Note: This page contains sample records for the topic high functioning adults from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

Executive Function Impairments in High IQ Adults with ADHD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: To demonstrate that high IQ adults diagnosed with ADHD suffer from executive function (EF) impairments that: a) can be identified with a combination of standardized measures and self-report data; and b) occur more commonly in this group than in the general population. Method: 157 ADHD adults with IQ greater than or equal to 120 were…

Brown, Thomas E.; Reichel, Philipp C.; Quinlan, Donald M.

2009-01-01

2

Audiovisual Integration in High Functioning Adults with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Autism involves various perceptual benefits and deficits, but it is unclear if the disorder also involves anomalous audiovisual integration. To address this issue, we compared the performance of high-functioning adults with autism and matched controls on experiments investigating the audiovisual integration of speech, spatiotemporal relations, and…

Keane, Brian P.; Rosenthal, Orna; Chun, Nicole H.; Shams, Ladan

2010-01-01

3

Who Are Most, Average, or High-Functioning Adults?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The growing number of high-functioning adults seeking accommodations from testing agencies and postsecondary institutions presents an urgent need to ensure reliable and valid diagnostic decision making. The potential for this population to make significant contributions to society will be greater if we provide the learning and testing…

Gregg, Noel; Coleman, Chris; Lindstrom, Jennifer; Lee, Christopher

2007-01-01

4

Cost-Impact of Young Adults with High-Functioning Autistic Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a general lack of information about the economic impact of autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), particularly regarding adults and those with high-functioning ASD. In this study, the societal economic consequences of ASD were investigated using a sample of young high-functioning adults in need of employment support. A methodology for the…

Jarbrink, Krister; McCrone, Paul; Fombonne, Eric; Zanden, Hakan; Knapp, Martin

2007-01-01

5

Parents' Criticisms and Attributions about Their Adult Children with High Functioning Autism or Schizophrenia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study examined the criticism component of expressed emotion (EE) and attributions in parents of adults diagnosed with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder (S/SA) or high functioning autism/Asperger's. Consistent with study hypotheses, parents of adults diagnosed with autism/Asperger's disorder exhibited lower levels of high

Wasserman, Stephanie; Weisman de Mamani, Amy; Mundy, Peter

2010-01-01

6

Largely typical patterns of resting-state functional connectivity in high-functioning adults with autism.  

PubMed

A leading hypothesis for the neural basis of autism postulates globally abnormal brain connectivity, yet the majority of studies report effects that are either very weak, inconsistent across studies, or explain results incompletely. Here we apply multiple analytical approaches to resting-state BOLD-fMRI data at the whole-brain level. Neurotypical and high-functioning adults with autism displayed very similar patterns and strengths of resting-state connectivity. We found only limited evidence in autism for abnormal resting-state connectivity at the regional level and no evidence for altered connectivity at the whole-brain level. Regional abnormalities in functional connectivity in autism spectrum disorder were primarily in the frontal and temporal cortices. Within these regions, functional connectivity with other brain regions was almost exclusively lower in the autism group. Further examination showed that even small amounts of head motion during scanning have large effects on functional connectivity measures and must be controlled carefully. Consequently, we suggest caution in the interpretation of apparent positive findings until all possible confounding effects can be ruled out. Additionally, we do not rule out the possibility that abnormal connectivity in autism is evident at the microstructural synaptic level, which may not be reflected sensitively in hemodynamic changes measured with BOLD-fMRI. PMID:23425893

Tyszka, J Michael; Kennedy, Daniel P; Paul, Lynn K; Adolphs, Ralph

2014-07-01

7

Brief Report: Feasibility of Social Cognition and Interaction Training for Adults with High Functioning Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and utility of a group-based cognitive behavioral intervention to improve social-cognitive functioning in adults with high-functioning autism (HFA). We modified the treatment manual of a previously validated intervention, Social Cognition and Interaction Training (SCIT), for optimal use with…

Turner-Brown, Lauren M.; Perry, Timothy D.; Dichter, Gabriel S.; Bodfish, James W.; Penn, David L.

2008-01-01

8

Narrative Discourse in Adults with High-Functioning Autism or Asperger Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We report a study comparing the narrative abilities of 12 adults with high-functioning autism (HFA) or Asperger Syndrome (AS) versus 12 matched controls. The study focuses on the use of referential expressions (temporal expressions and anaphoric pronouns) during a story-telling task. The aim was to assess pragmatics skills in people with HFA/AS in…

Colle, Livia; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Wheelwright, Sally; van der Lely, Heather K. J.

2008-01-01

9

Pragmatic Inferences in High-Functioning Adults with Autism and Asperger Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often have severe problems with pragmatic aspects of language, little is known about their pragmatic reasoning. We carried out a behavioral study on high-functioning adults with autistic disorder (n = 11) and Asperger syndrome (n = 17) and matched controls (n = 28) to investigate whether they…

Pijnacker, Judith; Hagoort, Peter; Buitelaar, Jan; Teunisse, Jan-Pieter; Geurts, Bart

2009-01-01

10

The Modality Shift Experiment in Adults and Children with High Functioning Autism  

PubMed Central

This study used the modality shift experiment, a relatively simple reaction time measure to visual and auditory stimuli, to examine attentional shifting within and across modalities in 33 children and 42 adults with high-functioning autism as compared to matched numbers of age- and ability-matched typical controls. An exaggerated “modality shift effect” relative to the TD children occurred for the children with autism in conditions involving the reaction time when shifting from sound to light but not from light to sound. No exaggerated MSE was found for the adults with autism; rather, their responses were characterized by a generalized slowness relative to the adults with TD. These results suggest a lag in maturational development in autism in basic information processing mechanisms.

