Sample records for high functioning adults

  1. Phonological and Orthographic Spelling in High-Functioning Adult Dyslexics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, Nenagh; Parrila, Rauno K.; Kirby, John R.

    2009-01-01

    Despite a history of reading or spelling difficulties, some adults attain age-appropriate spelling skills and succeed at university. We compared the spelling of 29 such high-functioning dyslexics with that of 28 typical students, matched on general spelling ability, and controlling for vocabulary and non-verbal intelligence. Participants wrote…

  2. Thought Disorder in High-Functioning Autistic Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dykens, Elisabeth; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This evaluation of thought disorders in 11 high functioning autistic young adults and older adolescents found poverty of speech, poor reality testing, perceptual distortions, and areas of cognitive slippage. In comparison with a schizophrenic reference group, autistic subjects demonstrated more poverty of speech and less illogic as well as similar…

  3. Attachment in adults with high-functioning autism.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Emma L; Target, Mary; Charman, Tony

    2008-06-01

    This study assessed attachment security in adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders, using the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI; George, Kaplan, & Main, 1996). Of 20 participants, three were classified as securely attached, the same proportion as would be expected in a general clinical sample. Participants' AAIs were less coherent and lower in reflective function than those of controls, who were matched for attachment status and mood disorder. A parallel interview suggested that some aspects of participants' responses were influenced by their general discourse style, while other AAI scale scores appeared to reflect their state of mind with respect to attachment more specifically. There was little evidence that attachment security was related to IQ, autistic symptomatology or theory of mind. This study suggests that adults with autism can engage with the AAI and produce scoreable narratives of their attachment experiences, and a minority demonstrate secure attachment. PMID:18773316

  4. Psychosocial Functioning in a Group of Swedish Adults with Asperger Syndrome or High-Functioning Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engstrom, I.; Ekstrom, L.; Emilsson, B.

    2003-01-01

    A study investigated psychosocial functioning in 16 Swedish adults with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism. The majority lived independently; all but one were unemployed; and none was married or had children. Most persons needed a high level of public and/or private support. Overall adjustment was rated good in 12%. (Contains…

  5. Challenging stereotypes: sexual functioning of single adults with high functioning autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Byers, E Sandra; Nichols, Shana; Voyer, Susan D

    2013-11-01

    This study examined the sexual functioning of single adults (61 men, 68 women) with high functioning autism and Asperger syndrome living in the community with and without prior relationship experience. Participants completed an on-line questionnaire assessing autism symptoms, psychological functioning, and various aspects of sexual functioning. In general participants reported positive sexual functioning. Participants without prior relationship experience were significantly younger and more likely to be male and identify as heterosexual. They reported significantly higher sexual anxiety, lower sexual arousability, lower dyadic desire, and fewer positive sexual cognitions. The men reported better sexual function than did the women in a number of areas. These results counter negative societal perceptions about the sexuality of high functioning individuals on the autism spectrum. PMID:23526036

  6. Brief Report: Feasibility of Social Cognition and Interaction Training for Adults with High Functioning Autism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lauren M. Turner-Brown; Timothy D. Perry; Gabriel S. Dichter; James W. Bodfish; David L. Penn

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and utility of a group-based cognitive behavioral intervention to improve\\u000a social-cognitive functioning in adults with high-functioning autism (HFA). We modified the treatment manual of a previously\\u000a validated intervention, Social Cognition and Interaction Training (SCIT), for optimal use with HFA adults (SCIT-A). We then\\u000a conducted a pilot study to compare SCIT-A

  7. Brief Report: Feasibility of Social Cognition and Interaction Training for Adults with High Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner-Brown, Lauren M.; Perry, Timothy D.; Dichter, Gabriel S.; Bodfish, James W.; Penn, David L.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and utility of a group-based cognitive behavioral intervention to improve social-cognitive functioning in adults with high-functioning autism (HFA). We modified the treatment manual of a previously validated intervention, Social Cognition and Interaction Training (SCIT), for optimal use with…

  8. Brief report: feasibility of social cognition and interaction training for adults with high functioning autism.

    PubMed

    Turner-Brown, Lauren M; Perry, Timothy D; Dichter, Gabriel S; Bodfish, James W; Penn, David L

    2008-10-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and utility of a group-based cognitive behavioral intervention to improve social-cognitive functioning in adults with high-functioning autism (HFA). We modified the treatment manual of a previously validated intervention, Social Cognition and Interaction Training (SCIT), for optimal use with HFA adults (SCIT-A). We then conducted a pilot study to compare SCIT-A (n = 6) to treatment as usual (TAU) (n = 5) for adults with HFA. Feasibility was supported; attendance was high (92%) and satisfaction reports were primarily positive. Participants in SCIT-A showed significant improvement in theory-of-mind skills and trend level improvements in social communication skills; TAU participants did not show these improvements. Findings indicate SCIT-A shows promise as an intervention for adults with HFA. PMID:18246419

  9. Virtual reality social cognition training for young adults with high-functioning autism.

    PubMed

    Kandalaft, Michelle R; Didehbani, Nyaz; Krawczyk, Daniel C; Allen, Tandra T; Chapman, Sandra B

    2013-01-01

    Few evidence-based social interventions exist for young adults with high-functioning autism, many of whom encounter significant challenges during the transition into adulthood. The current study investigated the feasibility of an engaging Virtual Reality Social Cognition Training intervention focused on enhancing social skills, social cognition, and social functioning. Eight young adults diagnosed with high-functioning autism completed 10 sessions across 5 weeks. Significant increases on social cognitive measures of theory of mind and emotion recognition, as well as in real life social and occupational functioning were found post-training. These findings suggest that the virtual reality platform is a promising tool for improving social skills, cognition, and functioning in autism. PMID:22570145

  10. Atypical Visual Orienting to Gaze- and Arrow-Cues in Adults with High Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlamings, Petra H. J. M.; Stauder, Johannes E. A.; van Son, Ilona A. M.; Mottron, Laurent

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigates visual orienting to directional cues (arrow or eyes) in adults with high functioning autism (n = 19) and age matched controls (n = 19). A choice reaction time paradigm is used in which eye-or arrow direction correctly (congruent) or incorrectly (incongruent) cues target location. In typically developing participants,…

  11. Pragmatic Inferences in High-Functioning Adults with Autism and Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pijnacker, Judith; Hagoort, Peter; Buitelaar, Jan; Teunisse, Jan-Pieter; Geurts, Bart

    2009-01-01

    Although people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often have severe problems with pragmatic aspects of language, little is known about their pragmatic reasoning. We carried out a behavioral study on high-functioning adults with autistic disorder (n = 11) and Asperger syndrome (n = 17) and matched controls (n = 28) to investigate whether they…

  12. Virtual Reality Social Cognition Training for Young Adults with High-Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandalaft, Michelle R.; Didehbani, Nyaz; Krawczyk, Daniel C.; Allen, Tandra T.; Chapman, Sandra B.

    2013-01-01

    Few evidence-based social interventions exist for young adults with high-functioning autism, many of whom encounter significant challenges during the transition into adulthood. The current study investigated the feasibility of an engaging Virtual Reality Social Cognition Training intervention focused on enhancing social skills, social cognition,…

  13. How Stimulus and Task Complexity Affect Monitoring in High-Functioning Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koolen, Sophieke; Vissers, Constance Th. W. M.; Egger, Jos I. M.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined whether individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are able to update and monitor working memory representations of visual input, and whether performance is influenced by stimulus and task complexity. 15 high-functioning adults with ASD and 15 controls were asked to allocate either elements of abstract figures or…

  14. Brain Mapping of Language and Auditory Perception in High-Functioning Autistic Adults: A PET Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, R-A.; Behen, M. E.; Rothermel, R. D.; Chugani, D. C.; Muzik, O.; Mangner, T. J.; Chugani, H. T.

    1999-01-01

    A study used positron emission tomography (PET) to study patterns of brain activation during auditory processing in five high-functioning adults with autism. Results found that participants showed reversed hemispheric dominance during the verbal auditory stimulation and reduced activation of the auditory cortex and cerebellum. (CR)

  15. Autonomic arousal explains social cognitive abilities in high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Mathersul, Danielle; McDonald, Skye; Rushby, Jacqueline A

    2013-09-01

    Empirical research into behavioural profiles and autonomic responsivity in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) is highly variable and inconsistent. Two preliminary studies of children with ASDs suggest that there may be subgroups of ASDs depending on their resting arousal levels, and that these subgroups show different profiles of autonomic responsivity. The aim of the present study was to determine whether (i) adults with high-functioning ASDs may be separated into subgroups according to variation in resting arousal; and (ii) these ASD arousal subgroups differ in their behavioural profiles for basic emotion recognition, judgements of trustworthiness, and cognitive and affective empathy. Thirty high-functioning adults with ASDs and 34 non-clinical controls participated. Resting arousal was determined as the average skin conductance (SCL) across a 2 min resting period. There was a subgroup of ASD adults with significantly lower resting SCL. These individuals demonstrated poorer emotion recognition, tended to judge faces more negatively, and had atypical relationships between SCL and affective empathy. In contrast, low cognitive empathy was a feature of all ASD adults. These findings have important implications for clinical interventions and future studies investigating autonomic functioning in ASDs. PMID:23628291

  16. Employment activities and experiences of adults with high-functioning autism and Asperger’s Disorder.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Susanna; Costley, Debra; Warren, Anthony

    2014-10-01

    There is limited large-scale empirical research into the working lives of adults who have an autism spectrum disorder with no co-occurring intellectual disability. Drawing on data from a national survey, this report describes the employment activities and experiences of 130 adults with Asperger's Disorder (AD) and high functioning autism (HFA) in Australia. Outcome measures include current occupation; occupational skill level and alignment with educational attainment; type of job contract; hours of work; support received to find work; support received in the workplace; and positive and negative experiences of employment. The findings confirm and expand upon existing evidence that adults with AD and HFA, despite their capacity and willingness to work, face significant disadvantages in the labour market and a lack of understanding and support in employment settings. PMID:24715257

  17. Sexual Behavior in High-Functioning Male Adolescents and Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans Hellemans; Kathy Colson; Christine Verbraeken; Robert Vermeiren; Dirk Deboutte

    2007-01-01

    Group home caregivers of 24 institutionalized, male, high-functioning adolescents and young adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder,\\u000a were interviewed with the Interview Sexuality Autism. Most subjects were reported to express sexual interest and to display\\u000a some kind of sexual behavior. Knowledge of socio-sexual skills existed, but practical use was moderate. Masturbation was common.\\u000a Many subjects were seeking physical contact with others.

  18. The “Reading the Mind in the Eyes” Test Revised Version: A Study with Normal Adults, and Adults with Asperger Syndrome or High-functioning Autism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon Baron-Cohen; Sally Wheelwright; Jacqueline Hill; Yogini Raste; Ian Plumb

    2001-01-01

    In 1997 in this Journal we published the ''Reading the Mind in the Eyes'' Test, as a measure of adult ''mentalising''. Whilst that test succeeded in discriminating a group of adults with Asperger syndrome (AS) or high-functioning autism (HFA) from controls, it suered from several psychometric problems. In this paper these limitations are rectified by revising the test. The Revised

  19. Executive functions and consumption of fruits/ vegetables and high saturated fat foods in young adults.

    PubMed

    Limbers, Christine A; Young, Danielle

    2015-05-01

    Executive functions play a critical role in regulating eating behaviors and have been shown to be associated with overeating which over time can result in overweight and obesity. There has been a paucity of research examining the associations among healthy dietary behaviors and executive functions utilizing behavioral rating scales of executive functioning. The objective of the present cross-sectional study was to evaluate the associations among fruit and vegetable consumption, intake of foods high in saturated fat, and executive functions using the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning-Adult Version. A total of 240 university students completed the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning-Adult Version, the 26-Item Eating Attitudes Test, and the Diet subscale of the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities Questionnaire. Multiple linear regression analysis was conducted with two separate models in which fruit and vegetable consumption and saturated fat intake were the outcomes. Demographic variables, body mass index, and eating styles were controlled for in the analysis. Better initiation skills were associated with greater intake of fruits and vegetables in the last 7 days (standardized beta = -0.17; p < 0.05). Stronger inhibitory control was associated with less consumption of high fat foods in the last 7 days (standardized beta = 0.20; p < 0.05) in the multiple linear regression analysis. Executive functions that predict fruit and vegetable consumption are distinct from those that predict avoidance of foods high in saturated fat. Future research should investigate whether continued skill enhancement in initiation and inhibition following standard behavioral interventions improves long-term maintenance of weight loss. PMID:25903247

  20. Automatic facial responses to affective stimuli in high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Mathersul, Danielle; McDonald, Skye; Rushby, Jacqueline A

    2013-01-17

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate atypical behavioural responses to affective stimuli, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Investigating automatic responses to these stimuli may help elucidate these mechanisms. 18 high-functioning adults with ASDs and 18 typically developing controls viewed 54 extreme pleasant (erotica), extreme unpleasant (mutilations), and non-social neutral images from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS). Two-thirds of images received an acoustic startle probe 3s post-picture onset. Facial electromyography (EMG) activity (orbicularis, zygomaticus, corrugator), skin conductance (SCR) and cardiac responses were recorded. The adults with ASDs demonstrated typical affective startle modulation and automatic facial EMG responses but atypical autonomic (SCRs and cardiac) responses, suggesting a failure to orient to, or a deliberate effort to disconnect from, socially relevant stimuli (erotica, mutilations). These results have implications for neural systems known to underlie affective processes, including the orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala. PMID:23142408

  1. Employment Activities and Experiences of Adults with High-Functioning Autism and Asperger's Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Susanna; Costley, Debra; Warren, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    There is limited large-scale empirical research into the working lives of adults who have an autism spectrum disorder with no co-occurring intellectual disability. Drawing on data from a national survey, this report describes the employment activities and experiences of 130 adults with Asperger's Disorder (AD) and high functioning autism…

  2. Understanding advanced theory of mind and empathy in high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Mathersul, Danielle; McDonald, Skye; Rushby, Jacqueline A

    2013-01-01

    It has been argued that higher functioning individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have specific deficits in advanced but not simple theory of mind (ToM), yet the questionable ecological validity of some tasks reduces the strength of this assumption. The present study employed The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT), which uses video vignettes to assess comprehension of subtle conversational inferences (sarcasm, lies/deception). Given the proposed relationships between advanced ToM and cognitive and affective empathy, these associations were also investigated. As expected, the high-functioning adults with ASDs demonstrated specific deficits in comprehending the beliefs, intentions, and meaning of nonliteral expressions. They also had significantly lower cognitive and affective empathy. Cognitive empathy was related to ToM and group membership whereas affective empathy was only related to group membership. PMID:23799244

  3. Metacognition of agency and theory of mind in adults with high functioning autism.

    PubMed

    Zalla, Tiziana; Miele, David; Leboyer, Marion; Metcalfe, Janet

    2015-01-01

    We investigated metacognition of agency in adults with high functioning autism or Asperger Syndrome (HFA/AS) using a computer task in which participants moved the mouse to get the cursor to touch the downward moving X's and avoid the O's. They were then asked to make judgments of performance and judgments of agency. Objective control was either undistorted, or distorted by adding turbulence (i.e., random noise) or a time Lag between the mouse and cursor movements. Participants with HFA/AS used sensorimotor cues available in the turbulence and lag conditions to a lesser extent than control participants in making their judgments of agency. Furthermore, the failure to use these internal diagnostic cues to their own agency was correlated with decrements in a theory of mind task. These findings suggest that a reduced sensitivity to veridical internal cues about the sense of agency is related to mentalizing impairments in autism. PMID:25482271

  4. A Behavioral Comparison of Male and Female Adults with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Meng-Chuan; Lombardo, Michael V.; Pasco, Greg; Ruigrok, Amber N. V.; Wheelwright, Sally J.; Sadek, Susan A.; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Autism spectrum conditions (ASC) affect more males than females in the general population. However, within ASC it is unclear if there are phenotypic sex differences. Testing for similarities and differences between the sexes is important not only for clinical assessment but also has implications for theories of typical sex differences and of autism. Using cognitive and behavioral measures, we investigated similarities and differences between the sexes in age- and IQ-matched adults with ASC (high-functioning autism or Asperger syndrome). Of the 83 (45 males and 38 females) participants, 62 (33 males and 29 females) met Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) cut-off criteria for autism in childhood and were included in all subsequent analyses. The severity of childhood core autism symptoms did not differ between the sexes. Males and females also did not differ in self-reported empathy, systemizing, anxiety, depression, and obsessive-compulsive traits/symptoms or mentalizing performance. However, adult females with ASC showed more lifetime sensory symptoms (p?=?0.036), fewer current socio-communication difficulties (p?=?0.001), and more self-reported autistic traits (p?=?0.012) than males. In addition, females with ASC who also had developmental language delay had lower current performance IQ than those without developmental language delay (p<0.001), a pattern not seen in males. The absence of typical sex differences in empathizing-systemizing profiles within the autism spectrum confirms a prediction from the extreme male brain theory. Behavioral sex differences within ASC may also reflect different developmental mechanisms between males and females with ASC. We discuss the importance of the superficially better socio-communication ability in adult females with ASC in terms of why females with ASC may more often go under-recognized, and receive their diagnosis later, than males. PMID:21695147

  5. A behavioral comparison of male and female adults with high functioning autism spectrum conditions.

    PubMed

    Lai, Meng-Chuan; Lombardo, Michael V; Pasco, Greg; Ruigrok, Amber N V; Wheelwright, Sally J; Sadek, Susan A; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Autism spectrum conditions (ASC) affect more males than females in the general population. However, within ASC it is unclear if there are phenotypic sex differences. Testing for similarities and differences between the sexes is important not only for clinical assessment but also has implications for theories of typical sex differences and of autism. Using cognitive and behavioral measures, we investigated similarities and differences between the sexes in age- and IQ-matched adults with ASC (high-functioning autism or Asperger syndrome). Of the 83 (45 males and 38 females) participants, 62 (33 males and 29 females) met Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) cut-off criteria for autism in childhood and were included in all subsequent analyses. The severity of childhood core autism symptoms did not differ between the sexes. Males and females also did not differ in self-reported empathy, systemizing, anxiety, depression, and obsessive-compulsive traits/symptoms or mentalizing performance. However, adult females with ASC showed more lifetime sensory symptoms (p = 0.036), fewer current socio-communication difficulties (p = 0.001), and more self-reported autistic traits (p = 0.012) than males. In addition, females with ASC who also had developmental language delay had lower current performance IQ than those without developmental language delay (p<0.001), a pattern not seen in males. The absence of typical sex differences in empathizing-systemizing profiles within the autism spectrum confirms a prediction from the extreme male brain theory. Behavioral sex differences within ASC may also reflect different developmental mechanisms between males and females with ASC. We discuss the importance of the superficially better socio-communication ability in adult females with ASC in terms of why females with ASC may more often go under-recognized, and receive their diagnosis later, than males. PMID:21695147

  6. Alterations in brain structures underlying language function in young adults at high familial risk for schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Alan N.; Seidman, Larry J.; Jabbar, Gul A.; Mesholam-Gately, Raquelle; Thermenos, Heidi W.; Juelich, Richard; Proal, Ashley C.; Shenton, Martha; Kubicki, Marek; Mathew, Ian; Keshavan, Matcheri; DeLisi, Lynn E.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Neuroanatomical and cognitive alterations typical of schizophrenia (SZ) patients are observed to a lesser extent in their adolescent and adult first-degree relatives, likely reflecting neurodevelopmental abnormalities associated with genetic risk for the illness. The anatomical pathways for language are hypothesized to be abnormal and to underlie the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. Examining non-psychotic relatives at high familial risk (FHR) for schizophrenia may clarify if these deficits represent trait markers associated with genetic vulnerability, rather than specific markers resulting from the pathological process underlying schizophrenia. Methods T1 MRI scans from a 3T Siemens scanner of young adult FHR subjects (N=46) and controls with no family history of illness (i.e. at low genetic risk LRC; N=31) were processed using FreeSurfer 5.0. We explored volumetric and lateralization alterations in regions associated with language processing. An extensive neuropsychological battery of language measures was administered. Results No significant differences were observed between groups on any language measures. Controlling Intracranial volume, significantly smaller center Pars Triangularis (PT) (p<0.01) and right Pars Orbitalis (PO) (p < 0.01) volumes and reversal of the L > R Pars Orbitalis (p < 0.001) lateralization were observed in FHR subjects. In addition, the L Pars Triangularis and R Pars Orbitalis correlated with performance on tests of linguistic function in the FHR group. Conclusions Reduced volume and reversed structural asymmetry in language-related regions hypothesized to be altered in SZ are also found in first degree relatives at FHR, despite normal language performance. To clarify if these findings are endophenotypes for Sz, future studied would need to be performed of ill and well family members no longer within the age range of risk for illness to show these deficits segregate with schizophrenia within families. Moreover, measures of complex language need to be studied to determine if FHR individuals manifest impairments in some aspects of language function. PMID:22892286

  7. The neuropsychology of male adults with high-functioning autism or asperger syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wilson, C Ellie; Happé, Francesca; Wheelwright, Sally J; Ecker, Christine; Lombardo, Michael V; Johnston, Patrick; Daly, Eileen; Murphy, Clodagh M; Spain, Debbie; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Sauter, Disa A; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Murphy, Declan G M

    2014-10-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is diagnosed on the basis of behavioral symptoms, but cognitive abilities may also be useful in characterizing individuals with ASD. One hundred seventy-eight high-functioning male adults, half with ASD and half without, completed tasks assessing IQ, a broad range of cognitive skills, and autistic and comorbid symptomatology. The aims of the study were, first, to determine whether significant differences existed between cases and controls on cognitive tasks, and whether cognitive profiles, derived using a multivariate classification method with data from multiple cognitive tasks, could distinguish between the two groups. Second, to establish whether cognitive skill level was correlated with degree of autistic symptom severity, and third, whether cognitive skill level was correlated with degree of comorbid psychopathology. Fourth, cognitive characteristics of individuals with Asperger Syndrome (AS) and high-functioning autism (HFA) were compared. After controlling for IQ, ASD and control groups scored significantly differently on tasks of social cognition, motor performance, and executive function (P's < 0.05). To investigate cognitive profiles, 12 variables were entered into a support vector machine (SVM), which achieved good classification accuracy (81%) at a level significantly better than chance (P < 0.0001). After correcting for multiple correlations, there were no significant associations between cognitive performance and severity of either autistic or comorbid symptomatology. There were no significant differences between AS and HFA groups on the cognitive tasks. Cognitive classification models could be a useful aid to the diagnostic process when used in conjunction with other data sources-including clinical history. PMID:24903974

  8. The Neuropsychology of Male Adults With High-Functioning Autism or Asperger Syndrome†

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, C Ellie; Happé, Francesca; Wheelwright, Sally J; Ecker, Christine; Lombardo, Michael V; Johnston, Patrick; Daly, Eileen; Murphy, Clodagh M; Spain, Debbie; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Sauter, Disa A; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Murphy, Declan G M

    2014-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is diagnosed on the basis of behavioral symptoms, but cognitive abilities may also be useful in characterizing individuals with ASD. One hundred seventy-eight high-functioning male adults, half with ASD and half without, completed tasks assessing IQ, a broad range of cognitive skills, and autistic and comorbid symptomatology. The aims of the study were, first, to determine whether significant differences existed between cases and controls on cognitive tasks, and whether cognitive profiles, derived using a multivariate classification method with data from multiple cognitive tasks, could distinguish between the two groups. Second, to establish whether cognitive skill level was correlated with degree of autistic symptom severity, and third, whether cognitive skill level was correlated with degree of comorbid psychopathology. Fourth, cognitive characteristics of individuals with Asperger Syndrome (AS) and high-functioning autism (HFA) were compared. After controlling for IQ, ASD and control groups scored significantly differently on tasks of social cognition, motor performance, and executive function (P's < 0.05). To investigate cognitive profiles, 12 variables were entered into a support vector machine (SVM), which achieved good classification accuracy (81%) at a level significantly better than chance (P < 0.0001). After correcting for multiple correlations, there were no significant associations between cognitive performance and severity of either autistic or comorbid symptomatology. There were no significant differences between AS and HFA groups on the cognitive tasks. Cognitive classification models could be a useful aid to the diagnostic process when used in conjunction with other data sources—including clinical history. Autism Res 2014, 7: 568–581. © 2014 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24903974

  9. Selective impairment of cognitive empathy for moral judgment in adults with high functioning autism

    PubMed Central

    Torralva, Teresa; Rattazzi, Alexia; Marenco, Victoria; Roca, María; Manes, Facundo

    2013-01-01

    Faced with a moral dilemma, conflict arises between a cognitive controlled response aimed at maximizing welfare, i.e. the utilitarian judgment, and an emotional aversion to harm, i.e. the deontological judgment. In the present study, we investigated moral judgment in adult individuals with high functioning autism/Asperger syndrome (HFA/AS), a clinical population characterized by impairments in prosocial emotions and social cognition. In Experiment 1, we compared the response patterns of HFA/AS participants and neurotypical controls to moral dilemmas with low and high emotional saliency. We found that HFA/AS participants more frequently delivered the utilitarian judgment. Their perception of appropriateness of moral transgression was similar to that of controls, but HFA/AS participants reported decreased levels of emotional reaction to the dilemma. In Experiment 2, we explored the way in which demographic, clinical and social cognition variables including emotional and cognitive aspects of empathy and theory of mind influenced moral judgment. We found that utilitarian HFA/AS participants showed a decreased ability to infer other people’s thoughts and to understand their intentions, as measured both by performance on neuropsychological tests and through dispositional measures. We conclude that greater prevalence of utilitarianism in HFA/AS is associated with difficulties in specific aspects of social cognition. PMID:22689217

  10. Selective impairment of cognitive empathy for moral judgment in adults with high functioning autism.

    PubMed

    Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Torralva, Teresa; Rattazzi, Alexia; Marenco, Victoria; Roca, María; Manes, Facundo

    2013-10-01

    Faced with a moral dilemma, conflict arises between a cognitive controlled response aimed at maximizing welfare, i.e. the utilitarian judgment, and an emotional aversion to harm, i.e. the deontological judgment. In the present study, we investigated moral judgment in adult individuals with high functioning autism/Asperger syndrome (HFA/AS), a clinical population characterized by impairments in prosocial emotions and social cognition. In Experiment 1, we compared the response patterns of HFA/AS participants and neurotypical controls to moral dilemmas with low and high emotional saliency. We found that HFA/AS participants more frequently delivered the utilitarian judgment. Their perception of appropriateness of moral transgression was similar to that of controls, but HFA/AS participants reported decreased levels of emotional reaction to the dilemma. In Experiment 2, we explored the way in which demographic, clinical and social cognition variables including emotional and cognitive aspects of empathy and theory of mind influenced moral judgment. We found that utilitarian HFA/AS participants showed a decreased ability to infer other people's thoughts and to understand their intentions, as measured both by performance on neuropsychological tests and through dispositional measures. We conclude that greater prevalence of utilitarianism in HFA/AS is associated with difficulties in specific aspects of social cognition. PMID:22689217

  11. Perception of emotions from facial expressions in high-functioning adults with autism

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Daniel P.; Adolphs, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    Impairment in social communication is one of the diagnostic hallmarks of autism spectrum disorders, and a large body of research has documented aspects of impaired social cognition in autism, both at the level of the processes and the neural structures involved. Yet one of the most common social communicative abilities in everyday life, the ability to judge somebody's emotion from their facial expression, has yielded conflicting findings. To investigate this issue, we used a sensitive task that has been used to assess facial emotion perception in a number of neurological and psychiatric populations. Fifteen high- functioning adults with autism and 19 control participants rated the emotional intensity of 36 faces displaying basic emotions. Every face was rated 6 times - once for each emotion category. The autism group gave ratings that were significantly less sensitive to a given emotion, and less reliable across repeated testing, resulting in overall decreased specificity in emotion perception. We thus demonstrate a subtle but specific pattern of impairments in facial emotion perception in people with autism. PMID:23022433

  12. Local Information Processing in Adults with High Functioning Autism and Asperger Syndrome: The Usefulness of Neuropsychological Tests and Self-Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spek, Annelies A.; Scholte, Evert M.; Van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina A.

    2011-01-01

    Local information processing in 42 adults with high functioning autism, 41 adults with Asperger syndrome and 41 neurotypical adults was examined. Contrary to our expectations, the disorder groups did not outperform the neurotypical group in the neuropsychological measures of local information processing. In line with our hypotheses, the…

  13. Feelings of regret and disappointment in adults with high-functioning autism.

    PubMed

    Zalla, Tiziana; Sirigu, Angela; Robic, Suzanne; Chaste, Pauline; Leboyer, Marion; Coricelli, Giorgio

    2014-09-01

    Impairments in emotional processing in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) can be characterised by failure to generate and recognize self-reflective, cognitive-based emotions, such as pride, embarrassment and shame. Among this type of emotions, regret and disappointment, as well as their positive counterparts, result from a counterfactual comparison, that is the comparison between an actual value ("what is") and a fictive value ("what might have been"). However, while disappointment is experienced when the obtained outcome is worse than the expected outcome that might have occurred from the same choice, regret occurs when one experiences an outcome that is worse than the outcome of foregone choices. By manipulating a simple gambling task, we examined subjective reports on the intensity of negative and positive emotions in a group of adults with High-Functioning Autism or Asperger syndrome (HFA/AS), and a control group matched for age, gender and educational level. Participants were asked to choose between two lotteries with different levels of risk under two conditions of outcome feedback: (i) Partial, in which only the outcome of the chosen lottery was visible, (ii) Complete, in which the outcomes of the two lotteries were simultaneously visible. By comparing partial and complete conditions, we aimed to investigate the differential effect between disappointment and regret, as well as between their positive counterparts. Relative to the control participants (CP), the group with HFA/AS reported reduced regret and no difference between regret and disappointment, along with a preserved ability to use counterfactual thinking and similar choice behaviour. Difficulties to distinguish the feeling of regret in participants with HFA/AS can be explained by diminished emotional awareness, likely associated with an abnormal fronto-limbic connectivity. PMID:25010486

  14. The use of the Autism-spectrum Quotient in differentiating high-functioning adults with autism, adults with schizophrenia and a neurotypical adult control group

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saskia G. M. Wouters; Annelies A. Spek

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared 21 high functioning individuals with autism, 21 individuals with schizophrenia and 21 healthy individuals in self-reported features of autism, as measured by the Autism-spectrum Quotient (AQ). The individuals with autism reported impairment on all AQ subscales, compared to the neurotypical group. The schizophrenia group reported deficits on all subscales except Attention to Detail, compared to the

  15. The Use of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient in Differentiating High-Functioning Adults with Autism, Adults with Schizophrenia and a Neurotypical Adult Control Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wouters, Saskia G. M.; Spek, Annelies A.

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared 21 high functioning individuals with autism, 21 individuals with schizophrenia and 21 healthy individuals in self-reported features of autism, as measured by the Autism-spectrum Quotient (AQ). The individuals with autism reported impairment on all AQ subscales, compared to the neurotypical group. The schizophrenia group…

  16. Gait Variability Is Associated with Subclinical Brain Vascular Abnormalities in High-Functioning Older Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caterina Rosano; Jennifer Brach; Stephanie Studenski; W. T. Longstreth Jr.; Anne B. Newman

    2007-01-01

    Background: Gait variability is an index of how much gait parameters, such as step length, change from one step to the next. Gait variability increases with age and in individuals affected by cortical and subcortical neurodegenerative conditions, and it is associated with falls and incident mobility disability. The brain anatomical correlates of gait variability have not been studied in high-functioning

  17. Speech and Prosody Characteristics of Adolescents and Adults with High-Functioning Autism and Asperger Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Paul, Rhea; McSweeny, Jane L.; Klin, Ami; Cohen, Donald J.; Volkmar, Fred R.

    2001-01-01

    This study compared the speech and prosody-voice profiles for 30 male speakers with either high-functioning autism (HFA) or Asperger syndrome (AS), and 53 typically developing male speakers. Both HFA and AS groups had more residual articulation distortion errors and utterances coded as inappropriate for phrasing, stress, and resonance. AS speakers…

  18. Altered orbitofrontal sulcogyral patterns in adult males with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Hiromi; Nakamura, Motoaki; Ohno, Taisei; Itahashi, Takashi; Tanaka, Eizaburo; Ohta, Haruhisa; Yamada, Takashi; Kanai, Chieko; Iwanami, Akira; Kato, Nobumasa; Hashimoto, Ryuichiro

    2014-01-01

    Functions of the orbitofrontal cortex include diverse social, cognitive and affective processes, many of which are abnormal in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Recently, altered orbitofrontal sulcogyral patterns have been revealed in several psychiatric conditions, such as schizophrenia, indicating a possibility that altered orbitofrontal sulcogyral morphology reflects abnormal neurodevelopment. However, the presence of sulcal alterations in ASD remains unexplored. Using structural magnetic resonance imaging, subtypes of the ‘H-shaped’ sulcus (Type I, II and III, in order of frequency), posterior orbital sulcus (POS) and intermediate orbital sulcus were identified in each hemisphere of adult males with ASD (n = 51) and matched normal controls (n = 55) based on the study by Chiavaras and Petrides. ASD showed a significantly altered distribution of H-shaped sulcal subtypes in both hemispheres, with a significant increase of Type III. A significant alteration in the distribution of sulcal subtypes was also identified in the right hemisphere POS of ASD. Categorical regression analysis revealed that Type I and II expressions predicted a reduced total Autism-Spectrum Quotient score. Furthermore, Type I expression was associated with a reduced ‘attention to detail’ subscale score. The results demonstrate that altered sulcogyral morphology can be a marker for abnormal neurodevelopment leading to the increased risk of developing autism. PMID:23386741

  19. Autism and Schizophrenia in High Functioning Adults: Behavioral Differences and Overlap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spek, Annelies A.; Wouters, Saskia G. M.

    2010-01-01

    Several recent studies have demonstrated a genetical overlap between autism and schizophrenia. However, at a behavioral level it remains unclear which features can validly distinguish adults with autism from an adult schizophrenia group. To this end, the present study compared 21 individuals with the autistic disorder and 21 individuals with…

  20. The interplay between attentional strategies and language processing in high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Koolen, Sophieke; Vissers, Constance Th W M; Hendriks, Angelique W C J; Egger, Jos I M; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2012-05-01

    This study examined the hypothesis of an atypical interaction between attention and language in ASD. A dual-task experiment with three conditions was designed, in which sentences were presented that contained errors requiring attentional focus either at (a) low level, or (b) high level, or (c) both levels of language. Speed and accuracy for error detection were measured from 16 high-functioning adults with ASD, and 16 matched controls. For controls, there was an attentional cost of dual level processing for low level performance but not for high level performance. For participants with ASD, there was an attentional cost both for low level and for high level performance. These results suggest a compensatory strategic use of attention during language processing in ASD. PMID:21691865

  1. High Intensity Training Improves Health and Physical Function in Middle Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Adamson, Simon; Lorimer, Ross; Cobley, James N.; Lloyd, Ray; Babraj, John

    2014-01-01

    High intensity training (HIT) is effective at improving health; however, it is unknown whether HIT also improves physical function. This study aimed to determine whether HIT improves metabolic health and physical function in untrained middle aged individuals. Fourteen (three male and eleven female) untrained individuals were recruited (control group n = 6: age 42 ± 8 y, weight 64 ± 10 kg, BMI 24 ± 2 kg·m?2 or HIT group n = 8: age 43 ± 8 y, weight 80 ± 8 kg, BMI 29 ± 5 kg·m?2). Training was performed twice weekly, consisting of 10 × 6-second sprints with a one minute recovery between each sprint. Metabolic health (oral glucose tolerance test), aerobic capacity (incremental time to exhaustion on a cycle ergometer) and physical function (get up and go test, sit to stand test and loaded 50 m walk) were determined before and after training. Following eight weeks of HIT there was a significant improvement in aerobic capacity (8% increase in VO2 peak; p < 0.001), physical function (11%–27% respectively; p < 0.05) and a reduction in blood glucose area under the curve (6% reduction; p < 0.05). This study demonstrates for the first time the potential of HIT as a training intervention to improve skeletal muscle function and glucose clearance as we age. PMID:24833513

  2. Plasma High Sensitivity Troponin T Levels in Adult Survivors of Childhood Leukaemias: Determinants and Associations with Cardiac Function

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Yiu-fai; Yu, Wei; Cheuk, Daniel Ka-leung; Cheng, Frankie Wai-tsoi; Yang, Janet Yee-kwan; Yau, Jeffrey Ping-wa; Ho, Karin Ka-huen; Li, Chi-kong; Li, Rever Chak-ho; Yuen, Hui-leung; Ling, Alvin Siu-cheung; Li, Vivian Wing-yi; Wong, Wai-keung; Tsang, Kwong-cheong; Chan, Godfrey Chi-fung

    2013-01-01

    Background We sought to quantify plasma high sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTnT) levels, their determinants, and their associations with left ventricular (LV) myocardial deformation in adult survivors of childhood acute leukaemias. Methods and Results One hundred adult survivors (57 males) of childhood acute leukaemias, aged 24.1±4.2 years, and 42 age-matched controls (26 males) were studied. Plasma cTnT was determined using a highly sensitive assay. Genotyping of NAD(P)H oxidase and multidrug resistance protein polymorphisms was performed. Left ventricular function was assessed by conventional, three-dimensional, and speckle tracking echocardiography. The medians (interquartile range) of hs-cTnT in male and female survivors were 4.9 (4.2 to 7.2) ng/L and 1.0 (1.0 to 3.5) ng/L, respectively. Nineteen survivors (13 males, 6 females) (19%) had elevated hs-cTnT (>95th centile of controls). Compared to those without elevated hs-TnT levels, these subjects had received larger cumulative anthracycline dose and were more likely to have leukaemic relapse, stem cell transplant, and cardiac irradiation. Their LV systolic and early diastolic myocardial velocities, isovolumic acceleration, and systolic longitudinal strain rate were significantly lower. Survivors having CT/TT at CYBA rs4673 had higher hs-cTnT levels than those with CC genotype. Functionally, increased hs-cTnT levels were associated with worse LV longitudinal systolic strain and systolic and diastolic strain rates. Conclusions Increased hs-cTnT levels occur in a significant proportion of adult survivors of childhood acute leukaemias and are associated with larger cumulative anthracycline dose received, history of leukaemic relapse, stem cell transplant, and cardiac irradiation, genetic variants in free radical metabolism, and worse LV myocardial deformation. PMID:24204736

  3. The systemizing quotient: an investigation of adults with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism, and normal sex differences.

    PubMed Central

    Baron-Cohen, Simon; Richler, Jennifer; Bisarya, Dheraj; Gurunathan, Nhishanth; Wheelwright, Sally

    2003-01-01

    Systemizing is the drive to analyse systems or construct systems. A recent model of psychological sex differences suggests that this is a major dimension in which the sexes differ, with males being more drawn to systemize than females. Currently, there are no self-report measures to assess this important dimension. A second major dimension of sex differences is empathizing (the drive to identify mental states and respond to these with an appropriate emotion). Previous studies find females score higher on empathy measures. We report a new self-report questionnaire, the Systemizing Quotient (SQ), for use with adults of normal intelligence. It contains 40 systemizing items and 20 control items. On each systemizing item, a person can score 2, 1 or 0, so the SQ has a maximum score of 80 and a minimum of zero. In Study 1, we measured the SQ of n = 278 adults (114 males, 164 females) from a general population, to test for predicted sex differences (male superiority) in systemizing. All subjects were also given the Empathy Quotient (EQ) to test if previous reports of female superiority would be replicated. In Study 2 we employed the SQ and the EQ with n = 47 adults (33 males, 14 females) with Asperger syndrome (AS) or high-functioning autism (HFA), who are predicted to be either normal or superior at systemizing, but impaired at empathizing. Their scores were compared with n = 47 matched adults from the general population in Study 1. In Study 1, as predicted, normal adult males scored significantly higher than females on the SQ and significantly lower on the EQ. In Study 2, again as predicted, adults with AS/HFA scored significantly higher on the SQ than matched controls, and significantly lower on the EQ than matched controls. The SQ reveals both a sex difference in systemizing in the general population and an unusually strong drive to systemize in AS/HFA. These results are discussed in relation to two linked theories: the 'empathizing-systemizing' (E-S) theory of sex differences and the extreme male brain (EMB) theory of autism. PMID:12639333

  4. Outcome in High-Functioning Adults with Autism with and without Early Language Delays: Implications for the Differentiation between Autism and Asperger Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howlin, Patricia

    2003-01-01

    This study compared 34 adults who had shown early delays in language (high functioning autism) with 42 similar individuals with no such delays (Asperger Syndrome). No significant differences were found between groups on the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R), their social outcome ratings or ADI-R scores based on current functioning, or on…

  5. Impaired identification of impoverished animate but not inanimate objects in adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Hollie G; Panis, Sven; Wagemans, Johan; Jellema, Tjeerd

    2015-02-01

    The ability to identify animate and inanimate objects from impoverished images was investigated in adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFA) and in matched typically developed (TD) adults, using a newly developed task. Consecutive frames were presented containing Gabor elements that slightly changed orientation from one frame to the next. For a subset of elements, the changes were such that these elements gradually formed the outline of an object. Elements enclosed within the object's outline gradually adopted one and the same orientation, outside elements adopted random orientations. The subjective experience was that of an object appearing out of a fog. The HFA group required significantly more frames to identify the impoverished objects than the TD group. Crucially, this difference depended on the nature of the objects: the HFA group required significantly more frames to identify animate objects, but with respect to the identification of inanimate objects the groups did not differ. The groups also did not differ with respect to the number and type of incorrect guesses they made. The results suggest a specific impairment in individuals with HFA in identifying animate objects. A number of possible explanations are discussed. PMID:25256015

  6. Social Interest in High-Functioning Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher-Watson, Sue; Leekam, Susan R.; Findlay, John M.

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are principally characterized by impairments in social functioning. Experimental investigation often is conducted using methods measuring social attention, social cognition, and social communication. In this study, we instead measured interest in social information, making a distinction between basic-level…

  7. Effect of a High-Protein Diet on Kidney Function in Healthy Adults: Results From the OmniHeart Trial

    PubMed Central

    Juraschek, Stephen P.; Appel, Lawrence J.; Anderson, Cheryl A.M.; Miller, Edgar R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Consumption of a diet high in protein can cause glomerular hyperfiltration, a potentially maladaptive response, which may accelerate the progression of kidney disease. Study Design An ancillary study of the OmniHeart trial, a randomized 3-period crossover feeding trial testing the effects of partial replacement of carbohydrate with protein on kidney function. Setting & Participants Healthy adults (N=164) with prehypertension or stage 1 hypertension at a community-based research clinic with a metabolic kitchen. Intervention Participants were fed each of 3 diets for 6 weeks. Feeding periods were separated by a 2- to 4-week washout period. Weight was held constant on each diet. The 3 diets emphasized carbohydrate, protein, or unsaturated fat; dietary protein was either 15% (carbohydrate and unsaturated fat diets) or 25% (protein diet) of energy intake. Outcomes Fasting serum creatinine, cystatin C, and ?2-microglobulin levels, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Measurements Serum creatinine, cystatin C, and ?2-microglobulin collected at the end of each feeding period. Results Baseline cystatin C-based eGFR was 92.0±16.3 (SD) mL/min/1.73 m2. Compared with the carbohydrate and unsaturated fat diets, the protein diet increased cystatin C-based eGFR by ~4 mL/min/1.73 m2 (P < 0.001). The effects of the protein diet on kidney function were independent of changes in blood pressure. There was no significant difference between the carbohydrate and unsaturated fat diets. Limitations Participants did not have kidney disease at baseline. Conclusions A healthy diet rich in protein increased eGFR. Whether long-term consumption of a high-protein diet leads to kidney disease is uncertain. PMID:23219108

  8. The Influences of Face Inversion and Facial Expression on Sensitivity to Eye Contact in High-Functioning Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vida, Mark D.; Maurer, Daphne; Calder, Andrew J.; Rhodes, Gillian; Walsh, Jennifer A.; Pachai, Matthew V.; Rutherford, M. D.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the influences of face inversion and facial expression on sensitivity to eye contact in high-functioning adults with and without an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants judged the direction of gaze of angry, fearful, and neutral faces. In the typical group only, the range of directions of gaze leading to the perception of eye…

  9. A Systematic Review of Behavioral Intervention Research on Adaptive Skill Building in High-Functioning Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmen, Annemiek; Didden, Robert; Lang, Russell

    2012-01-01

    This review involved a systematic search and analysis of behavioral intervention studies aimed at improving adaptive skills in high-functioning young adults with autism spectrum disorders. Through electronic databases and hand searching, 20 studies were identified meeting pre-determined inclusion criteria. Studies were summarized and analysed in…

  10. Sexual Well-Being of a Community Sample of High-Functioning Adults on the Autism Spectrum Who Have Been in a Romantic Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, E. Sandra; Nichols, Shana; Voyer, Susan D.; Reilly, Georgianna

    2013-01-01

    This study explored factors (gender, age, relationship status, symptomatology) associated with the sexual well-being of 141 (56 men and 85 women) adults with high-functioning autism and Asperger syndrome (HFA/AS) living in the community. Participants completed an online survey consisting of a measure of autistic symptoms as well as measures of…

  11. Perinatal Protein Malnutrition Affects Mitochondrial Function in Adult and Results in a Resistance to High Fat Diet-Induced Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Jousse, Céline; Muranishi, Yuki; Parry, Laurent; Montaurier, Christophe; Even, Patrick; Launay, Jean-Marie; Carraro, Valérie; Maurin, Anne-Catherine; Averous, Julien; Chaveroux, Cédric; Bruhat, Alain; Mallet, Jacques; Morio, Béatrice; Fafournoux, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological findings indicate that transient environmental influences during perinatal life, especially nutrition, may have deleterious heritable health effects lasting for the entire life. Indeed, the fetal organism develops specific adaptations that permanently change its physiology/metabolism and that persist even in the absence of the stimulus that initiated them. This process is termed “nutritional programming”. We previously demonstrated that mothers fed a Low-Protein-Diet (LPD) during gestation and lactation give birth to F1-LPD animals presenting metabolic consequences that are different from those observed when the nutritional stress is applied during gestation only. Compared to control mice, adult F1-LPD animals have a lower body weight and exhibit a higher food intake suggesting that maternal protein under-nutrition during gestation and lactation affects the energy metabolism of F1-LPD offspring. In this study, we investigated the origin of this apparent energy wasting process in F1-LPD and demonstrated that minimal energy expenditure is increased, due to both an increased mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle and an increased mitochondrial density in White Adipose Tissue. Importantly, F1-LPD mice are protected against high-fat-diet-induced obesity. Clearly, different paradigms of exposure to malnutrition may be associated with differences in energy expenditure, food intake, weight and different susceptibilities to various symptoms associated with metabolic syndrome. Taken together these results demonstrate that intra-uterine environment is a major contributor to the future of individuals and disturbance at a critical period of development may compromise their health. Consequently, understanding the molecular mechanisms may give access to useful knowledge regarding the onset of metabolic diseases. PMID:25118945

  12. A cognitive-behavioral intervention for emotion regulation in adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have difficulties in social communication; thus, these individuals have trouble understanding the mental states of others. Recent research also suggests that adults with ASD are unable to understand their own mental states, which could lead to difficulties in emotion-regulation. Some studies have reported the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in improving emotion-regulation among children with ASD. The current study will investigate the efficacy of group-based CBT for adults with ASD. Methods/Design The study is a randomized, waitlist controlled, single-blinded trial. The participants will be 60 adults with ASD; 30 will be assigned to a CBT group and 30 to a waitlist control group. Primary outcome measures are the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale, the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations, the Motion Picture Mind-Reading task, and an ASD questionnaire. The secondary outcome measures are the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, the World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale 26-item version, the Global Assessment of Functioning, State-trait Anxiety Inventory, Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory, and Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale. All will be administered during the pre- and post-intervention, and 12 week follow-up periods. The CBT group will receive group therapy over an 8 week period (one session per week) with each session lasting approximately 100 minutes. Group therapy will consist of four or five adults with ASD and two psychologists. We will be using visual materials for this program, mainly the Cognitive Affective Training kit. Discussion This trial will hopefully indicate the efficacy of group-based CBT for adults with high- functioning ASD. Trial registration This trial was registered in The University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry No. UMIN000006236. PMID:23880333

  13. Local information processing in adults with high functioning autism and asperger syndrome: the usefulness of neuropsychological tests and self-reports.

    PubMed

    Spek, Annelies A; Scholte, Evert M; Van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina A

    2011-07-01

    Local information processing in 42 adults with high functioning autism, 41 adults with Asperger syndrome and 41 neurotypical adults was examined. Contrary to our expectations, the disorder groups did not outperform the neurotypical group in the neuropsychological measures of local information processing. In line with our hypotheses, the self-reports did show higher levels of local information processing and a stronger tendency to use systemizing strategies in the two disorder groups. Absent and weak correlations were found between the self-reports and the two neuropsychological tasks in the three groups. The neuropsychological tests and the self-reports seem to measure different underlying constructs. The self-reports were most predictive of the presence of an autism spectrum diagnosis. PMID:20862532

  14. Local vs. global approaches to reproducing the Rey Osterrieth Complex Figure by children, adolescents, and adults with high-functioning autism.

    PubMed

    Kuschner, Emily S; Bodner, Kimberly E; Minshew, Nancy J

    2009-12-01

    Individuals with autism have an atypical pattern of visual processing. Various studies have provided evidence that individuals with autism perceive the details of stimuli before the gestalt, the reverse of the typical pattern of visual processing. This study used the Rey Osterreith Complex Figure (ROCF) task and an objective scoring system to examine local/global processing approaches to its reproduction in 37 individuals diagnosed with high-functioning autism (HFA) compared to 49 age-, IQ-, and gender-matched typically developing controls (TD). The sample was divided into children (aged 8-14 years) and adolescents/adults (aged 15-47 years) to assess age effects. Results showed no difference in overall performance on the ROCF between HFA and TD children. TD participants displayed improved organizational and planning skills with age and a shift to global processing approaches, but there were no differences in performance between children and adolescents/adults with HFA. There was no evidence of enhanced local processing in either HFA group. These findings suggest that HFA individuals with average IQ scores do not have the clinically demonstrable evidence of the enhanced local processing thought to reflect increased local brain connectivity in more severely autistic individuals. The deficient global processing of the HFA adults reflects dependence of performance on impaired strategic problem-solving abilities, which has been demonstrated to result from under development of neural connectivity between visuo-spatial and frontal brain regions in HFA adults. PMID:19950303

  15. The Application of Short Forms of the Wechsler Intelligence Scales in Adults and Children with High Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minshew, Nancy J.; Turner, Catherine A.; Goldstein, Gerald

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated the predictive accuracy of short forms of the Wechsler intelligence scales for individuals with high functioning autism. Several short forms were derived from participants who had received the full procedure. Stepwise multiple regression analyses were performed to determine the strength of association between the subtests included in…

  16. High-functioning autism spectrum disorder as a basic disorder in adult psychiatry and psychotherapy: psychopathological presentation, clinical relevance and therapeutic concepts.

    PubMed

    Tebartz van Elst, Ludger; Pick, Marion; Biscaldi, Monica; Fangmeier, Thomas; Riedel, Andreas

    2013-11-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by deficits in social cognition and competence, communication, highly circumscribed interests and a strong desire for routines. Besides, there are specific abnormalities in perception and language. Typical symptoms are already present in early childhood. Traditionally autism has been regarded as a severe form of neurodevelopmental disorder which goes along with overtly abnormal language, learning difficulties and low IQ in the majority of cases. However, over the last decades, it has become clear that there are also many patients with high-functioning variants of ASD. These are patients with normal language at a superficial level of description and normal and sometimes above average intelligence. In high-functioning variants of the disease, they may run unrecognized until late in adult life. High-functioning ASD is associated with a very high prevalence of comorbid classical psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety, ADHD, tics, psychotic symptoms or emotionally unstable syndromes. In many such cases, there is a causal relationship between ASD and the comorbid psychiatric conditions in that the specific ASD symptoms result in chronic conflicts, misunderstandings and failure in private and vocational relationships. These problems in turn often lead to depression, anxiety and sometimes psychosis-like stress reactions. In this constellation, ASD has to be regarded as a basic disorder with causal relevance for secondary psychiatric syndromes. In this paper, we summarize the classical presentation of high-functioning ASD in adult psychiatry and psychotherapy and suggest a nosological model to classify different ASD conditions instead. To conclude, we outline first treatment concepts in out- and in-patient settings. PMID:24105433

  17. Influence of an Early Recovery Telehealth Intervention on Physical Activity and Functioning following Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery (CABS) among Older Adults with High Disease Burden

    PubMed Central

    Barnason, Susan; Zimmerman, Lani; Schulz, Paula; Tu, Chunhao

    2009-01-01

    Background Older adults with poor functioning preoperatively are at risk for delayed recovery and more impaired outcomes following CABS. Purpose To determine if a 6-week early recovery telehealth intervention, designed to improve self-efficacy and management related to symptoms following CABS, was effective in improving outcomes (physical activity, physiological and psychological functioning) for older adults (> 65 years old) with higher disease burden. Design A descriptive, repeated measures experimental design was used. Follow-up data was collected at 3- and 6-weeks and 3-months after CABS. Sample Subjects were drawn from a larger randomized clinical trial (RCT). Parent study subjects who had high disease burden preoperatively [physical component score of <50 on the Medical Outcome Study Short Form 36 (MOS SF-36) and a RISKO score of > 6], were included (N=55); with 23 subjects in the early recovery intervention group and 31 subjects in the usual care group (n=31). Subjects ranged from 65–85 years old (M=71.6 + 5.1). Findings There was a significant main effect by group [F(1,209)=4.66, p<.05), the intervention group had a least square means of 27.9 kcal/kg/day of energy expenditure compared to the usual care group of 26.6 kcal/kg/day per the RT3® accelerometer. Both groups had significantly improved physical [F(2,171)=3.26, p<.05] and role-physical [F(2,171)=6.64, p<.005] functioning over time. Conclusions The subgroup of CABS subjects with high disease burden was responsive to an early recovery telehealth intervention. Improving patients’ physical activity and functioning can reduce morbidity and mortality associated with poor functioning after cardiac events. PMID:19944870

  18. Prospective memory in adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders: exploring effects of implementation intentions and retrospective memory load.

    PubMed

    Kretschmer, Anett; Altgassen, Mareike; Rendell, Peter G; Bölte, Sven

    2014-11-01

    This study examined, for the first time, the impact of implementation intentions on prospective memory (PM) performance in adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and further explored the role of retrospective memory for PM in ASD. PM was assessed with Virtual Week, a computerized game simulating upcoming everyday-life tasks. Twenty-seven adults with ASD and 27 age- and ability-matched controls were included. Half of the participants were instructed to form implementation intentions (i.e., encoding PM tasks in form of if-then statements), while the rest received simple PM instructions. Results provide first tentative evidence for beneficial effects of implementation intentions and PM tasks with low demands on retrospective memory for adults with ASD's PM. Overall, results point to the importance of planning and retrospective memory for successful prospective remembering in ASD. PMID:25151603

  19. Functional neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Praag, Henriette; Schinder, Alejandro F.; Christie, Brian R.; Toni, Nicolas; Palmer, Theo D.; Gage, Fred H.

    2002-02-01

    There is extensive evidence indicating that new neurons are generated in the dentate gyrus of the adult mammalian hippocampus, a region of the brain that is important for learning and memory. However, it is not known whether these new neurons become functional, as the methods used to study adult neurogenesis are limited to fixed tissue. We use here a retroviral vector expressing green fluorescent protein that only labels dividing cells, and that can be visualized in live hippocampal slices. We report that newly generated cells in the adult mouse hippocampus have neuronal morphology and can display passive membrane properties, action potentials and functional synaptic inputs similar to those found in mature dentate granule cells. Our findings demonstrate that newly generated cells mature into functional neurons in the adult mammalian brain.

  20. Social Skills Training for Young Adults with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gantman, Alexander; Kapp, Steven K.; Orenski, Kaely; Laugeson, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the psychosocial difficulties common among young adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), little to no evidence-based social skills interventions exist for this population. Using a randomized controlled trial (RCT) design, the current study tested the effectiveness of an evidence-based, caregiver-assisted social skills intervention…

  1. High Blood Pressure: Unique to Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    High Blood Pressure Hypertension Unique to Older Adults This section provides information to help older adults and their caregivers consider their disease or condition in conjunction with other health issues. ...

  2. Functional Literacy of Young Guyanese Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Zellyne

    2000-01-01

    Describes the rationale, development, and administration of the test used for measuring levels of achievement in functional literacy in Guyana. Draws attention to the difficulty of attracting funding for literacy programmes from international aid agencies, given the inflated adult literacy rate that is reported for Guyana in international…

  3. Relationship Functioning Among Adult Children of Alcoholics*

    PubMed Central

    Kearns-Bodkin, Jill N.; Leonard, Kenneth E.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the current research was to examine the impact of both maternal and paternal alcoholism on the relationship functioning of husbands and wives over the early years of marriage. Method: Couples (N = 634) were assessed at the time of marriage, and again at their first, second, and fourth anniversaries. Husbands and wives completed separate, self-administered questionnaires at home. Results: Results of separate repeated measures analyses of covariance revealed that, for both husbands and wives, the appraisal of their marital relationship was associated with alcoholism in the opposite gender parent. That is, for husbands, alcoholism in the mother was associated with lower marital satisfaction across the 4 years of marriage. For wives, alcoholism in the father was related to lower marital intimacy. Husbands' physical aggression was influenced by mother's and father's alcoholism; high levels of physical aggression were present among men with alcoholic mothers and nonalcoholic fathers. Interestingly, wives' experience of husband's aggression was also highest among women with alcoholic mothers and nonalcoholic fathers. Wives also reported engaging in high levels of physical aggression when they had an alcoholic mother and a nonalcoholic father, but this effect was restricted to the early part of the marriage. Finally, parental alcoholism was associated with both husbands' and wives' attachment representations. Conclusions: The present findings suggest that children raised in alcoholic families may carry the problematic effects of their early family environment into their adult romantic relationships. PMID:18925353

  4. The Empathy Quotient: An Investigation of Adults with Asperger Syndrome or High Functioning Autism, and Normal Sex Differences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon Baron-Cohen; Sally Wheelwright

    2004-01-01

    Empathy is an essential part of normal social functioning, yet there are precious few instruments for measuring individual differences in this domain. In this article we review psychological theories of empathy and its measurement. Previous instruments that purport to measure this have not always focused purely on empathy. We report a new self-report questionnaire, the Empathy Quotient (EQ), for use

  5. The Interplay between Attentional Strategies and Language Processing in High-Functioning Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koolen, Sophieke; Vissers, Constance Th. W. M.; Hendriks, Angelique W. C. J.; Egger, Jos I. M.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the hypothesis of an atypical interaction between attention and language in ASD. A dual-task experiment with three conditions was designed, in which sentences were presented that contained errors requiring attentional focus either at (a) low level, or (b) high level, or (c) both levels of language. Speed and accuracy for error…

  6. Neuropsychological functioning in adults with Asperger syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ambery, Fiona Z; Russell, Ailsa J; Perry, Katie; Morris, Robin; Murphy, Declan G M

    2006-11-01

    There is some consensus in the literature regarding the cognitive profile of people with Asperger syndrome (AS). Findings to date suggest that a proportion of people with AS have higher verbal than performance IQ, a non-verbal learning disability (NVLD) and impairments in some aspects of executive function (EF). However, there are few published studies on adults with AS and many have compared the AS group to an autistic control group alone. We compared cognitive functioning in 27 AS adults without a history of language delay and 20 normal controls who did not differ significantly in age, gender and IQ. People with AS had significant impairments on a test of visual memory and on EF tasks measuring flexibility and generativity, but not inhibition. There was no significant difference between verbal and performance IQ. Our results suggest that impairments on tests requiring flexibility of thought and generation occur at all ages and across a range of autistic disorders including AS. PMID:17088272

  7. Biochemical and Functional Characterization of Charge-defined Subfractions of High-density Lipoprotein From Normal Adults

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Max T.; Chang, Chia-Ming; Chen, Chia-Ying; Shen, Ming-Yi; Liao, Hsin-Yi; Wang, Guei-Jane; Chen, Chu-Huang; Chen, Chao-Jung; Yang, Chao-Yuh

    2013-01-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is regarded as atheroprotective because it provides antioxidant and anti-inflammatory benefits and plays an important role in reverse cholesterol transport. In this paper, we outline a novel methodology for studying the heterogeneity of HDL. Using anion-exchange chromatography, we separated HDL from 6 healthy individuals into 5 subfractions (H1 through H5) with increasing charge and evaluated the composition and biologic activities of each subfraction. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis showed that apolipoprotein (apo) AI and apoAII were present in all 5 subfractions; apoCI was present only in H1; and apoCIII and apoE were most abundantly present in H4 and H5. HDL-associated antioxidant enzymes such as lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase, lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2, and paraoxonase 1 were most abundant in H4 and H5. Lipoprotein isoforms were analyzed in each subfraction by using matrix-assisted laser desorption–time of flight mass spectrometry. To quantify other proteins in the HDL subfractions, we used the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation approach followed by nanoflow liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Most antioxidant proteins detected were found in H4 and H5. The ability of each subfraction to induce cholesterol efflux from macrophages increased with increasing HDL electronegativity, with the exception of H5, which promoted the least efflux activity. In conclusion, anion-exchange chromatography is an attractive method for separating HDL into subfractions with distinct lipoprotein compositions and biologic activities. By comparing the properties of these subfractions, it may be possible to uncover HDL-specific proteins that play a role in disease. PMID:24171625

  8. Sexual well-being of a community sample of high-functioning adults on the autism spectrum who have been in a romantic relationship.

    PubMed

    Byers, E Sandra; Nichols, Shana; Voyer, Susan D; Reilly, Georgianna

    2013-07-01

    This study explored factors (gender, age, relationship status, symptomatology) associated with the sexual well-being of 141 (56 men and 85 women) adults with high-functioning autism and Asperger syndrome (HFA/AS) living in the community. Participants completed an online survey consisting of a measure of autistic symptoms as well as measures of dyadic and solitary sexual well-being. Canonical correlation analyses showed that participants who were currently in a romantic relationship reported more frequent dyadic affectionate and genital activity and greater sexual assertiveness and sexual satisfaction, pointing to the importance of context in an active sex life. After controlling for the first variate, men and individuals with less autism symptomatology, particularly in the social and communication domains, generally reported significantly greater dyadic sexual well-being, including greater sexual satisfaction, assertiveness, arousability, and desire and lower sexual anxiety and fewer sexual problems. Men also reported better solitary sexual well-being, including more sexual thoughts, more sexual desire, and more frequent solitary sexual activity; however, they had lower sexual knowledge. These results highlight the importance for research and sexuality education with individuals with HFA/AS to conceptualize sexual well-being as a multidimensional construct consisting of both dyadic and solitary aspects. PMID:23045223

  9. Lung function in young adults: evidence for differences in the chronological age at which various functions start to decline

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Hurwitz; J Allen; A Liben; M R Becklake

    1980-01-01

    In order to gather prospective information on the chronological age at which lung functions start to decline, follow-up measurements were carried out on 38 young adults (30 men and eight women) whose respiratory and cardiac function had been studied previously in the course of a survey of high school students. In the 15 subjects who had reached adult height at

  10. Relation of Childhood Socioeconomic Status and Family Environment to Adult Metabolic Functioning in the CARDIA Study

    E-print Network

    Lehman, Barbara J.

    in childhood have been linked to a high rate of physical health disorders in adulthood. The objectiveRelation of Childhood Socioeconomic Status and Family Environment to Adult Metabolic Functioning and to relate them to metabolic functioning (MF) in the Coronary Artery Risk Development In Young Adults (CARDIA

  11. Endogenous Spatial Attention: Evidence for Intact Functioning in Adults With Autism

    E-print Network

    Carrasco, Marisa

    Endogenous Spatial Attention: Evidence for Intact Functioning in Adults With Autism Michael A aspect of human cognition, and previous research on spatial attention in individuals with autism spectrum stimulus). We found that high-functioning adults with autism exhibited slower reaction times overall

  12. Sensory and Cognitive Factors Influencing Functional Ability in Older Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kimberly M. Wood; Jerri D. Edwards; Olivio J. Clay; Virginia G. Wadley; Daniel L. Roenker; Karlene K. Ball

    2005-01-01

    Background: Age-related sensory and cognitive impairments have been related to functional performance in older adults. With regard to cognitive abilities, processing speed in particular may be strongly related to older adults’ abilities to perform everyday tasks. Identifying and comparing cognitive correlates of functional performance is particularly important in order to design interventions to promote independence and prevent functional disability. Objective:

  13. Health-Related Variables and Functional Fitness among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkin, Linda D.; Haddock, Bryan L.

