Tennille D.; Morgan, Ashley R.; Bechtold, Erika; Clodfelter, William; Dove, Robin W.; Jennings, Janine M.; Kraft, Robert A.; King, S. Bruce; Laurienti, Paul J.; Rejeski, W. Jack; Burdette, Jonathan H.; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B.; Miller, Gary D.

    2010-01-01

    Aims Poor blood flow and hypoxia/ischemia contribute to many disease states and may also be a factor in the decline of physical and cognitive function in aging. Nitrite has been discovered to be a vasodilator that is preferentially harnessed in hypoxia. Thus, both infused and inhaled nitrite are being studied as therapeutic agents for a variety of diseases. In addition, nitrite derived from nitrate in the diet has been shown to decrease blood pressure and improve exercise performance. Thus, dietary nitrate may also be important when increased blood flow in hypoxic or ischemic areas is indicated. These conditions could include age-associated dementia and cognitive decline. The goal of this study was to determine if dietary nitrate would increase cerebral blood flow in older adults. Methods and Results In this investigation we administered a high vs. low nitrate diet to older adults (74.7 ± 6.9 years) and measured cerebral perfusion using arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging. We found that the high nitrate diet did not alter global cerebral perfusion, but did lead to increased regional cerebral perfusion in frontal lobe white matter, especially between the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex. Conclusion These results suggest that dietary nitrate may be useful in improving regional brain perfusion in older adults in critical brain areas known to be involved in executive functioning. PMID:20951824

  19. Juvenile nutritional stress affects growth rate, adult organ mass, and innate immune function in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata).

    PubMed

    Kriengwatana, Buddhamas; Wada, Haruka; Macmillan, Alexander; MacDougall-Shackleton, Scott A

    2013-01-01

    Developmental conditions may influence many aspects of adult phenotype, including growth and immune function. Whether poor developmental environments impair both growth and immune function or induce a trade-off between the two processes is inconclusive, and the impact of the timing of stress in determining this relationship has so far been overlooked. We tested the hypothesis that the long-term effects of nutritional stress on growth, body composition, and immune function in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) are different depending on whether stress is experienced during an early or a juvenile phase (i.e., before or after nutritional independence, respectively). We raised birds on high (H) or low (L) food conditions until posthatch day (PHD) 35 and switched treatments for half of the birds in each of the H and L groups from PHD 36 to 61. We found that unfavorable juvenile conditions (PHD 36-61) increased somatic growth rates and liver mass, body fat, and some aspects of immune function. We also observed a positive relationship between growth and immune function, as individuals that grew faster as juveniles also had better innate immune responses as adults. There was no effect of treatment on basal metabolic rate. These findings demonstrate the importance of juvenile developmental conditions in shaping multiple aspects of the adult phenotype. PMID:24241073

  20. Heart on a plate: histological and functional assessment of isolated adult zebrafish hearts maintained in culture.

    PubMed

    Pieperhoff, Sebastian; Wilson, Kathryn S; Baily, James; de Mora, Kim; Maqsood, Sana; Vass, Sharron; Taylor, Jonathan; Del-Pozo, Jorge; MacRae, Calum A; Mullins, John J; Denvir, Martin A

    2014-01-01

    The zebrafish is increasingly used for cardiovascular genetic and functional studies. We present a novel protocol to maintain and monitor whole isolated beating adult zebrafish hearts in culture for long-term experiments. Excised whole adult zebrafish hearts were transferred directly into culture dishes containing optimized L-15 Leibovitz growth medium and maintained for 5 days. Hearts were assessed daily using video-edge analysis of ventricle function using low power microscopy images. High-throughput histology techniques were used to assess changes in myocardial architecture and cell viability. Mean spontaneous Heart rate (HR, min(-1)) declined significantly between day 0 and day 1 in culture (96.7 ± 19.5 to 45.2 ± 8.2 min-1, mean ± SD, p = 0.001), and thereafter declined more slowly to 27.6 ± 7.2 min(-1) on day 5. Ventricle wall motion amplitude (WMA) did not change until day 4 in culture (day 0, 46.7 ± 13.0 µm vs day 4, 16.9 ± 1.9 µm, p = 0.08). Contraction velocity (CV) declined between day 0 and day 3 (35.6 ± 14.8 vs 15.2 ± 5.3 µms(-1), respectively, p = 0.012) while relaxation velocity (RV) declined quite rapidly (day 0, 72.5 ± 11.9 vs day 1, 29.5 ± 5.8 µms(-1), p = 0.03). HR and WMA responded consistently to isoproterenol from day 0 to day 5 in culture while CV and RV showed less consistent responses to beta-agonist. Cellular architecture and cross-striation pattern of cardiomyocytes remained unchanged up to day 3 in culture and thereafter showed significant deterioration with loss of striation pattern, pyknotic nuclei and cell swelling. Apoptotic markers within the myocardium became increasingly frequent by day 3 in culture. Whole adult zebrafish hearts can be maintained in culture-medium for up to 3 days. However, after day-3 there is significant deterioration in ventricle function and heart rate accompanied by significant histological changes consistent with cell death and loss of cardiomyocyte cell integrity. Further studies are needed to assess whether this preparation can be optimised for longer term survival. PMID:24824845

  1. Heart on a Plate: Histological and Functional Assessment of Isolated Adult Zebrafish Hearts Maintained in Culture

    PubMed Central

    Pieperhoff, Sebastian; Wilson, Kathryn S.; Baily, James; de Mora, Kim; Maqsood, Sana; Vass, Sharron; Taylor, Jonathan; Del-Pozo, Jorge; MacRae, Calum A.; Mullins, John J.; Denvir, Martin A.

    2014-01-01

    The zebrafish is increasingly used for cardiovascular genetic and functional studies. We present a novel protocol to maintain and monitor whole isolated beating adult zebrafish hearts in culture for long-term experiments. Excised whole adult zebrafish hearts were transferred directly into culture dishes containing optimized L-15 Leibovitz growth medium and maintained for 5 days. Hearts were assessed daily using video-edge analysis of ventricle function using low power microscopy images. High-throughput histology techniques were used to assess changes in myocardial architecture and cell viability. Mean spontaneous Heart rate (HR, min?1) declined significantly between day 0 and day 1 in culture (96.719.5 to 45.28.2 min?1, meanSD, p?=?0.001), and thereafter declined more slowly to 27.67.2 min?1 on day 5. Ventricle wall motion amplitude (WMA) did not change until day 4 in culture (day 0, 46.713.0 m vs day 4, 16.91.9 m, p?=?0.08). Contraction velocity (CV) declined between day 0 and day 3 (35.614.8 vs 15.25.3 ms?1, respectively, p?=?0.012) while relaxation velocity (RV) declined quite rapidly (day 0, 72.511.9 vs day 1, 29.55.8 ms?1, p?=?0.03). HR and WMA responded consistently to isoproterenol from day 0 to day 5 in culture while CV and RV showed less consistent responses to beta-agonist. Cellular architecture and cross-striation pattern of cardiomyocytes remained unchanged up to day 3 in culture and thereafter showed significant deterioration with loss of striation pattern, pyknotic nuclei and cell swelling. Apoptotic markers within the myocardium became increasingly frequent by day 3 in culture. Whole adult zebrafish hearts can be maintained in culture-medium for up to 3 days. However, after day-3 there is significant deterioration in ventricle function and heart rate accompanied by significant histological changes consistent with cell death and loss of cardiomyocyte cell integrity. Further studies are needed to assess whether this preparation can be optimised for longer term survival. PMID:24824845

  2. Food insecurity and cognitive function in Puerto Rican adults123

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiang; Scott, Tammy; Falcon, Luis M; Wilde, Parke E; Tucker, Katherine L

    2009-01-01

    Background: Food insecurity is associated with nutrient inadequacy and a variety of unfavorable health outcomes. However, little is known about whether food security is associated with lower cognitive function in the elderly. Objective: We investigated the prevalence of food insecurity in a representative sample of 1358 Puerto Ricans aged 4575 y living in Massachusetts in relation to cognitive function performances. Design: Food security was assessed with the US Household Food Security Scale. Cognitive function was measured to capture general cognition with a battery of 7 tests: Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), word list learning (verbal memory), digit span (attention), clock drawing and figure copying (visual-spatial ability), and Stroop and verbal fluency tests (fluency executive functioning). Results: The overall prevalence of food insecurity during the past 12 mo was 12.1%; 6.1% of the subjects reported very low food security. Food insecurity was inversely associated with global cognitive performance, as assessed by the MMSE score. The adjusted difference in the MMSE score was ?0.90 (95% CI: ?1.6, ?0.19; P for trend = 0.003) for a comparison of participants with very low food security with those who were food secure, after adjustment for age, smoking, education, poverty status, income, acculturation, plasma homocysteine, alcohol, diabetes, and hypertension. Food insecurity was significantly associated with lower scores for word-list learning, percentage retention, letter fluency, and digit span backward tests. Conclusions: Very low food security was prevalent among the study subjects and was associated with lower cognitive performance. Further studies, both observational and experimental, are warranted to clarify the direction of causality in this association. PMID:19225117

  3. Plasticity of functional connectivity in the adult spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Cai, L.L; Courtine, G; Fong, A.J; Burdick, J.W; Roy, R.R; Edgerton, V.R

    2006-01-01

    This paper emphasizes several characteristics of the neural control of locomotion that provide opportunities for developing strategies to maximize the recovery of postural and locomotor functions after a spinal cord injury (SCI). The major points of this paper are: (i) the circuitry that controls standing and stepping is extremely malleable and reflects a continuously varying combination of neurons that are activated when executing stereotypical movements; (ii) the connectivity between neurons is more accurately perceived as a functional rather than as an anatomical phenomenon; (iii) the functional connectivity that controls standing and stepping reflects the physiological state of a given assembly of synapses, where the probability of these synaptic events is not deterministic; (iv) rather, this probability can be modulated by other factors such as pharmacological agents, epidural stimulation and/or motor training; (v) the variability observed in the kinematics of consecutive steps reflects a fundamental feature of the neural control system and (vi) machine-learning theories elucidate the need to accommodate variability in developing strategies designed to enhance motor performance by motor training using robotic devices after an SCI. PMID:16939979

  4. Disparities in Psychosocial Functioning in a Diverse Sample of Adults with Anxiety Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Moitra, Ethan; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Stout, Robert L.; Angert, Erica; Weisberg, Risa B.; Keller, Martin B.

    2014-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are associated with psychosocial functional impairments, but no study has compared how these impairments might vary by ethno-racial status. We examined whether minority status was uniquely associated with functional impairments in 431 adults with anxiety disorders. Functioning was measured in the rater-assessed domains of: global assessment of functioning (GAF); global psychosocial functioning; work, relationship, and recreational functioning; and, self-reported: life satisfaction, mental health functioning, physical functioning, and disability status. After controlling for demographic and clinical variables, results revealed evidence of disparities, whereby African Americans (AAs), particularly those with low income, had worse GAF, worse global psychosocial functioning, and were more likely to be disabled compared to non-Latino Whites. Latinos, particularly those with low income, had worse global psychosocial functioning than non-Latino Whites. Results suggest AAs and Latinos are at increased risk for functional impairments not better accounted for by other demographic or clinical variables. PMID:24685821

  5. Virtual reality using games for improving physical functioning in older adults: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Molina, Karina Iglesia; Ricci, Natalia Aquaroni; de Moraes, Suzana Albuquerque; Perracini, Monica Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    The use of virtual reality through exergames or active video game, i.e. a new form of interactive gaming, as a complementary tool in rehabilitation has been a frequent focus in research and clinical practice in the last few years. However, evidence of their effectiveness is scarce in the older population. This review aim to provide a summary of the effects of exergames in improving physical functioning in older adults. A search for randomized controlled trials was performed in the databases EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsyInfo, Cochrane data base, PEDro and ISI Web of Knowledge. Results from the included studies were analyzed through a critical review and methodological quality by the PEDro scale. Thirteen studies were included in the review. The most common apparatus for exergames intervention was the Nintendo Wii gaming console (8 studies), followed by computers games, Dance video game with pad (two studies each) and only one study with the Balance Rehabilitation Unit. The Timed Up and Go was the most frequently used instrument to assess physical functioning (7 studies). According to the PEDro scale, most of the studies presented methodological problems, with a high proportion of scores below 5 points (8 studies). The exergames protocols and their duration varied widely, and the benefits for physical function in older people remain inconclusive. However, a consensus between studies is the positive motivational aspect that the use of exergames provides. Further studies are needed in order to achieve better methodological quality, external validity and provide stronger scientific evidence. PMID:25399408

  6. Visual function and vision-related quality of life in presbyopic adult population of Northwestern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Muhammad, Nasiru; Alhassan, Mahmoud B.; Umar, Murtala M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the impact of uncorrected presbyopia on vision-related quality of life (QoL) and visual function (VF) among adults 40 years and older in Bungudu local government area (LGA) of Zamfara State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A population-based cross-sectional study in Bungudu LGA of Zamfara State Nigeria was conducted in 2012. Six-hundred and fifty persons at least 40 years of age were examined using a two-stage cluster random sampling-based on probability proportional to size. Presbyopia was defined as the inability to read N8 at 40 cm in an indoor illumination using LogMAR E-chart. Demographic information comprising of age, sex, occupation, and educational level among others was obtained from a pilot tested VF-14 and modified vision-related QoL questionnaire by trained interviewer. Results: Out Of the 650 subjects enumerated 635 were examined given a response rate of 97.7%. The mean age of participants was 53.59 years (95% confidence interval:52.75%-54.43%). The crude prevalence of presbyopia was 30.4%, (95% CI: 26.8%-34.1%). The mean VF score of persons with presbyopia was 85.09, (95% CI: 83.09%-87.09%) and being female was strongly associated with high VF scores (P = 0.003). The VFs most impaired were the ability to read, write, use mobile phones, and thread needles. The higher the degree of presbyopia the lower the mean VF score (P = 0.00). Conclusion: Uncorrected presbyopia is associated with functional visual impairment and reduce QoL especially in the ability to read, write, and usage of mobile cell phones among adults 40 years and older in Bungudu District. PMID:26778881

  7. Cognitive Training Improves Sleep Quality and Cognitive Function among Older Adults with Insomnia

    PubMed Central

    Haimov, Iris; Shatil, Evelyn

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives To investigate the effect of an eight-week, home-based, personalized, computerized cognitive training program on sleep quality and cognitive performance among older adults with insomnia. Design Participants (n = 51) were randomly allocated to a cognitive training group (n = 34) or to an active control group (n = 17). The participants in the cognitive training group completed an eight-week, home-based, personalized, computerized cognitive training program, while the participants in the active control group completed an eight-week, home-based program involving computerized tasks that do not engage high-level cognitive functioning. Before and after training, all participants' sleep was monitored for one week by an actigraph and their cognitive performance was evaluated. Setting Community setting: residential sleep/performance testing facility. Participants Fifty-one older adults with insomnia (aged 65–85). Interventions Eight weeks of computerized cognitive training for older adults with insomnia. Results Mixed models for repeated measures analysis showed between-group improvements for the cognitive training group on both sleep quality (sleep onset latency and sleep efficiency) and cognitive performance (avoiding distractions, working memory, visual memory, general memory and naming). Hierarchical linear regressions analysis in the cognitive training group indicated that improved visual scanning is associated with earlier advent of sleep, while improved naming is associated with the reduction in wake after sleep onset and with the reduction in number of awakenings. Likewise the results indicate that improved “avoiding distractions” is associated with an increase in the duration of sleep. Moreover, the results indicate that in the active control group cognitive decline observed in working memory is associated with an increase in the time required to fall asleep. Conclusions New learning is instrumental in promoting initiation and maintenance of sleep in older adults with insomnia. Lasting and personalized cognitive training is particularly indicated to generate the type of learning necessary for combined cognitive and sleep enhancements in this population. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00901641 PMID:23577218

  8. Vitamin K status and cognitive function in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Presse, Nancy; Belleville, Sylvie; Gaudreau, Pierrette; Greenwood, Carol E; Kergoat, Marie-Jeanne; Morais, Jose A; Payette, Hlne; Shatenstein, Bryna; Ferland, Guylaine

    2013-12-01

    Evidence is accumulating that vitamin K could have a role in cognition, especially in aging. Using data from the Qubec Longitudinal Study on Nutrition and Successful Aging (NuAge), a cross-sectional analysis was conducted to examine the associations between vitamin K status, measured as serum phylloquinone concentrations, and performance in verbal and non-verbal episodic memory, executive functions, and speed of processing. The sample included 320 men and women aged 70 to 85 years who were free of cognitive impairment. After adjustment for covariates, higher serum phylloquinone concentration (log-transformed) was associated with better verbal episodic memory performances (F= 2.43, p= 0.048); specifically with the scores (Z-transformed) on the second (?= 0.47; 95% confidence interval [CI]= 0.13-0.82), third (?= 0.41; 95% CI= 0.06-0.75), and 20-minute delayed (?= 0.47; 95% CI= 0.12-0.82) free recall trials of the RL/RI-16 Free and Cued Recall Task. No associations were found with non-verbal episodic memory, executive functions, and speed of processing. Our study adds evidence to the possible role of vitamin K in cognition during aging, specifically in the consolidation of the memory trace. PMID:23850343

  9. Fundamental differences in callosal structure, neurophysiologic function, and bimanual control in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Fling, B W; Seidler, R D

    2012-11-01

    Bimanual actions involve coordinated motion but often rely on the movements performed with each hand to be different. Older adults exhibit differentially greater variability for bimanual actions in which each hand has an independent movement goal. Such actions rely on interhemispheric communication via the corpus callosum, including both facilitatory and inhibitory interactions. Here, we investigated whether age differences in callosal structure and interhemispheric function contribute to this selective movement difficulty. Participants performed 3 force production tasks: 1) unimanual, 2) bimanual simultaneous, and 3) bimanual independent. Older adults had significantly greater interhemispheric facilitation during voluntary muscle activation. We also report a fundamental shift with age in the relationship between callosal tract microstructural integrity and interhemispheric inhibition (IHI). Specifically, older adults with relatively greater callosal tract microstructural integrity have less IHI. Furthermore, greater IHI was related to poorer bimanual performance (assessed by dominant hand force variability) in older adults on all tasks, whereas this relationship was only observed in young adults for the bimanual independent condition. These findings indicate changes in interhemispheric communication with advancing age such that older adults may rely on bilateral cortical cooperation to a greater extent than young adults for manual actions. PMID:22166764

  10. Prefrontal Response and Frontostriatal Functional Connectivity to Monetary Reward in Abstinent Alcohol-Dependent Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Forbes, Erika E.; Rodriguez, Eric E.; Musselman, Samuel; Narendran, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    Although altered function in neural reward circuitry is widely proposed in models of addiction, more recent conceptual views have emphasized the role of disrupted response in prefrontal regions. Changes in regions such as the orbitofrontal cortex, medial prefrontal cortex, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex are postulated to contribute to the compulsivity, impulsivity, and altered executive function that are central to addiction. In addition, few studies have examined function in these regions during young adulthood, when exposure is less chronic than in typical samples of alcohol-dependent adults. To address these issues, we examined neural response and functional connectivity during monetary reward in 24 adults with alcohol dependence and 24 psychiatrically healthy adults. Adults with alcohol dependence exhibited less response to the receipt of monetary reward in a set of prefrontal regions including the medial prefrontal cortex, lateral orbitofrontal cortex, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Adults with alcohol dependence also exhibited greater negative correlation between function in each of these regions and that in the nucleus accumbens. Within the alcohol-dependent group, those with family history of alcohol dependence exhibited lower mPFC response, and those with more frequent drinking exhibited greater negative functional connectivity between the mPFC and the nucleus accumbens. These findings indicate that alcohol dependence is associated with less engagement of prefrontal cortical regions, suggesting weak or disrupted regulation of ventral striatal response. This pattern of prefrontal response and frontostriatal connectivity has consequences for the behavior patterns typical of addiction. Furthermore, brain-behavior findings indicate that the potential mechanisms of disruption in frontostriatal circuitry in alcohol dependence include family liability to alcohol use problems and more frequent use of alcohol. In all, these findings build on the extant literature on reward-circuit function in addiction and suggest mechanisms for disrupted function in alcohol dependence. PMID:24804780

  11. Neurons born in the adult dentate gyrus form functional synapses with target cells

    PubMed Central

    Toni, Nicolas; Laplagne, Diego A; Zhao, Chunmei; Lombardi, Gabriela; Ribak, Charles E; Gage, Fred H; Schinder, Alejandro F

    2008-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis occurs in the hippocampus and the olfactory bulb of the mammalian CNS. Recent studies have demonstrated that newborn granule cells of the adult hippocampus are postsynaptic targets of excitatory and inhibitory neurons, but evidence of synapse formation by the axons of these cells is still lacking. By combining retroviral expression of green fluorescent protein in adult-born neurons of the mouse dentate gyrus with immuno-electron microscopy, we found output synapses that were formed by labeled terminals on appropriate target cells in the CA3 area and the hilus. Furthermore, retroviral expression of channelrhodopsin-2 allowed us to light-stimulate newborn granule cells and identify postsynaptic target neurons by whole-cell recordings in acute slices. Our structural and functional evidence indicates that axons of adult-born granule cells establish synapses with hilar interneurons, mossy cells and CA3 pyramidal cells and release glutamate as their main neurotransmitter. PMID:18622400

  12. Associations between Conceptual Reasoning, Problem Solving, and Adaptive Ability in High-Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Diane L.; Mazefsky, Carla A.; Walker, Jon D.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Goldstein, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Abstract thinking is generally highly correlated with problem-solving ability which is predictive of better adaptive functioning. Measures of conceptual reasoning, an ecologically-valid laboratory measure of problem-solving, and a report measure of adaptive functioning in the natural environment, were administered to children and adults with and…

  13. Associations between Conceptual Reasoning, Problem Solving, and Adaptive Ability in High-Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Diane L.; Mazefsky, Carla A.; Walker, Jon D.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Goldstein, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Abstract thinking is generally highly correlated with problem-solving ability which is predictive of better adaptive functioning. Measures of conceptual reasoning, an ecologically-valid laboratory measure of problem-solving, and a report measure of adaptive functioning in the natural environment, were administered to children and adults with and

  14. The effect of adult thymectomy upon helper function in Xenopus laevis, the South African clawed toad.

    PubMed Central

    Gruenewald, D A; Ruben, L N

    1979-01-01

    Carrier-primed helper activity enhancing anti-hapten (TNP-) responses in young adult Xenopus laevis reached peak levels 2-4 days after a low dose challenge (0.005% RBC) of unconjugated carrier. It fell quickly to negligible levels by 10 days. Adult thymectomized (ATx) animals were consistently unable to generate substantial levels of hapten-specific antigen-binding spleen cell (ABC) activity. Since ATx does not severely reduce splenic ABC responses to the high dose (10% RBC) of carrier used for hapten challenge, the results suggested a role for Xenopus adult thymus in carrier-specific enhancement of an anti-hapten response. PMID:315915

  15. Adult cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) metabolically adapt to high protein diets.

    PubMed

    Koutsos, E A; Smith, J; Woods, L W; Klasing, K C

    2001-07-01

    To determine the ability of cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus), a granivorous avian species, to adapt metabolically to high dietary protein levels, adult males (n = 26) were fed isocaloric diets containing 11, 20, 35 or 70% crude protein (CP) for 11 mo. Throughout the trial, body weight and breast muscle weight were maintained by 11, 20 or 70% CP. The 35% CP diet resulted in significantly greater body weight (P < 0.05) and whole-body lipid content (P < 0.05) compared with the 11% CP diet. The 20% CP diet resulted in greater breast muscle mass compared with 70% CP (P < 0.05). Activity of the amino acid catabolic enzymes alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and arginase as well as the gluconeogenic enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase were significantly increased with 70% CP (P < 0.05). Serum essential amino acids, urea and uric acid were also increased with 70% CP (P < 0.05), but the magnitude of their increase was similar to that found in omnivorous chickens fed a similar diet. There was no evidence of visceral gout, articular gout or renal pathology; however liver lesion severity, and specifically liver lipogranuloma severity, was significantly increased above 11% CP (P < 0.05). We conclude that cockatiels are able to up-regulate enzymes for amino acid catabolism as well as mechanisms for nitrogen excretion in response to high dietary protein levels, and that high dietary protein levels are not associated with kidney dysfunction in this avian species. PMID:11435523

  16. Positive Childhood Experiences and Positive Adult Functioning: Prosocial Continuity and the Role of Adolescent Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Kosterman, Rick; Mason, W. Alex; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Hawkins, J. David; Spoth, Richard; Redmond, Cleve

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To examine positive childhood experiences as predictors of positive adult functioning, including civic involvement, productivity and responsibility, interpersonal connection, and physical exercise; and to examine adolescent substance use as a mediator of prosocial continuity. Methods Four hundred and twenty-nine rural participants were interviewed across 7 waves from age 11 to 22. Structural equation models examined the relationship between positive childhood experiences and adult functioning, with adolescent substance use added to each model as a possible mediating mechanism. Results Positive childhood experiences predicted significantly better adult functioning for each model, even after accounting for adolescent substance use. Positive childhood experiences also consistently predicted significantly less adolescent substance use. In turn, adolescent substance use predicted significantly less civic involvement and less productivity and responsibility, but was not associated with interpersonal connection or physical exercise when accounting for childhood experiences. Results were largely consistent across gender and levels of family income. Conclusions Findings show the enduring importance of positive childhood experiences in predicting positive functioning in early adulthood. Although adolescent substance use increased risk for poorer functioning in important domains of adult life, results suggest that positive experiences in late childhood continued to have a significant prosocial effect into young adulthood. The study also highlights the late elementary grades as a time when parents, teachers, and others can potentially have a large influence in proactively providing prosocial opportunities for children. PMID:21783051

  17. Psychological and Physical Functioning Difficulties Associated with Complex Activity Limitations among U.S. Adults

    PubMed Central

    Loeb, Mitchell; Jonas, Bruce S.