Williams, Diane L.; Goldstein, Gerald; Minshew, Nancy J.

2012-01-01

11

The “Reading the Mind in the Eyes” Test Revised Version: A Study with Normal Adults, and Adults with Asperger Syndrome or High-functioning Autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1997 in this Journal we published the ''Reading the Mind in the Eyes'' Test, as a measure of adult ''mentalising''. Whilst that test succeeded in discriminating a group of adults with Asperger syndrome (AS) or high-functioning autism (HFA) from controls, it suered from several psychometric problems. In this paper these limitations are rectified by revising the test. The Revised

Simon Baron-Cohen; Sally Wheelwright; Jacqueline Hill; Yogini Raste; Ian Plumb

2001-01-01

12

Automatic facial responses to affective stimuli in high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder.  

PubMed

Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate atypical behavioural responses to affective stimuli, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Investigating automatic responses to these stimuli may help elucidate these mechanisms. 18 high-functioning adults with ASDs and 18 typically developing controls viewed 54 extreme pleasant (erotica), extreme unpleasant (mutilations), and non-social neutral images from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS). Two-thirds of images received an acoustic startle probe 3s post-picture onset. Facial electromyography (EMG) activity (orbicularis, zygomaticus, corrugator), skin conductance (SCR) and cardiac responses were recorded. The adults with ASDs demonstrated typical affective startle modulation and automatic facial EMG responses but atypical autonomic (SCRs and cardiac) responses, suggesting a failure to orient to, or a deliberate effort to disconnect from, socially relevant stimuli (erotica, mutilations). These results have implications for neural systems known to underlie affective processes, including the orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala. PMID:23142408

Mathersul, Danielle; McDonald, Skye; Rushby, Jacqueline A

2013-01-17

13

Narrative discourse in adults with high-functioning autism or Asperger syndrome.  

PubMed

We report a study comparing the narrative abilities of 12 adults with high-functioning autism (HFA) or Asperger Syndrome (AS) versus 12 matched controls. The study focuses on the use of referential expressions (temporal expressions and anaphoric pronouns) during a story-telling task. The aim was to assess pragmatics skills in people with HFA/AS in whom linguistic impairments are more subtle than in classic autism. We predicted no significant differences in general narrative abilities between the two groups, but specific pragmatic deficits in people with AS. We predicted they use fewer personal pronouns, temporal expressions and referential expressions, which require theory of mind abilities. Results confirmed both predictions. These findings provide initial evidence of how social impairments can produce mild linguistic impairments. PMID:17345168

Colle, Livia; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Wheelwright, Sally; van der Lely, Heather K J

2008-01-01

14

A Behavioral Comparison of Male and Female Adults with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Conditions  

PubMed Central

Autism spectrum conditions (ASC) affect more males than females in the general population. However, within ASC it is unclear if there are phenotypic sex differences. Testing for similarities and differences between the sexes is important not only for clinical assessment but also has implications for theories of typical sex differences and of autism. Using cognitive and behavioral measures, we investigated similarities and differences between the sexes in age- and IQ-matched adults with ASC (high-functioning autism or Asperger syndrome). Of the 83 (45 males and 38 females) participants, 62 (33 males and 29 females) met Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) cut-off criteria for autism in childhood and were included in all subsequent analyses. The severity of childhood core autism symptoms did not differ between the sexes. Males and females also did not differ in self-reported empathy, systemizing, anxiety, depression, and obsessive-compulsive traits/symptoms or mentalizing performance. However, adult females with ASC showed more lifetime sensory symptoms (p?=?0.036), fewer current socio-communication difficulties (p?=?0.001), and more self-reported autistic traits (p?=?0.012) than males. In addition, females with ASC who also had developmental language delay had lower current performance IQ than those without developmental language delay (p<0.001), a pattern not seen in males. The absence of typical sex differences in empathizing-systemizing profiles within the autism spectrum confirms a prediction from the extreme male brain theory. Behavioral sex differences within ASC may also reflect different developmental mechanisms between males and females with ASC. We discuss the importance of the superficially better socio-communication ability in adult females with ASC in terms of why females with ASC may more often go under-recognized, and receive their diagnosis later, than males.

Lai, Meng-Chuan; Lombardo, Michael V.; Pasco, Greg; Ruigrok, Amber N. V.; Wheelwright, Sally J.; Sadek, Susan A.; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Baron-Cohen, Simon

2011-01-01

15

Highly efficient transfection system for functional gene analysis in adult amphibian lens regeneration.  