    2010-01-01

    This study assesses the functional fitness of a convenient sample of older adults (greater than 70 years), to examine correlations between functional fitness and several other health-related variables and to compare with criterion performance data as established by Rikli and Jones (2001). One hundred and seven community-dwelling older adults with…

  14. Functional Outcomes in the Treatment of Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Lenard A.; Spencer, Thomas J.; Levine, Louise R.; Ramsey, Janet L.; Tamura, Roy; Kelsey, Douglas; Ball, Susan G.; Allen, Albert J.; Biederman, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Objective: ADHD is associated with significant functional impairment in adults. The present study examined functional outcomes following 6-month double-blind treatment with either atomoxetine or placebo. Method: Patients were 410 adults (58.5% male) with "DSM-IV"--defined ADHD. They were randomly assigned to receive either atomoxetine 40 mg/day to…

  15. Mechanisms and Functional Implications of Adult Neurogenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chunmei Zhao; Wei Deng; Fred H. Gage

    2008-01-01

    Neurogenesis in the brain of adult mammals occurs throughout life, and has been clearly demonstrated at two locations under normal conditions: the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus. Neurons born in the adult SVZ migrate over a great distance through the rostral migratory stream and become granule

  16. Neuropsychological Functioning in Adolescents and Young Adults at Genetic Risk for Schizophrenia and Affective Psychoses: Results from the Harvard and Hillside Adolescent High Risk Studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Larry J. Seidman; Anthony J. Giuliano; Christopher W. Smith; William S. Stone; Stephen J. Glatt; Eric Meyer; Stephen V. Faraone; Ming T. Tsuang; Barbara Cornblatt

    2006-01-01

    Siblings and offspring of persons with schizophrenia carry elevated genetic risk for the illness and manifest attentional and memory impairments. Because less is known about other neuropsychological functions and their specificity in adolescents, we conducted a genetic high-risk (HR) study of schizophrenia (HR-SCZ) and affective psychosis (HR- AFF). Participants (ages 12-25) were from the Harvard Adolescent High-Risk and Hillside Family

  17. High Functioning Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Vicki

    This paper reviews the characteristics and needs of students with high functioning autism. First, it lists 18 common characteristics of autism, then it stresses that autism is defined by the general pattern of characteristics. Next, it discusses how people with high functioning autism differ from those with autism. These differences include higher…

  18. The Perspective of Young Adult Siblings of Individuals with Asperger Syndrome and High Functioning Autism: An Exploration of Grief and Implications for Developmental Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allgood, Nicole R.

    2010-01-01

    Asperger syndrome (AS) and high functioning autism are complex developmental disabilities that have a significant impact on the individual and his/her family. Asperger syndrome is characterized by challenges with understanding non-verbal communication, difficulties with social relationships, and restricted interests. Having a brother or sister…

  19. Children's Executive Function and High-Calorie, Low-Nutrient Food Intake: Mediating Effects of Child-Perceived Adult Fast Food Intake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tate, Eleanor B.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Chou, Chih-Ping; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Pentz, Mary Ann; Riggs, Nathaniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study tested the relationships among child executive function (EF), child-perceived parent fast food intake, and child self-reported subsequent consumption of high-calorie, low-nutrient (HCLN) food. Design: One year and 6-month longitudinal observation from a larger randomized controlled trial. Setting. Southern California…

  20. Brief Report: Examining Driving Behavior in Young Adults with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders--A Pilot Study Using a Driving Simulation Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reimer, Bryan; Fried, Ronna; Mehler, Bruce; Joshi, Gagan; Bolfek, Anela; Godfrey, Kathryn M.; Zhao, Nan; Goldin, Rachel; Biederman, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Although it is speculated that impairments associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) will adversely affect driving performance, little is known about the actual extent and nature of the presumed deficits. Ten males (18-24 years of age) with a diagnosis of high functioning autism and 10 age matched community controls were recruited for a…

  1. Estimated Functional Capacity Predicts Mortality in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sui, Xuemei; Laditka, James N.; Hardin, James W.; Blair, Steven N.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To examine associations between functional capacity estimated from cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and mortality risks in adults aged 60 and older. DESIGN Prospective study, averaging 13.6 years follow-up. SETTING Preventive medical clinic. PARTICIPANTS Four thousand sixty adults who completed preventive medical examinations between 1971 and 2001; 24.7% women, mean age ± standard deviation 64.6 ± 4.9, body mass index (BMI) 25.9 ± 3.8 kg/m2. MEASUREMENTS CRF was quantified as metabolic equivalents (METs) achieved during maximal treadmill exercise. The lowest 20% of the age- and sex-specific MET distribution was defined as having low CRF, the middle 40% moderate CRF, and the upper 40% high CRF. Cox regression was used to estimate death rates (per 1,000 person-years), hazard ratios (HRs), and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS Nine hundred eighty-nine deaths occurred during follow-up. Death rates adjusted for age, sex, and examination year were 30.9, 18.3, and 13.4 for all causes (P<.001); 15.9, 8.6, and 5.4 for cardiovascular disease (CVD) (P<.001); and 6.1, 4.9, and 4.2 for cancer (P=.04) for subjects with low, moderate, and high CRF, respectively. After adjusting for smoking, abnormal electrocardiograms at rest or while exercising, percentage of age-predicted maximal heart rate achieved during exercise testing, baseline medical conditions, BMI, hypercholesterolemia, and family CVD and cancer history, subjects with high CRF had notably lower mortality risk than those with low CRF from all causes (HR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.47–0.74) and from CVD (HR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.41–0.80). CONCLUSION CRF is an important independent predictor of death in older adults. The results add to the existing evidence that promoting physical activity in older adults provides substantial health benefits, even in the oldest old. PMID:17979958

  2. Hyperglycemia enhances function and differentiation of adult rat cardiac fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Shamhart, Patricia E; Luther, Daniel J; Adapala, Ravi K; Bryant, Jennifer E; Petersen, Kyle A; Meszaros, J Gary; Thodeti, Charles K

    2014-07-01

    Diabetes is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease that can eventually cause cardiomyopathy and heart failure. Cardiac fibroblasts (CF) are the critical mediators of physiological and pathological cardiac remodeling; however, the effects of hyperglycemia on cardiac fibroblast function and differentiation is not well known. Here, we performed a comprehensive investigation on the effects of hyperglycemia on cardiac fibroblasts and show that hyperglycemia enhances cardiac fibroblast function and differentiation. We found that high glucose treatment increased collagen I, III, and VI gene expression in rat adult cardiac fibroblasts. Interestingly, hyperglycemia increased CF migration and proliferation that is augmented by collagen I and III. Surprisingly, we found that short term hyperglycemia transiently inhibited ERK1/2 activation but increased AKT phosphorylation. Finally, high glucose treatment increased spontaneous differentiation of cardiac fibroblasts to myofibroblasts with increasing passage compared with low glucose. Taken together, these findings suggest that hyperglycemia induces cardiac fibrosis by modulating collagen expression, migration, proliferation, and differentiation of cardiac fibroblasts. PMID:24959995

  3. Measurement of Functional Activities in Older Adults in the Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeffer, R. I.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Evaluated two measures of social function in 195 older adults who underwent neurological, cognitive, and affective assessment. Found the Functional Activities Questionnaire superior to the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale in discriminating among functional levels and in predicting neurologist ratings and cognitive scores. (Author)

  4. Effect of Extended Release Niacin on Serum Lipids and on Endothelial Function in Adults with Sickle Cell Anemia and Low High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels

    PubMed Central

    Scoffone, Heather M.; Krajewski, Megan; Zorca, Suzana; Bereal-Williams, Candice; Littel, Patricia; Seamon, Catherine; Mendelsohn, Laurel; Footman, Eleni; Jaoudeh, Nadine Abi; Sachdev, Vandana; Machado, Roberto F.; Cuttica, Michael; Shamburek, Robert; Cannon, Richard O.; Remaley, Alan; Minniti, Caterina P.; Kato, Gregory J.

    2014-01-01

    Through bound apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) activates endothelial nitric oxide synthase, inducing vasodilation. Because patients with sickle cell disease (SCD)have low apoA-I andendothelial dysfunction,we conducted a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial to test whether extended-release niacin (niacin-ER) increases apoA-I-containing HDL-C, and improves vascular function in SCD. Twenty-seven SCD patientswith HDL-C <39 mg/dL or apoA-I <99 mg/dL were randomized to 12 weeks of niacin-ER, increased in 500mg increments to a maximum of 1500mg daily, or placebo. The primary outcome was the absolute change in HDL-C after 12 weeks, with endothelial function assessed before and at the end of treatment. Niacin-ER-treated patients trended to greater increase in HDL-C compared with placebo treatment at 12 weeks (5.1±7.7 vs. 0.9±3.8 mg/dL, one-tailed p=0.07), associated with significantly greater, improvements in the ratios of low-density lipoprotein to HDL-C (1.24 vs. 1.95, p = 0.003), and apolipoprotein B to apoA-I (0.46 vs. 0.58, p = 0.03) compared with placebo-treated patients. No improvements were detected in three independent vascular physiology assays of endothelial function. Thus, the relatively small changes in HDL-C achieved by the dose of niacin-ER used in our study are not associated with improved vascular function in patients with SCD with initially low levels of apoA-I or HDL-C. PMID:24035168

  5. Executive functioning in older adults with hoarding disorder

    PubMed Central

    Ayers, Catherine R.; Wetherell, Julie Loebach; Schiehser, Dawn; Almklov, Erin; Golshan, Shahrokh; Saxena, Sanjaya

    2014-01-01

    Background Hoarding disorder (HD) is a chronic and debilitating psychiatric condition. Midlife HD patients have been found to have neurocognitive impairment, particularly in areas of executive functioning, but the extent to which this is due to comorbid psychiatric disorders has not been clear. Aims/Method The purpose of the present investigation was to examine executive functioning in geriatric HD patients without any comorbid Axis I disorders (n = 42) compared with a healthy older adult comparison group (n = 25). We hypothesized that older adults with HD would perform significantly worse on measures of executive functioning (Wisconsin Card Sort Task [Psychological Assessment Resources, Lutz, Florida, USA] (Psychological Assessment Resources, 2003) and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV digit span and letter-number sequencing tests [Pearson, San Antonio, TX, USA]). Results Older adults with HD showed significant differences from healthy older controls in multiple aspects of executive functioning. Compared with healthy controls, older adults with HD committed significantly more total, non-perseverative errors and conceptual level responses on the Wisconsin Card Sort Task and had significantly worse performance on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV digit span and letter-number sequencing tests. Hoarding symptom severity was strongly correlated with executive dysfunction in the HD group. Conclusions Compared with demographically-matched controls, older adults with HD have dysfunction in several domains of executive functioning including mental control, working memory, inhibition, and set shifting. Executive dysfunction is strongly correlated with hoarding severity and is not because of comorbid psychiatric disorders in HD patients. These results have broad clinical implications suggesting that executive functioning should be assessed and taken into consideration when developing intervention strategies for older adults with HD. PMID:23440720

  6. Adult-specific functions of animal microRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Kailiang; Lai, Eric C.

    2014-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are ~22 nucleotide (nt) RNAs that coordinate vast regulatory networks in animals, and thereby influence myriad processes. This review examines evidence that miRNAs play continuous roles in adults, in ways that are separable from developmental control. Adult-specific activities for miRNAs have been described in a variety of stem cell populations, in the context of neural function and cardiovascular biology, in metabolism and physiology, and during cancer. In addition to reviewing recent results, we also discuss methods for studying miRNA activities specifically in adults and evaluate their relative strengths and weaknesses. A fuller understanding of continuous functions of miRNAs in adults has bearing on efforts and opportunities to manipulate miRNAs for therapeutic purposes. PMID:23817310

  7. Time Monitoring and Executive Functioning in Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mantyla, Timo; Carelli, Maria Grazia; Forman, Helen

    2007-01-01

    This study examined time-based prospective memory performance in relation to individual and developmental differences in executive functioning. School-age children and young adults completed six experimental tasks that tapped three basic components of executive functioning: inhibition, updating, and mental shifting. Monitoring performance was…

  8. A Functional-Notional Syllabus for Adult Learners of Irish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, David, Comp.; And Others

    The first functional-notional syllabus for adult learners of Irish, written in Irish and English, is presented. The syllabus begins with an introductory section about functional-notional syllabi, their definitions and implications, and the characteristics of this syllabus. The second section provides the general aims and specific behavioral…

  9. Hyperuricaemia does not impair cardiovascular function in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Waring, W S; Adwani, S H; Breukels, O; Webb, D J; Maxwell, S R J

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the possibility that uric acid (UA) can impair endothelial function, an important surrogate for atherosclerosis. Design: UA was administered locally or systemically to healthy adult men and women in a series of randomised placebo controlled studies. This temporarily raised serum UA concentrations, so that the potential effects of hyperuricaemia on mechanisms of cardiovascular disease could be studied. Main outcome measures: The effects of UA administration on basal blood flow and responses to locally administered acetylcholine, sodium nitroprusside, and l-NG-monomethylarginine were studied in the forearm vascular bed with venous occlusion plethysmography. The effects of hyperuricaemia on systemic vascular resistance, large artery compliance, and baroreflex sensitivity were examined by validated non-invasive techniques. Results: UA administration caused a twofold increase in serum concentrations. However, there were no acute effects on haemodynamic variables, basal forearm blood flow, or nitric oxide dependent endothelial function. Conclusion: Unlike other risk factors associated with endothelial dysfunction, acute exposure to high concentrations of UA does not impair cardiovascular function in healthy men. These findings do not support a causal link between hyperuricaemia and atherosclerosis. PMID:14729785

  10. Pulmonary function in healthy young adult Indians in Madras.

    PubMed Central

    Vijayan, V K; Kuppurao, K V; Venkatesan, P; Sankaran, K; Prabhakar, R

    1990-01-01

    Forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second, functional residual capacity, residual volume, total lung capacity, and single breath diffusing capacity measurements (effective alveolar volume, carbon monoxide transfer factor, and transfer coefficient) were measured in 247 young healthy adults (130 male, 117 female) aged 15-40 years living in Madras. Subjects were of Dravidian stock, living at sea level with rice as their staple diet. Regression equations were derived for men and women for predicting normal pulmonary function for young adults in South India. The values were similar to those reported for subjects from Western India and lower than those reported for North Indians and caucasians. PMID:2402724

  11. Neuropsychological Functioning in Adults with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambery, Fiona Z.; Russell, Ailsa J.; Perry, Katie; Morris, Robin; Murphy, Declan G. M.

    2006-01-01

    There is some consensus in the literature regarding the cognitive profile of people with Asperger syndrome (AS). Findings to date suggest that a proportion of people with AS have higher verbal than performance IQ, a non-verbal learning disability (NVLD) and impairments in some aspects of executive function (EF). However, there are few published…

  12. Functional food awareness and perceptions in relation to information sources in older adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The functional food industry has experienced innovative and economic expansion, yet research into consumer perceptions of functional foods and their associated health claims is limited. Among consumers, older adults could benefit from functional foods due to age-related issues pertaining to food and health. The purpose of this research was to identify the need for information related to functional foods among older adults (?60 years old) and to assess awareness and perceptions of health claims on functional food packages. Methods Community-dwelling older adults (n?=?200) completed a researcher administered questionnaire designed to collect information about functional foods including current consumption, motivating factors for consumption, perceived need for information, sources of information for functional foods and awareness of health claims. Results Prevalence of functional food consumption among participants was 93.0%. Increased awareness and knowledge was the most commonly reported factor that would promote functional food consumption (85.5%) and 63.5% of participants wanted more information about functional foods with preferred sources being newspapers/magazines/books (68.5%) and food labels (66.1%). Participants were predominately (93.5%) aware of health claims on functional foods and those with more education were more likely to report being aware of health claims (p?=?0.045). Conclusions Although functional food consumption among older adults in this sample is high, there is a need for further information regarding functional foods. These results inform stakeholders regarding the potential for information to influence functional food acceptance among older adult consumers. PMID:24886306

  13. A Selected Bibliography of Functional Literacy Materials for Adult Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Joann La Perla; Wallace, Virginia A.

    This document is a selected, annotated bibliography of materials published in the area of coping skills for adults with functional reading skills. Publications are listed alphabetically by title under the following general topics: general coping skills; newspapers; occupational information; consumer economics; pregnancy and parenting; housing;…

  14. Abnormal Pulmonary Function in Adults with Sickle Cell Anemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth S. Klings; Diego F. Wyszynski; Vikki G. Nolan; Martin H. Steinberg

    2006-01-01

    Rationale: Pulmonary complications of sickle cell anemia (Hb-SS) commonly cause morbidity, yet few large studies of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in this population have been reported. Objectives: PFTs (spirometry, lung volumes, and diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO)) from 310 adults with Hb-SS were ana- lyzed to determine the pattern of pulmonary dysfunction and their association with other systemic complications

  15. Depression, Immune Function, and Health in Older Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katherine L. Applegate; Janice K. Kiecolt-Glaser; Ronald Glaser

    In summary, there are clearly significant immunological declines associated with depression, depressed mood, and stress. Unfortunately,\\u000a these distress-related effects are magnified in elderly populations because the aging process itself contributes to downward\\u000a change in immune function. The interaction of distress and aging leaves older adults open to physical health complications.\\u000a Alterations of immune function have been linked to poorer vaccine

  16. Adolescent social isolation influences cognitive function in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Shao, Feng; Han, Xiao; Shao, Shuang; Wang, Weiwen

    2013-04-15

    Adolescence is a critical period for neurodevelopment. Evidence from animal studies suggests that isolated rearing can exert negative effects on behavioral and brain development. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of adolescent social isolation on latent inhibition and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in the forebrain of adult rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into adolescent isolation (isolated housing, 38-51 days of age) and social groups. Latent inhibition was tested at adulthood. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels were measured in the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Adolescent social isolation impaired latent inhibition and increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in the medial prefrontal cortex of young adult rats. These data suggest that adolescent social isolation has a profound effect on cognitive function and neurotrophin levels in adult rats and may be used as an animal model of neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:25206396

  17. Relation of fetal growth to adult lung function in south India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. E. Stein; K. Kumaran; C. H. Fall; S. O. Shaheen; C. Osmond; D. J. Barker

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Follow up studies in Britain have shown that low rates of fetal growth are followed by reduced lung function in adult life, independent of smoking and social class. It is suggested that fetal adaptations to undernutrition in utero result in permanent changes in lung structure, which in turn lead to chronic airflow obstruction. India has high rates of intrauterine

  18. Memory functioning in adult women traumatized by childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Stein, M B; Hanna, C; Vaerum, V; Koverola, C

    1999-07-01

    Memory impairment has been reported in some studies of patients with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and in rape victims with PTSD. The authors tested whether explicit memory impairment was evident in adult women who were traumatized by severe sexual abuse in childhood. The California Verbal Learning Test (Delis, Kramer, Kaplan, & Ober, 1987) and the Benton Visual Retention Task (Benton, 1974), were administered to 22 female adult survivors of childhood sexual trauma and to 20 demographically and educationally similar nonvictimized women. No evidence was found of explicit memory impairment in the abuse survivors. Furthermore, neither PTSD severity, dissociative symptom severity, nor extent of preexisting amnesia for childhood trauma contributed to the variance in memory functioning. Additional studies are needed to determine the extent to which impaired explicit memory functioning is a common feature of posttraumatic stress syndromes. PMID:10467560

  19. Resistance and functional training reduces knee extensor position fluctuations in functionally limited older adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Todd M. Manini; Brian C. Clark; Brian L. Tracy; Jeanmarie Burke; Lori Ploutz-Snyder

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of task-specificity on knee extensor steadiness adaptations in functionally\\u000a limited older adults. Twenty-four functionally limited older adults (74.6±7.6 years: 22 women, 2 men) completed a 10-week\\u000a control period followed by 10 weeks (2 days\\/week) of resistance (RT), functional (FT) (practicing everyday tasks, i.e., chair\\u000a rises) or functional + resistance (FRT) training, which featured

  20. Folic acid improves arterial endothelial function in adults with hyperhomocystinemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kam S Woo; Ping Chook; Yvette I Lolin; John E Sanderson; Con Metreweli; David S Celermajer

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVESTo evaluate whether oral folic acid supplementation might improve endothelial function in the arteries of asymptomatic adults with hyperhomocystinemia.BACKGROUNDHyperhomocystinemia is an independent risk factor for endothelial dysfunction and occlusive vascular disease. Folic acid supplementation can lower homocystine levels in subjects with hyperhomocystinemia; however, the effect of this on arterial physiology is not known.METHODSAdults subjects were recruited from a community-based atherosclerosis

  1. Altered amygdala functional connectivity in adult Tourette’s syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cornelius J. Werner; Tony Stöcker; Thilo Kellermann; Hans Peter Wegener; Frank Schneider; N. Jon Shah; Irene Neuner

    2010-01-01

    Tourette’s syndrome (TS) is a developmental neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by motor and vocal tics as well as psychiatric\\u000a comorbidities. Recently, differences in maturation of cortical networks using functional connectivity metrics have been described\\u000a for this disorder. However, adult data on subcortical networks are scarce. In particular, the connectivity of the amygdala,\\u000a for which a role in the pathophysiology of TS

  2. High Prevalence of Asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum Infection in Gabonese Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthias P. Dal-Bianco; Kai B. Köster; Ulrich D. Kombila; Jürgen F. J. Kun; Martin P. Grobusch; Ghyslain Mombo Ngoma; Pierre B. Matsiegui; Christian Supan; Carmen L. Ospina Salazar; Michel A. Missinou; Saadou Issifou; Bertrand Lell; Peter Kremsner

    Abstract. Plasmodium falciparum, the most common malarial parasite in sub-Saharan Africa, accounts for a high number of deaths in children less than five years of age. In malaria-endemic countries with stable transmission, semi- immunity is usually acquired after childhood. For adults, severe malaria is rare. Infected adults have either uncompli- cated malaria or asymptomatic parasitemia. During a period of one

  3. Executive function and bilingualism in young and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Kousaie, Shanna; Sheppard, Christine; Lemieux, Maude; Monetta, Laura; Taler, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that being bilingual results in advantages on executive control processes and disadvantages on language tasks relative to monolinguals. Furthermore, the executive function advantage is thought to be larger in older than younger adults, suggesting that bilingualism may buffer against age-related changes in executive function. However, there are potential confounds in some of the previous research, as well as inconsistencies in the literature. The goal of the current investigation was to examine the presence of a bilingual advantage in executive control and a bilingual disadvantage on language tasks in the same sample of young and older monolingual anglophones, monolingual francophones, and French/English bilinguals. Participants completed a series of executive function tasks, including a Stroop task, a Simon task, a sustained attention to response task (SART), the Wisconsin Card Sort Test (WCST), and the digit span subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, and language tasks, including the Boston Naming Test (BNT), and category and letter fluency. The results do not demonstrate an unequivocal advantage for bilinguals on executive function tasks and raise questions about the reliability, robustness and/or specificity of previous findings. The results also did not demonstrate a disadvantage for bilinguals on language tasks. Rather, they suggest that there may be an influence of the language environment. It is concluded that additional research is required to fully characterize any language group differences in both executive function and language tasks. PMID:25120442

  4. Executive function and bilingualism in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Kousaie, Shanna; Sheppard, Christine; Lemieux, Maude; Monetta, Laura; Taler, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that being bilingual results in advantages on executive control processes and disadvantages on language tasks relative to monolinguals. Furthermore, the executive function advantage is thought to be larger in older than younger adults, suggesting that bilingualism may buffer against age-related changes in executive function. However, there are potential confounds in some of the previous research, as well as inconsistencies in the literature. The goal of the current investigation was to examine the presence of a bilingual advantage in executive control and a bilingual disadvantage on language tasks in the same sample of young and older monolingual anglophones, monolingual francophones, and French/English bilinguals. Participants completed a series of executive function tasks, including a Stroop task, a Simon task, a sustained attention to response task (SART), the Wisconsin Card Sort Test (WCST), and the digit span subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, and language tasks, including the Boston Naming Test (BNT), and category and letter fluency. The results do not demonstrate an unequivocal advantage for bilinguals on executive function tasks and raise questions about the reliability, robustness and/or specificity of previous findings. The results also did not demonstrate a disadvantage for bilinguals on language tasks. Rather, they suggest that there may be an influence of the language environment. It is concluded that additional research is required to fully characterize any language group differences in both executive function and language tasks. PMID:25120442

  5. Advanced Echocardiography in Adult Zebrafish Reveals Delayed Recovery of Heart Function after Myocardial Cryoinjury

    PubMed Central

    Kossack, Mandy; Juergensen, Lonny; Fuchs, Dieter; Katus, Hugo A.; Hassel, David

    2015-01-01

    Translucent zebrafish larvae represent an established model to analyze genetics of cardiac development and human cardiac disease. More recently adult zebrafish are utilized to evaluate mechanisms of cardiac regeneration and by benefiting from recent genome editing technologies, including TALEN and CRISPR, adult zebrafish are emerging as a valuable in vivo model to evaluate novel disease genes and specifically validate disease causing mutations and their underlying pathomechanisms. However, methods to sensitively and non-invasively assess cardiac morphology and performance in adult zebrafish are still limited. We here present a standardized examination protocol to broadly assess cardiac performance in adult zebrafish by advancing conventional echocardiography with modern speckle-tracking analyses. This allows accurate detection of changes in cardiac performance and further enables highly sensitive assessment of regional myocardial motion and deformation in high spatio-temporal resolution. Combining conventional echocardiography measurements with radial and longitudinal velocity, displacement, strain, strain rate and myocardial wall delay rates after myocardial cryoinjury permitted to non-invasively determine injury dimensions and to longitudinally follow functional recovery during cardiac regeneration. We show that functional recovery of cryoinjured hearts occurs in three distinct phases. Importantly, the regeneration process after cryoinjury extends far beyond the proposed 45 days described for ventricular resection with reconstitution of myocardial performance up to 180 days post-injury (dpi). The imaging modalities evaluated here allow sensitive cardiac phenotyping and contribute to further establish adult zebrafish as valuable cardiac disease model beyond the larval developmental stage. PMID:25853735

  6. Rfx6 maintains the functional identity of adult pancreatic ? cells.

    PubMed

    Piccand, Julie; Strasser, Perrine; Hodson, David J; Meunier, Aline; Ye, Tao; Keime, Céline; Birling, Marie-Christine; Rutter, Guy A; Gradwohl, Gérard

    2014-12-24

    Increasing evidence suggests that loss of ? cell characteristics may cause insulin secretory deficiency in diabetes, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we show that Rfx6, whose mutation leads to neonatal diabetes in humans, is essential to maintain key features of functionally mature ? cells in mice. Rfx6 loss in adult ? cells leads to glucose intolerance, impaired ? cell glucose sensing, and defective insulin secretion. This is associated with reduced expression of core components of the insulin secretion pathway, including glucokinase, the Abcc8/SUR1 subunit of KATP channels and voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels, which are direct targets of Rfx6. Moreover, Rfx6 contributes to the silencing of the vast majority of "disallowed" genes, a group usually specifically repressed in adult ? cells, and thus to the maintenance of ? cell maturity. These findings raise the possibility that changes in Rfx6 expression or activity may contribute to ? cell failure in humans. PMID:25497096

  7. Cognitive function in older adults according to current socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Michael; Gale, Shawn D; Erickson, Lance D; Brown, Bruce L; Woody, Parker; Hedges, Dawson W

    2015-09-01

    Cognitive function may be influenced by education, socioeconomic status, sex, and health status. Furthermore, aging interacts with these factors to influence cognition and dementia risk in late life. Factors that may increase or decrease successful cognitive aging are of critical importance, particularly if they are modifiable. The purpose of this study was to determine if economic status in late life is associated with cognition independent of socioeconomic status in early life. Cross-sectional demographic, socioeconomic, and cognitive function data were obtained in 2592 older adults (average age 71.6 years) from the Center for Disease Control's National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and analyzed with linear regression modeling. Cognitive function, as measured with a test of processing speed, was significantly associated with poverty index scores after adjusting for educational attainment as an estimate of childhood socioeconomic status, ethnic background, age, health status, and sex (P < 0.001). Our findings suggest that current economic status is independently associated with cognitive function in adults over age 60 years. PMID:25565407

  8. Anxiety Disorders Among Methamphetamine Dependent Adults: Association With Posttreatment Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Glasner-Edwards, Suzette; Mooney, Larissa J.; Marinelli-Casey, Patricia; Hillhouse, Maureen; Ang, Alfonso; Rawson, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Although anxiety is one of the most prominent psychiatric complaints of methamphetamine (MA) users, little is known about the association between anxiety disorders and treatment outcomes in this population. Using data from 526 adults in the largest psychosocial clinical trial of MA users conducted to date, this study examined psychiatric, substance use, and functional outcomes of MA users with concomitant anxiety disorders 3 years after treatment. Anxiety disorders were associated with poorer alcohol and drug use outcomes, increased health service utilization, and higher levels of psychiatric symptomatology, including suicidality. Addressing anxiety symptoms and syndromes in MA users may be helpful as a means of optimizing treatment outcomes. PMID:20716300

  9. Roles for Oestrogen Receptor ? in Adult Brain Function

    PubMed Central

    Handa, R. J.; Ogawa, S.; Wang, J. M.; Herbison, A. E.

    2012-01-01

    Oestradiol exerts a profound influence upon multiple brain circuits. For the most part, these effects are mediated by oestrogen receptor (ER)?. We review here the roles of ER?, the other ER isoform, in mediating rodent oestradiol-regulated anxiety, aggressive and sexual behaviours, the control of gonadotrophin secretion, and adult neurogenesis. Evidence exists for: (i) ER? located in the paraventricular nucleus underpinning the suppressive influence of oestradiol on the stress axis and anxiety-like behaviour; (ii) ER? expressed in gonadotrophin-releasing hormone neurones contributing to oestrogen negative-feedback control of gonadotrophin secretion; (iii) ER? controlling the offset of lordosis behaviour; (iv) ER? suppressing aggressive behaviour in males; (v) ER? modulating responses to social stimuli; and (vi) ER? in controlling adult neurogenesis. This review highlights two major themes; first, ER? and ER? are usually tightly inter-related in the oestradiol-dependent control of a particular brain function. For example, even though oestradiol feedback to control reproduction occurs principally through ER?-dependent mechanisms, modulatory roles for ER? also exist. Second, the roles of ER? and ER? within a particular neural network may be synergistic or antagonistic. Examples of the latter include the role of ER? to enhance, and ER? to suppress, anxiety-like and aggressive behaviours. Splice variants such as ER?2, acting as dominant negative receptors, are of further particular interest because their expression levels may reflect preceeding oestradiol exposure of relevance to oestradiol replacement therapy. Together, this review highlights the predominant modulatory, but nonetheless important, roles of ER? in mediating the many effects of oestradiol upon adult brain function. PMID:21851428

  10. Analysis of Nephron Composition and Function in the Adult Zebrafish Kidney

    PubMed Central

    McCampbell, Kristen K.; Springer, Kristin N.; Wingert, Rebecca A.

    2015-01-01

    The zebrafish model has emerged as a relevant system to study kidney development, regeneration and disease. Both the embryonic and adult zebrafish kidneys are composed of functional units known as nephrons, which are highly conserved with other vertebrates, including mammals. Research in zebrafish has recently demonstrated that two distinctive phenomena transpire after adult nephrons incur damage: first, there is robust regeneration within existing nephrons that replaces the destroyed tubule epithelial cells; second, entirely new nephrons are produced from renal progenitors in a process known as neonephrogenesis. In contrast, humans and other mammals seem to have only a limited ability for nephron epithelial regeneration. To date, the mechanisms responsible for these kidney regeneration phenomena remain poorly understood. Since adult zebrafish kidneys undergo both nephron epithelial regeneration and neonephrogenesis, they provide an outstanding experimental paradigm to study these events. Further, there is a wide range of genetic and pharmacological tools available in the zebrafish model that can be used to delineate the cellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate renal regeneration. One essential aspect of such research is the evaluation of nephron structure and function. This protocol describes a set of labeling techniques that can be used to gauge renal composition and test nephron functionality in the adult zebrafish kidney. Thus, these methods are widely applicable to the future phenotypic characterization of adult zebrafish kidney injury paradigms, which include but are not limited to, nephrotoxicant exposure regimes or genetic methods of targeted cell death such as the nitroreductase mediated cell ablation technique. Further, these methods could be used to study genetic perturbations in adult kidney formation and could also be applied to assess renal status during chronic disease modeling. PMID:25145398

  11. Severe Obesity Is Associated With Impaired Arterial Smooth Muscle Function in Young Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julian G. Ayer; Jason A. Harmer; Clementine David; Katherine S. Steinbeck; J. Paul Seale; David S. Celermajer

    2011-01-01

    The degree of arterial dilatation induced by exogenous nitrates (nitrate-mediated dilatation, NMD) has been similar in obese and normal-weight adults after single high-dose glyceryl trinitrate (GTN). We examined whether NMD is impaired in obesity by performing a GTN dose–response study, as this is a potentially more sensitive measure of arterial smooth muscle function. In this cross-sectional study, subjects were 19

  12. Functional Imaging of Working Memory and Peripheral Endothelial Function in Middle-Aged Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzales, Mitzi M.; Tarumi, Takashi; Tanaka, Hirofumi; Sugawara, Jun; Swann-Sternberg, Tali; Goudarzi, Katayoon; Haley, Andreana P.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between a prognostic indicator of vascular health, flow-mediated dilation (FMD), and working memory-related brain activation in healthy middle-aged adults. Forty-two participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while completing a 2-Back working memory task. Brachial artery…

  13. Suicidal ideation and its determinants in Korean adults: The role of physical activity and functional limitations.

    PubMed

    Park, S M

    2014-12-01

    The recognition of suicide as a major public health problem has suggested the need to identify risk factors that have implications for preventive intervention. In the suicidal process, suicidal ideation is a key stage in the pathway leading to eventual suicide. This study investigated the influence of physical activity and functional limitations on suicidal ideation among young and middle-aged adults in a high suicidal society. Data for the current study were obtained from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2009 (KNHANES), a cross-sectional study conducted by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The survey conducted face-to-face interviews with young adults (n = 2326) and middle-aged adults (n = 3396). Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, the relationship of physical activity and functional limitations with suicidal ideation in young and middle-aged adults was assessed. A notable outcome was that the absence of a regular walking was correlated with increased suicidal ideation in middle-aged women. The other major finding was that young women and middle-aged adults with functional limitations had a high rate of suicidal thoughts. Multiple intervention approaches, including informational, social and behavioural approaches, are needed to promote regular walking in middle-aged women. For instance, mass media campaigns, community walking groups and individually adapted health behaviour modification may provide opportunities for positive intervention. Additionally, another important public health implication from these findings is the need for a suicide-intervention support system that includes screening for suicide risk in healthcare settings, especially among young women with physical limitations. PMID:25434531

  14. High altitude hypoxia and blood pressure dysregulation in adult chickens.

    PubMed

    Herrera, E A; Salinas, C E; Blanco, C E; Villena, M; Giussani, D A

    2013-02-01

    Although it is accepted that impaired placental perfusion in complicated pregnancy can slow fetal growth and programme an increased risk of cardiovascular dysfunction at adulthood, the relative contribution of reductions in fetal nutrition and in fetal oxygenation as the triggering stimulus remains unclear. By combining high altitude (HA) with the chick embryo model, we have previously isolated the direct effects of HA hypoxia on embryonic growth and cardiovascular development before hatching. This study isolated the effects of developmental hypoxia on cardiovascular function measured in vivo in conscious adult male and female chickens. Chick embryos were incubated, hatched and raised at sea level (SL, nine males and nine females) or incubated, hatched and raised at HA (seven males and seven females). At 6 months of age, vascular catheters were inserted under general anaesthesia. Five days later, basal blood gas status, basal cardiovascular function and cardiac baroreflex responses were investigated. HA chickens had significantly lower basal arterial PO2 and haemoglobin saturation, and significantly higher haematocrit than SL chickens, independent of the sex of the animal. HA chickens had significantly lower arterial blood pressure than SL chickens, independent of the sex of the animal. Although the gain of the arterial baroreflex was decreased in HA relative to SL male chickens, it was increased in HA relative to SL female chickens. We show that development at HA lowers basal arterial blood pressure and alters baroreflex sensitivity in a sex-dependent manner at adulthood. PMID:25080183

  15. The relationship between functional health literacy and health promoting behaviors among older adults

    PubMed Central

    Reisi, Mahnoush; Javadzade, Seyed Homamodin; Heydarabadi, Akbar Babaei; Mostafavi, Firouzeh; Tavassoli, Elahe; Sharifirad, Gholamreza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Health literacy is a measure of individual's ability to read, comprehend, and act on medical instructions. Older adults are one of the most important at risk groups affected by the impact of inadequate health literacy. Health promoting behaviors in older adults have potential impact on their health and quality of life and reduce the costs incurred to health care. Given the paucity of information health literacy and health promoting behavior, the purpose of this study was to examine health literacy level in older adults and the relationship between health literacy and health promoting behaviors. Materials and Method: A cross-sectional survey of 354 older adults was conducted in Isfahan. The method of sampling was clustering. Health literacy was measured using the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (TOFHLA). Data were collected via home interviewing. Health promoting behaviors were measured based on self-reported smoking status, exercise, and consumption of fruit and vegetables. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and one-way ANOVA and ?2 tests under SPSS 18 software. Results: The sample group averaged 67 ± 6.97 years in age. Approximately 79.6% of adults were found to have inadequate health literacy. They tended to be older, have fewer years of schooling, lower household income, and being female Individuals with inadequate health literacy were more likely to report limitations in activity and lower consumption of fruit and vegetables (P < 0.001). No significant association was found between health literacy and smoking status. Conclusion: Considering high prevalence of inadequate health literacy among older adults, and its inverse relationship with some health promoting behaviors. Simple educational materials and effective interventions for low health literacy people can improve health promotion in society and mitigate the adverse health effects of low health literacy. PMID:25540792

  16. Adult-born granule cells mature through two functionally distinct states

    PubMed Central

    Brunner, János; Neubrandt, Máté; Van-Weert, Susan; Andrási, Tibor; Kleine Borgmann, Felix B; Jessberger, Sebastian; Szabadics, János

    2014-01-01

    Adult-born granule cells (ABGCs) are involved in certain forms of hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. It has been proposed that young but functionally integrated ABGCs (4-weeks-old) specifically contribute to pattern separation functions of the dentate gyrus due to their heightened excitability, whereas old ABGCs (>8 weeks old) lose these capabilities. Measuring multiple cellular and integrative characteristics of 3- 10-week-old individual ABGCs, we show that ABGCs consist of two functionally distinguishable populations showing highly distinct input integration properties (one group being highly sensitive to narrow input intensity ranges while the other group linearly reports input strength) that are largely independent of the cellular age and maturation stage, suggesting that ‘classmate’ cells (born during the same period) can contribute to the network with fundamentally different functions. Thus, ABGCs provide two temporally overlapping but functionally distinct neuronal cell populations, adding a novel level of complexity to our understanding of how life-long neurogenesis contributes to adult brain function. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03104.001 PMID:25061223

  17. Genetic and functional characterization of clonally derived adult human brown adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Shinoda, Kosaku; Luijten, Ineke H N; Hasegawa, Yutaka; Hong, Haemin; Sonne, Si B; Kim, Miae; Xue, Ruidan; Chondronikola, Maria; Cypess, Aaron M; Tseng, Yu-Hua; Nedergaard, Jan; Sidossis, Labros S; Kajimura, Shingo

    2015-04-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) acts in mammals as a natural defense system against hypothermia, and its activation to a state of increased energy expenditure is believed to protect against the development of obesity. Even though the existence of BAT in adult humans has been widely appreciated, its cellular origin and molecular identity remain elusive largely because of high cellular heterogeneity within various adipose tissue depots. To understand the nature of adult human brown adipocytes at single cell resolution, we isolated clonally derived adipocytes from stromal vascular fractions of adult human BAT from two individuals and globally analyzed their molecular signatures. We used RNA sequencing followed by unbiased genome-wide expression analyses and found that a population of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)-positive human adipocytes possessed molecular signatures resembling those of a recruitable form of thermogenic adipocytes (that is, beige adipocytes). In addition, we identified molecular markers that were highly enriched in UCP1-positive human adipocytes, a set that included potassium channel K3 (KCNK3) and mitochondrial tumor suppressor 1 (MTUS1). Further, we functionally characterized these two markers using a loss-of-function approach and found that KCNK3 and MTUS1 were required for beige adipocyte differentiation and thermogenic function. The results of this study present new opportunities for human BAT research, such as facilitating cell-based disease modeling and unbiased screens for thermogenic regulators. PMID:25774848

  18. The function of BDNF in the adult auditory system.

    PubMed

    Singer, Wibke; Panford-Walsh, Rama; Knipper, Marlies

    2014-01-01

    The inner ear of vertebrates is specialized to perceive sound, gravity and movements. Each of the specialized sensory organs within the cochlea (sound) and vestibular system (gravity, head movements) transmits information to specific areas of the brain. During development, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) orchestrates the survival and outgrowth of afferent fibers connecting the vestibular organ and those regions in the cochlea that map information for low frequency sound to central auditory nuclei and higher-auditory centers. The role of BDNF in the mature inner ear is less understood. This is mainly due to the fact that constitutive BDNF mutant mice are postnatally lethal. Only in the last few years has the improved technology of performing conditional cell specific deletion of BDNF in vivo allowed the study of the function of BDNF in the mature developed organ. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of the expression pattern and function of BDNF in the peripheral and central auditory system from just prior to the first auditory experience onwards. A special focus will be put on the differential mechanisms in which BDNF drives refinement of auditory circuitries during the onset of sensory experience and in the adult brain. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'BDNF Regulation of Synaptic Structure, Function, and Plasticity'. PMID:23688926

  19. Stalking, and Social and Romantic Functioning among Adolescents and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Mark; Newton, Naomi; Kaur, Archana

    2007-01-01

    We examine the nature and predictors of social and romantic functioning in adolescents and adults with ASD. Parental reports were obtained for 25 ASD adolescents and adults (13-36 years), and 38 typical adolescents and adults (13-30 years). The ASD group relied less upon peers and friends for social (OR = 52.16, p less than 0.01) and romantic…

  20. Ontogenetic change in novel functions: waterfall climbing in adult Hawaiian gobiid fishes

    E-print Network

    Blob, Richard W.

    Ontogenetic change in novel functions: waterfall climbing in adult Hawaiian gobiid fishes R. W fishes climb waterfalls as part of an amphidromous life cycle, allowing them to re-penetrate adult stream gobies is well established, but adult fish in upstream island habitats also face potential

  1. Arrested neuronal proliferation and impaired hippocampal function following fractionated brain irradiation in the adult rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. M Madsen; P. E. G Kristjansen; T. G Bolwig; G Wörtwein

    2003-01-01

    The generation of new neurons in the adult mammalian brain has been documented in numerous recent reports. Studies undertaken so far indicate that adult hippocampal neurogenesis is related in a number of ways to hippocampal function.Here, we report that subjecting adult rats to fractionated brain irradiation blocked the formation of new neurons in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. At

  2. High School Subcultures and the Adult World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Jere

    1979-01-01

    A new factor-analytic method for measuring student subcultures was developed and applied to data collected by James Coleman at Newlawn High School. The three subcultures identified were precisely the ones posited by Burton Clark: the academic, the fun, and the delinquent subcultures. (Author/KC)

  3. Health. Nevada Competency-Based Adult High School Diploma Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevada Univ., Las Vegas. Coll. of Education.

    This document is one of ten curriculum guides developed by the Nevada Competency-Based Adult High School Diploma (CBAHSD) Project. This curriculum guide on health is divided into ten topics. The topics included are Nutrition, Reproduction, Menstruation, Contraception, Alcohol Abuse, Tobacco, Immunization, Disease, Accident Prevention, and…

  4. Schizotypal traits and neurocognitive functioning among nonclinical young adults.

    PubMed

    Daly, Maureen P; Afroz, Sonia; Walder, Deborah J

    2012-12-30

    Neurocognitive deficits and their relationship with symptoms have been documented in schizophrenia and at-risk samples. Limited research has examined relationships of schizotypal traits with cognitive functioning among nonclinical samples. To expand this literature and elucidate a dimensional model of psychosis-proneness, we examined the relationship of schizotypal traits with estimated intellectual functioning, simple and complex attention/working memory, verbal fluency and visuospatial abilities in a nonclinical sample of 63 young adults. As hypothesized, aspects of neurocognition were more closely associated with negative (than positive or disorganized) schizotypal traits. For the total sample, poorer visuospatial performance was associated with more negative and overall schizotypal traits. The magnitude of the majority of findings was strengthened after controlling for depression and anxiety. No other findings were significant. Results partially support Meehl's (1962, 1990) view that processes underlying schizophrenia are expressed along a continuum. Findings suggest a relationship of schizotypal traits with neurocognition that is differentiated by trait dimensions, beyond the contribution of general psychiatric symptoms. Findings have implications for better understanding etiology and potential risk factors for psychosis. While sex distribution did not enable direct examination of sex effects, evidence in the field argues for continued exploration of differential patterns by sex. PMID:22770765

  5. Examining the dynamic, bidirectional associations between cognitive and physical functioning in older adults.

    PubMed

    Krall, Jenna R; Carlson, Michelle C; Fried, Linda P; Xue, Qian-Li

    2014-10-15

    The delineation of the interrelationships between cognitive and physical functioning in older adults is critical to determining pathways to disability. By using longitudinal data from 395 initially high-functioning, community-dwelling older women in Baltimore, Maryland, from the Women's Health and Aging Study II (from 1994 to 2006), we simultaneously assessed associations of cognition with later physical functioning and associations of physical functioning with later cognition. The analysis included measures of global cognition and 2 cognitive domains (executive functioning and memory), as well as 2 measures of physical functioning (a Short Physical Performance Battery and a 4-meter test of usual walking speed). We found the strongest bidirectional associations of memory with physical functioning and less evidence of associations of physical functioning with executive functioning and global cognition. For a 1-standard deviation increase in walking speed, subsequent memory increased by 0.08 standard deviations (95% confidence interval: (0.03, 0.13)). For a 1-standard deviation increase in memory, subsequent walking speed increased by 0.07 standard deviations (95% confidence interval: 0.03, 0.10). Associations were similar in magnitude for models using a Short Physical Performance Battery. We did not find evidence that associations between cognitive and physical functioning varied over time. Our results suggest that cognition, and particularly memory, is associated with subsequent physical functioning and vice versa. PMID:25205829

  6. Low level methylmercury exposure affects neuropsychological function in adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edna M. Yokoo; Joaquim G Valente; Lynn Grattan; Sérgio Luís Schmidt; Illeane Platt; Ellen K Silbergeld

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The neurotoxic effects of methylmercury (MeHg) have been demonstrated in both human and animal studies. Both adult and fetal brains are susceptible to the effects of MeHg toxicity. However, the specific effects of adult exposures have been less well-documented than those of children with prenatal exposures. This is largely because few studies of MeHg exposures in adults have used

  7. Natural History of Thyroid Function in Adults with Down Syndrome--10-Year Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasher, V.; Gomez, G.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The natural history of thyroid function in adults with Down syndrome (DS) is unknown. Method: This study investigated annual thyroid function tests in 200 adults with DS over a 10-year period. Results: Transient and persistent thyroid dysfunction was common. The 5- and 10-year incidence of definite hypothyroidism was 0.9%-1.64% and…

  8. Older Adults in Cardiac Rehabilitation: A New Strategy for Enhancing Physical Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rejeski, W. Jack; Foy, Capri Gabrielle; Brawley, Lawrence R.; Brubaker, Peter H.; Focht, Brian C.; Norris, James L., III; Smith, Marci L.

    2002-01-01

    Contrasted the effect of a group-mediated cognitive- behavioral intervention (GMCB) versus traditional cardiac rehabilitation (CRP) upon changes in objective and self-reported physical function of older adults after 3 months of exercise therapy. Both groups improved significantly. Adults with lower function at the outset of the intervention…

  9. Parental Divorce and Family Functioning: Effects on Differentiation Levels of Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Patrick; Throngren, Jill M.; Smith, Adina J.

    2001-01-01

    Study examines the effect of parental divorce and various dimensions of functioning in the family of origin on young adult development. Results indicate that parental divorce and family functioning significantly affect differentiation levels of young adults. Implications of the results for counselors and future researchers are provided. (Contains…

  10. THE FUNCTIONS AND TRAINING NEEDS OF ADULT EDUCATION DIRECTORS IN PUBLIC SCHOOL SYSTEMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MADRY, ARTHUR CHESTER

    A QUESTIONNAIRE WAS SENT TO 200 DIRECTORS OF PUBLIC SCHOOL ADULT EDUCATION IN ORDER TO IDENTIFY FUNCTIONS, ROLE, AND SKILLS AND ABILITIES OF ADMINISTRATORS OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY ADULT EDUCATION. RESPONDENTS RATED EACH FUNCTION ON A SCALE FROM ESSENTIAL TO INAPPLICABLE AND COMPETENCIES ON A SIMILAR SCALE. CHIEF PROBLEM AREAS INCLUDED…

  11. Social support, physical functioning, and cognitive functioning among older African American adults.

    PubMed

    Ayotte, Brian J; Allaire, Jason C; Whitfield, Keith E

    2013-03-01

    ABSTRACT Social support and functional ability are related to a number of outcomes in later life among African Americans, including cognitive performance. This study examined how providing and receiving social support was related to fluid and crystallized cognitive abilities among aging African American adults after accounting for functional limitations, age, education, sex, income, and self-reported health. Data from 602 African American adults (M?=?69.08, SD?=?9.74; 25% male) were analyzed using latent variable modeling. Fluid ability was a second-order factor indicated by measures that assessed verbal memory, working memory, perceptual speed, and inductive reasoning. Crystallized ability was a first-order factor indicated by three measures that assessed vocabulary (Shipley Verbal Meaning Test and parts A and B of the ETS Vocabulary Test). Results indicated that the receipt of social support was negatively related to both fluid and crystallized abilities, while the provision of support was positively related to fluid and crystallized ability. Follow-up tests found that the receipt of support was more strongly related to fluid ability than crystallized ability. There was no significant difference regarding the relationship of provision of support with fluid ability compared to crystallized ability. Results discuss the importance of considering the social context of older adults when examining cognitive ability. PMID:23458286

  12. Nodakenin Enhances Cognitive Function and Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qingtao; Jeon, Se Jin; Jung, Hyun Ah; Lee, Hyung Eun; Park, Se Jin; Lee, Younghwan; Lee, Younghwa; Ko, Sang Yoon; Kim, Boseong; Choi, Jae Sue; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2015-07-01

    In our previous study, we demonstrated that nodakenin, a coumarin compound isolated from Angelica decursiva, ameliorates learning and memory impairments induced by scopolamine. In the present study, we investigated the effects of nodakenin on the cognitive function in the normal naïve mice in a passive avoidance task, and the results showed that nodakenin significantly increased the latency time in normal naïve mice. In addition, sub-chronic administration of nodakenin increased the number of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-positive cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) region. The percentage of BrdU and NeuN (neuronal cell marker)-immunopositive cells was also significantly increased by the nodakenin administration. Western blotting results showed that the expression levels of phosphorylated protein kinase B (Akt) and phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK-3?) were significantly increased in hippocampal tissue by sub-chronic nodakenin administration. These findings suggest that the sub-chronic administration of nodakenin enhances adult hippocampal neurogenesis in the DG region via Akt-GSK-3? signaling and this increase may be associated with nodakenin's positive effect on cognitive processing. PMID:25998887

  13. Clinical Assessment of Functional Movement in Adults with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Christopher T.; Horvat, Michael; Williams, Michael; Blasch, Bruce B.

    2007-01-01

    Adults with visual impairments have significantly more health risks than do sighted adults because of a number of factors, including the lower mineral density of their femoral neck bones, which is indicative of reduced weight-bearing exercise; their lesser maximal strength; and their higher rates of stroke, osteoporosis, depression, hypertension,…

  14. Loss of function of the yellow-e gene causes dehydration-induced mortality of adult Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Noh, Mi Young; Kramer, Karl J; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam; Beeman, Richard W; Kanost, Michael R; Arakane, Yasuyuki

    2015-03-15

    Yellow protein (dopachrome conversion enzyme, DCE) is involved in the melanin biosynthetic pathway that significantly accelerates pigmentation reactions in insects. Recent studies have suggested that the insect yellow genes represent a rapidly evolving gene family generating functionally diverse paralogs, but the exact physiological functions of several yellow genes are still not understood. To study the function(s) of one of the yellow genes, yellow-e (TcY-e), in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, we performed real-time PCR to analyze its developmental and tissue-specific expression, and utilized immunohistochemistry to identify the localization of the TcY-e protein in adult cuticle. Injection of double-stranded RNA for TcY-e (dsTcY-e) into late instar larvae had no effect on larval-pupal molting or pupal development. The pupal cuticle, including that lining the setae, gin traps and urogomphi, underwent normal tanning. Adult cuticle tanning including that of the head, mandibles and legs viewed through the translucent pupal cuticle was initiated on schedule (pupal days 4-5), indicating that TcY-e is not required for pupal or pharate adult cuticle pigmentation in T. castaneum. The subsequent pupal-adult molt, however, was adversely affected. Although pupal cuticle apolysis and slippage were evident, some of the adults (~25%) were unable to shed their exuvium and died entrapped in their pupal cuticle. In addition, the resulting adults rapidly became highly desiccated. Interestingly, both the failure of the pupal-adult molt and desiccation-induced mortality were prevented by maintaining the dsTcY-e-treated insects at 100% relative humidity (rh). However, when the high humidity-rescued adults were removed from 100% rh and transferred to 50% rh, they rapidly dehydrated and died, whereas untreated beetles thrived throughout development at 50% rh. We also observed that the body color of the high humidity-rescued dsTcY-e-adults was slightly darker than that of control animals. These results support the hypothesis that TcY-e has a role not only in normal body pigmentation in T. castaneum adults but also has a vital waterproofing function. PMID:25614237

  15. Discrete-Trial Functional Analysis and Functional Communication Training with Three Adults with Intellectual Disabilities and Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chezan, Laura C.; Drasgow, Erik; Martin, Christian A.

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a sequence of two studies on the use of discrete-trial functional analysis and functional communication training. First, we used discrete-trial functional analysis (DTFA) to identify the function of problem behavior in three adults with intellectual disabilities and problem behavior. Results indicated clear patterns of problem…

  16. Effects of air pollution on adult pulmonary function

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, X.P.; Dockery, D.W.; Wang, L.H. (School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, MA (USA))

    1991-07-01

    The authors conducted a study in three representative areas of Beijing to determine respiratory health effects of indoor and outdoor air pollution. In August 1986, they measured the lung function of 1,440 adults who were 40-69 y of age and who had never smoked. Forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1.0) were adjusted for height, sex, and age. Outdoor ambient air pollution measurements from the World Health Organization Global Air Pollution Monitoring Station were very different in the three study areas; the annual mean concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in residential, suburban, and industrial areas were 128, 18, and 57 micrograms/m3, respectively, and annual mean concentrations of total suspended particulate matter (TSPM) were 389, 261, and 449 micrograms/m3, respectively. Coal was most frequently used for domestic heating in the residential (92%) and suburban (96%) areas compared with the industrial area (17%). Heating with coal was associated with a reduced FEV1.0 (-91 {plus minus} 36 ml) and FVC (-84 {plus minus} 41 ml). Living in the residential area was associated with an additional reduction in FEV1.0 (-69 {plus minus} 34 ml) and FVC (-257 {plus minus} 37 ml). After the authors adjusted for age, height, and sex, an inverse linear association was found between In outdoor SO2 (or TSPM) concentration and FEV1.0 and FVC in subjects who had and had not used coal stove heating. Regression analysis results showed that a per-unit increase in In SO2 (TSPM) concentration (microgram/m3) could result in a 35.6 (131.4) ml reduction in FEV1.0 and a 142.2 (478.7) ml reduction in FVC.

  17. Determinants of functional decline in community-dwelling older adults 

    E-print Network

    Fieo, Robert Anthony

    2011-06-29

    The overarching theme of this thesis is the prevention of progressive-type disability. Unlike catastrophic disability, progressive disability is gradual and more common in older adults. Because progressive disability can ...

  18. Interhemispheric Connectivity and Executive Functioning in Adults With Tourette Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Margolis, Amy; Donkervoort, Mireille; Kinsbourne, Marcel; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2008-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is relatively smaller, and the corpus callosum (CC) larger, in adults with Tourette syndrome (TS). The authors explored the possible roles of the PFC and the CC in mediating interhemispheric interference and coordination in TS adults. They measured performance on M. Kinsbourne and J. Cook's (1971) verbal–manual interference task and on the bimanual Purdue Pegboard in 38 adults with TS and 34 healthy adults. Compared with controls, TS subjects were impaired on the bimanual Purdue Pegboard. On the dual task, right-hand performance did not differ between groups, but the normally expected left-hand advantage (opposite hemisphere condition) was absent in TS subjects. In the control group only, better left-hand performance accompanied larger PFC volumes but not CC cross-sectional area. PFC dysfunction might have precluded executive control of interference in the TS group. PMID:16460223

  19. Pulse wave velocity and cognitive function in older adults.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Wenjun; Cruickshanks, Karen J; Schubert, Carla R; Carlsson, Cynthia M; Chappell, Richard J; Klein, Barbara E K; Klein, Ronald; Acher, Charles W

    2014-01-01

    Arterial stiffness may be associated with cognitive function. In this study, pulse wave velocity (PWV) was measured from the carotid to femoral (CF-PWV) and from the carotid to radial (CR-PWV) with the Complior SP System. Cognitive function was measured by 6 tests of executive function, psychomotor speed, memory, and language fluency. A total of 1433 participants were included (mean age 75 y, 43% men). Adjusting for age, sex, education, pulse rate, hemoglobin A1C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hypertension, cardiovascular disease history, smoking, drinking, and depression symptoms, a CF-PWV>12 m/s was associated with a lower Mini-Mental State Examination score (coefficient: -0.31, SE: 0.11, P=0.005), fewer words recalled on Auditory Verbal Learning Test (coefficient: -1.10, SE: 0.43, P=0.01), and lower score on the composite cognition score (coefficient: -0.10, SE: 0.05, P=0.04) and marginally significantly associated with longer time to complete Trail Making Test-part B (coefficient: 6.30, SE: 3.41, P=0.06), CF-PWV was not associated with Trail Making Test-part A, Digit Symbol Substation Test, or Verbal Fluency Test. No associations were found between CR-PWV and cognitive performance measures. Higher large artery stiffness was associated with worse cognitive function, and longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these associations. PMID:23632267

  20. Cocaine and MDMA Induce Cellular and Molecular Changes in Adult Neurogenic Systems: Functional Implications

    PubMed Central

    Capilla-Gonzalez, Vivian; Hernandez-Rabaza, Vicente

    2011-01-01

    The capacity of the brain to generate new adult neurons is a recent discovery that challenges the old theory of an immutable adult brain. A new and fascinating field of research now focuses on this regenerative process. The two brain systems that constantly produce new adult neurons, known as the adult neurogenic systems, are the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus and the lateral ventricules/olfactory bulb system. Both systems are involved in memory and learning processes. Different drugs of abuse, such as cocaine and MDMA, have been shown to produce cellular and molecular changes that affect adult neurogenesis. This review summarizes the effects that these drugs have on the adult neurogenic systems. The functional relevance of adult neurogenesis is obscured by the functions of the systems that integrate adult neurons. Therefore, we explore the effects that cocaine and MDMA produce not only on adult neurogenesis, but also on the DG and olfactory bulbs. Finally, we discuss the possible role of new adult neurons in cocaine- and MDMA-induced impairments. We conclude that, although harmful drug effects are produced at multiple physiological and anatomical levels, the specific consequences of reduced hippocampus neurogenesis are unclear and require further exploration.

  1. Developmental integration in a functional unit: deciphering processes from adult dental morphology.

    PubMed

    Labonne, Gaëlle; Navarro, Nicolas; Laffont, Rémi; Chateau-Smith, Carmela; Montuire, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of mammalian dentition is constrained by functional necessity and by the non-independence of morphological structures. Efficient chewing implies coherent tooth coordination from development to motion, involving covariation patterns (integration) within dental parts. Using geometric morphometrics, we investigate the modular organization of the highly derived vole dentition. Integration patterns between and within the upper and lower molar rows are analyzed to identify potential modules and their origins (functional and developmental). Results support an integrated adult dentition pattern for both developmental and functional aspects. The integration patterns between opposing molar pairs suggest a transient role for the second upper and lower molars during the chewing motion. Upper and lower molar rows form coherent units but the relative integration of molar pairs is in contradiction with existing developmental models. Emphasis on the first three cusps to grow leads to a very different integration pattern, which would be congruent with developmental models. The early developmental architecture of traits is masked by later stages of growth, but may still be deciphered from the adult phenotype, if careful attention is paid to relevant features. PMID:25040671

  2. The effect of insomnia on functional status of community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Deratnay, Penney; Sidani, Souraya

    2013-10-01

    This secondary data analysis examined the extent to which fatigue mediates the relationship between insomnia and the physical, social, and psychological domains of functional status in community-dwelling older adults. Data were obtained from 209 older adults with insomnia. Regression analysis was used to test the proposed mediating role of fatigue. Findings identified insomnia of moderate severity in community-dwelling older adults. Insomnia was directly associated with social function and indirectly associated with physical and psychological function. Fatigue mediated the relationship between insomnia and all three domains of functional status. The findings have implications for nursing practice and research and highlight the importance of successfully managing insomnia and fatigue to promote functioning in older adults. PMID:24015883

  3. Dietary Patterns Derived by Cluster Analysis are Associated with Cognitive Function among Korean Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jihye; Yu, Areum; Choi, Bo Youl; Nam, Jung Hyun; Kim, Mi Kyung; Oh, Dong Hoon; Yang, Yoon Jung

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate major dietary patterns among older Korean adults through cluster analysis and to determine an association between dietary patterns and cognitive function. This is a cross-sectional study. The data from the Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort Study was used. Participants included 765 participants aged 60 years and over. A quantitative food frequency questionnaire with 106 items was used to investigate dietary intake. The Korean version of the MMSE-KC (Mini-Mental Status Examination–Korean version) was used to assess cognitive function. Two major dietary patterns were identified using K-means cluster analysis. The “MFDF” dietary pattern indicated high consumption of Multigrain rice, Fish, Dairy products, Fruits and fruit juices, while the “WNC” dietary pattern referred to higher intakes of White rice, Noodles, and Coffee. Means of the total MMSE-KC and orientation score of the participants in the MFDF dietary pattern were higher than those of the WNC dietary pattern. Compared with the WNC dietary pattern, the MFDF dietary pattern showed a lower risk of cognitive impairment after adjusting for covariates (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.44–0.94). The MFDF dietary pattern, with high consumption of multigrain rice, fish, dairy products, and fruits may be related to better cognition among Korean older adults. PMID:26035243

  4. Dietary Patterns Derived by Cluster Analysis are Associated with Cognitive Function among Korean Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jihye; Yu, Areum; Choi, Bo Youl; Nam, Jung Hyun; Kim, Mi Kyung; Oh, Dong Hoon; Yang, Yoon Jung

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate major dietary patterns among older Korean adults through cluster analysis and to determine an association between dietary patterns and cognitive function. This is a cross-sectional study. The data from the Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort Study was used. Participants included 765 participants aged 60 years and over. A quantitative food frequency questionnaire with 106 items was used to investigate dietary intake. The Korean version of the MMSE-KC (Mini-Mental Status Examination-Korean version) was used to assess cognitive function. Two major dietary patterns were identified using K-means cluster analysis. The "MFDF" dietary pattern indicated high consumption of Multigrain rice, Fish, Dairy products, Fruits and fruit juices, while the "WNC" dietary pattern referred to higher intakes of White rice, Noodles, and Coffee. Means of the total MMSE-KC and orientation score of the participants in the MFDF dietary pattern were higher than those of the WNC dietary pattern. Compared with the WNC dietary pattern, the MFDF dietary pattern showed a lower risk of cognitive impairment after adjusting for covariates (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.44-0.94). The MFDF dietary pattern, with high consumption of multigrain rice, fish, dairy products, and fruits may be related to better cognition among Korean older adults. PMID:26035243

  5. Physical activity in prefrail older adults: confidence and satisfaction related to physical function

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined the hypothesis that physical activity will have favorable effects on measures of self-efficacy for a 400-m walk and satisfaction with physical functioning in older adults 701 years of age who have deficits in mobility. We randomized a total of 412 adults aged 70–89 years at elevated risk...

