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1

Thought disorder in high-functioning autistic adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examined thought disorder in a sample (n = 11) of high- functioning autistic young adults and older adolescents (mean IQ = 83) utilizing objective ratings from the Thought, Language and Communication Disorder Scale (TLC Scale) and projective data from the Rorschach inkblots. Results from the TLC Scale pointed to negative features of thought disorder in this sample (e.g., Poverty of

Elisabeth Dykens; Fred Volkmar; Marion Glick

1991-01-01

2

Audiovisual Integration in High Functioning Adults with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Autism involves various perceptual benefits and deficits, but it is unclear if the disorder also involves anomalous audiovisual integration. To address this issue, we compared the performance of high-functioning adults with autism and matched controls on experiments investigating the audiovisual integration of speech, spatiotemporal relations, and…

Keane, Brian P.; Rosenthal, Orna; Chun, Nicole H.; Shams, Ladan

2010-01-01

3

Attachment in adults with high-functioning autism.  

PubMed

This study assessed attachment security in adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders, using the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI; George, Kaplan, & Main, 1996). Of 20 participants, three were classified as securely attached, the same proportion as would be expected in a general clinical sample. Participants' AAIs were less coherent and lower in reflective function than those of controls, who were matched for attachment status and mood disorder. A parallel interview suggested that some aspects of participants' responses were influenced by their general discourse style, while other AAI scale scores appeared to reflect their state of mind with respect to attachment more specifically. There was little evidence that attachment security was related to IQ, autistic symptomatology or theory of mind. This study suggests that adults with autism can engage with the AAI and produce scoreable narratives of their attachment experiences, and a minority demonstrate secure attachment. PMID:18773316

Taylor, Emma L; Target, Mary; Charman, Tony

2008-06-01

4

Though disorder in high-functioning autistic adults.  

PubMed

Examined thought disorder in a sample (n = 11) of high-functioning autistic young adults and older adolescents (mean IQ = 83) utilizing objective ratings from the Thought, Language and Communication Disorder Scale (TLC Scale) and projective data from the Rorschach ink blots. Results from the TLC Scale pointed to negative features of thought disorder in this sample (e.g., Poverty of Speech). Rorschach protocols revealed poor reality testing and perceptual distortions in every autistic subject, and also identified several areas of cognitive slippage (e.g., Incongruous Combinations, Fabulized Combinations, Deviant Responses, Inappropriate Logic). Comparing TLC Scale and Rorschach results to schizophrenic reference groups, autistic subjects demonstrated significantly more Poverty of Speech and less Illogically on the TLC Scale, and on the Rorschach they evidenced features of thought disorder that are encountered also in schizophrenia. Results are discussed in relation to the measures employed, and to areas of similarity and difference between autism and schizophrenia. PMID:1938775

Dykens, E; Volkmar, F; Glick, M

1991-09-01

5

Challenging stereotypes: sexual functioning of single adults with high functioning autism spectrum disorder.  

PubMed

This study examined the sexual functioning of single adults (61 men, 68 women) with high functioning autism and Asperger syndrome living in the community with and without prior relationship experience. Participants completed an on-line questionnaire assessing autism symptoms, psychological functioning, and various aspects of sexual functioning. In general participants reported positive sexual functioning. Participants without prior relationship experience were significantly younger and more likely to be male and identify as heterosexual. They reported significantly higher sexual anxiety, lower sexual arousability, lower dyadic desire, and fewer positive sexual cognitions. The men reported better sexual function than did the women in a number of areas. These results counter negative societal perceptions about the sexuality of high functioning individuals on the autism spectrum. PMID:23526036

Byers, E Sandra; Nichols, Shana; Voyer, Susan D

2013-11-01

6

Sexual attitudes and knowledge of high-functioning adolescents and adults with autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interviewed 21 high-functioning adults with autism and 20 mildly to moderately mentally retarded adults without autism about sexuality and dating. Sexual knowledge and interest were assessed by a sexuality vocabulary checklist and a multiple-choice questionnaire. Group differences were found in experience, with more sexual experiences among the mentally retarded adults, but not in knowledge or interest. In both groups IQ

Opal Y. Ousley; Gary B. Mesibov

1991-01-01

7

Parents' Criticisms and Attributions about Their Adult Children with High Functioning Autism or Schizophrenia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The current study examined the criticism component of expressed emotion (EE) and attributions in parents of adults diagnosed with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder (S/SA) or high functioning autism/Asperger's. Consistent with study hypotheses, parents of adults diagnosed with autism/Asperger's disorder exhibited lower levels of high

Wasserman, Stephanie; Weisman de Mamani, Amy; Mundy, Peter

2010-01-01

8

Theory of Mind and Central Coherence in Adults with High-Functioning Autism or Asperger Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The study investigated theory of mind and central coherence abilities in adults with high-functioning autism (HFA) or Asperger syndrome (AS) using naturalistic tasks. Twenty adults with HFA/AS correctly answered significantly fewer theory of mind questions than 20 controls on a forced-choice response task. On a narrative task, there were no…

Beaumont, Renae; Newcombe, Peter

2006-01-01

9

Sexual Attitudes and Knowledge of High-Functioning Adolescents and Adults with Autism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviews with 21 high-functioning adults with autism and 20 mildly to moderately mentally retarded adults without autism indicated that the mentally retarded group had more sexual experiences, with no intergroup differences in sexual knowledge or interest. Intelligence quotient was positively correlated with knowledge scores and males had…

Ousley, Opal Y.; Mesibov, Gary B.

1991-01-01

10

Sexual Attitudes and Knowledge of High-Functioning Adolescents and Adults with Autism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Interviews with 21 high-functioning adults with autism and 20 mildly to moderately mentally retarded adults without autism indicated that the mentally retarded group had more sexual experiences, with no intergroup differences in sexual knowledge or interest. Intelligence quotient was positively correlated with knowledge scores and males had…

Ousley, Opal Y.; Mesibov, Gary B.

1991-01-01

11

Perceptions of popularity among a group of high-functioning adults with autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine how a group of adults with autism perceived one another's interpersonal attributes and popularity. Five female and 11 male high-functioning autistic adults, 18–45 years old, participated in a social skills group together for several years. A sociogram and a questionnaire designed to determine perceptions of best looking, most athletic, and most humorous

Gary B. Mesibov; Janet Stephens

1990-01-01

12

Reading the Mind in the Voice: A Study with Normal Adults and Adults with Asperger Syndrome and High Functioning Autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

People with high functioning autism (HFA) and Asperger syndrome (AS) have deficits in theory of mind (ToM). Traditional ToM tasks are not sensitive enough to measure ToM deficits in adults, so more subtle ToM tests are needed. One adult level test, the Reading the Mind in the Eyes test has shown that AS and HFA subjects have measurable deficits in

M. D. Rutherford; Simon Baron-Cohen; Sally Wheelwright

2002-01-01

13

Brief Report: Feasibility of Social Cognition and Interaction Training for Adults with High Functioning Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The goal of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and utility of a group-based cognitive behavioral intervention to improve social-cognitive functioning in adults with high-functioning autism (HFA). We modified the treatment manual of a previously validated intervention, Social Cognition and Interaction Training (SCIT), for optimal use with…

Turner-Brown, Lauren M.; Perry, Timothy D.; Dichter, Gabriel S.; Bodfish, James W.; Penn, David L.

2008-01-01

14

Advanced Theory of Mind in High-Functioning Adults with Autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-four high-functioning adults with autism (16 men) who passed a first-order theory-of-mind task and 24 nonautistic adults (10 men) attributed mental states to recordings of various verbal intonations and to photos of people's eyes to assess advanced theory of mind. Participants with autism performed significantly worse than nonautistic participants on both tasks. Thus, the previously described inattention to others' eyes

Jamie Kleinman; Paul L. Marciano; Ruth L. Ault

2001-01-01

15

Theory of mind and central coherence in adults with high-functioning autism or Asperger syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study investigated theory of mind and central coherence abilities in adults with high-functioning autism (HFA) or Asperger syndrome (AS) using naturalistic tasks. Twenty adults with HFA\\/AS correctly answered significantly fewer theory of mind questions than 20 controls on a forced-choice response task. On a narrative task, there were no differences in the proportion of mental state words between the

Renae Beaumont; Peter Newcombe

2006-01-01

16

Sexual Behavior in High-Functioning Male Adolescents and Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Group home caregivers of 24 institutionalized, male, high-functioning adolescents and young adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder, were interviewed with the Interview Sexuality Autism. Most subjects were reported to express sexual interest and to display some kind of sexual behavior. Knowledge of socio-sexual skills existed, but practical use was…

Hellemans, Hans; Colson, Kathy; Verbraeken, Christine; Vermeiren, Robert; Deboutte, Dirk

2007-01-01

17

Corpus callosum size in adults with high-functioning autism and the relevance of gender  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of the study was to investigate the size of the corpus callosum (CC) and its subsegments in relation to total brain volume (TBV) as an empirical indicator of impaired connectivity in autism with special respect to gender. In MRI data sets of 29 adults with high-functioning autism (HFA) and 29 age-, gender- and IQ-matched control subjects, the TBV

Ralf Tepest; Esther Jacobi; Astrid Gawronski; Barbara Krug; Walter Möller-Hartmann; Fritz G. Lehnhardt; Kai Vogeley

2010-01-01

18

The Modality Shift Experiment in Adults and Children with High Functioning Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study used the modality shift experiment, a relatively simple reaction time measure to visual and auditory stimuli, to examine attentional shifting within and across modalities in 33 children and 42 adults with high-functioning autism as compared to matched numbers of age- and ability-matched typical controls. An exaggerated "modality shift…

Williams, Diane L.; Goldstein, Gerald; Minshew, Nancy J.

2013-01-01

19

Narrative Discourse in Adults with High-Functioning Autism or Asperger Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We report a study comparing the narrative abilities of 12 adults with high-functioning autism (HFA) or Asperger Syndrome (AS) versus 12 matched controls. The study focuses on the use of referential expressions (temporal expressions and anaphoric pronouns) during a story-telling task. The aim was to assess pragmatics skills in people with HFA/AS…

Colle, Livia; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Wheelwright, Sally; van der Lely, Heather K. J.

2008-01-01

20

Pragmatic Inferences in High-Functioning Adults with Autism and Asperger Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often have severe problems with pragmatic aspects of language, little is known about their pragmatic reasoning. We carried out a behavioral study on high-functioning adults with autistic disorder (n = 11) and Asperger syndrome (n = 17) and matched controls (n = 28) to investigate whether they…

Pijnacker, Judith; Hagoort, Peter; Buitelaar, Jan; Teunisse, Jan-Pieter; Geurts, Bart

2009-01-01

21

Pragmatic Inferences in High-Functioning Adults with Autism and Asperger Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often have severe problems with pragmatic aspects of language, little is known about their pragmatic reasoning. We carried out a behavioral study on high-functioning adults with autistic disorder (n = 11) and Asperger syndrome (n = 17) and matched controls (n = 28) to investigate whether they…

Pijnacker, Judith; Hagoort, Peter; Buitelaar, Jan; Teunisse, Jan-Pieter; Geurts, Bart

2009-01-01

22

Brain Mapping of Language and Auditory Perception in High-Functioning Autistic Adults: A PET Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study used positron emission tomography (PET) to study patterns of brain activation during auditory processing in five high-functioning adults with autism. Results found that participants showed reversed hemispheric dominance during the verbal auditory stimulation and reduced activation of the auditory cortex and cerebellum. (CR)|

Muller, R-A.; Behen, M. E.; Rothermel, R. D.; Chugani, D. C.; Muzik, O.; Mangner, T. J.; Chugani, H. T.

1999-01-01

23

Virtual Reality Social Cognition Training for Young Adults with High-Functioning Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Few evidence-based social interventions exist for young adults with high-functioning autism, many of whom encounter significant challenges during the transition into adulthood. The current study investigated the feasibility of an engaging Virtual Reality Social Cognition Training intervention focused on enhancing social skills, social cognition,…

Kandalaft, Michelle R.; Didehbani, Nyaz; Krawczyk, Daniel C.; Allen, Tandra T.; Chapman, Sandra B.

2013-01-01

24

Atypical Visual Orienting to Gaze and Arrow-Cues in Adults with High Functioning Autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigates visual orienting to directional cues (arrow or eyes) in adults with high functioning autism (n = 19) and age matched controls (n = 19). A choice reaction time paradigm is used in which eye- or arrow direction correctly (congruent) or incorrectly (incongruent) cues target location. In typically developing participants, the visual orienting reflex is longer for eyes than for arrows.

Petra H. J. M. Vlamings; Johannes E. A. Stauder; Ilona A. M. van Son; Laurent Mottron

2005-01-01

25

Perceptions of popularity among a group of high-functioning adults with autism.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine how a group of adults with autism perceived one another's interpersonal attributes and popularity. Five female and 11 male high-functioning autistic adults, 18-45 years old, participated in a social skills group together for several years. A sociogram and a questionnaire designed to determine perceptions of best looking, most athletic, and most humorous group members were administered to group members and nonhandicapped group leaders. Independent assessments of intelligence and empathy also were taken. Results indicated that perceived attractiveness and sense of humor were correlated with popularity, but group members' assessments of these attributes differed from those of the nonhandicapped group leaders. Differences between group members and group leaders responses and the implications of the results of the study for social skills training with high-functioning autistic adolescents and adults are discussed. PMID:2324054

Mesibov, G B; Stephens, J

1990-03-01

26

Brain Mapping of Language and Auditory Perception in High-Functioning Autistic Adults: A PET Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the brain organization for language and auditory functions in five high-functioning autistic and five normal adults, using [15O]-water positron emission tomography (PET). Cerebral blood flow was studied for rest, listening to tones, and listening to, repeating, and generating sentences. The autism group (compared to the control group) showed (a) reversed hemispheric dominance during verbal auditory stimulation; (b) a

R.-A. Müller; M. E. Behen; R. D. Rothermel; D. C. Chugani; O. Muzik; T. J. Mangner; H. T. Chugani

1999-01-01

27

Perception of Dialect Variation by Young Adults with High-Functioning Autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The linguistic profile of people with Autism spectrum disorders typically involves intact perceptual processing, accompanied\\u000a by deficits in the social functions of language. In a series of three experiments, the impact of this profile on the perception\\u000a of regional dialect was examined. Young adults with High-Functioning Autism exhibited similar performance to a typically developing\\u000a comparison group in regional dialect classification

Cynthia G. ClopperKristin; Kristin L. Rohrbeck; Laura Wagner

28

Obesity and diabetes as accelerators of functional decline: Can lifestyle interventions maintain functional status in high risk older adults?  

PubMed

Obesity and diabetes are known risk factors for the development of physical disability among older adults. With the number of seniors with these conditions rising worldwide, the prevention and treatment of physical disability in these persons have become a major public health challenge. Sarcopenia, the progressive loss of muscle mass and strength, has been identified as a common pathway associated with the initial onset and progression of physical disability among older adults. A growing body of evidence suggests that metabolic dysregulation associated with obesity and diabetes accelerates the progression of sarcopenia, and subsequently functional decline in older adults. The focus of this brief review is on the contributions of obesity and diabetes in accelerating sarcopenia and functional decline among older adults. We also briefly discuss the underexplored interaction between obesity and diabetes that may further accelerate sarcopenia and place obese older adults with diabetes at particularly high risk of disability. Finally, we review findings from studies that have specifically tested the efficacy of lifestyle-based interventions in maintaining the functional status of older persons with obesity and/or diabetes. PMID:23832077

Anton, Stephen D; Karabetian, Christy; Naugle, Kelly; Buford, Thomas W

2013-07-04

29

Sexual Behavior in High-Functioning Male Adolescents and Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Group home caregivers of 24 institutionalized, male, high-functioning adolescents and young adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder,\\u000a were interviewed with the Interview Sexuality Autism. Most subjects were reported to express sexual interest and to display\\u000a some kind of sexual behavior. Knowledge of socio-sexual skills existed, but practical use was moderate. Masturbation was common.\\u000a Many subjects were seeking physical contact with others.

Hans Hellemans; Kathy Colson; Christine Verbraeken; Robert Vermeiren; Dirk Deboutte

2007-01-01

30

Pragmatic Inferences in High-Functioning Adults with Autism and Asperger Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often have severe problems with pragmatic aspects of language, little\\u000a is known about their pragmatic reasoning. We carried out a behavioral study on high-functioning adults with autistic disorder\\u000a (n = 11) and Asperger syndrome (n = 17) and matched controls (n = 28) to investigate whether they are capable of deriving scalar implicatures, which are generally considered to be

Judith Pijnacker; Peter Hagoort; Jan Buitelaar; Jan-Pieter Teunisse; Bart Geurts

2009-01-01

31

Narrative Discourse in Adults with High-Functioning Autism or Asperger Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a study comparing the narrative abilities of 12 adults with high-functioning autism (HFA) or Asperger Syndrome (AS)\\u000a versus 12 matched controls. The study focuses on the use of referential expressions (temporal expressions and anaphoric pronouns)\\u000a during a story-telling task. The aim was to assess pragmatics skills in people with HFA\\/AS in whom linguistic impairments\\u000a are more subtle than

Livia Colle; Simon Baron-Cohen; Sally Wheelwright; Heather K. J. van der Lely

2008-01-01

32

Mobility Stress Test Approach to Predicting Frailty, Disability, and Mortality In High Functioning Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Background A major challenge to developing primary preventive interventions for frailty and disability in older adults is lack of validated simple clinical tools to identify high-risk individuals without overt signs of poor health. Objectives To examine the validity of the Walking While Talking test (WWT), a mobility stress test, to predict frailty, disability and death in high functioning older adults. Design prospective cohort study. Setting Community sample. Participants 631 community-residing adults age 70 and older participating in the Einstein Aging Study (mean follow-up 32 months). High functioning status at baseline was defined as absence of disability, dementia, and normal walking speeds. Main outcome measures Hazard ratios for frailty, disability, and all-cause mortality. Frailty was defined as presence of three out of the following five attributes: weight loss, weakness, exhaustion, low physical activity and slow gait. We also compared predictive validity of WWT with Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) for study outcomes. Results 218 subjects developed frailty, 88 disability, and 49 died. Each 10 cm/s decrease in WWT speed was associated with increased risk of frailty (Hazard ratio 1.12, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.18), disability (Hazard ratio 1.13, 95% CI 1.03 ?1.23), and mortality (Hazard ratio 1.13, 95% CI 1.01 – 1.27). Most associations remained robust even after accounting for potential confounders and gait speed. Comparisons of HR and model fit suggest that WWT may better predict frailty whereas SPPB may better predict disability. Conclusion Mobility stress tests such as the WWT are robust predictors of risk of frailty, disability, and mortality in high functioning older adults.

Verghese, Joe; Holtzer, Roee; Lipton, Richard B.; Wang, Cuiling

2012-01-01

33

Automatic facial responses to affective stimuli in high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder.  

PubMed

Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate atypical behavioural responses to affective stimuli, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Investigating automatic responses to these stimuli may help elucidate these mechanisms. 18 high-functioning adults with ASDs and 18 typically developing controls viewed 54 extreme pleasant (erotica), extreme unpleasant (mutilations), and non-social neutral images from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS). Two-thirds of images received an acoustic startle probe 3s post-picture onset. Facial electromyography (EMG) activity (orbicularis, zygomaticus, corrugator), skin conductance (SCR) and cardiac responses were recorded. The adults with ASDs demonstrated typical affective startle modulation and automatic facial EMG responses but atypical autonomic (SCRs and cardiac) responses, suggesting a failure to orient to, or a deliberate effort to disconnect from, socially relevant stimuli (erotica, mutilations). These results have implications for neural systems known to underlie affective processes, including the orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala. PMID:23142408

Mathersul, Danielle; McDonald, Skye; Rushby, Jacqueline A

2012-11-07

34

Adult Ovarian Function Can Be Affected by High Levels of Soy12  

PubMed Central

Ovarian function in adults is controlled by hormones circulating in the body. The primary hormone responsible for cyclicity in animals and humans is estrogen. Estrogen is mostly produced in the ovary and enters the circulation where it then signals the brain for a response. The parts of the brain that controls reproductive hormones are the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary. Estrogen stimulates the hypothalamus to produce gonadotropin releasing hormone, which in turn signals the anterior pituitary to produce follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone. These hormones enter the circulation and signal the ovary to ovulate. Substances with estrogenic activity can potentially interfere with this signaling if levels of activity are sufficient to cause a response. Soy foods contain estrogenic substances called phytoestrogens. The predominant phytoestrogens found in soy are genistein and daidzein. The female reproductive system is dependent on hormones for proper function and phytoestrogens at very high levels can interfere with this process. This paper summarizes the literature on adult soy consumption and its effect on ovarian function.

Jefferson, Wendy N.

2010-01-01

35

Understanding advanced theory of mind and empathy in high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder.  

PubMed

It has been argued that higher functioning individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have specific deficits in advanced but not simple theory of mind (ToM), yet the questionable ecological validity of some tasks reduces the strength of this assumption. The present study employed The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT), which uses video vignettes to assess comprehension of subtle conversational inferences (sarcasm, lies/deception). Given the proposed relationships between advanced ToM and cognitive and affective empathy, these associations were also investigated. As expected, the high-functioning adults with ASDs demonstrated specific deficits in comprehending the beliefs, intentions, and meaning of nonliteral expressions. They also had significantly lower cognitive and affective empathy. Cognitive empathy was related to ToM and group membership whereas affective empathy was only related to group membership. PMID:23799244

Mathersul, Danielle; McDonald, Skye; Rushby, Jacqueline A

2013-06-25

36

Sexual behavior in high-functioning male adolescents and young adults with autism spectrum disorder.  

PubMed

Group home caregivers of 24 institutionalized, male, high-functioning adolescents and young adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder, were interviewed with the Interview Sexuality Autism. Most subjects were reported to express sexual interest and to display some kind of sexual behavior. Knowledge of socio-sexual skills existed, but practical use was moderate. Masturbation was common. Many subjects were seeking physical contact with others. Half of the sample had experienced a relationship, while three were reported to have had sexual intercourse. The number of bisexual orientations appeared high. Ritual-sexual use of objects and sensory fascination with a sexual connotation were sometimes present. A paraphilia was present in two subjects. About one third of the group needed intervention regarding sexual development or behavior. PMID:16868848

Hellemans, Hans; Colson, Kathy; Verbraeken, Christine; Vermeiren, Robert; Deboutte, Dirk

2007-02-01

37

Verbal fluency in adults with high functioning autism or Asperger syndrome.  

PubMed

The semantic and phonemic fluency performance of adults with high functioning autism (HFA), Asperger syndrome and a neurotypical control group were compared. All participants were matched for age and verbal ability. Results showed that the participants with HFA were significantly impaired in their performance of both semantic fluency tasks and the phonemic fluency task using the letter M. The Asperger group was only impaired in their performance of the semantic fluency task 'professions'. The social components of the 'professions' task may have influenced the performance of the two disorder groups for this subtest negatively. The fluency deficits could not be attributed to a lack of the use of strategies or to difficulties in switching between strategies. The impairment in two of the three verbal fluency subtests in the HFA group can be attributed to the relatively low processing speed found in this group. PMID:19084028

Spek, Annelies; Schatorjé, Tjeerd; Scholte, Evert; van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina

2008-11-24

38

A behavioral comparison of male and female adults with high functioning autism spectrum conditions.  

PubMed

Autism spectrum conditions (ASC) affect more males than females in the general population. However, within ASC it is unclear if there are phenotypic sex differences. Testing for similarities and differences between the sexes is important not only for clinical assessment but also has implications for theories of typical sex differences and of autism. Using cognitive and behavioral measures, we investigated similarities and differences between the sexes in age- and IQ-matched adults with ASC (high-functioning autism or Asperger syndrome). Of the 83 (45 males and 38 females) participants, 62 (33 males and 29 females) met Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) cut-off criteria for autism in childhood and were included in all subsequent analyses. The severity of childhood core autism symptoms did not differ between the sexes. Males and females also did not differ in self-reported empathy, systemizing, anxiety, depression, and obsessive-compulsive traits/symptoms or mentalizing performance. However, adult females with ASC showed more lifetime sensory symptoms (p = 0.036), fewer current socio-communication difficulties (p = 0.001), and more self-reported autistic traits (p = 0.012) than males. In addition, females with ASC who also had developmental language delay had lower current performance IQ than those without developmental language delay (p<0.001), a pattern not seen in males. The absence of typical sex differences in empathizing-systemizing profiles within the autism spectrum confirms a prediction from the extreme male brain theory. Behavioral sex differences within ASC may also reflect different developmental mechanisms between males and females with ASC. We discuss the importance of the superficially better socio-communication ability in adult females with ASC in terms of why females with ASC may more often go under-recognized, and receive their diagnosis later, than males. PMID:21695147

Lai, Meng-Chuan; Lombardo, Michael V; Pasco, Greg; Ruigrok, Amber N V; Wheelwright, Sally J; Sadek, Susan A; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Baron-Cohen, Simon

2011-06-13

39

Social skills training for young adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders: a randomized controlled pilot study.  

PubMed

Despite the psychosocial difficulties common among young adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), little to no evidence-based social skills interventions exist for this population. Using a randomized controlled trial (RCT) design, the current study tested the effectiveness of an evidence-based, caregiver-assisted social skills intervention known as PEERS for Young Adults with high-functioning young adults with ASD (ages 18-23) using self- and caregiver-report measures. Results revealed that treated young adults reported significantly less loneliness and improved social skills knowledge, while caregivers reported significant improvements in young adults' overall social skills, social responsiveness, empathy, and frequency of get-togethers. Results support the effectiveness of using this caregiver-assisted, manualized intervention for young adults with ASD. PMID:21915740

Gantman, Alexander; Kapp, Steven K; Orenski, Kaely; Laugeson, Elizabeth A

2012-06-01

40

Alterations in brain structures underlying language function in young adults at high familial risk for schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Introduction Neuroanatomical and cognitive alterations typical of schizophrenia (SZ) patients are observed to a lesser extent in their adolescent and adult first-degree relatives, likely reflecting neurodevelopmental abnormalities associated with genetic risk for the illness. The anatomical pathways for language are hypothesized to be abnormal and to underlie the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. Examining non-psychotic relatives at high familial risk (FHR) for schizophrenia may clarify if these deficits represent trait markers associated with genetic vulnerability, rather than specific markers resulting from the pathological process underlying schizophrenia. Methods T1 MRI scans from a 3T Siemens scanner of young adult FHR subjects (N=46) and controls with no family history of illness (i.e. at low genetic risk LRC; N=31) were processed using FreeSurfer 5.0. We explored volumetric and lateralization alterations in regions associated with language processing. An extensive neuropsychological battery of language measures was administered. Results No significant differences were observed between groups on any language measures. Controlling Intracranial volume, significantly smaller center Pars Triangularis (PT) (p<0.01) and right Pars Orbitalis (PO) (p < 0.01) volumes and reversal of the L > R Pars Orbitalis (p < 0.001) lateralization were observed in FHR subjects. In addition, the L Pars Triangularis and R Pars Orbitalis correlated with performance on tests of linguistic function in the FHR group. Conclusions Reduced volume and reversed structural asymmetry in language-related regions hypothesized to be altered in SZ are also found in first degree relatives at FHR, despite normal language performance. To clarify if these findings are endophenotypes for Sz, future studied would need to be performed of ill and well family members no longer within the age range of risk for illness to show these deficits segregate with schizophrenia within families. Moreover, measures of complex language need to be studied to determine if FHR individuals manifest impairments in some aspects of language function.

Francis, Alan N.; Seidman, Larry J.; Jabbar, Gul A.; Mesholam-Gately, Raquelle; Thermenos, Heidi W.; Juelich, Richard; Proal, Ashley C.; Shenton, Martha; Kubicki, Marek; Mathew, Ian; Keshavan, Matcheri; DeLisi, Lynn E.

2012-01-01

41

Systemizing empathy: Teaching adults with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism to recognize complex emotions using interactive multimedia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated Mind Reading, an interactive systematic guide to emotions, for its effectiveness in teaching adults with Asperger syndrome ~AS! and high-functioning autism ~HFA! to recognize complex emotions in faces and voices. Experiment 1 tested a group of adults diagnosed with AS0HFA ~n 19! who used the software at home for 10-15 weeks. Participants were tested on recognition of

OFER GOLAN; SIMON BARON-COHEN

2006-01-01

42

Selective impairment of cognitive empathy for moral judgment in adults with high functioning autism.  

PubMed

Faced with a moral dilemma, conflict arises between a cognitive controlled response aimed at maximizing welfare, i.e. the utilitarian judgment, and an emotional aversion to harm, i.e. the deontological judgment. In the present study, we investigated moral judgment in adult individuals with high functioning autism/Asperger syndrome (HFA/AS), a clinical population characterized by impairments in prosocial emotions and social cognition. In Experiment 1, we compared the response patterns of HFA/AS participants and neurotypical controls to moral dilemmas with low and high emotional saliency. We found that HFA/AS participants more frequently delivered the utilitarian judgment. Their perception of appropriateness of moral transgression was similar to that of controls, but HFA/AS participants reported decreased levels of emotional reaction to the dilemma. In Experiment 2, we explored the way in which demographic, clinical and social cognition variables including emotional and cognitive aspects of empathy and theory of mind influenced moral judgment. We found that utilitarian HFA/AS participants showed a decreased ability to infer other people's thoughts and to understand their intentions, as measured both by performance on neuropsychological tests and through dispositional measures. We conclude that greater prevalence of utilitarianism in HFA/AS is associated with difficulties in specific aspects of social cognition. PMID:22689217

Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Torralva, Teresa; Rattazzi, Alexia; Marenco, Victoria; Roca, María; Manes, Facundo

2012-06-11

43

Perception of emotions from facial expressions in high-functioning adults with autism.  

PubMed

Impairment in social communication is one of the diagnostic hallmarks of autism spectrum disorders, and a large body of research has documented aspects of impaired social cognition in autism, both at the level of the processes and the neural structures involved. Yet one of the most common social communicative abilities in everyday life, the ability to judge somebody's emotion from their facial expression, has yielded conflicting findings. To investigate this issue, we used a sensitive task that has been used to assess facial emotion perception in a number of neurological and psychiatric populations. Fifteen high-functioning adults with autism and 19 control participants rated the emotional intensity of 36 faces displaying basic emotions. Every face was rated 6 times-once for each emotion category. The autism group gave ratings that were significantly less sensitive to a given emotion, and less reliable across repeated testing, resulting in overall decreased specificity in emotion perception. We thus demonstrate a subtle but specific pattern of impairments in facial emotion perception in people with autism. PMID:23022433

Kennedy, Daniel P; Adolphs, Ralph

2012-09-27

44

Changes in Restricted Repetitive Behaviors with age: A study of high-functioning adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The existing literature suggests that while impairments in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) continue into adulthood, some behavioral symptoms tend to abate with age. However, there is a dearth of research examining changes in ASD symptoms from childhood to adulthood, especially for Restricted Repetitive Behaviors (RRBs). We examined age-related changes in RRBs in a sample of 34 high-functioning adults with ASDs

Monali Chowdhury; Betsey A. Benson; Ashleigh Hillier

2010-01-01

45

"Hath Charms to Soothe...": An Exploratory Study of How High-Functioning Adults with ASD Experience Music  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 high-functioning adults on the autism spectrum, in order to examine the nature of their personal experiences of music. Consistent with the literature on typically developing people's engagement with music, the analysis showed that most participants exploit music for a wide range of purposes in the…

Allen, Rory; Hill, Elizabeth; Heaton, Pam

2009-01-01

46

Effects of Related and Unrelated Context on Recall and Recognition by Adults with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Memory in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterised by greater difficulties with recall rather than recognition and with a diminished use of semantic or associative relatedness in the aid of recall. Two experiments are reported that test the effects of item-context relatedness on recall and recognition in adults with high-functioning ASD…

Bowler, Dermot M.; Gaigg, Sebastian B.; Gardiner, John M.

2008-01-01

47

Local Information Processing in Adults with High Functioning Autism and Asperger Syndrome: The Usefulness of Neuropsychological Tests and Self-Reports  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Local information processing in 42 adults with high functioning autism, 41 adults with Asperger syndrome and 41 neurotypical adults was examined. Contrary to our expectations, the disorder groups did not outperform the neurotypical group in the neuropsychological measures of local information processing. In line with our hypotheses, the…

Spek, Annelies A.; Scholte, Evert M.; Van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina A.

2011-01-01

48

The Outcome of a Supported Employment Scheme for High-Functioning Adults with Autism or Asperger Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article describes the outcome of a 2 year supported employment project for high-functioning adults with autism. Thirty individuals with a diagnosis of autism or Asperger syndrome living within the London area took part in the scheme. The control group comprised 20 individuals of similar intellectual and linguistic ability,and previous employment history, living in metropolitan areas out-side London. Over the

Lynn Mawhood; Patricia Howlin

1999-01-01

49

Systemizing empathy: teaching adults with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism to recognize complex emotions using interactive multimedia.  

PubMed

This study evaluated Mind Reading, an interactive systematic guide to emotions, for its effectiveness in teaching adults with Asperger syndrome (AS) and high-functioning autism (HFA) to recognize complex emotions in faces and voices. Experiment 1 tested a group of adults diagnosed with AS/HFA (n = 19) who used the software at home for 10-15 weeks. Participants were tested on recognition of faces and voices at three different levels of generalization. A matched control group of adults with AS/HFA (n = 22) were assessed without any intervention. In addition, a third group of general population controls (n = 24) was tested. Experiment 2 repeated the design of Experiment 1 with a group of adults with AS/HFA who used the software at home and met in a group with a tutor on a weekly basis. They were matched to a control group of adults with AS/HFA attending social skills training and to a general population control group (n = 13 for all three groups). In both experiments the intervention group improved significantly more than the control group on close, but not distant, generalization tasks. Verbal IQ had significant effects in Experiment 2. Using Mind Reading for a relatively short period of time allows users to learn to recognize a variety of complex emotions and mental states. However, additional methods are required to enhance generalization. PMID:16600069

Golan, Ofer; Baron-Cohen, Simon

2006-01-01

50

Speech and Prosody Characteristics of Adolescents and Adults with High-Functioning Autism and Asperger Syndrome.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared the speech and prosody-voice profiles for 30 male speakers with either high-functioning autism (HFA) or Asperger syndrome (AS), and 53 typically developing male speakers. Both HFA and AS groups had more residual articulation distortion errors and utterances coded as inappropriate for phrasing, stress, and resonance. AS speakers…

Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Paul, Rhea; McSweeny, Jane L.; Klin, Ami; Cohen, Donald J.; Volkmar, Fred R.

2001-01-01

51

Another advanced test of theory of mind: evidence from very high functioning adults with autism or asperger syndrome.  

PubMed

Previous studies have found a subgroup of people with autism or Asperger Syndrome who pass second-order tests of theory of mind. However, such tests have a ceiling in developmental terms corresponding to a mental age of about 6 years. It is therefore impossible to say if such individuals are intact or impaired in their theory of mind skills. We report the performance of very high functioning adults with autism or Asperger Syndrome on an adult test of theory of mind ability. The task involved inferring the mental state of a person just from the information in photographs of a person's eyes. Relative to age-matched normal controls and a clinical control group (adults with Tourette Syndrome), the group with autism and Asperger Syndrome were significantly impaired on this task. The autism and Asperger Syndrome sample was also impaired on Happé's strange stories tasks. In contrast, they were unimpaired on two control tasks: recognising gender from the eye region of the face, and recognising basic emotions from the whole face. This provides evidence for subtle mindreading deficits in very high functioning individuals on the autistic continuum. PMID:9363580

Baron-Cohen, S; Jolliffe, T; Mortimore, C; Robertson, M

1997-10-01

52

Autism and Schizophrenia in high functioning adults: Behavioral differences and overlap  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several recent studies have demonstrated a genetical overlap between autism and schizophrenia. However, at a behavioral level it remains unclear which features can validly distinguish adults with autism from an adult schizophrenia group. To this end, the present study compared 21 individuals with the autistic disorder and 21 individuals with schizophrenia in self-reported features of autism and schizophrenia, as measured

Annelies A Spek; Saskia G. M. Wouters

2011-01-01

53

Autism and schizophrenia in high functioning adults: Behavioral differences and overlap  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several recent studies have demonstrated a genetical overlap between autism and schizophrenia. However, at a behavioral level it remains unclear which features can validly distinguish adults with autism from an adult schizophrenia group. To this end, the present study compared 21 individuals with the autistic disorder and 21 individuals with schizophrenia in self-reported features of autism and schizophrenia, as measured

Annelies A. Spek; Saskia G. M. Wouters

2010-01-01

54

Autism and Schizophrenia in High Functioning Adults: Behavioral Differences and Overlap  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Several recent studies have demonstrated a genetical overlap between autism and schizophrenia. However, at a behavioral level it remains unclear which features can validly distinguish adults with autism from an adult schizophrenia group. To this end, the present study compared 21 individuals with the autistic disorder and 21 individuals with…

Spek, Annelies A.; Wouters, Saskia G. M.

2010-01-01

55

The Use of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient in Differentiating High-Functioning Adults with Autism, Adults with Schizophrenia and a Neurotypical Adult Control Group  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present study compared 21 high functioning individuals with autism, 21 individuals with schizophrenia and 21 healthy individuals in self-reported features of autism, as measured by the Autism-spectrum Quotient (AQ). The individuals with autism reported impairment on all AQ subscales, compared to the neurotypical group. The schizophrenia group…

Wouters, Saskia G. M.; Spek, Annelies A.

2011-01-01

56

Disability and Functioning (Adults)  

MedlinePLUS

... least one basic actions difficulty or complex activity limitation: 74.6 million (2011) Percent of adults with ... least one basic actions difficulty or complex activity limitation: 32.9% (2011) Source: Health, United States, 2012, ...

57

Local Information Processing in Adults with High Functioning Autism and Asperger Syndrome: The Usefulness of Neuropsychological Tests and Self-Reports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Local information processing in 42 adults with high functioning autism, 41 adults with Asperger syndrome and 41 neurotypical\\u000a adults was examined. Contrary to our expectations, the disorder groups did not outperform the neurotypical group in the neuropsychological\\u000a measures of local information processing. In line with our hypotheses, the self-reports did show higher levels of local information\\u000a processing and a stronger

Annelies A. SpekEvert; Evert M. Scholte; Ina A. Van Berckelaer-Onnes

2011-01-01

58

Speech and prosody characteristics of adolescents and adults with high-functioning autism and Asperger syndrome.  

PubMed

Speech and prosody-voice profiles for 15 male speakers with High-Functioning Autism (HFA) and 15 male speakers with Asperger syndrome (AS) were compared to one another and to profiles for 53 typically developing male speakers in the same 10- to 50-years age range. Compared to the typically developing speakers, significantly more participants in both the HFA and AS groups had residual articulation distortion errors, uncodable utterances due to discourse constraints, and utterances coded as inappropriate in the domains of phrasing, stress, and resonance. Speakers with AS were significantly more voluble than speakers with HFA, but otherwise there were few statistically significant differences between the two groups of speakers with pervasive developmental disorders. Discussion focuses on perceptual-motor and social sources of differences in the prosody-voice findings for individuals with Pervasive Developmental Disorders as compared with findings for typical speakers, including comment on the grammatical, pragmatic, and affective aspects of prosody. PMID:11708530

Shriberg, L D; Paul, R; McSweeny, J L; Klin, A M; Cohen, D J; Volkmar, F R

2001-10-01

59

How impaired is mind-reading in high-functioning adolescents and adults with autism?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Difficulties in understanding the mental states of others are considered to be a core cognitive feature of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Traditional false-belief tasks were not suitable to measure mind-reading in adolescents and adults with ASD and were replaced by so-called more “advanced” tasks. A first series of tasks included the presentation of static stimuli in the visual or auditory

Herbert Roeyers; Ellen Demurie

2010-01-01

60

The systemizing quotient: an investigation of adults with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism, and normal sex differences.  

PubMed Central

Systemizing is the drive to analyse systems or construct systems. A recent model of psychological sex differences suggests that this is a major dimension in which the sexes differ, with males being more drawn to systemize than females. Currently, there are no self-report measures to assess this important dimension. A second major dimension of sex differences is empathizing (the drive to identify mental states and respond to these with an appropriate emotion). Previous studies find females score higher on empathy measures. We report a new self-report questionnaire, the Systemizing Quotient (SQ), for use with adults of normal intelligence. It contains 40 systemizing items and 20 control items. On each systemizing item, a person can score 2, 1 or 0, so the SQ has a maximum score of 80 and a minimum of zero. In Study 1, we measured the SQ of n = 278 adults (114 males, 164 females) from a general population, to test for predicted sex differences (male superiority) in systemizing. All subjects were also given the Empathy Quotient (EQ) to test if previous reports of female superiority would be replicated. In Study 2 we employed the SQ and the EQ with n = 47 adults (33 males, 14 females) with Asperger syndrome (AS) or high-functioning autism (HFA), who are predicted to be either normal or superior at systemizing, but impaired at empathizing. Their scores were compared with n = 47 matched adults from the general population in Study 1. In Study 1, as predicted, normal adult males scored significantly higher than females on the SQ and significantly lower on the EQ. In Study 2, again as predicted, adults with AS/HFA scored significantly higher on the SQ than matched controls, and significantly lower on the EQ than matched controls. The SQ reveals both a sex difference in systemizing in the general population and an unusually strong drive to systemize in AS/HFA. These results are discussed in relation to two linked theories: the 'empathizing-systemizing' (E-S) theory of sex differences and the extreme male brain (EMB) theory of autism.

Baron-Cohen, Simon; Richler, Jennifer; Bisarya, Dheraj; Gurunathan, Nhishanth; Wheelwright, Sally

2003-01-01

61

Emerging perspectives on adolescents and young adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders, violence, and criminal law.  

PubMed

As the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) has increased, attention has shifted toward consideration of ASDs in adolescence and adulthood, as well as public health repercussions for this population. Since the social and emotional deficits within ASDs may be salient during incidents of unintended criminal or violent behavior, one area of focus is involvement of adolescents and young adults with ASD in the criminal justice system. Without a thorough understanding of how and why individuals with ASDs may exhibit criminal behavior, judicial and legislative state systems have begun to develop policies lacking a substantial evidence base. In this article, we attempt to synthesize the literature on one type of ASD (high functioning) and criminal behavior. Three specific deficits characteristic of individuals with ASDs (theory of mind, emotion regulation, and moral reasoning) are examined as potential confluent forces leading to criminal behavior among individuals with ASDs. Legal and policy recommendations are presented. PMID:22635288

Lerner, Matthew D; Haque, Omar Sultan; Northrup, Eli C; Lawer, Lindsay; Bursztajn, Harold J

2012-01-01

62

White matter microstructure correlates with autism trait severity in a combined clinical-control sample of high-functioning adults?  

PubMed Central

Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies have demonstrated white matter (WM) abnormalities in tracts involved in emotion processing in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but little is known regarding the nature and distribution of WM anomalies in relation to ASD trait severity in adults. Increasing evidence suggests that ASD occurs at the extreme of a distribution of social abilities. We aimed to examine WM microstructure as a potential marker for ASD symptom severity in a combined clinical–neurotypical population. SIENAX was used to estimate whole brain volume. Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) was used to provide a voxel-wise comparison of WM microstructure in 50 high-functioning young adults: 25 ASD and 25 neurotypical. The severity of ASD traits was measured by autism quotient (AQ); we examined regressions between DTI markers of WM microstructure and ASD trait severity. Cognitive abilities, measured by intelligence quotient, were well-matched between the groups and were controlled in all analyses. There were no significant group differences in whole brain volume. TBSS showed widespread regions of significantly reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) and increased mean diffusivity (MD) and radial diffusivity (RD) in ASD compared with controls. Linear regression analyses in the combined sample showed that average whole WM skeleton FA was negatively influenced by AQ (p = 0.004), whilst MD and RD were positively related to AQ (p = 0.002; p = 0.001). Regression slopes were similar within both groups and strongest for AQ social, communication and attention switching scores. In conclusion, similar regression characteristics were found between WM microstructure and ASD trait severity in a combined sample of ASD and neurotypical adults. WM anomalies were relatively more severe in the clinically diagnosed sample. Both findings suggest that there is a dimensional relationship between WM microstructure and severity of ASD traits from neurotypical subjects through to clinical ASD, with reduced coherence of WM associated with greater ASD symptoms. General cognitive abilities were independent of the relationship between WM indices and ASD traits.

Gibbard, Clare R.; Ren, Juejing; Seunarine, Kiran K.; Clayden, Jonathan D.; Skuse, David H.; Clark, Chris A.

2013-01-01

63

Functional Fitness of Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to compare differences in the functional fitness of a group of older adults to determine if they are aging successfully, to analyze the differences in functional fitness between females and males, and to determine differences in four categories by sex. Participants were placed into four categories based on senior fitness test (SFT) scores. More

Linda D. Wilkin; Bryan L. Haddock

2011-01-01

64

Sexual functioning in older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews recent medical and social science literature on sexual functioning in older adults. We provide a broad\\u000a definition of sexual functioning that includes a range of solo and partnered forms of sexual expression. We identify four\\u000a determinants of sexual functioning: biologic, psychological, social context (including culture), and interactions of these\\u000a with each other. Recent literature on the impact

John DeLamater; Amelia Karraker

2009-01-01

65

Health-related quality of life in adolescents and young adults with high functioning autism-spectrum disorder.  

PubMed

Aim: Over the last years, health-related quality of life (HRQOL) has emerged as an important measure not only in somatic medicine but also in psychiatry. To date, there are only few reports on HRQOL in patients with autism-spectrum disorder (ASD). This study aimed at studying HRQOL in ASD patients with an IQ >70, using a self-report HRQOL questionnaire with cross-cultural validity.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, twenty-six male adolescents and young adults with the diagnosis of Asperger Syndrome, high functioning autism and atypical autism were evaluated, using the German version of the WHOQOL-BREF HRQOL questionnaire.Results: Mean WHOQOL-BREF global scores were 60.6 (SD ±26.1), mean WHOQOL-BREF subscale scores were 70.1 (SD ±19.1) for the domain "physical health", 61.5 (SD ±21.9) for the domain "psychological health", 53.8 (SD ±23.5) for the domain "social relationships" and 67.9 (SD ±17.4) for the domain "environment". Compared to a reference population of healthy controls, our sample scored significantly lower in three of four WHOQOL-BREF domains. In comparison to a reference sample of individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD), HRQOL of our sample was significantly better in all domains except for the "social relations" domain. There was a significant association between HRQOL and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales domain "daily living skills", but not with age, IQ, or ADOS-G summary scores.Conclusion: Overall self-reported HRQOL in patients with high functioning ASD seems to be lower than in healthy individuals, but better than in patients with SSD. Also, higher HRQOL was associated with better daily living skills. This interrelationship should especially be accounted for in the design and application of treatment programmes for individuals with ASD, as it is of importance for the level of self-perceived HRQOL. PMID:20930927

Kamp-Becker, Inge; Schröder, Johanna; Remschmidt, Helmut; Bachmann, Christian J

2010-08-31

66

A cognitive-behavioral intervention for emotion regulation in adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have difficulties in social communication; thus, these individuals have trouble understanding the mental states of others. Recent research also suggests that adults with ASD are unable to understand their own mental states, which could lead to difficulties in emotion-regulation. Some studies have reported the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in improving emotion-regulation among children with ASD. The current study will investigate the efficacy of group-based CBT for adults with ASD. Methods/Design The study is a randomized, waitlist controlled, single-blinded trial. The participants will be 60 adults with ASD; 30 will be assigned to a CBT group and 30 to a waitlist control group. Primary outcome measures are the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale, the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations, the Motion Picture Mind-Reading task, and an ASD questionnaire. The secondary outcome measures are the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, the World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale 26-item version, the Global Assessment of Functioning, State-trait Anxiety Inventory, Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory, and Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale. All will be administered during the pre- and post-intervention, and 12 week follow-up periods. The CBT group will receive group therapy over an 8 week period (one session per week) with each session lasting approximately 100 minutes. Group therapy will consist of four or five adults with ASD and two psychologists. We will be using visual materials for this program, mainly the Cognitive Affective Training kit. Discussion This trial will hopefully indicate the efficacy of group-based CBT for adults with high- functioning ASD. Trial registration This trial was registered in The University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry No. UMIN000006236.

2013-01-01

67

The influences of face inversion and facial expression on sensitivity to eye contact in high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorders.  

PubMed

We examined the influences of face inversion and facial expression on sensitivity to eye contact in high-functioning adults with and without an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants judged the direction of gaze of angry, fearful, and neutral faces. In the typical group only, the range of directions of gaze leading to the perception of eye contact (the cone of gaze) was narrower for upright than inverted faces. In both groups, the cone of gaze was wider for angry faces than for fearful or neutral faces. These results suggest that in high-functioning adults with ASD, the perception of eye contact is not tuned to be finer for upright than inverted faces, but that information is nevertheless integrated across expression and gaze direction. PMID:23471478

Vida, Mark D; Maurer, Daphne; Calder, Andrew J; Rhodes, Gillian; Walsh, Jennifer A; Pachai, Matthew V; Rutherford, M D

2013-11-01

68

The Interplay Between Attentional Strategies and Language Processing in High-functioning Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the hypothesis of an atypical interaction between attention and language in ASD. A dual-task experiment\\u000a with three conditions was designed, in which sentences were presented that contained errors requiring attentional focus either\\u000a at (a) low level, or (b) high level, or (c) both levels of language. Speed and accuracy for error detection were measured\\u000a from 16 high-functioning

Sophieke Koolen; Constance Th. W. M. Vissers; Angelique W. C. J. Hendriks; Jos I. M. Egger; Ludo Verhoeven

69

A Nationwide Survey on Quality of Life and Associated Factors of Adults with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The psychosocial outcomes of individuals with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD) appear to be diverse and are often poor relative to their intellectual or language level. To identify predictive variables that are potentially ameliorable by therapeutic intervention, this study investigated self-reported psychosocial quality of life…

Kamio, Yoko; Inada, Naoko; Koyama, Tomonori

2013-01-01

70

High-functioning autism spectrum disorder as a basic disorder in adult psychiatry and psychotherapy: psychopathological presentation, clinical relevance and therapeutic concepts.  

PubMed

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by deficits in social cognition and competence, communication, highly circumscribed interests and a strong desire for routines. Besides, there are specific abnormalities in perception and language. Typical symptoms are already present in early childhood. Traditionally autism has been regarded as a severe form of neurodevelopmental disorder which goes along with overtly abnormal language, learning difficulties and low IQ in the majority of cases. However, over the last decades, it has become clear that there are also many patients with high-functioning variants of ASD. These are patients with normal language at a superficial level of description and normal and sometimes above average intelligence. In high-functioning variants of the disease, they may run unrecognized until late in adult life. High-functioning ASD is associated with a very high prevalence of comorbid classical psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety, ADHD, tics, psychotic symptoms or emotionally unstable syndromes. In many such cases, there is a causal relationship between ASD and the comorbid psychiatric conditions in that the specific ASD symptoms result in chronic conflicts, misunderstandings and failure in private and vocational relationships. These problems in turn often lead to depression, anxiety and sometimes psychosis-like stress reactions. In this constellation, ASD has to be regarded as a basic disorder with causal relevance for secondary psychiatric syndromes. In this paper, we summarize the classical presentation of high-functioning ASD in adult psychiatry and psychotherapy and suggest a nosological model to classify different ASD conditions instead. To conclude, we outline first treatment concepts in out- and in-patient settings. PMID:24105433

Tebartz van Elst, Ludger; Pick, Marion; Biscaldi, Monica; Fangmeier, Thomas; Riedel, Andreas

2013-10-09

71

Divergent muscle functional and architectural responses to two successive high intensity resistance exercise sessions in competitive weightlifters and resistance trained adults.  

PubMed

Peak force (PF), contractile rate of force development (RFD) and contractile impulse (CI) are of great importance to competitive weightlifters (WL). These athletes routinely perform successive bouts of high-intensity resistance exercise (HIRE) within the same day (double-day training) with the aim of improving muscular function and weightlifting performance. The purpose of this investigation was to determine and compare the PF, contractile RFD and CI responses to double-day training between WL and resistance trained (RT) adults (n = 16 per group). Furthermore, we sought to establish whether acute changes in muscle function were associated with acute changes in muscle architecture. Isometric front squat PF, contractile RFD, CI and the pennation angle (?(p)), anatomical and physiological thickness of the m. vastus lateralis (VL) were determined before and after two equivalent HIRE sessions separated by 4-6 h rest. Each session consisted of ten single repetitions of the dynamic barbell front squat interspersed with 2-min rest, using a load equivalent to 90% of the pre-session PF. Weightlifters demonstrated greater PF at all time points when compared to RT adults and exhibited no significant within or between session changes in PF, contractile RFD or CI. Conversely, RT adults demonstrated within- and between-session decreases in PF and between-session increases in contractile RFD and CI. As no correlations were found between the relative within-session changes in muscle function and the concomitant changes in muscle architecture, other factors must contribute to the divergent responses in PF, contractile RFD and CI between WL and RT adults. PMID:22350356

Storey, Adam; Wong, Samantha; Smith, Heather K; Marshall, Paul

2012-02-16

72

Social Skills Training for Young Adults with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Despite the psychosocial difficulties common among young adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), little to no evidence-based social skills interventions exist for this population. Using a randomized controlled trial (RCT) design, the current study tested the effectiveness of an evidence-based, caregiver-assisted social skills intervention…

Gantman, Alexander; Kapp, Steven K.; Orenski, Kaely; Laugeson, Elizabeth A.

2012-01-01

73

High-dose statin use does not impair aerobic capacity or skeletal muscle function in older adults  

PubMed Central

3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins) are lipid-lowering agents widely employed for atherosclerosis prevention. HMG-CoA reductase blockade reduces skeletal muscle coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) levels and mitochondrial respiratory chain activities and may produce mild to severe skeletal muscle myopathy. This study investigated whether high-dose statin treatment would result in measurably decreased exercise capacity in older men and women. Maximal oxygen consumption, aerobic endurance, oxygen uptake kinetics, maximal strength, muscular power, and muscular endurance were measured before and after 12 weeks of statin treatment (simvastatin, 80 mg/day) in nine men and one woman, ages 55–76 years, with LDL-cholesterol levels >3.3 mmol/l (mean?=?4.2?±?0.2 mmol/l). Myalgia symptoms were assessed every 4 weeks. As expected, statin treatment resulted in significant decreases in LDL- and total-cholesterol levels (P?function. No subject reported symptoms of myalgia, cramps, or weakness during the study. In the absence of myalgia or myopathic symptoms, high-dose simvastatin treatment did not impair exercise capacity in hyperlipidemic older individuals. We conclude that decreases in intramuscular CoQ10, in most patients on high dose statin treatment may not be clinically relevant, due to inter-individual variability in the degree of CoQ10 depletion, sensitivity of muscle to decreases in CoQ10, or both.

Stock, Anthoney A.; Harman, S. Mitchell

2008-01-01

74

Family functioning and suicidality in depressed adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the association between suicidality, family factors, and clinical and diagnostic variables in depressed adult inpatients. The subjects were 121 depressed adult inpatients living with a family member or significant other. Demographic, clinical, and diagnostic information about the patient, and subjective and observer ratings of family functioning were obtained. Trained interviewers rated families of suicidal depressed patients as

Wilson McDermut; Ivan W. Miller; David Solomon; Christine E. Ryan; Gabor I. Keitner

2001-01-01

75

Adult neurogenesis: integrating theories and separating functions  

PubMed Central

The continuous incorporation of new neurons in the dentate gyrus of the adult hippocampus raises exciting questions about memory and learning, and has inspired new computational models to understand the function of adult neurogenesis. These theoretical approaches suggest distinct roles for new neurons as they slowly integrate into the existing dentate gyrus network: immature adult-born neurons appear to function as pattern integrators of temporally adjacent events, thereby enhancing pattern separation for events separated in time; whereas maturing adult-born neurons possibly contribute to pattern separation by being more amenable to learning new information, leading to dedicated groups of granule cells that respond to experienced environments. We review these hypothesized functions and supporting empirical research and point to new directions for future theoretical efforts.

Aimone, James B.; Deng, Wei

2010-01-01

76

Adult Age Differences in Function Concept Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Function concept learning and knowledge use was explored across adulthood. During training older and younger adults predicted an amount of physiological arousal produced as a negative and positive function of a chemical substance. Knowledge use was evaluated with two transfer conditions requiring a switch between contextual contingencies: a relationship inversion, predicting the chemical amount given the physiological arousal, and a

Jacqueline A. Griego; Matthias Kliegel

2007-01-01

77

The Interplay between Attentional Strategies and Language Processing in High-Functioning Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the hypothesis of an atypical interaction between attention and language in ASD. A dual-task experiment with three conditions was designed, in which sentences were presented that contained errors requiring attentional focus either at (a) low level, or (b) high level, or (c) both levels of language. Speed and accuracy for error…

Koolen, Sophieke; Vissers, Constance Th. W. M.; Hendriks, Angelique W. C. J.; Egger, Jos I. M.; Verhoeven, Ludo

2012-01-01

78

High-dose statin use does not impair aerobic capacity or skeletal muscle function in older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins) are lipid-lowering agents widely employed for\\u000a atherosclerosis prevention. HMG-CoA reductase blockade reduces skeletal muscle coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) levels and mitochondrial respiratory chain activities and may produce mild to severe skeletal muscle myopathy. This study\\u000a investigated whether high-dose statin treatment would result in measurably decreased exercise capacity in older men and women.\\u000a Maximal oxygen consumption,

Tinna Traustadóttir; Anthoney A. Stock; S. Mitchell Harman

2008-01-01

79

High Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors for Impaired Renal Function and Urinary Abnormalities in a Rural Adult Population from Southern China  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) has increased and will continue to rise worldwide. However, data regarding the prevalence of CKD in a rural area of China are limited. We therefore investigated the prevalence and associated risk factors of impaired renal function and urinary abnormalities in an adult rural population in southern China. Methods Between December 2006 and January 2007, residents older than 20 years from four villages in Zhuhai city were randomly selected using a stratified, multistage sampling technique. All participants were interviewed and tested for hematuria, albuminuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). The associations between age, gender, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperuricemia, education level and indicators of renal damage were examined. Results Overall, 1,214 subjects were enrolled in this study. After adjustment for age and gender, the prevalence of albuminuria was 7.1% (95% CI: 4.5, 8.1), reduced eGFR was 2.6% (95% CI: 1.7%, 3.3%), and hematuria was 4.6% (95% CI: 3.3%, 6.0%). Approximately 13.6% (95% CI: 12.0%, 15.1%) of the patients had at least one indicator of renal damage, but only 8.3% were previously aware. Age, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, hyperuricemia, use of nephrotoxic medications, coronary heart disease and history of CKD were independently associated with impaired renal function and urinary abnormalities. Additionally, age, diabetes, and hypertension were independently associated with albuminuria. Age, hypertension, hyperuricemia, central obesity, and coronary heart disease were independently associated with reduced renal function. Conclusions The high prevalence and low awareness of impaired renal function and urinary abnormalities in this population illustrates the urgent need to implement a CKD prevention program in the rural areas of southern China.

Liu, Qinghua; Li, Zhibin; Wang, Hui; Chen, Xiaochao; Dong, Xiuqing; Mao, Haiping; Tan, Jiaqing; Luo, Ning; Johnson, Richard J.; Chen, Weiqing; Yu, Xueqing; Chen, Wei

2012-01-01

80

Functional Literacy of Young Guyanese Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the rationale, development, and administration of the test used for measuring levels of achievement in functional literacy in Guyana. Draws attention to the difficulty of attracting funding for literacy programmes from international aid agencies, given the inflated adult literacy rate that is reported for Guyana in international…

Jennings, Zellyne

2000-01-01

81

Functional Literacy of Young Guyanese Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the rationale, development, and administration of the test used for measuring levels of achievement in functional literacy in Guyana. Draws attention to the difficulty of attracting funding for literacy programmes from international aid agencies, given the inflated adult literacy rate that is reported for Guyana in international…

Jennings, Zellyne

2000-01-01

82

Adult Roles & Functions. Objective Based Evaluation System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book of objective-based test items is designed to be used with the Adult Roles and Functions curriculum for a non-laboratory home economic course for grades eleven and twelve. It contains item banks for each cognitive objective in the curriculum. In addition, there is a form for the table of specifications to be developed for each unit. This…

West Virginia State Vocational Curriculum Lab., Cedar Lakes.

83

Sexual well-being of a community sample of high-functioning adults on the autism spectrum who have been in a romantic relationship.  

PubMed

This study explored factors (gender, age, relationship status, symptomatology) associated with the sexual well-being of 141 (56 men and 85 women) adults with high-functioning autism and Asperger syndrome (HFA/AS) living in the community. Participants completed an online survey consisting of a measure of autistic symptoms as well as measures of dyadic and solitary sexual well-being. Canonical correlation analyses showed that participants who were currently in a romantic relationship reported more frequent dyadic affectionate and genital activity and greater sexual assertiveness and sexual satisfaction, pointing to the importance of context in an active sex life. After controlling for the first variate, men and individuals with less autism symptomatology, particularly in the social and communication domains, generally reported significantly greater dyadic sexual well-being, including greater sexual satisfaction, assertiveness, arousability, and desire and lower sexual anxiety and fewer sexual problems. Men also reported better solitary sexual well-being, including more sexual thoughts, more sexual desire, and more frequent solitary sexual activity; however, they had lower sexual knowledge. These results highlight the importance for research and sexuality education with individuals with HFA/AS to conceptualize sexual well-being as a multidimensional construct consisting of both dyadic and solitary aspects. PMID:23045223

Byers, E Sandra; Nichols, Shana; Voyer, Susan D; Reilly, Georgianna

2012-10-08

84

Effect of low-carbohydrate diets high in either fat or protein on thyroid function, plasma insulin, glucose, and triglycerides in healthy young adults.  

PubMed

A low-carbohydrate diet, frequently used for treatment of reactive hypoglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and obesity may affect thyroid function. We studied the effects of replacing the deleted carbohydrate with either fat or protein in seven healthy young adults. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive seven days of each of two isocaloric liquid-formula, low-carbohydrate diets consecutively. One diet was high in polyunsaturated fat (HF), with 10%, 55%, and 35% of total calories derived from protein, fat, and carbohydrate, respectively. The other was high in protein (HP) with 35%, 30%, and 35% of total calories derived from protein, fat, and carbohydrate. Fasting blood samples were obtained at baseline and on day 8 of each diet. A meal tolerance test representative of each diet was given on day 7. The triiodothyronine (T3) declined more (P less than .05) following the HF diet than the HP diet (baseline 198 micrograms/dl, HP 138, HF 113). Thyroxine (T4) and reverse T3 (rT3) did not change significantly. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) declined equally after both diets. The insulin level was significantly higher 30 minutes after the HP meal (148 microU/ml) than after the HF meal (90 microU/ml). The two-hour glucose level for the HP meal was less, 85 mg/dl, than after the HF meal (103 mg/dl). Serum triglycerides decreased more after the HF diet (HF 52 mg/dl, HP 67 mg/dl). Apparent benefits of replacing carbohydrate with polyunsaturated fat rather than protein are less insulin response and less postpeak decrease in blood glucose and lower triglycerides. The significance of the lower T3 level is unknown. PMID:3900181

Ullrich, I H; Peters, P J; Albrink, M J

1985-01-01

85

The effect of semantic and emotional context on written recall for verbal language in high functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—Several deficits have been proposed to account for cognitive impairment in autism including an inability to comprehend the perspectives of others ("theory of mind"), an inability to process emotional information, and difficulty drawing together diverse information in context ("central coherence"). Because context (central coherence) and emotion can influence memory, a study was designed to show if autism spectrum disorder was associated with impaired utilisation of context and emotion in recall; and if impairments in theory of mind processing would influence recall in autism spectrum disorder.?METHODS—Ten high functioning subjects with autism spectrum disorder and 13 age and IQ matched controls were tested using recall tests. In the first coherence memory test, subjects listened to a series of word lists that were in varying degrees of syntactic and semantic (coherent) order and were asked to recall the words. In the second coherence memory test, subjects listened to stories consisting of sentences that were, or were not, in logical (coherent) order. In the emotional memory test, the subjects listened to sentences that were highly emotional or non-emotional. In the theory of mind test, the subjects listened to stories requiring varying levels of understanding of the perspectives of others.?RESULTS—There were no significant differences between groups in recall of coherent versus incoherent word lists, nor was there a significant difference between groups in recall of coherent versus incoherent stories. However, the control subjects recalled more of the emotional than non-emotional sentences, whereas the autism spectrum disorder group did not show such a difference. No significant difference existed in recall of stories requiring varying levels of understanding of the perspectives of others among subjects with autism spectrum disorder, and subjects with autism spectrum disorder did not differ from control subjects in the influence of theory of mind content on story recall.?CONCLUSION—The study shows that memory in high functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder is facilitated by emotional content to a lesser degree than it is facilitated by coherence. Therefore, impairments in emotional processing cannot be considered as simply an effect of the "weak central coherence" theory in autism spectrum disorder. Whereas the reasons for this emotional deficit are unknown, evidence of abnormalities of the limbic structures in autism spectrum disorder may provide an anatomical explanation.??

Beversdorf, D; Anderson, J; Manning, S; Anderson, S; Nordgren, R; Felopulos, G; Nadeau, S; Heilman, K; Bauman, M

1998-01-01

86

The moderating role of executive functioning in older adults' responses to a reminder of mortality.  

PubMed

In previous research, older adults responded to mortality salience (MS) with increased tolerance, whereas younger persons responded with increased punitiveness. One possible explanation for this is that many older adults adapt to challenges of later life, such as the prospect of mortality, by becoming more flexible. Recent studies suggest that positively oriented adaptation is more likely for older adults with high levels of executive functioning. Thus, we hypothesized that the better an older adult's executive functioning, the more likely MS would result in increased tolerance. Older and younger adults were randomly assigned to MS or control conditions, and then evaluated moral transgressors. As in previous research, younger adults were more punitive after reminders of mortality; executive functioning did not affect their responses. Among older adults, high functioning individuals responded to MS with increased tolerance rather than intolerance, whereas those low in functioning became more punitive. PMID:21728445

Maxfield, Molly; Pyszczynski, Tom; Greenberg, Jeff; Pepin, Renee; Davis, Hasker P

2011-07-04

87

Evaluating functional activity in older Thai adults.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to translate the original English version of the Self-Efficacy and Outcome Expectations Scales for Exercise and Functional Activity and to establish their reliability in older Thai adults in geriatric rehabilitation. This study used a correlational design with repeated measures. Reliability of the Self-Efficacy for Exercise Scale (SEES), the Self-Efficacy for Functional Activity Scale (SEFAS), the Outcome Expectations for Exercise Scale (OEES), and the Outcome Expectations for Functional Activity Scale (OEFAS) developed by Resnick was measured in 20 older adults aged 60 years or older after hip or knee replacement or another orthopedic surgery of their lower extremity. All scales were translated into Thai and back translated into English according to the process described by Marin and Marin. The instruments were administered twice--the 1st and 2nd day in the participants' geriatric rehabilitation program (i.e., the 4th and 5th postoperative day). Results indicated that there was sufficient evidence for internal consistency of the SEES, SEFAS, OEES, and OEFAS with alpha coefficients of 0.84, 0.86, 0.70, and 0.86 respectively. Test-retest reliability of the tools was also demonstrated with Spearman correlation coefficients of 0.84 for the SEES, 0.87 for the SEFAS, 0.61 for the OEES, and 0.54 for the OEFAS. The findings from this study provide important information for instrument adaptation and the applicability of these scales for further studies of older Thai adults. PMID:16669574

Harnirattisai, Teeranut; Johnson, Rebecca A; Kawinwonggowit, Viroj

88

Functional endonasal sinus surgery in adults and children.  

PubMed

Functional endonasal sinus surgery (FESS) is becoming the procedure of choice for the surgical treatment of chronic and recurrent sinusitis in adults and children. Retrospective analysis of the charts of 513 adult and 260 pediatric patients who underwent FESS after failing to respond to optimal medical treatment revealed an improvement rate of approximately 80% for both age groups. Although high response rates and low complication rates were found for both groups, there were significant differences in indications, preoperative evaluation, operative technique, and methods of postoperative follow-up for children. PMID:8421410

Lazar, R H; Younis, R T; Long, T E

1993-01-01

89

Rapid Kidney Function Decline and Mortality Risk in Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Impaired kidney function is associated with increased mortality risk in older adults. It remains un- known, however, whether longitudinal declines in kid- ney function are independently associated with in- creased cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in older adults. Methods: The Cardiovascular Health Study evaluated a cohort of community-dwelling older adults enrolled from 1989 to 1993 in 4 US communities with

Dena E. Rifkin; Michael G. Shlipak; Ronit Katz; Linda F. Fried; David Siscovick; Michel Chonchol; Anne B. Newman; Mark J. Sarnak

2008-01-01

90

Predicting premorbid memory functioning in older adults  

PubMed Central

Assessing cognitive change during a single visit requires the comparison of estimated premorbid abilities and current neuropsychological functioning. Although premorbid intellect has been widely examined, estimating premorbid memory abilities has received less attention. The current study used demographic variables and an estimate of premorbid intellect to predict premorbid memory abilities in a sample of 95 community-dwelling, cognitively intact older adults. These prediction formulae were then applied to a sample of 74 individuals with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment to look for discrepancies between premorbid and current memory abilities. Despite minimal differences between premorbid and current memory abilities in the intact sample, large and statistically significant differences were observed in the impaired sample. Although validation in larger samples is needed, the current estimates of premorbid memory abilities may aid clinicians in determining change across time.

Duff, Kevin

2010-01-01

91

The Perspective of Young Adult Siblings of Individuals with Asperger Syndrome and High Functioning Autism: An Exploration of Grief and Implications for Developmental Transition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Asperger syndrome (AS) and high functioning autism are complex developmental disabilities that have a significant impact on the individual and his/her family. Asperger syndrome is characterized by challenges with understanding non-verbal communication, difficulties with social relationships, and restricted interests. Having a brother or sister…

Allgood, Nicole R.

2010-01-01

92

Young adults with learning disabilities: a study of psychosocial functioning at transition to adult services.  

PubMed

A study of the psychosocial functioning of young adults with a history of learning disability (LD) in childhood is reported. The design was a non-clinic community follow-up investigation of a cohort of children who had received special education, the sample frame for which was a birth-period cohort survey. Participants were 149 young adults (89 males and 60 females derived from a survey of the 33,800 children born in the Cambridge Health District between 1967 and 1973) at the stage of transition to adult services (age 18-22y), whose measured IQ scores in childhood were <80, and who had received special education during school years. Most of the young adults were living at home (n=108) and many were in full-time employment (independent employment n=41, sheltered employment n=20), this survey having been carried out in an area of high employment. A strong correlation was found between the child IQ score and subsequent adult Vineland Scale Score. Greater efforts should be made to detect and assess LD and its attendant problems in children in order to plan future care and transition to adulthood, especially for those with more severe disabilities. PMID:16483395

O'Brien, Gregory

2006-03-01

93

Mechanisms and Functional Implications of Adult Neurogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurogenesis in the brain of adult mammals occurs throughout life, and has been clearly demonstrated at two locations under normal conditions: the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus. Neurons born in the adult SVZ migrate over a great distance through the rostral migratory stream and become granule

Chunmei Zhao; Wei Deng; Fred H. Gage

2008-01-01

94

Management of Functional Impairment Due to Cataract in Adults.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Functional impairment due to cataract is prevalent in the adult population. Cataract surgery performed to redress this functional impairment is the most common surgical procedure performed on Americans age 65 and over. As a result, cataract surgery is a s...

1993-01-01

95

Functional Outcomes in the Treatment of Adults with ADHD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: ADHD is associated with significant functional impairment in adults. The present study examined functional outcomes following 6-month double-blind treatment with either atomoxetine or placebo. Method: Patients were 410 adults (58.5% male) with "DSM-IV"--defined ADHD. They were randomly assigned to receive either atomoxetine 40 mg/day…

Adler, Lenard A.; Spencer, Thomas J.; Levine, Louise R.; Ramsey, Janet L.; Tamura, Roy; Kelsey, Douglas; Ball, Susan G.; Allen, Albert J.; Biederman, Joseph

2008-01-01

96

High risk health behaviours among adult Jamaicans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of high risk health behaviours among adult Jamaicans aged 15-49 years in 2000, and to compare the results with the 1993 survey. A nationally representative sample of 2013 persons aged 15-74 years was surveyed in 2000 using cluster sampling in the Jamaica Healthy Lifestyle Survey (Wilks et al, unpublished). Interviewer

JP Figueroa; E Ward; C Walters; DE Ashley; RJ Wilks

2005-01-01

97

Neuropsychological Functioning in Adolescents and Young Adults at Genetic Risk for Schizophrenia and Affective Psychoses: Results from the Harvard and Hillside Adolescent High Risk Studies  

PubMed Central

Siblings and offspring of persons with schizophrenia carry elevated genetic risk for the illness and manifest attentional and memory impairments. Because less is known about other neuropsychological functions and their specificity in adolescents, we conducted a genetic high-risk (HR) study of schizophrenia (HR-SCZ) and affective psychosis (HR-AFF). Participants (ages 12–25) were from the Harvard Adolescent High-Risk and Hillside Family studies, including 73 HR-SCZ, 18 HR-AFF, and 84 community controls (CCs) recruited in metropolitan Boston and New York. Groups were compared on overall neurocognitive functioning, 6 domains, and 13 test scores, controlling for age, parental education, and correlated data within families. The HR-SCZ group was significantly impaired overall, while the HR-AFF group demonstrated a trend toward overall impairment. HR-SCZ subjects showed significantly lower Verbal Ability (d = .73) and Executive Functioning/Working Memory (d = .47) than CCs. HR-AFF subjects showed reduced Verbal Ability (d = .64) compared to CCs. Excluding 12 CCs with a parental history of depression (without psychosis) led to larger differences between HR and CC groups across domains. Moreover, HR-SCZ and CC group differences in Verbal Memory (d = .39) and Visual-Spatial (d = .34) became statistically significant. There were no significant differences between HR-SCZ and HR-AFF groups. Data support a modest neuropsychological deficit in persons at genetic HR for psychosis, with a broader range of deficits in HR-SCZ. Future work should assess the relationship of neurocognition to adaptive functioning and possible onset of psychosis in HR samples. Ascertainment criteria for controls may markedly influence results and interpretation of group differences.

Seidman, Larry J.; Giuliano, Anthony J.; Smith, Christopher W.; Stone, William S.; Glatt, Stephen J.; Meyer, Eric; Faraone, Stephen V.; Tsuang, Ming T.; Cornblatt, Barbara

2006-01-01

98

Effect of extended-release niacin on serum lipids and on endothelial function in adults with sickle cell anemia and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels.  

PubMed

Through bound apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) activates endothelial nitric oxide synthase, inducing vasodilation. Because patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) have low apoA-I and endothelial dysfunction, we conducted a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial to test whether extended-release niacin (niacin-ER) increases apoA-I-containing HDL-C and improves vascular function in SCD. Twenty-seven patients with SCD with levels of HDL-C <39 mg/dl or apoA-I <99 mg/dl were randomized to 12 weeks of niacin-ER, increased in 500-mg increments to a maximum of 1,500 mg/day, or placebo. The primary outcome was the absolute change in HDL-C level after 12 weeks, with endothelial function assessed before and at the end of treatment. Niacin-ER-treated patients trended to greater increase in HDL-C level compared with placebo treatment at 12 weeks (5.1 ± 7.7 vs 0.9 ± 3.8 mg/dl, 1-tailed p = 0.07), associated with significantly greater improvements in the ratios of low-density lipoprotein to HDL-C levels (1.24 vs 1.95, p = 0.003) and apolipoprotein B to apoA-I levels (0.46 vs 0.58, p = 0.03) compared with placebo-treated patients. No improvements were detected in 3 independent vascular physiology assays of endothelial function. Thus, the relatively small changes in HDL-C levels achieved by the dose of niacin-ER used in our study are not associated with improved vascular function in patients with SCD with initially low levels of apoA-I or HDL-C. PMID:24035168

Scoffone, Heather M; Krajewski, Megan; Zorca, Suzana; Bereal-Williams, Candice; Littel, Patricia; Seamon, Catherine; Mendelsohn, Laurel; Footman, Eleni; Abi-Jaoudeh, Nadine; Sachdev, Vandana; Machado, Roberto F; Cuttica, Michael; Shamburek, Robert; Cannon, Richard O; Remaley, Alan; Minniti, Caterina P; Kato, Gregory J

2013-09-13

99

Functional Outcomes in the Treatment of Adults With ADHD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: ADHD is associated with significant functional impairment in adults. The present study examined functional outcomes following 6-month double-blind treatment with either atomoxetine or placebo. Method: Patients were 410 adults (58.5% male) with DSM-IV—defined ADHD. They were randomly assigned to receive either atomoxetine 40 mg\\/day to 80 mg\\/day (n = 271) or placebo (n = 139). The primary functional outcome

Lenard A. Adler; Thomas J. Spencer; Louise R. Levine; Janet L. Ramsey; Roy Tamura; Douglas Kelsey; Susan G. Ball; Albert J. Allen; Joseph Biederman

2008-01-01

100

Executive Functioning in Adult ADHD: A Meta-Analytic Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:\\u000aSeveral theoretical explanations of ADHD in children have focused on executive functioning as the main explanatory neuropsychological domain for the disorder. In order to establish if these theoretical accounts are supported by research data for adults with ADHD, we compared neuropsychological executive functioning and non-executive functioning between adults with ADHD and normal controls in a meta-analytic design.\\u000aMethod:\\u000aWe

A. MARIJE BOONSTRA; JAAP OOSTERLAAN; JOSEPH A. SERGEANT; JAN K. BUITELAAR

2005-01-01

101

Characteristics of psychosexual functioning in adults with cerebral palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate the characteristics of psychosexual functioning in adults with cerebral palsy, as compared with able-bodied control subjects, matched by gender and marital status, and to identify the factors affecting psychosexual functioning.Design: Interview and survey using the Derogatis Sexual Functioning Inventory (DSFI).Setting: Inpatient and outpatient units in a rehabilitation hospital and welfare facilities.Subjects: Sixty-two adults with cerebral palsy and

Sung-Rae Cho; Eun Sook Park; Chang Il Park; Sang-il Na

2004-01-01

102

Impact of Training Modality on Strength and Physical Function in Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The importance of maintaining strength in older adults is well documented and various training modalities have been recommended; however, the effectiveness of various interventions with high translation to public health practice has not been completely characterized. Additionally, the interrelations among mode, strength, and lower extremity physical function (LEPF) changes in older adults warrant further investigation. Purpose: The primary aims

Mark M. Misic; Rudy J. Valentine; Karl S. Rosengren; Jeffrey A. Woods; Ellen M. Evans

2009-01-01

103

The Effects of Face Expertise Training on the Behavioral Performance and Brain Activity of Adults with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The effect of expertise training with faces was studied in adults with ASD who showed initial impairment in face recognition. Participants were randomly assigned to a computerized training program involving either faces or houses. Pre- and post-testing included standardized and experimental measures of behavior and event-related brain potentials…

Faja, Susan; Webb, Sara Jane; Jones, Emily; Merkle, Kristen; Kamara, Dana; Bavaro, Joshua; Aylward, Elizabeth; Dawson, Geraldine

2012-01-01

104

Executive functioning in adult patients with Sydenham's chorea.  

PubMed

Sydenham's chorea (SC) is characterized by a combination of motor and behavioral findings. Cognitive function has been scarcely studied in this condition. The aim of this study is to investigate executive functions in adult patients with SC. We performed neuropsychological tests to evaluate executive functions in controls and adult patients with persistent and in remission SC. Patients with SC have impairment in Tower of London task, reduced verbal fluency, and lower scores in the Stroop test. A subset of adult patients with SC present with executive dysfunction, even when chorea is in remission. PMID:20461802

Beato, Rogério; Maia, Débora P; Teixeira, Antônio Lúcio; Cardoso, Francisco

2010-05-15

105

The Effects of Face Expertise Training on the Behavioral Performance and Brain Activity of Adults with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of expertise training with faces was studied in adults with ASD who showed initial impairment in face recognition.\\u000a Participants were randomly assigned to a computerized training program involving either faces or houses. Pre- and post-testing\\u000a included standardized and experimental measures of behavior and event-related brain potentials (ERPs), as well as interviews\\u000a after training. After training, all participants met

Susan Faja; Sara Jane Webb; Emily Jones; Kristen Merkle; Dana Kamara; Joshua Bavaro; Elizabeth Aylward; Geraldine Dawson

106

Effects of aerobic exercise on sexual functioning in depressed adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveExercise appears to be generally comparable to antidepressant medication in reducing depressive symptoms. The current study examines the effects of aerobic exercise, compared to antidepressant medication and placebo pill, on sexual function among depressed adults.

Benson M. Hoffman; Michael A. Babyak; Andrew Sherwood; Emily E. Hill; Seema M. Patidar; P. Murali Doraiswamy; James A. Blumenthal

2009-01-01

107

Cognitive decline in adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment and high amyloid-?: prodromal Alzheimer's disease?  

PubMed

We aimed to characterize the nature and magnitude of cognitive decline in a group of adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) with high and low levels of amyloid-? (A?) in relation to healthy older adults with low A? levels. Healthy older adults and adults with aMCI enrolled in the Australian Imaging, Biomarker, and Lifestyle study, completed the CogState brief battery at baseline and 18 months, and underwent positron emission tomography neuroimaging for A? at baseline. In this study, we included adults with MCI who had been classified as having high and low levels of A? and healthy older adults who had been classified as having low levels of A?. Linear model analyses adjusted for baseline cognitive function indicated that relative to healthy older adults with low A?, adults with aMCI and high A? showed greater decline in working memory and in verbal and visual episodic memory at 18 months. Adults with aMCI and low A? also showed greater decline in working memory; however they did not evidence any decline in episodic memory at 18 months. The results of our study suggests that relative to healthy older adults and adults with aMCI with low A?, adults with aMCI and high levels of A? showed faster rates of decline on measures of episodic memory over 18 months, and this was approximately twice that observed previously for healthy older adults with high A? levels. PMID:23160011

Lim, Yen Ying; Ellis, Kathryn A; Harrington, Karra; Pietrzak, Robert H; Gale, Joanne; Ames, David; Bush, Ashley I; Darby, David; Martins, Ralph N; Masters, Colin L; Rowe, Christopher C; Savage, Greg; Szoeke, Cassandra; Villemagne, Victor L; Maruff, Paul

2013-01-01

108

The Effects of Face Expertise Training on the Behavioral Performance and Brain Activity of Adults with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders  

PubMed Central

The effect of expertise training with faces was studied in adults with ASD who showed initial impairment in face recognition. Participants were randomly assigned to a computerized training program involving either faces or houses. Pre- and post-testing included standardized and experimental measures of behavior and event-related brain potentials (ERPs), as well as interviews after training. After training, all participants met behavioral criteria for expertise with the specific stimuli on which they received training. Scores on standardized measures improved after training for both groups, but only the face training group showed an increased face inversion effect behaviorally and electrophysiological changes to faces in the P100 component. These findings suggest that individuals with ASD can gain expertise in face processing through training.

Webb, Sara Jane; Jones, Emily; Merkle, Kristen; Kamara, Dana; Bavaro, Joshua; Aylward, Elizabeth; Dawson, Geraldine

2013-01-01

109

Neuropsychological Predictors of Everyday Functioning in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Very little is known about the neuropsychological correlates of adaptive functioning in people with intellectual disabilities (ID). This study examined whether specific cognitive deficits and demographic variables predicted everyday functioning in adults with ID. Method: People with ID (n = 101; ages 19-41 years; mean education = 11…

Su, C. Y.; Chen, C. C.; Wuang, Y. P.; Lin, Y. H.; Wu, Y. Y.

2008-01-01

110

Adult neurogenesis: optimizing hippocampal function to suit the environment.  

PubMed

Numerous studies have attempted to determine the function of adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus using methods to deplete new neurons and examine changes in behaviors associated with this brain region. This approach has produced a set of findings that, although not entirely consistent, suggest new neurons are associated with improved learning and reduced anxiety. This paper attempts to synthesize some of these findings into a model that proposes adaptive significance to experience-dependent alterations in new neuron formation. We suggest that the modulation of adult neurogenesis, as well as of the microcircuitry associated with new neurons, by experience prepares the hippocampus to meet the specific demands of an environment that is predictably similar to one that existed previously. Reduced neurogenesis that occurs with persistent exposure to a high threat environment produces a hippocampus that is more likely to respond with behavior that maximizes the chance of survival. Conversely, enhanced neurogenesis that occurs with continual exposure to a rewarding environment leads to behavior that optimizes the chances of successful reproduction. The persistence of this form of plasticity throughout adulthood may provide the neural substrate for adaptive responding to both stable and dynamic environmental conditions. PMID:21624398

Glasper, Erica R; Schoenfeld, Timothy J; Gould, Elizabeth

2011-05-23

111

Executive and Visuo-Motor Function in Adolescents and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study broadly examines executive (EF) and visuo-motor function in 30 adolescent and adult individuals with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in comparison to 28 controls matched for age, gender, and IQ. ASD individuals showed impaired spatial working memory, whereas planning, cognitive flexibility, and inhibition were spared.…

Sachse, Michael; Schlitt, Sabine; Hainz, Daniela; Ciaramidaro, Angela; Schirman, Shella; Walter, Henrik; Poustka, Fritz; Bolte, Sven; Freitag, Christine M.

2013-01-01

112

Pulmonary function in healthy young adult Indians in Madras.  

PubMed Central

Forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second, functional residual capacity, residual volume, total lung capacity, and single breath diffusing capacity measurements (effective alveolar volume, carbon monoxide transfer factor, and transfer coefficient) were measured in 247 young healthy adults (130 male, 117 female) aged 15-40 years living in Madras. Subjects were of Dravidian stock, living at sea level with rice as their staple diet. Regression equations were derived for men and women for predicting normal pulmonary function for young adults in South India. The values were similar to those reported for subjects from Western India and lower than those reported for North Indians and caucasians.

Vijayan, V K; Kuppurao, K V; Venkatesan, P; Sankaran, K; Prabhakar, R

1990-01-01

113

Pulmonary function studies in healthy Pakistani adults.  

PubMed Central

Predicted normal spirometric values have been shown to have significant geographical and ethnic variation. These variations are of epidemiological significance in determining the prevalence of disease and of clinical importance in measuring the effects on pulmonary function of various diseases. A total of 599 men were chosen from employees of a package manufacturer, a general hospital in Lahore, and a village in northern Pakistan; 94 students and staff of a women's college in Lahore were also studied. The forced vital capacity (FVC) was recorded from three satisfactory efforts, and the FVC, one second forced expiratory volume (FEV1), and maximal midexpiratory flow (MMF, or FEF25-75%) were calculated from the best FVC effort. The FVC and FEV1 in men were found to be similar to those of a group of emigrant Pakistanis and a north-western Indian population (Delhi) but higher than populations in south and eastern India. Pakistani women had values similar to those of women in northern India. None of the women smoked and, among Pakistani men, the smokers (285) averaged 6.7 pack years. While the FVC and FEV1 values did not differ between smokers and non-smokers, there was a significant difference in MMF (FEF25-75%) in the two groups. This latter finding corroborates studies on North American populations in which smokers generally have had a higher lifelong cigarette consumption. This confirms the MMF (FEF25-75%) to be a more sensitive test of subtle, asymptomatic changes in pulmonary function than the more widely used FVC and FEV1.

Williams, D E; Miller, R D; Taylor, W F

1978-01-01

114

Isolation, culture, and functional characterization of adult mouse cardiomyoctyes.  

PubMed

The use of primary cardiomyocytes (CMs) in culture has provided a powerful complement to murine models of heart disease in advancing our understanding of heart disease. In particular, the ability to study ion homeostasis, ion channel function, cellular excitability and excitation-contraction coupling and their alterations in diseased conditions and by disease-causing mutations have led to significant insights into cardiac diseases. Furthermore, the lack of an adequate immortalized cell line to mimic adult CMs, and the limitations of neonatal CMs (which lack many of the structural and functional biomechanics characteristic of adult CMs) in culture have hampered our understanding of the complex interplay between signaling pathways, ion channels and contractile properties in the adult heart strengthening the importance of studying adult isolated cardiomyocytes. Here, we present methods for the isolation, culture, manipulation of gene expression by adenoviral-expressed proteins, and subsequent functional analysis of cardiomyocytes from the adult mouse. The use of these techniques will help to develop mechanistic insight into signaling pathways that regulate cellular excitability, Ca(2+) dynamics and contractility and provide a much more physiologically relevant characterization of cardiovascular disease. PMID:24084584

Graham, Evan Lee; Balla, Cristina; Franchino, Hannabeth; Melman, Yonathan; Del Monte, Federica; Das, Saumya

2013-09-24

115

Age, Executive Functions, and Visuospatial Functioning in Healthy Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visuospatial test performance declines with age, whereas verbal test performance remains fairly constant. This pattern has been attributed to an age-related decline in either right-hemisphere functioning or executive functions (EF), which may be associated with prefrontal cortical decline. We administered timed and untimed EF tests and visuospatial tests requiring substantial integrative skill (I-VS) or little or no integrative skill (non-I-VS)

David J. Libon; Guila Glosser; Barbara L. Malamut; Edith Kaplan; Elkhonon Goldberg; Rodney Swenson; Laura Prouty Sands

1994-01-01

116

Longitudinal Associations of Adiposity With Adult Lung Function in the Childhood Determinants of Adult Health (CDAH) Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Childhood BMI has been reported to be positively associated with adult lung function. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of childhood BMI on young adult lung function independently of the effects of lean body mass (LBM). Clinical and questionnaire data were collected from 654 young Australian adults (aged 27–36 years), first studied when age 9, 12,

Beverley A. Curry; C. Leigh Blizzard; Michael D. Schmidt; E. Haydn Walters; Terence Dwyer; Alison J. Venn

2011-01-01

117

Lung function testing in adults with preferential nasal breathing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three adult patients with asthma with preferential nasal breathing were found to have a typical pattern of lung function test results with substantial between test variation. This condition can be identified as a cause of unsatisfactory performance in respiratory tests by observing the patient's reaction after the nostrils have been occluded.

C F Stanford; B Martin; D P Nicholls; D Watson

1992-01-01

118

Legally Prescribed Functions of Adult and Juvenile Probation Officers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historically, there have been two competing goals of probation: law enforcement and rehabilitation of the offender. Accordingly, the role, functions, and tasks of probation officers are at times in conflict. In this paper we explore the roles of adult and juvenile probation officers and compare their statutorily prescribed duties. In so doing we attempt to uncover what differences exist between

Benjamin Steiner; Marcus Purkiss; Misty Kifer; Elizabeth Roberts; Craig Hemmens

2004-01-01

119

Timing of Adult Transitions: Antecedents and Implications for Psychological Functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regarding the differences in timing of adult transitions (i.e., completion of education, full-time employment, having an intimate relationship, having a child) and their relation to childhood antecedents and adulthood psychological functioning, 282 participants were examined. The study was based on the ongoing Finnish Jyväskylä Longitudinal Study of Personality and Social Development in which the same individuals have been followed from

Eija Räikkönen; Katja Kokko; Johanna Rantanen

2011-01-01

120

Abnormal Pulmonary Function in Adults with Sickle Cell Anemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale: Pulmonary complications of sickle cell anemia (Hb-SS) commonly cause morbidity, yet few large studies of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in this population have been reported. Objectives: PFTs (spirometry, lung volumes, and diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO)) from 310 adults with Hb-SS were ana- lyzed to determine the pattern of pulmonary dysfunction and their association with other systemic complications

Elizabeth S. Klings; Diego F. Wyszynski; Vikki G. Nolan; Martin H. Steinberg

2006-01-01

121

Manometric tests of anorectal function in healthy adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE:Although tests of anorectal function are useful in the assessment of defecation disorders, there is inadequate and inconsistent information regarding normative data. Also, there are discrepancies in manometric techniques and data interpretation. Our aim was to perform a comprehensive evaluation of anorectal function in healthy adults.METHODS:We used a 6-mm diameter probe containing six radially arrayed microtransducers, and a 4-cm-long latex

Satish S. C. Rao; Renae Hatfield; Edy Soffer; Sheila Rao; Jennifer Beaty; Jeffrey L. Conklin

1999-01-01

122

Functional Brain Imaging of Young, Nondemented, and Demented Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain imaging based on functional MRI (fMRI) provides a powerful tool for characterizing age-related changes in functional anatomy. However, between-population comparisons confront potential differences in measurement properties. The present experiment explores the feasibility of conducting fMRI studies in nondemented and demented older adults by measuring hemodynamic response properties in an event-related design. A paradigm involving repeated presentation of sensory-motor response

Randy L. Buckner; Abraham Z. Snyder; Amy L. Sanders; Marcus E. Raichle; John C. Morris

2000-01-01

123

Health Literacy and Functional Health Status Among Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 2923 enrollees was conducted in Cleveland, Ohio; Houston, Tex; Tampa, Fla; and Fort Lauderdale-Miami, Fla. Health literacy was measured using the short form of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. We used out- come measures that included scores on the physical and mental health functioning subscales of the Medical Out- comes Study 36-Item

Michael S. Wolf; Julie A. Gazmararian; David W. Baker

2005-01-01

124

Time monitoring and executive functioning in children and adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined time-based prospective memory performance in relation to individual and developmental differences in executive functioning. School-age children and young adults completed six experimental tasks that tapped three basic components of executive functioning: inhibition, updating, and mental shifting. Monitoring performance was examined in a time-based prospective memory task in which participants indicated the passing of time every 5min while

Timo Mäntylä; Maria Grazia Carelli; Helen Forman

2007-01-01

125

Functional neural networks underlying response inhibition in adolescents and adults  

PubMed Central

This study provides the first description of neural network dynamics associated with response inhibition in healthy adolescents and adults. Functional and effective connectivity analyses of whole brain hemodynamic activity elicited during performance of a Go/No-Go task were used to identify functionally-integrated neural networks and characterize their causal interactions. Three response inhibition circuits formed a hierarchical, inter-dependent system wherein thalamic modulation of input to premotor cortex by frontostriatal regions led to response suppression. Adolescents differed from adults in the degree of network engagement, regional fronto-striatal-thalamic connectivity, and network dynamics. We identify and characterize several age-related differences in the function of neural circuits that are associated with behavioral performance changes across adolescent development.

Stevens, Michael C.; Kiehl, Kent A.; Pearlson, Godfrey D.; Calhoun, Vince D.

2008-01-01

126

Functional Adult Literacy and Empowerment of Women: Impact of a Functional Literacy Program in Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study addresses the impact of functional adult literacy on the empowerment of women in the absence of formal schooling. It examines whether the effects of functional literacy are exclusively content specific or whether there are gains going beyond the obvious benefits and extending to other spheres of everyday functioning, such as…

Kagitcibasi, Cigdem; Goksen, Fatos; Gulgoz, Sami

2005-01-01

127

Lung Function in Young Adults Predicts Airflow Obstruction 20 Years Later  

PubMed Central

Rationale The burden of obstructive lung disease is increasing, yet there are limited data on its natural history in young adults. Objectives To determine in a prospective cohort of generally healthy young adults the influence of early adult lung function on the presence of airflow obstruction in middle age. Methods Longitudinal study of 2,496 adults who were 18-30 years of age at entry, did not report having asthma, and returned at Year 20. Airflow obstruction was defined as an FEV1/FVC ratio less than the lower limit of normal. Measurements and Main Results Airflow obstruction was present in 6.9% and 7.8% of participants at Years 0 and 20. Less than 10% of participants with airflow obstruction self-reported COPD. In cross sectional analyses airflow obstruction was associated with less education, smoking, and self-reported COPD. Low FEV1 and FEV1/FVC and airflow obstruction in young adults were associated with low lung function and airflow obstruction 20 years later. Of those with airflow obstruction at Year 0, 52% had airflow obstruction 20 years later. The FEV1/FVC at Year 0 was highly predictive of airflow obstruction 20 years later (c-statistic 0.91; 95% CI 0.89-0.93). The effect of cigarette smoking on lung function decline with age was most evident in young adults with pre-existing airflow obstruction. Conclusions Airflow obstruction is mostly unrecognized in young and middle age adults. A low FEV1, low FEV1/FVC and airflow obstruction in young adults, in addition to smoking, are highly predictive of low lung function and airflow obstruction in middle age.

Kalhan, Ravi; Arynchyn, Alexander; Colangelo, Laura A.; Dransfield, Mark T.; Gerald, Lynn B.; Smith, Lewis J.

2010-01-01

128

Predictors of maintaining cognitive function in older adults  

PubMed Central

Background: Although several risk factors for cognitive decline have been identified, much less is known about factors that predict maintenance of cognitive function in advanced age. Methods: We studied 2,509 well-functioning black and white elders enrolled in a prospective study. Cognitive function was measured using the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination at baseline and years 3, 5, and 8. Random effects models were used to classify participants as cognitive maintainers (cognitive change slope ?0), minor decliners (slope <0 and >1 SD below mean), or major decliners (slope ?1 SD below mean). Logistic regression was used to identify domain-specific factors associated with being a maintainer vs a minor decliner. Results: Over 8 years, 30% of the participants maintained cognitive function, 53% showed minor decline, and 16% had major cognitive decline. In the multivariate model, baseline variables significantly associated with being a maintainer vs a minor decliner were age (odds ratio [OR] = 0.65, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.55–0.77 per 5 years), white race (OR = 1.72, 95% CI 1.30–2.28), high school education level or greater (OR = 2.75, 95% CI 1.78–4.26), ninth grade literacy level or greater (OR = 4.85, 95% CI 3.00–7.87), weekly moderate/vigorous exercise (OR = 1.31, 95% CI 1.06–1.62), and not smoking (OR = 1.84, 95% CI 1.14–2.97). Variables associated with major cognitive decline compared to minor cognitive decline are reported. Conclusion: Elders who maintain cognitive function have a unique profile that differentiates them from those with minor decline. Importantly, some of these factors are modifiable and thus may be implemented in prevention programs to promote successful cognitive aging. Further, factors associated with maintenance may differ from factors associated with major cognitive decline, which may impact prevention vs treatment strategies. GLOSSARY 3MS = Modified Mini-Mental State Examination; BMI = body mass index; CES-D = Center for Epidemiologic Studies–Depression Scale score; CI = confidence interval; CRP = C-reactive protein; Health ABC = Health, Aging and Body Composition; IL = interleukin; MI = myocardial infarction; OR = odds ratio; REALM = Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine; TNF = tumor necrosis factor.

Yaffe, K; Fiocco, A J.; Lindquist, K; Vittinghoff, E; Simonsick, E M.; Newman, A B.; Satterfield, S; Rosano, C; Rubin, S M.; Ayonayon, H N.; Harris, T B.

2009-01-01

129

Murine neonatal recent thymic emigrants are phenotypically and functionally distinct from adult recent thymic emigrants  

PubMed Central

In contrast to adults, the murine neonatal CD4+ compartment contains a high frequency of recent thymic emigrants (RTEs). However, the functional capabilities of these cells in neonates are relatively unknown. Moreover, it has not been determined whether RTEs from neonates and adults are comparable. Here we have directly compared neonatal and adult CD4+ RTEs for the first time, using a transgenic mouse strain that allows for the identification and purification of RTEs. Our data demonstrate that RTEs from murine neonates and adults are phenotypically and functionally distinct. In particular, although the magnitude of RTEs cytokine responses from both age groups is dependent on the conditions of activation, neonatal RTEs always exhibited higher levels of effector Th1/Th2 cytokine production than adult RTEs. In addition, neonatal, but not adult, RTEs showed early proliferation in response to stimulation with interleukin-7 alone. This was associated with faster kinetics of interleukin-7R? down-regulation and higher levels of pSTAT5 in neonatal RTEs. These quantitative and qualitative differences in the neonatal and adult RTEs populations may at least partially explain the diverse responses that are elicited in vivo in neonates in response to different conditions of antigen exposure.

Opiela, Shannon J.; Koru-Sengul, Tulay

2009-01-01

130

Relation of fetal growth to adult lung function in south India  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Follow up studies in Britain have shown that low rates of fetal growth are followed by reduced lung function in adult life, independent of smoking and social class. It is suggested that fetal adaptations to undernutrition in utero result in permanent changes in lung structure, which in turn lead to chronic airflow obstruction. India has high rates of intrauterine

C. E. Stein; K. Kumaran; C. H. Fall; S. O. Shaheen; C. Osmond; D. J. Barker

1997-01-01

131

Adult Roles & Functions. A Nonlaboratory Home Economics Course for Eleventh and Twelfth Graders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This competency-based curriculum guide is designed for a non-laboratory course in home economics for eleventh and twelfth grades. It was developed and field tested by twenty-nine teachers in high schools in West Virginia. The Adult Roles and Functions curriculum is organized in two sections. The teacher's section contains information on teaching…

West Virginia State Vocational Curriculum Lab., Cedar Lakes.

132

Increased odor detection speed in highly anxious healthy adults.  

PubMed

Anxiety can either impair or enhance performance depending on the context. Increased sensitivity to threat seems to be an important feature of sensory processing in anxiety since anxious individuals tend to be more attentive to threatening visual stimuli. Evidence of anxiety effects in olfaction is rare; though alterations of olfactory performance in psychiatric patients and some effects of trait and state anxiety on olfactory performance have been reported. Our main objective was thus to investigate whether olfactory processing speed varies as a function of trait anxiety levels. We additionally investigated a possible preferential bias for unpleasant odors in highly anxious participants. Thirty-eight healthy adults participated in a simple odor detection task, where response times (RTs) and anxiety levels were measured. We compared RTs to a pleasant and an unpleasant food odor between high- and low-trait anxiety participants. We found that high-trait anxiety participants detected both odors faster than low-trait anxiety participants, independently of odor pleasantness. Moreover, trait anxiety levels significantly correlated with reaction times to both odors, indicating that trait anxiety but not odor pleasantness influences olfactory detection speed. These findings provide new insights into olfactory processing in healthy adults showing how various levels of trait anxiety affect the olfactory modality. PMID:23811013

La Buissonnière-Ariza, Valérie; Lepore, Franco; Kojok, Kevin M; Frasnelli, Johannes

2013-06-27

133

Structure of Four Executive Functioning Tests in Healthy Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examined the factor structure of 4 indicators of executive functioning derived from 2 new (i.e., Hayling and Brixton) and 2 traditional (i.e., Stroop and Color Trails) tests. Data were from a cross-sectional sample of 55- to 85-year-old healthy adults (N = 427) from the Victoria Longitudinal Study. Confirmatory factor analysis (LISREL 8.52) tested both a 2-factor model of

Cindy M. de Frias; Roger A. Dixon; Esther Strauss

2006-01-01

134

Psychiatric comorbidity and functioning in a clinically referred population of adults with autism spectrum disorders: a comparative study.  

PubMed

To systematically examine the patterns of psychiatric comorbidity and functioning in clinically referred adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Psychiatrically referred adults with and without ASD were compared on measures assessing for psychiatric comorbidity and psychosocial functioning. Sixty-three adults with ASD participated in the study (mean age: 29 ± 11 years). Adults with ASD in their lifetime suffered from a higher burden of psychiatric disorders (6 ± 3.4 vs. 3.5 ± 2.7; p < 0.001) including major depressive disorder and multiple anxiety disorders, and were functionally more impaired with a significant proportion having received both counseling and pharmacotherapy. Adults with ASD have high levels of psychiatric comorbidity and dysfunction comparable to a clinically referred population of adults without ASD. PMID:23076506

Joshi, Gagan; Wozniak, Janet; Petty, Carter; Martelon, Mary Kate; Fried, Ronna; Bolfek, Anela; Kotte, Amelia; Stevens, Jonathan; Furtak, Stephannie L; Bourgeois, Michelle; Caruso, Janet; Caron, Ashley; Biederman, Joseph

2013-06-01

135

Just How Adult Is This Young Adult Book: Young Adult Books for the Junior High Readers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses young adult novels and presents a bibliography to acquaint librarians with titles and authors that are suitable for emerging young adult readers in grades five through nine. Subject categories include realistic fiction, in the news, historical fiction, short stories, legendary characters, mysteries, science fiction/fantasy/horror, and…

Decker, Charlotte

1999-01-01

136

The test of functional health literacy in adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To develop a valid, reliable instrument to measure the functional health literacy of patients.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a DESIGN: The Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (TOFHLA) was developed using actual hospital materials. The TOFHLA consists\\u000a of a 50-item reading comprehension and 17-item numerical ability test, taking up to 22 minutes to administer. The TOFHLA,\\u000a the Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised (WRAT-R), and

Ruth M. Parker; David W. Baker; Mark V. Williams; Joanne R. Nurss

1995-01-01

137

Autism Spectrum Disorder Grown Up: A Chart Review of Adult Functioning  

PubMed Central

Objective: To survey the adult functioning of patients with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and to compare the outcomes for those diagnosed in childhood with those diagnosed as adults. Methods: Using a chart review, we evaluated the adult outcomes for 45 individuals diagnosed with ASD prior to age 18, and compared this with the functioning of 35 patients whose ASD was identified after 18 years. Concurrent mental illnesses were noted for both groups. Results: Adult outcome was poorest for those with the combination of ASD and Intellectual Disability (ID). The sub- group of individuals with Autism identified in adulthood whose functioning was assessed after 25 years of age had achieved more in the areas of education and independent living. All three groups had a high frequency of psychiatric co-morbidity. Conclusion: While co-morbid ID and ASD generally imply a poor outcome, for children and youth with ASD and normal range IQ, adult functioning is more variable and difficult to predict. Because of delays in ongoing social development, some of these individuals may attain educational, independent living and relationship goals, but reach them a decade or more later than typical for the general population.

Marriage, Samantha; Wolverton, Annie; Marriage, Keith

2009-01-01

138

Social functioning in adults with neurofibromatosis type 1.  

PubMed

Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a common single-gene disorder characterised by a diverse range of cutaneous, neurological and neoplastic manifestations. It is well recognised that children with NF1 have poor peer interactions and are at risk for deficits in social skills. Few studies, however, have examined social functioning in adults with NF1. We aimed to determine whether adults with NF1 are at greater risk for impairment in social skills and to identify potential risk factors for social skills deficits. We evaluated social skills in 62 adults with NF1 and 39 controls using self-report and observer-report measures of social behaviour. We demonstrate that adults with NF1 exhibit significantly less prosocial behaviour than controls. This deficit was associated with social processing abilities and was more evident in males. The frequency of antisocial behaviour was comparable between the two groups, however was significantly associated with behavioural regulation in the NF1 group. These findings suggest that poor social skills in individuals with NF1 are due to deficits in prosocial behaviour, rather than an increase in antisocial behaviour. This will aid the design of interventions aimed at improving social skills in individuals with NF1. PMID:23911645

Pride, Natalie A; Crawford, Hilda; Payne, Jonathan M; North, Kathryn N

2013-08-02

139

Perseverance Versus Nonperseverance Patterns Among Adult High School Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parsons' instrumental internal-external model for classifying action orientations provided the theoretical base to test the relation between perseverance and nonperseverance patterns among sub samples of 134 adults in an adult high school. Preference for internally or externally oriented goals, as reasons for enrollment, were obtained from a questionnaire and crosstabulated by per severance (persons who enroll and complete the program)

Carroll A. Londoner

1972-01-01

140

Experience-enabled enhancement of adult visual cortex function.  

PubMed

We previously reported in adult mice that visuomotor experience during monocular deprivation (MD) augmented enhancement of visual-cortex-dependent behavior through the non-deprived eye (NDE) during deprivation, and enabled enhanced function to persist after MD. We investigated the physiological substrates of this experience-enabled form of adult cortical plasticity by measuring visual behavior and visually evoked potentials (VEPs) in binocular visual cortex of the same mice before, during, and after MD. MD on its own potentiated VEPs contralateral to the NDE during MD and shifted ocular dominance (OD) in favor of the NDE in both hemispheres. Whereas we expected visuomotor experience during MD to augment these effects, instead enhanced responses contralateral to the NDE, and the OD shift ipsilateral to the NDE were attenuated. However, in the same animals, we measured NMDA receptor-dependent VEP potentiation ipsilateral to the NDE during MD, which persisted after MD. The results indicate that visuomotor experience during adult MD leads to enduring enhancement of behavioral function, not simply by amplifying MD-induced changes in cortical OD, but through an independent process of increasing NDE drive in ipsilateral visual cortex. Because the plasticity is resident in the mature visual cortex and selectively effects gain of visual behavior through experiential means, it may have the therapeutic potential to target and non-invasively treat eye- or visual-field-specific cortical impairment. PMID:23516301

Tschetter, Wayne W; Alam, Nazia M; Yee, Christopher W; Gorz, Mario; Douglas, Robert M; Sagdullaev, Botir; Prusky, Glen T

2013-03-20

141

Functional Impairment in Adult Sleepwalkers: A Case-Control Study  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To investigate the restorative quality of sleep and daytime functioning in sleepwalking adult patients in comparison with controls. Design: Prospective case-control study. Setting: Data were collected at the Sleep Disorders Center, Hôpital-Gui-de Chauliac, Montpellier, France between June 2007 and January 2011. Participants: There were 140 adult sleepwalkers (100 (median age 30 y, 55% male) in whom primary SW was diagnosed) who underwent 1 night of video polysomnography. All patients participated in a standardized clinical interview and completed a battery of questionnaires to assess clinical characteristics of parasomnia, daytime sleepiness, fatigue, insomnia, depressive and anxiety symptoms, and health-related quality of life. Results were compared with those of 100 sex- and age-matched normal controls. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Of the sleepwalkers, 22.3% presented with daily episodes and 43.5% presented with weekly episodes. Median age at sleepwalking onset was 9 y. Familial history of sleepwalking was reported in 56.6% of sleepwalkers and violent sleep related behaviors in 57.9%, including injuries requiring medical care for at least one episode in 17%. Significant associations were found between sleepwalking and daytime sleepiness, fatigue, insomnia, depressive and anxiety symptoms, and altered quality of life. Early-onset sleepwalkers had higher frequency of violent behaviors and injuries. Sleepwalkers with violent behaviors had higher frequency of sleep terrors and triggering factors, with greater alteration in health-related quality of life. Conclusion: Adult sleepwalking is a potentially serious condition that may induce violent behaviors, self-injury or injury to bed partners, sleep disruption, excessive daytime sleepiness, fatigue, and psychological distress, all of which affect health-related quality of life. Citation: Lopez R; Jaussent I; Scholz S; Bayard S; Montplaisir J; Dauvilliers Y. Functional impairment in adult sleepwalkers: a case-control study. SLEEP 2013;36(3):345-351.

Lopez, Regis; Jaussent, Isabelle; Scholz, Sabine; Bayard, Sophie; Montplaisir, Jacques; Dauvilliers, Yves

2013-01-01

142

Study of Adult Functional Illiteracy in the Appalachian Region, 1978-1980.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The adult performance level (APL) definition of functional competency was used as the operationalized definition of functional literacy to study the extent of adult functional illiteracy for adults from 25 through 44 years of age in three sites in the App...

M. E. Brady

1980-01-01

143

Risk of high dietary calcium for arterial calcification in older adults.  

PubMed

Concern has recently arisen about the potential adverse effects of excessive calcium intakes, i.e., calcium loading from supplements, on arterial calcification and risks of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in older adults. Published reports that high calcium intakes in free-living adults have relatively little or no beneficial impact on bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture rates suggest that current recommendations of calcium for adults may be set too high. Because even healthy kidneys have limited capability of eliminating excessive calcium in the diet, the likelihood of soft-tissue calcification may increase in older adults who take calcium supplements, particularly in those with age or disease-related reduction in renal function. The maintenance of BMD and bone health continues to be an important goal of adequate dietary calcium consumption, but eliminating potential risks of CVDs from excessive calcium intakes needs to be factored into policy recommendations for calcium by adults. PMID:24084054

Anderson, John J B; Klemmer, Philip J

2013-09-30

144

Additive Effects of Cognitive Function and Depressive Symptoms on Mortality in Elderly Community-Living Adults  

PubMed Central

Background Poor cognitive function and depressive symptoms are common in the elderly, frequently coexist, and are interrelated. Both risk factors are independently associated with mortality. Few studies have comprehensively described how the combination of poor cognitive function and depressive symptoms affect the risk for mortality. Our aim was to examine whether the combination of varying levels of cognitive function and depressive symptoms affect the risk of mortality in community-living elderly adults. Methods We studied 6301 elderly adults (mean age, 77 years; 62% women; 81% white) enrolled in the Asset and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest Old (AHEAD) study, a prospective study of community-living participants conducted from 1993 to 1995. Cognitive function and depressive symptoms were measured using two validated measures developed for the AHEAD study. On each measure, participants were divided into tertiles representing the best, middle, and worst scores, and then placed into one of nine mutually exclusive groups ranging from best functioning on both measures to worst functioning on both measures. Mortality rates were assessed in each of the nine groups. Cox proportional hazards models were used to control for potentially confounding characteristics such as demographics, education, income, smoking, alcohol consumption, comorbidity, and baseline functional impairment. Results During 2 years of follow-up, 9% (548) of the participants died. Together, cognitive function and depressive symptoms differentiated between elderly adults at markedly different risk for mortality, ranging from 3% in those with the best function on both measures to 16% in those with the worst function on both measures (p < .001). Furthermore, for each level of cognitive function, more depressive symptoms were associated with higher mortality rates, and for each level of depressive symptoms, worse cognitive function was associated with higher mortality rates. In participants with the best cognitive function, mortality rates were 3%, 5%, and 9% in participants with low, middle, and high depressive symptoms, respectively (p < .001 for trend). The corresponding rates were 6%, 7%, and 12% in participants with the middle level of cognitive function (p < .001 for trend), and 10%, 13%, and 16% in participants with the worst level of cognitive function (p < .001 for trend). After adjustment for confounders, participants with the worst function on both measures remained at considerably higher risk for death than participants with the best function on both measures (adjusted hazard ratio, 3.1; 95% confidence interval, 2.0–4.7). Conclusions Cognitive function and depressive symptoms can be used together to stratify elderly adults into groups that have significantly different rates of death. These two risk factors are associated with an increased risk in mortality in a progressive, additive manner.

Mehta, Kala M.; Yaffe, Kristine; Langa, Kenneth M.; Sands, Laura; Whooley, Mary A.; Covinsky, Kenneth E.

2010-01-01

145

Roles for oestrogen receptor ? in adult brain function.  

PubMed

Oestradiol exerts a profound influence upon multiple brain circuits. For the most part, these effects are mediated by oestrogen receptor (ER)?. We review here the roles of ER?, the other ER isoform, in mediating rodent oestradiol-regulated anxiety, aggressive and sexual behaviours, the control of gonadotrophin secretion, and adult neurogenesis. Evidence exists for: (i) ER? located in the paraventricular nucleus underpinning the suppressive influence of oestradiol on the stress axis and anxiety-like behaviour; (ii) ER? expressed in gonadotrophin-releasing hormone neurones contributing to oestrogen negative-feedback control of gonadotrophin secretion; (iii) ER? controlling the offset of lordosis behaviour; (iv) ER? suppressing aggressive behaviour in males; (v) ER? modulating responses to social stimuli; and (vi) ER? in controlling adult neurogenesis. This review highlights two major themes; first, ER? and ER? are usually tightly inter-related in the oestradiol-dependent control of a particular brain function. For example, even though oestradiol feedback to control reproduction occurs principally through ER?-dependent mechanisms, modulatory roles for ER? also exist. Second, the roles of ER? and ER? within a particular neural network may be synergistic or antagonistic. Examples of the latter include the role of ER? to enhance, and ER? to suppress, anxiety-like and aggressive behaviours. Splice variants such as ER?2, acting as dominant negative receptors, are of further particular interest because their expression levels may reflect preceeding oestradiol exposure of relevance to oestradiol replacement therapy. Together, this review highlights the predominant modulatory, but nonetheless important, roles of ER? in mediating the many effects of oestradiol upon adult brain function. PMID:21851428

Handa, R J; Ogawa, S; Wang, J M; Herbison, A E

2012-01-01

146

Functional Imaging of Working Memory and Peripheral Endothelial Function in Middle-Aged Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The current study examined the relationship between a prognostic indicator of vascular health, flow-mediated dilation (FMD), and working memory-related brain activation in healthy middle-aged adults. Forty-two participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while completing a 2-Back working memory task. Brachial artery…

Gonzales, Mitzi M.; Tarumi, Takashi; Tanaka, Hirofumi; Sugawara, Jun; Swann-Sternberg, Tali; Goudarzi, Katayoon; Haley, Andreana P.

2010-01-01

147

Functional Imaging of Working Memory and Peripheral Endothelial Function in Middle-Aged Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study examined the relationship between a prognostic indicator of vascular health, flow-mediated dilation (FMD), and working memory-related brain activation in healthy middle-aged adults. Forty-two participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while completing a 2-Back working memory task. Brachial artery…

Gonzales, Mitzi M.; Tarumi, Takashi; Tanaka, Hirofumi; Sugawara, Jun; Swann-Sternberg, Tali; Goudarzi, Katayoon; Haley, Andreana P.

2010-01-01

148

Coffee consumption and cognitive function among older adults.  

PubMed

This study examined the association of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee intake with cognitive function in a community-based sample of older adults in 1988-1992. Participants were 890 women with a mean age of 72.6 years and 638 men with a mean age of 73.3 years from the Rancho Bernardo Study. Cognitive function was assessed by 12 standardized tests, and lifetime consumption and current coffee consumption were obtained by questionnaire. After adjustment for confounders, higher lifetime coffee consumption in women was associated with better (p < or = 0.05) performance on six of 12 tests, with a trend (p < or = 0.10) on two other cognitive function tests; current caffeinated coffee intake was associated with better performance on two tests (p < 0.05), with a trend (p < 0.10) on one other test. Among women aged 80 or more years, lifetime coffee intake was nonsignificantly associated with better performance on 11 of the 12 tests. No relation was found between coffee intake and cognitive function among men or between decaffeinated coffee intake and cognitive function in either sex. Lifetime and current exposure to caffeine may be associated with better cognitive performance among women, especially among those aged 80 or more years. PMID:12397002

Johnson-Kozlow, Marilyn; Kritz-Silverstein, Donna; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Morton, Deborah

2002-11-01

149

Adult neurogenesis is functionally associated with AD-like neurodegeneration  

PubMed Central

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is predominantly characterized by progressive neuronal loss in the brain. It has been recently found that adult neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of AD patients is significantly enhanced, while its functional significance is still unknown. By using an AD-like neurodegeneration mouse model, we show here that neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus was neurodegenerative stage-dependent. At early stages of neurodegeneration, neurogenesis was significantly enhanced and newly generated neurons migrated into the local neuronal network. Up to late stages of neurodegeneration, however, the survival of newly generated neurons was impaired so that the enhanced neurogenesis could not be detected any more. Most interestingly, these dynamic changes in neurogenesis were correlated with the severity of neuronal loss in the dentate gyrus, indicating that neurogenesis may work as a self-repairing mechanism to compensate for neurodegeneration. Therefore, to enhance endogenous neurogenesis at early stages of neurodegeneration may be a valuable strategy to delay neurodegenerative progress.

Chen, Qian; Nakajima, Akira; Choi, Se Hoon; Xiong, Xiaoli; Sisodia, Sangram S; Tang, Ya-Ping

2008-01-01

150

Functional role of adult hippocampal neurogenesis as a therapeutic strategy for mental disorders.  

PubMed

Adult neurogenesis, the process of generating new neurons from neural stem cells, plays significant roles in synaptic plasticity, memory, and mood regulation. In the mammalian brain, it continues to occur well into adulthood in discrete regions, namely, the hippocampus and olfactory bulb. During the past decade, significant progress has been made in understanding the mechanisms regulating adult hippocampal neurogenesis and its role in the etiology of mental disorders. In addition, adult hippocampal neurogenesis is highly correlated with the remission of the antidepressant effect. In this paper, we discuss three major psychiatric disorders, depression, schizophrenia, and drug addiction, in light of preclinical evidence used in establishing the neurobiological significance of adult neurogenesis. We interpret the significance of these results and pose questions that remain unanswered. Potential treatments which include electroconvulsive therapy, deep brain stimulation, chemical antidepressants, and exercise therapy are discussed. While consensus lacks on specific mechanisms, we highlight evidence which indicates that these treatments may function via an increase in neural progenitor proliferation and changes to the hippocampal circuitry. Establishing a significant role of adult neurogenesis in the pathogenicity of psychiatric disorders may hold the key to potential strategies toward effective treatment. PMID:23346419

Jun, Heechul; Mohammed Qasim Hussaini, Syed; Rigby, Michael J; Jang, Mi-Hyeon

2012-12-31

151

Stalking, and Social and Romantic Functioning among Adolescents and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We examine the nature and predictors of social and romantic functioning in adolescents and adults with ASD. Parental reports were obtained for 25 ASD adolescents and adults (13-36 years), and 38 typical adolescents and adults (13-30 years). The ASD group relied less upon peers and friends for social (OR = 52.16, p less than 0.01) and romantic…

Stokes, Mark; Newton, Naomi; Kaur, Archana

2007-01-01

152

GATA4 Deficiency Impairs Ovarian Function in Adult Mice1  

PubMed Central

Transcription factor GATA4 is expressed in granulosa cells and, to a lesser extent, in other ovarian cell types. Studies of mutant mice have shown that interactions between GATA4 and its cofactor, ZFPM2 (also termed FOG2), are required for proper development of the fetal ovary. The role of GATA4 in postnatal ovarian function, however, has remained unclear, in part because of prenatal lethality of homozygous mutations in the Gata4 gene in mice. To circumvent this limitation, we studied ovarian function in two genetically engineered mouse lines: C57BL/6 (B6) female mice heterozygous for a Gata4-null allele, and 129;B6 female mice in which Gata4 is deleted specifically in proliferating granulosa cells using the Cre-loxP recombination system and Amhr2-cre. Female B6 Gata4+/? mice had delayed puberty but normal estrous cycle lengths and litter size. Compared to wild-type mice, the ovaries of gonadotropin-stimulated B6 Gata4+/? mice were significantly smaller, released fewer oocytes, produced less estrogen, and expressed less mRNA for the putative GATA4 target genes Star, Cyp11a1, and Cyp19. Gata4 conditional knockout (cKO) mice had a more severe phenotype, including impaired fertility and cystic ovarian changes. Like Gata4+/? mice, the ovaries of gonadotropin-stimulated cKO mice released fewer oocytes and expressed less Cyp19 than those of control mice. Our findings, coupled with those of other investigators, support the premise that GATA4 is a key transcriptional regulator of ovarian somatic cell function in both fetal and adult mice.

Kyronlahti, Antti; Vetter, Melanie; Euler, Rosemarie; Bielinska, Malgorzata; Jay, Patrick Y.; Anttonen, Mikko; Heikinheimo, Markku; Wilson, David B.

2011-01-01

153

Stair Negotiation Time in Community Dwelling Older Adults: Normative Values and Association with Functional Decline  

PubMed Central

Objective To establish reference values for stair ascent and descent times in community dwelling ambulatory older adults, and to examine their predictive validity for functional decline. Design Longitudinal cohort study. Mean follow-up time was 1.8 year (maximum 3.2 y, total 857.9 person-years). Setting Community sample. Participants Older adults age 70 and older (N=513; mean age, 80.8±5.1y), without disability or dementia. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures Time to ascend and descend 3 steps measured at baseline. 14 point Disability scale assessed functional status at baseline and at follow-up interviews every 2–3 months. Functional decline was defined as an increase in the disability score by 1-point during the follow-up period. Results The mean ± standard deviation (SD) stair ascent and descent time for three steps was 2.78 ±1.49 and 2.83 ±1.61 sec respectively. The proportion of self-reported and objective difficulty was higher with longer stair ascent and descent times (P<.001 for trend for both stair ascent and descent). Of the 472 participants with at least one follow-up interview, 315 developed functional decline with a 12-month cumulative incidence of 56.6% (95% confidence interval, CI, 52.1–61.3%). The stair negotiation time was a significant predictor of functional decline after adjusting for covariates including gait velocity (adjusted hazard ratio per one-second increase, aHR 1.12, 95% CI 1.04–1.21 for stair ascent time, aHR 1.15, 95% CI 1.07–1.24 for stair descent time). Stair descent time was a significant predictor of functional decline among relatively high-functioning older adults reporting no difficulty in stair negotiation (P=.001). Conclusions The stair ascent and descent times are simple, quick, and valid clinical measures for assessing the risk of functional decline in community dwelling older adults including high-functioning individuals.

Oh-Park, Mooyeon; Wang, Cuiling; Verghese, Joe

2011-01-01

154

Protecting muscle mass and function in older adults during bed rest  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review To highlight the losses in muscle mass, strength, power and functional capacity incurred in older adults during bed rest-mediated inactivity and to provide practical recommendations for both the prevention and rehabilitation of these losses. Recent findings In addition to sarcopenic muscle loss, older adults lose lean tissue more rapidly than the young during prolonged periods of physical inactivity. Amino acid or protein supplementation has the potential to maintain muscle protein synthesis and may reduce inactivity-induced muscle loss, but should ideally be part of an integrated countermeasure regimen consisting of nutrition, exercise and where appropriate, pharmacologic interventions. Summary In accord with recent mechanistic advances we recommend an applied, broad-based 2-phase approach to limit inactivity-mediated losses of muscle mass and function in older adults: 1. Lifestyle: a) consume a moderate amount (25-30 g) of high quality protein with each meal; b) incorporate habitual exercise in close temporal proximity to protein-containing meals. 2. Crises: react aggressively to combat the accelerated loss of muscle mass and function during acute catabolic crises and periods of reduced physical activity. As a base strategy, this should include nutritional support such as targeted protein or amino acid supplementation and integrated physical therapy.

English, Kirk L.; Paddon-Jones, Douglas

2012-01-01

155

Low level methylmercury exposure affects neuropsychological function in adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The neurotoxic effects of methylmercury (MeHg) have been demonstrated in both human and animal studies. Both adult and fetal brains are susceptible to the effects of MeHg toxicity. However, the specific effects of adult exposures have been less well-documented than those of children with prenatal exposures. This is largely because few studies of MeHg exposures in adults have used

Edna M. Yokoo; Joaquim G Valente; Lynn Grattan; Sérgio Luís Schmidt; Illeane Platt; Ellen K Silbergeld

2003-01-01

156

Functional outcome in older adults with joint pain and comorbidity: design of a prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Joint pain is a highly prevalent condition in the older population. Only a minority of the older adults consult the general practitioner for joint pain, and during consultation joint pain is often poorly recognized and treated, especially when other co-existing chronic conditions are involved. Therefore, older adults with joint pain and comorbidity may have a higher risk of poor functional outcome and decreased quality of life (QoL), and possibly need more attention in primary care. The main purpose of the study is to explore functioning in older adults with joint pain and comorbidity, in terms of mobility, functional independence and participation and to identify possible predictors of poor functional outcome. The study will also identify predictors of decreased QoL. The results will be used to develop prediction models for the early identification of subgroups at high risk of poor functional outcome and decreased QoL. This may contribute to better targeting of treatment and to more effective health care in this population. Methods/Design The study has been designed as a prospective cohort study, with measurements at baseline and after 6, 12 and 18 months. For the recruitment of 450 patients, 25 general practices will be approached. Patients are eligible for participation if they are 65 years or older, have at least two chronic conditions and report joint pain on most days. Data will be collected using various methods (i.e. questionnaires, physical tests, patient interviews and focus groups). We will measure different aspects of functioning (e.g. mobility, functional independence and participation) and QoL. Other measurements concern possible predictors of functioning and QoL (e.g. pain, co-existing chronic conditions, markers for frailty, physical performance, psychological factors, environmental factors and individual factors). Furthermore, health care utilization, health care needs and the meaning and impact of joint pain will be investigated from an older person's perspective. Discussion In this paper, we describe the protocol of a prospective cohort study in Dutch older adults with joint pain and comorbidity and discuss the potential strengths and limitations of the study.

2011-01-01

157

Neuropsychological correlates of performance based functional status in elder adult protective services referrals for capacity assessments.  

PubMed

We have previously described high rates of executive function impairment in clients referred by Adult Protective Services (APS) to geriatric psychiatry for decision-making capacity assessments. The purpose of this study was to determine the independent relationship between neuropsychological screening instruments, particularly instruments sensitive to executive function, and performance-based functional tasks in elder referrals. Our retrospective medical review (n = 75/157 referrals completed all neuropsychological and functional assessments) revealed that only the Executive Interview (EXIT25) contributed independent variance to money management performance (R(2) = 0.29, p < 0.001), telephone use ability (R(2) = 0.39, p < 0.001), and summed performance (R(2) = 0.45, p < 0.001). Executive instruments may specifically inform decision-making capacity assessments. PMID:23768413

Schillerstrom, Jason E; Birkenfeld, Elizabeth M; Yu, Anne S; Le, Minh-Phuong T; Goldstein, Daniel J; Royall, Donald R

2013-01-01

158

Association between low functional health literacy and mortality in older adults: longitudinal cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the association between low functional health literacy (ability to read and understand basic health related information) and mortality in older adults. Design Population based longitudinal cohort study based on a stratified random sample of households. Setting England. Participants 7857 adults aged 52 or more who participated in the second wave (2004-5) of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing and survived more than 12 months after interview. Participants completed a brief four item test of functional health literacy, which assessed understanding of written instructions for taking an aspirin tablet. Main outcome measure Time to death, based on all cause mortality through October 2009. Results Health literacy was categorised as high (maximum score, 67.2%), medium (one error, 20.3%), or low (more than one error, 12.5%). During follow-up (mean 5.3 years) 621 deaths occurred: 321 (6.1%) in the high health literacy category, 143 (9.0%) in the medium category, and 157 (16.0%) in the low category. After adjusting for personal characteristics, socioeconomic position, baseline health, and health behaviours, the hazard ratio for all cause mortality for participants with low health literacy was 1.40 (95% confidence interval 1.15 to 1.72) and with medium health literacy was 1.15 (0.94 to 1.41) compared with participants with high health literacy. Further adjustment for cognitive ability reduced the hazard ratio for low health literacy to 1.26 (1.02 to 1.55). Conclusions A third of older adults in England have difficulties reading and understanding basic health related written information. Poorer understanding is associated with higher mortality. The limited health literacy capabilities within this population have implications for the design and delivery of health related services for older adults in England.

2012-01-01

159

Adult neurogenesis and functional plasticity in neuronal circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adult brain is a plastic place. To ensure that the mature nervous system's control of behaviour is flexible in the face of a varying environment, morphological and physiological changes are possible at many levels, including that of the entire cell. In two areas of the adult brain — the olfactory bulb and the dentate gyrus — new neurons are

Mariana Alonso; Matthew S. Grubb; Pierre-Marie Lledo

2006-01-01

160

Interhemispheric Connectivity and Executive Functioning in Adults With Tourette Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is relatively smaller, and the corpus callosum (CC) larger, in adults with Tourette syndrome (TS). The authors explored the possible roles of the PFC and the CC in mediating interhemispheric interference and coordination in TS adults. They measured performance on M. Kinsbourne and J. Cook’s (1971) verbal-manual interference task and on the bimanual Purdue Pegboard in

Amy Margolis; Mireille Donkervoort; Marcel Kinsbourne; Bradley S. Peterson

2006-01-01

161

Generation of Functional Thymocytes in the Human Adult  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reconstituting the immune response will be critical for the survival of HIV-infected individuals once viral load is brought under control. While the adult thymus was previously thought to be relatively inactive, new data suggest it may play a role in T cell reconstitution. We examined thymopoiesis in adults up to 56 years of age and found active T cell receptor

Beth D Jamieson; Daniel C Douek; Scott Killian; Lance E Hultin; Deirdre D Scripture-Adams; Janis V Giorgi; Daniel Marelli; Richard A Koup; Jerome A Zack

1999-01-01

162

Chasing fate and function of new neurons in adult brains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuron production, migration and differentiation are major developmental events that continue, on a smaller scale, into adult life in a wide range of species from insects to mammals. Recent reports of adult neurogenesis in primates, including humans, have led to explosive scientific and public attention. During the last two years, significant discoveries have revealed that the generation, recruitment and survival

Constance Scharff

2000-01-01

163

Natural History of Thyroid Function in Adults with Down Syndrome--10-Year Follow-Up Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: The natural history of thyroid function in adults with Down syndrome (DS) is unknown. Method: This study investigated annual thyroid function tests in 200 adults with DS over a 10-year period. Results: Transient and persistent thyroid dysfunction was common. The 5- and 10-year incidence of definite hypothyroidism was 0.9%-1.64% and…

Prasher, V.; Gomez, G.

2007-01-01

164

Functional Limitations and Religious Service Attendance among African American and White Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Church attendance is associated with improved health and well-being among older adults, but older adults with functional limitations may have difficulty attending church services. This article examines differences in the association between functional limitations and church attendance in a sample of 987 elderly African American and white…

Roff, Lucinda Lee; Klemmack, David L.; Simon, Cassandra; Cho, Gi Won; Parker, Michael W.; Koenig, Harold G.; Sawyer-Baker, Patricia; Allman, Richard M.

2006-01-01

165

Older Adults in Cardiac Rehabilitation: A New Strategy for Enhancing Physical Function.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Contrasted the effect of a group-mediated cognitive- behavioral intervention (GMCB) versus traditional cardiac rehabilitation (CRP) upon changes in objective and self-reported physical function of older adults after 3 months of exercise therapy. Both groups improved significantly. Adults with lower function at the outset of the intervention…

Rejeski, W. Jack; Foy, Capri Gabrielle; Brawley, Lawrence R.; Brubaker, Peter H.; Focht, Brian C.; Norris, James L., III; Smith, Marci L.

2002-01-01

166

Executive Functioning as a Potential Mediator of Age-Related Cognitive Decline in Normal Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Critical requirements for the hypothesis that executive functioning is a potential mediator of age-related effects on cognitive functioning are that variables assumed to reflect executive functioning represent a distinct construct and that age-related effects on other types of cognitive functioning are reduced when measures of executive functioning are statistically controlled. These issues were investigated in a study involving 261 adults

Timothy A. Salthouse; Thomas M. Atkinson; Diane E. Berish

2003-01-01

167

Expression and function of orphan nuclear receptor TLX in adult neural stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The finding of neurogenesis in the adult brain led to the discovery of adult neural stem cells. TLX was initially identified as an orphan nuclear receptor expressed in vertebrate forebrains and is highly expressed in the adult brain. The brains of TLX-null mice have been reported to have no obvious defects during embryogenesis; however, mature mice suffer from retinopathies, severe

Yanhong Shi; D. Chichung Lie; Philippe Taupin; Kinichi Nakashima; Jasodhara Ray; Ruth T. Yu; Fred H. Gage; Ronald M. Evans

2004-01-01

168

Effects of air pollution on adult pulmonary function  

SciTech Connect

The authors conducted a study in three representative areas of Beijing to determine respiratory health effects of indoor and outdoor air pollution. In August 1986, they measured the lung function of 1,440 adults who were 40-69 y of age and who had never smoked. Forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1.0) were adjusted for height, sex, and age. Outdoor ambient air pollution measurements from the World Health Organization Global Air Pollution Monitoring Station were very different in the three study areas; the annual mean concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in residential, suburban, and industrial areas were 128, 18, and 57 micrograms/m3, respectively, and annual mean concentrations of total suspended particulate matter (TSPM) were 389, 261, and 449 micrograms/m3, respectively. Coal was most frequently used for domestic heating in the residential (92%) and suburban (96%) areas compared with the industrial area (17%). Heating with coal was associated with a reduced FEV1.0 (-91 {plus minus} 36 ml) and FVC (-84 {plus minus} 41 ml). Living in the residential area was associated with an additional reduction in FEV1.0 (-69 {plus minus} 34 ml) and FVC (-257 {plus minus} 37 ml). After the authors adjusted for age, height, and sex, an inverse linear association was found between In outdoor SO2 (or TSPM) concentration and FEV1.0 and FVC in subjects who had and had not used coal stove heating. Regression analysis results showed that a per-unit increase in In SO2 (TSPM) concentration (microgram/m3) could result in a 35.6 (131.4) ml reduction in FEV1.0 and a 142.2 (478.7) ml reduction in FVC.

Xu, X.P.; Dockery, D.W.; Wang, L.H. (School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, MA (USA))

1991-07-01

169

Abnormalities in circadian blood pressure variability and endothelial function: pragmatic markers for adverse cardiometabolic profiles in asymptomatic obese adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, although perceived to be high, is often difficult to demonstrate in disease free (healthy) obese adults. HYPOTHESIS: Changes in circadian blood pressure variability (CBPV) and endothelial function (EF) may be early correlates of cardiometabolic disorders. METHODS: Asymptomatic men and women in 3 groups: normal weight (n = 10), overweight (n = 10) and obese (n

Alok K Gupta; Germaine Cornelissen; Frank L Greenway; Vijay Dhoopati; Franz Halberg; William D Johnson

2010-01-01

170

High prevalence of thymic tissue in adults with human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection.  

PubMed Central

The thymus in adults infected with the HIV-1 is generally thought to be inactive, both because of age-related involution and viral destruction. We have revisited the question of thymic function in adults, using chest-computed tomography (CT) to measure thymic tissue in HIV-1-seropositive (n = 99) or HIV-1-seronegative (n = 32) subjects, and correlating these results with the level of circulating CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells that are phenotypically described as naive thymic emigrants. Abundant thymic tissue was detectable in many (47/99) HIV-1-seropositive adults, aged 20-59. Independent of age, radiographic demonstration of thymic tissue was significantly associated with both a higher CD4(+) T cell count (P = 0.02) and a higher percentage and absolute number of circulating naive (CD45RA+CD62L+) CD4(+) T cells (P < 0.04). The prevalence of an abundant thymus was especially high in younger HIV-1-seropositive adults ( 40 yr) regardless of CD4 count (P = 0.03). These studies suggest that the thymus is functional in some but not all adults with HIV-1 disease.

McCune, J M; Loftus, R; Schmidt, D K; Carroll, P; Webster, D; Swor-Yim, L B; Francis, I R; Gross, B H; Grant, R M

1998-01-01

171

Prediction of functional status in older adults: The ecological validity of four Delis–Kaplan Executive Function System tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tested the ecological validity of four Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS) tests by examining how well performance on D-KEFS measures predicted observed daily functioning in community-dwelling older adults. Older adults ages 65 to 92 years completed four D-KEFS tests requiring planning and cognitive fluency. The four combined D-KEFS measures accounted for approximately 26% of the variance in observed

Meghan Mitchell; L. Stephen Miller

2008-01-01

172

The Evolution and Function of Adult Attachment: A Comparative and Phylogenetic Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the evolutionary functions of attachment in infant-caregiver relationships are undisputed, it is unclear what functions—if any—attachment serves in adult romantic relationships. The objective of this research was to examine the evolution and function of adult attachment (i.e., pair bonding) by applying comparative and phylogenetic methods to archival data collected on 2 diverse samples of mammalian species. The authors found

R. Chris Fraley; Claudia C. Brumbaugh; Michael J. Marks

2005-01-01

173

Brief Report: Biochemical Correlates of Clinical Impairment in High Functioning Autism and Asperger's Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Amygdala dysfunction has been proposed as a critical contributor to social impairment in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The current study investigated biochemical abnormalities in the amygdala in 20 high functioning adults with autistic disorder or Asperger's disorder and 19 typically developing adults matched on age and IQ. Magnetic resonance…

Kleinhans, Natalia M.; Richards, Todd; Weaver, Kurt E.; Liang, Olivia; Dawson, Geraldine; Aylward, Elizabeth

2009-01-01

174

Brief Report: Biochemical Correlates of Clinical Impairment in High Functioning Autism and Asperger's Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Amygdala dysfunction has been proposed as a critical contributor to social impairment in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The current study investigated biochemical abnormalities in the amygdala in 20 high functioning adults with autistic disorder or Asperger's disorder and 19 typically developing adults matched on age and IQ. Magnetic resonance…

Kleinhans, Natalia M.; Richards, Todd; Weaver, Kurt E.; Liang, Olivia; Dawson, Geraldine; Aylward, Elizabeth

2009-01-01

175

Adult literacy in the Commonwealth Caribbean with special reference to a study of the functional literacy of young Guyanese adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

International databases report high rates of adult literacy for Commonwealth Caribbean countries which create the impression that these countries do not have a literacy problem. This is despite the fact that local and regional research has consistently pointed up serious weaknesses in the literacy skills of nationals at all levels, including university students. This paper questions whether the reported high

Zellynne Jennings

2000-01-01

176

Effects of Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone on Cognitive Function in Adults With Mild Cognitive Impairment and Healthy Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Background Growth hormone–releasing hormone (GHRH), growth hormone, and insulinlike growth factor 1 have potent effects on brain function, their levels decrease with advancing age, and they likely play a role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease. Previously, we reported favorable cognitive effects of short-term GHRH administration in healthy older adults and provided preliminary evidence to suggest a similar benefit in adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Objective To examine the effects of GHRH on cognitive function in healthy older adults and in adults with MCI. Design Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Setting Clinical Research Center, University of Washington School of Medicine in Seattle. Participants A total of 152 adults (66 with MCI) ranging in age from 55 to 87 years (mean age, 68 years); 137 adults (76 healthy participants and 61 participants with MCI) successfully completed the study. Intervention Participants self-administered daily subcutaneous injections of tesamorelin (Theratechnologies Inc), a stabilized analog of human GHRH (1 mg/d), or placebo 30 minutes before bedtime for 20 weeks. At baseline, at weeks 10 and 20 of treatment, and after a 10-week washout (week 30), blood samples were collected, and parallel versions of a cognitive battery were administered. Before and after the 20-week intervention, participants completed an oral glucose tolerance test and a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan to measure body composition. Main Outcome Measures Primary cognitive outcomes were analyzed using analysis of variance and included 3 composites reflecting executive function, verbal memory, and visual memory. Executive function was assessed with Stroop Color-Word Interference, Task Switching, the Self-Ordered Pointing Test, and Word Fluency, verbal memory was assessed with Story Recall and the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test, and visual memory was assessed with the Visual-Spatial Learning Test and Delayed Match-to-Sample. Results The intent-to-treat analysis indicated a favorable effect of GHRH on cognition (P=.03), which was comparable in adults with MCI and healthy older adults. The completer analysis showed a similar pattern, with a more robust GHRH effect (P=.002). Subsequent analyses indicated a positive GHRH effect on executive function (P=.005) and a trend showing a similar treatment-related benefit in verbal memory (P=.08). Treatment with GHRH increased insulinlike growth factor 1 levels by 117% (P<.001), which remained within the physiological range, and reduced percent body fat by 7.4% (P<.001). Treatment with GHRH increased fasting insulin levels within the normal range by 35% in adults with MCI (P<.001) but not in healthy adults. Adverse events were mild and were reported by 68% of GHRH-treated adults and 36% of those who received placebo. Conclusions Twenty weeks of GHRH administration had favorable effects on cognition in both adults with MCI and healthy older adults. Longer-duration treatment trials are needed to further examine the therapeutic potential of GHRH administration on brain health during normal aging and “pathological aging.” Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00257712

Baker, Laura D.; Barsness, Suzanne M.; Borson, Soo; Merriam, George R.; Friedman, Seth D.; Craft, Suzanne; Vitiello, Michael V.

2013-01-01

177

Community Environmental Factors Are Associated With Disability in Older Adults With Functional Limitations: The MOST Study  

PubMed Central

Background There is limited evidence supporting the hypothesized environment–disability link. The objectives of this study were to (a) identify the prevalence of community mobility barriers and transportation facilitators and (b) examine whether barriers and facilitators were associated with disability among older adults with functional limitations. Methods Four hundred and thirty-five participants aged 65+ years old with functional limitations were recruited from the Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study, a prospective study of community-dwelling adults with or at risk of developing symptomatic knee osteoarthritis. Presence of community barriers and facilitators was ascertained by the Home and Community Environment survey. Two domains of disability, (a) daily activity limitation (DAL) and (b) daily activity frequency (DAF), were assessed with the Late-Life Disability Instrument. Covariates included age, gender, education, race, comorbidity, body mass index, knee pain, and functional limitation. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine adjusted associations of community factors with presence of DAL and DAF. Results Approximately one third of the participants lived in a community with high mobility barriers and low transportation facilitators. High mobility barriers was associated with greater odds of DAL (odds ratio [OR] = 2.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2–3.1) after adjusting for covariates, and high transportation facilitators was associated with lower odds of DAL (OR = 0.5, 95% CI 0.3–0.8) but not with DAF in adjusted models. Conclusion People with functional limitations who live in communities that were more restrictive felt more limited in doing daily activities but did not perform these daily activities any less frequently.

Jette, Alan M.; LaValley, Michael P.; Lewis, Cora E.; Torner, James C.; Nevitt, Michael C.; Felson, Dave T.

2010-01-01

178

Neighborhood Psychosocial Hazards and the Association of Cumulative Lead Dose With Cognitive Function in Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Before the 1970s, today's older Americans were exposed to high levels of lead in the environment. The authors previously reported that lifetime cumulative lead dose was associated with lower cognitive test performance in older adults. Experiments suggest that environmental stress may intensify the detrimental influence of lead. No large, population-based studies of this question have been done. The authors evaluated whether cross-sectional associations of tibia lead with cognitive function were modified by neighborhood psychosocial hazards in the Baltimore Memory Study (2001–2005), a longitudinal cohort study of determinants of cognitive decline. Tibia lead was measured via 109Cd-induced K-shell X-ray fluorescence. Neighborhood psychosocial hazards were measured independently of study subjects. Complete data were available among 1,001 demographically diverse adults aged 50–70 years, randomly selected from 65 contiguous neighborhoods in Baltimore City. Hierarchical mixed-effects regression models showed that neighborhood psychosocial hazards exacerbated the adverse associations of tibia lead in 3 of 7 cognitive domains after adjustment for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, testing technician, and time of day (language, P = 0.039; processing speed, P = 0.067; executive functioning, P = 0.025). The joint occurrence of environmental stress and lead exposure across the life span may partially explain persistent racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities in cognitive function in late life.

Bandeen-Roche, Karen; McAtee, Matthew; Bolla, Karen; Todd, Andrew C.; Schwartz, Brian S.

2009-01-01

179

An old test for new neurons: refining the Morris water maze to study the functional relevance of adult hippocampal neurogenesis  

PubMed Central

The Morris water maze represents the de-facto standard for testing hippocampal function in laboratory rodents. In the field of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, however, using this paradigm to assess the functional relevance of the new neurons yielded surprisingly inconsistent results. While some authors found aspects of water maze performance to be linked to adult neurogenesis, others obtained different results or could not demonstrate any effect of manipulating adult neurogenesis. In this review we discuss evidence that the large diversity of protocols and setups used is an important aspect in interpreting the differences in the results that have been obtained. Even simple parameters such as pool size, number, and configuration of visual landmarks, or number of trials can become highly relevant for getting the new neurons involved at all. Sets of parameters are often chosen with implicit or explicit concepts in mind and these might lead to different views on the function of adult-generated neurons. We propose that the classical parameters usually used to measure spatial learning performance in the water maze might not be particularly well-suited to sensitively and specifically detect the supposedly highly specific functional changes elicited by the experimental modulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. As adult neurogenesis is supposed to affect specific aspects of information processing only in the hippocampus, any claim for a functional relevance of the new neurons has to be based on hippocampus-specific parameters. We also placed a special emphasis on the fact that the dentate gyrus (DG) facilitates the differentiation between contexts as opposed to just differentiating places. In conclusion, while the Morris water maze has proven to be one of the most effective testing paradigms to assess hippocampus-dependent spatial learning, new and more specific questions ask for new parameters. Therefore, the full potential of the water maze task remains to be tapped.

Garthe, Alexander; Kempermann, Gerd

2013-01-01

180

An old test for new neurons: refining the Morris water maze to study the functional relevance of adult hippocampal neurogenesis.  

PubMed

The Morris water maze represents the de-facto standard for testing hippocampal function in laboratory rodents. In the field of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, however, using this paradigm to assess the functional relevance of the new neurons yielded surprisingly inconsistent results. While some authors found aspects of water maze performance to be linked to adult neurogenesis, others obtained different results or could not demonstrate any effect of manipulating adult neurogenesis. In this review we discuss evidence that the large diversity of protocols and setups used is an important aspect in interpreting the differences in the results that have been obtained. Even simple parameters such as pool size, number, and configuration of visual landmarks, or number of trials can become highly relevant for getting the new neurons involved at all. Sets of parameters are often chosen with implicit or explicit concepts in mind and these might lead to different views on the function of adult-generated neurons. We propose that the classical parameters usually used to measure spatial learning performance in the water maze might not be particularly well-suited to sensitively and specifically detect the supposedly highly specific functional changes elicited by the experimental modulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. As adult neurogenesis is supposed to affect specific aspects of information processing only in the hippocampus, any claim for a functional relevance of the new neurons has to be based on hippocampus-specific parameters. We also placed a special emphasis on the fact that the dentate gyrus (DG) facilitates the differentiation between contexts as opposed to just differentiating places. In conclusion, while the Morris water maze has proven to be one of the most effective testing paradigms to assess hippocampus-dependent spatial learning, new and more specific questions ask for new parameters. Therefore, the full potential of the water maze task remains to be tapped. PMID:23653589

Garthe, Alexander; Kempermann, Gerd

2013-05-03

181

Disruption of Functional Connectivity in Clinically Normal Older Adults Harboring Amyloid Burden  

PubMed Central

Amyloid deposition is present in 20–50% of nondemented older adults yet the functional consequences remain unclear. The current study found that amyloid accumulation is correlated with functional disruption of the default network as measured by intrinsic activity correlations. Clinically normal participants (n=38, aged 60–88) were characterized using [11C]-Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) PET imaging to estimate fibrillar amyloid burden and, separately, underwent functional MRI (fMRI). The integrity of the default network was estimated by correlating rest-state fMRI time courses extracted from a priori regions including the posterior cingulate, lateral parietal, and medial prefrontal cortices. Clinically normal participants with high amyloid burden displayed significantly reduced functional correlations within the default network relative to participants with low amyloid burden. These reductions were also observed when amyloid burden was treated as a continuous, rather than a dichotomous, measure and when controlling for age and structural atrophy. Whole-brain analyses initiated by seeding the posterior cingulate cortex, a region of high amyloid burden in Alzheimer1s disease (AD), revealed significant disruption in the default network including functional disconnection of the hippocampal formation.

Hedden, Trey; Van Dijk, Koene R. A.; Becker, J. Alex; Mehta, Angel; Sperling, Reisa A.; Johnson, Keith A.; Buckner, Randy L.

2009-01-01

182

Effect of iodinated contrast media on thyroid function in adults.  

PubMed

Excess free iodide in the blood (ingested or injected) may cause thyrotoxicosis in patients at risk. Iodinated contrast medium solutions contain small amounts of free iodide and may be of significance for patients at risk. The free iodide may also interfere with nuclear medicine diagnostic studies and treatment. Therefore the Contrast Media Safety Committee of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology reviewed the literature on this subject in order to prepare guidelines. A report and guidelines were prepared based on an extensive Medline search. The report was discussed with the participants attending the Tenth European Symposium on Urogenital Radiology, Uppsala, Sweden, September 2003. Contrast medium induced thyrotoxicosis is rare. Contrast medium injection does not affect thyroid function tests (e.g., T3, T4, TSH) in patients with a normal thyroid. Routine monitoring of thyroid function tests before contrast medium injection in patients with a normal thyroid is not indicated even in areas where there is dietary iodine deficiency. Patients at risk of developing thyrotoxicosis after contrast medium injection are patients with Graves' disease and patients with multinodular goiter with thyroid autonomy, especially elderly patients and patients living in areas of iodine deficiency. Patients at high-risk should be carefully monitored by endocrinologists after contrast medium examinations. Prophylaxis in these groups is not generally recommended, although it may offer some protection in selected high-risk individuals. The free iodide load of contrast media injections interferes with iodide uptake in the thyroid and therefore compromises diagnostic thyroid scintigraphy and radio-iodine treatment of thyroid malignancies for 2 months after administration of contrast media. Simple guidelines on the subject are proposed. PMID:14997334

van der Molen, Aart J; Thomsen, Henrik S; Morcos, Sameh K

2004-02-28

183

Adolescent and Adult Alcohol Attitudes in a High Alcohol Consumption Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examines alcohol-related attitudes among adolescents and adults in a high consumption community, exploring whether adolescents and adults hold similar or different views regarding adolescent drinking. Data were gathered from adults in a Midwestern city via random telephone survey of 487 adults (30% with children under the age of 21).…

De Haan, Laura; Thompson, Kevin M.

2003-01-01

184

Cerebral white matter integrity and executive function in adult survivors of childhood medulloblastoma  

PubMed Central

Survivors of pediatric medulloblastoma are at risk for neurocognitive dysfunction. Reduced white matter integrity has been correlated with lower intelligence in child survivors, yet associations between specific cognitive processes and white matter have not been examined in long-term adult survivors. Twenty adult survivors of medulloblastoma were randomly recruited from a larger institutional cohort of adult survivors of childhood cancer. Survivors underwent comprehensive neurocognitive evaluations and MRI. Data on brain volume and cortical thickness and diffusion tensor imaging were acquired, including measures of fractional anisotropy, apparent diffusion coefficient, and axial and radial diffusivity. Observed neurocognitive scores were compared with population norms and correlated to MRI indices. Survivors were, on average, 29 years of age and 18 years postdiagnosis. Mean full-scale intelligence quotient was nearly 1 SD below the normative mean (86.3 vs 100, P = .004). Seventy-five percent of survivors were impaired on at least one measure of executive function. Radial diffusivity in the frontal lobe of both hemispheres was correlated with shifting attention (left: rs = ?0.67, P = .001; right: rs = ?0.64, P = .002) and cognitive flexibility (left: rs = ?0.56, P = .01; right: rs = ?0.54, P = .01). Volume and cortical thickness were not correlated with neurocognitive function. Neurocognitive impairment was common and involved many domains. Reduced white matter integrity in multiple brain regions correlated with poorer performance on tasks of executive function. Future research integrating diffusion tensor imaging should be a priority to more rigorously evaluate long-term consequences of cancer treatment and to inform cognitive intervention trials in this high-risk population.

Brinkman, Tara M.; Reddick, Wilburn E.; Luxton, Joshua; Glass, John O.; Sabin, Noah D.; Srivastava, Deo Kumar; Robison, Leslie L.; Hudson, Melissa M.; Krull, Kevin R.

2012-01-01

185

Improving Cognitive Function in Older Adults: Nontraditional Approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article considers two nontraditional approaches for developing interventions to improve cognition in older adults. Neither of these approaches relies on traditional explicit training of specific abilities in the laboratory. The first technique involves the activation of automatic processes through the formation of implementation intentions that enhance the probability that a desired action will be completed, such as remembering to

Denise C. Park; Angela H. Gutchess; Michelle L. Meade; Elizabeth A. L. Stine-Morrow

2007-01-01

186

Relationships between Bereavement and Cognitive Functioning in Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Bereavement is often associated with increased levels of depression, anxiety, and stress. The question of whether grief is associated with cognitive deficits in older adults remains largely unanswered. Although Xavier and coworkers (see text) found preliminary evidence that grief, in the absence of depression, impacted on memory in a sample of the oldest-old in Brazil, the impact of bereavement

L. Ward; J. L. Mathias; S. E. Hitchings

2007-01-01

187

DOES FAMILY OF ORIGIN FUNCTIONING PREDICT ADULT SOMATIC COMPLAINTS?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

It has long been believed that adult somatic complaints are associated with early family dysfunction. Yet few studies have examined this hypothesis in community samples, where medically unexplained symptom complaints are estimated to be very common. Given the potential population-wide impact of subt...

188

Shared and Distinctive Origins and Correlates of Adult Attachment Representations: The Developmental Organization of Romantic Functioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To test proposals regarding the hierarchical organization of adult attachment, this study examined developmental origins of generalized and romantic attachment representations and their concurrent associations with romantic functioning. Participants (N = 112) in a 35-year prospective study completed the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) and…

Haydon, Katherine C.; Collins, W. A.; Salvatore, Jessica E.; Simpson, Jeffry A.; Roisman, Glenn I.

2012-01-01

189

Effects of Computer versus Paper Administration of an Adult Functional Writing Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated the comparability of paper and computer versions of a functional writing assessment administered to adults 16 and older. Three writing tasks were administered in both paper and computer modes to volunteers in the field test of an assessment of adult literacy in 2008. One set of analyses examined mode effects on scoring by…

Chen, Jing; White, Sheida; McCloskey, Michael; Soroui, Jaleh; Chun, Young

2011-01-01

190

Physical activity in prefrail older adults: confidence and satisfaction related to physical function  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We examined the hypothesis that physical activity will have favorable effects on measures of self-efficacy for a 400-m walk and satisfaction with physical functioning in older adults 701 years of age who have deficits in mobility. We randomized a total of 412 adults aged 70–89 years at elevated risk...

191

Does Impaired Executive Functioning Differentially Impact Verbal Memory Measures in Older Adults with Suspected Dementia?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine whether executive dysfunction differentially impacts list-learning and story recall tasks in a sample of older adults referred for suspected cognitive impairment. Older adults (N = 61) with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or probable mild dementia, and those who did not meet criteria for diagnosis of dementia, were assessed using measures of executive function and

Brian L. Brooks; Linda E. Weaver; Charles T. Scialfa

2006-01-01

192

Effect of Atomoxetine on Executive Function Impairments in Adults with ADHD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: To assess the effect of atomoxetine on ADHD-related executive functions over a 6-month period using the Brown Attention-Deficit Disorder Scale (BADDS) for Adults, a normed, 40-item, self-report scale in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Method: In a randomized, double-blind clinical trial, adults with ADHD…

Brown, Thomas E.; Holdnack, James; Saylor, Keith; Adler, Lenard; Spencer, Thomas; Williams, David W.; Padival, Anoop K.; Schuh, Kory; Trzepacz, Paula T.; Kelsey, Douglas

2011-01-01

193

Executive and visuo-motor function in adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorder.  

PubMed

This study broadly examines executive (EF) and visuo-motor function in 30 adolescent and adult individuals with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in comparison to 28 controls matched for age, gender, and IQ. ASD individuals showed impaired spatial working memory, whereas planning, cognitive flexibility, and inhibition were spared. Pure movement execution during visuo-motor information processing also was intact. In contrast, execution time of reading, naming, and of visuo-motor information processing tasks including a choice component was increased in the ASD group. Results of this study are in line with previous studies reporting only minimal EF difficulties in older individuals with ASD when assessed by computerized tasks. The finding of impaired visuo-motor information processing should be accounted for in further neuropsychological studies in ASD. PMID:23011252

Sachse, Michael; Schlitt, Sabine; Hainz, Daniela; Ciaramidaro, Angela; Schirman, Shella; Walter, Henrik; Poustka, Fritz; Bölte, Sven; Freitag, Christine M

2013-05-01

194

Adults with congenital or acquired facial disfigurement: impact of appearance on social functioning.  

PubMed

This study evaluates the impact of congenital and acquired facial disfigurement on social functioning in adults and whether this differs from adults without facial disfigurement. Moreover, the predictive value of objective and subjective appearance on social functioning is explored. Fifty-nine adults with severe congenital facial disfigurement, 59 adults with traumatically acquired facial deformities in adulthood, and 120 adults without facial disfigurement, completed the Scale for Interpersonal Behaviour, Social Avoidance and Distress Scale, and Visual Analogue Scale for facial appearance satisfaction. The impact of congenital and acquired facial disfigurement on social functioning in adults is similar and significantly differed from the reference group. The level of stress evoked by interpersonal behaviour, and social anxiety and distress were not significantly different between the groups. Only the patient's subjective appearance was a predictor of social functioning. Avoiding stress caused by stigmatization and uncertainty about reactions of others, leads to less frequent interpersonal behaviour in adults with facial disfigurement. The fact whether the deformity is congenital or acquired in adulthood has no influence on social functioning. Patient's satisfaction with facial appearance is more important than the objective severity of the deformity; in this context realistic expectations of the patient considering additional surgery are important. PMID:22459493

van den Elzen, Marijke E P; Versnel, Sarah L; Hovius, Steven E R; Passchier, Jan; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J; Mathijssen, Irene M J

2012-03-27

195

Cognitive Training Improves Sleep Quality and Cognitive Function among Older Adults with Insomnia  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives To investigate the effect of an eight-week, home-based, personalized, computerized cognitive training program on sleep quality and cognitive performance among older adults with insomnia. Design Participants (n?=?51) were randomly allocated to a cognitive training group (n?=?34) or to an active control group (n?=?17). The participants in the cognitive training group completed an eight-week, home-based, personalized, computerized cognitive training program, while the participants in the active control group completed an eight-week, home-based program involving computerized tasks that do not engage high-level cognitive functioning. Before and after training, all participants' sleep was monitored for one week by an actigraph and their cognitive performance was evaluated. Setting Community setting: residential sleep/performance testing facility. Participants Fifty-one older adults with insomnia (aged 65–85). Interventions Eight weeks of computerized cognitive training for older adults with insomnia. Results Mixed models for repeated measures analysis showed between-group improvements for the cognitive training group on both sleep quality (sleep onset latency and sleep efficiency) and cognitive performance (avoiding distractions, working memory, visual memory, general memory and naming). Hierarchical linear regressions analysis in the cognitive training group indicated that improved visual scanning is associated with earlier advent of sleep, while improved naming is associated with the reduction in wake after sleep onset and with the reduction in number of awakenings. Likewise the results indicate that improved “avoiding distractions” is associated with an increase in the duration of sleep. Moreover, the results indicate that in the active control group cognitive decline observed in working memory is associated with an increase in the time required to fall asleep. Conclusions New learning is instrumental in promoting initiation and maintenance of sleep in older adults with insomnia. Lasting and personalized cognitive training is particularly indicated to generate the type of learning necessary for combined cognitive and sleep enhancements in this population. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00901641

Haimov, Iris; Shatil, Evelyn

2013-01-01

196

High-resolution interferometric imaging of stress propagation in pediatric and adult skulls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variations based on bone growth and development make stress and fracture propagation differ greatly in pediatric skulls as compared to adult skulls. Differentiating the stress propagation between the pediatric and adult skulls can improve diagnostic prediction when presented with direct frontal impact on a pediatric skull, a fairly common occurrence in the clinical environment. Critical diagnostic information can be learned from an in depth study of stress propagation as a function of impact force at critical locations on the periorbital region of the human skull. The Division of Pediatric Otolaryngology at Albany Medical College and InterScience, Inc. are utilizing electronic speckle pattern interferometry detection (ESPI) and high resolution imaging to evaluate and compare stress propagation in pediatric and adult skulls. A dual detection ESPI system was developed which integrates a medium resolution (2/3') CCD capable of real-time image processing, with a high resolution, megapixel detector capable of limited real time acquisition and image processing in software. Options to allow for high speed detection include integrating a custom, high performance image intensifier with the megapixel detector leg to be used as a high speed gate. The dual optical layout will allow for continuous and pulsed ESPI evaluation of calibrated impacts at specific landmarks on the skull. The goal of this work is to produce a full quantitative analysis of the stress propagation in pediatric versus adult skulls for a better understanding of bone dynamics. The work presented below concentrates on the development of the dual detection ESPI system and initial results achieved with an adult cadaver skull.

Conerty, Michelle; Castracane, James; Clow, Lawrence P.; Koltai, Peter J.; Mouzakes, Jason

1997-05-01

197

Conditions affecting primary cell cultures of functional adult rat hepatocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Primary monolayer cell cultures of adult rat hepatocytes underwent change in morphology and substantial cell loss between\\u000a 1 and 3 days postinoculation. Dexamethasone-supplementation (1µM) of the culture medium maintained the polygonal epithelial morphology of the hepatocytes and increased longevity such that\\u000a over 80% of the cells survived for 3 days and at least 30% for 8 or 9 days. This

Brian A. Laishes; Gary M. Williams

1976-01-01

198

Health-specific optimism mediates between objective and perceived physical functioning in older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Particularly in older adults, self-reports of physical health need not necessarily reflect their objective health status as\\u000a they can be biased by optimism. In this study, we examine whether the effect of objective physical functioning on subjective\\u000a physical functioning is modified by health-specific optimism and self-efficacy. A longitudinal study with three measurement\\u000a points over 6 months and 309 older adults (aged

Lisa M. WarnerRalf; Ralf Schwarzer; Benjamin Schüz; Susanne Wurm; Clemens Tesch-Römer

199

Deficient cardiovascular stress reactivity predicts poor executive functions in adults with attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Associations between cardiovascular stress markers, subjective stress reactivity, and executive functions were studied in 60 adults (30 with attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder, ADHD, and 30 controls) using the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT, a test of executive functions) as a cognitive stressor. Despite higher self-perceived stress, the adults with ADHD showed lower or atypical cardiovascular stress reactivity, which was associated with

Tatja Hirvikoski; Erik M. G. Olsson; Anna Nordenström; Torun Lindholm; Anna-Lena Nordström; Svetlana Lajic

2011-01-01

200

Parenting Style, Perfectionism, and Creativity in High-Ability and High-Achieving Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The current study explores the potential relationships among perceived parenting style, perfectionism, and creativity in a high-ability and high-achieving young adult population. Using data from 323 honors college students at a Midwestern university, bivariate correlations suggested positive relationships between (a) permissive parenting style…

Miller, Angie L.; Lambert, Amber D.; Speirs Neumeister, Kristie L.

2012-01-01

201

Committing memory errors with high confidence: Older adults do but children don't  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated lifespan differences of confidence calibration in episodic memory, particularly the susceptibility to high-confidence errors within samples of children, teenagers, younger adults, and older adults. Using an associative recognition memory paradigm, we drew a direct link between older adults’ associative deficit and high-confidence errors. We predicted that only older adults would show high-confidence error even though their memory performance

Yee Lee Shing; Markus Werkle-Bergner; Shu-Chen Li; Ulman Lindenberger

2009-01-01

202

Effects of childhood circumcision age on adult male sexual functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of childhood circumcision on male sexual function have been debated. However, there are no studies, to our knowledge, that assess the possible effects of childhood circumcision age on male sexual function. In an attempt to answer this question, we performed a prospective study to determine the possible relationship between circumcision age and male sexual function, using a validated

E Aydur; S Gungor; S T Ceyhan; L Taiimaz; I Baser

2007-01-01

203

Gender Differences in Functional Limitations in Adults Living with Type 2 Diabetes: Biobehavioral and Psychosocial Mediators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Differences in functional limitations between adults with and without diabetes are more evident in women than they are in\\u000a men.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Purpose  This study aims to investigate if there are gender differences in biological, behavioral, and psychosocial variables, and\\u000a how these gender-related variables explain the gender–functional limitations relationship in adults with type 2 diabetes.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We drew data on 1,619 adults with type

Ching-Ju Chiu; Linda A. Wray

2011-01-01

204

Effect of Resistance Exercises on Function in Older Adults with Osteoporosis or Osteopenia: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Purpose: To examine the effect of resistance exercises on self-reported physical function and activities of daily living (ADL) in older adults with osteoporosis or osteopenia. Methods: A search of available literature was conducted using PubMed, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, PEDro, ProQuest Nursing and Allied Health Source, and Cochrane Controlled Trials Register. Studies were included if they involved (1) randomized controlled trials; (2) participants with osteoporosis or osteopenia; (3) resistance exercise as an intervention; and (4) self-report of physical function or ADL. Articles were independently reviewed for quality by two authors using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale. Cohen's d effect size was calculated by dividing standardized mean differences by the standard deviation to determine treatment effect in terms of physical function or ADL. Results: Five full-text articles were selected for inclusion. PEDro scores ranged from 5 to 7 (out of 10). Effect size mean differences as a result of resistance intervention ranged from 0.08 to 1.74, suggesting “trivial” to “large” effects on self-reported physical function and ADL. Conclusion: Results suggest that interventions using resistance training have a beneficial impact on the domains of physical function and ADL in participants with osteoporosis or osteopenia. More high-quality studies are needed to lend further validity to this supposition.

Wilhelm, Mark; Roskovensky, Gregory; Emery, Karla; Manno, Christina; Valek, Katherine

2012-01-01

205

Functional and Molecular Characterization of Rod-like Cells from Retinal Stem Cells Derived from the Adult Ciliary Epithelium  

PubMed Central

In vitro generation of photoreceptors from stem cells is of great interest for the development of regenerative medicine approaches for patients affected by retinal degeneration and for high throughput drug screens for these diseases. In this study, we show unprecedented high percentages of rod-fated cells from retinal stem cells of the adult ciliary epithelium. Molecular characterization of rod-like cells demonstrates that they lose ciliary epithelial characteristics but acquire photoreceptor features. Rod maturation was evaluated at two levels: gene expression and electrophysiological functionality. Here we present a strong correlation between phototransduction protein expression and functionality of the cells in vitro. We demonstrate that in vitro generated rod-like cells express cGMP-gated channels that are gated by endogenous cGMP. We also identified voltage-gated channels necessary for rod maturation and viability. This level of analysis for the first time provides evidence that adult retinal stem cells can generate highly homogeneous rod-fated cells.

Demontis, Gian Carlo; Aruta, Claudia; Comitato, Antonella; De Marzo, Anna; Marigo, Valeria

2012-01-01

206

Stability and Change in Health, Functional Abilities, and Behavior Problems Among Adults With and Without Down Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in health, functional abilities, and behavior problems among 150 adults with Down syndrome and 240 adults with mental retardation due to other causes were examined with seven assessments over a 9-year period. Adults were primarily younger than 40, the age at which declines begin to be evident in individuals with Down syndrome. Adults with Down syndrome were advantaged in

Anna J. Esbensen; Marsha Mailick Seltzer; Marty Wyngaarden Krauss

2008-01-01

207

Adult Male Circumcision: Effects on Sexual Function and Sexual Satisfaction in Kisumu, Kenya  

PubMed Central

Introduction Male circumcision is being promoted for HIV prevention in high-risk heterosexual populations. However, there is a concern that circumcision may impair sexual function. Aim To assess adult male circumcision’s effect on men’s sexual function and pleasure. Methods Participants in a controlled trial of circumcision to reduce HIV incidence in Kisumu, Kenya were uncircumcised, HIV negative, sexually active men, aged 18–24 years, with a hemoglobin ?9.0 mmol/L. Exclusion criteria included foreskin covering less than half the glans, a condition that might unduly increase surgical risks, or a medical indication for circumcision. Participants were randomized 1:1 to either immediate circumcision or delayed circumcision after 2 years (control group). Detailed evaluations occurred at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Main Outcome Measures (i) Sexual function between circumcised and uncircumcised men; and (ii) sexual satisfaction and pleasure over time following circumcision. Results Between February 2002 and September 2005, 2,784 participants were randomized, including the 100 excluded from this analysis because they crossed over, were not circumcised within 30 days of randomization, did not complete baseline interviews, or were outside the age range. For the circumcision and control groups, respectively, rates of any reported sexual dysfunction decreased from 23.6% and 25.9% at baseline to 6.2% and 5.8% at month 24. Changes over time were not associated with circumcision status. Compared to before they were circumcised, 64.0% of circumcised men reported their penis was “much more sensitive,” and 54.5% rated their ease of reaching orgasm as “much more” at month 24. Conclusions Adult male circumcision was not associated with sexual dysfunction. Circumcised men reported increased penile sensitivity and enhanced ease of reaching orgasm. These data indicate that integration of male circumcision into programs to reduce HIV risk is unlikely to adversely effect male sexual function.

Krieger, John N.; Mehta, Supriya D.; Bailey, Robert C.; Agot, Kawango; Ndinya-Achola, Jeckoniah O.; Parker, Corette; Moses, Stephen

2010-01-01

208

Brain Training Game Boosts Executive Functions, Working Memory and Processing Speed in the Young Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Do brain training games work? The beneficial effects of brain training games are expected to transfer to other cognitive functions. Yet in all honesty, beneficial transfer effects of the commercial brain training games in young adults have little scientific basis. Here we investigated the impact of the brain training game (Brain Age) on a wide range of cognitive functions in young adults. Methods We conducted a double-blind (de facto masking) randomized controlled trial using a popular brain training game (Brain Age) and a popular puzzle game (Tetris). Thirty-two volunteers were recruited through an advertisement in the local newspaper and randomly assigned to either of two game groups (Brain Age, Tetris). Participants in both the Brain Age and the Tetris groups played their game for about 15 minutes per day, at least 5 days per week, for 4 weeks. Measures of the cognitive functions were conducted before and after training. Measures of the cognitive functions fell into eight categories (fluid intelligence, executive function, working memory, short-term memory, attention, processing speed, visual ability, and reading ability). Results and Discussion Our results showed that commercial brain training game improves executive functions, working memory, and processing speed in young adults. Moreover, the popular puzzle game can engender improvement attention and visuo-spatial ability compared to playing the brain training game. The present study showed the scientific evidence which the brain training game had the beneficial effects on cognitive functions (executive functions, working memory and processing speed) in the healthy young adults. Conclusions Our results do not indicate that everyone should play brain training games. However, the commercial brain training game might be a simple and convenient means to improve some cognitive functions. We believe that our findings are highly relevant to applications in educational and clinical fields. Trial Registration UMIN Clinical Trial Registry 000005618.

Nouchi, Rui; Taki, Yasuyuki; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Nozawa, Takayuki; Kambara, Toshimune; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Miyauchi, Carlos Makoto; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nouchi, Haruka; Kawashima, Ryuta

2013-01-01

209

Behavior regulation and mood predict social functioning among healthy young adults.  

PubMed

Impulsive behavior is thought to lead to both positive and negative psychosocial outcomes. However, little is known about the potential consequences of subclinical expressions of behavior dysregulation on everyday functioning. To examine this relationship, global social functioning was measured in 89 healthy, young adults who also completed the Degraded Stimulus Continuous Performance Test, Color-Word Interference Test, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, 11th Edition, and Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning-Adult. Better self-reported executive functioning and mood were significant independent predictors of higher social functioning, even in a sample of healthy adults. The results of this study may serve as a foundation for comparison with clinical populations who demonstrate greater behavior dysregulation and mood instability. PMID:22225510

Dawson, Erica L; Shear, Paula K; Strakowski, Stephen M

2012-01-06

210

Brain function differences in language processing in children and adults with autism.  

PubMed

Comparison of brain function between children and adults with autism provides an understanding of the effects of the disorder and associated maturational differences on language processing. Functional imaging (functional magnetic resonance imaging) was used to examine brain activation and cortical synchronization during the processing of literal and ironic texts in 15 children with autism, 14 children with typical development, 13 adults with autism, and 12 adult controls. Both the children and adults with autism had lower functional connectivity (synchronization of brain activity among activated areas) than their age and ability comparison group in the left hemisphere language network during irony processing, and neither autism group had an increase in functional connectivity in response to increased task demands. Activation differences for the literal and irony conditions occurred in key language-processing regions (left middle temporal, left pars triangularis, left pars opercularis, left medial frontal, and right middle temporal). The children and adults with autism differed from each other in the use of some brain regions during the irony task, with the adults with autism having activation levels similar to those of the control groups. Overall, the children and adults with autism differed from the adult and child controls in (a) the degree of network coordination, (b) the distribution of the workload among member nodes, and (3) the dynamic recruitment of regions in response to text content. Moreover, the differences between the two autism age groups may be indicative of positive changes in the neural function related to language processing associated with maturation and/or educational experience. Autism Res 2013, ??: ??-??. © 2013 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23495230

Williams, Diane L; Cherkassky, Vladimir L; Mason, Robert A; Keller, Timothy A; Minshew, Nancy J; Just, Marcel Adam

2013-03-14

211

Adverse drug reactions and cognitive function among hospitalized older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To explore the relationship between cognitive function and the detection of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and to evaluate whether cognitive function could influence the association between age and ADRs. Methods. A total of 16,926 patients admitted to 81 hospitals throughout Italy between 1991 and 1997 were included in the study. ADRs detected the during hospital stay were recorded by

Graziano Onder; Giovanni Gambassi; Christian J. Scales; Matteo Cesari; Cecilia Della Vedova; Francesco Landi; Roberto Bernabei

2002-01-01

212

Exploring Functional Disability in Older Adults with Low Vision  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on a study that explored the prevalence and predictors of functional disability that are due to visual problems as opposed to functional disability that is due to other health problems. It also discusses the implications for psychosocial and rehabilitative interventions that target different types of disability. (Contains 5…

Travis, Linda A.; Boerner, Kathrin; Reinhardt, Joann P.; Horowitz, Amy

2004-01-01

213

Acute effect of a high nitrate diet on brain perfusion in older adults  

PubMed Central

Aims Poor blood flow and hypoxia/ischemia contribute to many disease states and may also be a factor in the decline of physical and cognitive function in aging. Nitrite has been discovered to be a vasodilator that is preferentially harnessed in hypoxia. Thus, both infused and inhaled nitrite are being studied as therapeutic agents for a variety of diseases. In addition, nitrite derived from nitrate in the diet has been shown to decrease blood pressure and improve exercise performance. Thus, dietary nitrate may also be important when increased blood flow in hypoxic or ischemic areas is indicated. These conditions could include age-associated dementia and cognitive decline. The goal of this study was to determine if dietary nitrate would increase cerebral blood flow in older adults. Methods and Results In this investigation we administered a high vs. low nitrate diet to older adults (74.7 ± 6.9 years) and measured cerebral perfusion using arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging. We found that the high nitrate diet did not alter global cerebral perfusion, but did lead to increased regional cerebral perfusion in frontal lobe white matter, especially between the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex. Conclusion These results suggest that dietary nitrate may be useful in improving regional brain perfusion in older adults in critical brain areas known to be involved in executive functioning.

Presley, Tennille D.; Morgan, Ashley R.; Bechtold, Erika; Clodfelter, William; Dove, Robin W.; Jennings, Janine M.; Kraft, Robert A.; King, S. Bruce; Laurienti, Paul J.; Rejeski, W. Jack; Burdette, Jonathan H.; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B.; Miller, Gary D.

2010-01-01

214

Psychiatric Comorbidity and Functioning in a Clinically Referred Population of Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Comparative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To systematically examine the patterns of psychiatric comorbidity and functioning in clinically referred adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Psychiatrically referred adults with and without ASD were compared on measures assessing for psychiatric comorbidity and psychosocial functioning. Sixty-three adults with ASD participated in the…

Joshi, Gagan; Wozniak, Janet; Petty, Carter; Martelon, Mary Kate; Fried, Ronna; Bolfek, Anela; Kotte, Amelia; Stevens, Jonathan; Furtak, Stephannie L.; Bourgeois, Michelle; Caruso, Janet; Caron, Ashley; Biederman, Joseph

2013-01-01

215

Psychiatric Comorbidity and Functioning in a Clinically Referred Population of Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Comparative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To systematically examine the patterns of psychiatric comorbidity and functioning in clinically referred adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Psychiatrically referred adults with and without ASD were compared on measures assessing for psychiatric comorbidity and psychosocial functioning. Sixty-three adults with ASD participated in the…

Joshi, Gagan; Wozniak, Janet; Petty, Carter; Martelon, Mary Kate; Fried, Ronna; Bolfek, Anela; Kotte, Amelia; Stevens, Jonathan; Furtak, Stephannie L.; Bourgeois, Michelle; Caruso, Janet; Caron, Ashley; Biederman, Joseph

2013-01-01

216

Executive Functioning and Gambling: Performance on the Trail Making Test is Associated with Gambling Problems in Older Adult Gamblers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rates of gambling problems in older adults have risen with increased accessibility of gambling venues. One possible contributor to problem gambling among older adults is decreased self-control brought about by diminished executive functioning. Consistent with this possibility, Study 1 revealed that older adults recruited from gambling venues reported greater gambling problems if they also experienced deficits in executive functioning, measured

William von Hippel; Lily Ng; Laura Abbot; Samantha Caldwell; Georgia Gill; Kym Powell

2009-01-01

217

Prediction of functional status in older adults: the ecological validity of four Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System tests.  

PubMed

This study tested the ecological validity of four Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS) tests by examining how well performance on D-KEFS measures predicted observed daily functioning in community-dwelling older adults. Older adults ages 65 to 92 years completed four D-KEFS tests requiring planning and cognitive fluency. The four combined D-KEFS measures accounted for approximately 26% of the variance in observed functional ability, when controlling for education and depression, thus supporting the ecological validity of the D-KEFS (Pearson r = .66). However, in a multiple regression analysis, the D-KEFS Trail Making Test-4 was the only measure of executive functioning that accounted for unique, independent variance in observed functional ability. PMID:18608647

Mitchell, Meghan; Miller, L Stephen

2008-01-30

218

Oral Narrative Skills in French Adults Who Are Functionally Illiterate: Linguistic Features and Discourse Organization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To investigate the nature and extent of oral language difficulties encountered by adults who are functionally illiterate. Method: Fifty-two men and women identified as functionally illiterate, together with a group of control individuals of comparable age, sex, and socioprofessional background, produced a narrative intended for an absent…

Eme, Elsa; Lacroix, Agnes; Almecija, Yves

2010-01-01

219

Differences in the functional neuroanatomy of inhibitory control across the adult life span  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inhibitory control, the ability to suppress irrelevant or interfering stimuli, is a fundamental cognitive function that deteriorates during aging, but little is understood about the bases of decline. Thus, we used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging ( fMRI) to study inhibitory control in healthy adults aged 18 to 78. Activation during \\

Kristy A. Nielson; Scott A. Langenecker; Hugh Garavan

2002-01-01

220

Behavior regulation and mood predict social functioning among healthy young adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impulsive behavior is thought to lead to both positive and negative psychosocial outcomes. However, little is known about the potential consequences of subclinical expressions of behavior dysregulation on everyday functioning. To examine this relationship, global social functioning was measured in 89 healthy, young adults who also completed the Degraded Stimulus Continuous Performance Test, Color–Word Interference Test, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, 11th

Erica L. Dawson; Paula K. Shear; Stephen M. Strakowski

2012-01-01

221

Psychosocial Functioning of Young Adults Who Have Experienced and Recovered From Major Depressive Disorder During Adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examined whether adolescent major depressive disorder (MDD) was associated with difficulties in young adult functioning and whether differences would remain significant after accounting for nonmood disorder, MDD recurrence, functioning in adolescence, or current mood state. A total of 941 participants were assessed twice during adolescence and at age 24. In unadjusted analyses, adolescent MDD was associated with most

Peter M. Lewinsohn; Paul Rohde; John R. Seeley; Daniel N. Klein; Ian H. Gotlib

2003-01-01

222

Atypical Cerebral Lateralisation in Adults with Compensated Developmental Dyslexia Demonstrated Using Functional Transcranial Doppler Ultrasound  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Functional transcranial Doppler ultrasound (fTCD) is a relatively new and non-invasive technique that assesses cerebral lateralisation through measurements of blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral arteries. In this study fTCD was used to compare functional asymmetry during a word generation task between a group of 30 dyslexic adults and a…

Illingworth, Sarah; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.

2009-01-01

223

Poor Sleep Quality Diminishes Cognitive Functioning Independent of Depression and Anxiety in Healthy Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sufficient sleep is essential for optimum cognitive and psychological functioning. Diminished sleep quality is associated with depression and anxiety, but the extent to which poor sleep quality uniquely impacts attention and executive functions independent of the effects of the common underlying features of depression and anxiety requires further exploration. Here 67 healthy young adults were given the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality

Andreana Benitez; John Gunstad

2012-01-01

224

Functional Changes in Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults with Cerebral Palsy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Children with multiple handicaps, including cerebral palsy (CP), often lose or regress in their functional ability through adolescence and young adulthood. The purpose of this study was to examine functional and psychosocial changes in children, adolescents, and young adults with CP. A retrospective chart review and a prospective telephone…

Krakovsky, Gina; Huth, Myra Martz; Lin, Li; Levin, Ron S.

2007-01-01

225

A Hypothesis About the Role of Adult Neurogenesis in Hippocampal Function  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The functional relevance of adult hippocampal neurogenesis has long been a matter of intense experimentation and debate, but the precise role of new neurons has not been sufficiently elaborated. Here we propose a hypothesis in which specific features of newly generated neurons contribute to hippocampal plasticity and function and discuss the most recent and relevant findings in the context of the proposed hypothesis.

PhD Alejandro F. Schinder (Leloir Institute Foundation); Fred H. Gage (The Salk Institute Laboratory of Genetics)

2004-10-01

226

Lung function tests and risk factors for pneumonia in adults with chickenpox  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUNDVaricella is 25 times more likely to be complicated by pneumonia in adults than in children. Data on changes in lung function following pneumonia are limited. This study was undertaken to describe the epidemiological factors associated with pneumonia and to investigate lung function up to 1 year following chickenpox.METHODSThirty eight consecutive suitable patients admitted to a university hospital were enrolled

A H Mohsen; R J Peck; Z Mason; L Mattock; M W McKendrick

2001-01-01

227

Decreased renal function among adults with a history of nephrolithiasis: A study of NHANES III  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decreased renal function among adults with a history of nephrolithiasis: A study of NHANES III.BackgroundAlthough intuitively appealing, the hypothesis that nephrolithiasis is associated with decreased renal function has not thoroughly been investigated. Because the prevalence of nephrolithiasis and chronic renal disease in westernized societies has risen over the past three decades, we sought to determine if persons with a history

Daniel L. Gillen; Elaine M. Worcester; Fredric L. Coe

2005-01-01

228

Atypical Cerebral Lateralisation in Adults with Compensated Developmental Dyslexia Demonstrated Using Functional Transcranial Doppler Ultrasound  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Functional transcranial Doppler ultrasound (fTCD) is a relatively new and non-invasive technique that assesses cerebral lateralisation through measurements of blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral arteries. In this study fTCD was used to compare functional asymmetry during a word generation task between a group of 30 dyslexic adults and a…

Illingworth, Sarah; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.

2009-01-01

229

Developmental Continuity in Teleo-Functional Explanation: Reasoning about Nature among Romanian Romani Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teleo-functional explanations account for objects in terms of purpose, helping us understand objects such as pencils (for writing) and body parts such as ears (for hearing). Western-educated adults restrict teleo-functional attributions to artifact, biological, and behavioral phenomena, considering such explanations less appropriate for nonliving…

Casler, Krista; Kelemen, Deborah

2008-01-01

230

Functions for adult neurogenesis in memory: an introduction to the neurocomputational approach and to its contribution.  

PubMed

Until recently, it was believed that the introduction of new neurons in neuronal networks was incompatible with memory function. Since the rediscovery of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, behavioral data demonstrate that adult neurogenesis is required for memory processing. We examine neurocomputational studies to identify which basic mechanisms involved in memory might be mediated by adult neurogenesis. Mainly, adult neurogenesis might be involved in the reduction of catastrophic interference and in a time-related pattern separation function. Artificial neuronal networks suggest that the selective recruitment of new-born or old neurons is not stochastic, but depends on environmental requirements. This leads us to propose the novel concept of "soft-supervision". Soft-supervision would be a biologically plausible process, by which the environment is able to influence activation and learning rules of neurons differentially. PMID:21856335

Noguès, X; Corsini, M M; Marighetto, A; Abrous, D N

2011-08-12

231

Sox8 is a critical regulator of adult Sertoli cell function and male fertility  

PubMed Central

Sox8 encodes a high mobility group transcription factor that is widely expressed during development. Sox8, ?9 and ?10 form group E of the Sox gene family which has been implicated in several human developmental disorders. In contrast to other SoxE genes, the role of Sox8 is unclear and Sox8 mouse mutants reportedly showed only idiopathic weight loss and reduced bone density. The careful analysis of our Sox8 null mice, however, revealed a progressive male infertility phenotype. Sox8 null males only sporadically produced litters of reduced size at young ages. We have shown that SOX8 protein is a product of adult Sertoli cells and its elimination results in an age-dependent deregulation of spermatogenesis, characterized by sloughing of spermatocytes and round spermatids, spermiation failure and a progressive disorganization of the spermatogenic cycle, which resulted in the inappropriate placement and juxtaposition of germ cell types within the epithelium. Those sperm that did enter the epididymides displayed abnormal motility. These data show that SOX8 is a critical regulator of adult Sertoli cell function and is required for both its cytoarchitectural and paracrine interactions with germ cells.

O'Bryan, Moira K.; Takada, Shuji; Kennedy, Claire L.; Scott, Greg; Harada, Shun-ichi; Ray, Manas K.; Dai, Qunsheng; Wilhelm, Dagmar; de Kretser, David M.; Eddy, E. Mitch; Koopman, Peter; Mishina, Yuji

2008-01-01

232

Prevalence of celiac disease in adult patients with refractory functional dyspepsia: Value of routine duodenal biopsy  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the prevalence of celiac disease (CD) in adult patients referred to an open access gastroenterology clinic in the south of Italy and submitted to esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy (EGD) for evaluation of refractory functional dyspepsia. METHODS: Seven hundred and twenty six consecutive dyspeptic patients (282 male, 444 female; mean age 39.6 years, range 18-75 years) with unexplained prolonged dyspepsia were prospectively enrolled. Duodenal biopsies were taken and processed by standard staining. Histological evaluation was carried out according to the Marsh-Oberhuber criteria. RESULTS: The endoscopic findings were: normal in 61.2%, peptic lesions in 20.5%, malignancies in 0.5%, miscellaneous in 16.7%. CD was endoscopically diagnosed in 8 patients (1.1%), histologically in 15 patients (2%). The endoscopic features alone showed a sensitivity of 34.8% and specificity of 100%, with a positive predictive value (PPV) of 100% and a negative predictive value (NPP) of 97.9%. CONCLUSION: This prospective study showed that CD has a high prevalence (1:48) in adult dyspeptic patients and suggests the routine use of duodenal biopsy in this type of patient undergoing EGD.

Giangreco, Emiliano; D'agate, Cinzia; Barbera, Carmelo; Puzzo, Lidia; Aprile, Giuseppe; Naso, Pietro; Bonanno, Giacomo; Russo, Francesco Paolo; Nicoletti, Alessandra; Incarbone, Salvatore; Trama, Giuseppe; Russo, Antonio

2008-01-01

233

Adult cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) metabolically adapt to high protein diets.  

PubMed

To determine the ability of cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus), a granivorous avian species, to adapt metabolically to high dietary protein levels, adult males (n = 26) were fed isocaloric diets containing 11, 20, 35 or 70% crude protein (CP) for 11 mo. Throughout the trial, body weight and breast muscle weight were maintained by 11, 20 or 70% CP. The 35% CP diet resulted in significantly greater body weight (P < 0.05) and whole-body lipid content (P < 0.05) compared with the 11% CP diet. The 20% CP diet resulted in greater breast muscle mass compared with 70% CP (P < 0.05). Activity of the amino acid catabolic enzymes alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and arginase as well as the gluconeogenic enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase were significantly increased with 70% CP (P < 0.05). Serum essential amino acids, urea and uric acid were also increased with 70% CP (P < 0.05), but the magnitude of their increase was similar to that found in omnivorous chickens fed a similar diet. There was no evidence of visceral gout, articular gout or renal pathology; however liver lesion severity, and specifically liver lipogranuloma severity, was significantly increased above 11% CP (P < 0.05). We conclude that cockatiels are able to up-regulate enzymes for amino acid catabolism as well as mechanisms for nitrogen excretion in response to high dietary protein levels, and that high dietary protein levels are not associated with kidney dysfunction in this avian species. PMID:11435523

Koutsos, E A; Smith, J; Woods, L W; Klasing, K C

2001-07-01

234

Ileal function in patients with untreated adult coeliac disease.  

PubMed Central

A double-lumen perfusion technique has been used to investigate jejunal and ileal absorption of glucose, water, and electrolytes in a group of patients with untreated adult coeliac disease. Correct positioning of the tube was confirmed by measuring the differential jejunal and ileal handling of bicarbonate. Eight control subjects and eight patients with coeliac disease were perfused with an isotonic electrolyte solution containing 50 mM glucose and 25 mM bicarbonate. The group of coeliac patients had impaired jejunal absorption of glucose (P less than 0.001), water (P less than 0.01), sodium (P less than 0.02), and chloride (P greater than 0.05) compared with the control group. In contrast the group of coeliac patients had normal ileal glucose and water absorption and increased ileal sodium (P greater than 0.01) and chloride (P greater than 0.05) absorption compared with the controls. Evidence for ileal adaptation was found in three individual patients who had absorptive values outside 2SD of the normal mean. The results indicate that the distal small intestine in coeliac disease has the ability to adopt to the damage and loss of absorptive capacity in the proximal small intestine.

Silk, D B; Kumar, P J; Webb, J P; Lane, A E; Clark, M L; Dawson, A M

1975-01-01

235

Executive Function and MRI Prefrontal Volumes Among Healthy Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain atrophy and decline in executive functioning have been reported during late life, but the relationship between the 2 phenomena is not clear. To examine associations between executive tasks and morphometry, MRIs of the prefrontal cortex from 23 healthy elders were manually masked and automatically segmented. Total brain matter of the bilateral orbitofrontal, anterior cingulate, gyrus rectus, precentral gyrus, and

Virginia Elderkin-Thompson; Martina Ballmaier; Gerhard Hellemann; Daniel Pham; Anand Kumar

2008-01-01

236

Food insecurity and cognitive function in Puerto Rican adults  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Food insecurity is associated with nutrient inadequacy and a variety of unfavorable health outcomes. However, little is known about whether food security is associated with lower cognitive function in the elderly. We investigated the prevalence of food insecurity in a representative sample of 1358 P...

237

Training social problem solving skills in adolescents with high-functioning autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adolescents and young adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASD) have very different needs and abilities. Deficits in social skills and executive function, however, are generally considered defining characteristics of HFASD. Deficits in socialization often interfere with these individual's educational experience and quality of life, and explicit instruction is required to help them acquire age-appropriate social skills. We describe an

Fatima A. Boujarwah; Hwajung Hong; Rosa I. Arriaga; Gregory D. Abowd; Jackie Isbell

2010-01-01

238

Penile arterial waveform analyzer for assessing penile vascular function in young adults.  

PubMed

Not only does erectile dysfunction (ED) reflect penile vascular disorder in the majority of patients, but it also implicates their high systemic cardiovascular risk. Based on the principle of reactive hyperemia after a brief period of penile ischemia, in this study, we tested the validity of a new Penile Arterial Waveform Analyzer (PAWA) in assessing the relative increase in post-ischemic penile perfusion. Twenty young adult males (mean age 24.24 ± 2.45) without known history of cardiovascular diseases were recruited, whose anthropometric characteristics were recorded and their serum testosterone levels as well as biochemical profiles were determined. A penile cuff was applied to each subject, with cuff pressure being increased from 80 to 250 mmHg, each for 4 min, followed by reperfusion for 7 min. By dividing the area under waveform contour of hyperemic and baseline signals after Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD), a Penile Perfusion Index (PPI) was calculated. Penile Brachial Index (PBI) was also obtained for comparison. The results not only showed a significant agreement between PPI and serum testosterone levels, but also a superiority of PPI to PBI in distinguishing the high- and low-risk groups for potential ED (PPI: p = 0.039 vs. PBI: p = 0.147). PPI was also demonstrated to show significant correlations with waist circumference (p < 0.001), body mass index (p = 0.005), body weight, total triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, and systolic and diastolic pressures (all p < 0.05). In conclusion, we proposed a portable and easy-to-operate system in assessing the relative increase in penile perfusion after brief ischemia. The PPI thus obtained correlated significantly with serum testosterone levels as well as key anthropometric and serum biochemical parameters even in apparently healthy young adults, suggesting its potential as a sensitive tool in monitoring penile vascular function and risk for ED. PMID:21769542

Wu, Hsien-Tsai; Lee, Chun-Ho; Chen, Chin-Jung; Sun, Cheuk-Kwan

2011-07-16

239

Mild cognitive impairment and everyday functioning in older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relations between mild cognitive impairment without dementia (MCI\\/CIND) and everyday functional abilities were examined using data from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA). Individuals were identified with MCI\\/CIND if both caregiver report and clinician judgment agreed on the presence of cognitive impairment in the absence of dementia. Cross-sectional and longitudinal comparisons indicated that individuals with MCI\\/CIND demonstrated

Holly Tuokko; Carolyn Morris; Patricia Ebert

2005-01-01

240

Food insecurity and cognitive function in Puerto Rican adults123  

PubMed Central

Background: Food insecurity is associated with nutrient inadequacy and a variety of unfavorable health outcomes. However, little is known about whether food security is associated with lower cognitive function in the elderly. Objective: We investigated the prevalence of food insecurity in a representative sample of 1358 Puerto Ricans aged 45–75 y living in Massachusetts in relation to cognitive function performances. Design: Food security was assessed with the US Household Food Security Scale. Cognitive function was measured to capture general cognition with a battery of 7 tests: Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), word list learning (verbal memory), digit span (attention), clock drawing and figure copying (visual-spatial ability), and Stroop and verbal fluency tests (fluency executive functioning). Results: The overall prevalence of food insecurity during the past 12 mo was 12.1%; 6.1% of the subjects reported very low food security. Food insecurity was inversely associated with global cognitive performance, as assessed by the MMSE score. The adjusted difference in the MMSE score was ?0.90 (95% CI: ?1.6, ?0.19; P for trend = 0.003) for a comparison of participants with very low food security with those who were food secure, after adjustment for age, smoking, education, poverty status, income, acculturation, plasma homocysteine, alcohol, diabetes, and hypertension. Food insecurity was significantly associated with lower scores for word-list learning, percentage retention, letter fluency, and digit span backward tests. Conclusions: Very low food security was prevalent among the study subjects and was associated with lower cognitive performance. Further studies, both observational and experimental, are warranted to clarify the direction of causality in this association.

Gao, Xiang; Scott, Tammy; Falcon, Luis M; Wilde, Parke E; Tucker, Katherine L

2009-01-01

241

Intelligence and Medial Temporal Lobe Function in Older Adults: A Functional MR Imaging-Based Investigation  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The influence of general intelligence and formal education on functional MR imaging (fMRI) activation has not been thoroughly studied in older adults. Although these factors could be controlled for through study design, this approach makes sample selection more difficult and reduces power. This study was undertaken to examine our hypothesis that intelligence and education would impact medial temporal lobe (MTL) fMRI responses to an episodic memory task in healthy elderly subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS Thirty-six women and 38 men, 50–83 years of age (mean, 63.4 ± 7.9 years), completed an auditory paired-associates paradigm in a 1.5T magnet. The amplitude and volume of fMRI activation for both the right and left MTLs and MTL subregions were correlated with the intelligence quotients (IQs) and educational levels by using Pearson correlation coefficient tests and regression analyses. RESULTS The participants’ mean estimated full scale IQ and verbal IQ scores were 110.4 ± 7.6 (range, 92–123) and 108.9 ± 8.7 (range, 88–123), respectively. The years of education showed a mean of 16.1 ± 3.2 years (range, 8–25 years). The paradigm produced significant activation in the MTL and subregions. However, the volume and amplitude of activation were unrelated to either IQ or years of schooling in men and/or women. CONCLUSIONS We found no evidence of an effect of IQ or education on either the volume or amplitude of fMRI activation, suggesting that these factors do not necessarily need to be incorporated into study design or considered when evaluating other group relationships with fMRI.

Yousem, D.M.; Yassa, M.A.; Cristinzio, C.; Kusevic, I.; Mohamed, M.; Caffo, B.S.; Bassett, S.S.

2010-01-01

242

Plasticity of functional connectivity in the adult spinal cord  

PubMed Central

This paper emphasizes several characteristics of the neural control of locomotion that provide opportunities for developing strategies to maximize the recovery of postural and locomotor functions after a spinal cord injury (SCI). The major points of this paper are: (i) the circuitry that controls standing and stepping is extremely malleable and reflects a continuously varying combination of neurons that are activated when executing stereotypical movements; (ii) the connectivity between neurons is more accurately perceived as a functional rather than as an anatomical phenomenon; (iii) the functional connectivity that controls standing and stepping reflects the physiological state of a given assembly of synapses, where the probability of these synaptic events is not deterministic; (iv) rather, this probability can be modulated by other factors such as pharmacological agents, epidural stimulation and/or motor training; (v) the variability observed in the kinematics of consecutive steps reflects a fundamental feature of the neural control system and (vi) machine-learning theories elucidate the need to accommodate variability in developing strategies designed to enhance motor performance by motor training using robotic devices after an SCI.

Cai, L.L; Courtine, G; Fong, A.J; Burdick, J.W; Roy, R.R; Edgerton, V.R

2006-01-01

243

Gender differences in renal growth and function after uninephrectomy in adult rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender differences in renal growth and function after uninephrectomy in adult rats.BackgroundIt is known that compensatory renal growth (CRG) following unilateral nephrectomy (UNX) increases both the size of the kidney and its functional capacity; however, few studies have investigated whether differences in CRG exist between the sexes. Our study examined the sex-related differences in remnant kidney growth and function two

Susan E. Mulroney; Craig Woda; Michele Johnson; Carlo Pesce

1999-01-01

244

Executive Functions and ADHD in Adults: Evidence for Selective Effects on ADHD Symptom Domains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dual-process models of attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suggest that both executive functioning and regulatory functions (e.g., processing speed) are involved and that executive function weaknesses may be associated specifically with symptoms of inattention-disorganization but not hyperactivity-impulsivity. Adults aged 18–37 (105 with ADHD, 90 controls) completed a neuropsychological battery. The ADHD group had weaker performance than did the control group (p <

Joel T. Nigg; Gillian Stavro; Mark Ettenhofer; David Z. Hambrick; Torri Miller; John M. Henderson

2005-01-01

245

In vivo cardiac imaging of adult zebrafish using high frequency ultrasound (45-75 MHz)  

PubMed Central

The zebrafish has emerged as an excellent genetic model organism for studies of cardiovascular development. Optical transparency and external development during embryogenesis allow for visual analysis in the early development. However, to understand the cardiovascular structures and functions beyond the early stage requires a high-resolution, real-time, non-invasive imaging alternative due to the opacity of adult zebrafish. In this research, we report the development of a high frequency ultrasonic system for adult zebrafish cardiac imaging, capable of 75 MHz B-mode imaging at a spatial resolution of 25 ?m and 45 MHz pulsed-wave Doppler measurement. The system allows for real-time delineation of detailed cardiac structures, estimation of cardiac dimensions, as well as image-guided Doppler blood flow measurements. In vivo imaging studies showed the identification of the atrium, ventricle, bulbus arteriosus, atrioventricular valve, and bulboventricular valve in real-time images, with cardiac measurement at various stages. Doppler waveforms acquired at the ventricle and the bulbus arteriosus demonstrated the utility of this system to study the zebrafish cardiovascular hemodynamics. This high frequency ultrasonic system offers a multitude of opportunities for cardiovascular researchers. In addition, the detection of E-flow and A-flow during the ventricular filling, and the appearance of diastolic flow reversal at bulbus arteriosus suggested the functional similarity of zebrafish heart to that of higher vertebrates.

Sun, Lei; Lien, Ching-Ling; Shung, K. Kirk

2008-01-01

246

Dynamic regulation of NMDAR function in the adult brain by the stress hormone corticosterone  

PubMed Central

Stress and corticosteroids dynamically modulate the expression of synaptic plasticity at glutamatergic synapses in the developed brain. Together with alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptors (AMPAR), N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) are critical mediators of synaptic function and are essential for the induction of many forms of synaptic plasticity. Regulation of NMDAR function by cortisol/corticosterone (CORT) may be fundamental to the effects of stress on synaptic plasticity. Recent reports of the efficacy of NMDAR antagonists in treating certain stress-associated psychopathologies further highlight the importance of understanding the regulation of NMDAR function by CORT. Knowledge of how corticosteroids regulate NMDAR function within the adult brain is relatively sparse, perhaps due to a common belief that NMDAR function is stable in the adult brain. We review recent results from our laboratory and others demonstrating dynamic regulation of NMDAR function by CORT in the adult brain. In addition, we consider the issue of how differences in the early life environment may program differential sensitivity to modulation of NMDAR function by CORT and how this may influence synaptic function during stress. Findings from these studies demonstrate that NMDAR function in the adult hippocampus remains sensitive to even brief exposures to CORT and that the capacity for modulation of NMDAR may be programmed, in part, by the early life environment. Modulation of NMDAR function may contribute to dynamic regulation of synaptic plasticity and adaptation in the face of stress, however, enhanced NMDAR function may be implicated in mechanisms of stress-related psychopathologies including depression.

Tse, Yiu Chung; Bagot, Rosemary C.; Wong, Tak Pan

2012-01-01

247

Deficient cardiovascular stress reactivity predicts poor executive functions in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.  

PubMed

Associations between cardiovascular stress markers, subjective stress reactivity, and executive functions were studied in 60 adults (30 with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, ADHD, and 30 controls) using the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT, a test of executive functions) as a cognitive stressor. Despite higher self-perceived stress, the adults with ADHD showed lower or atypical cardiovascular stress reactivity, which was associated with poorer performance on PASAT. Using cardiovascular stress markers, subjective stress, and results on PASAT as predictors in a logistic regression, 83.3% of the ADHD group and 86.9% of the controls could be classified correctly. PMID:20603741

Hirvikoski, Tatja; Olsson, Erik M G; Nordenstrom, Anna; Lindholm, Torun; Nordstrom, Anna-Lena; Lajic, Svetlana

2010-07-05

248

Measurement of spontaneous signal fluctuations in fMRI: adult age differences in intrinsic functional connectivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional connectivity (FC) reflects the coherence of spontaneous, low-frequency fluctuations in functional magnetic resonance\\u000a imaging (fMRI) data. We report a behavior-based connectivity analysis method, in which whole-brain data are used to identify\\u000a behaviorally relevant, intrinsic FC networks. Nineteen younger adults (20–28 years) and 19 healthy, older adults (63–78 years)\\u000a were assessed with fMRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Results indicated that FC

Nan-kuei Chen; Ying-hui Chou; Allen W. Song; David J. Madden

2009-01-01

249

Extensive stimulus repetition leads older adults to show delayed functional magnetic resonance imaging adaptation.  

PubMed

We investigated whether extensive repetition can diminish age-related differences between younger and older adults in functional magnetic resonance adaptation (fMR-A). Datasets were obtained from 26 younger and 24 older healthy adults presented with two scenes that repeated 20 times amongst other novel scenes during fMRI scanning. The average cortical responses to the first eight (Repetitions 1-7) and the last eight (Repetitions 12-19) presentations out of 20 were compared within each group. Younger adults showed similar levels of fMR-A in both repetition sets. Conversely, older adults did not show reliable fMR-A in Repetitions 1-7, but they did in Repetitions 12-19; subtracting the latter from the former revealed a significant effect within left inferior occipital, left lingual, and the posterior part of fusiform gyrus. We concluded that cortical responsiveness in older adults are compromised, but extensive repetition can lead older adults to show a delayed but closer level of fMR-A compared to younger adults. PMID:22274135

Miyakoshi, Makoto; Chen, S-H Annabel; Matsuo, Kayako; Wu, Chiao-Yi; Suzuki, Atsunobu; Nakai, Toshiharu

2012-09-01

250

Reduced Heart Rate Recovery Is Associated with Poorer Cognitive Function in Older Adults with Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) in older adults has been associated with varying degrees of cognitive dysfunction. Several mechanisms may explain this association, including impaired cardiovascular reactivity to autonomic nervous system (ANS) signaling. Reduced heart rate recovery following a stress test may be considered an indication of impaired ANS function (i.e., reduced parasympathetic activity). Participants were 47 older adults (53–83 years) who underwent a treadmill stress test and were administered a comprehensive neuropsychological battery upon entry to phase II cardiac rehabilitation. Reduced parasympathetic activity was associated with impaired cognitive performance on a measure of global cognitive function and on tasks of speeded executive function and confrontation naming. These relationships suggest that changes in autonomic function may be mechanistically related to the impaired cognitive function prevalent in CVD patients.

Keary, Therese A.; Galioto, Rachel; Hughes, Joel; Waechter, Donna; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Rosneck, James; Josephson, Richard; Gunstad, John

2012-01-01

251

Neurons born in the adult dentate gyrus form functional synapses with target cells.  

PubMed

Adult neurogenesis occurs in the hippocampus and the olfactory bulb of the mammalian CNS. Recent studies have demonstrated that newborn granule cells of the adult hippocampus are postsynaptic targets of excitatory and inhibitory neurons, but evidence of synapse formation by the axons of these cells is still lacking. By combining retroviral expression of green fluorescent protein in adult-born neurons of the mouse dentate gyrus with immuno-electron microscopy, we found output synapses that were formed by labeled terminals on appropriate target cells in the CA3 area and the hilus. Furthermore, retroviral expression of channelrhodopsin-2 allowed us to light-stimulate newborn granule cells and identify postsynaptic target neurons by whole-cell recordings in acute slices. Our structural and functional evidence indicates that axons of adult-born granule cells establish synapses with hilar interneurons, mossy cells and CA3 pyramidal cells and release glutamate as their main neurotransmitter. PMID:18622400

Toni, Nicolas; Laplagne, Diego A; Zhao, Chunmei; Lombardi, Gabriela; Ribak, Charles E; Gage, Fred H; Schinder, Alejandro F

2008-07-11

252

Responses to Nonverbal Behaviour of Dynamic Virtual Characters in High-Functioning Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We investigated feelings of involvement evoked by nonverbal behaviour of dynamic virtual characters in 20 adults with high-functioning autism (HFA) and high IQ as well as 20 IQ-matched control subjects. The effects of diagnostic group showed that subjects with autism experienced less "contact" and "urge" to establish contact across conditions and…

Schwartz, Caroline; Bente, Gary; Gawronski, Astrid; Schilbach, Leonhard; Vogeley, Kai

2010-01-01

253

Phonological Difficulties in High-Functioning Dyslexics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assesses some phonological tasks of well compensated, high-functioning dyslexics, aged 18, whose reading ability had improved to within one standard deviation of the normal population. Compares them with matched controls. Finds they performed well on word recognition tests but worse on nonword reading and spelling, and worse (in terms of speed) on…

Gallagher, A. M.; And Others

1996-01-01

254

Executive function and emotional focus in autobiographical memory specificity in older adults.  

PubMed

The current study examined the role of executive function in retrieval of specific autobiographical memories in older adults with regard to control of emotion during retrieval. Older and younger adults retrieved memories of specific events in response to emotionally positive, negative and neutral word cues. Contributions of inhibitory and updating elements of executive function to variance in autobiographical specificity were assessed to determine processes involved in the commonly found age-related reduction in specificity. A negative relationship between age and specificity was only found in retrieval to neutral cues. Alternative explanations of this age preservation of specificity of emotional recall are explored, within the context of control of emotion in the self-memory system and preserved emotional processing and positivity effect in older adults. The pattern of relationships suggests updating, rather than inhibition, as the source of age-related reduction in specificity, but that emotional processing (particularly of positively valenced memories) is not influenced by age-related variance in executive control. The tendency of older adults to focus on positive material may thus act as a buffer against detrimental effects of reduced executive function capacity on autobiographical retrieval, representing a possible target for interventions to improve specificity of autobiographical memory retrieval in older adults. PMID:22873516

Holland, Carol A; Ridout, Nathan; Walford, Edward; Geraghty, Jennifer

2012-08-09

255

The ecological validity of clinical tests of visuospatial function in community-dwelling older adults.  

PubMed

Little is known about the relation between measures of visuospatial function and daily functioning in community-dwelling older adults. The current study addresses this gap in the literature. Forty individuals with mean (SD) age and education of 78.4 (7.5) and 11.9 (2.6) years, respectively, completed a battery of neuropsychological measures including traditional tests of visuospatial function, a test of visuospatial function with verisimilitude, and performance-based measures of global daily functioning and visuospatial daily functioning. Unlike previous studies, statistical analyses directly evaluated the magnitude of the correlations between cognitive tests and daily functioning. Results indicated that all visuospatial measures significantly correlated with both measures of daily functioning (rs = .34-.59). Although the measure designed with verisimilitude was not significantly better than the traditional visuospatial measures at predicting daily functioning, it did account for significant variance beyond that accounted for by the other tests, supporting its incremental validity. PMID:21875875

Farley, Kathryn L; Higginson, Christopher I; Sherman, Martin F; MacDougall, Elizabeth

2011-08-28

256

Glycogen function in adult central and peripheral nerves.  

PubMed

We studied the roles of glycogen in axonal pathways of the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS). By using electrophysiological recordings, in combination with biochemical glycogen assay, it was possible to determine whether glycogen was crucial to axon function under different conditions. Glycogen was present both in mouse optic nerve (MON) and in mouse sciatic nerve (MSN). Aglycemia caused loss of the compound action potential (CAP) in both pathways after a latency of 15 min (MON) and 120 min for myelinated axons (A fibers) in the MSN. With the exception of unmyelinated axons (C fibers) in the MSN, CAP decline began when usable glycogen was exhausted. Glycogen was located in astrocytes in the MON and in myelinating Schwann cells in the MSN; it was absent from the Schwann cells surrounding unmyelinated C fibers. In MON, astrocytic glycogen is metabolized to lactate and "shuttled" to axons to support metabolism. The ability of lactate to support A fiber conduction in the absence of glucose suggests a common pathway in both the CNS and the PNS. Lactate is released from MON and MSN in substantial quantities. That lactate levels fall in MSN in the presence of diaminobenzidine, which inhibits glycogen phosphorylase, strongly suggests that glycogen metabolism contributes to lactate release under resting conditions. Glycogen is a "backup" energy substrate in both the CNS and the PNS and, beyond sustaining excitability during glucose deprivation, has the capacity to subsidize the axonal energy demands during times of intense activity in the presence of glucose. PMID:23633387

Evans, Richard D; Brown, Angus M; Ransom, Bruce R

2013-04-30

257

Functional imaging in adult and paediatric brain tumours.  

PubMed

Imaging is a key component in the management of brain tumours, with MRI being the preferred modality for most clinical scenarios. However, although conventional MRI provides mainly structural information, such as tumour size and location, it leaves many important clinical questions, such as tumour type, aggressiveness and prognosis, unanswered. An increasing number of studies have shown that additional information can be obtained using functional imaging methods (which probe tissue properties), and that these techniques can give key information of clinical importance. These techniques include diffusion imaging, which can assess tissue structure, and perfusion imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy, which measures tissue metabolite profiles. Tumour metabolism can also be investigated using PET, with 18F-deoxyglucose being the most readily available tracer. This Review discusses these methods and the studies that have investigated their clinical use. A strong emphasis is placed on the measurement of quantitative parameters, which is a move away from the qualitative nature of conventional radiological reporting and presents major challenges, particularly for multicentre studies. PMID:23149894

Peet, Andrew C; Arvanitis, Theodoros N; Leach, Martin O; Waldman, Adam D

2012-11-13

258

Physical activity and functional limitations in older adults: a systematic review related to Canada's Physical Activity Guidelines  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose was to conduct systematic reviews of the relationship between physical activity of healthy community-dwelling older (>65 years) adults and outcomes of functional limitations, disability, or loss of independence. Methods Prospective cohort studies with an outcome related to functional independence or to cognitive function were searched, as well as exercise training interventions that reported a functional outcome. Electronic database search strategies were used to identify citations which were screened (title and abstract) for inclusion. Included articles were reviewed to complete standardized data extraction tables, and assess study quality. An established system of assessing the level and grade of evidence for recommendations was employed. Results Sixty-six studies met inclusion criteria for the relationship between physical activity and functional independence, and 34 were included with a cognitive function outcome. Greater physical activity of an aerobic nature (categorized by a variety of methods) was associated with higher functional status (expressed by a host of outcome measures) in older age. For functional independence, moderate (and high) levels of physical activity appeared effective in conferring a reduced risk (odds ratio ~0.5) of functional limitations or disability. Limitation in higher level performance outcomes was reduced (odds ratio ~0.5) with vigorous (or high) activity with an apparent dose-response of moderate through to high activity. Exercise training interventions (including aerobic and resistance) of older adults showed improvement in physiological and functional measures, and suggestion of longer-term reduction in incidence of mobility disability. A relatively high level of physical activity was related to better cognitive function and reduced risk of developing dementia; however, there were mixed results of the effects of exercise interventions on cognitive function indices. Conclusions There is a consistency of findings across studies and a range of outcome measures related to functional independence; regular aerobic activity and short-term exercise programmes confer a reduced risk of functional limitations and disability in older age. Although a precise characterization of a minimal or effective physical activity dose to maintain functional independence is difficult, it appears moderate to higher levels of activity are effective and there may be a threshold of at least moderate activity for significant outcomes.

2010-01-01

259

A Comparison of the Factors Affecting Reading Performance of Functionally Illiterate Adults and Children Matched by Reading Level.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the relations among phonological awareness, short-term memory, orthographic ability, contextual information, and reading skill in a study of 60 functionally illiterate adults enrolled in Adult Basic Education programs and a group of elementary-school children. Concludes that adults seem to be relying less on phonological decoding, which…

Thompkins, Amanda C.; Binder, Katherine S.

2003-01-01

260

Driving in young adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Knowledge, performance, adverse outcomes, and the role of executive functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past studies find that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) creates a higher risk for adverse driving outcomes. This study comprehensively evaluated driving in adults with ADHD by comparing 105 young adults with the disorder (age 17-28) to 64 community control (CC) adults on five domains of driving ability and a battery of executive function tasks. The ADHD group self-reported significantly

RUSSELL A. BARKLEY; KEVIN R. MURPHY; GEORGE J. DUPAUL; TRACIE BUSH

2002-01-01

261

Functioning and Quality of Life in Adults with Mild-to-Moderate Osteogenesis Imperfecta.  

PubMed

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to describe physical activity, quality of and satisfaction with life, pain, joint mobility and muscle function in adults with mild-to-moderate osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) to form the basis of improved clinical care and physical therapy treatment. METHOD: A total of 40 men and women aged between 21 and 71?years were identified and a prospective, cross-sectional study was performed on 29 (18 women) included participants. The participants had to be able to walk and to have a diagnosis of mild-to-moderate OI. Self-administered questionnaires and clinical examinations were used. RESULTS: Difficulties were found in all domains of the International Classification of Functioning, Activity and Health. Pain was reported in 25 of 29 participants and scoliosis was found in 23 participants. Difficulty to run was estimated in 18 participants. A total of 19 of 27 participants reported reaching the recommendations of 30?min of moderate-intensity activity preferably every day. Life satisfaction was high even though health-related quality of life, assessed with the Short Form 36, was significantly lower than the Swedish norm. CONCLUSION: Impairments and activity limitations involved pain, scoliosis, contractures as well as trouble with running, heavy lifting, heavy work and sports. This study show that individuals with mild-to-moderate OI perceive themselves as having decreased health-related quality of life and this seems to depend on decreased physical functioning. Despite that, as a group, they estimated high life satisfaction and 19 participants reported adhering to the general recommendation of 30?min of moderate-intensity activity preferably every day. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23281201

Balkefors, Veronica; Mattsson, Eva; Pernow, Ylva; Sääf, Maria

2012-12-27

262

Maintenance of adult cardiac function requires the chromatin factor Asxl2  

PubMed Central

During development and differentiation, cell type-specific chromatin configurations are set up to facilitate cell type-specific gene expression. Defects in the establishment or the maintenance of the correct chromatin configuration have been associated with diseases ranging from leukemia to muscular dystrophy. The heart expresses many chromatin factors, and we are only beginning to understand their roles in heart development and function. We have previously shown that the chromatin regulator Asxl2 is highly expressed in the murine heart both during development and adulthood. In the absence of Asxl2, there is a significant reduction in trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27), a histone mark associated with lineage-specific silencing of developmental genes. Here we present evidence that Asxl2 is required for the long-term maintenance of ventricular function and for the maintenance of normal cardiac gene expression. Asxl2?/? hearts displayed progressive deterioration of ventricular function. By 10 months of age, there was ~37% reduction in fractional shortening in Asxl2?/? hearts compared to wild-type. Analysis of the expression of myofibril proteins suggests that Asxl2 is required for the repression of ?MHC. Asxl2?/? hearts did not exhibit hypertrophy, suggesting that the de-repression of ?-MHC was not the result of hypertrophic response. Instead, Asxl2 and the histone methyltansferase Ezh2 co-localize to ?-MHC promoter, suggesting that Asxl2 directly represses ?-MHC. Interrogation of the CardioGenomics database revealed that ASXL2 is down-regulated in the hearts of patients with ischemic or idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. We propose that chromatin factors like Asxl2 function in the adult heart to regulate cell type- and stage-specific patterns of gene expression, and the disruption of such regulation may be involved in the etiology and/or development of certain forms of human heart disease.

Lai, Hsiao-Lei; Grachoff, Milana; Marion, Andrea L.; Khan, Farida F.; Warren, Chad M.; Chowdhury, Shamim A.K.; Wolska, Beata M.; Solaro, R. John; Geenen, David L.

2012-01-01

263

Handwriting measures as reflectors of executive functions among adults with Developmental Coordination Disorders (DCD)  

PubMed Central

Planning ahead and organizational abilities in time and space are ingredients of high-level cognitive functions labeled as ‘Executive Functions’ (EF) required for daily activities such as writing or home management. EF deficits are considered a possible underlying brain mechanism involved in Developmental Coordination Disorders (DCD). The aim: of the study was to compare the handwriting process measures and the planning and organizational abilities in space and time of students with DCD with those of matched controls and to find whether handwriting measures can predict daily planning and organizational abilities among students with DCD. Method: 30 students diagnosed with DCD, between the ages of 24–41, and 30 age- and gender-matched controls participated in the study. They filled out the Handwriting Proficiency Screening Questionnaire (HPSQ) and the Adult Developmental Co-ordination Disorders Checklist (ADC). Furthermore, they copied a paragraph on a digitizer that is part of a computerized system Computerised Penmanship Evaluation Toll (ComPET). Results: Significant group differences were found for the HPSQ subscales scores as well as for the temporal and spatial measures of the paragraph copy task. Significant group differences were also found for the planning and organizational abilities in space and time as reflected through the ADC subscales. Significant medium correlations were found in both groups between the mean HPSQ time subscale and the ADC-B subscale mean score (r = 0.50/0.58, p < 0.05). Series of regression analyses indicated that two handwriting performance measures (mean HPSQ time subscale and mean stroke duration) predicted 19% of planning and organizational abilities as reflected through daily functions (ADC-B) [F(3, 54) = 38.37, ? = 0.40, p < 0.0001]. Conclusion: The results support previous evidence about EF deficits as an underlying brain mechanism involved in motor coordination disorders, their significance as related to theoretical models of handwriting and daily function among DCD will be examined.

Rosenblum, Sara

2013-01-01

264

Mediating Effect of Executive Function on Memory in Normal Aging Adults  

PubMed Central

Objective We hypothesize that the effect of aging on memory is mediated by executive function. Methods Two hundred and thirty healthy adults (101 male, 129 female) were recruited for the study. We used a promising, newly developed, computerized neuropsychological test for the measurement of executive function and memory. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling and path analysis. Results The full mediation model showed a good fit to the data. However, chi-squared (?2) tests for model comparison indicated that the partial mediation model better fits our data. Thus, the partial mediation model was used as the final model. In terms of auditory-verbal memory, the effect of aging on memory was fully mediated by executive function. However, visuo-spatial memory was significantly affected both indirectly (through executive function) and directly (by aging). Gender differences were not significant in this model. Conclusion This study demonstrated the importance of executive function in the memory functioning of normal aging adults. It is noteworthy that modality differences were found between auditory-verbal and visuo-spatial memory. Aging is not the only factor that drives memory decline, and its direct, adverse effect on memory was more prominent in the visuo-spatial memory task than auditory-verbal memory task. Since performance in both modalities is fully or partially mediated by executive function, it is important to train normal aging adults in executive control skills, such as planning, strategy formation, and rapid decision making.

Kim, Min-Jae; Kwon, Jun Soo

2013-01-01

265

Severe obesity is associated with impaired arterial smooth muscle function in young adults.  

PubMed

The degree of arterial dilatation induced by exogenous nitrates (nitrate-mediated dilatation, NMD) has been similar in obese and normal-weight adults after single high-dose glyceryl trinitrate (GTN). We examined whether NMD is impaired in obesity by performing a GTN dose-response study, as this is a potentially more sensitive measure of arterial smooth muscle function. In this cross-sectional study, subjects were 19 obese (age 31.0 ± 1.2 years, 10 male, BMI 44.1 ± 2.1) and 19 age- and sex-matched normal-weight (BMI 22.4 ± 0.4) young adults. Blood pressure (BP), triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, glucose, insulin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), and flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) were measured. After incremental doses of GTN, brachial artery maximal percent dilatation (maximal NMD) and the area under the dose-response curve (NMD AUC) were calculated. Maximal NMD (13.4 ± 0.9% vs. 18.3 ± 1.1%, P = 0.002) and NMD AUC (54,316 ± 362 vs. 55,613 ± 375, P = 0.018) were lower in obese subjects. The obese had significantly higher hs-CRP, insulin, and CIMT and lower HDL-cholesterol. Significant bivariate associations existed between maximal NMD or NMD AUC and BMI-group (r = -0.492, P = 0.001 or r = -0.383, P = 0.009), hs-CRP (r = -0.419, P = 0.004 or r = -0.351, P = 0.015), and HDL-cholesterol (r = 0.374, P = 0.01 or r = 0.270, P = 0.05). On multivariate analysis, higher BMI-group remained as the only significant determinant of maximal NMD (r² = 0.242, ? = -0.492, P = 0.002) and NMD AUC (r² = 0.147, ? = -0.383, P = 0.023). In conclusion, arterial smooth muscle function is significantly impaired in the obese. This may be important in their increased cardiovascular risk. PMID:20489689

Ayer, Julian G; Harmer, Jason A; David, Clementine; S Steinbeck, Katherine; Seale, J Paul; Celermajer, David S

2010-05-20

266

Spouses of Older Adults With Late-Life Drinking Problems: Health, Family, and Social Functioning*  

PubMed Central

Objective: This study focuses on the health, family, and social functioning of spouses of late-life remitted and continuing problem drinkers, and on predictors of spouses' alcohol-related functioning and depressive symptoms. Method: Three groups of spouses were compared at baseline and a 10-year follow-up: (a) spouses (n = 73) of older adults who had no drinking problems at baseline or follow-up, (b) spouses (n = 25) of older adults who had drinking problems at baseline but not follow-up, and (c) spouses (n = 69) of older adults who had drinking problems at both baseline and follow-up. At each contact point, spouses completed an inventory that assessed their alcohol-related, health, family, and social functioning. Results: At baseline, compared with spouses of problem-free individuals, spouses of older adults whose drinking problems later remitted reported more alcohol consumption, poorer health, more depressive symptoms, and less involvement in domestic tasks and social and religious activities. At the 10-year follow-up, spouses of remitted problem drinkers were comparable to spouses of problem-free individuals, but spouses of continuing problem drinkers consumed more alcohol, incurred more alcohol-related consequences, and had friends who approved more of drinking. Overall, spouses whose friends approved more of drinking and whose partners consumed more alcohol and had drinking problems were likely to consume more alcohol and to have drinking problems themselves. Conclusions: Spouses of older adults whose late-life drinking problems remit can attain normal functioning; however, spouses of older adults with continuing late-life drinking problems experience some ongoing deficits.

Moos, Rudolf H.; Brennan, Penny L.; Schutte, Kathleen K.; Moos, Bernice S.

2010-01-01

267

Impairment in occupational functioning and adult ADHD: the predictive utility of executive function (EF) ratings versus EF tests.  

PubMed

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with deficits in executive functioning (EF). ADHD in adults is also associated with impairments in major life activities, particularly occupational functioning. We investigated the extent to which EF deficits assessed by both tests and self-ratings contributed to the degree of impairment in 11 measures involving self-reported occupational problems, employer reported workplace adjustment, and clinician rated occupational adjustment. Three groups of adults were recruited as a function of their severity of ADHD: ADHD diagnosis (n = 146), clinical controls self-referring for ADHD but not diagnosed with it (n = 97), and community controls (n = 109). Groups were combined and regression analyses revealed that self-ratings of EF were significantly predictive of impairments in all 11 measures of occupational adjustment. Although several tests of EF also did so, they contributed substantially less than did the EF ratings, particularly when analyzed jointly with the ratings. We conclude that EF deficits contribute to the impairments in occupational functioning that occur in conjunction with adult ADHD. Ratings of EF in daily life contribute more to such impairments than do EF tests, perhaps because, as we hypothesize, each assesses a different level in the hierarchical organization of EF as a meta-construct. PMID:20197297

Barkley, Russell A; Murphy, Kevin R

2010-03-02

268

Differential diagnosis of adults with ADHD: the role of executive function and self-regulation.  

PubMed

Adult ADHD is conceptualized as a disorder of age-inappropriate behavior that occurs because of maldevelopment of 2 related neuropsychological domains. The neuropsychological symptoms seen in adults with ADHD may be explained by deficits in executive function, which can be broadly defined as a set of neurocognitive processes that allow for the organization of behavior across time so as to attain future goals. Executive function is comprised of 2 broad domains: inhibition and metacognition. Inhibition encompasses the ability to inhibit motor, verbal, cognitive, and emotional activities. In turn, deficits in inhibition contribute to deficits in the development of 4 aspects of executive function in the domain of metacognition, which include nonverbal working memory, verbal working memory, planning and problem-solving, and emotional self-regulation. Understanding the ways in which deficits in executive function contribute to the symptoms of ADHD can help in differentiating ADHD from disorders that share similar characteristics. PMID:20667287

Barkley, Russell A

2010-07-01

269

Cardiac Autonomic Function during Submaximal Treadmill Exercise in Adults with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study determined whether the cardiac autonomic function of adults with Down syndrome (DS) differs from that of nondisabled persons during submaximal dynamic exercise. Thirteen participants with DS and 12 nondisabled individuals performed maximal and submaximal treadmill tests with metabolic and heart rate (HR) measurements. Spectral analysis…

Mendonca, Goncalo V.; Pereira, Fernando D.; Fernhall, Bo

2011-01-01

270

Age of Acquisition Effects on the Functional Organization of Language in the Adult Brain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we neuroimaged deaf adults as they performed two linguistic tasks with sentences in American Sign Language, grammatical judgment and phonemic-hand judgment. Participants' age-onset of sign language acquisition ranged from birth to 14 years; length of sign language experience was substantial and…

Mayberry, Rachel I.; Chen, Jen-Kai; Witcher, Pamela; Klein, Denise

2011-01-01

271

The Association between Cardiovascular Disease and Cochlear Function in Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this research was to evaluate the relation between self-reported cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cochlear function in older adults. The Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study (EHLS) is an ongoing population-based study of hearing loss and its risk factors in Beaver Dam, Wisconsin. As part of the EHLS questionnaire, participants were…

Torre, Peter, III; Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Klein, Barbara E.K.; Klein, Ronald; Nondahl, David M.

2005-01-01

272

Spontaneous corti - cospinal axonal plasticity and functional recovery after adult central nervous system injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

were made in adult rats in the rostral cervical spinal cord or caudal medulla. Following complete lesions of the dorsal corticospinal motor pathway, which contains more than 95% of all corticospinal axons, spontaneous sprouting from the ventral corticospinal tract occurred onto medial motoneuron pools in the cervical spinal cord; this sprout- ing was paralleled by functional recovery. Combined lesions of

Norbert Weidner; Arvin Ner; Nima Salimi; Mark H. Tuszynski

2001-01-01

273

Age of Acquisition Effects on the Functional Organization of Language in the Adult Brain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we neuroimaged deaf adults as they performed two linguistic tasks with sentences in American Sign Language, grammatical judgment and phonemic-hand judgment. Participants' age-onset of sign language acquisition ranged from birth to 14 years; length of sign language experience was substantial and…

Mayberry, Rachel I.; Chen, Jen-Kai; Witcher, Pamela; Klein, Denise

2011-01-01

274

Comparison of functional activation foci in children and adults using a common stereotactic space  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of methods allowing direct comparisons between child and adult neuroimaging data is an important prerequisite for studying the neural bases of cognitive development. Several issues arise when attempting to make such direct comparisons, including the comparability of anatomical localization of functional responses and the magnitude and time course of the hemodynamic responses themselves. Previous results suggest that, after

Hyunseon Christine Kang; E. Darcy Burgund; Heather M. Lugar; Steven E. Petersen; Bradley L. Schlaggara

2003-01-01

275

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LUNG FUNCTION AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS IN YOUNG ADULT BLACK AND WHITE MALES AND FEMALES  

EPA Science Inventory

The relationships of lung function to physical characteristics in young adults have not been adequately described for different gender-race groups in the United States. s part of a study of the effects of ozone exposure upon Black and White men and women, we measured lung volumes...

276

Implementing functional assessment in older adult care: the experience of direct care staff  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The paper reports on the implementation of the Revised Elderly Persons' Disability Scale use – a 53-item, seven sub-scale functional assessment tool – in a range of older adult care institutions. Staff education on the instrument's use is provided; patient assessments collated centrally; and results fed back to respective care facilities. This study explores the views of qualified

William Spence

2011-01-01

277

Passive smoking and evolution of lung function in young adults. An 8-year longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study was to examine the relation between exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and the rate of change in ventilatory lung function in young adults during a study period of 8 years, with an additional aim to recognize susceptible subgroups. The study population consisted of 117 never smokers, who were 15–40 years of age at the

Maritta S. Jaakkola; Jouni J. K. Jaakkola; Margaret R. Becklake; Pierre Ernst

1995-01-01

278

Spinal Cord Repair in Adult Paraplegic Rats: Partial Restoration of Hind Limb Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complete spinal cord gaps in adult rats were bridged with multiple intercostal nerve grafts that redirected specific pathways from white to gray matter. The grafted area was stabilized with fibrin glue containing acidic fibroblast growth factor and by compressive wiring of posterior spinal processes. Hind limb function improved progressively during the first 6 months, as assessed by two scoring systems.

Henrich Cheng; Yihai Cao; Lars Olson

1996-01-01

279

Sexual Function and Satisfaction in Adults Based on the Definition of Child Sexual Abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. The literature shows a discrepancy in the association between child sexual abuse (CSA) and adult sexual function. One of the proposed explanations for this discrepancy is the different ways in which CSA is assessed. While some studies explicitly ask potential participants whether they are sexual abuse survivors, others ask whether participants experienced specific unwanted sexual behaviors. Aim. This study

Alessandra Rellini; Cindy Meston

2007-01-01

280

Parental Alcoholism and Family Functioning: Effects on Differentiation Levels of Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the impact of parental alcoholism and various indices of family functioning on differentiation levels of young adults. A total of 813 college students completed the Differentiation of Self Inventory (DSI; Skowron & Friedlander, 1998), the Self-Report Family Inventory Version II (SFI; Beavers & Hampson, 1990), and questions related to experiences in their families of origin. Analyses indicated

Patrick Johnson; Rachel Stone

2009-01-01

281

Students' Perceptions of Long-Functioning Cooperative Teams in Accelerated Adult Degree Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined 718 adult students' perceptions of long-functioning cooperative study teams in accelerated associate's, bachelor's, and master's business degree programs. Six factors were examined: attraction toward team, alignment of performance expectations, intrateam conflict, workload sharing, preference for teamwork, and impact on…

Favor, Judy

2012-01-01

282

EFFECTS OF AMBIENT OZONE ON RESPIRATORY FUNCTION IN HEALTHY ADULTS EXERCISING OUTDOORS  

EPA Science Inventory

The effect of exposure to ozone (O3) in ambient air on respiratory function was studied in 30 healthy adult nonsmokers engaged in a regular daily program of outdoor exercise in Tuxedo, NY during the summer of 1985. Each subject did the same exercise each day but exercise intensit...

283

Blood lead levels in relation to cognitive function in older U.S. adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies suggest that cumulative exposure to lead, as measured in the bone, is associated with accelerated cognitive decline at older age. It is presently unclear, however, whether current blood lead levels (BLLs) are adversely related to cognitive functioning in older adults. We evaluated BLLs in relation to cognition in the continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The current

Edwin van Wijngaarden; Paul C. Winters; Deborah A. Cory-Slechta

2011-01-01

284

Childhood Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Substance Use, and Adult Functioning among Incarcerated Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: To estimate prevalence of childhood ADHD among incarcerated women and determine its association with substance use and adult functioning. Method: 192 female participants are recruited from the Department of Corrections in Rhode Island. Childhood ADHD is defined as scoring >46 on the Wender Utah Rating Scale. Results: The findings…

Hennessey, Kathleen A.; Stein, Michael D.; Rosengard, Cynthia; Rose, Jennifer S.; Clarke, Jennifer G.

2010-01-01

285

Skeletal muscle power: a critical determinant of physical functioning in older adults  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Muscle power declines earlier and more precipitously with advancing age compared to muscle strength. Peak muscle power has also emerged as an important predictor of functional limitations in older adults. Our current working hypothesis is focused on examining lower extremity muscle power as a more d...

286

Respiratory Function in Normal Young Adults at Sea Level and 4300 Meters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Respiratory function of two groups of normal young adults was studied at sea level and at an altitude of 4300 meters for 28 days. In this study, physical conditioning in one half of the subjects proved to be beneficial since it resulted in an additional i...

C. F. Consolazio H. L. Johnson L. O. Matoush R. A. Nelson G. J. Isaac

1968-01-01

287

Respiratory Function in Normal Young Adults at 3475 and 4300 Meters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The respiratory function of two groups of normal, young adults were studied at altitudes of 3475 and 4300 meters for 21 and 28 days, respectively. In the 4300 meter study, physical conditioning in one-half of the subjects proved to be beneficial since it ...

C. F. Consolazio H. L. Johnson L. O. Matoush R. A. Nelson G. J. Isaac

1967-01-01

288

Characterization of Contractile Function in Diabetic Hypertensive Cardiomyopathy in Adult Rat Ventricular Myocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabetes and hypertension both produce myocardial dysfunction that accelerates cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Coexistence of the two often results in a more severe cardiomyopathy than either process alone. The purpose of this study was to characterize the contractile function of diabetic hypertensive cardiomyopathy at the single myocyte level. Adult spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were made

Loren E. Wold; David P. Relling; Peter B. Colligan; Glenda I. Scott; Kadon K. Hintz; Bonnie H. Ren; Paul N. Epstein; Jun Ren

2001-01-01

289

Students' Perceptions of Long-Functioning Cooperative Teams in Accelerated Adult Degree Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined 718 adult students' perceptions of long-functioning cooperative study teams in accelerated associate's, bachelor's, and master's business degree programs. Six factors were examined: attraction toward team, alignment of performance expectations, intrateam conflict, workload sharing, preference for teamwork, and impact on…

Favor, Judy

2012-01-01

290

The Association between Cardiovascular Disease and Cochlear Function in Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this research was to evaluate the relation between self-reported cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cochlear function in older adults. The Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study (EHLS) is an ongoing population-based study of hearing loss and its risk factors in Beaver Dam, Wisconsin. As part of the EHLS questionnaire, participants were…

Torre, Peter, III; Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Klein, Barbara E.K.; Klein, Ronald; Nondahl, David M.

2005-01-01

291

Evidence of a Functional B-Cell Immunodeficiency in Adults Who Experience Serogroup C Meningococcal Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

After adolescence, the incidence of meningococcal disease decreases with age as a result of the cumulative immunizing effect of repeated nasopharyngeal colonization. Nevertheless, some adults succumb to meningo- coccal disease, so we hypothesized that this is due to a subtle functional immunological defect. Peripheral blood lymphocytes derived from survivors of serogroup C meningococcal disease and from age- and sex-matched controls

Rachel A. Foster; Jennifer Carlring; Michael W. McKendrick; Andrew Lees; Ray Borrow; Robert C. Read; Andrew W. Heath

2009-01-01

292

Cerebral dominance for language function in adults with specific language impairment or autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

A link between developmental language disorders and atypical cerebral lateralization has been postulated since the 1920s, but evidence has been indirect and inconsistent. The current study investigated this proposal using functional transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (fTCD), which assesses blood flow through the middle cerebral arteries serving the left and right cerebral hemispheres. A group of young adults with specific lan- guage

Andrew J. O. Whitehouse; Dorothy V. M. Bishop

2008-01-01

293

Functional but Abnormal Adult Erythropoiesis in the Absence of the Stem Cell Leukemia Gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have indicated that the stem cell leukemia gene (SCL) is essential for both embryonic and adult erythropoiesis. We have examined erythropoiesis in conditional SCL knockout mice for at least 6 months after loss of SCL function and report that SCL was important but not essential for the generation of mature red blood cells. Although SCL-deleted mice were mildly

Mark A. Hall; Nicholas J. Slater; C. Glenn Begley; Jessica M. Salmon; Leonie J. Van Stekelenburg; Matthew P. McCormack; Stephen M. Jane; David J. Curtis

2005-01-01

294

Air pollution and lung function among susceptible adult subjects: a panel study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Adverse health effects at relatively low levels of ambient air pollution have consistently been reported in the last years. We conducted a time-series panel study of subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and ischemic heart disease (IHD) to evaluate whether daily levels of air pollutants have a measurable impact on the lung function of adult subjects with

Susanna Lagorio; Francesco Forastiere; Riccardo Pistelli; Ivano Iavarone; Paola Michelozzi; Valeria Fano; Achille Marconi; Giovanni Ziemacki; Bart D Ostro

2006-01-01

295

Associations among Childhood Sexual Abuse, Language Use, and Adult Sexual Functioning and Satisfaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objectives: To better understand the link between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adult sexual functioning and satisfaction, we examined cognitive differences between women with (N = 128) and without (NSA, N = 99) CSA histories. Methods: We used the Linguistic Inquiry Word Count, a computerized text analysis program, to investigate language…

Lorenz, Tierney Ahrold; Meston, Cindy May

2012-01-01

296

Notch2 is required for maintaining sustentacular cell function in the adult mouse main olfactory epithelium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Notch receptors are expressed in neurons and glia in the adult nervous system, but why this expression persists is not well-understood. Here we examine the role of the Notch pathway in the postnatal mouse main olfactory system, and show evidence consistent with a model where Notch2 is required for maintaining sustentacular cell function. In the absence of Notch2, the laminar

Steve Rodriguez; Heather M. Sickles; Chris DeLeonardis; Ana Alcaraz; Thomas Gridley; David M. Lin

2008-01-01

297

High tibial osteotomy in young adults with constitutional tibia vara.  

PubMed

Frontal plane malalignment of the lower extremity results in abnormal load distribution across the knee joint. Consequences of this increased stress may lead to compartmental osteoarthritis. High tibial osteotomy is well established for early osteoarthritis of the knee joint in middle-aged patients. We hypothesize that earlier realignment of the varus knee can be performed without undue risks and debilitation toward the young active patient and with good results in short-term follow-up. Open-wedge high tibia osteotomy using the Puddu plate was performed on eleven patients (19 knees) under 25 years of age for constitutional high tibia vara. The mechanical femorotibial angle (FTA) and Knee Society Knee Score (KSKS) were compared pre-operatively and 24 months post-operatively. The average FTA improved from +8.8 degrees (+5 - +16) to -0.1 (-2 - +5). The average KSKS improved from 74 (50-100) to 93 (60-100) and the function score improved from 84 (50-100) to 95 (60-100). Special concerns in this age group include unsightly cosmesis, and kneeling pain and discomfort. Open-wedge high tibia osteotomy provides a satisfactory solution for constitutional high tibia vara with minor morbidity on behalf of the patient in the short-term follow-up period. PMID:20411373

Masrouha, Karim Z; Sraj, Shafic; Lakkis, Suhail; Saghieh, Said

2010-04-22

298

Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Third Report of the Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III, or ATP III) presents the National Cholesterol Education Program's (NCEP's) updated recommendations for cholesterol...

2002-01-01

299

Physiological time model for predicting adult emergence of western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in the Texas High Plains.  

PubMed

Field observations at three locations in the Texas High Plains were used to develop and validate a degree-day phenology model to predict the onset and proportional emergence of adult Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) adults. Climatic data from the Texas High Plains Potential Evapotranspiration network were used with records of cumulative proportional adult emergence to determine the functional lower developmental temperature, optimum starting date, and the sum of degree-days for phenological events from onset to 99% adult emergence. The model base temperature, 10 degrees C (50 degrees F), corresponds closely to known physiological lower limits for development. The model uses a modified Gompertz equation, y = 96.5 x exp (-(exp(6.0 - 0.00404 x (x - 4.0), where x is cumulative heat (degree-days), to predict y, cumulative proportional emergence expressed as a percentage. The model starts degree-day accumulation on the date of corn, Zea mays L., emergence, and predictions correspond closely to corn phenological stages from tasseling to black layer development. Validation shows the model predicts cumulative proportional adult emergence within a satisfactory interval of 4.5 d. The model is flexible enough to accommodate early planting, late emergence, and the effects of drought and heat stress. The model provides corn producers ample lead time to anticipate and implement adult control practices. PMID:18950040

Stevenson, Douglass E; Michels, Gerald J; Bible, John B; Jackman, John A; Harris, Marvin K

2008-10-01

300

Metabolic Syndrome and Cognitive Function in Healthy Middle-Aged and Older Adults without Diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Few studies have addressed whether the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its individual components are associated with cognitive function in middle-aged and older populations, as well as whether specific areas of cognition are more affected than others. We examined the cross-sectional association between MetS and six areas of cognitive function in healthy cognitively intact adults without diabetes (n?=?853, mean age

Nicole M. Gatto; Victor W. Henderson; Jan A. St. John; Carol McCleary; Howard N. Hodis; Wendy J. Mack

2008-01-01

301

Regeneration of T-Cell Helper Function in Zinc-Deficient Adult Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diets deficient in zinc cause rapid atrophy of the thymus and loss of T-cell helper function in the young adult A\\/J mouse. Because zinc deficiency, as well as other nutritional deficiencies, causes extensive damage to the immune system, the question arose as to whether zinc-deficient mice could repair the thymus and fully regenerate T-cell helper function if returned to diets

Pamela J. Fraker; Paula Depasquale-Jardieu; Craig M. Zwicki; Richard W. Luecke

1978-01-01

302

Impaired Lung Function Is Associated with Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome in Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Impaired lung function is associated with obesity and insulin resistance. In this study, we investigated the relationship between metabolic syndrome and impaired lung function in adults.Research Methods and Procedures: A total of 46,514 subjects 20 years and over (21,669 men and 24,845 women, mean age = 37.3 ± 11.2 and 37.0 ± 11.3 years, respectively) were recruited from four

Wen-Yuan Lin; Chien-An Yao; Hao-Chien Wang; Kuo-Chin Huang

2006-01-01

303

Brief functional analysis and treatment of bizarre vocalizations in an adult with schizophrenia.  

PubMed Central

Variables responsible for the maintenance of bizarre vocalizations emitted by an adult diagnosed with schizophrenia were examined via a brief functional analysis, and results suggested that the behavior was maintained by attention. A treatment consisting of extinction and differential reinforcement of appropriate vocalizations was effective in reducing bizarre vocalizations and increasing appropriate vocalizations. The use of functional analysis methodology to examine variables that maintain problem behavior in this population is discussed.

Wilder, D A; Masuda, A; O'Connor, C; Baham, M

2001-01-01

304

Developmental Continuity in Teleo-Functional Explanation: Reasoning about Nature Among Romanian Romani Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teleo-functional explanations account for objects in terms of purpose, helping us understand objects such as pencils (for writing) and body parts such as ears (for hearing). Western-educated adults restrict teleo-functional attributions to artifact, biological, and behavioral phenomena, considering such explanations less appropriate for nonliving natural entities. In contrast, children extend explanations of purpose to the nonliving natural domain. This cross-cultural

Krista Casler; Deborah Kelemen

2008-01-01

305

Passaged Adult Chondrocytes Can Form Engineered Cartilage with Functional Mechanical Properties: A Canine Model  

PubMed Central

It was hypothesized that previously optimized serum-free culture conditions for juvenile bovine chondrocytes could be adapted to generate engineered cartilage with physiologic mechanical properties in a preclinical, adult canine model. Primary or passaged (using growth factors) adult chondrocytes from three adult dogs were encapsulated in agarose, and cultured in serum-free media with transforming growth factor-?3. After 28 days in culture, engineered cartilage formed by primary chondrocytes exhibited only small increases in glycosaminoglycan content. However, all passaged chondrocytes on day 28 elaborated a cartilage matrix with compressive properties and glycosaminoglycan content in the range of native adult canine cartilage values. A preliminary biocompatibility study utilizing chondral and osteochondral constructs showed no gross or histological signs of rejection, with all implanted constructs showing excellent integration with surrounding cartilage and subchondral bone. This study demonstrates that adult canine chondrocytes can form a mechanically functional, biocompatible engineered cartilage tissue under optimized culture conditions. The encouraging findings of this work highlight the potential for tissue engineering strategies using adult chondrocytes in the clinical treatment of cartilage defects.

Ng, Kenneth W.; Lima, Eric G.; Bian, Liming; O'Conor, Christopher J.; Jayabalan, Prakash S.; Stoker, Aaron M.; Kuroki, Keiichi; Cook, Cristi R.; Ateshian, Gerard A.; Cook, James L.

2010-01-01

306

Tbx20 regulates a genetic program essential to adult mouse cardiomyocyte function  

PubMed Central

Human mutations in or variants of TBX20 are associated with congenital heart disease, cardiomyopathy, and arrhythmias. To investigate whether cardiac disease in patients with these conditions results from an embryonic or ongoing requirement for Tbx20 in myocardium, we ablated Tbx20 specifically in adult cardiomyocytes in mice. This ablation resulted in the onset of severe cardiomyopathy accompanied by arrhythmias, with death ensuing within 1 to 2 weeks of Tbx20 ablation. Accounting for this dramatic phenotype, we identified molecular signatures that posit Tbx20 as a central integrator of a genetic program that maintains cardiomyocyte function in the adult heart. Expression of a number of genes encoding critical transcription factors, ion channels, and cytoskeletal/myofibrillar proteins was downregulated consequent to loss of Tbx20. Genome-wide ChIP analysis of Tbx20-binding regions in the adult heart revealed that many of these genes were direct downstream targets of Tbx20 and uncovered a previously undescribed DNA-binding site for Tbx20. Bioinformatics and in vivo functional analyses revealed a cohort of transcription factors that, working with Tbx20, integrated multiple environmental signals to maintain ion channel gene expression in the adult heart. Our data provide insight into the mechanisms by which mutations in TBX20 cause adult heart disease in humans.

Shen, Tao; Aneas, Ivy; Sakabe, Noboru; Dirschinger, Ralf J.; Wang, Gang; Smemo, Scott; Westlund, John M.; Cheng, Hongqiang; Dalton, Nancy; Gu, Yusu; Boogerd, Cornelis J.; Cai, Chen-leng; Peterson, Kirk; Chen, Ju; Nobrega, Marcelo A.; Evans, Sylvia M.

2011-01-01

307

Mortality salience effects on the life expectancy estimates of older adults as a function of neuroticism.  

PubMed

Research has shown that reminders of mortality lead people to engage in defenses to minimize the anxiety such thoughts could arouse. In accord with this notion, younger adults reminded of mortality engage in behaviors aimed at denying vulnerability to death. However, little is known about the effects of mortality reminders on older adults. The present study examined the effect of reminders of death on older adults' subjective life expectancy. Mortality reminders did not significantly impact the life expectancy estimates of old-old adults. Reminders of death did however lead to shorter life expectancy estimates among young-old participants low in neuroticism but longer life expectancy estimates among young-old participants high in neuroticism, suggesting that this group was most defensive in response to reminders of death. PMID:21151516

Maxfield, Molly; Solomon, Sheldon; Pyszczynski, Tom; Greenberg, Jeff

2010-11-29

308

Systemic Vascular Function Is Associated with Muscular Power in Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Age-associated loss of muscular strength and muscular power is a critical determinant of loss of physical function and progression to disability in older adults. In this study, we examined the association of systemic vascular function and measures of muscle strength and power in older adults. Measures of vascular endothelial function included brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and the pulse wave amplitude reactive hyperemia index (PWA-RHI). Augmentation index (AIx) was taken as a measure of systemic vascular function related to arterial stiffness and wave reflection. Measures of muscular strength included one repetition maximum (1RM) for a bilateral leg press. Peak muscular power was measured during 5 repetitions performed as fast as possible for bilateral leg press at 40% 1RM. Muscular power was associated with brachial FMD (r = 0.43, P < 0.05), PWA-RHI (r = 0.42, P < 0.05), and AIx (r = ?0.54, P < 0.05). Muscular strength was not associated with any measure of vascular function. In conclusion, systemic vascular function is associated with lower-limb muscular power but not muscular strength in older adults. Whether loss of muscular power with aging contributes to systemic vascular deconditioning or vascular dysfunction contributes to decrements in muscular power remains to be determined.

Heffernan, Kevin S.; Chale, Angela; Hau, Cynthia; Cloutier, Gregory J.; Phillips, Edward M.; Warner, Patrick; Nickerson, Heather; Reid, Kieran F.; Kuvin, Jeffrey T.; Fielding, Roger A.

2012-01-01

309

Sex differences in the functional neuroanatomy of working memory in adults with ADHD  

PubMed Central

Objective Although attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults is associated with significant morbidity and dysfunction and afflicts both sexes, relatively few imaging studies have examined females and none have had sufficient power to adequately examine sex differences. We sought to examine sex differences in neural functioning of ADHD adults during performance on a verbal working memory task. Method Participants were 44 adults with ADHD matched on age, sex, and estimated IQ to 49 controls. Accuracy and reaction time on an n-back task were measures of working memory performance. The blood-oxygenation-level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging response was used as a measure of neural activity. Results A group by sex ANOVA showed no between-group differences in either reaction time or percent correct for the working memory task. For imaging data, with both sexes combined, ADHD adults showed less activity than controls in prefrontal regions. However, sex-by-group analyses revealed an interaction, such that male ADHD adults showed significantly less activity lateralized to right frontal, temporal and subcortical regions, as well as left occipital and cerebellar regions relative to male controls, whereas female ADHD adults showed no differences from female controls. Exploratory correlation analyses revealed negative associations between working memory related activation and number of hyperactive symptoms for males and number of inattentive symptoms for females. Conclusions Male but not female adults with ADHD showed significantly altered patterns of neural activity during performance on a verbal working memory task. Males and females showed different associations between neural activity and ADHD symptoms.

Valera, Eve M.; Brown, Ariel; Biederman, Joseph; Faraone, Stephen V.; Makris, Nikos; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Vitulano, Michael; Schiller, Michael; Seidman, Larry J.

2013-01-01

310

The medical, functional and social challenges faced by older adults with intellectual disability.  

PubMed

Introduction: Little is known about the sociodemographic and clinical profile of older adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) in Singapore. We studied the sociodemographic and clinical profile of older adults with ID and investigated factors associated with caregiver availability and identity in this population. Materials and Methods: The study population involved all adults with ID aged ?40 years receiving services from the Movement for the Intellectually Disabled of Singapore (MINDS), the largest such provider in Singapore. Information on sociodemographic and clinical profiles, functional status, and availability of caregivers were collected via interviewer-administered questionnaires from guardians of older adults with ID. Descriptive characteristics were computed and chi-square and logistic regression identifi ed predictors of caregiver availability and identity. Results: Participation was 95% (227/239). There were differences in client age, gender, and caregiver availability between recipients of residential and non-residential services (all P <0.05). Common comorbidities included hyperlipidaemia (17.6%), hypertension (15.9%), psychiatric diagnoses (16.3%) and epilepsy (10.6%). The majority were fully independent in basic activities of daily living, but only 21.1% were fully communicative. Only a small minority (9.4%) were exercising regularly. The majority (73.5%) of clients had a primary caregiver; almost equal proportions relied on either parents or siblings. Older client age was associated independently with the lack of a primary caregiver, independent of greater functional dependence and presence of medical comorbidities in the client. Conclusion: Older adults with ID have multiple medical, functional, and social issues. More can be done to support the care of this unique group of adults with special needs. PMID:23949263

Wee, Liang En; Koh, Gerald Ch; Auyong, Linda S; Cheong, Angela Lk; Myo, Thant Thant; Lin, Jingyi; Lim, Esther Mk; Tan, Serene Xy; Sundaramurthy, Sridevi; Koh, Chu Wen; Ramakrishnan, Prabha; Aariyapillai-Rajagopal, Reena; Vaidynathan-Selvamuthu, Hemamalini; Khin, Ma Ma

2013-07-01

311

Functional role of connexin43 gap junction channels in adult mouse heart assessed by inducible gene deletion.  

PubMed

The gap junction protein Connexin43 (Cx43) is expressed in various cell types during embryonic development and in adult mice. Cx43 null mice (Cx43-/-) die perinatally due to cardiac malformation. In order to define the major functional role of Cx43 gap junction channels in adult mice and to circumvent perinatal death as well as direct or indirect compensation of Cx43 deficiency during development, we established a novel conditional Cx43 mouse mutant. To ablate Cx43 in adult mice in all cells that express Cx43 at a certain time, we targeted the 4-hydroxytamoxifen inducible Cre recombinase, Cre-ER(T), into the endogenous Cx43 locus. This approach left only one Cx43 coding region to be deleted upon induction of Cre-ER(T) activity. Highly efficient inducible ablation of Cx43 was shown in an embryonic stem cell test system and in adult mice. Although Cx43 protein was decreased in different tissues after induction of Cre-ER(T)-mediated recombination, cardiac abnormalities most likely account for death of those mice. Surface and telemetric ECG recordings revealed significant delay of ventricular activation and death during periods of bradyarrhythmia preceded by tachycardias. This novel approach of inducible ablation of Cx43 highlights the functional importance of normal activation of ventricular cardiomyocytes mediated by Cx43 gap junction channels in adult mouse heart to prevent initiation of fatal arrhythmias. The new mouse model should be useful for further analyses of molecular changes initiated by acute loss of Cx43 expression in various cell types. PMID:14734052

Eckardt, D; Theis, M; Degen, J; Ott, T; van Rijen, H V M; Kirchhoff, S; Kim, J-S; de Bakker, J M T; Willecke, K

2004-01-01

312

Diffusion tensor imaging and cognitive function in older adults with no dementia  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine the patterns of diffusivity associated with cognitive domain functions in older adults without dementia. Methods: We studied older adults without dementia (n = 220) who underwent neuropsychometric testing and a diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) examination at 3 T in a cross-sectional study. Memory, language, attention/executive function, and visual-spatial processing domains were assessed within 4 months of the MRI examination. A fluid-attenuated inversion recovery–based DTI sequence that enabled uncontaminated cortical diffusion measurements was performed. Associations between cortical mean diffusivity (MD) and cognitive function were tested using voxel-based regression analysis. Association between tract diffusivity and cognitive function was tested with regions of interest drawn on color-coded fractional anisotropy (FA) maps. Results: Memory function was associated with the medial temporal lobe cortical MD on voxel-based analysis (p < 0.001, corrected for multiple comparisons), and inferior longitudinal fasciculus and posterior and anterior cingulum FA on tract-based analysis (p < 0.001). Language function was associated with the left temporal lobe cortical MD (p < 0.001, corrected for multiple comparisons), inferior longitudinal fasciculus, fornix, and posterior cingulum FA (p < 0.05). Attention and executive function was associated with the posterior and anterior cingulum FA, and visual-spatial function was associated with posterior cingulum FA (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Specific cognitive domain functions are associated with distinct patterns of cortical and white matter diffusivity in elderly with no dementia. Posterior cingulum tract FA was associated with all 4 cognitive domain functions, in agreement with the hypothesis that the posterior cingulate cortex is the main connectivity hub for cognitive brain networks. Microstructural changes identified on DTI may be associated with neurodegenerative pathologies underlying cognitive changes in older adults without dementia.

Senjem, M.L.; Avula, R.; Zhang, B.; Samikoglu, A.R.; Weigand, S.D.; Przybelski, S.A.; Edmonson, H.A.; Vemuri, P.; Knopman, D.S.; Boeve, B.F.; Ivnik, R.J.; Smith, G.E.; Petersen, R.C.; Jack, C.R.

2011-01-01

313

Effect of the antioxidant dibunol on adrenocortical, thyroid, and adenohypopyseal function in adult and old rats  

SciTech Connect

This paper studies the effect of dibunol (4-methyl-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol) (D) on the function of the adrenal cortex, thyroid gland, and adenhypophysis, which produces trophic hormones for the other two glands. Experiments were carried out on adult rats. After injection of D concentrations of corticosterone (CS), triodothyronine (T/sub 3/), ACTH, and thyrotrophin (TSH) in the blood plasma and the CS concentration in tssue of the adenohypophysis were determined. It is shown that injection of D caused biphasic changes in the CS concentration in both tissues studied in adult and old animals.

Gorban', E.N.

1986-04-01

314

What do we know about cognitive functioning in adult congenital heart disease?  

PubMed

With the advent of improved medical and surgical care in congenital heart disease, there has been an increase in the number of patients who survive into adulthood, giving rise to a new patient population 'Adults with congenital heart disease'. In the past, morbidity and mortality were the primary concerns for this group. However, with improvements in outcome attention has shifted to other factors such as psychosocial and cognitive functioning. This paper reviews the literature on the cognitive functioning in adult congenital heart disease patients. A total of five relevant articles were retrieved via electronic searches of six databases, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, PsychINFO, and PubMed. The results displayed a consensus on the presence of some cognitive difficulties in adult congenital heart disease patients. The aetiology of cognitive dysfunctions appears to be multifactorial. The literature is limited by the very small number of studies looking at adults with congenital heart disease, with the majority focusing on cognitive functioning among children with congenital heart disease. However, the presence of cognitive dysfunctions and the resulting impact on the patient's day to day lives warrant for a more detailed and prospective research to enhance the understanding of its aetiology and impact. PMID:23759080

Tyagi, Manavi; Austin, Katie; Stygall, Jan; Deanfield, John; Cullen, Shay; Newman, Stanton P

2013-06-13

315

Upper limb motor function in young adults with spina bifida and hydrocephalus  

PubMed Central

Objective The objective of the study was to measure upper limb motor function in young adults with spina bifida meningomyelocele (SBM) and typically developing age peers. Method Participants were 26 young adults with SBM, with a Verbal or Performance IQ score of at least 70 on the Wechsler scales, and 27 age- and gender-matched controls. Four upper limb motor function tasks were performed under four different visual and cognitive challenge conditions. Motor independence was assessed by questionnaire. Results Fewer SBM than control participants obtained perfect posture and rebound scores. The SBM group performed less accurately and was more disrupted by cognitive challenge than controls on limb dysmetria tasks. The SBM group was slower than controls on the diadochokinesis task. Adaptive motor independence was related to one upper limb motor task, arm posture, and upper rather than lower spinal lesions were associated with less motor independence. Conclusions Young adults with SBM have significant limitations in upper limb function and are more disrupted by some challenges while performing upper limb motor tasks. Within the group of young adults with SBM, upper spinal lesions compromise motor independence more than lower spinal lesions.

Salman, M. S.; Jewell, D.; Hetherington, R.; Spiegler, B. J.; MacGregor, D. L.; Drake, J. M.; Humphreys, R. P.; Gentili, F.

2011-01-01

316

Insights from a Chimpanzee Adipose Stromal Cell Population: Opportunities for Adult Stem Cells to Expand Primate Functional Genomics  

PubMed Central

Comparisons between humans and chimpanzees are essential for understanding traits unique to each species. However, linking important phenotypic differences to underlying molecular changes is often challenging. The ability to generate, differentiate, and profile adult stem cells provides a powerful but underutilized opportunity to investigate the molecular basis for trait differences between species within specific cell types and in a controlled environment. Here, we characterize adipose stromal cells (ASCs) from Clint, the chimpanzee whose genome was first sequenced. Using imaging and RNA-Seq, we compare the chimpanzee ASCs with three comparable human cell lines. Consistent with previous studies on ASCs in humans, the chimpanzee cells have fibroblast-like morphology and express genes encoding components of the extracellular matrix at high levels. Differentially expressed genes are enriched for distinct functional classes between species: immunity and protein processing are higher in chimpanzees, whereas cell cycle and DNA processing are higher in humans. Although hesitant to draw definitive conclusions from these data given the limited sample size, we wish to stress the opportunities that adult stem cells offer for studying primate evolution. In particular, adult stem cells provide a powerful means to investigate the profound disease susceptibilities unique to humans and a promising tool for conservation efforts with nonhuman primates. By allowing for experimental perturbations in relevant cell types, adult stem cells promise to complement classic comparative primate genomics based on in vivo sampling.

Pfefferle, Lisa W.; Wray, Gregory A.

2013-01-01

317

High Blood Pressure Reading in Kids Linked to Triple Risk for Condition as Adults  

MedlinePLUS

High blood pressure reading in kids linked to triple risk for condition as adults American Heart Association Meeting Report: ... 2013 Study Highlight: Kids with at least one high blood pressure reading were about three times more likely to ...

318

High fat nutritional formula for infants and adults  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The present invention provides a new fat mixture for infant and adult nutrition which possesses adequate levels and ratios of polyunsaturated fats and long chain polyunsaturated fats. These fat mixtures possess adequate levels of phospholipids and an adequate relationship between oleic acid, linoleic acid and .alpha.-linolenic acid as well as adequate levels of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids of both the n6 and n3 series. In addition, the fat mixtures of the present invention possess an adequate ratio of arachidonic acid (20:4n6) to docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n3). These fat mixtures are modeled on the fat content of human milk for infant diets and on the mediterranean diet for adult nutritional products. Diets containing these mixtures promote the growth and development of the infant and contribute to the prevention and treatment of some diseases in adults.

1998-01-20

319

Effect of cigarette smoking on evolution of ventilatory lung function in young adults: an eight year longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There are few data on the quantitative effects of cigarette smoking on lung function in young adults. These effects are important in the understanding of the early stages of chronic airflow obstruction. METHODS: A longitudinal study over eight years was carried out to estimate quantitatively the effect of cigarette smoking on ventilatory lung function in young adults and to

M S Jaakkola; P Ernst; J J Jaakkola; L W Nganga; M R Becklake

1991-01-01

320

Functional recovery in chronic paraplegic rats after co-grafts of fetal brain and adult peripheral nerve tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUNDIn recent years, experimental studies have sought some type of functional improvement in traumatic paraplegia by transplanting neural tissue into the injured spinal cord. The aim of this work is to study the possibility of functional recovery in chronic paraplegic rats after co-transplantation of fetal cerebral tissue and adult peripheral nerve tissue.METHODSSeventy adult female Wistar rats were subjected to spinal

Mercedes Zurita; Jesús Vaquero; Santiago Oya; Jesús Montilla

2001-01-01

321

Stalking, and Social and Romantic Functioning Among Adolescents and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the nature and predictors of social and romantic functioning in adolescents and adults with ASD. Parental reports\\u000a were obtained for 25 ASD adolescents and adults (13–36 years), and 38 typical adolescents and adults (13–30 years). The ASD\\u000a group relied less upon peers and friends for social (OR = 52.16, p p 2\\u000a \\u000a df = 19 \\u000a =\\u000a  3168.74, p 2\\u000a \\u000a df = 5 = 2335.40, p t = ?2.23, df = 18.79, p  .05). These results show that

Mark Stokes; Naomi Newton; Archana Kaur

2007-01-01

322

Stalking, and social and romantic functioning among adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorder.  

PubMed

We examine the nature and predictors of social and romantic functioning in adolescents and adults with ASD. Parental reports were obtained for 25 ASD adolescents and adults (13-36 years), and 38 typical adolescents and adults (13-30 years). The ASD group relied less upon peers and friends for social (OR = 52.16, p < .01) and romantic learning (OR = 38.25, p < .01). Individuals with ASD were more likely to engage in inappropriate courting behaviours (chi2 df = 19 = 3168.74, p < .001) and were more likely to focus their attention upon celebrities, strangers, colleagues, and ex-partners (chi2 df = 5 =2335.40, p < .001), and to pursue their target longer than controls (t = -2.23, df = 18.79, p < .05). These results show that the diagnosis of ASD is pertinent when individuals are prosecuted under stalking legislation in various jurisdictions. PMID:17273936

Stokes, Mark; Newton, Naomi; Kaur, Archana

2007-02-02

323

Extracellular matrix inhibits structural and functional plasticity of dendritic spines in the adult visual cortex.  

PubMed

Brain cells are immersed in a complex structure forming the extracellular matrix. The composition of the matrix gradually matures during postnatal development, as the brain circuitry reaches its adult form. The fully developed extracellular environment stabilizes neuronal connectivity and decreases cortical plasticity as highlighted by the demonstration that treatments degrading the matrix are able to restore synaptic plasticity in the adult brain. The mechanisms through which the matrix inhibits cortical plasticity are not fully clarified. Here we show that a prominent component of the matrix, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), restrains morphological changes of dendritic spines in the visual cortex of adult mice. By means of in vivo and in vitro two-photon imaging and electrophysiology, we find that after enzymatic digestion of CSPGs, cortical spines become more motile and express a larger degree of structural and functional plasticity. PMID:23403561

de Vivo, L; Landi, S; Panniello, M; Baroncelli, L; Chierzi, S; Mariotti, L; Spolidoro, M; Pizzorusso, T; Maffei, L; Ratto, G M

2013-01-01

324

Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis: Regulation, Functional Implications, And Contribution to Disease Pathology  

PubMed Central

It is now well established that the mammalian brain has the capacity to produce new neurons into adulthood. One such region that provides the proper milieu to sustain progenitor cells and is permissive to neuronal fate determination is located in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. This review will discuss in detail the complex process of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, including proliferation, differentiation, survival, and incorporation into neuronal networks. The regulation of this phenomenon by a number of factors is described, including neurotransmitter systems, growth factors, paracrine signaling molecules, neuropeptides, transcription factors, endogenous psychotropic systems, sex hormones, stress, and others. This review also addresses the functional significance of adult born hippocampal granule cells with regard to hippocampal circuitry dynamics and behavior. Furthermore, the relevance of perturbations in adult hippocampal neurogenesis to the pathophysiology of various disease states, including depression, schizophrenia, epilepsy, and diabetes are examined. Finally, this review discusses the potential of using hippocampal neurogenesis as a therapeutic target for these disorders.

Balu, Darrick T.; Lucki, Irwin

2009-01-01

325

Do individuals with high functioning autism have the IQ profile associated with nonverbal learning disability?  

PubMed Central

Previously researchers have noted a high level of occurrence of the IQ profile associated with nonverbal learning disability (NLD) in Asperger syndrome (ASP) but not in high functioning autism (HFA). We examined the IQ profile scores of a large sample of children (n = 69) and adults (n = 77) with HFA, stringently diagnosed according to ADOS, ADI-R, and DSM-IV criteria, and a corresponding sample of typical child (n = 72) and adult controls (n = 107). At least one of the three primary components of the Wechsler pattern seen in NLD were found in 17–26% of the children and 20–32% of the adults with HFA. All three components occurred in slightly more than 5% of the children and adults with autism. Overall, the VIQ > PIQ profile seen in NLD occurred in 18% of the sample of individuals stringently diagnosed with HFA. Therefore, obtaining this IQ profile is not a valid clinical discriminator between NLD and HFA.

Williams, Diane L.; Goldstein, Gerald; Kojkowski, Nicole; Minshew, Nancy J.

2008-01-01

326

Do individuals with high functioning autism have the IQ profile associated with nonverbal learning disability?  

PubMed

Previously researchers have noted a high level of occurrence of the IQ profile associated with nonverbal learning disability (NLD) in Asperger syndrome (ASP) but not in high functioning autism (HFA). We examined the IQ profile scores of a large sample of children (n = 69) and adults (n = 77) with HFA, stringently diagnosed according to ADOS, ADI-R, and DSM-IV criteria, and a corresponding sample of typical child (n = 72) and adult controls (n = 107). At least one of the three primary components of the Wechsler pattern seen in NLD were found in 17-26% of the children and 20-32% of the adults with HFA. All three components occurred in slightly more than 5% of the children and adults with autism. Overall, the VIQ > PIQ profile seen in NLD occurred in 18% of the sample of individuals stringently diagnosed with HFA. Therefore, obtaining this IQ profile is not a valid clinical discriminator between NLD and HFA. PMID:18516234

Williams, Diane L; Goldstein, Gerald; Kojkowski, Nicole; Minshew, Nancy J

2008-06-01

327

Personality characteristics of highly generative adults as assessed in Q-sort ratings of life stories  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study compared the personality characteristics assessed in life stories of 40 highly generative adults to those\\u000a in the life stories of a contrasting sample of 30 less generative adults. Life-story interviews of all 70 subjects were rated\\u000a with the California Adult Q-Sort (CAQ; Block, 1961). The results were compared to the “expert” generativity CAQ profile compiled\\u000a by Peterson

Amy J. Himsel; Holly Hart; Ann Diamond; Dan P. McAdams

1997-01-01

328

Adaptive Modulation of Adult Brain Gray and White Matter to High Altitude: Structural MRI Studies  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate brain structural alterations in adult immigrants who adapted to high altitude (HA). Voxel-based morphometry analysis of gray matter (GM) volumes, surface-based analysis of cortical thickness, and Tract-Based Spatial Statistics analysis of white matter fractional anisotropy (FA) based on MRI images were conducted on 16 adults (20–22 years) who immigrated to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (2300–4400 m) for 2 years. They had no chronic mountain sickness. Control group consisted of 16 matched sea level subjects. A battery of neuropsychological tests was also conducted. HA immigrants showed significantly decreased GM volumes in the right postcentral gyrus and right superior frontal gyrus, and increased GM volumes in the right middle frontal gyrus, right parahippocampal gyrus, right inferior and middle temporal gyri, bilateral inferior ventral pons, and right cerebellum crus1. While there was some divergence in the left hemisphere, surface-based patterns of GM changes in the right hemisphere resembled those seen for VBM analysis. FA changes were observed in multiple WM tracts. HA immigrants showed significant impairment in pulmonary function, increase in reaction time, and deficit in mental rotation. Parahippocampal and middle frontal GM volumes correlated with vital capacity. Superior frontal GM volume correlated with mental rotation and postcentral GM correlated with reaction time. Paracentral lobule and frontal FA correlated with mental rotation reaction time. There might be structural modifications occurred in the adult immigrants during adaptation to HA. The changes in GM may be related to impaired respiratory function and psychological deficits.

Zhang, Jiaxing; Zhang, Haiyan; Li, Jinqiang; Chen, Ji; Han, Qiaoqing; Lin, Jianzhong; Yang, Tianhe; Fan, Ming

2013-01-01

329

High rates of nonbreeding adult bald eagles in southeastern Alaska  

SciTech Connect

Present knowledge of bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) demography is derived primarily from populations in environments that have been drastically altered by man. Most reproductive studies were done in the 1960's and 1970's when chemical toxins were inhibiting bald eagle productivity. Earlier, the removal of old-growth forests and decimation of anadromous fish runs by Euro-Americans may have greatly reduced bald eagle abundance from presettlement levels. Historical trends in this species are of interest because fundamental differences may exist between populations in pristine and man-altered environments. One difference may be breeding rate. Surpluses of nonbreeding adult bald eagles during the nesting season are rarely mentioned in the literature. Most surveys of reproductive success focus exclusively on eagles at nest sites, which assumes nearly all adults attempt to breed each year. The authors report that a majority of adults in the relatively pristine habitats of southeastern Alaska do not breed annually. This finding is important because if surpluses of non-breeding adults are a natural feature of the population, then hypotheses on density dependent population regulation and the evolution of delayed maturation are suggested. If, on the other hand, the abundance of nonbreeders is an artifact of recent environmental perturbations, serious population declines may occur in southeastern Alaska.

Hansen, A.J.; Hodges, J.I. Jr.

1985-01-01

330

Exercise Interventions for Older Adults with High Blood Pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews studies on the effects of aerobic exercise upon blood pressure in older hypertensives. Controlled evaluations indicate average decreases in systolic and diastolic resting blood pressure of 8.8 rnm Hg systolic and 7.8 mm Hg, respectively, indicating a moderate, yet clinically important reduction. However, few studies have independently focused on the older adult hypertensive, an increasingly important source

Christi A. Patten; John Martin

1996-01-01

331

High Rates of Inapparent Dengue in Older Adults in Singapore  

PubMed Central

Although the dengue iceberg phenomenon is well known, there is a paucity of data on inapparent dengue. Results from a seroepidemiological study conducted during a dengue epidemic in 2007 in Singapore showed a seroprevalence of 65.9% and an inapparent dengue rate of 78%. Older adults (> 45 years old) had significantly higher rates of inapparent dengue infections (P < 0.05).

Yap, Grace; Li, Chenny; Mutalib, Adeliza; Lai, Yee-Ling; Ng, Lee-Ching

2013-01-01

332

Recollection of childhood abdominal pain in adults with functional gastrointestinal disorders  

PubMed Central

Objective It is hypothesized that adults who can recall abdominal pain as children are at risk of experiencing a functional gastrointestinal disorder (FGID), but this is not specific to any particular FGID. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between recollecting abdominal pain as a child and experiencing a FGID. Material and methods A valid self-reported questionnaire of GI symptoms was mailed to a random population-based sample in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Logistic regression models adjusting for age, gender, body mass index (BMI), somatization, and other factors were used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) for having a FGID in individuals recalling bouts of stomach or abdominal pain in childhood (before age 15). Results Overall, 2298 (55%) of a total of 4194 eligible adult subjects returned a completed questionnaire. Of the respondents, 213 (9%) recalled experiencing abdominal pain as children. Adults who recalled experiencing abdominal pain in childhood had greater odds for reporting symptoms of a FGID (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.4–2.7). Recalling abdominal pain in childhood was significantly associated with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) (OR 2.5; 95% CI 1.7–3.6) but not gastroesophageal reflux, dyspepsia, constipation, or diarrhea, adjusting for age, gender, BMI, somatic symptoms, marital status, and education. Conclusions Recollection of childhood abdominal pain is specifically associated with IBS in adults. This suggests that a proportion of adults with IBS may have onset of symptoms of abdominal pain during childhood.

CHITKARA, DENESH K.; TALLEY, NICHOLAS J.; SCHLECK, CATHY; ZINSMEISTER, ALAN R.; SHAH, NILAY D.; LOCKE, G. RICHARD

2009-01-01

333

Effect of generalized joint hypermobility on knee function and muscle activation in children and adults.  

PubMed

Introduction: We investigated muscle activation strategy and performance of knee extensor and flexor muscles in children and adults with generalized joint hypermobility (GJH) and compared them with controls. Methods: Muscle activation, torque steadiness, electromechanical delay, and muscle strength were evaluated in 39 children and 36 adults during isometric knee extension and flexion. Subjects performed isometric maximum contractions, submaximal contractions at 25% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), and explosive contractions. Results: Agonist activation was reduced, and coactivation ratio was greater in GJH during knee flexion compared with controls. Torque steadiness was impaired in adults with GJH during knee flexion. No effect of GJH was found on muscle strength or electromechanical delay. Correlation analysis revealed an association between GJH severity and function in adults. Conclusions: The results indicate that muscle activation strategy and quality of force control were significantly affected in adults with GJH during knee flexion, whereas only muscle activation strategy was affected in children with GJH. Muscle Nerve 48:762-769, 2013. PMID:24037762

Jensen, Bente R; Olesen, Annesofie T; Pedersen, Mogens T; Kristensen, Jens H; Remvig, Lars; Simonsen, Erik B; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit

2013-08-30

334

Acute hypoglycemia impairs executive cognitive function in adults with and without type 1 diabetes.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE Acute hypoglycemia impairs cognitive function in several domains. Executive cognitive function governs organization of thoughts, prioritization of tasks, and time management. This study examined the effect of acute hypoglycemia on executive function in adults with and without diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Thirty-two adults with and without type 1 diabetes with no vascular complications or impaired awareness of hypoglycemia were studied. Two hyperinsulinemic glucose clamps were performed at least 2 weeks apart in a single-blind, counterbalanced order, maintaining blood glucose at 4.5 mmol/L (euglycemia) or 2.5 mmol/L (hypoglycemia). Executive functions were assessed with a validated test suite (Delis-Kaplan Executive Function). A general linear model (repeated-measures ANOVA) was used. Glycemic condition (euglycemia or hypoglycemia) was the within-participant factor. Between-participant factors were order of session (euglycemia-hypoglycemia or hypoglycemia-euglycemia), test battery used, and diabetes status (with or without diabetes). RESULTS Compared with euglycemia, executive functions (with one exception) were significantly impaired during hypoglycemia; lower test scores were recorded with more time required for completion. Large Cohen d values (>0.8) suggest that hypoglycemia induces decrements in aspects of executive function with large effect sizes. In some tests, the performance of participants with diabetes was more impaired than those without diabetes. CONCLUSIONS Executive cognitive function, which is necessary to carry out many everyday activities, is impaired during hypoglycemia in adults with and without type 1 diabetes. This important aspect of cognition has not received previous systematic study with respect to hypoglycemia. The effect size is large in terms of both accuracy and speed. PMID:23780950

Graveling, Alex J; Deary, Ian J; Frier, Brian M

2013-06-18

335

Memory and executive functions in adults with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome and chronic tic disorder  

PubMed Central

Introduction The main aim of the current study was to assess whether adults with either Tourette syndrome (TS) or chronic tic disorder (CTD) show a similar neuropsychological profile. Neuropsychological investigations of tic disorders have been mostly focused on children, mainly because symptoms peak during that period. Little has been carried out on adults, even if a significant proportion of the tic population experience moderate or marked levels of tic frequency throughout adulthood. Still, it is not clear whether neuropsychological performances are affected to the same degree in adults with TS and CTD. Method Patients diagnosed with TS were compared with a CTD group and a control group free of psychiatric or neurological diagnosis, comparable in terms of age, gender, and intelligence. All participants completed two tests of memory (Rey-Osterreich Complex Figure, California Verbal Learning Test), one test of motor dexterity (Purdue pegboard), and four tasks of executive function (Stroop, Color Trail Test, Tower of London, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test). Results TS and CTD patients showed nonverbal memory impairments while verbal memory and executive functioning remained intact. Results also indicated that nonverbal memory performances decrease as a function of tic severity. Conclusion Both TS and CTD patients present a specific nonverbal deficit whilst the executive and motor functions are relatively intact. The two tic disorder subgroups might be part of a spectrum implicating mainly nonverbal memory.

Lavoie, Marc E.; Thibault, Genevieve; Stip, Emmanuel; O'Connor, Kieron P.

2013-01-01

336

Poor sleep quality diminishes cognitive functioning independent of depression and anxiety in healthy young adults.  

PubMed

Sufficient sleep is essential for optimum cognitive and psychological functioning. Diminished sleep quality is associated with depression and anxiety, but the extent to which poor sleep quality uniquely impacts attention and executive functions independent of the effects of the common underlying features of depression and anxiety requires further exploration. Here 67 healthy young adults were given the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, second edition (MMPI-2), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and tests of attention and executive functions. Similar to findings from a previous study with healthy community-based older adults (Nebes, Buysse, Halligan, Houck, & Monk, 2009), participants who reported poor sleep quality on the PSQI endorsed significantly greater scores on MMPI-2 Restructured Clinical scales related to depression and anxiety (Cohen's d?=?0.77-1.05). In addition, PSQI component scores indexing poor sleep quality, duration, and medication use were associated with diminished attention and executive functions, even after controlling for emotional reactivity or demoralization (rs?=?0.21-0.27). These results add to the concurrent validity of the PSQI, and provide further evidence for subtle cognitive decrements related to insufficient sleep even in healthy young adults. Future extension of these findings is necessary with larger samples and clinical comparison groups, and using objective indices of sleep dysfunction such as polysomnography. PMID:22335237

Benitez, Andreana; Gunstad, John

2012-02-15

337

Homeotic functions of the Teashirt transcription factor during adult Drosophila development  

PubMed Central

Summary During Drosophila development region-specific regulation of target genes by Hox proteins is modulated by genetic interactions with various cofactors and genetic collaborators. During embryogenesis one such modulator of Hox target specificity is the zinc-finger transcription factor Teashirt (Tsh) that is expressed in the developing trunk and cooperatively functions with trunk-specific Hox proteins to promote appropriate segment fate. This embryonic function of Tsh is characterized as homeotic since loss of embryonic Tsh activity leads to transformation of trunk segments toward head identity. In addition to this embryonic homeotic role, Tsh also performs vital Hox-independent functions through patterning numerous embryonic, larval and adult structures. Here we address whether the homeotic function of Tsh is maintained throughout development by investigating its contribution to patterning the adult abdomen. We show that Tsh is expressed throughout the developing abdomen and that this expression is dependent on the three Bithorax Hox proteins Ultrabithorax, Abdominal-A and Abdominal-B. Conditional reduction of Tsh activity during pupation reveals broad homeotic roles for this transcription factor throughout the adult abdomen. Additionally we show that, as during embryogenesis, the tsh paralog tiptop (tio) plays a partially redundant role in this homeotic activity.

Wang, Wei; Tindell, Neil; Yan, Shun; Yoder, John H.

2013-01-01

338

Social network types and functional dependency in older adults in Mexico  

PubMed Central

Background Social networks play a key role in caring for older adults. A better understanding of the characteristics of different social networks types (TSNs) in a given community provides useful information for designing policies to care for this age group. Therefore this study has three objectives: 1) To derive the TSNs among older adults affiliated with the Mexican Institute of Social Security; 2) To describe the main characteristics of the older adults in each TSN, including the instrumental and economic support they receive and their satisfaction with the network; 3) To determine the association between functional dependency and the type of social network. Methods Secondary data analysis of the 2006 Survey of Autonomy and Dependency (N = 3,348). The TSNs were identified using the structural approach and cluster analysis. The association between functional dependency and the TSNs was evaluated with Poisson regression with robust variance analysis in which socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle and medical history covariates were included. Results We identified five TSNs: diverse with community participation (12.1%), diverse without community participation (44.3%); widowed (32.0%); nonfriends-restricted (7.6%); nonfamily-restricted (4.0%). Older adults belonging to widowed and restricted networks showed a higher proportion of dependency, negative self-rated health and depression. Older adults with functional dependency more likely belonged to a widowed network (adjusted prevalence ratio 1.5; 95%CI: 1.1-2.1). Conclusion The derived TSNs were similar to those described in developed countries. However, we identified the existence of a diverse network without community participation and a widowed network that have not been previously described. These TSNs and restricted networks represent a potential unmet need of social security affiliates.

2010-01-01

339

Is there capacity for anatomical and functional repair in the adult somatosensory thalamus?  

PubMed

The capacity for structural and functional remodeling in damaged adult CNS sensory systems can be studied by replacement of neurons in damaged structures by fetal cells from these anatomical origins. For integration to take place, the replacement paradigm assumes that (a) reconnection of adult host afferent fibers onto developing neurons is possible and (b) that the correct molecular signals exist also in the adult brain for fetal neurons to extend axons and pattern synaptic contacts. We have tried to answer some of these fundamental questions by using neuronal depletion models followed by neuronal replacement in the adult rat CNS (Isacson et al. 1984. Nature (London) 311: 458-460; Isacson et al. 1988. Prog. Brain Res. 78: 13-27; Nothias et al. 1988. Brain Res. 461: 349-354; Peschanski and Isacson. 1988. J. Comp. Neurol. 274: 449-463; Sofroniew et al. 1990. Prog. Brain Res. 82: 313-320). In one such model, kainic acid infusions deplete the ventrobasal complex (VB) of all neurons projecting to the somatosensory cortex, while afferent axons from the lemniscal and monoaminergic systems remain in the area. Direct implantation of fetal neurons (gestation age 15-16) of ventrobasal destination allows reconnection of circuitry to take place at the thalamic level, as studied by anatomical tracers, electron microscopy, and functional 2-deoxyglucose studies, while fetal thalamic VB neurons appear less likely to grow through the internal capsule toward the cortical level. PMID:1728564

Isacson, O; Peschanski, M

1992-01-01

340

Paternal experience suppresses adult neurogenesis without altering hippocampal function in Peromyscus californicus.  

PubMed

Paternal care is rare among mammals, occurring in ?6% of species. California mice (Peromyscus californicus) are unusual; fathers participate extensively in raising their young and display the same components of parental care as mothers, with the exception of nursing. Parenting is a complex experience, having stressful and enriching aspects. The hippocampus is sensitive to experience and responds to both stress and environmental enrichment with changes in structure and function. In rats, where females care exclusively for offspring, parenting is associated with suppressed hippocampal adult neurogenesis. Since this effect has been causally linked to lactation, it is unlikely that fathers would show a similar change. To investigate this issue, we examined adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus of California mouse fathers compared to males without pups and observed reduced adult neurogenesis. Similar effects were found in California mouse mothers. Next, we investigated whether behaviors linked to the hippocampus, namely, object recognition and novelty-suppressed feeding, were altered in fathers, and observed no substantial changes. During caregiving, suppressed adult neurogenesis does not appear to be related to changes in behaviors associated with the hippocampus, although it is possible that there are other effects on hippocampal function. PMID:21456007

Glasper, Erica R; Kozorovitskiy, Yevgenia; Pavlic, Ashley; Gould, Elizabeth

2011-08-01

341

Child Child Child Child Interactions: Lessons from Conversations with Typically Interactions: Lessons from Conversations with Typically Interactions: Lessons from Conversations with Typically Interactions: Lessons from Conversations with Typically Developing Children and High Functioning Children Developing Children and High Functioning Children Developing Children and High Functioning Children Developing Children and High Functioning Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Abstract Abstract. This paper investigates misunderstanding and repair in a corpus of dyadic interactions between an adult and 10 children aged 4-7 years, half of whom were typically-developing (TD), and half of whom had been diagnosed with high functioning autism (HFA). These interactions have been transcribed and analysed using CA con- ventions and used as the focus of a

Kerrie Delves; Lesley Stirling

2010-01-01

342

Work, Postsecondary Education, and Psychosocial Functioning Following the Transition from High School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through a two-wave panel study of emerging adults, the authors examine how living situation, work and school roles, and experiences in those roles affect psychosocial functioning following the transition from high school. Enrollment in college programs and fulltime work are associated with lower levels of depressed mood and more positive quality…

Aseltine, Robert H., Jr.; Gore, Susan

2005-01-01

343

High-resolution gene expression atlases for adult and developing mouse brain and spinal cord.  

PubMed

Knowledge of the structure, genetics, circuits, and physiological properties of the mammalian brain in both normal and pathological states is ever increasing as research labs worldwide probe the various aspects of brain function. Until recently, however, comprehensive cataloging of gene expression across the central nervous system has been lacking. The Allen Institute for Brain Science, as part of its mission to propel neuroscience research, has completed several large gene-mapping projects in mouse, nonhuman primate, and human brain, producing informative online public resources and tools. Here we present the Allen Mouse Brain Atlas, covering ~20,000 genes throughout the adult mouse brain; the Allen Developing Mouse Brain Atlas, detailing expression of approximately 2,000 important developmental genes across seven embryonic and postnatal stages of brain growth; and the Allen Spinal Cord Atlas, revealing expression for ~20,000 genes in the adult and neonatal mouse spinal cords. Integrated data-mining tools, including reference atlases, informatics analyses, and 3-D viewers, are described. For these massive-scale projects, high-throughput industrial techniques were developed to standardize and reliably repeat experimental goals. To verify consistency and accuracy, a detailed analysis of the 1,000 most viewed genes for the adult mouse brain (according to website page views) was performed by comparing our data with peer-reviewed literature and other databases. We show that our data are highly consistent with independent sources and provide a comprehensive compendium of information and tools used by thousands of researchers each month. All data and tools are freely available via the Allen Brain Atlas portal (www.brain-map.org). PMID:22832508

Henry, Alex M; Hohmann, John G

2012-07-26

344

Manipulation of Length and Lexicality Localizes the Functional Neuroanatomy of Phonological Processing in Adult Readers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In a previous study of single word reading, regions in the left supramarginal gyrus and left angular gyrus showed positive BOLD activity in children but significantly less activity in adults for high-frequency words [Church, J. A., Coalson, R. S., Lugar, H. M., Petersen, S. E., & Schlaggar, B. L. "A developmental fMRI study of reading and…

Church, Jessica A.; Balota, David A.; Petersen, Steven E.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.

2011-01-01

345

Poems by Adolescents and Adults: A Thematic Collection for Middle School and High School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book, a collection of poems by adolescents and adults, is designed to offer teachers a supplement to the standard middle school and high school literature anthologies. Divided into 11 themed sections, the collection mixes more than 100 poems by students in grades 5 to 12 with more than 40 pieces by adults, including well-known writers such…

Brewbaker, James, Ed.; Hyland, Dawnelle J., Ed.

346

Characteristics of Adult to Student Structured Mentoring Programs Occurring in Christian High Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research was designed to answer the question, "What are the characteristics of adult to student structured mentoring programs occurring in Christian high schools?" In the process of answering this question, the following two sub-questions were also answered: "What role does the mentor and mentee play in an adult to student structured…

Winn, Brant D.

2010-01-01

347

Investigation on liver function among population in high background of rare earth area in South China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The health effects of long-term ingestion of rare earth elements (REEs) on the villagers living in high-REE-background areas\\u000a in South Jangxi Province, China were studied. Major health complaints from the REE area population included indigestion, diarrhea,\\u000a abdominal distension, anorexia, weakness, and fatigue, especially after high-fat or high-protein intake. Liver function tests\\u000a were conducted for adult villagers. Among them, 45 live

Weifang Zhu; Suqin Xu; Pinpin Shao; Hui Zhang; Donseng Wu; Wenjia Yang; Jia Feng; Lei Feng

2005-01-01

348

Event-related brain potential markers of high-language proficiency in adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The central issue addressed is whether there are electrophysiological markers for high-language proficiency in adults. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded in 19 young adults who demonstrated either “normal” or “high” language proficiency. ERPs were obtained during a sentence-processing task and analyzed for specific response components elicited by different word types. The ERPs in the normal and high-language proficiency groups

Christine Weber-Fox; Laura J Davis; Elizabeth Cuadrado

2003-01-01

349

Pax7 is critical for the normal function of satellite cells in adult skeletal muscle.  

PubMed

Extensive analyses of mice carrying null mutations in paired box 7 (Pax7) have confirmed the progressive loss of the satellite cell lineage in skeletal muscle, resulting in severe muscle atrophy and death. A recent study using floxed alleles and tamoxifen-induced inactivation concluded that after 3 wk of age, Pax7 was entirely dispensable for satellite cell function. Here, we demonstrate that Pax7 is an absolute requirement for satellite cell function in adult skeletal muscle. Following Pax7 deletion, satellite cells and myoblasts exhibit cell-cycle arrest and dysregulation of myogenic regulatory factors. Maintenance of Pax7 deletion through continuous tamoxifen administration prevented regrowth of Pax7-expressing satellite cells and a profound muscle regeneration deficit that resembles the phenotype of skeletal muscle following genetically engineered ablation of satellite cells. Therefore, we conclude that Pax7 is essential for regulating the expansion and differentiation of satellite cells during both neonatal and adult myogenesis. PMID:24065826

von Maltzahn, Julia; Jones, Andrew E; Parks, Robin J; Rudnicki, Michael A

2013-09-24

350

Pax7 is critical for the normal function of satellite cells in adult skeletal muscle  

PubMed Central

Extensive analyses of mice carrying null mutations in paired box 7 (Pax7) have confirmed the progressive loss of the satellite cell lineage in skeletal muscle, resulting in severe muscle atrophy and death. A recent study using floxed alleles and tamoxifen-induced inactivation concluded that after 3 wk of age, Pax7 was entirely dispensable for satellite cell function. Here, we demonstrate that Pax7 is an absolute requirement for satellite cell function in adult skeletal muscle. Following Pax7 deletion, satellite cells and myoblasts exhibit cell-cycle arrest and dysregulation of myogenic regulatory factors. Maintenance of Pax7 deletion through continuous tamoxifen administration prevented regrowth of Pax7-expressing satellite cells and a profound muscle regeneration deficit that resembles the phenotype of skeletal muscle following genetically engineered ablation of satellite cells. Therefore, we conclude that Pax7 is essential for regulating the expansion and differentiation of satellite cells during both neonatal and adult myogenesis.

von Maltzahn, Julia; Jones, Andrew E.; Parks, Robin J.; Rudnicki, Michael A.

2013-01-01

351

Adult Literacy in the Commonwealth Caribbean with Special Reference to a Study of the Functional Literacy of Young Guyanese Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A test measuring document, prose, and quantitative literacy of out-of-school youth in Guyana found that only 11% had high levels of functional literacy, a literacy rate much lower than usually reported. Failure to represent the situation accurately prolongs the lack of political will to deal with the issue. (SK)|

Jennings, Zellynne

2000-01-01

352

Adult Literacy in the Commonwealth Caribbean with Special Reference to a Study of the Functional Literacy of Young Guyanese Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A test measuring document, prose, and quantitative literacy of out-of-school youth in Guyana found that only 11% had high levels of functional literacy, a literacy rate much lower than usually reported. Failure to represent the situation accurately prolongs the lack of political will to deal with the issue. (SK)

Jennings, Zellynne

2000-01-01

353

FUNCTIONAL IMPAIRMENT IN ADULTS WITH PAST POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER: FINDINGS FROM PRIMARY CARE  

PubMed Central

Background Although many patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) experience a reduction in posttraumatic symptoms over time, little is currently known about the extent of their residual functional impairment. This study examines functional impairment in primary care patients with a history of PTSD as compared to patients with current PTSD, and those who never developed PTSD following exposure to trauma. Methods The sample consisted of 321 trauma-exposed low-income, predominantly Hispanic adults attending a large urban primary care practice. PTSD was assessed with the Lifetime Composite International Diagnostic Interview and other psychiatric disorders with the SCID-I. Physical and mental health-related quality of life was assessed with the Medical Outcome Health Survey (SF-12), and functional impairment with items from the Sheehan Disability Scale and Social Adjustment Scale Self-Report. Results Logistic regression analyses controlling for gender, psychiatric comorbidity, and interpersonal traumas showed that although patients with past PTSD function significantly better than patients with current PTSD, they experience persisting deficits in mental health-related quality of life compared to trauma-exposed patients who never developed PTSD. Overall, results revealed a continuum of severity in psychiatric comorbidity, functioning, and quality of life, with current PTSD associated with the most impairment, never having met criteria for PTSD with the least impairment, and history of PTSD falling in between. Conclusions In this primary care sample, adults with a history of past PTSD but no current PTSD continued to report enduring functional deficits, suggesting a need for ongoing clinical attention.

Westphal, Maren; Olfson, Mark; Gameroff, Marc J.; Wickramaratne, Priya; Pilowsky, Daniel J.; Neugebauer, Richard; Lantigua, Rafael; Shea, Steven; Neria, Yuval

2013-01-01

354

Demographic, Neuropsychological and Functional Predictors of Rate of Longitudinal Cognitive Decline in Hispanic Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Objective The identification of older adults who are at increased risk of future cognitive decline is often difficult, particularly in individuals of an ethnic minority. This study evaluated which baseline demographic, neuropsychological and functional variables were most strongly associated with future longitudinal decline in global cognitive function. Design/setting Participants were part of a community-based prospective longitudinal study of 1789 older Hispanics (Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging (SALSA)). Participants A subsample of 639 individuals were evaluated, comprising cognitively normal, mildly impaired, and dementia cases, and were followed longitudinally for up to seven years. Sixty-three percent were tested in Spanish. Measurements Latent growth curve modeling of longitudinal data was used to assess the effects of age, gender, education, language of test administration (Spanish or English), acculturation, baseline measures of neuropsychological function (i.e. verbal memory and confrontation naming) and baseline everyday functioning (as measured by the IQCODE) on rate of change in global cognitive impairment (measured by the 3MS). Results Less education, being tested in English, and poorer scores on the neuropsychological tests were all cross-sectionally associated with lower baseline 3MS scores. However, longitudinal decline in global cognition over time was primarily associated with older age and poorer everyday function at baseline. Conclusions Informant-based ratings of functional impairment, which are easy to collect in a clinical setting, have significant utility in identifying Hispanic older adults at increased risk for future cognitive decline.

Farias, Sarah Tomaszewski; Mungas, Dan; Hinton, Ladson; Haan, Mary

2011-01-01

355

Bone and fat as a function of body weight in adult mammals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three independent data sets, for both bone and fat weight, in adult mammals, expressed as a function of body weight, were submitted to linear regression analysis of the log-log transformed data. For land mammals generally, weighing up to 6.6 metric tons, the slope of the best-fit regression line for skeletal weight is 1.073 ± 0.021. This regression line underestimates skeletal

John Prothero

1995-01-01

356

Functional and mechanistic exploration of an adult neurogenesis-promoting small molecule  

PubMed Central

Adult neurogenesis occurs throughout life in the mammalian hippocampus and is essential for memory and mood control. There is significant interest in identifying ways to promote neurogenesis and ensure maintenance of these hippocampal functions. Previous work with a synthetic small molecule, isoxazole 9 (Isx-9), highlighted its neuronal-differentiating properties in vitro. However, the ability of Isx-9 to drive neurogenesis in vivo or improve hippocampal function was unknown. Here we show that Isx-9 promotes neurogenesis in vivo, enhancing the proliferation and differentiation of hippocampal subgranular zone (SGZ) neuroblasts, and the dendritic arborization of adult-generated dentate gyrus neurons. Isx-9 also improves hippocampal function, enhancing memory in the Morris water maze. Notably, Isx-9 enhances neurogenesis and memory without detectable increases in cellular or animal activity or vascularization. Molecular exploration of Isx-9-induced regulation of neurogenesis (via FACS and microarray of SGZ stem and progenitor cells) suggested the involvement of the myocyte-enhancer family of proteins (Mef2). Indeed, transgenic-mediated inducible knockout of all brain-enriched Mef2 isoforms (Mef2a/c/d) specifically from neural stem cells and their progeny confirmed Mef2's requirement for Isx-9-induced increase in hippocampal neurogenesis. Thus, Isx-9 enhances hippocampal neurogenesis and memory in vivo, and its effects are reliant on Mef2, revealing a novel cell-intrinsic molecular pathway regulating adult neurogenesis.—Petrik, D., Jiang, Y., Birnbaum, S. G., Powell, C. M., Kim, M.-S., Hsieh, J., Eisch, A. J. Functional and mechanistic exploration of an adult neurogenesis-promoting small molecule.

Petrik, David; Jiang, Yindi; Birnbaum, Shari G.; Powell, Craig M.; Kim, Mi-Sung; Hsieh, Jenny; Eisch, Amelia J.

2012-01-01

357

The relationship between smoking history and current functioning in disabled community-living older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: This study was conducted to determine characteristics associated with continued cigarette use in frail older adults and\\u000a to examine how smoking history relates to current psychiatric, cognitive, and occupational functioning.Methods: Archival records were gathered for 1,064 patients (69% women) who entered On Lok SeniorHealth Services between January 1996\\u000a and December 2000. Participants were interviewed on program entry and assessed

Amie L. Haas; Catherine Eng; Glenna Dowling; Eva Schmitt; Sharon M. Hall

2005-01-01

358

Testis Structure and Function in a Nongenetic Hyperadipose Rat Model at Prepubertal and Adult Ages  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are few data for hormonal levels and testis structure and function during postnatal development in rats neonatally treated with monosodium L-glutamate (MSG). In our study, newborn male pups were ip injected with MSG (4 mg\\/g body weight) ever y2du p to 10 do f age andinvestigated at pre- pubertal and adult ages. Plasma levels of leptin, LH, FSH, prolactin,

L. R. Franca; M. O. Suescun; J. R. Miranda; A. Giovambattista; M. Perello; E. Spinedi; R. S. Calandra

2005-01-01

359

RESISTANCE TRAINING IMPROVES METABOLIC ECONOMY DURING FUNCTIONAL TASKS IN OLDER ADULTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hartman, M.J., D.A. Fields, N.M. Byrne, and G.R. Hunter. Resistance training improves metabolic economy during functional tasks in older adults. J. Strength Cond. Res. 21(1):91- 95. 2007.—The purpose of this study was to determine the effect resistance training has on metabolic economy during typical ac- tivities of daily living in a geriatric population. Twenty-nine men and women (age: 66.7 4.4

MICHAEL J. HARTMAN; DAVID A. FIELDS; NUALA M. BYRNE; GARY R. HUNTER

2007-01-01

360

The cyclooxygenase-2 product prostaglandin E 2 modulates cardiac contractile function in adult rat ventricular cardiomyocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a product of the cyclooxygenase-2 pathway, has been shown to increase cardiac output and modulate cardiac contractile function. However, whether the cardiac contractile response of PGE2 is due to its action on single ventricular myocytes has not been elucidated. To assess the mechanical effect of PGE2 at the cellular level, adult rat ventricular myocytes were isolated and

Aaron L. Klein; Loren E. Wold; Jun Ren

2004-01-01

361

Five-Factor Model personality traits and executive functioning among older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent theoretical interest in the neuropsychological underpinnings of major personality factors, along with the identification of both personality and executive functioning (EF) as significant predictors of dementia onset, suggest the need to examine personality-EF associations. The current study assessed Five-Factor Model personality traits (NEO Personality Inventory-Revised) and EF in 58 healthy, community-dwelling, older adults (Mage=69.8, SD=6.3) using well-validated neuropsychological tests.

Paula G. Williams; Yana Suchy; Matthew L. Kraybill

2010-01-01

362

Spirituality, religiousness, coping strategies and multiple domains of functioning for adults with vision-related disability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationships between spirituality, intrinsic religiousness, and coping strategies (i.e., problem-focused and avoidant emotion-focused coping) and multiple domains of functioning (i.e., instrumental activities of daily living, life satisfaction, and community engagement) for adults with vision-related disabilities. The results indicated significant positive associations between spirituality and life satisfaction, and spirituality and community engagement. Age of onset, income, and

Allyson R Matt

2011-01-01

363

Obese adults have visual attention bias for food cue images: evidence for altered reward system function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:The major aim of this study was to investigate whether the motivational salience of food cues (as reflected by their attention-grabbing properties) differs between obese and normal-weight subjects in a manner consistent with altered reward system function in obesity.Methodology\\/Principal Findings:A total of 18 obese and 18 normal-weight, otherwise healthy, adult women between the ages of 18 and 35 participated in

E H Castellanos; E Charboneau; M S Dietrich; B P Bradley; K Mogg; R L Cowan

2009-01-01

364

VEGF non-angiogenic functions in adult organ homeostasis: therapeutic implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is best known as an angiogenic factor essential for embryonic vasculogenesis and\\u000a postnatal angiogenesis. Considerable evidence has accumulated that VEGF also has non-angiogenic functions. Early studies demonstrated\\u000a that VEGF transcripts are ubiquitously expressed, and the phosphorylation of VEGF receptor is detectable in adult organs that\\u000a have no feature of angiogenesis. Recent clinical studies showed that

Jincai Luo; Yan Xiong; Xiaofan Han; Yao Lu

2011-01-01

365

Delineating multiple functions of VEGF-A in the adult brain.  

PubMed

Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (abbreviated throughout this review as VEGF) is mostly known for its angiogenic activity, for its activity as a vascular permeability factor, and for its vascular survival activity [1]. There is a growing body of evidence, however, that VEGF fulfills additional less 'traditional' functions in multiple organs, both during development, as well as homeostatic functions in fully developed organs. This review focuses on the multiple roles of VEGF in the adult brain and is less concerned with the roles played by VEGF during brain development, functions described elsewhere in this review series. Most functions of VEGF that are essential for proper brain development are, in fact, dispensable in the adult brain as was clearly demonstrated using a conditional brain-specific VEGF loss-of-function (LOF) approach. Thus, in contrast to VEGF LOF in the developing brain, a process which is detrimental for the growth and survival of blood vessels and leads to massive neuronal apoptosis [2-4], continued signaling by VEGF in the mature brain is no longer required for maintaining already established cerebral vasculature and its inhibition does not cause appreciable vessel regression, hypoxia or apoptosis [4-7]. Yet, VEGF continues to be expressed in the adult brain in a constitutive manner. Moreover, VEGF is expressed in the adult brain in a region-specific manner and in distinctive spatial patterns incompatible with an angiogenic role (see below), strongly suggesting angiogenesis-independent and possibly also perfusion-independent functions. Here we review current knowledge on some of these 'non-traditional', often unexpected homeostatic VEGF functions, including those unrelated to its effects on the brain vasculature. These effects could be mediated directly (on non-vascular cells expressing cognate VEGF receptors) or indirectly (via the endothelium). Experimental approaches aimed at distinguishing between these possibilities for each particular VEGF function will be described. This review is only concerned with homeostatic functions of VEGF in the normal, non-injured brain. The reader is referred elsewhere in this series for a review on VEGF actions in response to various forms of brain injury and/or brain pathology. PMID:23475068

Licht, Tamar; Keshet, Eli

2013-03-12

366

Gene expression analysis distinguishes tissue-specific and gender-related functions among adult Ascaris suum tissues.  

PubMed

Over a billion people are infected by Ascaris spp. intestinal parasites. To clarify functional differences among tissues of adult A. suum, we compared gene expression by various tissues of these worms by expression microarray methods. The A. suum genome was sequenced and assembled to allow generation of microarray elements. Expression of over 40,000 60-mer elements was investigated in a variety of tissues from both male and female adult worms. Nearly 50 percent of the elements for which signal was detected exhibited differential expression among different tissues. The unique profile of transcripts identified for each tissue clarified functional distinctions among tissues, such as chitin binding in the ovary and peptidase activity in the intestines. Interestingly, hundreds of gender-specific elements were characterized in multiple non-reproductive tissues of female or male worms, with most prominence of gender differences in intestinal tissue. A. suum genes from the same family were frequently expressed differently among tissues. Transcript abundance for genes specific to A. suum, by comparison to Caenorhabditis elegans, varied to a greater extent among tissues than for genes conserved between A. suum and C. elegans. Analysis using C. elegans protein interaction data identified functional modules conserved between these two nematodes, resulting in identification of functional predictions of essential subnetworks of protein interactions and how these networks may vary among nematode tissues. A notable finding was very high module similarity between adult reproductive tissues and intestine. Our results provide the most comprehensive assessment of gene expression among tissues of a parasitic nematode to date. PMID:23572074

Wang, Zhengyuan; Gao, Xin; Martin, John; Yin, Yong; Abubucker, Sahar; Rash, Amy C; Li, Ben-Wen; Nash, Bill; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kym; Jasmer, Douglas P; Mitreva, Makedonka

2013-04-10

367

Factors Affecting Recovery of Functional Status in Older Adults After Cancer Surgery  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES To explore factors influencing functional status over time after cancer surgery in adults aged 65 and older. DESIGN Secondary data analysis of combined data subsets. SETTING Five prospective, longitudinal oncology nurse-directed clinical studies conducted at three academic centers in the northwest and northeast United States. PARTICIPANTS Three hundred sixteen community-residing patients diagnosed with digestive system, thoracic, genitourinary, and gynecological cancers treated primarily with surgery. MEASUREMENTS Functional status, defined as performance of current life roles, was measured using the Enforced Social Dependency Scale and the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Survey (using physical component summary measures) after surgery (baseline) and again at 3 and 6 months. Number of symptoms, measured using the Symptom Distress Scale, quantified the effect of each additional common cancer symptom on functional status. RESULTS After controlling for cancer site and stage, comorbidities, symptoms, psychological status, treatment, and demographic variables, functional status was found to be significantly better at 3 and 6 months after surgery than at baseline. Factors associated with better functional status included higher income and better mental health. Factors associated with poorer average functional status were a greater number of symptoms and comorbidities. Persons reporting three or more symptoms experienced statistically significant and clinically meaningful poorer functional status than those without symptoms. Persons reporting three or more comorbidities were also found to have poorer functional status than those without comorbidities. No significant relationship existed between age and functional status in patients aged 65 and older. CONCLUSION Factors other than age affect recovery of functional status in older adults after cancer surgery.

Van Cleave, Janet H.; Egleston, Brian L.; McCorkle, Ruth

2011-01-01

368

The association of depressive symptoms and pulmonary function in healthy adults.  

PubMed

Objective Chronic lung disease is exacerbated by comorbid psychiatric issues and treatment of depression may improve disease symptoms. We sought to add to the literature as to whether depression is associated with pulmonary function in healthy adults. Methods In 2551 healthy adults from New York State, we studied the association of depression via the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D) scale score and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) using general linear models and a cross-sectional design. Results We identified statistically significant inverse trends in FEV1, FVC, FEV1%, and FVC% by CES-D category, especially in ever-smokers and men. When adjusted for covariates, the difference in FEV1 and FEV1% for smokers with more than 18.5 lifetime pack-years from CES-D scores 0 to 3 to 16 or more (depressed) is approximately 0.25 l and 5.0% (adjusted p values for trend are <.001 and .019, respectively). In men, we also observed statistically significant inverse trends in pulmonary function with increasing CES-D. Conclusions We identified an inverse association of depressive symptoms and pulmonary function in healthy adults, especially in men and individuals with a heavy smoking history. Further studies of these associations are essential for the development and tailoring of interventions for the prevention and treatment of chronic lung disease. PMID:23960159

Ochs-Balcom, Heather M; Lainhart, William; Mnatsakanova, Anna; Charles, Luenda E; Violanti, John M; Andrew, Michael E; Freudenheim, Jo L; Muti, Paola; Trevisan, Maurizio; Burchfiel, Cecil M; Schünemann, Holger J

2013-08-19

369

Systematic review of structural and functional neuroimaging findings in children and adults with CKD.  

PubMed

CKD has been linked with cognitive deficits and affective disorders in multiple studies. Analysis of structural and functional neuroimaging in adults and children with kidney disease may provide additional important insights into the pathobiology of this relationship. This paper comprehensively reviews neuroimaging studies in both children and adults. Major databases (PsychLit, MEDLINE, WorldCat, ArticleFirst, PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE) were searched using consistent search terms, and studies published between 1975 and 2012 were included if their samples focused on CKD as the primary disease process. Exclusion criteria included case reports, chapters, and review articles. This systematic process yielded 43 studies for inclusion (30 in adults, 13 in children). Findings from this review identified several clear trends: (1) presence of cerebral atrophy and cerebral density changes in patients with CKD; (2) cerebral vascular disease, including deep white matter hyperintensities, white matter lesions, cerebral microbleeds, silent cerebral infarction, and cortical infarction, in patients with CKD; and (3) similarities in regional cerebral blood flow between patients with CKD and those with affective disorders. These findings document the importance of neuroimaging procedures in understanding the effect of CKD on brain structure, function, and associated behaviors. Results provide a developmental linkage between childhood and adulthood, with respect to the effect of CKD on brain functioning across the lifespan, with strong implications for a cerebrovascular mechanism contributing to this developmental linkage. Use of neuroimaging methods to corroborate manifest neuropsychological deficits or perhaps to indicate preventive actions may prove useful to individuals with CKD. PMID:23723341

Moodalbail, Divya G; Reiser, Kathryn A; Detre, John A; Schultz, Robert T; Herrington, John D; Davatzikos, Christos; Doshi, Jimit J; Erus, Guray; Liu, Hua-Shan; Radcliffe, Jerilynn; Furth, Susan L; Hooper, Stephen R

2013-05-30

370

GATA4 regulates Sertoli cell function and fertility in adult male mice  

PubMed Central

Transcription factor GATA4 is expressed in Sertoli and Leydig cells and is required for proper development of the murine fetal testis. The role of GATA4 in adult testicular function, however, has remained unclear due to prenatal lethality of mice harboring homozygous mutations in Gata4. To characterize the function of GATA4 in the adult testis, we generated mice in which Gata4 was conditionally deleted in Sertoli cells using Cre-LoxP recombination with Amhr2-Cre. Conditional knockout (cKO) mice developed age-dependent testicular atrophy and loss of fertility, which coincided with decreases in the quantity and motility of sperm. Histological analysis demonstrated Sertoli cell vacuolation, impaired spermatogenesis, and increased permeability of the blood-testis barrier. RT-PCR analysis of cKO testes showed decreased expression of germ cell markers and increased expression of testicular injury markers. Our findings support the premise that GATA4 is a key transcriptional regulator of Sertoli cell function in adult mice.

Kyronlahti, Antti; Euler, Rosemarie; Bielinska, Malgorzata; Schoeller, Erica L.; Moley, Kelle H.; Toppari, Jorma; Heikinheimo, Markku; Wilson, David B.

2011-01-01

371

Physical activity and functional limitations in older adults: a systematic review related to Canada's Physical Activity Guidelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The purpose was to conduct systematic reviews of the relationship between physical activity of healthy community-dwelling older (>65 years) adults and outcomes of functional limitations, disability, or loss of independence. METHODS: Prospective cohort studies with an outcome related to functional independence or to cognitive function were searched, as well as exercise training interventions that reported a functional outcome. Electronic

Donald H Paterson; Darren ER Warburton

2010-01-01

372

Growth Hormone Deficiency and Memory Functioning in Adults Visualized by Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive functioning, especially memory performance, is known to be impaired in patients with childhood-onset growth hormone deficiency (CO-GHD), and growth hormone substitution has been found to counteract this memory impairment. Neuropsychological and functional magnetic resonance imagining (fMRI) data acquired during a working memory task in 13 childhood-onset GH-deficient patients were compared with 13 age, sex and education level matched healthy

Lucia I. Arwert; Dick J. Veltman; Jan Berend Deijen; P. Sytze van Dam; Henriette A. Delemarre-van deWaal; Madeleine L. Drent

2005-01-01

373

A Comparative Assessment of the Cognitive Functioning of Adults with Childhood Histories of Learning Disability and Adults with Noncognitive Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Demographic, cognitive, and academic achievement data were collected from 591 adults evaluated as part of an outpatient Vocational\\u000a Rehabilitation service. The specific aims of the research were to systematically compare adults with a childhood history of\\u000a LD (putative LD) to groups of adults with principally physical or psychiatric disorders and assess the extent to which the\\u000a LD group continued to

Michael Ferrari

2009-01-01

374

Upper extremity muscle volumes and functional strength after resistance training in older adults.  

PubMed

Aging leads to a decline in strength and an associated loss of independence. The authors examined changes in muscle volume, maximum isometric joint moment, functional strength, and 1-repetition maximum (1RM) after resistance training (RT) in the upper extremity of older adults. They evaluated isometric joint moment and muscle volume as predictors of functional strength. Sixteen healthy older adults (average age 75 ± 4.3 yr) were randomized to a 6-wk upper extremity RT program or control group. The RT group increased 1RM significantly (p < .01 for all exercises). Compared with controls, randomization to RT led to greater functional pulling strength (p = .003), isometric shoulder-adduction moment (p = .041), elbow-flexor volume (p = .017), and shoulder-adductor volume (p = .009). Shoulder-muscle volumes and isometric moments were good predictors of functional strength. The authors conclude that shoulder strength is an important factor for performing functional reaching and pulling tasks and a key target for upper extremity RT interventions. PMID:22952203

Daly, Melissa; Vidt, Meghan E; Eggebeen, Joel D; Simpson, W Greg; Miller, Michael E; Marsh, Anthony P; Saul, Katherine R

2012-09-04

375

Childhood maltreatment and response to novel face stimuli presented during functional magnetic resonance imaging in adults.  

PubMed

Facial cues contain important information for guiding social interactions, but not all humans are equally expert at face processing. A number of factors, both genetic and environmental, contribute to differences in face-processing ability. For example, both heritable individual differences in temperament and exposure to childhood maltreatment are associated with alterations in face processing ability and social function. Understanding the neural correlates of alterations in face-processing ability can provide insights into how genetic and environmental risk factors impair social functioning. We examined the association between childhood maltreatment and blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) signal as measured in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a group of young adults with an inhibited temperament. We hypothesized that childhood maltreatment exposure would correlate positively with BOLD signal in regions subserving face processing and novelty detection during viewing of novel compared to familiar faces. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) degree of exposure to childhood maltreatment was positively correlated with BOLD signal in the bilateral fusiform gyri and the left hippocampus. These fMRI findings suggest that young adults with an inhibited temperament and a history of maltreatment may be particularly vulnerable to neural alterations. These differences could be related to a heightened sensitivity to potential threat-for example, from new people-and may contribute to both the altered social functioning and increased incidence of anxiety disorders in these individuals. PMID:23477839

Edmiston, Elliot Kale; Blackford, Jennifer Urbano

2013-03-07

376

Association of childhood trauma with cognitive function in healthy adults: a pilot study  

PubMed Central

Background Animal and human studies suggest that stress experienced early in life has detrimental consequences on brain development, including brain regions involved in cognitive function. Cognitive changes are cardinal features of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder. Early-life trauma is a major risk factor for these disorders. Only few studies have measured the long-term consequences of childhood trauma on cognitive function in healthy adults. Methods In this pilot study, we investigated the relationship between childhood trauma exposure and cognitive function in 47 healthy adults, who were identified as part of a larger study from the general population in Wichita, KS. We used the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) and the Wide-Range-Achievement-Test (WRAT-3) to examine cognitive function and individual achievement. Type and severity of childhood trauma was assessed by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression on CANTAB measures with primary predictors (CTQ scales) and potential confounders (age, sex, education, income). Results Specific CTQ scales were significantly associated with measures of cognitive function. Emotional abuse was associated with impaired spatial working memory performance. Physical neglect correlated with impaired spatial working memory and pattern recognition memory. Sexual abuse and physical neglect were negatively associated with WRAT-3 scores. However, the association did not reach the significance level of p < 0.01. Conclusions Our results suggest that physical neglect and emotional abuse might be associated with memory deficits in adulthood, which in turn might pose a risk factor for the development of psychopathology.

2010-01-01

377

The Relationship between Cognitive Function and Non-Prescribed Therapy Use in Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine the association of cognitive function with use of non-prescribed therapies for managing acute and chronic conditions, and to determine whether use of non-prescribed therapies changes over time in relation to baseline cognitive function. Methods 200 community-dwelling adults aged 65 and older were recruited from three counties in south central North Carolina. Repeated measures of daily symptoms and treatment were collected on three consecutive days at intervals of at least one month. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the primary cognitive measure, was collected as part of the baseline survey. Data were collected on the daily use of common non-prescribed therapies (use of prayer, ignore symptoms, over-the-counter remedies, food and beverage therapies, home remedies, and vitamin, herb, or supplements) on each of the three days of the follow-up interviews for up to six consecutive months. Results Older adults with poorer cognitive function were more likely to pray and ignore symptoms on days that they experienced acute symptoms. Poorer cognitive function was associated with increased use of home remedies for treating symptoms related to existing chronic conditions. Conclusions Cognitive function may play a role in why older patients use some non-prescribed therapies in response to acute and chronic conditions.

Nguyen, Ha T.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Quandt, Sara A.; Neiberg, Rebecca H.; Lang, Wei; Altizer, Kathryn; Stoller, Eleanor P.; Bell, Ronny A.; Arcury, Thomas A.

2012-01-01

378

The Impact of Financial Reward Contingencies on Cognitive Function Profiles in Adult ADHD  

PubMed Central

Objectives Although it is well established that cognitive performance in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is affected by reward and that key deficits associated with the disorder may thereby be attenuated or even compensated, this phenomenon in adults with ADHD has thus far not been addressed. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the motivating effect of financial reward on task performance in adults with ADHD by focusing on the domains of executive functioning, attention, time perception, and delay aversion. Methods We examined male and female adults aged 18–40 years with ADHD (n?=?38) along with a matched control group (n?=?40) using six well-established experimental paradigms. Results Impaired performance in the ADHD group was observed for stop-signal omission errors, n-back accuracy, reaction time variability in the continuous performance task, and time reproduction accuracy, and reward normalized time reproduction accuracy. Furthermore, when rewarded, subjects with ADHD exhibited longer reaction times and fewer false positives in the continuous performance task, which suggests the use of strategies to prevent impulsivity errors. Conclusions Taken together, our results support the existence of both cognitive and motivational mechanisms for the disorder, which is in line with current models of ADHD. Furthermore, our data suggest cognitive strategies of “stopping and thinking” as a possible underlying mechanism for task improvement that seems to be mediated by reward, which highlights the importance of the interaction between motivation and cognition in adult ADHD.

Marx, Ivo; Hopcke, Cornelia; Berger, Christoph; Wandschneider, Roland; Herpertz, Sabine C.

2013-01-01

379

Speech production variability in fricatives of children and adults: Results of functional data analysis  

PubMed Central

This study investigates token-to-token variability in fricative production of 5 year olds, 10 year olds, and adults. Previous studies have reported higher intrasubject variability in children than adults, in speech as well as nonspeech tasks, but authors have disagreed on the causes and implications of this finding. The current work assessed the characteristics of age-related variability across articulators (larynx and tongue) as well as in temporal versus spatial domains. Oral airflow signals, which reflect changes in both laryngeal and supralaryngeal apertures, were obtained for multiple productions of ?h s z?. The data were processed using functional data analysis, which provides a means of obtaining relatively independent indices of amplitude and temporal (phasing) variability. Consistent with past work, both temporal and amplitude variabilities were higher in children than adults, but the temporal indices were generally less adultlike than the amplitude indices for both groups of children. Quantitative and qualitative analyses showed considerable speaker- and consonant-specific patterns of variability. The data indicate that variability in ?s? may represent laryngeal as well as supralaryngeal control and further that a simple random noise factor, higher in children than in adults, is insufficient to explain developmental differences in speech production variability.

Koenig, Laura L.; Lucero, Jorge C.; Perlman, Elizabeth

2008-01-01

380

Executive control function, brain activation and white matter hyperintensities in older adults  

PubMed Central

Context Older adults responding to executive control function (ECF) tasks show greater brain activation on functional MRI (fMRI). It is not clear whether greater fMRI activation indicates a strategy to compensate for underlying brain structural abnormalities while maintaining higher performance. Objective To identify the patterns of fMRI activation in relationship with ECF performance and with brain structural abnormalities. Design Cross-sectional analysis. Main variables of interest: fMRI activation, accuracy while performing an ECF task (Digit Symbol Substitution Test), volume of white matter hyperintensities and of total brain atrophy. Setting Cohort of community-dwelling older adults. Participants Data were obtained on 25 older adults (20 women, 81 years mean age). Outcome Measure Accuracy (number of correct response / total number of responses) while performing the Digit Symbol Substitution Test. Results Greater accuracy was significantly associated with greater peak fMRI activation, from ECF regions, including left middle frontal gyrus and right posterior parietal cortex. Greater WMH was associated with lower activation within accuracy-related regions. The interaction of accuracy by white matter hyperintensities volume was significant within the left posterior parietal region. Specifically, the correlation of white matter hyperintensities volume with fMRI activation varied as a function of accuracy and it was positive for greater accuracy. Associations with brain atrophy were not significant. Conclusions Recruitment of additional areas and overall greater brain activation in older adults is associated with higher performance. Posterior parietal activation may be particularly important to maintain higher accuracy in the presence of underlying brain connectivity structural abnormalities.

Venkatraman, Vijay K.; Aizenstein, Howard; Guralnik, Jack; Newman, Anne B.; Glynn, Nancy W.; Taylor, Christopher; Studenski, Stephanie; Launer, Lenore; Pahor, Marco; Williamson, Jeff; Rosano, Caterina

2009-01-01

381

Neonatal Bladder Inflammation Produces Functional Changes and Alters Neuropeptide Content in Bladders of Adult Female Rats  

PubMed Central

Neonatal bladder inflammation has been demonstrated to produce hypersensitivity to bladder re-inflammation as an adult. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of neonatal urinary bladder inflammation on adult bladder function and structure. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were treated on postnatal days 14-16 with intravesical zymosan or anesthesia alone. At 12-16 weeks of age, micturition frequency and cystometrograms were measured. Similarly treated rats had their bladders removed for measurement of plasma extravasation following intravesical mustard oil, for neuropeptide analysis (CGRP or SubP), or for detailed histological examination. Rats treated with zymosan as neonates exhibited increased micturition frequency, reduced micturition volume thresholds, greater extravasation of Evan's Blue following intravesical mustard oil administration, and greater total bladder content of CGRP and SubP. In contrast, there were no quantitative histological changes in the thickness, fibrosis or mast cells of bladder tissue due to neonatal zymosan treatments. Functional changes in urologic systems observed in adulthood, coupled with the increased neuropeptide content and neurogenic plasma extravasation in adult bladders, suggest that the neonatal bladder inflammation treatment enhanced the number, function and/or neurochemical content of primary afferent neurons. These data support the hypothesis that insults to the urologic system in infancy may contribute to the development of adult bladder hypersensitivity. Perspective Inflammation of the bladder early in life in the rat has multiple sequelae including laboratory measures that suggest an alteration of the neurophysiological substrates related to the bladder. Some painful bladder syndromes in humans have similar characteristics and so may be due to similar mechanisms.

DeBerry, Jennifer; Randich, Alan; Shaffer, Amber D.; Robbins, Meredith T.; Ness, Timothy J.

2009-01-01

382

MRI- and MRS-Derived Hippocampal Correlates of Quantitative Locomotor Function in Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Gait measures have been shown to predict cognitive decline and dementia in older adults. Investigation of the neurobiology associated with locomotor function is needed to elucidate this relationship with cognitive abilities. This study aimed to examine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI; hippocampal volume)- and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS; N-acetylaspartate to creatine (NAA/Cr) ratios)-derived hippocampal correlates of quantitative gait function (swing time (seconds), stride length (cm), and stride length variability (standard deviation)) in a subset of 48 nondemented older adults (24 males; mean age=81 years) drawn from the Einstein Aging Study, a community-based sample of individuals over the age of 70 residing in the Bronx, New York. Linear regression analyses controlling for age were used to examine hippocampal volume and neurochemistry as predictors of gait function. We found that stride length was associated with hippocampal volume (?=0.36, p=0.03; overall model R2=0.33, p=0.01), but not hippocampal neurochemistry (?=0.09, p=0.48). Stride length variability was more strongly associated with hippocampal NAA/Cr (?=?0.38, p=0.01; overall model R2=0.14, p=0.04) than hippocampal volume (?=?0.33, p=0.08). Gait swing time was not significantly related to any neuroimaging measure. These relationships remained significant after accounting for memory and clinical gait impairments. These findings suggest that nondemented older adults exhibit increased stride length variability that is associated with lower levels of hippocampal neuronal metabolism, but not hippocampal volume. Conversely, decreased stride length is associated with smaller hippocampal volumes, but not hippocampal neurochemistry. Distinct neurobiological hippocampal substrates may support decreased stride length and increased stride length variability in older adults.

Zimmerman, Molly E.; Lipton, Richard B.; Pan, Jullie W.; Hetherington, Hoby P.; Verghese, Joe

2009-01-01

383

Multiwave Associations Between Depressive Symptoms and Endothelial Function in Adolescent and Young Adult Females  

PubMed Central

Objective Depression has been linked to endothelial dysfunction, and some research suggests that past depressive episodes are associated with a lasting, negative impact on the endothelium. However, investigations in this area have been predominantly cross-sectional, raising questions about the direction of these associations. Using a multiwave design, we sought to extend previous research in this area by examining whether depressive symptoms have a lasting negative influence on endothelial function. Methods A total of 135 adolescent and young adult females with no known or suspected major health problems were followed for 2½ years. Endothelial function was assessed at three time points throughout the study. The Beck Depression Inventory was administered, and information about health practices was collected every 6 months. Results Self-reported depressive symptoms covaried with endothelial functioning on a within-person basis (? = ?0.23, p < .05). As a participant’s depression symptoms rose beyond her typical level, her endothelial function declined commensurately. This association persisted after controlling for health practices and adiposity. There was no evidence that depressive symptoms predicted endothelial function at later time points or interacted with time to predict the trajectories of endothelial function over the follow-up period. Conclusions Depressive symptoms were concurrently associated with endothelial function in this cohort of healthy adolescent girls and young women. On visits when participants endorsed depressive symptoms that were higher than their mean level of depression, they tended to have worse endothelial function. We did not observe a lasting negative effect of depression on endothelial function.

Tomfohr, Lianne M.; Murphy, Michael L.M.; Miller, Gregory E.; Puterman, Eli

2011-01-01

384

Employing a youth-led adult-guided framework: "Why Drive High?" social marketing campaign.  

PubMed

The "Drugged Driving Kills project: Why Drive High?" social marketing campaign was developed and implemented by youth leaders and adult facilitators from public and community health to increase youth awareness of the adverse effects of marijuana on driving. The youth-led adult-guided project was founded on the Holden's youth empowerment conceptual model. This article reports on the results of the focus group evaluation, conducted to determine to what extent the tailored youth-led adult-guided framework for the "Why Drive High?" social marketing campaign provided an environment for youth leadership development. PMID:21881419

Marko, Terry-Lynne; Watt, Tyler

385

A review of the case for hepatitis B vaccination of high-risk adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sequelae of hepatitis B virus infection include fulminant liver failure, chronic liver disease, hepatocellular carcinoma, and death. The hepatitis B vaccine is efficacious, safe, and cost-effective, but has been consistently underutilized in high-risk adults despite long-standing recommendations. Instituting routine hepatitis B vaccination for high-risk adults in settings such as prisons and jails, sexually transmitted disease clinics, drug treatment centers,

Josiah D Rich; Catherine G Ching; Michelle A Lally; Melissa M Gaitanis; Beth Schwartzapfel; Anthony Charuvastra; Curt G Beckwith; Timothy P Flanigan

2003-01-01

386

A Review of the Case for Hepatitis B Vaccination of High-Risk Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sequelae of hepatitis B virus infection include fulminant liver failure, chronic liver disease, hepatocellular carcinoma, and death. The hepatitis B vaccine is efficacious, safe, and cost- effective, but has been consistently underutilized in high-risk adults despite long-standing recommendations. Instituting routine hepatitis B vaccination for high-risk adults in settings such as prisons and jails, sexually transmitted disease clinics, drug treatment

Josiah D. Rich; Catherine G. Ching; Michelle A. Lally; Melissa M. Gaitanis; Beth Schwartzapfel; Anthony Charuvastra; Curt G. Beckwith; Timothy P. Flanigan

387

The Longitudinal Association of Cumulative Lead Dose with Cognitive Function in Community-dwelling Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Background To evaluate whether cumulative lead dose from environmental exposures is associated with cognitive function and decline, and whether persistent, reversible, or progressive effects are indicated. Methods We used longitudinal linear modeling to evaluate associations of tibia lead concentration with cognitive function and decline in socio-demographically diverse, community-dwelling adults, aged 50-70 years, randomly selected from neighborhoods in Baltimore. Six summary measures of cognitive function were created from standard tests in these domains: language, processing speed, eye-hand coordination, executive functioning, verbal memory and learning, and visual memory. Results The mean (SD) tibia lead level was 18.8 (11.6) ?g/g. In models adjusting for demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status (SES), and race/ethnicity, higher tibia lead was associated with a progressive decline in eye-hand coordination in all subjects; stratified analysis substantiated this association only in African-Americans. In all subjects, tibia lead was associated with persistent effects with worse cognitive function in all six domains, but these associations weakened after increasing covariate control. In fully adjusted stratified analysis, persistent effects were present in whites in eye-hand coordination, executive functioning, and verbal memory and learning. Conclusions The study presents the strongest adult evidence to date in a diverse population of the impacts of cumulative lead dose on cognitive function independent of SES. As the study population was relatively young and the average total duration of follow-up short (< 30 months), the findings may represent the lower bound of what the impact of cumulative lead dose might be on the cognitive function of older Americans.

Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Glass, Thomas A.; Bolla, Karen I.; Todd, Andrew C.; Schwartz, Brian S.

2012-01-01

388

Associations and Impact Factors between Living Arrangements and Functional Disability among Older Chinese Adults  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine the association of living arrangements with functional disability among older persons and explore the mediation of impact factors on the relationship. Design Cross-sectional analysis using data from Healthy Aging study in Zhejiang Province. Participants Analyzed sample was drawn from a representative rural population of older persons in Wuyi County, Zhejiang Province, including 1542 participants aged 60 and over in the second wave of the study. Measurements Living arrangements, background, functional disability, self-rated health, number of diseases, along with contemporaneous circumstances including income, social support (physical assistance and emotional support). Instrument was Activities of Daily Living (ADL) scale, including Basic Activities Daily Living (BADL) and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL). Results Living arrangements were significantly associated with BADL, IADL and ADL disability. Married persons living with or without children were more advantaged on all three dimensions of functional disability. Unmarried older adults living with children only had the worst functional status, even after controlling for background, social support, income and health status variables (compared with the unmarried living alone, ß for BADL: ?1.262, ß for IADL: ?2.112, ß for ADL: ?3.388; compared with the married living with children only, ß for BADL: ?1.166, ß for IADL: ?2.723, ß for ADL: ?3.902). In addition, older adults without difficulty in receiving emotional support, in excellent health and with advanced age had significantly better BADL, IADL and ADL function. However, a statistically significant association between physical assistance and functional disability was not found. Conclusion Functional disabilities vary by living arrangements with different patterns and other factors. Our results highlight the association of unmarried elders living with children only and functioning decline comparing with other types. Our study implies policy makers should pay closer attention to unmarried elders living with children in community. Community service especially emotional support such as psychological counseling is important social support and should be improved.

Wang, Hui; Chen, Kun; Pan, Yifeng; Jing, Fangyuan; Liu, He

2013-01-01

389

High sugar intake exacerbates cardiac reperfusion injury in perinatal taurine depleted adult rats  

PubMed Central

Perinatal taurine depletion and high sugar diets blunted baroreflex function and heightens sympathetic nerve activity in adult rats. Cardiac ischemia/reperfusion also produces these disorders and taurine treatment appears to improve these effects. This study tests the hypothesis that perinatal taurine exposure predisposes recovery from reperfusion injury in rats on either a basal or high sugar diet. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed normal rat chow with 3% beta-alanine (taurine depletion, TD), 3% taurine (taurine supplementation, TS) or water alone (control, C) from conception to weaning. Male offspring were fed normal rat chow and water containing 5% glucose (G) or water alone (W) throughout the experiment. At 7-8 weeks of age, all rats were anesthetized and their trachea clamped until cardiac arrest occurred and mean arterial pressure fell below 60 mm Hg. The clamp was immediately released and cardiopulmonary resuscitation was performed with cardiac function returning within 4 min. Twenty-four hours later, arterial pressure, heart rate, and baroreflex function were measured in conscious and one day later in anesthetized conditions. Basic blood chemistry and circulating markers of cardiac injury were also measured. Baroreflex sensitivity was depressed moderately in CG and TDW, and severely in TDG. TSW displayed increased baroreflex and high sugar intake returned it to CW. Sympathetic nerve activity increased and parasympathetic decreased in TDW but not TSW and these effects were exacerbated sharply in TDG and slightly in TSG. Arterial pressure and heart rate increased in all groups but to a lesser degree in TDG. Plasma aspartate aminotransferase increased in all groups except TSW, but the increase was nearly 3X greater in TDG vs. any other group. Creatine kinase-MB increased in all groups except TSG and was far greater in TD than other groups. Troponin-T and brain natriuretic peptide were greatly increased in TDG compared to all other groups. Thus, perinatal taurine depletion increases injury from cardiac ischemia/reperfusion, and in adult rats on a high sugar diet, these effects are greatly exacerbated.

2010-01-01

390

Adult bone marrow-derived cells do not acquire functional attributes of cardiomyocytes when transplanted into peri-infarct myocardium.  

PubMed

The cardiomyogenic potential of adult bone marrow (BM) cells after being directly transplanted into the ischemically injured heart remains a controversial issue. In this study, we investigated the ability of transplanted BM cells to develop intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)) transients in response to membrane depolarization in situ. Low-density mononuclear (LDM) BM cells, c-kit-enriched (c-kit(enr)) BM cells, and highly enriched lin(-) c-kit(+) BM cells were obtained from adult transgenic mice ubiquitously expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), and injected into peri-infarct myocardiums of nontransgenic mice. After 9-10 days the mice were killed, and the hearts were removed, perfused in Langendorff mode, loaded with the calcium-sensitive fluorophore rhod-2, and subjected to two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy (TPLSM) to monitor action potential-induced [Ca(2+)](i) transients in EGFP-expressing donor-derived cells and non-expressing host cardiomyocytes. Whereas spontaneous and electrically evoked [Ca(2+)](i) transients were found to occur synchronously in host cardiomyocytes along the graft-host border and in areas remote from the infarct, they were absent in all of the >3,000 imaged BM-derived cells that were located in clusters throughout the infarct scar or peri-infarct zone. We conclude that engrafted BM-derived cells lack attributes of functioning cardiomyocytes, calling into question the concept that adult BM cells can give rise to substantive cardiomyocyte regeneration within the infarcted heart. PMID:18431364

Scherschel, John A; Soonpaa, Mark H; Srour, Edward F; Field, Loren J; Rubart, Michael

2008-04-22

391

Exposure to Traffic: Lung Function and Health Status in Adults with Asthma  

PubMed Central

Background Exposure to traffic has been associated with asthma outcomes in children, but its effect on asthma in adults has not been well studied. Objective To test the hypothesis that lung function and health status are associated with traffic exposures. Methods We measured forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) % predicted, general health status using the Physical Component Scale of the Short Form (SF-12 PCS) and quality of life (QoL) using the Marks Asthma Quality of Life questionnaire in a cohort of adults with asthma or rhinitis (n=176; 145 with asthma). We assessed exposures to traffic by geo-coding subjects’ residential addresses and assigning distance to roadways. Associations between distance to nearest roadway and distance to nearest major roadway and FEV1 % predicted or SF-12 PCS were studied using linear regression. Results FEV1 % predicted was positively associated with distance from nearest roadway (p=0.01) and major roadway (p=0.02). SF-12 PCS and QoL were not significantly associated with either traffic variable. Adjustment for income, smoking, and obesity did not substantively change the associations of the traffic variables with FEV1 % predicted (p=0.04 for nearest roadway and p=0.02 for nearest major roadway) and did not cause associations with either SF-12 PCS or OoL to become significant Conclusions Traffic exposure was associated with decreased lung function in adults with asthma.

Balmes, John R.; Earnest, Gillian; Katz, Patricia P.; Yelin, Edward H.; Eisner, Mark D.; Chen, Hubert; Trupin, Laura; Lurmann, Fred; Blanc, Paul D.

2009-01-01

392

The Tumor Gene Survivin Is Highly Expressed in Adult Renal Tubular Cells  

PubMed Central

The inhibitor of apoptosis protein survivin is of critical importance for regulation of cellular division and survival. Published data point to a restricted function of survivin in embryonic development and cancer; thus survivin has been broadly proposed as an ideal molecular target for specific anti-cancer therapy. In contrast to this paradigm, we report here broad expression of survivin in adult differentiated tissues, as demonstrated at the mRNA and protein levels. Focusing on the kidney, survivin is strongly expressed in proximal tubuli, particularly at the apical membrane, which can be verified in rat, mouse, and human kidneys. In the latter, survivin expression seems to be even stronger in proximal tubuli than in adjacent cancerous tissue. Primary and immortalized human renal tubular cells also showed high levels of survivin protein expression, and RNA interference resulted in a partial G2/M arrest of the cell cycle and increased rate of apoptosis. In conclusion, survivin may be of importance for renal pathophysiology and pathology. The predominant apical expression of survivin may indicate a further, yet unknown, function. Interventional strategies to inhibit survivin’s function in malignancy need to be carefully (re)evaluated for renal side effects, as well as for other possible organ dysfunctions.

Lechler, Philipp; Wu, Xiaoqing; Bernhardt, Wanja; Campean, Valentina; Gastiger, Susanne; Hackenbeck, Thomas; Klanke, Bernd; Weidemann, Alexander; Warnecke, Christina; Amann, Kerstin; Engehausen, Dirk; Willam, Carsten; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Rodel, Franz; Wiesener, Michael Sean

2007-01-01

393

Effects of Supplemental Fructooligosaccharides Plus Mannanoligosaccharides on Immune Function and Ileal and Fecal Microbial Populations in Adult Dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study was to examine whether supplemental fructooligosaccharides (FOS) plus mannanoligosaccharides (MOS) influenced immune function and ileal and fecal microbial populations of adult dogs. Eight adult dogs surgically fitted with ileal cannulas were used in a crossover design. Dogs were fed 200g of a dry, extruded, kibble diet twice daily. At each feeding, dogs were dosed with

Kelly Swanson; Christine Grieshop; Elizabeth Flickinger; H.-P. Healy; K. A. Dawson; N. R. Merchen; G. C. Fahey Jr

2002-01-01

394

Activation of Rho GTPases triggers structural remodeling and functional plasticity in the adult rat visual cortex.  

PubMed

A classical example of age-dependent plasticity is ocular dominance (OD) plasticity, triggered by monocular deprivation (MD). Sensitivity of cortical circuits to a brief period of MD is maximal in juvenile animals and downregulated in adult age. It remains unclear whether a reduced potential for morphological remodeling underlies this downregulation of physiological plasticity in adulthood. Here we have tested whether stimulation of structural rearrangements is effective in promoting experience-dependent plasticity in adult age. We have exploited a bacterial protein toxin, cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 (CNF1), that regulates actin dynamics and structure of neuronal processes via a persistent activation of Rho GTPases. Injection of CNF1 into the adult rat visual cortex triggered a long-lasting activation of the Rho GTPase Rac1, with a consequent increase in spine density and length in pyramidal neurons. Adult rats treated with CNF1, but not controls, showed an OD shift toward the open eye after MD. CNF1-mediated OD plasticity was selectively attributable to the enhancement of open-eye responses, whereas closed-eye inputs were unaffected. This effect correlated with an increased density of geniculocortical terminals in layer IV of monocularly deprived, CNF1-treated rats. Thus, Rho GTPase activation reinstates OD plasticity in the adult cortex via the potentiation of more active inputs from the open eye. These data establish a direct link between structural remodeling and functional plasticity and demonstrate a role for Rho GTPases in brain plasticity in vivo. The plasticizing effects of Rho GTPase activation may be exploited to promote brain repair. PMID:22016550

Cerri, Chiara; Fabbri, Alessia; Vannini, Eleonora; Spolidoro, Maria; Costa, Mario; Maffei, Lamberto; Fiorentini, Carla; Caleo, Matteo

2011-10-19

395

The Impact of ACTH Receptor Knockdown on Fetal and Adult Ovine Adrenocortical Cell Function  

PubMed Central

Preparing the mammalian fetus for birth requires an increase in fetal plasma glucocorticoid levels. The mechanisms facilitating this increase are not fully known. It has been shown in sheep that the prepartum elevation in fetal plasma cortisol is accompanied by increases in adrenocorticotropin receptor (ACTH-R) expression in the fetal adrenal and in the adrenal responsiveness to stimulation. To determine the significance of the upregulation in ACTH-R expression on fetal adrenal function, the authors used small interfering RNA targeted to the ovine ACTH-R to reduce receptor expression and studied responses to stimulation in ovine adrenal cells. They studied fetal cells from late gestation after responsiveness had increased. They also studied adult cells to determine if maturation would influence the impact of receptor expression suppression on responsiveness. Fetal and adult cells were obtained, dispersed, transfected with receptor-targeted small interfering RNA or scrambled small interfering RNA, and subsequently stimulated with ACTH. Cells and media were harvested for measurements of gene and protein expression and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cortisol levels. The ability of ACTH to upregulate its receptor or steroid acute regulatory protein was attenuated in fetal (P < .01) and adult cells (P < .01) by small interfering RNA treatment; the blockade was more pronounced in the adult cells (P < .01). The small interfering RNA treatment also blocked the cAMP response to ACTH in fetal (P < .001) and adult (P < .05) cells. This was accompanied by marked reductions in cortisol responses in both (P < .001 and P < .01, respectively). These data suggest that upregulation of the ACTH-R expression in late gestation is essential for the increase in adrenal steroidogenic capacity occurring then. The data also indicate that a reduction in the ACTH-R expression blocks the ability of the peptide to stimulate early steps in the steroidogenic pathway event after maturation is complete.

Su, Yixin; Rose, James C.

2009-01-01

396

Is there an association between postural balance and pulmonary function in adults with asthma?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Asthma may cause systemic repercussions due to its severity and the effects of treatment. Our objective was to compare posture, balance, functional capacity, and quality of life (QOL) according to the severity of disease, as assessed by pulmonary function levels. METHOD: This cross-sectional study evaluated fifty individuals with asthma. We compared two groups of adult individuals who were divided according to the median of the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) as follows: group A ?=? FEV1>74% predicted; group B ?=? FEV1<74% predicted. All patients underwent the following tests: spirometry, whole-body plethysmography, diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLco), respiratory muscle strength, posture assessment, stabilometry, six-minute walking distance (6MWD), and QOL. RESULTS: All pulmonary function variables exhibited statistically significant differences between the two groups, except for the DLco. The maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP), maximal expiratory pressure (MEP), and 6MWD were lower in group B. The maximal mediolateral velocity and the mediolateral displacement were significantly different, while the postural changes and QOL were similar between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: In adult individuals with asthma, the pulmonary function is associated with balance control in the mediolateral direction but does not influence the postural changes or QOL.

de Almeida, Vivian Pinto; Guimaraes, Fernando Silva; Moco, Vanessa Joaquim Ribeiro; de Sa Ferreira, Arthur; de Menezes, Sara Lucia Silveira; Lopes, Agnaldo Jose

2013-01-01

397

Effect of visual perception, visual function, cognition, and personality on power wheelchair use in adults.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine to what extent visual perception, visual function, cognition, and personality traits affect power wheelchair use in adults. It also proposes to establish baseline information to help clinicians determine or predict power wheelchair driving performance and to develop service plans to address those driving skills that need improvement or compensation. Sixty-two adult power wheelchair users were recruited. Standardized instruments were used to evaluate visual perceptual skills, visual function, cognitive skills, and personality traits. The results of these evaluations were then correlated with participants' scores on a power wheelchair performance test. Strong correlations were found between power wheelchair driving performance and visual perception (p = .000), ocular motor function (p = .000 and p < or = .001), stereodepth perception (p < or = .001), and alertness to the environment (p < or = .001). No significant correlations were found between personality traits and power wheelchair driving performance. These results indicate that good visual perceptual skills, visual function, and various aspects of cognition are necessary for proficient power wheelchair use. These data will assist clinicians in identifying significant factors to consider when evaluating and training clients for power wheelchair use. PMID:16392715

Massengale, Samantha; Folden, Donna; McConnell, Pima; Stratton, Laurie; Whitehead, Victoria

2005-01-01

398

Hedgehog Signaling Is Dispensable for Adult Murine Hematopoietic Stem Cell Function and Hematopoiesis  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY We report the unexpected finding that loss of Hh signaling through conditional deletion of Smoothened (Smo) in the adult hematopoietic compartment has no apparent effect on adult hematopoiesis, including peripheral blood count, number or cell-cycle status of stem or progenitor cells, hematopoietic colony-forming potential, long-term repopulating activity in competitive repopulation assays, or stress response to serial 5-fluorouracil treatment. Furthermore, pharmacologic inhibition of Hh signaling with a potent and selective small molecule antagonist has no substantive effect on hematopoiesis in the mouse. In addition, Hh signaling is not required for the development of MLL-AF9-mediated acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Taken together, these data demonstrate that Hh signaling is dispensable for normal hematopoietic development and hematopoietic stem cell function, indicating that targeting of Hh signaling in solid tumors is not likely to result in hematopoietic toxicity. Furthermore, the Hh pathway may not be a compelling target in certain hematopoietic malignancies.

Hofmann, Inga; Stover, Elizabeth H.; Cullen, Dana E.; Mao, Junhao; Morgan, Kelly J.; Lee, Benjamin H.; Kharas, Michael G.; Miller, Peter G.; Cornejo, Melanie G.; Okabe, Rachel; Armstrong, Scott A.; Ghilardi, Nico; Gould, Stephen; de Sauvage, Frederic J.; McMahon, Andrew P.; Gilliland, D. Gary

2010-01-01

399

Association between Physical Functionality and Falls Risk in Community-Living Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Ageing-related declines in physiological attributes, such as muscle strength, can bring with them an increased risk of falls and subsequently greater risk of losing independence. These declines have substantial impact on an individual's functional ability. However, the precise relationship between falls risk and physical functionality has not been evaluated. The aims of this study were to determine the association between falls risk and physical functionality using objective measures and to create an appropriate model to explain variance in falls risk. Thirty-two independently living adults aged 65–92 years completed the FallScreen, the Continuous-Scale Physical Functional Performance 10 (CS-PFP10) tests, and the 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12). The relationships between falls risk, physical functionality, and age were investigated using correlational and multiple hierarchical regression analyses. Overall, total physical functionality accounted for 24% of variance in an individual's falls risk while age explained a further 13%. The oldest-old age group had significantly greater falls risk and significantly lower physical functional performance. Mean scores for all measures showed that there were substantial (but not significant) differences between males and females. While increasing age is the strongest single predictor of increasing falls risk, poorer physical functionality was strongly, independently related to greater falls risk.

Smee, Disa J.; Anson, Judith M.; Waddington, Gordon S.; Berry, Helen L.

2012-01-01

400

Pre-employment lung function at age 16 years as a guide to lung function in adult life.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND--A study was conducted to find out if pre-employment lung function at age 16 improved the estimation of that between ages 25 to 27 compared with the use of reference values based on smoking history, stature, body mass index, and other concurrent anthropometric variables. METHODS--Apprentices attending a shipyard training school were assessed on six occasions from entry during their 17th year to age 25 to 27; results for 114 such men were analysed. The measurements were of stature, body mass, fat free mass and body fat, thoracic dimensions, forced expiratory volume and indices of forced expiratory flow, total lung capacity, and its subdivisions, transfer factor and KCO. RESULTS--At best about half the variance in the final lung function could be accounted for with the concurrent reference variables. For each lung function index the proportion of explained variance was substantially increased by also including in the prediction equation the pre-employment lung function expressed in standard deviation units. CONCLUSION--Estimation of the longitudinal decline in lung function during adult life should be based on initial and final measurements of which the first should ideally be at age 25 but those at age 16 can be used instead: such measurements have long term value and should be preserved.

Chinn, D J; Cotes, J E; Fechner, M; Elliott, C

1993-01-01

401

Recommendations on screening for high blood pressure in Canadian adults  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To provide recommendations on screening for hypertension in adults aged 18 years and older without previously diagnosed hypertension. Quality of evidence Evidence was found through a systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (EBM Reviews), from January 1985 to September 2011. Study types were limited to randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, and observational studies with control groups. Main message Three strong recommendations were made based on moderate-quality evidence. It is recommended that blood pressure measurement occur at all appropriate primary care visits, according to the current techniques described in the Canadian Hypertension Education Program recommendations for office and ambulatory blood pressure measurement. The Canadian Hypertension Education Program criteria for assessment and diagnosis of hypertension should be applied for people found to have elevated blood pressure. Conclusion After review of the most recent evidence, the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care continues to recommend blood pressure measurement during regular physician visits.

Lindsay, Patrice; Connor Gorber, Sarah; Joffres, Michel; Birtwhistle, Richard; McKay, Donald; Cloutier, Lyne

2013-01-01

402

Esophageal motility, vagal function and gastroesophageal reflux in a cohort of adult asthmatics  

PubMed Central

Background Asthmatics are known to have esophageal hypomotility. Vagal hypofunction and prolonged intra-esophageal acidification cause esophageal hypomotility. The contribution of gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and vagal function to esophageal motility in asthmatics is unclear. We studied the relationship between esophageal motility, GER and vagal function in a cohort of adult asthmatics. Methods Thirty mild, stable asthmatics (ATS criteria) and 30 healthy volunteers underwent 24-hour ambulatory esophageal monitoring, manometry, autonomic function testing and GER symptom assessment. 27 asthmatics underwent gastroscopy. A vagal function score calculated from 3 tests (valsalva maneuver, heart rate response to deep breathing and to standing from supine position) was correlated with esophageal function parameters. Results Asthmatics (mean age 34.8 (SD 8.4), 60% female) had more frequent GERD symptoms than controls (mean age 30.9 (SD 7.7), 50% female). 10/27 asthmatics had esophageal mucosal damage, 22 showed hypervagal response, none had a hyperadrenergic response. 14 asthmatics had ineffective esophageal motility. Higher GERD-score asthmatics had significantly fewer peristaltic and more simultaneous contractions than controls, and higher esophageal acid contact times than those with lower scores. All reflux parameters were significantly higher and acid clearance time prolonged in asthmatics than controls (p?function score and esophageal function parameters. Conclusions A cohort of adult asthmatics was found to have peristaltic dysfunction and pathological GER, but otherwise normal esophageal motility. The peristaltic dysfunction seems to be associated with vagal hyperreactivity rather than vagal hypofunction.

2012-01-01

403

Obesity in Adults Is Associated With Reduced Lung Function in Metabolic Syndrome and Diabetes  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE The purposes of this study were to investigate whether reduced lung function is associated with metabolic syndrome (MS) and diabetes (DM) in American Indians (AIs) and to determine whether lower pulmonary function presents before the development of DM or MS. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The Strong Heart Study (SHS) is a multicenter, prospective study of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its risk factors among AI adults. The present analysis used lung function assessment by standard spirometry at the SHS second examination (1993–1995) in 2,396 adults free of overt lung disease or CVD, with or without DM or MS. Among MS-free/DM-free participants, the development of MS/DM at the SHS third examination (1996–1999) was investigated. RESULTS Significantly lower pulmonary function was observed for AIs with MS or DM. Impaired pulmonary function was associated with MS and DM after adjustment for age, sex, abdominal obesity, current smoking status, physical activity index, hypertension, and SHS field center. Both forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) were negatively associated with insulin resistance or DM severity and with serum markers of inflammation (P < 0.05). FVC and FEV1-to-FVC ratio both predicted DM in unadjusted analyses but not when adjusted for covariates, including waist circumference. In the adjusted model, abdominal obesity predicted both MS and DM. CONCLUSIONS Reduced lung function is independently associated with MS and with DM, and impaired lung function presents before the development of MS or DM; these associations may result from the effects of obesity and inflammation.

Yeh, Fawn; Dixon, Anne E.; Marion, Susan; Schaefer, Carl; Zhang, Ying; Best, Lyle G.; Calhoun, Darren; Rhoades, Everett R.; Lee, Elisa T.

2011-01-01

404

The effect of insomnia on functional status of community-dwelling older adults.  

PubMed

HOW TO OBTAIN CONTACT HOURS BY READING THIS ARTICLE INSTRUCTIONS 1.3 contact hours will be awarded by Villanova University College of Nursing upon successful completion of this activity. A contact hour is a unit of measurement that denotes 60 minutes of an organized learning activity. This is a learner-based activity. Villanova University College of Nursing does not require submission of your answers to the quiz. A contact hour certificate will be awarded once you register, pay the registration fee, and complete the evaluation form online at https://villanova.gosignmeup.com/dev_students.asp?action=browse&main=Nursing+Journals&misc=564. To obtain contact hours you must: 1. Read the article, "The Effect of Insomnia on Functional Status of Community-Dwelling Older Adults" found on pages 22-30, carefully noting any tables and other illustrative materials that are included to enhance your knowledge and understanding of the content. Be sure to keep track of the amount of time (number of minutes) you spend reading the article and completing the quiz. 2. Read and answer each question on the quiz. After completing all of the questions, compare your answers to those provided within this issue. If you have incorrect answers, return to the article for further study. 3. Go to the Villanova website listed above to register for contact hour credit. You will be asked to provide your name; contact information; and a VISA, MasterCard, or Discover card number for payment of the $20.00 fee. Once you complete the online evaluation, a certificate will be automatically generated. This activity is valid for continuing education credit until September 30, 2015. CONTACT HOURS This activity is co-provided by Villanova University College of Nursing and SLACK Incorporated. Villanova University College of Nursing is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center's Commission on Accreditation. ACTIVITY OBJECTIVES 1. Review the findings from this study that examined the extent to which fatigue mediates the relationship between insomnia and physical, social, and psychological domains of functional status in community-dwelling older adults. 2. Relate the study findings to implications for nursing practice and/or research. DISCLOSURE STATEMENT Neither the planners nor the authors have any conflicts of interest to disclose. This secondary data analysis examined the extent to which fatigue mediates the relationship between insomnia and the physical, social, and psychological domains of functional status in community-dwelling older adults. Data were obtained from 209 older adults with insomnia. Regression analysis was used to test the proposed mediating role of fatigue. Findings identified insomnia of moderate severity in community-dwelling older adults. Insomnia was directly associated with social function and indirectly associated with physical and psychological function. Fatigue mediated the relationship between insomnia and all three domains of functional status. The findings have implications for nursing practice and research and highlight the importance of successfully managing insomnia and fatigue to promote functioning in older adults. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 39(10), 22-30.]. PMID:24015883

Deratnay, Penney; Sidani, Souraya

2013-09-04

405

The Folk High School: Denmark's Contribution to Adult Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides an historical record of the folk high school as a liberal educational philosophy since the mid-nineteenth century. The social and political setting in which the Danish folk high school began, along with a biographical sketch of its founder, N. F. S. Grundtvig (1783-1872), are reviewed within the first eight pages. The folk high

Orsak, Charles G., Jr.

406

The Effectiveness of Community-Based Occupational Therapy Education and Functional Training Programs for Older Adults: A Critical Literature Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Results of a literature review describing the provision of education and occupational therapy training programs for older adults indicate that programs are effective in three areas: prevention of functional decline and falls, stroke, and rheumatoid arthritis. (Contains 37 references.) (JOW)|

Wilkins, Seanne; Jung, Bonny; Wishart, Laurie; Edwards, Mary; Norton, Shelley Gamble

2003-01-01

407

Neurocognitive and Family Functioning and Quality of Life Among Young Adult Survivors of Childhood Brain Tumors  

PubMed Central

Many childhood brain tumor survivors experience significant neurocognitive late effects across multiple domains that negatively affect quality of life. A theoretical model of survivorship suggests that family functioning and survivor neurocognitive functioning interact to affect survivor and family outcomes. This paper reviews the types of neurocognitive late effects experienced by survivors of pediatric brain tumors. Quantitative and qualitative data from three case reports of young adult survivors and their mothers are analyzed according to the theoretical model and presented in this paper to illustrate the importance of key factors presented in the model. The influence of age at brain tumor diagnosis, family functioning, and family adaptation to illness on survivor quality of life and family outcomes are highlighted. Future directions for research and clinical care for this vulnerable group of survivors are discussed.

Hocking, Matthew C.; Hobbie, Wendy L.; Deatrick, Janet A.; Lucas, Matthew S.; Szabo, Margo M.; Volpe, Ellen M.; Barakat, Lamia P.

2012-01-01

408

Functional colonic obstruction in an adult as a presenting feature of thymoma.  

PubMed

Functional colonic obstruction is a colonic motility disorder with a number of causes. One cause is myenteric ganglionitis, which may result from paraneoplastic processes. We present the case of a previously healthy 53-year-old man who presented with a week's history of functional colonic obstruction. A transverse loop colostomy failed to resolve his symptoms and he subsequently underwent an extended right hemicolectomy. Histology demonstrated lymphocytic myenteric ganglionitis that was felt to be of paraneoplastic origin. The patient later developed bilateral ptosis and was diagnosed with ocular myasthenia gravis. Further investigation revealed the presence of a thymoma that was resected, resulting in an improvement to his symptoms. We present this case and a review of the literature to illustrate the importance of seeking out a paraneoplastic cause for functional colonic obstruction in adults as early resection of the tumour may help alleviate symptoms and avoid bowel surgery. PMID:21929885

Malhotra, K; Georgiades, I B; Davies, J

2011-09-01

409

Tolerance of pupae and pharate adults of Callosobruchus subinnotatus Pic (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) to modified atmospheres: a function of metabolic rate.  

PubMed

Three developmental stages (pupae, early pharate and late pharate adults) of Callosobruchus subinnotatus (Pic.) were investigated for their tolerance or susceptibility to four modified atmospheres. Two of these atmospheres were hypercarbic and two were hypoxic. The hypercarbic atmospheres were found to cause mortality earlier than hypoxic atmospheres. Late pharate adults died earlier than pupae or early pharate adults. Late pharate adults that survived the exposure took a longer time to eclose than the pupae or early pharate adult.Using high resolution microrespirometric techniques, it was possible to record the oxygen consumption rate and CO(2) output of different developmental stages in air. The metabolic rate was determined manometrically as the oxygen uptake rate at an ambient temperature of 25 degrees C. The oxygen uptake rate differed significantly between groups of 20 individuals of different stages (p<0.01; t-test). The lowest rate of oxygen uptake (510.6+/-52.2 &mgr;l g(-1) h(-1)) was recorded in pupae. Higher oxygen uptake rates were found in early pharate adults (668.4+/-45.6 &mgr;l g(-1) h(-1)) and late pharate adults (1171.2+/-45.0 &mgr;l g(-1) h(-1)), and adult beetles (1310.4+/-53.4 &mgr;l g(-1) h(-1)). The patterns of CO(2) release were similar to those of oxygen uptake. CO(2) release was highest in eclosed adults and late pharate adults followed by early pharate adults, and lowest in pupae. The mode of CO(2) release ranged from continuous CO(2) release in pupae to discontinuous CO(2) release in late pharate and eclosed adults. Thus, high metabolic rates, and perhaps, in conjunction with discontinuous CO(2) of late pharate adults are responsible for their higher susceptibility to modified atmospheres than pupae and early pharate adults. PMID:12770246

Mbata, G N.; Hetz, S K.; Reichmuth, C; Adler, C

2000-02-01

410

Measures of Submaximal Aerobic Performance Evaluate and Predict Functional Response to Growth Hormone (GH) Treatment in GH-Deficient Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of GH on functional performance in GH-deficient adults is not well understood. To investigate the effects of GH on skeletal muscle, physical, and functional capacity, we randomized 28 GH- deficient adults to receive 3 months of recombinant human GH (rhGH: somatotropin, 6.25 mg\\/kg lean body mass (LBM) for 1 month, 12.5 mg\\/kg LBM thereafter) in a double-blind placebo-controlled

LINDA J. WOODHOUSE; SYLVIA L. ASA; SCOTT G. THOMAS; SHEREEN EZZAT

2010-01-01

411

[The neuroanatomy of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults: structural and functional neuroimaging findings].  

PubMed

The objective of this work is to review the existing literature on findings from structural and functional magnetic resonance and connectivity. For a long time it was thought that children 'grew out' of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on reaching adolescence. Yet, it is now known that up to 70% of children who present ADHD in childhood go on to present symptoms in the behavioural and cognitive sphere in adulthood. Neuroimaging studies conducted in adults with ADHD have shown alterations in the brain at the structural and functional levels, and also in terms of connectivity. These findings have been observed mainly in the inferior frontal and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, as well as in striatal, anterior cingulate, parietotemporal and cerebellar regions. However, certain inconsistencies have also been found, which may be related with the presence of comorbidity, a history of medication, gender-related differences and the small size of the sample used in some studies. Differences have also been noted in relation to studies carried out in children with ADHD. Hence the importance for future studies of avoiding the existence of variables that can affect the findings in ADHD in adults and, moreover, of being able to determine whether the anatomical and functional deficits continue into adulthood. PMID:23446729

Ramos-Quiroga, Josep Antoni; Picado, Marisol; Mallorquí-Bagué, Nuria; Vilarroya, Oscar; Palomar, Gloria; Richarte, Vanesa; Vidal, Raquel; Casas, Miguel

2013-02-22

412

Antenatal Maternal Stress Alters Functional Brain Responses In Adult Offspring During Conditioned Fear  

PubMed Central

Antenatal maternal stress has been shown in rodent models and in humans to result in altered behavioral and neuroendocrine responses, yet little is known about its effects on functional brain activation. Pregnant female rats received a daily foot-shock stress or sham-stress two days after testing plug-positive and continuing for the duration of their pregnancy. Adult male offspring (age 14 weeks) with and without prior maternal stress (MS) were exposed to an auditory fear conditioning (CF) paradigm. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was assessed during recall of the tone cue in the nonsedated, nontethered animal using the 14C-iodoantipyrine method, in which the tracer was administered intravenously by remote activation of an implantable minipump. Regional CBF distribution was examined by autoradiography and analyzed by statistical parametric mapping in the three-dimensionally reconstructed brains. Presence of fear memory was confirmed by behavioral immobility (‘freezing’). Corticosterone plasma levels during the CF paradigm were measured by ELISA in a separate group of rats. Antenatal MS exposure altered functional brain responses to the fear conditioned cue in adult offspring. Rats with prior MS exposure compared to those without demonstrated heightened fear responsivity, exaggerated and prolonged corticosterone release, increased functional cerebral activation of limbic/paralimbic regions (amygdala, ventral hippocampus, insula, ventral striatum, nucleus acumbens), the locus coeruleus, and white matter, and deactivation of medial prefrontal cortical regions. Dysregulation of corticolimbic circuits may represent risk factors in the future development of anxiety disorders and associated alterations in emotional regulation.

Sadler, Theodore R.; Nguyen, Peter T.; Yang, Jun; Givrad, Tina K.; Mayer, Emeran A.; Maarek, Jean-Michel I.; Hinton, David R.; Holschneider, Daniel P.

2011-01-01

413

Antenatal maternal stress alters functional brain responses in adult offspring during conditioned fear.  

PubMed

Antenatal maternal stress has been shown in rodent models and in humans to result in altered behavioral and neuroendocrine responses, yet little is known about its effects on functional brain activation. Pregnant female rats received a daily foot-shock stress or sham-stress two days after testing plug-positive and continuing for the duration of their pregnancy. Adult male offspring (age 14 weeks) with and without prior maternal stress (MS) were exposed to an auditory fear conditioning (CF) paradigm. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was assessed during recall of the tone cue in the nonsedated, nontethered animal using the ((14))C-iodoantipyrine method, in which the tracer was administered intravenously by remote activation of an implantable minipump. Regional CBF distribution was examined by autoradiography and analyzed by statistical parametric mapping in the three-dimensionally reconstructed brains. Presence of fear memory was confirmed by behavioral immobility ("freezing"). Corticosterone plasma levels during the CF paradigm were measured by ELISA in a separate group of rats. Antenatal MS exposure altered functional brain responses to the fear conditioned cue in adult offspring. Rats with prior MS exposure compared to those without demonstrated heightened fear responsivity, exaggerated and prolonged corticosterone release, increased functional cerebral activation of limbic/paralimbic regions (amygdala, ventral hippocampus, insula, ventral striatum, and nucleus accumbens), the locus coeruleus, and white matter, and deactivation of medial prefrontal cortical regions. Dysregulation of corticolimbic circuits may represent risk factors in the future development of anxiety disorders and associated alterations in emotional regulation. PMID:21300034

Sadler, Theodore R; Nguyen, Peter T; Yang, Jun; Givrad, Tina K; Mayer, Emeran A; Maarek, Jean-Michel I; Hinton, David R; Holschneider, Daniel P

2011-04-18

414

Late life anxiety is associated with decreased memory and executive functioning in community dwelling older adults.  

PubMed

This study assessed the degree to which anxiety and depression symptoms are associated with memory and executive functioning among community-dwelling older adults (N=120; M age=74.9 years, SD=7.2 years; 62% women). Participants completed the Geriatric Anxiety Scale, Geriatric Depression Scale, Comorbidity Index, California Verbal Learning Test, Second Edition (CVLT-II), and the Trail Making, Verbal Fluency, and 20 Questions subtests of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS). Multiple regression analyses indicated that anxiety and depression predicted poorer ability to learn new information (CVLT-II, Trials 1-5). Both anxiety and depression predicted performance on the D-KEFS Trail Making test, Number-Letter Switching condition. Anxiety, but not depression, predicted decreased categorization as measured by the D-KEFS 20 Questions, Initial Abstraction Score. Depression but not anxiety, predicted performance on D-KEFS Letter Fluency and Category Fluency. Findings suggest that anxiety and depression have unique relationships with cognitive functioning in community-dwelling older adults. PMID:23298889

Yochim, Brian P; Mueller, Anne E; Segal, Daniel L

2012-11-06

415

Notch2 is required for maintaining sustentacular cell function in the adult mouse main olfactory epithelium.  

PubMed

Notch receptors are expressed in neurons and glia in the adult nervous system, but why this expression persists is not well-understood. Here we examine the role of the Notch pathway in the postnatal mouse main olfactory system, and show evidence consistent with a model where Notch2 is required for maintaining sustentacular cell function. In the absence of Notch2, the laminar nature of these glial-like cells is disrupted. Hes1, Hey1, and Six1, which are downstream effectors of the Notch pathway, are down-regulated, and cytochrome P450 and Glutathione S-transferase (GST) expression by sustentacular cells is reduced. Functional levels of GST activity are also reduced. These disruptions are associated with increased olfactory sensory neuron degeneration. Surprisingly, expression of Notch3 is also down-regulated. This suggests the existence of a feedback loop where expression of Notch3 is initially independent of Notch2, but requires Notch2 for maintained expression. While the Notch pathway has previously been shown to be important for promoting gliogenesis during development, this is the first demonstration that the persistent expression of Notch receptors is required for maintaining glial function in adult. PMID:18155189

Rodriguez, Steve; Sickles, Heather M; Deleonardis, Chris; Alcaraz, Ana; Gridley, Thomas; Lin, David M

2007-11-28

416

Neutrophil function and cortisol:DHEAS ratio in bereaved older adults.  

PubMed

Bereavement is a common life event for older adults and is associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality, though the underlying reasons for this link are poorly understood. Although physical and emotional stressors and ageing are known to suppress immunity, few studies have explored the impact of bereavement upon immunity in the older population. We therefore hypothesised that the emotional stress of bereavement would suppress immune function, specifically neutrophil bactericidal activity, in older adults. A between-subjects design was used to examine the effect of recent bereavement (<2 months) on neutrophil function in elders. Participants were 24 bereaved and 24 age- and sex-matched non-bereaved controls all aged 65+ years. Neutrophil phagocytosis of Escherichia coli (E. coli) and stimulated superoxide production were assessed. Cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate (DHEAS) levels were determined in serum to assess potential mechanisms. Depressive and anxiety symptoms were measured by questionnaire. Neutrophil superoxide production was significantly reduced among the bereaved when challenged with E. coli (p=0.05), or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (p=0.009). Further, the bereaved group had a significantly higher cortisol:DHEAS ratio compared to controls (p=0.03). There was no difference in neutrophil phagocytosis between the two groups. The psychological questionnaire results showed that the bereaved had significantly greater depressive and anxiety symptoms than the non-bereaved. The emotional stress of bereavement is associated with suppressed neutrophil superoxide production and with a raised cortisol:DHEAS ratio. The stress of bereavement exaggerates the age-related decline in HPA axis and combines with immune ageing to further suppress immune function, which may help to the explain increased risk of infection in bereaved older adults. PMID:21420485

Khanfer, Riyad; Lord, Janet M; Phillips, Anna C

2011-03-21

417

High-Frequency Oscillatory Ventilation for Adult Patients With ARDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) is characterized by the rapid delivery of small tidal volumes (VTs) of gas and the application of high mean airway pressures (mPaws). These characteristics make HFOV conceptually attractive as an ideal lung-protective ventilatory mode for the management of ARDS, as the high mPaws prevent cyclical derecruitment of the lung and the small VTs limit alveolar overdistension.

K. P. W. Chan; T. E. Stewart; S. Mehta

2007-01-01

418

Physical capacity and functional abilities improve in young adults with intellectual disabilities after functional training.  

PubMed

Individuals with an intellectual disability (ID) have higher rates of obesity, lower rates of physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and muscular endurance than do typically developed individuals (TDI) and are twice as likely to develop chronic disease, living half as long as TDIs do. The purpose of this study was to examine the improvements in physical capacity and functional ability in Special Olympic Athletes (SOAs) aged 19-22 years after participating in a functional training (FT) program and compare these scores with those of the SOAs in a resistance weight training (WT) program. Twenty SOAs (13 men, 7 women with mild to moderate ID) participated in a 1-hour FT program, twice a week, for 10 weeks, compared with 22 same-aged SOAs (14 men, 8 women) participating in a 1-hour WT program (2× week for 8 weeks). Prefitness and postfitness tests consisting of heart rate (HR) for the 3-minute step test, static plank, body weight squats, static bar hang, and knee push-ups were conducted. Two-tailed, paired sample t-tests (p < 0.05) were used to evaluate the differences in the FT group. Change scores were used to compare FTG with the WT group. The HR decreased by 31.8 b·min?¹ pre-post in the FTG (p < 0.001). Static plank duration improved by 22.4 seconds in the FTG (p = 0.016); static plank change scores improved (p = 0.037) for the FTG (26.5 ± 32.1 seconds compared with that for the WT group (4.6 ± 22 seconds). Height and weight values were unchanged in both the groups. The results of this study demonstrate the value of FT programs for this population, because weight equipment is not always available in many settings. PMID:21912297

Barwick, Ryan B; Tillman, Mark D; Stopka, Christine B; Dipnarine, Krishna; Delisle, Anthony; Sayedul Huq, Mona

2012-06-01

419

Systemic Inflammation in Young Adults Is Associated with Abnormal Lung Function in Middle Age  

PubMed Central

Background Systemic inflammation is associated with reduced lung function in both healthy individuals and those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Whether systemic inflammation in healthy young adults is associated with future impairment in lung health is uncertain. Methodology/Principal Findings We evaluated the association between plasma fibrinogen and C-reactive protein (CRP) in young adults and lung function in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults cohort study. Higher year 7 fibrinogen was associated with greater loss of forced vital capacity (FVC) between years 5 and 20 (439 mL in quartile 4 vs. 398 mL in quartile 1, P<0.001) and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) (487 mL in quartile 4 vs. 446 mL in quartile 1, P<0.001) independent of cigarette smoking, body habitus, baseline lung function and demographic factors. Higher year 7 CRP was also associated with both greater loss of FVC (455 mL in quartile 4 vs. 390 mL in quartile 1, P<0.001) and FEV1 (491 mL in quartile 4 vs. 442 mL in quartile 1, P?=?0.001). Higher year 7 fibrinogen and CRP were associated with abnormal FVC at year 20 (odds ratio (OR) per standard deviation 1.51 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.30–1.75) for fibrinogen and 1.35 (95% CI: 1.14–1.59) for CRP). Higher year 5 fibrinogen was additionally associated with abnormal FEV1. A positive interaction was observed between pack-years cigarette smoking and year 7 CRP for the COPD endpoint, and among participants with greater than 10 pack-years of cigarette exposure, year 7 CRP was associated with greater odds of COPD at year 20 (OR per standard deviation 1.53 (95% CI: 1.08–2.16). Conclusion/Significance Systemic inflammation in young adults is associated with abnormal lung function in middle age. In particular, elevated CRP may identify vulnerability to COPD among individuals who smoke. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00005130

Kalhan, Ravi; Tran, Betty T.; Colangelo, Laura A.; Rosenberg, Sharon R.; Liu, Kiang; Thyagarajan, Bharat; Jacobs, David R.; Smith, Lewis J.

2010-01-01

420

Use of the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) for Children with High Functioning Autism or Asperger Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The authors of the "Childhood Autism Rating Scale" (CARS) state in the manual that the best cutoff score for distinguishing low functioning autism (LFA) from intellectual disability is 30 for children and 28 for adolescents and adults. This study determined that a cutoff score of 25.5 was most accurate in differentiating between high functioning

Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Murray, Michael J.; Morrow, Jill D.; Yurich, Kirsten K. L.; Cothren, Shiyoko; Purichia, Heather; Mahr, Fauzia; Bouder, James N.; Petersen, Christopher

2012-01-01

421

Functional MRI of cerebellar activity during eyeblink classical conditioning in children and adults.  

PubMed

This study characterized human cerebellar activity during eyeblink classical conditioning (EBC) in children and adults using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). During fMRI, participants were administered delay conditioning trials, in which the conditioned stimulus (a tone) precedes, overlaps, and coterminates with the unconditioned stimulus (a corneal airpuff). Behavioral eyeblink responses and brain activation were measured concurrently during two phases: pseudoconditioning, involving presentations of tone alone and airpuff alone, and conditioning, during which the tone and airpuff were paired. Although all participants demonstrated significant conditioning, the adults produced more conditioned responses (CRs) than the children. When brain activations during pseudoconditioning were subtracted from those elicited during conditioning, significant activity was distributed throughout the cerebellar cortex (Crus I-II, lateral lobules IV-IX, and vermis IV-VI) in all participants, suggesting multiple sites of associative learning-related plasticity. Despite their less optimal behavioral performance, the children showed greater responding in the pons, lateral lobules VIII, IX, and Crus I, and vermis VI, suggesting that they may require greater activation and/or the recruitment of supplementary structures to achieve successful conditioning. Correlation analyses relating brain activations to behavioral CRs showed a positive association of activity in cerebellar deep nuclei (including dentate, fastigial, and interposed nuclei) and vermis VI with CRs in the children. This is the first study to compare cerebellar cortical and deep nuclei activations in children versus adults during EBC. Hum Brain Mapp, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23674498

Cheng, Dominic T; Meintjes, Ernesta M; Stanton, Mark E; Desmond, John E; Pienaar, Mariska; Dodge, Neil C; Power, John M; Molteno, Christopher D; Disterhoft, John F; Jacobson, Joseph L; Jacobson, Sandra W

2013-05-14

422

Hoxb13 knockout adult skin exhibits high levels of hyaluronan and enhanced wound healing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In contrast to adult cutaneous wound repair, early gestational fetal cutaneous wounds heal by a process of regeneration, resulting in little or no scarring. Previous studies indicate that down- regulation of HoxB13, a member of the highly conserved family of Hox transcription factors, occurs during fetal scarless wound healing. No down-regulation was noted in adult wounds. Here, we evaluate healing

Judith A. Mack; Susan R. Abramson; Yixen Ben; Jerusha C. Coffin; James K. Rothrock;