PubMed

The analysis of newt lens regeneration has been an important subject in developmental biology. Recently, it has been reported that the genes involved in the normal eye development are also expressed in the regenerative process of lens regeneration in the adult newt. However, functional analysis of these genes has not been possible, because there is no system to introduce genes efficiently into the cells involved in the regeneration. In the present study, lipofection was used as the method for gene transfer in cultured pigmented iris cells that can transdifferentiate into lens cells in newt lens regeneration. Positive expression of a reporter gene was obtained in more than 70% of cells. In addition, the aggregate derived from gene-transfected cells maintained its expression at a high level for a long time within the host tissue. To verify the effectiveness of this model system with a reporter gene in lens regeneration, Pax6, which is suggested to be involved in normal eye development and lens regeneration, was transfected. Ectopic expression of lens-specific crystallins was obtained in cells that show no such activity in normal lens regeneration. These results made it possible for the first time to analyze the molecular mechanism of lens regeneration in the adult newt. PMID:11473543

Hayashi, T; Yamagishi, A; Kuroiwa, A; Mizuno, N; Kondoh, H; Okamoto, M

2001-08-01

16

Alterations in brain structures underlying language function in young adults at high familial risk for schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Introduction Neuroanatomical and cognitive alterations typical of schizophrenia (SZ) patients are observed to a lesser extent in their adolescent and adult first-degree relatives, likely reflecting neurodevelopmental abnormalities associated with genetic risk for the illness. The anatomical pathways for language are hypothesized to be abnormal and to underlie the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. Examining non-psychotic relatives at high familial risk (FHR) for schizophrenia may clarify if these deficits represent trait markers associated with genetic vulnerability, rather than specific markers resulting from the pathological process underlying schizophrenia. Methods T1 MRI scans from a 3T Siemens scanner of young adult FHR subjects (N=46) and controls with no family history of illness (i.e. at low genetic risk LRC; N=31) were processed using FreeSurfer 5.0. We explored volumetric and lateralization alterations in regions associated with language processing. An extensive neuropsychological battery of language measures was administered. Results No significant differences were observed between groups on any language measures. Controlling Intracranial volume, significantly smaller center Pars Triangularis (PT) (p<0.01) and right Pars Orbitalis (PO) (p < 0.01) volumes and reversal of the L > R Pars Orbitalis (p < 0.001) lateralization were observed in FHR subjects. In addition, the L Pars Triangularis and R Pars Orbitalis correlated with performance on tests of linguistic function in the FHR group. Conclusions Reduced volume and reversed structural asymmetry in language-related regions hypothesized to be altered in SZ are also found in first degree relatives at FHR, despite normal language performance. To clarify if these findings are endophenotypes for Sz, future studied would need to be performed of ill and well family members no longer within the age range of risk for illness to show these deficits segregate with schizophrenia within families. Moreover, measures of complex language need to be studied to determine if FHR individuals manifest impairments in some aspects of language function.

Francis, Alan N.; Seidman, Larry J.; Jabbar, Gul A.; Mesholam-Gately, Raquelle; Thermenos, Heidi W.; Juelich, Richard; Proal, Ashley C.; Shenton, Martha; Kubicki, Marek; Mathew, Ian; Keshavan, Matcheri; DeLisi, Lynn E.

2012-01-01

17

Cognitive Profiles of Adults with Asperger's Disorder, High-Functioning Autism, and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified Based on the WAIS-III  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little is known about the cognitive profiles of high-functioning Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD) in adults based on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale III (WAIS-III). We examined cognitive profiles of adults with no intellectual disability (IQ greater than 70), and in adults with Asperger's disorder (AS; n = 47), high-functioning autism (HFA;…

Kanai, Chieko; Tani, Masayuki; Hashimoto, Ryuichiro; Yamada, Takashi; Ota, Haruhisa; Watanabe, Hiromi; Iwanami, Akira; Kato, Nobumasa

2012-01-01

18

"Hath Charms to Soothe...": An Exploratory Study of How High-Functioning Adults with ASD Experience Music  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 high-functioning adults on the autism spectrum, in order to examine the nature of their personal experiences of music. Consistent with the literature on typically developing people's engagement with music, the analysis showed that most participants exploit music for a wide range of purposes in the…

Allen, Rory; Hill, Elizabeth; Heaton, Pam

2009-01-01

19

Local Information Processing in Adults with High Functioning Autism and Asperger Syndrome: The Usefulness of Neuropsychological Tests and Self-Reports  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Local information processing in 42 adults with high functioning autism, 41 adults with Asperger syndrome and 41 neurotypical adults was examined. Contrary to our expectations, the disorder groups did not outperform the neurotypical group in the neuropsychological measures of local information processing. In line with our hypotheses, the…

Spek, Annelies A.; Scholte, Evert M.; Van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina A.

2011-01-01

20

An outpatient group training programme for improving leisure lifestyle in high-functioning young adults with ASD: A pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study examined the effectiveness of an outpatient programme on the leisure lifestyle of high-functioning young adults living at home or at an independent setting.\\u000aMethods: A pre-test–post-test control group design was used. Participants (n?=?12) completed self-reports on (a) need for leisure support, (b) leisure engagement and (c) satisfaction with leisure lifestyle. The programme consisted of cognitive-behavioural techniques.\\u000aResults:

A. M. J. W. Palmen; H. C. M. Didden; H. P. L. M. Korzilius

2011-01-01

21

High Intensity Training Improves Health and Physical Function in Middle Aged Adults  