  6. Effect of Atomoxetine on Executive Function Impairments in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Thomas E.; Holdnack, James; Saylor, Keith; Adler, Lenard; Spencer, Thomas; Williams, David W.; Padival, Anoop K.; Schuh, Kory; Trzepacz, Paula T.; Kelsey, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effect of atomoxetine on ADHD-related executive functions over a 6-month period using the Brown Attention-Deficit Disorder Scale (BADDS) for Adults, a normed, 40-item, self-report scale in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Method: In a randomized, double-blind clinical trial, adults with ADHD…

  7. Functional and electrophysiological changes after graded traumatic spinal cord injury in adult rat

    E-print Network

    Harkema, Susan

    Functional and electrophysiological changes after graded traumatic spinal cord injury in adult rat,b,d , Christopher B. Shieldsa,b,d , Scott R. Whittemorea,b,d,* a Kentucky Spinal Cord Injury Research Center spinal cord injury (SCI) was created in the adult rat spinal cord using the Infinite Horizons (IH

  8. A specialized NMDA receptor function in layer 5 recurrent microcircuitry of the adult rat

    E-print Network

    Wang, Xiao-Jing

    in the adult, but not young, rats exhibit a twofold longer decay time-constant and temporally summate a trainA specialized NMDA receptor function in layer 5 recurrent microcircuitry of the adult rat of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. Little is known, however, about the synaptic properties of NMDA

  9. Disruption of Functional Connectivity in Clinically Normal Older Adults Harboring Amyloid Burden

    PubMed Central

    Hedden, Trey; Van Dijk, Koene R. A.; Becker, J. Alex; Mehta, Angel; Sperling, Reisa A.; Johnson, Keith A.; Buckner, Randy L.

    2009-01-01

    Amyloid deposition is present in 20–50% of nondemented older adults yet the functional consequences remain unclear. The current study found that amyloid accumulation is correlated with functional disruption of the default network as measured by intrinsic activity correlations. Clinically normal participants (n=38, aged 60–88) were characterized using [11C]-Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) PET imaging to estimate fibrillar amyloid burden and, separately, underwent functional MRI (fMRI). The integrity of the default network was estimated by correlating rest-state fMRI time courses extracted from a priori regions including the posterior cingulate, lateral parietal, and medial prefrontal cortices. Clinically normal participants with high amyloid burden displayed significantly reduced functional correlations within the default network relative to participants with low amyloid burden. These reductions were also observed when amyloid burden was treated as a continuous, rather than a dichotomous, measure and when controlling for age and structural atrophy. Whole-brain analyses initiated by seeding the posterior cingulate cortex, a region of high amyloid burden in Alzheimer1s disease (AD), revealed significant disruption in the default network including functional disconnection of the hippocampal formation. PMID:19812343

  10. High-resolution interferometric imaging of stress propagation in pediatric and adult skulls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conerty, Michelle D.; Castracane, James; Clow, Lawrence P., Jr.; Koltai, Peter J.; Mouzakes, Jason

    1997-05-01

    Variations based on bone growth and development make stress and fracture propagation differ greatly in pediatric skulls as compared to adult skulls. Differentiating the stress propagation between the pediatric and adult skulls can improve diagnostic prediction when presented with direct frontal impact on a pediatric skull, a fairly common occurrence in the clinical environment. Critical diagnostic information can be learned from an in depth study of stress propagation as a function of impact force at critical locations on the periorbital region of the human skull. The Division of Pediatric Otolaryngology at Albany Medical College and InterScience, Inc. are utilizing electronic speckle pattern interferometry detection (ESPI) and high resolution imaging to evaluate and compare stress propagation in pediatric and adult skulls. A dual detection ESPI system was developed which integrates a medium resolution (2/3') CCD capable of real-time image processing, with a high resolution, megapixel detector capable of limited real time acquisition and image processing in software. Options to allow for high speed detection include integrating a custom, high performance image intensifier with the megapixel detector leg to be used as a high speed gate. The dual optical layout will allow for continuous and pulsed ESPI evaluation of calibrated impacts at specific landmarks on the skull. The goal of this work is to produce a full quantitative analysis of the stress propagation in pediatric versus adult skulls for a better understanding of bone dynamics. The work presented below concentrates on the development of the dual detection ESPI system and initial results achieved with an adult cadaver skull.

  11. Adults with congenital or acquired facial disfigurement: impact of appearance on social functioning.

    PubMed

    van den Elzen, Marijke E P; Versnel, Sarah L; Hovius, Steven E R; Passchier, Jan; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J; Mathijssen, Irene M J

    2012-12-01

    This study evaluates the impact of congenital and acquired facial disfigurement on social functioning in adults and whether this differs from adults without facial disfigurement. Moreover, the predictive value of objective and subjective appearance on social functioning is explored. Fifty-nine adults with severe congenital facial disfigurement, 59 adults with traumatically acquired facial deformities in adulthood, and 120 adults without facial disfigurement, completed the Scale for Interpersonal Behaviour, Social Avoidance and Distress Scale, and Visual Analogue Scale for facial appearance satisfaction. The impact of congenital and acquired facial disfigurement on social functioning in adults is similar and significantly differed from the reference group. The level of stress evoked by interpersonal behaviour, and social anxiety and distress were not significantly different between the groups. Only the patient's subjective appearance was a predictor of social functioning. Avoiding stress caused by stigmatization and uncertainty about reactions of others, leads to less frequent interpersonal behaviour in adults with facial disfigurement. The fact whether the deformity is congenital or acquired in adulthood has no influence on social functioning. Patient's satisfaction with facial appearance is more important than the objective severity of the deformity; in this context realistic expectations of the patient considering additional surgery are important. PMID:22459493

  12. Cognitive Training Improves Sleep Quality and Cognitive Function among Older Adults with Insomnia

    PubMed Central

    Haimov, Iris; Shatil, Evelyn

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives To investigate the effect of an eight-week, home-based, personalized, computerized cognitive training program on sleep quality and cognitive performance among older adults with insomnia. Design Participants (n?=?51) were randomly allocated to a cognitive training group (n?=?34) or to an active control group (n?=?17). The participants in the cognitive training group completed an eight-week, home-based, personalized, computerized cognitive training program, while the participants in the active control group completed an eight-week, home-based program involving computerized tasks that do not engage high-level cognitive functioning. Before and after training, all participants' sleep was monitored for one week by an actigraph and their cognitive performance was evaluated. Setting Community setting: residential sleep/performance testing facility. Participants Fifty-one older adults with insomnia (aged 65–85). Interventions Eight weeks of computerized cognitive training for older adults with insomnia. Results Mixed models for repeated measures analysis showed between-group improvements for the cognitive training group on both sleep quality (sleep onset latency and sleep efficiency) and cognitive performance (avoiding distractions, working memory, visual memory, general memory and naming). Hierarchical linear regressions analysis in the cognitive training group indicated that improved visual scanning is associated with earlier advent of sleep, while improved naming is associated with the reduction in wake after sleep onset and with the reduction in number of awakenings. Likewise the results indicate that improved “avoiding distractions” is associated with an increase in the duration of sleep. Moreover, the results indicate that in the active control group cognitive decline observed in working memory is associated with an increase in the time required to fall asleep. Conclusions New learning is instrumental in promoting initiation and maintenance of sleep in older adults with insomnia. Lasting and personalized cognitive training is particularly indicated to generate the type of learning necessary for combined cognitive and sleep enhancements in this population. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00901641 PMID:23577218

  13. Children's Requests to Unfamiliar Adults: Form, Social Function, Age Variation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, David Paul; And Others

    Elementary school students were required to obtain objects from two adults engaged in conversation with each other. Results differed markedly between older and younger children. For the younger children, (1) there were three times as many statement requests (SRs) as interrogative requests (IRs); (2) almost 50% of requests were need statements; (3)…

  14. Executive Function and Gait in Older Adults With Cognitive Impairment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carol C. Persad; Joshua L. Jones; James A. Ashton-Miller; Neil B. Alexander; Bruno Giordani

    2008-01-01

    Background. Cognitive impairment has been shown to predict falls risk in older adults. The ability to step accurately is necessary to safely traverse challenging terrain conditions such as uneven or slippery surfaces. However, it is unclear how well persons with cognitive impairment can step accurately to avoid such hazards and what specific aspects of cognition predict stepping ability in different

  15. Memory Functioning in Adult Women Traumatized by Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Murray B. Stein; Cindy Hanna; Vibeke Vaerum; Catherine Koverola

    1999-01-01

    Memory impairment has been reported in some studies of patients with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and in rape victims with PTSD. The authors tested whether explicit memory impairment was evident in adult women who were traumatized by severe sexual abuse in childhood. The California Verbal Learning Test (Delis, Kramer, Kaplan, & Ober, 1987) and the Benton Visual Retention Task

  16. Characterization of Lung Function Impairment in Adults with Bronchiectasis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Zhi-ya; Tang, Yan; Li, Hui-min; Lin, Zhi-min; Zheng, Jin-ping; Chen, Rong-chang; Zhong, Nan-shan

    2014-01-01

    Background Characteristics of lung function impairment in bronchiectasis is not fully understood. Objectives To determine the factors associated with lung function impairment and to compare changes in spirometry during bronchiectasis exacerbation and convalescence (1 week following 14-day antibiotic therapy). Methods We recruited 142 patients with steady-state bronchiectasis, of whom 44 with acute exacerbations in the follow-up were included in subgroup analyses. Baseline measurements consisted of chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT), sputum volume, purulence and bacteriology, spirometry and diffusing capacity. Spirometry, but not diffusing capacity, was examined during acute exacerbations and convalescence. Results In the final multivariate models, having bronchiectasis symptoms for 10 years or greater (OR?=?4.75, 95%CI: 1.46–15.43, P?=?0.01), sputum culture positive for Pseudomonas aeruginosa (OR?=?4.93, 95%CI: 1.52–15.94, P<0.01) and HRCT total score being 12 or greater (OR?=?7.77, 95%CI: 3.21–18.79, P<0.01) were the major variables associated with FEV1 being 50%pred or less; and the only variable associated with reduced DLCO was 4 or more bronchiectatic lobes (OR?=?5.91, 95%CI: 2.20–17.23, P<0.01). Overall differences in FVC and FEV1 during exacerbations and convalescence were significant (P<0.05), whereas changes in other spirometric parameters were less notable. This applied even when stratified by the magnitude of FEV1 and DLCO reduction at baseline. Conclusion Significant lung function impairment should raise alert of chest HRCT abnormality and sputum culture positive for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, in patients with predominantly mild to moderate steady-state bronchiectasis. Acute exacerbations elicited reductions in FVC and FEV1. Changes of other spirometric parameters were less significant during exacerbations. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01761214 PMID:25405614

  17. High Sodium Intake Increases Blood Pressure and Alters Renal Function in Intrauterine Growth-Retarded Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marijke W. Sanders; Gregorio E. Fazzi; Ger M. J. Janssen; Carlos E. Blanco; Jo G. R. De Mey

    2009-01-01

    A suboptimal fetal environment increases the risk to develop cardiovascular disease in the adult. We reported previously that intrauterine stress in response to reduced uteroplacental blood flow in the pregnant rat limits fetal growth and compromises renal development, leading to an altered renal function in the adult offspring. Here we tested the hypothesis that high dietary sodium intake in rats

  18. Brain Training Game Boosts Executive Functions, Working Memory and Processing Speed in the Young Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Nouchi, Rui; Taki, Yasuyuki; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Nozawa, Takayuki; Kambara, Toshimune; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Miyauchi, Carlos Makoto; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nouchi, Haruka; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2013-01-01

    Background Do brain training games work? The beneficial effects of brain training games are expected to transfer to other cognitive functions. Yet in all honesty, beneficial transfer effects of the commercial brain training games in young adults have little scientific basis. Here we investigated the impact of the brain training game (Brain Age) on a wide range of cognitive functions in young adults. Methods We conducted a double-blind (de facto masking) randomized controlled trial using a popular brain training game (Brain Age) and a popular puzzle game (Tetris). Thirty-two volunteers were recruited through an advertisement in the local newspaper and randomly assigned to either of two game groups (Brain Age, Tetris). Participants in both the Brain Age and the Tetris groups played their game for about 15 minutes per day, at least 5 days per week, for 4 weeks. Measures of the cognitive functions were conducted before and after training. Measures of the cognitive functions fell into eight categories (fluid intelligence, executive function, working memory, short-term memory, attention, processing speed, visual ability, and reading ability). Results and Discussion Our results showed that commercial brain training game improves executive functions, working memory, and processing speed in young adults. Moreover, the popular puzzle game can engender improvement attention and visuo-spatial ability compared to playing the brain training game. The present study showed the scientific evidence which the brain training game had the beneficial effects on cognitive functions (executive functions, working memory and processing speed) in the healthy young adults. Conclusions Our results do not indicate that everyone should play brain training games. However, the commercial brain training game might be a simple and convenient means to improve some cognitive functions. We believe that our findings are highly relevant to applications in educational and clinical fields. Trial Registration UMIN Clinical Trial Registry 000005618. PMID:23405164

  19. Growth hormone enhances thymic function in HIV-1–infected adults

    PubMed Central

    Napolitano, Laura A.; Schmidt, Diane; Gotway, Michael B.; Ameli, Niloufar; Filbert, Erin L.; Ng, Myra M.; Clor, Julie L.; Epling, Lorrie; Sinclair, Elizabeth; Baum, Paul D.; Li, Kai; Killian, Marisela Lua; Bacchetti, Peter; McCune, Joseph M.

    2008-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is an underappreciated but important regulator of T cell development that can reverse age-related declines in thymopoiesis in rodents. Here, we report findings of a prospective randomized study examining the effects of GH on the immune system of HIV-1–infected adults. GH treatment was associated with increased thymic mass. In addition, GH treatment enhanced thymic output, as measured by both the frequency of T cell receptor rearrangement excision circles in circulating T cells and the numbers of circulating naive and total CD4+ T cells. These findings provide compelling evidence that GH induces de novo T cell production and may, accordingly, facilitate CD4+ T cell recovery in HIV-1–infected adults. Further, these randomized, prospective data have shown that thymic involution can be pharmacologically reversed in humans, suggesting that immune-based therapies could be used to enhance thymopoiesis in immunodeficient individuals. PMID:18292808

  20. Abnormal Use of Facial Information in High-Functioning Autism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael L. Spezio; Ralph Adolphs; Robert S. E. Hurley; Joseph Piven

    2007-01-01

    Altered visual exploration of faces likely contributes to social cognition deficits seen in autism. To investigate the relationship\\u000a between face gaze and social cognition in autism, we measured both face gaze and how facial regions were actually used during\\u000a emotion judgments from faces. Compared to IQ-matched healthy controls, nine high-functioning adults with autism failed to\\u000a make use of information from

  1. The effects of vitamin D and calcium supplementation on pancreatic beta cell function, insulin sensitivity and glycemia in adults at high risk for diabetes. The CaDDM Randomized Controlled Trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Suboptimal vitamin D and calcium status has been associated with higher risk of type 2 diabetes in observational studies but evidence from trials is lacking. The objective of this trial was to determine whether vitamin D supplementation, with or without calcium, improves glucose homeostasis in adult...

  2. Acute effect of a high nitrate diet on brain perfusion in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Presley, Tennille D.; Morgan, Ashley R.; Bechtold, Erika; Clodfelter, William; Dove, Robin W.; Jennings, Janine M.; Kraft, Robert A.; King, S. Bruce; Laurienti, Paul J.; Rejeski, W. Jack; Burdette, Jonathan H.; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B.; Miller, Gary D.

    2010-01-01

    Aims Poor blood flow and hypoxia/ischemia contribute to many disease states and may also be a factor in the decline of physical and cognitive function in aging. Nitrite has been discovered to be a vasodilator that is preferentially harnessed in hypoxia. Thus, both infused and inhaled nitrite are being studied as therapeutic agents for a variety of diseases. In addition, nitrite derived from nitrate in the diet has been shown to decrease blood pressure and improve exercise performance. Thus, dietary nitrate may also be important when increased blood flow in hypoxic or ischemic areas is indicated. These conditions could include age-associated dementia and cognitive decline. The goal of this study was to determine if dietary nitrate would increase cerebral blood flow in older adults. Methods and Results In this investigation we administered a high vs. low nitrate diet to older adults (74.7 ± 6.9 years) and measured cerebral perfusion using arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging. We found that the high nitrate diet did not alter global cerebral perfusion, but did lead to increased regional cerebral perfusion in frontal lobe white matter, especially between the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex. Conclusion These results suggest that dietary nitrate may be useful in improving regional brain perfusion in older adults in critical brain areas known to be involved in executive functioning. PMID:20951824

  3. Brain Function Differences in Language Processing in Children and Adults with Autism

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Diane L.; Cherkassky, Vladimir L.; Mason, Robert A.; Keller, Timothy A.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Just, Marcel Adam

    2015-01-01

    Comparison of brain function between children and adults with autism provides an understanding of the effects of the disorder and associated maturational differences on language processing. Functional imaging (functional magnetic resonance imaging) was used to examine brain activation and cortical synchronization during the processing of literal and ironic texts in 15 children with autism, 14 children with typical development, 13 adults with autism, and 12 adult controls. Both the children and adults with autism had lower functional connectivity (synchronization of brain activity among activated areas) than their age and ability comparison group in the left hemisphere language network during irony processing, and neither autism group had an increase in functional connectivity in response to increased task demands. Activation differences for the literal and irony conditions occurred in key language-processing regions (left middle temporal, left pars triangularis, left pars opercularis, left medial frontal, and right middle temporal). The children and adults with autism differed from each other in the use of some brain regions during the irony task, with the adults with autism having activation levels similar to those of the control groups. Overall, the children and adults with autism differed from the adult and child controls in (a) the degree of network coordination, (b) the distribution of the workload among member nodes, and (3) the dynamic recruitment of regions in response to text content. Moreover, the differences between the two autism age groups may be indicative of positive changes in the neural function related to language processing associated with maturation and/or educational experience. PMID:23495230

  4. Psychiatric Comorbidity and Functioning in a Clinically Referred Population of Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joshi, Gagan; Wozniak, Janet; Petty, Carter; Martelon, Mary Kate; Fried, Ronna; Bolfek, Anela; Kotte, Amelia; Stevens, Jonathan; Furtak, Stephannie L.; Bourgeois, Michelle; Caruso, Janet; Caron, Ashley; Biederman, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    To systematically examine the patterns of psychiatric comorbidity and functioning in clinically referred adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Psychiatrically referred adults with and without ASD were compared on measures assessing for psychiatric comorbidity and psychosocial functioning. Sixty-three adults with ASD participated in the…

  5. Exposure to traffic and lung function in adults: a general population cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Carlsen, Hanne Krage; Modig, Lars; Levinsson, Anna; Kim, Jeong-Lim; Toren, Kjell; Nyberg, Fredrik; Olin, Anna-Carin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the association between living near dense traffic and lung function in a cohort of adults from a single urban region. Design Cross-sectional results from a cohort study. Setting The adult-onset asthma and exhaled nitric oxide (ADONIX) cohort, sampled during 2001–2008 in Gothenburg, Sweden. Exposure was expressed as the distance from participants’ residential address to the nearest road with dense traffic (>10?000 vehicles per day) or very dense traffic (>30?000 vehicles per day). The exposure categories were: low (>500?m; reference), medium (75–500?m) or high (<75?m). Participants The source population was a population-based cohort of adults (n=6153). The study population included 5441 participants of European descent with good quality spirometry and information about all outcomes and covariates. Outcome measures Forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1?s (FEV1) were measured at a clinical examination. The association with exposure was examined using linear regression adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, smoking status and education in all participants and stratified by sex, smoking status and respiratory health status. Results We identified a significant dose–response trend between exposure category and FEV1 (p=0.03) and borderline significant trend for FVC (p=0.06) after adjusting for covariates. High exposure was associated with lower FEV1 (?1.0%, 95% CI ?2.5% to 0.5%) and lower FVC (?0.9%, 95% CI ?2.2% to 0.4%). The effect appeared to be stronger in women. In highly exposed individuals with current asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, FVC was lower (?4.5%, 95% CI ?8.8% to ?0.1%). Conclusions High traffic exposure at the residential address was associated with lower than predicted FEV1 and FVC lung function compared with living further away in a large general population cohort. There were particular effects on women and individuals with obstructive disease. PMID:26109116

  6. Constructions of Highly Nonlinear Balanced Boolean Functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. G. Dundar; F. Golo; Z. Saygi; F. Sulak

    Boolean Functions are fundamental tools in the design of several cryptographic algorithms. They are used for designing S-boxes in block ciphers and utilized as filters in stream ciphers. Constructing bal- anced boolean functions with high nonlinearity is a significant study area in Boolean functions. In this paper, we construct several classes of highly nonlinear balanced boolean functions by adding two

  7. Health-Related Stigma as a Determinant of Functioning in Young Adults with Narcolepsy

    PubMed Central

    Kapella, Mary C.; Berger, Barbara E.; Vern, Boris A.; Vispute, Sachin; Prasad, Bharati; Carley, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Symptoms of narcolepsy tend to arise during adolescence or young adulthood, a formative time in human development during which people are usually completing their education and launching a career. Little is known about the impact of narcolepsy on the social aspects of health-related quality of life in young adults. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between health-related stigma, mood (anxiety and depression) and daytime functioning in young adults with narcolepsy compared to those without narcolepsy. Young adults (age 18–35) with narcolepsy (N = 122) and without narcolepsy (N = 93) were mailed a packet that included questionnaires and a self-addressed postage paid envelope. The questionnaire included demographic information and a composite of instruments including the SF 36, Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ), Fife Stigma Scale (FSS), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Variable associations were assessed using descriptive statistics, ANOVA, Mann-Whitney U Test, correlations, stepwise multiple regression and path analysis. Young adults with narcolepsy perceived significantly more stigma and lower mood and health-related quality of life than young adults without narcolepsy (p<0.01). Health-related stigma was directly and indirectly associated with lower functioning through depressed mood. Fifty-two percent of the variance in functioning was explained by the final model in the young adults with narcolepsy. Health-related stigma in young adults with narcolepsy is at a level consistent with other chronic medical illnesses. Health-related stigma may be an important determinant of functioning in young adults with narcolepsy. Future work is indicated toward further characterizing stigma and developing interventions that address various domains of stigma in people with narcolepsy. PMID:25898361

  8. Health-related stigma as a determinant of functioning in young adults with narcolepsy.

    PubMed

    Kapella, Mary C; Berger, Barbara E; Vern, Boris A; Vispute, Sachin; Prasad, Bharati; Carley, David W

    2015-01-01

    Symptoms of narcolepsy tend to arise during adolescence or young adulthood, a formative time in human development during which people are usually completing their education and launching a career. Little is known about the impact of narcolepsy on the social aspects of health-related quality of life in young adults. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between health-related stigma, mood (anxiety and depression) and daytime functioning in young adults with narcolepsy compared to those without narcolepsy. Young adults (age 18-35) with narcolepsy (N = 122) and without narcolepsy (N = 93) were mailed a packet that included questionnaires and a self-addressed postage paid envelope. The questionnaire included demographic information and a composite of instruments including the SF 36, Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ), Fife Stigma Scale (FSS), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Variable associations were assessed using descriptive statistics, ANOVA, Mann-Whitney U Test, correlations, stepwise multiple regression and path analysis. Young adults with narcolepsy perceived significantly more stigma and lower mood and health-related quality of life than young adults without narcolepsy (p<0.01). Health-related stigma was directly and indirectly associated with lower functioning through depressed mood. Fifty-two percent of the variance in functioning was explained by the final model in the young adults with narcolepsy. Health-related stigma in young adults with narcolepsy is at a level consistent with other chronic medical illnesses. Health-related stigma may be an important determinant of functioning in young adults with narcolepsy. Future work is indicated toward further characterizing stigma and developing interventions that address various domains of stigma in people with narcolepsy. PMID:25898361

  9. Self-renewal pattern-associated genes and their role in adult stem cell functions

    E-print Network

    Noh, Minsoo

    2006-01-01

    Molecular markers for adult stem cells (ASCs) are highly demanded for research and clinical applications. The development of specific molecular markers for ASCs has been difficult mainly due to the technical barriers in ...

  10. Coping with incest: the relationship between recollections of childhood coping and adult functioning in female survivors of incest.

    PubMed

    Brand, Bethany L; Alexander, Pamela C

    2003-06-01

    One hundred and one adult female survivors' recollections of coping with childhood incest, abuse characteristics, and current functioning in adulthood were studied. Analyses controlling for characteristics of the trauma indicated that recollections of using avoidance coping and seeking social support were related to poor adult functioning whereas recollections of using distancing coping were related to better functioning. As a set of variables, abuse characteristics also predicted a significant amount of variance in adult functioning. Implications for future research were discussed. PMID:12816342

  11. Optimizing the Benefits of Exercise on Physical Function in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Buford, Thomas W.; Anton, Stephen D.; Clark, David J.; Higgins, Torrance J.; Cooke, Matthew B.

    2014-01-01

    As the number of older adults continues to rise worldwide, the prevention of physical disability among seniors is an increasingly important public health priority. Physical exercise is among the best known methods of preventing disability, but accumulating evidence indicates that considerable variability exists in the responsiveness of older adults to standard training regimens. Accordingly, a need exists to develop tailored interventions to optimize the beneficial effects of exercise on the physical function of older adults at risk for becoming disabled. The present review summarizes the available literature related to the use of adjuvant or alternative strategies intended to enhance the efficacy of exercise in improving the physical function of older adults. Within this work, we also discuss potential future research directions in this area. PMID:24361365

  12. Esophageal peristaltic defects in adults with functional dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Ratuapli, Shiva K; Hansel, Stephanie L; Umar, Sarah B; Burdick, George E; Ramirez, Francisco C; Fleischer, David E; Harris, Lucinda A; Lacy, Brian E; DiBaise, John K; Crowell, Michael D

    2014-08-01

    Functional dysphagia (FD) is characterized by the presence of dysphagia without evidence of mechanical esophageal obstruction, GERD, and histopathology-based esophageal motor disorders. Dysphagia is common in older patients; however, there is a paucity of information regarding the type and frequency of peristaltic abnormalities compared to younger patients. Based on recently validated criteria for classification of weak peristalsis using high-resolution manometry (HRM), we hypothesized that older patients with FD would have more peristaltic defects detected by HRM compared to younger FD patients. A retrospective review of our motility database yielded 65 patients that met inclusion criteria. Patients were divided into two groups based on age (younger: <70 years; older: ?70 years). Patients were interviewed, completed a quality-of-life questionnaire, and underwent solid-state HRM. The two groups differed in age but in no other demographic characteristics, severity of dysphagia, or quality of life. Dyspeptic symptoms, including nausea (p < 0.001), early satiety (p = 0.01), bloating (p = 0.02), and belching (p = 0.01), were also more prevalent in younger FD patients. Older age was associated with weak peristalsis involving frequent failed peristalsis, small proximal peristaltic defects (2-5 cm), and large proximal peristaltic defects (>5 cm) (p < 0.001). The mean contraction amplitude was also lower in the older group (p < 0.05). These data support the hypothesis that older patients with FD have a higher frequency of peristaltic abnormalities on HRM compared to younger patients. Older age was associated with increased frequency of weak peristalsis with small and large peristaltic defects. PMID:24894375

  13. Temperament and hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis function in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Tyrka, Audrey R.; Mello, Andrea F.; Mello, Marcelo F.; Gagne, Gerard G.; Grover, Kelly E.; Anderson, George M.; Price, Lawrence H.; Carpenter, Linda L.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Traits such as behavioral inhibition and neuroticism have been linked to the development of mood and anxiety disorders. Hyperactivity of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis, a manifestation of the stress response, is often seen in major depression and has also been demonstrated in animals and humans with inhibited temperaments. A recent study found HPA hyperactivity in adults with high levels of neuroticism. The present study investigated associations of temperament and HPA function in 31 healthy adults. Methods and materials Subjects completed diagnostic interviews, questionnaires, and the dexamethasone-/corticotropin-releasing hormone (Dex/CRH) test. Temperament was assessed using the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ). Results Novelty Seeking was inversely related to plasma cortisol concentrations in the Dex/CRH test. Harm Avoidance and Reward Dependence were not significantly associated with cortisol responses in the Dex/CRH test. The results were not accounted for by psychiatric symptoms or a history of stress or childhood maltreatment. Conclusions These findings are consistent with previous reports associating temperament factors with HPA axis hyperactivity. Further work is needed to replicate these observations and determine whether HPA axis dysfunction might account for some of the previously reported association of personality factors with mood and anxiety disorders. PMID:16908106

  14. Effects of Functional Mobility Skills Training for Adults with Severe Multiple Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whinnery, Stacie B.; Whinnery, Keith W.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a functional mobility program on the functional standing and walking skills of five adults with developmental disabilities. The Mobility Opportunities Via Education (MOVE) Curriculum was implemented using a multiple-baseline across subjects design. Repeated measures were taken during baseline, intervention…

  15. Functional Changes in Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krakovsky, Gina; Huth, Myra Martz; Lin, Li; Levin, Ron S.

    2007-01-01

    Children with multiple handicaps, including cerebral palsy (CP), often lose or regress in their functional ability through adolescence and young adulthood. The purpose of this study was to examine functional and psychosocial changes in children, adolescents, and young adults with CP. A retrospective chart review and a prospective telephone…

  16. Psychosocial Functioning of Young Adults Who Have Experienced and Recovered From Major Depressive Disorder During Adolescence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter M. Lewinsohn; Paul Rohde; John R. Seeley; Daniel N. Klein; Ian H. Gotlib

    2003-01-01

    The authors examined whether adolescent major depressive disorder (MDD) was associated with difficulties in young adult functioning and whether differences would remain significant after accounting for nonmood disorder, MDD recurrence, functioning in adolescence, or current mood state. A total of 941 participants were assessed twice during adolescence and at age 24. In unadjusted analyses, adolescent MDD was associated with most

  17. Functional outcome and quality of life in adult patients with idiopathic inflammatory myositis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Ponyi; G. Borgulya; T. Constantin; A. Vancsa; L. Gergely; K. Danko

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. To present the outcome of patients with idiopathic inflammatory myositis, focusing on functional ability and quality of life. Methods. Analysis was performed using data from 105 adult patients with definitive polymyositis, dermatomyositis or overlap myositis, who were followed up at a single centre. The diagnosis was made between 1979 and 2000 based on Bohan and Peter's criteria. Functional ability

  18. Skeletal Muscle Power: A Critical Determinant of Physical Functioning In Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Kieran F.; Fielding, Roger A.

    2011-01-01

    Muscle power declines earlier and more precipitously with advancing age compared to muscle strength. Peak muscle power has also emerged as an important predictor of functional limitations in older adults. Our current working hypothesis is focused on examining lower extremity muscle power as a more discriminant variable for understanding the relationships between impairments, functional limitations and resultant disability with aging. PMID:22016147

  19. A Hypothesis About the Role of Adult Neurogenesis in Hippocampal Function

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    PhD Alejandro F. Schinder (Leloir Institute Foundation)

    2004-10-01

    The functional relevance of adult hippocampal neurogenesis has long been a matter of intense experimentation and debate, but the precise role of new neurons has not been sufficiently elaborated. Here we propose a hypothesis in which specific features of newly generated neurons contribute to hippocampal plasticity and function and discuss the most recent and relevant findings in the context of the proposed hypothesis.

  20. Behavior regulation and mood predict social functioning among healthy young adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erica L. Dawson; Paula K. Shear; Stephen M. Strakowski

    2012-01-01

    Impulsive behavior is thought to lead to both positive and negative psychosocial outcomes. However, little is known about the potential consequences of subclinical expressions of behavior dysregulation on everyday functioning. To examine this relationship, global social functioning was measured in 89 healthy, young adults who also completed the Degraded Stimulus Continuous Performance Test, Color–Word Interference Test, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, 11th

  1. Atypical Cerebral Lateralisation in Adults with Compensated Developmental Dyslexia Demonstrated Using Functional Transcranial Doppler Ultrasound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illingworth, Sarah; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.

    2009-01-01

    Functional transcranial Doppler ultrasound (fTCD) is a relatively new and non-invasive technique that assesses cerebral lateralisation through measurements of blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral arteries. In this study fTCD was used to compare functional asymmetry during a word generation task between a group of 30 dyslexic adults and a…

  2. Evaluation of pelvic floor muscle function in a random group of adult women in Austria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Talasz; G. Himmer-Perschak; E. Marth; J. Fischer-Colbrie; E. Hoefner; M. Lechleitner

    2008-01-01

    Despite an increasing clinical interest in female pelvic floor function, there is a lack of data with respect to the knowledge\\u000a of average adult women about the physiological role of the pelvic floor and their ability to contract pelvic floor muscles\\u000a (PFM) voluntarily. It was the aim of our study to evaluate the percentage of PFM dysfunction in adult women

  3. Individualized Piano Instruction enhances executive functioning and working memory in older adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Bugos; W. M. Perlstein; C. S. McCrae; T. S. Brophy; P. H. Bedenbaugh

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluates transfer from domain-specific, sensorimotor training to cognitive abilities associated with executive function. We examined Individualized Piano Instruction (IPI) as a potential cognitive intervention to mitigate normal age-related cognitive decline in older adults. Thirty-one musically naïve community-dwelling older adults (ages 60–85) were randomly assigned to either the experimental group (n?=?16) or control group (n?=?15). Neuropsychological assessments were administered

  4. High altitude hypoxia environment changes of the content of RAAS and right ventricular ACE2 activity in adult SD rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wenhua Li; Zhong Liu

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the function of the rennin- angiotensin-aldoterone system(RAAS) under high altitude hypoxia environment and objective to investigate the effects of high altitude hypoxia on the angiotensin conversion enzyme 2(ACE2) mRNA and protein expressions in SD rat right ventricle. Methods Forty male adult Sprague Dawley( SD) rats, under high altitude hypoxia environment were divided randomly into 4 groups: the

  5. A quantitative review of cognitive functioning in homeless adults.

    PubMed

    Depp, Colin A; Vella, Lea; Orff, Henry J; Twamley, Elizabeth W

    2015-02-01

    Homeless people experience elevated rates of risk factors for cognitive impairment. We reviewed available peer-reviewed studies reporting data from objective measures of cognition in samples identified as homeless. Pooled sample-weighted estimates of global cognitive screening measures, full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ), and premorbid IQ were calculated, in addition to pooled sample characteristics, to understand the representativeness of available studies. A total of 24 unique studies were identified, with 2969 subjects. The pooled estimate for the frequency of cognitive impairment was 25%, and the mean full-scale IQ score was 85, 1 standard deviation below the mean of the normal population. Cognitive impairment was found to be common among homeless adults and may be a transdiagnostic problem that impedes rehabilitative efforts in this population. Comparatively little data are available about cognition in homeless women and unsheltered persons. PMID:25594792

  6. Intraoperative Neural Response Telemetry and Neural Recovery Function: a Comparative Study between Adults and Children.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Bettina; Hamerschmidt, Rogerio; Wiemes, Gislaine

    2015-01-01

    Introduction?Neural response telemetry (NRT) is a method of capturing the action potential of the distal portion of the auditory nerve in cochlear implant (CI) users, using the CI itself to elicit and record the answers. In addition, it can also measure the recovery function of the auditory nerve (REC), that is, the refractory properties of the nerve. It is not clear in the literature whether the responses from adults are the same as those from children. Objective?To compare the results of NRT and REC between adults and children undergoing CI surgery. Methods?Cross-sectional, descriptive, and retrospective study of the results of NRT and REC for patients undergoing IC at our service. The NRT is assessed by the level of amplitude (microvolts) and REC as a function of three parameters: A (saturation level, in microvolts), t0 (absolute refractory period, in seconds), and tau (curve of the model function), measured in three electrodes (apical, medial, and basal). Results?Fifty-two patients were evaluated with intraoperative NRT (26 adults and 26 children), and 24 with REC (12 adults and 12 children). No statistically significant difference was found between intraoperative responses of adults and children for NRT or for REC's three parameters, except for parameter A of the basal electrode. Conclusion?The results of intraoperative NRT and REC were not different between adults and children, except for parameter A of the basal electrode. PMID:25992145

  7. Bowel function in adults who have sustained spinal cord injury in childhood.

    PubMed

    Kannisto, M; Rintala, R

    1995-12-01

    The impact of neuropathic bowel dysfunction on bowel habits was studied in 35 adult spinal cord injury (SCI) patients, who had sustained their injury in childhood. The methods used in the study were clinical interview and examination, quantitative scoring of bowel function (BCS) and estimation of bowel transit time with radiopaque markers. Thirty five healthy subjects without previous anorectal disease or surgery and with similar age and sex distribution as the patients served as controls. Most of the SCI patients were content with their bowel function. Nine (26%) out of 35 of the SCI patients were completely satisfied with their bowel function and reported no limitations in social life. The majority (69%) of the patients considered their bowel function to be significantly altered, causing only mild problems in their social life. Two of the patients had major problems of bowel function, which caused severe limitations in their social life. The majority (77%) of the patients declared that they had a low frequency of bowel evacuation. Eight out of 35 patients were using laxatives to promote bowel emptying. The quantitative BCS of the patients was significantly lower than that of the controls (P < 0.001). Moreover, there was a significant difference between the scores of patients with complete high (C2-T6) and complete low (T7-S4-5) lesions. The difference between the BCS and overall satisfaction with bowel function can be explained by good habilitation to SCI and by the prolonged transit times which enables relatively rare and controlled bowel movements and firm consistency of stools. PMID:8927408

  8. Upset Stomach (Functional Dyspepsia) in Adults (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... term for a condition that causes an upset stomach or pain or discomfort in the upper belly, ... most common symptoms of functional dyspepsia include: Upset stomach Discomfort or pain in the belly Bloating Feeling ...

  9. Executive Function Predicts Artificial Language Learning in Children and Adults

    E-print Network

    Kapa, Leah Lynn

    2013-12-31

    Prior research has established an executive function advantage among bilinguals as compared to monolingual peers. These non-linguistic cognitive advantages are largely assumed to result from the experience of managing two ...

  10. Mothers' exercise during pregnancy programs vasomotor function in adult offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The intrauterine environment is influenced by maternal behavior and known to influence lifelong atherosclerotic disease susceptibility in offspring. The purpose of this investigation was to test the hypothesis that maternal exercise during pregnancy increases endothelial function in offs...

  11. Fish Oil Tied to Better Brain Function in Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_152697.html Fish Oil Tied to Better Brain Function in Older ... 3 fatty acids -- found in many types of fish -- may benefit people at risk for Alzheimer's disease, ...

  12. Project REALISTIC: Determination of Adult Functional Literacy Skill Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sticht, Thomas G.; And Others

    1972-01-01

    Project REALISTIC, sponsored by the Department of the Army under contract with the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO), was designed to determine functional literacy levels for selected military jobs having civilian counterparts. (MM)

  13. Blink rate as an index of dopamine function in adults with mental retardation and repetitive behavior disorders.

    PubMed

    Bodfish, J W; Powell, S B; Golden, R N; Lewis, M H

    1995-01-01

    Direct observation of blink rate was used as a noninvasive, in vivo estimate of dopamine function in adults with mental retardation and repetitive behavior disorders. Blink rate as measured in groups of stereotypy, compulsion, and control subjects was highly stable. Subjects with stereotypies had significantly lower blink rates than did control subjects. Although blink rates for compulsive subjects were not significantly different from those of control subjects, a subgroup of compulsive subjects with comorbid stereotypic behaviors displayed significantly lower blink rates. Significant inverse correlations were found for blink rate and severity of repetitive behavior disorder and for blink rate and ratings of motor slowness. These findings support the hypothesis that stereotyped behavior among adults with mental retardation is mediated by hypodopaminergic function. PMID:7695876

  14. A Study of the Adult Zebrafish Ventricular Function by Retrospective Doppler-Gated Ultrahigh-Frame-Rate Echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ting-Yu; Lee, Po-Yang; Huang, Chih-Chung; Sun, Lei; Shung, K. Kirk

    2014-01-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has become a preferred animal model for studying various human diseases, particularly those related to cardiovascular regeneration; therefore, a noninvasive imaging modality is needed for observing the cardiac function of zebrafish. Because of its high resolution, high-frequency ultrasound B-mode imaging has recently been used successfully to observe the heart of adult zebrafish. However, ultrahigh-frame-rate echocardiography combining B-mode imaging and color flow imaging is still needed to observe the detailed transient motions of the zebrafish ventricle. This study develops an 80-MHz ultrahigh-frame-rate echocardiography system for this purpose, based on retrospective Doppler- gated technology. B-mode and color flow images of the cardiovascular system of the zebrafish were reconstructed by two-dimensional autocorrelation at maximum frame rates of up to 40 000 and 400 fps, respectively. The timings of end diastole (ED) and end systole (ES) of ventricle can be determined by using this high-resolution image system. Two ventricular function parameters—fractional shortening (FS) and fractional area change (FAC)—were measured for evaluating the ventricular function by using ED and ES with their corresponding ventricular dimensions. The experimental results indicated that the measured FS values were 42 ± 4% (mean ± standard deviation) and 60 ± 13% for the long axis and short axis of the ventricle, respectively, and that FAC was 77 ± 9%. This is the first report of these ventricular function parameters for a normal adult zebrafish. The results showed that retrospective high-frequency echocardiography is a useful tool for studying the cardiac function of normal adult zebrafish. PMID:24658716

  15. Left ventricular function in adults with mild pulmonary insufficiency late after Fallot repair

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R A Niezen; W A Helbing; E E van der Wall; R J van der Geest; H W Vliegen; A de Roos

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVETo assess left ventricular function in adult Fallot patients with residual pulmonary regurgitation.SETTINGThe radiology department of a tertiary referral centre.PATIENTS14 patients with chronic pulmonary regurgitation and right ventricular volume overload after repair of tetralogy of Fallot and 10 healthy subjects were studied using magnetic resonance imaging.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURESBiventricular volumes, global biventricular function, and regional left ventricular function were assessed in

  16. Gender differences in renal growth and function after uninephrectomy in adult rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan E. Mulroney; Craig Woda; Michele Johnson; Carlo Pesce

    1999-01-01

    Gender differences in renal growth and function after uninephrectomy in adult rats.BackgroundIt is known that compensatory renal growth (CRG) following unilateral nephrectomy (UNX) increases both the size of the kidney and its functional capacity; however, few studies have investigated whether differences in CRG exist between the sexes. Our study examined the sex-related differences in remnant kidney growth and function two

  17. Disparities in psychosocial functioning in a diverse sample of adults with anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Moitra, Ethan; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Stout, Robert L; Angert, Erica; Weisberg, Risa B; Keller, Martin B

    2014-04-01

    Anxiety disorders are associated with psychosocial functional impairments, but no study has compared how these impairments might vary by ethno-racial status. We examined whether minority status was uniquely associated with functional impairments in 431 adults with anxiety disorders. Functioning was measured in the rater-assessed domains of: Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF); global psychosocial functioning; work, relationship, and recreational functioning; and, self-reported: life satisfaction, mental health functioning, physical functioning, and disability status. After controlling for demographic and clinical variables, results revealed evidence of disparities, whereby African Americans (AAs), particularly those with low income, had worse GAF, worse global psychosocial functioning, and were more likely to be disabled compared to non-Latino Whites. Latinos, particularly those with low income, had worse global psychosocial functioning than non-Latino Whites. Results suggest AAs and Latinos are at increased risk for functional impairments not better accounted for by other demographic or clinical variables. PMID:24685821

  18. Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Pulmonary Function among Adults in NHANES III: Impact on the General Population and Adults with Current Asthma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark D. Eisner

    The impact of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure on adult pulmonary function has not been clearly determined. Because adults with asthma have chronic airway inflammation, they may be a particularly susceptible group. Using data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), I examined the cross-sectional relationship between serum cotinine, a biomarker of ETS exposure, and pulmonary

  19. HDL anti-oxidant function associates with LDL level in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Breton, Carrie V.; Yin, Fen; Wang, Xinhui; Avol, Ed; Gilliland, Frank D.; Araujo, Jesus A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The primary objective was to evaluate predictors of HDL anti-oxidant function in young adults. Background High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol is considered a protective factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, increased levels are not always associated with decreased cardiovascular risk. A better understanding of the importance of HDL functionality and how it affects CVD risk is needed. Methods Fifty non-Hispanic white subjects from the Testing Responses on Youth (TROY) study were randomly selected to investigate whether differences in HDL anti-oxidant function are associated with traditional cardiovascular risk factors, including carotid intima media thickness (CIMT), arterial stiffness and other inflammatory/metabolic parameters. HDL anti-oxidant capacity was evaluated by assessing its ability to inhibit low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol oxidation by air using a DCF-based fluorescent assay and expressed as a HDL oxidant index (HOI). The associations between HOI and other variables were assessed using both linear and logistic regression. Results Eleven subjects (25%) had an HOI ? 1, indicating a pro-oxidant HDL. Age, LDL, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), and paraoxonase activity (PON1), but not HDL, were all associated with HOI level in univariate linear regression models. In multivariate models that mutually adjusted for these variables, LDL remained the strongest predictor of HOI (0.13 increase in HOI per 1 SD increase in LDL, 95% CI 0.04, 0.22). Atherogenic index of plasma, pulse pressure, homocysteine, glucose, insulin, CIMT and measurements of arterial stiffness were not associated with HOI in this population. Conclusions These results suggest LDL, hsCRP and DBP might predict HDL anti-oxidant function at an early age. PMID:24401232

  20. Prefrontal Response and Frontostriatal Functional Connectivity to Monetary Reward in Abstinent Alcohol-Dependent Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Forbes, Erika E.; Rodriguez, Eric E.; Musselman, Samuel; Narendran, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    Although altered function in neural reward circuitry is widely proposed in models of addiction, more recent conceptual views have emphasized the role of disrupted response in prefrontal regions. Changes in regions such as the orbitofrontal cortex, medial prefrontal cortex, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex are postulated to contribute to the compulsivity, impulsivity, and altered executive function that are central to addiction. In addition, few studies have examined function in these regions during young adulthood, when exposure is less chronic than in typical samples of alcohol-dependent adults. To address these issues, we examined neural response and functional connectivity during monetary reward in 24 adults with alcohol dependence and 24 psychiatrically healthy adults. Adults with alcohol dependence exhibited less response to the receipt of monetary reward in a set of prefrontal regions including the medial prefrontal cortex, lateral orbitofrontal cortex, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Adults with alcohol dependence also exhibited greater negative correlation between function in each of these regions and that in the nucleus accumbens. Within the alcohol-dependent group, those with family history of alcohol dependence exhibited lower mPFC response, and those with more frequent drinking exhibited greater negative functional connectivity between the mPFC and the nucleus accumbens. These findings indicate that alcohol dependence is associated with less engagement of prefrontal cortical regions, suggesting weak or disrupted regulation of ventral striatal response. This pattern of prefrontal response and frontostriatal connectivity has consequences for the behavior patterns typical of addiction. Furthermore, brain-behavior findings indicate that the potential mechanisms of disruption in frontostriatal circuitry in alcohol dependence include family liability to alcohol use problems and more frequent use of alcohol. In all, these findings build on the extant literature on reward-circuit function in addiction and suggest mechanisms for disrupted function in alcohol dependence. PMID:24804780

  1. Neurons born in the adult dentate gyrus form functional synapses with target cells

    PubMed Central

    Toni, Nicolas; Laplagne, Diego A; Zhao, Chunmei; Lombardi, Gabriela; Ribak, Charles E; Gage, Fred H; Schinder, Alejandro F

    2008-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis occurs in the hippocampus and the olfactory bulb of the mammalian CNS. Recent studies have demonstrated that newborn granule cells of the adult hippocampus are postsynaptic targets of excitatory and inhibitory neurons, but evidence of synapse formation by the axons of these cells is still lacking. By combining retroviral expression of green fluorescent protein in adult-born neurons of the mouse dentate gyrus with immuno-electron microscopy, we found output synapses that were formed by labeled terminals on appropriate target cells in the CA3 area and the hilus. Furthermore, retroviral expression of channelrhodopsin-2 allowed us to light-stimulate newborn granule cells and identify postsynaptic target neurons by whole-cell recordings in acute slices. Our structural and functional evidence indicates that axons of adult-born granule cells establish synapses with hilar interneurons, mossy cells and CA3 pyramidal cells and release glutamate as their main neurotransmitter. PMID:18622400

  2. Can Particulate Pollution Affect Lung Function in Healthy Adults?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accompanying editorial to paper from Harvard by Rice et al. entitled "Long-Term Exposure to Traffic Emissions and Fine Particulate Matter and Lung Function Decline in the Framingham Heart StudyBy almost any measure the Clean Air Act and its amendments has to be considered a...

  3. Obesity in older adults: relationship to functional limitation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose of review – This review is intended to provide a critical overview of recent investigations of obesity among older persons with emphasis upon associated functional limitations, potential for intervention, and a future research agenda. Recent findings – Obesity is growing in prevalence among...

  4. Waist Circumference, Physical Activity and Functional Impairments in Older US Adults: Results From the NHANES 2005-2010.

    PubMed

    Batsis, John A; Germain, Cassandra; Vasquez, Elizabeth; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco; Bartels, Stephen J

    2014-08-01

    Physical activity (PA) improves function in older obese adults. However, body mass index is an unreliable adiposity indicator better reflected by waist circumference (WC). The impact of PA on physical impairment and mobility with high WC is unclear. We performed a secondary data analysis of 4,976 adults ?60 years using National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) 2005-2010. Physical limitations (PL), activities of daily living (ADL) impairments, and PA (low(<1day/week) or high (>1day/week) were self-reported. Waist circumference (WC) was dichotomized (females: 88cm; males: 102cm). Mean age was 70.1years, 55.1% were female. Prevalence of PL and ADL impairment in the high WC group were 57.7% and 18.8%, respectively, and high PA was present in 53.9%. Among high WC, high PA vs. low PA were at lower risk of PL (OR 0.58[0.48-0.70]) and ADL impairment (OR 0.46 [0.32-0.65]). High WC had higher odds of PL irrespective of PA (high PA: OR 1.57 [1.30-1.88]; low PA: OR 1.52[1.29-1.79]) and ADL impairment (high PA:OR 1.27 [1.02-1.57] and low PA:OR 1.24 [0.99-1.54]). High PA in viscerally obese individuals is associated with impairments. PMID:25102405

  5. Stuttering frequency on content and function words in adults who stutter: a concept revisited.

    PubMed

    Dayalu, Vikram N; Kalinowski, Joseph; Stuart, Andrew; Holbert, Donald; Rastatter, Michael P

    2002-10-01

    This study investigated stuttering frequency as a function of grammatical word type (i.e., content and function). Ten adults who stutter participated. Participants recited aloud a list of 126 words consisting of an equal number of content and function words, which were presented individually and visually via a laptop computer. Each word belonged to a single grammatical category. Further, words were matched for initial sound and approximate number of syllables. The results indicated that adults who stutter exhibited significantly greater stuttering frequency on content words when presented in isolation (p = 0.018). It was conjectured that the responsible factor contributing to differences in stuttering frequency in adults who stutter resides in word frequency disparities between the two classes of words categories. That is, because the function words are limited in number and are used frequently, repeated use on the part of adults who stutter may lead to a generalized adaptation effect for function words and hence reduced stuttering frequency (as compared with content words). PMID:12381045

  6. ACUTE PULMONARY FUNCTION RESPONSE TO OZONE IN YOUNG ADULTS AS A FUNCTION OF BODY MASS INDEX

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, William D.; Hazucha, Milan J.; Bromberg, Philip A.; Kissling, Grace E.; London, Stephanie J.

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies have shown enhanced responsiveness to ozone in obese mice. Adiposity has not been examined as a possible modulator of ozone response in humans. We therefore examined the relationship between body mass index and the acute spirometric response to ozone (O3) exposure among 197 non-asthmatic young adults (aged 18-35) studied in our human exposure facility from 1992-1998. Each subject had been exposed to 0.42 ppm O3 for 1.5 h with intermittent exercise designed to produce a minute ventilation of 20 l/min / m2 body surface area (BSA). Spirometry (pulmonary function) was measured pre- and immediately post- exposure to determine acute ozone-induced changes. The decrement in forced expiratory volume in 1s (? FEV1) in % of baseline was significantly correlated with BMI, r = ?0.16, p = 0.03 with a slightly stronger correlation in women (n=75), r = ?0.22, p = 0.05, and no significant correlation in men. BMI had a greater range in women than in men in our study. In women greater ozone-induced decrements were seen in overweight (BMI > 25 kg/m2) than in normal weight (BMI 18.5 to 25 kg/m2), and in normal weight than in underweight (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2) for all spirometric variables considered (P trend ? 0.022). Although our population studied was predominantly normal weight, we found that higher body mass index may be a modest risk factor for adverse pulmonary effects associated with ozone exposure, especially for women. PMID:17987466

  7. Teaching a High-Level Contextualized Mathematics Curriculum to Adult Basic Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Showalter, Daniel A.; Wollett, Chelsie; Reynolds, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the implementation of a high level contextualized mathematics curriculum by 12 adult basic instructors in a midwestern state. The 10-week pilot curriculum embedded high level mathematics in contexts that were familiar to adult learners. Instructors' weekly online posts were coded, and the following themes emerged: (a)…

  8. Characterizing Vibratory Kinematics in Children and Adults with High-Speed Digital Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Rita; Dubrovskiy, Denis; Döllinger, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to quantify and identify characteristic vibratory motion in typically developing prepubertal children and young adults using high-speed digital imaging. Method: The vibrations of the vocal folds were recorded from 27 children (ages 5-9 years) and 35 adults (ages 21-45 years), with high speed at 4,000 frames per…

  9. High tibial osteotomy in the treatment of adult osteochondritis dissecans.

    PubMed

    Slawski, D P

    1997-08-01

    This study reports one surgeon's experience using valgus high tibial osteotomy in the treatment of osteochondritis dissecans of the medial femoral condyle in adult patients. Seven knees in six patients with osteochondritis dissecans were reviewed as the basis of the study. Five patients (five knees) were men, and one patient (two knees) was a woman. The average age at surgery was 32 years. Patients reported medial knee pain, recurrent effusions, and disability. An average of three procedures per knee had been performed previously. Four knees had achieved union of the osteochondral fragments but with overlying articular cartilage degeneration observed at arthroscopy. Three knees had failed attempts at fixation with eventual excision of the fragmented osteochondral lesions. None of the knees showed diffuse medial compartment gonarthrosis by radiographic or arthroscopic examinations. Involved knees had relative varus malalignment with an average femoral and tibial angle of 0 degree compared with the uninvolved knees average of 5 degrees valgus. Preoperative technetium scintigraphy showed isolated uptake in the medial femoral condyle of all involved knees. Preoperative Lysholm scores averaged 39 points. Patients were observed for an average of 30 months after surgery. The average Lysholm score at latest followup was 89 points. Femoral and tibial angles averaged 9 degrees valgus. On subjective questioning, all patients reported marked improvement, satisfaction with the surgery, and said they had no need for additional operative intervention. PMID:9269169

  10. Functional decline over two years in older Spanish adults: Evidence from SHARE

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez López, Santiago; Montero, Pilar; Carmenate, Margarita; Avendano, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the social, educational, health and behavioral predictors of physical functional decline in older Spanish adults. Methods Two-year longitudinal study based on 699 community-dwelling Spanish adults over 65 year-old participating in the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement of Europe (SHARE). Several predictors of a combined measure of functional disability were examined using logistic regressions. Results A decline in function was experienced by 166 individuals. Functional decline in men was associated with increased number of chronic diseases (OR= 2.25, 95%CI 1.21–4.19) and depressive symptoms (OR= 5.05, 95%CI 2.42–10.54) over a two-year period, while among women it was associated with decreased numeracy score (OR= 1.88, 95%CI 1.05–3.34). Conclusions Longitudinal changes in predictors are strongly associated with longitudinal changes in function between baseline and a two-year follow-up, most clearly among men. A decrease in cognitive functioning and increased depressive symptoms are associated with a decline in physical functioning and can serve as useful clinical predictors to prevent disability in older Spanish adults. PMID:23844926

  11. The effects of sleep deprivation on brain functioning in older adults.

    PubMed

    Almklov, Erin L; Drummond, Sean P A; Orff, Henry; Alhassoon, Omar M

    2015-07-01

    Few studies have examined the effects of total sleep deprivation (TSD) on cognitive performance and brain activation using functional MRI (fMRI) in older adults. The current study examines blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) activation in older adults and younger adults during the sustained attention (GO) and response inhibition (NOGO) portions of a GO-NOGO cognitive task following 36 hr of total sleep deprivation. No significant performance differences were observed between the groups on the behavioral outcome measures of total hits and false alarms. Neuroimaging results, however, revealed a significant interaction between age-group and sleep-deprivation status. Specifically, older adults showed greater BOLD activation as compared to younger adults after 36 hours total sleep deprivation in brain regions typically associated with attention and inhibitory processes. These results suggest in order for older adults to perform the GO-NOGO task effectively after sleep deprivation, they rely on compensatory recruitment of brain regions that aide in the maintenance of cognitive performance. PMID:24787041

  12. Passaged Adult Chondrocytes Can Form Engineered Cartilage with Functional Mechanical Properties: A Canine Model

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Kenneth W.; Lima, Eric G.; Bian, Liming; O'Conor, Christopher J.; Jayabalan, Prakash S.; Stoker, Aaron M.; Kuroki, Keiichi; Cook, Cristi R.; Ateshian, Gerard A.; Cook, James L.

    2010-01-01

    It was hypothesized that previously optimized serum-free culture conditions for juvenile bovine chondrocytes could be adapted to generate engineered cartilage with physiologic mechanical properties in a preclinical, adult canine model. Primary or passaged (using growth factors) adult chondrocytes from three adult dogs were encapsulated in agarose, and cultured in serum-free media with transforming growth factor-?3. After 28 days in culture, engineered cartilage formed by primary chondrocytes exhibited only small increases in glycosaminoglycan content. However, all passaged chondrocytes on day 28 elaborated a cartilage matrix with compressive properties and glycosaminoglycan content in the range of native adult canine cartilage values. A preliminary biocompatibility study utilizing chondral and osteochondral constructs showed no gross or histological signs of rejection, with all implanted constructs showing excellent integration with surrounding cartilage and subchondral bone. This study demonstrates that adult canine chondrocytes can form a mechanically functional, biocompatible engineered cartilage tissue under optimized culture conditions. The encouraging findings of this work highlight the potential for tissue engineering strategies using adult chondrocytes in the clinical treatment of cartilage defects. PMID:19845465

  13. Analysis of Narrative Discourse Structure as an Ecologically Relevant Measure of Executive Function in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannizzaro, Michael S.; Coelho, Carl A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the narrative discourse production and executive function (EF) abilities of 46 neuro-typical adults (18-98 years old). Two questions were addressed: Is the analysis of narrative structure sensitive to changes associated with aging? & What is the relationship between measures of narrative structure and EF? Narratives were…

  14. Functional Communication Goals for Adolescents and Adults Who Are Severely and Moderately Mentally Handicapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mire, Stephen P.; Chisholm, Rebecca Wise

    1990-01-01

    Goals are presented for communication skills needed to function independently in the community. The goals, developed for adolescents/adults with severe/moderate mental handicaps, are situation-specific, outcome-oriented, and community-based. They deal with telephone use, shopping, leisure activities, traveling, banking, and going to a restaurant…

  15. The Association between Cardiovascular Disease and Cochlear Function in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torre, Peter, III; Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Klein, Barbara E.K.; Klein, Ronald; Nondahl, David M.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the relation between self-reported cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cochlear function in older adults. The Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study (EHLS) is an ongoing population-based study of hearing loss and its risk factors in Beaver Dam, Wisconsin. As part of the EHLS questionnaire, participants were…

  16. Spinal Cord Repair in Adult Paraplegic Rats: Partial Restoration of Hind Limb Function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henrich Cheng; Yihai Cao; Lars Olson

    1996-01-01

    Complete spinal cord gaps in adult rats were bridged with multiple intercostal nerve grafts that redirected specific pathways from white to gray matter. The grafted area was stabilized with fibrin glue containing acidic fibroblast growth factor and by compressive wiring of posterior spinal processes. Hind limb function improved progressively during the first 6 months, as assessed by two scoring systems.

  17. Implementing functional assessment in older adult care: the experience of direct care staff

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William Spence

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The paper reports on the implementation of the Revised Elderly Persons' Disability Scale use – a 53-item, seven sub-scale functional assessment tool – in a range of older adult care institutions. Staff education on the instrument's use is provided; patient assessments collated centrally; and results fed back to respective care facilities. This study explores the views of qualified

  18. Adult German Cockroach (Orthoptera: Blattellidae) Feeding and Drinking Behavior as a Function of Density and

    E-print Network

    Buckel, Jeffrey A.

    Adult German Cockroach (Orthoptera: Blattellidae) Feeding and Drinking Behavior as a Function or drinking during the recording period. THE DIEL ACTIVITY and exploratory behavior of the German cockroach) developed an instrument that recorded weight shifts of in- dividual cockroaches as they moved from a har

  19. The Association Between Cardiovascular Disease and Cochlear Function in Older Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Torre; Karen J. Cruickshanks; Barbara E. K. Klein; Ronald Klein; David M. Nondahl

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the relation between self-reported cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cochlear function in older adults. The Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study (EHLS) is an ongoing population-based study of hearing loss and its risk factors in Beaver Dam, Wisconsin. As part of the EHLS questionnaire, participants were asked about their cardiovascular medical history. CVD history

  20. Cardiac Autonomic Function during Submaximal Treadmill Exercise in Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendonca, Goncalo V.; Pereira, Fernando D.; Fernhall, Bo

    2011-01-01

    This study determined whether the cardiac autonomic function of adults with Down syndrome (DS) differs from that of nondisabled persons during submaximal dynamic exercise. Thirteen participants with DS and 12 nondisabled individuals performed maximal and submaximal treadmill tests with metabolic and heart rate (HR) measurements. Spectral analysis…

  1. Synergistic Effects of Air Pollution and Personal Smoking on Adult Pulmonary Function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiping Xu; Lihua Wang

    1998-01-01

    There is strong evidence that air pollution and cigarette smoking adversely affect respiratory health, but it remains uncertain whether the joint effects of air pollution and smoking are additive or synergistic. The authors investigated the hypothesized synergistic effects of air pollution and personal smoking on pulmonary function in a random sample of 3 287 adults (40–69 y of age) who

  2. Associations among Childhood Sexual Abuse, Language Use, and Adult Sexual Functioning and Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenz, Tierney Ahrold; Meston, Cindy May

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To better understand the link between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adult sexual functioning and satisfaction, we examined cognitive differences between women with (N = 128) and without (NSA, N = 99) CSA histories. Methods: We used the Linguistic Inquiry Word Count, a computerized text analysis program, to investigate language…

  3. The Relationship of Clinical Factors and Environmental Opportunities to Social Functioning in Young Adults With Schizophrenia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beth Angell

    2002-01-01

    This study used data from the long-term experimental evaluation of the Program of Assertive Community Treatment (PACT) to examine the clinical and situa- tional contributors to social functioning in people with schizophrenia. Subjects were 87 young adults with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Data from two time points, 6 months apart, were used to test models pre- dicting five social outcomes (network

  4. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LUNG FUNCTION AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS IN YOUNG ADULT BLACK AND WHITE MALES AND FEMALES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relationships of lung function to physical characteristics in young adults have not been adequately described for different gender-race groups in the United States. s part of a study of the effects of ozone exposure upon Black and White men and women, we measured lung volumes...

  5. Cognitive Predictors of Everyday Functioning in Older Adults: Results From the ACTIVE Cognitive Intervention Trial

    PubMed Central

    Rebok, George W.; Unverzagt, Frederick W.; Willis, Sherry L.; Brandt, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Objective. The present study sought to predict changes in everyday functioning using cognitive tests. Methods. Data from the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly trial were used to examine the extent to which competence in different cognitive domains—memory, inductive reasoning, processing speed, and global mental status—predicts prospectively measured everyday functioning among older adults. Coefficients of determination for baseline levels and trajectories of everyday functioning were estimated using parallel process latent growth models. Results. Each cognitive domain independently predicts a significant proportion of the variance in baseline and trajectory change of everyday functioning, with inductive reasoning explaining the most variance (R2 = .175) in baseline functioning and memory explaining the most variance (R2 = .057) in changes in everyday functioning. Discussion. Inductive reasoning is an important determinant of current everyday functioning in community-dwelling older adults, suggesting that successful performance in daily tasks is critically dependent on executive cognitive function. On the other hand, baseline memory function is more important in determining change over time in everyday functioning, suggesting that some participants with low baseline memory function may reflect a subgroup with incipient progressive neurologic disease. PMID:21558167

  6. Differential diagnosis of adults with ADHD: the role of executive function and self-regulation.

    PubMed

    Barkley, Russell A

    2010-07-01

    Adult ADHD is conceptualized as a disorder of age-inappropriate behavior that occurs because of maldevelopment of 2 related neuropsychological domains. The neuropsychological symptoms seen in adults with ADHD may be explained by deficits in executive function, which can be broadly defined as a set of neurocognitive processes that allow for the organization of behavior across time so as to attain future goals. Executive function is comprised of 2 broad domains: inhibition and metacognition. Inhibition encompasses the ability to inhibit motor, verbal, cognitive, and emotional activities. In turn, deficits in inhibition contribute to deficits in the development of 4 aspects of executive function in the domain of metacognition, which include nonverbal working memory, verbal working memory, planning and problem-solving, and emotional self-regulation. Understanding the ways in which deficits in executive function contribute to the symptoms of ADHD can help in differentiating ADHD from disorders that share similar characteristics. PMID:20667287

  7. Understanding the regulation and function of adult neurogenesis: contribution from an insect model, the house cricket.