    2016-01-01

    Background There is limited research that assesses psychological functioning categorically as a predictor of complex activity limitations either alone or in conjunction with physical functioning. Objectives This paper assesses the impact of psychological and/or physical functioning difficulties as predictors of complex activity limitations among U.S. adults, using data from a national survey. Methods Data come from the 20062010 National Health Interview Survey among U.S. adults 18 or older (n=124,337). We developed a combined physical/psychological exposure variable with six categories: 1) no/low psychological distress (LPD) and absence of physical functioning difficulties, 2) moderate psychological distress (MPD) only, 3) serious psychological distress (SPD) only, 4) physical functioning difficulty only, 5) MPD and physical functioning difficulties, and 6) SPD and physical functioning difficulties. Selected complex activity limitations include daily living, social and work limitations. Results Compared to adults with LPD and absence of physical functioning difficulties, the results demonstrated a clear and significant gradient of increasing risk of complex activity limitations beginning with MPD only, SPD only, physical functioning difficulty only, both MPD and physical functioning difficulties, and SPD and physical functioning difficulties. Conclusions The data suggest a stronger risk of complex activity limitations when increasing psychological functioning difficulties coexist with physical functioning difficulties, leading to potential interference with a persons ability to accomplish major life activities measured in this study. The sizeable contribution of psychological distress to the prevalence of basic actions difficulty implies that the mental health component of functional limitations is important in the overall assessment of health and well-being. PMID:25239646

  18. Cognitive functioning in relation to brain amyloid-β in healthy adults with Down syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Handen, Benjamin L.; Devenny, Darlynne A.; Hardison, Regina; Mihaila, Iulia; Price, Julie C.; Cohen, Annie D.; Klunk, William E.; Mailick, Marsha R.; Johnson, Sterling C.; Christian, Bradley T.

    2014-01-01

    Nearly all adults with Down syndrome show neuropathology of Alzheimer’s disease, including amyloid-β deposition, by their fifth decade of life. In the current study, we examined the association between brain amyloid-β deposition, assessed via in vivo assessments of neocortical Pittsburgh compound B, and scores on an extensive neuropsychological battery of measures of cognitive functioning in 63 adults (31 male, 32 female) with Down syndrome aged 30–53 years who did not exhibit symptoms of dementia. Twenty-two of the adults with Down syndrome were identified as having elevated neocortical Pittsburgh compound B retention levels. There was a significant positive correlation (r = 0.62, P < 0.0001) between age and neocortical Pittsburgh compound B retention. This robust association makes it difficult to discriminate normative age-related decline in cognitive functioning from any potential effects of amyloid-β deposition. When controlling for chronological age in addition to mental age, there were no significant differences between the adults with Down syndrome who had elevated neocortical Pittsburgh compound B retention levels and those who did not on any of the neuropsychological measures. Similarly, when examining Pittsburgh compound B as a continuous variable, after controlling for mental age and chronological age, only the Rivermead Picture Recognition score was significantly negatively associated with neocortical Pittsburgh compound B retention. Our findings indicate that many adults with Down syndrome can tolerate amyloid-β deposition without deleterious effects on cognitive functioning. However, we may have obscured true effects of amyloid-β deposition by controlling for chronological age in our analyses. Moreover, our sample included adults with Down syndrome who were most ‘resistant’ to the effects of amyloid-β deposition, as adults already exhibiting clinical symptoms of dementia symptoms were excluded from the study. PMID:24993958

  19. Prospective identification of functionally distinct stem cells and neurosphere-initiating cells in adult mouse forebrain.

    PubMed

    Mich, John K; Signer, Robert Aj; Nakada, Daisuke; Pineda, André; Burgess, Rebecca J; Vue, Tou Yia; Johnson, Jane E; Morrison, Sean J

    2014-01-01

    Neurosphere formation is commonly used as a surrogate for neural stem cell (NSC) function but the relationship between neurosphere-initiating cells (NICs) and NSCs remains unclear. We prospectively identified, and isolated by flow cytometry, adult mouse lateral ventricle subventricular zone (SVZ) NICs as Glast(mid)EGFR(high)PlexinB2(high)CD24(-/low)O4/PSA-NCAM(-/low)Ter119/CD45(-) (GEPCOT) cells. They were highly mitotic and short-lived in vivo based on fate-mapping with Ascl1(CreERT2) and Dlx1(CreERT2). In contrast, pre-GEPCOT cells were quiescent, expressed higher Glast, and lower EGFR and PlexinB2. Pre-GEPCOT cells could not form neurospheres but expressed the stem cell markers Slc1a3-CreER(T), GFAP-CreER(T2), Sox2(CreERT2), and Gli1(CreERT2) and were long-lived in vivo. While GEPCOT NICs were ablated by temozolomide, pre-GEPCOT cells survived and repopulated the SVZ. Conditional deletion of the Bmi-1 polycomb protein depleted pre-GEPCOT and GEPCOT cells, though pre-GEPCOT cells were more dependent upon Bmi-1 for Cdkn2a (p16(Ink4a)) repression. Our data distinguish quiescent NSCs from NICs and make it possible to study their properties in vivo.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02669.001. PMID:24843006

  20. Perfluoroalkyl Substances and Thyroid Function in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Srishti; Bloom, Michael S.; Yucel, Recai; Seegal, Richard F.; Wu, Qian; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Rej, Robert; Fitzgerald, Edward F.

    2014-01-01

    Current understanding of the thyroid disruptive properties of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), particularly in aging populations, is limited. The objectives of this study were to (i) assess associations between thyroid function, as measured by serum thyrotropin (thyroid stimulating hormone, TSH), free thyroxine (fT4), total thyroxine (T4), and total triiodothyronine (T3), and serum perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in an aging population and (ii) determine if other persistent organic pollutants with thyroid disruptive properties including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) modify such associations. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 87 men and women 55 to 74 years of age, without clinically-diagnosed thyroid disease, who resided in upper Hudson River communities in New York. Geometric means (standard deviations) of serum PFOS and PFOA were 31.6 (1.7) ng/mL and 9.17 (1.72) ng/mL, respectively. Multivariable linear regression analyses indicated that one interquartile range difference in PFOS corresponded to 4% and 9% increases in fT4 and T4 respectively. We detected statistical interactions between PFOA and age for effects on fT4 and T4; joint increases in PFOA and age were associated with increases in fT4 and T4, of 3% and 7%, respectively. We also detected statistical interactions between PFOS and total PCBs for the effect on T3 and between PFOA and total PBDEs for the effect on TSH. Our results suggest that PFASs are associated with subtle alterations in thyroid hormone levels in this population, and that these associations are likely to vary by age, and levels of PCBs and PBDEs. PMID:25483837

  1. Perfluoroalkyl substances and thyroid function in older adults.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Srishti; Bloom, Michael S; Yucel, Recai; Seegal, Richard F; Wu, Qian; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Rej, Robert; Fitzgerald, Edward F

    2015-02-01

    Current understanding of the thyroid disruptive properties of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), particularly in aging populations, is limited. The objectives of this study were to (i) assess associations between thyroid function, as measured by serum thyrotropin (thyroid stimulating hormone, TSH), free thyroxine (fT4), total thyroxine (T4), and total triiodothyronine (T3), and serum perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in an aging population and (ii) determine if other persistent organic pollutants with thyroid disruptive properties including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) modify such associations. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 87 men and women 55 to 74years of age, without clinically-diagnosed thyroid disease, who resided in upper Hudson River communities in New York. Geometric means (standard deviations) of serum PFOS and PFOA were 31.6 (1.7) ng/mL and 9.17 (1.72) ng/mL, respectively. Multivariable linear regression analyses indicated that one interquartile range difference in PFOS corresponded to 4% and 9% increases in fT4 and T4 respectively. We detected statistical interactions between PFOA and age for effects on fT4 and T4; joint increases in PFOA and age were associated with increases in fT4 and T4, of 3% and 7%, respectively. We also detected statistical interactions between PFOS and total PCBs for the effect on T3 and between PFOA and total PBDEs for the effect on TSH. Our results suggest that PFASs are associated with subtle alterations in thyroid hormone levels in this population, and that these associations are likely to vary by age, and levels of PCBs and PBDEs. PMID:25483837

  2. Assigning Function to Adult-Born Neurons: A Theoretical Framework for Characterizing Neural Manipulation of Learning

    PubMed Central

    Hersman, Sarah; Rodriguez Barrera, Vanessa; Fanselow, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Neuroscientists are concerned with neural processes or computations, but these may not be directly observable. In the field of learning, a behavioral procedure is observed to lead to performance outcomes, but differing inferences on underlying internal processes can lead to difficulties in interpreting conflicting results. An example of this challenge is how many functions have been attributed to adult-born granule cells in the dentate gyrus. Some of these functions were suggested by computational models of the properties of these neurons, while others were hypothesized after manipulations of adult-born neurons resulted in changes to behavioral metrics. This review seeks to provide a framework, based in learning theory classification of behavioral procedures, of the processes that may be underlying behavioral results after manipulating procedure and observing performance. We propose that this framework can serve to clarify experimental findings on adult-born neurons as well as other classes of neural manipulations and their effects on behavior. PMID:26778981

  3. High-efficiency immunomagnetic isolation of solid tissue-originated integrin-expressing adult stem cells.

    PubMed

    Palmon, Aaron; David, Ran; Neumann, Yoav; Stiubea-Cohen, Raluca; Krief, Guy; Aframian, Doron J

    2012-02-01

    Isolation of highly pure specific cell types is crucial for successful adult stem cell-based therapy. As the number of such cells in adult tissue is low, an extremely efficient method is needed for their isolation. Here, we describe cell-separation methodologies based on magnetic-affinity cell sorting (MACS) MicroBeads with monoclonal antibodies against specific membrane proteins conjugated to superparamagnetic particles. Cells labeled with MACS MicroBeads are retained in a magnetic field within a MACS column placed in a MACS separator, allowing fast and efficient separation. Both positively labeled and non-labeled fractions can be used directly for downstream applications as the separated cell fractions remain viable with no functional impairment. As immunomagnetic separation depends on the interaction between a cell's membrane and the magnetically labeled antibody, separation of specific cells originating from solid tissues is more complex and demands a cell-dissociating pretreatment. In this paper, we detail the use of immunomagnetic separation for the purpose of regenerating damaged salivary gland (SG) function in animal and human models of irradiated head and neck cancer. Each year 500,000 new cases of head and neck cancer occur worldwide. Most of these patients lose SG function following irradiation therapy. SGs contain integrin ?6?1-expressing epithelial stem cells. We hypothesized that these cells can be isolated, multiplied in culture and auto-implanted into the irradiated SGs to regenerate damaged SG function. PMID:22019721

  4. Mediating Effect of Executive Function on Memory in Normal Aging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Jae; Kwon, Jun Soo

    2013-01-01

    Objective We hypothesize that the effect of aging on memory is mediated by executive function. Methods Two hundred and thirty healthy adults (101 male, 129 female) were recruited for the study. We used a promising, newly developed, computerized neuropsychological test for the measurement of executive function and memory. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling and path analysis. Results The full mediation model showed a good fit to the data. However, chi-squared (?2) tests for model comparison indicated that the partial mediation model better fits our data. Thus, the partial mediation model was used as the final model. In terms of auditory-verbal memory, the effect of aging on memory was fully mediated by executive function. However, visuo-spatial memory was significantly affected both indirectly (through executive function) and directly (by aging). Gender differences were not significant in this model. Conclusion This study demonstrated the importance of executive function in the memory functioning of normal aging adults. It is noteworthy that modality differences were found between auditory-verbal and visuo-spatial memory. Aging is not the only factor that drives memory decline, and its direct, adverse effect on memory was more prominent in the visuo-spatial memory task than auditory-verbal memory task. Since performance in both modalities is fully or partially mediated by executive function, it is important to train normal aging adults in executive control skills, such as planning, strategy formation, and rapid decision making. PMID:23798957

  5. Structural and Functional Plasticity in Long-term Cultures of Adult Ventricular Myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Joshi-Mukherjee, Rosy; Dick, Ivy E.; Liu, Ting; O'Rourke, Brian; Yue, David T.; Tung, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    Cultured heart cells have long been valuable for characterizing biological mechanism and disease pathogenesis. However, these preparations have limitations, relating to immaturity in key properties like excitation-contraction coupling and ?-adrenergic stimulation. Progressive attenuation of the latter is intimately related to pathogenesis and therapy in heart failure. Highly valuable would be a long-term culture system that emulates the structural and functional changes that accompany disease and development, while concurrently permitting ready access to underlying molecular events. Accordingly, we here produce functional monolayers of adult guinea-pig ventricular myocytes (aGPVMs) that can be maintained in long-term culture for several weeks. At baseline, these monolayers exhibit considerable myofibrillar organization and a significant contribution of sarcoplasmic reticular (SR) Ca2+ release to global Ca2+ transients. In terms of electrical signaling, these monolayers support propagated electrical activity and manifest monophasic restitution of action-potential duration and conduction velocity. Intriguingly, ?-adrenergic stimulation increases chronotropy but not inotropy, indicating selective maintenance of ?-adrenergic signaling. It is interesting that this overall phenotypic profile is not fixed, but can be readily enhanced by chronic electrical stimulation of cultures. This simple environmental cue significantly enhances myofibrillar organization as well as ?-adrenergic sensitivity. In particular, the chronotropic response increased, and an inotropic effect now emerges, mimicking a reversal of the progression seen in heart failure. Thus, these aGPVM monolayer cultures offer a valuable platform for clarifying long elusive features of ?-adrenergic signaling and its plasticity. PMID:24076394

  6. Activity Adherence and Physical Function in Older Adults with Functional Limitations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders Pilot (LIFE-P) was a trial to examine the effects of physical activity on measures of disability risk in previously sedentary older adults at risk for disability. We examined adherence and retention to the LIPE-P physical activity (PA) interventio...

  7. Competency-Based Adult High School Completion Student Services Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Elizabeth; And Others

    Designed as part of a 310 Special Demonstration and Teacher Training Project undertaken at Brevard Community College, this student services guide contains information to assist adult education administrators, counselors, instructors, and office personnel in meeting the needs of students enrolled in adult/community education schools. Primary

  8. Handwriting measures as reflectors of executive functions among adults with Developmental Coordination Disorders (DCD)

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblum, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Planning ahead and organizational abilities in time and space are ingredients of high-level cognitive functions labeled as Executive Functions (EF) required for daily activities such as writing or home management. EF deficits are considered a possible underlying brain mechanism involved in Developmental Coordination Disorders (DCD). The aim: of the study was to compare the handwriting process measures and the planning and organizational abilities in space and time of students with DCD with those of matched controls and to find whether handwriting measures can predict daily planning and organizational abilities among students with DCD. Method: 30 students diagnosed with DCD, between the ages of 2441, and 30 age- and gender-matched controls participated in the study. They filled out the Handwriting Proficiency Screening Questionnaire (HPSQ) and the Adult Developmental Co-ordination Disorders Checklist (ADC). Furthermore, they copied a paragraph on a digitizer that is part of a computerized system Computerised Penmanship Evaluation Toll (ComPET). Results: Significant group differences were found for the HPSQ subscales scores as well as for the temporal and spatial measures of the paragraph copy task. Significant group differences were also found for the planning and organizational abilities in space and time as reflected through the ADC subscales. Significant medium correlations were found in both groups between the mean HPSQ time subscale and the ADC-B subscale mean score (r = 0.50/0.58, p < 0.05). Series of regression analyses indicated that two handwriting performance measures (mean HPSQ time subscale and mean stroke duration) predicted 19% of planning and organizational abilities as reflected through daily functions (ADC-B) [F(3, 54) = 38.37, ? = 0.40, p < 0.0001]. Conclusion: The results support previous evidence about EF deficits as an underlying brain mechanism involved in motor coordination disorders, their significance as related to theoretical models of handwriting and daily function among DCD will be examined. PMID:23805113

  9. Nuclear diffractive structure functions at high energies

    SciTech Connect

    Marquet,C.; Kowalski, H.; Lappi, T.; Venugopalan, R.

    2008-08-08

    A future high-energy electron-ion collider would explore the non-linear weakly-coupled regime of QCD, and test the Color Glass Condensate (CGC) approach to high-energy scattering. Hard diffraction in deep inelastic scattering off nuclei will provide many fundamental measurements. In this work, the nuclear diffractive structure function F{sub 2,A}{sup D} is predicted in the CGC framework, and the features of nuclear enhancement and suppression are discussed.

  10. Cardiac Autonomic Function during Submaximal Treadmill Exercise in Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendonca, Goncalo V.; Pereira, Fernando D.; Fernhall, Bo

    2011-01-01

    This study determined whether the cardiac autonomic function of adults with Down syndrome (DS) differs from that of nondisabled persons during submaximal dynamic exercise. Thirteen participants with DS and 12 nondisabled individuals performed maximal and submaximal treadmill tests with metabolic and heart rate (HR) measurements. Spectral analysis

  11. The Association between Cardiovascular Disease and Cochlear Function in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torre, Peter, III; Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Klein, Barbara E.K.; Klein, Ronald; Nondahl, David M.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the relation between self-reported cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cochlear function in older adults. The Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study (EHLS) is an ongoing population-based study of hearing loss and its risk factors in Beaver Dam, Wisconsin. As part of the EHLS questionnaire, participants were…

  12. The Association between Cardiovascular Disease and Cochlear Function in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torre, Peter, III; Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Klein, Barbara E.K.; Klein, Ronald; Nondahl, David M.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the relation between self-reported cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cochlear function in older adults. The Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study (EHLS) is an ongoing population-based study of hearing loss and its risk factors in Beaver Dam, Wisconsin. As part of the EHLS questionnaire, participants were

  13. Attributional Styles and Psychosocial Functioning of Adults with ADHD: Practice Issues and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rucklidge, Julia; Brown, Deborah; Crawford, Susan; Kaplan, Bonnie

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study investigates attributional styles and psychosocial functioning of men and women with ADHD identified in adulthood to inform practice issues. Method: One hundred and eighty adults participate: 52 females with ADHD, 37 males with ADHD, 51 female controls, and 40 male controls are administered questionnaires broadly assessing

  14. Analysis of Narrative Discourse Structure as an Ecologically Relevant Measure of Executive Function in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannizzaro, Michael S.; Coelho, Carl A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the narrative discourse production and executive function (EF) abilities of 46 neuro-typical adults (18-98years old). Two questions were addressed: Is the analysis of narrative structure sensitive to changes associated with aging? & What is the relationship between measures of narrative structure and EF? Narratives were

  15. The Sexual Functioning of Adult Women Molested as Children: A Review of Empirical Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Julie Lynn

    This paper reviews the research literature from 1978 to 1991 that addresses long-term effects of childhood sexual abuse on adult women's sexual functioning. Frequently reported long-term effects of childhood sexual abuse are noted, including both sexual dissatisfaction and sexual dysfunction. In terms of sexual dysfunction, it is noted that adult…

  16. Legally Prescribed Functions of Adult and Juvenile Probation Officers: Worlds Apart?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner, Benjamin; Purkiss, Marcus; Kifer, Misty; Roberts, Elizabeth; Hemmens, Craig

    2004-01-01

    Historically, there have been two competing goals of probation: law enforcement and rehabilitation of the offender. Accordingly, the role, functions, and tasks of probation officers are at times in conflict. In this paper we explore the roles of adult and juvenile probation officers and compare their statutorily prescribed duties. In so doing we

  17. Education, Functional Limitations, and Life Satisfaction among Older Adults in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Eun-Kyoung Othelia; Lee, Jungui

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the associations of educational level with functioning and life satisfaction among community-dwelling older adults in South Korea ("n"=4,152). The sample was drawn from Wave I of the Korean Longitudinal Study on Aging. To examine educational disparities, separate analyses were run to note predictors in less educated

  18. Associations among Childhood Sexual Abuse, Language Use, and Adult Sexual Functioning and Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenz, Tierney Ahrold; Meston, Cindy May

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To better understand the link between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adult sexual functioning and satisfaction, we examined cognitive differences between women with (N = 128) and without (NSA, N = 99) CSA histories. Methods: We used the Linguistic Inquiry Word Count, a computerized text analysis program, to investigate language…

  19. Childhood Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Substance Use, and Adult Functioning among Incarcerated Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennessey, Kathleen A.; Stein, Michael D.; Rosengard, Cynthia; Rose, Jennifer S.; Clarke, Jennifer G.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To estimate prevalence of childhood ADHD among incarcerated women and determine its association with substance use and adult functioning. Method: 192 female participants are recruited from the Department of Corrections in Rhode Island. Childhood ADHD is defined as scoring >46 on the Wender Utah Rating Scale. Results: The findings

  20. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LUNG FUNCTION AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS IN YOUNG ADULT BLACK AND WHITE MALES AND FEMALES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relationships of lung function to physical characteristics in young adults have not been adequately described for different gender-race groups in the United States. s part of a study of the effects of ozone exposure upon Black and White men and women, we measured lung volumes...

  1. Legally Prescribed Functions of Adult and Juvenile Probation Officers: Worlds Apart?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner, Benjamin; Purkiss, Marcus; Kifer, Misty; Roberts, Elizabeth; Hemmens, Craig

    2004-01-01

    Historically, there have been two competing goals of probation: law enforcement and rehabilitation of the offender. Accordingly, the role, functions, and tasks of probation officers are at times in conflict. In this paper we explore the roles of adult and juvenile probation officers and compare their statutorily prescribed duties. In so doing we…

  2. Associations among Childhood Sexual Abuse, Language Use, and Adult Sexual Functioning and Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenz, Tierney Ahrold; Meston, Cindy May

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To better understand the link between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adult sexual functioning and satisfaction, we examined cognitive differences between women with (N = 128) and without (NSA, N = 99) CSA histories. Methods: We used the Linguistic Inquiry Word Count, a computerized text analysis program, to investigate language

  3. From Sentential to Discourse Functions: Detection and Explanation of Speech Repairs by Children and Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Presents a new methodology for studying children's and adults' metalinguistic knowledge of the cohesive, discourse-level properties of spoken language. Studies the abilities of subjects to detect and then to explain discourse repairs in narratives. Considers why the discourse-level functions of the markers are not open to reflection. (HB)

  4. Adult Diagnostic and Functional Outcomes of DSM-5 Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Copeland, William E.; Shanahan, Lilly; Egger, Helen; Angold, Adrian; Costello, E. Jane

    2014-01-01

    Objective Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder is a new disorder for DSM-5 that is uncommon and frequently co-occurs with other psychiatric disorders. Here, we test whether meeting diagnostic criteria for this disorder in childhood predicts adult diagnostic and functional outcomes. Methods In a prospective, population-based study, subjects were assessed with structured interviews up to 6 times in childhood and adolescence (ages 10 to 16; 5336 observations of 1420 subjects) for symptoms of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder and 3 times in young adulthood (ages 19, 21, and 24-26; 3215 observations of 1273 subjects) for psychiatric and functional outcomes (health, risky/illegal behavior, financial/educational and social functioning). Results Young adults with a history of childhood disruptive mood dysregulation disorders had elevated rates of anxiety and depression and were more likely to meet criteria for more than one adult disorder as compared to controls with no history of childhood psychiatric problems (noncases) or subjects meeting criteria for psychiatric disorders other than disruptive mood dysregulation disorder in childhood/adolescence (psychiatric controls). Participants with a history of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder also were more likely to have adverse health outcomes, be impoverished, have reported police contact, and have low educational attainment as adults compared to either psychiatric or noncase controls. Conclusions The long-term prognosis of children with disruptive mood dysregulation disorder cases is one of pervasive impaired functioning that in many cases is worse than that of other childhood psychiatric cases. PMID:24781389

  5. EFFECTS OF AMBIENT OZONE ON RESPIRATORY FUNCTION IN HEALTHY ADULTS EXERCISING OUTDOORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of exposure to ozone (O3) in ambient air on respiratory function was studied in 30 healthy adult nonsmokers engaged in a regular daily program of outdoor exercise in Tuxedo, NY during the summer of 1985. Each subject did the same exercise each day but exercise intensit...

  6. Students' Perceptions of Long-Functioning Cooperative Teams in Accelerated Adult Degree Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Favor, Judy

    2012-01-01

    This study examined 718 adult students' perceptions of long-functioning cooperative study teams in accelerated associate's, bachelor's, and master's business degree programs. Six factors were examined: attraction toward team, alignment of performance expectations, intrateam conflict, workload sharing, preference for teamwork, and impact on

  7. Manual Signing in Adults with Intellectual Disability: Influence of Sign Characteristics on Functional Sign Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meuris, Kristien; Maes, Bea; De Meyer, Anne-Marie; Zink, Inge

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of sign characteristics in a key word signing (KWS) system on the functional use of those signs by adults with intellectual disability (ID). Method: All 507 signs from a Flemish KWS system were characterized in terms of phonological, iconic, and referential characteristics.

  8. Relation of Physical Activity to Memory Functioning in Older Adults: The Memory Workout Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rebok, George W.; Plude, Dana J.

    2001-01-01

    The Memory Workout, a CD-ROM program designed to help older adults increase changes in physical and cognitive activity influencing memory, was tested with 24 subjects. Results revealed a significant relationship between exercise time, exercise efficacy, and cognitive function, as well as interest in improving memory and physical activity.

  9. Age of Acquisition Effects on the Functional Organization of Language in the Adult Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayberry, Rachel I.; Chen, Jen-Kai; Witcher, Pamela; Klein, Denise

    2011-01-01

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we neuroimaged deaf adults as they performed two linguistic tasks with sentences in American Sign Language, grammatical judgment and phonemic-hand judgment. Participants' age-onset of sign language acquisition ranged from birth to 14 years; length of sign language experience was substantial and

  10. Skeletal muscle power: a critical determinant of physical functioning in older adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Muscle power declines earlier and more precipitously with advancing age compared to muscle strength. Peak muscle power has also emerged as an important predictor of functional limitations in older adults. Our current working hypothesis is focused on examining lower extremity muscle power as a more d...

  11. Functional Fitness Assessment for Adults Over 60 Years (A Field Based Assessment).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osness, Wayne H.; And Others

    This field test to assess the functional fitness of adults over 60 covers of the following areas: (1) body composition; (2) body weight; (3) standing height measurement; (4) flexibility; (5) agility/dynamic balance; (6) coordination; (7) strength; and (8) endurance. Posttest activities are suggested, and a data sheet and exercise consent form are…

  12. Analysis of Narrative Discourse Structure as an Ecologically Relevant Measure of Executive Function in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannizzaro, Michael S.; Coelho, Carl A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the narrative discourse production and executive function (EF) abilities of 46 neuro-typical adults (18-98 years old). Two questions were addressed: Is the analysis of narrative structure sensitive to changes associated with aging? & What is the relationship between measures of narrative structure and EF? Narratives were…

  13. Education, Functional Limitations, and Life Satisfaction among Older Adults in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Eun-Kyoung Othelia; Lee, Jungui

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the associations of educational level with functioning and life satisfaction among community-dwelling older adults in South Korea ("n" = 4,152). The sample was drawn from Wave I of the Korean Longitudinal Study on Aging. To examine educational disparities, separate analyses were run to note predictors in less educated…

  14. Cardiac Autonomic Function during Submaximal Treadmill Exercise in Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendonca, Goncalo V.; Pereira, Fernando D.; Fernhall, Bo

    2011-01-01

    This study determined whether the cardiac autonomic function of adults with Down syndrome (DS) differs from that of nondisabled persons during submaximal dynamic exercise. Thirteen participants with DS and 12 nondisabled individuals performed maximal and submaximal treadmill tests with metabolic and heart rate (HR) measurements. Spectral analysis…

  15. Validating the measurement of executive functions in an occupational context for adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Stern, Adi; Maeir, Adina

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The objectives of this study were to better understand the cognitive profile of adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), their occupational performance, and their quality of life (QoL) and to examine the validity of a cognitive-functional evaluation (CFE) battery for these adults. METHOD. Eighty-one adults with ADHD and 58 without ADHD completed ADHD symptom ratings, the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version, and the Adult ADHD Quality-of-Life Scale. An occupational performance interview was administered to the ADHD group. RESULTS. A broad range of occupational concerns were reported. We found significant differences between groups on all measures. In the ADHD group, we found medium significant correlations among the measures. CONCLUSION. Adults with ADHD experience cognitive and functional difficulties in their daily lives associated with QoL. The results support the use of a CFE battery that has been shown to be sensitive and specific for these adults. PMID:25397767

  16. Passaged Adult Chondrocytes Can Form Engineered Cartilage with Functional Mechanical Properties: A Canine Model

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Kenneth W.; Lima, Eric G.; Bian, Liming; O'Conor, Christopher J.; Jayabalan, Prakash S.; Stoker, Aaron M.; Kuroki, Keiichi; Cook, Cristi R.; Ateshian, Gerard A.; Cook, James L.

    2010-01-01

    It was hypothesized that previously optimized serum-free culture conditions for juvenile bovine chondrocytes could be adapted to generate engineered cartilage with physiologic mechanical properties in a preclinical, adult canine model. Primary or passaged (using growth factors) adult chondrocytes from three adult dogs were encapsulated in agarose, and cultured in serum-free media with transforming growth factor-?3. After 28 days in culture, engineered cartilage formed by primary chondrocytes exhibited only small increases in glycosaminoglycan content. However, all passaged chondrocytes on day 28 elaborated a cartilage matrix with compressive properties and glycosaminoglycan content in the range of native adult canine cartilage values. A preliminary biocompatibility study utilizing chondral and osteochondral constructs showed no gross or histological signs of rejection, with all implanted constructs showing excellent integration with surrounding cartilage and subchondral bone. This study demonstrates that adult canine chondrocytes can form a mechanically functional, biocompatible engineered cartilage tissue under optimized culture conditions. The encouraging findings of this work highlight the potential for tissue engineering strategies using adult chondrocytes in the clinical treatment of cartilage defects. PMID:19845465

  17. Physical activity and functional limitations in older adults: a systematic review related to Canada's Physical Activity Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The purpose was to conduct systematic reviews of the relationship between physical activity of healthy community-dwelling older (>65 years) adults and outcomes of functional limitations, disability, or loss of independence. Methods Prospective cohort studies with an outcome related to functional independence or to cognitive function were searched, as well as exercise training interventions that reported a functional outcome. Electronic database search strategies were used to identify citations which were screened (title and abstract) for inclusion. Included articles were reviewed to complete standardized data extraction tables, and assess study quality. An established system of assessing the level and grade of evidence for recommendations was employed. Results Sixty-six studies met inclusion criteria for the relationship between physical activity and functional independence, and 34 were included with a cognitive function outcome. Greater physical activity of an aerobic nature (categorized by a variety of methods) was associated with higher functional status (expressed by a host of outcome measures) in older age. For functional independence, moderate (and high) levels of physical activity appeared effective in conferring a reduced risk (odds ratio ~0.5) of functional limitations or disability. Limitation in higher level performance outcomes was reduced (odds ratio ~0.5) with vigorous (or high) activity with an apparent dose-response of moderate through to high activity. Exercise training interventions (including aerobic and resistance) of older adults showed improvement in physiological and functional measures, and suggestion of longer-term reduction in incidence of mobility disability. A relatively high level of physical activity was related to better cognitive function and reduced risk of developing dementia; however, there were mixed results of the effects of exercise interventions on cognitive function indices. Conclusions There is a consistency of findings across studies and a range of outcome measures related to functional independence; regular aerobic activity and short-term exercise programmes confer a reduced risk of functional limitations and disability in older age. Although a precise characterization of a minimal or effective physical activity dose to maintain functional independence is difficult, it appears moderate to higher levels of activity are effective and there may be a threshold of at least moderate activity for significant outcomes. PMID:20459782

  18. Changes in functional status among older adults in Japan: successful and usual aging.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jersey; Shaw, Benjamin A; Krause, Neal M; Bennett, Joan M; Blaum, Caroline; Kobayashi, Erika; Fukaya, Taro; Sugihara, Yoko; Sugisawa, Hidehiro

    2003-12-01

    This research aimed to chart the trajectories of functional status in old age in Japan and to assess how self-rated health and cognitive functioning differentiate these trajectories and account for interpersonal differences. Data came from a 5-wave panel study of a national sample of 2,200 Japanese older adults between 1987 and 1999. The sample as a whole showed an accelerated increase in functional limitations with age. approximated by a quadratic function. More important, 3 major trajectories of functional change were identified: (a) minimal functional decrement, (b) early onset of functional impairment. and (c) late onset of functional impairment. These findings may serve as useful benchmarks for observations derived from other developed nations. PMID:14692857

  19. Understanding the regulation and function of adult neurogenesis: contribution from an insect model, the house cricket.

    PubMed

    Cayre, Myriam; Scotto-Lomassese, Sophie; Malaterre, Jordane; Strambi, Colette; Strambi, Alain

    2007-05-01

    Since the discovery of adult neurogenesis, a major issue is the role of newborn neurons and the function-dependent regulation of adult neurogenesis. We decided to use an animal model with a relatively simple brain to address these questions. In the adult cricket brain as in mammals, new neurons are produced throughout life. This neurogenesis occurs in the main integrative centers of the insect brain, the mushroom bodies (MBs), where the neuroblasts responsible for their formation persist after the imaginal molt. The rate of production of new neurons is controlled not only by internal cues such as morphogenetic hormones but also by external environmental cues. Adult crickets reared in an enriched sensory environment experienced an increase in neuroblast proliferation as compared with crickets reared in an impoverished environment. In addition, unilateral sensory deprivation led to reduced neurogenesis in the MB ipsilateral to the lesion. In search of a functional role for the new cells, we specifically ablated MB neuroblasts in young adults using brain-focused gamma ray irradiation. We developed a learning paradigm adapted to the cricket, which we call the "escape paradigm." Using this operant associative learning test, we showed that crickets lacking neurogenesis exhibited delayed learning and reduced memory retention of the task when olfactory cues were used. Our results suggest that environmental cues are able to influence adult neurogenesis and that, in turn, newly generated neurons participate in olfactory integration, optimizing learning abilities of the animal, and thus its adaptation to its environment. Nevertheless, odor learning in adult insects cannot always be attributed to newly born neurons because neurogenesis is completed earlier in development in many insect species. In addition, many of the irradiated crickets performed significantly better than chance on the operant learning task. PMID:17404150

  20. Sex differences in the functional neuroanatomy of working memory in adults with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Valera, Eve M.; Brown, Ariel; Biederman, Joseph; Faraone, Stephen V.; Makris, Nikos; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Vitulano, Michael; Schiller, Michael; Seidman, Larry J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Although attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults is associated with significant morbidity and dysfunction and afflicts both sexes, relatively few imaging studies have examined females and none have had sufficient power to adequately examine sex differences. We sought to examine sex differences in neural functioning of ADHD adults during performance on a verbal working memory task. Method Participants were 44 adults with ADHD matched on age, sex, and estimated IQ to 49 controls. Accuracy and reaction time on an n-back task were measures of working memory performance. The blood-oxygenation-level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging response was used as a measure of neural activity. Results A group by sex ANOVA showed no between-group differences in either reaction time or percent correct for the working memory task. For imaging data, with both sexes combined, ADHD adults showed less activity than controls in prefrontal regions. However, sex-by-group analyses revealed an interaction, such that male ADHD adults showed significantly less activity lateralized to right frontal, temporal and subcortical regions, as well as left occipital and cerebellar regions relative to male controls, whereas female ADHD adults showed no differences from female controls. Exploratory correlation analyses revealed negative associations between working memory related activation and number of hyperactive symptoms for males and number of inattentive symptoms for females. Conclusions Male but not female adults with ADHD showed significantly altered patterns of neural activity during performance on a verbal working memory task. Males and females showed different associations between neural activity and ADHD symptoms. PMID:19884224

  1. Do Individuals with High Functioning Autism Have the IQ Profile Associated with Nonverbal Learning Disability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Diane L.; Goldstein, Gerald; Kojkowski, Nicole; Minshew, Nancy J.

    2008-01-01

    Previously researchers have noted a high level of occurrence of the IQ profile associated with nonverbal learning disability (NLD) in Asperger syndrome (ASP) but not in high functioning autism (HFA). We examined the IQ profile scores of a large sample of children (n=69) and adults (n=77) with HFA, stringently diagnosed according to ADOS, ADI-R,

  2. Responses to Nonverbal Behaviour of Dynamic Virtual Characters in High-Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Caroline; Bente, Gary; Gawronski, Astrid; Schilbach, Leonhard; Vogeley, Kai

    2010-01-01

    We investigated feelings of involvement evoked by nonverbal behaviour of dynamic virtual characters in 20 adults with high-functioning autism (HFA) and high IQ as well as 20 IQ-matched control subjects. The effects of diagnostic group showed that subjects with autism experienced less "contact" and "urge" to establish contact across conditions and

  3. Systemic Vascular Function Is Associated with Muscular Power in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Heffernan, Kevin S.; Chalé, Angela; Hau, Cynthia; Cloutier, Gregory J.; Phillips, Edward M.; Warner, Patrick; Nickerson, Heather; Reid, Kieran F.; Kuvin, Jeffrey T.; Fielding, Roger A.

    2012-01-01

    Age-associated loss of muscular strength and muscular power is a critical determinant of loss of physical function and progression to disability in older adults. In this study, we examined the association of systemic vascular function and measures of muscle strength and power in older adults. Measures of vascular endothelial function included brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and the pulse wave amplitude reactive hyperemia index (PWA-RHI). Augmentation index (AIx) was taken as a measure of systemic vascular function related to arterial stiffness and wave reflection. Measures of muscular strength included one repetition maximum (1RM) for a bilateral leg press. Peak muscular power was measured during 5 repetitions performed as fast as possible for bilateral leg press at 40% 1RM. Muscular power was associated with brachial FMD (r = 0.43, P < 0.05), PWA-RHI (r = 0.42, P < 0.05), and AIx (r = −0.54, P < 0.05). Muscular strength was not associated with any measure of vascular function. In conclusion, systemic vascular function is associated with lower-limb muscular power but not muscular strength in older adults. Whether loss of muscular power with aging contributes to systemic vascular deconditioning or vascular dysfunction contributes to decrements in muscular power remains to be determined. PMID:22966457

  4. Characterising resting-state functional connectivity in a large sample of adults with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Mostert, Jeanette C; Shumskaya, Elena; Mennes, Maarten; Onnink, A Marten H; Hoogman, Martine; Kan, Cornelis C; Arias Vasquez, Alejandro; Buitelaar, Jan; Franke, Barbara; Norris, David G

    2016-06-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood psychiatric disorder that often persists into adulthood. While several studies have identified altered functional connectivity in brain networks during rest in children with ADHD, few studies have been performed on adults with ADHD. Existing studies have generally investigated small samples. We therefore investigated aberrant functional connectivity in a large sample of adult patients with childhood-onset ADHD, using a data-driven, whole-brain approach. Adults with a clinical ADHD diagnosis (N=99) and healthy, adult comparison subjects (N=113) underwent a 9-minute resting-state fMRI session in a 1.5T MRI scanner. After elaborate preprocessing including a thorough head-motion correction procedure, group independent component analysis (ICA) was applied from which we identified six networks of interest: cerebellum, executive control, left and right frontoparietal and two default-mode networks. Participant-level network maps were obtained using dual-regression and tested for differences between patients with ADHD and controls using permutation testing. Patients showed significantly stronger connectivity in the anterior cingulate gyrus of the executive control network. Trends were also observed for stronger connectivity in the cerebellum network in ADHD patients compared to controls. However, there was considerable overlap in connectivity values between patients and controls, leading to relatively low effect sizes despite the large sample size. These effect sizes were slightly larger when testing for correlations between hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms and connectivity strength in the executive control and cerebellum networks. This study provides important insights for studies on the neurobiology of adult ADHD; it shows that resting-state functional connectivity differences between adult patients and controls exist, but have smaller effect sizes than existing literature suggested. PMID:26825495

  5. Executive Functioning in Highly Talented Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Verburgh, Lot; Scherder, Erik J. A.; van Lange, Paul A.M.; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2014-01-01

    Executive functions might be important for successful performance in sports, particularly in team sports requiring quick anticipation and adaptation to continuously changing situations in the field. The executive functions motor inhibition, attention and visuospatial working memory were examined in highly talented soccer players. Eighty-four highly talented youth soccer players (mean age 11.9), and forty-two age-matched amateur soccer players (mean age 11.8) in the age range 8 to 16 years performed a Stop Signal task (motor inhibition), the Attention Network Test (alerting, orienting, and executive attention) and a visuospatial working memory task. The highly talented soccer players followed the talent development program of the youth academy of a professional soccer club and played at the highest national soccer competition for their age. The amateur soccer players played at a regular soccer club in the same geographical region as the highly talented soccer players and play in a regular regional soccer competition. Group differences were tested using analyses of variance. The highly talented group showed superior motor inhibition as measured by stop signal reaction time (SSRT) on the Stop Signal task and a larger alerting effect on the Attention Network Test, indicating an enhanced ability to attain and maintain an alert state. No group differences were found for orienting and executive attention and visuospatial working memory. A logistic regression model with group (highly talented or amateur) as dependent variable and executive function measures that significantly distinguished between groups as predictors showed that these measures differentiated highly talented soccer players from amateur soccer players with 89% accuracy. Highly talented youth soccer players outperform youth amateur players on suppressing ongoing motor responses and on the ability to attain and maintain an alert state; both may be essential for success in soccer. PMID:24632735

  6. Effect of the antioxidant dibunol on adrenocortical, thyroid, and adenohypopyseal function in adult and old rats

    SciTech Connect

    Gorban', E.N.

    1986-04-01

    This paper studies the effect of dibunol (4-methyl-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol) (D) on the function of the adrenal cortex, thyroid gland, and adenhypophysis, which produces trophic hormones for the other two glands. Experiments were carried out on adult rats. After injection of D concentrations of corticosterone (CS), triodothyronine (T/sub 3/), ACTH, and thyrotrophin (TSH) in the blood plasma and the CS concentration in tssue of the adenohypophysis were determined. It is shown that injection of D caused biphasic changes in the CS concentration in both tissues studied in adult and old animals.

  7. Speed of processing and depression affect function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Patrick J.; Liu, Xinhua; Sneed, Joel R.; Pimontel, Monique A.; Devanand, D.P.; Roose, Steven P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effect of depression and cognition on function in older adults with amnestic and nonamnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI; nonaMCI). Design The study uses baseline data from the National Alzheimer’s Coordinating Center. Setting Data was collected at multiple Alzheimer’s Disease Centers in the United States. Participants The sample included a total of 3117 individuals with MCI, mean age = 74.37 years, SD = 9.37 (aMCI n =2488; nonaMCI n = 629). Measurements The 10-item Pfeffer Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ) assessed function. Results Depressive symptoms (Geriatric Depression Scale), memory impairment (Logical Memory II), and processing speed decrements (Digit Symbol Substitution Test) were significantly associated with functional impairment (p < .001). Processing speed partially mediated the effect of depression on function and fully mediated the effect of executive dysfunction on function (p < .001) in the total MCI and aMCI subsample, while in the nonaMCI subsample processing speed mediated the effect of executive function but not the effect of depression (p = .20) on function. Conclusions The findings show that processing speed is central to the effect that depression and executive dysfunction have on functional impairment in cognitively impaired older adults. Future studies are needed to better understand the physiological underpinnings in age-related and disease-specific decrements in processing speed, and to address the problems in the assessment of processing speed in clinical samples. PMID:23567401

  8. Functional outcomes of adults with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Butcher, Nancy J.; Chow, Eva W.C.; Costain, Gregory; Karas, Dominique; Ho, Andrew; Bassett, Anne S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome is a common multisystem genomic disorder with congenital and later-onset manifestations, including congenital heart disease, intellectual disability, and psychiatric illness, that may affect long-term functioning. There are limited data on adult functioning in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Methods We used the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales to assess functioning in 100 adults with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (n = 46 male; mean age = 28.8 (standard deviation = 9.7) years) where intellect ranged from average to borderline (n = 57) to mild intellectual disability (n = 43). Results More than 75% of the subjects scored in the functional deficit range. Although personal, vocational, and financial demographics confirmed widespread functional impairment, daily living skills and employment were relative strengths. Intelligence quotient was a significant predictor (P < 0.001) of overall and domain-specific adaptive functioning skills. A diagnosis of schizophrenia was a significant predictor (P < 0.05) of overall adaptive functioning, daily living skills, and socialization scores. Notably, congenital heart disease, history of mood/anxiety disorders, sex, and age were not significant predictors of functioning. Conclusion Despite functional impairment in adulthood that is primarily mediated by cognitive and psychiatric phenotypes, relative strengths in activities of daily living and employment have important implications for services and long-term planning. These results may help to inform expectations about outcomes for patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. PMID:22744446

  9. Upper limb motor function in young adults with spina bifida and hydrocephalus

    PubMed Central

    Salman, M. S.; Jewell, D.; Hetherington, R.; Spiegler, B. J.; MacGregor, D. L.; Drake, J. M.; Humphreys, R. P.; Gentili, F.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The objective of the study was to measure upper limb motor function in young adults with spina bifida meningomyelocele (SBM) and typically developing age peers. Method Participants were 26 young adults with SBM, with a Verbal or Performance IQ score of at least 70 on the Wechsler scales, and 27 age- and gender-matched controls. Four upper limb motor function tasks were performed under four different visual and cognitive challenge conditions. Motor independence was assessed by questionnaire. Results Fewer SBM than control participants obtained perfect posture and rebound scores. The SBM group performed less accurately and was more disrupted by cognitive challenge than controls on limb dysmetria tasks. The SBM group was slower than controls on the diadochokinesis task. Adaptive motor independence was related to one upper limb motor task, arm posture, and upper rather than lower spinal lesions were associated with less motor independence. Conclusions Young adults with SBM have significant limitations in upper limb function and are more disrupted by some challenges while performing upper limb motor tasks. Within the group of young adults with SBM, upper spinal lesions compromise motor independence more than lower spinal lesions. PMID:19672605

  10. Consequences of cancer treatments on adult hippocampal neurogenesis: implications for cognitive function and depressive symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Pereira Dias, Gisele; Hollywood, Ronan; Bevilaqua, Mário Cesar do Nascimento; da Silveira da Luz, Anna Claudia Domingos; Hindges, Robert; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Thuret, Sandrine

    2014-01-01

    The human brain is capable of generating new functional neurons throughout life, a phenomenon known as adult neurogenesis. The generation of new neurons is sustained throughout adulthood due to the proliferation and differentiation of adult neural stem cells. This process in humans is uniquely located in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) is thought to play a major role in hippocampus-dependent functions, such as spatial awareness, long-term memory, emotionality, and mood. The overall aim of current treatments for cancer (such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy) is to prevent aberrant cell division of cell populations associated with malignancy. However, the treatments in question are absolutist in nature and hence inhibit all cell division. An unintended consequence of this cessation of cell division is the impairment of adult neural stem cell proliferation and AHN. Patients undergoing treatment for cancerous malignancies often display specific forms of memory deficits, as well as depressive symptoms. This review aims to discuss the effects of cancer treatments on AHN and propose a link between the inhibition of the neurogenetic process in the hippocampus and the advent of the cognitive and mood-based deficits observed in patients and animal models undergoing cancer therapies. Possible evidence for coadjuvant interventions aiming to protect neural cells, and subsequently the mood and cognitive functions they regulate, from the ablative effects of cancer treatment are discussed as potential clinical tools to improve mental health among cancer patients. PMID:24470543

  11. Functional genomics identifies regulators of the phototransduction machinery in the Drosophila larval eye and adult ocelli.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Abhishek Kumar; Bargmann, Bastiaan O R; Tsachaki, Maria; Fritsch, Cornelia; Sprecher, Simon G

    2016-02-15

    Sensory perception of light is mediated by specialized Photoreceptor neurons (PRs) in the eye. During development all PRs are genetically determined to express a specific Rhodopsin (Rh) gene and genes mediating a functional phototransduction pathway. While the genetic and molecular mechanisms of PR development is well described in the adult compound eye, it remains unclear how the expression of Rhodopsins and the phototransduction cascade is regulated in other visual organs in Drosophila, such as the larval eye and adult ocelli. Using transcriptome analysis of larval PR-subtypes and ocellar PRs we identify and study new regulators required during PR differentiation or necessary for the expression of specific signaling molecules of the functional phototransduction pathway. We found that the transcription factor Krppel (Kr) is enriched in the larval eye and controls PR differentiation by promoting Rh5 and Rh6 expression. We also identified Camta, Lola, Dve and Hazy as key genes acting during ocellar PR differentiation. Further we show that these transcriptional regulators control gene expression of the phototransduction cascade in both larval eye and adult ocelli. Our results show that PR cell type-specific transcriptome profiling is a powerful tool to identify key transcriptional regulators involved during several aspects of PR development and differentiation. Our findings greatly contribute to the understanding of how combinatorial action of key transcriptional regulators control PR development and the regulation of a functional phototransduction pathway in both larval eye and adult ocelli. PMID:26769100

  12. Cognitive functioning in socially anxious adults: insights from the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery

    PubMed Central

    Troller-Renfree, Sonya V.; Barker, Tyson V.; Pine, Daniel S.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2015-01-01

    Theory suggests that individuals with social anxiety manifest unique patterns of cognition with less efficient fluid cognition and unperturbed crystallized cognition; however, empirical support for these ideas remains inconclusive. The heterogeneity of past findings may reflect unreliability in cognitive assessments or the influence of confounding variables. The present study examined the relations among social anxiety and performance on the reliable, newly established NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery. Results indicate that high socially anxious adults performed as well as low anxious participants on all measures of fluid cognition. However, high socially anxious adults demonstrated enhanced crystallized cognitive abilities relative to a low socially anxious comparison group. PMID:26106346

  13. Combined cognitive-psychological-physical intervention induces reorganization of intrinsic functional brain architecture in older adults.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhiwei; Zhu, Xinyi; Yin, Shufei; Wang, Baoxi; Niu, Yanan; Huang, Xin; Li, Rui; Li, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that enriched mental, physical, and socially stimulating activities are beneficial for counteracting age-related decreases in brain function and cognition in older adults. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to demonstrate the functional plasticity of brain activity in response to a combined cognitive-psychological-physical intervention and investigated the contribution of the intervention-related brain changes to individual performance in healthy older adults. The intervention was composed of a 6-week program of combined activities including cognitive training, Tai Chi exercise, and group counseling. The results showed improved cognitive performance and reorganized regional homogeneity of spontaneous fluctuations in the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals in the superior and middle temporal gyri, and the posterior lobe of the cerebellum, in the participants who attended the intervention. Intriguingly, the intervention-induced changes in the coherence of local spontaneous activity correlated with the improvements in individual cognitive performance. Taken together with our previous findings of enhanced resting-state functional connectivity between the medial prefrontal cortex and medial temporal lobe regions following a combined intervention program in older adults, we conclude that the functional plasticity of the aging brain is a rather complex process, and an effective cognitive-psychological-physical intervention is helpful for maintaining a healthy brain and comprehensive cognition during old age. PMID:25810927

  14. The socioeconomic origins of physical functioning among older U.S. adults.

    PubMed

    Montez, Jennifer Karas

    2013-12-01

    Mounting evidence finds that adult health reflects socioeconomic circumstances (SES) in early life and adulthood. However, it is unclear how the health consequences of SES in early life and adulthood accumulate-for example, additively, synergistically. This study tests four hypotheses about how the health effects of early-life SES (measured by parental education) and adult SES (measured by own education) accumulate to shape functional limitations, whether the accumulation differs between men and women, and the extent to which key mechanisms explain the accumulation. It uses data from the 1994-2010 Health and Retirement Study on U.S. adults 50-100 years of age (N=24,026). The physical functioning benefits of parental and own education accumulated additively among men. While the physical functioning benefits generally accumulated among women, the functioning benefits from one's own education were dampened among women with low-educated mothers. The dampening partly reflected a strong tie between mothers' education level and women's obesity risk. Taken together, the findings reveal subtle differences between men and women in the life course origins of physical functioning. They also shed light on a key mechanism-obesity-that may help explain why a growing number of studies find that early-life SES is especially important for women's health. PMID:24796709

  15. Combined Cognitive-Psychological-Physical Intervention Induces Reorganization of Intrinsic Functional Brain Architecture in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zhiwei; Zhu, Xinyi; Yin, Shufei; Wang, Baoxi; Niu, Yanan; Huang, Xin; Li, Rui; Li, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that enriched mental, physical, and socially stimulating activities are beneficial for counteracting age-related decreases in brain function and cognition in older adults. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to demonstrate the functional plasticity of brain activity in response to a combined cognitive-psychological-physical intervention and investigated the contribution of the intervention-related brain changes to individual performance in healthy older adults. The intervention was composed of a 6-week program of combined activities including cognitive training, Tai Chi exercise, and group counseling. The results showed improved cognitive performance and reorganized regional homogeneity of spontaneous fluctuations in the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals in the superior and middle temporal gyri, and the posterior lobe of the cerebellum, in the participants who attended the intervention. Intriguingly, the intervention-induced changes in the coherence of local spontaneous activity correlated with the improvements in individual cognitive performance. Taken together with our previous findings of enhanced resting-state functional connectivity between the medial prefrontal cortex and medial temporal lobe regions following a combined intervention program in older adults, we conclude that the functional plasticity of the aging brain is a rather complex process, and an effective cognitive-psychological-physical intervention is helpful for maintaining a healthy brain and comprehensive cognition during old age. PMID:25810927

  16. Insights from a Chimpanzee Adipose Stromal Cell Population: Opportunities for Adult Stem Cells to Expand Primate Functional Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Pfefferle, Lisa W.; Wray, Gregory A.

    2013-01-01

    Comparisons between humans and chimpanzees are essential for understanding traits unique to each species. However, linking important phenotypic differences to underlying molecular changes is often challenging. The ability to generate, differentiate, and profile adult stem cells provides a powerful but underutilized opportunity to investigate the molecular basis for trait differences between species within specific cell types and in a controlled environment. Here, we characterize adipose stromal cells (ASCs) from Clint, the chimpanzee whose genome was first sequenced. Using imaging and RNA-Seq, we compare the chimpanzee ASCs with three comparable human cell lines. Consistent with previous studies on ASCs in humans, the chimpanzee cells have fibroblast-like morphology and express genes encoding components of the extracellular matrix at high levels. Differentially expressed genes are enriched for distinct functional classes between species: immunity and protein processing are higher in chimpanzees, whereas cell cycle and DNA processing are higher in humans. Although hesitant to draw definitive conclusions from these data given the limited sample size, we wish to stress the opportunities that adult stem cells offer for studying primate evolution. In particular, adult stem cells provide a powerful means to investigate the profound disease susceptibilities unique to humans and a promising tool for conservation efforts with nonhuman primates. By allowing for experimental perturbations in relevant cell types, adult stem cells promise to complement classic comparative primate genomics based on in vivo sampling. PMID:24092797

  17. Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis: Regulation, Functional Implications, And Contribution to Disease Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Balu, Darrick T.; Lucki, Irwin

    2009-01-01

    It is now well established that the mammalian brain has the capacity to produce new neurons into adulthood. One such region that provides the proper milieu to sustain progenitor cells and is permissive to neuronal fate determination is located in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. This review will discuss in detail the complex process of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, including proliferation, differentiation, survival, and incorporation into neuronal networks. The regulation of this phenomenon by a number of factors is described, including neurotransmitter systems, growth factors, paracrine signaling molecules, neuropeptides, transcription factors, endogenous psychotropic systems, sex hormones, stress, and others. This review also addresses the functional significance of adult born hippocampal granule cells with regard to hippocampal circuitry dynamics and behavior. Furthermore, the relevance of perturbations in adult hippocampal neurogenesis to the pathophysiology of various disease states, including depression, schizophrenia, epilepsy, and diabetes are examined. Finally, this review discusses the potential of using hippocampal neurogenesis as a therapeutic target for these disorders. PMID:18786562

  18. Exploring the Relationship of Autonomic and Endocrine Activity with Social Functioning in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smeekens, I.; Didden, R.; Verhoeven, E. W. M.

    2015-01-01

    Several studies indicate that autonomic and endocrine activity may be related to social functioning in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), although the number of studies in adults is limited. The present study explored the relationship of autonomic and endocrine activity with social functioning in young adult males with ASD compared

  19. Exploring the Relationship of Autonomic and Endocrine Activity with Social Functioning in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smeekens, I.; Didden, R.; Verhoeven, E. W. M.

    2015-01-01

    Several studies indicate that autonomic and endocrine activity may be related to social functioning in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), although the number of studies in adults is limited. The present study explored the relationship of autonomic and endocrine activity with social functioning in young adult males with ASD compared…

  20. Comparison of functional activation foci in children and adults using a common stereotactic space.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyunseon Christine; Burgund, E Darcy; Lugar, Heather M; Petersen, Steven E; Schlaggar, Bradley L

    2003-05-01

    The development of methods allowing direct comparisons between child and adult neuroimaging data is an important prerequisite for studying the neural bases of cognitive development. Several issues arise when attempting to make such direct comparisons, including the comparability of anatomical localization of functional responses and the magnitude and time course of the hemodynamic responses themselves. Previous results suggest that, after transformation into a common stereotactic space, anatomical differences between children (ages 7 and 8) and adults are small relative to the resolution of fMRI data. Here, we investigate whether time courses (BOLD responses) and locations of functional activation foci show similarities as well. Event-related fMRI was performed on 16 children (ages 7 and 8) and 16 adults, who pressed buttons in response to a visual stimulus. After transforming images into Talairach space, the coordinates of four consistent activations in each hemisphere were determined for each subject: two foci in the sensorimotor cortex, one focus in the visual cortex, and one focus in the supplementary motor area (eight activations in total). In seven foci, time courses were similar between children and adults, and peak amplitudes of time courses were comparable in all eight foci. There were negligible between-group differences in location of all foci. Variability of activation location was statistically similar in the two groups. In voxelwise group comparison images, minimal differences were found between children and adults in visual and motor cortex regions. The small differences in time courses and locations of activation foci between child and adult brains validate the feasibility of direct statistical comparison of these groups within a common space. PMID:12781724

  1. Pancreatic functions in high salt fed female rats

    PubMed Central

    Lasheen, Noha N

    2015-01-01

    Salt consumption has been increased worldwide and the association of high salt diets with enhanced inflammation and target organ damage was reported. Little data were available about the effect of high salt diet on exocrine function of pancreas, while the relation between high salt intake and insulin sensitivity was controversial. This study was designed to investigate the effect of high salt diet on exocrine and endocrine pancreatic functions, and to elucidate the possible underlying mechanism(s). Twenty adult female Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups; control group; fed standard rodent diet containing 0.3% NaCl, and high salt fed group; fed 8% NaCl for 8 weeks. On the day of sacrifice, rats were anesthized by i.p. pentobarbitone (40 μg/kg B.W.). Nasoanal length was measured and fasting blood glucose was determined from rat tail. Blood samples were obtained from abdominal aorta for determination of plasma sodium, potassium, amylase, lipase, aldosterone, insulin, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β1), and interleukin 6 (IL6). Pancreata of both groups were histologically studied. Compared to control group, 8-week high salt fed group showed: significant elevation in body weight, body mass index, Lee index, plasma sodium, TGF-β1 and IL6, however, plasma aldosterone, amylase, lipase, and insulin levels were significantly decreased. A nonsignificant increase in plasma potassium and nonsignificant changes in fasting blood glucose and HOMA-IR were detected between groups. Pancreatic fibrosis was observed in test group. High salt diet for 8 weeks caused pancreatic fibrosis evidenced by decline of both exocrine and endocrine functions of pancreas in Wistar rats. PMID:26216433

  2. Functional Expression of T-Type Ca2+ Channels in Spinal Motoneurons of the Adult Turtle

    PubMed Central

    Canto-Bustos, Martha; Loeza-Alcocer, Emanuel; Gonzlez-Ramrez, Ricardo; Gandini, Mara A.; Delgado-Lezama, Rodolfo; Felix, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Voltage-gated Ca2+ (CaV) channels are transmembrane proteins comprising three subfamilies named CaV1, CaV2 and CaV3. The CaV3 channel subfamily groups the low-voltage activated Ca2+ channels (LVA or T-type) a significant role in regulating neuronal excitability. CaV3 channel activity may lead to the generation of complex patterns of action potential firing such as the postinhibitory rebound (PIR). In the adult spinal cord, these channels have been found in dorsal horn interneurons where they control physiological events near the resting potential and participate in determining excitability. In motoneurons, CaV3 channels have been found during development, but their functional expression has not yet been reported in adult animals. Here, we show evidence for the presence of CaV3 channel-mediated PIR in motoneurons of the adult turtle spinal cord. Our results indicate that Ni2+ and NNC55-0396, two antagonists of CaV3 channel activity, inhibited PIR in the adult turtle spinal cord. Molecular biology and biochemical assays revealed the expression of the CaV3.1 channel isotype and its localization in motoneurons. Together, these results provide evidence for the expression of CaV3.1 channels in the spinal cord of adult animals and show also that these channels may contribute to determine the excitability of motoneurons. PMID:25255145

  3. Novel Observations From Next-Generation RNA Sequencing of Highly Purified Human Adult and Fetal Islet Cell Subsets.

    PubMed

    Blodgett, David M; Nowosielska, Anetta; Afik, Shaked; Pechhold, Susanne; Cura, Anthony J; Kennedy, Norman J; Kim, Soyoung; Kucukural, Alper; Davis, Roger J; Kent, Sally C; Greiner, Dale L; Garber, Manuel G; Harlan, David M; diIorio, Philip

    2015-09-01

    Understanding distinct gene expression patterns of normal adult and developing fetal human pancreatic α- and β-cells is crucial for developing stem cell therapies, islet regeneration strategies, and therapies designed to increase β-cell function in patients with diabetes (type 1 or 2). Toward that end, we have developed methods to highly purify α-, β-, and δ-cells from human fetal and adult pancreata by intracellular staining for the cell-specific hormone content, sorting the subpopulations by flow cytometry, and, using next-generation RNA sequencing, we report the detailed transcriptomes of fetal and adult α- and β-cells. We observed that human islet composition was not influenced by age, sex, or BMI, and transcripts for inflammatory gene products were noted in fetal β-cells. In addition, within highly purified adult glucagon-expressing α-cells, we observed surprisingly high insulin mRNA expression, but not insulin protein expression. This transcriptome analysis from highly purified islet α- and β-cell subsets from fetal and adult pancreata offers clear implications for strategies that seek to increase insulin expression in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. PMID:25931473

  4. Physical Activity and Functional Limitations in Older Adults: The Influence of Self-Efficacy and Functional Performance

    PubMed Central

    Mullen, Sean P.; Satariano, William A.; Kealey, Melissa; Prohaska, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Data from the Healthy Aging Network (HAN) study (Prohaska, T., Eisenstein, A., Satariano, W., Hunter, R., Bayles, C., Kurtovich, E., Ivey, S. [2009]. Walking and the preservation of cognitive function in older populations. The Gerontologist, 49[Suppl. 1], S86S93; and Satariano, W., Ivey, S., Kurtovich, E., Kealey, M., Hubbard, A., Bayles, C., Prohaska, T. [2010]. Lower-body function, neighborhoods, and walking in an older population. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 38, 419428.) were used to examine the relationships among physical activity, self-efficacy, functional performance, and limitations. Method. Interviews were conducted within homes and senior centers in 4 geographic regions across the United States. Participants were 884 older adults (M age = 74.8; 77% female; 35% minority status) who completed measures of walking behavior, way-finding self-efficacy, walking self-efficacy, functional performance, functional limitations, and demographic characteristics. Results. Path analysis within a covariance modeling framework revealed significant direct effects of walking on self-efficacy constructs, functional performance on functional limitations, and efficacy on limitations. Additionally, significant indirect effects were also found, including walking on limitations via walking self-efficacy and performance and walking self-efficacy on limitations via performance. Furthermore, we found support for invariance of the model across geographical grouping. Discussion. Our findings provide further validation for an efficacy-based model of functional limitations. Walking-related efficacy may help reduce or possibly delay the onset of functional limitations. PMID:22473023

  5. Characterizing Vibratory Kinematics in Children and Adults with High-Speed Digital Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Rita; Dubrovskiy, Denis; Döllinger, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to quantify and identify characteristic vibratory motion in typically developing prepubertal children and young adults using high-speed digital imaging. Method: The vibrations of the vocal folds were recorded from 27 children (ages 5-9 years) and 35 adults (ages 21-45 years), with high speed at 4,000 frames per…

  6. Characterizing Vibratory Kinematics in Children and Adults with High-Speed Digital Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Rita; Dubrovskiy, Denis; Dllinger, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to quantify and identify characteristic vibratory motion in typically developing prepubertal children and young adults using high-speed digital imaging. Method: The vibrations of the vocal folds were recorded from 27 children (ages 5-9 years) and 35 adults (ages 21-45 years), with high speed at 4,000 frames per

  7. Retinal Thickness and the Structure/Function Relationship in the Eyes of Older Adults with Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Honjo, Megumi; Omodaka, Kazuko; Ishizaki, Tatsuro; Ohkubo, Shinji; Araie, Makoto; Nakazawa, Toru

    2015-01-01

    Glaucoma is common and shows high prevalence in older adults. However, there are few studies on the structure/function relationship in older adults with glaucoma. This prospective, cross-sectional study (conducted between February and August 2014), enrolled 102 eyes of 102 subjects aged over 75 years, including 57 eyes with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), 15 eyes with pseudoexfoliation glaucoma (PXG), and 30 healthy eyes. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine the correlation of circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (cpRNFLT) and macular parameters to mean deviation (MD) to and standard automated perimetry (SAP)-measured sensitivity, assessed with the 302 and 102 programs. In each 102 SAP test point, Spearmans rank correlation coefficient was used to compare macular retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (mRNFLT), macular ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer thickness (GCIPLT), and mRNFL+GCIPL thickness (GCCT) with sensitivity after adjusting for retinal ganglion cell (RGC) displacement. In eyes with POAG and PXG, cpRNFLT was significantly correlated with 302 MD and 302 sensitivity. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the POAG had significantly lower cpRNFLT, mRNFLT, GCIPLT, and GCCT according to the severity of disease than control eyes after adjusting for sensitivity, age, sex, and axial length. The PXG eyes had significantly lower cpRNFLT, mRNFLT, and GCCT when compared with the early to moderate POAG eyes. GCCT was significantly correlated with 102 sensitivity, except in one juxtafoveal point, (r = 0.3380.778) in the POAG eyes. The periphery of the central 10 area showed a good correlation between sensitivity and mRNFLT, while the central 5.8 showed a good correlation between sensitivity and GCIPLT. The correlation between structure and function was significant, and objective and quantitative method with OCT assessing glaucoma that does not require patient ability could be a possible parameter to assess diagnosis and progression in older patients with glaucoma. PMID:26505757

  8. Functional Dedifferentiation and Altered Connectivity in Older Adults: Neural Accounts of Cognitive Aging

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Joshua O. S.

    2011-01-01

    Aging is associated with myriad changes in behavioral performance and brain structure and function. Given this complex interplay of brain and behavior, two streams of findings are reviewed here that show that aging is generally associated with dedifferentiated neural processes, and also changes in functional connectivity. This article considers an integrated view of how such age-related dedifferentiation of neural function and changes in functional connectivity are related, highlighting some recent findings on differences in small-world architecture in the functional connectivity of young and older adults. These findings suggest that both neural connectivity and the organization of these connections are important determinants of processing efficiency with aging that may be the underlying mechanisms for dedifferentiation. Thus, the evaluation of the neurocognitive effects of aging on functional connectivity provides an alternative framework that captures the behavioral and brain changes that are observed in cognitive aging. PMID:21461180

  9. Functional Impairment, Disability, and Frailty in Adults Aging with HIV-Infection

    PubMed Central

    Erlandson, Kristine M.; Schrack, Jennifer A.; Jankowski, Catherine M.; Brown, Todd T.; Campbell, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    The integration of antiretroviral therapy (i.e., ART) into HIV care has dramatically extended the life expectancy of those living with HIV. However, in comparison to similar HIV-uninfected populations, HIV-infected persons experience an excess of morbidity and mortality with an early onset of aging complications including neurocognitive decline, osteoporosis, impaired physical function, frailty, and falls. Recent consensus guidelines encourage clinicians and researchers to consider functional impairment of HIV-infected adults as a measure to understand the impact of aging across a range of abilities. Despite the importance of assessing function in persons aging with HIV infection, a lack of consistent terminology and standardization of assessment tools has limited the application of functional assessments in clinical or research settings. Herein, we distinguish between different approaches used to assess function, describe what is known about function in the aging HIV population, and consider directions for future research. PMID:24966138

  10. The functional role of some tomato products on lipid profile and liver function in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Hoda Salama; Ahmed, Lamiaa Ali; El-din, Maha Mohamed Essam

    2008-09-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the functional role of lycopene obtained from powder prepared from fresh tomato, tomato paste, and ketchup that contained equal amounts of lycopene based on levels of intake on body weight gain (BWG), feed intake, feed efficiency ratio (FER), lipid profiles, atherogenic index, and liver enzymes of hyperlipidemic rats. Forty-eight male albino rats were divided into two main groups: the first group (n = 6 rats) was kept on the basal diet as a normal control, while the second group (n = 42 rats) was fed a hyperlipidemic diet for 5 weeks to induce hyperlipidemia. The latter group was divided into seven subgroups: the first subgroup was the positive control group, while the others were supplemented with one of the tomato products at one of two levels (10 or 20 mg of lycopene/kg of diet). BWG, feed intake, and FER were calculated, and blood samples were collected to determine total lipids, total cholesterol, triglycerides, lipoprotein fractions, atherogenic index, and liver function in sera. Relative organ weights were also calculated. Results revealed that administration of various tomato products produced a significant reduction in feed intake except for the hyperlipidemic group that supplemented with the lower lycopene level from tomato paste. In addition, BWG and FER were not influenced by addition of tomato products at any level of intake. Hyperlipidemic rats supplemented with tomato powder, tomato paste, or ketchup showed significant improvement in almost all the parameters studied compared to the positive control group. Results showed that the higher lycopene level from tomato paste produced significant improvement in all lipid parameters, followed by 10 mg of lycopene/kg from tomato paste, which caused significant elevation in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol comparable to that of the negative control group. The lowest atherogenic index was achieved by addition of the lower lycopene level from tomato paste followed by the higher lycopene level from the same source. So, because of the positive effect of tomato products on the tested parameters an increase in consumption of tomato and its products in the diet is recommended. Nutrition education programs should be encouraged to inform the public of the importance of tomato and its products, especially tomato paste and ketchup, in decreasing the risk of hyperlipidemia. PMID:18800906

  11. Muscle Strength, Physical Activity, and Functional Limitations in Older Adults with Central Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Germain, Cassandra M.; Batsis, John A.; Vasquez, Elizabeth; McQuoid, Douglas R.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Obesity and muscle weakness are independently associated with increased risk of physical and functional impairment in older adults. It is unknown whether physical activity (PA) and muscle strength combined provide added protection against functional impairment. This study examines the association between muscle strength, PA, and functional outcomes in older adults with central obesity. Methods. Prevalence and odds of physical (PL), ADL, and IADL limitation were calculated for 6,388 community dwelling adults aged ≥ 60 with central obesity. Individuals were stratified by sex-specific hand grip tertiles and PA. Logistic models were adjusted for age, education, comorbidities, and body-mass index and weighted. Results. Overall prevalence of PL and ADL and IADL limitations were progressively lower by grip category. Within grip categories, prevalence was lower for individuals who were active than those who were inactive. Adjusted models showed significantly lower odds of PL OR 0.42 [0.31, 0.56]; ADL OR 0.60 [0.43, 0.84], and IADL OR 0.46 [0.35, 0.61] for those in the highest grip strength category as compared to those in the lowest grip category. Conclusion. Improving grip strength in obese elders who are not able to engage in traditional exercise is important for reducing odds of physical and functional impairment.

  12. Oppositional COMT Val158Met effects on resting state functional connectivity in adolescents and adults.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Bernhard M; Huemer, Julia; Rabl, Ulrich; Boubela, Roland N; Kalcher, Klaudius; Berger, Andreas; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth; Bokde, Arun; Bchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia; Desrivires, Sylvane; Flor, Herta; Frouin, Vincent; Gallinat, Jurgen; Garavan, Hugh; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Jia, Tianye; Lathrop, Mark; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Nees, Frauke; Rietschel, Marcella; Smolka, Michael N; Bartova, Lucie; Popovic, Ana; Scharinger, Christian; Sitte, Harald H; Steiner, Hans; Friedrich, Max H; Kasper, Siegfried; Perkmann, Thomas; Praschak-Rieder, Nicole; Haslacher, Helmuth; Esterbauer, Harald; Moser, Ewald; Schumann, Gunter; Pezawas, Lukas

    2016-01-01

    Prefrontal dopamine levels are relatively increased in adolescence compared to adulthood. Genetic variation of COMT (COMT Val158Met) results in lower enzymatic activity and higher dopamine availability in Met carriers. Given the dramatic changes of synaptic dopamine during adolescence, it has been suggested that effects of COMT Val158Met genotypes might have oppositional effects in adolescents and adults. The present study aims to identify such oppositional COMT Val158Met effects in adolescents and adults in prefrontal brain networks at rest. Resting state functional connectivity data were collected from cross-sectional and multicenter study sites involving 106 healthy young adults (mean age 242.6years), gender matched to 106 randomly chosen 14-year-olds. We selected the anterior medial prefrontal cortex (amPFC) as seed due to its important role as nexus ofthe executive control and default mode network. We observed a significant age-dependent reversal of COMT Val158Met effects on resting state functional connectivity between amPFC and ventrolateral as well as dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and parahippocampal gyrus. Val homozygous adults exhibited increased and adolescents decreased connectivity compared to Met homozygotes for all reported regions. Network analyses underscored the importance of the parahippocampal gyrus as mediator of observed effects. Results of this study demonstrate that adolescent and adult resting state networks are dose-dependently and diametrically affected by COMT genotypes following a hypothetical model of dopamine function that follows an inverted U-shaped curve. This study might provide cues for the understanding of disease onset or dopaminergic treatment mechanisms in major neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. PMID:25319752

  13. Predicting sarcopenia from functional measures among community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Gray, Michelle; Glenn, Jordan M; Binns, Ashley

    2016-02-01

    Sarcopenia is defined as age-related lean tissue mass (LTM) loss resulting in reduced muscular strength, physical function, and mobility. Up to 33 % of older adults currently are sarcopenic, with likely many more undiagnosed. The purpose of this investigation was to predict sarcopenia status from easily accessible functional measures of community-dwelling older adults. Forty-three community-dwelling older adults (n = 32 females and n = 11 males) participated in the present investigation. Inclusion criteria included ≥65 years of age, mini-mental state examination score ≥24, and no falls within previous 12 months. All subjects completed their appendicular skeletal mass (ASM) assessment via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and were categorized as either sarcopenic or non-sarcopenic. Physical assessments included 10-m usual walk, hand-grip (HG) strength, 6-min walk, 8-ft up-and-go, 30-s chair stand, 30-s arm curl, and sit-to-stand muscular power. A forward, stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that age, sex, weight, height, 10-m walk, HG, and sit-to-stand muscular power account for 96.1 % of the variance in ASM. The area under the curve was 0.92 for correctly identifying sarcopenic participants compared to their actual classification. This is the first prediction model used to identify sarcopenia based on parameters of demographic and functional fitness measures in community-dwelling older adults. The ability to accurately identify sarcopenia in older adults is imperative to their quality of life and ability to perform activities of daily living. PMID:26846414

  14. Social network types and functional dependency in older adults in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Social networks play a key role in caring for older adults. A better understanding of the characteristics of different social networks types (TSNs) in a given community provides useful information for designing policies to care for this age group. Therefore this study has three objectives: 1) To derive the TSNs among older adults affiliated with the Mexican Institute of Social Security; 2) To describe the main characteristics of the older adults in each TSN, including the instrumental and economic support they receive and their satisfaction with the network; 3) To determine the association between functional dependency and the type of social network. Methods Secondary data analysis of the 2006 Survey of Autonomy and Dependency (N = 3,348). The TSNs were identified using the structural approach and cluster analysis. The association between functional dependency and the TSNs was evaluated with Poisson regression with robust variance analysis in which socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle and medical history covariates were included. Results We identified five TSNs: diverse with community participation (12.1%), diverse without community participation (44.3%); widowed (32.0%); nonfriends-restricted (7.6%); nonfamily-restricted (4.0%). Older adults belonging to widowed and restricted networks showed a higher proportion of dependency, negative self-rated health and depression. Older adults with functional dependency more likely belonged to a widowed network (adjusted prevalence ratio 1.5; 95%CI: 1.1-2.1). Conclusion The derived TSNs were similar to those described in developed countries. However, we identified the existence of a diverse network without community participation and a widowed network that have not been previously described. These TSNs and restricted networks represent a potential unmet need of social security affiliates. PMID:20187973

  15. Poverty indicators and mental health functioning among adults living with HIV in Delhi, India.

    PubMed

    Kang, Ezer; Delzell, Darcie A P; McNamara, Paul E; Cuffey, Joel; Cherian, Anil; Matthew, Saira

    2016-04-01

    Poor mental health functioning among persons living with HIV (PLHIV) has gained considerable attention particularly in low-income countries that disproportionately carry the global HIV/AIDS burden. Fewer studies, however, have examined the relationship between poverty indicators and mental health among PHLIV in India. Based on this cross-sectional study of 196 HIV-seropositive adults who received medical services at Shalom AIDS Project in Delhi, India, structural equation modeling and mediation analysis were employed to estimate the associations between poverty indices (household asset index, food security, unemployment, water treatment, sanitation), HIV-health factors (illness in the past 3 months, co-morbid medical conditions), and psychological distress. In the final model, ownership of fewer household assets was associated with higher levels of food insecurity, which in turn was associated with higher psychological distress. Also, the household asset index, food insecurity, and unemployment had a larger effect on psychological distress than new opportunistic infections. These findings build on increasing evidence that support concerted efforts to design, evaluate, and refine HIV mental health interventions that are mainstreamed with livelihood programming in high poverty regions in India. PMID:26513366

  16. Exogenous spatial attention: Evidence for intact functioning in adults with autism spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Grubb, Michael A.; Behrmann, Marlene; Egan, Ryan; Minshew, Nancy J.; Heeger, David J.; Carrasco, Marisa

    2013-01-01

    Deficits or atypicalities in attention have been reported in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), yet no consensus on the nature of these deficits has emerged. We conducted three experiments that paired a peripheral precue with a covert discrimination task, using protocols for which the effects of covert exogenous spatial attention on early vision have been well established in typically developing populations. Experiment 1 assessed changes in contrast sensitivity, using orientation discrimination of a contrast-defined grating; Experiment 2 evaluated the reduction of crowding in the visual periphery, using discrimination of a letter-like figure with flanking stimuli at variable distances; and Experiment 3 assessed improvements in visual search, using discrimination of the same letter-like figure with a variable number of distractor elements. In all three experiments, we found that exogenous attention modulated visual discriminability in a group of high-functioning adults with ASD and that it did so in the same way and to the same extent as in a matched control group. We found no evidence to support the hypothesis that deficits in exogenous spatial attention underlie the emergence of core ASD symptomatology. PMID:24326863

  17. Functional genomics indicate that schizophrenia may be an adult vascular-ischemic disorder

    PubMed Central

    Moises, H W; Wollschlger, D; Binder, H

    2015-01-01

    In search for the elusive schizophrenia pathway, candidate genes for the disorder from a discovery sample were localized within the energy-delivering and ischemia protection pathway. To test the adult vascular-ischemic (AVIH) and the competing neurodevelopmental hypothesis (NDH), functional genomic analyses of practically all available schizophrenia-associated genes from candidate gene, genome-wide association and postmortem expression studies were performed. Our results indicate a significant overrepresentation of genes involved in vascular function (P<0.001), vasoregulation (that is, perivascular (P<0.001) and shear stress (P<0.01), cerebral ischemia (P<0.001), neurodevelopment (P<0.001) and postischemic repair (P<0.001) among schizophrenia-associated genes from genetic association studies. These findings support both the NDH and the AVIH. The genes from postmortem studies showed an upregulation of vascular-ischemic genes (P=0.020) combined with downregulated synaptic (P=0.005) genes, and ND/repair (P=0.003) genes. Evidence for the AVIH and the NDH is critically discussed. We conclude that schizophrenia is probably a mild adult vascular-ischemic and postischemic repair disorder. Adult postischemic repair involves ND genes for adult neurogenesis, synaptic plasticity, glutamate and increased long-term potentiation of excitatory neurotransmission (i-LTP). Schizophrenia might be caused by the cerebral analog of microvascular angina. PMID:26261884

  18. Mechanisms of recovery of visual function in adult amblyopia through a tailored action video game.

    PubMed

    Vedamurthy, Indu; Nahum, Mor; Bavelier, Daphne; Levi, Dennis M

    2015-01-01

    Amblyopia is a deficit in vision that arises from abnormal visual experience early in life. It was long thought to develop into a permanent deficit, unless properly treated before the end of the sensitive period for visual recovery. However, a number of studies now suggest that adults with long-standing amblyopia may at least partially recover visual acuity and stereopsis following perceptual training. Eliminating or reducing interocular suppression has been hypothesized to be at the root of these changes. Here we show that playing a novel dichoptic video game indeed results in reduced suppression, improved visual acuity and, in some cases, improved stereopsis. Our relatively large cohort of adults with amblyopia, allowed us, for the first time, to assess the link between visual function recovery and reduction in suppression. Surprisingly, no significant correlation was found between decreased suppression and improved visual function. This finding challenges the prevailing view and suggests that while dichoptic training improves visual acuity and stereopsis in adult amblyopia, reduced suppression is unlikely to be at the root of visual recovery. These results are discussed in the context of their implication on recovery of amblyopia in adults. PMID:25719537

  19. Personality Traits, Education, Physical Exercise, and Childhood Neurological Function as Independent Predictors of Adult Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Helen; Furnham, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether personality traits, education, physical exercise, parental socio-economic conditions, and childhood neurological function are independently associated with obesity in 50 year old adults in a longitudinal birth cohort study. Method The sample consisted of 5,921 participants born in Great Britain in 1958 and followed up at 7, 11, 33, 42, and 50 years with data on body mass index measured at 42 and 50 years. Results There was an increase of adult obesity from 14.2% at age 42 to 23.6% at 50 years. Cohort members who were reported by teachers on overall clumsiness as certainly applied at age 7 were more likely to become obese at age 50. In addition, educational qualifications, traits Conscientiousness and Extraversion, psychological distress, and physical exercise were all significantly associated with adult obesity. The associations remained to be significant after controlling for birth weight and gestation, maternal and paternal BMI, childhood BMI, childhood intelligence and behavioural adjustment, as well as diet. Conclusion Neurological function in childhood, education, trait Conscientiousness, and exercise were all significantly and independently associated with adult obesity, each explained unique individual variability. PMID:24250828

  20. Feeding behaviour of adult Centropages hamatus (Copepoda, Calanoida): Functional response and selective feeding experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saage, Andrea; Vadstein, Olav; Sommer, Ulrich

    2009-06-01

    The feeding behaviour of adults of the marine calanoid copepod Centropages hamatus was studied in laboratory experiments with ciliates and phytoplankton as food sources. The ingestion rate of algal (flagellates, diatoms) and ciliate prey (oligotrichs) as a function of prey concentration could be described by a Holling type III functional response, with close to zero ingestion rates at concentrations below 5 g C l - 1 . In general, ingestion of ciliates was higher than ingestion of algae, and maximum feeding rates by adult males reached were half the feeding rates of adult females at prey concentrations exceeding 50 g C l - 1 . When diatoms and ciliates were offered together C. hamatus (both sexes) fed exclusively on ciliates as long as they contributed with more than 5% to the mixture. This indicates the capability of active prey selection and switching between suspension feeding and ambush predation. Therefore, the feeding behaviour of adult C. hamatus can be characterised as omnivorous with a preference for larger motile prey. This implies a trophic level above two, if there is a sufficient abundance of protozoan food available.

  1. Association between tongue and lip functions and masticatory performance in young dentate adults.

    PubMed

    Yamada, A; Kanazawa, M; Komagamine, Y; Minakuchi, S

    2015-11-01

    Motor functions of masticatory organs such as the tongue, lips, cheeks and mandible are known to deteriorate with age, thereby influencing masticatory performance. However, there are few reports on the relationships between tongue and lip functions and masticatory performance. To investigate the relationship between tongue and lip functions and comprehensive masticatory performance, by evaluating crushing, mixing and shearing abilities in young dentate adults. Participants comprised 51 dentate adults with a mean age of 25 years. Maximum tongue pressure and oral diadochokinesis were measured to evaluate tongue and lip functions. A multiple sieving method using peanuts was performed to evaluate crushing ability. A colour-changeable chewing gum was performed to evaluate mixing ability. A test gummy jelly was performed to evaluate shearing ability. The relationship between tongue and lip functions and each masticatory performance was assessed using Pearson's correlation coefficients. In addition, stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of crushing ability. Crushing ability was significantly correlated with maximum tongue pressure and the number of repetitions of the syllables /pa/, /ta/ and /ka/. Maximum tongue pressure and number of repetitions of the syllable /pa/ were identified as significant predictors for crushing ability. Mixing ability was significantly correlated with the number of repetitions of the syllable /pa/. Shearing ability was not significantly correlated with tongue and lip functions. Masticatory performance during the chewing of brittle foods such as peanuts and solid foods such as chewing gum appears to be correlated with tongue and lip functions. PMID:26095117

  2. Assessment of Macular Function Using the SKILL Card in Adults With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Dhamdhere, Kavita P.; Schneck, Marilyn E.; Bearse, Marcus A.; Lam, Wendy; Barez, Shirin; Adams, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the impact of reduced contrast and reduced luminance on visual acuity (VA) using the SmithKettlewell Institute Low Luminance (SKILL) Card in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods. We studied adults aged 27 to 65 years, 32 with T2DM and no retinopathy (NoRet group), 22 with T2DM and nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR group), and 38 healthy control subjects. Monocular high-contrast (SKILL light) and low-contrast, low-luminance (SKILL dark) near visual acuities were tested. The SKILL score was calculated as the difference between dark chart and light chart acuities and was corrected for age. Contrast sensitivity (CS) was also measured. Subject group differences were examined using ANOVA and Tukey honestly significant difference test. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to assess the ability of the SKILL Card and CS to discriminate the subject groups. Results. The SKILL score and CS were significantly worse in both diabetes groups compared with the controls (P < 0.01). SKILL scores in the NPDR group were poorest (highest) and significantly worse than those in the NoRet group (P < 0.05). SKILL scores discriminated NPDR and NoRet patients from the controls with high accuracy (99% and 88%, respectively), which was significantly (P < 0.03) better than CS (78% and 74%, respectively). Conclusions. The SKILL Card demonstrated vision function changes in diabetes even in the absence of clinically evident retinopathy. Diabetic retinopathy led to a further increase in the SKILL score, while high-contrast VA remained unchanged. PMID:24825104

  3. Manipulation of Length and Lexicality Localizes the Functional Neuroanatomy of Phonological Processing in Adult Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Church, Jessica A.; Balota, David A.; Petersen, Steven E.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.

    2011-01-01

    In a previous study of single word reading, regions in the left supramarginal gyrus and left angular gyrus showed positive BOLD activity in children but significantly less activity in adults for high-frequency words [Church, J. A., Coalson, R. S., Lugar, H. M., Petersen, S. E., & Schlaggar, B. L. "A developmental fMRI study of reading and

  4. Using Question Words or Asking Yes/No Questions: Failure and Success in Clarifying the Intentions of a Boy with High-Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oi, Manabu

    2008-01-01

    This paper examined the processes that resulted in an adult failing to comprehend the intentions of a boy with high-functioning autism. In a dyadic conversation between an adult and a young boy, the adult used questions to elicit clarification of intentions. The boy's responses were examined frame-by-frame using videotape microanalysis. Two causes

  5. Using Question Words or Asking Yes/No Questions: Failure and Success in Clarifying the Intentions of a Boy with High-Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oi, Manabu

    2008-01-01

    This paper examined the processes that resulted in an adult failing to comprehend the intentions of a boy with high-functioning autism. In a dyadic conversation between an adult and a young boy, the adult used questions to elicit clarification of intentions. The boy's responses were examined frame-by-frame using videotape microanalysis. Two causes…

  6. Physical Function Assessment in a Community-Dwelling Population of U.S. Chinese Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chang, E-Shien; Simon, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. This report describes the levels of physical function in U.S. Chinese older adults utilizing self-reported and performance-based measures, and examines the association between sociodemographic characteristics and physical function. Methods. The Population Study of Chinese Elderly in Chicago enrolled an epidemiological cohort of 3,159 community-dwelling Chinese older adults aged 60 and older. We collected self-reported physical function using Katz activities of daily living and Lawton instrumental activities of daily living items, the Index of Mobility scale, and the Index of Basic Physical Activities scale. Participants were also asked to perform tasks in chair stand, tandem stand, and timed walk. We computed Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients to examine the correlation between sociodemographic and physical function variables. Results. A total of 7.8% of study participants experienced activities of daily living impairment, and 50.2% experienced instrumental activities of daily living impairment. With respect to physical performance testing, 11.4% of the participants were not able to complete chair stand for five times, 8.5% of the participants were unable to do chair stands at all. Older age, female gender, lower education level, being unmarried, living with fewer people in the same household, having fewer children, living fewer years in the United States, living fewer years in the community, and worsening health status were significantly correlated with lower levels of physical function. Conclusions. Utilizing self-reported and performance-based measures of physical function in a large population-based study of U.S. Chinese older adults, our findings expand current understanding of minority older adults’ functional status. PMID:25378446

  7. Altered functional connectivity density in high myopia.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Liying; Li, Qian; Wang, Tianyue; Dong, HongHuan; Peng, Yanmin; Guo, Mingxia; Qin, Wen; Yu, Chunshui

    2016-04-15

    Abnormal visual experience can affect the brain structure and function. Visual functional performances of high myopia (HM) individuals were observed to be abnormal in contrast to emmetropics, even with a corrected visual acuity. Attention deficits and brain morphological changes have been revealed in the HM, but it is unknown whether there are functional connectivity (FC) alterations. The current study combined the resting-state functional connectivity density (FCD) mapping and seed-based correlation analysis to investigate FC alterations in the brain of HM. In our results, the HM exhibited decreased short- and long-range FCD in the posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus and decreased long-range FCD in the inferior temporal gyrus, supramarginal gyrus and rostrolateral prefrontal cortex. Specially, long-range FCD in the rostrolateral prefrontal cortex showed a significant positive correlation with the uncorrected visual acuity in the HM. Moreover, the HM showed significantly decreased FC not only between the supramarginal gyrus and rostrolateral prefrontal cortex, but also between networks they belong to, the ventral attention and frontoparietal control networks. These results provide evidence for the FC changes in the HM and may help to understand the attention deficits in myopes. PMID:26808608

  8. Functional neuroanatomical differences between adults and school-age children in the processing of single words.

    PubMed

    Schlaggar, Bradley L; Brown, Timothy T; Lugar, Heather M; Visscher, Kristina M; Miezin, Francis M; Petersen, Steven E

    2002-05-24

    A critical issue in developmental cognitive neuroscience is the extent to which the functional neuroanatomy underlying task performance differs in adults and children. Direct comparisons of brain activation in the left frontal and extrastriate cortex were made in adults and children (aged 7 to 10 years) performing single-word processing tasks with visual presentation; differences were found in circumscribed frontal and extrastriate regions. Conceivably, these differences could be attributable exclusively to performance discrepancies; alternatively, maturational differences in functional neuroanatomy could exist despite similar performance. Some of the brain regions examined showed differences attributable to age independent of performance, suggesting that maturation of the pattern of regional activations for these tasks is incomplete at age 10. PMID:12029136

  9. Zinc intake, status and indices of cognitive function in adults and children: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Warthon-Medina, M; Moran, V H; Stammers, A-L; Dillon, S; Qualter, P; Nissensohn, M; Serra-Majem, L; Lowe, N M

    2015-06-01

    In developing countries, deficiencies of micronutrients are thought to have a major impact on child development; however, a consensus on the specific relationship between dietary zinc intake and cognitive function remains elusive. The aim of this systematic review was to examine the relationship between zinc intake, status and indices of cognitive function in children and adults. A systematic literature search was conducted using EMBASE, MEDLINE and Cochrane Library databases from inception to March 2014. Included studies were those that supplied zinc as supplements or measured dietary zinc intake. A meta-analysis of the extracted data was performed where sufficient data were available. Of all of the potentially relevant papers, 18 studies met the inclusion criteria, 12 of which were randomised controlled trials (RCTs; 11 in children and 1 in adults) and 6 were observational studies (2 in children and 4 in adults). Nine of the 18 studies reported a positive association between zinc intake or status with one or more measure of cognitive function. Meta-analysis of data from the adult's studies was not possible because of limited number of studies. A meta-analysis of data from the six RCTs conducted in children revealed that there was no significant overall effect of zinc intake on any indices of cognitive function: intelligence, standard mean difference of <0.001 (95% confidence interval (CI) -0.12, 0.13) P=0.95; executive function, standard mean difference of 0.08 (95% CI, -0.06, 022) P=0.26; and motor skills standard mean difference of 0.11 (95% CI -0.17, 0.39) P=0.43. Heterogeneity in the study designs was a major limitation, hence only a small number (n=6) of studies could be included in the meta-analyses. Meta-analysis failed to show a significant effect of zinc supplementation on cognitive functioning in children though, taken as a whole, there were some small indicators of improvement on aspects of executive function and motor development following supplementation but high-quality RCTs are necessary to investigate this further. PMID:25920424

  10. Patterns of Spontaneous Local Network Activity in Developing Cerebral Cortex: Relationship to Adult Cognitive Function

    PubMed Central

    Peinado, Alejandro; Abrams, Charles K.

    2015-01-01

    Detecting neurodevelopμental disorders of cognition at the earliest possible stages could assist in understanding them mechanistically and ultimately in treating them. Finding early physiological predictors that could be visualized with functional neuroimaging would represent an important advance in this regard. We hypothesized that one potential source of physiological predictors is the spontaneous local network activity prominent during specific periods in development. To test this we used calcium imaging in brain slices and analyzed variations in the frequency and intensity of this early activity in one area, the entorhinal cortex (EC), in order to correlate early activity with level of cognitive function later in life. We focused on EC because of its known role in different types of cognitive processes and because it is an area where spontaneous activity is prominent during early postnatal development in rodent models of cortical development. Using rat strains (Long-Evans, Wistar, Sprague-Dawley and Brattleboro) known to differ in cognitive performance in adulthood we asked whether neonatal animals exhibit corresponding strain-related differences in EC spontaneous activity. Our results show significant differences in this activity between strains: compared to a high cognitive-performing strain, we consistently found an increase in frequency and decrease in intensity in neonates from three lower performing strains. Activity was most different in one strain considered a model of schizophrenia-like psychopathology. While we cannot necessarily infer a causal relationship between early activity and adult cognition our findings suggest that the pattern of spontaneous activity in development could be an early predictor of a developmental trajectory advancing toward sub-optimal cognitive performance in adulthood. Our results further suggest that the strength of dopaminergic signaling, by setting the balance between excitation and inhibition, is a potential underlying mechanism that could explain the observed differences in early spontaneous activity patterns. PMID:26098958

  11. Patterns of Spontaneous Local Network Activity in Developing Cerebral Cortex: Relationship to Adult Cognitive Function.

    PubMed

    Peinado, Alejandro; Abrams, Charles K

    2015-01-01

    Detecting neurodevelop?ental disorders of cognition at the earliest possible stages could assist in understanding them mechanistically and ultimately in treating them. Finding early physiological predictors that could be visualized with functional neuroimaging would represent an important advance in this regard. We hypothesized that one potential source of physiological predictors is the spontaneous local network activity prominent during specific periods in development. To test this we used calcium imaging in brain slices and analyzed variations in the frequency and intensity of this early activity in one area, the entorhinal cortex (EC), in order to correlate early activity with level of cognitive function later in life. We focused on EC because of its known role in different types of cognitive processes and because it is an area where spontaneous activity is prominent during early postnatal development in rodent models of cortical development. Using rat strains (Long-Evans, Wistar, Sprague-Dawley and Brattleboro) known to differ in cognitive performance in adulthood we asked whether neonatal animals exhibit corresponding strain-related differences in EC spontaneous activity. Our results show significant differences in this activity between strains: compared to a high cognitive-performing strain, we consistently found an increase in frequency and decrease in intensity in neonates from three lower performing strains. Activity was most different in one strain considered a model of schizophrenia-like psychopathology. While we cannot necessarily infer a causal relationship between early activity and adult cognition our findings suggest that the pattern of spontaneous activity in development could be an early predictor of a developmental trajectory advancing toward sub-optimal cognitive performance in adulthood. Our results further suggest that the strength of dopaminergic signaling, by setting the balance between excitation and inhibition, is a potential underlying mechanism that could explain the observed differences in early spontaneous activity patterns. PMID:26098958

  12. Percentage of Adults with High Blood Pressure Whose Hypertension Is Adequately Controlled

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of Adults with High Blood Pressure Whose Hypertension is Adequately Controlled Heart disease and stroke are the ... Percentage of People with High Blood Pressure that is Controlled by Age Group f94q-uyye Download these ...

  13. Inducible Activation of ERK5 MAP Kinase Enhances Adult Neurogenesis in the Olfactory Bulb and Improves Olfactory Function

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenbin; Lu, Song; Li, Tan; Pan, Yung-Wei; Zou, Junhui; Abel, Glen M.; Xu, Lihong; Storm, Daniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Recent discoveries have suggested that adult neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and olfactory bulb (OB) may be required for at least some forms of olfactory behavior in mice. However, it is unclear whether conditional and selective enhancement of adult neurogenesis by genetic approaches is sufficient to improve olfactory function under physiological conditions or after injury. Furthermore, specific signaling mechanisms regulating adult neurogenesis in the SVZ/OB are not fully defined. We previously reported that ERK5, a MAP kinase selectively expressed in the neurogenic regions of the adult brain, plays a critical role in adult neurogenesis in the SVZ/OB. Using a site-specific knock-in mouse model, we report here that inducible and targeted activation of the endogenous ERK5 in adult neural stem/progenitor cells enhances adult neurogenesis in the OB by increasing cell survival and neuronal differentiation. This conditional ERK5 activation also improves short-term olfactory memory and odor-cued associative olfactory learning under normal physiological conditions. Furthermore, these mice show enhanced recovery of olfactory function and have more adult-born neurons after a zinc sulfate-induced lesion of the main olfactory epithelium. We conclude that ERK5 MAP kinase is an important endogenous signaling pathway regulating adult neurogenesis in the SVZ/OB, and that conditional activation of endogenous ERK5 is sufficient to enhance adult neurogenesis in the OB thereby improving olfactory function both under normal conditions and after injury. PMID:25995470

  14. Attentional control and subjective executive function in treatment-naive adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Grane, Venke Arntsberg; Endestad, Tor; Pinto, Arnfrid Farbu; Solbakk, Anne-Kristin

    2014-01-01

    We investigated performance-derived measures of executive control, and their relationship with self- and informant reported executive functions in everyday life, in treatment-naive adults with newly diagnosed Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; n?=?36) and in healthy controls (n?=?35). Sustained attentional control and response inhibition were examined with the Test of Variables of Attention (T.O.V.A.). Delayed responses, increased reaction time variability, and higher omission error rate to Go signals in ADHD patients relative to controls indicated fluctuating levels of attention in the patients. Furthermore, an increment in NoGo commission errors when Go stimuli increased relative to NoGo stimuli suggests reduced inhibition of task-irrelevant stimuli in conditions demanding frequent responding. The ADHD group reported significantly more cognitive and behavioral executive problems than the control group on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version (BRIEF-A). There were overall not strong associations between task performance and ratings of everyday executive function. However, for the ADHD group, T.O.V.A. omission errors predicted self-reported difficulties on the Organization of Materials scale, and commission errors predicted informant reported difficulties on the same scale. Although ADHD patients endorsed more symptoms of depression and anxiety on the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA) than controls, ASEBA scores were not significantly associated with T.O.V.A. performance scores. Altogether, the results indicate multifaceted alteration of attentional control in adult ADHD, and accompanying subjective difficulties with several aspects of executive function in everyday living. The relationships between the two sets of data were modest, indicating that the measures represent non-redundant features of adult ADHD. PMID:25545156

  15. Attentional Control and Subjective Executive Function in Treatment-Naive Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Grane, Venke Arntsberg; Endestad, Tor; Pinto, Arnfrid Farbu; Solbakk, Anne-Kristin

    2014-01-01

    We investigated performance-derived measures of executive control, and their relationship with self- and informant reported executive functions in everyday life, in treatment-naive adults with newly diagnosed Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; n = 36) and in healthy controls (n = 35). Sustained attentional control and response inhibition were examined with the Test of Variables of Attention (T.O.V.A.). Delayed responses, increased reaction time variability, and higher omission error rate to Go signals in ADHD patients relative to controls indicated fluctuating levels of attention in the patients. Furthermore, an increment in NoGo commission errors when Go stimuli increased relative to NoGo stimuli suggests reduced inhibition of task-irrelevant stimuli in conditions demanding frequent responding. The ADHD group reported significantly more cognitive and behavioral executive problems than the control group on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version (BRIEF-A). There were overall not strong associations between task performance and ratings of everyday executive function. However, for the ADHD group, T.O.V.A. omission errors predicted self-reported difficulties on the Organization of Materials scale, and commission errors predicted informant reported difficulties on the same scale. Although ADHD patients endorsed more symptoms of depression and anxiety on the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA) than controls, ASEBA scores were not significantly associated with T.O.V.A. performance scores. Altogether, the results indicate multifaceted alteration of attentional control in adult ADHD, and accompanying subjective difficulties with several aspects of executive function in everyday living. The relationships between the two sets of data were modest, indicating that the measures represent non-redundant features of adult ADHD. PMID:25545156

  16. Branched Chain Amino Acids Are Associated With Muscle Mass in Functionally Limited Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lustgarten, Michael S.; Price, Lori Lyn; Chale, Angela; Phillips, Edward M.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Metabolic profiling may provide insight into biologic mechanisms related to the maintenance of muscle and fat-free mass in functionally limited older adults. The objectives of the study were to characterize the association between thigh muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) and the fat-free mass index (FFMI; total lean mass/height2) with the serum metabolite profile, to further identify significant metabolites as associated with markers of insulin resistance or inflammation, and to develop a metabolite predictor set representative of muscle CSA and the FFMI in functionally limited older adults. Methods. Multivariable-adjusted linear regression was used on mass spectrometry-based metabolomic data to determine significant associations between serum metabolites with muscle CSA and the FFMI in 73 functionally limited (Short Physical Performance Battery ≤ 10) older adults (age range: 70–85 years). Significant metabolites were further examined for associations with markers of insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance) or inflammation (tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6). Multivariable-adjusted stepwise regression was used to develop a metabolite predictor set representative of muscle CSA and the FFMI. Results. Seven branched chain amino acid-related metabolites were found to be associated with both muscle CSA and the FFMI. Separately, two metabolites were identified as insulin resistance-associated markers of the FFMI, whereas four metabolites were identified as inflammation-associated markers of either muscle CSA or the FFMI. Stepwise models identified combinations of metabolites to explain approximately 68% of the variability inherent in muscle CSA or the FFMI. Conclusions. Collectively, we report multiple branched chain amino acids and novel inflammation-associated tryptophan metabolites as markers of muscle CSA or the FFMI in functionally limited older adults. PMID:24085401

  17. Functional enrichment analyses and construction of functional similarity networks with high confidence function prediction by PFP

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A new paradigm of biological investigation takes advantage of technologies that produce large high throughput datasets, including genome sequences, interactions of proteins, and gene expression. The ability of biologists to analyze and interpret such data relies on functional annotation of the included proteins, but even in highly characterized organisms many proteins can lack the functional evidence necessary to infer their biological relevance. Results Here we have applied high confidence function predictions from our automated prediction system, PFP, to three genome sequences, Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Plasmodium falciparum (malaria). The number of annotated genes is increased by PFP to over 90% for all of the genomes. Using the large coverage of the function annotation, we introduced the functional similarity networks which represent the functional space of the proteomes. Four different functional similarity networks are constructed for each proteome, one each by considering similarity in a single Gene Ontology (GO) category, i.e. Biological Process, Cellular Component, and Molecular Function, and another one by considering overall similarity with the funSim score. The functional similarity networks are shown to have higher modularity than the protein-protein interaction network. Moreover, the funSim score network is distinct from the single GO-score networks by showing a higher clustering degree exponent value and thus has a higher tendency to be hierarchical. In addition, examining function assignments to the protein-protein interaction network and local regions of genomes has identified numerous cases where subnetworks or local regions have functionally coherent proteins. These results will help interpreting interactions of proteins and gene orders in a genome. Several examples of both analyses are highlighted. Conclusion The analyses demonstrate that applying high confidence predictions from PFP can have a significant impact on a researchers' ability to interpret the immense biological data that are being generated today. The newly introduced functional similarity networks of the three organisms show different network properties as compared with the protein-protein interaction networks. PMID:20482861

  18. Functional decline and satisfaction with nursing care among older hospitalized adults.

    PubMed

    Zisberg, Anna; Zlotnick, Cheryl; Gur-Yaish, Nurit; Admi, Hanna; Sinoff, Gary; Shadmi, Efrat

    2015-10-01

    Around hospitalization, older adults often experience functional decline which can be a reflection of their need for nursing care. Given a shortage of nurses, determining the relationship between functional change and patients' satisfaction with nursing care can help to gauge the need for care. We assessed this relationship in a mixed prospective-correlational cohort study with 393 patients, 70 years or older. The art, tangible aspects and general satisfaction with nursing care were measured through interviews conducted at discharge. Patients' functional status was assessed at admission and discharge. Decline in functioning during hospitalization was the most powerful predictor of higher satisfaction with art and tangible aspects of nursing care in multivariate regression (β = 0.17-0.19, P < 0.01). This finding suggests that patients whose functioning deteriorates during hospitalization, have a greater need for and more contact with professional nursing care, and therefore report higher satisfaction with specific aspects of nursing care. PMID:24689552

  19. Anxiety Modulates Insula Recruitment in Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Youth and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gotlib, Ian H.; Thompson, Paul M.; Thomason, Moriah E.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Research on resting-state functional connectivity reveals intrinsically connected networks in the brain that are largely consistent across the general population. However, there are individual differences in these networks that have not been elucidated. Here, we measured the influence of naturally occurring mood on functional connectivity. In particular, we examined the association between self-reported levels of anxiety and connectivity in the default mode network (DMN). Healthy youth (n=43; ages 1018) and adult participants (n=24, ages 1959) completed a 6-min resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan, then immediately completed questionnaires assessing their mood and thoughts during the scan. Regression analyses conducted separately for the youth and adult samples revealed brain regions in which increases in connectivity differentially corresponded to higher anxiety in each group. In one area, the left insular cortex, both groups showed similar increased connectivity to the DMN (youth: -30, 26, 14; adults: -33, 12, 14) with increased anxiety. State anxiety assessed during scanning was not correlated with trait anxiety, so our results likely reflect state levels of anxiety. To our knowledge, this is the first study to relate naturally occurring mood to resting state connectivity. PMID:22433052

  20. Generation of Functional Blood Vessels from a Single c-kit+ Adult Vascular Endothelial Stem Cell

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Shentong; Wei, Jing; Pentinmikko, Nalle; Leinonen, Hannele; Salven, Petri

    2012-01-01

    In adults, the growth of blood vessels, a process known as angiogenesis, is essential for organ growth and repair. In many disorders including cancer, angiogenesis becomes excessive. The cellular origin of new vascular endothelial cells (ECs) during blood vessel growth in angiogenic situations has remained unknown. Here, we provide evidence for adult vascular endothelial stem cells (VESCs) that reside in the blood vessel wall endothelium. VESCs constitute a small subpopulation within CD117+ (c-kit+) ECs capable of undergoing clonal expansion while other ECs have a very limited proliferative capacity. Isolated VESCs can produce tens of millions of endothelial daughter cells in vitro. A single transplanted c-kit-expressing VESC by the phenotype lin?CD31+CD105+Sca1+CD117+ can generate in vivo functional blood vessels that connect to host circulation. VESCs also have long-term self-renewal capacity, a defining functional property of adult stem cells. To provide functional verification on the role of c-kit in VESCs, we show that a genetic deficit in endothelial c-kit expression markedly decreases total colony-forming VESCs. In vivo, c-kit expression deficit resulted in impaired EC proliferation and angiogenesis and retardation of tumor growth. Isolated VESCs could be used in cell-based therapies for cardiovascular repair to restore tissue vascularization after ischemic events. VESCs also provide a novel cellular target to block pathological angiogenesis and cancer growth. PMID:23091420

  1. Effects of Fourteen-Day Bed Rest on Trunk Stabilizing Functions in Aging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sarabon, Nejc; Rosker, Jernej

    2015-01-01

    Bed rest has been shown to have detrimental effects on structural and functional characteristics of the trunk muscles, possibly affecting trunk and spinal stability. This is especially important in populations such as aging adults with often altered trunk stabilizing functions. This study examined the effects of a fourteen-day bed rest on anticipatory postural adjustments and postural reflex responses of the abdominal wall and back muscles in sixteen adult men. Postural activation of trunk muscles was measured using voluntary quick arm movement and sudden arm loading paradigm. Measurements were conducted prior to the bed rest, immediately after, and fourteen days after the bed rest. Immediately after the bed rest, latencies of anticipatory postural adjustments showed significant shortening, especially for the obliquus internus and externus muscles. After a fourteen-day recuperation period, anticipatory postural adjustments reached a near to complete recovery. On the contrary, reactive response latencies increased from pre-bed-rest to both post-bed-rest measurement sessions. Results indicate an important effect of bed rest on stabilizing functions of the trunk muscles in elderly adults. Moreover, there proved to be a significant deterioration of postural reactive responses that outlasted the 14-day post-bed-rest rehabilitation. PMID:26601104

  2. Adult functional outcomes of common childhood psychiatric problems: A prospective, longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Copeland, William E.; Wolke, Dieter; Shanahan, Lilly; Costello, E. Jane

    2016-01-01

    Context Psychiatric problems are among the most common health problems of childhood. Objective To test whether these health problems adversely affect adult functioning even if the problems themselves do not persist. Design Prospective, population-based study of 1420 participants assessed with structured interviews up to 6 times in childhood (ages 9 to 16; 6674 observations) for common psychiatric diagnoses and subthreshold psychiatric problems. Setting and population Community sample. Main outcome measure Participants were then assessed 3 times in young adulthood (ages 19, 21, and 24–26; 3215 observations of 1273 subjects) for adverse outcomes related to health, legal, financial, and social functioning. Results Participants with a childhood disorder had 6 times higher odds of at least one adverse adult outcome as compared to those with no history of psychiatric problems and 9 times higher odds of 2 or more such indicators (1 indicator: 59.5% vs. 19.9%, p <0.001; 2+ indicators: 34.2% vs. 5.6%, p <0.001). These associations persisted after statistically controlling for childhood psychosocial hardships and adult psychiatric problems. Risk was not limited to those with a diagnosis: participants with subthreshold psychiatric problems had 3 times higher odds of adult adverse outcomes and 5 time higher odds of 2 or more outcomes (1 indicator: 41.9% vs. 19.9%, p <0.001; 2+ indicators: 23.2% vs. 5.6%, p <0.001). The best diagnostic predictor of adverse outcomes was cumulative childhood exposure to psychiatric disorders. Conclusions Common, typically moderately-impairing, childhood psychiatric problems are associated with a disrupted transition to adulthood even if the problems do not persist into adulthood and even if the problems are subthreshold. Such problems provide potential target for public health efforts to ameliorate adult suffering and morbidity. PMID:26176785

  3. Adaptive modulation of adult brain gray and white matter to high altitude: structural MRI studies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiaxing; Zhang, Haiyan; Li, Jinqiang; Chen, Ji; Han, Qiaoqing; Lin, Jianzhong; Yang, Tianhe; Fan, Ming

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate brain structural alterations in adult immigrants who adapted to high altitude (HA). Voxel-based morphometry analysis of gray matter (GM) volumes, surface-based analysis of cortical thickness, and Tract-Based Spatial Statistics analysis of white matter fractional anisotropy (FA) based on MRI images were conducted on 16 adults (20-22 years) who immigrated to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (2300-4400 m) for 2 years. They had no chronic mountain sickness. Control group consisted of 16 matched sea level subjects. A battery of neuropsychological tests was also conducted. HA immigrants showed significantly decreased GM volumes in the right postcentral gyrus and right superior frontal gyrus, and increased GM volumes in the right middle frontal gyrus, right parahippocampal gyrus, right inferior and middle temporal gyri, bilateral inferior ventral pons, and right cerebellum crus1. While there was some divergence in the left hemisphere, surface-based patterns of GM changes in the right hemisphere resembled those seen for VBM analysis. FA changes were observed in multiple WM tracts. HA immigrants showed significant impairment in pulmonary function, increase in reaction time, and deficit in mental rotation. Parahippocampal and middle frontal GM volumes correlated with vital capacity. Superior frontal GM volume correlated with mental rotation and postcentral GM correlated with reaction time. Paracentral lobule and frontal FA correlated with mental rotation reaction time. There might be structural modifications occurred in the adult immigrants during adaptation to HA. The changes in GM may be related to impaired respiratory function and psychological deficits. PMID:23874692

  4. High rates of nonbreeding adult bald eagles in southeastern Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, A.J.; Hodges, J.I. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Present knowledge of bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) demography is derived primarily from populations in environments that have been drastically altered by man. Most reproductive studies were done in the 1960's and 1970's when chemical toxins were inhibiting bald eagle productivity. Earlier, the removal of old-growth forests and decimation of anadromous fish runs by Euro-Americans may have greatly reduced bald eagle abundance from presettlement levels. Historical trends in this species are of interest because fundamental differences may exist between populations in pristine and man-altered environments. One difference may be breeding rate. Surpluses of nonbreeding adult bald eagles during the nesting season are rarely mentioned in the literature. Most surveys of reproductive success focus exclusively on eagles at nest sites, which assumes nearly all adults attempt to breed each year. The authors report that a majority of adults in the relatively pristine habitats of southeastern Alaska do not breed annually. This finding is important because if surpluses of non-breeding adults are a natural feature of the population, then hypotheses on density dependent population regulation and the evolution of delayed maturation are suggested. If, on the other hand, the abundance of nonbreeders is an artifact of recent environmental perturbations, serious population declines may occur in southeastern Alaska.

  5. High Cost Residential Placements for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGill, Peter; Poynter, Jo

    2012-01-01

    Background: Concern has been expressed repeatedly about the cost and quality of residential placements for adults with learning disabilities and additional needs. This study sought to identify characteristics of the highest cost placements in the South-East of England. Method: Lead learning disability commissioners in the South-East of England…

  6. Best Adult Books for High School Students 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsmith, Francisca

    2009-01-01

    During the past year, more than three dozen librarians working with teens in public, school, and college libraries have evaluated books published for the adult market with an eye toward identifying those that are worthy of teen reading as well. By examining more than 600 titles, this journal was able to select about 250 for review across the year.…

  7. High Cost Residential Placements for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGill, Peter; Poynter, Jo

    2012-01-01

    Background: Concern has been expressed repeatedly about the cost and quality of residential placements for adults with learning disabilities and additional needs. This study sought to identify characteristics of the highest cost placements in the South-East of England. Method: Lead learning disability commissioners in the South-East of England

  8. Long-term exposure to decabrominated diphenyl ether impairs CD8 T-cell function in adult mice

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Weihong; Wang, Ying; Liu, Zhicui; Khanniche, Asma; Hu, Qingliang; Feng, Yan; Ye, Weiyi; Yang, Jianglong; Wang, Shujun; Zhou, Lin; Shen, Hao; Wang, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants that accumulate to high levels in human populations that are subject to occupational or regional industry exposure. PBDEs have been shown to affect human neuronal, endocrine and reproductive systems, but their effect on the immune system is not well understood. In this study, experimental adult mice were intragastrically administered 2,2′,3,3′,4,4′,5,5′,6,6′-decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) at doses of 8, 80 or 800 mg/kg of body weight (bw) at 2-day intervals. Our results showed that continuous exposure to BDE-209 resulted in high levels of BDE-209 in the plasma that approached the levels found in people who work in professions with high risks of PDBE exposure. Reduced leukocytes, decreased cytokine (IFN-γ, IL-2 and TNF-α) production and lower CD8 T-cell proliferation were observed in the mice exposed to BDE-209. Additionally, mice with long-term BDE-209 exposure had lower numbers of antigen-specific CD8 T cells after immunization with recombinant Listeria monocytogenes expressing ovalbumin (rLm-OVA) and the OVA-specific CD8 T cells had reduced functionality. Taken together, our study demonstrates that continuous BDE-209 exposure causes adverse effects on the number and functionality of immune cells in adult mice. PMID:24705197

  9. Long-term exposure to decabrominated diphenyl ether impairs CD8 T-cell function in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Weihong; Wang, Ying; Liu, Zhicui; Khanniche, Asma; Hu, Qingliang; Feng, Yan; Ye, Weiyi; Yang, Jianglong; Wang, Shujun; Zhou, Lin; Shen, Hao; Wang, Yan

    2014-07-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants that accumulate to high levels in human populations that are subject to occupational or regional industry exposure. PBDEs have been shown to affect human neuronal, endocrine and reproductive systems, but their effect on the immune system is not well understood. In this study, experimental adult mice were intragastrically administered 2,2',3,3',4,4',5,5',6,6'-decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) at doses of 8, 80 or 800 mg/kg of body weight (bw) at 2-day intervals. Our results showed that continuous exposure to BDE-209 resulted in high levels of BDE-209 in the plasma that approached the levels found in people who work in professions with high risks of PDBE exposure. Reduced leukocytes, decreased cytokine (IFN-?, IL-2 and TNF-?) production and lower CD8 T-cell proliferation were observed in the mice exposed to BDE-209. Additionally, mice with long-term BDE-209 exposure had lower numbers of antigen-specific CD8 T cells after immunization with recombinant Listeria monocytogenes expressing ovalbumin (rLm-OVA) and the OVA-specific CD8 T cells had reduced functionality. Taken together, our study demonstrates that continuous BDE-209 exposure causes adverse effects on the number and functionality of immune cells in adult mice. PMID:24705197

  10. High Speed SPM of Functional Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Huey, Bryan D.

    2015-08-14

    The development and optimization of applications comprising functional materials necessitates a thorough understanding of their static and dynamic properties and performance at the nanoscale. Leveraging High Speed SPM and concepts enabled by it, efficient measurements and maps with nanoscale and nanosecond temporal resolution are uniquely feasible. This includes recent enhancements for topographic, conductivity, ferroelectric, and piezoelectric properties as originally proposed, as well as newly developed methods or improvements to AFM-based mechanical, friction, thermal, and photoconductivity measurements. The results of this work reveal fundamental mechanisms of operation, and suggest new approaches for improving the ultimate speed and/or efficiency, of data storage systems, magnetic-electric sensors, and solar cells.

  11. The functional profile of young adults with suspected Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD).

    PubMed

    Tal-Saban, Miri; Zarka, Salman; Grotto, Itamar; Ornoy, Asher; Parush, Shula

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the non-academic and academic functioning of young adults with DCD, and investigated the emotional influences and the role of strategy use within this population. A random sample of 2379 adolescents and young adults aged 19-25 (1081 males [45.4%]; mean age=20.68, SD=3.42) was used to develop the instruments. From this sample, three study groups were identified (n=429) based on the Adolescents & Adults Coordination Questionnaire: probable DCD (n=135; 67.2% males), suspected borderline DCD (n=149; 51.4% males) and control (145; 70.5% males). Participants completed the Daily Life Functions Questionnaire (assessing non-academic and academic functioning), the Recent Emotional State Test (assessing feelings resulting from task performance), the Internal Factors Attributed to Success Questionnaire and the Problem Solving Questionnaire to assess strategy and executive strategy use. A MANOVA revealed statistically significant differences between-groups (F[7,422]=16.19; p<.001; η=.197); post hoc analyses revealed differences for all measures (except the Problem Solving Questionnaire), with the probable DCD and suspected borderline DCD groups performing worse than controls. Severity of motor deficits was correlated with all outcomes except strategy use. Logistic regression revealed that non-academic functioning was the most significant predictor of group placement (B=-1.32; p<.001); academic functioning/handwriting was the second most significant predictor (B=0.44; p=.047). Deficits in motor coordination continue into adulthood and have an effect on academic and non-academic function, as well as on the emotional state of the individual. PMID:22789703

  12. Effects of blueberry supplementation on measures of functional mobility in older adults.

    PubMed

    Schrager, Matthew A; Hilton, James; Gould, Richard; Kelly, Valerie E

    2015-06-01

    Limited functional mobility in older adults has been associated with declines in tests of motor, psychomotor, and executive function. Animal studies have demonstrated reversals in indices of motor and psychomotor function via supplementation with polyphenolic-rich foods such as blueberries. The purpose of this study was to examine whether 6 weeks of daily consumption of 2 cups of frozen blueberries affects functional mobility in older adults. Pre- and post-intervention assessments of grip strength, simple reaction time, adaptive gait, and executive function were completed for older adults (age >60 years) partially randomly assigned to a blueberry (BB) supplementation or a carrot juice drink control (CAR) group. Paired t tests were used to assess within-group effects for outcome variables in each supplementation group, and a mixed-model analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to determine group (CAR vs. BB) differences. Mixed-model analysis indicated that the BB group demonstrated significant improvements relative to the CAR group in performance (i.e., number of step errors) of a challenging dual-task adaptive gait test that were independent of differences in gait speed. Within only the BB group, significant improvements were also seen in 3 other measures (i.e., usual gait speed; number of step errors during single-task adaptive gait; and gait speed during dual-task adaptive gait). These preliminary findings support the hypothesis that blueberry supplementation may provide an effective countermeasure to age-related declines in functional mobility and serve as justification for an expansion to larger trials to more fully assess this nonpharmacologic approach to maintaining optimal mobility and independence. PMID:25909473

  13. Adult Literacy in the Commonwealth Caribbean with Special Reference to a Study of the Functional Literacy of Young Guyanese Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Zellynne

    2000-01-01

    A test measuring document, prose, and quantitative literacy of out-of-school youth in Guyana found that only 11% had high levels of functional literacy, a literacy rate much lower than usually reported. Failure to represent the situation accurately prolongs the lack of political will to deal with the issue. (SK)

  14. Judgments of Social Awkwardness from Brief Exposure to Children with and without High-Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Ruth B

    2015-01-01

    We form first impressions of many traits based on very short interactions. This study examines whether typical adults judge children with high-functioning autism to be more socially awkward than their typically developing peers based on very brief exposure to still images, audio-visual, video-only, or audio-only information. We used video and…

  15. Gestalt Perception and Local-Global Processing in High-Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolte, Sven; Holtmann, Martin; Poustka, Fritz; Scheurich, Armin; Schmidt, Lutz

    2007-01-01

    This study examined gestalt perception in high-functioning autism (HFA) and its relation to tasks indicative of local visual processing. Data on of gestalt perception, visual illusions (VI), hierarchical letters (HL), Block Design (BD) and the Embedded Figures Test (EFT) were collected in adult males with HFA, schizophrenia, depression and

  16. The Role of Causal and Intentional Judgments in Moral Reasoning in Individuals with High Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buon, Marine; Dupoux, Emmanuel; Jacob, Pierre; Chaste, Pauline; Leboyer, Marion; Zalla, Tiziana

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the ability to assign moral responsibility and punishment in adults with high functioning autism or Asperger Syndrome (HFA/AS), using non-verbal cartoons depicting an aggression, an accidental harm or a mere coincidence. Participants were asked to evaluate the agent's causal and intentional roles, his

  17. Judgments of Social Awkwardness from Brief Exposure to Children with and without High-Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Ruth B

    2015-01-01

    We form first impressions of many traits based on very short interactions. This study examines whether typical adults judge children with high-functioning autism to be more socially awkward than their typically developing peers based on very brief exposure to still images, audio-visual, video-only, or audio-only information. We used video and

  18. Work, Postsecondary Education, and Psychosocial Functioning Following the Transition from High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aseltine, Robert H., Jr.; Gore, Susan

    2005-01-01

    Through a two-wave panel study of emerging adults, the authors examine how living situation, work and school roles, and experiences in those roles affect psychosocial functioning following the transition from high school. Enrollment in college programs and fulltime work are associated with lower levels of depressed mood and more positive quality

  19. Substance use and mental health characteristics associated with cognitive functioning among adults who use methamphetamine

    PubMed Central

    Herbeck, Diane; Brecht, Mary-Lynn

    2013-01-01

    This study describes cognitive functioning and its relation to psychiatric and substance use severity among adults with long duration methamphetamine (MA) use careers. Study participants (N=405) completed a battery of tests from the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics (ANAM), examining cognitive accuracy, processing speed and efficiency. Multivariate analyses indicate lower accuracy but faster speed on tests of learning and spatial and delayed memory were correlated with more days of past-month MA use. Lifetime months of MA use was not related to cognitive functioning. Poorer cognitive efficiency was related to other problems including crack/cocaine use, depressive symptomatology and poorer emotional state. PMID:23480244

  20. The Impact of Financial Reward Contingencies on Cognitive Function Profiles in Adult ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Marx, Ivo; Höpcke, Cornelia; Berger, Christoph; Wandschneider, Roland; Herpertz, Sabine C.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Although it is well established that cognitive performance in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is affected by reward and that key deficits associated with the disorder may thereby be attenuated or even compensated, this phenomenon in adults with ADHD has thus far not been addressed. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the motivating effect of financial reward on task performance in adults with ADHD by focusing on the domains of executive functioning, attention, time perception, and delay aversion. Methods We examined male and female adults aged 18–40 years with ADHD (n = 38) along with a matched control group (n = 40) using six well-established experimental paradigms. Results Impaired performance in the ADHD group was observed for stop-signal omission errors, n-back accuracy, reaction time variability in the continuous performance task, and time reproduction accuracy, and reward normalized time reproduction accuracy. Furthermore, when rewarded, subjects with ADHD exhibited longer reaction times and fewer false positives in the continuous performance task, which suggests the use of strategies to prevent impulsivity errors. Conclusions Taken together, our results support the existence of both cognitive and motivational mechanisms for the disorder, which is in line with current models of ADHD. Furthermore, our data suggest cognitive strategies of “stopping and thinking” as a possible underlying mechanism for task improvement that seems to be mediated by reward, which highlights the importance of the interaction between motivation and cognition in adult ADHD. PMID:23840573

  1. Older Adults are Highly Responsive to Recent Events During Decision-Making

    PubMed Central

    Worthy, Darrell A.; Otto, A. Ross; Doll, Bradley B.; Byrne, Kaileigh A.; Maddox, W. Todd

    2014-01-01

    Recent work suggests that older adults decision-making behavior is highly affected by recent events. In the present work younger and older adults performed a two-choice task where one option provided a larger average reward, but there was a large amount of noise around the mean reward for each option which led to sharp improvements or declines in rewards over trials. Older adults showed greater responsiveness to recent events than younger adults as evidenced by fits of Reinforcement Learning (RL) models. Older adults were particularly sensitive to recent negative events, which was evidenced by a strong tendency for older adults to switch to the other option following steep declines in reward. This tendency led to superior performance for older adults in one condition where heightened sensitivity to recent negative events was advantageous. These results extend prior work that has found an older adult bias toward negative feedback, and suggest that older adults engage in more abrupt switching in response to negative outcomes than younger adults. PMID:25580469

  2. Functional compensation in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex improves memory-dependent decisions in older adults.

    PubMed

    Lighthall, Nichole R; Huettel, Scott A; Cabeza, Roberto

    2014-11-19

    Everyday consumer choices frequently involve memory, as when we retrieve information about consumer products when making purchasing decisions. In this context, poor memory may affect decision quality, particularly in individuals with memory decline, such as older adults. However, age differences in choice behavior may be reduced if older adults can recruit additional neural resources that support task performance. Although such functional compensation is well documented in other cognitive domains, it is presently unclear whether it can support memory-guided decision making and, if so, which brain regions play a role in compensation. The current study engaged younger and older humans in a memory-dependent choice task in which pairs of consumer products from a popular online-shopping site were evaluated with different delays between the first and second product. Using functional imaging (fMRI), we found that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) supports compensation as defined by three a priori criteria: (1) increased vmPFC activation was observed in older versus younger adults; (2) age-related increases in vmPFC activity were associated with increased retrieval demands; and (3) increased vmPFC activity was positively associated with performance in older adults-evidence of successful compensation. Extending these results, we observed evidence for compensation in connectivity between vmPFC and the dorsolateral PFC during memory-dependent choice. In contrast, we found no evidence for age differences in value-related processing or age-related compensation for choices without delayed retrieval. Together, these results converge on the conclusion that age-related decline in memory-dependent choice performance can be minimized via functional compensation in vmPFC. PMID:25411493

  3. MRI- and MRS-Derived Hippocampal Correlates of Quantitative Locomotor Function in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Molly E.; Lipton, Richard B.; Pan, Jullie W.; Hetherington, Hoby P.; Verghese, Joe

    2009-01-01

    Gait measures have been shown to predict cognitive decline and dementia in older adults. Investigation of the neurobiology associated with locomotor function is needed to elucidate this relationship with cognitive abilities. This study aimed to examine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI; hippocampal volume)- and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS; N-acetylaspartate to creatine (NAA/Cr) ratios)-derived hippocampal correlates of quantitative gait function (swing time (seconds), stride length (cm), and stride length variability (standard deviation)) in a subset of 48 nondemented older adults (24 males; mean age=81 years) drawn from the Einstein Aging Study, a community-based sample of individuals over the age of 70 residing in the Bronx, New York. Linear regression analyses controlling for age were used to examine hippocampal volume and neurochemistry as predictors of gait function. We found that stride length was associated with hippocampal volume (?=0.36, p=0.03; overall model R2=0.33, p=0.01), but not hippocampal neurochemistry (?=0.09, p=0.48). Stride length variability was more strongly associated with hippocampal NAA/Cr (?=?0.38, p=0.01; overall model R2=0.14, p=0.04) than hippocampal volume (?=?0.33, p=0.08). Gait swing time was not significantly related to any neuroimaging measure. These relationships remained significant after accounting for memory and clinical gait impairments. These findings suggest that nondemented older adults exhibit increased stride length variability that is associated with lower levels of hippocampal neuronal metabolism, but not hippocampal volume. Conversely, decreased stride length is associated with smaller hippocampal volumes, but not hippocampal neurochemistry. Distinct neurobiological hippocampal substrates may support decreased stride length and increased stride length variability in older adults. PMID:19631621

  4. Infectious disease burden and cognitive function in young to middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Gale, Shawn D; Erickson, Lance D; Berrett, Andrew; Brown, Bruce L; Hedges, Dawson W

    2016-02-01

    Prior research has suggested an association between exposure to infectious disease and neurocognitive function in humans. While most of these studies have explored individual viral, bacterial, and even parasitic sources of infection, few have considered the potential neurocognitive burden associated with multiple infections. In this study, we utilized publically available data from a large dataset produced by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention that included measures of neurocognitive function, sociodemographic variables, and serum antibody data for several infectious diseases. Specifically, immunoglobulin G antibodies for toxocariasis, toxoplasmosis, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C, cytomegalovirus, and herpes 1 and 2 were available in 5662 subjects. We calculated an overall index of infectious-disease burden to determine if an aggregate measure of exposure to infectious disease would be associated with neurocognitive function in adults aged 20-59years. The index predicted processing speed and learning and memory but not reaction time after controlling for age, sex, race-ethnicity, immigration status, education, and the poverty-to-income ratio. Interactions between the infectious-disease index and some sociodemographic variables were also associated with neurocognitive function. In summary, an index aggregating exposure to several infectious diseases was associated with neurocognitive function in young- to middle-aged adults. PMID:26598104

  5. Frictional properties of high functional gel materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Masato; Yamada, Kohei; Yamada, Naoya; Makino, Masato; Gong, Jin; Furukawa, Hidemitsu

    2014-03-01

    The frictional behavior of the four kinds of high functional gels, which are double network (DN) gels, particle-double network gels (P-DN), shape memory gels (SMG), LA-shape memory gels (LA-SMG) and was studied. The velocity dependence looks similar for both the DN gels and the SMG, however the details of the dependence are different. The coefficient of the DN gels is smaller than that of the SMGs. The coefficient decreases as the normal force increases. This normal force dependence was observed for the DN gels previously, however for the first time for the SMGs. The velocity dependence looks similar for both the DN gels and the SMG, however the details of the dependence are different. The coefficient of the DN gels is smaller than that of the SMGs. The difference of the dependences is possibly related to the different softness by the temperature change of the gels. The temperature dependence of the coefficient of friction in LA-SMG was observed. Increase of the perpendicular load and the surface softness were influenced by coefficient of friction increase. In addition, the frictional coefficient of P-DN that different particle size was measured for the first time. The difference of the friction behavior of LA-SMG by the particle size was clear. Therefore, we show frictional coefficient of various high functional gels.

  6. High-resolution gene expression atlases for adult and developing mouse brain and spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Henry, Alex M; Hohmann, John G

    2012-10-01

    Knowledge of the structure, genetics, circuits, and physiological properties of the mammalian brain in both normal and pathological states is ever increasing as research labs worldwide probe the various aspects of brain function. Until recently, however, comprehensive cataloging of gene expression across the central nervous system has been lacking. The Allen Institute for Brain Science, as part of its mission to propel neuroscience research, has completed several large gene-mapping projects in mouse, nonhuman primate, and human brain, producing informative online public resources and tools. Here we present the Allen Mouse Brain Atlas, covering ~20,000 genes throughout the adult mouse brain; the Allen Developing Mouse Brain Atlas, detailing expression of approximately 2,000 important developmental genes across seven embryonic and postnatal stages of brain growth; and the Allen Spinal Cord Atlas, revealing expression for ~20,000 genes in the adult and neonatal mouse spinal cords. Integrated data-mining tools, including reference atlases, informatics analyses, and 3-D viewers, are described. For these massive-scale projects, high-throughput industrial techniques were developed to standardize and reliably repeat experimental goals. To verify consistency and accuracy, a detailed analysis of the 1,000 most viewed genes for the adult mouse brain (according to website page views) was performed by comparing our data with peer-reviewed literature and other databases. We show that our data are highly consistent with independent sources and provide a comprehensive compendium of information and tools used by thousands of researchers each month. All data and tools are freely available via the Allen Brain Atlas portal (www.brain-map.org). PMID:22832508

  7. Poems by Adolescents and Adults: A Thematic Collection for Middle School and High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewbaker, James, Ed.; Hyland, Dawnelle J., Ed.

    This book, a collection of poems by adolescents and adults, is designed to offer teachers a supplement to the standard middle school and high school literature anthologies. Divided into 11 themed sections, the collection mixes more than 100 poems by students in grades 5 to 12 with more than 40 pieces by adults, including well-known writers such as

  8. Abnormal regional homogeneity in young adult suicide attempters with no diagnosable psychiatric disorder: a resting state functional magnetic imaging study.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jun; Chen, Jian-mei; Kuang, Li; Ai, Ming; Fang, Wei-dong; Gan, Yao; Wang, Wo; Chen, Xiao-rong; Xu, Xiao-ming; Wang, Heng-guang; Lv, Zhen

    2015-02-28

    Many young adults who attempt suicide have no discernible mental illness, suggesting an etiology distinct from other psychiatric disorders. Neurological anomalies associated with a history of suicidal behavior may predict future risk. In the present study, we explored changes in neural circuit organization associated with suicidal behavior by comparing local synchronization of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging signals in suicide attempters without a psychiatric diagnosis (SA group, 19.84±1.61 years, n=19) with those in healthy controls (HC group, 20.30±1.72 years, n=20) using regional homogeneity (ReHo) analysis. The SA group exhibited significantly lower mean ReHo in the left (L) fusiform and supraorbital inferior frontal gyri, L hippocampus, bilateral parahippocampal and middle frontal gyri, right (R) angular gyrus, and cerebellar lobules RVIII, RII, and LVI compared with the HC group. Conversely, in the SA group, ReHo was higher in the R supraorbital middle frontal gyrus, R inferior parietal lobe, and L precuneus. The SA group also had significantly higher total Barratt Impulsiveness Scale scores compared with the HC group. Local functional connectivity is altered in multiple regions of the cerebral cortex, limbic system, and cerebellum of suicidal young adults. Elucidating the functional deficits associated with these ReHo changes may clarify the pathophysiological mechanisms of suicidal behavior and assist in identifying high-risk individuals. PMID:25496980

  9. Visual Exploration of High Dimensional Scalar Functions

    PubMed Central

    Gerber, Samuel; Bremer, Peer-Timo; Pascucci, Valerio; Whitaker, Ross

    2011-01-01

    An important goal of scientific data analysis is to understand the behavior of a system or process based on a sample of the system. In many instances it is possible to observe both input parameters and system outputs, and characterize the system as a high-dimensional function. Such data sets arise, for instance, in large numerical simulations, as energy landscapes in optimization problems, or in the analysis of image data relating to biological or medical parameters. This paper proposes an approach to analyze and visualizing such data sets. The proposed method combines topological and geometric techniques to provide interactive visualizations of discretely sampled high-dimensional scalar fields. The method relies on a segmentation of the parameter space using an approximate Morse-Smale complex on the cloud of point samples. For each crystal of the Morse-Smale complex, a regression of the system parameters with respect to the output yields a curve in the parameter space. The result is a simplified geometric representation of the Morse-Smale complex in the high dimensional input domain. Finally, the geometric representation is embedded in 2D, using dimension reduction, to provide a visualization platform. The geometric properties of the regression curves enable the visualization of additional information about each crystal such as local and global shape, width, length, and sampling densities. The method is illustrated on several synthetic examples of two dimensional functions. Two use cases, using data sets from the UCI machine learning repository, demonstrate the utility of the proposed approach on real data. Finally, in collaboration with domain experts the proposed method is applied to two scientific challenges. The analysis of parameters of climate simulations and their relationship to predicted global energy flux and the concentrations of chemical species in a combustion simulation and their integration with temperature. PMID:20975167

  10. Exposure to Traffic: Lung Function and Health Status in Adults with Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Balmes, John R.; Earnest, Gillian; Katz, Patricia P.; Yelin, Edward H.; Eisner, Mark D.; Chen, Hubert; Trupin, Laura; Lurmann, Fred; Blanc, Paul D.

    2009-01-01

    Background Exposure to traffic has been associated with asthma outcomes in children, but its effect on asthma in adults has not been well studied. Objective To test the hypothesis that lung function and health status are associated with traffic exposures. Methods We measured forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) % predicted, general health status using the Physical Component Scale of the Short Form (SF-12 PCS) and quality of life (QoL) using the Marks Asthma Quality of Life questionnaire in a cohort of adults with asthma or rhinitis (n=176; 145 with asthma). We assessed exposures to traffic by geo-coding subjects residential addresses and assigning distance to roadways. Associations between distance to nearest roadway and distance to nearest major roadway and FEV1 % predicted or SF-12 PCS were studied using linear regression. Results FEV1 % predicted was positively associated with distance from nearest roadway (p=0.01) and major roadway (p=0.02). SF-12 PCS and QoL were not significantly associated with either traffic variable. Adjustment for income, smoking, and obesity did not substantively change the associations of the traffic variables with FEV1 % predicted (p=0.04 for nearest roadway and p=0.02 for nearest major roadway) and did not cause associations with either SF-12 PCS or OoL to become significant Conclusions Traffic exposure was associated with decreased lung function in adults with asthma. PMID:19152968

  11. Evaluation of a Brief Survey Instrument for Assessing Subtle Differences in Cognitive Function Among Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Kotwal, Ashwin A; Schumm, Philip; Kern, David W; McClintock, Martha K; Waite, Linda J; Shega, Joseph W; Huisingh-Scheetz, Megan J; Dale, William

    2015-01-01

    Most measures of cognitive function used in large-scale surveys of older adults have limited ability to detect subtle differences across cognitive domains, and standard clinical instruments are impractical to administer in general surveys. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) can address this need, but has limitations in a survey context. Therefore, we developed a survey adaptation of the MoCA, called the MoCA-SA, and describe its psychometric properties in a large national survey. Using a pretest sample of older adults (n=120), we reduced MoCA administration time by 26%, developed a model to accurately estimate full MoCA scores from the MoCA-SA, and tested the model in an independent clinical sample (n=93). The validated 18-item MoCA-SA was then administered to community-dwelling adults aged 62 to 91 as part of the National Social life Health and Aging Project Wave 2 sample (n=3196). In National Social life Health and Aging Project Wave 2, the MoCA-SA had good internal reliability (Cronbach ?=0.76). Using item-response models, survey-adapted items captured a broad range of cognitive abilities and functioned similarly across sex, education, and ethnic groups. Results demonstrate that the MoCA-SA can be administered reliably in a survey setting while preserving sensitivity to a broad range of cognitive abilities and similar performance across demographic subgroups. PMID:25390883

  12. Visual function and color vision in adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soyeon; Chen, Samantha; Tannock, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Color vision and self-reported visual function in everyday life in young adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) were investigated. Method Participants were 30 young adults with ADHD and 30 controls matched for age and gender. They were tested individually and completed the Visual Activities Questionnaire (VAQ), Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue Test (FMT) and A Quick Test of Cognitive Speed (AQT). Results The ADHD group reported significantly more problems in 4 of 8 areas on the VAQ: depth perception, peripheral vision, visual search and visual processing speed. Further analyses of VAQ items revealed that the ADHD group endorsed more visual problems associated with driving than controls. Color perception difficulties on the FMT were restricted to the blue spectrum in the ADHD group. FMT and AQT results revealed slower processing of visual stimuli in the ADHD group. Conclusion A comprehensive investigation of mechanisms underlying visual function and color vision in adults with ADHD is warranted, along with the potential impact of these visual problems on driving performance. PMID:24646898

  13. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and executive functioning in emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Jarrett, Matthew A

    2016-02-01

    The current study examined attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and anxiety symptoms in relation to self-reported executive functioning deficits in emerging adults. College students (N = 421; ages 17-25; 73.1% female) completed self-reports of ADHD, anxiety, and executive functioning in a laboratory setting. Structural equation modeling analyses revealed that self-reported executive functioning deficits were significantly related to all 3 symptom domains. Executive functioning deficits were most strongly related to inattention followed by hyperactivity/impulsivity and anxiety. Analyses based on clinical groups revealed that groups with ADHD and comorbid anxiety showed greater deficits on self-regulation of emotion and self-organization/problem solving than those with ADHD only or anxiety only. Groups with ADHD showed greater deficits with self-motivation and self-restraint than those with anxiety only. All clinical groups differed from a control group on executive functioning deficits. Overall, anxiety symptoms appear to be associated with college students' self-reported executive functioning deficits above and beyond relationships with ADHD symptomatology. Further, those with ADHD and anxiety appear to show increased difficulties with self-regulation of emotion and self-organization/problem solving, a domain which appears to overlap substantially with working memory. Future studies should seek to replicate our findings with a clinical population, utilize both report-based and laboratory task measures of executive functioning, and integrate both state and trait anxiety indices into study designs. Finally, future studies should seek to determine how executive functioning deficits can be best ameliorated in emerging adults with ADHD and anxiety. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26121381

  14. Mitochondrial function at extreme high altitude.

    PubMed

    Murray, Andrew J; Horscroft, James A

    2016-03-01

    At high altitude, barometric pressure falls and with it inspired PO2, potentially compromising O2 delivery to the tissues. With sufficient acclimatisation, the erythropoietic response increases red cell mass such that arterial O2 content (CaO2) is restored; however arterial PO2(PaO2) remains low, and the diffusion of O2 from capillary to mitochondrion is impaired. Mitochondrial respiration and aerobic capacity are thus limited, whilst reactive oxygen species (ROS) production increases. Restoration of PaO2 with supplementary O2 does not fully restore aerobic capacity in acclimatised individuals, possibly indicating a peripheral impairment. With prolonged exposure to extreme high altitude (>5500 m), muscle mitochondrial volume density falls, with a particular loss of the subsarcolemmal population. It is not clear whether this represents acclimatisation or deterioration, but it does appear to be regulated, with levels of the mitochondrial biogenesis factor PGC-1α falling, and shows similarities to adapted Tibetan highlanders. Qualitative changes in mitochondrial function also occur, and do so at more moderate high altitudes with shorter periods of exposure. Electron transport chain complexes are downregulated, possibly mitigating the increase in ROS production. Fatty acid oxidation capacity is decreased and there may be improvements in biochemical coupling at the mitochondrial inner membrane that enhance O2 efficiency. Creatine kinase expression falls, possibly impairing high-energy phosphate transfer from the mitochondria to myofibrils. In climbers returning from the summit of Everest, cardiac energetic reserve (phosphocreatine/ATP) falls, but skeletal muscle energetics are well preserved, possibly supporting the notion that mitochondrial remodelling is a core feature of acclimatisation to extreme high altitude. PMID:26033622

  15. Brain volume and cognitive function in adult survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Edelmann, Michelle N.

    2013-01-01

    The survival rate for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is greater than 80%. However, many of these survivors develop long-term chronic health conditions, with a relatively common late effect being neurocognitive dysfunction. Although neurocognitive impairments have decreased in frequency and severity as treatment has evolved, there is a subset of survivors in the current treatment era that are especially vulnerable to the neurotoxic effects of ALL and its treatment. Additionally, little is known about long-term brain development as survivors mature into adulthood. A recent study by Zeller et al. compared neurocognitive function and brain volume in 130 adult survivors of childhood ALL to 130 healthy adults matched on age and sex. They identified the caudate as particularly sensitive to the neurotoxic effects of chemotherapy. We discuss the implications and limitations of this study, including how their findings support the concept of individual vulnerability to ALL and its treatment.

  16. A systematic review of physical illness, functional disability, and suicidal behaviour among older adults

    PubMed Central

    Fässberg, Madeleine Mellqvist; Cheung, Gary; Canetto, Silvia Sara; Erlangsen, Annette; Lapierre, Sylvie; Lindner, Reinhard; Draper, Brian; Gallo, Joseph J.; Wong, Christine; Wu, Jing; Duberstein, Paul; Wærn, Margda

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To conduct a systematic review of studies that examined associations between physical illness/functional disability and suicidal behaviour (including ideation, nonfatal and fatal suicidal behaviour) among individuals aged 65 and older. Method: Articles published through November 2014 were identified through electronic searches using the ERIC, Google Scholar, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Scopus databases. Search terms used were suicid* or death wishes or deliberate self-harm. Studies about suicidal behaviour in individuals aged 65 and older with physical illness/functional disabilities were included in the review. Results: Sixty-five articles (across 61 independent samples) met inclusion criteria. Results from 59 quantitative studies conducted in four continents suggest that suicidal behaviour is associated with functional disability and numerous specific conditions including malignant diseases, neurological disorders, pain, COPD, liver disease, male genital disorders, and arthritis/arthrosis. Six qualitative studies from three continents contextualized these findings, providing insights into the subjective experiences of suicidal individuals. Implications for interventions and future research are discussed. Conclusion: Functional disability, as well as a number of specific physical illnesses, was shown to be associated with suicidal behaviour in older adults. We need to learn more about what at-risk, physically ill patients want, and need, to inform prevention efforts for older adults. PMID:26381843

  17. Emotional symptoms and their contribution to functional impairment in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Mörstedt, Beatrice; Corbisiero, Salvatore; Bitto, Hannes; Stieglitz, Rolf-Dieter

    2016-03-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder beginning in childhood and consisting of the core symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. The disorder is often accompanied by functional impairment in daily life. Research showed that severe impairment cannot be fully explained by the core symptoms of ADHD. Accordingly, emotional symptoms in ADHD and their influence on functional impairment have increasingly become the focus of research in recent years. The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship between ADHD core symptoms, emotional symptoms, and functional impairment. We assumed that emotional symptoms might form part of adult ADHD and that the connection between ADHD core symptoms and functional impairment may be partly mediated by emotional symptoms. Data of 176 participants from an ADHD Special Consultations Unit were included. Of these participants, 146 were diagnosed with ADHD, while 30 received no such diagnosis. We developed a structural equation model which included core symptoms, emotional symptoms, and four domains of daily impairment (family life, social life, work, and organization). As predicted, results indicate that emotional symptoms are directly linked to adult ADHD and bear a strong negative influence on different domains of daily life. The results of different analyses showed a mediation of the relationship between ADHD core symptoms and impairment through emotional symptoms: While the connection between inattention and work and organization was partly mediated, the connections between impulsivity and family life and between inattention and social life were shown to be fully mediated through emotional symptoms. PMID:26254914

  18. Association of television violence exposure with executive functioning and white matter volume in young adult males.

    PubMed

    Hummer, Tom A; Kronenberger, William G; Wang, Yang; Anderson, Caitlin C; Mathews, Vincent P

    2014-07-01

    Prior research has indicated that self-reported violent media exposure is associated with poorer performance on some neuropsychological tests in adolescents. This study aimed to examine the relationship of executive functioning to violent television viewing in healthy young adult males and examine how brain structure is associated with media exposure measures. Sixty-five healthy adult males (ages 18-29) with minimal video game experience estimated their television viewing habits over the past year and, during the subsequent week, recorded television viewing time and characteristics in a daily media diary. Participants then completed a battery of neuropsychological laboratory tests quantifying executive functions and underwent a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. Aggregate measures of executive functioning were not associated with measures of overall television viewing (any content type) during the past week or year. However, the amount of television viewing of violent content only, as indicated by both past-year and daily diary measures, was associated with poorer scores on an aggregate score of inhibition, interference control and attention, with no relationship to a composite working memory score. In addition, violent television exposure, as measured with daily media diaries, was associated with reduced frontoparietal white matter volume. Future longitudinal work is necessary to resolve whether individuals with poor executive function and slower white matter growth are more drawn to violent programming, or if extensive media violence exposure modifies cognitive control mechanisms mediated primarily via prefrontal cortex. Impaired inhibitory mechanisms may be related to reported increases in aggression with higher media violence exposure. PMID:24836970

  19. Vascular Health and Cognitive Function in Older Adults with Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Forman, Daniel E.; Cohen, Ronald A.; Hoth, Karin F.; Haley, Andreana P.; Poppas, Athena; Moser, David J.; Gunstad, John; Paul, Robert H.; Jefferson, Angela L.; Tate, David F.; Ono, Makoto; Wake, Nicole; Gerhard-Herman, Marie

    2010-01-01

    Background We hypothesized that changes in vascular flow dynamics resulting from age and cardiovascular disease (CVD) would correlate to neurocognitive capacities, even in adults screened to exclude dementia and neurological disease. We studied endothelial-dependent as well as endothelial-independent brachial responses in older adults with CVD to study the associations of vascular responses with cognition. Comprehensive neurocognitive testing was used to discern which specific cognitive domain(s) correlated to the vascular responses. Methods Eighty-eight independent, community-dwelling older adults (70.02+7.67 years) with mild to severe CVD were recruited. Enrollees were thoroughly screened to exclude neurological disease and dementia. Flow-mediated (endothelial-dependent) and nitroglycerin-mediated (endothelial-independent) brachial artery responses were assessed using 2-d ultrasound. Cognitive functioning was assessed using comprehensive neuropsychological testing. Linear regression analyses were used to evaluate the relationships between the endothelial-dependent and endothelial-independent vascular flow dynamics and specific domains of neurocognitive function. Results Endothelial-dependent and endothelial-independent brachial artery responses both correlated with neurocognitive testing indices. The strongest independent relationship was between endothelial function and measures of attention-executive functioning. Conclusions Endothelial-dependent and endothelial-independent vascular responsiveness correlate with neurocognitive performance among older CVD patients, particularly in the attention-executive domain. While further study is needed to substantiate causal relationships, our data demonstrate that brachial responses serve as important markers of risk for common neurocognitive changes. Learning and behavior-modifying therapeutic strategies that compensate for such common, insidious neurocognitive limitations will likely improve caregiving efficacy. PMID:21179381

  20. Effects of dark chocolate and cocoa consumption on endothelial function and arterial stiffness in overweight adults.

    PubMed

    West, Sheila G; McIntyre, Molly D; Piotrowski, Matthew J; Poupin, Nathalie; Miller, Debra L; Preston, Amy G; Wagner, Paul; Groves, Lisa F; Skulas-Ray, Ann C

    2014-02-01

    The consumption of cocoa and dark chocolate is associated with a lower risk of CVD, and improvements in endothelial function may mediate this relationship. Less is known about the effects of cocoa/chocolate on the augmentation index (AI), a measure of vascular stiffness and vascular tone in the peripheral arterioles. We enrolled thirty middle-aged, overweight adults in a randomised, placebo-controlled, 4-week, cross-over study. During the active treatment (cocoa) period, the participants consumed 37 g/d of dark chocolate and a sugar-free cocoa beverage (total cocoa = 22 g/d, total flavanols (TF) = 814 mg/d). Colour-matched controls included a low-flavanol chocolate bar and a cocoa-free beverage with no added sugar (TF = 3 mg/d). Treatments were matched for total fat, saturated fat, carbohydrates and protein. The cocoa treatment significantly increased the basal diameter and peak diameter of the brachial artery by 6% (+2 mm) and basal blood flow volume by 22%. Substantial decreases in the AI, a measure of arterial stiffness, were observed in only women. Flow-mediated dilation and the reactive hyperaemia index remained unchanged. The consumption of cocoa had no effect on fasting blood measures, while the control treatment increased fasting insulin concentration and insulin resistance (P= 0·01). Fasting blood pressure (BP) remained unchanged, although the acute consumption of cocoa increased resting BP by 4 mmHg. In summary, the high-flavanol cocoa and dark chocolate treatment was associated with enhanced vasodilation in both conduit and resistance arteries and was accompanied by significant reductions in arterial stiffness in women. PMID:24274771

  1. Benzodiazepine (BZD) use in community-dwelling older adults: Longitudinal associations with mobility, functioning, and pain.

    PubMed

    Petrov, Megan E; Sawyer, Patricia; Kennedy, Richard; Bradley, Laurence A; Allman, Richard M

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prospective association between baseline BZD use and mobility, functioning, and pain among urban and rural African-American and non-Hispanic white community-dwelling older adults. From 1999 to 2001, a cohort of 1000 community-dwelling adults, aged ? 65 years, representing a random sample of Medicare beneficiaries, stratified by ethnicity, sex, and urban/rural residence were recruited. BZD use was assessed at an in-home visit. Every six months thereafter, study outcomes were assessed via telephone for 8.5-years. Mobility was assessed with the Life-Space Assessment (LSA). Functioning was quantified with level of difficulty in five basic activities of daily living (ADL: bathing, dressing, transferring, toileting, eating), and six instrumental activities of daily living (IADL: shopping, managing money, preparing meals, light and heavy housework, telephone use). Pain was measured by frequency per week and the magnitude of interference with daily tasks. All analytic models were adjusted for relevant covariates and mental health symptoms. After multivariable adjustment, baseline BZD use was significantly associated with greater difficulty with basic ADL (Estimate=0.39, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.04-0.74), and more frequent pain (Estimate=0.41, 95%CI: 0.09-0.74) in the total sample and declines in mobility among rural residents (Estimate=-0.67, t(5,902)=-1.98, p=0.048), over 8.5 years. BZD use was prospectively associated with greater risk for basic ADL difficulties and frequent pain among African-American and non-Hispanic white community-dwelling older adults, and life-space mobility declines among rural-dwellers, independently of relevant covariates. These findings highlight the potential long-term negative impact of BZD use among community-dwelling older adults. PMID:24880195

  2. Intensification of maternal care by double-mothering boosts cognitive function and hippocampal morphology in the adult offspring.

    PubMed

    D'Amato, Francesca R; Zanettini, Claudio; Sgobio, Carmelo; Sarli, Celeste; Carone, Valentina; Moles, Anna; Ammassari-Teule, Martine

    2011-03-01

    Mice born from high care-giving females show, as adults, low anxiety levels, decreased responsiveness to stress, and substantial improvements in cognitive function and hippocampal plasticity. Given the relevance of this issue for preventing emotional and cognitive abnormalities in high-risk subjects, this study examines the possibility to further enhance the beneficial effects observed in the progeny by augmenting maternal care beyond the highest levels females can display in standard laboratory conditions. This was produced by placing a second female with the dam and its litter in the rearing cage from the partum until pups weaning. Maternal behavior of all females was scored during the first week postpartum, and behavioral indices of emotionality, prestress and poststress corticosterone levels, cognitive performance, and hippocampal morphology were assessed in the adult offspring. We found that pups reared by female dyads received more maternal care than pups reared by dams alone, but as adults, they did not exhibit alterations in emotionality or corticosterone response estimated in basal condition or following restraint stress. Conversely, they showed enhanced performance in hippocampal-dependent tasks including long-term object discrimination, reactivity to spatial change, and fear conditioning together with an increase in dendritic length and spine density in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. In general, the beneficial effects of dyadic maternal care were stronger when both the females were lactating. This study demonstrates that double-mothering exerts a long-term positive control on cognitive function and hippocampal neuronal connectivity. This experimental manipulation, especially if associated with increased feeding, might offer a concrete possibility to limit or reverse the consequences of negative predisposing conditions for normal cognitive development. PMID:20087885

  3. Determinants of physical and global functioning in adult HIV-positive heterosexual men.

    PubMed

    Shah, Krupa; McMahon, James M; Trabold, Nicole; Aidala, Angela A; Chen, Michael; Pouget, Enrique R; Simmons, Janie; Klostermann, Keith

    2015-09-01

    Little is known about the psychosocial factors that might impact the functioning ability of heterosexual men living with HIV. We examined positive and negative coping, social support, and HIV stigma as predictors of physical and global functioning in a cross-sectional sample of 317 HIV-infected adult heterosexual male patients recruited from clinical and social service agencies in New York City. Study participants were primarily minority and low income. Sixty-four percent were African-American, 55% were single, and 90% were 40 years of age or older. The majority had long-term HIV (LTHIV), with an average duration of 15 years since diagnosis. After controlling for participant characteristics, structural equation modeling analyses revealed that positive coping and social support had a significant positive direct effect on global functioning, while stigma had a significant negative direct effect on global functioning. The physical functioning model revealed that negative coping and HIV stigma had significant negative direct effects, whereas social support had a significant positive indirect effect. Age and duration of HIV diagnosis were not associated with physical and global functioning. In conclusion, we found that heterosexual men living with LTHIV who have ineffective coping, less social support, and greater stigma have reduced functioning ability. Study findings have implications for developing interventions aimed at increasing and retaining functioning ability with the end goal of improving successful aging in this population. PMID:25812466

  4. Determinants of physical and global functioning in adult HIV-positive heterosexual men

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Krupa; McMahon, James M.; Trabold, Nicole; Aidala, Angela A.; Chen, Michael; Pouget, Enrique R.; Simmons, Janie; Klostermann, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the psychosocial factors that might impact the functioning ability of heterosexual men living with HIV. We examined positive and negative coping, social support, and HIV stigma as predictors of physical and global functioning in a cross-sectional sample of 317 HIV-infected adult heterosexual male patients recruited from clinical and social service agencies in New York City. Study participants were primarily minority and low income. Sixty-four percent were African-American, 55% were single, and 90% were 40 years of age or older. The majority had long-term HIV (LTHIV), with an average duration of 15 years since diagnosis. After controlling for participant characteristics, structural equation modelling analyses revealed that positive coping and social support had a significant positive direct effect on global functioning, while stigma had a significant negative direct effect on global functioning. The physical functioning model revealed that negative coping and HIV stigma had significant negative direct effects, whereas social support had a significant positive indirect effect. Age and duration of HIV diagnosis were not associated with physical and global functioning. In conclusion, we found that heterosexual men living with LTHIV who have ineffective coping, less social support, and greater stigma have reduced functioning ability. Study findings have implications for developing interventions aimed at increasing and retaining functioning ability with the end goal of improving successful aging in this population. PMID:25812466

  5. Left ventricular function in adults with mild pulmonary insufficiency late after Fallot repair

    PubMed Central

    Niezen, R; Helbing, W; van der Wall, E E; van der Geest, R J; Vliegen, H; de Roos, A

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVETo assess left ventricular function in adult Fallot patients with residual pulmonary regurgitation.?SETTINGThe radiology department of a tertiary referral centre.?PATIENTS14 patients with chronic pulmonary regurgitation and right ventricular volume overload after repair of tetralogy of Fallot and 10healthy subjects were studied using magnetic resonance imaging.?MAIN OUTCOME MEASURESBiventricular volumes, global biventricular function, and regional left ventricular function were assessed in all subjects.?RESULTSThe amount of pulmonary regurgitation in patients (mean (SD)) was 25(18)% of forward flow and correlated significantly with right ventricular enlargement (p<0.05). Left ventricular end diastolic volume was decreased in patients (78(11) v 88(10) ml/m2; p<0.05), ejection fraction was not significantly altered (59(5)% v 55(7)%; NS). No significant correlation was found between pulmonary regurgitation and left ventricular function. Overall left ventricular end diastolic wall thickness was significantly lower in patients (5.06(0.72) v 6.06(1.06) mm; p<0.05), predominantly in the free wall. At the apical level, left ventricular systolic wall thickening was 20% higher in Fallot patients (p<0.05). Left ventricular shape was normal.?CONCLUSIONSAdult Fallot patients with mild chronic pulmonary regurgitation and subsequent right ventricular enlargement showed a normal left ventricular shape and global function. Although the left ventricular free wall had reduced wall thickness, compensatory hypercontractility of the apex may contribute to preserved global function.???Keywords: left ventricular function; pulmonary insufficiency; tetralogy of Fallot; magnetic resonance imaging PMID:10573497

  6. Skin-derived neural precursors competitively generate functional myelin in adult demyelinated mice

    PubMed Central

    Mozafari, Sabah; Laterza, Cecilia; Roussel, Delphine; Bachelin, Corinne; Marteyn, Antoine; Deboux, Cyrille; Martino, Gianvito; Evercooren, Anne Baron-Van

    2015-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cell–derived (iPS-derived) neural precursor cells may represent the ideal autologous cell source for cell-based therapy to promote remyelination and neuroprotection in myelin diseases. So far, the therapeutic potential of reprogrammed cells has been evaluated in neonatal demyelinating models. However, the repair efficacy and safety of these cells has not been well addressed in the demyelinated adult CNS, which has decreased cell plasticity and scarring. Moreover, it is not clear if these induced pluripotent–derived cells have the same reparative capacity as physiologically committed CNS-derived precursors. Here, we performed a side-by-side comparison of CNS-derived and skin-derived neural precursors in culture and following engraftment in murine models of adult spinal cord demyelination. Grafted induced neural precursors exhibited a high capacity for survival, safe integration, migration, and timely differentiation into mature bona fide oligodendrocytes. Moreover, grafted skin–derived neural precursors generated compact myelin around host axons and restored nodes of Ranvier and conduction velocity as efficiently as CNS-derived precursors while outcompeting endogenous cells. Together, these results provide important insights into the biology of reprogrammed cells in adult demyelinating conditions and support use of these cells for regenerative biomedicine of myelin diseases that affect the adult CNS. PMID:26301815

  7. Skin-derived neural precursors competitively generate functional myelin in adult demyelinated mice.

    PubMed

    Mozafari, Sabah; Laterza, Cecilia; Roussel, Delphine; Bachelin, Corinne; Marteyn, Antoine; Deboux, Cyrille; Martino, Gianvito; Baron-Van Evercooren, Anne

    2015-09-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived (iPS-derived) neural precursor cells may represent the ideal autologous cell source for cell-based therapy to promote remyelination and neuroprotection in myelin diseases. So far, the therapeutic potential of reprogrammed cells has been evaluated in neonatal demyelinating models. However, the repair efficacy and safety of these cells has not been well addressed in the demyelinated adult CNS, which has decreased cell plasticity and scarring. Moreover, it is not clear if these induced pluripotent-derived cells have the same reparative capacity as physiologically committed CNS-derived precursors. Here, we performed a side-by-side comparison of CNS-derived and skin-derived neural precursors in culture and following engraftment in murine models of adult spinal cord demyelination. Grafted induced neural precursors exhibited a high capacity for survival, safe integration, migration, and timely differentiation into mature bona fide oligodendrocytes. Moreover, grafted skin-derived neural precursors generated compact myelin around host axons and restored nodes of Ranvier and conduction velocity as efficiently as CNS-derived precursors while outcompeting endogenous cells. Together, these results provide important insights into the biology of reprogrammed cells in adult demyelinating conditions and support use of these cells for regenerative biomedicine of myelin diseases that affect the adult CNS. PMID:26301815

  8. Acute effect of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonism on vascular function in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Moon-Hyon; Yoo, Jeung-Ki; Luttrell, Meredith; Kim, Han-Kyul; Meade, Thomas H; English, Mark; Talcott, Susanne; Jaffe, Iris Z; Christou, Demetra D

    2016-01-01

    Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) activation by aldosterone may regulate vascular function in health or contribute to vascular dysfunction in cardiovascular disease. Whether the effects are beneficial or detrimental to vascular function appear to be dependent on the integrity of the vascular endothelium and whether the responses are short-term or chronic. Acute modulation of MR activation has resulted in conflicting outcomes on vascular function in young healthy adults. Little is known about the vascular role of aldosterone and MR activation in healthy human aging. The primary objective of this study was to examine whether acute inhibition of MR by the selective antagonist eplerenone, influences vascular function in healthy older adults. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study in 22 adults (611years; meanSE, 53-79years) who were free from overt clinical cardiovascular disease. We measured brachial artery flow-mediated endothelium-dependent dilation and endothelium-independent dilation to sublingual nitroglycerin (0.4mg) following eplerenone (100mg/dose, 2 doses, 24h between doses) or placebo. In response to acute MR antagonism, flow-mediated dilation decreased by 19% (from 6.90.5 to 5.60.6%, P=0.02; placebo vs. eplerenone). Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity also decreased following MR antagonism based on the ratio of phosphorylated eNOS(Ser1177) to total eNOS (1.530.08 vs. 1.290.06, P=0.02). Nitroglycerin-induced dilation and blood pressure were unaffected (nitroglycerin-induced dilation: 21.91.9 vs. 21.01.5%, P=0.5 and systolic/diastolic blood pressure: 135/774/2 vs. 134/774/2mmHg, P?0.6). In conclusion, acute MR antagonism impairs vascular endothelial function in healthy older adults without influencing vascular smooth muscle responsiveness to exogenous nitric oxide or blood pressure. PMID:26639352

  9. Optimising the structure and function of the adult P23H-3 retina by light management in the juvenile and adult.

    PubMed

    Valter, Krisztina; Kirk, Diana K; Stone, Jonathan

    2009-12-01

    This study tests the potential of light restriction to optimise retinal structure and function in adulthood, using the P23H-3 rhodopsin-mutant transgenic rat as a model. P23H-3 rats were reared in scotopic (5 lux) or mesopic (40-60 lux) cyclic (12 h/12 h light/dark) light. A further 2 groups were reared in one of these light conditions to P(postnatal day)30, and then were transferred to the other condition. Retinae were examined at P30-365. Rod and cone function were assessed by the dark-adapted flash electroretinogram. The rate of photoreceptor death was assessed with the TUNEL technique, and photoreceptor survival by the thickness of the outer nuclear layer (ONL). Photoreceptor structural changes were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Mesopic rearing severely reduced the number, function and outer segment (OS) length of photoreceptors. Light restriction in the adult (achieved by moving mesopic-reared animals to scotopic conditions at P30) slowed photoreceptor death, induced recovery of the ERG and of OS length in survivors, resulting in an adult retina that matched the scotopic-reared in function, photoreceptor survival (stability) and structure. Conversely, light exposure in the adult (achieved by moving scotopic-reared animals to mesopic conditions at P30) accelerated photoreceptor death, shortened OSs and reduced the ERG, resulting in a retina that was as damaged and dysfunctional as a mesopic-reared retina, and showed greater photoreceptor instability. Present observations suggest, that the stability and function of adult photoreceptors are determined by both early and adult ambient light experience. Light restriction in the adult was effective in inducing the self-repair of photoreceptors, and the recovery of their function and stability. Light restriction in the juvenile (before P30) improved early photoreceptor survival but made adult photoreceptors vulnerable to brighter light experienced in adulthood. For comparable human dystrophies, these results suggest that light restriction begun after retinal maturation may be effective in optimising the structure, function and stability of the adult retina. PMID:19729008

  10. The Effectiveness of Community-Based Occupational Therapy Education and Functional Training Programs for Older Adults: A Critical Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Seanne; Jung, Bonny; Wishart, Laurie; Edwards, Mary; Norton, Shelley Gamble

    2003-01-01

    Results of a literature review describing the provision of education and occupational therapy training programs for older adults indicate that programs are effective in three areas: prevention of functional decline and falls, stroke, and rheumatoid arthritis. (Contains 37 references.) (JOW)

  11. Percentage of Adults with High Cholesterol Whose LDL Cholesterol Levels Are Adequately Controlled

    MedlinePLUS

    ... sizes that tend to have greater variability, confidence intervals are displayed, which are important for interpreting the ... Adults with High Cholesterol that is Controlled by Education Level 8k4c-k22f Download these data Explore these ...

  12. The use of relaxation training to enhance functional outcomes in adults with traumatic head injuries.

    PubMed

    Lysaght, R; Bodenhamer, E

    1990-09-01

    Impaired anxiety management and poor emotional control have a negative effect on the adaptive functioning of persons with head injuries who are in the postacute stages of recovery. This paper outlines a relaxation training program administered individually to 4 adults with severe head injuries. Each subject was in the postacute phase of recovery and had reported stress to be a persistent problem in daily living. The relaxation training protocol combined biofeedback, imagery, autogenic training, and deep breathing. Significant improvement in function, measured by scores on a scale of illness-related dysfunction, support the potential benefits of stress management training as part of functional training programs for persons with traumatic head injuries. PMID:2220998

  13. Sleep, Fatigue, and Problems With Cognitive Function in Adults Living With HIV.

    PubMed

    Byun, Eeeseung; Gay, Caryl L; Lee, Kathryn A

    2016-01-01

    Up to 50% of people living with HIV have some neurocognitive impairment. We examined associations of sleep and fatigue with self-reported cognitive problems in 268 adults living with HIV. Multivariate regression was used to examine associations between cognitive problems, self-reported sleep quality, actigraphy-measured total sleep time and wake after sleep onset, and fatigue severity. Poorer self-reported sleep quality (p<.001), short or long total sleep time (<7 or>8 vs. 7-8hours, p=.015), and greater fatigue (p<.001) were associated with lower self-reported cognitive function scores after controlling for demographic and clinical characteristics. However, objective measure of wake after sleep onset was unrelated to self-reported cognitive function scores. Findings suggest that assessing and treating poor sleep and complaints about fatigue would be areas for intervention that could have a greater impact on improving cognition function than interventions that target only cognitive problems. PMID:26547298

  14. Associations Between Abnormal Rod-Mediated Dark Adaptation and Health and Functioning in Older Adults With Normal Macular Health

    PubMed Central

    Owsley, Cynthia; Huisingh, Carrie; Jackson, Gregory R.; Curcio, Christine A.; Szalai, Alexander J.; Dashti, Nassrin; Clark, Mark; Rookard, Kia; McCrory, Mark A.; Wright, Tyler T.; Callahan, Michael A.; Kline, Lanning B.; Witherspoon, C. Douglas; McGwin, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Delayed rod-mediated dark adaptation (DA) is characteristic of early age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and also can be observed in some older adults in normal macular health. We examine cross-sectional associations between rod-mediated DA and risk factors for AMD in older adults in normal macular health. Methods. The sample consisted of adults aged ≥60 years old in normal macular health per grading of fundus photos using an established disease classification system. Rod-mediated DA was measured psychophysically following a photobleach using a computer-automated dark adaptometer with targets centered at 5° on the inferior vertical meridian. The speed of DA was characterized by the rod-intercept value, with abnormal DA defined as rod-intercept ≥ 12.3 minutes. We assessed several health and functional characteristics that the literature has suggested increase AMD risk (e.g., smoking, alcohol use, inflammatory markers, apolipoproteins, low luminance visual acuity, chronic medical conditions, body mass, family history). Results. Among 381 participants (mean age, 68.5 years; SD, 5.5), 78% had normal and 22% had abnormal DA, with the prevalence of abnormal DA increasing with age. After age-adjustment, abnormal DA was associated with increased odds of elevated C-reactive protein (CRP), heavy use of or abstention from alcohol, high blood pressure, and drop in visual acuity under mesopic conditions. Conclusions. Despite having normal macular health according to accepted definitions of AMD presence, approximately one-quarter of older adults recruited from primary eye care clinics had abnormal DA, which was associated with known risk factors for AMD, including elevated CRP. PMID:24854857

  15. Genetic influence on exercise-induced changes in physical function among mobility-limited older adults

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Fang-Chi; Brinkley, Tina E.; Carter, Christy S.; Church, Timothy S.; Dodson, John A.; Goodpaster, Bret H.; McDermott, Mary M.; Nicklas, Barbara J.; Yank, Veronica; Johnson, Julie A.; Pahor, Marco

    2014-01-01

    To date, physical exercise is the only intervention consistently demonstrated to attenuate age-related declines in physical function. However, variability exists in seniors' responsiveness to training. One potential source of variability is the insertion (I allele) or deletion (D allele) of a 287 bp fragment in intron 16 of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene. This polymorphism is known to influence a variety of physiological adaptions to exercise. However, evidence is inconclusive regarding the influence of this polymorphism on older adults' functional responses to exercise. This study aimed to evaluate the association of ACE I/D genotypes with changes in physical function among Caucasian older adults (n = 283) following 12 mo of either structured, multimodal physical activity or health education. Measures of physical function included usual-paced gait speed and performance on the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). After checking Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, we used using linear regression to evaluate the genotype*treatment interaction for each outcome. Covariates included clinic site, body mass index, age, sex, baseline score, comorbidity, and use of angiotensin receptor blockers or ACE inhibitors. Genotype frequencies [II (19.4%), ID (42.4%), DD (38.2%)] were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P > 0.05). The genotype*treatment interaction was statistically significant for both gait speed (P = 0.002) and SPPB (P = 0.020). Exercise improved gait speed by 0.06 0.01 m/sec and SPPB score by 0.72 0.16 points among those with at least one D allele (ID/DD carriers), but function was not improved among II carriers. Thus, ACE I/D genotype appears to play a role in modulating functional responses to exercise training in seniors. PMID:24423970

  16. Genetic influence on exercise-induced changes in physical function among mobility-limited older adults.

    PubMed

    Buford, Thomas W; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Brinkley, Tina E; Carter, Christy S; Church, Timothy S; Dodson, John A; Goodpaster, Bret H; McDermott, Mary M; Nicklas, Barbara J; Yank, Veronica; Johnson, Julie A; Pahor, Marco

    2014-03-01

    To date, physical exercise is the only intervention consistently demonstrated to attenuate age-related declines in physical function. However, variability exists in seniors' responsiveness to training. One potential source of variability is the insertion (I allele) or deletion (D allele) of a 287 bp fragment in intron 16 of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene. This polymorphism is known to influence a variety of physiological adaptions to exercise. However, evidence is inconclusive regarding the influence of this polymorphism on older adults' functional responses to exercise. This study aimed to evaluate the association of ACE I/D genotypes with changes in physical function among Caucasian older adults (n = 283) following 12 mo of either structured, multimodal physical activity or health education. Measures of physical function included usual-paced gait speed and performance on the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). After checking Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, we used using linear regression to evaluate the genotype*treatment interaction for each outcome. Covariates included clinic site, body mass index, age, sex, baseline score, comorbidity, and use of angiotensin receptor blockers or ACE inhibitors. Genotype frequencies [II (19.4%), ID (42.4%), DD (38.2%)] were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P > 0.05). The genotype*treatment interaction was statistically significant for both gait speed (P = 0.002) and SPPB (P = 0.020). Exercise improved gait speed by 0.06 0.01 m/sec and SPPB score by 0.72 0.16 points among those with at least one D allele (ID/DD carriers), but function was not improved among II carriers. Thus, ACE I/D genotype appears to play a role in modulating functional responses to exercise training in seniors. PMID:24423970

  17. FUNCTIONAL IMPAIRMENT IN ADULTS WITH PAST POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER: FINDINGS FROM PRIMARY CARE

    PubMed Central

    Westphal, Maren; Olfson, Mark; Gameroff, Marc J.; Wickramaratne, Priya; Pilowsky, Daniel J.; Neugebauer, Richard; Lantigua, Rafael; Shea, Steven; Neria, Yuval

    2013-01-01

    Background Although many patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) experience a reduction in posttraumatic symptoms over time, little is currently known about the extent of their residual functional impairment. This study examines functional impairment in primary care patients with a history of PTSD as compared to patients with current PTSD, and those who never developed PTSD following exposure to trauma. Methods The sample consisted of 321 trauma-exposed low-income, predominantly Hispanic adults attending a large urban primary care practice. PTSD was assessed with the Lifetime Composite International Diagnostic Interview and other psychiatric disorders with the SCID-I. Physical and mental health-related quality of life was assessed with the Medical Outcome Health Survey (SF-12), and functional impairment with items from the Sheehan Disability Scale and Social Adjustment Scale Self-Report. Results Logistic regression analyses controlling for gender, psychiatric comorbidity, and interpersonal traumas showed that although patients with past PTSD function significantly better than patients with current PTSD, they experience persisting deficits in mental health-related quality of life compared to trauma-exposed patients who never developed PTSD. Overall, results revealed a continuum of severity in psychiatric comorbidity, functioning, and quality of life, with current PTSD associated with the most impairment, never having met criteria for PTSD with the least impairment, and history of PTSD falling in between. Conclusions In this primary care sample, adults with a history of past PTSD but no current PTSD continued to report enduring functional deficits, suggesting a need for ongoing clinical attention. PMID:21681868

  18. Serum Methylarginines and Spirometry-Measured Lung Function in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    McEvoy, Mark A.; Schofield, Peter W.; Smith, Wayne T.; Agho, Kingsley; Mangoni, Arduino A.; Soiza, Roy L.; Peel, Roseanne; Hancock, Stephen J.; Carru, Ciriaco; Zinellu, Angelo; Attia, John R.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Methylarginines are endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitors that have been implicated in animal models of lung disease but have not previously been examined for their association with spirometric measures of lung function in humans. Objectives This study measured serum concentrations of asymmetric and symmetric dimethylarginine in a representative sample of older community-dwelling adults and determined their association with spirometric lung function measures. Methods Data on clinical, lifestyle, and demographic characteristics, methylated arginines, and L-arginine (measured using LC-MS/MS) were collected from a population-based sample of older Australian adults from the Hunter Community Study. The five key lung function measures included as outcomes were Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second, Forced Vital Capacity, Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second to Forced Vital Capacity ratio, Percent Predicted Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second, and Percent Predicted Forced Vital Capacity. Measurements and Main Results In adjusted analyses there were statistically significant independent associations between a) higher asymmetric dimethylarginine, lower Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second and lower Forced Vital Capacity; and b) lower L-arginine/asymmetric dimethylarginine ratio, lower Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second, lower Percent Predicted Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second and lower Percent Predicted Forced Vital Capacity. By contrast, no significant associations were observed between symmetric dimethylarginine and lung function. Conclusions After adjusting for clinical, demographic, biochemical, and pharmacological confounders, higher serum asymmetric dimethylarginine was independently associated with a reduction in key measures of lung function. Further research is needed to determine if methylarginines predict the decline in lung function. PMID:23690915

  19. Acute effects of β-naphthoflavone on cardiorespiratory function and metabolism in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Gerger, Courtney J; Thomas, Jith K; Janz, David M; Weber, Lynn P

    2015-02-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists are known to cause lethal cardiovascular deformities in fish after developmental exposure. Acute adult fish toxicity of AhR agonists is thought to be minimal, but limited evidence suggests sublethal effects may also involve the cardiac system in fish. In the present study, adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) were aqueously exposed to solvent control or three nominal concentrations of the commonly used model AhR agonist, β-naphthoflavone (BNF), for 48 h. Following exposure, fish were subjected to echocardiography to determine cardiac function or swimming tests with concurrent oxygen consumption measurement. Critical swimming speed and standard metabolic rate were not significantly changed, while active metabolic rate decreased with increasing BNF exposure, reaching statistical significance at the highest BNF exposure. Factorial aerobic scope was the most sensitive end-point and was decreased at even lower BNF concentrations, indicating a reduced aerobic capacity after acute AhR agonist exposure in adult fish. The highest BNF concentration caused a significant decrease in cardiac output, while increasing the ratio of atrial to ventricular heart rate (indicating atrioventricular conduction blockade). In conclusion, the effect of acute BNF exposure on zebrafish metabolic capacity and cardiac function is likely to be physiologically important given that fish have a critical need for adequate oxygen to fuel essential survival behaviors such as swimming, growth, and reproduction. Future studies should be directed at examining the effects of other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on fish cardiorespiratory function to determine whether their effects and modes of action are similar to BNF. PMID:25186110

  20. Functional Compensation in the Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex Improves Memory-Dependent Decisions in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Huettel, Scott A.; Cabeza, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Everyday consumer choices frequently involve memory, as when we retrieve information about consumer products when making purchasing decisions. In this context, poor memory may affect decision quality, particularly in individuals with memory decline, such as older adults. However, age differences in choice behavior may be reduced if older adults can recruit additional neural resources that support task performance. Although such functional compensation is well documented in other cognitive domains, it is presently unclear whether it can support memory-guided decision making and, if so, which brain regions play a role in compensation. The current study engaged younger and older humans in a memory-dependent choice task in which pairs of consumer products from a popular online-shopping site were evaluated with different delays between the first and second product. Using functional imaging (fMRI), we found that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) supports compensation as defined by three a priori criteria: (1) increased vmPFC activation was observed in older versus younger adults; (2) age-related increases in vmPFC activity were associated with increased retrieval demands; and (3) increased vmPFC activity was positively associated with performance in older adults—evidence of successful compensation. Extending these results, we observed evidence for compensation in connectivity between vmPFC and the dorsolateral PFC during memory-dependent choice. In contrast, we found no evidence for age differences in value-related processing or age-related compensation for choices without delayed retrieval. Together, these results converge on the conclusion that age-related decline in memory-dependent choice performance can be minimized via functional compensation in vmPFC. PMID:25411493