PubMed Central

High intensity training (HIT) is effective at improving health; however, it is unknown whether HIT also improves physical function. This study aimed to determine whether HIT improves metabolic health and physical function in untrained middle aged individuals. Fourteen (three male and eleven female) untrained individuals were recruited (control group n = 6: age 42 ± 8 y, weight 64 ± 10 kg, BMI 24 ± 2 kg·m?2 or HIT group n = 8: age 43 ± 8 y, weight 80 ± 8 kg, BMI 29 ± 5 kg·m?2). Training was performed twice weekly, consisting of 10 × 6-second sprints with a one minute recovery between each sprint. Metabolic health (oral glucose tolerance test), aerobic capacity (incremental time to exhaustion on a cycle ergometer) and physical function (get up and go test, sit to stand test and loaded 50 m walk) were determined before and after training. Following eight weeks of HIT there was a significant improvement in aerobic capacity (8% increase in VO2 peak; p < 0.001), physical function (11%–27% respectively; p < 0.05) and a reduction in blood glucose area under the curve (6% reduction; p < 0.05). This study demonstrates for the first time the potential of HIT as a training intervention to improve skeletal muscle function and glucose clearance as we age.

Adamson, Simon; Lorimer, Ross; Cobley, James N.; Lloyd, Ray; Babraj, John

2014-01-01

22

High intensity training improves health and physical function in middle aged adults.  

PubMed

High intensity training (HIT) is effective at improving health; however, it is unknown whether HIT also improves physical function. This study aimed to determine whether HIT improves metabolic health and physical function in untrained middle aged individuals. Fourteen (three male and eleven female) untrained individuals were recruited (control group n = 6: age 42 ± 8 y, weight 64 ± 10 kg, BMI 24 ± 2 kg·m-2 or HIT group n = 8: age 43 ± 8 y, weight 80 ± 8 kg, BMI 29 ± 5 kg·m-2). Training was performed twice weekly, consisting of 10 × 6-second sprints with a one minute recovery between each sprint. Metabolic health (oral glucose tolerance test), aerobic capacity (incremental time to exhaustion on a cycle ergometer) and physical function (get up and go test, sit to stand test and loaded 50 m walk) were determined before and after training. Following eight weeks of HIT there was a significant improvement in aerobic capacity (8% increase in VO2 peak; p < 0.001), physical function (11%-27% respectively; p < 0.05) and a reduction in blood glucose area under the curve (6% reduction; p < 0.05). This study demonstrates for the first time the potential of HIT as a training intervention to improve skeletal muscle function and glucose clearance as we age. PMID:24833513

Adamson, Simon; Lorimer, Ross; Cobley, James N; Lloyd, Ray; Babraj, John

2014-01-01

23

Use of Prosody and Information Structure in High Functioning Adults with Autism in Relation to Language Ability  

PubMed Central

Abnormal prosody is a striking feature of the speech of those with Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but previous reports suggest large variability among those with ASD. Here we show that part of this heterogeneity can be explained by level of language functioning. We recorded semi-spontaneous but controlled conversations in adults with and without ASD and measured features related to pitch and duration to determine (1) general use of prosodic features, (2) prosodic use in relation to marking information structure, specifically, the emphasis of new information in a sentence (focus) as opposed to information already given in the conversational context (topic), and (3) the relation between prosodic use and level of language functioning. We found that, compared to typical adults, those with ASD with high language functioning generally used a larger pitch range than controls but did not mark information structure, whereas those with moderate language functioning generally used a smaller pitch range than controls but marked information structure appropriately to a large extent. Both impaired general prosodic use and impaired marking of information structure would be expected to seriously impact social communication and thereby lead to increased difficulty in personal domains, such as making and keeping friendships, and in professional domains, such as competing for employment opportunities.

DePape, Anne-Marie R.; Chen, Aoju; Hall, Geoffrey B. C.; Trainor, Laurel J.

2012-01-01

24

Use of prosody and information structure in high functioning adults with autism in relation to language ability.  

PubMed

Abnormal prosody is a striking feature of the speech of those with Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but previous reports suggest large variability among those with ASD. Here we show that part of this heterogeneity can be explained by level of language functioning. We recorded semi-spontaneous but controlled conversations in adults with and without ASD and measured features related to pitch and duration to determine (1) general use of prosodic features, (2) prosodic use in relation to marking information structure, specifically, the emphasis of new information in a sentence (focus) as opposed to information already given in the conversational context (topic), and (3) the relation between prosodic use and level of language functioning. We found that, compared to typical adults, those with ASD with high language functioning generally used a larger pitch range than controls but did not mark information structure, whereas those with moderate language functioning generally used a smaller pitch range than controls but marked information structure appropriately to a large extent. Both impaired general prosodic use and impaired marking of information structure would be expected to seriously impact social communication and thereby lead to increased difficulty in personal domains, such as making and keeping friendships, and in professional domains, such as competing for employment opportunities. PMID:22470358

Depape, Anne-Marie R; Chen, Aoju; Hall, Geoffrey B C; Trainor, Laurel J

2012-01-01

25

The systemizing quotient: an investigation of adults with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism, and normal sex differences.  

PubMed Central

Systemizing is the drive to analyse systems or construct systems. A recent model of psychological sex differences suggests that this is a major dimension in which the sexes differ, with males being more drawn to systemize than females. Currently, there are no self-report measures to assess this important dimension. A second major dimension of sex differences is empathizing (the drive to identify mental states and respond to these with an appropriate emotion). Previous studies find females score higher on empathy measures. We report a new self-report questionnaire, the Systemizing Quotient (SQ), for use with adults of normal intelligence. It contains 40 systemizing items and 20 control items. On each systemizing item, a person can score 2, 1 or 0, so the SQ has a maximum score of 80 and a minimum of zero. In Study 1, we measured the SQ of n = 278 adults (114 males, 164 females) from a general population, to test for predicted sex differences (male superiority) in systemizing. All subjects were also given the Empathy Quotient (EQ) to test if previous reports of female superiority would be replicated. In Study 2 we employed the SQ and the EQ with n = 47 adults (33 males, 14 females) with Asperger syndrome (AS) or high-functioning autism (HFA), who are predicted to be either normal or superior at systemizing, but impaired at empathizing. Their scores were compared with n = 47 matched adults from the general population in Study 1. In Study 1, as predicted, normal adult males scored significantly higher than females on the SQ and significantly lower on the EQ. In Study 2, again as predicted, adults with AS/HFA scored significantly higher on the SQ than matched controls, and significantly lower on the EQ than matched controls. The SQ reveals both a sex difference in systemizing in the general population and an unusually strong drive to systemize in AS/HFA. These results are discussed in relation to two linked theories: the 'empathizing-systemizing' (E-S) theory of sex differences and the extreme male brain (EMB) theory of autism.

Baron-Cohen, Simon; Richler, Jennifer; Bisarya, Dheraj; Gurunathan, Nhishanth; Wheelwright, Sally

2003-01-01

26

Lung Function and Heart Disease in American Indian Adults With High Frequency of Metabolic Abnormalities (from the Strong Heart Study).  

PubMed

The associations of pulmonary function with cardiovascular disease (CVD) independent of diabetes mellitus (DM) and metabolic syndrome have not been examined in a population-based setting. We examined prevalence and incidence CVD in relation to lower pulmonary function in the Strong Heart Study second examination (1993 to 1995) in 352 CVD and 2,873 non-CVD adults free of overt lung disease (mean age 60 years). Lung function was assessed by standard spirometry. Participants with metabolic syndrome or DM with or without CVD had lower pulmonary function than participants without these conditions after adjustment for hypertension, age, gender, abdominal obesity, smoking, physical activity index, and study field center. CVD participants with DM had significantly lower forced vital capacity than participants with CVD alone. Significant associations were observed between reduced pulmonary function, preclinical CVD, and prevalent CVD after adjustment for multiple CVD risk factors. During follow-up (median 13.3 years), pulmonary function did not predict CVD incidence, it predicted CVD mortality. Among 3,225 participants, 412 (298 without baseline CVD) died from CVD by the end of 2008. In models adjusted for multiple CVD risk factors, DM, metabolic syndrome, and baseline CVD, compared with highest quartile of lung function, lower lung function predicted CVD mortality (relative risk up to 1.5, 95% confidence interval 1.1 to 2.0, p <0.05). In conclusion, a population with a high prevalence of DM and metabolic syndrome and lower lung function was independently associated with prevalent clinical and preclinical CVD, and its impairment predicted CVD mortality. Additional research is needed to identify mechanisms linking metabolic abnormalities, low lung function, and CVD. PMID:24878118

Yeh, Fawn; Dixon, Anne E; Best, Lyle G; Marion, Susan M; Lee, Elisa T; Ali, Tauqeer; Yeh, Jeunliang; Rhoades, Everett R; Howard, Barbara V; Devereux, Richard B

2014-07-15

27

High Blood Pressure Accelerates Gait Slowing in Well-Functioning Older Adults over 18-Years of Follow-Up  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES To examine whether the association between hypertension and decline in gait speed is significant in well-functioning older adults and whether other health-related factors, such as brain, kidney, and heart function, can explain it. DESIGN Longitudinal cohort study. SETTING Cardiovascular Health Study. PARTICIPANTS Of 2,733 potential participants with a brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan, measures of mobility and systolic blood pressure (BP), no self-reported disability in 1992 to 1994 (baseline), and with at least 1 follow-up gait speed measurement through 1997 to 1999, 643 (aged 73.6, 57% female, 15% black) who had received a second MRI in 1997 to 1999 and an additional gait speed measure in 2005 to 2006 were included. MEASUREMENTS Mixed models with random slopes and intercepts were adjusted for age, race, and sex. Main explanatory factors included white matter hyperintensity progression, baseline cystatin-C, and left cardiac ventricular mass. Incidence of stroke and dementia, BP trajectories, and intake of antihypertensive medications during follow-up were tested as other potential explanatory factors. RESULTS Higher systolic BP was associated with faster rate of gait speed decline in this selected group of 643 participants, and results were similar in the parent cohort (N = 2,733). Participants with high BP (n = 293) had a significantly faster rate of gait speed decline than those with baseline BP less than 140/90 mmHg and no history of hypertension (n = 350). Rates were similar for those with history of hypertension who were uncontrolled (n = 110) or controlled (n = 87) at baseline and for those who were newly diagnosed (n = 96) at baseline. Adjustment for explanatory factors or for other covariates (education, prevalent cardiovascular disease, physical activity, vision, mood, cognition, muscle strength, body mass index, osteoporosis) did not change the results. CONCLUSION High BP accelerates gait slowing in well-functioning older adults over a long period of time, even for those who control their BP or develop hypertension later in life. Health-related measurements did not explain these associations. Future studies to investigate the mechanisms linking hypertension to slowing gait in older adults are warranted.

Rosano, Caterina; Longstreth, William T.; Boudreau, Robert; Taylor, Christopher A.; Du, Yan; Kuller, Lewis H.; Newman, Anne B.

2013-01-01

28

High Resolution Methylome Analysis Reveals Widespread Functional Hypomethylation during Adult Human Erythropoiesis*  

PubMed Central

Differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells to red cells requires coordinated expression of numerous erythroid genes and is characterized by nuclear condensation and extrusion during terminal development. To understand the regulatory mechanisms governing these widespread phenotypic changes, we conducted a high resolution methylomic and transcriptomic analysis of six major stages of human erythroid differentiation. We observed widespread epigenetic differences between early and late stages of erythropoiesis with progressive loss of methylation being the dominant change during differentiation. Gene bodies, intergenic regions, and CpG shores were preferentially demethylated during erythropoiesis. Epigenetic changes at transcription factor binding sites correlated significantly with changes in gene expression and were enriched for binding motifs for SCL, MYB, GATA, and other factors not previously implicated in erythropoiesis. Demethylation at gene promoters was associated with increased expression of genes, whereas epigenetic changes at gene bodies correlated inversely with gene expression. Important gene networks encoding erythrocyte membrane proteins, surface receptors, and heme synthesis proteins were found to be regulated by DNA methylation. Furthermore, integrative analysis enabled us to identify novel, potential regulatory areas of the genome as evident by epigenetic changes in a predicted PU.1 binding site in intron 1 of the GATA1 gene. This intronic site was found to be conserved across species and was validated to be a novel PU.1 binding site by quantitative ChIP in erythroid cells. Altogether, our study provides a comprehensive analysis of methylomic and transcriptomic changes during erythroid differentiation and demonstrates that human terminal erythropoiesis is surprisingly associated with hypomethylation of the genome.

Yu, Yiting; Mo, Yongkai; Ebenezer, David; Bhattacharyya, Sanchari; Liu, Hui; Sundaravel, Sriram; Giricz, Orsolya; Wontakal, Sandeep; Cartier, Jessy; Caces, Bennett; Artz, Andrew; Nischal, Sangeeta; Bhagat, Tushar; Bathon, Kathleen; Maqbool, Shahina; Gligich, Oleg; Suzuki, Masako; Steidl, Ulrich; Godley, Lucy; Skoultchi, Art; Greally, John; Wickrema, Amittha; Verma, Amit

2013-01-01

29

High-intensity interval training on an aquatic treadmill in adults with osteoarthritis: effect on pain, balance, function, and mobility.  

PubMed

Bressel, E, Wing, JE, Miller, AI, and Dolny, DG. High-intensity interval training on an aquatic treadmill in adults with osteoarthritis: effect on pain, balance, function, and mobility. J Strength Cond Res 28(8): 2088-2096, 2014-Although aquatic exercise is considered a potentially effective treatment intervention for people with osteoarthritis (OA), previous research has focused primarily on calisthenics in a shallow pool with the inherent limitations on regulating exercise intensity. The purpose of this study was to quantify the efficacy of a 6-week aquatic treadmill exercise program on measures of pain, balance, function, and mobility. Eighteen participants (age = 64.5 ± 10.2 years) with knee OA completed a non-exercise control period followed by a 6-week exercise period. Outcome measures included visual analog scales for pain, posturography for balance, sit-to-stand test for function, and a 10-m walk test for mobility. The exercise protocol included balance training and high-intensity interval training (HIT) in an aquatic treadmill using water jets to destabilize while standing and achieve high ratings of perceived exertion () while walking. In comparison with pretests, participants displayed reduced joint pain (pre = 50.3 ± 24.8 mm vs. post = 15.8 ± 10.6 mm), improved balance (equilibrium pre = 66.6 ± 11.0 vs. post = 73.5 ± 7.1), function (rising index pre = 0.49 ± 0.19% vs. post = 0.33 ± 0.11%), and mobility (walk pre = 8.6 ± 1.4 s vs. post = 7.8 ± 1.1 s) after participating in the exercise protocol (p = 0.03-0.001). The same benefits were not observed after the non-exercise control period. Adherence to the exercise protocol was exceptional and no participants reported adverse effects, suggesting that aquatic treadmill exercise that incorporates balance and HIT training was well tolerated by patients with OA and may be effective at managing symptoms of OA. PMID:25057845

Bressel, Eadric; Wing, Jessica E; Miller, Andrew I; Dolny, Dennis G

2014-08-01

30

Sexual Well-Being of a Community Sample of High-Functioning Adults on the Autism Spectrum Who Have Been in a Romantic Relationship  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored factors (gender, age, relationship status, symptomatology) associated with the sexual well-being of 141 (56 men and 85 women) adults with high-functioning autism and Asperger syndrome (HFA/AS) living in the community. Participants completed an online survey consisting of a measure of autistic symptoms as well as measures of…

Byers, E. Sandra; Nichols, Shana; Voyer, Susan D.; Reilly, Georgianna

2013-01-01

31

A cognitive-behavioral intervention for emotion regulation in adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have difficulties in social communication; thus, these individuals have trouble understanding the mental states of others. Recent research also suggests that adults with ASD are unable to understand their own mental states, which could lead to difficulties in emotion-regulation. Some studies have reported the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in improving emotion-regulation among children with ASD. The current study will investigate the efficacy of group-based CBT for adults with ASD. Methods/Design The study is a randomized, waitlist controlled, single-blinded trial. The participants will be 60 adults with ASD; 30 will be assigned to a CBT group and 30 to a waitlist control group. Primary outcome measures are the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale, the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations, the Motion Picture Mind-Reading task, and an ASD questionnaire. The secondary outcome measures are the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, the World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale 26-item version, the Global Assessment of Functioning, State-trait Anxiety Inventory, Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory, and Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale. All will be administered during the pre- and post-intervention, and 12 week follow-up periods. The CBT group will receive group therapy over an 8 week period (one session per week) with each session lasting approximately 100 minutes. Group therapy will consist of four or five adults with ASD and two psychologists. We will be using visual materials for this program, mainly the Cognitive Affective Training kit. Discussion This trial will hopefully indicate the efficacy of group-based CBT for adults with high- functioning ASD. Trial registration This trial was registered in The University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry No. UMIN000006236.

2013-01-01

32

Functional literacy of Young Guyanese Adults  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Functional literacy is interpreted as the ability of the individual to apply skills in reading, writing, calculation and basic problem-solving in those activities in which literacy is required for effective functioning in his/her own group and community. The paper describes the rationale, development and administration of the test used for measuring levels (high, moderate, low) of achievement in functional literacy in three domains (document, prose and quantitative). An assumption of the study was that a high level of functional literacy was required for the individual to function effectively in his/her own group and community. The context of the study is Guyana the most underdeveloped and impoverished country in the English-speaking Caribbean. The subjects are out of school youth in Guyana aged 14-25. Amongst the main findings are: only approximately 11% of the young people show a high level of functional literacy; females tend to have a higher level of functional literacy than males: and most of those at the low level never went beyond primary and low status secondary schools and usually end up unemployed or in semi- or unskilled jobs. Attention is drawn to the difficulty of attracting funding for literacy programmes from international aid agencies, given the inflated adult literacy rate which is reported for Guyana in international statistics. While they credit Guyana with an adult literacy rate of 97.5%, the study suggests that a more realistic figure is in the 70s. The importance of adult and continuing education is underscored in view of the need to help those who are out of school to meet the ever-changing demands of society for improved skills in literacy and numeracy.

Jennings, Zellyne

2000-05-01

33

A Nationwide Survey on Quality of Life and Associated Factors of Adults with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The psychosocial outcomes of individuals with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD) appear to be diverse and are often poor relative to their intellectual or language level. To identify predictive variables that are potentially ameliorable by therapeutic intervention, this study investigated self-reported psychosocial quality of life…

Kamio, Yoko; Inada, Naoko; Koyama, Tomonori

2013-01-01

34

Divergent muscle functional and architectural responses to two successive high intensity resistance exercise sessions in competitive weightlifters and resistance trained adults.  

PubMed

Peak force (PF), contractile rate of force development (RFD) and contractile impulse (CI) are of great importance to competitive weightlifters (WL). These athletes routinely perform successive bouts of high-intensity resistance exercise (HIRE) within the same day (double-day training) with the aim of improving muscular function and weightlifting performance. The purpose of this investigation was to determine and compare the PF, contractile RFD and CI responses to double-day training between WL and resistance trained (RT) adults (n = 16 per group). Furthermore, we sought to establish whether acute changes in muscle function were associated with acute changes in muscle architecture. Isometric front squat PF, contractile RFD, CI and the pennation angle (?(p)), anatomical and physiological thickness of the m. vastus lateralis (VL) were determined before and after two equivalent HIRE sessions separated by 4-6 h rest. Each session consisted of ten single repetitions of the dynamic barbell front squat interspersed with 2-min rest, using a load equivalent to 90% of the pre-session PF. Weightlifters demonstrated greater PF at all time points when compared to RT adults and exhibited no significant within or between session changes in PF, contractile RFD or CI. Conversely, RT adults demonstrated within- and between-session decreases in PF and between-session increases in contractile RFD and CI. As no correlations were found between the relative within-session changes in muscle function and the concomitant changes in muscle architecture, other factors must contribute to the divergent responses in PF, contractile RFD and CI between WL and RT adults. PMID:22350356

Storey, Adam; Wong, Samantha; Smith, Heather K; Marshall, Paul

2012-10-01

35

No significant brain volume decreases or increases in adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder and above average intelligence: A voxel-based morphometric study.  

PubMed

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is increasingly being recognized as an important issue in adult psychiatry and psychotherapy. High intelligence indicates overall good brain functioning and might thus present a particularly good opportunity to study possible cerebral correlates of core autistic features in terms of impaired social cognition, communication skills, the need for routines, and circumscribed interests. Anatomical MRI data sets for 30 highly intelligent patients with high-functioning autism and 30 pairwise-matched control subjects were acquired and analyzed with voxel-based morphometry. The gray matter volume of the pairwise-matched patients and the controls did not differ significantly. When correcting for total brain volume influences, the patients with ASD exhibited smaller left superior frontal volumes on a trend level. Heterogeneous volumetric findings in earlier studies might partly be explained by study samples biased by a high inclusion rate of secondary forms of ASD, which often go along with neuronal abnormalities. Including only patients with high IQ scores might have decreased the influence of secondary forms of ASD and might explain the absence of significant volumetric differences between the patients and the controls in this study. PMID:24953998

Riedel, Andreas; Maier, Simon; Ulbrich, Melanie; Biscaldi, Monica; Ebert, Dieter; Fangmeier, Thomas; Perlov, Evgeniy; Tebartz van Elst, Ludger

2014-08-30

36

The Empathy Quotient: An Investigation of Adults with Asperger Syndrome or High Functioning Autism, and Normal Sex Differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Empathy is an essential part of normal social functioning, yet there are precious few instruments for measuring individual differences in this domain. In this article we review psychological theories of empathy and its measurement. Previous instruments that purport to measure this have not always focused purely on empathy. We report a new self-report questionnaire, the Empathy Quotient (EQ), for use

Simon Baron-Cohen; Sally Wheelwright

2004-01-01

37

The Interplay between Attentional Strategies and Language Processing in High-Functioning Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the hypothesis of an atypical interaction between attention and language in ASD. A dual-task experiment with three conditions was designed, in which sentences were presented that contained errors requiring attentional focus either at (a) low level, or (b) high level, or (c) both levels of language. Speed and accuracy for error…

Koolen, Sophieke; Vissers, Constance Th. W. M.; Hendriks, Angelique W. C. J.; Egger, Jos I. M.; Verhoeven, Ludo

2012-01-01

38

Spatial Navigation Impairments Among Intellectually High-Functioning Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorder: Exploring Relations With Theory of Mind, Episodic Memory, and Episodic Future Thinking  

PubMed Central

Research suggests that spatial navigation relies on the same neural network as episodic memory, episodic future thinking, and theory of mind (ToM). Such findings have stimulated theories (e.g., the scene construction and self-projection hypotheses) concerning possible common underlying cognitive capacities. Consistent with such theories, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by concurrent impairments in episodic memory, episodic future thinking, and ToM. However, it is currently unclear whether spatial navigation is also impaired. Hence, ASD provides a test case for the scene construction and self-projection theories. The study of spatial navigation in ASD also provides a test of the extreme male brain theory of ASD, which predicts intact or superior navigation (purportedly a systemizing skill) performance among individuals with ASD. Thus, the aim of the current study was to establish whether spatial navigation in ASD is impaired, intact, or superior. Twenty-seven intellectually high-functioning adults with ASD and 28 sex-, age-, and IQ-matched neurotypical comparison adults completed the memory island virtual navigation task. Tests of episodic memory, episodic future thinking, and ToM were also completed. Participants with ASD showed significantly diminished performance on the memory island task, and performance was positively related to ToM and episodic memory, but not episodic future thinking. These results suggest that (contra the extreme male brain theory) individuals with ASD have impaired survey-based navigation skills—that is, difficulties generating cognitive maps of the environment—and adds weight to the idea that scene construction/self-projection are impaired in ASD. The theoretical and clinical implications of these results are discussed.

2013-01-01

39

Nutraceutical intervention improves older adults' cognitive functioning.  

PubMed

Interventions to improve the cognitive health of older adults are of critical importance. In the current study, we conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial using a pill-based nutraceutical (NT-020) that contained a proprietary formulation of blueberry, carnosine, green tea, vitamin D3, and Biovin to evaluate the impact on changes in multiple domains of cognitive functioning. One hundred and five cognitively intact adults aged 65-85 years of age (M=73.6 years) were randomized to receive NT-020 (n=52) or a placebo (n=53). Participants were tested with a battery of cognitive performance tests that were classified into six broad domains--episodic memory, processing speed, verbal ability, working memory, executive functioning, and complex speed at baseline and 2 months later. The results indicated that persons taking NT-020 improved significantly on two measures of processing speed across the 2-month test period in contrast to persons on the placebo whose performance did not change. None of the other cognitive ability measures were related to intervention group. The results also indicated that the NT-020 was well tolerated by older adults, and the presence of adverse events or symptoms did not differ between the NT-020 and placebo groups. Overall, the results of the current study were promising and suggest the potential for interventions like these to improve the cognitive health of older adults. PMID:24134194

Small, Brent J; Rawson, Kerri S; Martin, Christina; Eisel, Sarah L; Sanberg, Cyndy D; McEvoy, Cathy L; Sanberg, Paul R; Shytle, R Douglas; Tan, Jun; Bickford, Paula C

2014-02-01

40

Chronic Insomnia and Cognitive Functioning Among Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic insomnia and cognitive impairment are both common complaints among older adults. This study explores the association between chronic insomnia and changes in cognitive functioning among older adults. The study population comprised two groups: 64 older adults without insomnia and 35 older adult insomniacs. The cognitive capacity of each participant was tested at the participant's home using the computerized “MindFit”

Iris Haimov; Einat Hanuka; Yael Horowitz

2008-01-01

41

Sensory and Cognitive Factors Influencing Functional Ability in Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Age-related sensory and cognitive impairments have been related to functional performance in older adults. With regard to cognitive abilities, processing speed in particular may be strongly related to older adults’ abilities to perform everyday tasks. Identifying and comparing cognitive correlates of functional performance is particularly important in order to design interventions to promote independence and prevent functional disability. Objective:

Kimberly M. Wood; Jerri D. Edwards; Olivio J. Clay; