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Sample records for high functioning adults

  1. Executive Function Impairments in High IQ Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Thomas E.; Reichel, Philipp C.; Quinlan, Donald M.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To demonstrate that high IQ adults diagnosed with ADHD suffer from executive function (EF) impairments that: a) can be identified with a combination of standardized measures and self-report data; and b) occur more commonly in this group than in the general population. Method: 157 ADHD adults with IQ greater than or equal to 120 were…

  2. Attachment in adults with high-functioning autism.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Emma L; Target, Mary; Charman, Tony

    2008-06-01

    This study assessed attachment security in adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders, using the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI; George, Kaplan, & Main, 1996). Of 20 participants, three were classified as securely attached, the same proportion as would be expected in a general clinical sample. Participants' AAIs were less coherent and lower in reflective function than those of controls, who were matched for attachment status and mood disorder. A parallel interview suggested that some aspects of participants' responses were influenced by their general discourse style, while other AAI scale scores appeared to reflect their state of mind with respect to attachment more specifically. There was little evidence that attachment security was related to IQ, autistic symptomatology or theory of mind. This study suggests that adults with autism can engage with the AAI and produce scoreable narratives of their attachment experiences, and a minority demonstrate secure attachment. PMID:18773316

  3. Parents' Criticisms and Attributions about Their Adult Children with High Functioning Autism or Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Stephanie; Weisman de Mamani, Amy; Mundy, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the criticism component of expressed emotion (EE) and attributions in parents of adults diagnosed with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder (S/SA) or high functioning autism/Asperger's. Consistent with study hypotheses, parents of adults diagnosed with autism/Asperger's disorder exhibited lower levels of high

  4. Theory of Mind and Central Coherence in Adults with High-Functioning Autism or Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaumont, Renae; Newcombe, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The study investigated theory of mind and central coherence abilities in adults with high-functioning autism (HFA) or Asperger syndrome (AS) using naturalistic tasks. Twenty adults with HFA/AS correctly answered significantly fewer theory of mind questions than 20 controls on a forced-choice response task. On a narrative task, there were no…

  5. Face Configuration Accuracy and Processing Speed among Adults with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faja, Susan; Webb, Sara Jane; Merkle, Kristen; Aylward, Elizabeth; Dawson, Geraldine

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigates the accuracy and speed of face processing employed by high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Two behavioral experiments measured sensitivity to distances between features and face recognition when performance depended on holistic versus featural information. Results suggest adults with ASD…

  6. Brain Mapping of Language and Auditory Perception in High-Functioning Autistic Adults: A PET Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, R-A.; Behen, M. E.; Rothermel, R. D.; Chugani, D. C.; Muzik, O.; Mangner, T. J.; Chugani, H. T.

    1999-01-01

    A study used positron emission tomography (PET) to study patterns of brain activation during auditory processing in five high-functioning adults with autism. Results found that participants showed reversed hemispheric dominance during the verbal auditory stimulation and reduced activation of the auditory cortex and cerebellum. (CR)

  7. Perception of Talker Age by Young Adults with High-Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clopper, Cynthia G.; Rohrbeck, Kristin L.; Wagner, Laura

    2013-01-01

    People with high-functioning Autism (HFA) can accurately identify social categories from speech, but they have more difficulty connecting linguistic variation in the speech signal to social stereotypes associated with those categories. In the current study, the perception and evaluation of talker age by young adults with HFA was examined. The…

  8. The Modality Shift Experiment in Adults and Children with High Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Diane L.; Goldstein, Gerald; Minshew, Nancy J.

    2013-01-01

    This study used the modality shift experiment, a relatively simple reaction time measure to visual and auditory stimuli, to examine attentional shifting within and across modalities in 33 children and 42 adults with high-functioning autism as compared to matched numbers of age- and ability-matched typical controls. An exaggerated "modality shift…

  9. Atypical Visual Orienting to Gaze- and Arrow-Cues in Adults with High Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlamings, Petra H. J. M.; Stauder, Johannes E. A.; van Son, Ilona A. M.; Mottron, Laurent

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigates visual orienting to directional cues (arrow or eyes) in adults with high functioning autism (n = 19) and age matched controls (n = 19). A choice reaction time paradigm is used in which eye-or arrow direction correctly (congruent) or incorrectly (incongruent) cues target location. In typically developing participants,…

  10. How Stimulus and Task Complexity Affect Monitoring in High-Functioning Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koolen, Sophieke; Vissers, Constance Th. W. M.; Egger, Jos I. M.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined whether individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are able to update and monitor working memory representations of visual input, and whether performance is influenced by stimulus and task complexity. 15 high-functioning adults with ASD and 15 controls were asked to allocate either elements of abstract figures or…

  11. Binding of Multiple Features in Memory by High-Functioning Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowler, Dermot M.; Gaigg, Sebastian B.; Gardiner, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Diminished episodic memory and diminished use of semantic information to aid recall by individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are both thought to result from diminished relational binding of elements of complex stimuli. To test this hypothesis, we asked high-functioning adults with ASD and typical comparison participants to study grids in…

  12. Pragmatic Inferences in High-Functioning Adults with Autism and Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pijnacker, Judith; Hagoort, Peter; Buitelaar, Jan; Teunisse, Jan-Pieter; Geurts, Bart

    2009-01-01

    Although people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often have severe problems with pragmatic aspects of language, little is known about their pragmatic reasoning. We carried out a behavioral study on high-functioning adults with autistic disorder (n = 11) and Asperger syndrome (n = 17) and matched controls (n = 28) to investigate whether they…

  13. Virtual Reality Social Cognition Training for Young Adults with High-Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandalaft, Michelle R.; Didehbani, Nyaz; Krawczyk, Daniel C.; Allen, Tandra T.; Chapman, Sandra B.

    2013-01-01

    Few evidence-based social interventions exist for young adults with high-functioning autism, many of whom encounter significant challenges during the transition into adulthood. The current study investigated the feasibility of an engaging Virtual Reality Social Cognition Training intervention focused on enhancing social skills, social cognition,…

  14. Sexual Behavior in High-Functioning Male Adolescents and Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellemans, Hans; Colson, Kathy; Verbraeken, Christine; Vermeiren, Robert; Deboutte, Dirk

    2007-01-01

    Group home caregivers of 24 institutionalized, male, high-functioning adolescents and young adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder, were interviewed with the Interview Sexuality Autism. Most subjects were reported to express sexual interest and to display some kind of sexual behavior. Knowledge of socio-sexual skills existed, but practical use was…

  15. Employment activities and experiences of adults with high-functioning autism and Asperger’s Disorder.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Susanna; Costley, Debra; Warren, Anthony

    2014-10-01

    There is limited large-scale empirical research into the working lives of adults who have an autism spectrum disorder with no co-occurring intellectual disability. Drawing on data from a national survey, this report describes the employment activities and experiences of 130 adults with Asperger's Disorder (AD) and high functioning autism (HFA) in Australia. Outcome measures include current occupation; occupational skill level and alignment with educational attainment; type of job contract; hours of work; support received to find work; support received in the workplace; and positive and negative experiences of employment. The findings confirm and expand upon existing evidence that adults with AD and HFA, despite their capacity and willingness to work, face significant disadvantages in the labour market and a lack of understanding and support in employment settings. PMID:24715257

  16. Automatic facial responses to affective stimuli in high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Mathersul, Danielle; McDonald, Skye; Rushby, Jacqueline A

    2013-01-17

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate atypical behavioural responses to affective stimuli, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Investigating automatic responses to these stimuli may help elucidate these mechanisms. 18 high-functioning adults with ASDs and 18 typically developing controls viewed 54 extreme pleasant (erotica), extreme unpleasant (mutilations), and non-social neutral images from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS). Two-thirds of images received an acoustic startle probe 3s post-picture onset. Facial electromyography (EMG) activity (orbicularis, zygomaticus, corrugator), skin conductance (SCR) and cardiac responses were recorded. The adults with ASDs demonstrated typical affective startle modulation and automatic facial EMG responses but atypical autonomic (SCRs and cardiac) responses, suggesting a failure to orient to, or a deliberate effort to disconnect from, socially relevant stimuli (erotica, mutilations). These results have implications for neural systems known to underlie affective processes, including the orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala. PMID:23142408

  17. Group social skills interventions for adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Spain, Debbie; Blainey, Sarah H

    2015-10-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are characterised by impairments in communication and social interaction. Social skills interventions have been found to ameliorate socio-communication deficits in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Little is known about the effectiveness of social skills interventions for adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (hf-ASD) - a clinical population who can present with more subtle core deficits, but comparable levels of impairment and secondary difficulties. A systematic review was undertaken to investigate the effectiveness of social skills interventions for adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders. Five studies met the pre-specified review inclusion criteria: two quasi-experimental comparative trials and three single-arm interventions. There was a degree of variation in the structure, duration and content of the social skills interventions delivered, as well as several methodological limitations associated with included studies. Nevertheless, narrative analysis tentatively indicates that group social skills interventions may be effective for enhancing social knowledge and understanding, improving social functioning, reducing loneliness and potentially alleviating co-morbid psychiatric symptoms. PMID:26045543

  18. Employment Activities and Experiences of Adults with High-Functioning Autism and Asperger's Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Susanna; Costley, Debra; Warren, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    There is limited large-scale empirical research into the working lives of adults who have an autism spectrum disorder with no co-occurring intellectual disability. Drawing on data from a national survey, this report describes the employment activities and experiences of 130 adults with Asperger's Disorder (AD) and high functioning autism…

  19. Prosody recognition in adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders: from psychoacoustics to cognition.

    PubMed

    Globerson, Eitan; Amir, Noam; Kishon-Rabin, Liat; Golan, Ofer

    2015-04-01

    Prosody is an important tool of human communication, carrying both affective and pragmatic messages in speech. Prosody recognition relies on processing of acoustic cues, such as the fundamental frequency of the voice signal, and their interpretation according to acquired socioemotional scripts. Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) show deficiencies in affective prosody recognition. These deficiencies have been mostly associated with general difficulties in emotion recognition. The current study explored an additional association between affective prosody recognition in ASD and auditory perceptual abilities. Twenty high-functioning male adults with ASD and 32 typically developing male adults, matched on age and verbal abilities undertook a battery of auditory tasks. These included affective and pragmatic prosody recognition tasks, two psychoacoustic tasks (pitch direction recognition and pitch discrimination), and a facial emotion recognition task, representing nonvocal emotion recognition. Compared with controls, the ASD group demonstrated poorer performance on both vocal and facial emotion recognition, but not on pragmatic prosody recognition or on any of the psychoacoustic tasks. Both groups showed strong associations between psychoacoustic abilities and prosody recognition, both affective and pragmatic, although these were more pronounced in the ASD group. Facial emotion recognition predicted vocal emotion recognition in the ASD group only. These findings suggest that auditory perceptual abilities, alongside general emotion recognition abilities, play a significant role in affective prosody recognition in ASD. PMID:25428545

  20. Cognitive Profiles of Adults with Asperger's Disorder, High-Functioning Autism, and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified Based on the WAIS-III

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanai, Chieko; Tani, Masayuki; Hashimoto, Ryuichiro; Yamada, Takashi; Ota, Haruhisa; Watanabe, Hiromi; Iwanami, Akira; Kato, Nobumasa

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the cognitive profiles of high-functioning Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD) in adults based on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale III (WAIS-III). We examined cognitive profiles of adults with no intellectual disability (IQ greater than 70), and in adults with Asperger's disorder (AS; n = 47), high-functioning autism (HFA;…

  1. Alterations in brain structures underlying language function in young adults at high familial risk for schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Alan N.; Seidman, Larry J.; Jabbar, Gul A.; Mesholam-Gately, Raquelle; Thermenos, Heidi W.; Juelich, Richard; Proal, Ashley C.; Shenton, Martha; Kubicki, Marek; Mathew, Ian; Keshavan, Matcheri; DeLisi, Lynn E.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Neuroanatomical and cognitive alterations typical of schizophrenia (SZ) patients are observed to a lesser extent in their adolescent and adult first-degree relatives, likely reflecting neurodevelopmental abnormalities associated with genetic risk for the illness. The anatomical pathways for language are hypothesized to be abnormal and to underlie the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. Examining non-psychotic relatives at high familial risk (FHR) for schizophrenia may clarify if these deficits represent trait markers associated with genetic vulnerability, rather than specific markers resulting from the pathological process underlying schizophrenia. Methods T1 MRI scans from a 3T Siemens scanner of young adult FHR subjects (N=46) and controls with no family history of illness (i.e. at low genetic risk LRC; N=31) were processed using FreeSurfer 5.0. We explored volumetric and lateralization alterations in regions associated with language processing. An extensive neuropsychological battery of language measures was administered. Results No significant differences were observed between groups on any language measures. Controlling Intracranial volume, significantly smaller center Pars Triangularis (PT) (p<0.01) and right Pars Orbitalis (PO) (p < 0.01) volumes and reversal of the L > R Pars Orbitalis (p < 0.001) lateralization were observed in FHR subjects. In addition, the L Pars Triangularis and R Pars Orbitalis correlated with performance on tests of linguistic function in the FHR group. Conclusions Reduced volume and reversed structural asymmetry in language-related regions hypothesized to be altered in SZ are also found in first degree relatives at FHR, despite normal language performance. To clarify if these findings are endophenotypes for Sz, future studied would need to be performed of ill and well family members no longer within the age range of risk for illness to show these deficits segregate with schizophrenia within families. Moreover, measures of complex language need to be studied to determine if FHR individuals manifest impairments in some aspects of language function. PMID:22892286

  2. The Neuropsychology of Male Adults With High-Functioning Autism or Asperger Syndrome†

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, C Ellie; Happé, Francesca; Wheelwright, Sally J; Ecker, Christine; Lombardo, Michael V; Johnston, Patrick; Daly, Eileen; Murphy, Clodagh M; Spain, Debbie; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Sauter, Disa A; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Murphy, Declan G M

    2014-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is diagnosed on the basis of behavioral symptoms, but cognitive abilities may also be useful in characterizing individuals with ASD. One hundred seventy-eight high-functioning male adults, half with ASD and half without, completed tasks assessing IQ, a broad range of cognitive skills, and autistic and comorbid symptomatology. The aims of the study were, first, to determine whether significant differences existed between cases and controls on cognitive tasks, and whether cognitive profiles, derived using a multivariate classification method with data from multiple cognitive tasks, could distinguish between the two groups. Second, to establish whether cognitive skill level was correlated with degree of autistic symptom severity, and third, whether cognitive skill level was correlated with degree of comorbid psychopathology. Fourth, cognitive characteristics of individuals with Asperger Syndrome (AS) and high-functioning autism (HFA) were compared. After controlling for IQ, ASD and control groups scored significantly differently on tasks of social cognition, motor performance, and executive function (P's < 0.05). To investigate cognitive profiles, 12 variables were entered into a support vector machine (SVM), which achieved good classification accuracy (81%) at a level significantly better than chance (P < 0.0001). After correcting for multiple correlations, there were no significant associations between cognitive performance and severity of either autistic or comorbid symptomatology. There were no significant differences between AS and HFA groups on the cognitive tasks. Cognitive classification models could be a useful aid to the diagnostic process when used in conjunction with other data sources—including clinical history. Autism Res 2014, 7: 568–581. © 2014 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24903974

  3. "Hath Charms to Soothe...": An Exploratory Study of How High-Functioning Adults with ASD Experience Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Rory; Hill, Elizabeth; Heaton, Pam

    2009-01-01

    Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 high-functioning adults on the autism spectrum, in order to examine the nature of their personal experiences of music. Consistent with the literature on typically developing people's engagement with music, the analysis showed that most participants exploit music for a wide range of purposes in the…

  4. The Use of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient in Differentiating High-Functioning Adults with Autism, Adults with Schizophrenia and a Neurotypical Adult Control Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wouters, Saskia G. M.; Spek, Annelies A.

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared 21 high functioning individuals with autism, 21 individuals with schizophrenia and 21 healthy individuals in self-reported features of autism, as measured by the Autism-spectrum Quotient (AQ). The individuals with autism reported impairment on all AQ subscales, compared to the neurotypical group. The schizophrenia group…

  5. Autism and Schizophrenia in High Functioning Adults: Behavioral Differences and Overlap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spek, Annelies A.; Wouters, Saskia G. M.

    2010-01-01

    Several recent studies have demonstrated a genetical overlap between autism and schizophrenia. However, at a behavioral level it remains unclear which features can validly distinguish adults with autism from an adult schizophrenia group. To this end, the present study compared 21 individuals with the autistic disorder and 21 individuals with…

  6. Directed Forgetting in High-Functioning Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Brenda J.; Gardiner, John M.; Bowler, Dermot M.

    2014-01-01

    Rehearsal strategies of adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and demographically matched typically developed (TD) adults were strategically manipulated by cueing participants to either learn, or forget each list word prior to a recognition task. Participants were also asked to distinguish between autonoetic and noetic states of awareness…

  7. Use of Prosody and Information Structure in High Functioning Adults with Autism in Relation to Language Ability

    PubMed Central

    DePape, Anne-Marie R.; Chen, Aoju; Hall, Geoffrey B. C.; Trainor, Laurel J.

    2012-01-01

    Abnormal prosody is a striking feature of the speech of those with Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but previous reports suggest large variability among those with ASD. Here we show that part of this heterogeneity can be explained by level of language functioning. We recorded semi-spontaneous but controlled conversations in adults with and without ASD and measured features related to pitch and duration to determine (1) general use of prosodic features, (2) prosodic use in relation to marking information structure, specifically, the emphasis of new information in a sentence (focus) as opposed to information already given in the conversational context (topic), and (3) the relation between prosodic use and level of language functioning. We found that, compared to typical adults, those with ASD with high language functioning generally used a larger pitch range than controls but did not mark information structure, whereas those with moderate language functioning generally used a smaller pitch range than controls but marked information structure appropriately to a large extent. Both impaired general prosodic use and impaired marking of information structure would be expected to seriously impact social communication and thereby lead to increased difficulty in personal domains, such as making and keeping friendships, and in professional domains, such as competing for employment opportunities. PMID:22470358

  8. The systemizing quotient: an investigation of adults with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism, and normal sex differences.

    PubMed Central

    Baron-Cohen, Simon; Richler, Jennifer; Bisarya, Dheraj; Gurunathan, Nhishanth; Wheelwright, Sally

    2003-01-01

    Systemizing is the drive to analyse systems or construct systems. A recent model of psychological sex differences suggests that this is a major dimension in which the sexes differ, with males being more drawn to systemize than females. Currently, there are no self-report measures to assess this important dimension. A second major dimension of sex differences is empathizing (the drive to identify mental states and respond to these with an appropriate emotion). Previous studies find females score higher on empathy measures. We report a new self-report questionnaire, the Systemizing Quotient (SQ), for use with adults of normal intelligence. It contains 40 systemizing items and 20 control items. On each systemizing item, a person can score 2, 1 or 0, so the SQ has a maximum score of 80 and a minimum of zero. In Study 1, we measured the SQ of n = 278 adults (114 males, 164 females) from a general population, to test for predicted sex differences (male superiority) in systemizing. All subjects were also given the Empathy Quotient (EQ) to test if previous reports of female superiority would be replicated. In Study 2 we employed the SQ and the EQ with n = 47 adults (33 males, 14 females) with Asperger syndrome (AS) or high-functioning autism (HFA), who are predicted to be either normal or superior at systemizing, but impaired at empathizing. Their scores were compared with n = 47 matched adults from the general population in Study 1. In Study 1, as predicted, normal adult males scored significantly higher than females on the SQ and significantly lower on the EQ. In Study 2, again as predicted, adults with AS/HFA scored significantly higher on the SQ than matched controls, and significantly lower on the EQ than matched controls. The SQ reveals both a sex difference in systemizing in the general population and an unusually strong drive to systemize in AS/HFA. These results are discussed in relation to two linked theories: the 'empathizing-systemizing' (E-S) theory of sex differences and the extreme male brain (EMB) theory of autism. PMID:12639333

  9. MMPI-2 Personality Profiles of High-Functioning Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozonoff, Sally; Garcia, Nicanor; Clark, Elaine; Lainhart, Janet E.

    2005-01-01

    The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Second Edition was administered to 20 adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) who fell in the average to above average range of intelligence and 24 age-, intelligence-, and gender-matched college students. Large group differences, with the ASD group scoring higher, were found on the L validity…

  10. Group Social Skills Interventions for Adults with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spain, Debbie; Blainey, Sarah H.

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are characterised by impairments in communication and social interaction. Social skills interventions have been found to ameliorate socio-communication deficits in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Little is known about the effectiveness of social skills interventions for adults with…

  11. Intra-individual lap time variation of the 400-m walk, an early mobility indicator of executive function decline in high-functioning older adults?

    PubMed

    Tian, Qu; Resnick, Susan M; Ferrucci, Luigi; Studenski, Stephanie A

    2015-12-01

    Higher intra-individual lap time variation (LTV) of the 400-m walk is cross-sectionally associated with poorer attention in older adults. Whether higher LTV predicts decline in executive function and whether the relationship is accounted for by slower walking remain unanswered. The main objective of this study was to examine the relationship between baseline LTV and longitudinal change in executive function. We used data from 347 participants aged 60 years and older (50.7 % female) from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Longitudinal assessments of executive function were conducted between 2007 and 2013, including attention (Trails A, Digit Span Forward Test), cognitive flexibility and set shifting (Trails B, Delta TMT: Trials B minus Trials A), visuoperceptual speed (Digit Symbol Substitution Test), and working memory (Digit Span Backward Test). LTV and mean lap time (MLT) were obtained from the 400-m walk test concurrent with the baseline executive function assessment. LTV was computed as variability of lap time across ten 40-m laps based on individual trajectories. A linear mixed-effects model was used to examine LTV in relation to changes in executive function, adjusted for age, sex, education, and MLT. Higher LTV was associated with greater decline in performance on Trails B (??=?4.322, p?function measures (all p?>?0.05). In high-functioning older adults, higher LTV in the 400-m walk predicts executive function decline involving cognitive flexibility and set shifting over a long period of time. High LTV may be an early indicator of executive function decline independent of MLT. PMID:26561401

  12. Normal Visual Acuity and Electrophysiological Contrast Gain in Adults with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Tebartz van Elst, Ludger; Bach, Michael; Blessing, Julia; Riedel, Andreas; Bubl, Emanuel

    2015-01-01

    A common neurodevelopmental disorder, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), is defined by specific patterns in social perception, social competence, communication, highly circumscribed interests, and a strong subjective need for behavioral routines. Furthermore, distinctive features of visual perception, such as markedly reduced eye contact and a tendency to focus more on small, visual items than on holistic perception, have long been recognized as typical ASD characteristics. Recent debate in the scientific community discusses whether the physiology of low-level visual perception might explain such higher visual abnormalities. While reports of this enhanced, “eagle-like” visual acuity contained methodological errors and could not be substantiated, several authors have reported alterations in even earlier stages of visual processing, such as contrast perception and motion perception at the occipital cortex level. Therefore, in this project, we have investigated the electrophysiology of very early visual processing by analyzing the pattern electroretinogram-based contrast gain, the background noise amplitude, and the psychophysical visual acuities of participants with high-functioning ASD and controls with equal education. Based on earlier findings, we hypothesized that alterations in early vision would be present in ASD participants. This study included 33 individuals with ASD (11 female) and 33 control individuals (12 female). The groups were matched in terms of age, gender, and education level. We found no evidence of altered electrophysiological retinal contrast processing or psychophysical measured visual acuities. There appears to be no evidence for abnormalities in retinal visual processing in ASD patients, at least with respect to contrast detection. PMID:26379525

  13. Atypical delayed auditory feedback effect and Lombard effect on speech production in high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Lin, I-Fan; Mochida, Takemi; Asada, Kosuke; Ayaya, Satsuki; Kumagaya, Shin-Ichiro; Kato, Masaharu

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show impaired social interaction and communication, which may be related to their difficulties in speech production. To investigate the mechanisms of atypical speech production in this population, we examined feedback control by delaying the auditory feedback of their own speech, which degraded speech fluency. We also examined feedforward control by adding loud pink noise to the auditory feedback, which led to increased vocal effort in producing speech. The results of Japanese speakers show that, compared with neurotypical (NT) individuals, high-functioning adults with ASD (including Asperger’s disorder, autistic disorder, and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified) were more affected by delayed auditory feedback but less affected by external noise. These findings indicate that, in contrast to NT individuals, those with ASD relied more on feedback control than on feedforward control in speech production, which is consistent with the hypothesis that this population exhibits attenuated Bayesian priors. PMID:26441607

  14. Social Interest in High-Functioning Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher-Watson, Sue; Leekam, Susan R.; Findlay, John M.

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are principally characterized by impairments in social functioning. Experimental investigation often is conducted using methods measuring social attention, social cognition, and social communication. In this study, we instead measured interest in social information, making a distinction between basic-level…

  15. The Influences of Face Inversion and Facial Expression on Sensitivity to Eye Contact in High-Functioning Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vida, Mark D.; Maurer, Daphne; Calder, Andrew J.; Rhodes, Gillian; Walsh, Jennifer A.; Pachai, Matthew V.; Rutherford, M. D.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the influences of face inversion and facial expression on sensitivity to eye contact in high-functioning adults with and without an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants judged the direction of gaze of angry, fearful, and neutral faces. In the typical group only, the range of directions of gaze leading to the perception of eye…

  16. Functional literacy of Young Guyanese Adults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, Zellyne

    2000-05-01

    Functional literacy is interpreted as the ability of the individual to apply skills in reading, writing, calculation and basic problem-solving in those activities in which literacy is required for effective functioning in his/her own group and community. The paper describes the rationale, development and administration of the test used for measuring levels (high, moderate, low) of achievement in functional literacy in three domains (document, prose and quantitative). An assumption of the study was that a high level of functional literacy was required for the individual to function effectively in his/her own group and community. The context of the study is Guyana the most underdeveloped and impoverished country in the English-speaking Caribbean. The subjects are out of school youth in Guyana aged 14-25. Amongst the main findings are: only approximately 11% of the young people show a high level of functional literacy; females tend to have a higher level of functional literacy than males: and most of those at the low level never went beyond primary and low status secondary schools and usually end up unemployed or in semi- or unskilled jobs. Attention is drawn to the difficulty of attracting funding for literacy programmes from international aid agencies, given the inflated adult literacy rate which is reported for Guyana in international statistics. While they credit Guyana with an adult literacy rate of 97.5%, the study suggests that a more realistic figure is in the 70s. The importance of adult and continuing education is underscored in view of the need to help those who are out of school to meet the ever-changing demands of society for improved skills in literacy and numeracy.

  17. A Nationwide Survey on Quality of Life and Associated Factors of Adults with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamio, Yoko; Inada, Naoko; Koyama, Tomonori

    2013-01-01

    The psychosocial outcomes of individuals with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD) appear to be diverse and are often poor relative to their intellectual or language level. To identify predictive variables that are potentially ameliorable by therapeutic intervention, this study investigated self-reported psychosocial quality of life…

  18. Influence of an Early Recovery Telehealth Intervention on Physical Activity and Functioning following Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery (CABS) among Older Adults with High Disease Burden

    PubMed Central

    Barnason, Susan; Zimmerman, Lani; Schulz, Paula; Tu, Chunhao

    2009-01-01

    Background Older adults with poor functioning preoperatively are at risk for delayed recovery and more impaired outcomes following CABS. Purpose To determine if a 6-week early recovery telehealth intervention, designed to improve self-efficacy and management related to symptoms following CABS, was effective in improving outcomes (physical activity, physiological and psychological functioning) for older adults (> 65 years old) with higher disease burden. Design A descriptive, repeated measures experimental design was used. Follow-up data was collected at 3- and 6-weeks and 3-months after CABS. Sample Subjects were drawn from a larger randomized clinical trial (RCT). Parent study subjects who had high disease burden preoperatively [physical component score of <50 on the Medical Outcome Study Short Form 36 (MOS SF-36) and a RISKO score of > 6], were included (N=55); with 23 subjects in the early recovery intervention group and 31 subjects in the usual care group (n=31). Subjects ranged from 65–85 years old (M=71.6 + 5.1). Findings There was a significant main effect by group [F(1,209)=4.66, p<.05), the intervention group had a least square means of 27.9 kcal/kg/day of energy expenditure compared to the usual care group of 26.6 kcal/kg/day per the RT3® accelerometer. Both groups had significantly improved physical [F(2,171)=3.26, p<.05] and role-physical [F(2,171)=6.64, p<.005] functioning over time. Conclusions The subgroup of CABS subjects with high disease burden was responsive to an early recovery telehealth intervention. Improving patients’ physical activity and functioning can reduce morbidity and mortality associated with poor functioning after cardiac events. PMID:19944870

  19. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Adults with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder: What Does Self-Report with the OCI-R Tell Us?

    PubMed

    Cadman, Tim; Spain, Debbie; Johnston, Patrick; Russell, Ailsa; Mataix-Cols, David; Craig, Michael; Deeley, Quinton; Robertson, Dene; Murphy, Clodagh; Gillan, Nicola; Wilson, C Ellie; Mendez, Maria; Ecker, Christine; Daly, Eileen; Findon, James; Glaser, Karen; Happé, Francesca; Murphy, Declan

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about the symptom profile of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in individuals who have autism spectrum disorders (ASD). It is also unknown whether self-report questionnaires are useful in measuring OCD in ASD. We sought to describe the symptom profiles of adults with ASD, OCD, and ASD?+?OCD using the Obsessive Compulsive Inventory-Revised (OCI-R), and to assess the utility of the OCI-R as a screening measure in a high-functioning adult ASD sample. Individuals with ASD (n?=?171), OCD (n?=?108), ASD?+?OCD (n?=?54) and control participants (n?=?92) completed the OCI-R. Individuals with ASD?+?OCD reported significantly higher levels of obsessive-compulsive symptoms than those with ASD alone. OCD symptoms were not significantly correlated with core ASD repetitive behaviors as measured on the ADI-R or ADOS-G. The OCI-R showed good psychometric properties and corresponded well with clinician diagnosis of OCD. Receiver operating characteristic analysis suggested cut-offs for OCI-R Total and Checking scores that discriminated well between ASD?+?versus -OCD, and fairly well between ASD-alone and OCD-alone. OCD manifests separately from ASD and is characterized by a different profile of repetitive thoughts and behaviors. The OCI-R appears to be useful as a screening tool in the ASD adult population. Autism Res 2015, 8: 477-485. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25663563

  20. Functional neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Praag, Henriette; Schinder, Alejandro F.; Christie, Brian R.; Toni, Nicolas; Palmer, Theo D.; Gage, Fred H.

    2002-02-01

    There is extensive evidence indicating that new neurons are generated in the dentate gyrus of the adult mammalian hippocampus, a region of the brain that is important for learning and memory. However, it is not known whether these new neurons become functional, as the methods used to study adult neurogenesis are limited to fixed tissue. We use here a retroviral vector expressing green fluorescent protein that only labels dividing cells, and that can be visualized in live hippocampal slices. We report that newly generated cells in the adult mouse hippocampus have neuronal morphology and can display passive membrane properties, action potentials and functional synaptic inputs similar to those found in mature dentate granule cells. Our findings demonstrate that newly generated cells mature into functional neurons in the adult mammalian brain.

  1. Adult neurogenesis: integrating theories and separating functions

    PubMed Central

    Aimone, James B.; Deng, Wei

    2010-01-01

    The continuous incorporation of new neurons in the dentate gyrus of the adult hippocampus raises exciting questions about memory and learning, and has inspired new computational models to understand the function of adult neurogenesis. These theoretical approaches suggest distinct roles for new neurons as they slowly integrate into the existing dentate gyrus network: immature adult-born neurons appear to function as pattern integrators of temporally adjacent events, thereby enhancing pattern separation for events separated in time; whereas maturing adult-born neurons possibly contribute to pattern separation by being more amenable to learning new information, leading to dedicated groups of granule cells that respond to experienced environments. We review these hypothesized functions and supporting empirical research and point to new directions for future theoretical efforts. PMID:20471301

  2. Social Skills Training for Young Adults with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gantman, Alexander; Kapp, Steven K.; Orenski, Kaely; Laugeson, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the psychosocial difficulties common among young adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), little to no evidence-based social skills interventions exist for this population. Using a randomized controlled trial (RCT) design, the current study tested the effectiveness of an evidence-based, caregiver-assisted social skills intervention…

  3. Correlates of Functional Fitness in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Konopack, James F.; Marquez, David X.; Hu, Liang; Elavsky, Steriani; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2010-01-01

    Background Self-efficacy has been shown to be both an antecedent and determinant of behaviors such as physical activity and may explain variance in the performance of functional tasks among older adults. Purpose The objectives of the current study were: first, to identify potential latent factors of functional fitness (i.e., the ability to perform activities of daily living) among older adults; and second, to determine the extent to which self-efficacy contributed to the variance in functional fitness over and above other known correlates. Methods Older adults (n = 190, M age = 69.4 years) completed a functional fitness test battery, maximal graded exercise test, and demographics and self-efficacy questionnaires. Results Structural equation modeling supported two latent factors of functional fitness representing “Flexibility” and “Physical Power.” Further analyses indicated sex as the sole significant correlate of Flexibility. Greater Physical Power was associated with being male, younger, and having higher self-efficacy. Conclusions These results support the role of self-efficacy as a correlate of performance on functional tasks. Targeting flexibility and physical power to improve functional fitness among older men and women, respectively, warrants examination. PMID:19005931

  4. Spatial navigation impairments among intellectually high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder: exploring relations with theory of mind, episodic memory, and episodic future thinking.

    PubMed

    Lind, Sophie E; Williams, David M; Raber, Jacob; Peel, Anna; Bowler, Dermot M

    2013-11-01

    Research suggests that spatial navigation relies on the same neural network as episodic memory, episodic future thinking, and theory of mind (ToM). Such findings have stimulated theories (e.g., the scene construction and self-projection hypotheses) concerning possible common underlying cognitive capacities. Consistent with such theories, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by concurrent impairments in episodic memory, episodic future thinking, and ToM. However, it is currently unclear whether spatial navigation is also impaired. Hence, ASD provides a test case for the scene construction and self-projection theories. The study of spatial navigation in ASD also provides a test of the extreme male brain theory of ASD, which predicts intact or superior navigation (purportedly a systemizing skill) performance among individuals with ASD. Thus, the aim of the current study was to establish whether spatial navigation in ASD is impaired, intact, or superior. Twenty-seven intellectually high-functioning adults with ASD and 28 sex-, age-, and IQ-matched neurotypical comparison adults completed the memory island virtual navigation task. Tests of episodic memory, episodic future thinking, and ToM were also completed. Participants with ASD showed significantly diminished performance on the memory island task, and performance was positively related to ToM and episodic memory, but not episodic future thinking. These results suggest that (contra the extreme male brain theory) individuals with ASD have impaired survey-based navigation skills--that is, difficulties generating cognitive maps of the environment--and adds weight to the idea that scene construction/self-projection are impaired in ASD. The theoretical and clinical implications of these results are discussed. PMID:24364620

  5. Spatial Navigation Impairments Among Intellectually High-Functioning Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorder: Exploring Relations With Theory of Mind, Episodic Memory, and Episodic Future Thinking

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that spatial navigation relies on the same neural network as episodic memory, episodic future thinking, and theory of mind (ToM). Such findings have stimulated theories (e.g., the scene construction and self-projection hypotheses) concerning possible common underlying cognitive capacities. Consistent with such theories, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by concurrent impairments in episodic memory, episodic future thinking, and ToM. However, it is currently unclear whether spatial navigation is also impaired. Hence, ASD provides a test case for the scene construction and self-projection theories. The study of spatial navigation in ASD also provides a test of the extreme male brain theory of ASD, which predicts intact or superior navigation (purportedly a systemizing skill) performance among individuals with ASD. Thus, the aim of the current study was to establish whether spatial navigation in ASD is impaired, intact, or superior. Twenty-seven intellectually high-functioning adults with ASD and 28 sex-, age-, and IQ-matched neurotypical comparison adults completed the memory island virtual navigation task. Tests of episodic memory, episodic future thinking, and ToM were also completed. Participants with ASD showed significantly diminished performance on the memory island task, and performance was positively related to ToM and episodic memory, but not episodic future thinking. These results suggest that (contra the extreme male brain theory) individuals with ASD have impaired survey-based navigation skills—that is, difficulties generating cognitive maps of the environment—and adds weight to the idea that scene construction/self-projection are impaired in ASD. The theoretical and clinical implications of these results are discussed. PMID:24364620

  6. The effect of semantic and emotional context on written recall for verbal language in high functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Beversdorf, D; Anderson, J; Manning, S; Anderson, S; Nordgren, R; Felopulos, G; Nadeau, S; Heilman, K; Bauman, M

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—Several deficits have been proposed to account for cognitive impairment in autism including an inability to comprehend the perspectives of others ("theory of mind"), an inability to process emotional information, and difficulty drawing together diverse information in context ("central coherence"). Because context (central coherence) and emotion can influence memory, a study was designed to show if autism spectrum disorder was associated with impaired utilisation of context and emotion in recall; and if impairments in theory of mind processing would influence recall in autism spectrum disorder.?METHODS—Ten high functioning subjects with autism spectrum disorder and 13 age and IQ matched controls were tested using recall tests. In the first coherence memory test, subjects listened to a series of word lists that were in varying degrees of syntactic and semantic (coherent) order and were asked to recall the words. In the second coherence memory test, subjects listened to stories consisting of sentences that were, or were not, in logical (coherent) order. In the emotional memory test, the subjects listened to sentences that were highly emotional or non-emotional. In the theory of mind test, the subjects listened to stories requiring varying levels of understanding of the perspectives of others.?RESULTS—There were no significant differences between groups in recall of coherent versus incoherent word lists, nor was there a significant difference between groups in recall of coherent versus incoherent stories. However, the control subjects recalled more of the emotional than non-emotional sentences, whereas the autism spectrum disorder group did not show such a difference. No significant difference existed in recall of stories requiring varying levels of understanding of the perspectives of others among subjects with autism spectrum disorder, and subjects with autism spectrum disorder did not differ from control subjects in the influence of theory of mind content on story recall.?CONCLUSION—The study shows that memory in high functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder is facilitated by emotional content to a lesser degree than it is facilitated by coherence. Therefore, impairments in emotional processing cannot be considered as simply an effect of the "weak central coherence" theory in autism spectrum disorder. Whereas the reasons for this emotional deficit are unknown, evidence of abnormalities of the limbic structures in autism spectrum disorder may provide an anatomical explanation.?? PMID:9810938

  7. Age trajectories of functional activation under conditions of low and high processing demands: an adult lifespan fMRI study of the aging brain.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Kristen M; Rodrigue, Karen M; Bischof, Gérard N; Hebrank, Andrew C; Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia A; Park, Denise C

    2015-01-01

    We examined functional activation across the adult lifespan in 316 healthy adults aged 20-89years on a judgment task that, across conditions, drew upon both semantic knowledge and ability to modulate neural function in response to cognitive challenge. Activation in core regions of the canonical semantic network (e.g., left IFG) were largely age-invariant, consistent with cognitive aging studies that show verbal knowledge is preserved across the lifespan. However, we observed a steady linear increase in activation with age in regions outside the core network, possibly as compensation to maintain function. Under conditions of increased task demands, we observed a stepwise reduction across the lifespan of modulation of activation to increasing task demands in cognitive control regions (frontal, parietal, anterior cingulate), paralleling the neural equivalent of "processing resources" described by cognitive aging theories. Middle-age was characterized by decreased modulation to task-demand in subcortical regions (caudate, nucleus accumbens, thalamus), and very old individuals showed reduced modulation to task difficulty in midbrain/brainstem regions (ventral tegmental, substantia nigra). These novel findings suggest that aging of activation to demand follows a gradient along the dopaminergic/nigrostriatal system, with earliest manifestation in fronto-parietal regions, followed by deficits in subcortical nuclei in middle-age and then to midbrain/brainstem dopaminergic regions in the very old. PMID:25284304

  8. Camp Campus: College Preparation for Adolescents and Young Adults with High-Functioning Autism, Asperger Syndrome, and Other Social Communication Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Retherford, Kristine S.; Schreiber, Linda R.

    2015-01-01

    Camp Campus is a 1-week campus experience for juniors or seniors in high school or high school graduates who are diagnosed with high-functioning autism, Asperger syndrome, or a related social communication disorder and who plan to attend college. Participants experience campus life by partaking of campus services, living and dining on campus,…

  9. Endogenous Spatial Attention: Evidence for Intact Functioning in Adults With Autism

    E-print Network

    Behrmann, Marlene

    Endogenous Spatial Attention: Evidence for Intact Functioning in Adults With Autism Michael A aspect of human cognition, and previous research on spatial attention in individuals with autism spectrum stimulus). We found that high-functioning adults with autism exhibited slower reaction times overall

  10. Health-Related Variables and Functional Fitness among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkin, Linda D.; Haddock, Bryan L.

    2010-01-01

    This study assesses the functional fitness of a convenient sample of older adults (greater than 70 years), to examine correlations between functional fitness and several other health-related variables and to compare with criterion performance data as established by Rikli and Jones (2001). One hundred and seven community-dwelling older adults with…

  11. Relationships with Adult Children: Support Functions and Vulnerabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Jeanne L.; And Others

    The family is the primary source of supportive services to the aged in this country. A study was undertaken to examine two issues related to developmental functions of relationships with adult children: the parent's view of assistance received from adult children, and age differences in those views; and, secondly, the functions of assistance…

  12. Functional Impairment and Occupational Outcome in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gjervan, Bjorn; Torgersen, Terje; Nordahl, Hans M.; Rasmussen, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    Objective: ADHD is associated with poor functional outcomes. The objectives were to investigate the prevalence of functional impairment and occupational status in a clinically referred sample of adults with ADHD and explore factors predicting occupational outcome. Method: A sample of 149 adults with a confirmed diagnosis of ADHD participated in…

  13. Systemic vascular function is associated with muscular power in adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Age-associated loss of muscular strength and muscular power are critical determinants of loss of physical function and progression to disability in older adults. In this study, we examined the association of systemic vascular function and measures of muscle strength and power in older adults. Measu...

  14. Brief Report: Examining Driving Behavior in Young Adults with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders--A Pilot Study Using a Driving Simulation Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reimer, Bryan; Fried, Ronna; Mehler, Bruce; Joshi, Gagan; Bolfek, Anela; Godfrey, Kathryn M.; Zhao, Nan; Goldin, Rachel; Biederman, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Although it is speculated that impairments associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) will adversely affect driving performance, little is known about the actual extent and nature of the presumed deficits. Ten males (18-24 years of age) with a diagnosis of high functioning autism and 10 age matched community controls were recruited for a…

  15. Children's Executive Function and High-Calorie, Low-Nutrient Food Intake: Mediating Effects of Child-Perceived Adult Fast Food Intake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tate, Eleanor B.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Chou, Chih-Ping; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Pentz, Mary Ann; Riggs, Nathaniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study tested the relationships among child executive function (EF), child-perceived parent fast food intake, and child self-reported subsequent consumption of high-calorie, low-nutrient (HCLN) food. Design: One year and 6-month longitudinal observation from a larger randomized controlled trial. Setting. Southern California…

  16. Linked alterations in gray and white matter morphology in adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder: A multimodal brain imaging study

    PubMed Central

    Itahashi, Takashi; Yamada, Takashi; Nakamura, Motoaki; Watanabe, Hiromi; Yamagata, Bun; Jimbo, Daiki; Shioda, Seiji; Kuroda, Miho; Toriizuka, Kazuo; Kato, Nobumasa; Hashimoto, Ryuichiro

    2014-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that a broad range of behavioral anomalies in people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can be linked with morphological and functional alterations in the brain. However, the neuroanatomical underpinnings of ASD have been investigated using either structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and the relationships between abnormalities revealed by these two modalities remain unclear. This study applied a multimodal data-fusion method, known as linked independent component analysis (ICA), to a set of structural MRI and DTI data acquired from 46 adult males with ASD and 46 matched controls in order to elucidate associations between different aspects of atypical neuroanatomy of ASD. Linked ICA identified two composite components that showed significant between-group differences, one of which was significantly correlated with age. In the other component, participants with ASD showed decreased gray matter (GM) volumes in multiple regions, including the bilateral fusiform gyri, bilateral orbitofrontal cortices, and bilateral pre- and post-central gyri. These GM changes were linked with a pattern of decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) in several white matter tracts, such as the bilateral inferior longitudinal fasciculi, bilateral inferior fronto-occipital fasciculi, and bilateral corticospinal tracts. Furthermore, unimodal analysis for DTI data revealed significant reductions of FA along with increased mean diffusivity in those tracts for ASD, providing further evidence of disrupted anatomical connectivity. Taken together, our findings suggest that, in ASD, alterations in different aspects of brain morphology may co-occur in specific brain networks, providing a comprehensive view for understanding the neuroanatomy of this disorder. PMID:25610777

  17. High field functional MRI.

    PubMed

    Di Salle, F; Esposito, F; Elefante, A; Scarabino, T; Volpicelli, A; Cirillo, S; Elefante, R; Seifritz, E

    2003-11-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has become the most widely used approach for studying brain functions in humans. The rapid and widespread diffusion of fMRI has been favoured by the properties this technique presents, and particularly by its sensitivity in analysing brain functional phenomena and by the lack of biological invasiveness, resulting in an unprecedented and unparalleled flexibility of use. These properties of fMRI brought the functional examination of the brain within the reach of the whole neuroscience community and have appreciably stimulated the research on the functional processes of the living brain. Among the main features of fMRI, its spatial and temporal resolution represents clear advantages compared with the other methods of functional neuroimaging. In fact, the high spatial resolution of fMRI permits to produce more precise and better localised information, and its temporal resolution provides the potential of a better understanding of neural dynamics at the level of single functional areas and of the neural constituents of functional patterns. A fundamental possibility of improving spatial and temporal resolution without excessively degrading signal-to-noise ratio consists in the use of high magnetic field intensity fMRI units. Besides, high field units make the use of more demanding fMRI paradigms, like single trial event related studies, much more compatible with the need of a solid statistical evaluation. This has notably promoted the diffusion of high field MRI units for human studies throughout the world, with very high field MRI units, up to 8 T, working in a few research centres, and a larger number of MRI units with field intensity ranging between 3 and 5 T. PMID:14680904

  18. Lung function abnormalities in HIV-infected adults and children.

    PubMed

    Calligaro, Gregory L; Gray, Diane M

    2015-01-01

    Despite the advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART), the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic remains a global health crisis with a high burden of respiratory disease among infected persons. While the early complications of the epidemic were dominated by opportunistic infections, improved survival has led to the emergence of non-infectious conditions that are associated with chronic respiratory symptoms and pulmonary disability. Obstructive ventilatory defects and reduced diffusing capacity are common findings in adults, and the association between HIV and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is increasingly recognized. There is synergism between viral factors, opportunistic infections, conventional influences like tobacco smoke and biomass fuel exposure, and potentially, the immunological effects of ART on the development of HIV-associated chronic obstructive lung disease. Pulmonary function data for HIV-infected infants and children are scarce, but shows that bronchiectasis and obliterative bronchiolitis with severe airflow limitation are major problems, particularly in the developing world. However, studies from these regions are sorely lacking. There is thus a major unmet need to understand the influences of chronic HIV infection on the lung in both adults and children, and to devise strategies to manage and prevent these diseases in HIV-infected individuals. It is important for clinicians working with HIV-infected individuals to have an appreciation of their effects on measurements of lung function. This review therefore summarizes the lung function abnormalities described in HIV-positive adults and children, with an emphasis on obstructive lung disease, and examines potential pathogenic links between HIV and the development of chronic pulmonary disability. PMID:25251876

  19. Upset Stomach (Functional Dyspepsia) in Adults (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... com ©2015 UpToDate ® Print | Back Patient information: Upset stomach (functional dyspepsia) in adults (Beyond the Basics) Author ... term for a condition that causes an upset stomach or pain or discomfort in the upper belly, ...

  20. Executive Function Predicts Artificial Language Learning in Children and Adults

    E-print Network

    Kapa, Leah Lynn

    2013-12-31

    artificial language learning outcomes. After controlling for working memory and English receptive vocabulary, executive function scores positively predicted children's receptive vocabulary performance and adults' ability to produce labels and sentences...

  1. Basal ganglia function, stuttering, sequencing, and repair in adult

    E-print Network

    Jarvis, Erich D.

    Basal ganglia function, stuttering, sequencing, and repair in adult songbirds Lubica Kubikova1 repetition in birds whose song motifs ended with minor repetitions before lesioning. This stuttering singing. The timing of the recovery and stuttering suggest that immature recovering activity

  2. Multiple roads lead to Rome: combined high-intensity aerobic and strength training vs. gross motor activities leads to equivalent improvement in executive functions in a cohort of healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Berryman, Nicolas; Bherer, Louis; Nadeau, Sylvie; Lauzière, Séléna; Lehr, Lora; Bobeuf, Florian; Lussier, Maxime; Kergoat, Marie Jeanne; Vu, Thien Tuong Minh; Bosquet, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    The effects of physical activity on cognition in older adults have been extensively investigated in the last decade. Different interventions such as aerobic, strength, and gross motor training programs have resulted in improvements in cognitive functions. However, the mechanisms underlying the relationship between physical activity and cognition are still poorly understood. Recently, it was shown that acute bouts of exercise resulted in reduced executive control at higher relative exercise intensities. Considering that aging is characterized by a reduction in potential energy ([Formula: see text] max?-?energy cost of walking), which leads to higher relative walking intensity for the same absolute speed, it could be argued that any intervention aimed at reducing the relative intensity of the locomotive task would improve executive control while walking. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of a short-term (8 weeks) high-intensity strength and aerobic training program on executive functions (single and dual task) in a cohort of healthy older adults. Fifty-one participants were included and 47 (age, 70.7?±?5.6) completed the study which compared the effects of three interventions: lower body strength + aerobic training (LBS-A), upper body strength + aerobic training (UBS-A), and gross motor activities (GMA). Training sessions were held 3 times every week. Both physical fitness (aerobic, neuromuscular, and body composition) and cognitive functions (RNG) during a dual task were assessed before and after the intervention. Even though the LBS-A and UBS-A interventions increased potential energy to a higher level (Effect size: LBS-A-moderate, UBS-A-small, GMA-trivial), all groups showed equivalent improvement in cognitive function, with inhibition being more sensitive to the intervention. These findings suggest that different exercise programs targeting physical fitness and/or gross motor skills may lead to equivalent improvement in cognition in healthy older adults. Such results call for further investigation of the multiple physiological pathways by which physical exercise can impact cognition in older adults. PMID:25194940

  3. The Effects of Face Expertise Training on the Behavioral Performance and Brain Activity of Adults with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faja, Susan; Webb, Sara Jane; Jones, Emily; Merkle, Kristen; Kamara, Dana; Bavaro, Joshua; Aylward, Elizabeth; Dawson, Geraldine

    2012-01-01

    The effect of expertise training with faces was studied in adults with ASD who showed initial impairment in face recognition. Participants were randomly assigned to a computerized training program involving either faces or houses. Pre- and post-testing included standardized and experimental measures of behavior and event-related brain potentials…

  4. Time Monitoring and Executive Functioning in Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mantyla, Timo; Carelli, Maria Grazia; Forman, Helen

    2007-01-01

    This study examined time-based prospective memory performance in relation to individual and developmental differences in executive functioning. School-age children and young adults completed six experimental tasks that tapped three basic components of executive functioning: inhibition, updating, and mental shifting. Monitoring performance was…

  5. Neuropsychological Predictors of Everyday Functioning in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, C. Y.; Chen, C. C.; Wuang, Y. P.; Lin, Y. H.; Wu, Y. Y.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Very little is known about the neuropsychological correlates of adaptive functioning in people with intellectual disabilities (ID). This study examined whether specific cognitive deficits and demographic variables predicted everyday functioning in adults with ID. Method: People with ID (n = 101; ages 19-41 years; mean education = 11…

  6. Executive and Visuo-Motor Function in Adolescents and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachse, Michael; Schlitt, Sabine; Hainz, Daniela; Ciaramidaro, Angela; Schirman, Shella; Walter, Henrik; Poustka, Fritz; Bolte, Sven; Freitag, Christine M.

    2013-01-01

    This study broadly examines executive (EF) and visuo-motor function in 30 adolescent and adult individuals with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in comparison to 28 controls matched for age, gender, and IQ. ASD individuals showed impaired spatial working memory, whereas planning, cognitive flexibility, and inhibition were spared.…

  7. Validity and reliability of the Nintendo Wii Balance Board to assess standing balance and sensory integration in highly functional older adults.

    PubMed

    Scaglioni-Solano, Pietro; Aragón-Vargas, Luis F

    2014-06-01

    Standing balance is an important motor task. Postural instability associated with age typically arises from deterioration of peripheral sensory systems. The modified Clinical Test of Sensory Integration for Balance and the Tandem test have been used to screen for balance. Timed tests present some limitations, whereas quantification of the motions of the center of pressure (CoP) with portable and inexpensive equipment may help to improve the sensitivity of these tests and give the possibility of widespread use. This study determines the validity and reliability of the Wii Balance Board (Wii BB) to quantify CoP motions during the mentioned tests. Thirty-seven older adults completed three repetitions of five balance conditions: eyes open, eyes closed, eyes open on a compliant surface, eyes closed on a compliant surface, and tandem stance, all performed on a force plate and a Wii BB simultaneously. Twenty participants repeated the trials for reliability purposes. CoP displacement was the main outcome measure. Regression analysis indicated that the Wii BB has excellent concurrent validity, and Bland-Altman plots showed good agreement between devices with small mean differences and no relationship between the difference and the mean. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) indicated modest-to-excellent test-retest reliability (ICC=0.64-0.85). Standard error of measurement and minimal detectable change were similar for both devices, except the 'eyes closed' condition, with greater standard error of measurement for the Wii BB. In conclusion, the Wii BB is shown to be a valid and reliable method to quantify CoP displacement in older adults. PMID:24445863

  8. Neuropsychological Functioning in Adults with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambery, Fiona Z.; Russell, Ailsa J.; Perry, Katie; Morris, Robin; Murphy, Declan G. M.

    2006-01-01

    There is some consensus in the literature regarding the cognitive profile of people with Asperger syndrome (AS). Findings to date suggest that a proportion of people with AS have higher verbal than performance IQ, a non-verbal learning disability (NVLD) and impairments in some aspects of executive function (EF). However, there are few published…

  9. Effects of long-term methylphenidate treatment in adolescent and adult rats on hippocampal shape, functional connectivity and adult neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    van der Marel, K; Bouet, V; Meerhoff, G F; Freret, T; Boulouard, M; Dauphin, F; Klomp, A; Lucassen, P J; Homberg, J R; Dijkhuizen, R M; Reneman, L

    2015-11-19

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is a widely prescribed stimulant drug for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents. Its use in this age group raises concerns regarding the potential interference with ongoing neurodevelopmental processes. Particularly the hippocampus is a highly plastic brain region that continues to develop postnatally and is involved in cognition and emotional behavior, functions known to be affected by MPH. In this study, we assessed whether hippocampal structure and function were affected by chronic oral MPH treatment and whether its effects were different in adolescent or adult rats. Using behavioral testing, resting-state functional MRI, post-mortem structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and immunohistochemistry, we assessed MPH's effects on recognition memory, depressive-like behavior, topological features of functional connectivity networks, hippocampal shape and markers for hippocampal neurogenesis and proliferation. Object recognition memory was transiently impaired in adolescent treated rats, while in animals treated during adulthood, increased depressive-like behavior was observed. Neurogenesis was increased in adolescent treated rats, whereas cell proliferation was decreased following adult treatment. Adolescent treated rats showed inward shape deformations adjacent to ventral parahippocampal regions known to be involved in recognition memory, whereas such deformations were not observed in adult treated animals. Irrespective of the age of treatment, MPH affected topological features of ventral hippocampal functional networks. Thus, chronic oral treatment with a therapeutically relevant dose of MPH preferentially affected the ventral part of the hippocampus and induced contrasting effects in adolescent and adult rats. The differences in behavior were paralleled by opposite effects on adult neurogenesis and granule cell proliferation. PMID:25934041

  10. Competitive GABA(A) receptor antagonists increase the proportion of functional high-affinity alpha6 subunit-containing receptors in granule cells of adult rat cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Wall, Mark J

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the properties of alpha6 subunit-containing GABA(A) receptors, whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were made from granule cells in adult rat cerebellar slices. In control, only currents evoked by low concentrations of GABA were significantly reduced in amplitude by furosemide, the alpha6 subunit-containing receptor antagonist. However, in the presence of competitive GABA(A) receptor antagonists, the furosemide block of currents evoked by higher GABA concentrations was markedly increased. Zinc, which preferentially blocks alpha6 subunit-containing receptors, also produced an increased block in the presence of bicuculline. To investigate whether similar effects occurred at synaptic receptors, inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) were recorded. In most cells, furosemide produced little or no reduction in evoked IPSC amplitude. However in the presence of SR95531, a competitive antagonist, furosemide markedly reduced IPSC amplitude. One hypothesis, which could account for these observations, is that competitive antagonists prevent the continual activation of alpha6beta2/3gamma2 receptors by endogenous GABA and thus prevent their desensitisation. This hypothesis appears feasible as prolonged applications of low concentrations of GABA to recombinant alpha6beta2gamma2s receptors resulted in their desensitisation. PMID:12559122

  11. Diminished Time-Based, but Undiminished Event-Based, Prospective Memory Among Intellectually High-Functioning Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorder: Relation to Working Memory Ability

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Prospective memory (PM) is the ability to remember to carry out an intended action. Working memory is the ability to store information in mind while processing potentially distracting information. The few previous studies of PM in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have yielded inconsistent findings. Studies of working memory ability in ASD have suggested a selective impairment of “visual working memory.” However, it remains unclear whether any such impairment is the result of diminished (domain-specific; visual/verbal) storage capacity or diminished (domain-general) processing capacity. We aim to clarify these issues and explore the relation between PM and working memory in ASD. Method: Seventeen adults with ASD and 17 age- and IQ-matched comparison participants completed experimental measures of both event-based (perform action x when event y occurs) and time-based (perform action a at time b) PM, plus a self-report measure of PM skills. Participants also completed a working memory test battery. Results: Participants with ASD self-reported diminished PM skill, and showed diminished performance on the time-based, but not event-based, PM task. On the working memory test battery, visual but not verbal storage capacity was diminished among participants with ASD, as was processing ability. Whereas visual storage was associated with event-based PM task performance among comparison participants, verbal storage was associated among ASD participants. Conclusions: ASD appears to involve a selective deficit in time-based PM and a selective difficulty with aspects of working memory that depend on the storage of visual information. However, event-based PM may be achieved through compensatory strategies in ASD. PMID:24128041

  12. Structured exercise in older adults with limited functional ability.

    PubMed

    Fahlman, Mariane M; Topp, Robert; McNevin, Nancy; Morgan, Amy L; Boardley, Debra J

    2007-06-01

    The authors of this study examined the effects of a 16-week exercise program designed to increase aerobic capacity, muscular strength, and muscular endurance in older adults who reported and exhibited limited functional ability. Participants were randomly assigned to either an exercise (n=39) or a control (n=34) group. Dependent variables tested included measures of fitness (aerobic exercise capacity and isokinetic strength testing of the legs and arms) and measures of functional capacity (time to and off the floor, stair test, chair stand, and bicep curl). At the end of the program, there were significant differences between the exercise and control groups in arm strength, chair stand, and biceps curl. The results of this study indicate functionally limited older adults who maintain a structured exercise program for 16 weeks exhibit increased functional ability. PMID:17598625

  13. Regulation and Function of Adult Neurogenesis: From Genes to Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Aimone, James B.; Li, Yan; Lee, Star W.; Clemenson, Gregory D.; Deng, Wei; Gage, Fred H.

    2014-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus is a notable process due not only to its uniqueness and potential impact on cognition but also to its localized vertical integration of different scales of neuroscience, ranging from molecular and cellular biology to behavior. This review summarizes the recent research regarding the process of adult neurogenesis from these different perspectives, with particular emphasis on the differentiation and development of new neurons, the regulation of the process by extrinsic and intrinsic factors, and their ultimate function in the hippocampus circuit. Arising from a local neural stem cell population, new neurons progress through several stages of maturation, ultimately integrating into the adult dentate gyrus network. The increased appreciation of the full neurogenesis process, from genes and cells to behavior and cognition, makes neurogenesis both a unique case study for how scales in neuroscience can link together and suggests neurogenesis as a potential target for therapeutic intervention for a number of disorders. PMID:25287858

  14. Basal ganglia function, stuttering, sequencing, and repair in adult songbirds.

    PubMed

    Kubikova, Lubica; Bosikova, Eva; Cvikova, Martina; Lukacova, Kristina; Scharff, Constance; Jarvis, Erich D

    2014-01-01

    A pallial-basal-ganglia-thalamic-pallial loop in songbirds is involved in vocal motor learning. Damage to its basal ganglia part, Area X, in adult zebra finches has been noted to have no strong effects on song and its function is unclear. Here we report that neurotoxic damage to adult Area X induced changes in singing tempo and global syllable sequencing in all animals, and considerably increased syllable repetition in birds whose song motifs ended with minor repetitions before lesioning. This stuttering-like behavior started at one month, and improved over six months. Unexpectedly, the lesioned region showed considerable recovery, including immigration of newly generated or repaired neurons that became active during singing. The timing of the recovery and stuttering suggest that immature recovering activity of the circuit might be associated with stuttering. These findings indicate that even after juvenile learning is complete, the adult striatum plays a role in higher level organization of learned vocalizations. PMID:25307086

  15. Pulmonary Function in Children and Young Adults With Ataxia Telangiectasia

    PubMed Central

    McGrath-Morrow, Sharon A.; Lederman, Howard M.; Aherrera, Angela D.; Lefton-Greif, Maureen A.; Crawford, Thomas O.; Ryan, Timothy; Wright, Jennifer; Collaco, Joseph M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Pulmonary disease contributes to significant morbidity and mortality in people with ataxia telangiectasia (A-T). To determine the association between age and lung function in children and young adults with A-T and to identify factors associated with decreased lung function, pulmonary function tests were performed in 100 consecutive people with A-T. Methods Children and adults ranging from 6 to 29 years of age and with the diagnosis of A-T were recruited, and underwent pulmonary function tests. Results The mean forced vital capacity % predicted (FVC %) in the population was 56.6 ± 20.0. Males and females between 6 and 10 years of age had similar pulmonary function. Older females were found to have significantly lower FVCs % than both older males (P < 0.02) and younger females (P < 0.001). The use of supplemental gamma globulin was associated with significantly lower FVC %. A modest correlation was found between higher radiation-induced chromosomal breakage and lower FVC % in males. No significant change in FVC % was found in a subset of subjects (n = 25) who underwent pulmonary function testing on two or more occasions over an average of 2 years. Conclusion In children and young adults with A-T, older females and people who required supplemental gamma globulin had significantly lower lung function by cross-sectional analysis. Stable lung function is possible over a 2-year period. Recognition of groups who are at higher risk for lower pulmonary function may help direct care and improve clinical outcomes in people with A-T. PMID:23401357

  16. Risk Factors for Functional Decline in Older Adults with Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Dunlop, Dorothy D.; Semanik, Pamela; Song, Jing; Manheim, Larry M.; Shih, Vivian; Chang, Rowland W.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives. Functional limitation is a major driver of medical costs. This study evaluates the prevalence of functional limitation among adults with arthritis, the frequency of functional decline over two years, and investigates factors amenable to public health intervention that predict functional decline. Methods. Longitudinal data (1998–2000) from a cohort of 5715 adults 65 years or older with arthritis from a national probability sample are analyzed. Function was defined from ability to perform instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) and basic ADL tasks. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) from multiple logistic regression estimated the association between functional decline with comorbid conditions, health behaviors, and economic factors. Results. Overall, 19.7% of this cohort had functional limitation at baseline, including 12.9% with ADL limitations. Over the subsequent two years, function declined in 13.6% of those at risk. Functional decline was most frequent among older women (15.0%) and minorities with arthritis (18.0% Hispanics, 18.7% African Americans). Lack of regular vigorous physical activity (RVPA), the most prevalent risk factor (65%), almost doubled the odds of functional decline (AOR=1.9 95% CI =1.5, 2.4) controlling for all risk factors. If all subjects engaged in RVPA, the expected functional decline could be reduced as much as 36%. Other significant predictors included cognitive impairment, depressive symptoms, diabetes, physical limitations, no alcohol use, stroke, and vision impairment. Conclusions. Lack of RVPA is a potentially modifiable risk factor, which could substantially reduce functional decline and associated health care costs. Prevention/intervention programs should include RVPA, weight maintenance, and medical intervention for health needs. PMID:15818691

  17. Functional disability of adults in Brazil: prevalence and associated factors

    PubMed Central

    de Andrade, Keitty Regina Cordeiro; Silva, Marcus Tolentino; Galvão, Taís Freire; Pereira, Maurício Gomes

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence and factors associated with functional disability in adults in Brazil. METHODS We used information from the health supplement of the National Household Sample Survey in 2008. The dependent variable was the functional disability among adults of 18 to 65 years, measured by the difficulty of walking about 100 meters; independent variables were: health plan membership, region of residence, state of domicile, education level, household income, economic activity, self-perception of health, hospitalization, chronic diseases, age group, sex, and color. We calculated the gross odds ratios (OR), and their respective confidence intervals (95%), and adjusted them for variables of study by ordinal logistic regression, following hierarchical model. Sample weights were considered in all calculations. RESULTS We included 18,745 subjects, 74.0% of whom were women. More than a third of adults reported having functional disability. The disability was significantly higher among men (OR = 1.17; 95%CI 1.09;1.27), people from 35 to 49 years (OR = 1.30; 95%CI 1.17;1.45) and 50 to 65 years (OR = 1.38; 95%CI 1.24;1.54); economically inactive individuals (OR = 2.21; 95%CI 1.65;2.96); adults who reported heart disease (OR = 1.13; 95%CI 1.03;1.24), diabetes mellitus (OR = 1.16; 95%CI 1.05;1.29), arterial systemic hypertension (OR = 1.10; 95%CI 1.02;1.18), and arthritis/rheumatism (OR = 1.24; 95%CI 1.15;1.34); and participants who were admitted in the last 12 months (OR = 2.35; 95%CI 1.73;3.2). CONCLUSIONS Functional disability is common among Brazilian adults. Hospitalization is the most strongly associated factor, followed by economic activity, and chronic diseases. Sex, age, education, and income are also associated. Results indicate specific targets for actions that address the main factors associated with functional disabilities and contribute to the projection of interventions for the improvement of the well-being and promotion of adults’ quality of life.

  18. Processing of Derived Forms in High-Functioning Dyslexics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deacon, S. Helene; Parrila, Rauno; Kirby, John R.

    2006-01-01

    We report on an experiment designed to evaluate processing of derived forms in high-functioning dyslexics, defined as university students with a history of reading difficulties who have age-appropriate reading comprehension skills. We compared high-functioning dyslexics with a group of normal adult readers in their performance on a lexical…

  19. Impact of Interpersonal Trauma on the Social Functioning of Adults With First-Episode Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Stain, Helen J.; Brønnick, Kolbjørn; Hegelstad, Wenche T. V.; Joa, Inge; Johannessen, Jan O.; Langeveld, Johannes; Mawn, Lauren; Larsen, Tor K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Social functioning is an important treatment outcome for psychosis, and yet, we know little about its relationship to trauma despite high rates of trauma in people with psychosis. Childhood trauma is likely to disrupt the acquisition of interpersonal relatedness skills including the desire for affiliation and thus lead to impaired social functioning in adulthood. Aims: We hypothesized that childhood trauma would be a predictor of poor social functioning for adults with psychosis and that further trauma in adulthood would moderate this relationship. Method: A first-episode psychosis sample aged 15–65 years (N = 233) completed measures of social functioning (Lehman’s Quality of Life Interview and Strauss Carpenter Functioning Scale) and trauma (Brief Betrayal Trauma Survey), as well as clinical assessments. Results: Childhood trauma (any type) was associated with poorer premorbid functioning and was experienced by 61% of our sample. There were no associations with clinical symptoms. Interpersonal trauma in childhood was a significant predictor of social functioning satisfaction in adulthood, but this was not the case for interpersonal trauma in adulthood. However, 45% of adults who reported childhood interpersonal trauma also experienced adulthood interpersonal trauma. Conclusion: Our results emphasize the importance of early relationship experience such as interpersonal trauma, on the social functioning of adults with psychosis. We recommend extending our research by examining the impact of interpersonal childhood trauma on occupational functioning in psychosis. PMID:24282322

  20. Competency-Based Adult High School Curriculum Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Elizabeth

    This compilation of program materials serves as an introduction to and overview of Florida's Brevard Community College's (BCC's) Competency-Based Adult High School Completion Project, which was conducted to teach administrators, counselors, and teachers how to organize and implement a competency-based adult education (CBAE) program; to critique…

  1. DISTINCT FUNCTIONS OF SOCIAL SUPPORT AND COGNITIVE FUNCTION AMONG OLDER ADULTS

    PubMed Central

    Sims, Regina C.; Hosey, Megan; Levy, Shellie-Anne; Whitfield, Keith E.; Katzel, Leslie I.; Waldstein, Shari R.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Study Context Social support has been shown to buffer cognitive decline in older adults; however, few studies have examined the association of distinct functions of perceived social support and cognitive function. The current study examined the relations between distinct functions of social support and numerous cognitive domains in older adults. Methods Data were derived from a cross-sectional, correlational study of cardiovascular risk factors, cognitive function, and neuroimaging. The participants were 175 older adults with a mean age of 66.32. A number of neuropsychological tests and the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List were administered. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to determine cross-sectional relations of social support to cognitive function after controlling for age, gender, education, depressive symptomatology, systolic blood pressure, body-mass index, total cholesterol, and fasting glucose. Results No significant positive relations were found between distinct functions of social support and cognitive function in any domain; however, inverse relations emerged such that greater social support across several functions was associated with poorer nonverbal memory and response inhibition. Conclusion Results suggest that the receipt of social support may be a burden for some older adults. Within the current study, fluid cognitive abilities reflected this phenomenon. The mechanism through which social support is associated with poorer cognitive function in some domains deserves further exploration. PMID:24467699

  2. Executive function and bilingualism in young and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Kousaie, Shanna; Sheppard, Christine; Lemieux, Maude; Monetta, Laura; Taler, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that being bilingual results in advantages on executive control processes and disadvantages on language tasks relative to monolinguals. Furthermore, the executive function advantage is thought to be larger in older than younger adults, suggesting that bilingualism may buffer against age-related changes in executive function. However, there are potential confounds in some of the previous research, as well as inconsistencies in the literature. The goal of the current investigation was to examine the presence of a bilingual advantage in executive control and a bilingual disadvantage on language tasks in the same sample of young and older monolingual anglophones, monolingual francophones, and French/English bilinguals. Participants completed a series of executive function tasks, including a Stroop task, a Simon task, a sustained attention to response task (SART), the Wisconsin Card Sort Test (WCST), and the digit span subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, and language tasks, including the Boston Naming Test (BNT), and category and letter fluency. The results do not demonstrate an unequivocal advantage for bilinguals on executive function tasks and raise questions about the reliability, robustness and/or specificity of previous findings. The results also did not demonstrate a disadvantage for bilinguals on language tasks. Rather, they suggest that there may be an influence of the language environment. It is concluded that additional research is required to fully characterize any language group differences in both executive function and language tasks. PMID:25120442

  3. Functional significance of mononuclear phagocyte populations generated through adult hematopoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Gutknecht, Michael F.; Bouton, Amy H.