    PubMed

    Cayre, Myriam; Scotto-Lomassese, Sophie; Malaterre, Jordane; Strambi, Colette; Strambi, Alain

    2007-05-01

    Since the discovery of adult neurogenesis, a major issue is the role of newborn neurons and the function-dependent regulation of adult neurogenesis. We decided to use an animal model with a relatively simple brain to address these questions. In the adult cricket brain as in mammals, new neurons are produced throughout life. This neurogenesis occurs in the main integrative centers of the insect brain, the mushroom bodies (MBs), where the neuroblasts responsible for their formation persist after the imaginal molt. The rate of production of new neurons is controlled not only by internal cues such as morphogenetic hormones but also by external environmental cues. Adult crickets reared in an enriched sensory environment experienced an increase in neuroblast proliferation as compared with crickets reared in an impoverished environment. In addition, unilateral sensory deprivation led to reduced neurogenesis in the MB ipsilateral to the lesion. In search of a functional role for the new cells, we specifically ablated MB neuroblasts in young adults using brain-focused gamma ray irradiation. We developed a learning paradigm adapted to the cricket, which we call the "escape paradigm." Using this operant associative learning test, we showed that crickets lacking neurogenesis exhibited delayed learning and reduced memory retention of the task when olfactory cues were used. Our results suggest that environmental cues are able to influence adult neurogenesis and that, in turn, newly generated neurons participate in olfactory integration, optimizing learning abilities of the animal, and thus its adaptation to its environment. Nevertheless, odor learning in adult insects cannot always be attributed to newly born neurons because neurogenesis is completed earlier in development in many insect species. In addition, many of the irradiated crickets performed significantly better than chance on the operant learning task. PMID:17404150

  8. The relationship between stress and social functioning in adults with autism spectrum disorder and without intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Mazefsky, Carla A; Minshew, Nancy J; Eack, Shaun M

    2015-04-01

    Adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) face substantial challenges accomplishing basic tasks associated with daily living, which are exacerbated by their broad and pervasive difficulties with social interactions. These challenges put people with ASD at increased risk for psychophysiological distress, which likely factors heavily into social functioning for adults with ASD, as suggested by a growing literature on stress in children that indicates that children with ASD have differential responses to stress than healthy children. We hypothesized that adults with ASD and without intellectual disability (n?=?38) would experience more stress than healthy volunteers (n?=?37) and that there would be an inverse relationship between stress and social functioning in individuals with ASD. Baseline, semi-structured interview data from a randomized controlled trial of two treatments for adults with ASD were used to assess differences in stress between adults with ASD and healthy volunteers and to assess the relationship between stress response and social functioning in adults with ASD. Findings indicate that adults with ASD experience greater perceived and interviewer-observed stress than healthy volunteers and that stress is significantly related to social functioning in adults with ASD. These findings highlight the role of stress in adult functioning and outcomes and suggest the need to develop and assess treatments designed to target stress and coping in adults with ASD. Autism Res 2015, 8: 164-173. © 2014 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25524571

  9. Insights from a Chimpanzee Adipose Stromal Cell Population: Opportunities for Adult Stem Cells to Expand Primate Functional Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Pfefferle, Lisa W.; Wray, Gregory A.

    2013-01-01

    Comparisons between humans and chimpanzees are essential for understanding traits unique to each species. However, linking important phenotypic differences to underlying molecular changes is often challenging. The ability to generate, differentiate, and profile adult stem cells provides a powerful but underutilized opportunity to investigate the molecular basis for trait differences between species within specific cell types and in a controlled environment. Here, we characterize adipose stromal cells (ASCs) from Clint, the chimpanzee whose genome was first sequenced. Using imaging and RNA-Seq, we compare the chimpanzee ASCs with three comparable human cell lines. Consistent with previous studies on ASCs in humans, the chimpanzee cells have fibroblast-like morphology and express genes encoding components of the extracellular matrix at high levels. Differentially expressed genes are enriched for distinct functional classes between species: immunity and protein processing are higher in chimpanzees, whereas cell cycle and DNA processing are higher in humans. Although hesitant to draw definitive conclusions from these data given the limited sample size, we wish to stress the opportunities that adult stem cells offer for studying primate evolution. In particular, adult stem cells provide a powerful means to investigate the profound disease susceptibilities unique to humans and a promising tool for conservation efforts with nonhuman primates. By allowing for experimental perturbations in relevant cell types, adult stem cells promise to complement classic comparative primate genomics based on in vivo sampling. PMID:24092797

  10. Prospective identification of functionally distinct stem cells and neurosphere-initiating cells in adult mouse forebrain

    PubMed Central

    Mich, John K; Signer, Robert AJ; Nakada, Daisuke; Pineda, André; Burgess, Rebecca J; Vue, Tou Yia; Johnson, Jane E; Morrison, Sean J

    2014-01-01

    Neurosphere formation is commonly used as a surrogate for neural stem cell (NSC) function but the relationship between neurosphere-initiating cells (NICs) and NSCs remains unclear. We prospectively identified, and isolated by flow cytometry, adult mouse lateral ventricle subventricular zone (SVZ) NICs as GlastmidEGFRhighPlexinB2highCD24?/lowO4/PSA-NCAM?/lowTer119/CD45? (GEPCOT) cells. They were highly mitotic and short-lived in vivo based on fate-mapping with Ascl1CreERT2 and Dlx1CreERT2. In contrast, pre-GEPCOT cells were quiescent, expressed higher Glast, and lower EGFR and PlexinB2. Pre-GEPCOT cells could not form neurospheres but expressed the stem cell markers Slc1a3-CreERT, GFAP-CreERT2, Sox2CreERT2, and Gli1CreERT2 and were long-lived in vivo. While GEPCOT NICs were ablated by temozolomide, pre-GEPCOT cells survived and repopulated the SVZ. Conditional deletion of the Bmi-1 polycomb protein depleted pre-GEPCOT and GEPCOT cells, though pre-GEPCOT cells were more dependent upon Bmi-1 for Cdkn2a (p16Ink4a) repression. Our data distinguish quiescent NSCs from NICs and make it possible to study their properties in vivo. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02669.001 PMID:24843006

  11. Systemic Vascular Function Is Associated with Muscular Power in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Heffernan, Kevin S.; Chalé, Angela; Hau, Cynthia; Cloutier, Gregory J.; Phillips, Edward M.; Warner, Patrick; Nickerson, Heather; Reid, Kieran F.; Kuvin, Jeffrey T.; Fielding, Roger A.

    2012-01-01

    Age-associated loss of muscular strength and muscular power is a critical determinant of loss of physical function and progression to disability in older adults. In this study, we examined the association of systemic vascular function and measures of muscle strength and power in older adults. Measures of vascular endothelial function included brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and the pulse wave amplitude reactive hyperemia index (PWA-RHI). Augmentation index (AIx) was taken as a measure of systemic vascular function related to arterial stiffness and wave reflection. Measures of muscular strength included one repetition maximum (1RM) for a bilateral leg press. Peak muscular power was measured during 5 repetitions performed as fast as possible for bilateral leg press at 40% 1RM. Muscular power was associated with brachial FMD (r = 0.43, P < 0.05), PWA-RHI (r = 0.42, P < 0.05), and AIx (r = ?0.54, P < 0.05). Muscular strength was not associated with any measure of vascular function. In conclusion, systemic vascular function is associated with lower-limb muscular power but not muscular strength in older adults. Whether loss of muscular power with aging contributes to systemic vascular deconditioning or vascular dysfunction contributes to decrements in muscular power remains to be determined. PMID:22966457

  12. The independent contributions of cognitive impairment and neuropsychiatric symptoms to everyday function in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Rog, Lauren A.; Park, Lovingly Quitania; Harvey, Danielle J.; Huang, Chun-Jung; Mackin, Scott; Farias, Sarah Tomaszewski

    2014-01-01

    The everyday functional capacities of older adults are determined by multiple factors. The primary goal of the present study was to evaluate whether apathy and depression have unique influences on degree of functional impairment, independent of the effects of specific cognitive impairments. Participants included 344 older adults (199 normals, 87 with MCI, 58 with dementia). The Everyday Cognition (ECog) scales were used to measure both global and domain-specific functional abilities. Neuropsychiatric symptoms of depression and apathy were measured by the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), and specific neuropsychological domains measured included episodic memory and executive functioning. Results indicated that worse memory and executive function, as well as greater depression and apathy, were all independent and additive determinants of poorer functional abilities. Apathy had a slightly more restricted effect than the other variables across the specific functional domains assessed. Secondary analysis suggested that neuropsychiatric symptoms may be more strongly associated with everyday function within cognitively normal and MCI groups, while cognitive impairment is more strongly associated with everyday function in dementia. Thus, a somewhat different set of factors may be associated with functional status across various clinical groups. PMID:24502686

  13. Pre-existing astrocytes form functional perisynaptic processes on neurons generated in the adult hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Krzisch, Marine; Temprana, Silvio G; Mongiat, Lucas A; Armida, Jan; Schmutz, Valentin; Virtanen, Mari A; Kocher-Braissant, Jacqueline; Kraftsik, Rudolf; Vutskits, Laszlo; Conzelmann, Karl-Klaus; Bergami, Matteo; Gage, Fred H; Schinder, Alejandro F; Toni, Nicolas

    2015-07-01

    The adult dentate gyrus produces new neurons that morphologically and functionally integrate into the hippocampal network. In the adult brain, most excitatory synapses are ensheathed by astrocytic perisynaptic processes that regulate synaptic structure and function. However, these processes are formed during embryonic or early postnatal development and it is unknown whether astrocytes can also ensheathe synapses of neurons born during adulthood and, if so, whether they play a role in their synaptic transmission. Here, we used a combination of serial-section immuno-electron microscopy, confocal microscopy, and electrophysiology to examine the formation of perisynaptic processes on adult-born neurons. We found that the afferent and efferent synapses of newborn neurons are ensheathed by astrocytic processes, irrespective of the age of the neurons or the size of their synapses. The quantification of gliogenesis and the distribution of astrocytic processes on synapses formed by adult-born neurons suggest that the majority of these processes are recruited from pre-existing astrocytes. Furthermore, the inhibition of astrocytic glutamate re-uptake significantly reduced postsynaptic currents and increased paired-pulse facilitation in adult-born neurons, suggesting that perisynaptic processes modulate synaptic transmission on these cells. Finally, some processes were found intercalated between newly formed dendritic spines and potential presynaptic partners, suggesting that they may also play a structural role in the connectivity of new spines. Together, these results indicate that pre-existing astrocytes remodel their processes to ensheathe synapses of adult-born neurons and participate to the functional and structural integration of these cells into the hippocampal network. PMID:24748560

  14. Cognitive functioning in socially anxious adults: insights from the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery

    PubMed Central

    Troller-Renfree, Sonya V.; Barker, Tyson V.; Pine, Daniel S.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2015-01-01

    Theory suggests that individuals with social anxiety manifest unique patterns of cognition with less efficient fluid cognition and unperturbed crystallized cognition; however, empirical support for these ideas remains inconclusive. The heterogeneity of past findings may reflect unreliability in cognitive assessments or the influence of confounding variables. The present study examined the relations among social anxiety and performance on the reliable, newly established NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery. Results indicate that high socially anxious adults performed as well as low anxious participants on all measures of fluid cognition. However, high socially anxious adults demonstrated enhanced crystallized cognitive abilities relative to a low socially anxious comparison group.

  15. Exploring the Relationship of Autonomic and Endocrine Activity with Social Functioning in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smeekens, I.; Didden, R.; Verhoeven, E. W. M.

    2015-01-01

    Several studies indicate that autonomic and endocrine activity may be related to social functioning in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), although the number of studies in adults is limited. The present study explored the relationship of autonomic and endocrine activity with social functioning in young adult males with ASD compared…

  16. Functional trait divergence of juveniles and adults of nine Inga species with contrasting soil preference in a

    E-print Network

    Kitajima, Kaoru

    Functional trait divergence of juveniles and adults of nine Inga species with contrasting soil related taxa. In this study, we asked how functional traits of adults and saplings within a speciose genus, Inga, differ in relation to their soil-type preferences. 2. We quantified soil-type preference

  17. Cognitive function at high altitude.

    PubMed

    Kramer, A F; Coyne, J T; Strayer, D L

    1993-06-01

    The effects of altitude on human performance and cognition were evaluated in a field study performed on Mount Denali in Alaska during the summer of 1990. Climbers performed a series of perceptual, cognitive, and sensory-motor tasks before, during, and after climbing the West Buttress route on Denali. Relative to a matched control group that performed the tasks at sea level, the climbers showed deficits of learning and retention in perceptual and memory tasks. Furthermore, climbers performed more slowly on most tasks than did the control group, suggesting long-term deficits that may be attributed to repeated forays to high altitudes. PMID:8349291

  18. Consequences of cancer treatments on adult hippocampal neurogenesis: implications for cognitive function and depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Pereira Dias, Gisele; Hollywood, Ronan; Bevilaqua, Mário Cesar do Nascimento; da Luz, Anna Claudia Domingos da Silveira; Hindges, Robert; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Thuret, Sandrine

    2014-04-01

    The human brain is capable of generating new functional neurons throughout life, a phenomenon known as adult neurogenesis. The generation of new neurons is sustained throughout adulthood due to the proliferation and differentiation of adult neural stem cells. This process in humans is uniquely located in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) is thought to play a major role in hippocampus-dependent functions, such as spatial awareness, long-term memory, emotionality, and mood. The overall aim of current treatments for cancer (such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy) is to prevent aberrant cell division of cell populations associated with malignancy. However, the treatments in question are absolutist in nature and hence inhibit all cell division. An unintended consequence of this cessation of cell division is the impairment of adult neural stem cell proliferation and AHN. Patients undergoing treatment for cancerous malignancies often display specific forms of memory deficits, as well as depressive symptoms. This review aims to discuss the effects of cancer treatments on AHN and propose a link between the inhibition of the neurogenetic process in the hippocampus and the advent of the cognitive and mood-based deficits observed in patients and animal models undergoing cancer therapies. Possible evidence for coadjuvant interventions aiming to protect neural cells, and subsequently the mood and cognitive functions they regulate, from the ablative effects of cancer treatment are discussed as potential clinical tools to improve mental health among cancer patients. PMID:24470543

  19. Place Attachment and Place Disruption: The Perceptions of Selected Adults and High School Students on a Rural School District Reorganization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieland, Regi Leann

    2001-01-01

    Interviews with adult residents and high school students in two rural Kansas communities that had consolidated their high schools found that adults in the community that lost its high school had more negative reactions and feelings of loss than adults in the community that retained its high school. Student reactions were generally positive.…

  20. Cigarillo use among High-Risk Urban Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Milam, Adam J.; Bone, Lee R.; Byron, M. Justin; Hoke, Kathleen; Williams, Carla D.; Furr-Holden, C. Debra; Stillman, Frances A.

    2014-01-01

    In the U.S., cigar use doubled from 5.0 to 10.6 billion cigars consumed annually between 1997 and 2007, driven in large part by increased sales of cigarette-sized “little cigars” and narrow, mid-sized “cigarillos.” The present study examined prevalence of cigarillo use as well as attitudes, knowledge and behaviors related to cigarillo use among a sample of predominantly urban African American young adults 18–24 not in school and not employed. Survey data were collected from 131 young adults attending education and job training centers in Baltimore, Maryland and from 78 young adults attending education, job training, or recreational programs in Washington, D.C. In Baltimore, 22% of young adults had smoked a cigarillo in the past 30 days, compared with nearly 63% in D.C. Both populations were heavily exposed to cigarillo advertising and marketing. Cigarillo use in this urban young adult population is a growing public health problem and undermines the progress made in decreasing cigarette use. PMID:24185161

  1. Adaptive Modulation of Adult Brain Gray and White Matter to High Altitude: Structural MRI Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiaxing; Zhang, Haiyan; Li, Jinqiang; Chen, Ji; Han, Qiaoqing; Lin, Jianzhong; Yang, Tianhe; Fan, Ming

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate brain structural alterations in adult immigrants who adapted to high altitude (HA). Voxel-based morphometry analysis of gray matter (GM) volumes, surface-based analysis of cortical thickness, and Tract-Based Spatial Statistics analysis of white matter fractional anisotropy (FA) based on MRI images were conducted on 16 adults (20–22 years) who immigrated to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (2300–4400 m) for 2 years. They had no chronic mountain sickness. Control group consisted of 16 matched sea level subjects. A battery of neuropsychological tests was also conducted. HA immigrants showed significantly decreased GM volumes in the right postcentral gyrus and right superior frontal gyrus, and increased GM volumes in the right middle frontal gyrus, right parahippocampal gyrus, right inferior and middle temporal gyri, bilateral inferior ventral pons, and right cerebellum crus1. While there was some divergence in the left hemisphere, surface-based patterns of GM changes in the right hemisphere resembled those seen for VBM analysis. FA changes were observed in multiple WM tracts. HA immigrants showed significant impairment in pulmonary function, increase in reaction time, and deficit in mental rotation. Parahippocampal and middle frontal GM volumes correlated with vital capacity. Superior frontal GM volume correlated with mental rotation and postcentral GM correlated with reaction time. Paracentral lobule and frontal FA correlated with mental rotation reaction time. There might be structural modifications occurred in the adult immigrants during adaptation to HA. The changes in GM may be related to impaired respiratory function and psychological deficits. PMID:23874692

  2. The effects on the pulmonary function of normal adults proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation respiration pattern exercise.

    PubMed

    Seo, KyoChul; Cho, MiSuk

    2014-10-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine whether proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) respiration exercise increases the pulmonary function of normal adults. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight normal adults in their 20s were randomly assigned to an experimental group (n=14) or control group (n=14). Over the course of four weeks, the experimental group participated in PNF respiration pattern exercises for 30 minutes three times per week. Subjects were assessed pre-test and post-test by measurement of pulmonary function (tidal volume, inspiratory reserve volume, expiratory reserve volume, inspiratory capacity, and vital capacity). [Results] Our findings show that the experimental group had significant improvements in expiratory reserve volume and vital capacity. In the comparison of the two groups, the experimental group had higher pulmonary function than the control group. [Conclusion] In this study, the experimental group showed greater improvement in pulmonary function than the control group, which indicates that the PNF respiration exercise is effective at increasing the pulmonary function of normal adults. PMID:25364117

  3. Effect of acute moderate exercise on induced inflammation and arterial function in older adults.

    PubMed

    Ranadive, Sushant Mohan; Kappus, Rebecca Marie; Cook, Marc D; Yan, Huimin; Lane, Abbi Danielle; Woods, Jeffrey A; Wilund, Kenneth R; Iwamoto, Gary; Vanar, Vishwas; Tandon, Rudhir; Fernhall, Bo

    2014-04-01

    Acute inflammation reduces flow-mediated vasodilatation and increases arterial stiffness in young healthy individuals. However, this response has not been studied in older adults. The aim of this study, therefore, was to evaluate the effect of acute induced systemic inflammation on endothelial function and wave reflection in older adults. Furthermore, an acute bout of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise can be anti-inflammatory. Taken together, we tested the hypothesis that acute moderate-intensity endurance exercise, immediately preceding induced inflammation, would be protective against the negative effects of acute systemic inflammation on vascular function. Fifty-nine healthy volunteers between 55 and 75 years of age were randomized to an exercise or a control group. Both groups received a vaccine (induced inflammation) and sham (saline) injection in a counterbalanced crossover design. Inflammatory markers, endothelial function (flow-mediated vasodilatation) and measures of wave reflection and arterial stiffness were evaluated at baseline and at 24 and 48 h after injections. There were no significant differences in endothelial function and arterial stiffness between the exercise and control group after induced inflammation. The groups were then analysed together, and we found significant differences in the inflammatory markers 24 and 48 h after induction of acute inflammation compared with sham injection. However, flow-mediated vasodilatation, augmentation index normalized for heart rate (AIx75) and ?-stiffness did not change significantly. Our results suggest that acute inflammation induced by influenza vaccination did not affect endothelial function in older adults. PMID:24465022

  4. Function in context: why American and Trinidadian young and older adults remember the personal past.

    PubMed

    Alea, Nicole; Bluck, Susan; Ali, Sideeka

    2015-01-01

    Multiple and interacting contextual (culture, life phase) and person-specific predictors (i.e., personality, tendency to think-talk about the past) of the functions of autobiographical memory were examined using the Thinking about Life Experiences Scale. American (N = 174) and Trinidadian (N = 182) young and older adults self-reported how frequently they remembered the personal past to serve self, social and directive functions, how often they thought and talked about their past overall, and completed a measure of trait personality. Independent contextual and person-specific predictors were found for using memory to serve a social-bonding function: Americans, young adults, those higher in extraversion, lower in conscientiousness and individuals who frequently think and talk about the past more often use autobiographical memory for social bonding. Across cultures, younger adults report more frequently using memory to serve all three functions, whereas Trinidadians who think more often about the past compared with those who reflect less often are more likely to use it for self and directive functions. Findings are discussed in terms of the individual's embeddedness in cultural and life phase contexts when remembering. PMID:24992649

  5. Combined cognitive-psychological-physical intervention induces reorganization of intrinsic functional brain architecture in older adults.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhiwei; Zhu, Xinyi; Yin, Shufei; Wang, Baoxi; Niu, Yanan; Huang, Xin; Li, Rui; Li, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that enriched mental, physical, and socially stimulating activities are beneficial for counteracting age-related decreases in brain function and cognition in older adults. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to demonstrate the functional plasticity of brain activity in response to a combined cognitive-psychological-physical intervention and investigated the contribution of the intervention-related brain changes to individual performance in healthy older adults. The intervention was composed of a 6-week program of combined activities including cognitive training, Tai Chi exercise, and group counseling. The results showed improved cognitive performance and reorganized regional homogeneity of spontaneous fluctuations in the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals in the superior and middle temporal gyri, and the posterior lobe of the cerebellum, in the participants who attended the intervention. Intriguingly, the intervention-induced changes in the coherence of local spontaneous activity correlated with the improvements in individual cognitive performance. Taken together with our previous findings of enhanced resting-state functional connectivity between the medial prefrontal cortex and medial temporal lobe regions following a combined intervention program in older adults, we conclude that the functional plasticity of the aging brain is a rather complex process, and an effective cognitive-psychological-physical intervention is helpful for maintaining a healthy brain and comprehensive cognition during old age. PMID:25810927

  6. Pedagogical cues encourage toddlers' transmission of recently demonstrated functions to unfamiliar adults.

    PubMed

    Vredenburgh, Christopher; Kushnir, Tamar; Casasola, Marianella

    2015-07-01

    Young children use pedagogical cues as a signal that others' actions are social or cultural conventions. Here we show that children selectively transmit (enact in a new social situation) causal functions demonstrated pedagogically, even when they have learned and can produce alternative functions as well. Two-year-olds saw two novel toys, each with two functions. One experimenter demonstrated one function using pedagogical cues (eye contact and child-directed speech) and a second experimenter demonstrated the alternative function using intentional actions towards the object, but without pedagogical cues. Children imitated both functions at equal rates initially, indicating equal causal learning from both types of demonstration. However, they were significantly more likely to enact the pedagogical function for a new adult not present during the initial demonstrations. These results indicate that pedagogical cues influence children's transmission of information, perhaps playing a role in the dissemination of cultural conventions from a young age. PMID:25284008

  7. Brief Report: Biochemical Correlates of Clinical Impairment in High Functioning Autism and Asperger’s Disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Natalia M. Kleinhans; Todd Richards; Kurt E. Weaver; Olivia Liang; Geraldine Dawson; Elizabeth Aylward

    2009-01-01

    Amygdala dysfunction has been proposed as a critical contributor to social impairment in autism spectrum disorders (ASD).\\u000a The current study investigated biochemical abnormalities in the amygdala in 20 high functioning adults with autistic disorder\\u000a or Asperger’s disorder and 19 typically developing adults matched on age and IQ. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used\\u000a to measure N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), creatine\\/phosphocreatine (Cre), choline\\/choline

  8. Structural and functional cardiac analyses using modern and sensitive myocardial techniques in adult Pompe disease.

    PubMed

    Morris, Daniel A; Blaschke, Daniela; Krebs, Alice; Canaan-Kühl, Sima; Plöckinger, Ursula; Knobloch, Gesine; Walter, Thula C; Kühnle, York; Boldt, Leif-Hendrik; Kraigher-Krainer, Elisabeth; Pieske, Burkert; Haverkamp, Wilhelm

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze comprehensively the heart using modern and sensitive myocardial techniques in order to determine if structural or functional cardiac alterations are present in adult Pompe disease. Twelve patients with adult Pompe disease and a control group of 187 healthy subjects of similar age and gender were included. Structural and functional cardiac characteristics were analyzed by conventional and 2D speckle-tracking echocardiography. In addition, in a subgroup of adult Pompe patients, we analyzed the myocardial and musculoskeletal features by means of cardiac and whole-body muscle magnetic resonance imaging. Patients with Pompe disease had significant structural and functional musculoskeletal alterations such as atrophy with fatty replacement and weakness in trunk and extremities. In contrast, Pompe patients had similar structural and functional myocardial features to healthy subjects (LV strain -20.7 ± 1.9 vs. -21.3 ± 2.1 %; RV strain -24.2 ± 5.3 vs. -24.8 ± 3.8 %; LA strain 41.5 ± 10.3 vs. 44.8 ± 11.0 %; P > 0.05; and no evidence of LV and RV hypertrophy or LA enlargement). In addition, there was no evidence of valvular cardiac alterations, electrocardiographic abnormalities, or myocardial fibrosis in Pompe patients. In the current study analyzing the heart with modern and sensitive myocardial techniques, we evidenced that functional and structural cardiac alterations are not present when Pompe disease begins in adulthood. Therefore, these findings suggest that adult Pompe disease should not be taken into consideration in the differential diagnostic of structural or functional cardiac disorders. PMID:25744427

  9. Cognitive Function and Control of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Satyajeet; Kim, Nami; Desai, Anjali; Komaragiri, Mahathi; Baxi, Namrata; Jassil, Navinder; Blessinger, Megan; Khan, Maliha; Cole, Robert; Desai, Nayan; Terrigno, Rocco; Hunter, Krystal

    2015-01-01

    Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been associated with impairment of cognitive function. Studies show a strong negative correlation between the levels of glycosylated hemoglobin and cognitive function in adult patients above the mean age of 60 years. In healthy adults, age-related cognitive impairment is mostly reported after the age of 60 years, hence the decline in cognitive function can be a part of normal aging without diabetes. Since the majority of patients with diabetes are between the ages of 40 and 59 years, it is crucial to ascertain whether the levels of glycosylated hemoglobin negatively correlate with the levels of cognitive function scores in adult patients of age 60 years or younger, similar to the way it correlates in patients older than 60 years of age, or not. Aims: We observed the relationship between the levels of glycosylated hemoglobin and the levels of cognitive function in patients of age 60 years or younger with T2DM. Materials and Methods: Eighty-two patients with T2DM underwent cognitive assessment testing by using a Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MS), and their cognitive function scores were correlated with their glycosylated hemoglobin levels, durations of diabetes, and levels of education. Results: Cognitive impairment was observed in 19.5% of the studied patients. We found a weakly negative relationship between the glycosylated hemoglobin level and cognitive function score (r = -0.292), a moderately negative relationship between the duration of diabetes and cognitive function score (r = -0.303), and a weakly positive relationship between the level of education and cognitive function score (r = 0.277). Conclusion: Cognitive impairment affects one-fifth of the patients of age 60 years or younger with T2DM. It is weakly negatively related to the glycosylated hemoglobin level, moderately negatively related to the duration of diabetes, and weakly positively related to the level of education.

  10. Responses to Nonverbal Behaviour of Dynamic Virtual Characters in High-Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Caroline; Bente, Gary; Gawronski, Astrid; Schilbach, Leonhard; Vogeley, Kai

    2010-01-01

    We investigated feelings of involvement evoked by nonverbal behaviour of dynamic virtual characters in 20 adults with high-functioning autism (HFA) and high IQ as well as 20 IQ-matched control subjects. The effects of diagnostic group showed that subjects with autism experienced less "contact" and "urge" to establish contact across conditions and…

  11. Do Individuals with High Functioning Autism Have the IQ Profile Associated with Nonverbal Learning Disability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Diane L.; Goldstein, Gerald; Kojkowski, Nicole; Minshew, Nancy J.

    2008-01-01

    Previously researchers have noted a high level of occurrence of the IQ profile associated with nonverbal learning disability (NLD) in Asperger syndrome (ASP) but not in high functioning autism (HFA). We examined the IQ profile scores of a large sample of children (n=69) and adults (n=77) with HFA, stringently diagnosed according to ADOS, ADI-R,…

  12. PPAR?/? activation in adult hearts facilitates mitochondrial function and cardiac performance under pressure-overload condition

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jian; Wang, Peiyong; Luo, Jinwen; Huang, Yao; He, Lan; Yang, Huan; Li, Qingbao; Wu, Sijie; Zhelyabovska, Olga; Yang, Qinglin

    2011-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?/? (PPAR?/?) is an essential transcription factor in myocardial metabolism. This study aims to investigate the effects of PPAR?/? activation in the adult heart on mitochondrial biology and oxidative metabolism under normal and pressure-overload conditions. We have investigated the effects of cardiac constitutively active PPAR?/? in adult mice using a tamoxifen inducible transgenic approach with Cre-LoxP recombination. The expression of PPAR?/? mRNA and protein in cardiomyocytes of adult mice was substantially increased after short-term induction. In these mice, the cardiac expression of key factors involved in mitochondrial biogenesis, such as PPAR? coactivator-1, endogenous anti-oxidants Cu/Zn-Superoxide dismutase and catalase, fatty acid and glucose metabolism such as carnitine palmitoyltransferase Ib, II and glucose transporter 4, were upregulated. Subsequently, myocardial oxidative metabolism was elevated concomitant with an increased mitochondrial DNA copy number and an enhanced cardiac performance. Moreover, activation of PPAR?/? in the adult heart improved cardiac function and resisted to progression pathological development in mechanical stress condition. We conclude that PPAR?/? activation in the adult heart will promote cardiac performance along with transcriptional upregulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and defense, as well as oxidative metabolism at basal and pressure-overload conditions. PMID:21220704

  13. The role of sleep continuity and total sleep time in executive function across the adult lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Wilckens, Kristine A.; Woo, Sarah G.; Kirk, Afton R.; Erickson, Kirk I.; Wheeler, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    The importance of sleep for cognition in young adults is well established, but the role of habitual sleep behavior in cognition across the adult lifespan remains unknown. We examined the relationship between sleep continuity and total sleep time assessed with a sleep detection device and cognitive performance using a battery of tasks in young (n = 59, mean age = 23.05) and older (n = 53, mean age = 62.68) adults. Across age groups, higher sleep continuity was associated with better cognitive performance. In the younger group, higher sleep continuity was associated with better working memory and inhibitory control. In the older group, higher sleep continuity was associated with better inhibitory control, memory recall, and verbal fluency. Very short and very long total sleep time was associated with poorer working memory and verbal fluency, specifically in the younger group. Total sleep time was not associated with cognitive performance in any domains for the older group. These findings reveal that sleep continuity is important for executive function in both young and older adults, but total sleep time may be more important for cognition in young adults. PMID:25244484

  14. Functional Expression of T-Type Ca2+ Channels in Spinal Motoneurons of the Adult Turtle

    PubMed Central

    Canto-Bustos, Martha; Loeza-Alcocer, Emanuel; González-Ramírez, Ricardo; Gandini, María A.; Delgado-Lezama, Rodolfo; Felix, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Voltage-gated Ca2+ (CaV) channels are transmembrane proteins comprising three subfamilies named CaV1, CaV2 and CaV3. The CaV3 channel subfamily groups the low-voltage activated Ca2+ channels (LVA or T-type) a significant role in regulating neuronal excitability. CaV3 channel activity may lead to the generation of complex patterns of action potential firing such as the postinhibitory rebound (PIR). In the adult spinal cord, these channels have been found in dorsal horn interneurons where they control physiological events near the resting potential and participate in determining excitability. In motoneurons, CaV3 channels have been found during development, but their functional expression has not yet been reported in adult animals. Here, we show evidence for the presence of CaV3 channel-mediated PIR in motoneurons of the adult turtle spinal cord. Our results indicate that Ni2+ and NNC55-0396, two antagonists of CaV3 channel activity, inhibited PIR in the adult turtle spinal cord. Molecular biology and biochemical assays revealed the expression of the CaV3.1 channel isotype and its localization in motoneurons. Together, these results provide evidence for the expression of CaV3.1 channels in the spinal cord of adult animals and show also that these channels may contribute to determine the excitability of motoneurons. PMID:25255145

  15. Attitudes of Superintendents of Ohio Comprehensive High Schools toward Adult Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Larry E.; Krill, Thomas L.

    1985-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the knowledge of superintendents of Ohio comprehensive high schools toward adult vocational agricultural education. A summary of the demographic data revealed that 63 percent of the superintendents administered programs of adult vocational agriculture. Concepts on the survey with which superintendents agreed and…

  16. Manipulation of Length and Lexicality Localizes the Functional Neuroanatomy of Phonological Processing in Adult Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Church, Jessica A.; Balota, David A.; Petersen, Steven E.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.

    2011-01-01

    In a previous study of single word reading, regions in the left supramarginal gyrus and left angular gyrus showed positive BOLD activity in children but significantly less activity in adults for high-frequency words [Church, J. A., Coalson, R. S., Lugar, H. M., Petersen, S. E., & Schlaggar, B. L. "A developmental fMRI study of reading and…

  17. Using Question Words or Asking Yes/No Questions: Failure and Success in Clarifying the Intentions of a Boy with High-Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oi, Manabu

    2008-01-01

    This paper examined the processes that resulted in an adult failing to comprehend the intentions of a boy with high-functioning autism. In a dyadic conversation between an adult and a young boy, the adult used questions to elicit clarification of intentions. The boy's responses were examined frame-by-frame using videotape microanalysis. Two causes…

  18. Inducible Activation of ERK5 MAP Kinase Enhances Adult Neurogenesis in the Olfactory Bulb and Improves Olfactory Function.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenbin; Lu, Song; Li, Tan; Pan, Yung-Wei; Zou, Junhui; Abel, Glen M; Xu, Lihong; Storm, Daniel R; Xia, Zhengui

    2015-05-20

    Recent discoveries have suggested that adult neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and olfactory bulb (OB) may be required for at least some forms of olfactory behavior in mice. However, it is unclear whether conditional and selective enhancement of adult neurogenesis by genetic approaches is sufficient to improve olfactory function under physiological conditions or after injury. Furthermore, specific signaling mechanisms regulating adult neurogenesis in the SVZ/OB are not fully defined. We previously reported that ERK5, a MAP kinase selectively expressed in the neurogenic regions of the adult brain, plays a critical role in adult neurogenesis in the SVZ/OB. Using a site-specific knock-in mouse model, we report here that inducible and targeted activation of the endogenous ERK5 in adult neural stem/progenitor cells enhances adult neurogenesis in the OB by increasing cell survival and neuronal differentiation. This conditional ERK5 activation also improves short-term olfactory memory and odor-cued associative olfactory learning under normal physiological conditions. Furthermore, these mice show enhanced recovery of olfactory function and have more adult-born neurons after a zinc sulfate-induced lesion of the main olfactory epithelium. We conclude that ERK5 MAP kinase is an important endogenous signaling pathway regulating adult neurogenesis in the SVZ/OB, and that conditional activation of endogenous ERK5 is sufficient to enhance adult neurogenesis in the OB thereby improving olfactory function both under normal conditions and after injury. PMID:25995470

  19. Social network types and functional dependency in older adults in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Social networks play a key role in caring for older adults. A better understanding of the characteristics of different social networks types (TSNs) in a given community provides useful information for designing policies to care for this age group. Therefore this study has three objectives: 1) To derive the TSNs among older adults affiliated with the Mexican Institute of Social Security; 2) To describe the main characteristics of the older adults in each TSN, including the instrumental and economic support they receive and their satisfaction with the network; 3) To determine the association between functional dependency and the type of social network. Methods Secondary data analysis of the 2006 Survey of Autonomy and Dependency (N = 3,348). The TSNs were identified using the structural approach and cluster analysis. The association between functional dependency and the TSNs was evaluated with Poisson regression with robust variance analysis in which socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle and medical history covariates were included. Results We identified five TSNs: diverse with community participation (12.1%), diverse without community participation (44.3%); widowed (32.0%); nonfriends-restricted (7.6%); nonfamily-restricted (4.0%). Older adults belonging to widowed and restricted networks showed a higher proportion of dependency, negative self-rated health and depression. Older adults with functional dependency more likely belonged to a widowed network (adjusted prevalence ratio 1.5; 95%CI: 1.1-2.1). Conclusion The derived TSNs were similar to those described in developed countries. However, we identified the existence of a diverse network without community participation and a widowed network that have not been previously described. These TSNs and restricted networks represent a potential unmet need of social security affiliates. PMID:20187973

  20. Feeding behaviour of adult Centropages hamatus (Copepoda, Calanoida): Functional response and selective feeding experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saage, Andrea; Vadstein, Olav; Sommer, Ulrich

    2009-06-01

    The feeding behaviour of adults of the marine calanoid copepod Centropages hamatus was studied in laboratory experiments with ciliates and phytoplankton as food sources. The ingestion rate of algal (flagellates, diatoms) and ciliate prey (oligotrichs) as a function of prey concentration could be described by a Holling type III functional response, with close to zero ingestion rates at concentrations below 5 µg C l - 1 . In general, ingestion of ciliates was higher than ingestion of algae, and maximum feeding rates by adult males reached were half the feeding rates of adult females at prey concentrations exceeding 50 µg C l - 1 . When diatoms and ciliates were offered together C. hamatus (both sexes) fed exclusively on ciliates as long as they contributed with more than 5% to the mixture. This indicates the capability of active prey selection and switching between suspension feeding and ambush predation. Therefore, the feeding behaviour of adult C. hamatus can be characterised as omnivorous with a preference for larger motile prey. This implies a trophic level above two, if there is a sufficient abundance of protozoan food available.

  1. Depressive Symptoms in Older African-American and White Adults with Functional Difficulties: The Role of Control Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Gitlin, Laura N.; Hauck, Walter W.; Dennis, Marie P.; Schulz, Richard

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To examine whether control-oriented strategies buffer effects of functional difficulties on depressive symptoms over time in older African-American and white adults with disability. DESIGN Community-based, prospective study. SETTING Baseline and 12-month data from a randomized trial. PARTICIPANTS One hundred twenty-nine African-American and 151 white older adults with 12-month data from 319 participants in the trial. MEASUREMENTS Data were obtained for functional difficulties, the extent that respondents reported using control (cognitive and behavioral) strategies to enhance and maintain independence, and baseline and 12-month depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale; CES-D). RESULTS African Americans reported greater baseline functional difficulty (P = .009), fewer depressive symptoms (P = .002) and higher control strategy use (P = .001) than whites. Functional difficulty was associated with depressive symptoms for both groups at baseline and 12 months. Living alone for whites and low spirituality for African Americans predicted higher 12-month depressive symptom scores. African Americans with baseline functional difficulty and high strategy use had lower 12-month depression than those with similar difficulty levels but low strategy use (P = .04 for interaction), representing a 28.5-point CES-D score differential. Control strategies did not buffer the function–depression relationship over time for whites. CONCLUSION Control-oriented strategies moderated the experience of depressive symptomatology over time for African Americans with disability but not for whites. This may explain the paradox of greater functional disparities but less reported emotional distress in African Americans than whites. Results suggest that the use and benefits of adaptive resources to attain functional goals and determinants of depression differ by race. Depression prevention programs should be modified to be suitable for different cultural groups PMID:17608874

  2. Characterization of LEF1 High Expression and Novel Mutations in Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Juan; Li, Min; Song, Chunhua; Dovat, Sinisa; Li, Jianyong; Ge, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant activation of the Wnt pathway plays a pathogenetic role in tumors and has been associated with adverse outcome in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Lymphoid enhancer binding factor 1 (LEF1), a key mediator of Wnt signaling, has been linked to leukemic transformation, and LEF1 mutations have been identified in T-ALL. Here we found LEF1 is highly expressed in 25.0% adult ALL patients and LEF1 high expression was associated with high-risk leukemia factors (high WBC, Philadelphia chromosome positive, complex karyotype), shorter event-free survival (EFS), and high relapse rates in patients with B-ALL. LEF1 high expression is also associated with high mutation rate of Notch1 and JAK1 in T-ALL. We identified 2 novel LEF1 mutations (K86E and P106L) in 4 of 131 patients with ALL, and those patients with high-risk ALL (high WBC, complex karyotype). These results suggest a role for LEF1 mutations in leukemogenesis. We further explored the effect of the mutations on cell proliferation and found both mutations significantly promoted the proliferation of ALL cells. We also observed the effect of LEF1 and its mutations on the transcription of its targets, c-MYC and Cyclin D1. We found LEF1 increased the promoter activity of its targets c-MYC and Cyclin D1, and LEF1 K86E and P106L mutants further significantly enhanced this effect. We also observed that the c-MYC and Cyclin D1 mRNA levels were significantly increased in patients with LEF1 high expression compared with those with low expression. Taken together, our findings indicate high LEF1 expression and mutation are associated with high-risk leukemia and our results also revealed that LEF1 high expression and/or gain-of-function mutations are involved in leukemogenesis of ALL. PMID:25942645

  3. High rates of nonbreeding adult bald eagles in southeastern Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, A.J.; Hodges, J.I. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Present knowledge of bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) demography is derived primarily from populations in environments that have been drastically altered by man. Most reproductive studies were done in the 1960's and 1970's when chemical toxins were inhibiting bald eagle productivity. Earlier, the removal of old-growth forests and decimation of anadromous fish runs by Euro-Americans may have greatly reduced bald eagle abundance from presettlement levels. Historical trends in this species are of interest because fundamental differences may exist between populations in pristine and man-altered environments. One difference may be breeding rate. Surpluses of nonbreeding adult bald eagles during the nesting season are rarely mentioned in the literature. Most surveys of reproductive success focus exclusively on eagles at nest sites, which assumes nearly all adults attempt to breed each year. The authors report that a majority of adults in the relatively pristine habitats of southeastern Alaska do not breed annually. This finding is important because if surpluses of non-breeding adults are a natural feature of the population, then hypotheses on density dependent population regulation and the evolution of delayed maturation are suggested. If, on the other hand, the abundance of nonbreeders is an artifact of recent environmental perturbations, serious population declines may occur in southeastern Alaska.

  4. Long-term exposure to decabrominated diphenyl ether impairs CD8 T-cell function in adult mice

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Weihong; Wang, Ying; Liu, Zhicui; Khanniche, Asma; Hu, Qingliang; Feng, Yan; Ye, Weiyi; Yang, Jianglong; Wang, Shujun; Zhou, Lin; Shen, Hao; Wang, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants that accumulate to high levels in human populations that are subject to occupational or regional industry exposure. PBDEs have been shown to affect human neuronal, endocrine and reproductive systems, but their effect on the immune system is not well understood. In this study, experimental adult mice were intragastrically administered 2,2?,3,3?,4,4?,5,5?,6,6?-decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) at doses of 8, 80 or 800 mg/kg of body weight (bw) at 2-day intervals. Our results showed that continuous exposure to BDE-209 resulted in high levels of BDE-209 in the plasma that approached the levels found in people who work in professions with high risks of PDBE exposure. Reduced leukocytes, decreased cytokine (IFN-?, IL-2 and TNF-?) production and lower CD8 T-cell proliferation were observed in the mice exposed to BDE-209. Additionally, mice with long-term BDE-209 exposure had lower numbers of antigen-specific CD8 T cells after immunization with recombinant Listeria monocytogenes expressing ovalbumin (rLm-OVA) and the OVA-specific CD8 T cells had reduced functionality. Taken together, our study demonstrates that continuous BDE-209 exposure causes adverse effects on the number and functionality of immune cells in adult mice. PMID:24705197

  5. The influence of physical exercise and leisure activity on neuropsychological functioning in older adults.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Hanna Karen Moreira; Santos-Galduroz, Ruth Ferreira; De Aquino Lemos, Valdir; Bueno, Orlando Francisco Amodeu; Rzezak, Patrícia; de Santana, Marcos Gonçalves; De Mello, Marco Túlio

    2015-08-01

    It has been suggested that leisure activity and physical exercise can be a protective factor for neuropsychological functions and are associated with a reduced risk of dementia. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of physical exercise and leisure on the neuropsychological functions of healthy older adults. The sample was composed of 51 sedentary female volunteers who were 60-70 years old and were distributed into three groups: A-control, B-leisure, and C-training. Volunteers were submitted to a physical and neuropsychological assessment at baseline and after 6 months. Groups A and B were monitored longitudinally three times a week. Group C improved their neuropsychological functioning and oxygen consumption compared to groups A and B (p?=?<0.05). The neuropsychological functions of groups A and B were significantly worse after 6 months of monitoring (p?=?<0.05). The data suggest that physical exercise improves neuropsychological functioning, although leisure activities may also improve this functioning. Thus, an aerobic physical fitness program can partially serve as a non-medication alternative for maintaining and improving these functions in older adults; however, leisure activities should also be considered. PMID:26169946

  6. Dose-response effect of Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 on whole gut transit time and functional gastrointestinal symptoms in adults

    PubMed Central

    Waller, Philip A; Gopal, Pramod K; Leyer, Gregory J; Ouwehand, Arthur C; Reifer, Cheryl; Stewart, Morgan E; Miller, Larry E

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To assess the impact of Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 supplementation on whole gut transit time (WGTT) and frequency of functional gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in adults. Material and methods. We randomized 100 subjects (mean age: 44 years; 64% female) with functional GI symptoms to consume a proprietary probiotic strain, B. lactis HN019 (Fonterra Research Centre, Palmerston North, New Zealand), at daily doses of 17.2 billion colony forming units (CFU) (high dose; n = 33), 1.8 billion CFU (low dose; n = 33), or placebo (n = 34) for 14 days. The primary endpoint of WGTT was assessed by X-ray on days 0 and 14 and was preceded by consumption of radiopaque markers once a day for 6 days. The secondary endpoint of functional GI symptom frequency was recorded with a subject-reported numeric (1–100) scale before and after supplementation. Results. Decreases in mean WGTT over the 14-day study period were statistically significant in the high dose group (49 ± 30 to 21 ± 32 h, p < 0.001) and the low dose group (60 ± 33 to 41 ± 39 h, p = 0.01), but not in the placebo group (43 ± 31 to 44 ± 33 h). Time to excretion of all ingested markers was significantly shorter in the treatment groups versus placebo. Of the nine functional GI symptoms investigated, eight significantly decreased in frequency in the high dose group and seven decreased with low dose, while two decreased in the placebo group. No adverse events were reported in any group. Conclusions. Daily B. lactis HN019 supplementation is well tolerated, decreases WGTT in a dose-dependent manner, and reduces the frequency of functional GI symptoms in adults. PMID:21663486

  7. Patterns of Spontaneous Local Network Activity in Developing Cerebral Cortex: Relationship to Adult Cognitive Function

    PubMed Central

    Peinado, Alejandro; Abrams, Charles K.

    2015-01-01

    Detecting neurodevelop?ental disorders of cognition at the earliest possible stages could assist in understanding them mechanistically and ultimately in treating them. Finding early physiological predictors that could be visualized with functional neuroimaging would represent an important advance in this regard. We hypothesized that one potential source of physiological predictors is the spontaneous local network activity prominent during specific periods in development. To test this we used calcium imaging in brain slices and analyzed variations in the frequency and intensity of this early activity in one area, the entorhinal cortex (EC), in order to correlate early activity with level of cognitive function later in life. We focused on EC because of its known role in different types of cognitive processes and because it is an area where spontaneous activity is prominent during early postnatal development in rodent models of cortical development. Using rat strains (Long-Evans, Wistar, Sprague-Dawley and Brattleboro) known to differ in cognitive performance in adulthood we asked whether neonatal animals exhibit corresponding strain-related differences in EC spontaneous activity. Our results show significant differences in this activity between strains: compared to a high cognitive-performing strain, we consistently found an increase in frequency and decrease in intensity in neonates from three lower performing strains. Activity was most different in one strain considered a model of schizophrenia-like psychopathology. While we cannot necessarily infer a causal relationship between early activity and adult cognition our findings suggest that the pattern of spontaneous activity in development could be an early predictor of a developmental trajectory advancing toward sub-optimal cognitive performance in adulthood. Our results further suggest that the strength of dopaminergic signaling, by setting the balance between excitation and inhibition, is a potential underlying mechanism that could explain the observed differences in early spontaneous activity patterns. PMID:26098958

  8. Weight Stigmatization and Ideological Beliefs: Relation to Psychological Functioning in Obese Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kelli E. Friedman; Simona K. Reichmann; Philip R. Costanzo; Arnaldo Zelli; Jamile A. Ashmore; Gerard J. Musante

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the relation among weight-based stigmatization, ideological beliefs about weight, and psychological functioning in an obese, treatment-seeking sample.Research Methods and Procedure: Ninety-three obese, treatment-seeking adults (24 men and 69 women) completed a battery of self-report questionnaires measuring psychological adjustment, attitudes about weight, belief in the controllability of weight, and the frequency of weight-based stigmatization.Results: Weight-based stigmatization was

  9. Functional and mechanistic exploration of an adult neurogenesis-promoting small molecule

    PubMed Central

    Petrik, David; Jiang, Yindi; Birnbaum, Shari G.; Powell, Craig M.; Kim, Mi-Sung; Hsieh, Jenny; Eisch, Amelia J.

    2012-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis occurs throughout life in the mammalian hippocampus and is essential for memory and mood control. There is significant interest in identifying ways to promote neurogenesis and ensure maintenance of these hippocampal functions. Previous work with a synthetic small molecule, isoxazole 9 (Isx-9), highlighted its neuronal-differentiating properties in vitro. However, the ability of Isx-9 to drive neurogenesis in vivo or improve hippocampal function was unknown. Here we show that Isx-9 promotes neurogenesis in vivo, enhancing the proliferation and differentiation of hippocampal subgranular zone (SGZ) neuroblasts, and the dendritic arborization of adult-generated dentate gyrus neurons. Isx-9 also improves hippocampal function, enhancing memory in the Morris water maze. Notably, Isx-9 enhances neurogenesis and memory without detectable increases in cellular or animal activity or vascularization. Molecular exploration of Isx-9-induced regulation of neurogenesis (via FACS and microarray of SGZ stem and progenitor cells) suggested the involvement of the myocyte-enhancer family of proteins (Mef2). Indeed, transgenic-mediated inducible knockout of all brain-enriched Mef2 isoforms (Mef2a/c/d) specifically from neural stem cells and their progeny confirmed Mef2's requirement for Isx-9-induced increase in hippocampal neurogenesis. Thus, Isx-9 enhances hippocampal neurogenesis and memory in vivo, and its effects are reliant on Mef2, revealing a novel cell-intrinsic molecular pathway regulating adult neurogenesis.—Petrik, D., Jiang, Y., Birnbaum, S. G., Powell, C. M., Kim, M.-S., Hsieh, J., Eisch, A. J. Functional and mechanistic exploration of an adult neurogenesis-promoting small molecule. PMID:22542682

  10. Birth weight, childhood lower respiratory tract infection, and adult lung function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S O Shaheen; J A C Sterne; J S Tucker; C du V Florey

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUNDHistorical cohort studies in England have found that impaired fetal growth and lower respiratory tract infections in early childhood are associated with lower levels of lung function in late adult life. These relations are investigated in a similar study in Scotland.METHODSIn 1985–86 a follow up study was carried out of 1070 children who had been born in St Andrew’s from

  11. High-efficiency rotating point spread functions.

    PubMed

    Pavani, Sri Rama Prasanna; Piestun, Rafael

    2008-03-01

    Rotating point spread functions (PSFs) present invariant features that continuously rotate with defocus and are important in diverse applications such as computational imaging and atom/particle trapping. However, their transfer function efficiency is typically very low. We generate highly efficient rotating PSFs by tailoring the range of invariant rotation to the specific application. The PSF design involves an optimization procedure that applies constraints in the Gauss-Laguerre modal plane, the spatial domain, and the Fourier domain. We observed over thirty times improvement in transfer function efficiency. Experiments with a phase-only spatial light modulator demonstrate the potential of high-efficiency rotating PSFs. PMID:18542440

  12. Physical Activity and Functional Limitations in Older Adults: The Influence of Self-Efficacy and Functional Performance

    PubMed Central

    Mullen, Sean P.; Satariano, William A.; Kealey, Melissa; Prohaska, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Data from the Healthy Aging Network (HAN) study (Prohaska, T., Eisenstein, A., Satariano, W., Hunter, R., Bayles, C., Kurtovich, E., … Ivey, S. [2009]. Walking and the preservation of cognitive function in older populations. The Gerontologist, 49[Suppl. 1], S86–S93; and Satariano, W., Ivey, S., Kurtovich, E., Kealey, M., Hubbard, A., Bayles, C., … Prohaska, T. [2010]. Lower-body function, neighborhoods, and walking in an older population. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 38, 419–428.) were used to examine the relationships among physical activity, self-efficacy, functional performance, and limitations. Method. Interviews were conducted within homes and senior centers in 4 geographic regions across the United States. Participants were 884 older adults (M age = 74.8; 77% female; 35% minority status) who completed measures of walking behavior, way-finding self-efficacy, walking self-efficacy, functional performance, functional limitations, and demographic characteristics. Results. Path analysis within a covariance modeling framework revealed significant direct effects of walking on self-efficacy constructs, functional performance on functional limitations, and efficacy on limitations. Additionally, significant indirect effects were also found, including walking on limitations via walking self-efficacy and performance and walking self-efficacy on limitations via performance. Furthermore, we found support for invariance of the model across geographical grouping. Discussion. Our findings provide further validation for an efficacy-based model of functional limitations. Walking-related efficacy may help reduce or possibly delay the onset of functional limitations. PMID:22473023

  13. Adult Literacy in the Commonwealth Caribbean with Special Reference to a Study of the Functional Literacy of Young Guyanese Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Zellynne

    2000-01-01

    A test measuring document, prose, and quantitative literacy of out-of-school youth in Guyana found that only 11% had high levels of functional literacy, a literacy rate much lower than usually reported. Failure to represent the situation accurately prolongs the lack of political will to deal with the issue. (SK)

  14. The Role of Affect in Attentional Functioning for Younger and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Soo Rim; Larcom, Mary Jo; Liu, Xiaodong; Isaacowitz, Derek M.

    2012-01-01

    Although previous research has shown that positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) modulate attentional functioning in distinct ways, few studies have considered whether the links between affect and attentional functioning may vary as a function of age. Using the Attention Network Test (Fan et al., 2002), we tested whether participants’ current state of PA and NA influenced distinct attentional functions (i.e., alerting, orienting, and executive attention) and how the relationships between affective states and attentional functioning differ in younger (18–25?years) and older (60–85?years) age groups. While there were age differences in alerting efficiency, these age differences were mediated by PA, indicating that the higher state PA found in older adults may contribute to age differences in alerting. Furthermore, age group moderated the relationship between PA and orienting as well as NA and orienting. That is, higher levels of PA and lower levels of NA were associated with enhanced orienting efficiency in older adults. Neither PA nor NA had any influence on executive attention. The current results suggest that PA and NA may influence attentional functioning in distinct ways, but that these patterns may depend on age groups. PMID:22969741

  15. The Revised Direct Assessment of Functional Status for Independent Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    McDougall, Graham J.; Becker, Heather; Vaughan, Phillip W.; Acee, Taylor W.; Delville, Carol L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose:?The original version of the Direct Assessment of Functional Status (DAFS), a measure of instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs), was found to have a ceiling effect in older adults living independently in the community. This suggested that the tasks measured, although relevant, do not require full use of this population’s abilities, and thus, the instrument may not be sensitive to the early decrements in IADLs that can signal initial cognitive impairment and may not detect improvements in IADLs over time, which is especially important in intervention research.?Design and Methods:?By removing items with little to no variation and adding more difficult subscales that emphasized medication management skills, we designed the DAFS-Extended (Direct Assessment of Functional Status-Revised [DAFS-R]) to be more challenging for elders living independently.?Results:?Analysis with a sample of 45 older adults suggested that scores on the DAFS-R appear to be more normally distributed than on the original version. The DAFS was able to differentiate individuals with varying standard profile scores on the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test memory performance instrument (normal, poor, and impaired). In addition, the reliability and validity of the DAFS-R were supported in this sample.?Implications:?Given the large number of older adults who regularly take multiple prescription medications, deficits in medication management skills can have serious consequences. A performance measure that emphasizes these higher level daily living skills can help providers screen for initial signs of functional decline. PMID:19808842

  16. The Literacy of U.S. Adults with Disabilities across GED[R] Credential Recipients, High School Graduates, and Non-High School Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Yung-Chen; George-Ezzelle, Carol E.

    2008-01-01

    To serve adults with disabilities without a high school diploma, the federal government and states have funded adult education and literacy programs that provide services to accommodate the needs of those adults. In addition, the Tests of General Educational Development (GED Tests) provide adults with disabilities with testing accommodations to…

  17. Effects of blueberry supplementation on measures of functional mobility in older adults.

    PubMed

    Schrager, Matthew A; Hilton, James; Gould, Richard; Kelly, Valerie E

    2015-06-01

    Limited functional mobility in older adults has been associated with declines in tests of motor, psychomotor, and executive function. Animal studies have demonstrated reversals in indices of motor and psychomotor function via supplementation with polyphenolic-rich foods such as blueberries. The purpose of this study was to examine whether 6 weeks of daily consumption of 2 cups of frozen blueberries affects functional mobility in older adults. Pre- and post-intervention assessments of grip strength, simple reaction time, adaptive gait, and executive function were completed for older adults (age >60 years) partially randomly assigned to a blueberry (BB) supplementation or a carrot juice drink control (CAR) group. Paired t tests were used to assess within-group effects for outcome variables in each supplementation group, and a mixed-model analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to determine group (CAR vs. BB) differences. Mixed-model analysis indicated that the BB group demonstrated significant improvements relative to the CAR group in performance (i.e., number of step errors) of a challenging dual-task adaptive gait test that were independent of differences in gait speed. Within only the BB group, significant improvements were also seen in 3 other measures (i.e., usual gait speed; number of step errors during single-task adaptive gait; and gait speed during dual-task adaptive gait). These preliminary findings support the hypothesis that blueberry supplementation may provide an effective countermeasure to age-related declines in functional mobility and serve as justification for an expansion to larger trials to more fully assess this nonpharmacologic approach to maintaining optimal mobility and independence. PMID:25909473

  18. Substance use and mental health characteristics associated with cognitive functioning among adults who use methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Herbeck, Diane M; Brecht, Mary-Lynn

    2013-01-01

    This study describes cognitive functioning and its relation to psychiatric and substance use severity among adults with long duration methamphetamine use. Study participants (N = 405) completed a battery of tests from the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics that examined cognitive accuracy, processing speed, and efficiency. Multivariate analyses indicate that lower accuracy but faster speed on learning, spatial memory and delayed memory were correlated with more days of past-month methamphetamine use. Lifetime months of methamphetamine use was not related to cognitive functioning. Poorer cognitive efficiency was related to other problems, including crack/cocaine use, symptoms of depression, and poorer emotional state. PMID:23480244

  19. ?? Integrin Inhibits Chronic and High Level Activation of JNK to Repress Senescence Phenotypes in Drosophila Adult Midgut

    PubMed Central

    Okumura, Takashi; Takeda, Koji; Taniguchi, Kiichiro; Adachi-Yamada, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Proper control of adult stem cells including their proliferation and differentiation is crucial in maintaining homeostasis of well-organized tissues/organs throughout an organism's life. The Drosophila adult midgut has intestinal stem cells (ISCs), which have been exploited as a simple model system to investigate mechanisms controlling adult tissue homeostasis. Here, we found that a viable mutant of ?? integrin (?int-?), encoding one of two Drosophila integrin ? subunits, showed a short midgut and abnormal multilayered epithelia accompanied by an increase in ISC proliferation and misdifferentiation defects. The increase in ISC proliferation and misdifferentiation was due to frequent ISC duplication expanding a pool of ISCs, which was caused by depression of the Notch signalling, and up-regulation of unpaired (upd), a gene encoding an extracellular ligand in the JAK/STAT signalling pathway. In addition, we observed that abnormally high accumulation of filamentous actin (F-actin) was caused in the ?int-? mutant enterocytes. Furthermore, the defects were rescued by suppressing c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signalling, which was up-regulated in a manner correlated with the defect levels in the above-mentioned ?int-? mutant phenotype. These symptoms observed in young ?int-? mutant midgut were very similar to those in the aged midgut in wild type. Our results suggested that ?int-? has a novel function for the Drosophila adult midgut homeostasis under normal conditions and provided a new insight into possible age-related diseases caused by latent abnormality of an integrin function. PMID:24586740

  20. Do individuals with high functioning autism have the IQ profile associated with nonverbal learning disability?

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Diane L.; Goldstein, Gerald; Kojkowski, Nicole; Minshew, Nancy J.

    2008-01-01

    Previously researchers have noted a high level of occurrence of the IQ profile associated with nonverbal learning disability (NLD) in Asperger syndrome (ASP) but not in high functioning autism (HFA). We examined the IQ profile scores of a large sample of children (n = 69) and adults (n = 77) with HFA, stringently diagnosed according to ADOS, ADI-R, and DSM-IV criteria, and a corresponding sample of typical child (n = 72) and adult controls (n = 107). At least one of the three primary components of the Wechsler pattern seen in NLD were found in 17–26% of the children and 20–32% of the adults with HFA. All three components occurred in slightly more than 5% of the children and adults with autism. Overall, the VIQ > PIQ profile seen in NLD occurred in 18% of the sample of individuals stringently diagnosed with HFA. Therefore, obtaining this IQ profile is not a valid clinical discriminator between NLD and HFA. PMID:18516234

  1. Functional Compensation in the Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex Improves Memory-Dependent Decisions in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Huettel, Scott A.; Cabeza, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Everyday consumer choices frequently involve memory, as when we retrieve information about consumer products when making purchasing decisions. In this context, poor memory may affect decision quality, particularly in individuals with memory decline, such as older adults. However, age differences in choice behavior may be reduced if older adults can recruit additional neural resources that support task performance. Although such functional compensation is well documented in other cognitive domains, it is presently unclear whether it can support memory-guided decision making and, if so, which brain regions play a role in compensation. The current study engaged younger and older humans in a memory-dependent choice task in which pairs of consumer products from a popular online-shopping site were evaluated with different delays between the first and second product. Using functional imaging (fMRI), we found that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) supports compensation as defined by three a priori criteria: (1) increased vmPFC activation was observed in older versus younger adults; (2) age-related increases in vmPFC activity were associated with increased retrieval demands; and (3) increased vmPFC activity was positively associated with performance in older adults—evidence of successful compensation. Extending these results, we observed evidence for compensation in connectivity between vmPFC and the dorsolateral PFC during memory-dependent choice. In contrast, we found no evidence for age differences in value-related processing or age-related compensation for choices without delayed retrieval. Together, these results converge on the conclusion that age-related decline in memory-dependent choice performance can be minimized via functional compensation in vmPFC. PMID:25411493

  2. The Role of the Right Hemisphere for Processing of Social Interactions in Normal Adults Using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margaret Semrud-Clikeman; Jodene Goldenring Fine; David C. Zhu

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The main purpose of this study was to evaluate whole-brain and hemispheric activation in normal adult volunteers to videos depicting positive and negative social encounters. There are few studies that have utilized dynamic social stimuli to evaluate brain activation. Method: Twenty young adults viewed videotaped vignettes during an functional magnetic resonance imaging procedure. The vignettes included positive and negative

  3. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for Older Adults: Effects on Executive Function, Frontal Alpha Asymmetry and Immune Function

    PubMed Central

    Moynihan, Jan A.; Chapman, Benjamin P.; Klorman, Rafael; Krasner, Michael S.; Duberstein, Paul R.; Brown, Kirk Warren; Talbot, Nancy L.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) has enhanced cognition, positive emotion, and immunity in younger and middle-aged samples; its benefits are less well known for older persons. Here we report on a randomized controlled trial of MBSR for older adults and its effects on executive function, left frontal asymmetry of the EEG alpha band, and antibody response. Methods Older adults (n = 201) were randomized to MBSR or waiting list control. The outcome measures were: the Trail Making Test part B/A (Trails B/A) ratio, a measure of executive function; changes in left frontal alpha asymmetry, an indicator of positive emotions or approach motivation; depression, mindfulness, and perceived stress scores, and the immunoglobulin G response to a protein antigen, a measure of adaptive immunity. Results MBSR participants had a lower Trails B/A ratio immediately after intervention (p <0.05); reduced shift to rightward frontal alpha activation after intervention (p = 0.03); higher baseline antibody levels after intervention (p <0.01), but lower antibody responses 24 weeks after antigen challenge (p <0.04), and improved mindfulness after intervention (p = 0.023) and at 21 weeks of follow-up (p = 0.006). Conclusions MBSR produced small but significant changes in executive function, mindfulness, and sustained left frontal alpha asymmetry. The antibody findings at follow-up were unexpected. Further study of the effects of MBSR on immune function should assess changes in antibody responses in comparison to T-cell-mediated effector functions, which decline as a function of age. PMID:23774986

  4. Tolerance of pupae and pharate adults of Callosobruchus subinnotatus Pic (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) to modified atmospheres: a function of metabolic rate.

    PubMed

    Mbata, G N.; Hetz, S K.; Reichmuth, C; Adler, C

    2000-02-01

    Three developmental stages (pupae, early pharate and late pharate adults) of Callosobruchus subinnotatus (Pic.) were investigated for their tolerance or susceptibility to four modified atmospheres. Two of these atmospheres were hypercarbic and two were hypoxic. The hypercarbic atmospheres were found to cause mortality earlier than hypoxic atmospheres. Late pharate adults died earlier than pupae or early pharate adults. Late pharate adults that survived the exposure took a longer time to eclose than the pupae or early pharate adult.Using high resolution microrespirometric techniques, it was possible to record the oxygen consumption rate and CO(2) output of different developmental stages in air. The metabolic rate was determined manometrically as the oxygen uptake rate at an ambient temperature of 25 degrees C. The oxygen uptake rate differed significantly between groups of 20 individuals of different stages (p<0.01; t-test). The lowest rate of oxygen uptake (510.6+/-52.2 &mgr;l g(-1) h(-1)) was recorded in pupae. Higher oxygen uptake rates were found in early pharate adults (668.4+/-45.6 &mgr;l g(-1) h(-1)) and late pharate adults (1171.2+/-45.0 &mgr;l g(-1) h(-1)), and adult beetles (1310.4+/-53.4 &mgr;l g(-1) h(-1)). The patterns of CO(2) release were similar to those of oxygen uptake. CO(2) release was highest in eclosed adults and late pharate adults followed by early pharate adults, and lowest in pupae. The mode of CO(2) release ranged from continuous CO(2) release in pupae to discontinuous CO(2) release in late pharate and eclosed adults. Thus, high metabolic rates, and perhaps, in conjunction with discontinuous CO(2) of late pharate adults are responsible for their higher susceptibility to modified atmospheres than pupae and early pharate adults. PMID:12770246

  5. Reusables get high marks in adult incontinence care market.

    PubMed

    Tison-Rossman, J

    1992-11-01

    The adult incontinence care market is coming of age. As environmental concerns gradually erode the popularity of disposables, nursing homes and hospitals are looking at reusables in a new light. In addition, the aging of the U.S. population is expected to increase the demand for incontinence care products. A recent study found that the sales of reusable cloth diapers and pads accounted for $385 million annually. All of these factors add up to a lucrative market for textile rental companies that can supply these products. PMID:10122630

  6. Current social functioning in adult-onset schizophrenia and its relation with positive symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Kundu, Partha S.; Sinha, Vinod K.; Paul, Sarita E.; Desarkar, Pushpal

    2013-01-01

    Background: In schizophrenia, relation exists between psychopathology and social functioning. Aim and Objectives: Determining relationship of positive symptoms with current social functioning in adult-onset (?19 years) schizophrenia. Materials and Methods: Eighty schizophrenia patients [ICD-10-DCR], of both sexes (18-60 years), on follow-up for ?6 months, with no change of diagnosis and without co-morbidities, having onset of illness ?19 years of age, accompanied by informants having contact with the patient for a period of >12 months prior the first psychiatric contact or symptom onset were assessed with SCARF- Social Functioning Index and SAPS. Results: Family role, occupational role, and other social role have negative correlation with all positive symptoms. Conclusion: Current social functioning has significant negative correlation with concurrent positive symptoms. PMID:24459377

  7. Conditional Hypovascularization and Hypoxia in Islets Do Not Overtly Influence Adult ?-Cell Mass or Function

    PubMed Central

    D'Hoker, Joke; De Leu, Nico; Heremans, Yves; Baeyens, Luc; Minami, Kohtaro; Ying, Cai; Lavens, Astrid; Chintinne, Marie; Stangé, Geert; Magenheim, Judith; Swisa, Avital; Martens, Geert; Pipeleers, Daniel; van de Casteele, Mark; Seino, Susumo; Keshet, Eli; Dor, Yuval; Heimberg, Harry

    2013-01-01

    It is generally accepted that vascularization and oxygenation of pancreatic islets are essential for the maintenance of an optimal ?-cell mass and function and that signaling by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is crucial for pancreas development, insulin gene expression/secretion, and (compensatory) ?-cell proliferation. A novel mouse model was designed to allow conditional production of human sFlt1 by ?-cells in order to trap VEGF and study the effect of time-dependent inhibition of VEGF signaling on adult ?-cell fate and metabolism. Secretion of sFlt1 by adult ?-cells resulted in a rapid regression of blood vessels and hypoxia within the islets. Besides blunted insulin release, ?-cells displayed a remarkable capacity for coping with these presumed unfavorable conditions: even after prolonged periods of blood vessel ablation, basal and stimulated blood glucose levels were only slightly increased, while ?-cell proliferation and mass remained unaffected. Moreover, ablation of blood vessels did not prevent ?-cell generation after severe pancreas injury by partial pancreatic duct ligation or partial pancreatectomy. Our data thus argue against a major role of blood vessels to preserve adult ?-cell generation and function, restricting their importance to facilitating rapid and adequate insulin delivery. PMID:23974922

  8. Hypertension, Abnormal Cholesterol, and High Body Mass Index among Non-Hispanic Asian Adults: United States, 2011-2012

    MedlinePLUS

    ... non-Hispanic Asian adults did not differ by sex, age, education, or foreign-born status. The prevalence ... 2012. The prevalence of high BMI differed by sex and age among non-Hispanic Asian adults. The ...

  9. ADULTS WITH DIABETIC PERIPHERAL NEUROPATHY EXHIBIT IMPAIRMENTS IN MULTI-TASKING AND OTHER EXECUTIVE FUNCTIONS

    PubMed Central

    Rucker, Jason L.; Jernigan, Stephen D.; McDowd, Joan M.; Kluding, Patricia M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) contributes to functional impairment, and there is growing evidence that neuropsychological factors also influence physical function. We compared cognitive and executive function in adults with DPN to an age-matched comparison group, and examined the relationships between DPN, executive function, and physical function. METHODS Twenty subjects with DPN and 20 comparison subjects were assessed. DPN was quantified via the Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument and nerve conduction velocity testing. Subjects were administered Beck’s Depression Inventory, the Mini Mental Status Examination, and the Timed Up and Go test (TUG). Each participant also completed a battery of 7 executive function tasks, including the Cognitive Timed Up and Go test (cTUG), in which a concurrent mental subtraction task was added to the standard TUG test. RESULTS The DPN group demonstrated poorer letter fluency (34.2±11.6 vs. 46.2±12.2 words, p=0.001), category fluency (47.0±8.1 vs. 56.3±8.5 words, p=0.003), and Rey Osterrieth scores (25.9±4.3 vs. 31.7±2.4 points, p<0.001), and took longer to complete both the TUG (10.3±2.8 vs. 5.9±1.0 seconds, p<0.001) and cTUG (13.0±5.8 vs. 6.9±1.6 seconds, p<0.001). Poorer global cognitive performance and greater depression symptoms were significantly related to each other (r=?0.46, p=0.04) and to slower TUG times (r=?0.53, p=0.02 and 0.54, p=0.02, respectively). DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS Verbal, visuospatial, and multi-tasking measures of executive function may be impaired in adults with DPN. Future research should examine how these and other cognitive and psychological factors, such as depression, affect physical function in this population. PMID:24384943

  10. Associations Between Abnormal Rod-Mediated Dark Adaptation and Health and Functioning in Older Adults With Normal Macular Health

    PubMed Central

    Owsley, Cynthia; Huisingh, Carrie; Jackson, Gregory R.; Curcio, Christine A.; Szalai, Alexander J.; Dashti, Nassrin; Clark, Mark; Rookard, Kia; McCrory, Mark A.; Wright, Tyler T.; Callahan, Michael A.; Kline, Lanning B.; Witherspoon, C. Douglas; McGwin, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Delayed rod-mediated dark adaptation (DA) is characteristic of early age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and also can be observed in some older adults in normal macular health. We examine cross-sectional associations between rod-mediated DA and risk factors for AMD in older adults in normal macular health. Methods. The sample consisted of adults aged ?60 years old in normal macular health per grading of fundus photos using an established disease classification system. Rod-mediated DA was measured psychophysically following a photobleach using a computer-automated dark adaptometer with targets centered at 5° on the inferior vertical meridian. The speed of DA was characterized by the rod-intercept value, with abnormal DA defined as rod-intercept ? 12.3 minutes. We assessed several health and functional characteristics that the literature has suggested increase AMD risk (e.g., smoking, alcohol use, inflammatory markers, apolipoproteins, low luminance visual acuity, chronic medical conditions, body mass, family history). Results. Among 381 participants (mean age, 68.5 years; SD, 5.5), 78% had normal and 22% had abnormal DA, with the prevalence of abnormal DA increasing with age. After age-adjustment, abnormal DA was associated with increased odds of elevated C-reactive protein (CRP), heavy use of or abstention from alcohol, high blood pressure, and drop in visual acuity under mesopic conditions. Conclusions. Despite having normal macular health according to accepted definitions of AMD presence, approximately one-quarter of older adults recruited from primary eye care clinics had abnormal DA, which was associated with known risk factors for AMD, including elevated CRP. PMID:24854857

  11. Risk: benefit of treating high blood pressure in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Mukhtar, Omar; Jackson, Stephen H D

    2013-01-01

    Older people (those aged 65 years or over) comprise over 15% of the UK‘s population and this cohort is growing. Whilst at greatest risk from systemic arterial hypertension (hypertension), its resultant end organ damage and clinically significant cardiovascular disease, this group was initially neglected in clinical trials and thereby denied treatment, with the lack of evidence cited as justification. However since the 1960s, when the first landmark trials in severe diastolic hypertension were published, there has been a progressive attempt to understand the pathophysiology of hypertension and to expand the evidence base for treatment in older adults. In contrast to the participants of the very first randomized trials who had a mean age of 51 years, the recent Hypertension in the Very Elderly Trial demonstrated significant mortality and morbidity benefits from the treatment of both mixed systolic and diastolic hypertension, as well as isolated systolic hypertension in octogenarians. This review highlights the progressive evidence base behind the relative risks and benefits of treating hypertension in older adults. PMID:22775069

  12. The Effectiveness of Community-Based Occupational Therapy Education and Functional Training Programs for Older Adults: A Critical Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Seanne; Jung, Bonny; Wishart, Laurie; Edwards, Mary; Norton, Shelley Gamble

    2003-01-01

    Results of a literature review describing the provision of education and occupational therapy training programs for older adults indicate that programs are effective in three areas: prevention of functional decline and falls, stroke, and rheumatoid arthritis. (Contains 37 references.) (JOW)

  13. Functional and phenotypic studies of Japanese adult T cell leukemia cells.

    PubMed Central

    Morimoto, C; Matsuyama, T; Oshige, C; Tanaka, H; Hercend, T; Reinherz, E L; Schlossman, S F

    1985-01-01

    The cell surface marker profile and functional analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes from 11 Japanese adult T cell leukemia patients were studied. The phenotypic analysis of Japanese adult T cell leukemia (ATL) cells by a series of 13 monoclonal antibodies showed that all ATL cells are anti-T4 reactive but some differ in their expression of T3, T11, and T12 antigens. Thus, considerable phenotypic heterogeneity exists in these populations of leukemia cells. When analyzed in functional assays, ATL cells were suppressive when added to a pokeweed mitogen- (PWM) driven Ig synthesis system. However, the suppression mechanism seemed to be more complex than originally conceived. ATL cells examined in this study seem to function mainly as an inducer of suppressor cells, and as such, activate normal T8 precursors of suppressor cells rather than function as suppressor effector cells. In addition, no evidence was obtained to suggest that suppression of PWM-stimulated IgG synthesis was mediated by natural killer (NK) activity of ATL cells. Rather, ATL cells seem to be markedly deficient in NK activity. These studies suggest that the majority of ATL cells tested are representative of and seem to be the leukemic counterparts of the T4+ suppressor inducer subset. PMID:2858496

  14. Prefrontal Cortex and Executive Functions in Healthy Adults: A Meta-Analysis of Structural Neuroimaging Studies

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Peng; Raz, Naftali

    2014-01-01

    Lesion studies link the prefrontal cortex (PFC) to executive functions. However, the evidence from in vivo investigations in healthy people is mixed, and there are no quantitative estimates of the association strength. To examine the relationship between PFC volume and cortical thickness with executive cognition in healthy adults, we conducted a meta-analysis of studies that assessed executive functions and PFC volume (31 samples,) and PFC thickness (10 samples) in vivo, N=3272 participants. We found that larger PFC volume and greater PFC thickness were associated with better executive performance. Stronger associations between executive functions and PFC volume were linked to greater variance in the sample age but was unrelated to the mean age of a sample. Strength of association between cognitive and neuroanatomical indices depended on the executive task used in the study. PFC volume correlated stronger with Wisconsin Card Sorting Test than with digit backwards span, Trail Making Test and verbal fluency. Significant effect size was observed in lateral and medial but not orbital PFC. The results support the “bigger is better” hypothesis of brain-behavior relation in healthy adults and suggest different neural correlates across the neuropsychological tests used to assess executive functions. PMID:24568942

  15. Cognitive functioning of adults with Noonan syndrome: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Wingbermühle, E; Roelofs, R L; van der Burgt, I; Souren, P M; Verhoeven, W M A; Kessels, R P C; Egger, J I M

    2012-10-01

    Noonan syndrome (NS) is a genetic disorder characterised by short stature, facial dysmorphia, congenital heart defects and mildly lowered intellectual abilities. Research has mainly focused on genetic and somatic aspects, while intellectual and cognitive functioning has been documented scarcely. Also, to date studies have been primarily performed in children. This is the first study in which functioning within the major cognitive domains is systematically evaluated in a group of adults with NS and compared with a control group. Extensive neuropsychological assessment, including the domains intelligence, speed of information processing, memory (working memory, immediate recall and delayed recall), executive function and visuoconstruction, was performed in a sample of 42 patients with NS and 42 healthy controls, matched on age, sex and education level. In addition, subjective cognitive complaints were assessed with self-report questionnaires. On the domain speed of information processing patients performed worse than controls (P?functioning in other cognitive domains characterises the cognitive profile of adult patients, in contrast to previous findings in children with NS, who seem to have more generalised cognitive deficits. PMID:22783933

  16. Multipotent stem cells isolated from the adult mouse retina are capable of producing functional photoreceptor cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tianqing; Lewallen, Michelle; Chen, Shuyi; Yu, Wei; Zhang, Nian; Xie, Ting

    2013-01-01

    Various stem cell types have been tested for their potential application in treating photoreceptor degenerative diseases, such as retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Only embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have so far been shown to generate functional photoreceptor cells restoring light response of photoreceptor-deficient mice, but there is still some concern of tumor formation. In this study, we have successfully cultured Nestin+Sox2+Pax6+ multipotent retinal stem cells (RSCs) from the adult mouse retina, which are capable of producing functional photoreceptor cells that restore the light response of photoreceptor-deficient rd1 mutant mice following transplantation. After they have been expanded for over 35 passages in the presence of FGF and EGF, the cultured RSCs still maintain stable proliferation and differentiation potential. Under proper differentiation conditions, they can differentiate into all the major retinal cell types found in the adult retina. More importantly, they can efficiently differentiate into photoreceptor cells under optimized differentiation conditions. Following transplantation into the subretinal space of slowly degenerating rd7 mutant eyes, RSC-derived photoreceptor cells integrate into the retina, morphologically resembling endogenous photoreceptors and forming synapases with resident retinal neurons. When transplanted into eyes of photoreceptor-deficient rd1 mutant mice, a RP model, RSC-derived photoreceptors can partially restore light response, indicating that those RSC-derived photoreceptors are functional. Finally, there is no evidence for tumor formation in the photoreceptor-transplanted eyes. Therefore, this study has demonstrated that RSCs isolated from the adult retina have the potential of producing functional photoreceptor cells that can potentially restore lost vision caused by loss of photoreceptor cells in RP and AMD. PMID:23567557

  17. Gestalt Perception and Local-Global Processing in High-Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolte, Sven; Holtmann, Martin; Poustka, Fritz; Scheurich, Armin; Schmidt, Lutz

    2007-01-01

    This study examined gestalt perception in high-functioning autism (HFA) and its relation to tasks indicative of local visual processing. Data on of gestalt perception, visual illusions (VI), hierarchical letters (HL), Block Design (BD) and the Embedded Figures Test (EFT) were collected in adult males with HFA, schizophrenia, depression and…

  18. High-Throughput Screening of Gene Function in Stem Cells Using Clonal Microarrays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Randolph S. Ashton; Joseph Peltier; Christopher A. Fasano; Analeah O'Neill; Joshua Leonard; Sally Temple; David V. Schaffer; Ravi S. Kane

    2007-01-01

    We describe a microarray-based approach for the high- throughput screening of gene function in stem cells and dem- onstrate the potential of this method by growing and isolating clonal populations of both adult and embryonic neural stem cells. Clonal microarrays are constructed by seeding a popu- lation of cells at clonal density on micropatterned surfaces generated using soft lithographic microfabrication

  19. Work, Postsecondary Education, and Psychosocial Functioning Following the Transition From High School

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert H. Aseltine; Susan Gore

    2005-01-01

    Through a two-wave panel study of emerging adults, the authors examine how living situation, work and school roles, and experiences in those roles affect psychosocial functioning following the transition from high school. Enrollment in college programs and fulltime work are associated with lower levels of depressed mood and more positive quality of life. Disruptions in work roles (getting fired, an

  20. EFFECTS OF ALTERED AIRWAY FUNCTION ON EXERCISE VENTILATION IN ASTHMATIC ADULTS

    PubMed Central

    Rossman, Matthew J.; Nader, Susan; Berry, Dustin; Orsini, Francesca; Klansky, Andrew; Haverkamp, Hans Christian

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE Variable airway function is a central feature of the asthmatic condition. Thus, habitually active asthmatics are certain to exercise under conditions of variable airway (dys)function. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of variable pre-exercise airway function on ventilation during whole-body exercise in asthmatic adults. METHODS Eight mild asthmatic (age, 26 yrs; V?O2peak, 49 ml·kg?1·min?1) and nine non-asthmatic (age, 30 yrs; V?O2peak, 46 ml·kg?1·min?1) adults performed constant workrate cycling exercise-to-exhaustion following four separate interventions: 1) a control trial (CON); 2) inhalation of fast-acting ?2-agonist (BD); 3) eucapnic voluntary hyperpnea challenge (BC); and 4) sham to the hyperpnea (SHAM). Pulmonary function was assessed at baseline and following each intervention. Exercise ventilation and operating lung volumes were compared among the four exercise trials in both control and asthmatic subjects. RESULTS Baseline pulmonary function was significantly lower in asthmatic subjects compared with control subjects. In asthmatic subjects, post-intervention (i.e., pre-exercise) forced expiratory volume 1.0 second was significantly different among the four exercise trials (CON, 3.5 ± 0.4; BD, 4.1 ± 0.4; SHAM, 3.6 ± 0.3; BC, 2.8 ± 0.3 L; p < 0.05), whereas it was not different in control subjects. There were no differences in exercise ventilation or operating lung volumes during exercise among the four trials either within asthmatic subjects or between control and asthmatic subjects. CONCLUSION These findings suggest that the state of airway function – whether bronchodilated or bronchoconstricted – prior to exercise in the mild asthmatic does not affect the exercise ventilatory response. Ventilatory system function in the asthmatic thus appears to be responsive to the acute requirement for increased airflow during whole-body exercise. PMID:24576858

  1. Association of Dynamic Joint Power With Functional Limitations in Older Adults With Symptomatic Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Neil A.; Yack, H. John; Brubaker, Morgan; Torner, James C.; Wallace, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To determine which lower-limb joint moments and powers characterize the level of gait performance of older adults with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA). Design Cross-sectional observational study. Setting University motion analysis laboratory. Participants Community-dwelling adults (N=60; 27 men, 33 women; age 50–79y) with symptomatic knee OA. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures Physical function was measured using the long-distance corridor walk, the Short Physical Performance Battery, and the Late Life Function and Disability Instrument (LLFDI Function). Joint moments and power were estimated using an inverse dynamics solution after 3-dimensional computerized motion analysis. Results Subjects aged 64.2±7.4 years were recruited. Ranges (mean ± SD) for the 400-m walk time and the LLFDI Advanced Lower-Limb Function score were 215.3 to 536.8 (304.1±62.3) seconds and 31.5 to 100 (57.0±14.9) points, respectively. In women, hip abductor moment (loading response), hip abductor power (midstance), eccentric hamstring moment (terminal stance), and power (terminal swing) accounted for 41%, 31%, 14%, and 48% of the variance in the 400-m walk time, respectively (model R2=.61, P<.003). In men, plantar flexor and hip flexor power (preswing) accounted for 19% and 24% of the variance in the 400-m walk time, respectively (model R2=.32, P=.025). Conclusions There is evidence that men and women with higher mobility function tend to rely more on an ankle strategy rather than a hip strategy for gait. In higher functioning men, higher knee extensor and flexor strength may contribute to an ankle strategy, whereas hip abductor weakness may bias women with lower mobility function to minimize loading across the knee via use of a hip strategy. These parameters may serve as foci for rehabilitation interventions aimed at reducing mobility limitations. PMID:19887204

  2. Glycation impairs high-density lipoprotein function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. C. Hedrick; S. R. Thorpe; M.-X. Fu; C. M. Harper; J. Yoo; S.-M. Kim; H. Wong; A. L. Peters

    2000-01-01

    Aims\\/hypothesis. To examine the effects of incubation of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) under hyperglycaemic conditions on several functions\\u000a of HDL in vitro.¶Methods. Human HDL (5 mg protein) was incubated for 1 week at 37 °C in the presence or absence of 25 mmol\\/l glucose. Additional samples\\u000a of human HDL were incubated in butylated hydroxytoluene to control for oxidation.¶Results. High-density lipoprotein incubated

  3. Nuclear diffractive structure functions at high energies

    E-print Network

    C. Marquet; H. Kowalski; T. Lappi; R. Venugopalan

    2008-05-30

    A future high-energy electron-ion collider would explore the non-linear weakly-coupled regime of QCD, and test the Color Glass Condensate (CGC) approach to high-energy scattering. Hard diffraction in deep inelastic scattering off nuclei will provide many fundamental measurements. In this work, the nuclear diffractive structure function F_{2,A}^D is predicted in the CGC framework, and the features of nuclear enhancement and suppression are discussed.

  4. Association between Physical Functionality and Falls Risk in Community-Living Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Smee, Disa J.; Anson, Judith M.; Waddington, Gordon S.; Berry, Helen L.

    2012-01-01

    Ageing-related declines in physiological attributes, such as muscle strength, can bring with them an increased risk of falls and subsequently greater risk of losing independence. These declines have substantial impact on an individual's functional ability. However, the precise relationship between falls risk and physical functionality has not been evaluated. The aims of this study were to determine the association between falls risk and physical functionality using objective measures and to create an appropriate model to explain variance in falls risk. Thirty-two independently living adults aged 65–92 years completed the FallScreen, the Continuous-Scale Physical Functional Performance 10 (CS-PFP10) tests, and the 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12). The relationships between falls risk, physical functionality, and age were investigated using correlational and multiple hierarchical regression analyses. Overall, total physical functionality accounted for 24% of variance in an individual's falls risk while age explained a further 13%. The oldest-old age group had significantly greater falls risk and significantly lower physical functional performance. Mean scores for all measures showed that there were substantial (but not significant) differences between males and females. While increasing age is the strongest single predictor of increasing falls risk, poorer physical functionality was strongly, independently related to greater falls risk. PMID:23304137

  5. Why Adult Stem Cell Functionality Declines with Age? Studies from the Fruit Fly Drosophila Melanogaster Model Organism

    PubMed Central

    Gonen, Oren; Toledano, Hila

    2014-01-01

    Highly regenerative adult tissues are supported by rare populations of stem cells that continuously divide to self-renew and generate differentiated progeny. This process is tightly regulated by signals emanating from surrounding cells to fulfill the dynamic demands of the tissue. One of the hallmarks of aging is slow and aberrant tissue regeneration due to deteriorated function of stem and supporting cells. Several Drosophila regenerative tissues are unique in that they provide exact identification of stem and neighboring cells in whole-tissue anatomy. This allows for precise tracking of age-related changes as well as their targeted manipulation within the tissue. In this review we present the stem cell niche of Drosophila testis, ovary and intestine and describe the major changes and phenotypes that occur in the course of aging. Specifically we discuss changes in both intrinsic properties of stem cells and their microenvironment that contribute to the decline in tissue functionality. Understanding these mechanisms in adult Drosophila tissues will likely provide new paradigms in the field of aging. PMID:24955030

  6. Investigation on liver function among population in high background of rare earth area in South China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weifang Zhu; Suqin Xu; Pinpin Shao; Hui Zhang; Donseng Wu; Wenjia Yang; Jia Feng; Lei Feng

    2005-01-01

    The health effects of long-term ingestion of rare earth elements (REEs) on the villagers living in high-REE-background areas\\u000a in South Jangxi Province, China were studied. Major health complaints from the REE area population included indigestion, diarrhea,\\u000a abdominal distension, anorexia, weakness, and fatigue, especially after high-fat or high-protein intake. Liver function tests\\u000a were conducted for adult villagers. Among them, 45 live

  7. Effect of brain structure and function on reward anticipation in children and adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder combined subtype.

    PubMed

    Kappel, Viola; Lorenz, Robert C; Streifling, Martina; Renneberg, Babette; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Ströhle, Andreas; Salbach-Andrae, Harriet; Beck, Anne

    2015-07-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with decreased ventral-striatal responsiveness during reward anticipation. However, previous research mostly focused on adults with heterogeneous ADHD subtype and divers drug treatment status while studies in children with ADHD are sparse. Moreover, it remains unclear to what degree ADHD is characterized by a delay of normal brain structure or function maturation. We therefore attempt to determine whether results from structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) are associated with childhood and adult ADHD combined subtype (ADHD-CT). This study used fMRI to compare VS structure and function of 30 participants with ADHD-CT (16 adults, 14 children) and 30 controls (20 adults, 10 children), using a monetary incentive delay task. Joint analyses of structural and functional imaging data were conducted with Biological Parametric Mapping. Reward anticipation elicited decreased ventral-striatal responsiveness in adults but not in children with ADHD-CT. Children and adults with ADHD showed reduced ventral-striatal volume. Taking these gray matter differences into account, the results remained the same. These results suggest that decreased ventral-striatal responsiveness during reward anticipation is present in adults but not in children with ADHD-CT, irrespective of structural characteristics. The question arises whether ventral-striatal hypoactivity is an ADHD correlate that develops during the course of illness. PMID:25338631

  8. Neurocognitive and Family Functioning and Quality of Life Among Young Adult Survivors of Childhood Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Hocking, Matthew C.; Hobbie, Wendy L.; Deatrick, Janet A.; Lucas, Matthew S.; Szabo, Margo M.; Volpe, Ellen M.; Barakat, Lamia P.

    2012-01-01

    Many childhood brain tumor survivors experience significant neurocognitive late effects across multiple domains that negatively affect quality of life. A theoretical model of survivorship suggests that family functioning and survivor neurocognitive functioning interact to affect survivor and family outcomes. This paper reviews the types of neurocognitive late effects experienced by survivors of pediatric brain tumors. Quantitative and qualitative data from three case reports of young adult survivors and their mothers are analyzed according to the theoretical model and presented in this paper to illustrate the importance of key factors presented in the model. The influence of age at brain tumor diagnosis, family functioning, and family adaptation to illness on survivor quality of life and family outcomes are highlighted. Future directions for research and clinical care for this vulnerable group of survivors are discussed. PMID:21722062

  9. Genetic influence on exercise-induced changes in physical function among mobility-limited older adults

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Fang-Chi; Brinkley, Tina E.; Carter, Christy S.; Church, Timothy S.; Dodson, John A.; Goodpaster, Bret H.; McDermott, Mary M.; Nicklas, Barbara J.; Yank, Veronica; Johnson, Julie A.; Pahor, Marco

    2014-01-01

    To date, physical exercise is the only intervention consistently demonstrated to attenuate age-related declines in physical function. However, variability exists in seniors' responsiveness to training. One potential source of variability is the insertion (I allele) or deletion (D allele) of a 287 bp fragment in intron 16 of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene. This polymorphism is known to influence a variety of physiological adaptions to exercise. However, evidence is inconclusive regarding the influence of this polymorphism on older adults' functional responses to exercise. This study aimed to evaluate the association of ACE I/D genotypes with changes in physical function among Caucasian older adults (n = 283) following 12 mo of either structured, multimodal physical activity or health education. Measures of physical function included usual-paced gait speed and performance on the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). After checking Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, we used using linear regression to evaluate the genotype*treatment interaction for each outcome. Covariates included clinic site, body mass index, age, sex, baseline score, comorbidity, and use of angiotensin receptor blockers or ACE inhibitors. Genotype frequencies [II (19.4%), ID (42.4%), DD (38.2%)] were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P > 0.05). The genotype*treatment interaction was statistically significant for both gait speed (P = 0.002) and SPPB (P = 0.020). Exercise improved gait speed by 0.06 ± 0.01 m/sec and SPPB score by 0.72 ± 0.16 points among those with at least one D allele (ID/DD carriers), but function was not improved among II carriers. Thus, ACE I/D genotype appears to play a role in modulating functional responses to exercise training in seniors. PMID:24423970

  10. Serum Methylarginines and Spirometry-Measured Lung Function in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    McEvoy, Mark A.; Schofield, Peter W.; Smith, Wayne T.; Agho, Kingsley; Mangoni, Arduino A.; Soiza, Roy L.; Peel, Roseanne; Hancock, Stephen J.; Carru, Ciriaco; Zinellu, Angelo; Attia, John R.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Methylarginines are endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitors that have been implicated in animal models of lung disease but have not previously been examined for their association with spirometric measures of lung function in humans. Objectives This study measured serum concentrations of asymmetric and symmetric dimethylarginine in a representative sample of older community-dwelling adults and determined their association with spirometric lung function measures. Methods Data on clinical, lifestyle, and demographic characteristics, methylated arginines, and L-arginine (measured using LC-MS/MS) were collected from a population-based sample of older Australian adults from the Hunter Community Study. The five key lung function measures included as outcomes were Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second, Forced Vital Capacity, Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second to Forced Vital Capacity ratio, Percent Predicted Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second, and Percent Predicted Forced Vital Capacity. Measurements and Main Results In adjusted analyses there were statistically significant independent associations between a) higher asymmetric dimethylarginine, lower Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second and lower Forced Vital Capacity; and b) lower L-arginine/asymmetric dimethylarginine ratio, lower Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second, lower Percent Predicted Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second and lower Percent Predicted Forced Vital Capacity. By contrast, no significant associations were observed between symmetric dimethylarginine and lung function. Conclusions After adjusting for clinical, demographic, biochemical, and pharmacological confounders, higher serum asymmetric dimethylarginine was independently associated with a reduction in key measures of lung function. Further research is needed to determine if methylarginines predict the decline in lung function. PMID:23690915

  11. Physical Function Limitations Among Middle-Aged and Older Adults With Prediabetes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Pearl G.; Cigolle, Christine T.; Ha, Jinkyung; Min, Lillian; Murphy, Susan L.; Blaum, Caroline S.; Herman, William H.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence of physical function limitations among a nationally representative sample of adults with prediabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 5,991 respondents ?53 years of age from the 2006 wave of the Health and Retirement Study. All respondents self-reported physical function limitations and comorbidities (chronic diseases and geriatric conditions). Respondents with prediabetes reported no diabetes and had a measured glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) of 5.7–6.4%. Descriptive analyses and logistic regressions were used to compare respondents with prediabetes versus diabetes (diabetes history or HbA1c ?6.5%) or normoglycemia (no diabetes history and HbA1c <5.7%). RESULTS Twenty-eight percent of respondents ?53 years of age had prediabetes; 32% had mobility limitations (walking several blocks and/or climbing a flight of stairs); 56% had lower-extremity limitations (getting up from a chair and/or stooping, kneeling, or crouching); and 33% had upper-extremity limitations (pushing or pulling heavy objects and/or lifting >10 lb). Respondents with diabetes had the highest prevalence of comorbidities and physical function limitations, followed by those with prediabetes, and then normoglycemia (P < 0.05). Compared with respondents with normoglycemia, respondents with prediabetes had a higher odds of having functional limitations that affected mobility (odds ratio [OR] 1.48), the lower extremities (OR 1.35), and the upper extremities (OR 1.37) (all P < 0.01). The higher odds of having lower-extremity limitations remained after adjusting for age, sex, and body mass index (OR 1.21, P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS Comorbidities and physical function limitations are prevalent among middle-aged and older adults with prediabetes. Effective lifestyle interventions to prevent diabetes must accommodate physical function limitations. PMID:23757432

  12. Functional network endophenotypes unravel the effects of apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 in middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Goveas, Joseph S; Xie, Chunming; Chen, Gang; Li, Wenjun; Ward, B Douglas; Franczak, Malgorzata B; Jones, Jennifer L; Antuono, Piero G; Li, Shi-Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E-?4 (APOE-?4) accentuates memory decline, structural volume loss and cerebral amyloid deposition in cognitively healthy adults. We investigated whether APOE-?4 carriers will show disruptions in the intrinsic cognitive networks, including the default mode (DMN), executive control (ECN) and salience (SN) networks, relative to noncarriers in middle-aged healthy adults; and the extent to which episodic-memory performance is related to the altered functional connectivity (Fc) in these networks. Resting-state functional connectivity MRI (R-fMRI) was used to measure the differences in the DMN, ECN and SN Fc between 20 APOE-?4 carriers and 26 noncarriers. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to determine the relationship between episodic-memory performance and Fc differences in the three resting-state networks across all subjects. There were no significant differences in the demographic and neuropsychological characteristics and the gray-matter volumes in the carriers and noncarriers. While mostly diminished DMN and ECN functional connectivities were seen, enhanced connections to the DMN structures were found in the SN in ?4 carriers. Altered DMN and ECN were associated with episodic memory performance. Significant Fc differences in the brain networks implicated in cognition were seen in middle-aged individuals with a genetic risk for AD, in the absence of cognitive decline and gray-matter atrophy. Prospective studies are essential to elucidate the potential of R-fMRI technique as a biomarker for predicting conversion from normal to early AD in healthy APOE-?4 carriers. PMID:23424640

  13. Depressive Symptoms, Self-Reported Physical Functioning, and Identity in Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Weinberger, Mark I.; Whitbourne, Susan Krauss

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between self-reported physical functioning and depressive symptoms by testing the mediation of identity processes in linking this relationship. Methods Sixty-eight older adults (mean age= 74.4) participated in this cross-sectional study. Participants completed measures of physical functioning (Physical Symptoms Checklist), depressive symptoms (CESD-20) and identity processes (IES-G). Results The relationship between physical functioning and depressive symptoms was partially mediated by sensitivity of older adults to feedback from experiences, the process known as identity accommodation (Whitbourne, Sneed, & Skultety, 2002). Conclusion Not only are physical changes relevant to negative psychological outcomes in later adulthood, but it is the interpretation of these changes that seems to have particular relevance for aging individuals. Though preliminary based on cross-sectional data, the findings suggest that examining individual differences in sensitivity to aging stereotypes may help identify factors related to depressive symptoms in later adulthood. Future research is needed to disentangle these interrelated concepts. PMID:21170160

  14. Age and sex related changes in episodic memory function in middle aged and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Lundervold, Astri J; Wollschläger, Daniel; Wehling, Eike

    2014-01-01

    Age-related change in episodic memory function is commonly reported in older adults. When detected on neuropsychological tests, it may still be difficult to distinguish normal from pathological changes. The present study investigates age-and sex-related changes in a group of healthy middle-aged and older adults, participating in a three-wave study on cognitive aging. The California Verbal Learning test (CVLT-II) was used to assess their episodic memory function. A cross-sectional analysis of results from the first wave showed higher performance in females than males, with a steeper age-related decline in males. This was confirmed in a longitudinal analysis using a mixed effects regression model, but with a lower age-related change and smaller difference between the sexes. Information about learning strategies and errors in the third wave turned out to contribute significantly to explain change in episodic memory function across the three waves. We argue that the results from the longitudinal analyses are generalizable to the population of healthy middle-aged and older individuals, and that they could be useful in guiding clinicians when evaluating individuals with respect to cognitive change. PMID:24601911

  15. The functional organisation of glia in the adult brain of Drosophila and other insects

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Tara N.; Meinertzhagen, Ian A.

    2010-01-01

    This review annotates and categorises the glia of adult Drosophila and other model insects and describes the developmental origins of these in the Drosophila optic lobe. The functions of glia in the adult vary depending upon their sub-type and location in the brain. The task of annotating glia is essentially complete only for the glia of the fly's lamina, which comprise: two types of surface glia - the pseudocartridge and fenestrated glia; two types of cortex glia - the distal and proximal satellite glia; and two types of neuropile glia - the epithelial and marginal glia. We advocate that the term subretinal glia, as used to refer to both pseudocartridge and fenestrated glia, be abandoned. Other neuropiles contain similar glial subtypes, but other than the antennal lobes these have not been described in detail. Surface glia form the blood brain barrier, regulating the flow of substances into and out of the nervous system, both for the brain as a whole and the optic neuropiles in particular. Cortex glia provide a second level of barrier, wrapping axon fascicles and isolating neuronal cell bodies both from neighbouring brain regions and from their underlying neuropiles. Neuropile glia can be generated in the adult and a subtype, ensheathing glia, are responsible for cleaning up cellular debris during Wallerian degeneration. Both the neuropile ensheathing and astrocyte-like glia may be involved in clearing neurotransmitters from the extracellular space, thus modifying the levels of histamine, glutamate and possibly dopamine at the synapse to ultimately affect behaviour. PMID:20109517

  16. Executive functioning in highly talented soccer players.

    PubMed

    Verburgh, Lot; Scherder, Erik J A; van Lange, Paul A M; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2014-01-01

    Executive functions might be important for successful performance in sports, particularly in team sports requiring quick anticipation and adaptation to continuously changing situations in the field. The executive functions motor inhibition, attention and visuospatial working memory were examined in highly talented soccer players. Eighty-four highly talented youth soccer players (mean age 11.9), and forty-two age-matched amateur soccer players (mean age 11.8) in the age range 8 to 16 years performed a Stop Signal task (motor inhibition), the Attention Network Test (alerting, orienting, and executive attention) and a visuospatial working memory task. The highly talented soccer players followed the talent development program of the youth academy of a professional soccer club and played at the highest national soccer competition for their age. The amateur soccer players played at a regular soccer club in the same geographical region as the highly talented soccer players and play in a regular regional soccer competition. Group differences were tested using analyses of variance. The highly talented group showed superior motor inhibition as measured by stop signal reaction time (SSRT) on the Stop Signal task and a larger alerting effect on the Attention Network Test, indicating an enhanced ability to attain and maintain an alert state. No group differences were found for orienting and executive attention and visuospatial working memory. A logistic regression model with group (highly talented or amateur) as dependent variable and executive function measures that significantly distinguished between groups as predictors showed that these measures differentiated highly talented soccer players from amateur soccer players with 89% accuracy. Highly talented youth soccer players outperform youth amateur players on suppressing ongoing motor responses and on the ability to attain and maintain an alert state; both may be essential for success in soccer. PMID:24632735

  17. Executive Functioning in Highly Talented Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Verburgh, Lot; Scherder, Erik J. A.; van Lange, Paul A.M.; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2014-01-01

    Executive functions might be important for successful performance in sports, particularly in team sports requiring quick anticipation and adaptation to continuously changing situations in the field. The executive functions motor inhibition, attention and visuospatial working memory were examined in highly talented soccer players. Eighty-four highly talented youth soccer players (mean age 11.9), and forty-two age-matched amateur soccer players (mean age 11.8) in the age range 8 to 16 years performed a Stop Signal task (motor inhibition), the Attention Network Test (alerting, orienting, and executive attention) and a visuospatial working memory task. The highly talented soccer players followed the talent development program of the youth academy of a professional soccer club and played at the highest national soccer competition for their age. The amateur soccer players played at a regular soccer club in the same geographical region as the highly talented soccer players and play in a regular regional soccer competition. Group differences were tested using analyses of variance. The highly talented group showed superior motor inhibition as measured by stop signal reaction time (SSRT) on the Stop Signal task and a larger alerting effect on the Attention Network Test, indicating an enhanced ability to attain and maintain an alert state. No group differences were found for orienting and executive attention and visuospatial working memory. A logistic regression model with group (highly talented or amateur) as dependent variable and executive function measures that significantly distinguished between groups as predictors showed that these measures differentiated highly talented soccer players from amateur soccer players with 89% accuracy. Highly talented youth soccer players outperform youth amateur players on suppressing ongoing motor responses and on the ability to attain and maintain an alert state; both may be essential for success in soccer. PMID:24632735

  18. Total and High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimmer, James H.; Kelly, Luke E.

    1990-01-01

    The study evaluated the total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein cholesterol of 40 adults (mean age 37.5 years) with mental retardation residing at an intermediate care facility. Results indicated that 59 percent of the males and 68 percent of the females were at moderate to high risk for coronary heart disease. (DB)

  19. College High Risk Drinkers: Who Matures Out? And Who Persists as Adults?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Corbin M.; Demb, Ada

    2008-01-01

    More than 40% of college drinkers are classified as high risk, and of these about 20% will continue this behavior into adulthood. This exploratory study compared the characteristics of high risk college drinkers who matured out with those who remained adult persistent. Respondents (4,428 alumni) completed a survey about college and current…

  20. MMP12, Lung Function, and COPD in High-Risk Populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary M. Hunninghake; Michael H. Cho; Yohannes Tesfaigzi; Manuel E. Soto-Quiros; Lydiana Avila; Jessica Lasky-Su; Chris Stidley; Erik Melén; Cilla Söderhäll; Jenny Hallberg; Inger Kull; Juha Kere; Magnus Svartengren; Göran Pershagen; Magnus Wickman; Christoph Lange; Dawn L. Demeo; Craig P. Hersh; Barbara J. Klanderman; Benjamin A. Raby; David Sparrow; Steven D. Shapiro; Edwin K. Silverman; Augusto A. Litonjua; Scott T. Weiss; Juan C. Celedón

    2009-01-01

    Background Genetic variants influencing lung function in children and adults may ultimately lead to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), particu- larly in high-risk groups. Methods We tested for an association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the gene encoding matrix metalloproteinase 12 (MMP12) and a measure of lung function (prebronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1

  1. Drosophila Notch receptor activity suppresses Hairless function during adult external sensory organ development.

    PubMed

    Lyman, D F; Yedvobnick, B

    1995-12-01

    The neurogenic Notch locus of Drosophila encodes a receptor necessary for cell fate decisions within equivalence groups, such as proneural clusters. Specification of alternate fates within clusters results from inhibitory communication among cells having comparable neural fate potential. Genetically, Hairless (H) acts as an antagonist of most neurogenic genes and may insulate neural precursor cells from inhibition. H function is required for commitment to the bristle sensory organ precursor (SOP) cell fate and for daughter cell fates. Using Notch gain-of-function alleles and conditional expression of an activated Notch transgene, we show that enhanced signaling produces H-like loss-of-function phenotypes by suppressing bristle SOP cell specification or by causing an H-like transformation of sensillum daughter cell fates. Furthermore, adults carrying Notch gain of function and H alleles exhibit synergistic enhancement of mutant phenotypes. Over-expression of an H+ transgene product suppressed virtually all phenotypes generated by Notch gain-of-function genotypes. Phenotypes resulting from over-expression of the H+ transgene were blocked by the Notch gain-of-function products, indicating a balance between Notch and H activity. The results suggest that H insulates SOP cells from inhibition and indicate that H activity is suppressed by Notch signaling. PMID:8601489

  2. Executive function is independently associated with performances of balance and mobility in community-dwelling older adults after mild stroke: implications for falls prevention

    PubMed Central

    Liu-Ambrose, Teresa; Pang, Marco; Eng, Janice J

    2015-01-01

    Background Stroke survivors have a high incidence of falls. Impaired executive-controlled processes are frequent in stroke survivors and are associated with falls in this population. Better understanding of the independent association between executive-controlled processes and physiological fall risk (i.e. performances of balance and mobility) could enhance future interventions that aim to prevent falls and to promote an independent lifestyle among stroke survivors. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of 63 adults who suffered a mild stroke >1 year prior to the study, aged > or =50 years. Results Cognitive flexibility was independently associated with performances of balance and mobility in community-dwelling older adults after mild stroke, after accounting for age, quadriceps strength of the paretic side and current physical activity level. Conclusions Clinicians may need to consider cognitive function when assessing and treating impaired balance and mobility in community-dwelling older adults after mild stroke. PMID:17143004

  3. Comparing High School Students' and Adults' Perceptions of Technological Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Henry Ladson, III

    2009-01-01

    This study compared high school student's perceptions of technology and technological literacy to those perceptions of the general public. Additionally, individual student groups were compared statistically to determine significant differences between the groups. The "ITEA/Gallup Poll" instrument was used to survey high school student's…

  4. Association between Cytomegalovirus Antibody Levels and Cognitive Functioning in Non-Elderly Adults

    PubMed Central

    Dickerson, Faith; Stallings, Cassie; Origoni, Andrea; Katsafanas, Emily; Schweinfurth, Lucy A. B.; Savage, Christina L. G.; Yolken, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Background Elevated levels of antibodies to Cytomegalovirus (CMV) have been associated with cognitive impairment, but the quantitative relationship between CMV antibody levels and domains of cognitive functioning in younger adults has not been established. Methods We measured IgG class antibodies to Cytomegalovirus in 521 individuals, mean age 32.8 years. Participants were selected for the absence of psychiatric disorder and of a serious medical condition that could affect brain functioning. Cognitive functioning was measured with the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS), the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Trail Making Test part A, and the WAIS III Letter Number Sequencing subtest. Linear regression analyses were used to measure the quantitative association between cognitive scores and Cytomegalovirus IgG antibody level. Logistic regression analyses were used to measure the odds of low cognitive scores and elevated antibody levels defined as an antibody level >?=?50th, 75th, and 90th percentile of the group. Results Higher levels of CMV antibodies were associated with lower performance on RBANS Total (coefficient ?1.03, p<.0002), Delayed Memory (coefficient ?0.94, p<.001), Visuospatial/Constructional (coefficient ?1.77, p<5×10?7), and Letter Number Sequencing (coefficient ?0.15, p<.03). There was an incremental relationship between the level of CMV antibody elevation and the odds of a low RBANS Total score. The odds of a low total cognitive score were 1.63 (95th % CI 1.01, 2.64; p<.045), 2.22 (95th % CI 1.33, 3.70; p<.002), and 2.46 (95th % CI 1.24, 4.86; p<.010) with a CMV antibody level greater than or equal to the 50th, 75th, and 90th percentile respectively. Conclusions Higher levels of Cytomegalovirus antibodies are associated with lower levels of cognitive functioning in non-elderly adults. Methods for the prevention and treatment of CMV infection should be evaluated to determine if they result in an improvement in cognitive functioning in otherwise healthy adults. PMID:24846058

  5. Multipotent adult progenitor cells sustain function of ischemic limbs in mice

    PubMed Central

    Aranguren, Xabier L.; McCue, Jonathan D.; Hendrickx, Benoit; Zhu, Xiao-Hong; Du, Fei; Chen, Eleanor; Pelacho, Beatriz; Peñuelas, Ivan; Abizanda, Gloria; Uriz, Maialen; Frommer, Sarah A.; Ross, Jeffrey J.; Schroeder, Betsy A.; Seaborn, Meredith S.; Adney, Joshua R.; Hagenbrock, Julianna; Harris, Nathan H.; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Xiaoliang; Nelson-Holte, Molly H.; Jiang, Yuehua; Billiau, An D.; Chen, Wei; Prósper, Felipe; Verfaillie, Catherine M.; Luttun, Aernout

    2008-01-01

    Despite progress in cardiovascular research, a cure for peripheral vascular disease has not been found. We compared the vascularization and tissue regeneration potential of murine and human undifferentiated multipotent adult progenitor cells (mMAPC-U and hMAPC-U), murine MAPC-derived vascular progenitors (mMAPC-VP), and unselected murine BM cells (mBMCs) in mice with moderate limb ischemia, reminiscent of intermittent claudication in human patients. mMAPC-U durably restored blood flow and muscle function and stimulated muscle regeneration, by direct and trophic contribution to vascular and skeletal muscle growth. This was in contrast to mBMCs and mMAPC-VP, which did not affect muscle regeneration and provided only limited and transient improvement. Moreover, mBMCs participated in a sustained inflammatory response in the lower limb, associated with progressive deterioration in muscle function. Importantly, mMAPC-U and hMAPC-U also remedied vascular and muscular deficiency in severe limb ischemia, representative of critical limb ischemia in humans. Thus, unlike BMCs or vascular-committed progenitors, undifferentiated multipotent adult progenitor cells offer the potential to durably repair ischemic damage in peripheral vascular disease patients. PMID:18172550

  6. Pericytes control key neurovascular functions and neuronal phenotype in the adult brain and during brain aging

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Robert D.; Winkler, Ethan A.; Sagare, Abhay P.; Singh, Itender; LaRue, Barb; Deane, Rashid; Zlokovic, Berislav V.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Pericytes play a key role in the development of cerebral microcirculation. The exact role of pericytes in the neurovascular unit in the adult brain and during brain aging remains, however, elusive. Using adult viable pericyte-deficient mice, we show that pericyte loss leads to brain vascular damage by two parallel pathways: (1) reduction in brain microcirculation causing diminished brain capillary perfusion, cerebral blood flow and cerebral blood flow responses to brain activation which ultimately mediates chronic perfusion stress and hypoxia, and (2) blood-brain barrier breakdown associated with brain accumulation of serum proteins and several vasculotoxic and/or neurotoxic macromolecules ultimately leading to secondary neuronal degenerative changes. We show that age-dependent vascular damage in pericyte-deficient mice precedes neuronal degenerative changes, learning and memory impairment and the neuroinflammatory response. Thus, pericytes control key neurovascular functions that are necessary for proper neuronal structure and function, and pericytes loss results in a progressive age-dependent vascular-mediated neurodegeneration. PMID:21040844

  7. An Active Lifestyle is Associated with Better Neurocognitive Functioning in Adults Living with HIV-infection

    PubMed Central

    Fazeli, Pariya L.; Woods, Steven Paul; Heaton, Robert K.; Umlauf, Anya; Gouaux, Ben; Rosario, Debra; Moore, Raeanne C.; Grant, Igor; Moore, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Studies of healthy adults show that engagement in physical, social, and mental activities is associated with better cognitive outcomes, suggesting these activities may increase cognitive reserve. Given the prevalence and real-world impact of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), the present study examined the association between neurocognitive outcomes and self-reported proxies for physical exercise, social activity, and mental activity (employment was used as a proxy for mental activity) among 139 HIV-infected adults (Mage = 48.7; 48% age 50+). Participants completed a neuromedical and neuropsychological battery and were classified based on the number of self-reported active lifestyle factors (ALFs; 0 to 3), including physical exercise, social activity, and current employment. The association between ALFs and both demographically-adjusted average neuropsychological T-scores and HAND diagnoses were examined. Results revealed that an increased number of ALFs was associated with better global neurocognitive performance as well as a lower prevalence of HAND. These cross-sectional findings suggest that an active engagement in life may bolster neurocognitive functioning, perhaps by enhancing cognitive and/or brain reserve. However, an alternative explanation might be that persons with better neurocognitive functioning are more inclined and able to engage in these life activities. Future studies should utilize neuroimaging methodology, longitudinal data, and interventional approaches to establish cause-effect relationships and uncover the neural mechanisms whereby physical, social, and mental stimulation may protect neurocognition via cognitive reserve among those living with HIV. PMID:24554483

  8. Progerin expression disrupts critical adult stem cell functions involved in tissue repair.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Laurin Marie; Gomez, Lourdes Adriana; Dias, Janice; Ziebarth, Noel M; Howard, Guy A; Schiller, Paul C

    2014-12-01

    Vascular disease is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Vascular repair, essential for tissue maintenance, is critically reduced during vascular disease and aging. Efficient vascular repair requires functional adult stem cells unimpaired by aging or mutation. One protein candidate for reducing stem cell?mediated vascular repair is progerin, an alternative splice variant of lamin A. Progerin results from erroneous activation of cryptic splice sites within the LMNA gene, and significantly increases during aging. Mutations triggering progerin overexpression cause the premature aging disorder Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS), in which patients die at approximately 13-years of age due to atherosclerosis-induced disease. Progerin expression affects tissues rich in cells that can be derived from marrow stromal cells (MSCs. Studies using various MSC subpopulations and models have led to discrepant results. Using a well-defined, immature subpopulation of MSCs, Marrow Isolated Adult Multilineage Inducible (MIAMI) cells, we find progerin significantly disrupts expression and localization of self-renewal markers, proliferation, migration, and membrane elasticity. One potential treatment, farnesyltransferase inhibitor, ameliorates some of these effects. Our results confirm proposed progerin-induced mechanisms and suggest novel ways in which progerin disturbs critical stem cell functions collectively required for proper tissue repair, offering promising treatment targets for future therapies. PMID:25567453

  9. Dietary resistant starch improves selected brain and behavioral functions in adult and aged rodents.

    PubMed

    Zhou, June; Keenan, Michael J; Fernandez-Kim, Sun Ok; Pistell, Paul J; Ingram, Donald K; Li, Bing; Raggio, Anne M; Shen, Li; Zhang, Hanjie; McCutcheon, Kathleen L; Tulley, Richard T; Blackman, Marc R; Keller, Jeffrey N; Martin, Roy J

    2013-11-01

    Resistant starch (RS) is a dietary fiber that exerts multiple beneficial effects. The current study explored the effects of dietary RS on selected brain and behavioral functions in adult and aged rodents. Because glucokinase (GK) expression in hypothalamic arcuate nucleus and area postrema of the brainstem is important for brain glucose sensing, GK mRNA was measured by brain nuclei microdissection and PCR. Adult RS-fed rats had a higher GK mRNA than controls in both brain nuclei, an indicator of improved brain glucose sensing. Next, we tested whether dietary RS improve selected behaviors in aged mice. RS-fed aged mice exhibited (i) an increased eating responses to fasting, a behavioral indicator of improvement in aged brain glucose sensing; (ii) a longer latency to fall from an accelerating rotarod, a behavioral indicator of improved motor coordination; and (iii) a higher serum active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Then, GLP-1 receptor null (GLP-1RKO) mice were used to test the role of GLP-1 in brain glucose sensing, and they exhibited impaired eating responses to fasting. We conclude that in rodents (i) dietary RS improves two important indicators of brain function: glucose sensing and motor coordination, and (ii) GLP-1 is important in the optimal feeding response to a fast. PMID:23818307

  10. Psychosocial functioning in adults with beta-thalassaemia major: evidence for resilience.

    PubMed

    Zani, Bruna; Prati, Gabriele

    2015-04-01

    Our aims were to compare the psychosocial functioning of a sample of adults with beta-thalassaemia major to that of a control sample and to examine the protective role of quality of relationship with parents during adolescence and perceived quality of care. A total of 85 Italian beta-thalassaemia major participants and 73 controls completed an ad hoc questionnaire. Compared with controls, beta-thalassaemia major participants did not differ on relationships with significant others and coping strategies. Beta-thalassaemia major participants reported higher scores on job satisfaction, self-esteem and self-description. The relationship with parents during adolescence and the perceived quality of care significantly predicted higher well-being and psychosocial functioning. PMID:24058126

  11. Feeding Mechanisms of Adult Lepidoptera: Structure, Function, and Evolution of the Mouthparts

    PubMed Central

    Krenn, Harald W.

    2014-01-01

    The form and function of the mouthparts in adult Lepidoptera and their feeding behavior are reviewed from evolutionary and ecological points of view. The formation of the suctorial proboscis encompasses a fluid-tight food tube, special linking structures, modified sensory equipment, and novel intrinsic musculature. The evolution of these functionally important traits can be reconstructed within the Lepidoptera. The proboscis movements are explained by a hydraulic mechanism for uncoiling, whereas recoiling is governed by the intrinsic proboscis musculature and the cuticular elasticity. Fluid uptake is accomplished by the action of the cranial sucking pump, which enables uptake of a wide range of fluid quantities from different food sources. Nectar-feeding species exhibit stereotypical proboscis movements during flower handling. Behavioral modifications and derived proboscis morphology are often associated with specialized feeding preferences or an obligatory switch to alternative food sources. PMID:19961330

  12. Fund of Information is More Strongly Associated with Neuropsychological Functioning Than Education in Older Spanish Adults.

    PubMed

    Correia, Rut; Nieto, Antonieta; Ferreira, Daniel; Sabucedo, María; Barroso, Jose

    2015-06-01

    Educational influence on cognitive performance has been extensively agreed in Neuropsychology. Nonetheless, recent studies highlighted the need of better measurements to assess benefit from the schooling experience in order to further understand schooling influence on cognition. The WAIS-III Information subtest is proposed here to measure this influence at old age. Ninety-five older adults were divided according to their educational attainment and their Information subtest score, and completed extensive neuropsychological assessment. Performance on the Information subtest had a significant effect on all same cognitive functions as educational attainment, but also on additional domains. Moreover, cognitive performance on several tasks can be classified in three levels as a function of Information score. The WAIS-III Information subtest could be of special interest as a measurement of the benefit from educational experience not only to study cognition in Spanish older populations but also heterogeneous samples in terms of educational experiences and environments. PMID:25762800

  13. Bone mineral density, thyroid function, and gonadal status in young adult survivors of childhood cancer

    PubMed Central

    Muszy?ska-Ros?an, Katarzyna; Panas, Agata; Panasiuk, Anna; Rutkowska-?elazowska, Beata; Konstantynowicz, Jerzy; Krawczuk-Rybak, Maryna

    2014-01-01

    Introduction During the last years, changes in the diagnosis and treatment have caused a significant increase of the number of young adults who experienced cancer in childhood. This enlarging population is affected by many health problems, including multiple hormone deficiencies and bone mineral deficits. This is the first polish study assessing bone mineral density and endocrine status in young adult cancer survivors. Material and methods A total of 76 long-term survivors treated for pediatric cancer were identified. The mean age at the time of study was 24.1 ±3.5 years. Bone mineral density and TSH, fT3, fT4, FSH, LH, estradiol and testosterone level were assessed for each patient. Results Nine subjects were diagnosed with subclinical hypothyroidism. We found higher level of TSH in the study group, in comparison with control group (p = 0.015). Eighteen patients had increased level of FSH. In the study group higher number of patients with high FSH level was found in comparison with the control group (p = 0.049). A low BMD was observed in 7 patients whereas mild BMD deficits were found in 19 participants. Conclusions In conclusion, our data show that young adult cancer survivors might experienced various hormonal problems including low bone mass, thyroid impairment and gonadal dysfunction. Some of the patients required treatment, but they were not diagnosed before this study. There is the lack of proper clinical assessment among adult childhood cancer survivors in Poland. Therefore, we demonstrated the need for a comprehensive plan for longitudinal follow-up for late effects in these population.

  14. Testing a family-centered intervention to promote functional and cognitive recovery in hospitalized older adults.

    PubMed

    Boltz, Marie; Resnick, Barbara; Chippendale, Tracy; Galvin, James

    2014-12-01

    A comparative trial using a repeated-measures design was designed to evaluate the feasibility and outcomes of the Family-Centered Function-Focused-Care (Fam-FFC) intervention, which is intended to promote functional recovery in hospitalized older adults. A family-centered resource nurse and a facility champion implemented a three-component intervention (environmental assessment and modification, staff education, individual and family education and partnership in care planning with follow-up after hospitalization for an acute illness). Control units were exposed to function-focused-care education only. Ninety-seven dyads of medical patients aged 65 and older and family caregivers (FCGs) were recruited from three medical units of a community teaching hospital. Fifty-three percent of patients were female, 89% were white, 51% were married, and 40% were widowed, and they had a mean age of 80.8 ± 7.5. Seventy-eight percent of FCGs were married, 34% were daughters, 31% were female spouses or partners, and 38% were aged 46 to 65. Patient outcomes included functional outcomes (activities of daily living (ADLs), walking performance, gait, balance) and delirium severity and duration. FCG outcomes included preparedness for caregiving, anxiety, depression, role strain, and mutuality. The intervention group demonstrated less severity and shorter duration of delirium and better ADL and walking performance but not better gait and balance performance than the control group. FCGs who participated in Fam-FFC showed a significant increase in preparedness for caregiving and a decrease in anxiety and depression from admission to 2 months after discharge but no significant differences in strain or quality of the relationship with the care recipient from FCGs in the control group. Fam-FFC is feasible and has the potential to improve outcomes for hospitalized older adults and their caregivers. PMID:25481973

  15. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND RAPID DECLINE IN KIDNEY FUNCTION AMONG OLDER ADULTS

    PubMed Central

    Robinson-Cohen, Cassianne; Katz, Ronit; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Dalrymple, Lorien S; de Boer, Ian; Sarnak, Mark; Shlipak, Mike; Siscovick, David; Kestenbaum, Bryan

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Physical activity promotes diverse metabolic benefits that may moderate the long-term risk of progressive kidney dysfunction. OBJECTIVE To test the hypothesis that greater physical activity is associated with a lower risk of rapid kidney function decline among a general population of older adults. DESIGN Prospective cohort study of community-dwelling older men and women. SETTING Community-based sample in 4 U.S. sites recruited from Medicare eligibility files. PARTICIPANTS A total of 5888 men and women aged 65 years or older participating in the Cardiovascular Health Study. Participants who did not complete at least two measurements of kidney function, those who were unable to complete basic household chores, and those with missing physical activity data were excluded, leaving 4011 participants for analysis. MAIN EXPOSURE MEASURE Physical activity score calculated by summation of leisure-time activity (ordinal score of 1–5 for quintiles of 105, 480, 1012.5, and 2089 kilocalories per week) and walking pace (ordinal score of 1–3 for categories of less than 2, 2–3, and greater than 3 miles per hour). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE Rapid kidney function decline, defined by the loss of >3.0 mL/min per 1.73 m2 per year in the estimated glomerular filtration rate, calculated using longitudinal serum measurements of cystatin C. RESULTS There were 958 participants (23.9%) with a rapid decline in kidney function, (4.1 events per 100 person-years). The estimated risk of rapid kidney function decline was 16% in the highest physical activity group and 30% in the lowest physical activity group. After full adjustment for demographics, clinical, and subclinical disease characteristics, the two highest physical activity groups were associated with a 28% lower (95% CI: 21% to 41% lower) risk of rapid kidney function decline, compared to the two lowest physical activity groups. Greater kilocalories of leisure time physical activity, walking pace, and exercise intensity were each also associated with a lower incidence of rapid kidney function decline. CONCLUSION Greater physical activity is associated with a lower risk of rapid kidney function decline among older adults. PMID:20008696

  16. Physiologic Dysfunction Scores and Cognitive Function Test Performance in United States Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kobrosly, Roni W; Seplaki, Christopher L; Jones, Courtney M; van Wijngaarden, Edwin

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between a measure of cumulative physiologic dysfunction and specific domains of cognitive function. Methods We examined a summary score measuring physiological dysfunction, a multisystem measure of the body’s ability to effectively adapt to physical and psychological demands, in relation to cognitive function deficits in a population of 4511 adults aged 20 to 59 who participated in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988–1994). Measures of cognitive function comprised three domains: working memory, visuomotor speed, and perceptual-motor speed. ‘Physiologic dysfunction’ scores summarizing measures of cardiovascular, immunologic, kidney, and liver function were explored. We used multiple linear regression models to estimate associations between cognitive function measures and physiological dysfunction scores, adjusting for socioeconomic factors, test conditions, and self-reported health factors. Results We noted a dose-response relationship between physiologic dysfunction and working memory (coefficient = 0.207, 95% CI = (0.066, 0.348), p < 0.0001) that persisted after adjustment for all covariates (p = 0.03). We did not observe any significant relationships between dysfunction scores and visuomotor (p = 0.37) or perceptual-motor ability (p = 0.33). Conclusions Our findings suggest that multisystem physiologic dysfunction is associated with working memory. Future longitudinal studies are needed to clarify the underlying mechanisms and explore the persistency of this association into later life. We suggest that such studies should incorporate physiologic data, neuroendocrine parameters, and a wide range of specific cognitive domains. PMID:22155941

  17. Functional outcomes of child and adolescent ODD symptoms in young adult men

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Jeffrey D.; Rowe, Richard; Boylan, Khrista

    2013-01-01

    Background ODD is considered to be a disorder of childhood, yet evidence suggests that prevalence rates of the disorder are stable into late adolescence and trajectories of symptoms persist into young adulthood. Functional outcomes associated with ODD through childhood and adolescence include conflict within families, poor peer relationships, peer rejection and academic difficulties. Little examination of functional outcomes in adulthood associated with ODD has been undertaken. Method Data for the present analyses come from a clinic referred sample of 177 boys aged 7 to 12 followed up annually to age 18 and again at age 24. Annual parental report of psychopathology through adolescence was used to predict self-reported functional outcomes at 24. Results Controlling for parent reported symptoms of ADHD, CD, depression and anxiety, ODD symptoms from childhood through adolescence predicted poorer age 24 functioning with peers, poorer romantic relationships, a poorer paternal relationship, and having nobody who would provide a recommendation for a job. CD symptoms predicted workplace problems, poor maternal relationship, lower academic attainment and violent injuries. Only parent reported ODD symptoms and child reported CD symptoms predicted a composite of poor adult outcomes. Conclusion ODD is a disorder that significantly interferes with functioning, particularly in social or interpersonal relationships. The persistence of impairment associated with ODD into young adulthood calls for a reconsideration of ODD as a disorder limited to childhood. PMID:24117754

  18. The effects of ageing on respiratory muscle function and performance in older adults.

    PubMed

    Watsford, Mark L; Murphy, Aron J; Pine, Matthew J

    2007-02-01

    The reduced physiological capacity evident with ageing may affect the ability to perform many tasks, potentially affecting quality of life. Previous research has clearly demonstrated the reduced capacity of the respiratory system with ageing and described the effect that habitual physical activity has upon this decline. This research aimed to examine the influence of age on respiratory muscle (RM) function and the relationship between RM function and physical performance within the Australian population. Seventy-two healthy older adults (50-79 years) were divided into males (n=36) and females (n=36) and examined for pulmonary function, RM strength, inspiratory muscle endurance (IME) and 1.6 km walking performance. There were no significant age by gender effects for any variables; however, ageing was significantly related to reduced RM function and walking capacity within each gender. Furthermore, regression analysis showed that the RM strength could be predicted from age. Partial correlations controlling for age indicated that expiratory muscle strength was significantly related to walking performance in males (p=0.04), whilst IME contributed significantly to walking performance in all participants. These within-gender effects and relationships indicate that RM strength is an important physiological variable to maintain in the older population, as it may be related to functional ability. PMID:16814604

  19. Ablation of NG2 Proteoglycan Leads to Deficits in Brown Fat Function and to Adult Onset Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yunchao; She, Zhi-Gang; Sakimura, Kenji; Roberts, Amanda; Kucharova, Karolina; Rowitch, David H.; Stallcup, William B.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a major health problem worldwide. We are studying the causes and effects of obesity in C57Bl/6 mice following genetic ablation of NG2, a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan widely expressed in progenitor cells and also in adipocytes. Although global NG2 ablation delays early postnatal adipogenesis in mouse skin, adult NG2 null mice are paradoxically heavier than wild-type mice, exhibiting larger white fat deposits. This adult onset obesity is not due to NG2-dependent effects on CNS function, since specific ablation of NG2 in oligodendrocyte progenitors yields the opposite phenotype; i.e. abnormally lean mice. Metabolic analysis reveals that, while activity and food intake are unchanged in global NG2 null mice, O2 consumption and CO2 production are decreased, suggesting a decrease in energy expenditure. Since brown fat plays important roles in regulating energy expenditure, we have investigated brown fat function via cold challenge and high fat diet feeding, both of which induce the adaptive thermogenesis that normally occurs in brown fat. In both tests, body temperatures in NG2 null mice are reduced compared to wild-type mice, indicating a deficit in brown fat function in the absence of NG2. In addition, adipogenesis in NG2 null brown pre-adipocytes is dramatically impaired compared to wild-type counterparts. Moreover, mRNA levels for PR domain containing 16 (PRDM16) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? coactivator (PGC)1-?, proteins important for brown adipocyte differentiation, are decreased in NG2 null brown fat deposits in vivo and NG2 null brown pre-adipocytes in vitro. Altogether, these results indicate that brown fat dysfunction in NG2 null mice results from deficits in the recruitment and/or development of brown pre-adipocytes. As a consequence, obesity in NG2 null mice may occur due to disruptions in brown fat-dependent energy homeostasis, with resulting effects on lipid storage in white adipocytes. PMID:22295099

  20. Outcome measures for hand function naturally reveal three latent domains in older adults: strength, coordinated upper extremity function, and sensorimotor processing.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Emily L; Dayanidhi, Sudarshan; Fassola, Isabella; Requejo, Philip; Leclercq, Caroline; Winstein, Carolee J; Valero-Cuevas, Francisco J

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the mapping between individual outcome measures and the latent functional domains of interest is critical to a quantitative evaluation and rehabilitation of hand function. We examined whether and how the associations among six hand-specific outcome measures reveal latent functional domains in elderly individuals. We asked 66 healthy older adult participants (38F, 28M, 66.1 ± 11.6 years, range: 45-88 years) and 33 older adults (65.8 ± 9.7 years, 44-81 years, 51 hands) diagnosed with osteoarthritis (OA) of the carpometacarpal (CMC) joint, to complete six functional assessments: hand strength (Grip, Key and Precision Pinch), Box and Block, Nine Hole Pegboard, and Strength-Dexterity tests. The first three principal components suffice to explain 86% of variance among the six outcome measures in healthy older adults, and 84% of variance in older adults with CMC OA. The composition of these dominant associations revealed three distinct latent functional domains: strength, coordinated upper extremity function, and sensorimotor processing. Furthermore, in participants with thumb CMC OA we found a blurring of the associations between the latent functional domains of strength and coordinated upper extremity function. This motivates future work to understand how the physiological effects of thumb CMC OA lead upper extremity coordination to become strongly associated with strength, while dynamic sensorimotor ability remains an independent functional domain. Thus, when assessing the level of hand function in our growing older adult populations, it is particularly important to acknowledge its multidimensional nature-and explicitly consider how each outcome measure maps to these three latent and fundamental domains of function. Moreover, this ability to distinguish among latent functional domains may facilitate the design of treatment modalities to target the rehabilitation of each of them. PMID:26097455

  1. Outcome measures for hand function naturally reveal three latent domains in older adults: strength, coordinated upper extremity function, and sensorimotor processing

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Emily L.; Dayanidhi, Sudarshan; Fassola, Isabella; Requejo, Philip; Leclercq, Caroline; Winstein, Carolee J.; Valero-Cuevas, Francisco J.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the mapping between individual outcome measures and the latent functional domains of interest is critical to a quantitative evaluation and rehabilitation of hand function. We examined whether and how the associations among six hand-specific outcome measures reveal latent functional domains in elderly individuals. We asked 66 healthy older adult participants (38F, 28M, 66.1 ± 11.6 years, range: 45–88 years) and 33 older adults (65.8 ± 9.7 years, 44–81 years, 51 hands) diagnosed with osteoarthritis (OA) of the carpometacarpal (CMC) joint, to complete six functional assessments: hand strength (Grip, Key and Precision Pinch), Box and Block, Nine Hole Pegboard, and Strength-Dexterity tests. The first three principal components suffice to explain 86% of variance among the six outcome measures in healthy older adults, and 84% of variance in older adults with CMC OA. The composition of these dominant associations revealed three distinct latent functional domains: strength, coordinated upper extremity function, and sensorimotor processing. Furthermore, in participants with thumb CMC OA we found a blurring of the associations between the latent functional domains of strength and coordinated upper extremity function. This motivates future work to understand how the physiological effects of thumb CMC OA lead upper extremity coordination to become strongly associated with strength, while dynamic sensorimotor ability remains an independent functional domain. Thus, when assessing the level of hand function in our growing older adult populations, it is particularly important to acknowledge its multidimensional nature—and explicitly consider how each outcome measure maps to these three latent and fundamental domains of function. Moreover, this ability to distinguish among latent functional domains may facilitate the design of treatment modalities to target the rehabilitation of each of them.

  2. Symbolic Prejudice or Fear of Infection? A Functional Analysis of AIDS-Related Stigma Among Heterosexual Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory M. Herek; John P. Capitanio

    1998-01-01

    To determine whether attitudes toward a stigmatized group are primarily instrumental or symbolic, multiple aspects of AIDS stigma were assessed in a two-wave telephone survey with a national probability sample of adults (N = 382). Using responses to the Attitude Functions Inventory (AFI), respondents were categorized according to the dominant psychological function served by their attitudes: (1) evaluative (based on

  3. Published models and local data can bridge the gap between reference values of lung function for children and adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Nysom; C. S. Ulrik; B. Hesse; A. Dirksen

    1997-01-01

    Published models and local data can bridge the gap between reference values of lung function for children and adults. K. Nysom, C.S. Ulrik, B. Hesse, A. Dirksen. ?ERS Journals Ltd 1997. ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to create reference equations for pul- monary function tests (PFTs) that span the age range from childhood to young adulthood. PFT results

  4. The effects of perinatal/juvenile methoxychlor exposure on adult rat nervous, immune, and reproductive system function.

    PubMed

    Chapin, R E; Harris, M W; Davis, B J; Ward, S M; Wilson, R E; Mauney, M A; Lockhart, A C; Smialowicz, R J; Moser, V C; Burka, L T; Collins, B J

    1997-11-01

    In order to address data gaps identified by the NAS report Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children, a study was performed using methoxychlor (MXC). Female rats were gavaged with MXC at 0, 5, 50, or 150 mg/kg/day for the week before and the week after birth, whereupon the pups were directly dosed with MXC from postnatal day (pnd) 7. Some dams were killed pnd7 and milk and plasma were assayed for MXC and metabolites. For one cohort of juveniles, treatment stopped at pnd21; a modified functional observational battery was used to assess neurobehavioral changes. Other cohorts of juveniles were dosed until pnd42 and evaluated for changes to the immune system and for reproductive toxicity. Dose-dependent amounts of MXC and metabolites were present in milk and plasma of dams and pups. The high dose of MXC reduced litter size by approximately 17%. Ano-genital distance was unchanged, although vaginal opening was accelerated in all treated groups, and male prepuce separation was delayed at the middle and high doses by 8 and 34 days, respectively. In the neurobehavioral evaluation, high-dose males were more excitable, but other changes were inconsistent and insubstantial. A decrease in the antibody plaque-forming cell response was seen in males only. Adult estrous cyclicity was disrupted at 50 and 150 MXC, doses which also showed reduced rates of pregnancy and delivery. Uterine weights (corrected for pregnancy) were reduced in all treated pregnant females. High-dose males impregnated fewer untreated females; epididymal sperm count and testis weight were reduced at the high, or top two, doses, respectively. All groups of treated females showed uterine dysplasias and less mammary alveolar development; estrous levels of follicle stimulating hormone were lower in all treated groups, and estrus progesterone levels were lower at 50 and 150 MXC, attributed to fewer corpora lutea secondary to ovulation defects. These data collectively show that the primary adult effects of early exposure to MXC are reproductive, show that 5 mg/kg/day is not a NO(A)EL in rats with this exposure paradigm (based on changes in day of vaginal opening, pubertal ovary weights, adult uterine and seminal vesicle weights, and female hormone data) and imply that the sites of action are both central and peripheral. PMID:9398496

  5. Diagnosing High Incidence Autism Spectrum Disorders in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Neal, Daniene

    2009-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), particularly the high incidence conditions of autism, PDD NOS, and Asperger's Syndrome, have become increasingly popular topics of study in the mental health field. Traditionally, the focus has been on young children and early recognition and diagnosis. However, given that these conditions are life long in nature,…

  6. IQ-Based Norms for Highly Intelligent Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dorene M. Rentz; Lisa M. Sardinha; Terri J. Huh; Meghan M. Searl; Kirk R. Daffner; Reisa A. Sperling

    2006-01-01

    This study presents normative data of commonly used neuropsychological tests administered to 75 individuals with high levels of intelligence (estimated IQ ? 120). Participants were living independently in the community with ages ranging from 44 to 86. To avoid including individuals with an incipient dementia, we selected subjects who scored within the normal range on all cognitive tests for at least a

  7. The Impact of Depressive Symptoms in Adults with ADHD Symptoms on Family Function and ADHD Symptoms of Their Children

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Soon-Beom; Lee, Jong-Ha; Chun, Duk Hee; Shin, Min-Sup; Yoo, Hee-Jeong; Kim, Boong-Nyun; Cho, Soo-Churl

    2014-01-01

    Objective People with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) exhibit considerable impairment in social, academic, or occupational functioning. The present study aimed to examine the patterns of associations between ADHD symptoms, depression, and family functioning. Methods The sample consisted of 1,022 adults randomly selected from a district in Seoul, South Korea. Several self-assessment scales were utilized to rate ADHD symptoms (both past and current), current symptoms of depression, and level of family functioning. ADHD symptoms in the children of these participants were also assessed. Pearson's correlation and multiple linear regression analyses were performed; structural equation modeling (SEM) was conducted to determine the best fitting model. Results Adult ADHD symptoms were positively associated with depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms, in turn, mediated the relationship between adult ADHD symptoms and cohesion among family members. In addition, depressive symptoms mediated the relationship between adult ADHD symptoms and their children's ADHD symptoms. Conclusion The relationship between adult ADHD symptoms and family dysfunction may be influenced by depressive symptoms. When treating ADHD in adults, clinicians should pay attention to the presence or absence of depression. PMID:24843366

  8. Use of the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) for Children with High Functioning Autism or Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Murray, Michael J.; Morrow, Jill D.; Yurich, Kirsten K. L.; Cothren, Shiyoko; Purichia, Heather; Mahr, Fauzia; Bouder, James N.; Petersen, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The authors of the "Childhood Autism Rating Scale" (CARS) state in the manual that the best cutoff score for distinguishing low functioning autism (LFA) from intellectual disability is 30 for children and 28 for adolescents and adults. This study determined that a cutoff score of 25.5 was most accurate in differentiating between high functioning

  9. Vision Therapy in Adults with Convergence Insufficiency: Clinical and Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Measures

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Tara L.; Vicci, Vincent R.; Alkan, Yelda; Kim, Eun H.; Gohel, Suril; Barrett, Anna M.; Chiaravalloti, Nancy; Biswal, Bharat B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This research quantified clinical measurements and functional neural changes associated with vision therapy in subjects with convergence insufficiency (CI). Methods Convergence and divergence 4° step responses were compared between 13 control adult subjects with normal binocular vision and four CI adult subjects. All CI subjects participated in 18 h of vision therapy. Clinical parameters quantified throughout the therapy included: nearpoint of convergence, recovery point of convergence, positive fusional vergence at near, near dissociated phoria, and eye movements that were quantified using peak velocity. Neural correlates of the CI subjects were quantified with functional magnetic resonance imaging scans comparing random vs. predictable vergence movements using a block design before and after vision therapy. Images were quantified by measuring the spatial extent of activation and the average correlation within five regions of interests (ROI). The ROIs were the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, a portion of the frontal lobe, part of the parietal lobe, the cerebellum, and the brain stem. All measurements were repeated 4 months to 1 year post-therapy in three of the CI subjects. Results Convergence average peak velocities to step stimuli were significantly slower (p = 0.016) in CI subjects compared with controls; however, significant differences in average peak velocities were not observed for divergence step responses (p = 0.30). The investigation of CI subjects participating in vision therapy showed that the nearpoint of convergence, recovery point of convergence, and near dissociated phoria significantly decreased. Furthermore, the positive fusional vergence, average peak velocity from 4° convergence steps, and the amount of functional activity within the frontal areas, cerebellum, and brain stem significantly increased. Several clinical and cortical parameters were significantly correlated. Conclusions Convergence peak velocity was significantly slower in CI subjects compared with controls, which may result in asthenopic complaints reported by the CI subjects. Vision therapy was associated with and may have evoked clinical and cortical activity changes. PMID:21057347

  10. High-throughput imaging of adult fluorescent zebrafish with an LED fluorescence macroscope

    PubMed Central

    Blackburn, Jessica S; Liu, Sali; Raimondi, Aubrey R; Ignatius, Myron S; Salthouse, Christopher D; Langenau, David M

    2011-01-01

    Zebrafish are a useful vertebrate model for the study of development, behavior, disease and cancer. A major advantage of zebrafish is that large numbers of animals can be economically used for experimentation; however, high-throughput methods for imaging live adult zebrafish had not been developed. Here, we describe protocols for building a light-emitting diode (LED) fluorescence macroscope and for using it to simultaneously image up to 30 adult animals that transgenically express a fluorescent protein, are transplanted with fluorescently labeled tumor cells or are tagged with fluorescent elastomers. These protocols show that the LED fluorescence macroscope is capable of distinguishing five fluorescent proteins and can image unanesthetized swimming adult zebrafish in multiple fluorescent channels simultaneously. The macroscope can be built and used for imaging within 1 day, whereas creating fluorescently labeled adult zebrafish requires 1 hour to several months, depending on the method chosen. The LED fluorescence macroscope provides a low-cost, high-throughput method to rapidly screen adult fluorescent zebrafish and it will be useful for imaging transgenic animals, screening for tumor engraftment, and tagging individual fish for long-term analysis. PMID:21293462

  11. Judgments of social awkwardness from brief exposure to children with and without high-functioning autism.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Ruth B

    2015-07-01

    We form first impressions of many traits based on very short interactions. This study examines whether typical adults judge children with high-functioning autism to be more socially awkward than their typically developing peers based on very brief exposure to still images, audio-visual, video-only, or audio-only information. We used video and audio recordings of children with and without high-functioning autism captured during a story-retelling task. Typically developing adults were presented with 1?s and 3?s clips of these children, as well as still images, and asked to judge whether the person in the clip was socially awkward. Our findings show that participants who are naïve to diagnostic differences between the children in the clips judged children with high-functioning autism to be socially awkward at a significantly higher rate than their typically developing peers. These results remain consistent for exposures as short as 1?s to visual and/or auditory information, as well as for still images. These data suggest that typical adults use subtle nonverbal and non-linguistic cues produced by children with high-functioning autism to form rapid judgments of social awkwardness with the potential for significant repercussions in social interactions. PMID:24923894

  12. Characterization and Functional Properties of Gastric Tissue-Resident Memory T Cells from Children, Adults, and the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Jayaum S.; Toapanta, Franklin R.; Salerno-Goncalves, Rosangela; Patil, Seema; Kader, Howard A.; Safta, Anca M.; Czinn, Steven J.; Greenwald, Bruce D.; Sztein, Marcelo B.

    2014-01-01

    T cells are the main orchestrators of protective immunity in the stomach; however, limited information on the presence and function of the gastric T subsets is available mainly due to the difficulty in recovering high numbers of viable cells from human gastric biopsies. To overcome this shortcoming we optimized a cell isolation method that yielded high numbers of viable lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMC) from gastric biopsies. Classic memory T subsets were identified in gastric LPMC and compared to peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) obtained from children, adults, and the elderly using an optimized 14 color flow cytometry panel. A dominant effector memory T (TEM) phenotype was observed in gastric LPMC CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in all age groups. We then evaluated whether these cells represented a population of gastric tissue-resident memory T (TRM) cells by assessing expression of CD103 and CD69. The vast majority of gastric LPMC CD8+ T cells either co-expressed CD103/CD69 (>70%) or expressed CD103 alone (~20%). Gastric LPMC CD4+ T cells also either co-expressed CD103/CD69 (>35%) or expressed at least one of these markers. Thus, gastric LPMC CD8+ and CD4+ T cells had the characteristics of TRM cells. Gastric CD8+ and CD4+ TRM cells produced multiple cytokines (IFN-?, IL-2, TNF-?, IL-17A, MIP-1?) and up-regulated CD107a upon stimulation. However, marked differences were observed in their cytokine and multi-cytokine profiles when compared to their PBMC TEM counterparts. Furthermore, gastric CD8+ TRM and CD4+ TRM cells demonstrated differences in the frequency, susceptibility to activation, and cytokine/multi-cytokine production profiles among the age groups. Most notably, children’s gastric TRM cells responded differently to stimuli than gastric TRM cells from adults or the elderly. In conclusion, we demonstrate the presence of gastric TRM, which exhibit diverse functional characteristics in children, adults, and the elderly. PMID:24995010

  13. An evolutionary perspective on adult female germline stem cell function from flies to humans.

    PubMed

    Woods, Dori C; Tilly, Jonathan L

    2013-01-01

    The concept that oogenesis continues into reproductive life has been well established in nonmammalian species. Recent studies of mice and women indicate that oocyte formation is also not, as traditionally believed, restricted to the fetal or perinatal periods. Analogous to de novo oocyte formation in flies and fish, newly formed oocytes in adult mammalian ovaries arise from germline stem cells (GSCs) or, more specifically, oogonial stem cells (OSCs). Studies of mice have confirmed that isolated OSCs, once delivered back into adult ovaries, are capable of generating fully functional eggs that fertilize to produce healthy embryos and offspring. Parallel studies of OSCs recently purified from ovaries of reproductive-age women indicate that these cells closely resemble their mouse ovary-derived counterparts, although the fertilization competency of oocytes generated by human OSCs awaits clarification. Despite the ability of OSCs to produce new oocytes during adulthood, oogenesis will still ultimately cease with age, contributing to ovarian failure. The causal mechanisms behind these events in mammals are unknown, but studies of flies have revealed that GSC niche dysfunction plays a critical role in age-related oogenic failure. Such insights derived from evaluation of nonmammalian species, in which postnatal oogenesis has been studied in depth, may aid in development of new strategies to alleviate ovarian failure and infertility in mammals. PMID:23329633

  14. 3D culture of adult mouse neural stem cells within functionalized self-assembling peptide scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Carla; Panseri, Silvia; Villa, Omar; Silva, Diego; Gelain, Fabrizio

    2011-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) in vitro models of cell culture aim to fill the gap between the standard two-dimensional cell studies and the in vivo environment. Especially for neural tissue regeneration approaches where there is little regenerative capacity, these models are important for mimicking the extracellular matrix in providing support, allowing the natural flow of oxygen, nutrients, and growth factors, and possibly favoring neural cell regrowth. We have previously demonstrated that a new self-assembling nanostructured biomaterial, based on matrigel, was able to support adult neural stem cell (NSC) culture. In this study, we developed a new 3D cell culture system that takes advantage of the nano- and microfiber assembling process, under physiologic conditions, of these biomaterials. The assembled scaffold forms an intricate and biologically active matrix that displays specifically designed functional motifs: RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp), BMHP1 (bone marrow homing peptide 1), and BMHP2, for the culture of adult NSCs. These scaffolds were prepared at different concentrations, and microscopic examination of the cell-embedded scaffolds showed that NSCs are viable and they proliferate and differentiate within the nanostructured environment of the scaffold. Such a model has the potential to be tailored to develop ad hoc designed peptides for specific cell lines. PMID:21720506

  15. Specific ablation of Nampt in adult neural stem cells recapitulates their functional defects during aging

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Liana R; Imai, Shin-ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Neural stem/progenitor cell (NSPC) proliferation and self-renewal, as well as insult-induced differentiation, decrease markedly with age. The molecular mechanisms responsible for these declines remain unclear. Here, we show that levels of NAD+ and nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt), the rate-limiting enzyme in mammalian NAD+ biosynthesis, decrease with age in the hippocampus. Ablation of Nampt in adult NSPCs reduced their pool and proliferation in vivo. The decrease in the NSPC pool during aging can be rescued by enhancing hippocampal NAD+ levels. Nampt is the main source of NSPC NAD+ levels and required for G1/S progression of the NSPC cell cycle. Nampt is also critical in oligodendrocytic lineage fate decisions through a mechanism mediated redundantly by Sirt1 and Sirt2. Ablation of Nampt in the adult NSPCs in vivo reduced NSPC-mediated oligodendrogenesis upon insult. These phenotypes recapitulate defects in NSPCs during aging, giving rise to the possibility that Nampt-mediated NAD+ biosynthesis is a mediator of age-associated functional declines in NSPCs. PMID:24811750

  16. The Effects of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation on Cardiopulmonary Function in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lee, So Young; Im, Sang Hee; Kim, Bo Ryun; Choi, Jun Hwan; Lee, Seog Jae

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) on cardiopulmonary function in healthy adults. Method Thirty-six healthy adults without a cardiac problem were enrolled. All patients were randomly assigned to either a control (17 subjects, mean age 29.41) or an electrical stimulation group (19 subjects, mean age 29.26). The electrical stimulation group received NMES on both sides of quadriceps muscle using a Walking Man II® in a sitting position for 30 minutes over 2 weeks. Maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max), metabolic equivalent (MET), resting, maximal heart rate (RHR, MHR), resting, maximal blood pressure (RBP, MBP), and maximal rate pressure product (MRPP), exercise tolerance test (ETT) duration were determined using an exercise tolerance test and a 6 minute walk test (6MWT) before and after treatment. Results The electrical stimulation group showed a significant increase in VO2max (p=0.03), 6MWT (p<0.01), MHR (p<0.04), MsBP (p<0.03), ETT duration (p<0.01) and a significant decrease in RsBP (p<0.02) as compared with the control group after two weeks. NMES induced changes improved only in RsBP (p<0.049) and ETT duration (p<0.01). The effects of NMES training were stronger in females. Conclusion We suggest that NMES is an additional therapeutic option for cardiopulmonary exercise in disabled patients with severe refractory heart failure or acute AMI. PMID:23342319

  17. Test-retest reliability of a WRULD functional capacity evaluation in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Soer, R; Gerrits, E H J; Reneman, M F

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine test-retest reliability of a Functional Capacity Evaluation for patients with non-specific Work Related Upper Limb Disorders (WRULD FCE). The study sample included 33 healthy adults, consisting of 14 males and 19 females with a mean age of 29.2 years. The WRULD FCE consisted of 8 different tests including 26 items measuring repetitive movements, duration, working in awkward positions, forceful movements and static postures. Two FCE sessions were held with a 10-day interval. Means, 95% confidence intervals, one-way random Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICCs), 95% limits of agreement and repeated measures were calculated. An ICC between 0.75 and 0.90 was considered as good and an ICC above 0.90 was considered as an excellent reliability. The results showed that 14 of 26 items (54%) had excellent reliability, 9 of 26 items (35%) had good reliability and 3 of 26 items (11%) had moderate reliability based on ICC values. Significant learning effects were present in the Purdue Pegboard Task and in the Complete Minnesota Dexterity Test. It is concluded that the WRULD FCE is reliable in healthy adults. PMID:16720967

  18. Pharmacological stimulation of Edar signaling in the adult enhances sebaceous gland size and function.

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk-Quintas, Christine; Schuepbach-Mallepell, Sonia; Willen, Laure; Smith, Terry K; Huttner, Kenneth; Kirby, Neil; Headon, Denis J; Schneider, Pascal

    2015-02-01

    Impaired ectodysplasin A (EDA) receptor (EDAR) signaling affects ectodermally derived structures including teeth, hair follicles, and cutaneous glands. The X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XLHED), resulting from EDA deficiency, can be rescued with lifelong benefits in animal models by stimulation of ectodermal appendage development with EDAR agonists. Treatments initiated later in the developmental period restore progressively fewer of the affected structures. It is unknown whether EDAR stimulation in adults with XLHED might have beneficial effects. In adult Eda mutant mice treated for several weeks with agonist anti-EDAR antibodies, we find that sebaceous gland size and function can be restored to wild-type levels. This effect is maintained upon chronic treatment but reverses slowly upon cessation of treatment. Sebaceous glands in all skin regions respond to treatment, although to varying degrees, and this is accompanied in both Eda mutant and wild-type mice by sebum secretion to levels higher than those observed in untreated controls. Edar is expressed at the periphery of the glands, suggesting a direct homeostatic effect of Edar stimulation on the sebaceous gland. Sebaceous gland size and sebum production may serve as biomarkers for EDAR stimulation, and EDAR agonists may improve skin dryness and eczema frequently observed in XLHED. PMID:25207818

  19. Adult Attachment Typology in a Sample of High-Risk Mothers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marian S. Harris

    2011-01-01

    This study examined differences in attachment typology, early histories of unresolved trauma and loss, and intergenerational patterns of substance abuse in a high-risk sample of African American, White, Mexican American, and Native American mothers involved with the child welfare system. The Adult Attachment Interview and Chemical Dependency Assessment Profile were used to collect data from 24 mothers who were in-patients

  20. Earth and Physical Science. Nevada Competency-Based Adult High School Diploma Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevada Univ., Las Vegas. Coll. of Education.

    This document is one of ten curriculum guides developed by the Nevada Competency-Based Adult High School Diploma (CBAHSD) Project. This curriculum guide on earth and physical science is divided into twelve topics. The topics included are Geology, Meteorology, Astronomy, Natural Disasters, Chemical Reaction, Laboratory, States of Matter, Force and…

  1. The Impact of High Technology on Vocational, Technical and Adult Education [and] Related Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brill, Donald M.

    In order to respond effectively to the profound impact that high technology has had on the labor market in Wisconsin, members of the Wisconsin Board of Vocational, Technical, and Adult Education (VTAE) must address a number of key human, curriculum, policy, and technological concerns. State VTAE agencies must close ranks, maintain close…

  2. High Hopes in a Grim World. Emerging Adults' Views of Their Futures and "Generation X."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen

    2000-01-01

    Explores views of the future among young adults age 21-28 years, focusing on quality of life, financial well-being, career achievements, and personal relationships. Data from interviews and questionnaires show a sharp distinction between how respondents view their personal futures (with high hopes) and how they view their generation's perspective…

  3. Public library computer training for older adults to access high-quality Internet health information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bo Xie; Julie M. Bugg

    2009-01-01

    An innovative experiment to develop and evaluate a public library computer training program to teach older adults to access and use high-quality Internet health information involved a productive collaboration among public libraries, the National Institute on Aging and the National Library of Medicine of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and a Library and Information Science (LIS) academic program at

  4. Environmental Education. Nevada Competency-Based Adult High School Diploma Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevada Univ., Las Vegas. Coll. of Education.

    This document is one of ten curriculum guides developed by the Nevada Competency-Based Adult High School Diploma (CBAHSD) Project. This curriculum guide on environmental education is divided into seven topics. The topics included are Human Carrying Capacity (The Ability to Foresee and Forestall), Human Population Growth, The Atmosphere, The…

  5. Home and Community Environmental Features, Activity Performance, and Community Participation among Older Adults with Functional Limitations

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hsiang-Yu; Sanford, Jon A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes relationships among home and community environmental features, activity performance in the home, and community participation potential to support aging in place. A subset of data on older adults with functional limitations (N = 122), sixty three (63) with mobility and 59 with other limitations, were utilized in this study from a larger project's subject pool. Results showed significant and positive correlations between environmental barriers, activity dependence and difficulty at home, and less community participation in the mobility limitation group. While kitchen and bathroom features were most limiting to home performance, bathtub or shower was the only home feature, and destination social environment was the only community feature, that explained community participation. Compared to environmental features, home performance explained much more community participation. Study results provide detailed information about environmental features as well as types of home activities that can be prioritized as interventions for aging in place. PMID:22162808

  6. Body composition, muscle capacity, and physical function in older adults: an integrated conceptual model.

    PubMed

    Brady, Anne O; Straight, Chad R; Evans, Ellen M

    2014-07-01

    The aging process leads to adverse changes in body composition (increases in fat mass and decreases in skeletal muscle mass), declines in physical function (PF), and ultimately increased risk for disability and loss of independence. Specific components of body composition or muscle capacity (strength and power) may be useful in predicting PF; however, findings have been mixed regarding the most salient predictor of PF. The development of a conceptual model potentially aids in understanding the interrelated factors contributing to PF with the factors of interest being physical activity, body composition, and muscle capacity. This article also highlights sex differences in these domains. Finally, factors known to affect PF, such as sleep, depression, fatigue, and self-efficacy, are discussed. Development of a comprehensive conceptual model is needed to better characterize the most salient factors contributing to PF and to subsequently inform the development of interventions to reduce physical disability in older adults. PMID:23945551

  7. Genetic ablation of androgen receptor signaling in fetal Leydig cell lineage affects Leydig cell functions in adult testis.

    PubMed

    Kaftanovskaya, Elena M; Lopez, Carolina; Ferguson, Lydia; Myhr, Courtney; Agoulnik, Alexander I

    2015-06-01

    It is commonly accepted that androgen-producing fetal Leydig cells (FLC) are substituted by adult Leydig cells (ALC) during perinatal testis development. The mechanisms influencing this process are unclear. We used mice with a retinoid acid receptor 2 promoter-Cre recombinase transgene (Rarb-cre) expressed in embryonic FLC precursors, but not in postnatal testis, and a dual fluorescent Cre recombinase reporter to label FLC and ALC in vivo. All FLC in newborn testis had the recombinant, whereas the majority of LC in adult testis had the nonrecombinant reporter. Primary LC cultures from adult testis had either recombinant (20%) or nonrecombinant (80%) cells, demonstrating that the FLC survive in adult testis and their ontogeny is distinct from ALC. Conditional inactivation of androgen receptor (AR) allele using the Rarb-cre transgene resulted in a 50% increase of AR-negative LC in adult testis. The mutant males became infertile with age, with all LC in older testis showing signs of incomplete differentiation, such as a large number of big lipid droplets, an increase of finger-like protrusions, and a misexpression of steroidogenic or FLC- and ALC-specific genes. We propose that the antiandrogenic exposure during early development may similarly result in an increase of FLC in adult testis, leading to abnormal LC differentiation.-Kaftanovskaya, E. M., Lopez, C., Ferguson, L., Myhr, C., Agoulnik, A. I. Genetic ablation of androgen receptor signaling in fetal Leydig cell lineage affects Leydig cell functions in adult testis. PMID:25713029

  8. Insulin Resistance and Impaired Pancreatic ?-Cell Function in Adult Offspring of Women With Diabetes in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Damm, Peter; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R.; Hansen, Torben; Vaag, Allan A.; Pedersen, Oluf; Clausen, Tine D.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Offspring of women with diabetes during pregnancy have an increased risk of glucose intolerance in adulthood, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Objective: We aimed to investigate the effects of intrauterine hyperglycemia on insulin secretion and action in adult offspring of mothers with diabetes. Design, Setting, and Participants: A cohort of 587 Caucasian offspring, without known diabetes, was followed up at the age of 18–27 years. We included 2 groups exposed to maternal diabetes in utero: offspring of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (n = 167) or type 1 diabetes (n = 153). Two reference groups were included: offspring of women with risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus but normoglycemia during pregnancy (n = 139) and offspring from the background population (n = 128). Main Outcome Measures: Indices of insulin sensitivity and insulin release were calculated using insulin and glucose values from a standard oral glucose tolerance test (120 minutes, 75 g glucose). Pancreatic ?-cell function taking the prevailing insulin sensitivity into account was estimated by disposition indices. Results: Both groups of offspring exposed during pregnancy to either maternal gestational diabetes or type 1 diabetes had reduced insulin sensitivity compared with offspring from the background population (both P < .005). We did not find any significant difference in absolute measures of insulin release. However, the disposition index was significantly reduced in both the diabetes-exposed groups (both P < .005). Conclusion: Reduced insulin sensitivity as well as impaired pancreatic ?-cell function may contribute to the increased risk of glucose intolerance among adult offspring born to women with diabetes during pregnancy. PMID:23796568

  9. Age differences in high frequency phasic heart rate variability and performance response to increased executive function load in three executive function tasks

    PubMed Central

    Byrd, Dana L.; Reuther, Erin T.; McNamara, Joseph P. H.; DeLucca, Teri L.; Berg, William K.

    2015-01-01

    The current study examines similarity or disparity of a frontally mediated physiological response of mental effort among multiple executive functioning tasks between children and adults. Task performance and phasic heart rate variability (HRV) were recorded in children (6 to 10 years old) and adults in an examination of age differences in executive functioning skills during periods of increased demand. Executive load levels were varied by increasing the difficulty levels of three executive functioning tasks: inhibition (IN), working memory (WM), and planning/problem solving (PL). Behavioral performance decreased in all tasks with increased executive demand in both children and adults. Adults’ phasic high frequency HRV was suppressed during the management of increased IN and WM load. Children’s phasic HRV was suppressed during the management of moderate WM load. HRV was not suppressed during either children’s or adults’ increasing load during the PL task. High frequency phasic HRV may be most sensitive to executive function tasks that have a time-response pressure, and simply requiring performance on a self-paced task requiring frontal lobe activation may not be enough to generate HRV responsitivity to increasing demand. PMID:25798113

  10. Effects of the natural endocrine disruptor equol on the pituitary function in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Loutchanwoot, Panida; Srivilai, Prayook; Jarry, Hubertus

    2013-02-01

    Equol (EQ), a potent biologically active metabolite of the soy isoflavone daidzein, interacts with estrogen receptors (ERs), however, as suggested recently, EQ may also exert anti-androgenic actions in androgen regulated tissues like prostate and seminal vesicles in adult male rats. However, data regarding a putative anti-androgenic activity of EQ on pituitary function in male individuals are still lacking. Therefore, we investigated the effects of EQ on androgen- and estrogen-regulated gene expressions in the pituitary and circulating luteinizing hormone (LH) and prolactin (PRL) levels in adult male rats. 3-Month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=12 per group) were treated by gavage for 5 days with either EQ (100 and 250 mg/kg BW/day) or vehicle olive oil (1 ml/rat/day). As reference compound, the pure anti-androgenic drug flutamide (FLUT) was employed at a dose of 100 mg/kg BW/day. At day 5, animals were sacrificed. Levels of pituitary hormones and gene expression were measured by radioimmunoassays and quantitative TaqMan(®) real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, respectively. The present findings revealed that the pituitary mechanisms involved in the effects of EQ and FLUT were different due to the opposite changes in the mRNA expression levels of estrogen receptor subtype alpha (ER?)-, truncated estrogen receptor product-1 (TERP-1)- and -2 (TERP-2)-, gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor (GnRH receptor)-, beta-subunit of LH (LH?)-, and gonadotropin alpha subunit (?-subunit) genes. EQ displayed typical ER-agonistic actions as shown by the significant increases in ER?-, TERP-1/-2 mRNA expressions and serum PRL levels along with the significant reduction in serum LH levels, whereas FLUT exerted opposite effects on gonadotropin secretion and expression. Taken together, our findings are the first in vivo data that upon sub-acute oral exposure of EQ show an estrogenic effect on reproductive endocrine activity of the pituitary in adult male rats. However, EQ did not exert anti-androgenic effects on male rat pituitary function as observed at the levels of mRNA expression of androgen- and estrogen-regulated genes and circulating pituitary hormones. PMID:23220561

  11. Diverse origin and function of cells with endothelial phenotype obtained from adult human blood.

    PubMed

    Gulati, Rajiv; Jevremovic, Dragan; Peterson, Timothy E; Chatterjee, Suvro; Shah, Vijay; Vile, Richard G; Simari, Robert D

    2003-11-28

    Cells with endothelial phenotype generated from adult peripheral blood have emerging diagnostic and therapeutic potential. This study examined the lineage relationship between, and angiogenic function of, early endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and late outgrowth endothelial cells (OECs) in culture. Culture conditions were established to support the generation of both EPCs and OECs from the same starting population of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Utilizing differences in expression of the surface endotoxin receptor CD14, it was determined that the vast majority of EPCs arose from a CD14+ subpopulation of PBMCs but OECs developed exclusively from the CD14- fraction. Human OECs, but not EPCs, expressed key regulatory proteins endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and caveolin-1. Moreover, OECs exhibited a markedly greater capacity for capillary morphogenesis in in vitro and in vivo matrigel models, tube formation by OECs being in part dependent on eNOS function. Collectively, these data indicate lineage and functional heterogeneity in the population of circulating cells capable of assuming an endothelial phenotype and provide rationale for the investigation of new cell-therapeutic approaches to ischemic cardiovascular disease. PMID:14605020

  12. Gain-of-function CCR4 mutations in adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Masao; Schmitz, Roland; Xiao, Wenming; Goldman, Carolyn K.; Xu, Weihong; Yang, Yandan; Yu, Xin; Waldmann, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    Adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) is an aggressive malignancy caused by human T cell lymphotropic virus type-I (HTLV-I) without curative treatment at present. To illuminate the pathogenesis of ATLL we performed whole transcriptome sequencing of purified ATLL patient samples and discovered recurrent somatic mutations in CCR4, encoding CC chemokine receptor 4. CCR4 mutations were detected in 14/53 ATLL samples (26%) and consisted exclusively of nonsense or frameshift mutations that truncated the coding region at C329, Q330, or Y331 in the carboxy terminus. Functionally, the CCR4-Q330 nonsense isoform was gain-of-function because it increased cell migration toward the CCR4 ligands CCL17 and CCL22, in part by impairing receptor internalization. This mutant enhanced PI(3) kinase/AKT activation after receptor engagement by CCL22 in ATLL cells and conferred a growth advantage in long-term in vitro cultures. These findings implicate somatic gain-of-function CCR4 mutations in the pathogenesis of ATLL and suggest that inhibition of CCR4 signaling might have therapeutic potential in this refractory malignancy. PMID:25488980

  13. Evaluation of left ventricular systolic function in young adults with mitral valve prolapse

    PubMed Central

    Malev, Eduard; Zemtsovsky, Eduard; Pshepiy, Asiyet; Timofeev, Eugeny; Reeva, Svetlana; Prokudina, Maria

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate left ventricular function in young adults with mitral valve prolapse (MVP) without significant mitral regurgitation using two-dimensional strain imaging. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 58 asymptomatic young subjects (mean [± SD] age 19.7±1.6 years; 72% male) with MVP were compared with 60 sex- and age-matched healthy subjects. MVP was diagnosed by billowing one or both mitral leaflets >2 mm above the mitral annulus in the long-axis parasternal view. Longitudinal, radial and circumferential strain and strain rate were determined using speckle tracking with a grey-scale frame rate of 50 fps to 85 fps. There were no significant differences in the global systolic left ventricular function of the subjects with MVP compared with the control group. In the MVP group, most of the global myocardial systolic deformation indexes were not reduced. Only the global circumferential strain showed a decrease in the prolapse subjects. Regional, longitudinal, circumferential and radial strain and strain rate were decreased only in septal segments. A decrease in the rotation of the same septal segments at the basal level was also observed. CONCLUSION: Regional septal myocardial deformation indexes decrease in subjects with MVP. These changes may be the first sign indicating the deterioration of left ventricular systolic function as well as the existence of primary cardiomyopathy in asymptomatic young subjects with MVP. PMID:23592928

  14. Prenatal inflammation exacerbates hyperoxia-induced functional and structural changes in adult mice

    PubMed Central

    Britt, Rodney D.; Heyob, Kathryn M.; Welty, Stephen E.; Eiberger, Britta; Tipple, Trent E.; Rogers, Lynette K.

    2012-01-01

    Maternally derived inflammatory mediators, such as IL-6 and IL-8, contribute to preterm delivery, low birth weight, and respiratory insufficiency, which are routinely treated with oxygen. Premature infants are at risk for developing adult-onset cardiac, metabolic, and pulmonary diseases. Long-term pulmonary consequences of perinatal inflammation are unclear. We tested the hypothesis that a hostile perinatal environment induces profibrotic pathways resulting in pulmonary fibrosis, including persistently altered lung structure and function. Pregnant C3H/HeN mice injected with LPS or saline on embryonic day 16. Offspring were placed in room air (RA) or 85% O2 for 14 days and then returned to RA. Pulmonary function tests, microCTs, molecular and histological analyses were performed between embryonic day 18 and 8 wk. Alveolarization was most compromised in LPS/O2-exposed offspring. Collagen staining and protein levels were increased, and static compliance was decreased only in LPS/O2-exposed mice. Three-dimensional microCT reconstruction and quantification revealed increased tissue densities only in LPS/O2 mice. Diffuse interstitial fibrosis was associated with decreased micro-RNA-29, increased transforming growth factor-? expression, and phosphorylation of Smad2 during embryonic or early fetal lung development. Systemic maternal LPS administration in combination with neonatal hyperoxic exposure induces activation of profibrotic pathways, impaired alveolarization, and diminished lung function that are associated with prenatal and postnatal suppression of miR-29 expression. PMID:22718803

  15. High expression of IGFBP2 is associated with chemoresistance in adult acute myeloid leukemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea Kühnl; Martin Kaiser; Martin Neumann; Lars Fransecky; Sandra Heesch; Michael Radmacher; Guido Marcucci; Clara D. Bloomfield; Wolf-Karsten Hofmann; Eckhard Thiel; Claudia D. Baldus

    2011-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling plays an important role in many tumors and overexpression of IGF Binding Protein (IGFBP) 2 has been associated with adverse outcome in childhood leukemia. Here, we evaluated IGFBP2 mRNA expression and its prognostic implications in 99 adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. High IGFBP2 was associated with a high incidence of

  16. Exercise efficiency relates with mitochondrial content and function in older adults.

    PubMed

    Broskey, Nicholas T; Boss, Andreas; Fares, Elie-Jacques; Greggio, Chiara; Gremion, Gerald; Schlüter, Leo; Hans, Didier; Kreis, Roland; Boesch, Chris; Amati, Francesca

    2015-06-01

    Chronic aerobic exercise has been shown to increase exercise efficiency, thus allowing less energy expenditure for a similar amount of work. The extent to which skeletal muscle mitochondria play a role in this is not fully understood, particularly in an elderly population. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of exercise efficiency with mitochondrial content and function. We hypothesized that the greater the mitochondrial content and/or function, the greater would be the efficiencies. Thirty-eight sedentary (S, n = 23, 10F/13M) or athletic (A, n = 15, 6F/9M) older adults (66.8 ± 0.8 years) participated in this cross sectional study. V?O2peak was measured with a cycle ergometer graded exercise protocol (GXT). Gross efficiency (GE, %) and net efficiency (NE, %) were estimated during a 1-h submaximal test (55% V?O2peak). Delta efficiency (DE, %) was calculated from the GXT. Mitochondrial function was measured as ATPmax (mmol/L/s) during a PCr recovery protocol with (31)P-MR spectroscopy. Muscle biopsies were acquired for determination of mitochondrial volume density (MitoVd, %). Efficiencies were 17% (GE), 14% (NE), and 16% (DE) higher in A than S. MitoVD was 29% higher in A and ATPmax was 24% higher in A than in S. All efficiencies positively correlated with both ATPmax and MitoVd. Chronically trained older individuals had greater mitochondrial content and function, as well as greater exercise efficiencies. GE, NE, and DE were related to both mitochondrial content and function. This suggests a possible role of mitochondria in improving exercise efficiency in elderly athletic populations and allowing conservation of energy at moderate workloads. PMID:26059033

  17. Functional analysis of cilia and ciliated epithelial ultrastructure in healthy children and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Chilvers, M; Rutman, A; O'Callaghan, C

    2003-01-01

    Methods: Ciliated epithelial samples were obtained from 76 children and adult volunteers aged 6 months to 43 years by brushing the inferior nasal turbinate. Beating cilia were recorded using a digital high speed video camera which allowed analysis of ciliary beat pattern and beat frequency. Tissue was fixed for transmission electron microscopy. Results: The mean ciliary beat frequency for the paediatric population (12.8 Hz (95% CI 12.3 to 13.3)) was higher than for the adult group (11.5 Hz (95% CI 10.3 to 12.7 Hz), p<0.01, t test); 10% (range 6–24%) of ciliated edges were found to have areas of dyskinetically beating cilia. All samples had evidence of mild epithelial damage. This reflected changes found in all measurements used for assessment of epithelial damage. Ciliary ultrastructural defects were found in less than 5% of cilia. Conclusion: Normal age related reference ranges have been established for ciliary structure and beat frequency. In a healthy population localised epithelial damage may be present causing areas of ciliary dyskinesia. PMID:12668798

  18. Muscle performance and physical function are associated with voluntary rate of neuromuscular activation in older adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Participants were recruited to three experimental groups: middle-aged healthy adults (MH), older healthy adults (OH), and older adults with mobility limitations (OML). OH and OML were primarily differentiated by performance on the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). Muscle performance (accele...

  19. Adult hematopoietic stem cells provide functional hemangioblast activity during retinal neovascularization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Stratford May; Sergio Caballero; Gary A. J. Brown; Steven M. Guthrie; Robert N. Mames; Barry J. Byrne; Timothy Vaught; Polyxenie E. Spoerri; Ammon B. Peck; Maria B. Grant; Edward W. Scott

    2002-01-01

    Adults maintain a reservoir of hematopoietic stem cells that can enter the circulation to reach organs in need of regeneration. We developed a novel model of retinal neovascularization in adult mice to examine the role of hematopoietic stem cells in revascularizing ischemic retinas. Adult mice were durably engrafted with hematopoietic stem cells isolated from transgenic mice expressing green fluorescent protein.

  20. Generation of functional multipotent adult stem cells from GPR125+ germline progenitors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marco Seandel; Daylon James; Sergey V. Shmelkov; Ilaria Falciatori; Jiyeon Kim; Sai Chavala; Douglas S. Scherr; Fan Zhang; Richard Torres; Nicholas W. Gale; George D. Yancopoulos; Andrew Murphy; David M. Valenzuela; Robin M. Hobbs; Pier Paolo Pandolfi; Shahin Rafii

    2007-01-01

    Adult mammalian testis is a source of pluripotent stem cells. However, the lack of specific surface markers has hampered identification and tracking of the unrecognized subset of germ cells that gives rise to multipotent cells. Although embryonic-like cells can be derived from adult testis cultures after only several weeks in vitro, it is not known whether adult self-renewing spermatogonia in

  1. ACE and UCP2 gene polymorphisms and their association with baseline and exercise-related changes in the functional performance of older adults

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Barry R.; Taylor, Denise; Kilding, Andrew E.

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining high levels of physical function is an important aspect of successful ageing. While muscle mass and strength contribute to functional performance in older adults, little is known about the possible genetic basis for the heterogeneity of physical function in older adults and in how older adults respond to exercise. Two genes that have possible roles in determining levels of muscle mass, strength and function in young and older adults are angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2). This study examined whether polymorphisms in these two individual genes were associated with baseline functional performance levels and/or the training-related changes following exercise in previously untrained older adults. Five-eight Caucasian older adults (mean age 69.8 years) with no recent history of resistance training enrolled in a 12 week program of resistance, balance and cardiovascular exercises aimed at improving functional performance. Performance in 6 functional tasks was recorded at baseline and after 12 weeks. Genomic DNA was assayed for the ACE intron 16 insertion/deletion (I/D) and the UCP2 G-866A polymorphism. Baseline differences among genotype groups were tested using analysis of variance. Genotype differences in absolute and relative changes in physical function among the exercisers were tested using a general linear model, adjusting for age and gender. The genotype frequencies for each of the studied polymorphisms conformed to the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The ACE I/D genotype was significantly associated with mean baseline measures of handgrip strength (II 30.9 ± 3.01 v. ID 31.7 ± 1.48 v. DD 29.3 ± 2.18 kg, p < 0.001), 8ft Up and Go time (II 6.45 ± 0.48 v. ID/DD 4.41 ± 0.19 s, p < 0.001) and 6 min walk distance (II 458 ± 28.7 v. ID/DD 546 ± 12.1m, p = 0.008). The UCP2 G-866A genotype was also associated with baseline 8ft Up and Go time (GG 5.45 ± 0.35 v. GA 4.47 ± 0.26 v. AA 3.89 ± 0.71 s, p = 0.045). After 12 weeks of training, a significant difference between UCP2 G-886A genotype groups for change in 8ft Up and Go time was detected (GG ?0.68 ± 0.17 v. GA ?0.10 ± 0.14 v. AA +0.05 ± 0.31 s, p = 0.023). While several interesting and possibly consistent associations with older adults’ baseline functional performance were found for the ACE and UCP2 polymorphisms, we found no strong evidence of genetic associations with exercise responses in this study. The relative equivalence of some of these training-response findings to the literature may have reflected the current study’s focus on physical function rather than just strength, the relatively high levels of baseline function for some genotype groups as well as the greater statistical power for detecting baseline differences than the training-related changes. PMID:26038734

  2. ACE and UCP2 gene polymorphisms and their association with baseline and exercise-related changes in the functional performance of older adults.

    PubMed

    Keogh, Justin W L; Palmer, Barry R; Taylor, Denise; Kilding, Andrew E

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining high levels of physical function is an important aspect of successful ageing. While muscle mass and strength contribute to functional performance in older adults, little is known about the possible genetic basis for the heterogeneity of physical function in older adults and in how older adults respond to exercise. Two genes that have possible roles in determining levels of muscle mass, strength and function in young and older adults are angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2). This study examined whether polymorphisms in these two individual genes were associated with baseline functional performance levels and/or the training-related changes following exercise in previously untrained older adults. Five-eight Caucasian older adults (mean age 69.8 years) with no recent history of resistance training enrolled in a 12 week program of resistance, balance and cardiovascular exercises aimed at improving functional performance. Performance in 6 functional tasks was recorded at baseline and after 12 weeks. Genomic DNA was assayed for the ACE intron 16 insertion/deletion (I/D) and the UCP2 G-866A polymorphism. Baseline differences among genotype groups were tested using analysis of variance. Genotype differences in absolute and relative changes in physical function among the exercisers were tested using a general linear model, adjusting for age and gender. The genotype frequencies for each of the studied polymorphisms conformed to the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The ACE I/D genotype was significantly associated with mean baseline measures of handgrip strength (II 30.9 ± 3.01 v. ID 31.7 ± 1.48 v. DD 29.3 ± 2.18 kg, p < 0.001), 8ft Up and Go time (II 6.45 ± 0.48 v. ID/DD 4.41 ± 0.19 s, p < 0.001) and 6 min walk distance (II 458 ± 28.7 v. ID/DD 546 ± 12.1m, p = 0.008). The UCP2 G-866A genotype was also associated with baseline 8ft Up and Go time (GG 5.45 ± 0.35 v. GA 4.47 ± 0.26 v. AA 3.89 ± 0.71 s, p = 0.045). After 12 weeks of training, a significant difference between UCP2 G-886A genotype groups for change in 8ft Up and Go time was detected (GG -0.68 ± 0.17 v. GA -0.10 ± 0.14 v. AA +0.05 ± 0.31 s, p = 0.023). While several interesting and possibly consistent associations with older adults' baseline functional performance were found for the ACE and UCP2 polymorphisms, we found no strong evidence of genetic associations with exercise responses in this study. The relative equivalence of some of these training-response findings to the literature may have reflected the current study's focus on physical function rather than just strength, the relatively high levels of baseline function for some genotype groups as well as the greater statistical power for detecting baseline differences than the training-related changes. PMID:26038734

  3. Functional health literacy and glycaemic control in older adults with type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Jonas Gordilho; Apolinario, Daniel; Magaldi, Regina Miksian; Busse, Alexandre Leopold; Campora, Flavia; Jacob-Filho, Wilson

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the relationship between functional health literacy and glycaemic control in a sample of older patients with type 2 diabetes. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting A government-financed outpatient geriatric clinic in São Paulo, Brazil. Participants 129 older patients with type 2 diabetes, a mean (SD) age of 75.9 (6.2) years, a mean glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) of 7.2% (1.4), of which 14.7% had no formal education and 82.9% had less than a high-school diploma. Measures HbA1c was used as a measure of glycaemic control. Functional health literacy was assessed with the 18-item Short Assessment of Health Literacy for Portuguese-speaking Adults (SAHLPA-18), a validated instrument to evaluate pronunciation and comprehension of commonly used medical terms. Regression models were controlled for demographic data, depressive symptoms, diabetes duration, treatment regimen, diabetes knowledge and assistance for taking medications. Results Functional health literacy below adequate was encountered in 56.6% of the sample. After controlling for potential confounding factors, patients with inadequate functional health literacy were more likely than patients with adequate functional health literacy to present poor glycaemic control (OR=4.76; 95% CI 1.36 to 16.63). In a fully adjusted linear regression model, lower functional health literacy (?=?0.42; p<0.001), longer diabetes duration (?=0.24; p=0.012) and lack of assistance for taking medications (?=0.23; p=0.014) were associated with higher levels of HbA1c. Contrary to our expectations, illiterate patients did not have poorer outcomes when compared with patients with adequate functional health literacy, raising the hypothesis that illiterate individuals are more likely to have their difficulties recognised and compensated. However, the small subsample of illiterate patients provided limited power to reject differences with small magnitude. Conclusions Patients with inadequate functional health literacy presented with higher odds of poor glycaemic control. These findings reinforce the importance of addressing limited functional health literacy in clinical practice. PMID:24525392

  4. Utility of TICS-M for the assessment of cognitive function in older adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Celeste A. de Jager; Marc M. Budge; Robert Clarke

    2003-01-01

    SUMMARY Background Routine screening of high-risk elderly people for early cognitive impairment is constrained by the limitations of currently available cognitive function tests. The Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status is a novel instrument for assess- ment of cognitive function that can be administered in person or by telephone. Objective To evaluate the determinants and utility of TICS-M (13-item modified version)

  5. EEC- and ADULT-associated TP63 mutations exhibit functional heterogeneity toward P63 responsive sequences.

    PubMed

    Monti, Paola; Russo, Debora; Bocciardi, Renata; Foggetti, Giorgia; Menichini, Paola; Divizia, Maria T; Lerone, Margherita; Graziano, Claudio; Wischmeijer, Anita; Viadiu, Hector; Ravazzolo, Roberto; Inga, Alberto; Fronza, Gilberto

    2013-06-01

    TP63 germ-line mutations are responsible for a group of human ectodermal dysplasia syndromes, underlining the key role of P63 in the development of ectoderm-derived tissues. Here, we report the identification of two TP63 alleles, G134V (p.Gly173Val) and insR155 (p.Thr193_Tyr194insArg), associated to ADULT and EEC syndromes, respectively. These alleles, along with previously identified G134D (p.Gly173Asp) and R204W (p.Arg243Trp), were functionally characterized in yeast, studied in a mammalian cell line and modeled based on the crystal structure of the P63 DNA-binding domain. Although the p.Arg243Trp mutant showed both complete loss of transactivation function and ability to interfere over wild-type P63, the impact of p.Gly173Asp, p.Gly173Val, and p.Thr193_Tyr194insArg varied depending on the response element (RE) tested. Interestingly, p.Gly173Asp and p.Gly173Val mutants were characterized by a severe defect in transactivation along with interfering ability on two DN-P63?-specific REs derived from genes closely related to the clinical manifestations of the TP63-associated syndromes, namely PERP and COL18A1. The modeling of the mutations supported the distinct functional effect of each mutant. The present results highlight the importance of integrating different functional endpoints that take in account the features of P63 proteins' target sequences to examine the impact of TP63 mutations and the associated clinical variability. PMID:23463580

  6. Regeneration of T-cell helper function in zinc-deficient adult mice

    PubMed Central

    Fraker, Pamela J.; DePasquale-Jardieu, Paula; Zwickl, Craig M.; Luecke, Richard W.

    1978-01-01

    Diets deficient in zinc cause rapid atrophy of the thymus and loss of T-cell helper function in the young adult A/J mouse. Because zinc deficiency, as well as other nutritional deficiences, causes extensive damage to the immune system, the question arose as to whether zinc-deficient mice could repair the thymus and fully regenerate T-cell helper function if returned to diets containing adequate amounts of zinc. Five-week-old A/J female mice were fed either a zinc-deficient (<1 ?g of Zn per g) or a zinc-adequate (50 ?g of Zn per g) diet for 31 days. Histological examination of thymuses from the zinc-deficient mice revealed that the cortex was preferentially involuted and the thymus was about one-third of normal size. The direct plaque-forming cells produced per mouse spleen in response to immunization with sheep erythrocytes was 34% of normal; indirect plaque-forming cells were 18% of normal (Jerne plaque assay). After the deficient mice had been fed a zinc-adequate diet for 1 week, their response was nearly normal, except that the indirect response was 68% of controls; in this same period, the thymuses of these mice had quadrupled in size and exhibited a greatly enlarged cortex repopulated with immature thymocytes. By 2 weeks, the thymuses of the previously zinc-deficient mice were normal in size and appearance; however, there was a slight increases in numbers of indirect plaque-forming cells. By 4 weeks, the thymus weights, direct and indirect plaque-forming cell counts, and secondary response of the previously deficient mice were normal. Mice that were nearly athymic after 45 days of dietary zinc deficiency were also able to fully reconstruct the thymus and regenerate T-cell helper function. The data show that the zinc-deficient young adult mouse has the capacity to fully restore the T-cell-dependent antibody-mediated responses upon nutritional repletion. Images PMID:310122

  7. Prdm16 is required for the maintenance of brown adipocyte identity and function in adult mice

    PubMed Central

    Harms, Matthew J.; Ishibashi, Jeff; Wang, Wenshan; Lim, Hee-Woong; Goyama, Susumu; Sato, Tomohiko; Kurokawa, Mineo; Won, Kyoung-Jae; Seale, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Summary Prdm16 is a transcription factor that regulates the thermogenic gene program in brown and beige adipocytes. However, whether Prdm16 is required for the development or physiological function of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in vivo has been unclear. By analyzing mice that selectively lacked Prdm16 in the brown adipose lineage, we found that Prdm16 was dispensable for embryonic BAT development. However, Prdm16 was required in young mice to suppress the expression of white fat-selective genes in BAT through recruitment of the histone methyltransferase Ehmt1. Additionally, Prdm16-deficiency caused a severe adult-onset decline in the thermogenic character of interscapular BAT. This resulted in BAT dysfunction and cold sensitivity but did not predispose the animals to obesity. Interestingly, the loss of brown fat identity due to ablation of Prdm16 was accelerated by concurrent deletion of the closely related Prdm3 gene. Together, these results show that Prdm16 and Prdm3 control postnatal BAT identity and function. PMID:24703692

  8. Cognitive Functioning and Driving Simulator Performance in Middle-aged and Older Adults with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Vance, David E.; Fazeli, Pariya L.; Ball, David A.; Slater, Larry Z.; Ross, Lesley A.

    2014-01-01

    Nearly half of people living with HIV experience cognitive deficits that may impact instrumental activities of daily living. As the number of people aging with HIV increases, concerns mount that disease-related cognitive deficits may be compounded by age-related deficits, which may further compromise everyday functions such as driving. In this cross-sectional pilot study, during a 2.5-hour visit, 26 middle-aged and older adults (40+ years) were administered demographic, health, psychosocial, and driving habits questionnaires; cognitive assessments; and driving simulator tests. Although CD4+T lymphocyte count and viral load were unrelated to driving performance, older age was related to poorer driving. Furthermore, poorer visual speed of processing performance (i.e., Useful Field of View) was related to poorer driving performance (e.g., average gross reaction time). Mixed findings were observed between driving performance and cognitive function on self-reported driving habits of participants. Implications for these findings on nursing practice and research are posited. PMID:24513104

  9. Pathological ?-synuclein impairs adult-born granule cell development and functional integration in the olfactory bulb.

    PubMed

    Neuner, Johanna; Ovsepian, Saak V; Dorostkar, Mario; Filser, Severin; Gupta, Aayush; Michalakis, Stylianos; Biel, Martin; Herms, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    Although the role of noxious ?-synuclein (?-SYN) in the degeneration of midbrain dopaminergic neurons and associated motor deficits of Parkinson's disease is recognized, its impact on non-motor brain circuits and related symptoms remains elusive. Through combining in vivo two-photon imaging with time-coded labelling of neurons in the olfactory bulb of A30P ?-SYN transgenic mice, we show impaired growth and branching of dendrites of adult-born granule cells (GCs), with reduced gain and plasticity of dendritic spines. The spine impairments are especially pronounced during the critical phase of integration of new neurons into existing circuits. Functionally, retarded dendritic expansion translates into reduced electrical capacitance with enhanced intrinsic excitability and responsiveness of GCs to depolarizing inputs, while the spine loss correlates with decreased frequency of AMPA-mediated miniature EPSCs. Changes described here are expected to interfere with the functional integration and survival of new GCs into bulbar networks, contributing towards olfactory deficits and related behavioural impairments. PMID:24867427

  10. Analysis of narrative discourse structure as an ecologically relevant measure of executive function in adults.

    PubMed

    Cannizzaro, Michael S; Coelho, Carl A

    2013-12-01

    This study examined the narrative discourse production and executive function (EF) abilities of 46 neuro-typical adults (18-98 years old). Two questions were addressed: Is the analysis of narrative structure sensitive to changes associated with aging? & What is the relationship between measures of narrative structure and EF? Narratives were elicited under two conditions and narrative structure was analyzed for the presence of organizing story grammar elements. Narrative structure was significantly correlated with age as well as linguistic and non-linguistic measures of EF. Factor analysis of story structure and EF variables yielded two factors reflecting constructs of output-fluidity and organizational-efficiency. These data suggest that narrative structure and EF represent aspects of goal-directed knowledge that are not bound by a traditional linguistic and non-linguistic division. Thus, narrative structure may represent a global and ecologically valid measure of goal-directed executive function knowledge that is also sensitive to changes associated with typical aging. PMID:23192423

  11. Pathological ?-synuclein impairs adult-born granule cell development and functional integration in the olfactory bulb

    PubMed Central

    Neuner, Johanna; Ovsepian, Saak V.; Dorostkar, Mario; Filser, Severin; Gupta, Aayush; Michalakis, Stylianos; Biel, Martin; Herms, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    Although the role of noxious ?-synuclein (?-SYN) in the degeneration of midbrain dopaminergic neurons and associated motor deficits of Parkinson’s disease is recognized, its impact on non-motor brain circuits and related symptoms remains elusive. Through combining in vivo two-photon imaging with time-coded labelling of neurons in the olfactory bulb of A30P ?-SYN transgenic mice, we show impaired growth and branching of dendrites of adult-born granule cells (GCs), with reduced gain and plasticity of dendritic spines. The spine impairments are especially pronounced during the critical phase of integration of new neurons into existing circuits. Functionally, retarded dendritic expansion translates into reduced electrical capacitance with enhanced intrinsic excitability and responsiveness of GCs to depolarizing inputs, while the spine loss correlates with decreased frequency of AMPA-mediated miniature EPSCs. Changes described here are expected to interfere with the functional integration and survival of new GCs into bulbar networks, contributing towards olfactory deficits and related behavioural impairments. PMID:24867427

  12. Functional mobility in a divided attention task in older adults with cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    de Melo Borges, Sheila; Radanovic, Márcia; Forlenza, Orestes Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Motor disorders may occur in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and at early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD), particularly under divided attention conditions. We examined functional mobility in 104 older adults (42 with MCI, 26 with mild AD, and 36 cognitively healthy) using the Timed Up and Go test (TUG) under 4 experimental conditions: TUG single task, TUG plus a cognitive task, TUG plus a manual task, and TUG plus a cognitive and a manual task. Statistically significant differences in mean time of execution were found in all four experimental conditions when comparing MCI and controls (p < .001), and when comparing MCI and AD patients (p < .05). Receiver-operating characteristic curve analyses showed that all four testing conditions could differentiate the three groups (area under the curve > .8, p < .001 for MCI vs. controls; area under the curve > .7, p < .001 for MCI vs. AD). The authors conclude that functional motor deficits occurring in MCI can be assessed by the TUG test, in single or dual task modality. PMID:25610990

  13. Impaired cardiovascular structure and function in adult survivors of severe acute malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Tennant, Ingrid A; Barnett, Alan T; Thompson, Debbie S; Kips, Jan; Boyne, Michael S; Chung, Edward E; Chung, Andrene P; Osmond, Clive; Hanson, Mark A; Gluckman, Peter D; Segers, Patrick; Cruickshank, J Kennedy; Forrester, Terrence E

    2014-09-01

    Malnutrition below 5 years remains a global health issue. Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) presents in childhood as oedematous (kwashiorkor) or nonoedematous (marasmic) forms, with unknown long-term cardiovascular consequences. We hypothesized that cardiovascular structure and function would be poorer in SAM survivors than unexposed controls. We studied 116 adult SAM survivors, 54 after marasmus, 62 kwashiorkor, and 45 age/sex/body mass index-matched community controls who had standardized anthropometry, blood pressure, echocardiography, and arterial tonometry performed. Left ventricular indices and outflow tract diameter, carotid parameters, and pulse wave velocity were measured, with systemic vascular resistance calculated. All were expressed as SD scores. Mean (SD) age was 28.8±7.8 years (55% men). Adjusting for age, sex, height, and weight, SAM survivors had mean (SE) reductions for left ventricular outflow tract diameter of 0.67 (0.16; P<0.001), stroke volume 0.44 (0.17; P=0.009), cardiac output 0.5 (0.16; P=0.001), and pulse wave velocity 0.32 (0.15; P=0.03) compared with controls but higher diastolic blood pressures (by 4.3; 1.2-7.3 mm Hg; P=0.007). Systemic vascular resistance was higher in marasmus and kwashiorkor survivors (30.2 [1.2] and 30.8 [1.1], respectively) than controls 25.3 (0.8), overall difference 5.5 (95% confidence interval, 2.8-8.4 mm Hg min/L; P<0.0001). No evidence of large vessel or cardiac remodeling was found, except closer relationships between these indices in former marasmic survivors. Other parameters did not differ between SAM survivor groups. We conclude that adult SAM survivors had smaller outflow tracts and cardiac output when compared with controls, yet markedly elevated peripheral resistance. Malnutrition survivors are thus likely to develop excess hypertension in later life, especially when exposed to obesity. PMID:24980666

  14. Comparison of African American and Afro-Caribbean Older Adults' Self-Reported Health Status, Function, and Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keane, Florence; Tappen, Ruth M.; Williams, Christine L.; Rosselli, Monica

    2009-01-01

    African American and Afro-Caribbean elders differ in regard to ethnic group membership, place of birth, and years of residence in the United States. In this study, the authors compare self-rated health status, function, and reports of substance use in these two groups. Fifty low-income African American and fifty low-income Afro-Caribbean adults

  15. Exploring the Effects of an "Everyday" Activity Program on Executive Function and Memory in Older Adults: Experience Corps[R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Michelle C.; Saczynski, Jane S.; Rebok, George W.; Seeman, Teresa; Glass, Thomas A.; McGill, Sylvia; Tielsch, James; Frick, Kevin D.; Hill, Joel; Fried, Linda P.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: There is little empirical translation of multimodal cognitive activity programs in "real-world" community-based settings. This study sought to demonstrate in a short-term pilot randomized trial that such an activity program improves components of cognition critical to independent function among sedentary older adults at greatest risk.…

  16. Ear-Canal Wideband Acoustic Transfer Functions of Adults and Two-to Nine-Month-Old Infants

    E-print Network

    Allen, Jont

    Ear-Canal Wideband Acoustic Transfer Functions of Adults and Two- to Nine-Month-Old Infants Lynne A) measured in the ear canal have been shown to be effective in the diagnosis of middle ear dysfunction ears were compared. Test­retest reliability was assessed, and the relationship between the 226-Hz

  17. Energy expenditure of walking for adult patients with spinal cord lesions using the reciprocating gait orthosis and functional electrical stimulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L Sykes; I G Campbell; E S Powell; E R S Ross; J Edwards

    1996-01-01

    A major factor influencing compliance with walking orthoses following spinal cord damage, is the energy requirement associated with them. We compared ambulatory energy expenditure in subjects using the reciprocating gait orthosis (RGO) with and without functional electrical stimulation (FES) of the thigh muscles at self selected walking speeds. Five adult subjects (median age 34 years, range 24-37) with spinal cord

  18. Differentiating Forms and Functions of Aggression in Emerging Adults: Associations with Hostile Attribution Biases and Normative Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Christopher A.; Ostrov, Jamie M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to extend the current literature on forms (i.e., physical and relational) and functions (i.e., proactive and reactive) of participants' cognitions and beliefs about aggressive behavior. Participants included an ethnically diverse group of emerging adults (N = 165; M = 19.05 years; SD = 1.55) and completed a battery of…

  19. Executive Functioning Differences between Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Autistic Spectrum Disorder in Initiation, Planning and Strategy Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bramham, Jessica; Ambery, Fiona; Young, Susan; Morris, Robin; Russell, Ailsa; Xenitidis, Kiriakos; Asherson, Philip; Murphy, Declan

    2009-01-01

    Executive functioning deficits characterize the neuropsychological profiles of the childhood neurodevelopmental disorders of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). This study sought to determine whether similar impairments exist in adults with ADHD (N = 53) and ASD (N = 45) in comparison with a…

  20. Effect of chronic administration of an aromatase inhibitor to adult male rats on pituitary and testicular function and fertility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K J Turner; M Morley; N Atanassova; I D Swanston; R M Sharpe

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the administration of a potent non-steroidal aromatase inhibitor, anastrozole, on male reproductive function in adult rats. As anastrozole was to be administered via the drinking water, a preliminary study was undertaken in female rats and showed that this route of administration was effective in causing a major decrease

  1. Physical and emotional functioning of adult patients with chronic abdominal pain: Comparison with patients with chronic back pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cynthia O. Townsend; Christopher D. Sletten; Barbara K. Bruce; Jeffrey D. Rome; Connie A. Luedtke; John E. Hodgson

    2005-01-01

    Adults with chronic abdominal pain remain a poorly defined population, despite the debilitation and depression associated with this therapeutically challenging condition. This study compared patients with chronic abdominal pain with an empirically well-known group of patients with chronic pain (back pain) to investigate similarities and differences in their physical and mental functioning. This retrospective, cross-sectional study included 136 patients with

  2. The illiterate brain. Learning to read and write during childhood influences the functional organization of the adult brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Castro-Caldas; K. M. Petersson; A. Reis; S. Stone-Elander; M. Ingvar

    1998-01-01

    Summary Learning a specific skill during childhood may partly determine the functional organization of the adult brain. This hypothesis led us to study oral language processing in illiterate subjects who, for social reasons, had never entered school and had no knowledge of reading or writing. In a brain activation study using PET and statistical parametric mapping, we compared word and

  3. Methods to evaluate functional nerve recovery in adult rats: walking track analysis, video analysis and the withdrawal reflex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeroen R. Dijkstra; Marcel F. Meek; Peter H. Robinson; Albert Gramsbergen

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare different methods for the evaluation of functional nerve recovery. Three groups of adult male Wistar rats were studied. In group A, a 12-mm gap between nerve ends was bridged by an autologous nerve graft; in rats of group B we performed a crush lesion of the sciatic nerve and group C consisted

  4. The Impact of Neuropsychological Performance on Everyday Functioning Between Older and Younger Adults With and Without HIV

    PubMed Central

    Vance, David E.; Fazeli, Pariya L.; Gakumo, C. Ann

    2012-01-01

    In this cross-sectional study, a community-based sample of 162 younger and older adults with and without HIV was compared on neuropsychological and everyday functioning measures. In the HIV sample, the relationship between cognition, everyday functioning, and HIV biomarkers was also examined. A battery of cognitive tests were completed along with 2 laboratory measures of everyday functioning and 1 measure of HIV medication adherence. Main effects for age and HIV were found on several neuropsychological measures and on the Timed Instrumental Activities of Daily Living test; those who were older or who had HIV exhibited poorer performance. Although age × HIV interactions were not observed, older adults with HIV as a group performed worse on 8 out of the 9 neuropsychological and everyday functioning measures. Few of these neuropsychological and everyday measures were related to HIV biomarkers (e.g., CD4+ T-cell count). Implications for nursing practice and research are posited. PMID:22943982

  5. Differential Effects of Early- and Late-Life Access to Carotenoids on Adult Immune Function and Ornamentation in Mallard Ducks (Anas platyrhynchos)

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Michael W.; McGraw, Kevin J.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental conditions early in life can affect an organism’s phenotype at adulthood, which may be tuned to perform optimally in conditions that mimic those experienced during development (Environmental Matching hypothesis), or may be generally superior when conditions during development were of higher quality (Silver Spoon hypothesis). Here, we tested these hypotheses by examining how diet during development interacted with diet during adulthood to affect adult sexually selected ornamentation and immune function in male mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos). Mallards have yellow, carotenoid-pigmented beaks that are used in mate choice, and the degree of beak coloration has been linked to adult immune function. Using a 2×2 factorial experimental design, we reared mallards on diets containing either low or high levels of carotenoids (nutrients that cannot be synthesized de novo) throughout the period of growth, and then provided adults with one of these two diets while simultaneously quantifying beak coloration and response to a variety of immune challenges. We found that both developmental and adult carotenoid supplementation increased circulating carotenoid levels during dietary treatment, but that birds that received low-carotenoid diets during development maintained relatively higher circulating carotenoid levels during an adult immune challenge. Individuals that received low levels of carotenoids during development had larger phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-induced cutaneous immune responses at adulthood; however, dietary treatment during development and adulthood did not affect antibody response to a novel antigen, nitric oxide production, natural antibody levels, hemolytic capacity of the plasma, or beak coloration. However, beak coloration prior to immune challenges positively predicted PHA response, and strong PHA responses were correlated with losses in carotenoid-pigmented coloration. In sum, we did not find consistent support for either the Environmental Matching or Silver Spoon hypotheses. We then describe a new hypothesis that should be tested in future studies examining developmental plasticity. PMID:22666443

  6. Effect of endovascular stenting of aortic coarctation on biventricular function in adults

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Yat?Yin; Kaya, Mehmet G; Li, Wei; Mahadevan, Vaikom S; Khan, Arif A; Henein, Michael Y; Mullen, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of endovascular stenting of aortic coarctation on biventricular function in adults during intermediate?term follow?up. Methods 21 patients (age 34 (10)?years) were studied prospectively before and 14 (2)?months after coarctation stenting from year 2002 to 2005. Biventricular function and blood pressure measurements were made. The post?stenting results were compared with pre?stenting values (group 1), with 22 age? and sex?matched post?surgical repair patients (group 2) and 30 normal controls (group 3). Results The peak systolic gradient across the coarctation site fell (55 (15)?mm Hg to 18 (8)?mm Hg, p<0.001). Systolic, mean blood pressure and left ventricular (LV) mass dropped after stenting (p<0.05 for all). LV long?axis function improved at intermediate?term follow?up (tissue Doppler imaging lateral and septal systolic and diastolic velocities and E/Em ratios: LSm, 6.5 (1.4)?cm/s to 7.9 (1.7)?cm/s; SSm, 5.8 (1.2)?cm/s to 7.3 (1.6)?cm/s; LEm, 8.1 (1.3) to 9.4 (2.3)?cm/s; SEm, 6.7 (1.5)?cm/s to 7.8 (1.9)?cm/s; LE/Em, 11.2 (2.7) to 9.8 (2.8); SE/Em, 14.8 (5.3) to 11.8 (3.9); p<0.05 for all). No significant difference in LV ejection fraction, conventional LV diastolic measurements (E, A, E/A ratio, IVRT and DT) was found after stenting. No significant deterioration of right ventricular function was seen in stented patients. Both post?stenting and post?surgical repair patients had poorer LV long?axis function than controls (p<0.01 for all). Conclusions Endovascular stenting of aortic coarctation resulted in medium?term LV mass regression and long?axis function improvement that may provide insight into long?term outcome of the stented patients. The results support aortic stenting in patients with anatomically suitable defects, given the additional benefit of avoiding cardiopulmonary bypass. The clinical significance of subclinical myocardial dysfunction in patients with stented or repaired coarctation warrants further studies. PMID:17575331

  7. Awareness level of kidney functions and diseases among adults in a Nigerian population.

    PubMed

    Okwuonu, C G; Chukwuonye, I I; Ogah, S O; Abali, C; Adejumo, O A; Oviasu, E

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of kidney diseases is on the increase in Nigeria. The cost of its management is far beyond the reach of an average patient. Prevention is thus of paramount importance and awareness of kidney diseases will help in its prevention. The aim of this study is to assess the level of awareness of kidney functions and diseases among adults in a Nigerian population. A semi-structured, researcher - administered questionnaire was the tool for data collection. Four hundred and thirty-five questionnaires were analyzed. There were 160 males (36.8%) and 275 females (63.2%). The mean age was 42.8 ± 14 years with a range of 18-78 years. Among these, 82.1% were aware of the kidneys' involvement in waste removal from the body through urine while 36% and 29% were aware of kidneys' role in blood pressure regulation and blood production, respectively. Only 26.6% correctly identified at least two basic functions of the kidneys. Also, 32.6% of the respondents were aware of at least three common causes of kidney diseases in our environment. Majority of the respondents (70.7%) did not know that kidney diseases could be inherited. Furthermore, belief in alternative therapy for kidney disease was documented in 83.2%, while unawareness of dialysis as a treatment modality was recorded in 68% of the respondents. The awareness of kidney functions and diseases among the population is poor. Measures are needed to improve this to stem the rising prevalence of chronic kidney disease in Nigeria. PMID:26060365

  8. Hypoactive medial prefrontal cortex functioning in adults reporting childhood emotional maltreatment.

    PubMed

    van Harmelen, Anne-Laura; van Tol, Marie-José; Dalgleish, Tim; van der Wee, Nic J A; Veltman, Dick J; Aleman, André; Spinhoven, Philip; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Elzinga, Bernet M

    2014-12-01

    Childhood emotional maltreatment (CEM) has adverse effects on medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) morphology, a structure that is crucial for cognitive functioning and (emotional) memory and which modulates the limbic system. In addition, CEM has been linked to amygdala hyperactivity during emotional face processing. However, no study has yet investigated the functional neural correlates of neutral and emotional memory in adults reporting CEM. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated CEM-related differential activations in mPFC during the encoding and recognition of positive, negative and neutral words. The sample (N = 194) consisted of patients with depression and/or anxiety disorders and healthy controls (HC) reporting CEM (n = 96) and patients and HC reporting no abuse (n = 98). We found a consistent pattern of mPFC hypoactivation during encoding and recognition of positive, negative and neutral words in individuals reporting CEM. These results were not explained by psychopathology or severity of depression or anxiety symptoms, or by gender, level of neuroticism, parental psychopathology, negative life events, antidepressant use or decreased mPFC volume in the CEM group. These findings indicate mPFC hypoactivity in individuals reporting CEM during emotional and neutral memory encoding and recognition. Our findings suggest that CEM may increase individuals' risk to the development of psychopathology on differential levels of processing in the brain; blunted mPFC activation during higher order processing and enhanced amygdala activation during automatic/lower order emotion processing. These findings are vital in understanding the long-term consequences of CEM. PMID:24493840

  9. Impact of dissociation and interpersonal functioning on inpatient treatment for early sexually abused adults

    PubMed Central

    Jepsen, Ellen K. K.; Langeland, Willie; Heir, Trond

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about the possible predictors of treatment outcome in early chronically sexually abused adults. The current study aimed to investigate what impact initial levels of dissociation and pre-treatment negative change in interpersonal functioning have on treatment response after 3 months of first-phase trauma inpatient treatment as well as after a period of 1 year the patients returned to their usual lives. Methods The sample comprised 48 inpatients with childhood sexual abuse histories and mixed trauma-related disorders who were examined at discharge and prospectively followed up for a period of 1 year under naturalistic conditions. Outcome variables were general psychiatric symptoms and interpersonal problems as measured with the Symptom Check List-Revised (SCL-R) and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP) Circumplex. Results The central findings were that pathological dissociation and deterioration in interpersonal functioning prior to admittance predicted general psychiatric symptom levels and interpersonal problems at the end of treatment and at 1-year follow-up. Pathological dissociation, involving memory and identity problems, alone predicted negative outcome at the end of treatment. The findings at 1-year follow-up indicate that it is not pathological dissociation in isolation that affects outcomes, but rather the interaction between dissociation and change in interpersonal functioning prior to treatment. Conclusion These findings indicate the need of addressing dissociation and interpersonal problems in treatment planning and favor an integrated treatment approach for complex trauma patients. Future research should investigate whether and how this leads to better outcome, including long-term maintenance of gains after the end of treatment. PMID:24386549

  10. Awareness level of kidney functions and diseases among adults in a Nigerian population

    PubMed Central

    Okwuonu, C. G.; Chukwuonye, I. I.; Ogah, S. O.; Abali, C.; Adejumo, O. A.; Oviasu, E.

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of kidney diseases is on the increase in Nigeria. The cost of its management is far beyond the reach of an average patient. Prevention is thus of paramount importance and awareness of kidney diseases will help in its prevention. The aim of this study is to assess the level of awareness of kidney functions and diseases among adults in a Nigerian population. A semi-structured, researcher – administered questionnaire was the tool for data collection. Four hundred and thirty-five questionnaires were analyzed. There were 160 males (36.8%) and 275 females (63.2%). The mean age was 42.8 ± 14 years with a range of 18–78 years. Among these, 82.1% were aware of the kidneys' involvement in waste removal from the body through urine while 36% and 29% were aware of kidneys' role in blood pressure regulation and blood production, respectively. Only 26.6% correctly identified at least two basic functions of the kidneys. Also, 32.6% of the respondents were aware of at least three common causes of kidney diseases in our environment. Majority of the respondents (70.7%) did not know that kidney diseases could be inherited. Furthermore, belief in alternative therapy for kidney disease was documented in 83.2%, while unawareness of dialysis as a treatment modality was recorded in 68% of the respondents. The awareness of kidney functions and diseases among the population is poor. Measures are needed to improve this to stem the rising prevalence of chronic kidney disease in Nigeria.

  11. Plasticity of multisensory dorsal stream functions: evidence from congenitally blind and sighted adults.

    PubMed

    Fiehler, Katja; Rösler, Frank

    2010-01-01

    The dorsal stream has been proposed to compute vision for space perception and for the control of action. However, perceiving space and guiding movements is not only based on vision but also on other sensory modalities such as proprioception and kinesthesia. Blind people who lost vision early in life provide an exceptional example to study the plasticity of dorsal stream functions. Using fMRI and psychophysical methods, action control and space perception was investigated in congenitally blind and sighted adults while performing active and passive hand movements without visual feedback. The functional imaging data showed largely overlapping activation patterns for kinesthetically guided hand movements in congenitally blind and sighted participants covering regions of the dorsal stream. In contrast to the sighted participants, congenitally blind participants additionally activated the extrastriate cortex and the auditory cortex. The psychophysical results revealed a significant correlation between proprioceptive spatial discrimination acuity of the blind and the age when they had attended an orientation and mobility training, i.e., an extensive non-visual spatial training. The earlier the blind acquired such a spatial training the more accurate and the more precise was their space perception in later life. Our findings suggest a multisensory network of movement control that develops on the basis of sensorimotor feedback rather than being under the exclusive control of vision. Thus, visual deprivation seems to result in both cross-modal and compensatory intra-modal plasticity. The present findings further imply that dorsal stream functions are shaped by non-visual spatial information during early development. PMID:20404408

  12. Readiness to use compensatory strategies among older adults with functional difficulties

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Karen C.; Gitlin, Laura N.; Dennis, Marie P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Compensatory strategies (behavioral/environmental modifications) can reduce the difficulties of performing daily living activities, fear of falling, and mortality risk. However, individuals vary in their readiness to use strategies. We examined characteristics associated with readiness to use compensatory strategies, the extent to which level of readiness changed from participation in an intervention (Advancing Better Living for Elders (ABLE)) providing compensatory strategies, and factors predictive of change in readiness level. Methods Data from a randomized trial were used. Participants were 148 older adults assigned to the ABLE intervention designed to enhance daily function through compensatory strategy use. Baseline measures included demographic characteristics, functional difficulty level, presence/absence of depressive symptoms, compensatory strategy use, and social support. At initial (2 weeks from baseline) and final (6 months) ABLE sessions, interventionists rated readiness (1 = precontemplation; 2 = contemplation; 3 = preparation; 4 = action/maintenance) of participants to use strategies. Ordinal logistic regression was used to identify baseline characteristics associated with initial readiness rating. A McNemar-Bowker test of symmetry was used to describe change in readiness, and binary logistic regression was used to identify baseline predictors of change in readiness (from initial to final intervention session). Results At the initial intervention session, 70.3% (N = 104) scored in pre-action (precontemplation/contemplation, preparation), and 29.7% (N = 44) in action/maintenance. Depressive symptomatology (?2(2) = 9.08, p = 0.011) and low compensatory strategy use (F(2, 147) = 8.44, p = 0.001) at baseline were associated with lower readiness levels at initial ABLE session. By final ABLE session, most participants demonstrated greater readiness: 72% (N = 105) in action/maintenance, 28% (N = 41) in pre-action (two participants dropped out). A significant baseline predictor of positive change in readiness (from initial to final session) was higher social support levels (b = 0.10, SE = 0.05, Wald = 4.98, p = 0.026). Conclusion Whereas presence of depressive symptomatology and lower use of compensatory strategies at baseline were associated with lower readiness at initial intervention session, neither predicted change in readiness level. Thus, mood and prior compensatory strategy use do not effect enhancements in readiness to use strategies provided in an intervention. Baseline social support was the strongest predictor of change in readiness suggesting that interventions may need to involve older adults' social networks to enhance acceptability of compensatory strategy use. PMID:20663239

  13. Dexterous robotic manipulation of alert adult Drosophila for high-content experimentation.

    PubMed

    Savall, Joan; Ho, Eric Tatt Wei; Huang, Cheng; Maxey, Jessica R; Schnitzer, Mark J

    2015-07-01

    We present a robot that enables high-content studies of alert adult Drosophila by combining operations including gentle picking; translations and rotations; characterizations of fly phenotypes and behaviors; microdissection; or release. To illustrate, we assessed fly morphology, tracked odor-evoked locomotion, sorted flies by sex, and dissected the cuticle to image neural activity. The robot's tireless capacity for precise manipulations enables a scalable platform for screening flies' complex attributes and behavioral patterns. PMID:26005812

  14. Alcohol Use and High-Risk Sexual Behavior Among Adolescents and Young Adults in Harare, Zimbabwe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Priscilla Mataure; Willi McFarland; Katherine Fritz; Andrea Kim; Godfrey Woelk; Sunanda Ray; George Rutherford

    2002-01-01

    We conducted a quantitative and qualitative study of alcohol use and high-risk sexual behavior among adolescents and young adults of age 15–21 years in Harare, Zimbabwe. Methods included a cross-sectional survey of youth sampled at nightclubs and bottle stores informed by participant observation, key informant interviews, and focus group discussions. Findings corroborated a cycle of HIV transmission that involves older

  15. Phenotypic and functional analyses show stem cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells better mimic fetal rather than adult hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Melissa; Withey, Sarah; Harrison, Sean; Segeritz, Charis-Patricia; Zhang, Fang; Atkinson-Dell, Rebecca; Rowe, Cliff; Gerrard, Dave T.; Sison-Young, Rowena; Jenkins, Roz; Henry, Joanne; Berry, Andrew A.; Mohamet, Lisa; Best, Marie; Fenwick, Stephen W.; Malik, Hassan; Kitteringham, Neil R.; Goldring, Chris E.; Piper Hanley, Karen; Vallier, Ludovic; Hanley, Neil A.

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims Hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs), differentiated from pluripotent stem cells by the use of soluble factors, can model human liver function and toxicity. However, at present HLC maturity and whether any deficit represents a true fetal state or aberrant differentiation is unclear and compounded by comparison to potentially deteriorated adult hepatocytes. Therefore, we generated HLCs from multiple lineages, using two different protocols, for direct comparison with fresh fetal and adult hepatocytes. Methods Protocols were developed for robust differentiation. Multiple transcript, protein and functional analyses compared HLCs to fresh human fetal and adult hepatocytes. Results HLCs were comparable to those of other laboratories by multiple parameters. Transcriptional changes during differentiation mimicked human embryogenesis and showed more similarity to pericentral than periportal hepatocytes. Unbiased proteomics demonstrated greater proximity to liver than 30 other human organs or tissues. However, by comparison to fresh material, HLC maturity was proven by transcript, protein and function to be fetal-like and short of the adult phenotype. The expression of 81% phase 1 enzymes in HLCs was significantly upregulated and half were statistically not different from fetal hepatocytes. HLCs secreted albumin and metabolized testosterone (CYP3A) and dextrorphan (CYP2D6) like fetal hepatocytes. In seven bespoke tests, devised by principal components analysis to distinguish fetal from adult hepatocytes, HLCs from two different source laboratories consistently demonstrated fetal characteristics. Conclusions HLCs from different sources are broadly comparable with unbiased proteomic evidence for faithful differentiation down the liver lineage. This current phenotype mimics human fetal rather than adult hepatocytes. PMID:25457200

  16. The neural basis of deictic shifting in linguistic perspective-taking in high-functioning autism

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yanni; Williams, Diane L.; Keller, Timothy A.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Just, Marcel Adam

    2011-01-01

    Personal pronouns, such as ‘I’ and ‘you’, require a speaker/listener to continuously re-map their reciprocal relation to their referent, depending on who is saying the pronoun. This process, called ‘deictic shifting’, may underlie the incorrect production of these pronouns, or ‘pronoun reversals’, such as referring to oneself with the pronoun ‘you’, which has been reported in children with autism. The underlying neural basis of deictic shifting, however, is not understood, nor has the processing of pronouns been studied in adults with autism. The present study compared the brain activation pattern and functional connectivity (synchronization of activation across brain areas) of adults with high-functioning autism and control participants using functional magnetic resonance imaging in a linguistic perspective-taking task that required deictic shifting. The results revealed significantly diminished frontal (right anterior insula) to posterior (precuneus) functional connectivity during deictic shifting in the autism group, as well as reliably slower and less accurate behavioural responses. A comparison of two types of deictic shifting revealed that the functional connectivity between the right anterior insula and precuneus was lower in autism while answering a question that contained the pronoun ‘you’, querying something about the participant’s view, but not when answering a query about someone else’s view. In addition to the functional connectivity between the right anterior insula and precuneus being lower in autism, activation in each region was atypical, suggesting over reliance on individual regions as a potential compensation for the lower level of collaborative interregional processing. These findings indicate that deictic shifting constitutes a challenge for adults with high-functioning autism, particularly when reference to one’s self is involved, and that the functional collaboration of two critical nodes, right anterior insula and precuneus, may play a critical role for deictic shifting by supporting an attention shift between oneself and others. PMID:21733887

  17. The neural basis of deictic shifting in linguistic perspective-taking in high-functioning autism.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Akiko; Liu, Yanni; Williams, Diane L; Keller, Timothy A; Minshew, Nancy J; Just, Marcel Adam

    2011-08-01

    Personal pronouns, such as 'I' and 'you', require a speaker/listener to continuously re-map their reciprocal relation to their referent, depending on who is saying the pronoun. This process, called 'deictic shifting', may underlie the incorrect production of these pronouns, or 'pronoun reversals', such as referring to oneself with the pronoun 'you', which has been reported in children with autism. The underlying neural basis of deictic shifting, however, is not understood, nor has the processing of pronouns been studied in adults with autism. The present study compared the brain activation pattern and functional connectivity (synchronization of activation across brain areas) of adults with high-functioning autism and control participants using functional magnetic resonance imaging in a linguistic perspective-taking task that required deictic shifting. The results revealed significantly diminished frontal (right anterior insula) to posterior (precuneus) functional connectivity during deictic shifting in the autism group, as well as reliably slower and less accurate behavioural responses. A comparison of two types of deictic shifting revealed that the functional connectivity between the right anterior insula and precuneus was lower in autism while answering a question that contained the pronoun 'you', querying something about the participant's view, but not when answering a query about someone else's view. In addition to the functional connectivity between the right anterior insula and precuneus being lower in autism, activation in each region was atypical, suggesting over reliance on individual regions as a potential compensation for the lower level of collaborative interregional processing. These findings indicate that deictic shifting constitutes a challenge for adults with high-functioning autism, particularly when reference to one's self is involved, and that the functional collaboration of two critical nodes, right anterior insula and precuneus, may play a critical role for deictic shifting by supporting an attention shift between oneself and others. PMID:21733887

  18. Beclomethasone dipropionate given to adult asthmatics through a new spacer device: effects of high-dose administration.

    PubMed

    Girbino, G; Lauriello, G; Andó, F; Cantini, L

    1996-01-01

    The usefulness of a metered-dose inhaler equipped with a new spacer device (Jet spacer) was evaluated and compared with that of a standard actuator in the administration of high-dose inhaled beclomethasone dipropionate (0.5 mg four times daily) to adults with moderate asthma. After a 2-week run-in period, 36 patients were enrolled in a 4-week study according to a randomized, parallel-group design. Efficacy was assessed by measurements of pulmonary function and daily beta 2-agonist consumption. Morning serum and 24-hour urinary cortisol levels were measured at baseline and after treatment; adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stress testing was also done. Spirometric parameters significantly improved in both groups; peak expiratory flow rate measured at the final visit was significantly higher (P < .01) in the group using the Jet spacer than in patients using the standard actuator. Beta 2-agonist consumption decreased in both groups. The number of patients with a normal response to ACTH was significantly higher (P < .01) in the Jet group than in the standard actuator group; concomitant urinary cortisol excretion decreased significantly (P < .05) in the standard actuator group. Local irritation was reported by 1 patient in the Jet group and by 2 patients in the standard actuator group. Use of the new Jet spacer was found to reduce the potential for adrenal suppression and increase the efficacy of high-dose inhaled beclomethasone dipropionate given to adults with asthma. PMID:10163482

  19. A gain-of-function screen for genes that affect the development of the Drosophila adult external sensory organ.

    PubMed Central

    Abdelilah-Seyfried, S; Chan, Y M; Zeng, C; Justice, N J; Younger-Shepherd, S; Sharp, L E; Barbel, S; Meadows, S A; Jan, L Y; Jan, Y N

    2000-01-01

    The Drosophila adult external sensory organ, comprising a neuron and its support cells, is derived from a single precursor cell via several asymmetric cell divisions. To identify molecules involved in sensory organ development, we conducted a tissue-specific gain-of-function screen. We screened 2293 independent P-element lines established by P. Rorth and identified 105 lines, carrying insertions at 78 distinct loci, that produced misexpression phenotypes with changes in number, fate, or morphology of cells of the adult external sensory organ. On the basis of the gain-of-function phenotypes of both internal and external support cells, we subdivided the candidate lines into three classes. The first class (52 lines, 40 loci) exhibits partial or complete loss of adult external sensory organs. The second class (38 lines, 28 loci) is associated with increased numbers of entire adult external sensory organs or subsets of sensory organ cells. The third class (15 lines, 10 loci) results in potential cell fate transformations. Genetic and molecular characterization of these candidate lines reveals that some loci identified in this screen correspond to genes known to function in the formation of the peripheral nervous system, such as big brain, extra macrochaetae, and numb. Also emerging from the screen are a large group of previously uncharacterized genes and several known genes that have not yet been implicated in the development of the peripheral nervous system. PMID:10835395

  20. Symmetric Boolean functions with high nonlinearity Marion Videau

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    by quadratic functions. More precisely, when n is even, these functions are bent and the nonlinearity is 2n-1Symmetric Boolean functions with high nonlinearity Marion Videau INRIA-Rocquencourt, projet CODES functions with optimal nonlinearity are the quadratic functions. Here, we extend this work and we

  1. Experimentally induced hyperthyroidism influences oxidant and antioxidant status and impairs male gonadal functions in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Asker, M E; Hassan, W A; El-Kashlan, A M

    2015-08-01

    The objective of the present experiment was to study the effect of hyperthyroidism on male gonadal functions and oxidant/antioxidant biomarkers in testis of adult rats. Induction of hyperthyroidism by L-thyroxine (L-T4, 300 ?g kg(-1) body weight) treatment once daily for 3 or 8 weeks caused a decrease in body weight gain as well as in absolute genital sex organs weight. The epididymal sperm counts and their motility were significantly decreased in a time-dependent manner following L-T4 treatment. Significant decline in serum levels of luteinising hormone, follicle stimulating hormone and testosterone along with significant increase in serum estradiol level was observed in hyperthyroid rats compared with euthyroid ones. Significant increase in malondialdehyde and nitric oxide concentration associated with significant decrease in superoxide dismutase and catalase activity was also noticed following hyperthyroidism induction. Both reduced glutathione content and glutathione peroxidase activity were increased in hyperthyroid rats compared with control rats. Marked histopathological alterations were observed in testicular section of hyperthyroid rats. These results provide evidence that hypermetabolic state induced by excess level of thyroid hormones may be a causative factor for the impairment of testicular physiology as a consequence of oxidative stress. PMID:25220112

  2. Restoration of underdeveloped cortical functions: evidence from treatment of adult amblyopia.

    PubMed

    Polat, Uri

    2008-01-01

    Amblyopia is a reduction of visual functions that cannot be attributed directly to the effect of any structural abnormality of the eye or the posterior visual pathway. It is caused by abnormal binocular visual experience early in life, during the 'critical period' that prevents normal development of the visual system. It is widely accepted that therapy can only be effective during the critical period, and that it is not administered after the first decade of life. Here we provide an overview describing a recent finding of visual abnormalities in amblyopia and propose a treatment that we developed based on this finding. Both previous and new results that are presented here clearly show the success of the structured method, targeted at the specific deficiencies in amblyopia, to improve vision in children and adults. Our results suggest that the training was successful in rejuvenating the visual system and in restoring lost development from the sensory obstacle period. It is possible that the perceptual learning method used here can be applied to other sensory and non-sensory brain modules suffering from developmental problems. PMID:18997316

  3. Associations Between Fetal Inflammation and Cognitive Functions in Middle Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Factor-Litvak, Pam; Straka, Nadine; Cherkerzian, Sara; Richards, Marcus; Liu, Xinhua; Sher, Arnold; Neils, Greg; Buka, Stephen; Susser, Ezra; Goldstein, Jill

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to prenatal inflammation, measured using proxies such as preterm birth, low birth weight and maternal preeclampsia, has been associated with decrements in scores on tests of intelligence in children and adolescents. We examined whether these decrements persist into middle adulthood and expand into other domains of cognitive functioning. Using data from the Early Determinants of Adult Health project and from the ancillary project, Fetal Antecedents of Major Depression and Cardiovascular Disease, we selected term same sex sibling sets or singletons from these sets, from the New England Family Study (NEFS) and the Child Health and Development Studies (CHDS), discordant on either fetal growth or preeclampsia to test the hypotheses that prenatal exposure to inflammation was associated with decrements in attention, learning and executive function 40 years later. Exposure was defined as a continuous measure of percentile birth weight for gestational age, fetal growth restriction (< 20th percentile of birth weight for gestational age) or maternal preeclampsia. Given that the sample was comprised, in part, of sibling sets, the analyses were performed using mixed models to account for the inter-sibling correlations. Analyses were performed separately by study site (i.e. NEFS and CHDS). In the NEFS we found a small association between fetal growth restriction and working memory for males, such that the working memory score declined by 1.5 points (95% CI -2.4, -0.27). This association was significantly different from the estimated association in females. We discuss the possible reasons for this association which include the possible mediating effects of the postnatal environment. PMID:25140487

  4. Altered motor network activation and functional connectivity in adult Tourette's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Werner, Cornelius J; Stöcker, Tony; Kellermann, Thilo; Bath, Jessica; Beldoch, Margarete; Schneider, Frank; Wegener, Hans Peter; Shah, Jon N; Neuner, Irene

    2011-11-01

    Tourette's syndrome (TS) is a developmental neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by motor and vocal tics as well as psychiatric comorbidities. Disturbances of the fronto-striatal-thalamic pathways responsible for motor control and impulse inhibition have been previously described in other studies. Although differences in motor performance are well recognized, imaging data elucidating the neuronal correlates are scarce. Here, we examined 19 adult TS patients (13 men, aged 22-52 years, mean = 34.3 years) and 18 age- and sex-matched controls (13 men, aged 24-57 years, mean = 37.6 years) in a functional magnetic resonance imaging study at 1.5 T. We corrected for possible confounds introduced by tics, motion, and brain-structural differences as well as age, sex, comorbidities, and medication. Patients and controls were asked to perform a sequential finger-tapping task using their right, left, and both hands, respectively. Task performance was monitored by simultaneous MR-compatible video recording. Although behavioral data obtained during scanning did not show significant differences across groups, we observed differential neuronal activation patterns depending on both handedness (dominant vs. nondominant) and tapping frequency in frontal, parietal, and subcortical areas. When controlling for open motor performance, a failure of deactivation in easier task conditions was found in the subgenual cingulate cortex in the TS patients. In addition, performance-related functional connectivity of lower- and higher-order motor networks differed between patients and controls. In summary, although open performance was comparable, patients showed different neuronal networks and connectivity patterns when performing increasingly demanding tasks, further illustrating the impact of the disease on the motor system. PMID:21259388

  5. From the Cover: Cell-replacement therapy for diabetes: Generating functional insulin-producing tissue from adult human liver cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapir, Tamar; Shternhall, Keren; Meivar-Levy, Irit; Blumenfeld, Tamar; Cohen, Hamutal; Skutelsky, Ehud; Eventov-Friedman, Smadar; Barshack, Iris; Goldberg, Iris; Pri-Chen, Sarah; Ben-Dor, Lya; Polak-Charcon, Sylvie; Karasik, Avraham; Shimon, Ilan; Mor, Eytan; Ferber, Sarah

    2005-05-01

    Shortage in tissue availability from cadaver donors and the need for life-long immunosuppression severely restrict the large-scale application of cell-replacement therapy for diabetic patients. This study suggests the potential use of adult human liver as alternate tissue for autologous beta-cell-replacement therapy. By using pancreatic and duodenal homeobox gene 1 (PDX-1) and soluble factors, we induced a comprehensive developmental shift of adult human liver cells into functional insulin-producing cells. PDX-1-treated human liver cells express insulin, store it in defined granules, and secrete the hormone in a glucose-regulated manner. When transplanted under the renal capsule of diabetic, immunodeficient mice, the cells ameliorated hyperglycemia for prolonged periods of time. Inducing developmental redirection of adult liver offers the potential of a cell-replacement therapy for diabetics by allowing the patient to be the donor of his own insulin-producing tissue. pancreas | transdifferentiation

  6. Predictors of Physical Functioning Trajectories among Chinese Oldest Old Adults: Rural and Urban Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Fei; Park, Nan Sook; Klemmack, David L.; Roff, Lucinda L.; Li, Zhihong

    2009-01-01

    This article examined the differences between rural/urban older adults in their trajectories of activities of daily living (ADL) over a 4-year period. The sample included 2,490 community dwelling older adults who completed three waves (1998, 2000, and 2002) of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey. Among them, 63.5% were from rural…

  7. Memory and executive functions in adults with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome and chronic tic disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc E. Lavoie; Geneviève Thibault; Emmanuel Stip; Kieron P. OConnor

    2007-01-01

    Introduction. The main aim of the current study was to assess whether adults with either Tourette syndrome (TS) or chronic tic disorder (CTD) show a similar neuropsychological profile. Neuropsychological investigations of tic disorders have been mostly focused on children, mainly because symptoms peak during that period. Little has been carried out on adults, even if a significant proportion of the

  8. A high-throughput method of hemolymph extraction from adult Drosophila without anesthesia.

    PubMed

    MacMillan, Heath A; Hughson, Bryon N

    2014-04-01

    A rapid and cost-effective method of sampling hemolymph from the model insect Drosophila melanogaster is needed for studies in several fields, including ionoregulatory physiology, metabolism, immunology and toxicology. Here, we describe the construction and use of a device that uses airflow and pressure to manipulate adult flies and extract high-volume hemolymph samples. This method is rapid and inexpensive, and does not require cold or CO2 anesthesia at any point in the sampling process, thus avoiding the possible confounding effects of these treatments on the biochemical properties of the hemolymph sampled. To demonstrate one use for this method, we measure active concentrations of Na(+) and K(+) in isolated hemolymph droplets from individual adult D. melanogaster using an ion-selective microelectrode technique. PMID:24561358

  9. Gain beyond cosmesis: Demonstration of psychosocial and functional gains following successful strabismus surgery using the adult strabismus questionnaire adult strabismus 20

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Danish; Khan, Adeeb Alam; Bani, Sadat AO; Sharma, Richa; Amitava, Abadan K

    2014-01-01

    Background: Strabismus adversely affects psychosocial and functional aspects; while its correction impacts positively. Aim: The aim was to evaluate the gains in scores: Overall scores (OASs), psychosocial subscale scores (PSSs) and functional subscale scores (FSSs) following successful surgical alignment. Settings and Design: We evaluated changed scores in the adult strabismus 20 (AS-20) questionnaire, administered before and after successful surgery. Materials and Methods: Thirty adults horizontal strabismics, were administered the AS-20, at baseline, and at 6-week and 3-month. Group-wise analysis was carried out based on gender, strabismus type (esotropia [ET] or exotropia [XT]), back-ground and amblyopia. Statistical Analysis: We used Wilcoxon, and Mann-Whitney U-tests. Significance was set at P ? 0.05. Results: At baseline, there were no significant differences within the groups, except that those with amblyopia significantly scored less than nonamblyopes in OAS (median scores: 53.8 vs. 71.3; P = 0.009) and FSS (56.3 vs. 85.3; P = 0.009). OAS, PSS and FSS showed significant gains at 6-week and 3-month (all Wilcoxon P < 0.001). Compared with males, females showed significantly more gain at 3-month (OAS: 37.9 vs. 28.7; P = 0.02), on account of PSS gain (49.6 vs. 37.5; P = 0.01). The ET performed better than XT only on the FSS at 6-week (28.7 vs. 15.0; P = 0.02). Vis-à-vis the nonamblyopes, the amblyopes showed significantly more benefit at 6-week alone (OAS: 18.7 vs. 28.7; P = 0.04), largely due to gains in PSS. Conclusions: Successful strabismus surgery has demonstrated significant gains in psychosocial, functional and overall functions. There is some evidence that gains may be more in females; with a trend to better outcomes in ET and amblyopes up to 6-week. PMID:25116774

  10. Sustained, retransplantable, multilineage engraftment of highly purified adult human bone marrow stem cells in vivo.

    PubMed

    Civin, C I; Almeida-Porada, G; Lee, M J; Olweus, J; Terstappen, L W; Zanjani, E D

    1996-12-01

    Data from many laboratory and clinical investigations indicate that CD34+ cells comprise approximately 1% of human bone marrow (BM) mononuclear cells, including the progenitor cells of all the lymphohematopoietic lineages and lymphohematopoietic stem cells (stem cells). Because stem cells are an important but rare cell type in the CD34+ cell population, investigators have subdivided the CD34+ cell population to further enrich stem cells. The CD34+/CD38- cell subset comprises less than 10% of human CD34+ adult BM cells (equivalent to < 0.1% of marrow mononuclear cells), lacks lineage (lin) antigens, contains cells with in vitro replating capacity, and is predicted to be highly enriched for stem cells. The present investigation tested whether the CD34+/CD38- subset of adult human marrow generates human hematopoiesis after transfer to preimmune fetal sheep. CD34+/ CD38- cells purified from marrow using immunomagnetic microspheres or fluorescence-activated cell sorting generated easily detectable, long-term, multilineage human hematopoiesis in the human-fetal sheep in vivo model. In contrast, transfer of CD34+/CD38+ cells to preimmune fetal sheep generated only short-term human hematopoiesis, possibly suggesting that the CD34+/CD38+ cell population contains relatively early multipotent hematopoletic progenitor cells, but not stem cells. This work extends the prior in vitro evidence that the earliest cells in fetal and adult human marrow lack CD38 expression. In summary, the CD34+/ CD38- cell population has a high capacity for long-term multilineage hematopoietic engraftment, suggesting the presence of stem cells in this minor adult human marrow cell subset. PMID:8943843

  11. Executive function assessment and adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: tasks versus ratings on the Barkley deficits in executive functioning scale.

    PubMed

    Kamradt, Jaclyn M; Ullsperger, Josie M; Nikolas, Molly A

    2014-12-01

    Adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) exhibit variable impairments on executive function (EF) tasks. Due to this variability, ratings of EF (rather than tasks) have been proposed as an alternative method that better captures symptom severity and impairment among adults with ADHD. However, few studies have jointly examined performance across multiple neuropsychological domains and EF ratings as predictors of severity and impairment among adults with ADHD. Adults (N = 273) ages 18-38 years (M = 22.6 years, 55.3% male, 62.2% with ADHD) completed a comprehensive diagnostic and neurocognitive assessment, which included self and informant ratings of ADHD symptom severity and EF and tasks of arousal/activation, response inhibition, set shifting, interference control, and working memory. Hierarchical linear regression models indicated that tasks of arousal/activation and response inhibition uniquely predicted ADHD symptom dimensions and related impairments. Over and above EF task performance, EF ratings of time management significantly predicted increased inattention (? = .209, p < .001, ?R² = 3.9%), whereas ratings of restraint predicted increased hyperactivity/impulsivity (? = .259, p < .001, ?R² = 6.4%). Furthermore, EF ratings of time management, restraint, and emotion regulation incrementally accounted for variance in relationship, professional, and daily living impairments over and above EF task performance (?R² range = 1.7-7.7%). Results may help refine neurobiological theories and assessment of adult ADHD. PMID:24885846

  12. The effects of shared situational awareness on functional and hospital outcomes of hospitalized older adults with heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joo H; Kim, Sun J; Lam, Julia; Kim, Sulgi; Nakagawa, Shunichi; Yoo, Ji W

    2014-01-01

    Background Functional decline of hospitalized older adults is common and triggers health care expenditures. Physical therapy can retard the functional decline that occurs during hospitalization. This study aims to examine whether shared situational awareness (SSA) intervention may enhance the benefits of physical therapy for hospitalized older persons with a common diagnosis, heart failure. Method An SSA intervention that involved daily multidisciplinary meetings was applied to the care of functionally declining older adults admitted to the medicine floor for heart failure. Covariates were matched between the intervention group (n=473) and control group (n=475). Both intervention and control groups received physical therapy for ?0.5 hours per day. The following three outcomes were compared between groups: 1) disability, 2) transition to skilled nursing facility (SNF, post-acute care setting), and 3) 30-day readmission rate. Results Disability was lower in the intervention group (28%) than in the control group (37%) (relative risk [RR] =0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.35–0.97; P=0.026), and transition to SNF was lower in the intervention group (22%) than in the control group (30%) (RR =0.77; 95% CI, 0.39–0.98; P=0.032). The 30-day readmission rate did not significantly differ between the two groups. Conclusion SSA intervention enhanced the benefits of physical therapy for functionally declining older adults. When applied to older adults with heart failure in the form of daily multidisciplinary meetings, SSA intervention improved functional outcomes and reduced transfer to SNFs after hospitalization. PMID:25061316

  13. Schizotypal Traits are Associated with Poorer Executive Functioning in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Louise, Stephanie; Gurvich, Caroline; Neill, Erica; Tan, Eric J.; Van Rheenen, Tamsyn E.; Rossell, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown mild forms of the neurocognitive impairments seen in schizophrenia among healthy individuals exhibiting high schizotypal traits. This study aimed to explore associations between schizotypy and cognitive performance in an adult community sample. Ninety-five females and 79 males completed the Oxford–Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences (O-LIFE), which measures four separable aspects of schizotypy: cognitive disorganization, unusual experiences, introvertive anhedonia, and impulsive non-conformity. Subsequently, participants were administered a neurocognitive battery incorporating measures of executive skills including inhibition, cognitive flexibility, reasoning, and problem solving along with measures of attention and processing speed and both verbal and spatial working memory. In line with predictions, the current study found that higher scores on the subscales of unusual experiences, cognitive disorganization, and impulsive non-conformity related to worse performance on a measure of inhibition. Additionally, as introvertive anhedonia increased, both attention and processing speed and reasoning and problem-solving performance became more impaired. In conclusion, this study extends schizotypy literature by examining the subscales of the O-LIFE, and enables inferences to be drawn in relation to cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. PMID:26082726

  14. Neurocognitive functioning in adult WHO grade II gliomas: impact of old and new treatment modalities

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Martin

    2012-01-01

    In the treatment of patients with low-grade glioma, there still is controversy on how surgical intervention, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy contribute to an ameliorated progression-free survival, overall survival, and treatment-related neurotoxicity. With the ongoing changes in treatment options for these patients, neurocognitive functioning is an increasingly important outcome measure, because neurocognitive impairments can have a large impact on self-care, social and professional functioning, and consequently, health-related quality of life. Many factors contribute to neurocognitive outcome, such as direct and indirect tumor effects, seizures, medication, and oncological treatment. Although the role of radiotherapy has been studied extensively, the adverse effects on neurocognitive function of other treatment-related factors remain elusive. This holds for both resective surgery, in which the use of intraoperative stimulation mapping has a high potential benefit concerning survival and patient functioning, and the use of chemotherapy that might have some interesting new applications, such as the facilitation of total resection for initially primary or recurrent diffuse low-grade glioma tumors. This article will discuss these treatment options in patients with low-grade glioma and their potential effects on neurocognitive functioning. PMID:23095826

  15. Reaffirming normal: the high risk of pathologizing healthy adults when interpreting the MMPI-2-RF.

    PubMed

    Odland, Anthony P; Lammy, Andrew B; Perle, Jonathan G; Martin, Phillip K; Grote, Christopher L

    2015-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations were utilized to determine the proportion of the normal population expected to have scale elevations on the MMPI-2-RF when multiple scores are interpreted. Results showed that when all 40 MMPI-2-RF scales are simultaneously considered, approximately 70% of normal adults are likely to have at least one scale elevation at or above 65 T, and as many as 20% will have five or more elevated scales. When the Restructured Clinical (RC) Scales are under consideration, 34% of normal adults have at least one elevated score. Interpretation of the Specific Problem Scales and Personality Psychopathology Five Scales--Revised also yielded higher than expected rates of significant scores, with as many as one in four normal adults possibly being miscategorized as having features of a personality disorder by the latter scales. These findings are consistent with the growing literature on rates of apparently abnormal scores in the normal population due to multiple score interpretation. Findings are discussed in relation to clinical assessment, as well as in response to recent work suggesting that the MMPI-2-RF's multiscale composition does not contribute to high rates of elevated scores. PMID:25643047

  16. Highly Nonlinear Balanced Boolean Functions with Very Good Autocorrelation Property

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Subhamoy Maitra

    2001-01-01

    Constructing highly nonlinear balanced Boolean functions with very good autocorrelation property is an interesting open question. In this direction we use the measure ?f, the highest magnitude of all autocorrelation coefficients for a function f. We provide balanced functions f with currently best known nonlinearity and ?f values together. Our results for 15-variable functions disprove the conjecture proposed by Zhang

  17. The social functioning and self-concept of adult victims of child abuse 

    E-print Network

    Lopez, Molly McKee

    1994-01-01

    -concept, but did not predict social competence as a young adult. The abuse and nonabuse groups were not significantly different on any SSI scale. Factor analysis of discipline items from the AEIII resulted in three factors. Perception of Physical Maltreatment...

  18. Functions and Equations in High School Algebra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, Eugene F.

    1984-01-01

    How the concept of function sheds new light on one of the central tasks of algebra, that of solving equations, is discussed. Many specific examples are presented, and a theoretical basis is included. (MNS)

  19. Supportive Non-Parental Adults and Adolescent Psychosocial Functioning: Using Social Support as a Theoretical Framework

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emma M. Sterrett; Deborah J. Jones; Laura G. McKee; Carlye Kincaid

    Supportive Non-Parental Adults (SNPAs), or non-parental adults who provide social support to youth, are present in the lives\\u000a of many adolescents; yet to date, a guiding framework for organizing the existing literature on the provision of support provided\\u000a by multiple types of SNPAS, such as teachers, natural mentors, and extended family members, as well as to inform future research\\u000a efforts,

  20. Restoration of ovarian function and natural fertility following the cryopreservation and autotransplantation of whole adult sheep ovaries

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, B.K.; Hernandez-Medrano, J.; Onions, V.; Pincott-Allen, C.; Aljaser, F.; Fisher, J.; McNeilly, A.S.; Webb, R.; Picton, H.M.

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Is it possible to restore ovarian function and natural fertility following the cryopreservation and autotransplantation of whole ovaries, complete with vascular pedicle, in adult females from a large monovulatory animal model species (i.e. sheep)? SUMMARY ANSWER Full (100%) restoration of acute ovarian function and high rates of natural fertility (pregnancy rate 64%; live birth rate 29%), with multiple live births, were obtained following whole ovary cryopreservation and autotransplantation (WOCP&TP) of adult sheep ovaries utilizing optimized cryopreservation and post-operative anti-coagulant regimes. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Fertility preservation by WOCP&TP requires successful cryopreservation of both the ovary and its vascular supply. Previous work has indicated detrimental effects of WOCP&TP on the ovarian follicle population. Recent experiments suggest that these deleterious effects can be attributed to an acute loss of vascular patency due to clot formation induced by damage to ovarian arterial endothelial cells. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION Study 1 (2010–2011; N = 16) examined the effect of post-thaw perfusion of survival factors (angiogenic, antioxidant, anti-apoptotic; n = 7–8) and treatment with aspirin (pre-operative versus pre- and post-operative (n = 7–9)) on the restoration of ovarian function for 3 months after WOCP&TP. Study 2 (2011–2012; N = 16) examined the effect of cryoprotectant (CPA) perfusion time (10 versus 60 min; n = 16) and pre- and post-operative treatment with aspirin in combination with enoxaparine (Clexane®; n = 8) or eptifibatide (Integrilin®; n = 8) on ovarian function and fertility 11–23 months after WOCP&TP. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Both studies utilized mature, parous, Greyface ewes aged 3–6 years and weighing 50–75 kg. Restoration of ovarian function was monitored by bi-weekly blood sampling and display of behavioural oestrus. Blood samples were assayed for gonadotrophins, progesterone, anti-Müllerian Hormone and inhibin A. Fertility restoration in Study 2 was quantified by pregnancy rate after a 3 month fertile mating period and was confirmed by ultrasound, hormonal monitoring and live birth. Ovarian function was assessed at sacrifice by ovarian appearance and vascular patency (Doppler ultrasound) and by follicular histology. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE In Study 1, survival factors were found to have no benefit, but the inclusion of pre-operative aspirin resulted in four ewes showing acute restoration of ovarian function within 3 weeks and a further six ewes showing partial restoration. The addition of post-operative aspirin alone had no clear benefit. In Study 2, combination of aspirin with additional post-operative anti-coagulants resulted in total acute restoration of ovarian function in 14/14 ewes within 3 weeks of WOCP&TP, with 9/14 ewes becoming pregnant and 4/14 giving birth to a total of seven normal lambs. There was no difference between anti-coagulants in terms of restoration of reproductive function and fertility. In contrast, the duration of CPA perfusion was highly significant with a 60 min perfusion resulting in ovaries of normal appearance and function with high rates of primordial follicle survival (70%) and an abundant blood supply, whereas ovaries perfused for 10 min had either resorbed completely and were vestigial (7/14) or were markedly smaller (P < 0.01). It is concluded that both the degree of CPA penetration and the maintenance of post-operative vascular patency are critical determinants of the success of WOCP&TP. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION Before application of this technology to fertility preservation patients, it will be critical to optimize the CPA perfusion time for different sized human ovaries, determine the optimum period and level of anti-coagulant therapy, and confirm the normality of offspring derived from this procedure. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS This technology holds promise for the preservation of fertility in women. It could also

  1. The Ethnic Identity, Other-Group Attitudes, and Psychosocial Functioning of Asian American Emerging Adults From Two Contexts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda P. Juang; Huong H. Nguyen; Yunghui Lin

    2006-01-01

    Drawing from two samples of Asian American emerging adults, one in an ethnicallyconcentrated context (n = 108) and the other in an ethnically-dispersed, mainly White context (n = 153), we examined (a) how ethnic identity and other-group attitudes were related to psychosocial functioning (i.e., depression, self-esteem, and connectedness to parents) and (b) how these relations were moderated by context. Results

  2. Caregivers' reported functional limitations in activities of daily living among middle-aged adults with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lan-Ping; Hsia, Yi-Chen; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Loh, Ching-Hui; Wu, Chia-Ling; Lin, Jin-Ding

    2013-12-01

    This study was conducted to describe the functioning of Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and to examine socio-economic effects on ADL functioning among adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) aged 45 years and older (N=480) in Taiwan. The Barthel Index (BI) was used to determine a baseline level of ADL functioning in the study participants. There are five categories of functional impairment using the following cut-off values in Taiwan: total dependence (BI score 0-20), severe (BI score 21-60), moderate (BI score 61-90), mild (BI score 91-99), and total independence (BI score 100) (Taiwan Department of Health, 2012). The results revealed that 2.3% of adults with ID were in total dependence, 11.9% were in severe dependence, 27.9% were in moderate dependence, 8.1% had a mild dependence, and 49.8% were totally independent. In the multiple linear regression model of the ADL score, we determined that educational level, comorbid Down's syndrome, and disability level are the variables able to significantly predict ADL score (R(2)=0.190) after controlling for the factors of age, marital status, and other comorbidity conditions. Those ID adults with a lower education level (primary vs. literate, ?=4.780, p=0.031; intermediate vs. literate, ?=6.642, p=0.030), with comorbid Down's syndrome (?=-7.135, p=0.063), and with a more severe disability condition (severe vs. mild, ?=-7.650, p=0.007; profound vs. mild, ?=-19.169, p<0.001) had significantly lower ADL scores. The present study highlights the need to support mobility in older adults with ID as much as possible to optimize independence in this group. PMID:24139711

  3. The Effects of Perinatal\\/Juvenile Heptachlor Exposure on Adult Immune and Reproductive System Function in Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Smialowicz; W. C. Williams; C. B. Copeland; M. W. Harris; D. Overstreet; B. J. Davis; R. E. Chapin

    2001-01-01

    This study was performed to determine if developmental expo- sure of rats to heptachlor (H) during the last half of gestation through puberty adversely affects adult functioning of the immune and reproductive systems. Time-bred pregnant female Sprague- Dawley rats were dosed by gavage with H (0, 30, 300, or 3000 mg\\/kg\\/day) from gestation day (GD) 12 to postnatal day (PND)

  4. Frontal lobe-dependent functions in treated phenylketonuria: Blood phenylalanine concentrations and long-term deficits in adolescents young adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Feldmann; J. Denecke; M. Grenzebach; J. Weglage

    2005-01-01

    Even early-treated phenylketonurics may suffer from phenylalanine-related deficits. Elevated phenylalanine concentrations can interfere with the development and function of the CNS. Outcome beyond childhood has not been extensively investigated. This long-term study was performed to determine whether adolescents and young adults with PKU show frontal lobe-dependent deficits when compared to diabetic patients. The comparative study covered 35 PKU patients, 13–21

  5. Transfers of Varroa mites from newly emerged bees: Preferences for age- and function-specific adult bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. P. S. Kuenen; N. W. Calderone

    1997-01-01

    Movements of the parasitic honey bee mite,Varroa jacobsoni (Oud.) were monitored in several assays as they moved among adult host honey bees,Apis mellifera. We examined the propensity of mites to leave their hosts and to move onto new bee hosts. We also examined their preference\\u000a for bees of different age and hive function. Mites were standardized by selecting mites from

  6. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Adults with Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder and Borderline Intellectual Functioning: A Case Series of Three Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven L. Pence Jr; Mirela A. Aldea; Michael L. Sulkowski; Eric A. Storch

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) is widely accepted as the most effective psychological treatment for obsessive–compulsive\\u000a disorder (OCD). Although this modality flexibly treats a variety of OCD symptom subtypes, it is unclear how CBT should be\\u000a adapted to meet the needs of individuals with OCD and limitations in their cognitive functioning. In this paper, we report\\u000a on three adults with borderline intellectual

  7. Telomere Length in Human Adults and High Level Natural Background Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Das, Birajalaxmi; Saini, Divyalakshmi; Seshadri, M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Telomere length is considered as a biomarker of aging, stress, cancer. It has been associated with many chronic diseases such as hypertension and diabetes. Although, telomere shortening due to ionizing radiation has been reported in vitro, no in vivo data is available on natural background radiation and its effect on telomere length. Methodology/Principal Findings The present investigation is an attempt to determine the telomere length among human adults residing in high level natural radiation areas (HLNRA) and the adjacent normal level radiation areas (NLNRA) of Kerala coast in Southwest India. Genomic DNA was isolated from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 310 individuals (HLNRA: N?=?233 and NLNRA: N?=?77). Telomere length was determined using real time q-PCR. Both telomere (T) and single copy gene (S) specific primers were used to calculate the relative T/S and expressed as the relative telomere length. The telomere length was determined to be 1.22±0.15, 1.12±0.15, 1.08±0.08, 1.12±0.11, respectively, among the four dose groups (?1.50, 1.51–3.00, 3.01–5.00 and >5.00 mGy per year), which did not show any dose response. The results suggested that the high level natural chronic radiation did not have significant effect on telomere length among young adult population living in HLNRA, which is indicative of better repair of telomeric ends. No significant difference in telomere length was observed between male and female individuals. In the present investigation, although the determination of telomere length was studied among the adults with an age group between 18 to 40 years (mean maternal age: 26.10±4.49), a negative correlation was observed with respect to age. However, inter-individual variation was (0.81–1.68) was clearly observed. Conclusions/Significance In this preliminary investigation, we conclude that elevated level of natural background radiation has no significant effect on telomere length among the adult population residing in HLNRAs of Kerala coast. To our knowledge, this is the first report from HLNRAs of the world where telomere length was determined on human adults. However, more samples from each background dose group and samples from older population need to be studied to derive firm conclusions. PMID:20037654

  8. Fenthion produces a persistent decrease in muscarinic receptor function in the adult rat retina.

    PubMed

    Tandon, P; Padilla, S; Barone, S; Pope, C N; Tilson, H A

    1994-04-01

    Several reports have suggested that exposure to organophosphate pesticides damages the visual system. The prolonged effects of an acute dose of fenthion (dimethyl 3-methyl-4-methylthiophenyl phosphorothionate) were studied on the cholinergic system of the rat retina. Fenthion was administered in a single dose of 0 or 100 mg/kg (sc, in corn oil) to adult, male, Long-Evans rats. The animals were killed 4, 14, or 56 days after treatment and cholinesterase (ChE) activity as well as muscarinic receptor (mChR) function measured in the retina and frontal cortex. Fenthion produced 89% inhibition of ChE activity in both tissues at 4 days, and, although there was recovery, slight (15%) inhibition of the enzyme activity was still observed at 56 days in both tissues. A long-lasting decrease in carbachol-stimulated inositolphosphate (IP) release was observed following fenthion treatment in the retina: IP release was depressed at 4 days and this depression persisted up to 56 days after dosing. The density of mChR in the retina as well as in the cortex was decreased by 14-20% at 4 days and returned to control levels by 56 days. Fenthion had no effect on the metabolism of phospholipids in the retina following intraocular injections of labeled precursors [3H]myo-inositol, [methyl-14C]choline, or [2-3H]glycerol 4 days after fenthion treatment. These prolonged effects of fenthion on mChR function (signal transduction) appear to be specific to the retina as the cortex showed no change in receptor-stimulated IP release even in the presence of significant mChR down-regulation and ChE inhibition. This dose of fenthion did not produce overt morphological changes in the retina or in the cortex, as observed with light microscopy, although an increase in glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactivity (GFAP IR) extending from the internal limiting membrane to the external limiting membrane of the retina was noted. This increase in GFAP IR was observed at 14 days and persisted as long as 56 days post-treatment in the retina, but was not noted in the cortex at any of the time points studied. Thus, this long-lasting perturbation in the retinal cholinergic second messenger system induced by fenthion may occur independently of depressed ChE activity and down-regulation of mChR. PMID:8171435

  9. Effect of citrulline on muscle functions during moderate dietary restriction in healthy adult rats.

    PubMed

    Ventura, G; Noirez, P; Breuillé, D; Godin, J P; Pinaud, S; Cleroux, M; Choisy, C; Le Plénier, S; Bastic, V; Neveux, N; Cynober, L; Moinard, C

    2013-11-01

    Low calorie diets are designed to reduce body weight and fat mass, but they also lead to a detrimental loss of lean body mass, which is an important problem for overweight people trying to lose weight. In this context, a specific dietary intervention that preserves muscle mass in people following a slimming regime would be of great benefit. Leucine (LEU) and Citrulline (CIT) are known to stimulate muscle protein synthesis (MPS) in post-prandial and post-absorptive state, respectively. This makes them interesting bioactive components to test in the context of dietary restriction. We tested the concept of combining LEU and CIT in adult female rats. We postulated that the sequential administration of LEU (mixed in chow) and CIT (given in drinking water before a rest period) could be beneficial for preservation of muscle function during food restriction. Sixty female rats (22 weeks old) were randomized into six groups: one group fed ad libitum with a standard diet (C) and five food-restricted groups (60 % of spontaneous intake for 2 weeks) receiving a standard diet (R group), a CIT-supplemented diet (0.2 or 1 g/kg/day, CIT0.2 group and CIT1 group, respectively), a LEU-supplemented diet (1.0 g/kg/day) or a CIT + LEU-supplemented diet (CIT + LEU 1.0 g/kg/day each). At the end of the experiment, body composition, muscle contractile properties and muscle protein synthesis (MPS) rate were studied in the tibialis anterior muscle. Dietary restriction tended to decrease MPS (R: 2.5 ± 0.2 vs. C: 3.4 ± 0.4 %/day, p = 0.06) and decrease muscle strength (R: 3,045 ± 663 vs. C: 5,650 ± 661 A.U., p = 0.03). Only CIT administration (1 g/kg) was able to restore MPS (CIT1: 3.4 ± 0.3 vs. R: 2.5 ± 0.2 %/day, p = 0.05) and increase muscle maximum tetanic force (CIT1: 441 ± 15 vs. R: 392 ± 22 g, p = 0.05) and muscle strength (CIT1: 4,259 ± 478 vs. R: 3,045 ± 663 A.U., p = 0.05). LEU had no effect and CIT + LEU supplementation had few effects, limited to adipose mass and fatigue force. The results of this study highlight the ability of CIT alone to preserve muscle function during dietary restriction. Surprisingly, LEU antagonized some effects of CIT. The mechanisms involved in this antagonistic effect warrant further study. PMID:23913268

  10. White Matter Hyperintensities among Older Adults Are Associated with Futile Increase in Frontal Activation and Functional Connectivity during Spatial Search

    PubMed Central

    Lockhart, Samuel N.; Luck, Steven J.; Geng, Joy; Beckett, Laurel; Disbrow, Elizabeth A.; Carmichael, Owen; DeCarli, Charles

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms by which aging and other processes can affect the structure and function of brain networks are important to understanding normal age-related cognitive decline. Advancing age is known to be associated with various disease processes, including clinically asymptomatic vascular and inflammation processes that contribute to white matter structural alteration and potential injury. The effects of these processes on the function of distributed cognitive networks, however, are poorly understood. We hypothesized that the extent of magnetic resonance imaging white matter hyperintensities would be associated with visual attentional control in healthy aging, measured using a functional magnetic resonance imaging search task. We assessed cognitively healthy older adults with search tasks indexing processing speed and attentional control. Expanding upon previous research, older adults demonstrate activation across a frontal-parietal attentional control network. Further, greater white matter hyperintensity volume was associated with increased activation of a frontal network node independent of chronological age. Also consistent with previous research, greater white matter hyperintensity volume was associated with anatomically specific reductions in functional magnetic resonance imaging functional connectivity during search among attentional control regions. White matter hyperintensities may lead to subtle attentional network dysfunction, potentially through impaired frontal-parietal and frontal interhemispheric connectivity, suggesting that clinically silent white matter biomarkers of vascular and inflammatory injury can contribute to differences in search performance and brain function in aging, and likely contribute to advanced age-related impairments in cognitive control. PMID:25793922

  11. Effects of a single bout of walking on psychophysiologic responses and executive function in elderly adults: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Hatta, Arihiro; Nishihira, Yoshiaki; Higashiura, Takuro

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a single bout of walking on mood, psychophysiologic responses, and executive function in elderly adults. Methods Twenty healthy, elderly adults (10 women and 10 men; mean age 70.50 ± 3.4 years) participated in this study. Mood, as assessed by the Profile of Mood States, and salivary ?-amylase activity were examined before and after walking. Executive functions were also evaluated by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Results Negative feeling scores such as tension-anxiety, anger-hostility, and confusion significantly improved after walking. No significant differences were found for either salivary ?-amylase activities or Wisconsin Card Sorting Test scores before and after walking. However, the changes in salivary ?-amylase activity before and after walking correlated positively with the number of total errors and perseverative errors of Nelson in the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Conclusion These results suggest that moderate exercise, such as self-paced one-time walking, induces beneficial psychologic effects in elderly adults. Meanwhile, the significant increase in salivary ?-amylase activity after walking might temporarily cause deterioration of executive function. PMID:23888111

  12. Effect of long-term outdoor air pollution and noise on cognitive and psychological functions in adults.

    PubMed

    Tzivian, Lilian; Winkler, Angela; Dlugaj, Martha; Schikowski, Tamara; Vossoughi, Mohammad; Fuks, Kateryna; Weinmayr, Gudrun; Hoffmann, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that air pollution and ambient noise might impact neurocognitive function. Early studies mostly investigated the associations of air pollution and ambient noise exposure with cognitive development in children. More recently, several studies investigating associations with neurocognitive function, mood disorders, and neurodegenerative disease in adult populations were published, yielding inconsistent results. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current evidence on air pollution and noise effects on mental health in adults. We included studies in adult populations (?18 years old) published in English language in peer-reviewed journals. Fifteen articles related to long-term effects of air pollution and eight articles on long-term effects of ambient noise were extracted. Both exposures were separately shown to be associated with one or several measures of global cognitive function, verbal and nonverbal learning and memory, activities of daily living, depressive symptoms, elevated anxiety, and nuisance. No study considered both exposures simultaneously and few studies investigated progression of neurocognitive decline or psychological factors. The existing evidence generally supports associations of environmental factors with mental health, but does not suffice for an overall conclusion about the independent effect of air pollution and noise. There is a need for studies investigating simultaneously air pollution and noise exposures in association mental health, for longitudinal studies to corroborate findings from cross-sectional analyses, and for parallel toxicological and epidemiological studies to elucidate mechanisms and pathways of action. PMID:25242804

  13. High Individuality of Respiratory Bacterial Communities in a Large Cohort of Adult Cystic Fibrosis Patients under Continuous Antibiotic Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Rolf; Sauer-Heilborn, Annette; Welte, Tobias; Jauregui, Ruy; Brettar, Ingrid; Guzman, Carlos A.; Höfle, Manfred G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Routine clinical diagnostics of CF patients focus only on a restricted set of well-known pathogenic species. Recent molecular studies suggest that infections could be polymicrobial with many bacteria not detected by culture-based diagnostics. Methodology and Principal Findings A large cohort of 56 adults with continuous antibiotic treatment was studied and different microbial diagnostic methods were compared, including culture-independent and culture-based bacterial diagnostics. A total of 72 sputum samples including longitudinal observations was analysed by 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison. Prevalence of known pathogens was highly similar among all methods but the vast spectrum of bacteria associated with CF was only revealed by culture-independent techniques. The sequence comparison enabled confident determination of the bacterial community composition and revealed a high diversity and individuality in the communities across the cohort. Results of microbiological analyses were further compared with individual host factors, such as age, lung function and CFTR genotype. No statistical relationship between these factors and the diversity of the entire community or single bacterial species could be identified. However, patients with non-?F508 mutations in the CFTR gene often had low abundances of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Persistence of specific bacteria in some communities was demonstrated by longitudinal analyses of 13 patients indicating a potential clinical relevance of anaerobic bacteria, such as Fusobacterium nucleatum and Streptococcus millerii. Conclusions The high individuality in community composition and the lack of correlation to clinical host factors might be due to the continuous treatment with antibiotics. Since this is current practice for adult CF patients, the life-long history of the patient and the varying selection pressure on the related microbial communities should be a focus of future studies and its relation to disease progression. These studies should be substantially larger, providing more molecular information on the microbial communities complemented by detailed genetic assessment of the host. PMID:25671713

  14. Functional Characterization of a Novel Mutation in NKX2-5 Associated with Congenital Heart Disease and Adult-Onset Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Mauro W.; Guo, Guanglan; Wolstein, Orit; Vale, Molly; Castro, M. Leticia; Wang, Libin; Otway, Robyn; Riek, Peter; Cochrane, Natalie; Furtado, Milena; Semsarian, Christopher; Weintraub, Robert G.; Yeoh, Thomas; Hayward, Christopher; Keogh, Anne; Macdonald, Peter; Feneley, Michael; Graham, Robert M.; Seidman, Jonathan G.; Seidman, Christine E.; Rosenthal, Nadia; Fatkin, Diane; Harvey, Richard P.

    2013-01-01

    Background The transcription factor NKX2-5 is crucial for heart development and mutations in this gene have been implicated in diverse congenital heart diseases (CHD) and conduction defects (CD) in mouse models and humans. Whether NKX2-5 mutations have a role in adult-onset heart disease is unknown. Methods and Results Mutation screening was performed in 220 probands with adult-onset dilated cardiomypathy (DCM). Six NKX2-5 coding sequence variants were identified, including 3 non-synonymous variants. A novel heterozygous mutation, I184M, located within the NKX2-5 homeodomain (HD), was identified in one family. A subset of family members had CHD, but there was an unexpectedly high prevalence of DCM. Functional analysis of I184M in vitro demonstrated a striking increase in protein expression when transfected into COS-7 cells or HL-1 cardiomyocytes, due to reduced degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). In functional assays, DNA binding activity of I184M was reduced, resulting in impaired activation of target genes, despite increased expression levels of mutant protein. Conclusions Certain NKX2-5 HD mutations show abnormal protein degradation via the UPS and partially impaired transcriptional activity. We propose that this class of mutation can impair heart development and mature heart function, and contribute to NKX2-5-related cardiomyopathies with graded severity. PMID:23661673

  15. Improving visual functions in adult amblyopia with combined perceptual training and transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS): a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Campana, Gianluca; Camilleri, Rebecca; Pavan, Andrea; Veronese, Antonella; Lo Giudice, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Amblyopia is a visual disorder due to an abnormal pattern of functional connectivity of the visual cortex and characterized by several visual deficits of spatial vision including impairments of visual acuity (VA) and of the contrast sensitivity function (CSF). Despite being a developmental disorder caused by reduced visual stimulation during early life (critical period), several studies have shown that extensive visual perceptual training can improve VA and CSF in people with amblyopia even in adulthood. With the present study we assessed whether a much shorter perceptual training regime, in association with high-frequency transcranial electrical stimulation (hf-tRNS), was able to improve visual functions in a group of adult participants with amblyopia. Results show that, in comparison with previous studies where a large number sessions with a similar training regime were used (Polat et al., 2004), here just eight sessions of training in contrast detection under lateral masking conditions combined with hf-tRNS, were able to substantially improve VA and CSF in adults with amblyopia. PMID:25538653

  16. Generation of functional endothelial-like cells from adult mouse germline-derived pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Julee; Eligehausen, Sarah; Stehling, Martin; Nikol, Sigrid; Ko, Kinarm; Waltenberger, Johannes; Klocke, Rainer

    2014-01-10

    Functional endothelial cells and their progenitors are required for vascular development, adequate vascular function, vascular repair and for cell-based therapies of ischemic diseases. Currently, cell therapy is limited by the low abundance of patient-derived cells and by the functional impairment of autologous endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). In the present study, murine germline-derived pluripotent stem (gPS) cells were evaluated as a potential source for functional endothelial-like cells. Cells displaying an endothelial cell-like morphology were obtained from gPS cell-derived embryoid bodies using a combination of fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS)-based selection of CD31-positive cells and their subsequent cultivation on OP9 stromal cells in the presence of VEGF-A. Real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, FACS analysis and immunofluorescence staining showed that the gPS cell-derived endothelial-like cells (gPS-ECs) expressed endothelial cell-specific markers including von Willebrand Factor, Tie2, VEGFR2/Flk1, intercellular adhesion molecule 2 and vascular endothelial-cadherin. The high expression of ephrin B2, as compared to Eph B4 and VEGFR3, suggests an arterial rather than a venous or lymphatic differentiation. Their capability to take up Dil-conjugated acetylated low-density lipoprotein and to form capillary-like networks on matrigel confirmed their functionality. We conclude that gPS cells could be a novel source of endothelial cells potentially suitable for regenerative cell-based therapies for ischemic diseases. PMID:24333870

  17. A balanced view of choroid plexus structure and function: Focus on adult humans.

    PubMed

    Spector, Reynold; Keep, Richard F; Robert Snodgrass, S; Smith, Quentin R; Johanson, Conrad E

    2015-05-01

    Recently tremendous progress has been made in studying choroid plexus (CP) physiology and pathophysiology; and correcting several misconceptions about the CP. Specifically, the details of how CP, a locus of the blood-CSF barrier (BCSFB), secretes and purifies CSF, generates intracranial pressure (ICP), maintains CSF ion homeostasis, and provides micronutrients, proteins and hormones for neuronal and glial development, maintenance and function, are being understood on a molecular level. Unequivocal evidence that the CP secretory epithelium is the predominant supplier of CSF for the ventricles comes from multiple lines: uptake kinetics of tracer (22)Na and (36)Cl penetration from blood to CSF, autoradiographic mapping of rapid (22)Na and (36)Cl permeation (high permeability coefficients) into the cerebroventricles, CSF sampling from several different in vivo and in vitro CP preparations, CP hyperplasia that increases CSF formation and ICP; and in vitro analysis of CP ability to transport molecules (with expected directionality) and actively secrete fluid against an hydrostatic fluid column. Furthermore, clinical support for this CP-CSF model comes from neurosurgical procedures to remove lateral ventricle CPs in hydrocephalic children to reduce CSF formation, thereby relieving elevated ICP. In terms of micronutrient transport, ascorbic acid, folate and other essential factors are transported by specific (cloned) carriers across CP into ventricular CSF, from which they penetrate across the ependyma and pia mater deeply into the brain to support its viability and function. Without these choroidal functions, severe neurological disease and even death can occur. In terms of efflux or clearance transport, the active carriers (many of which have been cloned and expressed) in the CP basolateral and apical membranes perform regulatory removal of some metabolites (e.g. choline) and certain drugs (e.g. antibiotics like penicillin) from CSF, thus reducing agents such as penicillin to sub-therapeutic levels. Altogether, these multiple transport and secretory functions in CP support CSF homeostasis and fluid dynamics essential for brain function. PMID:25747036

  18. Fine structure and sugar transport functions of the tegument in Clinostomum marginatum (Digenea: Clinostomatidae): environmental effects on the adult phenotype.

    PubMed

    Uglem, G L; Larson, O R; Aho, J M; Lee, K J

    1991-10-01

    Digenean flukes can be classified into 3 groups according to their location in the host: the lumen of the alimentary canal or associated organ, body cavity or tissue, and external surfaces. We obtained adults of Clinostomum marginatum that had matured in these 3 habitats and compared the fine structure and glucose transporting capacity of their teguments. Adults from the esophagus of herons, Ardea herodias, had thick, smooth teguments and took up glucose by facilitated diffusion, the type of transport that is Na(+)-independent and insensitive to phlorizin. By contrast, the surfaces of adults cultured from metacercariae in body cavities of laboratory mice were amplified 3-5-fold due to numerous irregular projections of the tegument. Glucose transport by these worms was largely Na(+)-dependent and inhibited by phlorizin, indicating active transport. Ectoparasites from herons' mouths had relatively thick, smooth teguments, but these worms always were encrusted with bacteria and yeast that are known to absorb and metabolize glucose. Most of the attached bacteria, and the apparent glucose uptake associated with their presence, were removed by treating the worms with antibiotics prior to transport assays. As facilitated diffusion and active transport are operational simultaneously in metacercariae, the type of transport function, if any, expressed in the adult is determined by environmental conditions associated with the worm's habitat. PMID:1919910

  19. Postnatal Day 2 to 11 Constitutes a 5-HT-Sensitive Period Impacting Adult mPFC Function

    PubMed Central

    Rebello, Tahilia J.; Yu, Qinghui; Goodfellow, Nathalie M.; Caffrey Cagliostro, Martha K.; Teissier, Anne; Morelli, Emanuela; Demireva, Elena Y.; Chemiakine, Alexei; Rosoklija, Gorazd B.; Dwork, Andrew J.; Lambe, Evelyn K.; Ansorge, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Early-life serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] signaling modulates brain development, which impacts adult behavior, but 5-HT-sensitive periods, neural substrates, and behavioral consequences remain poorly understood. Here we identify the period ranging from postnatal day 2 (P2) to P11 as 5-HT sensitive, with 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) blockade increasing anxiety- and depression-like behavior, and impairing fear extinction learning and memory in adult mice. Concomitantly, P2–P11 5-HTT blockade causes dendritic hypotrophy and reduced excitability of infralimbic (IL) cortex pyramidal neurons that normally promote fear extinction. By contrast, the neighboring prelimbic (PL) pyramidal neurons, which normally inhibit fear extinction, become more excitable. Excitotoxic IL but not PL lesions in adult control mice reproduce the anxiety-related phenotypes. These findings suggest that increased 5-HT signaling during P2–P11 alters adult mPFC function to increase anxiety and impair fear extinction, and imply a differential role for IL and PL neurons in regulating affective behaviors. Together, our results support a developmental mechanism for the etiology and pathophysiology of affective disorders and fear-related behaviors. PMID:25209278

  20. Postnatal day 2 to 11 constitutes a 5-HT-sensitive period impacting adult mPFC function.

    PubMed

    Rebello, Tahilia J; Yu, Qinghui; Goodfellow, Nathalie M; Caffrey Cagliostro, Martha K; Teissier, Anne; Morelli, Emanuela; Demireva, Elena Y; Chemiakine, Alexei; Rosoklija, Gorazd B; Dwork, Andrew J; Lambe, Evelyn K; Gingrich, Jay A; Ansorge, Mark S

    2014-09-10

    Early-life serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] signaling modulates brain development, which impacts adult behavior, but 5-HT-sensitive periods, neural substrates, and behavioral consequences remain poorly understood. Here we identify the period ranging from postnatal day 2 (P2) to P11 as 5-HT sensitive, with 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) blockade increasing anxiety- and depression-like behavior, and impairing fear extinction learning and memory in adult mice. Concomitantly, P2-P11 5-HTT blockade causes dendritic hypotrophy and reduced excitability of infralimbic (IL) cortex pyramidal neurons that normally promote fear extinction. By contrast, the neighboring prelimbic (PL) pyramidal neurons, which normally inhibit fear extinction, become more excitable. Excitotoxic IL but not PL lesions in adult control mice reproduce the anxiety-related phenotypes. These findings suggest that increased 5-HT signaling during P2-P11 alters adult mPFC function to increase anxiety and impair fear extinction, and imply a differential role for IL and PL neurons in regulating affective behaviors. Together, our results support a developmental mechanism for the etiology and pathophysiology of affective disorders and fear-related behaviors. PMID:25209278

  1. Embryonic Caffeine Exposure Acts via A1 Adenosine Receptors to Alter Adult Cardiac Function and DNA Methylation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, Victoria; Xue, Huiling; Rivkees, Scott A.; Wendler, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence indicates that disruption of normal prenatal development influences an individual's risk of developing obesity and cardiovascular disease as an adult. Thus, understanding how in utero exposure to chemical agents leads to increased susceptibility to adult diseases is a critical health related issue. Our aim was to determine whether adenosine A1 receptors (A1ARs) mediate the long-term effects of in utero caffeine exposure on cardiac function and whether these long-term effects are the result of changes in DNA methylation patterns in adult hearts. Pregnant A1AR knockout mice were treated with caffeine (20 mg/kg) or vehicle (0.09% NaCl) i.p. at embryonic day 8.5. This caffeine treatment results in serum levels equivalent to the consumption of 2–4 cups of coffee in humans. After dams gave birth, offspring were examined at 8–10 weeks of age. A1AR+/+ offspring treated in utero with caffeine were 10% heavier than vehicle controls. Using echocardiography, we observed altered cardiac function and morphology in adult mice exposed to caffeine in utero. Caffeine treatment decreased cardiac output by 11% and increased left ventricular wall thickness by 29% during diastole. Using DNA methylation arrays, we identified altered DNA methylation patterns in A1AR+/+ caffeine treated hearts, including 7719 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) within the genome and an overall decrease in DNA methylation of 26%. Analysis of genes associated with DMRs revealed that many are associated with cardiac hypertrophy. These data demonstrate that A1ARs mediate in utero caffeine effects on cardiac function and growth and that caffeine exposure leads to changes in DNA methylation. PMID:24475304

  2. Microvascular function in younger adults with obesity and metabolic syndrome: role of oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Limberg, Jacqueline K.; Harrell, John W.; Johansson, Rebecca E.; Eldridge, Marlowe W.; Proctor, Lester T.; Sebranek, Joshua J.

    2013-01-01

    Older adults with cardiovascular disease exhibit microvascular dysfunction and increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We hypothesized that microvascular impairments begin early in the disease process and can be improved by scavenging ROS. Forearm blood flow (Doppler ultrasound) was measured in 45 young (32 ± 2 yr old) adults (n = 15/group) classified as lean, obese, and metabolic syndrome (MetSyn). Vasodilation in response to endothelial (ACh) and vascular smooth muscle [nitroprusside (NTP) and epoprostenol (Epo)] agonists was tested before and after intra-arterial infusion of ascorbic acid to scavenge ROS. Vasodilation was assessed as a rise in relative vascular conductance (ml·min?1·dl?1·100 mmHg?1). ACh and NTP responses were preserved (P = 0.825 and P = 0.924, respectively), whereas Epo responses were lower in obese and MetSyn adults (P < 0.05) than in lean controls. Scavenging of ROS via infusion of ascorbic acid resulted in an increase in ACh-mediated (P < 0.001) and NTP-mediated (P < 0.001) relative vascular conductance across all groups, suggesting that oxidative stress influences vascular responsiveness in adults with and without overt cardiovascular disease risk. Ascorbic acid had no effect on Epo-mediated vasodilation (P = 0.267). These results suggest that obese and MetSyn adults exhibit preserved endothelium-dependent vasodilation with reduced dependence on prostacyclin and are consistent with an upregulation of compensatory vascular control mechanisms. PMID:23934859

  3. Overall reductions in functional brain activation are associated with falls in older adults: an fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Nagamatsu, Lindsay S.; Boyd, Lara A.; Hsu, Chun Liang; Handy, Todd C.; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Falls are a common geriatric condition, and while impaired cognitive function has been identified as a key risk factor, the neural correlates that contribute to reduced executive functioning and falls currently remain unknown. In this study, community-dwelling adults aged 65–75 years were divided into two groups based on their recent history of falls (fallers versus non-fallers). All participants completed the Flanker task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We examined the hemodynamic response of congruent and incongruent trials separately in order to separate the relative contribution of each trial type as a function of falls history. We found that fallers exhibited a smaller difference in functional activation between congruent and incongruent trials relative to non-fallers, as well as an overall reduction in level of blood-oxygen-level dependent response. Of particular note, the medial frontal gyrus – a region implicated in motor planning – demonstrated hypo-activation in fallers, providing evidence that the prefrontal cortex might play a central role in falls risk in older adults. PMID:24391584

  4. Construction of Bent Functions and Balanced Boolean Functions with High Nonlinearity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans Dobbertin

    1994-01-01

    A general explicit construction of bent functions is described, which unifies well known constructions due to Maiorana-McFarland and Dillon as two opposite extremal cases. Within this framework we also find new ways to generate bent functions. Then it is shown how the constructed bent functions can be modified in order to obtain highly nonlinear balanced Boolean functions. Although their nonlinearity

  5. The Literacy of U.S. Adults with Disabilities across GED Credential Recipients, High School Graduates, and Non-High School Graduates. GED Testing Service[TM] Research Studies, 2008-3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Yung-chen; George-Ezzelle, Carol E.

    2008-01-01

    To serve adults with disabilities without a high school diploma, the federal government and states have funded adult education and literacy programs that provide services to accommodate the needs of those adults. In addition, the Tests of General Educational Development (GED Tests) provide adults with disabilities with testing accommodations to…

  6. Exceptional functional recovery and return to high-impact sports after Van Nes rotationplasty.

    PubMed

    Harris, Joshua D; Trinh, Thai Q; Scharschmidt, Thomas J; Mayerson, Joel L

    2013-01-01

    Rotationplasty involves wide resection of lower-extremity malignancy and approximately 180° rotation of the tibia to allow the ankle to function similarly to the former knee joint. It is most commonly used for sarcomas around the knee, such as the distal femur and proximal tibia, in adolescent and young adult patients and is an option for patients with proximal femoral focal deficiency (congenital short femur). Rotationplasty is an alternative to ablative procedures when functional outcome is a consideration or when resection of involved areas and endoprosthetic reconstruction is not possible. This article describes functional status and return to competitive sport after rotationplasty for a lower-extremity bone sarcoma with 3-year follow-up. Despite a postoperative course complicated by a distal tibial physeal injury and femoral neck stress fracture, the patient recovered fully by 1 year postoperatively. Pain free at rest and with activity and with no loss of function, the patient is a successful athlete, playing basketball and baseball and skiing competitively. The patient used a custom-made prosthesis that likely played a role in his high level of function. The patient's high function is evidenced by a maximal or near-maximal possible score on all subsections of the Short Form 36 health survey. Although this level of function is exemplary, it may be more expected in younger, more active, highly motivated, and emotionally and socially mature individuals. PMID:23276345

  7. Arsenic exposure, inflammation, and renal function in Bangladeshi adults: effect modification by plasma glutathione redox potential.

    PubMed

    Peters, Brandilyn A; Liu, Xinhua; Hall, Megan N; Ilievski, Vesna; Slavkovich, Vesna; Siddique, Abu B; Alam, Shafiul; Islam, Tariqul; Graziano, Joseph H; Gamble, Mary V

    2015-08-01

    Exposure to arsenic (As) in drinking water is a widespread public health problem leading to increased risk for multiple outcomes such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, and possibly renal disease; potential mechanisms include inflammation and oxidative stress. We tested the hypothesis that As exposure is associated with increased inflammation and decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and examined whether the effects of As were modified by plasma glutathione (GSH), glutathione disulfide (GSSG), or the reduction potential of the GSSG/2GSH pair (EhGSH). In a cross-sectional study of N = 374 Bangladeshi adults having a wide range of As exposure, we measured markers of inflammation (plasma C-reactive protein (CRP), ?-1 acid glycoprotein (AGP)), renal function (eGFR), GSH, and GSSG. In covariate-adjusted models, a 10% increase in water As, urinary As adjusted for specific gravity (uAs), or blood As (bAs) was associated with a 0.74% (p = 0.01), 0.90% (p = 0.16), and 1.39% (p = 0.07) increase in CRP, respectively; there was no association with AGP. A 10% increase in uAs or bAs was associated with an average reduction in eGFR of 0.16 (p = 0.12) and 0.21ml/min/1.73m(2) (p = 0.08), respectively. In stratified analyses, the effect of As exposure on CRP was observed only in participants having EhGSH > median (uAs pWald = 0.03; bAs pWald = 0.05). This was primarily driven by stronger effects of As exposure on CRP in participants with lower plasma GSH. The effects of As exposure on eGFR were not modified significantly by EhGSH, GSH, or GSSG. These data suggest that participants having lower plasma GSH and a more oxidized plasma EhGSH are at increased risk for As-induced inflammation. Future studies should evaluate whether antioxidant treatment lowers plasma EhGSH and reduces risk for As-induced diseases. PMID:25916185

  8. Nuclear factor one transcription factors: Divergent functions in developmental versus adult stem cell populations.

    PubMed

    Harris, Lachlan; Genovesi, Laura A; Gronostajski, Richard M; Wainwright, Brandon J; Piper, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Nuclear factor one (NFI) transcription factors are a group of site-specific DNA-binding proteins that are emerging as critical regulators of stem cell biology. During development NFIs promote the production of differentiated progeny at the expense of stem cell fate, with Nfi null mice exhibiting defects such as severely delayed brain and lung maturation, skeletomuscular defects and renal abnormalities, phenotypes that are often consistent with patients with congenital Nfi mutations. Intriguingly, recent research suggests that in adult tissues NFI factors play a qualitatively different role than during development, with NFIs serving to promote the survival and maintenance of slow-cycling adult stem cell populations rather than their differentiation. Here we review the role of NFI factors in development, largely focusing on their role as promoters of stem cell differentiation, and attempt to reconcile this with the emerging role of NFIs in adult stem cell niches. PMID:25156673

  9. Mechanistic investigation of adult myotube response to exercise and drug treatment in vitro using a multiplexed functional assay system.

    PubMed

    McAleer, C W; Smith, A S T; Najjar, S; Pirozzi, K; Long, C J; Hickman, J J

    2014-12-01

    The ability to accurately measure skeletal muscle functional performance at the single-cell level would be advantageous for exercise physiology studies and disease modeling applications. To that end, this study characterizes the functional response of individual skeletal muscle myotubes derived from adult rodent tissue to creatine treatment and chronic exercise. The observed improvements to functional performance in response to these treatments appear to correlate with alterations in hypertrophic and mitochondrial biogenesis pathways, supporting previously published in vivo and in vitro data, which highlights the role of these pathways in augmenting skeletal muscle output. The developed system represents a multiplexed functional in vitro assay capable of long-term assessment of contractile cellular outputs in real-time that is compatible with concomitant molecular biology analysis. Adoption of this system in drug toxicity and efficacy studies would improve understanding of compound activity on physical cellular outputs and provide more streamlined and predictive data for future preclinical analyses. PMID:25301895

  10. Eye fixation patterns of high and low span young and older adults: Down the garden path and back again

    E-print Network

    Kemper, Susan; Crow, Angela; Kemtes, Karen A.

    2004-03-01

    and Low Span Young and Older Adults: Down the Garden Path and Back Again. Susan Kemper and Angela Crow University of Kansas Karen Kemtes University of Nevada-Las Vegas Address Correspondence to: Susan Kemper 3090 Dole Building...Kemper, S., Crow, A., & Kemtes, K. (2004). Eye fixation patterns of high and low span young and older adults: Down the garden path and back again. Psychology and Aging, 19, 157-170.. Publisher’s official version: http...

  11. Improved Physical Performance in Older Adults Undertaking a Short-Term Programme of High-Velocity Resistance Training

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tim R. Henwood; Dennis R. Taaffe

    2005-01-01

    Background: The age-related loss of muscle power in older adults is greater than that of muscle strength and is associated with a decline in physical performance. Objective: To investigate the effects of a short-term high-velocity varied resistance training programme on physical performance in healthy community-dwelling adults aged 60–80 years. Methods: Subjects undertook exercise (EX; n = 15) or maintained customary

  12. ELT-2 Is the Predominant Transcription Factor Controlling Differentiation and Function of the C. elegans Intestine, from Embryo to Adult

    PubMed Central

    McGhee, James D.; Fukushige, Tetsunari; Krause, Michael W.; Minnema, Stephanie E.; Goszczynski, Barbara; Gaudet, Jeb; Kohara, Yuji; Bossinger, Olaf; Zhao, Yongjun; Khattra, Jaswinder; Hirst, Martin; Jones, Steven J.M.; Marra, Marco A.; Ruzanov, Peter; Warner, Adam; Zapf, Richard; Moerman, Donald G.; Kalb, John M.

    2009-01-01

    Starting with SAGE-libraries prepared from C. elegans FAC-sorted embryonic intestine cells (8E-16E cell stage), from total embryos and from purified oocytes, and taking advantage of the NextDB in situ hybridization data base, we define sets of genes highly expressed from the zygotic genome, and expressed either exclusively or preferentially in the embryonic intestine or in the intestine of newly hatched larvae; we had previously defined a similarly expressed set of genes from the adult intestine. We show that an extended TGATAA-like sequence is essentially the only candidate for a cis-acting regulatory motif common to intestine genes expressed at all stages. This sequence is a strong ELT-2 binding site and matches the sequence of GATA-like sites found to be important for the expression of every intestinal gene so far analyzed experimentally. We show that the majority of these three sets of highly expressed intestinal-specific/intestinal-enriched genes respond strongly to ectopic expression of ELT-2 within the embryo. By flow-sorting elt-2(null) larvae from elt-2(+) larvae and then preparing Solexa/Illumina-SAGE libraries, we show that the majority of these genes also respond strongly to loss-of-function of ELT-2. To test the consequences of loss of other transcription factors identified in the embryonic intestine, we develop a strain of worms that is RNAi-sensitive only in the intestine; however, we are unable (with one possible exception) to identify any other transcription factor whose intestinal loss-of-function causes a phenotype of comparable severity to the phenotype caused by loss of ELT-2. Overall, our results support a model in which ELT-2 is the predominant transcription factor in the post-specification C. elegans intestine and participates directly in the transcriptional regulation of the majority (> 80%) of intestinal genes. We present evidence that ELT-2 plays a central role in most aspects of C. elegans intestinal physiology: establishing the structure of the enterocyte, regulating enzymes and transporters involved in digestion and nutrition, responding to environmental toxins and pathogenic infections, and regulating the downstream intestinal components of the daf-2/daf-16 pathway influencing aging and longevity. PMID:19111532

  13. Can Change in Prolonged Walking Be Inferred From a Short Test of Gait Speed Among Older Adults Who Are Initially Well-Functioning?

    PubMed Central

    Neogi, Tuhina; King, Wendy C.; LaValley, Michael P.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Nevitt, Michael C.; Harris, Tamara B.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Simonsick, Eleanor M.; Satterfield, Suzanne; Strotmeyer, Elsa S.; Zhang, Yuqing

    2014-01-01

    Background The ability to walk for short and prolonged periods of time is often measured with separate walking tests. It is unclear whether decline in the 2-minute walk coincides with decline in a shorter 20-m walk among older adults. Objective The aim of this study was to describe patterns of change in the 20-m walk and 2-minute walk over 8 years among a large cohort of older adults. Should change be similar between tests of walking ability, separate retesting of prolonged walking may need to be reconsidered. Design A longitudinal, observational cohort study was conducted. Methods Data were from 1,893 older adults who were well-functioning (?70 years of age). The 20-m walk and 2-minute walk were repeatedly measured over 8 years to measure change during short and prolonged periods of walking, respectively. Change was examined using a dual group-based trajectory model (dual model), and agreement between walking trajectories was quantified with a weighted kappa statistic. Results Three trajectory groups for the 20-m walk and 2-minute walk were identified. More than 86% of the participants were in similar trajectory groups for both tests from the dual model. There was high chance-corrected agreement (kappa=.84; 95% confidence interval=.82, .86) between the 20-m walk and 2-minute walk trajectory groups. Limitations One-third of the original Health, Aging and Body Composition (Health ABC) study cohort was excluded from analysis due to missing clinic visits, followed by being excluded for health reasons for performing the 2-minute walk, limiting generalizability to healthy older adults. Conclusions Patterns of change in the 2-minute walk are similar to those in the 20-m walk. Thus, separate retesting of the 2-minute walk may need to be reconsidered to gauge change in prolonged walking. PMID:24786943

  14. Elliptic curves of high rank over function fields Jasper Scholten

    E-print Network

    that they cannot genera* *te a group of larger rank: the divisors of the functions (x - ai)=(x - aj) give relations (ai, q(ai)) + (ai, -q(ai)) = (aj, q(aj)) + (aj, -q(aj)), and the divi* *sor of the function (q Elliptic curves of high rank over function fields Jasper

  15. Hazardous alcohol consumption among young adult IDU and its association with high risk behaviors*

    PubMed Central

    Le Marchand, Chloe; Evans, Jennifer; Page, Kimberly; Davidson, Peter J.; Hahn, Judith A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Heavy alcohol consumption has been associated with risk-taking behaviors in intravenous drug users (IDU). However, limited information exists on the relationship between alcohol use and injecting and sexual risk in young adult IDU (<30 years) who are at risk for hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV infection. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of young adult IDU in San Francisco (2006-2012) who had not previously tested positive for HCV. Participants completed a structured interview and HCV testing. We examined whether hazardous drinking (Alcohol Use Disorders Test – Consumption [AUDIT-C] 3-9 for women and 4-9 for men) and probable dependent drinking (AUDIT-C 10-12) levels were associated with injecting and sexual risk behaviors and HCV status, indicated by adjusted odds ratios (AOR) in separate models adjusted for potential confounders. Results Of the 326 participants, 139 (42.6%) were hazardous drinkers and 82 (25.2%) were probable dependent drinkers; thus over two-thirds evidenced problem drinking. Being a hazardous drinker was significantly associated with injecting drug residue from another's drug preparation equipment (AOR 1.93). Probable dependent drinking was significantly associated sharing non-sterile drug preparation equipment (AOR 2.59), and inversely, with daily/near daily injecting (AOR 0.42). Both heavy drinking levels were associated with having ?2 sexual partners (AOR 2.43 and 2.14). Drinking category was not associated with HCV test results. Conclusion The young adult IDU reported consuming alcohol at very high levels, which was associated with some unsafe sexual and injecting behaviors. Our study demonstrates the urgent need to intervene to reduce alcohol consumption in this population. PMID:22819868

  16. Role of Wnt Signaling in the Control of Adult Hippocampal Functioning in Health and Disease: Therapeutic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Matamoros, Abril; Salcedo-Tello, Pamela; Avila-Muñoz, Evangelina; Zepeda, Angélica; Arias, Clorinda

    2013-01-01

    It is well recognized the role of the Wnt pathway in many developmental processes such as neuronal maturation, migration, neuronal connectivity and synaptic formation. Growing evidence is also demonstrating its function in the mature brain where is associated with modulation of axonal remodeling, dendrite outgrowth, synaptic activity, neurogenesis and behavioral plasticity. Proteins involved in Wnt signaling have been found expressed in the adult hippocampus suggesting that Wnt pathway plays a role in the hippocampal function through life. Indeed, Wnt ligands act locally to regulate neurogenesis, neuronal cell shape and pre- and postsynaptic assembly, events that are thought to underlie changes in synaptic function associated with long-term potentiation and with cognitive tasks such as learning and memory. Recent data have demonstrated the increased expression of the Wnt antagonist Dickkopf-1 (DKK1) in brains of Alzheimer´s disease (AD) patients suggesting that dysfunction of Wnt signaling could also contribute to AD pathology. We review here evidence of Wnt-associated molecules expression linked to physiological and pathological hippocampal functioning in the adult brain. The basic aspects of Wnt related mechanisms underlying hippocampal plasticity as well as evidence of how hippocampal dysfunction may rely on Wnt dysregulation is analyzed. This information would provide some clues about the possible therapeutic targets for developing treatments for neurodegenerative diseases associated with aberrant brain plasticity. PMID:24403870

  17. Unsupervised Learning of Ranking Functions for HighDimensional Data

    E-print Network

    Roberts, Stephen

    Unsupervised Learning of Ranking Functions for High­Dimensional Data Sach Mukherjee and Stephen J an appropriate choice of method. In this paper, we present an unsupervised approach to learning ranking functions A growing number of problems in data analysis involve ranking variables from extremely high

  18. Unsupervised Learning of Ranking Functions for High-Dimensional Data

    E-print Network

    Roberts, Stephen

    Unsupervised Learning of Ranking Functions for High-Dimensional Data Sach Mukherjee and Stephen J an appropriate choice of method. In this paper, we present an unsupervised approach to learning ranking functions A growing number of problems in data analysis involve ranking variables from extremely high

  19. Cognitive Strategy Instruction for Functional Mathematical Skill: Effects for Young Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hua, Youjia; Morgan, Benjamin S. T.; Kaldenberg, Erica R.; Goo, Minkowan

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of a three-step cognitive strategy (TIP) for calculating tip and total bill for young adults with intellectual disability. In the context of pre- and post-test nonequivalent-groups design, 10 students from a postsecondary education program for individuals with disabilities participated in the study. A teacher…

  20. Adult-Onset Antisocial Behavior Trajectories: Associations with Adolescent Family Processes and Emerging Adulthood Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mata, Andrea D.; van Dulmen, Manfred H. M.

    2012-01-01

    Guided by conceptual and empirical work on emerging adulthood, this study investigated the role of closeness to mother and father and behavioral autonomy during adolescence on the development of adult-onset antisocial behavior. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), we identified four aggressive…

  1. Functions of an Adult Sickle Cell Group: Education, Task Orientation, and Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Dennis J.; Beltran, Lou R.

    1993-01-01

    Reports on development of adult sickle cell support group and provides description of psychosocial factors most prevalent in patients' lives (anxiety about death, disruption of social support network, disability, dependence on pain medication, conflicts with health care providers). Notes that support group enhanced participants' knowledge about…

  2. Conditional PPAR? knockout from cardiomyocytes of adult mice impairs myocardial fatty acid utilization and cardiac function

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jinwen; Wu, Sijie; Liu, Jian; Li, Yuquan; Yang, Huan; Kim, Teayoun; Zhelyabovska, Olga; Ding, Guoliang; Zhou, Yiqun; Yang, Yifeng; Yang, Qinglin

    2011-01-01

    While the roles of PPAR? and PPAR? (?) in transcriptional regulation of myocardial lipid metabolisms are well established, an essential role of PPAR? in regulating lipid metabolisms in the adult heart remains unclear. In this study, we investigated whether PPAR? is required for normal myocardial lipid metabolism at basal condition in adult mice. We assessed the short-term cardiomyocyte-restricted PPAR? knockout mice with a Tamoxifen inducible Cre-LoxP mediated gene targeting strategy. The expression of PPAR? mRNA and protein in cardiomyocytes of adult mice was substantially reduced after short-term induction. Transcript and protein levels of important proteins in fatty acid uptake and oxidation, such as CD36, heart type-fatty acid binding protein (FABP), and carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT-I) were reduced in the PPAR? deficient hearts. Myocardial fatty acid utilization and cardiac contraction were depressed in PPAR? deficient hearts. The PPAR? deficient hearts exhibited modest cardiac hypertrophy compared with controls. These results indicate that PPAR? is a transcription factor that is required for basal myocardial fatty acid utilization in the adult heart. PMID:21139806

  3. Projective Measurement of Adult Peer Relations as a Function of Chronological Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Virginia

    1985-01-01

    Explored the relationships between chronological age, year of measurement, cohort membership, education, and perception of horizontal peerships versus vertical different status associations in 1,428 adults in a 1957 study and a replication in 1976. Data from a thematic apperception procedure showed significant age changes in interpersonal…

  4. Adult Development and Life Satisfaction Functions of Sex, Marital Status and Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coles, Claire; McCall, Fran

    Quality of life in adulthood (ages 27-47) was investigated; age, marital status and sex were considered the primary variables. Attention was given to the consideration of the current crises-oriented theory of adult development. The interrelationship of the variables was of principle interest in assessing life satisfaction and personality…

  5. Functional Path Analysis as a Multivariate Technique in Developing a Theory of Participation in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, James L.

    This paper reports on attempts by the author to construct a theoretical framework of adult education participation using a theory development process and the corresponding multivariate statistical techniques. Two problems are identified: the lack of theoretical framework in studying problems, and the limiting of statistical analysis to univariate…

  6. Functional maturation of isolated neural progenitor cells from the adult rat hippocampus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ron C. Hogg; Hiram Chipperfield; Kathryn A. Whyte; Mark R. Stafford; Mitchell A. Hansen; Simon M. Cool; Victor Nurcombe; David J. Adams

    2004-01-01

    Although neural progenitor cells (NPCs) may provide a source of new neurons to alleviate neural trauma, little is known about their electrical properties as they differentiate. We have previously shown that single NPCs from the adult rat hippocampus can be cloned in the presence of heparan sulphate chains purified from the hippocampus, and that these cells can be pushed into

  7. Functional assessments of the knee joint biomechanics by using pendulum test in adults with Down syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Casabona, Antonino; Valle, Maria Stella; Pisasale, Mariangela; Pantò, Maria Rosita

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we assessed kinematics and viscoelastic features of knee joint in adults with Down syndrome (DS) by means of the Wartenberg pendulum test. This test allows the measuring of the kinematics of the knee joint during passive pendular motion of leg under the influence of gravity. In addition, by a combination of kinematic and anthropometric data, pendulum test provides estimates of joint viscoelastic properties by computing damping and stiffness coefficients. To monitor the occurrences of muscle activation, the surface electromyogram (EMG) of muscle rectus femoris was recorded. The experimental protocol was performed in a group of 10 adults with DS compared with 10 control adults without DS. Joint motion amplitude, velocity, and acceleration of the leg during the first knee flexion significantly decreased in persons with DS with respect to those without DS. This behavior was associated with the activation of rectus femoris in subjects with DS that resulted in increasing of joint resistance shortly after the onset of the first leg flexion. The EMG bursts mostly occurred between 50 and 150 ms from the leg flexion onset. During the remaining cycles of pendular motion, persons with DS exhibited passive leg oscillations with low tonic EMG activity and reduced damping coefficient compared with control subjects. These results suggest that adults with DS might perform preprogrammed contractions to increase joint resistance and compensate for inherent joint instability occurring for quick and unpredictable perturbations. The reduction of damping coefficients observed during passive oscillations could be a predictor of muscle hypotonia. PMID:22995394

  8. Albuminuria and Renal Function in Obese Adults Evaluated for Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Varun Agrawal; Thomas E. Vanhecke; Baroon Rai; Barry A. Franklin; R. Bart Sangal; Peter A. McCullough

    2009-01-01

    Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with hypertension, obesity and metabolic syndrome that are risk factors for cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease. Few data are available regarding renal parameters in patients with OSA. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 91 obese adults who had routine polysomnography before bariatric surgery. Presence and severity of OSA were determined by the

  9. Psychiatric Morbidity and Social Functioning among Adults with Borderline Intelligence Living in Private Households

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassiotis, A.; Strydom, A.; Hall, I.; Ali, A.; Lawrence-Smith, G.; Meltzer, H.; Head, J; Bebbington, P.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Approximately one-eighth of the population will have DSM-IV borderline intelligence. Various mental disorders and social disability are associated with it. Method: The paper uses data (secondary analysis) from a UK-wide cross-sectional survey of 8450 adults living in private households. Data were collected on psychiatric disorders,…

  10. Systematic Instruction of Functional Skills for Students and Adults with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storey, Keith; Miner, Craig

    2011-01-01

    This text is a clear and current description of the instructional strategies that can be immediately applied across age groups and disability labels. An evidence-based instructional methodology is provided, which has proved to be effective in teaching skills to students and adults with disabilities. Signature topics include: (1) a…

  11. Determinants of Adult Functional Outcome in Adolescents Receiving Special Educational Assistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGeown, H. R.; Johnstone, E. C.; McKirdy, J.; Owens, D. C.; Stanfield, A. C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study investigates the role of IQ, autistic traits and challenging behaviours in affecting adult outcomes among adolescents who receive special educational assistance. Methods: A total of 58 participants were recruited from an ongoing longitudinal study. All received assessments of IQ, behavioural patterns (using the Childhood…

  12. Adult lung function and long-term air pollution exposure. ESCAPE: a multicentre cohort study and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Adam, Martin; Schikowski, Tamara; Carsin, Anne Elie; Cai, Yutong; Jacquemin, Benedicte; Sanchez, Margaux; Vierkötter, Andrea; Marcon, Alessandro; Keidel, Dirk; Sugiri, Dorothee; Al Kanani, Zaina; Nadif, Rachel; Siroux, Valérie; Hardy, Rebecca; Kuh, Diana; Rochat, Thierry; Bridevaux, Pierre-Olivier; Eeftens, Marloes; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Villani, Simona; Phuleria, Harish Chandra; Birk, Matthias; Cyrys, Josef; Cirach, Marta; de Nazelle, Audrey; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Forsberg, Bertil; de Hoogh, Kees; Declerq, Christophe; Bono, Roberto; Piccioni, Pavilio; Quass, Ulrich; Heinrich, Joachim; Jarvis, Deborah; Pin, Isabelle; Beelen, Rob; Hoek, Gerard; Brunekreef, Bert; Schindler, Christian; Sunyer, Jordi; Krämer, Ursula; Kauffmann, Francine; Hansell, Anna L; Künzli, Nino; Probst-Hensch, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    The chronic impact of ambient air pollutants on lung function in adults is not fully understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of long-term exposure to ambient air pollution with lung function in adult participants from five cohorts in the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE). Residential exposure to nitrogen oxides (NO?, NOx) and particulate matter (PM) was modelled and traffic indicators were assessed in a standardised manner. The spirometric parameters forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV?) and forced vital capacity (FVC) from 7613 subjects were considered as outcomes. Cohort-specific results were combined using meta-analysis. We did not observe an association of air pollution with longitudinal change in lung function, but we observed that a 10 ?g·m(-3) increase in NO? exposure was associated with lower levels of FEV? (-14.0 mL, 95% CI -25.8 to -2.1) and FVC (-14.9 mL, 95% CI -28.7 to -1.1). An increase of 10 ?g·m(-3) in PM10, but not other PM metrics (PM2.5, coarse fraction of PM, PM absorbance), was associated with a lower level of FEV? (-44.6 mL, 95% CI -85.4 to -3.8) and FVC (-59.0 mL, 95% CI -112.3 to -5.6). The associations were particularly strong in obese persons. This study adds to the evidence for an adverse association of ambient air pollution with lung function in adults at very low levels in Europe. PMID:25193994

  13. Bimanual Motor Coordination in Older Adults Is Associated with Increased Functional Brain Connectivity – A Graph-Theoretical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Heitger, Marcus H.; Goble, Daniel J.; Dhollander, Thijs; Dupont, Patrick; Caeyenberghs, Karen; Leemans, Alexander; Sunaert, Stefan; Swinnen, Stephan P.

    2013-01-01

    In bimanual coordination, older and younger adults activate a common cerebral network but the elderly also have additional activation in a secondary network of brain areas to master task performance. It remains unclear whether the functional connectivity within these primary and secondary motor networks differs between the old and the young and whether task difficulty modulates connectivity. We applied graph-theoretical network analysis (GTNA) to task-driven fMRI data in 16 elderly and 16 young participants using a bimanual coordination task including in-phase and anti-phase flexion/extension wrist movements. Network nodes for the GTNA comprised task-relevant brain areas as defined by fMRI activation foci. The elderly matched the motor performance of the young but showed an increased functional connectivity in both networks across a wide range of connectivity metrics, i.e., higher mean connectivity degree, connection strength, network density and efficiency, together with shorter mean communication path length between the network nodes and also a lower betweenness centrality. More difficult movements showed an increased connectivity in both groups. The network connectivity of both groups had “small world” character. The present findings indicate (a) that bimanual coordination in the aging brain is associated with a higher functional connectivity even between areas also activated in young adults, independently from task difficulty, and (b) that adequate motor coordination in the context of task-driven bimanual control in older adults may not be solely due to additional neural recruitment but also to aging-related changes of functional relationships between brain regions. PMID:23637982

  14. High Adult Sex Ratios and Risky Sexual Behaviors: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Bien, Cedric H.; Cai, Yong; Emch, Michael E.; Parish, William; Tucker, Joseph D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Thirty-four countries worldwide have abnormally high sex ratios (>102 men per 100 women), resulting in over 100 million missing women. Widespread sex selective abortion, neglect of young girls leading to premature mortality, and gendered migration have contributed to these persistent and increasing distortions. Abnormally high adult sex ratios in communities may drive sexually transmitted disease (STD) spread where women are missing and men cannot find stable partners. We systematically reviewed evidence on the association between high community sex ratios and individual sexual behaviors. Methods and Findings Seven databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Scopus, The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Sociological Abstracts, and PopLINE) were searched without restrictions on time or location. We followed PRISMA guidelines and evaluated quality according to STROBE criteria. 1093 citations were identified and six studies describing 57,054 individuals were included for review. All six studies showed an association between high community sex ratios and individual sexual risk behaviors. In high sex ratio communities, women were more likely to have multiple sex partners and men were more likely to delay first sexual intercourse and purchase sex. Only two studies included STD outcomes. Conclusions High community sex ratios were associated with increased individual sexual risk behavior among both men and women. However, none of the studies examined unprotected sex or appropriately adjusted for gendered migration. Further studies are needed to understand the effect of community sex ratios on sexual health and to inform comprehensive STD control interventions. PMID:23967223

  15. Occurrence of GH deficiency in adult patients who underwent neurosurgery in the hypothalamus-pituitary area for non-functioning tumour masses.

    PubMed

    Corneli, G; Baldelli, R; Di Somma, C; Rovere, S; Gaia, D; Pellegrino, M; Gasco, V; Durante, C; Grottoli, S; Colao, A; Tamburrano, G; Lombardi, G; Ghigo, E; Aimaretti, G

    2003-01-01

    Hypothalamus-pituitary tumours and their treatments (neurosurgery and/or radiotherapy) are major causes of acquired hypopituitarism. Scientific and clinical evidences show the positive effect of GH replacement therapy in severe adult GH deficiency (GHD) pointed toward the need of diagnostic screening of conditions at high risk for GHD. We screened 152 adults (82 males, 70 females; age: 52.3+/-1.2 years, age-range: 20-80 years, BMI: 26.4+/-0.8 kg/m(2)) in order to disclose the presence of GHD after neurosurgery for hypothalamus-pituitary tumours. The whole group (studied at least 3 months after neurosurgery) included: 111 non-functioning pituitary adenomas and 41 peri-pituitary tumours (24 craniopharyngiomas, 7 meningiomas, 5 cysts, 2 chondrosarcomas, 1 colesteatoma, 1 germinoma and 1 hemangiopericitoma). In 14 patients who underwent both neurosurgery and radiotherapy due to a tumour remnant, the somatotroph function was evaluated again 6 months after the end of radiotherapy. GHD was assumed to be shown by GH peak <5 microg/L (severe <3 microg/L) after Insulin Tolerance Test (ITT) or <16.5 microg/L (severe <9 microg/L) after GH-releasing hormone+arginine test (GHRH+ARG) (3rd and 1st centile limits of normality, respectively), two widely accepted provocative tests. Before neurosurgery GHD was present in 97/152 (63.8%) and resulted severe in 66/152 (43.4%) patients. After neurosurgery GHD was present in 122/152 (80.2%) and severe in 106/152 (69.7%). While 26 patients developed severe GHD (GHD) as consequence of neurosurgery, only one patient who had been classified as GHD before neurosurgery showed normal GH response after surgery. After neurosurgery, 91.0% (81/89) of the pan-hypopituitaric patients showed severe GHD. Considering the 14 patients who underwent also radiotherapy after neurosurgery, 7/14 had GHD before neurosurgery while 12/14 became severe GHD after radiotherapy in a context of pan-hypopituitarism. IGF-I levels below the 3rd age-related normal limits were present in 39.0% of patients in whom severe GHD was showed by provocative tests. In conclusion, this study shows that the occurrence of acquired severe GHD is extremely common in adult patients bearing non-functioning tumour masses in the hypothalamus-pituitary area and further increases after neurosurgery. All patients bearing non-functioning hypothalamus-pituitary tumours should undergo evaluation of their somatotroph function before and after neurosurgery that represents a condition at obvious more than high risk for hypopituitarism. PMID:12735932

  16. The reliability of the modified lower extremity functional scale among adults living with HIV on antiretroviral therapy, in Rwanda, Africa.

    PubMed

    Tumusiime, D K; Stewart, A; Venter, F W D; Musenge, E

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathy (PN) is common among people living with HIV (PLHIV) on antiretroviral therapy (ART), and affects their daily functional ability and quality of life. Lower extremity functional ability, which is most commonly compromised in patients with PN, has not been clearly evaluated in an African setting, with regard to functional limitations. The lower extremity functional scale (LEFS) was originally developed and validated among elderly people in the USA, where the environment and activities of daily life are very different from those in Rwanda. The purpose of this study was to adapt and establish the reliability of LEFS, among adults living with HIV on ART, in a Rwandan environment. The study translated LEFS from English to Kinyarwanda, the local language spoken in Rwanda, the LEFS was then modified accordingly, and tested for test-retest reliability among 50 adult PLHIV on ART. An average Spearman rank order correlation coefficient, ????0.7, was considered optimal for reliability. Prior to the modification of the LEFS and in the initial testing of the translated LEFS, none of the activities was strongly correlated (????0.8); most of the activities (90%, 18/20) were moderately correlated (????0.5) and 10% (2/20) were weakly correlated (????0.5). The ? of most of the functional activities improved after modification by an expert group to ????0.7, establishing reliability and validity of LEFS among PLHIV on ART with lower extremity functional limitations, in this environment. In conclusion, this study demonstrated the importance of modifying and establishing test - retest reliability of tools derived from developed world contexts to local conditions in developing countries, such as in Rwanda. The modified LEFS in this study can be used in Rwanda by clinicians, specifically at ART clinics to screen and identify people with functional limitations at an early stage of the limitations, for treatment, rehabilitation and/or referral to appropriate health care services. PMID:25383643

  17. The reliability of the modified lower extremity functional scale among adults living with HIV on antiretroviral therapy, in Rwanda, Africa

    PubMed Central

    Tumusiime, D.K.; Stewart, A.; Venter, F.W.D.; Musenge, E.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Peripheral neuropathy (PN) is common among people living with HIV (PLHIV) on antiretroviral therapy (ART), and affects their daily functional ability and quality of life. Lower extremity functional ability, which is most commonly compromised in patients with PN, has not been clearly evaluated in an African setting, with regard to functional limitations. The lower extremity functional scale (LEFS) was originally developed and validated among elderly people in the USA, where the environment and activities of daily life are very different from those in Rwanda. The purpose of this study was to adapt and establish the reliability of LEFS, among adults living with HIV on ART, in a Rwandan environment. The study translated LEFS from English to Kinyarwanda, the local language spoken in Rwanda, the LEFS was then modified accordingly, and tested for test-retest reliability among 50 adult PLHIV on ART. An average Spearman rank order correlation coefficient, ????0.7, was considered optimal for reliability. Prior to the modification of the LEFS and in the initial testing of the translated LEFS, none of the activities was strongly correlated (????0.8); most of the activities (90%, 18/20) were moderately correlated (????0.5) and 10% (2/20) were weakly correlated (????0.5). The ? of most of the functional activities improved after modification by an expert group to ????0.7, establishing reliability and validity of LEFS among PLHIV on ART with lower extremity functional limitations, in this environment. In conclusion, this study demonstrated the importance of modifying and establishing test – retest reliability of tools derived from developed world contexts to local conditions in developing countries, such as in Rwanda. The modified LEFS in this study can be used in Rwanda by clinicians, specifically at ART clinics to screen and identify people with functional limitations at an early stage of the limitations, for treatment, rehabilitation and/or referral to appropriate health care services. PMID:25383643

  18. Adult B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells display decreased PTEN activity and constitutive hyperactivation of PI3K/Akt pathway despite high PTEN protein levels.

    PubMed

    Gomes, A Margarida; Soares, Maria V D; Ribeiro, Patrícia; Caldas, Joana; Póvoa, Vanda; Martins, Leila R; Melão, Alice; Serra-Caetano, Ana; de Sousa, Aida B; Lacerda, João F; Barata, João T

    2014-06-01

    Adult B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia remains a major therapeutic challenge, requiring a better characterization of the molecular determinants underlying disease progression and resistance to treatment. Here, using a phospho-flow cytometry approach we show that adult diagnostic B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia specimens display PI3K/Akt pathway hyperactivation, irrespective of their BCR-ABL status and despite paradoxically high basal expression of PTEN, the major negative regulator of the pathway. Protein kinase CK2 is known to phosphorylate PTEN thereby driving PTEN protein stabilization and concomitant PTEN functional inactivation. In agreement, we found that adult B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia samples show significantly higher CK2 kinase activity and lower PTEN lipid phosphatase activity than healthy controls. Moreover, the clinical-grade CK2 inhibitor CX-4945 (Silmitasertib) reversed PTEN levels in leukemia cells to those observed in healthy controls, and promoted leukemia cell death without significantly affecting normal bone marrow cells. Our studies indicate that CK2-mediated PTEN posttranslational inactivation, associated with PI3K/Akt pathway hyperactivation, are a common event in adult B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and suggest that CK2 inhibition may constitute a valid, novel therapeutic tool in this malignancy. PMID:24561792

  19. High Incidence of Metabolically Active Brown Adipose Tissue in Healthy Adult Humans

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Masayuki; Okamatsu-Ogura, Yuko; Matsushita, Mami; Watanabe, Kumiko; Yoneshiro, Takeshi; Nio-Kobayashi, Junko; Iwanaga, Toshihiko; Miyagawa, Masao; Kameya, Toshimitsu; Nakada, Kunihiro; Kawai, Yuko; Tsujisaki, Masayuki

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The significant roles of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in the regulation of energy expenditure and adiposity are established in small rodents but have been controversial in humans. The objective is to examine the prevalence of metabolically active BAT in healthy adult humans and to clarify the effects of cold exposure and adiposity. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In vivo 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) uptake into adipose tissue was measured in 56 healthy volunteers (31 male and 25 female subjects) aged 23–65 years by positron emission tomography (PET) combined with X-ray computed tomography (CT). RESULTS When exposed to cold (19°C) for 2 h, 17 of 32 younger subjects (aged 23–35 years) and 2 of 24 elderly subjects (aged 38–65 years) showed a substantial FDG uptake into adipose tissue of the supraclavicular and paraspinal regions, whereas they showed no detectable uptake when kept warm (27°C). Histological examinations confirmed the presence of brown adipocytes in these regions. The cold-activated FDG uptake was increased in winter compared with summer (P < 0.001) and was inversely related to BMI (P < 0.001) and total (P < 0.01) and visceral (P < 0.001) fat areas estimated from CT image at the umbilical level. CONCLUSIONS Our findings, being against the conventional view, indicate the high incidence of metabolically active BAT in adult humans and suggest a role in the control of body temperature and adiposity. PMID:19401428

  20. High Frequency of Germline TP53 Mutations in a Prospective Adult-Onset Sarcoma Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Stephen; Hewitt, Chelsee; James, Paul; Young, Mary-Anne; Cipponi, Arcadi; Pang, Tiffany; Goode, David L.; Dobrovic, Alex; Thomas, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Sarcomas are a key feature of Li-Fraumeni and related syndromes (LFS/LFL), associated with germline TP53 mutations. Current penetrance estimates for TP53 mutations are subject to significant ascertainment bias. The International Sarcoma Kindred Study is a clinic-based, prospective cohort of adult-onset sarcoma cases, without regard to family history. The entire cohort was screened for mutations in TP53 using high-resolution melting analysis and Sanger sequencing, and multiplex-ligation-dependent probe amplification and targeted massively parallel sequencing for copy number changes. Pathogenic TP53 mutations were detected in blood DNA of 20/559 sarcoma probands (3.6%); 17 were germline and 3 appeared to be somatically acquired. Of the germline carriers, one appeared to be mosaic, detectable in the tumor and blood, but not epithelial tissues. Germline mutation carriers were more likely to have multiple cancers (47% vs 15% for non-carriers, P?=?3.0×10?3), and earlier cancer onset (33 vs 48 years, P?=?1.19×10?3). The median survival of mutation carriers following first cancer diagnosis was not significantly different from non-carriers. Only 10/17 (59%) pedigrees met classical or Chompret criteria for LFS. In summary, germline TP53 mutations are not rare in adult patients with sarcoma, with implications for screening, surveillance, treatment and genetic counselling of carriers and family members. PMID:23894400