    2014-01-01

    Tissue homeostasis requires a complete repertoire of functional macrophages in peripheral tissues. Recent evidence indicates that many resident tissue macrophages are seeded during embryonic development and persist through adulthood as a consequence of localized proliferation. Mononuclear phagocytes are also produced during adult hematopoiesis; these cells are then recruited to sites throughout the body, where they function in tissue repair and remodeling, resolution of inflammation, maintenance of homeostasis, and disease progression. The focus of this review is on mononuclear phagocytes that comprise the nonresident monocyte/macrophage populations in the body. Key features of monocyte differentiation are presented, focusing primarily on the developmental hierarchy that is established through this process, the markers used to identify discrete cell populations, and novel, functional attributes of these cells. These features are then explored in the context of the tumor microenvironment, where mononuclear phagocytes exhibit extensive plasticity in phenotype and function. PMID:25225678

  4. Figuring out function: Children's and adults' use of ownership information in judgments of artifact function.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Konika; Kominsky, Jonathan F; Fernando, Madhawee; Keil, Frank C

    2015-12-01

    Across 3 experiments, we found evidence that information about who owns an artifact influenced 5- to 10-year-old children's and adults' judgments about that artifact's primary function. Children's and adults' use of ownership information was underpinned by their inference that owners are typically familiar with owned artifacts and are therefore likely to know their primary functions. Accordingly, when this inference was undermined-when an artifact's owner was said to be unfamiliar with the owned artifact-ownership was no longer used as a privileged heuristic cue to artifact function. These experiments also revealed age-related differences in how ownership information was prioritized relative to another well-studied source of information known to influence artifact cognition, namely, information about an artifact's original designer-intended function. Specifically, older children and adults were more likely than younger children to prioritize design information over ownership information. Our results suggest that children and adults differ in how they weight the relative importance of these 2 sources of function-relevant information-likely reflecting age-related changes in children's and adults' sensitivity to ownership and design information across development. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26414095

  5. Cognitive function in older adults according to current socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Michael; Gale, Shawn D; Erickson, Lance D; Brown, Bruce L; Woody, Parker; Hedges, Dawson W

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive function may be influenced by education, socioeconomic status, sex, and health status. Furthermore, aging interacts with these factors to influence cognition and dementia risk in late life. Factors that may increase or decrease successful cognitive aging are of critical importance, particularly if they are modifiable. The purpose of this study was to determine if economic status in late life is associated with cognition independent of socioeconomic status in early life. Cross-sectional demographic, socioeconomic, and cognitive function data were obtained in 2592 older adults (average age 71.6 years) from the Center for Disease Control's National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and analyzed with linear regression modeling. Cognitive function, as measured with a test of processing speed, was significantly associated with poverty index scores after adjusting for educational attainment as an estimate of childhood socioeconomic status, ethnic background, age, health status, and sex (P < 0.001). Our findings suggest that current economic status is independently associated with cognitive function in adults over age 60 years. PMID:25565407

  6. Functional Status and Social Contact Among Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Pavela, Gregory

    2015-11-01

    This article tests whether functional status is associated with likelihood of social contact among older adults. Data come from the Second Longitudinal Study on Aging, a longitudinal nationally representative sample of 9,447 noninstitutionalized individuals aged 70 and over at baseline in 1995. Functional status is measured using an index of activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). Social contact is measured by asking respondents whether they had gotten together socially or talked on the phone with friends/neighbors or family in the past 2 weeks. Greater number of functional limitations is associated with a decreased likelihood of social contact at follow-up via the phone with friends (odd ratio [OR] = 0.94, p < .01) and family (OR = 0.96, p < .01), and a decreased likelihood of getting together with friends (OR = 0.93, p < .01) and family (OR = 0.97, p < .01). Results indicate that functional limitations have a broad impact on self-reported social contact among older adults. PMID:25651594

  7. Enrichment Effects on Adult Cognitive Development: Can the Functional Capacity of Older Adults Be Preserved and Enhanced?

    PubMed

    Hertzog, Christopher; Kramer, Arthur F; Wilson, Robert S; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2008-10-01

    In this monograph, we ask whether various kinds of intellectual, physical, and social activities produce cognitive enrichment effects-that is, whether they improve cognitive performance at different points of the adult life span, with a particular emphasis on old age. We begin with a theoretical framework that emphasizes the potential of behavior to influence levels of cognitive functioning. According to this framework, the undeniable presence of age-related decline in cognition does not invalidate the view that behavior can enhance cognitive functioning. Instead, the course of normal aging shapes a zone of possible functioning, which reflects person-specific endowments and age-related constraints. Individuals influence whether they function in the higher or lower ranges of this zone by engaging in or refraining from beneficial intellectual, physical, and social activities. From this point of view, the potential for positive change, or plasticity, is maintained in adult cognition. It is an argument that is supported by newer research in neuroscience showing neural plasticity in various aspects of central nervous system functioning, neurochemistry, and architecture. This view of human potential contrasts with static conceptions of cognition in old age, according to which decline in abilities is fixed and individuals cannot slow its course. Furthermore, any understanding of cognition as it occurs in everyday life must make a distinction between basic cognitive mechanisms and skills (such as working-memory capacity) and the functional use of cognition to achieve goals in specific situations. In practice, knowledge and expertise are critical for effective functioning, and the available evidence suggests that older adults effectively employ specific knowledge and expertise and can gain new knowledge when it is required. We conclude that, on balance, the available evidence favors the hypothesis that maintaining an intellectually engaged and physically active lifestyle promotes successful cognitive aging. First, cognitive-training studies have demonstrated that older adults can improve cognitive functioning when provided with intensive training in strategies that promote thinking and remembering. The early training literature suggested little transfer of function from specifically trained skills to new cognitive tasks; learning was highly specific to the cognitive processes targeted by training. Recently, however, a new generation of studies suggests that providing structured experience in situations demanding executive coordination of skills-such as complex video games, task-switching paradigms, and divided attention tasks-train strategic control over cognition that does show transfer to different task environments. These studies suggest that there is considerable reserve potential in older adults' cognition that can be enhanced through training. Second, a considerable number of studies indicate that maintaining a lifestyle that is intellectually stimulating predicts better maintenance of cognitive skills and is associated with a reduced risk of developing Alzheimer's disease in late life. Our review focuses on longitudinal evidence of a connection between an active lifestyle and enhanced cognition, because such evidence admits fewer rival explanations of observed effects (or lack of effects) than does cross-sectional evidence. The longitudinal evidence consistently shows that engaging in intellectually stimulating activities is associated with better cognitive functioning at later points in time. Other studies show that meaningful social engagement is also predictive of better maintenance of cognitive functioning in old age. These longitudinal findings are also open to important rival explanations, but overall, the available evidence suggests that activities can postpone decline, attenuate decline, or provide prosthetic benefit in the face of normative cognitive decline, while at the same time indicating that late-life cognitive changes can result in curtailment of activities. Given the complexity of the dynamic reciprocal re

  8. Preserved Microvascular Endothelial Function in Young, Obese Adults with Functional Loss of Nitric Oxide Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Harrell, John W.; Johansson, Rebecca E.; Evans, Trent D.; Sebranek, Joshua J.; Walker, Benjamin J.; Eldridge, Marlowe W.; Serlin, Ronald C.; Schrage, William G.

    2015-01-01

    Data indicate endothelium-dependent dilation (EDD) may be preserved in the skeletal muscle microcirculation of young, obese adults. Preserved EDD might be mediated by compensatory mechanisms, impeding insight into preclinical vascular dysfunction. We aimed to determine the functional roles of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX) toward EDD in younger obese adults. We first hypothesized EDD would be preserved in young, obese adults. Further, we hypothesized a reduced contribution of NOS in young, obese adults would be replaced by increased COX signaling. Microvascular EDD was assessed with Doppler ultrasound and brachial artery infusion of acetylcholine (ACh) in younger (27 ± 1 year) obese (n = 29) and lean (n = 46) humans. Individual and combined contributions of NOS and COX were examined with intra-arterial infusions of l-NMMA and ketorolac, respectively. Vasodilation was quantified as an increase in forearm vascular conductance (?FVC). Arterial endothelial cell biopsies were analyzed for protein expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). ?FVC to ACh was similar between groups. After l-NMMA, ?FVC to ACh was greater in obese adults (p < 0.05). There were no group differences in ?FVC to ACh with ketorolac. With combined NOS-COX inhibition, ?FVC was greater in obese adults at the intermediate dose of ACh. Surprisingly, arterial endothelial cell eNOS and phosphorylated eNOS were similar between groups. Younger obese adults exhibit preserved EDD and eNOS expression despite functional dissociation of NOS-mediated vasodilation and similar COX signaling. Compensatory NOS- and COX-independent vasodilatory mechanisms conceal reduced NOS contributions in otherwise healthy obese adults early in life, which may contribute to vascular dysfunction.

  9. Functional Imaging of Working Memory and Peripheral Endothelial Function in Middle-Aged Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzales, Mitzi M.; Tarumi, Takashi; Tanaka, Hirofumi; Sugawara, Jun; Swann-Sternberg, Tali; Goudarzi, Katayoon; Haley, Andreana P.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between a prognostic indicator of vascular health, flow-mediated dilation (FMD), and working memory-related brain activation in healthy middle-aged adults. Forty-two participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while completing a 2-Back working memory task. Brachial artery…

  10. A bidirectional relationship between physical activity and executive function in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Michael; McMinn, David; Allan, Julia L.

    2015-01-01

    Physically active lifestyles contribute to better executive function. However, it is unclear whether high levels of executive function lead people to be more active. This study uses a large sample and multi-wave data to identify whether a reciprocal association exists between physical activity and executive function. Participants were 4555 older adults tracked across four waves of the English Longitudinal Study of Aging. In each wave executive function was assessed using a verbal fluency test and a letter cancelation task and participants reported their physical activity levels. Fixed effects regressions showed that changes in executive function corresponded with changes in physical activity. In longitudinal multilevel models low levels of physical activity led to subsequent declines in executive function. Importantly, poor executive function predicted reductions in physical activity over time. This association was found to be over 50% larger in magnitude than the contribution of physical activity to changes in executive function. This is the first study to identify evidence for a robust bidirectional link between executive function and physical activity in a large sample of older adults tracked over time. PMID:25628552

  11. Suicidal ideation and its determinants in Korean adults: The role of physical activity and functional limitations.

    PubMed

    Park, S M

    2015-12-01

    The recognition of suicide as a major public health problem has suggested the need to identify risk factors that have implications for preventive intervention. In the suicidal process, suicidal ideation is a key stage in the pathway leading to eventual suicide. This study investigated the influence of physical activity and functional limitations on suicidal ideation among young and middle-aged adults in a high suicidal society. Data for the current study were obtained from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2009 (KNHANES), a cross-sectional study conducted by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The survey conducted face-to-face interviews with young adults (n = 2326) and middle-aged adults (n = 3396). Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, the relationship of physical activity and functional limitations with suicidal ideation in young and middle-aged adults was assessed. A notable outcome was that the absence of a regular walking was correlated with increased suicidal ideation in middle-aged women. The other major finding was that young women and middle-aged adults with functional limitations had a high rate of suicidal thoughts. Multiple intervention approaches, including informational, social and behavioural approaches, are needed to promote regular walking in middle-aged women. For instance, mass media campaigns, community walking groups and individually adapted health behaviour modification may provide opportunities for positive intervention. Additionally, another important public health implication from these findings is the need for a suicide-intervention support system that includes screening for suicide risk in healthcare settings, especially among young women with physical limitations. PMID:25434531

  12. White matter predictors of cognitive functioning in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Irene B.; Manly, Jennifer J.; Provenzano, Frank A.; Louie, Karmen S.; Wasserman, Ben T.; Griffith, Erica Y.; Hector, Josina T.; Allocco, Elizabeth; Brickman, Adam M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Few studies have applied multiple imaging modalities to examine cognitive correlates of white matter. We examined the utility of T2-weighted MRI-derived white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and diffusion tensor imaging-derived fractional anisotropy (FA) to predict cognitive functioning among older adults. Methods Quantitative MRI and neuropsychological evaluations were performed in 112 older participants from an ongoing study of the genetics of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in African Americans. Regional WMH volumes and FA were measured in multiple regions of interest. We examined the association of regional WMH and an FA summary score with cognitive test performance. Differences in WMH and FA were compared across diagnostic groups (i.e., normal controls, mild cognitive impairment, and probable AD). Results Increased WMH volume in frontal lobes was associated with poorer delayed memory performance. FA did not emerge as a significant predictor of cognition. White matter hyperintensity volume in the frontal and parietal lobes was increased in MCI participants and more so in AD patients relative to controls. Discussion These results highlight the importance of regionally-distributed small vessel cerebrovascular disease in memory performance and AD among African American older adults. White matter microstructural changes, quantified with DTI, appear to play a lesser role in our sample. PMID:22390883

  13. The relationship between functional health literacy and health promoting behaviors among older adults

    PubMed Central

    Reisi, Mahnoush; Javadzade, Seyed Homamodin; Heydarabadi, Akbar Babaei; Mostafavi, Firouzeh; Tavassoli, Elahe; Sharifirad, Gholamreza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Health literacy is a measure of individual's ability to read, comprehend, and act on medical instructions. Older adults are one of the most important at risk groups affected by the impact of inadequate health literacy. Health promoting behaviors in older adults have potential impact on their health and quality of life and reduce the costs incurred to health care. Given the paucity of information health literacy and health promoting behavior, the purpose of this study was to examine health literacy level in older adults and the relationship between health literacy and health promoting behaviors. Materials and Method: A cross-sectional survey of 354 older adults was conducted in Isfahan. The method of sampling was clustering. Health literacy was measured using the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (TOFHLA). Data were collected via home interviewing. Health promoting behaviors were measured based on self-reported smoking status, exercise, and consumption of fruit and vegetables. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and one-way ANOVA and ?2 tests under SPSS 18 software. Results: The sample group averaged 67 ± 6.97 years in age. Approximately 79.6% of adults were found to have inadequate health literacy. They tended to be older, have fewer years of schooling, lower household income, and being female Individuals with inadequate health literacy were more likely to report limitations in activity and lower consumption of fruit and vegetables (P < 0.001). No significant association was found between health literacy and smoking status. Conclusion: Considering high prevalence of inadequate health literacy among older adults, and its inverse relationship with some health promoting behaviors. Simple educational materials and effective interventions for low health literacy people can improve health promotion in society and mitigate the adverse health effects of low health literacy. PMID:25540792

  14. Turner syndrome patients as adults: a study of their cognitive profile, psychosocial functioning and psychopathological findings.

    PubMed

    Delooz, J; Van den Berghe, H; Swillen, A; Kleczkowska, A; Fryns, J P

    1993-01-01

    In this study we collected data on the cognitive abilities, psychosocial adjustment and psychopathology of 20 non-institutionalized adult Turner syndrome patients. The majority of them had a normal intelligence, most were socially well adapted and no high prevalence of psychopathology was noted. In only one patient evidence of a serious bipolar hypomanic disorder and antisocial personality was found, and in one other an episode of anorexia nervosa. Nevertheless, 50% of the women expressed feelings of low self-confidence, depression and social insecurity i.e. achieving a mature level of psycho-social functioning remains a problem for a number of Turner individuals. In the counseling process of adult Turner patients special attention should be given to the social and psychological functioning so that intervention can be made if social awkwardness and psychological well-being becomes a problem. PMID:8267923

  15. Perinatal undernutrition programmes thyroid function in the adult rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Ayala-Moreno, Rosario; Racotta, Radu; Anguiano, Brenda; Aceves, Carmen; Quevedo, Lucía

    2013-12-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that alterations in early nutrition programme physiological changes in adulthood. In the present study, we determined the effects of undernutrition during gestation and lactation on the programming of thyroid function in adult rat offspring. Perinatal undernutrition was achieved by a 40% food restriction in female Wistar rats from the mating day to weaning. On postpartum day 21, the offspring of the control and food-restricted dams were weaned and given free access to a commercial diet until adulthood. The results showed that undernourished rats exhibited decreased 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) levels but had normal thyroxine (T4) and thyrotropin (TSH) levels at weaning; on day 90, these rats displayed a significant flip, exhibiting normalised T3 (total and free) and total T4 levels, but low free T4 and persistently higher TSH levels, which were maintained even on postnatal day 140. This profile was accompanied by a scarce fat depot, a lower RMR and an exacerbated sympathetic brown adipose tissue (BAT) tone (deiodinase type 2 expression) in basal conditions. Moreover, when a functional challenge (cold exposure) was applied, the restricted group exhibited partial changes in TSH (29 v. 100%) and T4 (non-response v. 17%) levels, a significant decrease in leptin levels (75 v. 32%) and the maintenance of a sympathetic BAT over-response (higher noradrenaline levels) in comparison with the control group. The findings of the present study suggest that undernutrition during the perinatal period produces permanent changes in the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis with consequent low body weight and decreased RMR and facultative thermogenesis. We hypothesise that these changes predispose individuals to exhibiting adult subclinical hypothyroidism. PMID:23800456

  16. Ventilatory Function in Young Adults and Dietary Antioxidant Intake

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Larsen, Vanessa; Amigo, Hugo; Bustos, Patricia; Bakolis, Ioannis; Rona, Roberto J.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary antioxidants may protect against poor ventilatory function. We assessed the relation between ventilatory function and antioxidant components of diet in young Chileans. Forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and the ratio FEV1/FVC were measured in 1232 adults aged 22–28 years, using a Vitalograph device. Dietary intake was ascertained with a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) designed for this study, from which nutrient and flavonoid intakes were estimated. Dietary patterns were derived with Principal Component Analysis (PCA). After controlling for potential confounders, dietary intake of total catechins was positively associated with FVC (Regression coefficient (RC) of highest vs. lowest quintile of intake 0.07; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.15; p per trend 0.006). Total fruit intake was related to FVC (RC of highest vs. lowest quintile 0.08; 95% CI 0.003 to 0.15; p per trend 0.02). Intake of omega 3 fatty acids was associated with a higher FEV1 (RC for highest vs. lowest quintile 0.08; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.15 L; p per trend 0.02) and with FVC 0.08 (RC in highest vs. lowest quintile of intake 0.08, 95% CI 0.001 to 0.16; p per trend 0.04). Our results show that fresh fruits, flavonoids, and omega 3 fatty acids may contribute to maintain ventilatory function. PMID:25884660

  17. Age and Gender Effects on Wideband Absorbance in Adults with Normal Outer and Middle Ear Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazlan, Rafidah; Kei, Joseph; Ya, Cheng Li; Yusof, Wan Nur Hanim Mohd; Saim, Lokman; Zhao, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the effects of age and gender on wideband energy absorbance in adults with normal middle ear function. Method: Forty young adults (14 men, 26 women, aged 20-38 years), 31 middle-aged adults (16 men, 15 women, aged 42-64 years), and 30 older adults (20 men, 10 women, aged 65-82 years) were assessed. Energy absorbance…

  18. Differences in Neuroretinal Function between Adult Males and Females

    PubMed Central

    Ozawa, Glen Y.; Bearse, Marcus A.; Harrison, Wendy W.; Bronson-Castain, Kevin W.; Schneck, Marilyn E.; Barez, Shirin; Adams, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether neuroretinal function differs in healthy adult males and females under and over the age of 50 years. Methods This study included one eye from each of 50 normal subjects (29 females and 21 males). Neuroretinal function was assessed using first-order P1 implicit times (IT) and N1-P1 amplitudes (AMP) obtained from photopic multifocal electroretinograms (mfERG). To assess local differences, retinal maps of local IT and (separately) AMP averages were constructed for each subject group. To examine global differences, each subject's 103 ITs and (separately) AMPs were also averaged to create whole eye averages. Subsequently, retinal maps and whole eye averages of one subject group were compared to those of another. Results In subjects <50 years old, neuroretinal function differed significantly between the males and females: local ITs were significantly shorter at 83 of the 103 tested retinal locations, and whole eye IT averages were shorter (P=0.015) in the females compared to the males. In contrast, no analysis indicated that the males and females >50 years old were significantly different. A sub-analysis showed that the females who reported a hysterectomy (n=5) had the longest whole eye ITs of all subject groups (P?0.0013). In the females who did not report a hysterectomy, neuroretinal function was worse in the females >50 years old compared to the females <50 years old: local ITs were significantly longer at 62 of the 103 retinal locations tested, and whole eye IT averages tended to be greater (P=0.04). Conversely, ITs were not statistically different between the younger and older males. AMP did not differ between the sexes. Conclusions mfERG IT differs between males and females, depending on age group and hysterectomy status. PMID:24748031

  19. Early Adult to Midlife Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Cognitive Function

    PubMed Central

    Yaffe, Kristine; Vittinghoff, Eric; Pletcher, Mark J.; Hoang, Tina D.; Launer, Lenore J.; Whitmer, Rachel A.; Coker, Laura H.; Sidney, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Background Studies have linked midlife and late-life cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) to cognitive function, yet little is known about CVRF exposure in early adulthood and subsequent cognitive function. In addition, most studies rely on single assessments of CVRFs, which may not accurately reflect long-term exposure. We sought to determine the association between cumulative exposure to CVRFs from early to middle adulthood and cognitive function at midlife. Methods and Results In a prospective study of 3381 adults (age, 18–30 years at baseline) with 25 years of follow-up, we assessed cognitive function at year 25 (2010–2011) with the Digit Symbol Substitution Test, Stroop Test, and Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test analyzed with standardized z scores. The primary predictor was 25-year cumulative exposure estimated by areas under the curve for resting systolic and diastolic blood pressures, fasting blood glucose, and total cholesterol. Higher cumulative systolic and diastolic blood pressures and fasting blood glucose were consistently associated with worse cognition on all 3 tests. These associations were significant primarily for exposures above recommended guidelines; cognitive test z scores were between 0.06 and 0.30 points less, on average, for each 1-SD increase in risk factor area under the curve after adjustment for age, race, sex, and education (P<0.05 for all). Fewer significant associations were observed for cholesterol. Conclusions Cumulative exposure to CVRFs from early to middle adulthood, especially above recommended guidelines, was associated with worse cognition in midlife. The meaning of this association and whether it warrants more aggressive treatment of CVRFs earlier in life require further investigation. PMID:24687777

  20. Stair Negotiation Time in Community Dwelling Older Adults: Normative Values and Association with Functional Decline

    PubMed Central

    Oh-Park, Mooyeon; Wang, Cuiling; Verghese, Joe

    2011-01-01

    Objective To establish reference values for stair ascent and descent times in community dwelling ambulatory older adults, and to examine their predictive validity for functional decline. Design Longitudinal cohort study. Mean follow-up time was 1.8 year (maximum 3.2 y, total 857.9 person-years). Setting Community sample. Participants Older adults age 70 and older (N=513; mean age, 80.8±5.1y), without disability or dementia. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures Time to ascend and descend 3 steps measured at baseline. 14 point Disability scale assessed functional status at baseline and at follow-up interviews every 2–3 months. Functional decline was defined as an increase in the disability score by 1-point during the follow-up period. Results The mean ± standard deviation (SD) stair ascent and descent time for three steps was 2.78 ±1.49 and 2.83 ±1.61 sec respectively. The proportion of self-reported and objective difficulty was higher with longer stair ascent and descent times (P<.001 for trend for both stair ascent and descent). Of the 472 participants with at least one follow-up interview, 315 developed functional decline with a 12-month cumulative incidence of 56.6% (95% confidence interval, CI, 52.1–61.3%). The stair negotiation time was a significant predictor of functional decline after adjusting for covariates including gait velocity (adjusted hazard ratio per one-second increase, aHR 1.12, 95% CI 1.04–1.21 for stair ascent time, aHR 1.15, 95% CI 1.07–1.24 for stair descent time). Stair descent time was a significant predictor of functional decline among relatively high-functioning older adults reporting no difficulty in stair negotiation (P=.001). Conclusions The stair ascent and descent times are simple, quick, and valid clinical measures for assessing the risk of functional decline in community dwelling older adults including high-functioning individuals. PMID:22133249

  1. Modeling the pharyngeal pressure during adult nasal high flow therapy.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Haribalan; Spence, Callum J T; Tawhai, Merryn H

    2015-12-01

    Subjects receiving nasal high flow (NHF) via wide-bore nasal cannula may experience different levels of positive pressure depending on the individual response to NHF. In this study, airflow in the nasal airway during NHF-assisted breathing is simulated and nasopharyngeal airway pressure numerically computed, to determine whether the relationship between NHF and pressure can be described by a simple equation. Two geometric models are used for analysis. In the first, 3D airway geometry is reconstructed from computed tomography images of an adult nasal airway. For the second, a simplified geometric model is derived that has the same cross-sectional area as the complex model, but is more readily amenable to analysis. Peak airway pressure is correlated as a function of nasal valve area, nostril area and cannula flow rate, for NHF rates of 20, 40 and 60L/min. Results show that airway pressure is related by a power law to NHF rate, valve area, and nostril area. PMID:26197246

  2. Predicting Cognitive Function from Clinical Measures of Physical Function and Health Status in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Bolandzadeh, Niousha; Kording, Konrad; Salowitz, Nicole; Davis, Jennifer C.; Hsu, Liang; Chan, Alison; Sharma, Devika; Blohm, Gunnar; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Current research suggests that the neuropathology of dementia—including brain changes leading to memory impairment and cognitive decline—is evident years before the onset of this disease. Older adults with cognitive decline have reduced functional independence and quality of life, and are at greater risk for developing dementia. Therefore, identifying biomarkers that can be easily assessed within the clinical setting and predict cognitive decline is important. Early recognition of cognitive decline could promote timely implementation of preventive strategies. Methods We included 89 community-dwelling adults aged 70 years and older in our study, and collected 32 measures of physical function, health status and cognitive function at baseline. We utilized an L1–L2 regularized regression model (elastic net) to identify which of the 32 baseline measures were strongly predictive of cognitive function after one year. We built three linear regression models: 1) based on baseline cognitive function, 2) based on variables consistently selected in every cross-validation loop, and 3) a full model based on all the 32 variables. Each of these models was carefully tested with nested cross-validation. Results Our model with the six variables consistently selected in every cross-validation loop had a mean squared prediction error of 7.47. This number was smaller than that of the full model (115.33) and the model with baseline cognitive function (7.98). Our model explained 47% of the variance in cognitive function after one year. Discussion We built a parsimonious model based on a selected set of six physical function and health status measures strongly predictive of cognitive function after one year. In addition to reducing the complexity of the model without changing the model significantly, our model with the top variables improved the mean prediction error and R-squared. These six physical function and health status measures can be easily implemented in a clinical setting. PMID:25734446

  3. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Lung function in adults following in utero and childhood exposure

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Lung function in adults following in utero and childhood exposure to arsenic water causes non-malignant lung disease, but nearly all data concern exposed adults. The desert city and long-term lung function. We present these preliminary findings because of the magnitude of the effects

  4. Natural History of Thyroid Function in Adults with Down Syndrome--10-Year Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasher, V.; Gomez, G.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The natural history of thyroid function in adults with Down syndrome (DS) is unknown. Method: This study investigated annual thyroid function tests in 200 adults with DS over a 10-year period. Results: Transient and persistent thyroid dysfunction was common. The 5- and 10-year incidence of definite hypothyroidism was 0.9%-1.64% and…

  5. Older Adults in Cardiac Rehabilitation: A New Strategy for Enhancing Physical Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rejeski, W. Jack; Foy, Capri Gabrielle; Brawley, Lawrence R.; Brubaker, Peter H.; Focht, Brian C.; Norris, James L., III; Smith, Marci L.

    2002-01-01

    Contrasted the effect of a group-mediated cognitive- behavioral intervention (GMCB) versus traditional cardiac rehabilitation (CRP) upon changes in objective and self-reported physical function of older adults after 3 months of exercise therapy. Both groups improved significantly. Adults with lower function at the outset of the intervention…

  6. A Comparative Survey of Seven Adult Functional Literacy Programs in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Edmun B.

    A study compares the adult functional literacy campaigns and programs developed in seven African nations: the Gambia, Liberia, Mali, Burundi, Rwanda, Kenya, and Seychelles. After an introductory chapter outlining the background of African adult functional literacy efforts and some of the constraints on them, the second chapter gives an overview of…

  7. THE FUNCTIONS AND TRAINING NEEDS OF ADULT EDUCATION DIRECTORS IN PUBLIC SCHOOL SYSTEMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MADRY, ARTHUR CHESTER

    A QUESTIONNAIRE WAS SENT TO 200 DIRECTORS OF PUBLIC SCHOOL ADULT EDUCATION IN ORDER TO IDENTIFY FUNCTIONS, ROLE, AND SKILLS AND ABILITIES OF ADMINISTRATORS OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY ADULT EDUCATION. RESPONDENTS RATED EACH FUNCTION ON A SCALE FROM ESSENTIAL TO INAPPLICABLE AND COMPETENCIES ON A SIMILAR SCALE. CHIEF PROBLEM AREAS INCLUDED…

  8. Pilates Method for Lung Function and Functional Capacity in Obese Adults.

    PubMed

    Niehues, Janaina Rocha; Gonzáles, Inês; Lemos, Robson Rodrigues; Haas, Patrícia

    2015-09-01

    Obesity is defined as the condition in which the body mass index (BMI) is ? 30 kg/m2 and is responsible for decreased quality of life and functional limitations. The harmful effects on ventilatory function include reduced lung capacity and volume; diaphragmatic muscle weakness; decreased lung compliance and stiffness; and weakness of the abdominal muscles, among others. Pilates is a method of resistance training that works with low-impact muscle exercises and is based on isometric exercises. The current article is a review of the literature that aims to investigate the hypothesis that the Pilates method, as a complementary method of training, might be beneficial to pulmonary function and functional capacity in obese adults. The intent of the review was to evaluate the use of Pilates as an innovative intervention in the respiratory dysfunctions of obese adults. In studies with other populations, it has been observed that Pilates can be effective in improving chest capacity and expansion and lung volume. That finding is due to the fact that Pilates works through the center of force, made ??up of the abdominal muscles and gluteus muscles lumbar, which are responsible for the stabilization of the static and dynamic body that is associated with breath control. It has been observed that different Pilates exercises increase the activation and recruitment of the abdominal muscles. Those muscles are important in respiration, both in expiration and inspiration, through the facilitation of diaphragmatic action. In that way, strengthening the abdominal muscles can help improve respiratory function, leading to improvements in lung volume and capacity. The results found in the current literature review support the authors' observations that Pilates promotes the strengthening of the abdominal muscles and that improvements in diaphragmatic function may result in positive outcomes in respiratory function, thereby improving functional capacity. However, the authors did not find specific studies with obese people, justifying the need for future studies. PMID:26393994

  9. Adult neurogenesis is functionally associated with AD-like neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qian; Nakajima, Akira; Choi, Se Hoon; Xiong, Xiaoli; Sisodia, Sangram S; Tang, Ya-Ping

    2008-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is predominantly characterized by progressive neuronal loss in the brain. It has been recently found that adult neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of AD patients is significantly enhanced, while its functional significance is still unknown. By using an AD-like neurodegeneration mouse model, we show here that neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus was neurodegenerative stage-dependent. At early stages of neurodegeneration, neurogenesis was significantly enhanced and newly generated neurons migrated into the local neuronal network. Up to late stages of neurodegeneration, however, the survival of newly generated neurons was impaired so that the enhanced neurogenesis could not be detected any more. Most interestingly, these dynamic changes in neurogenesis were correlated with the severity of neuronal loss in the dentate gyrus, indicating that neurogenesis may work as a self-repairing mechanism to compensate for neurodegeneration. Therefore, to enhance endogenous neurogenesis at early stages of neurodegeneration may be a valuable strategy to delay neurodegenerative progress. PMID:17980611

  10. Nodakenin Enhances Cognitive Function and Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qingtao; Jeon, Se Jin; Jung, Hyun Ah; Lee, Hyung Eun; Park, Se Jin; Lee, Younghwan; Lee, Younghwa; Ko, Sang Yoon; Kim, Boseong; Choi, Jae Sue; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2015-07-01

    In our previous study, we demonstrated that nodakenin, a coumarin compound isolated from Angelica decursiva, ameliorates learning and memory impairments induced by scopolamine. In the present study, we investigated the effects of nodakenin on the cognitive function in the normal naïve mice in a passive avoidance task, and the results showed that nodakenin significantly increased the latency time in normal naïve mice. In addition, sub-chronic administration of nodakenin increased the number of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-positive cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) region. The percentage of BrdU and NeuN (neuronal cell marker)-immunopositive cells was also significantly increased by the nodakenin administration. Western blotting results showed that the expression levels of phosphorylated protein kinase B (Akt) and phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK-3?) were significantly increased in hippocampal tissue by sub-chronic nodakenin administration. These findings suggest that the sub-chronic administration of nodakenin enhances adult hippocampal neurogenesis in the DG region via Akt-GSK-3? signaling and this increase may be associated with nodakenin's positive effect on cognitive processing. PMID:25998887

  11. Clinical Assessment of Functional Movement in Adults with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Christopher T.; Horvat, Michael; Williams, Michael; Blasch, Bruce B.

    2007-01-01

    Adults with visual impairments have significantly more health risks than do sighted adults because of a number of factors, including the lower mineral density of their femoral neck bones, which is indicative of reduced weight-bearing exercise; their lesser maximal strength; and their higher rates of stroke, osteoporosis, depression, hypertension,…

  12. Daily egg consumption in hyperlipidemic adults - Effects on endothelial function and cardiovascular risk

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Limiting consumption of eggs, which are high in cholesterol, is generally recommended to reduce risk of cardiovascular disease. However, recent evidence suggests that dietary cholesterol has limited influence on serum cholesterol or cardiac risk. Objective To assess the effects of egg consumption on endothelial function and serum lipids in hyperlipidemic adults. Methods Randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial of 40 hyperlipidemic adults (24 women, 16 men; average age = 59.9 ± 9.6 years; weight = 76.3 ± 21.8 kilograms; total cholesterol = 244 ± 24 mg/dL). In the acute phase, participants were randomly assigned to one of the two sequences of a single dose of three medium hardboiled eggs and a sausage/cheese breakfast sandwich. In the sustained phase, participants were then randomly assigned to one of the two sequences of two medium hardboiled eggs and 1/2 cup of egg substitute daily for six weeks. Each treatment assignment was separated by a four-week washout period. Outcome measures of interest were endothelial function measured as flow mediated dilatation (FMD) and lipid panel. Results Single dose egg consumption had no effects on endothelial function as compared to sausage/cheese (0.4 ± 1.9 vs. 0.4 ± 2.4%; p = 0.99). Daily consumption of egg substitute for 6 weeks significantly improved endothelial function as compared to egg (1.0 ± 1.2% vs. -0.1 ± 1.5%; p < 0.01) and lowered serum total cholesterol (-18 ± 18 vs. -5 ± 21 mg/dL; p < 0.01) and LDL (-14 ± 20 vs. -2 ± 19 mg/dL; p = 0.01). Study results (positive or negative) are expressed in terms of change relative to baseline. Conclusions Egg consumption was found to be non-detrimental to endothelial function and serum lipids in hyperlipidemic adults, while egg substitute consumption was beneficial. PMID:20598142

  13. Loss of function of the yellow-e gene causes dehydration-induced mortality of adult Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Noh, Mi Young; Kramer, Karl J; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam; Beeman, Richard W; Kanost, Michael R; Arakane, Yasuyuki

    2015-03-15

    Yellow protein (dopachrome conversion enzyme, DCE) is involved in the melanin biosynthetic pathway that significantly accelerates pigmentation reactions in insects. Recent studies have suggested that the insect yellow genes represent a rapidly evolving gene family generating functionally diverse paralogs, but the exact physiological functions of several yellow genes are still not understood. To study the function(s) of one of the yellow genes, yellow-e (TcY-e), in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, we performed real-time PCR to analyze its developmental and tissue-specific expression, and utilized immunohistochemistry to identify the localization of the TcY-e protein in adult cuticle. Injection of double-stranded RNA for TcY-e (dsTcY-e) into late instar larvae had no effect on larval-pupal molting or pupal development. The pupal cuticle, including that lining the setae, gin traps and urogomphi, underwent normal tanning. Adult cuticle tanning including that of the head, mandibles and legs viewed through the translucent pupal cuticle was initiated on schedule (pupal days 4-5), indicating that TcY-e is not required for pupal or pharate adult cuticle pigmentation in T. castaneum. The subsequent pupal-adult molt, however, was adversely affected. Although pupal cuticle apolysis and slippage were evident, some of the adults (~25%) were unable to shed their exuvium and died entrapped in their pupal cuticle. In addition, the resulting adults rapidly became highly desiccated. Interestingly, both the failure of the pupal-adult molt and desiccation-induced mortality were prevented by maintaining the dsTcY-e-treated insects at 100% relative humidity (rh). However, when the high humidity-rescued adults were removed from 100% rh and transferred to 50% rh, they rapidly dehydrated and died, whereas untreated beetles thrived throughout development at 50% rh. We also observed that the body color of the high humidity-rescued dsTcY-e-adults was slightly darker than that of control animals. These results support the hypothesis that TcY-e has a role not only in normal body pigmentation in T. castaneum adults but also has a vital waterproofing function. PMID:25614237

  14. Discrete-Trial Functional Analysis and Functional Communication Training with Three Adults with Intellectual Disabilities and Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chezan, Laura C.; Drasgow, Erik; Martin, Christian A.

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a sequence of two studies on the use of discrete-trial functional analysis and functional communication training. First, we used discrete-trial functional analysis (DTFA) to identify the function of problem behavior in three adults with intellectual disabilities and problem behavior. Results indicated clear patterns of problem…

  15. Characterising the Profile of Everyday Executive Functioning and Relation to IQ in Adults with Williams Syndrome: Is the BRIEF Adult Version a Valid Rating Scale?

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Melanie A.

    2015-01-01

    Although there is evidence of a distinct profile of executive dysfunction in Williams syndrome (WS), a rare genetically based neurodevelopmental disorder, the utility of informant reports of everyday executive function (EF) impairments and their relation to intelligence is not yet clear. Here we aimed to evaluate the functional impact of executive dysfunction in adults with WS and to establish the validity of child and adult versions of the most commonly used rating scale for EF assessment, the Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). We were also interested in whether distinct components of everyday EF relate to intelligence in WS. Parent report child (BRIEF-C) and adult (BRIEF-A) ratings were collected on 20 adults with WS (aged 18.5 to 53 years), with a mean IQ of 60.95 (SD = 17.67). Neuropsychological measures of EF included: The Shape School Test (Espy, 2007); select subdomains of EF from the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities, Australian Adaptation (WJ III COG); and select subdomains from the Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales, Second Edition—Parent Survey (Vineland-II). Results showed that the BRIEF-A, but not the BRIEF-C, was the most highly correlated with neuropsychological measures of EF, suggesting that it was a valid measure of the profile of EF impairments in adults with WS. The profile of everyday EF dysfunction revealed relative impairments in monitoring, working memory, planning and organisation in WS. In addition, both neuropsychological and rating scale measures showed an association between the shifting component of EF and intelligence. These findings indicate that the BRIEF-A is a valid measure of the multidimensional nature of real-world impairments in EF, and highlight its utility as a less labor intensive and low-cost screening tool for measuring specific EF impairments that could become the focus of targeted intervention in adults with WS. PMID:26355600

  16. Spatial Cognition in Adult and Aged Mice Exposed to High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Kesby, James P.; Kim, Jane J.; Scadeng, Miriam; Woods, Gina; Kado, Deborah M.; Olefsky, Jerrold M.; Jeste, Dilip V.; Achim, Cristian L.; Semenova, Svetlana

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with a decline in multiple aspects of cognitive function, with spatial cognition being particularly sensitive to age-related decline. Environmental stressors, such as high-fat diet (HFD) exposure, that produce a diabetic phenotype and metabolic dysfunction may indirectly lead to exacerbated brain aging and promote the development of cognitive deficits. The present work investigated whether exposure to HFD exacerbates age-related cognitive deficits in adult versus aged mice. Adult (5 months old) and aged (15 months old) mice were exposed to control diet or HFD for three months prior to, and throughout, behavioral testing. Anxiety-like behavior in the light-dark box test, discrimination learning and memory in the novel object/place recognition tests, and spatial learning and memory in the Barnes maze test were assessed. HFD resulted in significant gains in body weight and fat mass content with adult mice gaining significantly more weight and adipose tissue due to HFD than aged mice. Weight gain was attributed to food calories sourced from fat, but not total calorie intake. HFD increased fasting insulin levels in all mice, but adult mice showed a greater increase relative to aged mice. Behaviorally, HFD increased anxiety-like behavior in adult but not aged mice without significantly affecting spatial cognition. In contrast, aged mice fed either control or HFD diet displayed deficits in novel place discrimination and spatial learning. Our results suggest that adult mice are more susceptible to the physiological and anxiety-like effects of HFD consumption than aged mice, while aged mice displayed deficits in spatial cognition regardless of dietary influence. We conclude that although HFD induces systemic metabolic dysfunction in both adult and aged mice, overall cognitive function was not adversely affected under the current experimental conditions. PMID:26448649

  17. Urinary uromodulin, kidney function, and cardiovascular disease in elderly adults.

    PubMed

    Garimella, Pranav S; Biggs, Mary L; Katz, Ronit; Ix, Joachim H; Bennett, Michael R; Devarajan, Prasad; Kestenbaum, Bryan R; Siscovick, David S; Jensen, Majken K; Shlipak, Michael G; Chaves, Paulo H M; Sarnak, Mark J

    2015-11-01

    Urinary uromodulin (uUMOD) is the most common secreted tubular protein in healthy adults. However, the relationship between uUMOD and clinical outcomes is still unclear. Here we measured uUMOD in 192 participants of the Cardiovascular Health Study with over a 30% decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) over 9 years, 54 with incident end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and in a random subcohort of 958 participants. The association of uUMOD with eGFR decline was evaluated using logistic regression and with incident ESRD, cardiovascular disease, heart failure, and mortality using Cox proportional regression. Mean age was 78 years and median uUMOD was 25.8??g/ml. In a case-control study evaluating eGFR decline (192 cases and 231 controls), each 1-s.d. higher uUMOD was associated with a 23% lower odds of eGFR decline (odds ratio 0.77 (95% CI 0.62-0.96)) and a 10% lower risk of mortality (hazard ratio 0.90 (95% CI 0.83-0.98)) after adjusting for demographics, eGFR, albumin/creatinine ratio, and other risk factors. There was no risk association of uUMOD with ESRD, cardiovascular disease, or heart failure after multivariable adjustment. Thus, low uUMOD levels may identify persons at risk of progressive kidney disease and mortality above and beyond established markers of kidney disease, namely eGFR and the albumin/creatinine ratio. Future studies need to confirm these results and evaluate whether uUMOD is a marker of tubular health and/or whether it plays a causal role in preserving kidney function. PMID:26154925

  18. Determinants of functional decline in community-dwelling older adults 

    E-print Network

    Fieo, Robert Anthony

    2011-06-29

    The overarching theme of this thesis is the prevention of progressive-type disability. Unlike catastrophic disability, progressive disability is gradual and more common in older adults. Because progressive disability can ...

  19. Could Lots of Coffee Up Heart Risks for Young Adults with High Blood Pressure?

    MedlinePLUS

    Could Lots of Coffee Up Heart Risks for Young Adults With High Blood Pressure? Study finds an association, ... Udine, Italy. His team tracked about 1,200 young adults with untreated stage 1 high blood pressure. That ...

  20. Functional mitochondrial analysis in acute brain sections from adult rats reveals mitochondrial dysfunction in a rat model of migraine

    PubMed Central

    Fried, Nathan T.; Moffat, Cynthia; Seifert, Erin L.

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in many neurological disorders that only develop or are much more severe in adults, yet no methodology exists that allows for medium-throughput functional mitochondrial analysis of brain sections from adult animals. We developed a technique for quantifying mitochondrial respiration in acutely isolated adult rat brain sections with the Seahorse XF Analyzer. Evaluating a range of conditions made quantifying mitochondrial function from acutely derived adult brain sections from the cortex, cerebellum, and trigeminal nucleus caudalis possible. Optimization of this technique demonstrated that the ideal section size was 1 mm wide. We found that sectioning brains at physiological temperatures was necessary for consistent metabolic analysis of trigeminal nucleus caudalis sections. Oxygen consumption in these sections was highly coupled to ATP synthesis, had robust spare respiratory capacities, and had limited nonmitochondrial respiration, all indicative of healthy tissue. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this technique by identifying a decreased spare respiratory capacity in the trigeminal nucleus caudalis of a rat model of chronic migraine, a neurological disorder that has been associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. This technique allows for 24 acutely isolated sections from multiple brain regions of a single adult rat to be analyzed simultaneously with four sequential drug treatments, greatly advancing the ability to study mitochondrial physiology in adult neurological disorders. PMID:25252946

  1. Neighborhood Psychosocial Hazards and the Association of Cumulative Lead Dose With Cognitive Function in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Bandeen-Roche, Karen; McAtee, Matthew; Bolla, Karen; Todd, Andrew C.; Schwartz, Brian S.

    2009-01-01

    Before the 1970s, today's older Americans were exposed to high levels of lead in the environment. The authors previously reported that lifetime cumulative lead dose was associated with lower cognitive test performance in older adults. Experiments suggest that environmental stress may intensify the detrimental influence of lead. No large, population-based studies of this question have been done. The authors evaluated whether cross-sectional associations of tibia lead with cognitive function were modified by neighborhood psychosocial hazards in the Baltimore Memory Study (2001–2005), a longitudinal cohort study of determinants of cognitive decline. Tibia lead was measured via 109Cd-induced K-shell X-ray fluorescence. Neighborhood psychosocial hazards were measured independently of study subjects. Complete data were available among 1,001 demographically diverse adults aged 50–70 years, randomly selected from 65 contiguous neighborhoods in Baltimore City. Hierarchical mixed-effects regression models showed that neighborhood psychosocial hazards exacerbated the adverse associations of tibia lead in 3 of 7 cognitive domains after adjustment for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, testing technician, and time of day (language, P = 0.039; processing speed, P = 0.067; executive functioning, P = 0.025). The joint occurrence of environmental stress and lead exposure across the life span may partially explain persistent racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities in cognitive function in late life. PMID:19155330

  2. Developmental integration in a functional unit: deciphering processes from adult dental morphology.

    PubMed

    Labonne, Gaëlle; Navarro, Nicolas; Laffont, Rémi; Chateau-Smith, Carmela; Montuire, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of mammalian dentition is constrained by functional necessity and by the non-independence of morphological structures. Efficient chewing implies coherent tooth coordination from development to motion, involving covariation patterns (integration) within dental parts. Using geometric morphometrics, we investigate the modular organization of the highly derived vole dentition. Integration patterns between and within the upper and lower molar rows are analyzed to identify potential modules and their origins (functional and developmental). Results support an integrated adult dentition pattern for both developmental and functional aspects. The integration patterns between opposing molar pairs suggest a transient role for the second upper and lower molars during the chewing motion. Upper and lower molar rows form coherent units but the relative integration of molar pairs is in contradiction with existing developmental models. Emphasis on the first three cusps to grow leads to a very different integration pattern, which would be congruent with developmental models. The early developmental architecture of traits is masked by later stages of growth, but may still be deciphered from the adult phenotype, if careful attention is paid to relevant features. PMID:25040671

  3. Dietary Patterns Derived by Cluster Analysis are Associated with Cognitive Function among Korean Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jihye; Yu, Areum; Choi, Bo Youl; Nam, Jung Hyun; Kim, Mi Kyung; Oh, Dong Hoon; Yang, Yoon Jung

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate major dietary patterns among older Korean adults through cluster analysis and to determine an association between dietary patterns and cognitive function. This is a cross-sectional study. The data from the Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort Study was used. Participants included 765 participants aged 60 years and over. A quantitative food frequency questionnaire with 106 items was used to investigate dietary intake. The Korean version of the MMSE-KC (Mini-Mental Status Examination–Korean version) was used to assess cognitive function. Two major dietary patterns were identified using K-means cluster analysis. The “MFDF” dietary pattern indicated high consumption of Multigrain rice, Fish, Dairy products, Fruits and fruit juices, while the “WNC” dietary pattern referred to higher intakes of White rice, Noodles, and Coffee. Means of the total MMSE-KC and orientation score of the participants in the MFDF dietary pattern were higher than those of the WNC dietary pattern. Compared with the WNC dietary pattern, the MFDF dietary pattern showed a lower risk of cognitive impairment after adjusting for covariates (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.44–0.94). The MFDF dietary pattern, with high consumption of multigrain rice, fish, dairy products, and fruits may be related to better cognition among Korean older adults. PMID:26035243

  4. Effects of Computer versus Paper Administration of an Adult Functional Writing Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jing; White, Sheida; McCloskey, Michael; Soroui, Jaleh; Chun, Young

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the comparability of paper and computer versions of a functional writing assessment administered to adults 16 and older. Three writing tasks were administered in both paper and computer modes to volunteers in the field test of an assessment of adult literacy in 2008. One set of analyses examined mode effects on scoring by…

  5. Shared and Distinctive Origins and Correlates of Adult Attachment Representations: The Developmental Organization of Romantic Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haydon, Katherine C.; Collins, W. A.; Salvatore, Jessica E.; Simpson, Jeffry A.; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2012-01-01

    To test proposals regarding the hierarchical organization of adult attachment, this study examined developmental origins of generalized and romantic attachment representations and their concurrent associations with romantic functioning. Participants (N = 112) in a 35-year prospective study completed the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) and Current…

  6. Physical activity in prefrail older adults: confidence and satisfaction related to physical function

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined the hypothesis that physical activity will have favorable effects on measures of self-efficacy for a 400-m walk and satisfaction with physical functioning in older adults 701 years of age who have deficits in mobility. We randomized a total of 412 adults aged 70–89 years at elevated risk...

  7. Assessing function and endurance in adults with spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy: validity of the adult myopathy assessment tool.

    PubMed

    Harris-Love, Michael O; Fernandez-Rhodes, Lindsay; Joe, Galen; Shrader, Joseph A; Kokkinis, Angela; La Pean Kirschner, Alison; Auh, Sungyoung; Chen, Cheunju; Li, Li; Levy, Ellen; Davenport, Todd E; Di Prospero, Nicholas A; Fischbeck, Kenneth H

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. The adult myopathy assessment tool (AMAT) is a performance-based battery comprised of functional and endurance subscales that can be completed in approximately 30 minutes without the use of specialized equipment. The purpose of this study was to determine the construct validity and internal consistency of the AMAT with a sample of adults with spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA). Methods. AMAT validity was assessed in 56-male participants with genetically confirmed SBMA (mean age, 53?±?10 years). The participants completed the AMAT and assessments for disease status, strength, and functional status. Results. Lower AMAT scores were associated with longer disease duration (r = -0.29; P < 0.03) and lower serum androgen levels (r = 0.49-0.59; P < 0.001). The AMAT was significantly correlated with strength and functional status (r = 0.82-0.88; P < 0.001). The domains of the AMAT exhibited good internal consistency (Cronbach's ? ?=?0.77-0.89; P < 0.001). Conclusions. The AMAT is a standardized, performance-based tool that may be used to assess functional limitations and muscle endurance. The AMAT has good internal consistency, and the construct validity of the AMAT is supported by its significant associations with hormonal, strength, and functional characteristics of adults with SBMA. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT00303446. PMID:24876969

  8. Assessing Function and Endurance in Adults with Spinal and Bulbar Muscular Atrophy: Validity of the Adult Myopathy Assessment Tool

    PubMed Central

    Harris-Love, Michael O.; Fernandez-Rhodes, Lindsay; Joe, Galen; Shrader, Joseph A.; Kokkinis, Angela; La Pean Kirschner, Alison; Auh, Sungyoung; Chen, Cheunju; Li, Li; Levy, Ellen; Davenport, Todd E.; Di Prospero, Nicholas A.; Fischbeck, Kenneth H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. The adult myopathy assessment tool (AMAT) is a performance-based battery comprised of functional and endurance subscales that can be completed in approximately 30 minutes without the use of specialized equipment. The purpose of this study was to determine the construct validity and internal consistency of the AMAT with a sample of adults with spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA). Methods. AMAT validity was assessed in 56-male participants with genetically confirmed SBMA (mean age, 53?±?10 years). The participants completed the AMAT and assessments for disease status, strength, and functional status. Results. Lower AMAT scores were associated with longer disease duration (r = ?0.29; P < 0.03) and lower serum androgen levels (r = 0.49–0.59; P < 0.001). The AMAT was significantly correlated with strength and functional status (r = 0.82–0.88; P < 0.001). The domains of the AMAT exhibited good internal consistency (Cronbach's ??=?0.77–0.89; P < 0.001). Conclusions. The AMAT is a standardized, performance-based tool that may be used to assess functional limitations and muscle endurance. The AMAT has good internal consistency, and the construct validity of the AMAT is supported by its significant associations with hormonal, strength, and functional characteristics of adults with SBMA. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT00303446. PMID:24876969

  9. The Effect of Loneliness on Executive Functioning in Young and Older Adults

    E-print Network

    Rozek, Ellen Kathryn

    2013-12-31

    . This dissertation extended their approach to older adults and examined whether loneliness priming impairs cognitive and executive functions, as measured by reading comprehension, the Stroop test, and the Trail Making task. Unexpectedly, over 40% of the participants...

  10. Children's Requests to Unfamiliar Adults: Form, Social Function, Age Variation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, David Paul; And Others

    Elementary school students were required to obtain objects from two adults engaged in conversation with each other. Results differed markedly between older and younger children. For the younger children, (1) there were three times as many statement requests (SRs) as interrogative requests (IRs); (2) almost 50% of requests were need statements; (3)…

  11. The Human Function Compunction: Teleological Explanation in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelemen, Deborah; Rosset, Evelyn

    2009-01-01

    Research has found that children possess a broad bias in favor of teleological--or purpose-based--explanations of natural phenomena. The current two experiments explored whether adults implicitly possess a similar bias. In Study 1, undergraduates judged a series of statements as "good" (i.e., correct) or "bad" (i.e., incorrect) explanations for…

  12. DOES FAMILY OF ORIGIN FUNCTIONING PREDICT ADULT SOMATIC COMPLAINTS?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has long been believed that adult somatic complaints are associated with early family dysfunction. Yet few studies have examined this hypothesis in community samples, where medically unexplained symptom complaints are estimated to be very common. Given the potential population-wide impact of subt...

  13. Brief Report: Biochemical Correlates of Clinical Impairment in High Functioning Autism and Asperger's Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinhans, Natalia M.; Richards, Todd; Weaver, Kurt E.; Liang, Olivia; Dawson, Geraldine; Aylward, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Amygdala dysfunction has been proposed as a critical contributor to social impairment in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The current study investigated biochemical abnormalities in the amygdala in 20 high functioning adults with autistic disorder or Asperger's disorder and 19 typically developing adults matched on age and IQ. Magnetic resonance…

  14. Stability and Change in Health, Functional Abilities, and Behavior Problems among Adults with and without Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esbensen, Anna J.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Krauss, Marty Wyngaarden

    2008-01-01

    Changes in health, functional abilities, and behavior problems among 150 adults with Down syndrome and 240 adults with mental retardation due to other causes were examined with seven assessments over a 9-year period. Adults were primarily younger than 40, the age at which declines begin to be evident in individuals with Down syndrome. Adults with…

  15. Comparing the Functioning of Youth and Adult Partnerships for Health Promotion.

    PubMed

    Brown, Louis D; Redelfs, Alisha H; Taylor, Thomas J; Messer, Reanna L

    2015-09-01

    Youth partnerships are a promising but understudied strategy for prevention and health promotion. Specifically, little is known about how the functioning of youth partnerships differs from that of adult partnerships. Accordingly, this study compared the functioning of youth partnerships with that of adult partnerships. Several aspects of partnership functioning, including leadership, task focus, cohesion, participation costs and benefits, and community support, were examined. Standardized partnership functioning surveys were administered to participants in three smoke-free youth coalitions (n = 44; 45 % female; 43 % non-Hispanic white; mean age = 13) and in 53 Communities That Care adult coalitions (n = 673; 69 % female; 88 % non-Hispanic white; mean age = 49). Multilevel regression analyses showed that most aspects of partnership functioning did not differ significantly between youth and adult partnerships. These findings are encouraging given the success of the adult partnerships in reducing community-level rates of substance use and delinquency. Although youth partnership functioning appears to be strong enough to support effective prevention strategies, youth partnerships faced substantially more participation difficulties than adult partnerships. Strategies that youth partnerships can use to manage these challenges, such as creative scheduling and increasing opportunities for youth to help others directly, are discussed. PMID:26066568

  16. The effects of vitamin D and calcium supplementation on pancreatic beta cell function, insulin sensitivity and glycemia in adults at high risk for diabetes. The CaDDM Randomized Controlled Trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Suboptimal vitamin D and calcium status has been associated with higher risk of type 2 diabetes in observational studies but evidence from trials is lacking. The objective of this trial was to determine whether vitamin D supplementation, with or without calcium, improves glucose homeostasis in adult...

  17. Brain Training Game Boosts Executive Functions, Working Memory and Processing Speed in the Young Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Nouchi, Rui; Taki, Yasuyuki; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Nozawa, Takayuki; Kambara, Toshimune; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Miyauchi, Carlos Makoto; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nouchi, Haruka; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2013-01-01

    Background Do brain training games work? The beneficial effects of brain training games are expected to transfer to other cognitive functions. Yet in all honesty, beneficial transfer effects of the commercial brain training games in young adults have little scientific basis. Here we investigated the impact of the brain training game (Brain Age) on a wide range of cognitive functions in young adults. Methods We conducted a double-blind (de facto masking) randomized controlled trial using a popular brain training game (Brain Age) and a popular puzzle game (Tetris). Thirty-two volunteers were recruited through an advertisement in the local newspaper and randomly assigned to either of two game groups (Brain Age, Tetris). Participants in both the Brain Age and the Tetris groups played their game for about 15 minutes per day, at least 5 days per week, for 4 weeks. Measures of the cognitive functions were conducted before and after training. Measures of the cognitive functions fell into eight categories (fluid intelligence, executive function, working memory, short-term memory, attention, processing speed, visual ability, and reading ability). Results and Discussion Our results showed that commercial brain training game improves executive functions, working memory, and processing speed in young adults. Moreover, the popular puzzle game can engender improvement attention and visuo-spatial ability compared to playing the brain training game. The present study showed the scientific evidence which the brain training game had the beneficial effects on cognitive functions (executive functions, working memory and processing speed) in the healthy young adults. Conclusions Our results do not indicate that everyone should play brain training games. However, the commercial brain training game might be a simple and convenient means to improve some cognitive functions. We believe that our findings are highly relevant to applications in educational and clinical fields. Trial Registration UMIN Clinical Trial Registry 000005618. PMID:23405164

  18. Parenting Style, Perfectionism, and Creativity in High-Ability and High-Achieving Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Angie L.; Lambert, Amber D.; Speirs Neumeister, Kristie L.

    2012-01-01

    The current study explores the potential relationships among perceived parenting style, perfectionism, and creativity in a high-ability and high-achieving young adult population. Using data from 323 honors college students at a Midwestern university, bivariate correlations suggested positive relationships between (a) permissive parenting style and…

  19. Psychiatric Comorbidity and Functioning in a Clinically Referred Population of Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joshi, Gagan; Wozniak, Janet; Petty, Carter; Martelon, Mary Kate; Fried, Ronna; Bolfek, Anela; Kotte, Amelia; Stevens, Jonathan; Furtak, Stephannie L.; Bourgeois, Michelle; Caruso, Janet; Caron, Ashley; Biederman, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    To systematically examine the patterns of psychiatric comorbidity and functioning in clinically referred adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Psychiatrically referred adults with and without ASD were compared on measures assessing for psychiatric comorbidity and psychosocial functioning. Sixty-three adults with ASD participated in the…

  20. Functional Brain Activation Associated with Inhibitory Control Deficits in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Coxon, James P; Goble, Daniel J; Leunissen, Inge; Van Impe, Annouchka; Wenderoth, Nicole; Swinnen, Stephan P

    2016-01-01

    In young adults, canceling an initiated action depends on the right inferior frontal cortex (IFC), presupplementary motor area (preSMA), and the basal ganglia. Older adults show response inhibition deficits, but how this relates to functional brain activation remains unclear. Using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging, we tested whether older adults (N = 20) exhibit overactivation during stop-signal inhibition as shown for attentional control tasks, or reduced activity compared with young adults (N = 20). We used a modified stop-signal task involving coupled bimanual responses and manipulated whether both or just one hand was cued to stop. Stop-task difficulty was matched across groups. We found a group by condition interaction in supramarginal gyrus, anterior insula, rIFC, and preSMA, with activation increasing for successful Stop versus Go trials in the young adults only. Comparing the groups on Stop trials revealed preSMA and striatum hypoactivity for older adults. White matter tracts connecting rIFC, preSMA, and the subthalamic nuclei were associated with stronger activation of preSMA in older adults, suggesting that maintenance of the brain's structure has positive implications for brain function. PMID:25085883

  1. Functional Dissociation of Adult-Born Neurons Along the Dorsoventral Axis of the Dentate Gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Melody V.; Hen, René

    2014-01-01

    Adult-born granule cells in the mammalian dentate gyrus have long been implicated in hippocampal dependent spatial learning and behavioral effects of chronic antidepressant treatment. Although recent anatomical and functional evidence indicates a dissociation of the dorsal and ventral regions of the hippocampus, it is not known if adult neurogenesis within each region specifically contributes to distinct functions or whether adult-born cells along the entire dorsoventral axis are required for these behaviors. We examined the role of distinct subpopulations of adult-born hippocampal granule cells in learning- and anxiety-related behaviors using low-dose focal x-irradiation directed specifically to the dorsal or ventral dentate gyrus. Our findings indicate a functional dissociation between adult-born neurons along the longitudinal axis of the dentate gyrus wherein new neurons in the dorsal dentate gyrus are required for timely acquisition of contextual discrimination while immature neurons in the ventral dentate gyrus are necessary for anxiolytic/antidepressant-related effects of fluoxetine. Interestingly, when contexts are presented with altered temporal cues, or fluoxetine is administered alongside chronic glucocorticoid treatment, this dissociation is abrogated such that adult-born neurons across the entire dorsoventral extent of the dentate gyrus appear to contribute to these behaviors. Our results suggest that individual subpopulations of adult-born hippocampal neurons may be sufficient to mediate distinct behaviors in certain conditions, but are required to act in concert in more challenging situations. PMID:24550158

  2. Patterns and predictors of sexual function after liver donation: The Adult-to-Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation Cohort study.

    PubMed

    DiMartini, Andrea F; Dew, Mary Amanda; Butt, Zeeshan; Simpson, Mary Ann; Ladner, Daniela P; Smith, Abigail R; Hill-Callahan, Peg; Gillespie, Brenda W

    2015-05-01

    Although sexual functioning is an important facet of a living donor's quality of life, it has not received an extensive evaluation in this population. Using data from the Adult-to-Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation Cohort Study, we examined donor sexual functioning across the donation process from the predonation evaluation to 3 months and 1 year after donation. Donors (n?=?208) and a comparison group of nondonors (n?=?155) completed self-reported surveys with specific questions on sexual desire, satisfaction, orgasm, and (for men) erectile function. Across the 3 time points, donor sexual functioning was lower at the evaluation phase and 3 months after donation versus 1 year after donation. In the early recovery period, abdominal pain was associated with difficulty reaching orgasm [odds ratio (OR), 3.98; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.30-12.16], concerns over appearance were associated with lower sexual desire (OR, 4.14; 95% CI, 1.02-16.79), and not feeling back to normal was associated with dissatisfaction with sexual life (OR, 3.58; 95% CI, 1.43-8.99). Efforts to educate donors before the surgery and prepare them for the early recovery phase may improve recovery and reduce distress regarding sexual functioning. PMID:25779554

  3. Exposure to traffic and lung function in adults: a general population cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Carlsen, Hanne Krage; Modig, Lars; Levinsson, Anna; Kim, Jeong-Lim; Toren, Kjell; Nyberg, Fredrik; Olin, Anna-Carin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the association between living near dense traffic and lung function in a cohort of adults from a single urban region. Design Cross-sectional results from a cohort study. Setting The adult-onset asthma and exhaled nitric oxide (ADONIX) cohort, sampled during 2001–2008 in Gothenburg, Sweden. Exposure was expressed as the distance from participants’ residential address to the nearest road with dense traffic (>10?000 vehicles per day) or very dense traffic (>30?000 vehicles per day). The exposure categories were: low (>500?m; reference), medium (75–500?m) or high (<75?m). Participants The source population was a population-based cohort of adults (n=6153). The study population included 5441 participants of European descent with good quality spirometry and information about all outcomes and covariates. Outcome measures Forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1?s (FEV1) were measured at a clinical examination. The association with exposure was examined using linear regression adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, smoking status and education in all participants and stratified by sex, smoking status and respiratory health status. Results We identified a significant dose–response trend between exposure category and FEV1 (p=0.03) and borderline significant trend for FVC (p=0.06) after adjusting for covariates. High exposure was associated with lower FEV1 (?1.0%, 95% CI ?2.5% to 0.5%) and lower FVC (?0.9%, 95% CI ?2.2% to 0.4%). The effect appeared to be stronger in women. In highly exposed individuals with current asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, FVC was lower (?4.5%, 95% CI ?8.8% to ?0.1%). Conclusions High traffic exposure at the residential address was associated with lower than predicted FEV1 and FVC lung function compared with living further away in a large general population cohort. There were particular effects on women and individuals with obstructive disease. PMID:26109116

  4. High-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy in adults.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Masaji

    2015-01-01

    High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) oxygen therapy comprises an air/oxygen blender, an active humidifier, a single heated circuit, and a nasal cannula. It delivers adequately heated and humidified medical gas at up to 60 L/min of flow and is considered to have a number of physiological effects: reduction of anatomical dead space, PEEP effect, constant fraction of inspired oxygen, and good humidification. While there have been no big randomized clinical trials, it has been gaining attention as an innovative respiratory support for critically ill patients. Most of the available data has been published in the neonatal field. Evidence with critically ill adults are poor; however, physicians apply it to a variety of patients with diverse underlying diseases: hypoxemic respiratory failure, acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, post-extubation, pre-intubation oxygenation, sleep apnea, acute heart failure, patients with do-not-intubate order, and so on. Many published reports suggest that HFNC decreases breathing frequency and work of breathing and reduces needs of escalation of respiratory support in patients with diverse underlying diseases. Some important issues remain to be resolved, such as its indication, timing of starting and stopping HFNC, and escalating treatment. Despite these issues, HFNC oxygen therapy is an innovative and effective modality for the early treatment of adults with respiratory failure with diverse underlying diseases. PMID:25866645

  5. Health-Related Stigma as a Determinant of Functioning in Young Adults with Narcolepsy

    PubMed Central

    Kapella, Mary C.; Berger, Barbara E.; Vern, Boris A.; Vispute, Sachin; Prasad, Bharati; Carley, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Symptoms of narcolepsy tend to arise during adolescence or young adulthood, a formative time in human development during which people are usually completing their education and launching a career. Little is known about the impact of narcolepsy on the social aspects of health-related quality of life in young adults. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between health-related stigma, mood (anxiety and depression) and daytime functioning in young adults with narcolepsy compared to those without narcolepsy. Young adults (age 18–35) with narcolepsy (N = 122) and without narcolepsy (N = 93) were mailed a packet that included questionnaires and a self-addressed postage paid envelope. The questionnaire included demographic information and a composite of instruments including the SF 36, Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ), Fife Stigma Scale (FSS), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Variable associations were assessed using descriptive statistics, ANOVA, Mann-Whitney U Test, correlations, stepwise multiple regression and path analysis. Young adults with narcolepsy perceived significantly more stigma and lower mood and health-related quality of life than young adults without narcolepsy (p<0.01). Health-related stigma was directly and indirectly associated with lower functioning through depressed mood. Fifty-two percent of the variance in functioning was explained by the final model in the young adults with narcolepsy. Health-related stigma in young adults with narcolepsy is at a level consistent with other chronic medical illnesses. Health-related stigma may be an important determinant of functioning in young adults with narcolepsy. Future work is indicated toward further characterizing stigma and developing interventions that address various domains of stigma in people with narcolepsy. PMID:25898361

  6. Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids improve brain function and structure in older adults.

    PubMed

    Witte, A Veronica; Kerti, Lucia; Hermannstädter, Henrike M; Fiebach, Jochen B; Schreiber, Stephan J; Schuchardt, Jan Philipp; Hahn, Andreas; Flöel, Agnes

    2014-11-01

    Higher intake of seafish or oil rich in long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-n3-FA) may be beneficial for the aging brain. We tested in a prospective interventional design whether high levels of supplementary LC-n3-FA would improve cognition, and addressed potential mechanisms underlying the effects. Sixty-five healthy subjects (50-75 years, 30 females) successfully completed 26 weeks of either fish oil (2.2 g/day LC-n3-FA) or placebo intake. Before and after the intervention period, cognitive performance, structural neuroimaging, vascular markers, and blood parameters were assayed. We found a significant increase in executive functions after LC-n3-FA compared with placebo (P = 0.023). In parallel, LC-n3-FA exerted beneficial effects on white matter microstructural integrity and gray matter volume in frontal, temporal, parietal, and limbic areas primarily of the left hemisphere, and on carotid intima media thickness and diastolic blood pressure. Improvements in executive functions correlated positively with changes in omega-3-index and peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and negatively with changes in peripheral fasting insulin. This double-blind randomized interventional study provides first-time evidence that LC-n3-FA exert positive effects on brain functions in healthy older adults, and elucidates underlying mechanisms. Our findings suggest novel strategies to maintain cognitive functions into old age. PMID:23796946

  7. Alteration of mitochondrial function in adult rat offspring of malnourished dams

    PubMed Central

    Reusens, Brigitte; Theys, Nicolas; Remacle, Claude

    2011-01-01

    Under-nutrition as well as over-nutrition during pregnancy has been associated with the development of adult diseases such as diabetes and obesity. Both epigenetic modifications and programming of the mitochondrial function have been recently proposed to explain how altered intrauterine metabolic environment may produce such a phenotype. This review aims to report data reported in several animal models of fetal malnutrition due to maternal low protein or low calorie diet, high fat diet as well as reduction in placental blood flow. We focus our overview on the ? cell. We highlight that, notwithstanding early nutritional events, mitochondrial dysfunctions resulting from different alteration by diet or gender are programmed. This may explain the higher propensity to develop obesity and diabetes in later life. PMID:21954419

  8. Aerobic and Cognitive Exercise (ACE) Pilot Study for Older Adults: Executive Function Improves with Cognitive Challenge While Exergaming.

    PubMed

    Barcelos, Nicole; Shah, Nikita; Cohen, Katherine; Hogan, Michael J; Mulkerrin, Eamon; Arciero, Paul J; Cohen, Brian D; Kramer, Arthur F; Anderson-Hanley, Cay

    2015-11-01

    Dementia cases are increasing worldwide; thus, investigators seek to identify interventions that might prevent or ameliorate cognitive decline in later life. Extensive research confirms the benefits of physical exercise for brain health, yet only a fraction of older adults exercise regularly. Interactive mental and physical exercise, as in aerobic exergaming, not only motivates, but has also been found to yield cognitive benefit above and beyond traditional exercise. This pilot study sought to investigate whether greater cognitive challenge while exergaming would yield differential outcomes in executive function and generalize to everyday functioning. Sixty-four community based older adults (mean age=82) were randomly assigned to pedal a stationary bike, while interactively engaging on-screen with: (1) a low cognitive demand task (bike tour), or (2) a high cognitive demand task (video game). Executive function (indices from Trails, Stroop and Digit Span) was assessed before and after a single-bout and 3-month exercise intervention. Significant group × time interactions were found after a single-bout (Color Trails) and after 3 months of exergaming (Stroop; among 20 adherents). Those in the high cognitive demand group performed better than those in the low cognitive dose condition. Everyday function improved across both exercise conditions. Pilot data indicate that for older adults, cognitive benefit while exergaming increased concomitantly with higher doses of interactive mental challenge. (JINS, 2015, 21, 768-779). PMID:26581789

  9. Self-renewal pattern-associated genes and their role in adult stem cell functions

    E-print Network

    Noh, Minsoo

    2006-01-01

    Molecular markers for adult stem cells (ASCs) are highly demanded for research and clinical applications. The development of specific molecular markers for ASCs has been difficult mainly due to the technical barriers in ...

  10. Optimizing the Benefits of Exercise on Physical Function in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Buford, Thomas W.; Anton, Stephen D.; Clark, David J.; Higgins, Torrance J.; Cooke, Matthew B.

    2014-01-01

    As the number of older adults continues to rise worldwide, the prevention of physical disability among seniors is an increasingly important public health priority. Physical exercise is among the best known methods of preventing disability, but accumulating evidence indicates that considerable variability exists in the responsiveness of older adults to standard training regimens. Accordingly, a need exists to develop tailored interventions to optimize the beneficial effects of exercise on the physical function of older adults at risk for becoming disabled. The present review summarizes the available literature related to the use of adjuvant or alternative strategies intended to enhance the efficacy of exercise in improving the physical function of older adults. Within this work, we also discuss potential future research directions in this area. PMID:24361365

  11. Optimizing the benefits of exercise on physical function in older adults.

    PubMed

    Buford, Thomas W; Anton, Stephen D; Clark, David J; Higgins, Torrance J; Cooke, Matthew B

    2014-06-01

    As the number of older adults continues to rise worldwide, the prevention of physical disability among seniors is an increasingly important public health priority. Physical exercise is among the best known methods of preventing disability, but accumulating evidence indicates that considerable variability exists in the responsiveness of older adults to standard training regimens. Accordingly, a need exists to develop tailored interventions to optimize the beneficial effects of exercise on the physical function of older adults at risk for becoming disabled. The present review summarizes the available literature related to the use of adjuvant or alternative strategies intended to enhance the efficacy of exercise in improving the physical function of older adults. Within this work, we also discuss potential future research directions in this area. PMID:24361365

  12. Mouse model of CADASIL reveals novel insights into Notch3 function in adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ehret, Fanny; Vogler, Steffen; Pojar, Sherin; Elliott, David A; Bradke, Frank; Steiner, Barbara; Kempermann, Gerd

    2015-03-01

    Could impaired adult hippocampal neurogenesis be a relevant mechanism underlying CADASIL (cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy)? Memory symptoms in CADASIL, the most common hereditary form of vascular dementia, are usually thought to be primarily due to vascular degeneration and white matter lacunes. Since adult hippocampal neurogenesis, a process essential for the integration of new spatial memory occurs in a highly vascularized niche, we considered dysregulation of adult neurogenesis as a potential mechanism for the manifestation of dementia in CADASIL. Analysis in aged mice overexpressing Notch3 with a CADASIL mutation, revealed vascular deficits in arteries of the hippocampal fissure but not in the niche of the dentate gyrus. At 12 months of age, cell proliferation and survival of newborn neurons were reduced not only in CADASIL mice but also in transgenic controls overexpressing wild type Notch3. At 6 months, hippocampal neurogenesis was altered in CADASIL mice independent of overt vascular abnormalities in the fissure. Further, we identified Notch3 expression in hippocampal precursor cells and maturing neurons in vivo as well as in cultured hippocampal precursor cells. Overexpression and knockdown experiments showed that Notch3 signaling negatively regulated precursor cell proliferation. Notch3 overexpression also led to deficits in KCl-induced precursor cell activation. This suggests a cell-autonomous effect of Notch3 signaling in the regulation of precursor proliferation and activation and a loss-of-function effect in CADASIL. Consequently, besides vascular damage, aberrant precursor cell proliferation and differentiation due to Notch3 dysfunction might be an additional independent mechanism for the development of hippocampal dysfunction in CADASIL. PMID:25555543

  13. Effects of Functional Mobility Skills Training for Adults with Severe Multiple Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whinnery, Stacie B.; Whinnery, Keith W.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a functional mobility program on the functional standing and walking skills of five adults with developmental disabilities. The Mobility Opportunities Via Education (MOVE) Curriculum was implemented using a multiple-baseline across subjects design. Repeated measures were taken during baseline, intervention…

  14. Atypical Cerebral Lateralisation in Adults with Compensated Developmental Dyslexia Demonstrated Using Functional Transcranial Doppler Ultrasound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illingworth, Sarah; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.

    2009-01-01

    Functional transcranial Doppler ultrasound (fTCD) is a relatively new and non-invasive technique that assesses cerebral lateralisation through measurements of blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral arteries. In this study fTCD was used to compare functional asymmetry during a word generation task between a group of 30 dyslexic adults and a…

  15. Developmental Continuity in Teleo-Functional Explanation: Reasoning about Nature among Romanian Romani Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casler, Krista; Kelemen, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    Teleo-functional explanations account for objects in terms of purpose, helping us understand objects such as pencils (for writing) and body parts such as ears (for hearing). Western-educated adults restrict teleo-functional attributions to artifact, biological, and behavioral phenomena, considering such explanations less appropriate for nonliving…

  16. The Functional Profile of Young Adults with Suspected Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tal-Saban, Miri; Zarka, Salman; Grotto, Itamar; Ornoy, Asher; Parush, Shula

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the non-academic and academic functioning of young adults with DCD, and investigated the emotional influences and the role of strategy use within this population. A random sample of 2379 adolescents and young adults aged 19-25 (1081 males [45.4%]; mean age = 20.68, SD = 3.42) was used to develop the instruments. From this sample, three…

  17. Exploring Functional Disability in Older Adults with Low Vision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travis, Linda A.; Boerner, Kathrin; Reinhardt, Joann P.; Horowitz, Amy

    2004-01-01

    This article reports on a study that explored the prevalence and predictors of functional disability that are due to visual problems as opposed to functional disability that is due to other health problems. It also discusses the implications for psychosocial and rehabilitative interventions that target different types of disability. (Contains 5…

  18. High throughout reproducible cantilever functionalization

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Barbara R; Lee, Ida

    2014-11-25

    A method for functionalizing cantilevers is provided that includes providing a holder having a plurality of channels each having a width for accepting a cantilever probe and a plurality of probes. A plurality of cantilever probes are fastened to the plurality of channels of the holder by the spring clips. The wells of a well plate are filled with a functionalization solution, wherein adjacent wells in the well plate are separated by a dimension that is substantially equal to a dimension separating adjacent channels of the plurality of channels. Each cantilever probe that is fastened within the plurality of channels of the holder is applied to the functionalization solution that is contained in the wells of the well plate.

  19. High throughput reproducible cantilever functionalization

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Barbara R; Lee, Ida

    2014-01-21

    A method for functionalizing cantilevers is provided that includes providing a holder having a plurality of channels each having a width for accepting a cantilever probe and a plurality of probes. A plurality of cantilever probes are fastened to the plurality of channels of the holder by the spring clips. The wells of a well plate are filled with a functionalization solution, wherein adjacent wells in the well plate are separated by a dimension that is substantially equal to a dimension separating adjacent channels of the plurality of channels. Each cantilever probe that is fastened within the plurality of channels of the holder is applied to the functionalization solution that is contained in the wells of the well plate.

  20. Heart on a Plate: Histological and Functional Assessment of Isolated Adult Zebrafish Hearts Maintained in Culture

    PubMed Central

    Pieperhoff, Sebastian; Wilson, Kathryn S.; Baily, James; de Mora, Kim; Maqsood, Sana; Vass, Sharron; Taylor, Jonathan; Del-Pozo, Jorge; MacRae, Calum A.; Mullins, John J.; Denvir, Martin A.

    2014-01-01

    The zebrafish is increasingly used for cardiovascular genetic and functional studies. We present a novel protocol to maintain and monitor whole isolated beating adult zebrafish hearts in culture for long-term experiments. Excised whole adult zebrafish hearts were transferred directly into culture dishes containing optimized L-15 Leibovitz growth medium and maintained for 5 days. Hearts were assessed daily using video-edge analysis of ventricle function using low power microscopy images. High-throughput histology techniques were used to assess changes in myocardial architecture and cell viability. Mean spontaneous Heart rate (HR, min?1) declined significantly between day 0 and day 1 in culture (96.7±19.5 to 45.2±8.2 min?1, mean±SD, p?=?0.001), and thereafter declined more slowly to 27.6±7.2 min?1 on day 5. Ventricle wall motion amplitude (WMA) did not change until day 4 in culture (day 0, 46.7±13.0 µm vs day 4, 16.9±1.9 µm, p?=?0.08). Contraction velocity (CV) declined between day 0 and day 3 (35.6±14.8 vs 15.2±5.3 µms?1, respectively, p?=?0.012) while relaxation velocity (RV) declined quite rapidly (day 0, 72.5±11.9 vs day 1, 29.5±5.8 µms?1, p?=?0.03). HR and WMA responded consistently to isoproterenol from day 0 to day 5 in culture while CV and RV showed less consistent responses to beta-agonist. Cellular architecture and cross-striation pattern of cardiomyocytes remained unchanged up to day 3 in culture and thereafter showed significant deterioration with loss of striation pattern, pyknotic nuclei and cell swelling. Apoptotic markers within the myocardium became increasingly frequent by day 3 in culture. Whole adult zebrafish hearts can be maintained in culture-medium for up to 3 days. However, after day-3 there is significant deterioration in ventricle function and heart rate accompanied by significant histological changes consistent with cell death and loss of cardiomyocyte cell integrity. Further studies are needed to assess whether this preparation can be optimised for longer term survival. PMID:24824845

  1. Mothers' exercise during pregnancy programs vasomotor function in adult offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The intrauterine environment is influenced by maternal behavior and known to influence lifelong atherosclerotic disease susceptibility in offspring. The purpose of this investigation was to test the hypothesis that maternal exercise during pregnancy increases endothelial function in offs...

  2. Virtual reality using games for improving physical functioning in older adults: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Molina, Karina Iglesia; Ricci, Natalia Aquaroni; de Moraes, Suzana Albuquerque; Perracini, Monica Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    The use of virtual reality through exergames or active video game, i.e. a new form of interactive gaming, as a complementary tool in rehabilitation has been a frequent focus in research and clinical practice in the last few years. However, evidence of their effectiveness is scarce in the older population. This review aim to provide a summary of the effects of exergames in improving physical functioning in older adults. A search for randomized controlled trials was performed in the databases EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsyInfo, Cochrane data base, PEDro and ISI Web of Knowledge. Results from the included studies were analyzed through a critical review and methodological quality by the PEDro scale. Thirteen studies were included in the review. The most common apparatus for exergames intervention was the Nintendo Wii gaming console (8 studies), followed by computers games, Dance video game with pad (two studies each) and only one study with the Balance Rehabilitation Unit. The Timed Up and Go was the most frequently used instrument to assess physical functioning (7 studies). According to the PEDro scale, most of the studies presented methodological problems, with a high proportion of scores below 5 points (8 studies). The exergames protocols and their duration varied widely, and the benefits for physical function in older people remain inconclusive. However, a consensus between studies is the positive motivational aspect that the use of exergames provides. Further studies are needed in order to achieve better methodological quality, external validity and provide stronger scientific evidence. PMID:25399408

  3. Screening hospitalized injured older adults for cognitive impairment and pre-injury functional impairment.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Cathy A

    2013-08-01

    Cognitive and functional impairments are leading predictors of poor outcomes among older adults, yet few hospitals collect these variables for injured older adults (IOAs). In this prospective descriptive study, we sought to determine the feasibility of screening IOAs for cognitive and pre-injury functional impairment; and to examine the prevalence of impairment at two acute care hospitals, using the Mini-Cog or Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCDE), and Vulnerable Elder Survey (VES-13). Eighty patients were screened. Demographics included: mean age 78.7; female gender 83%; falls 89%. Cognitive impairment was present in 36 (44%) patients, and pre-injury functional impairment was present in 62 (78%) patients. Screening respondents included: patients: 53 (66%); adult children: 18 (23%); spouses: 5 (6%), and other 4 (5%). A combination of brief screening instruments for use with IOAs or surrogates is useful for capturing important variables for risk adjustment and care management. PMID:23639524

  4. Disparities in Psychosocial Functioning in a Diverse Sample of Adults with Anxiety Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Moitra, Ethan; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Stout, Robert L.; Angert, Erica; Weisberg, Risa B.; Keller, Martin B.

    2014-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are associated with psychosocial functional impairments, but no study has compared how these impairments might vary by ethno-racial status. We examined whether minority status was uniquely associated with functional impairments in 431 adults with anxiety disorders. Functioning was measured in the rater-assessed domains of: global assessment of functioning (GAF); global psychosocial functioning; work, relationship, and recreational functioning; and, self-reported: life satisfaction, mental health functioning, physical functioning, and disability status. After controlling for demographic and clinical variables, results revealed evidence of disparities, whereby African Americans (AAs), particularly those with low income, had worse GAF, worse global psychosocial functioning, and were more likely to be disabled compared to non-Latino Whites. Latinos, particularly those with low income, had worse global psychosocial functioning than non-Latino Whites. Results suggest AAs and Latinos are at increased risk for functional impairments not better accounted for by other demographic or clinical variables. PMID:24685821

  5. Cognitive function in older adults with major depression: Effects of mineralocorticoid receptor stimulation.

    PubMed

    Otte, Christian; Wingenfeld, Katja; Kuehl, Linn K; Richter, Steffen; Regen, Francesca; Piber, Dominique; Hinkelmann, Kim

    2015-10-01

    Memory and executive function are often impaired in older adults with major depression. Mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) are abundantly expressed in the hippocampus and in the prefrontal cortex, brain areas critical for memory and executive function. In both aging and depression, MR expression in the brain is reduced. Therefore, diminished MR function could contribute to impaired cognition in older adults with depression and might be a promising target for pharmacological intervention. Twenty-three older adults with major depression (mean age 61.6 yrs ± 8.1, n = 13 women) without medication and 24 age-, sex- and education-matched healthy participants received the MR-agonist fludrocortisone (0.4 mg) or placebo in a randomized, double-blind, within-subject cross-over design. We measured psychomotor speed, executive function, verbal learning and memory, and visuospatial memory. Compared to controls, depressed patients performed worse in psychomotor speed (group effect p = 0.01), executive function (group effect p < 0.01), verbal learning (group effect p = 0.02), and verbal memory (group effect p < 0.01) but not in visuospatial memory. There were no significant treatment effects. However, we found a group × treatment interaction in verbal learning (p = 0.04) and visuospatial memory (p = 0.02) indicating that depressed patients performed worse after fludrocortisone whereas controls performed better after fludrocortisone. Our data suggest that -in contrast to younger depressed patients-older adults with depression do not benefit from MR stimulation but deteriorate in cognitive function. PMID:26343603

  6. Normative functional fitness standards and trends of Portuguese older adults: cross-cultural comparisons.

    PubMed

    Marques, Elisa A; Baptista, Fátima; Santos, Rute; Vale, Susana; Santos, Diana A; Silva, Analiza M; Mota, Jorge; Sardinha, Luís B

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was designed to develop normative functional fitness standards for the Portuguese older adults, to analyze age and gender patterns of decline, to compare the fitness level of Portuguese older adults with that of older adults in other countries, and to evaluate the fitness level of Portuguese older adults relative to recently published criterion fitness standards associated with maintaining physical independence. A sample of 4,712 independent-living older adults, age 65-103 yr, was evaluated using the Senior Fitness Test battery. Age-group normative fitness scores are reported for the 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 90th percentiles. Results indicate that both women and men experience age-related losses in all components of functional fitness, with their rate of decline being greater than that observed in other populations, a trend which may cause Portuguese older adults to be at greater risk for loss of independence in later years. These newly established normative standards make it possible to assess individual fitness level and provide a basis for implementing population-wide health strategies to counteract early loss of independence. PMID:23538513

  7. Obesity in older adults: relationship to functional limitation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose of review – This review is intended to provide a critical overview of recent investigations of obesity among older persons with emphasis upon associated functional limitations, potential for intervention, and a future research agenda. Recent findings – Obesity is growing in prevalence among...

  8. Can Particulate Pollution Affect Lung Function in Healthy Adults?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accompanying editorial to paper from Harvard by Rice et al. entitled "Long-Term Exposure to Traffic Emissions and Fine Particulate Matter and Lung Function Decline in the Framingham Heart StudyBy almost any measure the Clean Air Act and its amendments has to be considered as one...

  9. Pulse Wave Velocity and Cognitive Function in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Wenjun; Cruickshanks, Karen J; Schubert, Carla R; Carlsson, Cynthia M; Chappell, Richard J; Klein, Barbara EK; Klein, Ronald; Acher, Charles W

    2013-01-01

    Arterial stiffness may be associated with cognitive function. In this study, pulse wave velocity (PWV) was measured from the carotid to femoral (CF-PWV) and from the carotid to radial (CR-PWV) with the Complior SP System (Alam Medical, Vincennes, France). Cognitive function was measured by six tests of executive function, psychomotor speed, memory, and language fluency. A total of 1433 participants were included (mean age 75 years, 43% men). Adjusting for age, sex, education, pulse rate, hemoglobin A1C, HDL cholesterol, hypertension, CVD history, smoking ,drinking, and depression symptoms, a CF-PWV > 12 m/s was associated with a lower Mini-Mental State Examination score (coefficient: ?0.31, se: 0.11, p=0.005), fewer words recalled on Auditory Verbal Learning Test (coefficient: ?1.10, se: 0.43, p=0.01), and lower score on the composite cognition score (coefficient: ?0.10, se: 0.05, p=0.04) and marginally significantly associated with longer time to complete Trail Making Test-B (coefficient: 6.30, se: 3.41, p=0.06), CF-PWV was not associated with Trail Making Test-A, Digit Symbol Substation Test, or Verbal Fluency Test. No associations were found between CR-PWV and cognitive performance measures. Higher large artery stiffness was associated with worse cognitive function, and longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these associations. PMID:23632267

  10. Neurons born in the adult dentate gyrus form functional synapses with target cells

    PubMed Central

    Toni, Nicolas; Laplagne, Diego A; Zhao, Chunmei; Lombardi, Gabriela; Ribak, Charles E; Gage, Fred H; Schinder, Alejandro F

    2008-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis occurs in the hippocampus and the olfactory bulb of the mammalian CNS. Recent studies have demonstrated that newborn granule cells of the adult hippocampus are postsynaptic targets of excitatory and inhibitory neurons, but evidence of synapse formation by the axons of these cells is still lacking. By combining retroviral expression of green fluorescent protein in adult-born neurons of the mouse dentate gyrus with immuno-electron microscopy, we found output synapses that were formed by labeled terminals on appropriate target cells in the CA3 area and the hilus. Furthermore, retroviral expression of channelrhodopsin-2 allowed us to light-stimulate newborn granule cells and identify postsynaptic target neurons by whole-cell recordings in acute slices. Our structural and functional evidence indicates that axons of adult-born granule cells establish synapses with hilar interneurons, mossy cells and CA3 pyramidal cells and release glutamate as their main neurotransmitter. PMID:18622400

  11. Exploring the aggregation of four functional measures in a population of older adults with joint pain and comorbidity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In clinical settings, it is important for health care providers to measure different aspects of functioning in older adults with joint pain and comorbidity. Besides the use of distinct measures, it could also be attractive to have one general measure of functioning that incorporates several distinct measures, but provides one summary score to quantify overall level of functioning, for example for the identification of older adults at risk of poor functional outcome. Therefore, we selected four measures of functioning: Physical Functioning (PF), Activities of Daily Living (ADL), Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) and participation, and tested the possibility to aggregate these measures into one general measure of functioning. Methods A prospective cohort study of older adults (?65 years) with joint pain and comorbidity provided baseline data (n?=?407) consisting of PF (PF subscale, RAND-36; 10 items), ADL (KATZ index; 6 items), IADL (Lawton index; 7 items) and participation (KAP; 6 items). We tested two models with confirmatory factor analysis: first, a bifactor model with all four measures and second, a bifactor model with PF, ADL and IADL and a correlated but distinct subgroup factor for participation. Several model fit indexes and reliability coefficients, such as explained common variance (ECV) and omegas were computed for both models. Results The first model fitted the data well, but the reliability analysis indicated multidimensionality and unique information in the subgroup factor participation. The second model showed similar model fits, but better reliability; ECV?=?0.67, omega-t?=?0.94, low omega-s?=?0.18-0.22 on the subgroup factors and high omega of 0.82 on participation, which all were in favour of the second model. Conclusions The results indicate that PF, ADL and IADL could be aggregated into one general measure of functioning, whereas participation should be considered as a distinct measure. PMID:24192234

  12. Competency-Based Adult High School Completion Student Services Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Elizabeth; And Others

    Designed as part of a 310 Special Demonstration and Teacher Training Project undertaken at Brevard Community College, this student services guide contains information to assist adult education administrators, counselors, instructors, and office personnel in meeting the needs of students enrolled in adult/community education schools. Primary…

  13. Cognitive functioning in relation to brain amyloid-? in healthy adults with Down syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Handen, Benjamin L.; Devenny, Darlynne A.; Hardison, Regina; Mihaila, Iulia; Price, Julie C.; Cohen, Annie D.; Klunk, William E.; Mailick, Marsha R.; Johnson, Sterling C.; Christian, Bradley T.

    2014-01-01

    Nearly all adults with Down syndrome show neuropathology of Alzheimer’s disease, including amyloid-? deposition, by their fifth decade of life. In the current study, we examined the association between brain amyloid-? deposition, assessed via in vivo assessments of neocortical Pittsburgh compound B, and scores on an extensive neuropsychological battery of measures of cognitive functioning in 63 adults (31 male, 32 female) with Down syndrome aged 30–53 years who did not exhibit symptoms of dementia. Twenty-two of the adults with Down syndrome were identified as having elevated neocortical Pittsburgh compound B retention levels. There was a significant positive correlation (r = 0.62, P < 0.0001) between age and neocortical Pittsburgh compound B retention. This robust association makes it difficult to discriminate normative age-related decline in cognitive functioning from any potential effects of amyloid-? deposition. When controlling for chronological age in addition to mental age, there were no significant differences between the adults with Down syndrome who had elevated neocortical Pittsburgh compound B retention levels and those who did not on any of the neuropsychological measures. Similarly, when examining Pittsburgh compound B as a continuous variable, after controlling for mental age and chronological age, only the Rivermead Picture Recognition score was significantly negatively associated with neocortical Pittsburgh compound B retention. Our findings indicate that many adults with Down syndrome can tolerate amyloid-? deposition without deleterious effects on cognitive functioning. However, we may have obscured true effects of amyloid-? deposition by controlling for chronological age in our analyses. Moreover, our sample included adults with Down syndrome who were most ‘resistant’ to the effects of amyloid-? deposition, as adults already exhibiting clinical symptoms of dementia symptoms were excluded from the study. PMID:24993958

  14. Novel Observations From Next-Generation RNA Sequencing of Highly Purified Human Adult and Fetal Islet Cell Subsets.

    PubMed

    Blodgett, David M; Nowosielska, Anetta; Afik, Shaked; Pechhold, Susanne; Cura, Anthony J; Kennedy, Norman J; Kim, Soyoung; Kucukural, Alper; Davis, Roger J; Kent, Sally C; Greiner, Dale L; Garber, Manuel G; Harlan, David M; diIorio, Philip

    2015-09-01

    Understanding distinct gene expression patterns of normal adult and developing fetal human pancreatic ?- and ?-cells is crucial for developing stem cell therapies, islet regeneration strategies, and therapies designed to increase ?-cell function in patients with diabetes (type 1 or 2). Toward that end, we have developed methods to highly purify ?-, ?-, and ?-cells from human fetal and adult pancreata by intracellular staining for the cell-specific hormone content, sorting the subpopulations by flow cytometry, and, using next-generation RNA sequencing, we report the detailed transcriptomes of fetal and adult ?- and ?-cells. We observed that human islet composition was not influenced by age, sex, or BMI, and transcripts for inflammatory gene products were noted in fetal ?-cells. In addition, within highly purified adult glucagon-expressing ?-cells, we observed surprisingly high insulin mRNA expression, but not insulin protein expression. This transcriptome analysis from highly purified islet ?- and ?-cell subsets from fetal and adult pancreata offers clear implications for strategies that seek to increase insulin expression in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. PMID:25931473

  15. Characterizing Vibratory Kinematics in Children and Adults with High-Speed Digital Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Rita; Dubrovskiy, Denis; Döllinger, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to quantify and identify characteristic vibratory motion in typically developing prepubertal children and young adults using high-speed digital imaging. Method: The vibrations of the vocal folds were recorded from 27 children (ages 5-9 years) and 35 adults (ages 21-45 years), with high speed at 4,000 frames per…

  16. Self-Reported Physical Activity Is Associated With ?-Cell Function in Mexican American Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhanghua; Black, Mary Helen; Watanabe, Richard M.; Trigo, Enrique; Takayanagi, Miwa; Lawrence, Jean M.; Buchanan, Thomas A.; Xiang, Anny H.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the association between self-reported physical activity (PA) and diabetes-related quantitative traits. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The observational cohort was 1,152 Mexican American adults with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, oral and intravenous glucose tolerance tests, and self-reported dietary and PA questionnaires. PA was categorized into three mutually exclusive groups according to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services PA guidelines for Americans: low (vigorous <75 min/week and moderate <150 min/week), moderate (vigorous ?75 min/week or moderate ?150 min/week), and high (vigorous ?75 min/week and moderate ?150 min/week). Trends in PA groups were tested for association with metabolic traits in a cross-sectional analysis. RESULTS The participants’ mean age was 35 years (range, 18–66 years), mean BMI was 29.6 kg/m2, and 73% were female. Among them, 501 (43%), 448 (39%), and 203 (18%) were classified as having low, moderate, and high PA, respectively. After adjustment for age, a higher PA was significantly associated with lower 2-h glucose, fasting insulin, and 2-h insulin and greater ?-cell function (P = 0.001, 0.0003, 0.0001, and 0.004, respectively). The association did not differ significantly by sex. Results were similar after further adjustment for age, sex, BMI, or percent body fat. CONCLUSIONS An increasing level of PA is associated with a better glucose and insulin profile and enhanced ?-cell function that is not explained by differences in BMI or percent body fat. Our results suggest that PA can be beneficial to ?-cell function and glucose regulation independent of obesity. PMID:23223346

  17. Associations between Conceptual Reasoning, Problem Solving, and Adaptive Ability in High-Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Diane L.; Mazefsky, Carla A.; Walker, Jon D.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Goldstein, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Abstract thinking is generally highly correlated with problem-solving ability which is predictive of better adaptive functioning. Measures of conceptual reasoning, an ecologically-valid laboratory measure of problem-solving, and a report measure of adaptive functioning in the natural environment, were administered to children and adults with and…

  18. Health Literacy, Cognitive Ability, and Functional Health Status among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Serper, Marina; Patzer, Rachel E; Curtis, Laura M; Smith, Samuel G; O'Conor, Rachel; Baker, David W; Wolf, Michael S

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether previously noted associations between health literacy and functional health status might be explained by cognitive function. Data Sources/Study Setting Health Literacy and Cognition in Older Adults (“LitCog,” prospective study funded by National Institute on Aging). Data presented are from interviews conducted among 784 adults, ages 55–74 years receiving care at an academic general medicine clinic or one of four federally qualified health centers in Chicago from 2008 to 2010. Study Design Study participants completed structured, in-person interviews administered by trained research assistants. Data Collection Health literacy was measured using the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults, Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine, and Newest Vital Sign. Cognitive function was assessed using measures of long-term and working memory, processing speed, reasoning, and verbal ability. Functional health was assessed with SF-36 physical health summary scale and Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System short form subscales for depression and anxiety. Principal Findings All health literacy measures were significantly correlated with all cognitive domains. In multivariable analyses, inadequate health literacy was associated with worse physical health and more depressive symptoms. After adjusting for cognitive abilities, associations between health literacy, physical health, and depressive symptoms were attenuated and no longer significant. Conclusions Cognitive function explains a significant proportion of the associations between health literacy, physical health, and depression among older adults. Interventions to reduce literacy disparities in health care should minimize the cognitive burden in behaviors patients must adopt to manage personal health. PMID:24476068

  19. The effects of sleep deprivation on brain functioning in older adults.

    PubMed

    Almklov, Erin L; Drummond, Sean P A; Orff, Henry; Alhassoon, Omar M

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined the effects of total sleep deprivation (TSD) on cognitive performance and brain activation using functional MRI (fMRI) in older adults. The current study examines blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) activation in older adults and younger adults during the sustained attention (GO) and response inhibition (NOGO) portions of a GO-NOGO cognitive task following 36 hr of total sleep deprivation. No significant performance differences were observed between the groups on the behavioral outcome measures of total hits and false alarms. Neuroimaging results, however, revealed a significant interaction between age-group and sleep-deprivation status. Specifically, older adults showed greater BOLD activation as compared to younger adults after 36 hours total sleep deprivation in brain regions typically associated with attention and inhibitory processes. These results suggest in order for older adults to perform the GO-NOGO task effectively after sleep deprivation, they rely on compensatory recruitment of brain regions that aide in the maintenance of cognitive performance. PMID:24787041

  20. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LUNG FUNCTION AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS IN YOUNG ADULT BLACK AND WHITE MALES AND FEMALES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relationships of lung function to physical characteristics in young adults have not been adequately described for different gender-race groups in the United States. s part of a study of the effects of ozone exposure upon Black and White men and women, we measured lung volumes...

  1. "Not What Is But What Can Be." Women Empowerment and Adult Functional Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehrberg, Norma

    Women in Nepal are empowered through adult functional literacy programs called Non Formal Education (NFE). The NFE classes are held six nights per week using discussion and group socialization processes that develop critical thinking and build self-esteem in a society in which women have few or no legal rights. In these programs, women gain…

  2. Tactile Stimulation During Artificial Rearing Influences Adult Function and Morphology in a

    E-print Network

    Sokolowski, Marla

    Tactile Stimulation During Artificial Rearing Influences Adult Function and Morphology of the bulbocaver- nosus (SNB), a sexually dimorphic motor nucleus that controls penile reflexes involved the potential role of tactile stimulation in mediating the effects of maternal licking on the SNB neuromuscular

  3. Manual Signing in Adults with Intellectual Disability: Influence of Sign Characteristics on Functional Sign Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meuris, Kristien; Maes, Bea; De Meyer, Anne-Marie; Zink, Inge

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of sign characteristics in a key word signing (KWS) system on the functional use of those signs by adults with intellectual disability (ID). Method: All 507 signs from a Flemish KWS system were characterized in terms of phonological, iconic, and referential characteristics.…

  4. EFFECTS OF AMBIENT OZONE ON RESPIRATORY FUNCTION IN HEALTHY ADULTS EXERCISING OUTDOORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of exposure to ozone (O3) in ambient air on respiratory function was studied in 30 healthy adult nonsmokers engaged in a regular daily program of outdoor exercise in Tuxedo, NY during the summer of 1985. Each subject did the same exercise each day but exercise intensit...

  5. Skeletal muscle power: a critical determinant of physical functioning in older adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Muscle power declines earlier and more precipitously with advancing age compared to muscle strength. Peak muscle power has also emerged as an important predictor of functional limitations in older adults. Our current working hypothesis is focused on examining lower extremity muscle power as a more d...

  6. Attributional Styles and Psychosocial Functioning of Adults with ADHD: Practice Issues and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rucklidge, Julia; Brown, Deborah; Crawford, Susan; Kaplan, Bonnie

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study investigates attributional styles and psychosocial functioning of men and women with ADHD identified in adulthood to inform practice issues. Method: One hundred and eighty adults participate: 52 females with ADHD, 37 males with ADHD, 51 female controls, and 40 male controls are administered questionnaires broadly assessing…

  7. Cardiac Autonomic Function during Submaximal Treadmill Exercise in Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendonca, Goncalo V.; Pereira, Fernando D.; Fernhall, Bo

    2011-01-01

    This study determined whether the cardiac autonomic function of adults with Down syndrome (DS) differs from that of nondisabled persons during submaximal dynamic exercise. Thirteen participants with DS and 12 nondisabled individuals performed maximal and submaximal treadmill tests with metabolic and heart rate (HR) measurements. Spectral analysis…

  8. Childhood Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Substance Use, and Adult Functioning among Incarcerated Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennessey, Kathleen A.; Stein, Michael D.; Rosengard, Cynthia; Rose, Jennifer S.; Clarke, Jennifer G.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To estimate prevalence of childhood ADHD among incarcerated women and determine its association with substance use and adult functioning. Method: 192 female participants are recruited from the Department of Corrections in Rhode Island. Childhood ADHD is defined as scoring >46 on the Wender Utah Rating Scale. Results: The findings…

  9. ORIGINAL RESEARCH--PSYCHOLOGY Sexual Function and Satisfaction in Adults Based on the

    E-print Network

    Meston, Cindy

    on the definition of child sexual abuse. J Sex Med 2007;4:1312­1321. Key Words. Child Sexual Abuse; Sexual Arousal of Child Sexual Abuse Alessandra Rellini, MA,* and Cindy Meston, PhD *Department of Psychology, University in the association between child sexual abuse (CSA) and adult sexual function. One of the proposed explanations

  10. Higher Functioning Adolescents and Young Adults with Autism: A Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fullerton, Ann; And Others

    This guide offers strategies for working with students with autism in the areas of academic instruction, organization and time management, and social skills. The importance of considering the autistic student's use of language and thinking style is stressed. Chapter 1, "Who Are Higher Functioning Young Adults with Autism?" (Ann Fullerton),…

  11. Age of Acquisition Effects on the Functional Organization of Language in the Adult Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayberry, Rachel I.; Chen, Jen-Kai; Witcher, Pamela; Klein, Denise

    2011-01-01

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we neuroimaged deaf adults as they performed two linguistic tasks with sentences in American Sign Language, grammatical judgment and phonemic-hand judgment. Participants' age-onset of sign language acquisition ranged from birth to 14 years; length of sign language experience was substantial and…

  12. Relation of Physical Activity to Memory Functioning in Older Adults: The Memory Workout Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rebok, George W.; Plude, Dana J.

    2001-01-01

    The Memory Workout, a CD-ROM program designed to help older adults increase changes in physical and cognitive activity influencing memory, was tested with 24 subjects. Results revealed a significant relationship between exercise time, exercise efficacy, and cognitive function, as well as interest in improving memory and physical activity.…

  13. Analysis of Narrative Discourse Structure as an Ecologically Relevant Measure of Executive Function in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannizzaro, Michael S.; Coelho, Carl A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the narrative discourse production and executive function (EF) abilities of 46 neuro-typical adults (18-98 years old). Two questions were addressed: Is the analysis of narrative structure sensitive to changes associated with aging? & What is the relationship between measures of narrative structure and EF? Narratives were…

  14. The Association between Cardiovascular Disease and Cochlear Function in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torre, Peter, III; Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Klein, Barbara E.K.; Klein, Ronald; Nondahl, David M.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the relation between self-reported cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cochlear function in older adults. The Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study (EHLS) is an ongoing population-based study of hearing loss and its risk factors in Beaver Dam, Wisconsin. As part of the EHLS questionnaire, participants were…

  15. Students' Perceptions of Long-Functioning Cooperative Teams in Accelerated Adult Degree Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Favor, Judy

    2012-01-01

    This study examined 718 adult students' perceptions of long-functioning cooperative study teams in accelerated associate's, bachelor's, and master's business degree programs. Six factors were examined: attraction toward team, alignment of performance expectations, intrateam conflict, workload sharing, preference for teamwork, and impact on…

  16. Legally Prescribed Functions of Adult and Juvenile Probation Officers: Worlds Apart?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner, Benjamin; Purkiss, Marcus; Kifer, Misty; Roberts, Elizabeth; Hemmens, Craig

    2004-01-01

    Historically, there have been two competing goals of probation: law enforcement and rehabilitation of the offender. Accordingly, the role, functions, and tasks of probation officers are at times in conflict. In this paper we explore the roles of adult and juvenile probation officers and compare their statutorily prescribed duties. In so doing we…

  17. Adult Diagnostic and Functional Outcomes of DSM-5 Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Copeland, William E.; Shanahan, Lilly; Egger, Helen; Angold, Adrian; Costello, E. Jane

    2014-01-01

    Objective Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder is a new disorder for DSM-5 that is uncommon and frequently co-occurs with other psychiatric disorders. Here, we test whether meeting diagnostic criteria for this disorder in childhood predicts adult diagnostic and functional outcomes. Methods In a prospective, population-based study, subjects were assessed with structured interviews up to 6 times in childhood and adolescence (ages 10 to 16; 5336 observations of 1420 subjects) for symptoms of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder and 3 times in young adulthood (ages 19, 21, and 24-26; 3215 observations of 1273 subjects) for psychiatric and functional outcomes (health, risky/illegal behavior, financial/educational and social functioning). Results Young adults with a history of childhood disruptive mood dysregulation disorders had elevated rates of anxiety and depression and were more likely to meet criteria for more than one adult disorder as compared to controls with no history of childhood psychiatric problems (noncases) or subjects meeting criteria for psychiatric disorders other than disruptive mood dysregulation disorder in childhood/adolescence (psychiatric controls). Participants with a history of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder also were more likely to have adverse health outcomes, be impoverished, have reported police contact, and have low educational attainment as adults compared to either psychiatric or noncase controls. Conclusions The long-term prognosis of children with disruptive mood dysregulation disorder cases is one of pervasive impaired functioning that in many cases is worse than that of other childhood psychiatric cases. PMID:24781389

  18. Associations among Childhood Sexual Abuse, Language Use, and Adult Sexual Functioning and Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenz, Tierney Ahrold; Meston, Cindy May

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To better understand the link between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adult sexual functioning and satisfaction, we examined cognitive differences between women with (N = 128) and without (NSA, N = 99) CSA histories. Methods: We used the Linguistic Inquiry Word Count, a computerized text analysis program, to investigate language…

  19. Education, Functional Limitations, and Life Satisfaction among Older Adults in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Eun-Kyoung Othelia; Lee, Jungui

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the associations of educational level with functioning and life satisfaction among community-dwelling older adults in South Korea ("n" = 4,152). The sample was drawn from Wave I of the Korean Longitudinal Study on Aging. To examine educational disparities, separate analyses were run to note predictors in less educated…

  20. Translational Research and Functional Changes in Voiding Function in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Kullmann, Florenta Aura; Birder, Lori Ann; Andersson, Karl-Erik

    2015-11-01

    Age-related LUT dysfunctions result from complex processes controlled by multiple genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors and account for high costs of health care. This article discusses risk factors that may play a role in age-related LUT dysfunction and presents available data comparing structural and functional changes that occur with aging in the bladder of humans and animal models. A better understanding of factors and mechanisms underlying LUT symptoms in the older population may lead to therapeutic interventions to reduce these dysfunctions. PMID:26476114

  1. Functional maturation of isolated neural progenitor cells from the adult rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Hogg, Ron C; Chipperfield, Hiram; Whyte, Kathryn A; Stafford, Mark R; Hansen, Mitchell A; Cool, Simon M; Nurcombe, Victor; Adams, David J

    2004-05-01

    Although neural progenitor cells (NPCs) may provide a source of new neurons to alleviate neural trauma, little is known about their electrical properties as they differentiate. We have previously shown that single NPCs from the adult rat hippocampus can be cloned in the presence of heparan sulphate chains purified from the hippocampus, and that these cells can be pushed into a proliferative phenotype with the mitogen FGF2 [Chipperfield, H., Bedi, K.S., Cool, S.M. & Nurcombe, V. (2002) Int. J. Dev. Biol., 46, 661-670]. In this study, the active and passive electrical properties of both undifferentiated and differentiated adult hippocampal NPCs, from 0 to 12 days in vitro as single-cell preparations, were investigated. Sparsely plated, undifferentiated NPCs had a resting membrane potential of approximately -90 mV and were electrically inexcitable. In > 70%, ATP and benzoylbenzoyl-ATP evoked an inward current and membrane depolarization, whereas acetylcholine, noradrenaline, glutamate and GABA had no detectable effect. In Fura-2-loaded undifferentiated NPCs, ATP and benzoylbenzoyl-ATP evoked a transient increase in the intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration, which was dependent on extracellular Ca(2+) and was inhibited reversibly by pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2'-4'-disulphonic acid (PPADS), a P2 receptor antagonist. After differentiation, NPC-derived neurons became electrically excitable, expressing voltage-dependent TTX-sensitive Na(+) channels, low- and high-voltage-activated Ca(2+) channels and delayed-rectifier K(+) channels. Differentiated cells also possessed functional glutamate, GABA, glycine and purinergic (P2X) receptors. Appearance of voltage-dependent and ligand-gated ion channels appears to be an important early step in the differentiation of NPCs. PMID:15128395

  2. The relationship between stress and social functioning in adults with autism spectrum disorder and without intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Mazefsky, Carla A; Minshew, Nancy J; Eack, Shaun M

    2015-04-01

    Adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) face substantial challenges accomplishing basic tasks associated with daily living, which are exacerbated by their broad and pervasive difficulties with social interactions. These challenges put people with ASD at increased risk for psychophysiological distress, which likely factors heavily into social functioning for adults with ASD, as suggested by a growing literature on stress in children that indicates that children with ASD have differential responses to stress than healthy children. We hypothesized that adults with ASD and without intellectual disability (n?=?38) would experience more stress than healthy volunteers (n?=?37) and that there would be an inverse relationship between stress and social functioning in individuals with ASD. Baseline, semi-structured interview data from a randomized controlled trial of two treatments for adults with ASD were used to assess differences in stress between adults with ASD and healthy volunteers and to assess the relationship between stress response and social functioning in adults with ASD. Findings indicate that adults with ASD experience greater perceived and interviewer-observed stress than healthy volunteers and that stress is significantly related to social functioning in adults with ASD. These findings highlight the role of stress in adult functioning and outcomes and suggest the need to develop and assess treatments designed to target stress and coping in adults with ASD. PMID:25524571

  3. Cognitive functioning in socially anxious adults: insights from the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery

    PubMed Central

    Troller-Renfree, Sonya V.; Barker, Tyson V.; Pine, Daniel S.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2015-01-01

    Theory suggests that individuals with social anxiety manifest unique patterns of cognition with less efficient fluid cognition and unperturbed crystallized cognition; however, empirical support for these ideas remains inconclusive. The heterogeneity of past findings may reflect unreliability in cognitive assessments or the influence of confounding variables. The present study examined the relations among social anxiety and performance on the reliable, newly established NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery. Results indicate that high socially anxious adults performed as well as low anxious participants on all measures of fluid cognition. However, high socially anxious adults demonstrated enhanced crystallized cognitive abilities relative to a low socially anxious comparison group. PMID:26106346

  4. Effect of the antioxidant dibunol on adrenocortical, thyroid, and adenohypopyseal function in adult and old rats

    SciTech Connect

    Gorban', E.N.

    1986-04-01

    This paper studies the effect of dibunol (4-methyl-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol) (D) on the function of the adrenal cortex, thyroid gland, and adenhypophysis, which produces trophic hormones for the other two glands. Experiments were carried out on adult rats. After injection of D concentrations of corticosterone (CS), triodothyronine (T/sub 3/), ACTH, and thyrotrophin (TSH) in the blood plasma and the CS concentration in tssue of the adenohypophysis were determined. It is shown that injection of D caused biphasic changes in the CS concentration in both tissues studied in adult and old animals.

  5. Physical Function Assessment in a Community-Dwelling Population of U.S. Chinese Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chang, E-Shien; Simon, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. This report describes the levels of physical function in U.S. Chinese older adults utilizing self-reported and performance-based measures, and examines the association between sociodemographic characteristics and physical function. Methods. The Population Study of Chinese Elderly in Chicago enrolled an epidemiological cohort of 3,159 community-dwelling Chinese older adults aged 60 and older. We collected self-reported physical function using Katz activities of daily living and Lawton instrumental activities of daily living items, the Index of Mobility scale, and the Index of Basic Physical Activities scale. Participants were also asked to perform tasks in chair stand, tandem stand, and timed walk. We computed Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients to examine the correlation between sociodemographic and physical function variables. Results. A total of 7.8% of study participants experienced activities of daily living impairment, and 50.2% experienced instrumental activities of daily living impairment. With respect to physical performance testing, 11.4% of the participants were not able to complete chair stand for five times, 8.5% of the participants were unable to do chair stands at all. Older age, female gender, lower education level, being unmarried, living with fewer people in the same household, having fewer children, living fewer years in the United States, living fewer years in the community, and worsening health status were significantly correlated with lower levels of physical function. Conclusions. Utilizing self-reported and performance-based measures of physical function in a large population-based study of U.S. Chinese older adults, our findings expand current understanding of minority older adultsfunctional status. PMID:25378446

  6. Exploring the Relationship of Autonomic and Endocrine Activity with Social Functioning in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smeekens, I.; Didden, R.; Verhoeven, E. W. M.

    2015-01-01

    Several studies indicate that autonomic and endocrine activity may be related to social functioning in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), although the number of studies in adults is limited. The present study explored the relationship of autonomic and endocrine activity with social functioning in young adult males with ASD compared…

  7. Upper limb motor function in young adults with spina bifida and hydrocephalus

    PubMed Central

    Salman, M. S.; Jewell, D.; Hetherington, R.; Spiegler, B. J.; MacGregor, D. L.; Drake, J. M.; Humphreys, R. P.; Gentili, F.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The objective of the study was to measure upper limb motor function in young adults with spina bifida meningomyelocele (SBM) and typically developing age peers. Method Participants were 26 young adults with SBM, with a Verbal or Performance IQ score of at least 70 on the Wechsler scales, and 27 age- and gender-matched controls. Four upper limb motor function tasks were performed under four different visual and cognitive challenge conditions. Motor independence was assessed by questionnaire. Results Fewer SBM than control participants obtained perfect posture and rebound scores. The SBM group performed less accurately and was more disrupted by cognitive challenge than controls on limb dysmetria tasks. The SBM group was slower than controls on the diadochokinesis task. Adaptive motor independence was related to one upper limb motor task, arm posture, and upper rather than lower spinal lesions were associated with less motor independence. Conclusions Young adults with SBM have significant limitations in upper limb function and are more disrupted by some challenges while performing upper limb motor tasks. Within the group of young adults with SBM, upper spinal lesions compromise motor independence more than lower spinal lesions. PMID:19672605

  8. Functional outcomes of adults with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Butcher, Nancy J.; Chow, Eva W.C.; Costain, Gregory; Karas, Dominique; Ho, Andrew; Bassett, Anne S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome is a common multisystem genomic disorder with congenital and later-onset manifestations, including congenital heart disease, intellectual disability, and psychiatric illness, that may affect long-term functioning. There are limited data on adult functioning in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Methods We used the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales to assess functioning in 100 adults with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (n = 46 male; mean age = 28.8 (standard deviation = 9.7) years) where intellect ranged from average to borderline (n = 57) to mild intellectual disability (n = 43). Results More than 75% of the subjects scored in the functional deficit range. Although personal, vocational, and financial demographics confirmed widespread functional impairment, daily living skills and employment were relative strengths. Intelligence quotient was a significant predictor (P < 0.001) of overall and domain-specific adaptive functioning skills. A diagnosis of schizophrenia was a significant predictor (P < 0.05) of overall adaptive functioning, daily living skills, and socialization scores. Notably, congenital heart disease, history of mood/anxiety disorders, sex, and age were not significant predictors of functioning. Conclusion Despite functional impairment in adulthood that is primarily mediated by cognitive and psychiatric phenotypes, relative strengths in activities of daily living and employment have important implications for services and long-term planning. These results may help to inform expectations about outcomes for patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. PMID:22744446

  9. Cigarillo use among High-Risk Urban Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Milam, Adam J.; Bone, Lee R.; Byron, M. Justin; Hoke, Kathleen; Williams, Carla D.; Furr-Holden, C. Debra; Stillman, Frances A.

    2014-01-01

    In the U.S., cigar use doubled from 5.0 to 10.6 billion cigars consumed annually between 1997 and 2007, driven in large part by increased sales of cigarette-sized “little cigars” and narrow, mid-sized “cigarillos.” The present study examined prevalence of cigarillo use as well as attitudes, knowledge and behaviors related to cigarillo use among a sample of predominantly urban African American young adults 18–24 not in school and not employed. Survey data were collected from 131 young adults attending education and job training centers in Baltimore, Maryland and from 78 young adults attending education, job training, or recreational programs in Washington, D.C. In Baltimore, 22% of young adults had smoked a cigarillo in the past 30 days, compared with nearly 63% in D.C. Both populations were heavily exposed to cigarillo advertising and marketing. Cigarillo use in this urban young adult population is a growing public health problem and undermines the progress made in decreasing cigarette use. PMID:24185161

  10. The effects on the pulmonary function of normal adults proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation respiration pattern exercise.

    PubMed

    Seo, KyoChul; Cho, MiSuk

    2014-10-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine whether proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) respiration exercise increases the pulmonary function of normal adults. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight normal adults in their 20s were randomly assigned to an experimental group (n=14) or control group (n=14). Over the course of four weeks, the experimental group participated in PNF respiration pattern exercises for 30 minutes three times per week. Subjects were assessed pre-test and post-test by measurement of pulmonary function (tidal volume, inspiratory reserve volume, expiratory reserve volume, inspiratory capacity, and vital capacity). [Results] Our findings show that the experimental group had significant improvements in expiratory reserve volume and vital capacity. In the comparison of the two groups, the experimental group had higher pulmonary function than the control group. [Conclusion] In this study, the experimental group showed greater improvement in pulmonary function than the control group, which indicates that the PNF respiration exercise is effective at increasing the pulmonary function of normal adults. PMID:25364117

  11. Combined Cognitive-Psychological-Physical Intervention Induces Reorganization of Intrinsic Functional Brain Architecture in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zhiwei; Zhu, Xinyi; Yin, Shufei; Wang, Baoxi; Niu, Yanan; Huang, Xin; Li, Rui; Li, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that enriched mental, physical, and socially stimulating activities are beneficial for counteracting age-related decreases in brain function and cognition in older adults. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to demonstrate the functional plasticity of brain activity in response to a combined cognitive-psychological-physical intervention and investigated the contribution of the intervention-related brain changes to individual performance in healthy older adults. The intervention was composed of a 6-week program of combined activities including cognitive training, Tai Chi exercise, and group counseling. The results showed improved cognitive performance and reorganized regional homogeneity of spontaneous fluctuations in the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals in the superior and middle temporal gyri, and the posterior lobe of the cerebellum, in the participants who attended the intervention. Intriguingly, the intervention-induced changes in the coherence of local spontaneous activity correlated with the improvements in individual cognitive performance. Taken together with our previous findings of enhanced resting-state functional connectivity between the medial prefrontal cortex and medial temporal lobe regions following a combined intervention program in older adults, we conclude that the functional plasticity of the aging brain is a rather complex process, and an effective cognitive-psychological-physical intervention is helpful for maintaining a healthy brain and comprehensive cognition during old age. PMID:25810927

  12. Pedagogical cues encourage toddlers' transmission of recently demonstrated functions to unfamiliar adults.

    PubMed

    Vredenburgh, Christopher; Kushnir, Tamar; Casasola, Marianella

    2015-07-01

    Young children use pedagogical cues as a signal that others' actions are social or cultural conventions. Here we show that children selectively transmit (enact in a new social situation) causal functions demonstrated pedagogically, even when they have learned and can produce alternative functions as well. Two-year-olds saw two novel toys, each with two functions. One experimenter demonstrated one function using pedagogical cues (eye contact and child-directed speech) and a second experimenter demonstrated the alternative function using intentional actions towards the object, but without pedagogical cues. Children imitated both functions at equal rates initially, indicating equal causal learning from both types of demonstration. However, they were significantly more likely to enact the pedagogical function for a new adult not present during the initial demonstrations. These results indicate that pedagogical cues influence children's transmission of information, perhaps playing a role in the dissemination of cultural conventions from a young age. PMID:25284008

  13. Activity Adherence and Physical Function in Older Adults with Functional Limitations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders Pilot (LIFE-P) was a trial to examine the effects of physical activity on measures of disability risk in previously sedentary older adults at risk for disability. We examined adherence and retention to the LIPE-P physical activity (PA) interventio...

  14. Functional Expression of T-Type Ca2+ Channels in Spinal Motoneurons of the Adult Turtle

    PubMed Central

    Canto-Bustos, Martha; Loeza-Alcocer, Emanuel; González-Ramírez, Ricardo; Gandini, María A.; Delgado-Lezama, Rodolfo; Felix, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Voltage-gated Ca2+ (CaV) channels are transmembrane proteins comprising three subfamilies named CaV1, CaV2 and CaV3. The CaV3 channel subfamily groups the low-voltage activated Ca2+ channels (LVA or T-type) a significant role in regulating neuronal excitability. CaV3 channel activity may lead to the generation of complex patterns of action potential firing such as the postinhibitory rebound (PIR). In the adult spinal cord, these channels have been found in dorsal horn interneurons where they control physiological events near the resting potential and participate in determining excitability. In motoneurons, CaV3 channels have been found during development, but their functional expression has not yet been reported in adult animals. Here, we show evidence for the presence of CaV3 channel-mediated PIR in motoneurons of the adult turtle spinal cord. Our results indicate that Ni2+ and NNC55-0396, two antagonists of CaV3 channel activity, inhibited PIR in the adult turtle spinal cord. Molecular biology and biochemical assays revealed the expression of the CaV3.1 channel isotype and its localization in motoneurons. Together, these results provide evidence for the expression of CaV3.1 channels in the spinal cord of adult animals and show also that these channels may contribute to determine the excitability of motoneurons. PMID:25255145

  15. Older Adults are Highly Responsive to Recent Events During Decision-Making

    PubMed Central

    Worthy, Darrell A.; Otto, A. Ross; Doll, Bradley B.; Byrne, Kaileigh A.; Maddox, W. Todd

    2014-01-01

    Recent work suggests that older adults’ decision-making behavior is highly affected by recent events. In the present work younger and older adults performed a two-choice task where one option provided a larger average reward, but there was a large amount of noise around the mean reward for each option which led to sharp improvements or declines in rewards over trials. Older adults showed greater responsiveness to recent events than younger adults as evidenced by fits of Reinforcement Learning (RL) models. Older adults were particularly sensitive to recent negative events, which was evidenced by a strong tendency for older adults to switch to the other option following steep declines in reward. This tendency led to superior performance for older adults in one condition where heightened sensitivity to recent negative events was advantageous. These results extend prior work that has found an older adult bias toward negative feedback, and suggest that older adults engage in more abrupt switching in response to negative outcomes than younger adults. PMID:25580469

  16. Using Question Words or Asking Yes/No Questions: Failure and Success in Clarifying the Intentions of a Boy with High-Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oi, Manabu

    2008-01-01

    This paper examined the processes that resulted in an adult failing to comprehend the intentions of a boy with high-functioning autism. In a dyadic conversation between an adult and a young boy, the adult used questions to elicit clarification of intentions. The boy's responses were examined frame-by-frame using videotape microanalysis. Two causes…

  17. Retinal Thickness and the Structure/Function Relationship in the Eyes of Older Adults with Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Honjo, Megumi; Omodaka, Kazuko; Ishizaki, Tatsuro; Ohkubo, Shinji; Araie, Makoto; Nakazawa, Toru

    2015-01-01

    Glaucoma is common and shows high prevalence in older adults. However, there are few studies on the structure/function relationship in older adults with glaucoma. This prospective, cross-sectional study (conducted between February and August 2014), enrolled 102 eyes of 102 subjects aged over 75 years, including 57 eyes with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), 15 eyes with pseudoexfoliation glaucoma (PXG), and 30 healthy eyes. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine the correlation of circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (cpRNFLT) and macular parameters to mean deviation (MD) to and standard automated perimetry (SAP)-measured sensitivity, assessed with the 30–2 and 10–2 programs. In each 10–2 SAP test point, Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient was used to compare macular retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (mRNFLT), macular ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer thickness (GCIPLT), and mRNFL+GCIPL thickness (GCCT) with sensitivity after adjusting for retinal ganglion cell (RGC) displacement. In eyes with POAG and PXG, cpRNFLT was significantly correlated with 30–2 MD and 30–2 sensitivity. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the POAG had significantly lower cpRNFLT, mRNFLT, GCIPLT, and GCCT according to the severity of disease than control eyes after adjusting for sensitivity, age, sex, and axial length. The PXG eyes had significantly lower cpRNFLT, mRNFLT, and GCCT when compared with the early to moderate POAG eyes. GCCT was significantly correlated with 10–2 sensitivity, except in one juxtafoveal point, (r = 0.338–0.778) in the POAG eyes. The periphery of the central 10° area showed a good correlation between sensitivity and mRNFLT, while the central 5.8° showed a good correlation between sensitivity and GCIPLT. The correlation between structure and function was significant, and objective and quantitative method with OCT assessing glaucoma that does not require patient ability could be a possible parameter to assess diagnosis and progression in older patients with glaucoma. PMID:26505757

  18. Ontogenetic change in novel functions: waterfall climbing in adult Hawaiian gobiid fishes

    E-print Network

    Julius, Matthew L.

    , in press). The freshwater fauna of small volcanic islands encounter particularly challenging environments stream gobies is well established, but adult fish in upstream island habitats also face potential. Streams on these islands are commonly subject to flash floods, high-velocity flows and waterfalls

  19. Social network types and functional dependency in older adults in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Social networks play a key role in caring for older adults. A better understanding of the characteristics of different social networks types (TSNs) in a given community provides useful information for designing policies to care for this age group. Therefore this study has three objectives: 1) To derive the TSNs among older adults affiliated with the Mexican Institute of Social Security; 2) To describe the main characteristics of the older adults in each TSN, including the instrumental and economic support they receive and their satisfaction with the network; 3) To determine the association between functional dependency and the type of social network. Methods Secondary data analysis of the 2006 Survey of Autonomy and Dependency (N = 3,348). The TSNs were identified using the structural approach and cluster analysis. The association between functional dependency and the TSNs was evaluated with Poisson regression with robust variance analysis in which socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle and medical history covariates were included. Results We identified five TSNs: diverse with community participation (12.1%), diverse without community participation (44.3%); widowed (32.0%); nonfriends-restricted (7.6%); nonfamily-restricted (4.0%). Older adults belonging to widowed and restricted networks showed a higher proportion of dependency, negative self-rated health and depression. Older adults with functional dependency more likely belonged to a widowed network (adjusted prevalence ratio 1.5; 95%CI: 1.1-2.1). Conclusion The derived TSNs were similar to those described in developed countries. However, we identified the existence of a diverse network without community participation and a widowed network that have not been previously described. These TSNs and restricted networks represent a potential unmet need of social security affiliates. PMID:20187973

  20. Personality Traits, Education, Physical Exercise, and Childhood Neurological Function as Independent Predictors of Adult Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Helen; Furnham, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether personality traits, education, physical exercise, parental socio-economic conditions, and childhood neurological function are independently associated with obesity in 50 year old adults in a longitudinal birth cohort study. Method The sample consisted of 5,921 participants born in Great Britain in 1958 and followed up at 7, 11, 33, 42, and 50 years with data on body mass index measured at 42 and 50 years. Results There was an increase of adult obesity from 14.2% at age 42 to 23.6% at 50 years. Cohort members who were reported by teachers on overall clumsiness as “certainly applied” at age 7 were more likely to become obese at age 50. In addition, educational qualifications, traits Conscientiousness and Extraversion, psychological distress, and physical exercise were all significantly associated with adult obesity. The associations remained to be significant after controlling for birth weight and gestation, maternal and paternal BMI, childhood BMI, childhood intelligence and behavioural adjustment, as well as diet. Conclusion Neurological function in childhood, education, trait Conscientiousness, and exercise were all significantly and independently associated with adult obesity, each explained unique individual variability. PMID:24250828

  1. Mechanisms of recovery of visual function in adult amblyopia through a tailored action video game.

    PubMed

    Vedamurthy, Indu; Nahum, Mor; Bavelier, Daphne; Levi, Dennis M

    2015-01-01

    Amblyopia is a deficit in vision that arises from abnormal visual experience early in life. It was long thought to develop into a permanent deficit, unless properly treated before the end of the sensitive period for visual recovery. However, a number of studies now suggest that adults with long-standing amblyopia may at least partially recover visual acuity and stereopsis following perceptual training. Eliminating or reducing interocular suppression has been hypothesized to be at the root of these changes. Here we show that playing a novel dichoptic video game indeed results in reduced suppression, improved visual acuity and, in some cases, improved stereopsis. Our relatively large cohort of adults with amblyopia, allowed us, for the first time, to assess the link between visual function recovery and reduction in suppression. Surprisingly, no significant correlation was found between decreased suppression and improved visual function. This finding challenges the prevailing view and suggests that while dichoptic training improves visual acuity and stereopsis in adult amblyopia, reduced suppression is unlikely to be at the root of visual recovery. These results are discussed in the context of their implication on recovery of amblyopia in adults. PMID:25719537

  2. Functional genomics indicate that schizophrenia may be an adult vascular-ischemic disorder

    PubMed Central

    Moises, H W; Wollschläger, D; Binder, H

    2015-01-01

    In search for the elusive schizophrenia pathway, candidate genes for the disorder from a discovery sample were localized within the energy-delivering and ischemia protection pathway. To test the adult vascular-ischemic (AVIH) and the competing neurodevelopmental hypothesis (NDH), functional genomic analyses of practically all available schizophrenia-associated genes from candidate gene, genome-wide association and postmortem expression studies were performed. Our results indicate a significant overrepresentation of genes involved in vascular function (P<0.001), vasoregulation (that is, perivascular (P<0.001) and shear stress (P<0.01), cerebral ischemia (P<0.001), neurodevelopment (P<0.001) and postischemic repair (P<0.001) among schizophrenia-associated genes from genetic association studies. These findings support both the NDH and the AVIH. The genes from postmortem studies showed an upregulation of vascular-ischemic genes (P=0.020) combined with downregulated synaptic (P=0.005) genes, and ND/repair (P=0.003) genes. Evidence for the AVIH and the NDH is critically discussed. We conclude that schizophrenia is probably a mild adult vascular-ischemic and postischemic repair disorder. Adult postischemic repair involves ND genes for adult neurogenesis, synaptic plasticity, glutamate and increased long-term potentiation of excitatory neurotransmission (i-LTP). Schizophrenia might be caused by the cerebral analog of microvascular angina. PMID:26261884

  3. Feeding behaviour of adult Centropages hamatus (Copepoda, Calanoida): Functional response and selective feeding experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saage, Andrea; Vadstein, Olav; Sommer, Ulrich

    2009-06-01

    The feeding behaviour of adults of the marine calanoid copepod Centropages hamatus was studied in laboratory experiments with ciliates and phytoplankton as food sources. The ingestion rate of algal (flagellates, diatoms) and ciliate prey (oligotrichs) as a function of prey concentration could be described by a Holling type III functional response, with close to zero ingestion rates at concentrations below 5 µg C l - 1 . In general, ingestion of ciliates was higher than ingestion of algae, and maximum feeding rates by adult males reached were half the feeding rates of adult females at prey concentrations exceeding 50 µg C l - 1 . When diatoms and ciliates were offered together C. hamatus (both sexes) fed exclusively on ciliates as long as they contributed with more than 5% to the mixture. This indicates the capability of active prey selection and switching between suspension feeding and ambush predation. Therefore, the feeding behaviour of adult C. hamatus can be characterised as omnivorous with a preference for larger motile prey. This implies a trophic level above two, if there is a sufficient abundance of protozoan food available.

  4. Inducible Activation of ERK5 MAP Kinase Enhances Adult Neurogenesis in the Olfactory Bulb and Improves Olfactory Function

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenbin; Lu, Song; Li, Tan; Pan, Yung-Wei; Zou, Junhui; Abel, Glen M.; Xu, Lihong; Storm, Daniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Recent discoveries have suggested that adult neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and olfactory bulb (OB) may be required for at least some forms of olfactory behavior in mice. However, it is unclear whether conditional and selective enhancement of adult neurogenesis by genetic approaches is sufficient to improve olfactory function under physiological conditions or after injury. Furthermore, specific signaling mechanisms regulating adult neurogenesis in the SVZ/OB are not fully defined. We previously reported that ERK5, a MAP kinase selectively expressed in the neurogenic regions of the adult brain, plays a critical role in adult neurogenesis in the SVZ/OB. Using a site-specific knock-in mouse model, we report here that inducible and targeted activation of the endogenous ERK5 in adult neural stem/progenitor cells enhances adult neurogenesis in the OB by increasing cell survival and neuronal differentiation. This conditional ERK5 activation also improves short-term olfactory memory and odor-cued associative olfactory learning under normal physiological conditions. Furthermore, these mice show enhanced recovery of olfactory function and have more adult-born neurons after a zinc sulfate-induced lesion of the main olfactory epithelium. We conclude that ERK5 MAP kinase is an important endogenous signaling pathway regulating adult neurogenesis in the SVZ/OB, and that conditional activation of endogenous ERK5 is sufficient to enhance adult neurogenesis in the OB thereby improving olfactory function both under normal conditions and after injury. PMID:25995470

  5. Improved cognitive-cerebral function in older adults with chromium supplementation.

    PubMed

    Krikorian, Robert; Eliassen, James C; Boespflug, Erin L; Nash, Tiffany A; Shidler, Marcelle D

    2010-06-01

    Insulin resistance is implicated in the pathophysiological changes associated with Alzheimer's disease, and pharmaceutical treatments that overcome insulin resistance improve memory function in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early Alzheimer's disease. Chromium (Cr) supplementation improves glucose disposal in patients with insulin resistance and diabetes. We sought to assess whether supplementation with Cr might improve memory and neural function in older adults with cognitive decline. In a placebo-controlled, double-blind trial, we randomly assigned 26 older adults to receive either chromium picolinate (CrPic) or placebo for 12 weeks. Memory and depression were assessed prior to treatment initiation and during the final week of treatment. We also performed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans on a subset of subjects. Although learning rate and retention were not enhanced by CrPic supplementation, we observed reduced semantic interference on learning, recall, and recognition memory tasks. In addition, fMRI indicated comparatively increased activation for the CrPic subjects in right thalamic, right temporal, right posterior parietal, and bifrontal regions. These findings suggest that supplementation with CrPic can enhance cognitive inhibitory control and cerebral function in older adults at risk for neurodegeneration. PMID:20423560

  6. Obese older adults suffer foot pain and foot-related functional limitation.

    PubMed

    Mickle, Karen J; Steele, Julie R

    2015-10-01

    There is evidence to suggest being overweight or obese places adults at greater risk of developing foot complications such as osteoarthritis, tendonitis and plantar fasciitis. However, no research has comprehensively examined the effects of overweight or obesity on the feet of individuals older than 60 years of age. Therefore we investigated whether foot pain, foot structure, and/or foot function is affected by obesity in older adults. Three hundred and twelve Australian men and women, aged over 60 years, completed validated questionnaires to establish the presence of foot pain and health related quality of life. Foot structure (anthropometrics and soft tissue thickness) and foot function (ankle dorsiflexion strength and flexibility, toe flexor strength, plantar pressures and spatiotemporal gait parameters) were also measured. Obese participants (BMI >30) were compared to those who were overweight (BMI=25-30) and not overweight (BMI <25). Obese participants were found to have a significantly higher prevalence of foot pain and scored significantly lower on the SF-36. Obesity was also associated with foot-related functional limitation whereby ankle dorsiflexion strength, hallux and lesser toe strength, stride/step length and walking speed were significantly reduced in obese participants compared to their leaner counterparts. Therefore, disabling foot pain and altered foot structure and foot function are consequences of obesity for older adults, and impact upon their quality of life. Interventions designed to reduce excess fat mass may relieve loading of the foot structures and, in turn, improve foot pain and quality of life for older obese individuals. PMID:26260010

  7. Functional Impairment, Disability, and Frailty in Adults Aging with HIV-Infection

    PubMed Central

    Erlandson, Kristine M.; Schrack, Jennifer A.; Jankowski, Catherine M.; Brown, Todd T.; Campbell, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    The integration of antiretroviral therapy (i.e., ART) into HIV care has dramatically extended the life expectancy of those living with HIV. However, in comparison to similar HIV-uninfected populations, HIV-infected persons experience an excess of morbidity and mortality with an early onset of aging complications including neurocognitive decline, osteoporosis, impaired physical function, frailty, and falls. Recent consensus guidelines encourage clinicians and researchers to consider functional impairment of HIV-infected adults as a measure to understand the impact of aging across a range of abilities. Despite the importance of assessing function in persons aging with HIV infection, a lack of consistent terminology and standardization of assessment tools has limited the application of functional assessments in clinical or research settings. Herein, we distinguish between different approaches used to assess function, describe what is known about function in the aging HIV population, and consider directions for future research. PMID:24966138

  8. High Cost Residential Placements for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGill, Peter; Poynter, Jo

    2012-01-01

    Background: Concern has been expressed repeatedly about the cost and quality of residential placements for adults with learning disabilities and additional needs. This study sought to identify characteristics of the highest cost placements in the South-East of England. Method: Lead learning disability commissioners in the South-East of England…

  9. High rates of nonbreeding adult bald eagles in southeastern Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, A.J.; Hodges, J.I. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Present knowledge of bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) demography is derived primarily from populations in environments that have been drastically altered by man. Most reproductive studies were done in the 1960's and 1970's when chemical toxins were inhibiting bald eagle productivity. Earlier, the removal of old-growth forests and decimation of anadromous fish runs by Euro-Americans may have greatly reduced bald eagle abundance from presettlement levels. Historical trends in this species are of interest because fundamental differences may exist between populations in pristine and man-altered environments. One difference may be breeding rate. Surpluses of nonbreeding adult bald eagles during the nesting season are rarely mentioned in the literature. Most surveys of reproductive success focus exclusively on eagles at nest sites, which assumes nearly all adults attempt to breed each year. The authors report that a majority of adults in the relatively pristine habitats of southeastern Alaska do not breed annually. This finding is important because if surpluses of non-breeding adults are a natural feature of the population, then hypotheses on density dependent population regulation and the evolution of delayed maturation are suggested. If, on the other hand, the abundance of nonbreeders is an artifact of recent environmental perturbations, serious population declines may occur in southeastern Alaska.

  10. Patterns of Spontaneous Local Network Activity in Developing Cerebral Cortex: Relationship to Adult Cognitive Function

    PubMed Central

    Peinado, Alejandro; Abrams, Charles K.

    2015-01-01

    Detecting neurodevelop?ental disorders of cognition at the earliest possible stages could assist in understanding them mechanistically and ultimately in treating them. Finding early physiological predictors that could be visualized with functional neuroimaging would represent an important advance in this regard. We hypothesized that one potential source of physiological predictors is the spontaneous local network activity prominent during specific periods in development. To test this we used calcium imaging in brain slices and analyzed variations in the frequency and intensity of this early activity in one area, the entorhinal cortex (EC), in order to correlate early activity with level of cognitive function later in life. We focused on EC because of its known role in different types of cognitive processes and because it is an area where spontaneous activity is prominent during early postnatal development in rodent models of cortical development. Using rat strains (Long-Evans, Wistar, Sprague-Dawley and Brattleboro) known to differ in cognitive performance in adulthood we asked whether neonatal animals exhibit corresponding strain-related differences in EC spontaneous activity. Our results show significant differences in this activity between strains: compared to a high cognitive-performing strain, we consistently found an increase in frequency and decrease in intensity in neonates from three lower performing strains. Activity was most different in one strain considered a model of schizophrenia-like psychopathology. While we cannot necessarily infer a causal relationship between early activity and adult cognition our findings suggest that the pattern of spontaneous activity in development could be an early predictor of a developmental trajectory advancing toward sub-optimal cognitive performance in adulthood. Our results further suggest that the strength of dopaminergic signaling, by setting the balance between excitation and inhibition, is a potential underlying mechanism that could explain the observed differences in early spontaneous activity patterns. PMID:26098958

  11. Attentional Control and Subjective Executive Function in Treatment-Naive Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Grane, Venke Arntsberg; Endestad, Tor; Pinto, Arnfrid Farbu; Solbakk, Anne-Kristin

    2014-01-01

    We investigated performance-derived measures of executive control, and their relationship with self- and informant reported executive functions in everyday life, in treatment-naive adults with newly diagnosed Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; n?=?36) and in healthy controls (n?=?35). Sustained attentional control and response inhibition were examined with the Test of Variables of Attention (T.O.V.A.). Delayed responses, increased reaction time variability, and higher omission error rate to Go signals in ADHD patients relative to controls indicated fluctuating levels of attention in the patients. Furthermore, an increment in NoGo commission errors when Go stimuli increased relative to NoGo stimuli suggests reduced inhibition of task-irrelevant stimuli in conditions demanding frequent responding. The ADHD group reported significantly more cognitive and behavioral executive problems than the control group on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version (BRIEF-A). There were overall not strong associations between task performance and ratings of everyday executive function. However, for the ADHD group, T.O.V.A. omission errors predicted self-reported difficulties on the Organization of Materials scale, and commission errors predicted informant reported difficulties on the same scale. Although ADHD patients endorsed more symptoms of depression and anxiety on the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA) than controls, ASEBA scores were not significantly associated with T.O.V.A. performance scores. Altogether, the results indicate multifaceted alteration of attentional control in adult ADHD, and accompanying subjective difficulties with several aspects of executive function in everyday living. The relationships between the two sets of data were modest, indicating that the measures represent non-redundant features of adult ADHD. PMID:25545156

  12. Functional and mechanistic exploration of an adult neurogenesis-promoting small molecule

    PubMed Central

    Petrik, David; Jiang, Yindi; Birnbaum, Shari G.; Powell, Craig M.; Kim, Mi-Sung; Hsieh, Jenny; Eisch, Amelia J.

    2012-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis occurs throughout life in the mammalian hippocampus and is essential for memory and mood control. There is significant interest in identifying ways to promote neurogenesis and ensure maintenance of these hippocampal functions. Previous work with a synthetic small molecule, isoxazole 9 (Isx-9), highlighted its neuronal-differentiating properties in vitro. However, the ability of Isx-9 to drive neurogenesis in vivo or improve hippocampal function was unknown. Here we show that Isx-9 promotes neurogenesis in vivo, enhancing the proliferation and differentiation of hippocampal subgranular zone (SGZ) neuroblasts, and the dendritic arborization of adult-generated dentate gyrus neurons. Isx-9 also improves hippocampal function, enhancing memory in the Morris water maze. Notably, Isx-9 enhances neurogenesis and memory without detectable increases in cellular or animal activity or vascularization. Molecular exploration of Isx-9-induced regulation of neurogenesis (via FACS and microarray of SGZ stem and progenitor cells) suggested the involvement of the myocyte-enhancer family of proteins (Mef2). Indeed, transgenic-mediated inducible knockout of all brain-enriched Mef2 isoforms (Mef2a/c/d) specifically from neural stem cells and their progeny confirmed Mef2's requirement for Isx-9-induced increase in hippocampal neurogenesis. Thus, Isx-9 enhances hippocampal neurogenesis and memory in vivo, and its effects are reliant on Mef2, revealing a novel cell-intrinsic molecular pathway regulating adult neurogenesis.—Petrik, D., Jiang, Y., Birnbaum, S. G., Powell, C. M., Kim, M.-S., Hsieh, J., Eisch, A. J. Functional and mechanistic exploration of an adult neurogenesis-promoting small molecule. PMID:22542682

  13. The Role of Affect in Attentional Functioning for Younger and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Soo Rim; Larcom, Mary Jo; Liu, Xiaodong; Isaacowitz, Derek M.

    2012-01-01

    Although previous research has shown that positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) modulate attentional functioning in distinct ways, few studies have considered whether the links between affect and attentional functioning may vary as a function of age. Using the Attention Network Test (Fan et al., 2002), we tested whether participants’ current state of PA and NA influenced distinct attentional functions (i.e., alerting, orienting, and executive attention) and how the relationships between affective states and attentional functioning differ in younger (18–25?years) and older (60–85?years) age groups. While there were age differences in alerting efficiency, these age differences were mediated by PA, indicating that the higher state PA found in older adults may contribute to age differences in alerting. Furthermore, age group moderated the relationship between PA and orienting as well as NA and orienting. That is, higher levels of PA and lower levels of NA were associated with enhanced orienting efficiency in older adults. Neither PA nor NA had any influence on executive attention. The current results suggest that PA and NA may influence attentional functioning in distinct ways, but that these patterns may depend on age groups. PMID:22969741

  14. Effects of Fourteen-Day Bed Rest on Trunk Stabilizing Functions in Aging Adults.

    PubMed

    Sarabon, Nejc; Rosker, Jernej

    2015-01-01

    Bed rest has been shown to have detrimental effects on structural and functional characteristics of the trunk muscles, possibly affecting trunk and spinal stability. This is especially important in populations such as aging adults with often altered trunk stabilizing functions. This study examined the effects of a fourteen-day bed rest on anticipatory postural adjustments and postural reflex responses of the abdominal wall and back muscles in sixteen adult men. Postural activation of trunk muscles was measured using voluntary quick arm movement and sudden arm loading paradigm. Measurements were conducted prior to the bed rest, immediately after, and fourteen days after the bed rest. Immediately after the bed rest, latencies of anticipatory postural adjustments showed significant shortening, especially for the obliquus internus and externus muscles. After a fourteen-day recuperation period, anticipatory postural adjustments reached a near to complete recovery. On the contrary, reactive response latencies increased from pre-bed-rest to both post-bed-rest measurement sessions. Results indicate an important effect of bed rest on stabilizing functions of the trunk muscles in elderly adults. Moreover, there proved to be a significant deterioration of postural reactive responses that outlasted the 14-day post-bed-rest rehabilitation. PMID:26601104

  15. Effects of Fourteen-Day Bed Rest on Trunk Stabilizing Functions in Aging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sarabon, Nejc; Rosker, Jernej

    2015-01-01

    Bed rest has been shown to have detrimental effects on structural and functional characteristics of the trunk muscles, possibly affecting trunk and spinal stability. This is especially important in populations such as aging adults with often altered trunk stabilizing functions. This study examined the effects of a fourteen-day bed rest on anticipatory postural adjustments and postural reflex responses of the abdominal wall and back muscles in sixteen adult men. Postural activation of trunk muscles was measured using voluntary quick arm movement and sudden arm loading paradigm. Measurements were conducted prior to the bed rest, immediately after, and fourteen days after the bed rest. Immediately after the bed rest, latencies of anticipatory postural adjustments showed significant shortening, especially for the obliquus internus and externus muscles. After a fourteen-day recuperation period, anticipatory postural adjustments reached a near to complete recovery. On the contrary, reactive response latencies increased from pre-bed-rest to both post-bed-rest measurement sessions. Results indicate an important effect of bed rest on stabilizing functions of the trunk muscles in elderly adults. Moreover, there proved to be a significant deterioration of postural reactive responses that outlasted the 14-day post-bed-rest rehabilitation. PMID:26601104

  16. Anxiety Modulates Insula Recruitment in Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Youth and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gotlib, Ian H.; Thompson, Paul M.; Thomason, Moriah E.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Research on resting-state functional connectivity reveals intrinsically connected networks in the brain that are largely consistent across the general population. However, there are individual differences in these networks that have not been elucidated. Here, we measured the influence of naturally occurring mood on functional connectivity. In particular, we examined the association between self-reported levels of anxiety and connectivity in the default mode network (DMN). Healthy youth (n=43; ages 10–18) and adult participants (n=24, ages 19–59) completed a 6-min resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan, then immediately completed questionnaires assessing their mood and thoughts during the scan. Regression analyses conducted separately for the youth and adult samples revealed brain regions in which increases in connectivity differentially corresponded to higher anxiety in each group. In one area, the left insular cortex, both groups showed similar increased connectivity to the DMN (youth: -30, 26, 14; adults: -33, 12, 14) with increased anxiety. State anxiety assessed during scanning was not correlated with trait anxiety, so our results likely reflect state levels of anxiety. To our knowledge, this is the first study to relate naturally occurring mood to resting state connectivity. PMID:22433052

  17. Percentage of Adults with High Cholesterol Whose LDL Cholesterol Levels Are Adequately Controlled

    MedlinePLUS

    ... sizes that tend to have greater variability, confidence intervals are displayed, which are important for interpreting the ... Adults with High Cholesterol that is Controlled by Education Level 8k4c-k22f Download these data » Explore these ...

  18. Effects of blueberry supplementation on measures of functional mobility in older adults.

    PubMed

    Schrager, Matthew A; Hilton, James; Gould, Richard; Kelly, Valerie E

    2015-06-01

    Limited functional mobility in older adults has been associated with declines in tests of motor, psychomotor, and executive function. Animal studies have demonstrated reversals in indices of motor and psychomotor function via supplementation with polyphenolic-rich foods such as blueberries. The purpose of this study was to examine whether 6 weeks of daily consumption of 2 cups of frozen blueberries affects functional mobility in older adults. Pre- and post-intervention assessments of grip strength, simple reaction time, adaptive gait, and executive function were completed for older adults (age >60 years) partially randomly assigned to a blueberry (BB) supplementation or a carrot juice drink control (CAR) group. Paired t tests were used to assess within-group effects for outcome variables in each supplementation group, and a mixed-model analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to determine group (CAR vs. BB) differences. Mixed-model analysis indicated that the BB group demonstrated significant improvements relative to the CAR group in performance (i.e., number of step errors) of a challenging dual-task adaptive gait test that were independent of differences in gait speed. Within only the BB group, significant improvements were also seen in 3 other measures (i.e., usual gait speed; number of step errors during single-task adaptive gait; and gait speed during dual-task adaptive gait). These preliminary findings support the hypothesis that blueberry supplementation may provide an effective countermeasure to age-related declines in functional mobility and serve as justification for an expansion to larger trials to more fully assess this nonpharmacologic approach to maintaining optimal mobility and independence. PMID:25909473

  19. Executive functioning and gambling: performance on the trail making test is associated with gambling problems in older adult gamblers.

    PubMed

    von Hippel, William; Ng, Lily; Abbot, Laura; Caldwell, Samantha; Gill, Georgia; Powell, Kym

    2009-11-01

    Rates of gambling problems in older adults have risen with increased accessibility of gambling venues. One possible contributor to problem gambling among older adults is decreased self-control brought about by diminished executive functioning. Consistent with this possibility, Study 1 revealed that older adults recruited from gambling venues reported greater gambling problems if they also experienced deficits in executive functioning, measured via the Trail Making Test. Study 2 replicated this finding and demonstrated that problem gambling is associated with increased depression among older adults, mediated by increased financial distress. These studies provide support for the hypothesis that older adult gamblers who have executive functioning problems are also likely to have gambling problems. PMID:19484614

  20. Kaatsu training to enhance physical function of older adults with knee osteoarthritis: Design of a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Buford, Thomas W; Fillingim, Roger B; Manini, Todd M; Sibille, Kimberly T; Vincent, Kevin R; Wu, Samuel S

    2015-07-01

    As the U.S. population ages, efficacious interventions are needed to manage pain and maintain physical function among older adults with osteoarthritis (OA). Skeletal muscle weakness is a primary contributory factor to pain and functional decline among persons with OA, thus interventions are needed that improve muscle strength. High-load resistance exercise is the best-known method of improving muscle strength; however high-compressive loads commonly induce significant joint pain among persons with OA. Thus interventions with low-compressive loads are needed which improve muscle strength while limiting joint stress. This study is investigating the potential of an innovative training paradigm, known as Kaatsu, for this purpose. Kaatsu involves performing low-load exercise while externally-applied compression partially restricts blood flow to the active skeletal muscle. The objective of this randomized, single-masked pilot trial is to evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of chronic Kaatsu training for improving skeletal muscle strength and physical function among older adults. Participants aged ? 60 years with physical limitations and symptomatic knee OA will be randomly assigned to engage in a 3-month intervention of either (1) center-based, moderate-load resistance training, or (2) Kaatsu training matched for overall workload. Study dependent outcomes include the change in 1) knee extensor strength, 2) objective measures of physical function, and 3) subjective measures of physical function and pain. This study will provide novel information regarding the therapeutic potential of Kaatsu training while also informing about the long-term clinical viability of the paradigm by evaluating participant safety, discomfort, and willingness to continually engage in the intervention. PMID:26111922

  1. The Impact of Financial Reward Contingencies on Cognitive Function Profiles in Adult ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Marx, Ivo; Höpcke, Cornelia; Berger, Christoph; Wandschneider, Roland; Herpertz, Sabine C.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Although it is well established that cognitive performance in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is affected by reward and that key deficits associated with the disorder may thereby be attenuated or even compensated, this phenomenon in adults with ADHD has thus far not been addressed. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the motivating effect of financial reward on task performance in adults with ADHD by focusing on the domains of executive functioning, attention, time perception, and delay aversion. Methods We examined male and female adults aged 18–40 years with ADHD (n?=?38) along with a matched control group (n?=?40) using six well-established experimental paradigms. Results Impaired performance in the ADHD group was observed for stop-signal omission errors, n-back accuracy, reaction time variability in the continuous performance task, and time reproduction accuracy, and reward normalized time reproduction accuracy. Furthermore, when rewarded, subjects with ADHD exhibited longer reaction times and fewer false positives in the continuous performance task, which suggests the use of strategies to prevent impulsivity errors. Conclusions Taken together, our results support the existence of both cognitive and motivational mechanisms for the disorder, which is in line with current models of ADHD. Furthermore, our data suggest cognitive strategies of “stopping and thinking” as a possible underlying mechanism for task improvement that seems to be mediated by reward, which highlights the importance of the interaction between motivation and cognition in adult ADHD. PMID:23840573

  2. Functional Compensation in the Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex Improves Memory-Dependent Decisions in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Huettel, Scott A.; Cabeza, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Everyday consumer choices frequently involve memory, as when we retrieve information about consumer products when making purchasing decisions. In this context, poor memory may affect decision quality, particularly in individuals with memory decline, such as older adults. However, age differences in choice behavior may be reduced if older adults can recruit additional neural resources that support task performance. Although such functional compensation is well documented in other cognitive domains, it is presently unclear whether it can support memory-guided decision making and, if so, which brain regions play a role in compensation. The current study engaged younger and older humans in a memory-dependent choice task in which pairs of consumer products from a popular online-shopping site were evaluated with different delays between the first and second product. Using functional imaging (fMRI), we found that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) supports compensation as defined by three a priori criteria: (1) increased vmPFC activation was observed in older versus younger adults; (2) age-related increases in vmPFC activity were associated with increased retrieval demands; and (3) increased vmPFC activity was positively associated with performance in older adults—evidence of successful compensation. Extending these results, we observed evidence for compensation in connectivity between vmPFC and the dorsolateral PFC during memory-dependent choice. In contrast, we found no evidence for age differences in value-related processing or age-related compensation for choices without delayed retrieval. Together, these results converge on the conclusion that age-related decline in memory-dependent choice performance can be minimized via functional compensation in vmPFC. PMID:25411493

  3. MRI- and MRS-Derived Hippocampal Correlates of Quantitative Locomotor Function in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Molly E.; Lipton, Richard B.; Pan, Jullie W.; Hetherington, Hoby P.; Verghese, Joe

    2009-01-01

    Gait measures have been shown to predict cognitive decline and dementia in older adults. Investigation of the neurobiology associated with locomotor function is needed to elucidate this relationship with cognitive abilities. This study aimed to examine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI; hippocampal volume)- and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS; N-acetylaspartate to creatine (NAA/Cr) ratios)-derived hippocampal correlates of quantitative gait function (swing time (seconds), stride length (cm), and stride length variability (standard deviation)) in a subset of 48 nondemented older adults (24 males; mean age=81 years) drawn from the Einstein Aging Study, a community-based sample of individuals over the age of 70 residing in the Bronx, New York. Linear regression analyses controlling for age were used to examine hippocampal volume and neurochemistry as predictors of gait function. We found that stride length was associated with hippocampal volume (?=0.36, p=0.03; overall model R2=0.33, p=0.01), but not hippocampal neurochemistry (?=0.09, p=0.48). Stride length variability was more strongly associated with hippocampal NAA/Cr (?=?0.38, p=0.01; overall model R2=0.14, p=0.04) than hippocampal volume (?=?0.33, p=0.08). Gait swing time was not significantly related to any neuroimaging measure. These relationships remained significant after accounting for memory and clinical gait impairments. These findings suggest that nondemented older adults exhibit increased stride length variability that is associated with lower levels of hippocampal neuronal metabolism, but not hippocampal volume. Conversely, decreased stride length is associated with smaller hippocampal volumes, but not hippocampal neurochemistry. Distinct neurobiological hippocampal substrates may support decreased stride length and increased stride length variability in older adults. PMID:19631621

  4. Functional compensation in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex improves memory-dependent decisions in older adults.

    PubMed

    Lighthall, Nichole R; Huettel, Scott A; Cabeza, Roberto

    2014-11-19

    Everyday consumer choices frequently involve memory, as when we retrieve information about consumer products when making purchasing decisions. In this context, poor memory may affect decision quality, particularly in individuals with memory decline, such as older adults. However, age differences in choice behavior may be reduced if older adults can recruit additional neural resources that support task performance. Although such functional compensation is well documented in other cognitive domains, it is presently unclear whether it can support memory-guided decision making and, if so, which brain regions play a role in compensation. The current study engaged younger and older humans in a memory-dependent choice task in which pairs of consumer products from a popular online-shopping site were evaluated with different delays between the first and second product. Using functional imaging (fMRI), we found that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) supports compensation as defined by three a priori criteria: (1) increased vmPFC activation was observed in older versus younger adults; (2) age-related increases in vmPFC activity were associated with increased retrieval demands; and (3) increased vmPFC activity was positively associated with performance in older adults-evidence of successful compensation. Extending these results, we observed evidence for compensation in connectivity between vmPFC and the dorsolateral PFC during memory-dependent choice. In contrast, we found no evidence for age differences in value-related processing or age-related compensation for choices without delayed retrieval. Together, these results converge on the conclusion that age-related decline in memory-dependent choice performance can be minimized via functional compensation in vmPFC. PMID:25411493

  5. ?? integrin inhibits chronic and high level activation of JNK to repress senescence phenotypes in Drosophila adult midgut.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Takashi; Takeda, Koji; Taniguchi, Kiichiro; Adachi-Yamada, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Proper control of adult stem cells including their proliferation and differentiation is crucial in maintaining homeostasis of well-organized tissues/organs throughout an organism's life. The Drosophila adult midgut has intestinal stem cells (ISCs), which have been exploited as a simple model system to investigate mechanisms controlling adult tissue homeostasis. Here, we found that a viable mutant of ?? integrin (?int-?), encoding one of two Drosophila integrin ? subunits, showed a short midgut and abnormal multilayered epithelia accompanied by an increase in ISC proliferation and misdifferentiation defects. The increase in ISC proliferation and misdifferentiation was due to frequent ISC duplication expanding a pool of ISCs, which was caused by depression of the Notch signalling, and up-regulation of unpaired (upd), a gene encoding an extracellular ligand in the JAK/STAT signalling pathway. In addition, we observed that abnormally high accumulation of filamentous actin (F-actin) was caused in the ?int-? mutant enterocytes. Furthermore, the defects were rescued by suppressing c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signalling, which was up-regulated in a manner correlated with the defect levels in the above-mentioned ?int-? mutant phenotype. These symptoms observed in young ?int-? mutant midgut were very similar to those in the aged midgut in wild type. Our results suggested that ?int-? has a novel function for the Drosophila adult midgut homeostasis under normal conditions and provided a new insight into possible age-related diseases caused by latent abnormality of an integrin function. PMID:24586740

  6. Nuclear diffractive structure functions at high energies

    E-print Network

    C. Marquet; H. Kowalski; T. Lappi; R. Venugopalan

    2008-05-30

    A future high-energy electron-ion collider would explore the non-linear weakly-coupled regime of QCD, and test the Color Glass Condensate (CGC) approach to high-energy scattering. Hard diffraction in deep inelastic scattering off nuclei will provide many fundamental measurements. In this work, the nuclear diffractive structure function F_{2,A}^D is predicted in the CGC framework, and the features of nuclear enhancement and suppression are discussed.

  7. Intensification of maternal care by double-mothering boosts cognitive function and hippocampal morphology in the adult offspring.

    PubMed

    D'Amato, Francesca R; Zanettini, Claudio; Sgobio, Carmelo; Sarli, Celeste; Carone, Valentina; Moles, Anna; Ammassari-Teule, Martine

    2011-03-01

    Mice born from high care-giving females show, as adults, low anxiety levels, decreased responsiveness to stress, and substantial improvements in cognitive function and hippocampal plasticity. Given the relevance of this issue for preventing emotional and cognitive abnormalities in high-risk subjects, this study examines the possibility to further enhance the beneficial effects observed in the progeny by augmenting maternal care beyond the highest levels females can display in standard laboratory conditions. This was produced by placing a second female with the dam and its litter in the rearing cage from the partum until pups weaning. Maternal behavior of all females was scored during the first week postpartum, and behavioral indices of emotionality, prestress and poststress corticosterone levels, cognitive performance, and hippocampal morphology were assessed in the adult offspring. We found that pups reared by female dyads received more maternal care than pups reared by dams alone, but as adults, they did not exhibit alterations in emotionality or corticosterone response estimated in basal condition or following restraint stress. Conversely, they showed enhanced performance in hippocampal-dependent tasks including long-term object discrimination, reactivity to spatial change, and fear conditioning together with an increase in dendritic length and spine density in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. In general, the beneficial effects of dyadic maternal care were stronger when both the females were lactating. This study demonstrates that double-mothering exerts a long-term positive control on cognitive function and hippocampal neuronal connectivity. This experimental manipulation, especially if associated with increased feeding, might offer a concrete possibility to limit or reverse the consequences of negative predisposing conditions for normal cognitive development. PMID:20087885

  8. Physical activity, quality of life, and functional autonomy of adults with spinal cord injuries.

    PubMed

    Kawanishi, Camilla Yuri; Greguol, Márcia

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to perform a systematic review of studies that address the influence of physical activity on the quality of life and functional independence of adult individuals with spinal cord injury. The review was performed using data obtained from the MEDLINE, CINAHL, SciELO, LILACS, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, Academic Search Premier, and PEDro databases using the following keywords: quality of life; functional independence; autonomy; independence; physical activity; activities of daily living; physical exercise; tetraplegia; paraplegia; spinal cord injury; physical disabilities; and wheelchair. Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria. Although there was a lack of consensus among the selected studies, the majority of them presented a strong correlation between physical activity and variables of quality of life and/or functional independence. Thus, physical activity appears to have an important influence on social relationships, functional independence, psychological factors, and physical aspects, which can enhance quality of life and independence in the performance of daily activities. PMID:24197622

  9. Mediators and moderators of functional impairment in adults with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Storch, Eric A; Wu, Monica S; Small, Brent J; Crawford, Erika A; Lewin, Adam B; Horng, Betty; Murphy, Tanya K

    2014-04-01

    The current study examined correlates, moderators, and mediators of functional impairment in 98 treatment-seeking adults with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Participants completed or were administered measures assessing obsessive-compulsive symptom severity, functional impairment, resistance against symptoms, interference due to obsessive-compulsive symptoms, depressive symptoms, insight, and anxiety sensitivity. Results indicated that all factors, except insight into symptoms, were significantly correlated with functional impairment. The relationship between obsessive-compulsive symptom severity and functional impairment was not moderated by patient insight, resistance against obsessive-compulsive symptoms, or anxiety sensitivity. Mediational analyses indicated that obsessive-compulsive symptom severity mediated the relationship between anxiety sensitivity and obsessive-compulsive related impairment. Indeed, anxiety sensitivity may play an important contributory role in exacerbating impairment through increases in obsessive-compulsive symptom severity. Depressive symptoms mediated the relationship between obsessive-compulsive symptom severity and obsessive-compulsive related impairment. Implications for assessment and treatment are discussed. PMID:24342055

  10. Lower Extremity Muscle Function After Strength or Power Training in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, Anthony P.; Miller, Michael E.; Rejeski, W. Jack; Hutton, Stacy L.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear whether strength training (ST) or power training (PT) is the more effective intervention at improving muscle strength and power and physical function in older adults. The authors compared the effects of lower extremity PT with those of ST on muscle strength and power in 45 older adults (74.8 ± 5.7 yr) with self-reported difficulty in common daily activities. Participants were randomized to 1 of 3 treatment groups: PT, ST, or wait-list control. PT and ST trained 3 times/wk for 12 wk using knee-extension (KE) and leg-press (LP) machines at ~70% of 1-repetition maximum (1RM). For PT, the concentric phase of the KE and LP was completed “as fast as possible,” whereas for ST the concentric phase was 2–3 s. Both PT and ST paused briefly at the midpoint of the movement and completed the eccentric phase of the movement in 2–3 s. PT and ST groups showed significant improvements in KE and LP 1RM compared with the control group. Maximum KE and LP power increased approximately twofold in PT compared with ST. At 12 wk, compared with control, maximum KE and LP power were significantly increased for the PT group but not for the ST group. In older adults with compromised function, PT leads to similar increases in strength and larger increases in power than ST. PMID:19940322

  11. Visual function and color vision in adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soyeon; Chen, Samantha; Tannock, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Color vision and self-reported visual function in everyday life in young adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) were investigated. Method Participants were 30 young adults with ADHD and 30 controls matched for age and gender. They were tested individually and completed the Visual Activities Questionnaire (VAQ), Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue Test (FMT) and A Quick Test of Cognitive Speed (AQT). Results The ADHD group reported significantly more problems in 4 of 8 areas on the VAQ: depth perception, peripheral vision, visual search and visual processing speed. Further analyses of VAQ items revealed that the ADHD group endorsed more visual problems associated with driving than controls. Color perception difficulties on the FMT were restricted to the blue spectrum in the ADHD group. FMT and AQT results revealed slower processing of visual stimuli in the ADHD group. Conclusion A comprehensive investigation of mechanisms underlying visual function and color vision in adults with ADHD is warranted, along with the potential impact of these visual problems on driving performance. PMID:24646898

  12. Evaluation of a Brief Survey Instrument for Assessing Subtle Differences in Cognitive Function Among Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Kotwal, Ashwin A; Schumm, Philip; Kern, David W; McClintock, Martha K; Waite, Linda J; Shega, Joseph W; Huisingh-Scheetz, Megan J; Dale, William

    2015-01-01

    Most measures of cognitive function used in large-scale surveys of older adults have limited ability to detect subtle differences across cognitive domains, and standard clinical instruments are impractical to administer in general surveys. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) can address this need, but has limitations in a survey context. Therefore, we developed a survey adaptation of the MoCA, called the MoCA-SA, and describe its psychometric properties in a large national survey. Using a pretest sample of older adults (n=120), we reduced MoCA administration time by 26%, developed a model to accurately estimate full MoCA scores from the MoCA-SA, and tested the model in an independent clinical sample (n=93). The validated 18-item MoCA-SA was then administered to community-dwelling adults aged 62 to 91 as part of the National Social life Health and Aging Project Wave 2 sample (n=3196). In National Social life Health and Aging Project Wave 2, the MoCA-SA had good internal reliability (Cronbach ?=0.76). Using item-response models, survey-adapted items captured a broad range of cognitive abilities and functioned similarly across sex, education, and ethnic groups. Results demonstrate that the MoCA-SA can be administered reliably in a survey setting while preserving sensitivity to a broad range of cognitive abilities and similar performance across demographic subgroups. PMID:25390883

  13. Association between toxocariasis and cognitive function in young to middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Lance D; Gale, Shawn D; Berrett, Andrew; Brown, Bruce L; Hedges, Dawson W

    2015-01-01

    The ascarid nematodes Toxocara canis (Werner, 1782) and Toxocara cati (Schrank, 1788) may infect humans resulting in toxocariasis. A prior study associated species of Toxocara Stiles, 1905 with cognitive deficits in children. To determine if a similar association between toxocariasis and cognition exists in adults, we analysed a large dataset from the United States' Center for Disease Control's National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We used linear-regression and multivariate models to examine the association between toxocariasis as assessed by the presence of anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies and three measures of cognitive function - simple reaction time (SRT), symbol-digit substitution (SDS) and serial-digit learning (SDL) in 4 279 adults aged 21 to 59 years. Toxocara seroprevalence did not vary with age or blood-lead concentration but did vary with gender, ethnicity, educational attainment and poverty-to-income ratio. Controlling for gender, age, blood-lead concentration, educational attainment, ethnic background and the poverty-to-income ratio, we found that toxocariasis predicted worse performance on the SDS but not on the SRT or the SDL. Moreover, there were significant interactions between toxocariasis and age, gender and educational attainment. In conclusion, toxocariasis appears to be associated with decreased cognitive function. Interactions between toxocariasis and gender, age and educational attainment further suggest that certain groups may be more susceptible than others to the cognitive dysfunction associated with toxocariasis in adults. PMID:26374832

  14. Gestalt Perception and Local-Global Processing in High-Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolte, Sven; Holtmann, Martin; Poustka, Fritz; Scheurich, Armin; Schmidt, Lutz

    2007-01-01

    This study examined gestalt perception in high-functioning autism (HFA) and its relation to tasks indicative of local visual processing. Data on of gestalt perception, visual illusions (VI), hierarchical letters (HL), Block Design (BD) and the Embedded Figures Test (EFT) were collected in adult males with HFA, schizophrenia, depression and…

  15. Activation of Rho GTPases triggers structural remodeling and functional plasticity in the adult rat visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Cerri, Chiara; Fabbri, Alessia; Vannini, Eleonora; Spolidoro, Maria; Costa, Mario; Maffei, Lamberto; Fiorentini, Carla; Caleo, Matteo

    2011-10-19

    A classical example of age-dependent plasticity is ocular dominance (OD) plasticity, triggered by monocular deprivation (MD). Sensitivity of cortical circuits to a brief period of MD is maximal in juvenile animals and downregulated in adult age. It remains unclear whether a reduced potential for morphological remodeling underlies this downregulation of physiological plasticity in adulthood. Here we have tested whether stimulation of structural rearrangements is effective in promoting experience-dependent plasticity in adult age. We have exploited a bacterial protein toxin, cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 (CNF1), that regulates actin dynamics and structure of neuronal processes via a persistent activation of Rho GTPases. Injection of CNF1 into the adult rat visual cortex triggered a long-lasting activation of the Rho GTPase Rac1, with a consequent increase in spine density and length in pyramidal neurons. Adult rats treated with CNF1, but not controls, showed an OD shift toward the open eye after MD. CNF1-mediated OD plasticity was selectively attributable to the enhancement of open-eye responses, whereas closed-eye inputs were unaffected. This effect correlated with an increased density of geniculocortical terminals in layer IV of monocularly deprived, CNF1-treated rats. Thus, Rho GTPase activation reinstates OD plasticity in the adult cortex via the potentiation of more active inputs from the open eye. These data establish a direct link between structural remodeling and functional plasticity and demonstrate a role for Rho GTPases in brain plasticity in vivo. The plasticizing effects of Rho GTPase activation may be exploited to promote brain repair. PMID:22016550

  16. ADULTS WITH DIABETIC PERIPHERAL NEUROPATHY EXHIBIT IMPAIRMENTS IN MULTI-TASKING AND OTHER EXECUTIVE FUNCTIONS

    PubMed Central

    Rucker, Jason L.; Jernigan, Stephen D.; McDowd, Joan M.; Kluding, Patricia M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) contributes to functional impairment, and there is growing evidence that neuropsychological factors also influence physical function. We compared cognitive and executive function in adults with DPN to an age-matched comparison group, and examined the relationships between DPN, executive function, and physical function. METHODS Twenty subjects with DPN and 20 comparison subjects were assessed. DPN was quantified via the Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument and nerve conduction velocity testing. Subjects were administered Beck’s Depression Inventory, the Mini Mental Status Examination, and the Timed Up and Go test (TUG). Each participant also completed a battery of 7 executive function tasks, including the Cognitive Timed Up and Go test (cTUG), in which a concurrent mental subtraction task was added to the standard TUG test. RESULTS The DPN group demonstrated poorer letter fluency (34.2±11.6 vs. 46.2±12.2 words, p=0.001), category fluency (47.0±8.1 vs. 56.3±8.5 words, p=0.003), and Rey Osterrieth scores (25.9±4.3 vs. 31.7±2.4 points, p<0.001), and took longer to complete both the TUG (10.3±2.8 vs. 5.9±1.0 seconds, p<0.001) and cTUG (13.0±5.8 vs. 6.9±1.6 seconds, p<0.001). Poorer global cognitive performance and greater depression symptoms were significantly related to each other (r=?0.46, p=0.04) and to slower TUG times (r=?0.53, p=0.02 and 0.54, p=0.02, respectively). DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS Verbal, visuospatial, and multi-tasking measures of executive function may be impaired in adults with DPN. Future research should examine how these and other cognitive and psychological factors, such as depression, affect physical function in this population. PMID:24384943

  17. Functional results after Bonebridge implantation in adults and children with conductive and mixed hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Rahne, Torsten; Seiwerth, Ingmar; Götze, Gerrit; Heider, Cornelia; Radetzki, Florian; Herzog, Michael; Plontke, Stefan K

    2015-11-01

    In patients with conductive hearing loss caused by middle ear disorders or atresia of the ear canal, a Bonebridge implantation can improve hearing by providing vibratory input to the temporal bone. The expected results are improved puretone thresholds and speech recognition. In the European Union, approval of the Bonebridge implantation was recently extended to children. We evaluated the functional outcome of a Bonebridge implantation for eight adults and three children. We found significant improvement in the puretone thresholds, with improvement in the air-bone gap. Speech recognition after surgery was significantly higher than in the best-aided situation before surgery. The Bonebridge significantly improved speech recognition in noisy environments and sound localization. In situations relevant to daily life, hearing deficits were nearly completely restored with the Bonebridge implantation in both adults and children. PMID:25425039

  18. Hypertension, Abnormal Cholesterol, and High Body Mass Index among Non-Hispanic Asian Adults: United States, 2011-2012

    MedlinePLUS

    ... non-Hispanic Asian adults did not differ by sex, age, education, or foreign-born status. The prevalence ... 2012. The prevalence of high BMI differed by sex and age among non-Hispanic Asian adults. The ...

  19. Skin-derived neural precursors competitively generate functional myelin in adult demyelinated mice.

    PubMed

    Mozafari, Sabah; Laterza, Cecilia; Roussel, Delphine; Bachelin, Corinne; Marteyn, Antoine; Deboux, Cyrille; Martino, Gianvito; Baron-Van Evercooren, Anne

    2015-09-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived (iPS-derived) neural precursor cells may represent the ideal autologous cell source for cell-based therapy to promote remyelination and neuroprotection in myelin diseases. So far, the therapeutic potential of reprogrammed cells has been evaluated in neonatal demyelinating models. However, the repair efficacy and safety of these cells has not been well addressed in the demyelinated adult CNS, which has decreased cell plasticity and scarring. Moreover, it is not clear if these induced pluripotent-derived cells have the same reparative capacity as physiologically committed CNS-derived precursors. Here, we performed a side-by-side comparison of CNS-derived and skin-derived neural precursors in culture and following engraftment in murine models of adult spinal cord demyelination. Grafted induced neural precursors exhibited a high capacity for survival, safe integration, migration, and timely differentiation into mature bona fide oligodendrocytes. Moreover, grafted skin-derived neural precursors generated compact myelin around host axons and restored nodes of Ranvier and conduction velocity as efficiently as CNS-derived precursors while outcompeting endogenous cells. Together, these results provide important insights into the biology of reprogrammed cells in adult demyelinating conditions and support use of these cells for regenerative biomedicine of myelin diseases that affect the adult CNS. PMID:26301815

  20. Skin-derived neural precursors competitively generate functional myelin in adult demyelinated mice

    PubMed Central

    Mozafari, Sabah; Laterza, Cecilia; Roussel, Delphine; Bachelin, Corinne; Marteyn, Antoine; Deboux, Cyrille; Martino, Gianvito; Evercooren, Anne Baron-Van

    2015-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cell–derived (iPS-derived) neural precursor cells may represent the ideal autologous cell source for cell-based therapy to promote remyelination and neuroprotection in myelin diseases. So far, the therapeutic potential of reprogrammed cells has been evaluated in neonatal demyelinating models. However, the repair efficacy and safety of these cells has not been well addressed in the demyelinated adult CNS, which has decreased cell plasticity and scarring. Moreover, it is not clear if these induced pluripotent–derived cells have the same reparative capacity as physiologically committed CNS-derived precursors. Here, we performed a side-by-side comparison of CNS-derived and skin-derived neural precursors in culture and following engraftment in murine models of adult spinal cord demyelination. Grafted induced neural precursors exhibited a high capacity for survival, safe integration, migration, and timely differentiation into mature bona fide oligodendrocytes. Moreover, grafted skin–derived neural precursors generated compact myelin around host axons and restored nodes of Ranvier and conduction velocity as efficiently as CNS-derived precursors while outcompeting endogenous cells. Together, these results provide important insights into the biology of reprogrammed cells in adult demyelinating conditions and support use of these cells for regenerative biomedicine of myelin diseases that affect the adult CNS. PMID:26301815

  1. The Effect of Music Therapy on Executive Function Skills in Male, Incarcerated Adults in a Correctional Facility

    E-print Network

    Ellis, Elisha

    2014-05-31

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of participation in a music therapy group on the executive function skills of male, incarcerated adults in a county correctional facility. Participants (N=16) were recruited from the medium...

  2. The Effectiveness of Community-Based Occupational Therapy Education and Functional Training Programs for Older Adults: A Critical Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Seanne; Jung, Bonny; Wishart, Laurie; Edwards, Mary; Norton, Shelley Gamble

    2003-01-01

    Results of a literature review describing the provision of education and occupational therapy training programs for older adults indicate that programs are effective in three areas: prevention of functional decline and falls, stroke, and rheumatoid arthritis. (Contains 37 references.) (JOW)

  3. Association of television violence exposure with executive functioning and white matter volume in young adult males.

    PubMed

    Hummer, Tom A; Kronenberger, William G; Wang, Yang; Anderson, Caitlin C; Mathews, Vincent P

    2014-07-01

    Prior research has indicated that self-reported violent media exposure is associated with poorer performance on some neuropsychological tests in adolescents. This study aimed to examine the relationship of executive functioning to violent television viewing in healthy young adult males and examine how brain structure is associated with media exposure measures. Sixty-five healthy adult males (ages 18-29) with minimal video game experience estimated their television viewing habits over the past year and, during the subsequent week, recorded television viewing time and characteristics in a daily media diary. Participants then completed a battery of neuropsychological laboratory tests quantifying executive functions and underwent a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. Aggregate measures of executive functioning were not associated with measures of overall television viewing (any content type) during the past week or year. However, the amount of television viewing of violent content only, as indicated by both past-year and daily diary measures, was associated with poorer scores on an aggregate score of inhibition, interference control and attention, with no relationship to a composite working memory score. In addition, violent television exposure, as measured with daily media diaries, was associated with reduced frontoparietal white matter volume. Future longitudinal work is necessary to resolve whether individuals with poor executive function and slower white matter growth are more drawn to violent programming, or if extensive media violence exposure modifies cognitive control mechanisms mediated primarily via prefrontal cortex. Impaired inhibitory mechanisms may be related to reported increases in aggression with higher media violence exposure. PMID:24836970

  4. Effect of arch length on the functional well-being of dentate adults.

    PubMed

    Montero, J; Bravo, M; Hernández, L A; Dib, A

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the influence of arch length and the number of occlusal units on the oral functions and general satisfaction perceived by dentate adults without dentures who had all their aesthetic units intact. We performed an epidemiological study at randomly chosen health centres on populations of adults without dentures. The subjects (n = 624) were classified as complete dental arch (CDA), interrupted dental arch (IDA) or shortened dental arches (SDA), depending on the length and continuity of the dental arches. We gathered clinical data and data on functional ability and oral satisfaction, plotting them on a scale of 0-10. The individuals with a shortened dental arch were found to have longer-lasting, more frequent and more severe functional limitations upon chewing, smiling and speaking than those with a complete or interrupted arch. The prevalance rate ratio (95% CI) of functional limitations in the SDA group was higher than in the aggregated CDA-IDA group, the values ranging between 1.56 (1.22-12.01) as regards chewing and 2.35 (1.45-3.85) in the case of smiling. However, in general all groups were satisfied with their oral status. PMID:19302177

  5. Change in Cognitive Functioning in Depressed Older Adults Following Treatment with Sertraline or Nortriptyline

    PubMed Central

    Culang-Reinlieb, Michelle E.; Sneed, Joel R.; Keilp, John G.; Roose, Steven P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare the impact of nortriptyline to sertraline on change in cognitive functioning in depressed older adults. Methods We used pre-post neuropsychological data collected as part of a 12-week medication trial comparing sertraline to nortriptyline in the treatment of older adults with non-psychotic, unipolar major depression to examine change in cognitive functioning. Neuropsychological assessments included mental status (Mini-Mental Status Exam), psychomotor speed (Purdue Pegboard), attention (Continuous Performance Test; Trail Making Test A), executive functioning (Stroop Color/Word Test; Trail Making Test B), and memory (Buschke Selective Reminding Test). Results Within treatment groups, patients treated with sertraline improved only on verbal learning. This change did not depend on responder status. Between treatment groups, patients treated with sertraline improved more in verbal learning compared to patients treated with nortriptyline. Looking at change in cognition as a function of medication condition and responder status revealed that sertraline responders improved more in verbal learning compared to nortriptyline responders but not more than sertraline non-responders or nortriptyline non-responders. Nortriptyline responders were the only treatment by responder status group to show no improvement in verbal learning from baseline to endpoint. Conclusions Unexpectedly, nortriptyline responders showed no improvement in verbal learning as compared to patients treated with sertraline or nortriptyline non-responders. However, given the small sample sizes and number of statistical tests (potential for type 1 error), replication is warranted. PMID:21919060

  6. Benzodiazepine (BZD) use in community-dwelling older adults: Longitudinal associations with mobility, functioning, and pain.

    PubMed

    Petrov, Megan E; Sawyer, Patricia; Kennedy, Richard; Bradley, Laurence A; Allman, Richard M

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prospective association between baseline BZD use and mobility, functioning, and pain among urban and rural African-American and non-Hispanic white community-dwelling older adults. From 1999 to 2001, a cohort of 1000 community-dwelling adults, aged ? 65 years, representing a random sample of Medicare beneficiaries, stratified by ethnicity, sex, and urban/rural residence were recruited. BZD use was assessed at an in-home visit. Every six months thereafter, study outcomes were assessed via telephone for 8.5-years. Mobility was assessed with the Life-Space Assessment (LSA). Functioning was quantified with level of difficulty in five basic activities of daily living (ADL: bathing, dressing, transferring, toileting, eating), and six instrumental activities of daily living (IADL: shopping, managing money, preparing meals, light and heavy housework, telephone use). Pain was measured by frequency per week and the magnitude of interference with daily tasks. All analytic models were adjusted for relevant covariates and mental health symptoms. After multivariable adjustment, baseline BZD use was significantly associated with greater difficulty with basic ADL (Estimate=0.39, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.04-0.74), and more frequent pain (Estimate=0.41, 95%CI: 0.09-0.74) in the total sample and declines in mobility among rural residents (Estimate=-0.67, t(5,902)=-1.98, p=0.048), over 8.5 years. BZD use was prospectively associated with greater risk for basic ADL difficulties and frequent pain among African-American and non-Hispanic white community-dwelling older adults, and life-space mobility declines among rural-dwellers, independently of relevant covariates. These findings highlight the potential long-term negative impact of BZD use among community-dwelling older adults. PMID:24880195

  7. Executive Functioning in Highly Talented Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Verburgh, Lot; Scherder, Erik J. A.; van Lange, Paul A.M.; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2014-01-01

    Executive functions might be important for successful performance in sports, particularly in team sports requiring quick anticipation and adaptation to continuously changing situations in the field. The executive functions motor inhibition, attention and visuospatial working memory were examined in highly talented soccer players. Eighty-four highly talented youth soccer players (mean age 11.9), and forty-two age-matched amateur soccer players (mean age 11.8) in the age range 8 to 16 years performed a Stop Signal task (motor inhibition), the Attention Network Test (alerting, orienting, and executive attention) and a visuospatial working memory task. The highly talented soccer players followed the talent development program of the youth academy of a professional soccer club and played at the highest national soccer competition for their age. The amateur soccer players played at a regular soccer club in the same geographical region as the highly talented soccer players and play in a regular regional soccer competition. Group differences were tested using analyses of variance. The highly talented group showed superior motor inhibition as measured by stop signal reaction time (SSRT) on the Stop Signal task and a larger alerting effect on the Attention Network Test, indicating an enhanced ability to attain and maintain an alert state. No group differences were found for orienting and executive attention and visuospatial working memory. A logistic regression model with group (highly talented or amateur) as dependent variable and executive function measures that significantly distinguished between groups as predictors showed that these measures differentiated highly talented soccer players from amateur soccer players with 89% accuracy. Highly talented youth soccer players outperform youth amateur players on suppressing ongoing motor responses and on the ability to attain and maintain an alert state; both may be essential for success in soccer. PMID:24632735

  8. Vascular Health and Cognitive Function in Older Adults with Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Forman, Daniel E.; Cohen, Ronald A.; Hoth, Karin F.; Haley, Andreana P.; Poppas, Athena; Moser, David J.; Gunstad, John; Paul, Robert H.; Jefferson, Angela L.; Tate, David F.; Ono, Makoto; Wake, Nicole; Gerhard-Herman, Marie

    2010-01-01

    Background We hypothesized that changes in vascular flow dynamics resulting from age and cardiovascular disease (CVD) would correlate to neurocognitive capacities, even in adults screened to exclude dementia and neurological disease. We studied endothelial-dependent as well as endothelial-independent brachial responses in older adults with CVD to study the associations of vascular responses with cognition. Comprehensive neurocognitive testing was used to discern which specific cognitive domain(s) correlated to the vascular responses. Methods Eighty-eight independent, community-dwelling older adults (70.02+7.67 years) with mild to severe CVD were recruited. Enrollees were thoroughly screened to exclude neurological disease and dementia. Flow-mediated (endothelial-dependent) and nitroglycerin-mediated (endothelial-independent) brachial artery responses were assessed using 2-d ultrasound. Cognitive functioning was assessed using comprehensive neuropsychological testing. Linear regression analyses were used to evaluate the relationships between the endothelial-dependent and endothelial-independent vascular flow dynamics and specific domains of neurocognitive function. Results Endothelial-dependent and endothelial-independent brachial artery responses both correlated with neurocognitive testing indices. The strongest independent relationship was between endothelial function and measures of attention-executive functioning. Conclusions Endothelial-dependent and endothelial-independent vascular responsiveness correlate with neurocognitive performance among older CVD patients, particularly in the attention-executive domain. While further study is needed to substantiate causal relationships, our data demonstrate that brachial responses serve as important markers of risk for common neurocognitive changes. Learning and behavior-modifying therapeutic strategies that compensate for such common, insidious neurocognitive limitations will likely improve caregiving efficacy. PMID:21179381

  9. Multi-tasking, Executive Function, and Functional Abilities in Older Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    E-print Network

    Rucker, Jason Lee

    2014-05-31

    and diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) and 20 individuals of similar age without diabetes. We found that those with DPN performed worse on the cTUG test, and also demonstrated poorer performance on executive function measures assessing visuospatial and verbal...

  10. Left ventricular function in adults with mild pulmonary insufficiency late after Fallot repair

    PubMed Central

    Niezen, R; Helbing, W; van der Wall, E E; van der Geest, R J; Vliegen, H; de Roos, A

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To assess left ventricular function in adult Fallot patients with residual pulmonary regurgitation.?SETTING—The radiology department of a tertiary referral centre.?PATIENTS—14 patients with chronic pulmonary regurgitation and right ventricular volume overload after repair of tetralogy of Fallot and 10 healthy subjects were studied using magnetic resonance imaging.?MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Biventricular volumes, global biventricular function, and regional left ventricular function were assessed in all subjects.?RESULTS—The amount of pulmonary regurgitation in patients (mean (SD)) was 25 (18)% of forward flow and correlated significantly with right ventricular enlargement (p < 0.05). Left ventricular end diastolic volume was decreased in patients (78 (11) v 88 (10) ml/m2; p < 0.05), ejection fraction was not significantly altered (59 (5)% v 55 (7)%; NS). No significant correlation was found between pulmonary regurgitation and left ventricular function. Overall left ventricular end diastolic wall thickness was significantly lower in patients (5.06 (0.72) v 6.06 (1.06) mm; p < 0.05), predominantly in the free wall. At the apical level, left ventricular systolic wall thickening was 20% higher in Fallot patients (p < 0.05). Left ventricular shape was normal.?CONCLUSIONS—Adult Fallot patients with mild chronic pulmonary regurgitation and subsequent right ventricular enlargement showed a normal left ventricular shape and global function. Although the left ventricular free wall had reduced wall thickness, compensatory hypercontractility of the apex may contribute to preserved global function.???Keywords: left ventricular function; pulmonary insufficiency; tetralogy of Fallot; magnetic resonance imaging PMID:10573497

  11. Determinants of physical and global functioning in adult HIV-positive heterosexual men

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Krupa; McMahon, James M.; Trabold, Nicole; Aidala, Angela A.; Chen, Michael; Pouget, Enrique R.; Simmons, Janie; Klostermann, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the psychosocial factors that might impact the functioning ability of heterosexual men living with HIV. We examined positive and negative coping, social support, and HIV stigma as predictors of physical and global functioning in a cross-sectional sample of 317 HIV-infected adult heterosexual male patients recruited from clinical and social service agencies in New York City. Study participants were primarily minority and low income. Sixty-four percent were African-American, 55% were single, and 90% were 40 years of age or older. The majority had long-term HIV (LTHIV), with an average duration of 15 years since diagnosis. After controlling for participant characteristics, structural equation modelling analyses revealed that positive coping and social support had a significant positive direct effect on global functioning, while stigma had a significant negative direct effect on global functioning. The physical functioning model revealed that negative coping and HIV stigma had significant negative direct effects, whereas social support had a significant positive indirect effect. Age and duration of HIV diagnosis were not associated with physical and global functioning. In conclusion, we found that heterosexual men living with LTHIV who have ineffective coping, less social support, and greater stigma have reduced functioning ability. Study findings have implications for developing interventions aimed at increasing and retaining functioning ability with the end goal of improving successful aging in this population. PMID:25812466

  12. Determinants of physical and global functioning in adult HIV-positive heterosexual men.

    PubMed

    Shah, Krupa; McMahon, James M; Trabold, Nicole; Aidala, Angela A; Chen, Michael; Pouget, Enrique R; Simmons, Janie; Klostermann, Keith

    2015-09-01

    Little is known about the psychosocial factors that might impact the functioning ability of heterosexual men living with HIV. We examined positive and negative coping, social support, and HIV stigma as predictors of physical and global functioning in a cross-sectional sample of 317 HIV-infected adult heterosexual male patients recruited from clinical and social service agencies in New York City. Study participants were primarily minority and low income. Sixty-four percent were African-American, 55% were single, and 90% were 40 years of age or older. The majority had long-term HIV (LTHIV), with an average duration of 15 years since diagnosis. After controlling for participant characteristics, structural equation modeling analyses revealed that positive coping and social support had a significant positive direct effect on global functioning, while stigma had a significant negative direct effect on global functioning. The physical functioning model revealed that negative coping and HIV stigma had significant negative direct effects, whereas social support had a significant positive indirect effect. Age and duration of HIV diagnosis were not associated with physical and global functioning. In conclusion, we found that heterosexual men living with LTHIV who have ineffective coping, less social support, and greater stigma have reduced functioning ability. Study findings have implications for developing interventions aimed at increasing and retaining functioning ability with the end goal of improving successful aging in this population. PMID:25812466

  13. Effect of brain structure and function on reward anticipation in children and adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder combined subtype.

    PubMed

    Kappel, Viola; Lorenz, Robert C; Streifling, Martina; Renneberg, Babette; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Ströhle, Andreas; Salbach-Andrae, Harriet; Beck, Anne

    2015-07-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with decreased ventral-striatal responsiveness during reward anticipation. However, previous research mostly focused on adults with heterogeneous ADHD subtype and divers drug treatment status while studies in children with ADHD are sparse. Moreover, it remains unclear to what degree ADHD is characterized by a delay of normal brain structure or function maturation. We therefore attempt to determine whether results from structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) are associated with childhood and adult ADHD combined subtype (ADHD-CT). This study used fMRI to compare VS structure and function of 30 participants with ADHD-CT (16 adults, 14 children) and 30 controls (20 adults, 10 children), using a monetary incentive delay task. Joint analyses of structural and functional imaging data were conducted with Biological Parametric Mapping. Reward anticipation elicited decreased ventral-striatal responsiveness in adults but not in children with ADHD-CT. Children and adults with ADHD showed reduced ventral-striatal volume. Taking these gray matter differences into account, the results remained the same. These results suggest that decreased ventral-striatal responsiveness during reward anticipation is present in adults but not in children with ADHD-CT, irrespective of structural characteristics. The question arises whether ventral-striatal hypoactivity is an ADHD correlate that develops during the course of illness. PMID:25338631

  14. Monitoring Cognitive Functioning: Psychometric Properties of the Brief Test of Adult Cognition by Telephone (BTACT)

    PubMed Central

    Lachman, Margie E.; Agrigoroaei, Stefan; Tun, Patricia A.; Weaver, Suzanne L.

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of cognitive functioning is an important component of telephone surveys of health. Previous cognitive telephone batteries have been limited in scope with a primary focus on dementia screening. The Brief Test of Adult Cognition by Telephone (BTACT) assesses multiple dimensions central for effective functioning across adulthood: episodic memory, working memory, reasoning, verbal fluency, and executive function. The BTACT is the first instrument which includes measures of processing speed, reaction time, and task switching/inhibitory control for use over the telephone. We administered the battery to a national sample (N = 4,268), aged 32 to 84, from the study of Midlife in the United States and examined age, education and sex differences, reliability, and factor structure. We found good evidence for construct validity with a subsample tested in person. Implications of the findings are considered for efficient neuropsychological assessment and monitoring changes in cognitive aging, for clinical and research applications by telephone or in person. PMID:24322011

  15. Serum Methylarginines and Spirometry-Measured Lung Function in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    McEvoy, Mark A.; Schofield, Peter W.; Smith, Wayne T.; Agho, Kingsley; Mangoni, Arduino A.; Soiza, Roy L.; Peel, Roseanne; Hancock, Stephen J.; Carru, Ciriaco; Zinellu, Angelo; Attia, John R.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Methylarginines are endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitors that have been implicated in animal models of lung disease but have not previously been examined for their association with spirometric measures of lung function in humans. Objectives This study measured serum concentrations of asymmetric and symmetric dimethylarginine in a representative sample of older community-dwelling adults and determined their association with spirometric lung function measures. Methods Data on clinical, lifestyle, and demographic characteristics, methylated arginines, and L-arginine (measured using LC-MS/MS) were collected from a population-based sample of older Australian adults from the Hunter Community Study. The five key lung function measures included as outcomes were Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second, Forced Vital Capacity, Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second to Forced Vital Capacity ratio, Percent Predicted Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second, and Percent Predicted Forced Vital Capacity. Measurements and Main Results In adjusted analyses there were statistically significant independent associations between a) higher asymmetric dimethylarginine, lower Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second and lower Forced Vital Capacity; and b) lower L-arginine/asymmetric dimethylarginine ratio, lower Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second, lower Percent Predicted Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second and lower Percent Predicted Forced Vital Capacity. By contrast, no significant associations were observed between symmetric dimethylarginine and lung function. Conclusions After adjusting for clinical, demographic, biochemical, and pharmacological confounders, higher serum asymmetric dimethylarginine was independently associated with a reduction in key measures of lung function. Further research is needed to determine if methylarginines predict the decline in lung function. PMID:23690915

  16. Acute effects of ?-naphthoflavone on cardiorespiratory function and metabolism in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Gerger, Courtney J; Thomas, Jith K; Janz, David M; Weber, Lynn P

    2015-02-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists are known to cause lethal cardiovascular deformities in fish after developmental exposure. Acute adult fish toxicity of AhR agonists is thought to be minimal, but limited evidence suggests sublethal effects may also involve the cardiac system in fish. In the present study, adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) were aqueously exposed to solvent control or three nominal concentrations of the commonly used model AhR agonist, ?-naphthoflavone (BNF), for 48 h. Following exposure, fish were subjected to echocardiography to determine cardiac function or swimming tests with concurrent oxygen consumption measurement. Critical swimming speed and standard metabolic rate were not significantly changed, while active metabolic rate decreased with increasing BNF exposure, reaching statistical significance at the highest BNF exposure. Factorial aerobic scope was the most sensitive end-point and was decreased at even lower BNF concentrations, indicating a reduced aerobic capacity after acute AhR agonist exposure in adult fish. The highest BNF concentration caused a significant decrease in cardiac output, while increasing the ratio of atrial to ventricular heart rate (indicating atrioventricular conduction blockade). In conclusion, the effect of acute BNF exposure on zebrafish metabolic capacity and cardiac function is likely to be physiologically important given that fish have a critical need for adequate oxygen to fuel essential survival behaviors such as swimming, growth, and reproduction. Future studies should be directed at examining the effects of other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on fish cardiorespiratory function to determine whether their effects and modes of action are similar to BNF. PMID:25186110

  17. [The neuroanatomy of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults: structural and functional neuroimaging findings].

    PubMed

    Ramos-Quiroga, Josep Antoni; Picado, Marisol; Mallorquí-Bagué, Nuria; Vilarroya, Oscar; Palomar, Gloria; Richarte, Vanesa; Vidal, Raquel; Casas, Miguel

    2013-02-22

    The objective of this work is to review the existing literature on findings from structural and functional magnetic resonance and connectivity. For a long time it was thought that children 'grew out' of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on reaching adolescence. Yet, it is now known that up to 70% of children who present ADHD in childhood go on to present symptoms in the behavioural and cognitive sphere in adulthood. Neuroimaging studies conducted in adults with ADHD have shown alterations in the brain at the structural and functional levels, and also in terms of connectivity. These findings have been observed mainly in the inferior frontal and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, as well as in striatal, anterior cingulate, parietotemporal and cerebellar regions. However, certain inconsistencies have also been found, which may be related with the presence of comorbidity, a history of medication, gender-related differences and the small size of the sample used in some studies. Differences have also been noted in relation to studies carried out in children with ADHD. Hence the importance for future studies of avoiding the existence of variables that can affect the findings in ADHD in adults and, moreover, of being able to determine whether the anatomical and functional deficits continue into adulthood. PMID:23446729

  18. Multigenerational effects of parental prenatal exposure to famine on adult offspring cognitive function

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Na, Lixin; Ma, Hao; Zhang, Zhe; Li, Tianjiao; Lin, Liqun; Li, Qiang; Sun, Changhao; Li, Ying

    2015-01-01

    The effects of prenatal nutrition on adult cognitive function have been reported for one generation. However, human evidence for multigenerational effects is lacking. We examined whether prenatal exposure to the Chinese famine of 1959–61 affects adult cognitive function in two consecutive generations. In this retrospective family cohort study, we investigated 1062 families consisting of 2124 parents and 1215 offspring. We assessed parental and offspring cognitive performance by means of a comprehensive test battery. Generalized linear regression model analysis in the parental generation showed that prenatal exposure to famine was associated with a 8.1 (95% CI 5.8 to 10.4) second increase in trail making test part A, a 7.0 (1.5 to 12.5) second increase in trail making test part B, and a 5.5 (?7.3 to ?3.7) score decrease in the Stroop color-word test in adulthood, after adjustment for potential confounders. In the offspring generation, linear mixed model analysis found no significant association between parental prenatal exposure to famine and offspring cognitive function in adulthood after adjustment for potential confounders. In conclusion, prenatal exposure to severe malnutrition is negatively associated with visual- motor skill, mental flexibility, and selective attention in adulthood. However, these associations are limited to only one generation. PMID:26333696

  19. A Critique of the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults.

    PubMed

    Thomason, Tanna R; Mayo, Ann M

    2015-01-01

    Effective healthcare relies on the ability to communicate with patients. Ninety-eight million Americans are estimated to have limited health literacy that can impair their ability to read and interpret health-related education and information. Low health literacy is associated with higher mortality and 30-day hospital readmissions. Clinical nurse specialists and other advanced practice nurses must be able to evaluate and select a health literacy assessment instrument that is both reliable and produces valid data for the populations they serve. To assist with this important decision-making process, the psychometric properties of the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults are critiqued in the following article. PMID:26444506

  20. A Meta-Analysis of High Dose, Intermittent Vitamin D Supplementation among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Ya Ting; Cui, Qi Qi; Hong, Yi Min; Yao, Wei Guang

    2015-01-01

    Background The effects of intermittent, high dose vitamin D treatment in older adults have not been documented. We conducted a meta-analysis to provide a quantitative assessment of the efficiency of intermittent, high dose vitamin D treatment on falls, fractures, and mortality among older adults. Methods Electronic databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on high dose, intermittent vitamin D supplementation among older adults. Two researchers independently screened the literature according to specified inclusive and exclusive criteria to extract the data. Meta-analysis was performed by using Review Manager 5.1.0 software. Results Nine trials were included in this meta-analysis. High dose, intermittent vitamin D therapy did not decrease all-cause mortality among older adults. The risk ratio (95% CI) was 1.04 (0.91–1.17). No benefit was seen in fracture or fall prevention. The risk ratio for hip fractures (95% CI) was 1.17 (0.97–1.41) while for non-vertebral fractures (95% CI) it was 1.06 (0.91–1.22), and the risk ratio for falls (95% CI) was 1.02 (0.96–1.08). Results remained robust after sensitivity analysis. Conclusion Supplementation of intermittent, high dose vitamin D may not be effective in preventing overall mortality, fractures, or falls among older adults. The route of administration of vitamin D supplements may well change the physiological effects. PMID:25602255

  1. Acute Effects of Transcendental Meditation1 on Hemodynamic Functioning in Middle-Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Vernon A.; Treiber, Frank A.; Turner, J. Rick; Davis, Harry; Strong, William B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Increased peripheral vasoconstriction (ie, total peripheral resistance, or TPR) has been implicated as playing an important role in the early development of essential hypertension. Some studies have demonstrated that Transcendental Meditation (TM) reduces high blood pressure, but the hemodynamic adjustments behind these blood pressure reductions have not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to provide a preliminary investigation of the acute effects of TM on TPR. Methods Subjects were 32 healthy adults (16 women and 16 men; 30 white and two African American; mean age, 46.4 ± 3.9 years). Subjects were divided into a TM group of long-term TM practitioners (eight white women, nine white men, and one African American man; mean years of twice-daily TM practice, 22.4 ± 6.7) and a control group (eight white women, five white men, and one African American man). Hemodynamic functioning was assessed immediately before and during three conditions: 20 minutes of rest with eyes open (all subjects), 20 minutes of TM (TM group), and 20 minutes of eyes-closed relaxation (control group). Results During eyes-open rest, the TM group had decreases in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and TPR, compared with increases in the control group (SBP: ?2.5 vs. +2.4 mm Hg, p < .01; TPR: ?0.7 vs. +0.5 mm Hg/liter per minute, p < .004). During TM, there was a greater decrease in SBP due to a concomitantly greater decrease in TPR compared with the control group during eyes-closed relaxation (SBP: ?3.0 vs. +2.1 mm Hg, p < .04; TPR: ?1.0 vs. +0.3 mm Hg/liter per minute, p < .03). Conclusions TPR decreased significantly during TM. Decreases in vasoconstrictive tone during TM may be the hemodynamic mechanism responsible for reduction of high blood pressure over time. The results of this study provide a preliminary contribution to the understanding of the underlying hemodynamic mechanisms responsible for the beneficial influence of TM on cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:10443761

  2. Genome-wide association study of lung function decline in adults with and without asthma

    PubMed Central

    Imboden, Medea; Bouzigon, Emmanuelle; Curjuric, Ivan; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Kumar, Ashish; Hancock, Dana B; Wilk, Jemma B; Vonk, Judith M; Thun, Gian A; Siroux, Valerie; Nadif, Rachel; Monier, Florent; Gonzalez, Juan R; Wjst, Matthias; Heinrich, Joachim; Loehr, Laura R; Franceschini, Nora; North, Kari E; Altmüller, Janine; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Guerra, Stefano; Kronenberg, Florian; Lathrop, Mark; Moffatt, Miriam F; O’Connor, George T; Strachan, David P; Postma, Dirkje S; London, Stephanie J; Schindler, Christian; Kogevinas, Manolis; Kauffmann, Francine; Jarvis, Debbie L; Demenais, Florence; Probst-Hensch, Nicole M

    2012-01-01

    Background Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified determinants of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma and lung function level, however none addressed decline in lung function. Aim We conducted the first GWAS on age-related decline in forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) and in its ratio to forced vital capacity (FVC) stratified a priori by asthma status. Methods Discovery cohorts included adults of European ancestry (1441 asthmatics, 2677 non-asthmatics; Epidemiological Study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma (EGEA); Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution And Lung And Heart Disease In Adults (SAPALDIA); European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS)). The associations of FEV1 and FEV1/FVC decline with 2.5 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were estimated. Thirty loci were followed-up by in silico replication (1160 asthmatics, 10858 non-asthmatics: Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC); Framingham Heart Study (FHS); British 1958 Birth Cohort (B58C); Dutch asthma study). Results Main signals identified differed between asthmatics and non-asthmatics. None of the SNPs reached genome-wide significance. The association between the height related gene DLEU7 and FEV1 decline suggested for non-asthmatics in the discovery phase was replicated (discovery P=4.8×10?6; replication P=0.03) and additional sensitivity analyses point to a relation to growth. The top ranking signal, TUSC3, associated with FEV1/FVC decline in asthmatics (P=5.3×10?8) did not replicate. SNPs previously associated with cross-sectional lung function were not prominently associated with decline. Conclusions Genetic heterogeneity of lung function may be extensive. Our results suggest that genetic determinants of longitudinal and cross-sectional lung function differ and vary by asthma status. PMID:22424883

  3. A Controlled Study of Autonomic Nervous System Function in Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Treated with Stimulant Medications: Results of a Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schubiner, Howard; Hassunizadeh, Bischan; Kaczynski, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Despite the fact that autonomic nervous system (ANS) abnormalities are commonly found in adults and predict increased cardiovascular mortality, no studies have assessed ANS function in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) taking stimulants. Method: This pilot study evaluated ANS function in adults with ADHD in…

  4. Percentage of Adults with High Blood Pressure Whose Hypertension Is Adequately Controlled

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Hypertension is Adequately Controlled Percentage of Adults with High Blood Pressure Whose Hypertension is Adequately Controlled Heart disease and ... Examination Survey. Age Group Percentage of People with High Blood Pressure that is Controlled by Age Group f94q-uyye ...

  5. Total and High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimmer, James H.; Kelly, Luke E.

    1990-01-01

    The study evaluated the total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein cholesterol of 40 adults (mean age 37.5 years) with mental retardation residing at an intermediate care facility. Results indicated that 59 percent of the males and 68 percent of the females were at moderate to high risk for coronary heart disease. (DB)

  6. Health-Related Quality of Life Among Older Adults With and Without Functional Limitations

    PubMed Central

    Zack, Matthew M.; Krahn, Gloria L.; Andresen, Elena M.; Barile, John P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We examined factors that influence health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among individuals aged 50 years and older with and without functional limitations. Methods. We analyzed data from the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System to assess associations among demographic characteristics, health care access and utilization indicators, modifiable health behaviors, and HRQOL characterized by recent physically and mentally unhealthy days in those with and those without functional limitations. We defined functional limitations as activity limitations owing to physical, mental, or emotional health or as the need for special equipment because of health. Results. Age, medical care costs, leisure-time physical activity, and smoking were strongly associated with both physically and mentally unhealthy days among those with functional limitations. Among those without functional limitations, the direction of the effects was similar, but the size of the effects was substantially smaller. Conclusions. The availability of lower cost medical care, increasing leisure-time physical activity, and reducing rates of cigarette smoking will improve population HRQOL among older adults with and without functional limitations. These factors provide valuable information for determining future public health priorities. PMID:22390514

  7. Functional Integration of Adult-Born Hippocampal Neurons after Traumatic Brain Injury(1,2,3).

    PubMed

    Villasana, Laura E; Kim, Kristine N; Westbrook, Gary L; Schnell, Eric

    2015-09-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) increases hippocampal neurogenesis, which may contribute to cognitive recovery after injury. However, it is unknown whether TBI-induced adult-born neurons mature normally and functionally integrate into the hippocampal network. We assessed the generation, morphology, and synaptic integration of new hippocampal neurons after a controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury model of TBI. To label TBI-induced newborn neurons, we used 2-month-old POMC-EGFP mice, which transiently and specifically express EGFP in immature hippocampal neurons, and doublecortin-CreER(T2) transgenic mice crossed with Rosa26-CAG-tdTomato reporter mice, to permanently pulse-label a cohort of adult-born hippocampal neurons. TBI increased the generation, outward migration, and dendritic complexity of neurons born during post-traumatic neurogenesis. Cells born after TBI had profound alterations in their dendritic structure, with increased dendritic branching proximal to the soma and widely splayed dendritic branches. These changes were apparent during early dendritic outgrowth and persisted as these cells matured. Whole-cell recordings from neurons generated during post-traumatic neurogenesis demonstrate that they are excitable and functionally integrate into the hippocampal circuit. However, despite their dramatic morphologic abnormalities, we found no differences in the rate of their electrophysiological maturation, or their overall degree of synaptic integration when compared to age-matched adult-born cells from sham mice. Our results suggest that cells born after TBI participate in information processing, and receive an apparently normal balance of excitatory and inhibitory inputs. However, TBI-induced changes in their anatomic localization and dendritic projection patterns could result in maladaptive network properties. PMID:26478908

  8. Functional Vascular Smooth Muscle-like Cells Derived from Adult Mouse Uterine Mesothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lachaud, Christian Claude; Pezzolla, Daniela; Domínguez-Rodríguez, Alejandro; Smani, Tarik

    2013-01-01

    In mammalian visceral organs, vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) originate from an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of embryonic mesothelial cells (MCs). The ability of adult MCs to recapitulate EMT and to acquire smooth muscle (SM) markers upon provasculogenic culture suggested they might retain embryonic vasculogenic differentiation potential. However, it remains unknown whether adult MCs-derived SM-like cells may acquire specific vascular SM lineage markers and the functionality of differentiated contractile VSMCs. Here, we describe how a gentle trypsinization of adult mouse uterine cords could selectively detach their outermost uterine mesothelial layer cells. As other MCs; uterine MCs (UtMCs) uniformly expressed the epithelial markers ?-catenin, ZO-1, E-cadherin, CD54, CD29, and CK18. When cultured in a modified SM differentiation media (SMDM) UtMCs initiated a loss of epithelial characteristics and gained markers expression of EMT (Twist, Snail, and Slug), stem and progenitor (Nanog, Sox2, C-kit, Gata-4, Isl-1, and nestin), SM (?-SMA, calponin, caldesmon, SM22?, desmin, SM-MHC, and smoothelin-B) and cardiac (BMP2, BMP4, ACTC1, sACTN, cTnI, cTnT, ANF, Cx43, and MLC2a). UtMCs repeatedly subcultured in SMDM acquired differentiated VSM-like characteristics and expressed smoothelin-B in the typical stress-fiber pattern expression of contractile VSMCs. Relevantly, UtMCs-derived VSM-like cells could generate “mechanical force” to compact collagen lattices and displayed in diverse degree voltage (K+) and receptor (endothelin-1, oxytocin, norepinephrine, carbachol and vasopressin)-induced [Ca2+]i rises and contraction. Thus, we show for the first time that UtMCs could recapitulate in vitro differentiative events of early cardiovascular differentiation and transdifferentiate in cells exhibiting molecular and functional characteristics of VSMCs. PMID:23405120

  9. Functional Integration of Adult-Born Hippocampal Neurons after Traumatic Brain Injury1,2,3

    PubMed Central

    Villasana, Laura E.; Kim, Kristine N.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Traumatic brain injury (TBI) increases hippocampal neurogenesis, which may contribute to cognitive recovery after injury. However, it is unknown whether TBI-induced adult-born neurons mature normally and functionally integrate into the hippocampal network. We assessed the generation, morphology, and synaptic integration of new hippocampal neurons after a controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury model of TBI. To label TBI-induced newborn neurons, we used 2-month-old POMC-EGFP mice, which transiently and specifically express EGFP in immature hippocampal neurons, and doublecortin-CreERT2 transgenic mice crossed with Rosa26-CAG-tdTomato reporter mice, to permanently pulse-label a cohort of adult-born hippocampal neurons. TBI increased the generation, outward migration, and dendritic complexity of neurons born during post-traumatic neurogenesis. Cells born after TBI had profound alterations in their dendritic structure, with increased dendritic branching proximal to the soma and widely splayed dendritic branches. These changes were apparent during early dendritic outgrowth and persisted as these cells matured. Whole-cell recordings from neurons generated during post-traumatic neurogenesis demonstrate that they are excitable and functionally integrate into the hippocampal circuit. However, despite their dramatic morphologic abnormalities, we found no differences in the rate of their electrophysiological maturation, or their overall degree of synaptic integration when compared to age-matched adult-born cells from sham mice. Our results suggest that cells born after TBI participate in information processing, and receive an apparently normal balance of excitatory and inhibitory inputs. However, TBI-induced changes in their anatomic localization and dendritic projection patterns could result in maladaptive network properties. PMID:26478908

  10. Functional assessment in older adults: should we use timed up and go or gait speed test?

    PubMed

    Kubicki, Alexandre

    2014-08-01

    In order to assess functional skills of older adults, both timed up and go (TUG) test and gait speed (GS) test are well validated concerning their predictive capacities. However, the question remains unclear which one of these tests represents better the whole physical performance of older adults. The aim of this study is to determine the more representative test, between TUG and GS, of the whole motor control quality. To study links between locomotion capacities and arm function, we measured, in a population of frail aged patients, the locomotion tests and the mean arm maximal velocity developed during a speed-accuracy trade-off. This arm movement consisted in reaching the hand toward a target in a virtual game scene. We plotted the different couples of variables obtained on graphs, and calculate Pearson correlation coefficients between each couple. The Pearson correlation between GS and hand maximal velocity was significant (r=0.495; p=0.046). Interestingly, we found a non significant Pearson correlation between timed up and go score (TUG) and hand maximal velocity (r=-0.139; p=0.243). Our results suggest that GS score is more representative of the whole motor ability of frail patients than the TUG. We propose that the relative complexity of the TUG motor sequence could be involved in this difference. For a few patients with motor automatisms deficiencies, this motor sequence complexity could leads to a dual task perturbation. In this way, we conclude that GS should be preferred over the TUG with older adults. PMID:24933540

  11. Functional Lateralization of Speech Processing in Adults and Children Who Stutter

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Yutaka; Mori, Koichi; Koizumi, Toshizo; Minagawa-Kawai, Yasuyo; Tanaka, Akihiro; Ozawa, Emi; Wakaba, Yoko; Mazuka, Reiko

    2011-01-01

    Developmental stuttering is a speech disorder in fluency characterized by repetitions, prolongations, and silent blocks, especially in the initial parts of utterances. Although their symptoms are motor related, people who stutter show abnormal patterns of cerebral hemispheric dominance in both anterior and posterior language areas. It is unknown whether the abnormal functional lateralization in the posterior language area starts during childhood or emerges as a consequence of many years of stuttering. In order to address this issue, we measured the lateralization of hemodynamic responses in the auditory cortex during auditory speech processing in adults and children who stutter, including preschoolers, with near-infrared spectroscopy. We used the analysis–resynthesis technique to prepare two types of stimuli: (i) a phonemic contrast embedded in Japanese spoken words (/itta/ vs. /itte/) and (ii) a prosodic contrast (/itta/ vs. /itta?/). In the baseline blocks, only /itta/ tokens were presented. In phonemic contrast blocks, /itta/ and /itte/ tokens were presented pseudo-randomly, and /itta/ and /itta?/ tokens in prosodic contrast blocks. In adults and children who do not stutter, there was a clear left-hemispheric advantage for the phonemic contrast compared to the prosodic contrast. Adults and children who stutter, however, showed no significant difference between the two stimulus conditions. A subject-by-subject analysis revealed that not a single subject who stutters showed a left advantage in the phonemic contrast over the prosodic contrast condition. These results indicate that the functional lateralization for auditory speech processing is in disarray among those who stutter, even at preschool age. These results shed light on the neural pathophysiology of developmental stuttering. PMID:21687442

  12. Vocational Interests of Intellectually Gifted and Highly Achieving Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vock, Miriam; Koller, Olaf; Nagy, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Background: Vocational interests play a central role in the vocational decision-making process and are decisive for the later job satisfaction and vocational success. Based on Ackerman's (1996) notion of "trait complexes," specific interest profiles of gifted high-school graduates can be expected. Aims: Vocational interests of gifted and highly

  13. Maternal high-fat diet influences stroke outcome in adult rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Lin, ChengCheng; Shao, Bei; Zhou, YuLei; Niu, XiaoTing; Lin, YuanShao

    2016-02-01

    Diet-induced epigenetic modifications in early life could contribute to later health problem. However, it remains to be established whether high-fat diet (HFD) consumption during pregnancy and the suckling period could predispose the offspring to stroke. The present study investigated the influence of maternal HFD on stroke outcome in adult offspring. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a normal diet (5.3% fat) or a HFD (25.7% fat), just before pregnancy until the end of lactation. Male offspring were fed with the control diet or the HFD after weaning, to form four groups (control offspring fed with the control diet (C/C) or the HFD (C/HFD) and offspring of fat-fed dams fed with the control diet (HFD/C) or the HFD (HFD/HFD)). The offspring received middle cerebral artery occlusion on day 120 followed by behavioral tests (neurological deficit score, staircase-reaching test and beam-traversing test), and infarct volumes were also calculated. We found that the HFD/C rats displayed larger infarct volume and aggravated functional deficits (all P<0.05), compared with the C/C rats, indicating that maternal fat-rich diet renders the brain more susceptible to the consequences of ischemic injury. Moreover, maternal HFD offspring displayed elevated glucocorticoid concentrations following stroke, and increased glucocorticoid receptor expression. In addition, adrenalectomy reversed the effects of maternal HFD on stroke outcome when corticosterone was replaced at baseline, but not ischemic, concentrations. Furthermore, expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the ipsilateral hippocampus was decreased in the HFD/C offspring (P<0.05), compared with the C/C offspring. Taken together, maternal diet can substantially influence adult cerebrovascular health, through the programming of central BDNF expression and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. PMID:26643911

  14. Multiwave Associations Between Depressive Symptoms and Endothelial Function in Adolescent and Young Adult Females

    PubMed Central

    Tomfohr, Lianne M.; Murphy, Michael L.M.; Miller, Gregory E.; Puterman, Eli

    2011-01-01

    Objective Depression has been linked to endothelial dysfunction, and some research suggests that past depressive episodes are associated with a lasting, negative impact on the endothelium. However, investigations in this area have been predominantly cross-sectional, raising questions about the direction of these associations. Using a multiwave design, we sought to extend previous research in this area by examining whether depressive symptoms have a lasting negative influence on endothelial function. Methods A total of 135 adolescent and young adult females with no known or suspected major health problems were followed for 2½ years. Endothelial function was assessed at three time points throughout the study. The Beck Depression Inventory was administered, and information about health practices was collected every 6 months. Results Self-reported depressive symptoms covaried with endothelial functioning on a within-person basis (? = ?0.23, p < .05). As a participant’s depression symptoms rose beyond her typical level, her endothelial function declined commensurately. This association persisted after controlling for health practices and adiposity. There was no evidence that depressive symptoms predicted endothelial function at later time points or interacted with time to predict the trajectories of endothelial function over the follow-up period. Conclusions Depressive symptoms were concurrently associated with endothelial function in this cohort of healthy adolescent girls and young women. On visits when participants endorsed depressive symptoms that were higher than their mean level of depression, they tended to have worse endothelial function. We did not observe a lasting negative effect of depression on endothelial function. PMID:21715299

  15. Weight Loss, Exercise, or Both and Physical Function in Obese Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Villareal, Dennis T.; Chode, Suresh; Parimi, Nehu; Sinacore, David R.; Hilton, Tiffany; Armamento-Villareal, Reina; Napoli, Nicola; Qualls, Clifford; Shah, Krupa

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Obesity exacerbates the age-related decline in physical function and causes frailty in older adults; however, the appropriate treatment for obese older adults is controversial. METHODS In this 1-year, randomized, controlled trial, we evaluated the independent and combined effects of weight loss and exercise in 107 adults who were 65 years of age or older and obese. Participants were randomly assigned to a control group, a weightmanagement (diet) group, an exercise group, or a weight-management-plus-exercise (diet–exercise) group. The primary outcome was the change in score on the modified Physical Performance Test. Secondary outcomes included other measures of frailty, body composition, bone mineral density, specific physical functions, and quality of life. RESULTS A total of 93 participants (87%) completed the study. In the intention-to-treat analysis, the score on the Physical Performance Test, in which higher scores indicate better physical status, increased more in the diet–exercise group than in the diet group or the exercise group (increases from baseline of 21% vs. 12% and 15%, respectively); the scores in all three of those groups increased more than the scores in the control group (in which the score increased by 1%) (P<0.001 for the between-group differences). Moreover, the peak oxygen consumption improved more in the diet–exercise group than in the diet group or the exercise group (increases of 17% vs. 10% and 8%, respectively; P<0.001); the score on the Functional Status Questionnaire, in which higher scores indicate better physical function, increased more in the diet–exercise group than in the diet group (increase of 10% vs. 4%, P<0.001). Body weight decreased by 10% in the diet group and by 9% in the diet–exercise group, but did not decrease in the exercise group or the control group (P<0.001). Lean body mass and bone mineral density at the hip decreased less in the diet–exercise group than in the diet group (reductions of 3% and 1%, respectively, in the diet–exercise group vs. reductions of 5% and 3%, respectively, in the diet group; P<0.05 for both comparisons). Strength, balance, and gait improved consistently in the diet–exercise group (P<0.05 for all comparisons). Adverse events included a small number of exercise-associated musculoskeletal injuries. CONCLUSIONS These findings suggest that a combination of weight loss and exercise provides greater improvement in physical function than either intervention alone. PMID:21449785

  16. Progerin expression disrupts critical adult stem cell functions involved in tissue repair

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco, Laurin Marie; Gomez, Lourdes Adriana; Dias, Janice; Ziebarth, Noel M; Howard, Guy A; Schiller, Paul C

    2014-01-01

    Vascular disease is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Vascular repair, essential for tissue maintenance, is critically reduced during vascular disease and aging. Efficient vascular repair requires functional adult stem cells unimpaired by aging or mutation. One protein candidate for reducing stem cell–mediated vascular repair is progerin, an alternative splice variant of lamin A. Progerin results from erroneous activation of cryptic splice sites within the LMNA gene, and significantly increases during aging. Mutations triggering progerin overexpression cause the premature aging disorder Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS), in which patients die at approximately 13-years of age due to atherosclerosis-induced disease. Progerin expression affects tissues rich in cells that can be derived from marrow stromal cells (MSCs). Studies using various MSC subpopulations and models have led to discrepant results. Using a well-defined, immature subpopulation of MSCs, Marrow Isolated Adult Multilineage Inducible (MIAMI) cells, we find progerin significantly disrupts expression and localization of self-renewal markers, proliferation, migration, and membrane elasticity. One potential treatment, farnesyltransferase inhibitor, ameliorates some of these effects. Our results confirm proposed progerin-induced mechanisms and suggest novel ways in which progerin disturbs critical stem cell functions collectively required for proper tissue repair, offering promising treatment targets for future therapies. PMID:25567453

  17. Hyperhomocysteinemia predicts renal function decline: a prospective study in hypertensive adults.

    PubMed

    Xie, Di; Yuan, Yan; Guo, Jiangnan; Yang, Shenglin; Xu, Xin; Wang, Qin; Li, Youbao; Qin, Xianhui; Tang, Genfu; Huo, Yong; Deng, Guangpu; Wu, Shengjie; Wang, Binyan; Zhang, Qin; Wang, Xiaobin; Fang, Pu; Wang, Hong; Xu, Xiping; Hou, Fanfan

    2015-01-01

    Hyper-homocysteinemia (HHcy) is associated with microalbuminuria and glomerular injury in general and diabetic populations. However, HHcy's role in hypertensive patients was not studied. We investigated whether HHcy is an independent risk factor for renal function decline and development of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in hypertensive men and women. This was a community-based prospective cohort study of 2,387 hypertensive adults without CKD at baseline, with a mean follow-up of 4.4 years. Baseline and follow-up levels of plasma Hcy, folate, vitamin B12, blood pressure and other pertinent covariables were obtained. CKD was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60?ml/min/per 1.73?m(2) and an eGFR decline rate >1?ml/min/per 1.73?m(2)/year. There was a graded association between Hcy tertiles and eGFR decline. Subjects in the 3(rd) tertile of Hcy levels had an accelerated rate of eGFR decline and an increased risk of incident CKD, as compared with those in the 1st tertile, after adjusting for age, gender, baseline diabetes, SBP, BMI, smoking, dyslipidemia, eGFR, folate and vitamin B12 levels. In conclusion, in this prospective cohort of Chinese hypertensive adults, elevated baseline plasma Hcy can serve as an independent biomarker to predict renal function decline and incident CKD. PMID:26553372

  18. Effects of age, genes, and pulse pressure on executive functions in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Raz, Naftali; Dahle, Cheryl L.; Rodrigue, Karen M.; Kennedy, Kristen M.; Land, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Executive functions (EF) evidence significant age-related declines, but the mechanisms underpinning those changes are unclear. In this study, we focus on two potential sources of variation: a physiological indicator of vascular health, and genetic variants related to vascular functions. In a sample of healthy adults (n = 158, ages 18–81), we examine the effects of age, pulse pressure, and two polymorphisms (comt val158met and ace insertion/deletion) on working memory and cognitive flexibility. Results indicate that in addition to often-replicated age differences, the alleles of two polymorphisms that promote vasoconstriction (comt val and ace D) and reduced availability of dopamine in neocortical synapses (comt val), negatively impact virtually all aspects of EF tasks that involve working memory. In some cases, suppression of cognitive performance is limited to men or necessitates a combination of both risk-associated alleles. After accounting for genetic and age-related variation, pulse pressure had no additional effect on EF. These findings suggest that in healthy adults, the effects of genetic risk factors significantly modulate the course of cognitive aging. PMID:19559505

  19. NCAM function in the adult brain: lessons from mimetic peptides and therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Dallérac, Glenn; Rampon, Claire; Doyère, Valérie

    2013-06-01

    Neural cell adhesion molecules (NCAMs) are complexes of transmembranal proteins critical for cell-cell interactions. Initially recognized as key players in the orchestration of developmental processes involving cell migration, cell survival, axon guidance, and synaptic targeting, they have been shown to retain these functions in the mature adult brain, in relation to plastic processes and cognitive abilities. NCAMs are able to interact among themselves (homophilic binding) as well as with other molecules (heterophilic binding). Furthermore, they are the sole molecule of the central nervous system undergoing polysialylation. Most interestingly polysialylated and non-polysialylated NCAMs display opposite properties. The precise contributions each of these characteristics brings in the regulations of synaptic and cellular plasticity in relation to cognitive processes in the adult brain are not yet fully understood. With the aim of deciphering the specific involvement of each interaction, recent developments led to the generation of NCAM mimetic peptides that recapitulate identified binding properties of NCAM. The present review focuses on the information such advances have provided in the understanding of NCAM contribution to cognitive function. PMID:23494903

  20. NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (CB): Validation of Executive Function Measures in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Zelazo, Philip David; Anderson, Jacob E.; Richler, Jennifer; Wallner-Allen, Kathleen; Beaumont, Jennifer L.; Conway, Kevin P.; Gershon, Richard; Weintraub, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    This study describes psychometric properties of the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (NIHTB-CB) executive function measures in an adult sample. The NIHTB-CB was designed for use in epidemiologic studies and clinical trials for ages 3 to 85. A total of 268 self-described healthy adults were recruited at four university-based sites, using stratified sampling guidelines to target demographic variability for age (20–85 years), gender, education and ethnicity. The NIHTB-CB contains two computer-based instruments assessing executive function: the Dimensional Change Card Sort (a measure of cognitive flexibility) and a flanker task (a measure of inhibitory control and selective attention). Participants completed the NIHTB-CB, corresponding gold standard convergent and discriminant measures, and sociodemographic questionnaires. A subset of participants (N = 89) was retested 7 to 21 days later. Results reveal excellent sensitivity to age-related changes during adulthood, excellent test–retest reliability, and adequate to good convergent and discriminant validity. The NIH Toolbox EF measures can be used effectively in epidemiologic and clinical studies. PMID:24960301

  1. The effect of brief neonatal cryoanesthesia on physical development and adult cognitive function in mice.

    PubMed

    Janus, Christopher; Golde, Todd

    2014-02-01

    Deep hypothermia (cryoanesthesia) is often used as general anesthesia during surgery in neonatal rodents. Neonatal cryoanesthesia has been used recently to generate somatic brain transgenic (SBT) mouse models via intracerebral ventricular injection of rAAV vectors into both non-transgenic mice and numerous transgenic mouse models. Since, the evaluation of cognition is one of the main experimental endpoints in many of these studies, we examined the consequences of brief neonatal cryoanesthesia on the physical development and mnemonic function of adult mice. Two groups of 129FVBF1 pups from reciprocal breeding crosses underwent cryoanesthesia for 6 min (Cryo6) or 12 min (Cryo12), respectively, within the first hours (<12h) of postnatal life. A group of pups separated from the nest and kept in ambient temperature of 33 °C for 6 min served as a control. Our results revealed that lowering the temperature of pups to ~8 °C (Cryo6) or ~5 °C (Cryo12) did not affect their body weight at pre-weaning stage and in the adulthood. The evaluation of cognitive function in adult mice revealed strong and comparable to control spatial reference, and context and tone fear memories of neonatally cryoanesthetized mice. Also, the experimental and control groups had comparable brain weight at the end of the study. Our results demonstrate that neonatal cryoanesthesia, lasting up to 12 min, has no adverse effects on the body weight of mice during development, and on their cognition in the adulthood. PMID:24239696

  2. Hyperhomocysteinemia predicts renal function decline: a prospective study in hypertensive adults

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Di; Yuan, Yan; Guo, Jiangnan; Yang, Shenglin; Xu, Xin; Wang, Qin; Li, Youbao; Qin, Xianhui; Tang, Genfu; Huo, Yong; Deng, Guangpu; Wu, Shengjie; Wang, Binyan; Zhang, Qin; Wang, Xiaobin; Fang, Pu; Wang, Hong; Xu, Xiping; Hou, Fanfan

    2015-01-01

    Hyper-homocysteinemia (HHcy) is associated with microalbuminuria and glomerular injury in general and diabetic populations. However, HHcy’s role in hypertensive patients was not studied. We investigated whether HHcy is an independent risk factor for renal function decline and development of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in hypertensive men and women. This was a community-based prospective cohort study of 2,387 hypertensive adults without CKD at baseline, with a mean follow-up of 4.4 years. Baseline and follow-up levels of plasma Hcy, folate, vitamin B12, blood pressure and other pertinent covariables were obtained. CKD was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60?ml/min/per 1.73?m2 and an eGFR decline rate >1?ml/min/per 1.73?m2/year. There was a graded association between Hcy tertiles and eGFR decline. Subjects in the 3rd tertile of Hcy levels had an accelerated rate of eGFR decline and an increased risk of incident CKD, as compared with those in the 1st tertile, after adjusting for age, gender, baseline diabetes, SBP, BMI, smoking, dyslipidemia, eGFR, folate and vitamin B12 levels. In conclusion, in this prospective cohort of Chinese hypertensive adults, elevated baseline plasma Hcy can serve as an independent biomarker to predict renal function decline and incident CKD. PMID:26553372

  3. Progerin expression disrupts critical adult stem cell functions involved in tissue repair.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Laurin Marie; Gomez, Lourdes Adriana; Dias, Janice; Ziebarth, Noel M; Howard, Guy A; Schiller, Paul C

    2014-12-01

    Vascular disease is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Vascular repair, essential for tissue maintenance, is critically reduced during vascular disease and aging. Efficient vascular repair requires functional adult stem cells unimpaired by aging or mutation. One protein candidate for reducing stem cell?mediated vascular repair is progerin, an alternative splice variant of lamin A. Progerin results from erroneous activation of cryptic splice sites within the LMNA gene, and significantly increases during aging. Mutations triggering progerin overexpression cause the premature aging disorder Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS), in which patients die at approximately 13-years of age due to atherosclerosis-induced disease. Progerin expression affects tissues rich in cells that can be derived from marrow stromal cells (MSCs. Studies using various MSC subpopulations and models have led to discrepant results. Using a well-defined, immature subpopulation of MSCs, Marrow Isolated Adult Multilineage Inducible (MIAMI) cells, we find progerin significantly disrupts expression and localization of self-renewal markers, proliferation, migration, and membrane elasticity. One potential treatment, farnesyltransferase inhibitor, ameliorates some of these effects. Our results confirm proposed progerin-induced mechanisms and suggest novel ways in which progerin disturbs critical stem cell functions collectively required for proper tissue repair, offering promising treatment targets for future therapies. PMID:25567453

  4. Bone mineral density, thyroid function, and gonadal status in young adult survivors of childhood cancer

    PubMed Central

    Muszy?ska-Ros?an, Katarzyna; Panas, Agata; Panasiuk, Anna; Rutkowska-?elazowska, Beata; Konstantynowicz, Jerzy; Krawczuk-Rybak, Maryna

    2014-01-01

    Introduction During the last years, changes in the diagnosis and treatment have caused a significant increase of the number of young adults who experienced cancer in childhood. This enlarging population is affected by many health problems, including multiple hormone deficiencies and bone mineral deficits. This is the first polish study assessing bone mineral density and endocrine status in young adult cancer survivors. Material and methods A total of 76 long-term survivors treated for pediatric cancer were identified. The mean age at the time of study was 24.1 ±3.5 years. Bone mineral density and TSH, fT3, fT4, FSH, LH, estradiol and testosterone level were assessed for each patient. Results Nine subjects were diagnosed with subclinical hypothyroidism. We found higher level of TSH in the study group, in comparison with control group (p = 0.015). Eighteen patients had increased level of FSH. In the study group higher number of patients with high FSH level was found in comparison with the control group (p = 0.049). A low BMD was observed in 7 patients whereas mild BMD deficits were found in 19 participants. Conclusions In conclusion, our data show that young adult cancer survivors might experienced various hormonal problems including low bone mass, thyroid impairment and gonadal dysfunction. Some of the patients required treatment, but they were not diagnosed before this study. There is the lack of proper clinical assessment among adult childhood cancer survivors in Poland. Therefore, we demonstrated the need for a comprehensive plan for longitudinal follow-up for late effects in these population. PMID:26034393

  5. Testing a family-centered intervention to promote functional and cognitive recovery in hospitalized older adults.

    PubMed

    Boltz, Marie; Resnick, Barbara; Chippendale, Tracy; Galvin, James

    2014-12-01

    A comparative trial using a repeated-measures design was designed to evaluate the feasibility and outcomes of the Family-Centered Function-Focused-Care (Fam-FFC) intervention, which is intended to promote functional recovery in hospitalized older adults. A family-centered resource nurse and a facility champion implemented a three-component intervention (environmental assessment and modification, staff education, individual and family education and partnership in care planning with follow-up after hospitalization for an acute illness). Control units were exposed to function-focused-care education only. Ninety-seven dyads of medical patients aged 65 and older and family caregivers (FCGs) were recruited from three medical units of a community teaching hospital. Fifty-three percent of patients were female, 89% were white, 51% were married, and 40% were widowed, and they had a mean age of 80.8 ± 7.5. Seventy-eight percent of FCGs were married, 34% were daughters, 31% were female spouses or partners, and 38% were aged 46 to 65. Patient outcomes included functional outcomes (activities of daily living (ADLs), walking performance, gait, balance) and delirium severity and duration. FCG outcomes included preparedness for caregiving, anxiety, depression, role strain, and mutuality. The intervention group demonstrated less severity and shorter duration of delirium and better ADL and walking performance but not better gait and balance performance than the control group. FCGs who participated in Fam-FFC showed a significant increase in preparedness for caregiving and a decrease in anxiety and depression from admission to 2 months after discharge but no significant differences in strain or quality of the relationship with the care recipient from FCGs in the control group. Fam-FFC is feasible and has the potential to improve outcomes for hospitalized older adults and their caregivers. PMID:25481973

  6. Pulmonary function before and after anterior spinal surgery in adult idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed Central

    Wong, C. A.; Cole, A. A.; Watson, L.; Webb, J. K.; Johnston, I. D.; Kinnear, W. J.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the long term effects of anterior spinal surgery on pulmonary function in adult patients with idiopathic scoliosis. A study was therefore undertaken of pulmonary function before and after anterior spinal surgery in this group of patients. METHODS: Fourteen patients (12 women) of mean age 26.5 years (range 17-50, 10 > or = 20 years) were studied. All 14 patients underwent thoracotomy and anterior arthrodesis, and five also underwent posterior arthrodesis. Scoliosis curves and lung volumes were measured preoperatively and at a mean follow up of 32 months (range 14-49) after surgery. RESULTS: At long term follow up after surgery the mean (SD) Cobb angle of the thoracic curve improved from 59 degrees (25 degrees) to 39 degrees (18 degrees), a correction of 31%. Despite this there was a fall in mean forced vital capacity (FVC) of 0.21 litres (95% confidence interval 0.04 to 0.38). In the patients who underwent anterior surgery without posterior surgery (n = 9) there was a fall in mean FVC of 0.31 litres (95% confidence interval 0.12 to 0.50); mean forced expiratory volume in one second and total lung capacity were also reduced and there was an increase in mean residual volume. CONCLUSIONS: Forced vital capacity is reduced at long term follow up in adult patients with idiopathic scoliosis who undergo anterior spinal surgery. The fall in FVC is small and is unlikely to be of clinical significance in patients with reasonable lung function in whom surgery is planned for prevention of curve progression or improvement of cosmetic appearance and pain. However, surgical intervention should not be undertaken in an attempt to improve pulmonary function. Images PMID:8711684

  7. A balanced view of the cerebrospinal fluid composition and functions: Focus on adult humans.

    PubMed

    Spector, Reynold; Robert Snodgrass, S; Johanson, Conrad E

    2015-11-01

    In this review, a companion piece to our recent examination of choroid plexus (CP), the organ that secretes the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), we focus on recent information in the context of reliable older data concerning the composition and functions of adult human CSF. To accomplish this, we define CSF, examine the methodology employed in studying the CSF focusing on ideal or near ideal experiments and discuss the pros and cons of several widely used analogical descriptions of the CSF including: the CSF as the "third circulation," the CSF as a "nourishing liquor," the similarities of the CSF/choroid plexus to the glomerular filtrate/kidney and finally the CSF circulation as part of the "glymphatic system." We also consider the close interrelationship between the CSF and extracellular space of brain through gap junctions and the paucity of data suggesting that the cerebral capillaries secrete a CSF-like fluid. Recently human CSF has been shown to be in dynamic flux with heart-beat, posture and especially respiration. Functionally, the CSF provides buoyancy, nourishment (e.g., vitamins) and endogenous waste product removal for the brain by bulk flow into the venous (arachnoid villi and nerve roots) and lymphatic (nasal) systems, and by carrier-mediated reabsorptive transport systems in CP. The CSF also presents many exogenous compounds to CP for metabolism or removal, indirectly cleansing the extracellular space of brain (e.g., of xenobiotics like penicillin). The CSF also carries hormones (e.g., leptin) from blood via CP or synthesized in CP (e.g., IGF-2) to the brain. In summary the CP/CSF, the third circulation, performs many functions comparable to the kidney including nourishing the brain and contributing to a stable internal milieu for the brain. These tasks are essential to normal adult brain functioning. PMID:26247808

  8. Perceived Stress and Change in Cognitive Function Among Adults Aged 65 and Older

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Neelum T.; Wilson, Robert S.; Beck, Todd L.; Rajan, Kumar B.; Mendes de Leon, Carlos F.; Evans, Denis A.; Everson-Rose, Susan A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Exposure to acute and chronic stress can affect learning and memory but most evidence comes from animal studies or clinical observations. Almost no population-based studies have investigated the relation of stress to cognition or changes in cognition over time. We examined whether higher levels of perceived stress were associated with accelerated decline in cognitive function in older blacks and whites from a community-based population sample. Methods Participants included 6,207 black and white adults (65.7% black, 63.3% women) from the Chicago Health and Aging project. Two to five in-home assessments were completed over an average of 6.8 years of follow up, and included sociodemographics, health behaviors, psychosocial measures, cognitive function tests, and health history. Perceived stress was measured by a 6-item scale, and a composite measure of four tests of cognition was used to determine cognitive function at each assessment. Results Mixed effects regression models showed that increasing levels of perceived stress were related to lower initial cognitive scores (B=-0.0379, SE=0.0025, p<.001) and a faster rate of cognitive decline (stress × time interaction: B=-0.0015, SE=0.0004, p<.001). Results were similar after adjusting for demographic variables, smoking, systolic blood pressure, body mass index, chronic medical conditions, and psychosocial factors and did not vary by race, sex, age or education. Conclusion Increasing levels of stress are independently associated with accelerated declines in cognitive function in black and white adults aged 65 and above. PMID:24367123

  9. Lutein, zeaxanthin, macular pigment, and visual function in adult cystic fibrosis patients123

    PubMed Central

    Schupp, Christine; Olano-Martin, Estibaliz; Gerth, Christina; Morrissey, Brian M; Cross, Carroll E; Werner, John S

    2008-01-01

    Background Pancreatic insufficiency in cystic fibrosis (CF), even with replacement pancreatic enzyme therapy, is often associated with decreased carotenoid absorption. Because the macular pigment of the retina is largely derived from 2 carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin, the decreased serum concentrations seen in CF may have consequences for ocular and retinal health Objectives Our aims were to determine plasma carotenoid concentrations, determine absorption and distribution of macular pigment, and assess retinal health and visual function in CF patients. Design In 10 adult CF patients (ages 21–47 y) and 10 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects, we measured macular pigment density in vivo, measured serum lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations, and comprehensively assessed visual performance (including contrast sensitivity, color discrimination, and retinal function) under conditions of daylight illumination. Results Serum lutein and zeaxanthin were significantly reduced (P< 0.005) in CF patients (x?± SD:87 ± 36.1 and 27 ± 15.8 nmol/L, respectively) compared with control subjects (190 ± 72.1 and 75 ± 23.6 nmol/L, respectively). Although macular pigment optical density was significantly lower (P < 0.0001) in the CF group (0.24 ± 0.11) than in the control group (0.53 ± 0.12), no significant differences in visual function were observed. Conclusions Adults with CF have dramatically low serum and macular concentrations of carotenoids (lutein and zeaxanthin), but their ocular status and visual function are surprisingly good. The clinical implications of low plasma concentrations of carotenoids in CF are yet to be clarified. PMID:15159235

  10. Serotonergic, noradrenergic and dopaminergic markers are related to cognitive function in adults with 22q11 deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Evers, Laurens J M; Curfs, Leopold M G; Bakker, Jaap A; Boot, Erik; da Silva Alves, Fabiana; Abeling, Nico; Bierau, Jörgen; Drukker, Marjan; van Amelsvoort, Therese A M J

    2014-08-01

    Patients with 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) have a high prevalence of psychiatric disorders and intellectual disability. At present the neurobiology underlying psychopathology in 22q11DS is still not understood. In the present study, we analyzed urinary serotonergic, dopaminergic and noradrenergic markers in 67 adults with 22q11DS. Levels of serotonin and the catecholamine metabolite homovanillic acid were significantly lower in the 22q11DS subjects compared to healthy controls. Within the 22q11DS group, levels of dopamine, homovanillic acid, norepinephrine, vanillyl mandelic acid and serotonin positively correlated with Full Scale Intelligence Quotient scores. Our results suggest that cognitive deficits in 22q11DS are associated with abnormal function of several neurotransmitters. PMID:24713114

  11. Physical Activity and Brain Function in Older Adults at Increased Risk for Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Smith, J. Carson; Nielson, Kristy A.; Woodard, John L.; Seidenberg, Michael; Rao, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    Leisure-time physical activity (PA) and exercise training are known to help maintain cognitive function in healthy older adults. However, relatively little is known about the effects of PA on cognitive function or brain function in those at increased risk for Alzheimer’s disease through the presence of the apolipoproteinE epsilon4 (APOE-?4) allele, diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), or the presence of metabolic disease. Here, we examine the question of whether PA and exercise interventions may differentially impact cognitive trajectory, clinical outcomes, and brain structure and function among individuals at the greatest risk for AD. The literature suggests that the protective effects of PA on risk for future dementia appear to be larger in those at increased genetic risk for AD. Exercise training is also effective at helping to promote stable cognitive function in MCI patients, and greater cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with greater brain volume in early-stage AD patients. In APOE-?4 allele carriers compared to non-carriers, greater levels of PA may be more effective in reducing amyloid burden and are associated with greater activation of semantic memory-related neural circuits. A greater research emphasis should be placed on randomized clinical trials for exercise, with clinical, behavioral, and neuroimaging outcomes in people at increased risk for AD. PMID:24961307

  12. Outcome measures for hand function naturally reveal three latent domains in older adults: strength, coordinated upper extremity function, and sensorimotor processing

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Emily L.; Dayanidhi, Sudarshan; Fassola, Isabella; Requejo, Philip; Leclercq, Caroline; Winstein, Carolee J.; Valero-Cuevas, Francisco J.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the mapping between individual outcome measures and the latent functional domains of interest is critical to a quantitative evaluation and rehabilitation of hand function. We examined whether and how the associations among six hand-specific outcome measures reveal latent functional domains in elderly individuals. We asked 66 healthy older adult participants (38F, 28M, 66.1 ± 11.6 years, range: 45–88 years) and 33 older adults (65.8 ± 9.7 years, 44–81 years, 51 hands) diagnosed with osteoarthritis (OA) of the carpometacarpal (CMC) joint, to complete six functional assessments: hand strength (Grip, Key and Precision Pinch), Box and Block, Nine Hole Pegboard, and Strength-Dexterity tests. The first three principal components suffice to explain 86% of variance among the six outcome measures in healthy older adults, and 84% of variance in older adults with CMC OA. The composition of these dominant associations revealed three distinct latent functional domains: strength, coordinated upper extremity function, and sensorimotor processing. Furthermore, in participants with thumb CMC OA we found a blurring of the associations between the latent functional domains of strength and coordinated upper extremity function. This motivates future work to understand how the physiological effects of thumb CMC OA lead upper extremity coordination to become strongly associated with strength, while dynamic sensorimotor ability remains an independent functional domain. Thus, when assessing the level of hand function in our growing older adult populations, it is particularly important to acknowledge its multidimensional nature—and explicitly consider how each outcome measure maps to these three latent and fundamental domains of function. Moreover, this ability to distinguish among latent functional domains may facilitate the design of treatment modalities to target the rehabilitation of each of them. PMID:26097455

  13. High Speed SPM of Functional Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Huey, Bryan D.

    2015-08-14

    The development and optimization of applications comprising functional materials necessitates a thorough understanding of their static and dynamic properties and performance at the nanoscale. Leveraging High Speed SPM and concepts enabled by it, efficient measurements and maps with nanoscale and nanosecond temporal resolution are uniquely feasible. This includes recent enhancements for topographic, conductivity, ferroelectric, and piezoelectric properties as originally proposed, as well as newly developed methods or improvements to AFM-based mechanical, friction, thermal, and photoconductivity measurements. The results of this work reveal fundamental mechanisms of operation, and suggest new approaches for improving the ultimate speed and/or efficiency, of data storage systems, magnetic-electric sensors, and solar cells.

  14. Use of the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) for Children with High Functioning Autism or Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Murray, Michael J.; Morrow, Jill D.; Yurich, Kirsten K. L.; Cothren, Shiyoko; Purichia, Heather; Mahr, Fauzia; Bouder, James N.; Petersen, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The authors of the "Childhood Autism Rating Scale" (CARS) state in the manual that the best cutoff score for distinguishing low functioning autism (LFA) from intellectual disability is 30 for children and 28 for adolescents and adults. This study determined that a cutoff score of 25.5 was most accurate in differentiating between high functioning

  15. Perceived Parental Functioning, Self-Esteem, and Psychological Distress in Adults Whose Parents are Separated/Divorced

    PubMed Central

    Verrocchio, Maria C.; Marchetti, Daniela; Fulcheri, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this research was to identify retrospectively the alienating behaviors and the parental bonding that occurred in an Italian sample of adults whose had parents separated or divorced and their associations with self-esteem and psychological distress. Methods: Four hundred seventy adults in Chieti, Italy, completed an anonymous and confidential survey regarding their childhood exposure to parental alienating behaviors (using the Baker Strategy Questionnaire), quality of the parent–child relationship (using Parental Bonding Instruments), self-esteem (using Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale), and global psychological distress (using Global Severity Index of Symptom Checklist-90-Revised). Results: About 80% of the sample reported some exposure to parental alienating behaviors; about 65–70% of the sample has perceived non-optimal parenting by mother and by father; individuals who experienced affectionless control (low care and high overprotection) reported significantly higher exposure to parental loyalty conflict behaviors. Overall rates of reported exposure to low care, and overprotection and parental loyalty conflict behaviors were statistically significantly associated with self-esteem as well as the measure of current psychological distress. Results revealed that exposure to parental loyalty conflict behaviors and self-esteem were associated with psychological distress over and above the effects of parental bonding and age. Conclusion: The pattern of findings supports the theory that children exposed to dysfunctional parenting, and with low self-esteem are at risk for their long-term psychological functioning. Implications for health policy changes and strengthening social services are discussed. PMID:26635670

  16. Association between lesion location and language function in adult glioma using voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Pia; Leu, Kevin; Harris, Robert J.; Cloughesy, Timothy F.; Lai, Albert; Nghiemphu, Phioanh L.; Pope, Whitney B.; Bookheimer, Susan Y.; Ellingson, Benjamin M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Management of language difficulties is an important aspect of clinical care for glioma patients, and accurately identifying the possible language deficits in patients based on lesion location would be beneficial to clinicians. To that end, we examined the relationship between lesion presence and language performance on tests of receptive language and expressive language using a highly specific voxel-based lesion–symptom mapping (VLSM) approach in glioma patients. Methods 98 adults with primary glioma, who were pre-surgical candidates, were administered seven neurocognitive tests within the domains of receptive language and expressive language. The association between language performance and lesion presence was examined using VLSM. Statistical parametric maps were created for each test, and composite maps for both receptive language and expressive language were created to display the significant voxels common to all tests within these language domains. Results We identified clusters of voxels with a significant relationship between lesion presence and language performance. All tasks were associated with several white matter pathways. The receptive language tasks were additionally all associated with regions primarily within the lateral temporal lobe and medial temporal lobe. In contrast, the expressive language tasks shared little overlap, despite each task being independently associated with large anatomic areas. Conclusions Our findings identify the key anatomic structures involved in language functioning in adult glioma patients using an innovative lesion analysis technique and suggest that expressive language abilities may be more task-dependent and distributed than receptive language abilities.

  17. Judgments of social awkwardness from brief exposure to children with and without high-functioning autism.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Ruth B

    2015-07-01

    We form first impressions of many traits based on very short interactions. This study examines whether typical adults judge children with high-functioning autism to be more socially awkward than their typically developing peers based on very brief exposure to still images, audio-visual, video-only, or audio-only information. We used video and audio recordings of children with and without high-functioning autism captured during a story-retelling task. Typically developing adults were presented with 1?s and 3?s clips of these children, as well as still images, and asked to judge whether the person in the clip was socially awkward. Our findings show that participants who are naïve to diagnostic differences between the children in the clips judged children with high-functioning autism to be socially awkward at a significantly higher rate than their typically developing peers. These results remain consistent for exposures as short as 1?s to visual and/or auditory information, as well as for still images. These data suggest that typical adults use subtle nonverbal and non-linguistic cues produced by children with high-functioning autism to form rapid judgments of social awkwardness with the potential for significant repercussions in social interactions. PMID:24923894

  18. Medication Use and Functional Status Decline in Older Adults: A Narrative Review

    PubMed Central

    Peron, Emily P.; Gray, Shelly L.; Hanlon, Joseph T.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To critically review published articles that have examined the relationship between medication use and functional status decline in the elderly. METHODS The MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched for English-language articles published from January 1986 to December 2010. Search terms included aged, humans, drug utilization, polypharmacy, inappropriate prescribing, anticholinergics, psychotropics, antihypertensives, drug burden index, functional status, function change or decline, activities of daily living, gait, mobility limitation, and disability. A manual search of the reference lists of the identified articles and the authors’ article files, book chapters, and recent reviews was conducted to retrieve additional publications. Only articles that used rigorous observational or interventional designs were included. Cross-sectional studies and case series were excluded from this review. RESULTS Nineteenstudies met the inclusion criteria. Five studies addressed the impact of suboptimal prescribing on function, three of which found an increased risk of worse function in community-dwelling subjects receiving polypharmacy. Three of the four studies that assessed benzodiazepine use and functional status decline found a statistically significant association. One cohort study identified no relationship between antidepressant use and functional status while a randomized trial found that amitriptyline, but not desipramine or paroxetine, impaired certain measures of gait. Two studies found that increasing anticholinergic burden was associated with worse functional status. In a study of hospitalized rehabilitation patients, users of hypnotics/anxiolytics (e.g., phenobarbital, zolpidem) had lower relative Functional Independence Measure motor gains than nonusers. Use of multiple central nervous system (CNS) drugs (using different definitions) was linked to greater declines in self-reported mobility and Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) scores in two community-based studies. Another study of nursing home patients did not report a significant decline in SPPB scores in those taking multiple CNS drugs. Finally, two studies found mixed effects between antihypertensive use and functional status in the elderly. CONCLUSION Benzodiazepines and anticholinergics have been consistently associated with impairments in functional status in the elderly. The relationships between suboptimal prescribing, antidepressants, and antihypertensives and functional status decline were mixed. Further research using established measures and methods is needed to better describe the impact of medication use on functional status in older adults. PMID:22057096

  19. Improving Functional Communication Skills in Adolescents and Young Adults with Severe Autism Using Gentle Teaching and Positive Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polirstok, Susan Rovet; Dana, Lawrence; Buono, Serafino; Mongelli, Vita; Trubia, Grazia

    2003-01-01

    A study evaluated a therapeutic intervention program for young adults with severe autism at the Oasi Institute in Troina, Sicily. The program, which integrates gentle teaching, humanistic applied behavior analysis, and functional communication training, provides opportunities to acquire functional skills through errorless learning activities.…

  20. Stressful life events, social support, and cognitive function in middle-aged adults with a family history of Alzheimer's disease

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    Stressful life events, social support, and cognitive function in middle- aged adults with a family is evidence that both perceived stress and social support can influence brain health and cognitive function life experiences and social support on cognitive test performance in four distinct domains (speed

  1. Columbus Unified High School: Every Adult Advocates, Every Student Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Principal Leadership, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This article features Columbus Unified High School, a school that takes pride in knowing that each student will graduate prepared for his or her future. Although poverty (45%) and unemployment (25%) are widespread in this rural Kansas community, the community members are fierce in their loyalty to the school. Last year, 97.8% of the four-year…

  2. Autistic Traits in Neurotypical Adults are Related to Cingulo-Insular Functional Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Di Martino, Adriana; Shehzad, Zarrar; Kelly, Clare A.M.; Roy, Amy Krain; Gee, Dylan G.; Uddin, Lucina Q.; Gotimer, Kristin; Klein, Donald F.; Castellanos, F. Xavier; Milham, Michael P.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Based on the increased recognition of the dimensional nature of autistic traits, we examined their neural correlates in neurotypical individuals using the Social Responsiveness Scale-Adult version (SRS-A). The SRS-A measures autistic traits that are continuously distributed in the general population. Here, we establish a novel approach to examining the neural basis of autistic traits, attempting to directly relate SRS-A scores to patterns of functional connectivity observed for the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC), a region commonly implicated in social cognition. Methods Resting state fMRI scans were collected in 25 neurotypical individuals (26.4 ± 5.6 y) who provided SRS-A completed by an informant who knew the participant in natural social settings. Whole brain corrected connectivity analyses were then conducted using the SRS-A as a covariate of interest. Results We found a significant negative relationship between SRS-A and pgACC functional connectivity with the anterior portion of mid-insula (Z > 2.3; p < .05, corrected). Specifically, low levels of autistic traits were observed when a substantial portion of the anterior mid-insula showed positive connectivity with pgACC. In contrast, elevated levels of autistic traits were associated with negative connectivity between the pgACC and the anterior mid-insula. Conclusions Resting state functional connectivity of the pgACC-insula social network was related to autistic traits in neurotypical adults. Application of this approach in samples with autism spectrum disorders is needed to confirm whether the pgACC- anterior mid insula circuit is dimensionally related to the severity of autistic traits in clinical populations. PMID:19605539

  3. Executive function and self-regulated exergaming adherence among older adults

    PubMed Central

    Anderson-Hanley, Cay; Arciero, Paul J.; Barcelos, Nicole; Nimon, Joseph; Rocha, Tracey; Thurin, Marisa; Maloney, Molly

    2014-01-01

    The rise in dementia and the evidence of cognitive benefits of exercise for the older adult population together make salient the research into variables affecting cognitive benefit and exercise behavior. One promising avenue for increasing exercise participation has been the introduction of exergaming, a type of exercise that works in combination with virtual reality to enhance both the exercise experience and health outcomes. Past research has revealed that executive function (EF) was related to greater use of self-regulatory strategies, which in turn was related to greater adherence to exercise following an intervention (McAuley et al., 2011). Best et al. (2014) found improvement in EF related to adherence to exercise post- intervention. Anderson-Hanley et al. (2012) found that for older adults aerobic exergaming yielded greater cognitive benefit than traditional exercise alone; however, questions remain as to the possible impact of greater cognitive benefit and other factors on participants’ involvement in exercise following the end of an intervention. The current study presents follow-up data exploring the relationship between EF, self-regulation, and exercise behavior in the post-intervention (naturalistic) period. Herein, it was predicted that higher EF at the start of the naturalistic window, would predict subsequent exercise with an exergame. Contrary to expectations, results suggest that those with poorer EF are likely to exergame more frequently. The results of this study contradict previous literature, but suggest an interesting relationship between EF, self-regulation, and exercise behaviors when exergaming is employed, particularly with older adults with some cognitive decline. We hypothesize that other factors may be at work, perhaps expectation of cognitive benefit might act as a unique motivator. PMID:25538608

  4. Cytokine-induced differentiation of multipotent adult progenitor cells into functional smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Ross, Jeffrey J; Hong, Zhigang; Willenbring, Ben; Zeng, Lepeng; Isenberg, Brett; Lee, Eu Han; Reyes, Morayma; Keirstead, Susan A; Weir, E Kenneth; Tranquillo, Robert T; Verfaillie, Catherine M

    2006-12-01

    Smooth muscle formation and function are critical in development and postnatal life. Hence, studies aimed at better understanding SMC differentiation are of great importance. Here, we report that multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPCs) isolated from rat, murine, porcine, and human bone marrow demonstrate the potential to differentiate into cells with an SMC-like phenotype and function. TGF-beta1 alone or combined with PDGF-BB in serum-free medium induces a temporally correct expression of transcripts and proteins consistent with smooth muscle development. Furthermore, SMCs derived from MAPCs (MAPC-SMCs) demonstrated functional L-type calcium channels. MAPC-SMCs entrapped in fibrin vascular molds became circumferentially aligned and generated force in response to KCl, the L-type channel opener FPL64176, or the SMC agonists 5-HT and ET-1, and exhibited complete relaxation in response to the Rho-kinase inhibitor Y-27632. Cyclic distention (5% circumferential strain) for 3 weeks increased responses by 2- to 3-fold, consistent with what occurred in neonatal SMCs. These results provide evidence that MAPC-SMCs are phenotypically and functionally similar to neonatal SMCs and that the in vitro MAPC-SMC differentiation system may be an ideal model for the study of SMC development. Moreover, MAPC-SMCs may lend themselves to tissue engineering applications. PMID:17099777

  5. Cytokine-induced differentiation of multipotent adult progenitor cells into functional smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Jeffrey J.; Hong, Zhigang; Willenbring, Ben; Zeng, Lepeng; Isenberg, Brett; Lee, Eu Han; Reyes, Morayma; Keirstead, Susan A.; Weir, E. Kenneth; Tranquillo, Robert T.; Verfaillie, Catherine M.

    2006-01-01

    Smooth muscle formation and function are critical in development and postnatal life. Hence, studies aimed at better understanding SMC differentiation are of great importance. Here, we report that multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPCs) isolated from rat, murine, porcine, and human bone marrow demonstrate the potential to differentiate into cells with an SMC-like phenotype and function. TGF-?1 alone or combined with PDGF-BB in serum-free medium induces a temporally correct expression of transcripts and proteins consistent with smooth muscle development. Furthermore, SMCs derived from MAPCs (MAPC-SMCs) demonstrated functional L-type calcium channels. MAPC-SMCs entrapped in fibrin vascular molds became circumferentially aligned and generated force in response to KCl, the L-type channel opener FPL64176, or the SMC agonists 5-HT and ET-1, and exhibited complete relaxation in response to the Rho-kinase inhibitor Y-27632. Cyclic distention (5% circumferential strain) for 3 weeks increased responses by 2- to 3-fold, consistent with what occurred in neonatal SMCs. These results provide evidence that MAPC-SMCs are phenotypically and functionally similar to neonatal SMCs and that the in vitro MAPC-SMC differentiation system may be an ideal model for the study of SMC development. Moreover, MAPC-SMCs may lend themselves to tissue engineering applications. PMID:17099777

  6. Visualizing form and function in organotypic slices of the adult mouse parotid gland

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Jennifer D.; Peters, Christian G.; Saunders, Rudel; Won, Jong Hak; Betzenhauser, Matthew J.; Gunning, William T.; Yule, David I.; Giovannucci, David R.

    2008-01-01

    An organotypic slice preparation of the adult mouse parotid salivary gland amenable to a variety of optical assessments of fluid and protein secretion dynamics is described. The semi-intact preparation rendered without the use of enzymatic treatment permitted live-cell imaging and multiphoton analysis of cellular and supracellular signals. Toward this end we demonstrated that the parotid slice is a significant addition to the repertoire of tools available to investigators to probe exocrine structure and function since there is currently no cell culture system that fully recapitulates parotid acinar cell biology. Importantly, we show that a subpopulation of the acinar cells of parotid slices can be maintained in short-term culture and retain their morphology and function for up to 2 days. This in vitro model system is a significant step forward compared with enzymatically dispersed acini that rapidly lose their morphological and functional characteristics over several hours, and it was shown to be long enough for the expression and trafficking of exogenous protein following adenoviral infection. This system is compatible with a variety of genetic and physiological approaches used to study secretory function. PMID:18669626

  7. Visual Exploration of High Dimensional Scalar Functions

    PubMed Central

    Gerber, Samuel; Bremer, Peer-Timo; Pascucci, Valerio; Whitaker, Ross

    2011-01-01

    An important goal of scientific data analysis is to understand the behavior of a system or process based on a sample of the system. In many instances it is possible to observe both input parameters and system outputs, and characterize the system as a high-dimensional function. Such data sets arise, for instance, in large numerical simulations, as energy landscapes in optimization problems, or in the analysis of image data relating to biological or medical parameters. This paper proposes an approach to analyze and visualizing such data sets. The proposed method combines topological and geometric techniques to provide interactive visualizations of discretely sampled high-dimensional scalar fields. The method relies on a segmentation of the parameter space using an approximate Morse-Smale complex on the cloud of point samples. For each crystal of the Morse-Smale complex, a regression of the system parameters with respect to the output yields a curve in the parameter space. The result is a simplified geometric representation of the Morse-Smale complex in the high dimensional input domain. Finally, the geometric representation is embedded in 2D, using dimension reduction, to provide a visualization platform. The geometric properties of the regression curves enable the visualization of additional information about each crystal such as local and global shape, width, length, and sampling densities. The method is illustrated on several synthetic examples of two dimensional functions. Two use cases, using data sets from the UCI machine learning repository, demonstrate the utility of the proposed approach on real data. Finally, in collaboration with domain experts the proposed method is applied to two scientific challenges. The analysis of parameters of climate simulations and their relationship to predicted global energy flux and the concentrations of chemical species in a combustion simulation and their integration with temperature. PMID:20975167

  8. Astrocytes from adult Wistar rats aged in vitro show changes in glial functions.

    PubMed

    Souza, Débora Guerini; Bellaver, Bruna; Raupp, Gustavo Santos; Souza, Diogo Onofre; Quincozes-Santos, André

    2015-11-01

    Astrocytes, the most versatile cells of the central nervous system, play an important role in the regulation of neurotransmitter homeostasis, energy metabolism, antioxidant defenses and the anti-inflammatory response. Recently, our group characterized cortical astrocyte cultures from adult Wistar rats. In line with that work, we studied glial function using an experimental in vitro model of aging astrocytes (30 days in vitro after reaching confluence) from newborn (NB), adult (AD) and aged (AG) Wistar rats. We evaluated metabolic parameters, such as the glucose uptake, glutamine synthetase (GS) activity, and glutathione (GSH) content, as well as the GFAP, GLUT-1 and xCT expression. AD and AG astrocytes take up less glucose than NB astrocytes and had decreased GLUT1 expression levels. Furthermore, AD and AG astrocytes exhibited decreased GS activity compared to NB cells. Simultaneously, AD and AG astrocytes showed an increase in GSH levels, along with an increase in xCT expression. NB, AD and AG astrocytes presented similar morphology; however, differences in GFAP levels were observed. Taken together, these results improve the knowledge of cerebral senescence and represent an innovative tool for brain studies of aging. PMID:26210720

  9. 3D culture of adult mouse neural stem cells within functionalized self-assembling peptide scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Carla; Panseri, Silvia; Villa, Omar; Silva, Diego; Gelain, Fabrizio

    2011-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) in vitro models of cell culture aim to fill the gap between the standard two-dimensional cell studies and the in vivo environment. Especially for neural tissue regeneration approaches where there is little regenerative capacity, these models are important for mimicking the extracellular matrix in providing support, allowing the natural flow of oxygen, nutrients, and growth factors, and possibly favoring neural cell regrowth. We have previously demonstrated that a new self-assembling nanostructured biomaterial, based on matrigel, was able to support adult neural stem cell (NSC) culture. In this study, we developed a new 3D cell culture system that takes advantage of the nano- and microfiber assembling process, under physiologic conditions, of these biomaterials. The assembled scaffold forms an intricate and biologically active matrix that displays specifically designed functional motifs: RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp), BMHP1 (bone marrow homing peptide 1), and BMHP2, for the culture of adult NSCs. These scaffolds were prepared at different concentrations, and microscopic examination of the cell-embedded scaffolds showed that NSCs are viable and they proliferate and differentiate within the nanostructured environment of the scaffold. Such a model has the potential to be tailored to develop ad hoc designed peptides for specific cell lines. PMID:21720506

  10. Age differences in high frequency phasic heart rate variability and performance response to increased executive function load in three executive function tasks

    PubMed Central

    Byrd, Dana L.; Reuther, Erin T.; McNamara, Joseph P. H.; DeLucca, Teri L.; Berg, William K.

    2015-01-01

    The current study examines similarity or disparity of a frontally mediated physiological response of mental effort among multiple executive functioning tasks between children and adults. Task performance and phasic heart rate variability (HRV) were recorded in children (6 to 10 years old) and adults in an examination of age differences in executive functioning skills during periods of increased demand. Executive load levels were varied by increasing the difficulty levels of three executive functioning tasks: inhibition (IN), working memory (WM), and planning/problem solving (PL). Behavioral performance decreased in all tasks with increased executive demand in both children and adults. Adults’ phasic high frequency HRV was suppressed during the management of increased IN and WM load. Children’s phasic HRV was suppressed during the management of moderate WM load. HRV was not suppressed during either children’s or adults’ increasing load during the PL task. High frequency phasic HRV may be most sensitive to executive function tasks that have a time-response pressure, and simply requiring performance on a self-paced task requiring frontal lobe activation may not be enough to generate HRV responsitivity to increasing demand. PMID:25798113

  11. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version in Healthy Adults and Application to Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Robert M.; Lance, Charles E.; Isquith, Peter K.; Fischer, Adina S.; Giancola, Peter R.

    2013-01-01

    The Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version (BRIEF-A) is a questionnaire measure designed to assess executive functioning in everyday life. Analysis of data from the BRIEF-A standardization sample yielded a two-factor solution (labeled Behavioral Regulation and Metacognition). The present investigation employed confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to evaluate four alternative models of the factor structure of the BRIEF-A self-report form in a sample of 524 healthy young adults. Results indicated that a three-factor model best fits the data: a Metacognition factor, a Behavioral Regulation factor consisting of the Inhibit and Self-Monitor scales, and an Emotional Regulation factor composed of the Emotional Control and Shift scales. The three factors contributed 14%, 19%, and 24% of unique variance to the model, respectively, and a second-order general factor accounted for 41% of variance overall. This three-factor solution is consistent with recent CFAs of the Parent report form of the BRIEF. Furthermore, although the Behavioral Regulation factor score in the two-factor model did not differ between adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and a matched healthy comparison group, greater impairment on the Behavioral Regulation factor but not the Emotional Regulation factor was found using the three-factor model. Together, these findings support the multidimensional nature of executive function and the clinical relevance of a three-factor model of the BRIEF-A. PMID:23676185

  12. Mental Health Services for Individuals with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Lake, Johanna K.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents and adults with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who do not have an intellectual impairment or disability (ID), described here as individuals with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD), represent a complex and underserved psychiatric population. While there is an emerging literature on the mental health needs of children with ASD with normal intelligence, we know less about these issues in adults. Of the few studies of adolescents and adults with HFASD completed to date, findings suggest that they face a multitude of cooccurring psychiatric (e.g., anxiety, depression), psychosocial, and functional issues, all of which occur in addition to their ASD symptomatology. Despite this, traditional mental health services and supports are falling short of meeting the needs of these adults. This review highlights the service needs and the corresponding gaps in care for this population. It also provides an overview of the literature on psychiatric risk factors, identifies areas requiring further study, and makes recommendations for how existing mental health services could include adults with HFASD. PMID:25276425

  13. Life Science. Nevada Competency-Based Adult High School Diploma Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevada Univ., Las Vegas. Coll. of Education.

    This document is one of ten curriculum guides developed by the Nevada Competency-Based Adult High School Diploma (CBAHSD) Project. This curriculum guide on life science is divided into twelve topics. The topics included are Life Process, Cells, Levels of Organization, Organ Systems, Food and Oxygen-Photosynthesis, Cycles, Energy, Resources, Cell…

  14. Environmental Education. Nevada Competency-Based Adult High School Diploma Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevada Univ., Las Vegas. Coll. of Education.

    This document is one of ten curriculum guides developed by the Nevada Competency-Based Adult High School Diploma (CBAHSD) Project. This curriculum guide on environmental education is divided into seven topics. The topics included are Human Carrying Capacity (The Ability to Foresee and Forestall), Human Population Growth, The Atmosphere, The…

  15. Struggling to Recognize Their Existence: Examining Student-Adult Relationships in the Urban High School Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Louie F.

    2008-01-01

    In today's reform context, much attention is placed on policies and outcomes and far less emphasis on understanding the social and cultural processes in schools. Using case-study methodology, I examine relationships between low-income, urban high school students of color, and the school adults with whom they interact. Using grounded theory,…

  16. Help Needed: How Can High-Risk Adults Prepare for Skilled Jobs in South Carolina?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Curtis

    A study examined the job-training needs of high-risk adults to determine who they are, what they need in order to obtain productive careers paying a living wage, what is available, what works and doesn't, and what South Carolina should do to assist this population. Data were obtained from several dozen focus groups across the state, discussion…

  17. Earth and Physical Science. Nevada Competency-Based Adult High School Diploma Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevada Univ., Las Vegas. Coll. of Education.

    This document is one of ten curriculum guides developed by the Nevada Competency-Based Adult High School Diploma (CBAHSD) Project. This curriculum guide on earth and physical science is divided into twelve topics. The topics included are Geology, Meteorology, Astronomy, Natural Disasters, Chemical Reaction, Laboratory, States of Matter, Force and…

  18. High-temperature adult-plant resistance, the key for sustainable control of stripe rust

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High-temperature adult-plant (HTAP) resistance expresses when plants grow old and the weather becomes warm. This non-race specific and durable type of resistance has been used successfully in control of wheat stripe rust in the U.S. since early 1960s. This article describes practical procedures f...

  19. Pilot Study of Younger and Older HIV-Infected Adults Using Traditional and Novel Functional Assessments

    PubMed Central

    Sandkovsky, Uriel; Robertson, Kevin R.; Meza, Jane L.; High, Robin R.; Bonasera, Stephen J.; Fisher, Christopher M.; Marsh, Anthony J.; Sheehy, Margaret K.; Fox, Howard S.; Swindells, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Emerging data suggest that HIV disease and its treatment affect the aging process. Accurate and reliable measures of functional status are needed to investigate this further. Design A pilot study in groups of younger and older HIV-infected adults using objective measures of function. Methods Evaluations included neuropsychological testing, grip strength, balance assessed by the Wii Balance Board, and actigraphy. Surveys were used for depression, fatigue, loneliness, self-reported activity level, and sexual function. Two-sample t test or Wilcoxon rank sum tests were used for continuous variables and exact chi-square tests were used for comparison between groups. Results Twenty-one participants were 20 to 40 years old (younger; mean age, 31.5), and 20 were more than 50 years old (older; mean age, 56.5). There was no difference between groups for depression, fatigue, or loneliness. Overall, there was a trend to lower scores in the older age group for neuropsychological z score (P = .11) and for verbal learning (P = .09). Functioning in the memory domain was significantly lower in older subjects (P = .007). There was no difference in executive function, speed of processing, memory, motor skills, or total activity. Gender differences in sexual function were observed. Four older and 3 younger participants met the definition of frailty. Total activity by actigraphy did not correlate well with self-reported activity. Conclusions Objective tests were well accepted and feasible to perform, although not all are suitable for widespread clinical or research use. Objective measurements of activity did not correlate well with patient self-report, which has implications for future studies in this area. PMID:23924589

  20. The Influence of Emotional State on the Masticatory Muscles Function in the Group of Young Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Anna, Stocka; Joanna, Kuc; Teresa, Sierpinska; Maria, Golebiewska; Aneta, Wieczorek

    2015-01-01

    Stress may affect the function of all the components of the masticatory system and may ultimately lead to differentiated symptoms and finally to systemic and structural dysfunctions. Objective. To determine the effect of stress on the masticatory muscles function in young healthy adults. Material and Methods. A total of 201 young, Angle's first class, healthy volunteers, 103 female and 98 male, in the age between 18 and 21 years were recruited into the study. All the participants underwent clinical examination according to the Slavicek scheme, questionnaire survey according to Perceived Stress Scale, and assessment of masticatory muscles function in central occlusion. Results. Symptoms of masticatory system dysfunction were found in the group of 86 subjects (46,24%). All the muscles activity in central occlusion was comparable in female and male groups. Mean values of masseters activities in the group of low stress subjects (75,52?µV ± 15,97) were statistically different from the groups with medium (82,43?µV ± 15,04) and high (81,33 ± 12,05) perceived stress (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Chronic stress may reveal or exacerbate symptoms of masticatory dysfunction. PMID:25883942

  1. Functional Characterization of Friedreich Ataxia iPS-Derived Neuronal Progenitors and Their Integration in the Adult Brain

    PubMed Central

    Bird, Matthew J.; Needham, Karina; Frazier, Ann E.; van Rooijen, Jorien; Leung, Jessie; Hough, Shelley; Denham, Mark; Thornton, Matthew E.; Parish, Clare L.; Nayagam, Bryony A.; Pera, Martin; Thorburn, David R.; Thompson, Lachlan H.; Dottori, Mirella

    2014-01-01

    Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is an autosomal recessive disease characterised by neurodegeneration and cardiomyopathy that is caused by an insufficiency of the mitochondrial protein, frataxin. Our previous studies described the generation of FRDA induced pluripotent stem cell lines (FA3 and FA4 iPS) that retained genetic characteristics of this disease. Here we extend these studies, showing that neural derivatives of FA iPS cells are able to differentiate into functional neurons, which don't show altered susceptibility to cell death, and have normal mitochondrial function. Furthermore, FA iPS-derived neural progenitors are able to differentiate into functional neurons and integrate in the nervous system when transplanted into the cerebellar regions of host adult rodent brain. These are the first studies to describe both in vitro and in vivo characterization of FA iPS-derived neurons and demonstrate their capacity to survive long term. These findings are highly significant for developing FRDA therapies using patient-derived stem cells. PMID:25000412

  2. Auditory Discrimination Between Function Words in Children and Adults: A Mismatch Negativity Study

    PubMed Central

    Strotseva-Feinschmidt, Anna; Cunitz, Katrin; Friederici, Angela D.; Gunter, Thomas C.

    2015-01-01

    Previous behavioral studies showed that it is not until around the age of seven that German children reliably use case markers for the interpretation of complex sentences. Some explanations of this late development suggested that children might have difficulties in perceptual differentiation between function words that carry case information. We tested this hypothesis by using the neurophysiological index of pre-attentive discrimination, the mismatch negativity (MMN). Our data showed that children at the age of 3 years are able to automatically discriminate between the two determiner forms der and den when presented out of sentential context. The determiner form der elicited a more mature MMN response in children than the form den. In adults, the MMN pattern also differed with der showing an earlier peak than den. These findings indicate that der is easier to process than den, which in turn is related to the occurrence frequency of the determiner forms in language.

  3. An Examination of Executive Functioning in Young Adults Exhibiting Body-Focused Repetitive Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Flessner, Christopher A; Francazio, Sarah; Murphy, Yolanda E; Brennan, Elle

    2015-07-01

    Body-focused repetitive behaviors (BFRBs), including hair pulling, nail biting, and skin picking are repetitive, habitual, and compulsive in nature. Although characteristic of disorders such as trichotillomania and skin picking disorder, BFRBs are associated with other psychiatric conditions as well. To date, research has failed to examine neurocognitive risk factors, particularly executive functioning, implicated in BFRBs utilizing a transdiagnostic approach. The present study recruited 53 participants (n = 27 demonstrating BFRBs and n = 26 randomly selected controls) from a larger sample of young adults. Participants completed an automated neurocognitive test battery including tasks of cognitive flexibility, working memory, and planning and organization. Results revealed that participants in the BFRB group demonstrated significantly poorer cognitive flexibility (d = 0.63) than controls. No differences were noted in other neurocognitive domains. However, planning and organization demonstrated a significant relationship with various BFRB severity measures. Implications, limitations, and avenues for further research are discussed. PMID:26121152

  4. Neurological and neuropsychological functions in adults with a history of developmental arsenic poisoning from contaminated milk powder.

    PubMed

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Kato, Tsuguhiko; Ohta, Hitoshi; Bellinger, David C; Matsuoka, Kenichi; Grandjean, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    During the summer of 1955, mass arsenic poisoning of bottle-fed infants occurred in the western part of Japan due to contaminated milk powder, and more than 100 died; some childhood victims were later found to suffer from neurological sequelae in adolescence. This unique incident enabled us to explore infancy as a critical period of arsenic exposure in regard to developmental neurotoxicity and its possible persistence through adulthood. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the association between developmental arsenic exposure and the neurological outcomes more than 50years later. We conducted a retrospective cohort study during the period from April 2012 to February 2013 in two hospitals in Okayama Prefecture, Japan. The study sample consisted of 50 individuals: 27 known poisoning victims from Okayama Prefecture, and 23 non-exposed local controls of similar age. In addition to neurological examination, we adapted a battery of neurophysiological and neuropsychological tests to identify the types of brain functions affected by early-life arsenic exposure. While limited abnormalities were found in the neurophysiological tests, neuropsychological deficits were observed. Except for Finger tapping, all test scores in the exposed group - Vocabulary and Block Design from Wechsler Adults Intelligent Scale III, Design memory subtest from Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning 2, and Grooved pegboard test - were substantially below those obtained by the unexposed. The exposed group showed average performance at least 1.2 standard deviations below the average for the controls. Exposed participants performed less well than controls, even after exclusion of subjects with recognized disabilities or those with a high level of education. Adults who had suffered arsenic poisoning during infancy revealed neuropsychological dysfunctions, even among those subjects not recognized as having disabilities. Developmental neurotoxicity due to arsenic likely results in permanent changes in brain functions. PMID:26689609

  5. High-speed power training in older adults: A shift of the external resistance at which peak power is produced

    PubMed Central

    Sayers, Stephen P.; Gibson, Kyle

    2013-01-01

    Studies have shown that power training increases peak power in older adults. Evaluating the external resistance (% one repetition-maximum [1RM]) at which peak power is developed is critical given that changes in the components of peak power (force and velocity) are dependent on the %1RM at which peak power occurs. The purpose of this study was to compare the changes in peak power (and the external resistance at which peak power occurred) after 12 weeks of high-speed power training versus traditional slow-speed strength training. Seventy-two older men and women were randomized to high-speed power training at 40% of the one-repetition maximum (1RM) (HSPT: n=24 [70.8±6.8 yrs]); traditional RT at 80% 1RM (STR: n=22 [68.6±7.8 yrs]); or control (CON: n=18 [71.5±6.1 yrs]). Measures of muscle performance were obtained at baseline and after the 12-week training intervention. Changes in muscle power and 1RM strength improved similarly with both HSPT and SSST, but HSPT shifted the external resistance at which peak power was produced to a lower external resistance (from 67%1RM to 52%1RM) compared to SSST (from 65%1RM to 62%1RM)(p<0.05), thus increasing the velocity component of peak power (change: HSPT=0.18±0.21m/s; SSST=?0.03±0.15 m/s)(p<0.05). Because sufficient speed of the lower limb is necessary for functional tasks related to safety (crossing a busy intersection, fall prevention), HSPT should be implemented in older adults to improve power at lower external resistances, thus increasing the velocity component of power and making older adults safer in their environment. These data provide clinicians with the necessary information to tailor exercise programs to the individual needs of the older adult, affecting the components of power. PMID:23897022

  6. Maternal flaxseed diet during lactation changes adrenal function in adult male rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Mariana Sarto; da Conceição, Ellen Paula Santos; de Oliveira, Elaine; Lisboa, Patricia Cristina; de Moura, Egberto Gaspar

    2015-10-14

    Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) has been a focus of interest in the field of functional foods because of its potential health benefits. However, we hypothesised that maternal flaxseed intake during lactation could induce several metabolic dysfunctions in adult offspring. In the present study, we aimed to characterise the adrenal function of adult offspring whose dams were supplemented with whole flaxseed during lactation. At birth, lactating Wistar rats were divided into two groups: rats from dams fed the flaxseed diet (FLAX) with 25% of flaxseed and controls dams. Pups received standard diet after weaning and male offspring were killed at age 180 days old to collect blood and tissues. We evaluated body weight and food intake during development, corticosteronaemia, adrenal catecholamine content, hepatic cholesterol, TAG and glycogen contents, and the protein expression of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), 11-?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11?-HSD1) and adrenaline ?2 receptor at postnatal day 180 (PN180). After weaning, pups from the FLAX group had a higher body weight (+10 %) and food intake (+10%). At PN180, the FLAX offspring exhibited higher serum corticosterone (+48%) and lower adrenal catecholamine ( - 23%) contents, lower glycogen ( - 30%), higher cholesterol (4-fold increase) and TAG (3-fold-increase) contents in the liver, and higher 11?-HSD1 (+62%) protein expression. Although the protein expression of hypothalamic CRH was unaffected, the FLAX offspring had lower protein expression of pituitary ACTH ( - 34%). Therefore, induction of hypercorticosteronaemia by dietary flaxseed during lactation may be due to an increased hepatic activation of 11?-HSD1 and suppression of ACTH. The changes in the liver fat content of the FLAX group are suggestive of steatosis, in which hypercorticosteronaemia may play an important role. Thus, it is recommended that lactating women restrict the intake of flaxseed during lactation. PMID:26337632

  7. Differential expression of id genes and their potential regulator znf238 in zebrafish adult neural progenitor cells and neurons suggests distinct functions in adult neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Diotel, Nicolas; Beil, Tanja; Strähle, Uwe; Rastegar, Sepand

    2015-01-01

    Teleost fish display a remarkable ability to generate new neurons and to repair brain lesions during adulthood. They are, therefore, a very popular model to investigate the molecular mechanisms of constitutive and induced neurogenesis in adult vertebrates. In this study, we investigated the expression patterns of inhibitor of DNA binding (id) genes and of their potential transcriptional repressor, znf238, in the whole brain of adult zebrafish. We show that while id1 is exclusively expressed in ventricular cells in the whole brain, id2a, id3 and id4 genes are expressed in broader areas. Interestingly, znf238 was also detected in these regions, its expression overlapping with id2a, id3 and id4 expression. Further detailed characterization of the id-expressing cells demonstrated that (a) id1 is expressed in type 1 and type 2 neural progenitors as previously published, (b) id2a in type 1, 2 and 3 neural progenitors, (c) id3 in type 3 neural progenitors and (d) id4 in postmitotic neurons. Our data provide a detailed map of id and znf238 expression in the brain of adult zebrafish, supplying a framework for studies of id genes function during adult neurogenesis and brain regeneration in the zebrafish. PMID:26107416

  8. Associations among childhood sexual abuse, language use and adult sexual functioning and satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Tierney Ahrold; Meston, Cindy May

    2012-01-01

    To better understand the link between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adult sexual functioning and satisfaction, we examined cognitive differences between women with (N = 128) and without (NSA, N = 99) CSA histories. We used the Linguistic Inquiry Word Count, a computerized text analysis program, to investigate language differences between women with and without CSA histories when writing about their daily life (neutral essay) and their beliefs about sexuality and their sexual experiences (sexual essay). Compared to NSA women, women with CSA histories used fewer first person pronouns in the neutral essay but more in the sexual essay, suggesting women with CSA histories have greater self-focus when thinking about sexuality. Women who reported CSA used more intimacy words and more language consistent with psychological distancing in the sexual essay than did NSA women. Use of positive emotion words in the sexual essay predicted sexual functioning and satisfaction in both groups. These findings support the view that language use differs in significant ways between women with and without sexual abuse histories, and that these differences relate to sexual functioning and satisfaction. PMID:22387124

  9. In Vitro Generation of Functional Liver Organoid-Like Structures Using Adult Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Sarada Devi; Schirmer, Katharina; Münst, Bernhard; Heinz, Stefan; Ghafoory, Shahrouz; Wölfl, Stefan; Simon-Keller, Katja; Marx, Alexander; Øie, Cristina Ionica; Ebert, Matthias P.; Walles, Heike

    2015-01-01

    In this study we used differentiated adult human upcyte® cells for the in vitro generation of liver organoids. Upcyte® cells are genetically engineered cell strains derived from primary human cells by lenti-viral transduction of genes or gene combinations inducing transient proliferation capacity (upcyte® process). Proliferating upcyte® cells undergo a finite number of cell divisions, i.e., 20 to 40 population doublings, but upon withdrawal of proliferation stimulating factors, they regain most of the cell specific characteristics of primary cells. When a defined mixture of differentiated human upcyte® cells (hepatocytes, liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)) was cultured in vitro on a thick layer of Matrigel™, they self-organized to form liver organoid-like structures within 24 hours. When further cultured for 10 days in a bioreactor, these liver organoids show typical functional characteristics of liver parenchyma including activity of cytochromes P450, CYP3A4, CYP2B6 and CYP2C9 as well as mRNA expression of several marker genes and other enzymes. In summary, we hereby describe that 3D functional hepatic structures composed of primary human cell strains can be generated in vitro. They can be cultured for a prolonged period of time and are potentially useful ex vivo models to study liver functions. PMID:26488607

  10. Nicotine-Cadmium Interaction Alters Exploratory Motor Function and Increased Anxiety in Adult Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chris Ajonijebu, Duyilemi; Adeyemi Adeniyi, Philip; Oloruntoba Adekeye, Adeshina; Peter Olatunji, Babawale; Olakunle Ishola, Azeez; Michael Ogundele, Olalekan

    2014-01-01

    In this study we evaluated the time dependence in cadmium-nicotine interaction and its effect on motor function, anxiety linked behavioural changes, serum electrolytes, and weight after acute and chronic treatment in adult male mice. Animals were separated randomly into four groups of n = 6 animals each. Treatment was done with nicotine, cadmium, or nicotine-cadmium for 21 days. A fourth group received normal saline for the same duration (control). Average weight was determined at 7-day interval for the acute (D1-D7) and chronic (D7-D21) treatment phases. Similarly, the behavioural tests for exploratory motor function (open field test) and anxiety were evaluated. Serum electrolytes were measured after the chronic phase. Nicotine, cadmium, and nicotine-cadmium treatments caused no significant change in body weight after the acute phase while cadmium-nicotine and cadmium caused a decline in weight after the chronic phase. This suggests the role of cadmium in the weight loss observed in tobacco smoke users. Both nicotine and cadmium raised serum Ca2+ concentration and had no significant effect on K+ ion when compared with the control. In addition, nicotine-cadmium treatment increased bioaccumulation of Cd2+ in the serum which corresponded to a decrease in body weight, motor function, and an increase in anxiety. PMID:26317007

  11. Respiratory function following bilateral mid-cervical contusion injury in the adult rat.

    PubMed

    Lane, Michael A; Lee, Kun-Ze; Salazar, Krystal; O'Steen, Barbara E; Bloom, David C; Fuller, David D; Reier, Paul J

    2012-05-01

    The consequences of spinal cord injury (SCI) are often viewed as the result of white matter damage. However, injuries occurring at any spinal level, especially in cervical and lumbar enlargement regions, also entail segmental neuronal loss. Yet, the contributions of gray matter injury and plasticity to functional outcomes are poorly understood. The present study addressed this issue by investigating changes in respiratory function following bilateral C(3)/C(4) contusion injuries at the level of the phrenic motoneuron (PhMN) pool which in the adult rat extends from C(3) to C(5/6) and provides innervation to the diaphragm. Despite extensive white and gray matter pathology associated with two magnitudes of injury severity, ventilation was relatively unaffected during both quiet breathing and respiratory challenge (hypercapnia). On the other hand, bilateral diaphragm EMG recordings revealed that the ability to increase diaphragm activity during respiratory challenge was substantially, and chronically, impaired. This deficit has not been seen following predominantly white matter lesions at higher cervical levels. Thus, the impact of gray matter damage relative to PhMNs and/or interneurons becomes evident during conditions associated with increased respiratory drive. Unaltered ventilatory behavior, despite significant deficits in diaphragm function, suggests compensatory neuroplasticity involving recruitment of other spinal respiratory networks which may entail remodeling of connections. Transynaptic tracing, using pseudorabies virus (PRV), revealed changes in PhMN-related interneuronal labeling rostral to the site of injury, thus offering insight into the potential anatomical reorganization and spinal plasticity following cervical contusion. PMID:21963673

  12. Functional Connectivity in Multiple Cortical Networks Is Associated with Performance Across Cognitive Domains in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Emily E.; Schultz, Aaron P.; Sperling, Reisa A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Intrinsic functional connectivity MRI has become a widely used tool for measuring integrity in large-scale cortical networks. This study examined multiple cortical networks using Template-Based Rotation (TBR), a method that applies a priori network and nuisance component templates defined from an independent dataset to test datasets of interest. A priori templates were applied to a test dataset of 276 older adults (ages 65–90) from the Harvard Aging Brain Study to examine the relationship between multiple large-scale cortical networks and cognition. Factor scores derived from neuropsychological tests represented processing speed, executive function, and episodic memory. Resting-state BOLD data were acquired in two 6-min acquisitions on a 3-Tesla scanner and processed with TBR to extract individual-level metrics of network connectivity in multiple cortical networks. All results controlled for data quality metrics, including motion. Connectivity in multiple large-scale cortical networks was positively related to all cognitive domains, with a composite measure of general connectivity positively associated with general cognitive performance. Controlling for the correlations between networks, the frontoparietal control network (FPCN) and executive function demonstrated the only significant association, suggesting specificity in this relationship. Further analyses found that the FPCN mediated the relationships of the other networks with cognition, suggesting that this network may play a central role in understanding individual variation in cognition during aging. PMID:25827242

  13. Respiratory function following bilateral mid-cervical contusion injury in the adult rat

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Michael A.; Lee, Kun-Ze; Salazar, Krystal; O’Steen, Barbara E.; Bloom, David C.; Fuller, David D.; Reier, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    The consequences of spinal cord injury (SCI) are often viewed as the result of white matter damage. However, injuries occurring at any spinal level, especially in cervical and lumbar enlargement regions, also entail segmental neuronal loss. Yet, the contributions of gray matter injury and plasticity to functional outcomes are poorly understood. The present study addressed this issue by investigating changes in respiratory function following bilateral C3/C4 contusion injuries at the level of the phoenix motoneuron (PhMN) pool which in the adult rat extends from C3–C5/6 and provides innervation to the diaphragm. Despite extensive white and gray matter pathology associated with two magnitudes of injury severity, ventilation was relatively unaffected during both quiet breathing and respiratory challenge (hypercapnia). On the other hand, bilateral diaphragm EMG recordings revealed that the ability to increase diaphragm activity during respiratory challenge was substantially, and chronically, impaired. This deficit has not been seen following predominantly white matter lesions at higher cervical levels. Thus, the impact of gray matter damage relative to PhMNs and/or interneurons becomes evident during conditions associated with increased respiratory drive. Unaltered ventilatory behavior, despite significant deficits in diaphragm function, suggests compensatory neuroplasticity involving recruitment of other spinal respiratory networks which may entail remodeling of connections. Transynaptic tracing, using pseudorabies virus (PRV), revealed changes in PhMN-related interneuronal labeling rostral to the site of injury, thus offering insight into the potential anatomical reorganization and spinal plasticity following cervical contusion. PMID:21963673

  14. Patterns and Predictors of Sexual Function After Liver Donation: the Adult to Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation Cohort Study (A2ALL)

    PubMed Central

    DiMartini, AF.; Dew, MA.; Butt, Z.; Simpson, MA.; Ladner, DP.; Smith, AR.; Hill-Callahan, P.; Gillespie, BW.

    2015-01-01

    Although sexual functioning is an important facet of living donor quality of life, it has not received extensive evaluation in this population. Using data from the Adult-to-Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation Cohort Study, we examined donor sexual functioning across the donation process from the predonation evaluation to 3 months and 1 year postdonation. Donors (n=208) and a comparison group of non-donors (n=155) completed self-reported surveys with specific questions on sexual desire, satisfaction, orgasm, and (for men) erectile function. Across the three time points, donor sexual functioning was lower at the evaluation phase and 3 months postdonation than at one year postdonation. In the early recovery period, abdominal pain was associated with difficulty reaching orgasm (OR = 3.98, 95% CI 1.30–12.16), concerns over appearance with lower sexual desire (OR = 4.14, 95% CI 1.02–16.79), and not feeling back to normal was associated with dissatisfaction with sexual life (OR 3.58, 95% CI 1.43–8.99). Efforts to educate donors before the surgery and prepare them for the early recovery phase may improve recovery and reduce distress regarding sexual functioning. PMID:25779554

  15. Memory, priority encoding, and overcoming high-value proactive interference in younger and older adults.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Michael C; Castel, Alan D

    2013-01-01

    It is often necessary to remember important information while directing attention away from encoding less valuable information. To examine how aging influences the ability to control and update the encoding of high-value information, younger and older adults studied six lists of words that varied in terms of the point values associated with each word. The words were paired with the same high and low point values for three study-test cycles, but on the fourth and subsequent cycles the value-word pairings were switched such that the lowest value pairs became the highest values (and vice versa). For the first three study-test cycles, younger adults outperformed older adults in terms of the number of words recalled and overall point totals, but performance was similar in terms of selectively remembering high-value words. When the values were switched, both groups displayed substantial interference from the previous pairings. Although both groups improved with additional study-test cycles, only younger adults were able to fully recover from the interference effects. A similar, and more pronounced, set of results were obtained when positive and negative point values were paired with the words. The findings are interpreted in a value-directed remembering framework, emphasizing the role of benefits and costs of strategic encoding and age-related differences in the effects of interference on memory. PMID:23363427

  16. Exercise efficiency relates with mitochondrial content and function in older adults.

    PubMed

    Broskey, Nicholas T; Boss, Andreas; Fares, Elie-Jacques; Greggio, Chiara; Gremion, Gerald; Schlüter, Leo; Hans, Didier; Kreis, Roland; Boesch, Chris; Amati, Francesca

    2015-06-01

    Chronic aerobic exercise has been shown to increase exercise efficiency, thus allowing less energy expenditure for a similar amount of work. The extent to which skeletal muscle mitochondria play a role in this is not fully understood, particularly in an elderly population. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of exercise efficiency with mitochondrial content and function. We hypothesized that the greater the mitochondrial content and/or function, the greater would be the efficiencies. Thirty-eight sedentary (S, n = 23, 10F/13M) or athletic (A, n = 15, 6F/9M) older adults (66.8 ± 0.8 years) participated in this cross sectional study. V?O2peak was measured with a cycle ergometer graded exercise protocol (GXT). Gross efficiency (GE, %) and net efficiency (NE, %) were estimated during a 1-h submaximal test (55% V?O2peak). Delta efficiency (DE, %) was calculated from the GXT. Mitochondrial function was measured as ATPmax (mmol/L/s) during a PCr recovery protocol with (31)P-MR spectroscopy. Muscle biopsies were acquired for determination of mitochondrial volume density (MitoVd, %). Efficiencies were 17% (GE), 14% (NE), and 16% (DE) higher in A than S. MitoVD was 29% higher in A and ATPmax was 24% higher in A than in S. All efficiencies positively correlated with both ATPmax and MitoVd. Chronically trained older individuals had greater mitochondrial content and function, as well as greater exercise efficiencies. GE, NE, and DE were related to both mitochondrial content and function. This suggests a possible role of mitochondria in improving exercise efficiency in elderly athletic populations and allowing conservation of energy at moderate workloads. PMID:26059033

  17. The Effects of an 8-Week Hatha Yoga Intervention on Executive Function in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Arthur F.; McAuley, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Background. Few scientific studies have examined movement-based embodied contemplative practices such as yoga and their effects on cognition. The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to examine the effects of an 8-week Hatha yoga intervention on executive function measures of task switching and working memory capacity. Methods. Community-dwelling older adults (N = 118; mean age = 62.0) were randomized to one of two groups: a Hatha yoga intervention or a stretching–strengthening control. Both groups participated in hour-long exercise classes 3×/week over the 8-week study period. All participants completed established tests of executive function including the task switching paradigm, n-back and running memory span at baseline and follow-up. Results. Analysis of covariances showed significantly shorter reaction times on the mixed and repeat task switching trials (partial ?2 = .04, p < .05) for the Hatha yoga group. Higher accuracy was recorded on the single trials (partial ?2 = .05, p < .05), the 2-back condition of the n-back (partial ?2 = .08, p < .001), and partial recall scores (partial ?2 = .06, p < .01) of running span task. Conclusions. Following 8 weeks of yoga practice, participants in the yoga intervention group showed significantly improved performance on the executive function measures of working memory capacity and efficiency of mental set shifting and flexibility compared with their stretching–strengthening counterparts. Although the underlying mechanisms need to be investigated, these results demand larger systematic trials to thoroughly examine effects of yoga on executive function as well as across other domains of cognition, and its potential to maintain or improve cognitive functioning in the aging process. PMID:25024234

  18. Functional Consequences of Neurite Orientation Dispersion and Density in Humans across the Adult Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Nazeri, Arash; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Rotenberg, David J.; Rajji, Tarek K.; Rathi, Yogesh; Michailovich, Oleg V.

    2015-01-01

    As humans age, a characteristic pattern of widespread neocortical dendritic disruption coupled with compensatory effects in hippocampus and other subcortical structures is shown in postmortem investigations. It is now possible to address age-related effects on gray matter (GM) neuritic organization and density in humans using multishell diffusion-weighted MRI and the neurite-orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI) model. In 45 healthy individuals across the adult lifespan (21–84 years), we used a multishell diffusion imaging and the NODDI model to assess the intraneurite volume fraction and neurite orientation-dispersion index (ODI) in GM tissues. We also determined the functional correlates of variations in GM microstructure by obtaining resting-state fMRI and behavioral data. We found a significant age-related deficit in neocortical ODI (most prominently in frontoparietal regions), whereas increased ODI was observed in hippocampus and cerebellum with advancing age. Neocortical ODI outperformed cortical thickness and white matter fractional anisotropy for the prediction of chronological age in the same individuals. Higher GM ODI sampled from resting-state networks with known age-related susceptibility (default mode and visual association networks) was associated with increased functional connectivity of these networks, whereas the task-positive networks tended to show no association or even decreased connectivity. Frontal pole ODI mediated the negative relationship of age with executive function, whereas hippocampal ODI mediated the positive relationship of age with executive function. Our in vivo findings align very closely with the postmortem data and provide evidence for vulnerability and compensatory neural mechanisms of aging in GM microstructure that have functional and cognitive impact in vivo. PMID:25632148

  19. Validation of DSM-5 age-of-onset criterion of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults: Comparison of life quality, functional impairment, and family function.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Ju; Lo, Kuan-Wu; Yang, Li-Kuang; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2015-12-01

    The newly published Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) elevates the threshold of the ADHD age-of-onset criterion from 7 to 12 years. This study evaluated the quality of life and functional impairment of adults with ADHD who had symptoms onset by or after 7 years and examined the mediation effect of family function and anxiety/depression symptoms between ADHD diagnosis and quality of life and functional impairment. We assessed 189 adults with ADHD and 153 non-ADHD controls by psychiatric interview and self-administered reports on the Adult ADHD Quality of Life Scale, Weiss Functional Impairment Rating Scale, Family APGAR, and Adult Self Report Inventory-4. The ADHD group was divided into early-onset ADHD (onset <7 years, n=147) and late-onset ADHD (onset between 7 and 12 years, n=42). The mediation analysis was conducted to verify the mediating factors from ADHD to functional impairment and quality of life. The late-onset ADHD had more severe functional impairment at work and poorer family support than early-onset ADHD while they had comparable impairment at other domains. Less perceived family support and current anxiety/depressive symptoms partially mediated the link between ADHD diagnosis and quality of life/functional impairment both in early- and late-onset ADHD. Our data support decreased quality of life and increased functional impairment in adult ADHD, regardless of age of onset, and these adverse outcomes may be mediated by family support and anxiety/depression at adulthood. Our findings also imply that the new DSM-5 ADHD criteria do not over-include individuals without impairment. PMID:26318976

  20. High yield extraction of pure spinal motor neurons, astrocytes and microglia from single embryo and adult mouse spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Beaudet, Marie-Josée; Yang, Qiurui; Cadau, Sébastien; Blais, Mathieu; Bellenfant, Sabrina; Gros-Louis, François; Berthod, François

    2015-01-01

    Extraction of mouse spinal motor neurons from transgenic mouse embryos recapitulating some aspects of neurodegenerative diseases like amyotrophic lateral sclerosis has met with limited success. Furthermore, extraction and long-term culture of adult mouse spinal motor neurons and glia remain also challenging. We present here a protocol designed to extract and purify high yields of motor neurons and glia from individual spinal cords collected on embryos and adult (5-month-old) normal or transgenic mice. This method is based on mild digestion of tissue followed by gradient density separation allowing to obtain two millions motor neurons over 92% pure from one E14.5 single embryo and more than 30,000 from an adult mouse. These cells can be cultured more than 14 days in vitro at a density of 100,000 cells/cm2 to maintain optimal viability. Functional astrocytes and microglia and small gamma motor neurons can be purified at the same time. This protocol will be a powerful and reliable method to obtain motor neurons and glia to better understand mechanisms underlying spinal cord diseases. PMID:26577180

  1. Psychosexual Functioning Among Adult Female Survivors of Childhood Cancer: A Report From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Jennifer S.; Kawashima, Toana; Whitton, John; Leisenring, Wendy; Laverdière, Caroline; Stovall, Marilyn; Zeltzer, Lonnie; Robison, Leslie L.; Sklar, Charles A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Childhood cancer survivors may be at risk for impaired psychosexual functioning as a direct result of their cancer or its treatments, psychosocial difficulties, and/or diminished quality of life. Patients and Methods Two thousand one hundred seventy-eight female adult survivors of childhood cancer and 408 female siblings from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS) completed a self-report questionnaire about their psychosexual functioning and quality of life. On average, participants were age 29 years (range, 18 to 51 years) at the time of the survey, had been diagnosed with cancer at a median age of 8.5 years (range, 0 to 20) and were most commonly diagnosed with leukemia (33.2%) and Hodgkin lymphoma (15.4%). Results Multivariable analyses suggested that after controlling for sociodemographic differences, survivors reported significantly lower sexual functioning (mean difference [MnD], ?0.2; P = .01), lower sexual interest (MnD, ?0.2; P < .01), lower sexual desire (MnD, ?0.3; P < .01), lower sexual arousal (MnD, ?0.3; P < .01), lower sexual satisfaction (MnD, ?0.2; P = .01), and lower sexual activity (MnD, ?0.1; P = .02) compared with siblings. Risk factors for poorer psychosexual functioning among survivors included older age at assessment, ovarian failure at a younger age, treatment with cranial radiation, and cancer diagnosis during adolescence. Conclusion Decreased sexual functioning among female survivors of childhood cancers seems to be unrelated to emotional factors and is likely to be an underaddressed issue. Several risk factors among survivors have been identified that assist in defining high-risk subgroups who may benefit from targeted screening and interventions. PMID:25113763

  2. Muscle performance and physical function are associated with voluntary rate of neuromuscular activation in older adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Participants were recruited to three experimental groups: middle-aged healthy adults (MH), older healthy adults (OH), and older adults with mobility limitations (OML). OH and OML were primarily differentiated by performance on the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). Muscle performance (accele...

  3. The effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy on intrinsic functional brain networks in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoli; Cao, Qingjiu; Wang, Jinhui; Wu, Zhaomin; Wang, Peng; Sun, Li; Cai, Taisheng; Wang, Yufeng

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is an efficacious psychological treatment for adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but the neural processes underlying the benefits of CBT are not well understood. This study aims to unravel psychosocial mechanisms for treatment ADHD by exploring the effects of CBT on functional brain networks. Ten adults with ADHD were enrolled and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired before and after a 12-session CBT. Twelve age- and gender-matched healthy controls were also scanned. We constructed whole-brain functional connectivity networks using graph-theory approaches and further computed the changes of regional functional connectivity strength (rFCS) between pre- and post-CBT in ADHD for measuring the effects of CBT. The results showed that rFCS was increased in the fronto-parietal network and cerebellum, the brain regions that were most often affected by medication, in adults with ADHD following CBT. Furthermore, the enhanced functional coupling between bilateral superior parietal gyrus was positively correlated with the improvement of ADHD symptoms following CBT. Together, these findings provide evidence that CBT can selectively modulate the intrinsic network connectivity in the fronto-parietal network and cerebellum and suggest that the CBT may share common brain mechanism with the pharmacology in adults with ADHD. PMID:26629933

  4. ACE and UCP2 gene polymorphisms and their association with baseline and exercise-related changes in the functional performance of older adults

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Barry R.; Taylor, Denise; Kilding, Andrew E.

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining high levels of physical function is an important aspect of successful ageing. While muscle mass and strength contribute to functional performance in older adults, little is known about the possible genetic basis for the heterogeneity of physical function in older adults and in how older adults respond to exercise. Two genes that have possible roles in determining levels of muscle mass, strength and function in young and older adults are angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2). This study examined whether polymorphisms in these two individual genes were associated with baseline functional performance levels and/or the training-related changes following exercise in previously untrained older adults. Five-eight Caucasian older adults (mean age 69.8 years) with no recent history of resistance training enrolled in a 12 week program of resistance, balance and cardiovascular exercises aimed at improving functional performance. Performance in 6 functional tasks was recorded at baseline and after 12 weeks. Genomic DNA was assayed for the ACE intron 16 insertion/deletion (I/D) and the UCP2 G-866A polymorphism. Baseline differences among genotype groups were tested using analysis of variance. Genotype differences in absolute and relative changes in physical function among the exercisers were tested using a general linear model, adjusting for age and gender. The genotype frequencies for each of the studied polymorphisms conformed to the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The ACE I/D genotype was significantly associated with mean baseline measures of handgrip strength (II 30.9 ± 3.01 v. ID 31.7 ± 1.48 v. DD 29.3 ± 2.18 kg, p < 0.001), 8ft Up and Go time (II 6.45 ± 0.48 v. ID/DD 4.41 ± 0.19 s, p < 0.001) and 6 min walk distance (II 458 ± 28.7 v. ID/DD 546 ± 12.1m, p = 0.008). The UCP2 G-866A genotype was also associated with baseline 8ft Up and Go time (GG 5.45 ± 0.35 v. GA 4.47 ± 0.26 v. AA 3.89 ± 0.71 s, p = 0.045). After 12 weeks of training, a significant difference between UCP2 G-886A genotype groups for change in 8ft Up and Go time was detected (GG ?0.68 ± 0.17 v. GA ?0.10 ± 0.14 v. AA +0.05 ± 0.31 s, p = 0.023). While several interesting and possibly consistent associations with older adults’ baseline functional performance were found for the ACE and UCP2 polymorphisms, we found no strong evidence of genetic associations with exercise responses in this study. The relative equivalence of some of these training-response findings to the literature may have reflected the current study’s focus on physical function rather than just strength, the relatively high levels of baseline function for some genotype groups as well as the greater statistical power for detecting baseline differences than the training-related changes. PMID:26038734

  5. Functional connectivity changes in adults with developmental stuttering: a preliminary study using quantitative electro-encephalography

    PubMed Central

    Joos, Kathleen; De Ridder, Dirk; Boey, Ronny A.; Vanneste, Sven

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Stuttering is defined as speech characterized by verbal dysfluencies, but should not be seen as an isolated speech disorder, but as a generalized sensorimotor timing deficit due to impaired communication between speech related brain areas. Therefore we focused on resting state brain activity and functional connectivity. Method: We included 11 patients with developmental stuttering and 11 age matched controls. To objectify stuttering severity and the impact on quality of life (QoL), we used the Dutch validated Test for Stuttering Severity-Readers (TSS-R) and the Overall Assessment of the Speaker’s Experience of Stuttering (OASES), respectively. Furthermore, we used standardized low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) analyses to look at resting state activity and functional connectivity differences and their correlations with the TSS-R and OASES. Results: No significant results could be obtained when looking at neural activity, however significant alterations in resting state functional connectivity could be demonstrated between persons who stutter (PWS) and fluently speaking controls, predominantly interhemispheric, i.e., a decreased functional connectivity for high frequency oscillations (beta and gamma) between motor speech areas (BA44 and 45) and the contralateral premotor (BA6) and motor (BA4) areas. Moreover, a positive correlation was found between functional connectivity at low frequency oscillations (theta and alpha) and stuttering severity, while a mixed increased and decreased functional connectivity at low and high frequency oscillations correlated with QoL. Discussion: PWS are characterized by decreased high frequency interhemispheric functional connectivity between motor speech, premotor and motor areas in the resting state, while higher functional connectivity in the low frequency bands indicates more severe speech disturbances, suggesting that increased interhemispheric and right sided functional connectivity is maladaptive. PMID:25352797

  6. EEC- and ADULT-associated TP63 mutations exhibit functional heterogeneity toward P63 responsive sequences.

    PubMed

    Monti, Paola; Russo, Debora; Bocciardi, Renata; Foggetti, Giorgia; Menichini, Paola; Divizia, Maria T; Lerone, Margherita; Graziano, Claudio; Wischmeijer, Anita; Viadiu, Hector; Ravazzolo, Roberto; Inga, Alberto; Fronza, Gilberto

    2013-06-01

    TP63 germ-line mutations are responsible for a group of human ectodermal dysplasia syndromes, underlining the key role of P63 in the development of ectoderm-derived tissues. Here, we report the identification of two TP63 alleles, G134V (p.Gly173Val) and insR155 (p.Thr193_Tyr194insArg), associated to ADULT and EEC syndromes, respectively. These alleles, along with previously identified G134D (p.Gly173Asp) and R204W (p.Arg243Trp), were functionally characterized in yeast, studied in a mammalian cell line and modeled based on the crystal structure of the P63 DNA-binding domain. Although the p.Arg243Trp mutant showed both complete loss of transactivation function and ability to interfere over wild-type P63, the impact of p.Gly173Asp, p.Gly173Val, and p.Thr193_Tyr194insArg varied depending on the response element (RE) tested. Interestingly, p.Gly173Asp and p.Gly173Val mutants were characterized by a severe defect in transactivation along with interfering ability on two DN-P63?-specific REs derived from genes closely related to the clinical manifestations of the TP63-associated syndromes, namely PERP and COL18A1. The modeling of the mutations supported the distinct functional effect of each mutant. The present results highlight the importance of integrating different functional endpoints that take in account the features of P63 proteins' target sequences to examine the impact of TP63 mutations and the associated clinical variability. PMID:23463580

  7. Quantifying swallowing function for healthy adults in different age groups using acoustic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Man-Yin

    Dysphagia is a medical condition that can lead to devastating complications including weight loss, aspiration pneumonia, dehydration, and malnutrition; hence, timely identification is essential. Current dysphagia evaluation tools are either invasive, time consuming, or highly dependent on the experience of an individual clinician. The present study aims to develop a non-invasive, quantitative screening tool for dysphagia identification by capturing acoustic data from swallowing and mastication. The first part of this study explores the feasibility of using acoustic data to quantify swallowing and mastication. This study then further identifies mastication and swallowing trends in a neurotypical adult population. An acoustic capture protocol for dysphagia screening is proposed. Finally, the relationship among speaking, lingual and mastication rates are explored. Results and future directions are discussed.

  8. Effects of chronic arsenic exposure on hematopoietic function in adult mammalian liver

    PubMed Central

    Woods, James S.; Fowler, Bruce A.

    1977-01-01

    In these studies the effects of ingested arsenic (As+5) on hepatic heme biosynthetic capability and hemoprotein function in adult male rats were investigated. Animals exposed for 6 weeks to 0, 20, 40, or 85 ppm sodium arsenate in the drinking water suffered depression of hepatic ?-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) synthetase and heme synthetase (ferrochelatase) activities, with maximal decreases to 67 and 55% of control levels, respectively, at 85 ppm. Concomitantly, urinary uroporphyrin levels were elevated by as much as 12 times, and coproporphyrin by as much as 9 times, control values. The rate of incorporation of 3H-ALA into mitochondrial and microsomal hemes was depressed by 40–50% at 20 ppm but was increased with regard to controls by as much as 150% at the higher treatment levels. A similar biphasic pattern was observed in regard to 14C-leucine incorporation into cellular membranal proteins. In contrast, the levels of ALA dehydratase, uroporphyrinogen I synthetase, aminopyrine demethylase, and cytochrome P-450 were not significantly changed in As+5-treated rats. These results support the hypothesis that chronic, low level, arsenic exposure results in selective inhibition of mitochondrial-bound heme biosynthetic pathway enzymes (ALA synthetase and heme synthetase) resulting in a substantial increase in urinary porphyrins, uniquely characterized by a greater increase in uroporphyrin than coproporphyrin levels. These changes occur independent of, or prior to, alterations in hepatic hemoprotein-dependent functions and may thus serve in the clinical analysis of pretoxic exposure to arsenic compounds in human populations. PMID:908300

  9. Pulmonary structure and function in adult dairy cows with an expanded lung field.

    PubMed Central

    Gallivan, G J; Viel, L; Baird, J D; McDonell, W N

    1991-01-01

    Pulmonary function tests were performed on seven adult dairy cows with an expanded lung field (ExLF) and the results were compared to the values from seven cows with normal lung fields. The cows with ExLF had an increased functional residual capacity (FRC) and end-tidal N2 concentration of the final breath of the multiple-breath N2 washout (FETN2,fb), and an abnormal distribution of ventilation. The measurements of ventilation and gas exchange and pulmonary mechanics did not differ between the two groups. Postmortem examination of the lungs of five of the cows in each group indicated the cows with ExLF had a bronchiolitis with varying degrees of goblet cell hyperplasia, epithelial cell hyperplasia and metaplasia, smooth muscle hypertrophy, inflammatory cell infiltrate, vascular thickening, peribronchiolar fibrosis, and a mild overinflation of the lung. A histopathological score, based on the preceding indices and bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue, was correlated with FRC, FETN2,fb, the lung clearance index and pulmonary resistance. There were no correlations between the histopathological score and any of the measures of ventilation and gas exchange. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:1884279

  10. Targeting pleiotropic signaling pathways to control adult cardiac stem cell fate and function

    PubMed Central

    Pagliari, Stefania; Jelinek, Jakub; Grassi, Gabriele; Forte, Giancarlo

    2014-01-01

    The identification of different pools of cardiac progenitor cells resident in the adult mammalian heart opened a new era in heart regeneration as a means to restore the loss of functional cardiac tissue and overcome the limited availability of donor organs. Indeed, resident stem cells are believed to participate to tissue homeostasis and renewal in healthy and damaged myocardium although their actual contribution to these processes remain unclear. The poor outcome in terms of cardiac regeneration following tissue damage point out at the need for a deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling CPC behavior and fate determination before new therapeutic strategies can be developed. The regulation of cardiac resident stem cell fate and function is likely to result from the interplay between pleiotropic signaling pathways as well as tissue- and cell-specific regulators. Such a modular interaction—which has already been described in the nucleus of a number of different cells where transcriptional complexes form to activate specific gene programs—would account for the unique responses of cardiac progenitors to general and tissue-specific stimuli. The study of the molecular determinants involved in cardiac stem/progenitor cell regulatory mechanisms may shed light on the processes of cardiac homeostasis in health and disease and thus provide clues on the actual feasibility of cardiac cell therapy through tissue-specific progenitors. PMID:25071583

  11. Functional results after cholesteatoma surgery in an adult population using the retrograde mastoidectomy technique.

    PubMed

    Minovi, Amir; Venjacob, Johanna; Volkenstein, Stefan; Dornhoffer, John; Dazert, Stefan

    2014-03-01

    In this retrospective study, we analyzed the functional results after using the retrograde mastoidectomy technique for cholesteatoma removal in an adult patient population. The described technique was used at a tertiary referral center for cholesteatoma removal in 218 adult patients, representing 242 operated ears, with an average follow-up time of 20.3 months. With the retrograde mastoidectomy technique, the cholesteatoma is removed posteriorly through the canal wall, from the epitympanic region toward the mastoid, with the option to reconstruct the posterior bony canal wall or create an open mastoid cavity, depending on the size of the defect. Primary surgery was carried out in 58.7 % ears, with the remaining 41.3 % representing revision surgery. In 151 cases, the posterior canal wall was reconstructed, and in 91 cases a classical CWD with an open mastoid cavity was created. In the majority of the cases (n = 213, 88.0 %), a primary hearing restoration was performed. There were 18 recurrences (12.7 %) in primary cases and 22 recurrences (22 %) in revision surgeries. Ninety percent of the recurrences (36 of 40 cases) occurred within 5 years. A postoperative air-bone gap of less than 20 dB was achieved in 61.6 % of the operated ears. Ears with a reconstructed posterior canal wall had significantly better hearing results than those cases in which a CWD procedure was used (air-bone gap of 17.6 versus 22.5 dB, p < 0.05). The retrograde mastoidectomy technique for cholesteatoma removal resulted in satisfying hearing results in the majority of the cases, with a recurrence rate comparable to the current literature. PMID:23529744

  12. Functional brain abnormalities during finger-tapping in HIV-infected older adults: A magnetoencephalography study

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Tony W.; Heinrichs-Graham, Elizabeth; Robertson, Kevin R.; Sandkovsky, Uriel; O’Neill, Jennifer; Knott, Nichole L.; Fox, Howard S.; Swindells, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Despite the availability of combination antiretroviral therapy, at least mild cognitive dysfunction is commonly observed in HIV-infected patients, with an estimated prevalence of 35-70%. Neuropsychological studies of these HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) have documented aberrations across a broad range of functional domains, although the basic pathophysiology remains unresolved. Some of the most common findings have been deficits in fine motor control and reduced psychomotor speed, but to date no neuroimaging studies have evaluated basic motor control in HAND. In this study, we used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to evaluate the neurophysiological processes that underlie motor planning in older HIV-infected adults and a matched, uninfected control group. MEG is a noninvasive and direct measure of neural activity with good spatiotemporal precision. During the MEG recording, participants fixated on a central crosshair and performed a finger-tapping task with the dominant hand. All MEG data was corrected for head movements, preprocessed, and imaged in the time-frequency domain using beamforming methodology. All analyses focused on the pre-movement beta desynchronization, which is known to be an index of movement planning. Our results demonstrated that HIV-1-infected patients have deficient beta desynchronization relative to controls within the left/right precentral gyri, and the supplementary motor area. In contrast, HIV-infected persons showed abnormally strong beta responses compared to controls in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and medial prefrontal areas. In addition, the amplitude of beta activity in the primary and supplementary motor areas correlated with scores on the Grooved Pegboard test in HIV-infected adults. These results demonstrate that primary motor and sensory regions may be particularly vulnerable to HIV-associated damage, and that prefrontal cortices may serve a compensatory role in maintaining motor performance levels in infected patients. PMID:23749418

  13. Life Experience and Demographic Influences on Cognitive Function in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Brewster, Paul W. H.; Melrose, Rebecca J.; Marquine, María J.; Johnson, Julene K.; Napoles, Anna; MacKay-Brandt, Anna; Farias, Sarah; Reed, Bruce; Mungas, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Objective We examined the influence of a broad spectrum of life experiences on longitudinal cognitive trajectories in a demographically diverse sample of older adults. Method Participants were 333 educationally, ethnically, and cognitively diverse older adults enrolled in a longitudinal aging study. Mixed-effects regression was used to measure baseline status in episodic memory, executive functioning, and semantic memory and change in a global cognition factor defined by change in these three domain-specific measures. We examined effects of life experience variables (literacy, childhood socioeconomic status, morphometric measures of physical development, life course physical and recreational activity) on longitudinal cognitive trajectories, covarying for age, APOE genotype and demographics (education, ethnicity, language). Results Non-Latino whites had higher baseline cognition, but life experience variables attenuated ethnic differences in cognitive scores. Age, literacy, childhood socioeconomic status and physical activity significantly influenced baseline cognition. Age, APOE ?4 and decline in intellectually and socially stimulating recreational activity from mid to late life were independently associated with increased late life cognitive decline. Higher literacy and late life recreational activity were associated with less decline. Literacy had similar effects for English and Spanish readers/speakers. Bilingual English and Spanish speakers did not differ from English Speakers in cognitive performance. Conclusions Life experience variables, especially literacy level, were strongly related to baseline cognition and substantially attenuated effects of race/ethnicity and education. Cognitive change was best explained by age, APOE ?4, literacy, and current recreational activities. Literacy had robust associations with baseline cognition and cognitive change in both English and Spanish speakers. PMID:24933483

  14. High-resolution functional annotation of human transcriptome: predicting isoform functions by a

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Xianghong Jasmine

    function prediction, isoform function prediction faces a unique chal- lenge: the lack of the training dataHigh-resolution functional annotation of human transcriptome: predicting isoform functions mechanism for generating functional diversity in genes. However, little is known about the precise functions

  15. Disruption of Ah Receptor Signaling during Mouse Development Leads to Abnormal Cardiac Structure and Function in the Adult

    PubMed Central

    Carreira, Vinicius S.; Fan, Yunxia; Kurita, Hisaka; Wang, Qin; Ko, Chia-I; Naticchioni, Mindi; Jiang, Min; Koch, Sheryl; Zhang, Xiang; Biesiada, Jacek; Medvedovic, Mario; Xia, Ying; Rubinstein, Jack; Puga, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) Theory proposes that the environment encountered during fetal life and infancy permanently shapes tissue physiology and homeostasis such that damage resulting from maternal stress, poor nutrition or exposure to environmental agents may be at the heart of adult onset disease. Interference with endogenous developmental functions of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), either by gene ablation or by exposure in utero to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a potent AHR ligand, causes structural, molecular and functional cardiac abnormalities and altered heart physiology in mouse embryos. To test if embryonic effects progress into an adult phenotype, we investigated whether Ahr ablation or TCDD exposure in utero resulted in cardiac abnormalities in adult mice long after removal of the agent. Ten-months old adult Ahr-/- and in utero TCDD-exposed Ahr+/+ mice showed sexually dimorphic abnormal cardiovascular phenotypes characterized by echocardiographic findings of hypertrophy, ventricular dilation and increased heart weight, resting heart rate and systolic and mean blood pressure, and decreased exercise tolerance. Underlying these effects, genes in signaling networks related to cardiac hypertrophy and mitochondrial function were differentially expressed. Cardiac dysfunction in mouse embryos resulting from AHR signaling disruption seems to progress into abnormal cardiac structure and function that predispose adults to cardiac disease, but while embryonic dysfunction is equally robust in males and females, the adult abnormalities are more prevalent in females, with the highest severity in Ahr-/- females. The findings reported here underscore the conclusion that AHR signaling in the developing heart is one potential target of environmental factors associated with cardiovascular disease. PMID:26555816

  16. Impact of social integration on metabolic functions: evidence from a nationally representative longitudinal study of US older adults

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Metabolic functions may operate as important biophysiological mechanisms through which social relationships affect health. It is unclear how social embeddedness or the lack thereof is related to risk of metabolic dysregulation. To fill this gap we tested the effects of social integration on metabolic functions over time in a nationally representative sample of older adults in the United States and examined population heterogeneity in the effects. Methods Using longitudinal data from 4,323 adults aged over 50 years in the Health and Retirement Study and latent growth curve models, we estimated the trajectories of social integration spanning five waves, 1998–2006, in relation to biomarkers of energy metabolism in 2006. We assessed social integration using a summary index of the number of social ties across five domains. We examined six biomarkers, including total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glycosylated hemoglobin, waist circumference, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and the summary index of the overall burden of metabolic dysregulation. Results High social integration predicted significantly lower risks of both individual and overall metabolic dysregulation. Specifically, adjusting for age, sex, race, and body mass index, having four to five social ties reduced the risks of abdominal obesity by 61% (odds ratio [OR] [95% confidence interval {CI}]?=?0.39 [0.23, 0.67], p?=?.007), hypertension by 41% (OR [95% CI]?=?0.59 [0.42, 0.84], p?=?.021), and the overall metabolic dysregulation by 46% (OR [95% CI]?=?0.54 [0.40, 0.72], p?high social integration had more potent metabolic impacts over time than changes therein. Such effects were consistent across subpopulations and more salient for the younger old (those under age 65), males, whites, and the socioeconomically disadvantaged. Conclusions This study addressed important challenges in previous research linking social integration to metabolic health by clarifying the nature and direction of the relationship as it applies to different objectively measured markers and population subgroups. It suggests additional psychosocial and biological pathways to consider in future research on the contributions of social deficits to disease etiology and old-age mortality. PMID:24359332

  17. Correlations of decision weights and cognitive function for the masked discrimination of vowels by young and old adults

    PubMed Central

    Lutfi, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Older adults are often reported in the literature to have greater difficulty than younger adults understanding speech in noise [Helfer and Wilber (1988). J. Acoust. Soc. Am, 859–893]. The poorer performance of older adults has been attributed to a general deterioration of cognitive processing, deterioration of cochlear anatomy, and/or greater difficulty segregating speech from noise. The current work used perturbation analysis [Berg (1990). J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 149–158] to provide a more specific assessment of the effect of cognitive factors on speech perception in noise. Sixteen older (age 56–79 years) and seventeen younger (age 19–30 years) adults discriminated a target vowel masked by randomly selected masker vowels immediately preceding and following the target. Relative decision weights on target and maskers resulting from the analysis revealed large individual differences across participants despite similar performance scores in many cases. On the most difficult vowel discriminations, the older adult decision weights were significantly correlated with inhibitory control (Color Word Interference test) and pure-tone threshold averages (PTA). Young adult decision weights were not correlated with any measures of peripheral (PTA) or central function (inhibition or working memory). PMID:25256580

  18. Comparison of African American and Afro-Caribbean Older Adults' Self-Reported Health Status, Function, and Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keane, Florence; Tappen, Ruth M.; Williams, Christine L.; Rosselli, Monica

    2009-01-01

    African American and Afro-Caribbean elders differ in regard to ethnic group membership, place of birth, and years of residence in the United States. In this study, the authors compare self-rated health status, function, and reports of substance use in these two groups. Fifty low-income African American and fifty low-income Afro-Caribbean adults

  19. The Impact of the Developmental Timing of Trauma Exposure on PTSD Symptoms and Psychosocial Functioning among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogle, Christin M.; Rubin, David C.; Siegler, Ilene C.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the impact of the developmental timing of trauma exposure on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and psychosocial functioning in a large sample of community-dwelling older adults (N = 1,995). Specifically, we investigated whether the negative consequences of exposure to traumatic events were greater for traumas…

  20. Changes in cardiopulmonary function in normal adults after the Rockport 1 mile walking test: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoung; Lee, Hye-Young; Lee, Do-Youn; Nam, Chan-Woo

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes of cardiopulmonary function in normal adults after the Rockport 1 mile walking test. [Subjects and Methods] University students (13 males and 27 females) participated in this study. Before and after the Rockport 1 mile walking test, pulmonary function, respiratory pressure, and maximal oxygen uptake were measured. [Results] Significant improvements in forced vital capacity and maximal inspiratory pressure were observed after the Rockport 1 mile walking test in males, and significant improvements in forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume at 1?s, maximal inspiratory pressure, and maximal expiratory pressure were observed after the Rockport 1 mile walking test in females. However, the maximal oxygen uptake was not significantly different. [Conclusion] Our findings indicate that the Rockport 1 mile walking test changes cardiopulmonary function in males and females, and that it may improve cardiopulmonary function in middle-aged and older adults and provide basic data on cardiopulmonary endurance. PMID:26356048

  1. P04.05HISTONE MUTATIONS IN CHILDHOOD AND YOUNG ADULT HIGH GRADE GLIOMA

    PubMed Central

    Bekaert, L.; Bazille, C.; Borha, A.; Vasiljevic, A.; Jouvet, A.; Lechapt-Zalcman, E.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High grade gliomas in children and young adults are clinically and genetically different from their adult counterparts. Recurrent mutations of the H3F3A gene coding for the H3.3 isoform of the H3 histone have recently been described. These mutations have been shown to be exclusive to high grade gliomas, and the majority occurs in the pediatric setting. OBSERVATION: We report on 2 cases of confirmed mutations of the H3F3A gene at the K27M site. The first patient was a young adult with a left cerebellar mass. Imaging and pathological analysis were typical of glioblastoma. The second patient was a 14-year old boy with a left thalamic lesion, rather circumscribed on MRI but with features of malignity on spectroscopy and perfusion. Pathologic analysis showed a heterogeneous tumor with regions in favor of ganglioglioma, and regions with marked anisokaryosis and rare mitoses, a slightly elevated proliferation index and high p53 positivity. Due to the presence of a histone mutation, the tumor was classified as a high grade glioma. DISCUSSION: Pathological analysis of pediatric tumors can be a challenge. Nowadays, molecular biology is an important tool to help us classify these tumors. In our first patient, the presence of a histone mutation confirmed the initial diagnosis. In the second patient however, the discovery of a histone mutation finally permitted us to classify this pathologically challenging tumor as a high grade glioma. CONCLUSION: When confronted with childhood or young adult brain tumors, it is important to search for histone mutations, since their presence can influence the final diagnosis.

  2. Effect of endovascular stenting of aortic coarctation on biventricular function in adults

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Yat?Yin; Kaya, Mehmet G; Li, Wei; Mahadevan, Vaikom S; Khan, Arif A; Henein, Michael Y; Mullen, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of endovascular stenting of aortic coarctation on biventricular function in adults during intermediate?term follow?up. Methods 21 patients (age 34 (10)?years) were studied prospectively before and 14 (2)?months after coarctation stenting from year 2002 to 2005. Biventricular function and blood pressure measurements were made. The post?stenting results were compared with pre?stenting values (group 1), with 22 age? and sex?matched post?surgical repair patients (group 2) and 30 normal controls (group 3). Results The peak systolic gradient across the coarctation site fell (55 (15)?mm Hg to 18 (8)?mm Hg, p<0.001). Systolic, mean blood pressure and left ventricular (LV) mass dropped after stenting (p<0.05 for all). LV long?axis function improved at intermediate?term follow?up (tissue Doppler imaging lateral and septal systolic and diastolic velocities and E/Em ratios: LSm, 6.5 (1.4)?cm/s to 7.9 (1.7)?cm/s; SSm, 5.8 (1.2)?cm/s to 7.3 (1.6)?cm/s; LEm, 8.1 (1.3) to 9.4 (2.3)?cm/s; SEm, 6.7 (1.5)?cm/s to 7.8 (1.9)?cm/s; LE/Em, 11.2 (2.7) to 9.8 (2.8); SE/Em, 14.8 (5.3) to 11.8 (3.9); p<0.05 for all). No significant difference in LV ejection fraction, conventional LV diastolic measurements (E, A, E/A ratio, IVRT and DT) was found after stenting. No significant deterioration of right ventricular function was seen in stented patients. Both post?stenting and post?surgical repair patients had poorer LV long?axis function than controls (p<0.01 for all). Conclusions Endovascular stenting of aortic coarctation resulted in medium?term LV mass regression and long?axis function improvement that may provide insight into long?term outcome of the stented patients. The results support aortic stenting in patients with anatomically suitable defects, given the additional benefit of avoiding cardiopulmonary bypass. The clinical significance of subclinical myocardial dysfunction in patients with stented or repaired coarctation warrants further studies. PMID:17575331

  3. Enhancing dentate gyrus function with dietary flavanols improves cognition in older adults.

    PubMed

    Brickman, Adam M; Khan, Usman A; Provenzano, Frank A; Yeung, Lok-Kin; Suzuki, Wendy; Schroeter, Hagen; Wall, Melanie; Sloan, Richard P; Small, Scott A

    2014-12-01

    The dentate gyrus (DG) is a region in the hippocampal formation whose function declines in association with human aging and is therefore considered to be a possible source of age-related memory decline. Causal evidence is needed, however, to show that DG-associated memory decline in otherwise healthy elders can be improved by interventions that enhance DG function. We addressed this issue by first using a high-resolution variant of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to map the precise site of age-related DG dysfunction and to develop a cognitive task whose function localized to this anatomical site. Then, in a controlled randomized trial, we applied these tools to study healthy 50-69-year-old subjects who consumed either a high or low cocoa flavanol-containing diet for 3 months. A high-flavanol intervention was found to enhance DG function, as measured by fMRI and by cognitive testing. Our findings establish that DG dysfunction is a driver of age-related cognitive decline and suggest non-pharmacological means for its amelioration. PMID:25344629

  4. Impact of KIBRA Polymorphism on Memory Function and the Hippocampus in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Witte, A Veronica; Köbe, Theresa; Kerti, Lucia; Rujescu, Dan; Flöel, Agnes

    2016-02-01

    The single nucleotide polymorphism rs17070145 within the KIBRA gene (kidney and brain expressed protein) has been associated with variations in memory functions and related brain areas. However, previous studies yielded conflicting results, which might be due to divergent sample characteristics or task-specific effects. Therefore, we aimed to determine the impact of KIBRA genotype on learning and memory formation, and volume, microstructural integrity and functional connectivity (FC) of the hippocampus and its subfields in a well-characterized cohort of healthy older adults. One-hundred and forty subjects (72 women, age 50-80) were KIBRA genotyped and memory was tested using the Auditory Verbal Learning Task. Also, subjects underwent structural and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging at 3T. Subfields were delineated using automated segmentation (FreeSurfer software). Microstructural integrity was measured using mean diffusivity (MD) derived from diffusion tensor images. Seed-based analyses were used to assess FC patterns of the hippocampus. KIBRA T-allele carriers showed a trend for better memory performance, and in the hippocampus significantly higher volumes and partly lower MD, indicative for better microstructure, compared with non-T-allele carriers in the cornu ammonis (CA)2/3 and CA4/dentate gyrus subfields (all P?0.008, Bonferroni corrected). Also, T-allele carriers exhibited lower FC of the left hippocampus with areas outside the synchronized HC network. In sum, we could show for the first time that older T-allele carriers exhibited larger volumes and better microstructure within those hippocampus subfields that are implicated in long-term potentiation and neurogenesis, key features of memory processes. Moreover, T-allele carriers showed a more selective FC network of the hippocampus. PMID:26156558

  5. Impact of dissociation and interpersonal functioning on inpatient treatment for early sexually abused adults

    PubMed Central

    Jepsen, Ellen K. K.; Langeland, Willie; Heir, Trond

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about the possible predictors of treatment outcome in early chronically sexually abused adults. The current study aimed to investigate what impact initial levels of dissociation and pre-treatment negative change in interpersonal functioning have on treatment response after 3 months of first-phase trauma inpatient treatment as well as after a period of 1 year the patients returned to their usual lives. Methods The sample comprised 48 inpatients with childhood sexual abuse histories and mixed trauma-related disorders who were examined at discharge and prospectively followed up for a period of 1 year under naturalistic conditions. Outcome variables were general psychiatric symptoms and interpersonal problems as measured with the Symptom Check List-Revised (SCL-R) and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP) Circumplex. Results The central findings were that pathological dissociation and deterioration in interpersonal functioning prior to admittance predicted general psychiatric symptom levels and interpersonal problems at the end of treatment and at 1-year follow-up. Pathological dissociation, involving memory and identity problems, alone predicted negative outcome at the end of treatment. The findings at 1-year follow-up indicate that it is not pathological dissociation in isolation that affects outcomes, but rather the interaction between dissociation and change in interpersonal functioning prior to treatment. Conclusion These findings indicate the need of addressing dissociation and interpersonal problems in treatment planning and favor an integrated treatment approach for complex trauma patients. Future research should investigate whether and how this leads to better outcome, including long-term maintenance of gains after the end of treatment. PMID:24386549

  6. Hypoactive medial prefrontal cortex functioning in adults reporting childhood emotional maltreatment.

    PubMed

    van Harmelen, Anne-Laura; van Tol, Marie-José; Dalgleish, Tim; van der Wee, Nic J A; Veltman, Dick J; Aleman, André; Spinhoven, Philip; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Elzinga, Bernet M

    2014-12-01

    Childhood emotional maltreatment (CEM) has adverse effects on medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) morphology, a structure that is crucial for cognitive functioning and (emotional) memory and which modulates the limbic system. In addition, CEM has been linked to amygdala hyperactivity during emotional face processing. However, no study has yet investigated the functional neural correlates of neutral and emotional memory in adults reporting CEM. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated CEM-related differential activations in mPFC during the encoding and recognition of positive, negative and neutral words. The sample (N = 194) consisted of patients with depression and/or anxiety disorders and healthy controls (HC) reporting CEM (n = 96) and patients and HC reporting no abuse (n = 98). We found a consistent pattern of mPFC hypoactivation during encoding and recognition of positive, negative and neutral words in individuals reporting CEM. These results were not explained by psychopathology or severity of depression or anxiety symptoms, or by gender, level of neuroticism, parental psychopathology, negative life events, antidepressant use or decreased mPFC volume in the CEM group. These findings indicate mPFC hypoactivity in individuals reporting CEM during emotional and neutral memory encoding and recognition. Our findings suggest that CEM may increase individuals' risk to the development of psychopathology on differential levels of processing in the brain; blunted mPFC activation during higher order processing and enhanced amygdala activation during automatic/lower order emotion processing. These findings are vital in understanding the long-term consequences of CEM. PMID:24493840

  7. Awareness level of kidney functions and diseases among adults in a Nigerian population

    PubMed Central

    Okwuonu, C. G.; Chukwuonye, I. I.; Ogah, S. O.; Abali, C.; Adejumo, O. A.; Oviasu, E.

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of kidney diseases is on the increase in Nigeria. The cost of its management is far beyond the reach of an average patient. Prevention is thus of paramount importance and awareness of kidney diseases will help in its prevention. The aim of this study is to assess the level of awareness of kidney functions and diseases among adults in a Nigerian population. A semi-structured, researcher – administered questionnaire was the tool for data collection. Four hundred and thirty-five questionnaires were analyzed. There were 160 males (36.8%) and 275 females (63.2%). The mean age was 42.8 ± 14 years with a range of 18–78 years. Among these, 82.1% were aware of the kidneys' involvement in waste removal from the body through urine while 36% and 29% were aware of kidneys' role in blood pressure regulation and blood production, respectively. Only 26.6% correctly identified at least two basic functions of the kidneys. Also, 32.6% of the respondents were aware of at least three common causes of kidney diseases in our environment. Majority of the respondents (70.7%) did not know that kidney diseases could be inherited. Furthermore, belief in alternative therapy for kidney disease was documented in 83.2%, while unawareness of dialysis as a treatment modality was recorded in 68% of the respondents. The awareness of kidney functions and diseases among the population is poor. Measures are needed to improve this to stem the rising prevalence of chronic kidney disease in Nigeria. PMID:26060365

  8. Chemical differences are observed in children's versus adults' laten fingerprints as a function of time

    SciTech Connect

    Antoine, K.M.; Miller, L.; Mortazavi, S.; Miller, A.D.

    2010-03-01

    The identification of aged latent fingerprints is often difficult, especially for those of children. To understand this phenomenon, the chemical composition of children's versus adults latent fingerprints was examined over time using Fourier transform infrared microscopy. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed that children's and adults prints were distinguishable for up to 4 weeks after deposition, based on differences in sebum composition. Specifically, adults had a higher lipid content than children, but both decreased over time, attributable to the volatility of free fatty acids. The aliphatic CH{sub 3}, aliphatic CH{sub 2}, and carbonyl ester compositions changed differently in adults versus children over time, consistent with higher cholesterol and cholesteryl esters in children's prints and wax esters and glycerides in adults prints. Thus, fingerprint composition changes with time differently in children versus adults, making it a sensitive metric to estimate the age of an individual, especially when the age of the print is known.

  9. Dexterous robotic manipulation of alert adult Drosophila for high-content experimentation.

    PubMed

    Savall, Joan; Ho, Eric Tatt Wei; Huang, Cheng; Maxey, Jessica R; Schnitzer, Mark J

    2015-07-01

    We present a robot that enables high-content studies of alert adult Drosophila by combining operations including gentle picking; translations and rotations; characterizations of fly phenotypes and behaviors; microdissection; or release. To illustrate, we assessed fly morphology, tracked odor-evoked locomotion, sorted flies by sex, and dissected the cuticle to image neural activity. The robot's tireless capacity for precise manipulations enables a scalable platform for screening flies' complex attributes and behavioral patterns. PMID:26005812

  10. Dexterous robotic manipulation of alert adult Drosophila for high-content experimentation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Cheng; Maxey, Jessica R.; Schnitzer, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    We present a robot that enables high-content studies of alert adult Drosophila by combining operations including gentle picking, translations and rotations, characterizations of fly phenotypes and behaviors, micro-dissection or release. To illustrate, we assessed fly morphology, tracked odor-evoked locomotion, sorted flies by sex, and dissected the cuticle to image neural activity. The robot's tireless capacity for precise manipulations enables a scalable platform for screening flies’ complex attributes and behavioral patterns. PMID:26005812

  11. Transplantation of Adult Mouse iPS Cell-Derived Photoreceptor Precursors Restores Retinal Structure and Function in Degenerative Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Budd A.; Park, In-Hyun; Qi, Sara D.; Klassen, Henry J.; Jiang, Caihui; Yao, Jing; Redenti, Stephen; Daley, George Q.; Young, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to determine whether adult mouse induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), could be used to produce retinal precursors and subsequently photoreceptor cells for retinal transplantation to restore retinal function in degenerative hosts. iPSCs were generated using adult dsRed mouse dermal fibroblasts via retroviral induction of the transcription factors Oct4, Sox2, KLF4 and c-Myc. As with normal mouse ES cells, adult dsRed iPSCs expressed the pluripotency genes SSEA1, Oct4, Sox2, KLF4, c-Myc and Nanog. Following transplantation into the eye of immune-compromised retinal degenerative mice these cells proceeded to form teratomas containing tissue comprising all three germ layers. At 33 days post-differentiation a large proportion of the cells expressed the retinal progenitor cell marker Pax6 and went on to express the photoreceptor markers, CRX, recoverin, and rhodopsin. When tested using calcium imaging these cells were shown to exhibit characteristics of normal retinal physiology, responding to delivery of neurotransmitters. Following subretinal transplantation into degenerative hosts differentiated iPSCs took up residence in the retinal outer nuclear layer and gave rise to increased electro retinal function as determined by ERG and functional anatomy. As such, adult fibroblast-derived iPSCs provide a viable source for the production of retinal precursors to be used for transplantation and treatment of retinal degenerative disease. PMID:21559507

  12. Theory of Bessel Functions of High Rank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Zhi

    In this thesis, we shall study fundamental Bessel functions for GL n (F) arising from the Vorono? summation formula as well as Bessel functions for GL2 (F) and GL 3 (F) occurring in the Kuznetsov trace formula, where n is any positive integer and F = R or C.

  13. Occupational and Educational Aspirations and Attainment of Young Adults with and without LD 2 Years after High School Completion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojewski, Jay W.

    1999-01-01

    A study conducted two years after high school of 441 young adults with learning disabilities (LD) and 10,737 typical young adults found that individuals with LD reported lower graduation rates, were more likely to aspire to moderate or low-prestige occupations, and were more likely to be employed rather than in postsecondary programs. (Author/CR)

  14. Circumstances and outcomes of falls among high risk community-dwelling older adults

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Judy A.; Mahoney, Jane E.; Ehrenreich, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    Background For older adults, falls threaten their health, independence, and quality of life. Knowing the circumstances surrounding falls is essential for understanding how behavioral and environmental factors interact in fall events. It is also important for developing and implementing interventions that are effective and acceptable to older adults. This study investigated the circumstances and injury outcomes of falls among community-dwelling older adults at high risk of falling. Methods In this secondary analysis, we examined the circumstances and outcomes of falls experienced by 328 participants in the Dane County (Wisconsin) Safety Assessment for Elders (SAFE) Research Study. SAFE was a randomized controlled trial of a community-based multifactorial falls intervention for older adults at high risk for falls, conducted from October 2002 to December 2007. Participants were community-dwelling adults aged ?65 years who reported at least one fall during the year after study enrollment. Falls were collected prospectively using monthly calendars. Everyone who reported a fall was contacted by telephone to determine the circumstances surrounding the event. Injury outcomes were defined as none, mild (injury reported but no treatment sought), moderate (treatment for any injury except head injury or fracture), and severe (treatment for head injury or fracture). Results Data were available for 1,172 falls. A generalized linear mixed model analysis showed that being age ?85 (OR = 2.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.2–3.9), female (OR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.3–3.4), falling backward and landing flat (OR = 5.6, 95% CI = 2.9–10.5), sideways (OR = 4.6, 95% CI = 2.6–8.0) and forward (OR = 3.3, 95% CI = 2.0–5.7) were significantly associated with the likelihood of injury. Of 783 falls inside the home, falls in the bathroom were more than twice as likely to result in an injury compared to falls in the living room (OR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.2–4.9). Conclusions Most falls among these high risk older adults occurred inside the home. The likelihood of injury in the bathroom supports the need for safety modifications such as grab bars, and may indicate a need for assistance with bathing. These findings will help clinicians tailor fall prevention for their patients and have practical implications for retirement and assisted living communities and community-based fall prevention programs.

  15. A Comparison of Cognitive and Everyday Functional Performance among Older Adults With and Without Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Hudak, Elizabeth M.; Edwards, Jerri D.; Athilingam, Ponrathi; McEvoy, Cathy L.

    2013-01-01

    Secondary data analyses examined the differences in cognitive and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) performance among hypertensive individuals taking one of four classes of antihypertensive medications, hypertensive individuals not taking any antihypertensive medications, and normotensive individuals (N=770). After adjusting for covariates, significant group differences were evident on all measures (speed of processing, motor speed, reaction time, ps < .05) except memory and Timed IADL (ps > .05). Follow-up a priori planned comparisons compared hypertensive individuals not on medications to each of the four antihypertensive medication groups. Results indicated that only those on beta blockers (BB) were significantly slower in speed of processing (ps < .05). A priori planned comparisons also revealed that normotensive individuals had better cognitive performance on measures of processing speed, motor speed, and reaction time than hypertensive individuals regardless of antihypertensive medication use. Additionally, normotensive individuals performed significantly better on memory (Digit and Spatial Span) than individuals with hypertension on medications. No differences were found between groups on memory (Hopkins Verbal Learning Test) or Timed IADL performance. With regard to antihypertensive medications, the use of BBs was associated with slowed processing speed. These analyses provide empirical evidence that hypertension primarily impacts speed of processing, but not severe enough to affect IADL performance. Given the contribution of processing speed to memory and executive function performance, this is an important finding. Clinicians need to take into consideration the potential negative impact that BBs may have on cognition when determining the best treatment of hypertension among older adult patients. PMID:25346567

  16. Coffee polyphenol consumption improves postprandial hyperglycemia associated with impaired vascular endothelial function in healthy male adults.

    PubMed

    Jokura, Hiroko; Watanabe, Isamu; Umeda, Mika; Hase, Tadashi; Shimotoyodome, Akira

    2015-10-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that habitual coffee consumption lowers the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Postprandial hyperglycemia is a direct and independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. We previously demonstrated that coffee polyphenol ingestion increased secretion of Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), which has been shown to exhibit anti-diabetic and cardiovascular effects. We hypothesized coffee polyphenol consumption may improve postprandial hyperglycemia and vascular endothelial function by increasing GLP-1 release and/or reducing oxidative stress. To examine this hypothesis, we conducted a randomized, acute, crossover, intervention study in healthy male adults, measuring blood parameters and flow-mediated dilation (FMD) after ingestion of a meal with or without coffee polyphenol extract (CPE). Nineteen subjects consumed a test meal with either a placebo- or CPE-containing beverage. Blood biomarkers and FMD were measured at fasting and up to 180 minutes postprandially. The CPE beverage led to a significantly lower peak postprandial increase in blood glucose and diacron-reactive oxygen metabolite, and significantly higher postprandial FMD than the placebo beverage. Postprandial blood GLP-1 increase tended to be higher after ingestion of the CPE beverage, compared with placebo. Subclass analysis revealed that the CPE beverage significantly improved postprandial blood GLP-1 response and reduced blood glucose increase in the subjects with a lower insulinogenic index. Correlation analysis showed postprandial FMD was negatively associated with blood glucose increase after ingestion of the CPE beverage. In conclusion, these results suggest that coffee polyphenol consumption improves postprandial hyperglycemia and vascular endothelial function, which is associated with increased GLP-1 secretion and decreased oxidative stress in healthy humans. PMID:26337017

  17. Assessment of physical function and exercise tolerance in older adults: reproducibility and comparability of five measures.

    PubMed

    Simonsick, E M; Gardner, A W; Poehlman, E T

    2000-08-01

    This study examined the reproducibility and comparability of five measures of function and exercise tolerance. The test battery and questionnaire on function and physical activity were administered twice, 7-10 days apart to 38 men and 12 women aged 54-80 years at the Baltimore Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Tests included fast pace 4 and 20-meter walks, 6-minute and graded treadmill walks, and a seated step test. All tests demonstrated good reproducibility with Pearson and intraclass correlation coefficients ranging from 0.84 to 0.98, and percent differences on retest ranging from 4 to 11%. Although correlations between different tests were all significant (range 0.34-0.89), comparison of performance ranks and linear regression analyses indicated that the short fast walks and seated step test may not be suitable substitutes for treadmill or long self-paced corridor walks. Only 28% had the same quintile performance ranking on the step test as on the treadmill walk, and 36% had rankings 2 or more points apart. The fast 20m walk shows the most promise as a low-level alternative to the 6-minute walk; performances had a correlation of 0.73, 82% of ranks were within one point, and 20m speed explained 42% of the variance in distance covered. More development is needed for comprehensive assessment of exercise tolerance in older adults; the 6-minute walk did not adequately discriminate fitness level in persons who walk regularly, and the treadmill posed problems for those with walking difficulty. PMID:11073346

  18. Nephrin Preserves Podocyte Viability and Glomerular Structure and Function in Adult Kidneys.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuezhu; Chuang, Peter Y; D'Agati, Vivette D; Dai, Yan; Yacoub, Rabi; Fu, Jia; Xu, Jin; Taku, Oltjon; Premsrirut, Prem K; Holzman, Lawrence B; He, John Cijiang

    2015-10-01

    Nephrin is required during kidney development for the maturation of podocytes and formation of the slit diaphragm junctional complex. Because nephrin expression is downregulated in acquired glomerular diseases, nephrin deficiency is considered a pathologic feature of glomerular injury. However, whether nephrin deficiency exacerbates glomerular injury in glomerular diseases has not been experimentally confirmed. Here, we generated mice with inducible RNA interference-mediated nephrin knockdown. Short-term nephrin knockdown (6 weeks), starting after the completion of kidney development at 5 weeks of age, did not affect glomerular structure or function. In contrast, mice with long-term nephrin knockdown (20 weeks) developed mild proteinuria, foot process effacement, filtration slit narrowing, mesangial hypercellularity and sclerosis, glomerular basement membrane thickening, subendothelial zone widening, and podocyte apoptosis. When subjected to an acquired glomerular insult induced by unilateral nephrectomy or doxorubicin, mice with short-term nephrin knockdown developed more severe glomerular injury compared with mice without nephrin knockdown. Additionally, nephrin-knockdown mice developed more exaggerated glomerular enlargement when subjected to unilateral nephrectomy and more podocyte apoptosis and depletion after doxorubicin challenge. AKT phosphorylation, which is a slit diaphragm-mediated and nephrin-dependent pathway in the podocyte, was markedly reduced in mice with long-term or short-term nephrin knockdown challenged with uninephrectomy or doxorubicin. Taken together, our data establish that under the basal condition and in acquired glomerular diseases, nephrin is required to maintain slit diaphragm integrity and slit diaphragm-mediated signaling to preserve glomerular function and podocyte viability in adult mice. PMID:25644109

  19. From the Cover: Cell-replacement therapy for diabetes: Generating functional insulin-producing tissue from adult human liver cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapir, Tamar; Shternhall, Keren; Meivar-Levy, Irit; Blumenfeld, Tamar; Cohen, Hamutal; Skutelsky, Ehud; Eventov-Friedman, Smadar; Barshack, Iris; Goldberg, Iris; Pri-Chen, Sarah; Ben-Dor, Lya; Polak-Charcon, Sylvie; Karasik, Avraham; Shimon, Ilan; Mor, Eytan; Ferber, Sarah

    2005-05-01

    Shortage in tissue availability from cadaver donors and the need for life-long immunosuppression severely restrict the large-scale application of cell-replacement therapy for diabetic patients. This study suggests the potential use of adult human liver as alternate tissue for autologous beta-cell-replacement therapy. By using pancreatic and duodenal homeobox gene 1 (PDX-1) and soluble factors, we induced a comprehensive developmental shift of adult human liver cells into functional insulin-producing cells. PDX-1-treated human liver cells express insulin, store it in defined granules, and secrete the hormone in a glucose-regulated manner. When transplanted under the renal capsule of diabetic, immunodeficient mice, the cells ameliorated hyperglycemia for prolonged periods of time. Inducing developmental redirection of adult liver offers the potential of a cell-replacement therapy for diabetics by allowing the patient to be the donor of his own insulin-producing tissue. pancreas | transdifferentiation

  20. Cognitive Performance of Egyptian Adults as a Function of Nutritional Intake and Sociodemographic Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wachs, Theodore D.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Whether variability in adult cognitive performance was associated with variability in dietary energy intake quality was studied with 54 male and 101 female Egyptians. Results emphasize the importance of nutritional intake for adult cognition even in populations that are not clinically malnourished. (SLD)

  1. Balanced Boolean Functions with Optimum Algebraic Immunity and High Nonlinearity

    E-print Network

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Balanced Boolean Functions with Optimum Algebraic Immunity and High Nonlinearity Xiangyong Zeng of balanced Boolean functions with optimum algebraic immunity are proposed. The cryptographical properties proposed an infinite class of balanced functions with optimum algebraic immunity as well as a high

  2. High-efficiency thermoelectrics with functionalized graphene.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong Yun; Grossman, Jeffrey C

    2015-05-13

    Graphene superlattices made with chemical functionalization offer the possibility of tuning both the thermal and electronic properties via nanopatterning of the graphene surface. Using classical and quantum mechanical calculations, we predict that suitable chemical functionalization of graphene can introduce peaks in the density of states at the band edge that result in a large enhancement in the Seebeck coefficient, leading to an increase in the room-temperature power factor of a factor of 2 compared to pristine graphene, despite the degraded electrical conductivity. Furthermore, the presence of patterns on graphene reduces the thermal conductivity, which when taken together leads to an increase in the figure of merit for functionalized graphene by up to 2 orders of magnitude over that of pristine graphene, reaching its maximum ZT ? 3 at room temperature according to our calculations. These results suggest that appropriate chemical functionalization could lead to efficient graphene-based thermoelectric materials. PMID:25844647

  3. High Prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Young Adults in Ternate, Eastern Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Ie, Susan Irawati; Turyadi; Sidarta, Erick; Sadhewa, Arkasha; Purnomo, Gludhug Ariyo; Soedarmono, Yuyun S M; Pattiiha, Mochtar Zein; Thedja, Meta Dewi; Harahap, Alida R; Muljono, David H

    2015-12-01

    The incidence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has been declining thanks to the universal hepatitis B infant immunization program. Nevertheless, young adults born before the program implementation might have acquired HBV in early childhood or remain susceptible to infection. This study aimed to evaluate hepatitis B epidemiology in asymptomatic young adult population in Ternate, eastern Indonesia. Serum samples of 376 subjects (aged 17-25, mean 19.82 ± 1.69 years; male/female 138/238) were screened for HBV parameters serologically (HBV surface antigen [HBsAg]; its antibody [anti-HBs]; anti-core antigen [anti-HBc]), and molecularly (HBV DNA). HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HBs, and HBV DNA prevalence were 15.7%, 36.2%, 24.2%, and 27.9%, respectively, with male predominance. Of all subjects, 13.0% were HBsAg negative with detectable HBV DNA (occult hepatitis B [OHB]), and 56.4% showed negativity for all seromarkers. This population showed high hepatitis B prevalence with substantial occurrence of OHB. However, a high percentage of the population were still susceptible and at risk of HBV infection. This study emphasizes the necessity to improve prevention strategies to screen and manage HBV carriers, including the adoption of catch-up or booster vaccination targeted to young adult populations. Investigations on the roles of host-virus interactions associated with OHB and its implications are warranted. PMID:26392157

  4. Sleep Onset/Maintenance Difficulties and Cognitive Function in Nondemented Older Adults: the Role of Cognitive Reserve

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Molly E.; Bigal, Marcelo E.; Katz, Mindy J.; Brickman, Adam M.; Lipton, Richard B.

    2013-01-01

    Background This study examined the relationship between cognitive function and sleep onset/maintenance difficulties (SO/MD) in nondemented older adults. We hypothesized that SO/MD negatively impacts cognition and that older adults with lower education would be especially vulnerable to its effects. Methods The sample comprised 549 older adults from the Einstein Aging Study (EAS), a community-based sample. Participants completed neuropsychological assessment and a sleep questionnaire. Univariate ANCOVAs were performed with cognitive performance as a dependent variable, SO/MD (present or absent) and education (lower:?12 years; higher:>12 years) as between-subjects factors, and age, ethnicity, gender, depression, and cardiovascular comorbidies as covariates. Results Participants were an average age of 79.7±5.0 years (range=71–97). Fifty-seven percent (n=314) of the sample met criteria for SO/MD. Among participants with SO/MD, those with lower education performed more poorly on a test of category fluency than participants with higher education (means: 35.2 vs. 41.0, p<0.001); among older adults without SO/MD, educational attainment had no measurable effect on cognition (SO/MD × education interaction (F(1,536)=14.5, p=0.00)). Conclusions Consistent with the cognitive reserve hypothesis, older adults with lower education appear selectively vulnerable to the negative effects of sleep onset/maintenance difficulties on tests of verbal fluency. PMID:22317892

  5. Factors Predictive of Midlife Occupational Attainment and Psychological Functioning in Adults With Mild Intellectual Deficits

    PubMed Central

    Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Floyd, Frank J.; Greenberg, Jan S.; Hong, Jinkuk; Taylor, Julie Lounds; Doescher, Heather

    2010-01-01

    The life course of individuals with mild intellectual deficits and the factors that account for heterogeneity in their midlife outcomes were examined. Past research has shown that such individuals are at risk for poor occupational attainment in adulthood and more compromised psychological functioning, including increased depression. Although predictors varied for men and women, in general greater midlife occupational attainment was predicted by continuation of education beyond high school, having role models for achievement, and social participation earlier in adulthood. Midlife psychological functioning was predicted by having role models of achievement, having discussed plans for the future with parents and teachers, and achievement of aspirations set in high school. Implications for contemporary models of transition planning are discussed. PMID:19391672

  6. Folic acid supplementation improves microvascular function in older adults through nitric oxide-dependent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Stanhewicz, Anna E; Alexander, Lacy M; Kenney, W Larry

    2015-07-01

    Older adults have reduced vascular endothelial function, evidenced by attenuated nitric oxide (NO)-dependent cutaneous vasodilatation. Folic acid and its metabolite, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF), are reported to improve vessel function. We hypothesized that (i) local 5-MTHF administration and (ii) chronic folic acid supplementation would improve cutaneous microvascular function in ageing through NO-dependent mechanisms. There were two separate studies in which there were 11 young (Y: 22 ± 1 years) and 11 older (O: 71 ± 3 years) participants. In both studies, two intradermal microdialysis fibres were placed in the forearm skin for local delivery of lactated Ringer's solution with or without 5 mM 5-MTHF. Red cell flux was measured by laser-Doppler flowmetry. Cutaneous vascular conductance [CVC=red cell flux/mean arterial pressure] was normalized as percentage maximum CVC (%CVCmax) (28 mM sodium nitroprusside, local temperature 43°C). In study 1 after CVC plateaued during local heating, 20 mM NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) was perfused at each site to quantify NO-dependent vasodilatation. The local heating plateau (%CVCmax: O = 82 ± 3 vs Y = 96 ± 1, P = 0.002) and NO-dependent vasodilatation (%CVCmax: O = 26 ± 6% vs Y = 49 ± 5, P = 0.03) were attenuated in older participants. 5-MTHF augmented the overall (%CVCmax = 91 ± 2, P = 0.03) and NO-dependent (%CVCmax = 43 ± 9%, P = 0.04) vasodilatation in older but not young participants. In study 2 the participants ingested folic acid (5 mg/day) or placebo for 6 weeks in a randomized, double-blind, crossover design. A rise in oral temperature of 1°C was induced using a water-perfused suit, body temperature was held and 20 mM L-NAME was perfused at each site. Older participants had attenuated reflex (%CVCmax: O = 31 ± 8 vs Y = 44 ± 5, P = 0.001) and NO-dependent (%CVCmax: O = 9 ± 2 vs Y = 21 ± 2, P = 0.003) vasodilatation. Folic acid increased CVC (%CVCmax = 47 ± 5%, P = 0.001) and NO-dependent vasodilatation (20 ± 3%, P = 0.003) in the older but not the young participants. Both local perfusion of 5-MTHF and supplementation with folic acid increase vasodilatation in ageing individuals through NO-dependent mechanisms. PMID:25748442

  7. Driving in young adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: knowledge, performance, adverse outcomes, and the role of executive functioning.

    PubMed

    Barkley, Russell A; Murphy, Kevin R; Dupaul, George I; Bush, Tracie

    2002-07-01

    Past studies find that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) creates a higher risk for adverse driving outcomes. This study comprehensively evaluated driving in adults with ADHD by comparing 105 young adults with the disorder (age 17-28) to 64 community control (CC) adults on five domains of driving ability and a battery of executive function tasks. The ADHD group self-reported significantly more traffic citations, particularly for speeding, vehicular crashes, and license suspensions than the CC group, with most of these differences corroborated in the official DMV records. Cognitively, the ADHD group was less attentive and made more errors during a visual reaction task under rule-reversed conditions than the CC group. The ADHD group also obtained lower sceres on a test of driving rules and decision-making but not on a simple driving simulator. Both self- and other-ratings showed the CC group employed safer routine driving habits than the ADHD group. Relationships between the cognitive and driving measures and the adverse outcomes were limited or absent, calling into question their use in screening ADHD adults for driving risks. Several executive functions also were significantly yet modestly related to accident frequency and total traffic violations after controlling for severity of ADHD. These results are consistent with earlier studies showing significant driving problems are associated with ADHD. This study found that these driving difficulties were not a function of comorbid oppositional defiant disorder, depression, anxiety, or frequency of alcohol or illegal drug use. Findings to date argue for the development of interventions to reduce driving risks among adults with ADHD. PMID:12164675

  8. Effects of interactive physical-activity video-game training on physical and cognitive function in older adults.

    PubMed

    Maillot, Pauline; Perrot, Alexandra; Hartley, Alan

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the potential of exergame training based on physically simulated sport play as a mode of physical activity that could have cognitive benefits for older adults. If exergame play has the cognitive benefits of conventional physical activity and also has the intrinsic attractiveness of video games, then it might be a very effective way to induce desirable lifestyle changes in older adults. To examine this issue, the authors developed an active video game training program using a pretest-training-posttest design comparing an experimental group (24 × 1 hr of training) with a control group without treatment. Participants completed a battery of neuropsychological tests, assessing executive control, visuospatial functions, and processing speed, to measure the cognitive impact of the program. They were also given a battery of functional fitness tests to measure the physical impact of the program. The trainees improved significantly in measures of game performance. They also improved significantly more than the control participants in measures of physical function and cognitive measures of executive control and processing speed, but not on visuospatial measures. It was encouraging to observe that, engagement in physically simulated sport games yielded benefits to cognitive and physical skills that are directly involved in functional abilities older adults need in everyday living (e.g., Hultsch, Hertzog, Small, & Dixon, 1999). PMID:22122605

  9. Schizotypal Traits are Associated with Poorer Executive Functioning in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Louise, Stephanie; Gurvich, Caroline; Neill, Erica; Tan, Eric J.; Van Rheenen, Tamsyn E.; Rossell, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown mild forms of the neurocognitive impairments seen in schizophrenia among healthy individuals exhibiting high schizotypal traits. This study aimed to explore associations between schizotypy and cognitive performance in an adult community sample. Ninety-five females and 79 males completed the Oxford–Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences (O-LIFE), which measures four separable aspects of schizotypy: cognitive disorganization, unusual experiences, introvertive anhedonia, and impulsive non-conformity. Subsequently, participants were administered a neurocognitive battery incorporating measures of executive skills including inhibition, cognitive flexibility, reasoning, and problem solving along with measures of attention and processing speed and both verbal and spatial working memory. In line with predictions, the current study found that higher scores on the subscales of unusual experiences, cognitive disorganization, and impulsive non-conformity related to worse performance on a measure of inhibition. Additionally, as introvertive anhedonia increased, both attention and processing speed and reasoning and problem-solving performance became more impaired. In conclusion, this study extends schizotypy literature by examining the subscales of the O-LIFE, and enables inferences to be drawn in relation to cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. PMID:26082726

  10. Visual cognitive function: changes associated with chronic insomnia in older adults.

    PubMed

    Haimov, Iris; Hadad, Bat-Sheva; Shurkin, Danny

    2007-10-01

    Older adults typically exhibit poor sleep efficiency as well as a decline in visual perception. In this study, the authors investigated whether late-life insomnia is associated with age-related changes in visual processing of global and local aspects of hierarchical figures. The study findings suggest that late-life insomnia may be one of the most important factors contributing to the decline of visual processing in older adults. The findings offer hope that treatment of insomnia in older adults could have beneficial effects on improving visual processing in this population. PMID:17955736

  11. Effects of Tai Chi and Western Exercise on Physical and Cognitive Functioning in Healthy Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Taylor-Piliae, Ruth E.; Newell, Kathryn A.; Cherin, Rise; Lee, Martin J.; King, Abby C.; Haskell, William L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the effects of Tai Chi (TC, n = 37) and Western exercise (WE, n = 39) with an attention-control group (C, n = 56) on physical and cognitive functioning in healthy adults age 69 ± 5.8 yr, in a 2-phase randomized trial. Methods TC and WE involved combined class and home-based protocols. Physical functioning included balance, strength, flexibility, and cardiorespiratory endurance. Cognitive functioning included semantic fluency and digit-span tests. Data were analyzed using intention-to-treat analysis. Results At 6 mo, WE had greater improvements in upper body flexibility (F = 4.67, p = .01) than TC and C. TC had greater improvements in balance (F = 3.36, p = .04) and a cognitive-function measure (F = 7.75, p < .001) than WE and C. The differential cognitive-function improvements observed in TC were maintained through 12 mo. Conclusion The TC and WE interventions resulted in differential improvements in physical functioning among generally healthy older adults. TC led to improvement in an indicator of cognitive functioning that was maintained through 12 mo. PMID:20651414

  12. Total and High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011-2012

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and High-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011–2012 On This ... to source, however, is appreciated. National Center for Health Statistics Charles J. Rothwell, M.S., Acting Director Jennifer ...

  13. Effects of gender and executive function on visuospatial working memory in adult obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Martoni, Riccardo Maria; Salgari, Giulia; Galimberti, Elisa; Cavallini, Maria Cristina; O'Neill, Joseph

    2015-12-01

    Visuospatial working memory (VSWM) is the ability of the brain to transiently store and manipulate visual information. VSWM deficiencies have been reported in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), but not consistently, perhaps due to variability in task design and clinical patient factors. To explore this variability, this study assessed effects of the design factors task difficulty and executive organizational strategy and of the clinical factors gender, OCD symptom dimension, and duration of illness on VSWM in OCD. The CANTAB spatial working memory, spatial recognition memory, delayed matching to sample, and stop signal tasks were administered to 42 adult OCD patients and 42 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Aims were to detect a possible VSWM deficit in the OCD sample, to evaluate influences of the above task and patient factors, to determine the specificity of the deficit to the visuospatial subdomain, and to examine effects of sustained attention as potential neurocognitive confound. We confirmed previous findings of a VSWM deficit in OCD that was more severe for greater memory load (task difficulty) and that was affected by task strategy (executive function). We failed to demonstrate significant deficits in neighboring or confounding neurocognitive subdomains (visual object recognition or visual object short-term memory, sustained attention). Notably, the VSWM deficit was only significant for female patients, adding to evidence for sexual dimorphism in OCD. Again as in prior work, more severe OCD symptoms in the symmetry dimension (but no other dimension) significantly negatively impacted VSWM. Duration of illness had no significant effect on VSWM. VSWM deficits in OCD appear more severe with higher task load and may be mediated through poor task strategy. Such deficits may present mainly in female patients and in (male and female) patients with symmetry symptoms. PMID:25972085

  14. Increasing Steps/Day Predicts Improvement in Physical Function and Pain Interference in Adults with Fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Kaleth, Anthony S.; Slaven, James E.; Ang, Dennis C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the concurrent and predictive associations between the number of steps taken per day (steps/day) and clinical outcomes in patients with fibromyalgia (FM). Methods 199 adults with FM [mean age = 46.1 yr; 95% females] enrolled in a randomized clinical trial wore a hip-mounted accelerometer for 1 week and completed self-report measures of physical function [Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire-Physical Impairment (FIQ-PI), SF-36 physical component score (SF-36 PCS)], pain intensity and interference (Brief Pain Inventory; BPI), and depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-8; PHQ-8) as part of their baseline and follow-up assessments. Associations of steps/day with self-report clinical measures were evaluated from baseline to week 12 using multivariate regression models adjusted for demographic and baseline covariates. Results Study participants were primarily sedentary, averaging 4,019 ± 1,530 steps/day. Our findings demonstrate a linear relationship between the change in steps/day and improvement in health outcomes for FM. Incremental increases on the order of 1,000 steps/day were significantly associated with (and predictive of) improvements in FIQ-PI, SF-36 PCS, BPI pain interference, and PHQ-8 (all p<0.05). Although higher step counts were associated with lower FIQ and BPI pain intensity scores, these were not statistically significant. Conclusion Step counts is an easily obtained and understood objective measure of daily physical activity. An exercise prescription that includes recommendations to gradually accumulate at least 5,000 additional steps/day may result in clinically significant improvements in outcomes relevant to patients with FM. Future studies are needed to elucidate the dose-response relationship between steps/day and patient outcomes in FM. PMID:25049001

  15. Impact of ADHD and Cannabis Use on Executive Functioning in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Tamm, Leanne; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Lisdahl, Krista M.; Tapert, Susan; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Velanova, Katerina; Abikoff, Howard; Swanson, James M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and cannabis use are each associated with specific cognitive deficits. Few studies have investigated the neurocognitive profile of individuals with both an ADHD history and regular cannabis use. The greatest cognitive impairment is expected among ADHD Cannabis Users compared to those with ADHD-only, Cannabis use-only, or neither. Methods Young adults (24.2±1.2 years) with a childhood ADHD diagnosis who did (n=42) and did not (n=45) report past year ? monthly cannabis use were compared on neuropsychological measures to a local normative comparison group (LNCG) who did (n=20) and did not (n=21) report past year regular cannabis use. Age, gender, IQ, socioeconomic status, and past year alcohol and smoking were statistical covariates. Results The ADHD group performed worse than LNCG on verbal memory, processing speed, cognitive interference, decision-making, working memory, and response inhibition. No significant effects for cannabis use emerged. Interactions between ADHD and cannabis were non-significant. Exploratory analyses revealed that individuals who began using cannabis regularly before age 16 (n=27) may have poorer executive functioning (i.e., decision-making, working memory, and response inhibition), than users who began later (n=32); replication is warranted with a larger sample. Conclusions A childhood diagnosis of ADHD, but not cannabis use in adulthood, was associated with executive dysfunction. Earlier initiation of cannabis use may be linked to poor cognitive outcomes and a significantly greater proportion of the ADHD group began using cannabis before age 16. Regular cannabis use starting after age 16 may not be sufficient to aggravate longstanding cognitive deficits characteristic of ADHD. PMID:23992650

  16. Is the Complete Resection of Craniopharyngiomas in Adults Feasible Considering Both the Oncologic and Functional Outcomes?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun Jung; Cho, Young Hyun; Hong, Seok Ho; Kim, Jeong Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the impact of the complete resection of craniopharyngioma (CP) in adults on oncologic and functional outcomes. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 82 patients with CP who were surgically treated by the same neurosurgeon at our institution between January 1994 and December 2012. Results Gross total resection (GTR) was achieved in 71 patients (86.6%), near total resection (NTR) in 7 patients (8.5%), and subtotal resection (STR) in 3 patients (3.7%). The disease-specific overall survival rate was 100% with the exclusion of 2 surgery-related mortalities. The overall recurrence rate was 12.2% (10 of 82 patients), however the recurrence rate according to extent of resection (EOR) was 9.9% (7 of 71 patients) after GTR, 14.3% (1 of 7 patients) after NTR, and 66.7% (2 of 3 patients) after STR. The overall recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates at 5 and 10 years were 87.0% and 76.8%, respectively. Postoperatively, most patients (86.3%) needed hormone replacement for at least 1 hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Vision improved in 56.4% of the patients with preoperative abnormal vision, but deteriorated in 27.4% of patients. Hypothalamic dysfunction developed in 32.9% of patients. There were no significant differences in the risks of pituitary dysfunction, visual deterioration, or hypothalamic dysfunction between the groups with complete vs. incomplete removal. The overall rate of postoperative complications was 22.0%, which did not differ between groups (p=0.053). Conclusion The complete removal of a CP at first surgery can provide a chance for a cure with acceptable morbidity and mortality risks. PMID:26713143

  17. High-intensity functional training improves functional movement and body composition among cancer survivors: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, K M; Becker, C; Carlisle, T; Gilmore, K; Hauser, J; Frye, J; Harms, C A

    2015-11-01

    This pilot study investigated feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a high-intensity functional training (HIFT) group-exercise programme among adult cancer survivors within 5 years of last cancer treatment. Eight participants were assigned to a 5-week, 3 days/week HIFT intervention with four testing sessions and 12 workouts along with mobility and stretching exercises. Feasibility was assessed by initiation, adherence, and acceptability. Efficacy was determined by changes from baseline to post-test in health-related quality of life, body composition and functional movement. The recruitment rate was 80% and the adherence rate was 75%. Significant improvements were found for emotional functioning (P = 0.042) and body composition (lean mass +3.8 ± 2.1 kg, P = 0.008; fat mass -3.3 ± 1.0 kg, P = 0.001; body fat percentage -4.7 ± 1.2%, P < 0.001). Participants also significantly improved on five of seven functional movements: balance (P = 0.032), carrying a weighted object (P = 0.004), lower body strength and power (P = 0.009), aerobic capacity and endurance (P = 0.039), and perceived difficulty for flexibility (P = 0.012). Five weeks of HIFT training was well-received and feasible for most cancer survivors, and effective for improving emotional functioning, body composition and functional movement. PMID:26094701

  18. Relation of birth weight and childhood respiratory infection to adult lung function and death from chronic obstructive airways disease.

    PubMed Central

    Barker, D J; Godfrey, K M; Fall, C; Osmond, C; Winter, P D; Shaheen, S O

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine whether birth weight, infant weight, and childhood respiratory infection are associated with adult lung function and death from chronic obstructive airways disease. DESIGN--Follow up study of men born during 1911-30 whose birth weights, weights at 1 year, and childhood illnesses were recorded at the time by health visitors. SETTING--Hertfordshire, England. SUBJECTS--5718 men born in the county during 1911-30 and a subgroup of 825 men born in the county during 1920-30 and still living there. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Death from chronic obstructive airways disease, mean forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC), and respiratory symptoms. RESULTS--55 men died of chronic obstructive airways disease. Death rates fell with increasing birth weight and weight at 1 year. Mean FEV1 at age 59 to 70 years, adjusted for height and age, rose by 0.06 litre (95% confidence interval 0.02 to 0.09) with each pound (450 g) increase in birth weight, independently of smoking habit and social class. Bronchitis or pneumonia in infancy was associated with a 0.17 litre (0.02 to 0.32) reduction in adult FEV1 and with an increased odds ratio of wheezing and persistent sputum production in adult life independently of birth weight, smoking habit, and social class. Whooping cough in infancy was associated with a 0.22 litre (0.02 to 0.42) reduction in adult FEV1. CONCLUSIONS--Lower birth weight was associated with worse adult lung function. Intrauterine influences which retard fetal weight gain may irrecoverably constrain the growth of the airways. Bronchitis, pneumonia, or whooping cough in infancy further reduced adult lung function. They also retarded infant weight gain. Consistent with this, death from chronic obstructive airways disease in adult life was associated with lower birth weight and weight at 1 year. Promoting lung growth in fetuses and infants and reducing the incidence of lower respiratory tract infection in infancy may reduce the incidence of chronic obstructive airways disease in the next generation. PMID:1912913

  19. High Levels of Id1 Expression Define B1 Type Adult Neural Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Hyung-song; Benezra, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Defining the molecular identity of stem cells may be critical for formulating a rational strategy for the therapeutic intervention of stem cell dysfunction. We find that high expression of Id1, a dominant-negative helix-loop-helix transcriptional regulator, identifies a rare population GFAP+ astrocytes with stem cell attributes among the subventricular astrocytes in the adult brain. The rare, long-lived, and relatively quiescent Id1high astrocytes with morphology characteristic of B1 type astrocytes self-renew and generate migratory neuroblasts that differentiate into olfactory bulb interneurons. Cultured Id1high neural stem cells can self-renew asymmetrically and generate a stem and a differentiated cell expressing progressively lower levels of Id1, revealing an Id1 gradient in unperturbed cells of subventricular neurogenic lineages. Moreover, Id genes are necessary to confer self-renewal capacity, a characteristic of stem cell identity. We suggest that high expression of a single transcriptional regulator, Id1, molecularly defines the long-sought-after B1 type adult neural stem cells. PMID:19896442

  20. ENDOTHELIN-1 SYTEM ACTIVITY IN ADULTS WITH BORDERLINE HIGH LDL-CHOLESTEROL

    PubMed Central

    Diehl, Kyle J.; Stauffer, Brian L.; Greiner, Jared J.; DeSouza, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Modest elevations in plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol have been shown to confer a significant increase in cardiovascular risk. Endothelin (ET)-1 is a vasoconstrictor peptide with proatherogenic properties. The experimental aim of this study was to determine whether ET-1 system activity is elevated in adults with borderline high LDL-cholesterol, independent of other cardiometabolic abnormalities. Methods Forearm blood flow (FBF; plethysmography) responses to intra-arterial infusion of ET-1, selective ETA receptor blockade (BQ-123), and non-selective ETA/B blockade (BQ-123 + BQ-788) were determined in 40 middle-aged and older adults (45–70 years): 20 with optimal/near optimal LDL-cholesterol (<3.4 mmol/L) and 20 with borderline-high LDL-cholesterol (3.4–4.1 mmol/L). Results Both groups demonstrated a similar, non-significant (~10%) reduction in FBF to ET-1. BQ-123 and BQ-123+788 elicited a modest, but significant, increase in FBF (~15–20%) in each group. However, there were no group differences in the FBF responses to either selective ETA or non-selective ETA/B receptor antagonism. Conclusion Borderline-high LDL-C is not associated with increased ET-1 mediated vasoconstrictor tone. Disrupted ET-1 system activity may not contribute to the increased cardiovascular risk burden with borderline-high LDL-cholesterol. PMID:25267931

  1. Reaffirming normal: the high risk of pathologizing healthy adults when interpreting the MMPI-2-RF.

    PubMed

    Odland, Anthony P; Lammy, Andrew B; Perle, Jonathan G; Martin, Phillip K; Grote, Christopher L

    2015-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations were utilized to determine the proportion of the normal population expected to have scale elevations on the MMPI-2-RF when multiple scores are interpreted. Results showed that when all 40 MMPI-2-RF scales are simultaneously considered, approximately 70% of normal adults are likely to have at least one scale elevation at or above 65 T, and as many as 20% will have five or more elevated scales. When the Restructured Clinical (RC) Scales are under consideration, 34% of normal adults have at least one elevated score. Interpretation of the Specific Problem Scales and Personality Psychopathology Five Scales--Revised also yielded higher than expected rates of significant scores, with as many as one in four normal adults possibly being miscategorized as having features of a personality disorder by the latter scales. These findings are consistent with the growing literature on rates of apparently abnormal scores in the normal population due to multiple score interpretation. Findings are discussed in relation to clinical assessment, as well as in response to recent work suggesting that the MMPI-2-RF's multiscale composition does not contribute to high rates of elevated scores. PMID:25643047

  2. High prevalence of glucose intolerance even among young adults in south India.

    PubMed

    Raghupathy, Palany; Antonisamy, Belavendra; Fall, Caroline H D; Geethanjali, Finney S; Leary, Samantha D; Saperia, Julia; Priya, G; Rajaratnam, Abel; Richard, Joseph

    2007-08-01

    India is experiencing an epidemic of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) in young adults. This study reports the prevalence of glucose intolerance, and insulin profiles, and their relationship to lifestyle factors in 2218 young adults (aged 26-32 years; 997 urban, 1221 rural) in south India. They were drawn from a cohort of 10,691 individuals born during 1969-1973 in Vellore and nearby villages. Family history, socio-economic status, physical activity and tobacco and alcohol use were recorded. Oral glucose tolerance tests were performed for diagnosis (WHO recommendations). Insulin resistance and secretion were derived from plasma insulin concentrations. Median BMI was 20.0kg/m(2). The prevalence of Type 2 DM and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) was higher in urban than in rural subjects (3.7% versus 2.1%, p=0.02; 18.9% versus 14.3%, p=0.002, respectively), while prevalence of impaired fasting glycaemia (IFG) was similar in urban and rural populations (3.8% versus 3.4%, p=0.04). Type 2 DM, IGT, IFG or higher insulin resistance and increment were associated with higher socio-economic status (more household possessions) and higher percentage body fat, body mass index and waist/hip ratio. Insulin increment was lower in men with higher alcohol consumption. Our data suggest high levels of glucose intolerance in young rural and urban adults highlighting an urgent need for preventive action to avert a public health catastrophe in India. PMID:17229484

  3. Physiological responses of Corythucha ciliata adults to high temperatures under laboratory and field conditions.

    PubMed

    Ju, Rui-Ting; Gao, Lei; Zhou, Xu-Hui; Li, Bo

    2014-10-01

    Under high temperature conditions, insects can tolerate to survive through various physiological mechanisms, which have been well documented in laboratory studies. However, it is still unclear as to whether these laboratory data can scale up to those in the field. Here we studied dynamics of heat-induced metabolites in Corythucha ciliata adults under both laboratory and field conditions to examine their significance in thermal tolerance of the species. We compared the effects of controlled thermal treatments (2h at 33-43 °C at 2 °C intervals in the laboratory) and naturally increasing thermal conditions (10:00-14:00 at 2-h intervals (33.5-37.2 °C) on a hot summer day in a field in Shanghai, China) on water content and levels of water-soluble protein, triglycerides, mannitol, and sorbitol in the adult bodies. The results showed that water content significantly decreased and all other metabolic parameters significantly increased in response to temperature stresses with similar patterns in both the laboratory and field, although the respective threshold temperatures were different under the two conditions. The close linkage observed in the two conditions suggests that a short period of heat stress induces water loss and accumulation of thermal metabolites in C. ciliata adults. This heat-resistance provides a defense mechanism counteracting thermal damage in C. ciliata. PMID:25436946

  4. Prevalence of Neuropsychiatric Symptoms and Their Association with Functional Limitations in Older Adults in the United States: The Aging, Demographics, and Memory Study

    PubMed Central

    Okura, Toru; Plassman, Brenda L.; Steffens, David C.; Llewellyn, David J.; Potter, Guy G.; Langa, Kenneth M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To estimate the prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms and examine their association with functional limitations. DESIGN Cross-sectional analysis. SETTING The Aging, Demographics, and Memory Study (ADAMS). PARTICIPANTS A sample of adults aged 71 and older (N = 856) drawn from Health and Retirement Study (HRS), a nationally representative cohort of U.S. adults aged 51 and older. MEASUREMENTS The presence of neuropsychiatric symptoms (delusions, hallucinations, agitation, depression, apathy, elation, anxiety, disinhibition, irritation, and aberrant motor behaviors) was identified using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory. A consensus panel in the ADAMS assigned a cognitive category (normal cognition; cognitive impairment, no dementia (CIND); mild, moderate, or severe dementia). Functional limitations, chronic medical conditions, and sociodemographic information were obtained from the HRS and ADAMS. RESULTS Forty-three percent of individuals with CIND and 58% of those with dementia exhibited at least one neuropsychiatric symptom. Depression was the most common individual symptom in those with normal cognition (12%), CIND (30%), and mild dementia (25%), whereas apathy (42%) and agitation (41%) were most common in those with severe dementia. Individuals with three or more symptoms and one or more clinically significant symptoms had significantly higher odds of having functional limitations. Those with clinically significant depression had higher odds of activity of daily living limitations, and those with clinically significant depression, anxiety, or aberrant motor behaviors had significantly higher odds of instrumental activity of daily living limitations. CONCLUSION Neuropsychiatric symptoms are highly prevalent in older adults with CIND and dementia. Of those with cognitive impairment, a greater number of total neuropsychiatric symptoms and some specific individual symptoms are strongly associated with functional limitations. PMID:20374406

  5. High-Resolution Plots of Trigonometric Functions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stick, Marvin E.; Stick, Michael J.

    1985-01-01

    Provides computer programs (for Apple microcomputers) for drawing (in high resolution graphics) a three-leaved rose, concentric circles, circumscribed and inscribed astroids. Sample output and discussions of the mathematics involved in the programs are included. (JN)

  6. Restoration of ovarian function and natural fertility following the cryopreservation and autotransplantation of whole adult sheep ovaries

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, B.K.; Hernandez-Medrano, J.; Onions, V.; Pincott-Allen, C.; Aljaser, F.; Fisher, J.; McNeilly, A.S.; Webb, R.; Picton, H.M.

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Is it possible to restore ovarian function and natural fertility following the cryopreservation and autotransplantation of whole ovaries, complete with vascular pedicle, in adult females from a large monovulatory animal model species (i.e. sheep)? SUMMARY ANSWER Full (100%) restoration of acute ovarian function and high rates of natural fertility (pregnancy rate 64%; live birth rate 29%), with multiple live births, were obtained following whole ovary cryopreservation and autotransplantation (WOCP&TP) of adult sheep ovaries utilizing optimized cryopreservation and post-operative anti-coagulant regimes. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Fertility preservation by WOCP&TP requires successful cryopreservation of both the ovary and its vascular supply. Previous work has indicated detrimental effects of WOCP&TP on the ovarian follicle population. Recent experiments suggest that these deleterious effects can be attributed to an acute loss of vascular patency due to clot formation induced by damage to ovarian arterial endothelial cells. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION Study 1 (2010–2011; N = 16) examined the effect of post-thaw perfusion of survival factors (angiogenic, antioxidant, anti-apoptotic; n = 7–8) and treatment with aspirin (pre-operative versus pre- and post-operative (n = 7–9)) on the restoration of ovarian function for 3 months after WOCP&TP. Study 2 (2011–2012; N = 16) examined the effect of cryoprotectant (CPA) perfusion time (10 versus 60 min; n = 16) and pre- and post-operative treatment with aspirin in combination with enoxaparine (Clexane®; n = 8) or eptifibatide (Integrilin®; n = 8) on ovarian function and fertility 11–23 months after WOCP&TP. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Both studies utilized mature, parous, Greyface ewes aged 3–6 years and weighing 50–75 kg. Restoration of ovarian function was monitored by bi-weekly blood sampling and display of behavioural oestrus. Blood samples were assayed for gonadotrophins, progesterone, anti-Müllerian Hormone and inhibin A. Fertility restoration in Study 2 was quantified by pregnancy rate after a 3 month fertile mating period and was confirmed by ultrasound, hormonal monitoring and live birth. Ovarian function was assessed at sacrifice by ovarian appearance and vascular patency (Doppler ultrasound) and by follicular histology. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE In Study 1, survival factors were found to have no benefit, but the inclusion of pre-operative aspirin resulted in four ewes showing acute restoration of ovarian function within 3 weeks and a further six ewes showing partial restoration. The addition of post-operative aspirin alone had no clear benefit. In Study 2, combination of aspirin with additional post-operative anti-coagulants resulted in total acute restoration of ovarian function in 14/14 ewes within 3 weeks of WOCP&TP, with 9/14 ewes becoming pregnant and 4/14 giving birth to a total of seven normal lambs. There was no difference between anti-coagulants in terms of restoration of reproductive function and fertility. In contrast, the duration of CPA perfusion was highly significant with a 60 min perfusion resulting in ovaries of normal appearance and function with high rates of primordial follicle survival (70%) and an abundant blood supply, whereas ovaries perfused for 10 min had either resorbed completely and were vestigial (7/14) or were markedly smaller (P < 0.01). It is concluded that both the degree of CPA penetration and the maintenance of post-operative vascular patency are critical determinants of the success of WOCP&TP. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION Before application of this technology to fertility preservation patients, it will be critical to optimize the CPA perfusion time for different sized human ovaries, determine the optimum period and level of anti-coagulant therapy, and confirm the normality of offspring derived from this procedure. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS This technology holds promise for the preservation of fertility in women. It could also

  7. Pulmonary function abnormalities in adult patients with acute exacerbation of bronchiectasis: A retrospective risk factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yanliang; Niu, Yuqian; Tian, Guizhen; Wei, Jingan; Gao, Zhancheng

    2015-08-01

    Lung function impairments, especially airflow obstruction, are important features during acute exacerbation in patients with bronchiectasis. Recognition of the risk factors associated with airflow obstruction is important in the management of these exacerbations. The medical records of adult patients admitted to the Peking University People's Hospital, Beijing, China, from 2004 to 2011 with a diagnosis of bronchiectasis were reviewed retrospectively. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to evaluate the risk factors associated with airflow obstruction. Airflow obstruction was found in 55.6% of 156 patients hospitalized with acute exacerbation of bronchiectasis, and the risk factors associated with airflow obstruction included young age (?14 years old) at diagnosis (odds ratio (OR) = 3.454, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.709-6.982, p = 0.001) as well as the presence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; OR = 14.677, 95% CI 5.696-37.819, p = 0.001), asthma (OR = 3.063, 95% CI 1.403-6.690, p = 0.005), and wheezing on auscultation (OR = 3.279, 95% CI 1.495-7.194, p = 0.003). The C-reactive protein (13.9 mg/dl vs. 6.89 mg/dl, p = 0.005), partial pressure of arterial oxygen (66.7 ± 8.57 mmHg vs. 89.56 ± 12.80 mmHg, p < 0.001), and partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (40.52 ± 2.77 mmHg vs. 42.87 ± 5.39 mmHg, p = 0.02) profiles were different between patients with or without airflow obstruction. In addition, patients colonized with potential pathogenic microorganisms had a decreased diffusing capacity (56.0% vs. 64.7%, p = 0.04). Abnormal pulmonary function was common in hospitalized patients with bronchiectasis exacerbations. Airflow obstruction was correlated with the patient's age at diagnosis, as well as the presence of combined COPD and asthma, and wheezing on auscultation, which also resulted in more severe systemic inflammation and hypoxemia. PMID:25882894

  8. Disruption of vitellogenin gene function in adult honeybees by intra-abdominal injection of double-stranded RNA

    PubMed Central

    Amdam, Gro V; Simões, Zilá LP; Guidugli, Karina R; Norberg, Kari; Omholt, Stig W

    2003-01-01

    Background The ability to manipulate the genetic networks underlying the physiological and behavioural repertoires of the adult honeybee worker (Apis mellifera) is likely to deepen our understanding of issues such as learning and memory generation, ageing, and the regulatory anatomy of social systems in proximate as well as evolutionary terms. Here we assess two methods for probing gene function by RNA interference (RNAi) in adult honeybees. Results The vitellogenin gene was chosen as target because its expression is unlikely to have a phenotypic effect until the adult stage in bees. This allowed us to introduce dsRNA in preblastoderm eggs without affecting gene function during development. Of workers reared from eggs injected with dsRNA derived from a 504 bp stretch of the vitellogenin coding sequence, 15% had strongly reduced levels of vitellogenin mRNA. When dsRNA was introduced by intra-abdominal injection in newly emerged bees, almost all individuals (96 %) showed the mutant phenotype. An RNA-fragment with an apparent size similar to the template dsRNA was still present in this group after 15 days. Conclusion Injection of dsRNA in eggs at the preblastoderm stage seems to allow disruption of gene function in all developmental stages. To dissect gene function in the adult stage, the intra-abdominal injection technique seems superior to egg injection as it gives a much higher penetrance, it is much simpler, and it makes it possible to address genes that are also expressed in the embryonic, larval or pupal stages. PMID:12546706

  9. Insulin sensitivity and ?-cell function in adults born preterm and their children.

    PubMed

    Mathai, Sarah; Cutfield, Wayne S; Derraik, José G B; Dalziel, Stuart R; Harding, Jane E; Robinson, Elizabeth; Biggs, Janene; Jefferies, Craig; Hofman, Paul L

    2012-10-01

    We aimed to evaluate insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity in adults born preterm and their children. Subjects were adults born both preterm and at term, with their children aged 5-10 years born at term. Insulin sensitivity and secretion were assessed using hyperglycemic clamps in adults and frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance tests using Bergman minimal model in children. In total, 52 adults aged 34-38 years participated (31 born preterm, mean gestational age 33.3 weeks). Adults born preterm were less insulin sensitive than those born at term (19.0 ± 2.5 vs. 36.3 ± 5.2 mg · kg(-1) · min(-1)mU · L; P < 0.05) with compensatory increased first-phase insulin secretion (56.1 ± 8.5 vs. 25.3 ± 3.7 mU/L; P < 0.001) but similar disposition index indicating appropriate insulin secretion. These differences were independent of sex and remained when subjects born <32 weeks' gestation were excluded from analyses. In total, 61 children were studied (37 of preterm parents, mean age 7.9 ± 0.3 years). Children of parents born preterm had similar insulin sensitivity to children of parents born at term, but a correlation between parental and offspring insulin sensitivity was noted only among children of parents born preterm. In conclusion, adults born preterm have insulin resistance in midadulthood, but this was not associated with insulin resistance in their children. PMID:22596051

  10. Insulin Sensitivity and ?-Cell Function in Adults Born Preterm and Their Children

    PubMed Central

    Mathai, Sarah; Cutfield, Wayne S.; Derraik, José G.B.; Dalziel, Stuart R.; Harding, Jane E.; Robinson, Elizabeth; Biggs, Janene; Jefferies, Craig; Hofman, Paul L.

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity in adults born preterm and their children. Subjects were adults born both preterm and at term, with their children aged 5–10 years born at term. Insulin sensitivity and secretion were assessed using hyperglycemic clamps in adults and frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance tests using Bergman minimal model in children. In total, 52 adults aged 34–38 years participated (31 born preterm, mean gestational age 33.3 weeks). Adults born preterm were less insulin sensitive than those born at term (19.0 ± 2.5 vs. 36.3 ± 5.2 mg ? kg?1 ? min?1mU ? L; P < 0.05) with compensatory increased first-phase insulin secretion (56.1 ± 8.5 vs. 25.3 ± 3.7 mU/L; P < 0.001) but similar disposition index indicating appropriate insulin secretion. These differences were independent of sex and remained when subjects born <32 weeks' gestation were excluded from analyses. In total, 61 children were studied (37 of preterm parents, mean age 7.9 ± 0.3 years). Children of parents born preterm had similar insulin sensitivity to children of parents born at term, but a correlation between parental and offspring insulin sensitivity was noted only among children of parents born preterm. In conclusion, adults born preterm have insulin resistance in midadulthood, but this was not associated with insulin resistance in their children. PMID:22596051

  11. White Matter Hyperintensities among Older Adults Are Associated with Futile Increase in Frontal Activation and Functional Connectivity during Spatial Search

    PubMed Central

    Lockhart, Samuel N.; Luck, Steven J.; Geng, Joy; Beckett, Laurel; Disbrow, Elizabeth A.; Carmichael, Owen; DeCarli, Charles

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms by which aging and other processes can affect the structure and function of brain networks are important to understanding normal age-related cognitive decline. Advancing age is known to be associated with various disease processes, including clinically asymptomatic vascular and inflammation processes that contribute to white matter structural alteration and potential injury. The effects of these processes on the function of distributed cognitive networks, however, are poorly understood. We hypothesized that the extent of magnetic resonance imaging white matter hyperintensities would be associated with visual attentional control in healthy aging, measured using a functional magnetic resonance imaging search task. We assessed cognitively healthy older adults with search tasks indexing processing speed and attentional control. Expanding upon previous research, older adults demonstrate activation across a frontal-parietal attentional control network. Further, greater white matter hyperintensity volume was associated with increased activation of a frontal network node independent of chronological age. Also consistent with previous research, greater white matter hyperintensity volume was associated with anatomically specific reductions in functional magnetic resonance imaging functional connectivity during search among attentional control regions. White matter hyperintensities may lead to subtle attentional network dysfunction, potentially through impaired frontal-parietal and frontal interhemispheric connectivity, suggesting that clinically silent white matter biomarkers of vascular and inflammatory injury can contribute to differences in search performance and brain function in aging, and likely contribute to advanced age-related impairments in cognitive control. PMID:25793922

  12. Does a Wii-based exercise program enhance balance control of independently functioning older adults? A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Laufer, Yocheved; Dar, Gali; Kodesh, Einat

    2014-01-01

    Background Exercise programs that challenge an individual’s balance have been shown to reduce the risk of falls among older adults. Virtual reality computer-based technology that provides the user with opportunities to interact with virtual objects is used extensively for entertainment. There is a growing interest in the potential of virtual reality-based interventions for balance training in older adults. This work comprises a systematic review of the literature to determine the effects of intervention programs utilizing the Nintendo Wii console on balance control and functional performance in independently functioning older adults. Methods Studies were obtained by searching the following databases: PubMed, CINAHL, PEDro, EMBASE, SPORTdiscus, and Google Scholar, followed by a hand search of bibliographic references of the included studies. Included were randomized controlled trials written in English in which Nintendo Wii Fit was used to enhance standing balance performance in older adults and compared with an alternative exercise treatment, placebo, or no treatment. Results Seven relevant studies were retrieved. The four studies examining the effect of Wii-based exercise compared with no exercise reported positive effects on at least one outcome measure related to balance performance in older adults. Studies comparing Wii-based training with alternative exercise programs generally indicated that the balance improvements achieved by Wii-based training are comparable with those achieved by other exercise programs. Conclusion The review indicates that Wii-based exercise programs may serve as an alternative to more conventional forms of exercise aimed at improving balance control. However, due to the great variability between studies in terms of the intervention protocols and outcome measures, as well as methodological limitations, definitive recommendations as to optimal treatment protocols and the potential of such an intervention as a safe and effective home-based treatment cannot be made at this point. PMID:25364238

  13. Post-mortem brain pathology is related to declining respiratory function in community-dwelling older adults

    PubMed Central

    Buchman, Aron S.; Yu, Lei; Wilson, Robert S.; Dawe, Robert J.; VanderHorst, Veronique; Schneider, Julie A.; Bennett, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Damage to brain structures which constitute the distributed neural network that integrates respiratory muscle and pulmonary functions, can impair adequate ventilation and its volitional control. We tested the hypothesis that the level of brain pathology in older adults is associated with declining respiratory function measured during life. 1,409 older adults had annual testing with spirometry (SPI) and respiratory muscle strength (RMS) based on maximal inspiratory and maximal expiratory pressures (MEPs). Those who died underwent structured brain autopsy. On average, during 5 years of follow-up, SPI and RMS showed progressive decline which was moderately correlated (? = 0.57, p < 0.001). Among decedents (N = 447), indices of brain neuropathologies showed differential associations with declining SPI and RMS. Nigral neuronal loss was associated with the person-specific decline in SPI (Estimate, ?0.016 unit/year, S.E. 0.006, p = 0.009) and reduction of the slope variance was equal to 4%. By contrast, Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology (Estimate, ?0.030 unit/year, S.E. 0.009, p < 0.001) and macroscopic infarcts (?0.033 unit/year, S.E., 0.011, p = 0.003) were associated with the person-specific decline in RMS and reduction of the slope variance was equal to 7%. These results suggest that brain pathology is associated with the rate of declining respiratory function in older adults. PMID:26539108

  14. MESON CORRELATION FUNCTIONS AT HIGH TEMPERATURES.

    SciTech Connect

    WISSEL, S.; DATTA, S.; KARSCH, F.; LAERMANN, E.; SHCHEREDIN, S.

    2005-07-25

    We present preliminary results for the correlation- and spectral functions of different meson channels on the lattice. The main focus lies on gaining control over cut-off as well as on the finite-volume effects. Extrapolations of screening masses above the deconfining temperature are guided by the result of the free (T = {infinity}) case on the lattice and in the continuum. We study the quenched non-perturbatively improved Wilson-clover fermion as well as the hypercube fermion action which might show less cut-off effects.

  15. High Individuality of Respiratory Bacterial Communities in a Large Cohort of Adult Cystic Fibrosis Patients under Continuous Antibiotic Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Rolf; Sauer-Heilborn, Annette; Welte, Tobias; Jauregui, Ruy; Brettar, Ingrid; Guzman, Carlos A.; Höfle, Manfred G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Routine clinical diagnostics of CF patients focus only on a restricted set of well-known pathogenic species. Recent molecular studies suggest that infections could be polymicrobial with many bacteria not detected by culture-based diagnostics. Methodology and Principal Findings A large cohort of 56 adults with continuous antibiotic treatment was studied and different microbial diagnostic methods were compared, including culture-independent and culture-based bacterial diagnostics. A total of 72 sputum samples including longitudinal observations was analysed by 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison. Prevalence of known pathogens was highly similar among all methods but the vast spectrum of bacteria associated with CF was only revealed by culture-independent techniques. The sequence comparison enabled confident determination of the bacterial community composition and revealed a high diversity and individuality in the communities across the cohort. Results of microbiological analyses were further compared with individual host factors, such as age, lung function and CFTR genotype. No statistical relationship between these factors and the diversity of the entire community or single bacterial species could be identified. However, patients with non-?F508 mutations in the CFTR gene often had low abundances of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Persistence of specific bacteria in some communities was demonstrated by longitudinal analyses of 13 patients indicating a potential clinical relevance of anaerobic bacteria, such as Fusobacterium nucleatum and Streptococcus millerii. Conclusions The high individuality in community composition and the lack of correlation to clinical host factors might be due to the continuous treatment with antibiotics. Since this is current practice for adult CF patients, the life-long history of the patient and the varying selection pressure on the related microbial communities should be a focus of future studies and its relation to disease progression. These studies should be substantially larger, providing more molecular information on the microbial communities complemented by detailed genetic assessment of the host. PMID:25671713

  16. Novel soybean oils differing in fatty acid composition alter immune functions of moderately hypercholesterolemic older adults.

    PubMed

    Han, Sung Nim; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Ausman, Lynne M; Meydani, Simin Nikbin

    2012-12-01

    Linoleic acid (LA) and ?-linolenic acid (ALA) are essential fatty acids that play an important role in modulation of T cell proliferation. The effects of consuming novel soybean oils varying in LA:ALA ratios on T cell proliferation and inflammatory responses were assessed in older adults. Eighteen participants (>50 y old) with elevated cholesterol concentrations (3.37-4.14 mmol/L LDL cholesterol) consumed 5 experimental diets in random order for periods of 35 d. Each diet contained 30% of energy as fat, two-thirds of which was high-oleic acid soybean oil (HiOleic-SO), soybean oil (SO), low-SFA soybean oil (LoSFA-SO), hydrogenated soybean oil (Hydrog-SO), or low-ALA soybean oil (LoALA-SO), resulting in LA:ALA ratios of 2.98, 8.70, 9.69, 15.2, and 18.3, respectively. Participants had higher proliferative responses to phytohemagglutinin (PHA) compared with baseline following consumption of SO (26%; P < 0.05), LoSFA-SO (22%; P < 0.05), or HiOleic-SO (24%; P < 0.05) diets. Proliferative response was similar to the baseline after participants consumed diets with an LA:ALA ratio >10 (Hydrog-SO and LoALA-SO). Post-diet intervention, LA:ALA ratios correlated with proliferative responses to PHA (r = -0.87; P = 0.05). An optimal proliferative response was observed at an LA:ALA ratio of 8.70, with an inverse correlation between proliferative response and LA:ALA ratios >8.70. These effects were independent of changes in the production of PGE(2), inflammatory cytokines, or cytokines involved in growth of lymphocytes. These data suggest that the LA:ALA ratio modulates the proliferative ability of T lymphocytes, which may be due to subtle changes in fatty acid composition of the phospholipids in immune cells. PMID:23096013

  17. Improving visual functions in adult amblyopia with combined perceptual training and transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS): a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Campana, Gianluca; Camilleri, Rebecca; Pavan, Andrea; Veronese, Antonella; Lo Giudice, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Amblyopia is a visual disorder due to an abnormal pattern of functional connectivity of the visual cortex and characterized by several visual deficits of spatial vision including impairments of visual acuity (VA) and of the contrast sensitivity function (CSF). Despite being a developmental disorder caused by reduced visual stimulation during early life (critical period), several studies have shown that extensive visual perceptual training can improve VA and CSF in people with amblyopia even in adulthood. With the present study we assessed whether a much shorter perceptual training regime, in association with high-frequency transcranial electrical stimulation (hf-tRNS), was able to improve visual functions in a group of adult participants with amblyopia. Results show that, in comparison with previous studies where a large number sessions with a similar training regime were used (Polat et al., 2004), here just eight sessions of training in contrast detection under lateral masking conditions combined with hf-tRNS, were able to substantially improve VA and CSF in adults with amblyopia. PMID:25538653

  18. Correlation Immune Boolean Functions with Very High Nonlinearity

    E-print Network

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Correlation Immune Boolean Functions with Very High Nonlinearity Subhamoy Maitra Computer unbalanced correlation immune Boolean functions on even number of variables n, with nonlinearity 2 n 1 2 n 2 on the Walsh spectra of these functions. Keywords : Cryptography, Correlation Immunity, Nonlinearity, Algebraic

  19. Relationships between macular pigment optical density and cognitive function in unimpaired and mildly cognitively impaired older adults.

    PubMed

    Renzi, Lisa M; Dengler, Melissa J; Puente, Antonio; Miller, L Stephen; Hammond, Billy R

    2014-07-01

    Low carotenoid status (especially of the xanthophylls, lutein [L], and zeaxanthin [Z]) is common in older adults and has been associated with a number of degenerative diseases of the central nervous system ranging from retina (e.g., macular degeneration) to brain (e.g., Alzheimer's disease). In this study, we tested whether retinal measures of L + Z (macular pigment optical density [MPOD]), used as a surrogate for brain L + Z levels, were related to cognitive function when comparing healthy older adults with mildly cognitively impaired older adults. Twenty-four subjects with mild cognitive impairment were compared with 24 matched controls. Subjects were matched with respect to age, body mass index, ethnicity, sex, and smoking status. Degree of cognitive impairment and cognitive ability was determined via structured clinical interview. MPOD was measured psychophysically. In healthy older adults, MPOD was only related to visual-spatial and constructional abilities (p = 0.04). For subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), however, MPOD was broadly related to cognition including the composite score on the mini-mental state examination (p = 0.02), visual-spatial and constructional abilities (p = 0.04), language ability (p = 0.05), attention (p = 0.03), and the total scale on the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (p = 0.03). It is possible that L/Z status may be more strongly related to cognition when individuals are considered with established onset of cognitive decline. PMID:24508218

  20. Correlating ribosome function with high-resolution structures

    E-print Network

    Yonath, Ada E.

    Correlating ribosome function with high-resolution structures Anat Bashan and Ada Yonath Department;Correlating ribosome function with high-resolution structures Anat Bashan and Ada Yonath Department of Structural Biology, Weizmann Institute, Rehovot, 76100, Israel Ribosome research has undergone astonishing

  1. Effect of nighttime aircraft noise exposure on endothelial function and stress hormone release in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Frank P.; Basner, Mathias; Kröger, Gunnar; Weck, Stefanie; Schnorbus, Boris; Muttray, Axel; Sariyar, Murat; Binder, Harald; Gori, Tommaso; Warnholtz, Ascan; Münzel, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Aims Aircraft noise disturbs sleep, and long-term exposure has been shown to be associated with increases in the prevalence of hypertension and an overall increased risk for myocardial infarction. The exact mechanisms responsible for these cardiovascular effects remain unclear. Methods and results We performed a blinded field study in 75 healthy volunteers (mean age 26 years), who were exposed at home, in random order, to one control pattern (no noise) and two different noise scenarios [30 or 60 aircraft noise events per night with an average maximum sound pressure level (SPL) of 60 dB(A)] for one night each. We performed polygraphy during each study night. Noise caused a worsening in sleep quality (P < 0.0001). Noise60, corresponding to equivalent continuous SPLs of 46.3 dB (Leq) and representing environmental noise levels associated with increased cardiovascular events, caused a blunting in FMD (P = 0.016). As well, although a direct comparison among the FMD values in the noise groups (control: 10.4 ± 3.8%; Noise30: 9.7 ± 4.1%; Noise60: 9.5 ± 4.3%, P = 0.052) did not reach significance, a monotone dose-dependent effect of noise level on FMD was shown (P = 0.020). Finally, there was a priming effect of noise, i.e. the blunting in FMD was particularly evident when subjects were exposed first to 30 and then to 60 noise events (P = 0.006). Noise-induced endothelial dysfunction (ED) was reversed by the administration of Vitamin C (P = 0.0171). Morning adrenaline concentration increased from 28.3 ± 10.9 to 33.2 ± 16.6 and 34.1 ± 19.3 ng/L (P = 0.0099). Pulse transit time, reflecting arterial stiffness, was also shorter after exposure to noise (P = 0.003). Conclusion In healthy adults, acute nighttime aircraft noise exposure dose-dependently impairs endothelial function and stimulates adrenaline release. Noise-induced ED may be in part due to increased production in reactive oxygen species and may thus be one mechanism contributing to the observed association of chronic noise exposure with cardiovascular disease. PMID:23821397

  2. Arsenic exposure, inflammation, and renal function in Bangladeshi adults: effect modification by plasma glutathione redox potential.

    PubMed

    Peters, Brandilyn A; Liu, Xinhua; Hall, Megan N; Ilievski, Vesna; Slavkovich, Vesna; Siddique, Abu B; Alam, Shafiul; Islam, Tariqul; Graziano, Joseph H; Gamble, Mary V

    2015-08-01

    Exposure to arsenic (As) in drinking water is a widespread public health problem leading to increased risk for multiple outcomes such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, and possibly renal disease; potential mechanisms include inflammation and oxidative stress. We tested the hypothesis that As exposure is associated with increased inflammation and decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and examined whether the effects of As were modified by plasma glutathione (GSH), glutathione disulfide (GSSG), or the reduction potential of the GSSG/2GSH pair (EhGSH). In a cross-sectional study of N = 374 Bangladeshi adults having a wide range of As exposure, we measured markers of inflammation (plasma C-reactive protein (CRP), ?-1 acid glycoprotein (AGP)), renal function (eGFR), GSH, and GSSG. In covariate-adjusted models, a 10% increase in water As, urinary As adjusted for specific gravity (uAs), or blood As (bAs) was associated with a 0.74% (p = 0.01), 0.90% (p = 0.16), and 1.39% (p = 0.07) increase in CRP, respectively; there was no association with AGP. A 10% increase in uAs or bAs was associated with an average reduction in eGFR of 0.16 (p = 0.12) and 0.21 ml/min/1.73 m(2) (p = 0.08), respectively. In stratified analyses, the effect of As exposure on CRP was observed only in participants having EhGSH > median (uAs p(Wald) = 0.03; bAs p(Wald) = 0.05). This was primarily driven by stronger effects of As exposure on CRP in participants with lower plasma GSH. The effects of As exposure on eGFR were not modified significantly by EhGSH, GSH, or GSSG. These data suggest that participants having lower plasma GSH and a more oxidized plasma EhGSH are at increased risk for As-induced inflammation. Future studies should evaluate whether antioxidant treatment lowers plasma EhGSH and reduces risk for As-induced diseases. PMID:25916185

  3. Population based prevalence of high blood pressure among adults in Addis Ababa: uncovering a silent epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Tesfaye, Fikru; Byass, Peter; Wall, Stig

    2009-01-01

    Background The prevention and control of high blood pressure or other cardiovascular diseases has not received due attention in many developing countries. This study aims to describe the epidemiology of high blood pressure among adults in Addis Ababa, so as to inform policy and lay the ground for surveillance interventions. Methods Addis Ababa is the largest urban centre and national capital of Ethiopia, hosting about 25% of the urban population in the country. A probabilistic sample of adult males and females, 25–64 years of age residing in Addis Ababa city participated in structured interviews and physical measurements. We employed a population based, cross sectional survey, using the World Health Organization instrument for stepwise surveillance (STEPS) of chronic disease risk factors. Data on selected socio-demographic characteristics and lifestyle behaviours, including physical activity, as well as physical measurements such as weight, height, waist and hip circumference, and blood pressure were collected through standardized procedures. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to estimate the coefficient of variability of blood pressure due to selected socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics, and physical measurements. Results A total of 3713 adults participated in the study. About 20% of males and 38% of females were overweight (body-mass-index ? 25 kg/m2), with 10.8 (9.49, 12.11)% of the females being obese (body-mass-index ? 30 kg/m2). Similarly, 17% of the males and 31% of the females were classified as having low level of total physical activity. The age-adjusted prevalence (95% confidence interval) of high blood pressure, defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) ? 140 mmHg (millimetres of mercury) or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ? 90 mmHg or reported use of anti-hypertensive medication, was 31.5% (29.0, 33.9) among males and 28.9% (26.8, 30.9) among females. Conclusion High blood pressure is widely prevalent in Addis Ababa and may represent a silent epidemic in this population. Overweight, obesity and physical inactivity are important determinants of high blood pressure. There is an urgent need for strategies and programmes to prevent and control high blood pressure, and promote healthy lifestyle behaviours primarily among the urban populations of Ethiopia. PMID:19698178

  4. Childhood Trauma and Current Psychological Functioning in Adults with Social Anxiety Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Janice R.; Goldin, Philippe R.; Werner, Kelly; Heimberg, Richard G.; Gross, James J.

    2011-01-01

    Etiological models of social anxiety disorder (SAD) suggest that early childhood trauma contributes to the development of this disorder. However, surprisingly little is known about the link between different forms of childhood trauma and adult clinical symptoms in SAD. This study (1) compared levels of childhood trauma in adults with generalized SAD versus healthy controls (HCs), and (2) examined the relationship between specific types of childhood trauma and adult clinical symptoms in SAD. Participants were 102 individuals with generalized SAD and 30 HCs who completed measures of childhood trauma, social anxiety, trait anxiety, depression, and self-esteem. Compared to HCs, individuals with SAD reported greater childhood emotional abuse and emotional neglect. Within the SAD group, childhood emotional abuse and neglect, but not sexual abuse, physical abuse, or physical neglect, were associated with the severity of social anxiety, trait anxiety, depression, and self-esteem. PMID:21183310

  5. Temporal Profile of Endogenous Anatomical Repair and Functional Recovery following Spinal Cord Injury in Adult Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Vajn, Katarina; Suler, Denis; Plunkett, Jeffery A.; Oudega, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Regenerated cerebrospinal axons are considered to be involved in the spontaneous recovery of swimming ability following a spinal cord injury in adult zebrafish. We employed behavioral analysis, neuronal tracing, and immunocytochemistry to determine the exact temporal relationship between swimming ability and regenerated cerebrospinal axon number in adult zebrafish with a complete spinal cord transection. Between two and eight weeks post-lesion, swimming gradually improved to 44% of sham-injured zebrafish. Neurons within the reticular formation, magnocellular octaval nucleus, and nucleus of the medial longitudinal fascicle grew their axon across and at least four millimeters beyond the lesion. The largest increases in swimming ability and number of regenerated cerebrospinal axons were observed between two and four weeks post-lesion. Regression analyses revealed a significant correlation between swimming ability and the number of regenerated axons. Our results indicate the involvement of cerebrospinal axons in swimming recovery after spinal cord injury in adult zebrafish. PMID:25157957

  6. Critical thinking during the adult years: has the developmental function changed over the last four decades?

    PubMed

    Denney, N W

    1995-01-01

    Age, sex, and education differences in critical thinking during the adult years were investigated. The Watson-Glaser (1980) Critical Thinking Appraisal was administered to 60 men and women between the ages of 20 and 79. Regression analyses indicated that age was significantly related to overall critical thinking: Performance decreased with increasing age. Education was also significantly related to critical thinking: Performance increased with increasing education. However, an interaction between age and education in the analysis of total critical thinking scores indicated that education was significantly related to critical thinking only in the later adult years. No sex differences were found in critical thinking performance. PMID:7628511

  7. Adaptive Strategies and Person-Environment Fit among Functionally Limited Older Adults Aging in Place: A Mixed Methods Approach

    PubMed Central

    Lien, Laura L.; Steggell, Carmen D.; Iwarsson, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Older adults prefer to age in place, necessitating a match between person and environment, or person-environment (P-E) fit. In occupational therapy practice, home modifications can support independence, but more knowledge is needed to optimize interventions targeting the housing situation of older adults. In response, this study aimed to explore the accessibility and usability of the home environment to further understand adaptive environmental behaviors. Mixed methods data were collected using objective and perceived indicators of P-E fit among 12 older adults living in community-dwelling housing. Quantitative data described objective P-E fit in terms of accessibility, while qualitative data explored perceived P-E fit in terms of usability. While accessibility problems were prevalent, participants’ perceptions of usability revealed a range of adaptive environmental behaviors employed to meet functional needs. A closer examination of the P-E interaction suggests that objective accessibility does not always stipulate perceived usability, which appears to be malleable with age, self-perception, and functional competency. Findings stress the importance of evaluating both objective and perceived indicators of P-E fit to provide housing interventions that support independence. Further exploration of adaptive processes in older age may serve to deepen our understanding of both P-E fit frameworks and theoretical models of aging well. PMID:26404352

  8. Adaptive Strategies and Person-Environment Fit among Functionally Limited Older Adults Aging in Place: A Mixed Methods Approach.

    PubMed

    Lien, Laura L; Steggell, Carmen D; Iwarsson, Susanne

    2015-09-01

    Older adults prefer to age in place, necessitating a match between person and environment, or person-environment (P-E) fit. In occupational therapy practice, home modifications can support independence, but more knowledge is needed to optimize interventions targeting the housing situation of older adults. In response, this study aimed to explore the accessibility and usability of the home environment to further understand adaptive environmental behaviors. Mixed methods data were collected using objective and perceived indicators of P-E fit among 12 older adults living in community-dwelling housing. Quantitative data described objective P-E fit in terms of accessibility, while qualitative data explored perceived P-E fit in terms of usability. While accessibility problems were prevalent, participants' perceptions of usability revealed a range of adaptive environmental behaviors employed to meet functional needs. A closer examination of the P-E interaction suggests that objective accessibility does not always stipulate perceived usability, which appears to be malleable with age, self-perception, and functional competency. Findings stress the importance of evaluating both objective and perceived indicators of P-E fit to provide housing interventions that support independence. Further exploration of adaptive processes in older age may serve to deepen our understanding of both P-E fit frameworks and theoretical models of aging well. PMID:26404352

  9. Interpersonal sensitivity and functioning impairment in youth at ultra-high risk for psychosis.

    PubMed

    Masillo, A; Valmaggia, L R; Saba, R; Brandizzi, M; Lindau, J F; Solfanelli, A; Curto, M; Narilli, F; Telesforo, L; Kotzalidis, G D; Di Pietro, D; D'Alema, M; Girardi, P; Fiori Nastro, P

    2016-01-01

    A personality trait that often elicits poor and uneasy interpersonal relationships is interpersonal sensitivity. The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between interpersonal sensitivity and psychosocial functioning in individuals at ultra-high risk for psychosis as compared to help-seeking individuals who screened negative for an ultra-high risk of psychosis. A total sample of 147 adolescents and young adult who were help seeking for emerging mental health problems participated in the study. The sample was divided into two groups: 39 individuals who met criteria for an ultra-high-risk mental state (UHR), and 108 (NS). The whole sample completed the Interpersonal Sensitivity Measure (IPSM) and the Global Functioning: Social and Role Scale (GF:SS; GF:RS). Mediation analysis was used to explore whether attenuated negative symptoms mediated the relationship between interpersonal sensitivity and social functioning. Individuals with UHR state showed higher IPSM scores and lower GF:SS and GF:RS scores than NS participants. A statistically negative significant correlation between two IPSM subscales (Interpersonal Awareness and Timidity) and GF:SS was found in both groups. Our results also suggest that the relationship between the aforementioned aspects of interpersonal sensitivity and social functioning was not mediated by negative prodromal symptoms. This study suggests that some aspects of interpersonal sensitivity were associated with low level of social functioning. Assessing and treating interpersonal sensitivity may be a promising therapeutic target to improve social functioning in young help-seeking individuals. PMID:25711287

  10. Specific cognitive functions and depressive symptoms as predictors of activities of daily living in older adults with heterogeneous cognitive backgrounds

    PubMed Central

    de Paula, Jonas J.; Diniz, Breno S.; Bicalho, Maria A.; Albuquerque, Maicon Rodrigues; Nicolato, Rodrigo; de Moraes, Edgar N.; Romano-Silva, Marco A.; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro F.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive functioning influences activities of daily living (ADL). However, studies reporting the association between ADL and neuropsychological performance show inconsistent results regarding what specific cognitive domains are related to each specific functional domains. Additionally, whether depressive symptoms are associated with a worse functional performance in older adults is still under explored. We investigated if specific cognitive domains and depressive symptoms would affect different aspects of ADL. Participants were 274 older adults (96 normal aging participants, 85 patients with mild cognitive impairment, and 93 patients probable with mild Alzheimer’s disease dementia) with low formal education (?4 years). Measures of ADL included three complexity levels: Self-care, Instrumental-Domestic, and Instrumental-Complex. The specific cognitive functions were evaluated through a factorial strategy resulting in four cognitive domains: Executive Functions, Language/Semantic Memory, Episodic Memory, and Visuospatial Abilities. The Geriatric Depression Scale measured depressive symptoms. Multiple linear regression analysis showed executive functions and episodic memory as significant predictors of Instrumental-Domestic ADL, and executive functions, episodic memory and language/semantic memory as predictors of Instrumental-Complex ADL (22 and 28% of explained variance, respectively). Ordinal regression analysis showed the influence of specific cognitive functions and depressive symptoms on each one of the instrumental ADL. We observed a heterogeneous pattern of association with explained variance ranging from 22 to 38%. Different instrumental ADL had specific cognitive predictors and depressive symptoms were predictive of ADL involving social contact. Our results suggest a specific pattern of influence depending on the specific instrumental daily living activity. PMID:26257644

  11. Role of Wnt Signaling in the Control of Adult Hippocampal Functioning in Health and Disease: Therapeutic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Matamoros, Abril; Salcedo-Tello, Pamela; Avila-Muñoz, Evangelina; Zepeda, Angélica; Arias, Clorinda

    2013-01-01

    It is well recognized the role of the Wnt pathway in many developmental processes such as neuronal maturation, migration, neuronal connectivity and synaptic formation. Growing evidence is also demonstrating its function in the mature brain where is associated with modulation of axonal remodeling, dendrite outgrowth, synaptic activity, neurogenesis and behavioral plasticity. Proteins involved in Wnt signaling have been found expressed in the adult hippocampus suggesting that Wnt pathway plays a role in the hippocampal function through life. Indeed, Wnt ligands act locally to regulate neurogenesis, neuronal cell shape and pre- and postsynaptic assembly, events that are thought to underlie changes in synaptic function associated with long-term potentiation and with cognitive tasks such as learning and memory. Recent data have demonstrated the increased expression of the Wnt antagonist Dickkopf-1 (DKK1) in brains of Alzheimer´s disease (AD) patients suggesting that dysfunction of Wnt signaling could also contribute to AD pathology. We review here evidence of Wnt-associated molecules expression linked to physiological and pathological hippocampal functioning in the adult brain. The basic aspects of Wnt related mechanisms underlying hippocampal plasticity as well as evidence of how hippocampal dysfunction may rely on Wnt dysregulation is analyzed. This information would provide some clues about the possible therapeutic targets for developing treatments for neurodegenerative diseases associated with aberrant brain plasticity. PMID:24403870

  12. Association between Tooth Loss and Cognitive Function among 3063 Chinese Older Adults: A Community-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jianfeng; Wu, Bei; Zhao, Qianhua; Guo, Qihao; Meng, Haijiao; Yu, Lirong; Zheng, Li; Hong, Zhen; Ding, Ding

    2015-01-01

    Background Oral health has been found to be associated with cognitive function in basic research and epidemiology studies. Most of these studies had no comprehensive clinical diagnosis on cognitive function. This study firstly reported the association between tooth loss and cognitive function among Chinese older population. Methods The study included 3,063 community dwelling older adults aged 60 or above from the Shanghai Aging Study. Number of teeth missing was obtained from self-reporting questionnaire and confirmed by trained interviewers. Participants were diagnosed as “dementia”, “mild cognitive impairment (MCI)”, or “cognitive normal” by neurologists using DSM-IV and Petersen criteria. Multivariate logistic regression model was applied to examine the association between number of teeth missing and cognitive function. Results The study participants had an average of 10.2 teeth lost. Individuals with dementia lost 18.7 teeth on average, much higher than those with MCI (11.8) and cognitive normal (9.3) (p<0.001). After adjusted for sex, age, education year, living alone, body mass index, cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, anxiety, depression, heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, and APOE-?4, tooth loss of >16 were significantly associated with dementia with an OR of 1.56 (95%CI 1.12-2.18). Conclusion Having over 16 missing teeth was associated with severe cognitive impairment among Chinese older adults. Poor oral health might be considered as a related factor of neurodegenerative symptom among older Chinese population. PMID:25803052

  13. Psychiatric Morbidity and Social Functioning among Adults with Borderline Intelligence Living in Private Households

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassiotis, A.; Strydom, A.; Hall, I.; Ali, A.; Lawrence-Smith, G.; Meltzer, H.; Head, J; Bebbington, P.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Approximately one-eighth of the population will have DSM-IV borderline intelligence. Various mental disorders and social disability are associated with it. Method: The paper uses data (secondary analysis) from a UK-wide cross-sectional survey of 8450 adults living in private households. Data were collected on psychiatric disorders,…

  14. Novel soybean oils differing in fatty acid composition alter immune functions of moderately hypercholesterolemic older adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Linoleic acid (LA) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) are essential fatty acids, which play an important role in modulation of T cell proliferation. The effects of feeding novel soybean oils differing in LA/ALA ratios was assessed on T cell proliferation and inflammatory responses of older adults. Eight...

  15. Reflecting on Pills and Phone Use: Supporting Awareness of Functional Abilities for Older Adults

    E-print Network

    15213 {matthew.lee, anind}@cs.cmu.edu ABSTRACT Older adults often struggle with maintaining self accounts of behaviors to support self-awareness. In this paper, we describe the design and four month deployment of a prototype sensing system that tracks medication taking and phone use in the homes of two

  16. Determinants of Adult Functional Outcome in Adolescents Receiving Special Educational Assistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGeown, H. R.; Johnstone, E. C.; McKirdy, J.; Owens, D. C.; Stanfield, A. C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study investigates the role of IQ, autistic traits and challenging behaviours in affecting adult outcomes among adolescents who receive special educational assistance. Methods: A total of 58 participants were recruited from an ongoing longitudinal study. All received assessments of IQ, behavioural patterns (using the Childhood…

  17. Keeping Older Adults with Vision Loss Safe: Chronic Conditions and Comorbidities that Influence Functional Mobility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddering, Anne T.

    2008-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of vision loss in Americans aged 60 and older. The loss of central vision from AMD can decrease visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, glare sensitivity, color discrimination, and the ability to adapt to changes in lighting conditions. Older adults with vision loss often have other chronic,…

  18. Primary Prevention for Mental Health: A Stress Inoculation Training Course for Functioning Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiraldi, Glenn R.; Brown, Stephen L.

    2001-01-01

    Describes a college course that taught preventive mental health skills to adults by exploring diverse cognitive-behavioral skills that facilitate coping, are preventive in nature, and are suitable for learning by healthy individuals in educational settings. It focused on anger management, anxiety and worry management, self-esteem enhancement,…

  19. Systematic Instruction of Functional Skills for Students and Adults with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storey, Keith; Miner, Craig

    2011-01-01

    This text is a clear and current description of the instructional strategies that can be immediately applied across age groups and disability labels. An evidence-based instructional methodology is provided, which has proved to be effective in teaching skills to students and adults with disabilities. Signature topics include: (1) a…

  20. Adult-Onset Antisocial Behavior Trajectories: Associations with Adolescent Family Processes and Emerging Adulthood Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mata, Andrea D.; van Dulmen, Manfred H. M.

    2012-01-01

    Guided by conceptual and empirical work on emerging adulthood, this study investigated the role of closeness to mother and father and behavioral autonomy during adolescence on the development of adult-onset antisocial behavior. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), we identified four aggressive…

  1. Electronic Books versus Adult Readers: Effects on Children's Emergent Literacy as a Function of Social Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korat, Ofra; Shamir, A.

    2007-01-01

    We compared the effects of children's reading of an educational electronic storybook on their emergent literacy with those of being read the same story in its printed version by an adult. We investigated 128 5- to 6-year-old kindergarteners; 64 children from each of two socio-economic status (SES) groups: low (LSES) and middle (MSES). In each…

  2. Functional Imaging of Numerical Processing in Adults and 4-y-Old Children

    E-print Network

    Makous, Walter

    , pre-school children, and non-human animals appear to share a system of approximate numerical evidence indicates that pre- verbal children and human adults, as well as other animals, share a fundamental mechanism for representing approx- imate numerical values that is independent of language [1­ 10

  3. Functions of an Adult Sickle Cell Group: Education, Task Orientation, and Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Dennis J.; Beltran, Lou R.

    1993-01-01

    Reports on development of adult sickle cell support group and provides description of psychosocial factors most prevalent in patients' lives (anxiety about death, disruption of social support network, disability, dependence on pain medication, conflicts with health care providers). Notes that support group enhanced participants' knowledge about…

  4. Cognitive Function in Adult Offspring of Women with Gestational Diabetes–The Role of Glucose and Other Factors

    PubMed Central

    Clausen, Tine D.; Mortensen, Erik L.; Schmidt, Lone; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R.; Hansen, Torben; Jensen, Dorte M.; Damm, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Objective We aimed to evaluate cognitive function in adult offspring of women with diet-treated gestational diabetes and to study potential associations with maternal glucose values. Materials and Methods In 2003–2005 cognitive function was assessed in a cohort of 18–27 year old offspring of women with diet-treated gestational diabetes mellitus (n?=?153) and offspring from the background population (n?=?118). The main outcome measure was global cognitive score derived from Raven’s Progressive Matrices and three verbal subtests from the Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale. Maternal fasting- and 2-hour blood glucose values from the diagnostic oral glucose tolerance test were used as exposure variables. Results Offspring of women with gestational diabetes mellitus had a lower global cognitive score, than offspring from the background population (93.1 vs. 100.0, P<0.001). However, when adjusted for maternal age at delivery, parity, smoking during pregnancy, pre-pregnancy overweight, family social class, parental educational level, gender, birth weight, gestational age, perinatal complications and offspring age at follow-up, the difference was no longer statistically significant. Offspring global cognitive score decreased significantly with increasing maternal fasting glucose (??=??4.5, 95% CI ?8.0 to ?0.9, P?=?0.01) and 2-hour glucose (??=??1.5, ?2.9 to ?0.2, P?=?0.03) in univariate general linear models, but not when adjusted for family social class and parental educational level. Conclusions Lower cognitive test scores in adult offspring of women with diet-treated gestational diabetes were explained by well known predictors of cognitive function, but not by maternal hyperglycaemia during pregnancy. We find it reassuring that mild intrauterine hyperglycaemia does not seem to have adverse effect on offspring cognitive function. PMID:23840595

  5. Adult lung function and long-term air pollution exposure. ESCAPE: a multicentre cohort study and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Adam, Martin; Schikowski, Tamara; Carsin, Anne Elie; Cai, Yutong; Jacquemin, Benedicte; Sanchez, Margaux; Vierkötter, Andrea; Marcon, Alessandro; Keidel, Dirk; Sugiri, Dorothee; Al Kanani, Zaina; Nadif, Rachel; Siroux, Valérie; Hardy, Rebecca; Kuh, Diana; Rochat, Thierry; Bridevaux, Pierre-Olivier; Eeftens, Marloes; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Villani, Simona; Phuleria, Harish Chandra; Birk, Matthias; Cyrys, Josef; Cirach, Marta; de Nazelle, Audrey; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Forsberg, Bertil; de Hoogh, Kees; Declerq, Christophe; Bono, Roberto; Piccioni, Pavilio; Quass, Ulrich; Heinrich, Joachim; Jarvis, Deborah; Pin, Isabelle; Beelen, Rob; Hoek, Gerard; Brunekreef, Bert; Schindler, Christian; Sunyer, Jordi; Krämer, Ursula; Kauffmann, Francine; Hansell, Anna L; Künzli, Nino; Probst-Hensch, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    The chronic impact of ambient air pollutants on lung function in adults is not fully understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of long-term exposure to ambient air pollution with lung function in adult participants from five cohorts in the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE). Residential exposure to nitrogen oxides (NO?, NOx) and particulate matter (PM) was modelled and traffic indicators were assessed in a standardised manner. The spirometric parameters forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV?) and forced vital capacity (FVC) from 7613 subjects were considered as outcomes. Cohort-specific results were combined using meta-analysis. We did not observe an association of air pollution with longitudinal change in lung function, but we observed that a 10 ?g·m(-3) increase in NO? exposure was associated with lower levels of FEV? (-14.0 mL, 95% CI -25.8 to -2.1) and FVC (-14.9 mL, 95% CI -28.7 to -1.1). An increase of 10 ?g·m(-3) in PM10, but not other PM metrics (PM2.5, coarse fraction of PM, PM absorbance), was associated with a lower level of FEV? (-44.6 mL, 95% CI -85.4 to -3.8) and FVC (-59.0 mL, 95% CI -112.3 to -5.6). The associations were particularly strong in obese persons. This study adds to the evidence for an adverse association of ambient air pollution with lung function in adults at very low levels in Europe. PMID:25193994

  6. Adult lung function and long-term air pollution exposure. ESCAPE: a multicentre cohort study and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Martin; Schikowski, Tamara; Carsin, Anne Elie; Cai, Yutong; Jacquemin, Benedicte; Sanchez, Margaux; Vierkötter, Andrea; Marcon, Alessandro; Keidel, Dirk; Sugiri, Dorothee; Al Kanani, Zaina; Nadif, Rachel; Siroux, Valérie; Hardy, Rebecca; Kuh, Diana; Rochat, Thierry; Bridevaux, Pierre-Olivier; Eeftens, Marloes; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Villani, Simona; Phuleria, Harish Chandra; Birk, Matthias; Cyrys, Josef; Cirach, Marta; de Nazelle, Audrey; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Forsberg, Bertil; de Hoogh, Kees; Declerq, Christophe; Bono, Roberto; Piccioni, Pavilio; Quass, Ulrich; Heinrich, Joachim; Jarvis, Deborah; Pin, Isabelle; Beelen, Rob; Hoek, Gerard; Brunekreef, Bert; Schindler, Christian; Sunyer, Jordi; Krämer, Ursula; Kauffmann, Francine; Hansell, Anna L.; Künzli, Nino; Probst-Hensch, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    The chronic impact of ambient air pollutants on lung function in adults is not fully understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of long-term exposure to ambient air pollution with lung function in adult participants from five cohorts in the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE). Residential exposure to nitrogen oxides (NO2, NOx) and particulate matter (PM) was modelled and traffic indicators were assessed in a standardised manner. The spirometric parameters forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) from 7613 subjects were considered as outcomes. Cohort-specific results were combined using meta-analysis. We did not observe an association of air pollution with longitudinal change in lung function, but we observed that a 10 ?g·m?3 increase in NO2 exposure was associated with lower levels of FEV1 (?14.0 mL, 95% CI ?25.8 to ?2.1) and FVC (?14.9 mL, 95% CI ?28.7 to ?1.1). An increase of 10 ?g·m?3 in PM10, but not other PM metrics (PM2.5, coarse fraction of PM, PM absorbance), was associated with a lower level of FEV1 (?44.6 mL, 95% CI ?85.4 to ?3.8) and FVC (?59.0 mL, 95% CI ?112.3 to ?5.6). The associations were particularly strong in obese persons. This study adds to the evidence for an adverse association of ambient air pollution with lung function in adults at very low levels in Europe. PMID:25193994

  7. Road work on memory lane--functional and structural alterations to the learning and memory circuit in adults born very preterm.

    PubMed

    Salvan, Piergiorgio; Froudist Walsh, Seán; Allin, Matthew P G; Walshe, Muriel; Murray, Robin M; Bhattacharyya, Sagnik; McGuire, Philip K; Williams, Steven C R; Nosarti, Chiara

    2014-11-15

    Very preterm (VPT) birth is considered a risk factor not only for neurological impairment, but also for reduced function in several cognitive domains in childhood and later in life. Individuals who were born VPT are more likely to demonstrate learning and memory difficulties compared to term-born controls. These problems contribute to more VPT-born children repeating grades and underachieving in school. This, in turn, affects their prospects in adult life. Here we aimed to 1) study how the VPT-born adult brain functionally recruited specific areas during learning, i.e. encoding and recall across four repeated blocks of verbal stimuli, and to investigate how these patterns of activation differed from term-born subjects; and 2) probe the microstructural differences of white-matter tracts connecting these areas to other parts of the learning and memory network. To investigate these functional-structural relationships we analyzed functional and diffusion-weighted MRI. Functional-MRI and a verbal paired associate learning (VPAL) task were used to extract Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) activity in 21 VPT-born adults (<33 weeks of gestation) (mean age: 19.68 years ± 0.85; IQ: 99.86 ± 11.20) and 10 term-born controls (mean age: 19.87 years ± 2.04; IQ: 108.9 ± 13.18). Areas in which differences in functional activation were observed between groups were used as seed regions for tractography. Fractional anisotropy (FA) of the tract-skeleton was then compared between groups on a voxel-wise basis. Results of functional MRI analysis showed a significantly different pattern of activation between groups during encoding in right anterior cingulate-caudate body, and during retrieval in left thalamus, hippocampus and parts of left posterior parahippocampal gyrus. The number of correctly recalled word pairs did not statistically differ between individuals who were born VPT and controls. The VPT-born group was found to have reduced FA in tracts passing through the thalamic/hippocampal region that was differently activated during the recall condition, with the hippocampal fornix, inferior longitudinal fasciculus and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus particularly affected. Young adults who were born very preterm display a strikingly different pattern of activation during the process of learning in key structures of the learning and memory network, including anterior cingulate and caudate body during encoding and thalamus/parahippocampal gyrus during cued recall. Altered activation in thalamus/parahippocampal gyrus may be explained by reduced connections between these areas and the hippocampus, which may be a direct consequence of neonatal hypoxic/ischemic injury. These results could reflect the effect of adaptive plastic processes associated with high-order cognitive functions, at least when the cognitive load remains relatively low, as ex-preterm young adults displayed unimpaired performance in completing the verbal paired associate learning task. PMID:24368264

  8. Effect of moderate-intensity exercise training on the cognitive function of young adults with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Pastula, Robert M; Stopka, Christine B; Delisle, Anthony T; Hass, Chris J

    2012-12-01

    In addition to cognitive impairment, young adults with intellectual disabilities (IDs) are also more likely to be in poor health. Exercise may help ameliorate both of these deficits. While the health benefits of exercise are well documented and understood, the cognitive benefits of exercise are emerging. Exercise has been shown to improve the cognitive function of young, old, and diseased populations but few studies have evaluated the effect of exercise training on the cognitive functioning of individuals with IDs. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of moderate-intensity exercise training on the cognitive function of young adults with IDs. Fourteen students (age, 19.4 ± 1.3 years) with mild to moderate IDs participated in an 8-week comprehensive exercise intervention program based on circuit training, aerobic dancing, and adapted sport activities. Sessions lasted 45 minutes, and intensity was maintained at 60-70% of maximum heart rate (HR(max)). Aerobic fitness was assessed via the Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA) step test, and intellectual functioning was assessed via 3 subtests from the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities once before and after the intervention. Performance was significantly improved on all 3 cognitive tests (all, p < 0.002). Aerobic fitness also significantly improved (p < 0.002). The mean percent increase in processing speed, a measure taking into account each individual's performance on the 3 subtests, was 103%. The mean individual improvement in aerobic fitness was 17.5%. Moderate-intensity exercise training can yield robust improvements in the cognitive functioning and aerobic fitness of young adults with IDs. These effects support the inclusion of exercise into the lives of young adults with ID to promote their physical and cognitive health. Fourteen students (age, 19.4 ± 1.3 years) with mild to moderate IDs participated in an 8-week comprehensive exercise intervention program based on circuit training, aerobic dancing, and adapted sport activities. Sessions lasted 45 minutes and intensity Powered by Editorial Manager and Preprint Manager from Aries Systems Corporation was maintained at 60-70% of HR(max). Aerobic fitness was assessed via the YMCA step test, and intellectual functioning was assessed via 3 subtests from the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities once before and after the intervention. Performance was significantly improved on all 3 cognitive tests (all, p < 0.002). Aerobic fitness also significantly improved (p < 0.002). The mean percent increase in processing speed, a measure taking into account each individual's performance on the 3 subtests, was 103%. The mean individual improvement in aerobic fitness was 17.5%. Moderate-intensity exercise training can yield robust improvements in the cognitive functioning and aerobic fitness of young adults with IDs. These effects support the inclusion of exercise into the lives of young adults with ID to promote their physical and cognitive health. PMID:22955628

  9. High Self-Perceived Stress and Poor Coping in Intellectually Able Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirvikoski, Tatja; Blomqvist, My

    2015-01-01

    Despite average intellectual capacity, autistic traits may complicate performance in many everyday situations, thus leading to stress. This study focuses on stress in everyday life in intellectually able adults with autism spectrum disorders. In total, 53 adults (25 with autism spectrum disorder and 28 typical adults from the general population)…

  10. Clinical significance of high c-MYC and low MYCBP2 expression and their association with Ikaros dysfunction in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Ge, Zheng; Guo, Xing; Li, Jianyong; Hartman, Melanie; Kawasawa, Yuka Imamura; Dovat, Sinisa; Song, Chunhua

    2015-12-01

    Increased expression of c-MYC is observed in both Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) and T-cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (T-ALL). MYC binding protein 2 (MYCBP2) is a probable E3 ubiquitin ligase and its function in leukemia is unknown. IKZF1 deletion is associated with the development and poor outcome of ALL. Here, we observed significant high c-MYC expression and low MYCBP2 expression in adult ALL patients. Patients with high c-MYC expression and/or low MYCBP2 expression had higher WBC counts and a higher percentage of CD34+ or CD33+ cells, as well as splenomegaly, liver infiltration, higher BM blasts, and lower CR rate. Ikaros bound to the regulatory regions of c-MYC and MYCBP2, suppressed c-MYC and increased MYCBP2 expression in ALL cells. Expression of c-MYC mRNA was significantly higher in patients with IKZF1 deletion; conversely MYCBP2 mRNA expression was significantly lower in those patients. A CK2 inhibitor, which acts as an Ikaros activator, also suppressed c-MYC and increased MYCBP2 expression in an Ikaros (IKZF1) dependent manner in the ALL cells. In summary, our data indicated the correlation of high c-MYC expression, low MYCBP2 expression and high c-MYC plus low MYCBP2 expression with high-risk factors and proliferation markers in adult ALL patients. Our data also revealed an oncogenic role for an Ikaros/MYCBP2/c-MYC axis in adult ALL, providing a mechanism of target therapies that activate Ikaros in adult ALL. PMID:26517351

  11. High-fluoride toothpaste: a multicenter randomized controlled trial in adults

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Murali; Schimmel, Martin; Riesen, Martine; Ilgner, Alexander; Wicht, Michael J; Warncke, Michael; Ellwood, Roger P; Nitschke, Ina; Müller, Frauke; Noack, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this single – blind, multicenter, parallel, randomized controlled trial was to evaluate the effectiveness of the application of a high-fluoride toothpaste on root caries in adults. Methods Adult patients (n = 130, ? = 74, ? = 56; mean age ± SD: 56.9 ± 12.9) from three participating centers, diagnosed with root caries, were randomly allocated into two groups: Test (n = 64, ? = 37, ? = 27; lesions = 144; mean age: 59.0 ± 12.1; intervention: high-fluoride toothpaste with 5000 ppm F), and Control (n = 66, ? = 37, ? = 29; lesions = 160; mean age: 54.8 ± 13.5; intervention: regular-fluoride toothpaste with 1350 ppm F) groups. Clinical examinations and surface hardness scoring of the carious lesions were performed for each subject at specified time intervals (T0 – at baseline before intervention, T1 – at 3 months and T2 – at 6 months after intervention). Mean surface hardness scores (HS) were calculated for each patient. Statistical analyses comprised of two-way analysis of variance and post hoc comparisons using the Bonferroni–Dunn correction. Results At T0, there was no statistical difference between the two groups with regard to gender (P = 0.0682, unpaired t-test), or age (P = 0.9786, chi-squared test), and for the overall HS (Test group: HS = 3.4 ± 0.61; Control group: HS = 3.4 ± 0.66; P = 0.8757, unpaired t-test). The anova revealed significantly better HS for the test group than for the control groups (T1: Test group: HS = 2.9 ± 0.67; Control group: HS = 3.1 ± 0.75; T2: Test group: HS = 2.4 ± 0.81; Control group: HS = 2.8 ± 0.79; P < 0.0001). However, the interaction term time-point*group was not significant. Conclusions The application of a high-fluoride containing dentifrice (5000 ppm F) in adults, twice daily, significantly improves the surface hardness of otherwise untreated root caries lesions when compared with the use of regular fluoride containing (1350 ppm F) toothpastes. PMID:24354454

  12. The benefit of amplification on auditory working memory function in middle-aged and young-older hearing impaired adults

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, Karen A.; Desjardins, Jamie L.

    2015-01-01

    Untreated hearing loss can interfere with an individual’s cognitive abilities and intellectual function. Specifically, hearing loss has been shown to negatively impact working memory function, which is important for speech understanding, especially in difficult or noisy listening conditions. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of hearing aid use on auditory working memory function in middle-aged and young-older adults with mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss. Participants completed two objective measures of auditory working memory in aided and unaided listening conditions. An aged matched control group followed the same experimental protocol except they were not fit with hearing aids. All participants’ aided scores on the auditory working memory tests were significantly improved while wearing hearing aids. Thus, hearing aids worn during the early stages of an age-related hearing loss can improve a person’s performance on auditory working memory tests. PMID:26097461

  13. Intestinal Microbiota in Healthy U.S. Young Children and Adults—A High Throughput Microarray Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ringel, Yehuda; Salojärvi, Jarkko; Carroll, Ian; Palva, Airi; de Vos, Willem M.; Satokari, Reetta

    2013-01-01

    It is generally believed that the infant's microbiota is established during the first 1–2 years of life. However, there is scarce data on its characterization and its comparison to the adult-like microbiota in consecutive years. Aim To characterize and compare the intestinal microbiota in healthy young children (1–4 years) and healthy adults from the North Carolina region in the U.S. using high-throughput bacterial phylogenetic microarray analysis. Methods Detailed characterization and comparison of the intestinal microbiota of healthy children aged 1–4 years old (n?=?28) and healthy adults of 21–60 years (n?=?23) was carried out using the Human Intestinal Tract Chip (HITChip) phylogenetic microarray targeting the V1 and V6 regions of 16S rRNA and quantitative PCR. Results The HITChip microarray data indicate that Actinobacteria, Bacilli, Clostridium cluster IV and Bacteroidetes are the predominant phylum-like groups that exhibit differences between young children and adults. The phylum-like group Clostridium cluster XIVa was equally predominant in young children and adults and is thus considered to be established at an early age. The genus-like level show significant 3.6 fold (higher or lower) differences in the abundance of 26 genera between young children and adults. Young U.S. children have a significantly 3.5-fold higher abundance of Bifidobacterium species than the adults from the same location. However, the microbiota of young children is less diverse than that of adults. Conclusions We show that the establishment of an adult-like intestinal microbiota occurs at a later age than previously reported. Characterizing the microbiota and its development in the early years of life may help identify ‘windows of opportunity’ for interventional strategies that may promote health and prevent or mitigate disease processes. PMID:23717595

  14. The Impact of Childhood ADHD on Dropping out of High School in Urban Adolescents/Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trampush, Joey W.; Miller, Carlin J.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine cognitive and psychosocial factors associated with high school dropout in urban adolescents with and without childhood ADHD. Method: In a longitudinal study, 49 adolescents/young adults with childhood ADHD and 44 controls who either dropped out or graduated from high school are included. Risk factors examined as potential…

  15. Aerobic versus resistance training effects on health-related quality of life, body composition, and function of older adults.

    PubMed

    Canuto Wanderley, Flávia Accioly; Oliveira, Nórton Luis; Marques, Elisa; Moreira, Pedro; Oliveira, José; Carvalho, Joana

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of training on health-related quality of life (HRQoL), body composition, and function in older adults. Fifty participants were randomized into aerobic training (AT--70%-80% HR reserve), resistance training (RT--80% 1RM), or controls. They had HRQoL, body composition, and function assessed before and after 8 months. Training groups reduced body fat, increased performance in the stair ascent, 8-ft up-and-go and sit-to-stand five-times tests, and improved their physical component score (PCS; p ? .03). AT increased performance in the 6MWT test, and improved general and mental health (MH) domains when compared to controls (p < .01). Finally, changes in stair ascent were associated with changes in bodily pain, MH, and mental component score (p ? .04), while changes in handgrip strength were associated with changes in physical role and MH (p = .03). AT and RT were effective interventions for decreasing body fat and improving functionality and the PCS in older adults. PMID:24652860

  16. Interaction between Helicobacter pylori and Latent Toxoplasmosis and Demographic Variables on Cognitive Function in Young to Middle-Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gale, Shawn D.; Erickson, Lance D.; Brown, Bruce L.; Hedges, Dawson W.

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori and latent toxoplasmosis are widespread diseases that have been associated with cognitive deficits and Alzheimer’s disease. We sought to determine whether interactions between Helicobacter pylori and latent toxoplasmosis, age, race-ethnicity, educational attainment, economic status, and general health predict cognitive function in young and middle-aged adults. To do so, we used multivariable regression and multivariate models to analyze data obtained from the United States’ National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, which can be weighted to represent the US population. In this sample, we found that 31.6 percent of women and 36.2 percent of men of the overall sample had IgG Antibodies against Helicobacter pylori, although the seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori varied with sociodemographic variables. There were no main effects for Helicobacter pylori or latent toxoplasmosis for any of the cognitive measures in models adjusting for age, sex, race-ethnicity, educational attainment, economic standing, and self-rated health predicting cognitive function. However, interactions between Helicobacter pylori and race-ethnicity, educational attainment, latent toxoplasmosis in the fully adjusted models predicted cognitive function. People seropositive for both Helicobacter pylori and latent toxoplasmosis – both of which appear to be common in the general population – appear to be more susceptible to cognitive deficits than are people seropositive for either Helicobacter pylori and or latent toxoplasmosis alone, suggesting a synergistic effect between these two infectious diseases on cognition in young to middle-aged adults. PMID:25590622

  17. The impact of the developmental timing of trauma exposure on PTSD symptoms and psychosocial functioning among older adults.

    PubMed

    Ogle, Christin M; Rubin, David C; Siegler, Ilene C

    2013-11-01

    The present study examined the impact of the developmental timing of trauma exposure on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and psychosocial functioning in a large sample of community-dwelling older adults (N = 1,995). Specifically, we investigated whether the negative consequences of exposure to traumatic events were greater for traumas experienced during childhood, adolescence, young adulthood, midlife, or older adulthood. Each of these developmental periods is characterized by age-related changes in cognitive and social processes that may influence psychological adjustment following trauma exposure. Results revealed that older adults who experienced their currently most distressing traumatic event during childhood exhibited more severe symptoms of PTSD and lower subjective happiness compared with older adults who experienced their most distressing trauma after the transition to adulthood. Similar findings emerged for measures of social support and coping ability. The differential effects of childhood compared with later life traumas were not fully explained by differences in cumulative trauma exposure or by differences in the objective and subjective characteristics of the events. Our findings demonstrate the enduring nature of traumatic events encountered early in the life course and underscore the importance of examining the developmental context of trauma exposure in investigations of the long-term consequences of traumatic experiences. PMID:23458662

  18. The Impact of the Developmental Timing of Trauma Exposure on PTSD Symptoms and Psychosocial Functioning Among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ogle, Christin M.; Rubin, David C.; Siegler, Ilene C.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the impact of the developmental timing of trauma exposure on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and psychosocial functioning in a large sample of community-dwelling older adults (n = 1,995). Specifically, we investigated whether the negative consequences of exposure to traumatic events were greater for traumas experienced during childhood, adolescence, young adulthood, midlife, or older adulthood. Each of these developmental periods is characterized by age-related changes in cognitive and social processes that may influence psychological adjustment following trauma exposure. Results revealed that older adults who experienced their currently most distressing traumatic event during childhood exhibited more severe symptoms of PTSD and lower subjective happiness compared to older adults who experienced their most distressing trauma after the transition to adulthood. Similar findings emerged for measures of social support and coping ability. The differential effects of childhood compared to later life traumas were not fully explained by differences in cumulative trauma exposure or by differences in the objective and subjective characteristics of the events. Our findings demonstrate the enduring nature of traumatic events encountered early in the life course and underscore the importance of examining the developmental context of trauma exposure in investigations of the long-term consequences of traumatic experiences. PMID:23458662

  19. Repeated Exposure of Adult Rats to Transient Oxidative Stress Induces Various Long-Lasting Alterations in Cognitive and Behavioral Functions

    PubMed Central

    Iguchi, Yoshio; Kosugi, Sakurako; Nishikawa, Hiromi; Lin, Ziqiao; Minabe, Yoshio; Toda, Shigenobu

    2014-01-01

    Exposure of neonates to oxidative stress may increase the risk of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia in adulthood. However, the effects of moderate oxidative stress on the adult brain are not completely understood. To address this issue, we systemically administrated 2-cyclohexen-1-one (CHX) to adult rats to transiently reduce glutathione levels. Repeated administration of CHX did not affect the acquisition or motivation of an appetitive instrumental behavior (lever pressing) rewarded by a food outcome under a progressive ratio schedule. In addition, response discrimination and reversal learning were not affected. However, acute CHX administration blunted the sensitivity of the instrumental performance to outcome devaluation, and this effect was prolonged in rats with a history of repeated CHX exposure, representing pro-depression-like phenotypes. On the other hand, repeated CHX administration reduced immobility in forced swimming tests and blunted acute cocaine-induced behaviors, implicating antidepressant-like effects. Multivariate analyses segregated a characteristic group of behavioral variables influenced by repeated CHX administration. Taken together, these findings suggest that repeated administration of CHX to adult rats did not cause a specific mental disorder, but it induced long-term alterations in behavioral and cognitive functions, possibly related to specific neural correlates. PMID:25489939

  20. Differential Item Functioning of the Boston Naming Test in Cognitively Normal African American and Caucasian Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Pedraza, Otto; Graff-Radford, Neill R.; Smith, Glenn E.; Ivnik, Robert J.; Willis, Floyd B.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Lucas, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Scores on the Boston Naming Test (BNT) are frequently lower for African American when compared to Caucasian adults. Although demographically-based norms can mitigate the impact of this discrepancy on the likelihood of erroneous diagnostic impressions, a growing consensus suggests that group norms do not sufficiently address or advance our understanding of the underlying psychometric and sociocultural factors that lead to between-group score discrepancies. Using item response theory and methods to detect differential item functioning (DIF), the current investigation moves beyond comparisons of the summed total score to examine whether the conditional probability of responding correctly to individual BNT items differs between African American and Caucasian adults. Participants included 670 adults age 52 and older who took part in Mayo's Older Americans and Older African Americans Normative Studies. Under a 2-parameter logistic IRT framework and after correction for the false discovery rate, 12 items where shown to demonstrate DIF. Six of these 12 items (“dominoes,” “escalator,” “muzzle,” “latch,” “tripod,” and “palette”) were also identified in additional analyses using hierarchical logistic regression models and represent the strongest evidence for race/ethnicity-based DIF. These findings afford a finer characterization of the psychometric properties of the BNT and expand our understanding of between-group performance. PMID:19570311

  1. Abnormal degree centrality of functional hubs associated with negative coping in older Chinese adults who lost their only child.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Liu, HuiJuan; Wei, Dongtao; Sun, Jiangzhou; Yang, Junyi; Meng, Jie; Wang, Lihong; Qiu, Jiang

    2015-12-01

    The loss of an only child is a negative life event and may potentially increase the risk of psychiatric disorders. However, the psychological consequences of the loss of an only child and the associated neural mechanisms remain largely unexplored. Degree centrality (DC), derived from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), was used to examine network communication in 22 older adults who lost their only child and 23 matched controls. The older adults who lost their only child exhibited an ineffective coping style. They also showed decreased distant and local DC in the precuneus and left inferior parietal lobule and decreased distant DC in the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Furthermore, the decreased local and distant DC of these regions and the decreased DLPFC-precuneus connectivity strength were negatively correlated with negative coping scores in the loss group but not in the controls. Overall, the results suggested a model that the impaired neural network communication of brain hubs within the default mode network (DMN) and central executive network (CEN) were associated with a negative coping style in older adults who lost their only child. The decreased connectivity of the hubs can be identified as a neural risk factor that is related to future psychopathology. PMID:26391339

  2. Plasticity of Attentional Functions in Older Adults after Non-Action Video Game Training: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mayas, Julia; Parmentier, Fabrice B. R.; Andrés, Pilar; Ballesteros, Soledad

    2014-01-01

    A major goal of recent research in aging has been to examine cognitive plasticity in older adults and its capacity to counteract cognitive decline. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether older adults could benefit from brain training with video games in a cross-modal oddball task designed to assess distraction and alertness. Twenty-seven healthy older adults participated in the study (15 in the experimental group, 12 in the control group. The experimental group received 20 1-hr video game training sessions using a commercially available brain-training package (Lumosity) involving problem solving, mental calculation, working memory and attention tasks. The control group did not practice this package and, instead, attended meetings with the other members of the study several times along the course of the study. Both groups were evaluated before and after the intervention using a cross-modal oddball task measuring alertness and distraction. The results showed a significant reduction of distraction and an increase of alertness in the experimental group and no variation in the control group. These results suggest neurocognitive plasticity in the old human brain as training enhanced cognitive performance on attentional functions. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02007616 PMID:24647551

  3. Repeated exposure of adult rats to transient oxidative stress induces various long-lasting alterations in cognitive and behavioral functions.

    PubMed

    Iguchi, Yoshio; Kosugi, Sakurako; Nishikawa, Hiromi; Lin, Ziqiao; Minabe, Yoshio; Toda, Shigenobu

    2014-01-01

    Exposure of neonates to oxidative stress may increase the risk of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia in adulthood. However, the effects of moderate oxidative stress on the adult brain are not completely understood. To address this issue, we systemically administrated 2-cyclohexen-1-one (CHX) to adult rats to transiently reduce glutathione levels. Repeated administration of CHX did not affect the acquisition or motivation of an appetitive instrumental behavior (lever pressing) rewarded by a food outcome under a progressive ratio schedule. In addition, response discrimination and reversal learning were not affected. However, acute CHX administration blunted the sensitivity of the instrumental performance to outcome devaluation, and this effect was prolonged in rats with a history of repeated CHX exposure, representing pro-depression-like phenotypes. On the other hand, repeated CHX administration reduced immobility in forced swimming tests and blunted acute cocaine-induced behaviors, implicating antidepressant-like effects. Multivariate analyses segregated a characteristic group of behavioral variables influenced by repeated CHX administration. Taken together, these findings suggest that repeated administration of CHX to adult rats did not cause a specific mental disorder, but it induced long-term alterations in behavioral and cognitive functions, possibly related to specific neural correlates. PMID:25489939

  4. Cognitive functioning and information processing of adult mentally retarded men with fragile-X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Maes, B; Fryns, J P; Van Walleghem, M; Van den Berghe, H

    1994-04-01

    The present study describes cognitive skills and information processing strategies of mentally retarded fra(X) men. Fifty-eight fra(X) positive and 58 fra(X) negative adults, matched on sex, chronological age, length of institutionalisation, general cognitive level, and living conditions, were evaluated with the Bayley or McCarthy Scales of Mental Abilities. Mental ages were mostly situated in the severe mental handicap category and were found to be negatively influenced by chronological age. A relative strength in perceptual performance and non-verbal reasoning and a deficit in sequential information processing turned out to be typical of all mentally retarded subjects, irrespective of fra(X) or control status. Fra(X) adults could be significantly differentiated from control persons on the ground of a higher level of acquired knowledge because of better vocabulary and verbal-expressive skills. On the other hand, they were less able to imitate non-verbal patterns, had more difficulty with visual-motor integration and co-ordination, and applied less efficient general mental processing skills in solving new problems. The memory profile of fra(X) adults was strongly determined by the meaning and the complexity of the information that has to be reproduced. In this article the profile of cognitive strengths and weaknesses in the fra(X) group will be discussed and some general advice for training is suggested. PMID:8010351

  5. Overview of Unpolarized Structure Function Measurements at High x

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, Roy J.

    2011-09-21

    A motivation and overview for recent measurements of unpolarized structure functions for the nucleon will be presented. Particular attention will be given to new experiments aimed at providing new high-x data.

  6. Structure–Function Relationships in Highly Modified Shoots of Cactaceae

    PubMed Central

    MAUSETH, JAMES D.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Cacti are extremely diverse structurally and ecologically, and so modified as to be intimidating to many biologists. Yet all have the same organization as most dicots, none differs fundamentally from Arabidopsis or other model plants. This review explains cactus shoot structure, discusses relationships between structure, ecology, development and evolution, and indicates areas where research on cacti is necessary to test general theories of morphogenesis. • Scope Cactus leaves are diverse; all cacti have foliage leaves; many intermediate stages in evolutionary reduction of leaves are still present; floral shoots often have large, complex leaves whereas vegetative shoots have microscopic leaves. Spines are modified bud scales, some secrete sugar as extra-floral nectaries. Many cacti have juvenile/adult phases in which the flowering adult phase (a cephalium) differs greatly from the juvenile; in some, one side of a shoot becomes adult, all other sides continue to grow as the juvenile phase. Flowers are inverted: the exterior of a cactus ‘flower’ is a hollow vegetative shoot with internodes, nodes, leaves and spines, whereas floral organs occur inside, with petals physically above stamens. Many cacti have cortical bundles vascularizing the cortex, however broad it evolves to be, thus keeping surface tissues alive. Great width results in great weight of weak parenchymatous shoots, correlated with reduced branching. Reduced numbers of shoot apices is compensated by great increases in number of meristematic cells within individual SAMs. Ribs and tubercles allow shoots to swell without tearing during wet seasons. Shoot epidermis and cortex cells live and function for decades then convert to cork cambium. Many modifications permit water storage within cactus wood itself, adjacent to vessels. PMID:16820405

  7. A Quadratic Basis Function, Quadratic Geometry, High Order Panel Method.

    E-print Network

    Peraire, Jaime

    A Quadratic Basis Function, Quadratic Geometry, High Order Panel Method. David J. Willis Jaime, USA. Most panel method implementations use both low order basis function representations of the solution and flat panel representations of the body surface. Although several imple- mentations of higher

  8. Random Walks and Orthogonal Functions Associated with Highly Symmetric Graphs

    E-print Network

    Stadler, Peter F.

    Random Walks and Orthogonal Functions Associated with Highly Symmetric Graphs By Peter F. Stadler and random walks on such graphs is investigated. We use this relations to characterize the exponentially decaying autocorrelation functions along random walks on isotropic random fields defined on vertex

  9. An examination of the leftward cradling bias among typically developing adults high on autistic traits.

    PubMed

    Fleva, Eleni; Khan, Azizuddin

    2015-01-01

    The leftward cradling bias is the tendency to cradle infants on the left side of the body and it has been linked with hemispheric asymmetry for emotional processing. This study examines this phenomenon using a real-size infant doll in typically developing adults who score high in the Reading the Mind in the Eyes, the Autistic Spectrum Quotient and the Empathy Quotient, measures that assess autistic traits among typically developing individuals. Results revealed that this group showed a reduced tendency to cradle on the left compared to participants who score within the normal range on the above measurements. This study provides further support for the justification of the leftward cradling bias upon brain lateralization on emotional processing. Study limitations and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:26120878

  10. Comparison of high and moderate intensity of strength training on mood and anxiety in older adults.

    PubMed

    Tsutsumi, T; Don, B M; Zaichkowsky, L D; Takenaka, K; Oka, K; Ohno, T

    1998-12-01

    This study was designed to examine the psychological benefits of anaerobic exercise for older adults. Specifically, strength training was employed to examine the effects on mood and anxiety in a group of healthy but sedentary older women. 36 women (mean age = 68.5 yr.) were randomly assigned to groups given high intensity or moderate intensity strength training or to a control group. Strength training was conducted three days a week for 12 weeks. After the training period, both high and moderate strength-training programs produced marked improvements in muscle strength and body composition compared to the control subjects. The average improvements in the high and moderate intensity strength-training groups for muscle strength were 40.5 and 35.5%, respectively, and for percent body fat 1.52 and 2.50%, respectively. As for psychological changes, both training groups significantly improved positive mood (vigor), and the moderate intensity group significantly reduced trait anxiety compared to means of the control group. Also, both training groups showed some decrease in tension and state anxiety after the training period. These findings provide evidence for the effectiveness of anaerobic training to enhance perception of psychological well-being in older women. A moderate intensity rather than high intensity of training regimen may be more beneficial for sedentary older women to improve psychological health. PMID:9885072

  11. The relationship between cardiopulmonary size and aerobic performance in adult deer mice at high altitude.

    PubMed

    Shirkey, Nicholas J; Hammond, Kimberly A

    2014-10-15

    Deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus sonoriensis) populations in the White Mountains of Eastern California are found across a substantial range of partial pressures of oxygen (PO?). Reduction in PO? at high altitude can have a negative impact on aerobic performance. We studied plastic changes in organ mass and volume involved in aerobic respiration in response to acclimation to high altitude, and how those changes are matched with aerobic performance measured by VO?,max. Adult deer mice born and raised at 340 m were acclimated at either 340 or 3800 m for a period of 9 weeks. Lung volume increased by 9% in mice acclimated to high altitude. VO?,max was also significantly higher under hypoxic conditions after high altitude acclimation compared with controls. Body mass-corrected residuals of VO?,max were significantly correlated with an index of cardiopulmonary size (summed standardized residuals of lung volume and heart mass) under both hypoxic and normoxic conditions. These data show that phenotypic plasticity in lung volume and heart mass plays an important role in maintaining aerobic performance under hypoxic conditions, and accounts for up to 55% of the variance in aerobic performance. PMID:25147245

  12. Alterations to Functional Analysis Methodology to Clarify the Functions of Low Rate, High Intensity Problem Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Barbara J; Kahng, SungWoo; Schmidt, Jonathan; Bowman, Lynn G; Boelter, Eric W

    2012-01-01

    Current research provides few suggestions for modifications to functional analysis procedures to accommodate low rate, high intensity problem behavior. This study examined the results of the extended duration functional analysis procedures of Kahng, Abt, and Schonbachler (2001) with six children admitted to an inpatient hospital for the treatment of severe problem behavior. Results of initial functional analyses (Iwata, Dorsey, Slifer, Bauman, & Richman, 1982/1994) were inconclusive for all children because of low levels of responding. The altered functional analyses, which changed multiple variables including the duration of the functional analysis (i.e., 6 or 7 hrs), yielded clear behavioral functions for all six participants. These results add additional support for the utility of an altered analysis of low rate, high intensity problem behavior when standard functional analyses do not yield differentiated results. PMID:23326628

  13. High-intensity telemedicine-enhanced acute care for older adults: an innovative healthcare delivery model.

    PubMed

    Shah, Manish N; Gillespie, Suzanne M; Wood, Nancy; Wasserman, Erin B; Nelson, Dallas L; Dozier, Ann; McConnochie, Kenneth M

    2013-11-01

    Accessing timely acute medical care is a challenge for older adults. This article describes an innovative healthcare model that uses high-intensity telemedicine services to provide rapid acute care for older adults without requiring them to leave their senior living community (SLC) residences. This program, based in a primary care geriatrics practice that cares for SLC residents, is designed to offer acute care through telemedicine for complaints that are felt to need attention before the next available outpatient visit but not to require emergency department (ED) resources. This option gives residents access to care in their residence. Measures used to evaluate the program include successful completion of telemedicine visits, satisfaction of residents and caregivers with telemedicine care, and site of care that would have been recommended had telemedicine been unavailable. During the first 2 years of the program's operation, 281 of 301 requested telemedicine visits were completed successfully. Twelve residents were sent to an ED for care after the telemedicine visit. Ninety-four percent of residents reported being satisfied or very satisfied with telemedicine care. Had telemedicine not been available, residents would have been sent to an ED (48.1%) or urgent care center (27.0%) or been scheduled for an outpatient visit (24.4%). The project demonstrated that high-intensity telemedicine services for acute illnesses are feasible and acceptable and can provide definitive care without requiring ED or urgent care use. Continuation of the program will require evaluation demonstrating equal or better resident-level outcomes and the development of sustainable business models. PMID:24164485

  14. Progressive resistance strength training for improving physical function in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chiung-ju; Latham, Nancy K

    2014-01-01

    Background Muscle weakness in old age is associated with physical function decline. Progressive resistance strength training (PRT) exercises are designed to increase strength. Objectives To assess the effects of PRT on older people and identify adverse events. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialized Register (to March 2007), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library 2007, Issue 2), MEDLINE (1966 to May 01, 2008), EMBASE (1980 to February 06 2007), CINAHL (1982 to July 01 2007) and two other electronic databases. We also searched reference lists of articles, reviewed conference abstracts and contacted authors. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials reporting physical outcomes of PRT for older people were included. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently selected trials, assessed trial quality and extracted data. Data were pooled where appropriate. Main results One hundred and twenty one trials with 6700 participants were included. In most trials, PRT was performed two to three times per week and at a high intensity. PRT resulted in a small but significant improvement in physical ability (33 trials, 2172 participants; SMD 0.14, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.22). Functional limitation measures also showed improvements: e.g. there was a modest improvement in gait speed (24 trials, 1179 participants, MD 0.08 m/s, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.12); and a moderate to large effect for getting out of a chair (11 trials, 384 participants, SMD -0.94, 95% CI -1.49 to -0.38). PRT had a large positive effect on muscle strength (73 trials, 3059 participants, SMD 0.84, 95% CI 0.67 to 1.00). Participants with osteoarthritis reported a reduction in pain following PRT (6 trials, 503 participants, SMD -0.30, 95% CI -0.48 to -0.13). There was no evidence from 10 other trials (587 participants) that PRT had an effect on bodily pain. Adverse events were poorly recorded but adverse events related to musculoskeletal complaints, such as joint pain and muscle soreness, were reported in many of the studies that prospectively defined and monitored these events. Serious adverse events were rare, and no serious events were reported to be directly related to the exercise programme. Authors' conclusions This review provides evidence that PRT is an effective intervention for improving physical functioning in older people, including improving strength and the performance of some simple and complex activities. However, some caution is needed with transferring these exercises for use with clinical populations because adverse events are not adequately reported. PMID:19588334

  15. Tai Chi Chuan optimizes the functional organization of the intrinsic human brain architecture in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Gao-Xia; Dong, Hao-Ming; Yang, Zhi; Luo, Jing; Zuo, Xi-Nian

    2014-01-01

    Whether Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) can influence the intrinsic functional architecture of the human brain remains unclear. To examine TCC-associated changes in functional connectomes, resting-state functional magnetic resonance images were acquired from 40 older individuals including 22 experienced TCC practitioners (experts) and 18 demographically matched TCC-naïve healthy controls, and their local functional homogeneities across the cortical mantle were compared. Compared to the controls, the TCC experts had significantly greater and more experience-dependent functional homogeneity in the right post-central gyrus (PosCG) and less functional homogeneity in the left anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the right dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex. Increased functional homogeneity in the PosCG was correlated with TCC experience. Intriguingly, decreases in functional homogeneity (improved functional specialization) in the left ACC and increases in functional homogeneity (improved functional integration) in the right PosCG both predicted performance gains on attention network behavior tests. These findings provide evidence for the functional plasticity of the brain’s intrinsic architecture toward optimizing locally functional organization, with great implications for understanding the effects of TCC on cognition, behavior and health in aging population. PMID:24860494

  16. Moderate dietary supplementation with vitamin E enhances lymphocyte functionality in the adult cat.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Teresa; Thomas, David G; Morel, Patrick C H; Rutherfurd-Markwick, Kay J

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of supplemental Vit E and/or Se on selected parameters of the immune system of the cat. Nine diets were fed in a 3?×?3 factorial design with no supplementation (control (C)); and either moderate (M); or high (H) levels of Vit E (0, 225 or 450?mg/kg DM diet) and/or Se (0, 2 or 10?mg/kg DM diet) added to a complete and balanced basal diet. After 28 days of feeding, enhanced lymphocyte proliferative responses to Concanavalin A and phytohaemagglutinin were observed (P?function in the cat. PMID:25660045

  17. Functional Mobility Performance and Balance Confidence in Older Adults after Sensorimotor Adaptation Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buccello-Stout, Regina R.; Cromwell, Ronita L.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Weaver, G. D.

    2010-01-01

    Research indicates a main contributor of injury in older adults is from falling. The decline in sensory systems limits information needed to successfully maneuver through the environment. The objective of this study was to determine if prolonged exposure to the realignment of perceptual-motor systems increases adaptability of balance, and if balance confidence improves after training. A total of 16 older adults between ages 65-85 were randomized to a control group (walking on a treadmill while viewing a static visual scene) and an experimental group (walking on a treadmill while viewing a rotating visual scene). Prior to visual exposure, participants completed six trials of walking through a soft foamed obstacle course. Participants came in twice a week for 4 weeks to complete training of walking on a treadmill and viewing the visual scene for 20 minutes each session. Participants completed the obstacle course after training and four weeks later. Average time, penalty, and Activity Balance Confidence Scale scores were computed for both groups across testing times. The older adults who trained, significantly improved their time through the obstacle course F (2, 28) = 9.41, p < 0.05, as well as reduced their penalty scores F (2, 28) = 21.03, p < 0.05, compared to those who did not train. There was no difference in balance confidence scores between groups across testing times F (2, 28) = 0.503, p > 0.05. Although the training group improved mobility through the obstacle course, there were no differences between the groups in balance confidence.

  18. Burst swimming in areas of high flow: delayed consequences of anaerobiosis in wild adult sockeye salmon.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Nicholas J; Hinch, Scott G; Braun, Douglas C; Casselman, Matthew T; Middleton, Collin T; Wilson, Samantha M; Cooke, Steven J

    2014-01-01

    Wild riverine fishes are known to rely on burst swimming to traverse hydraulically challenging reaches, and yet there has been little investigation as to whether swimming anaerobically in areas of high flow can lead to delayed mortality. Using acoustic accelerometer transmitters, we estimated the anaerobic activity of anadromous adult sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in the tailrace of a diversion dam in British Columbia, Canada, and its effects on the remaining 50 km of their freshwater spawning migration. Consistent with our hypothesis, migrants that elicited burst swimming behaviors in high flows were more likely to succumb to mortality following dam passage. Females swam with more anaerobic effort compared to males, providing a mechanism for the female-biased migration mortality observed in this watershed. Alterations to dam operations prevented the release of hypolimnetic water from an upstream lake,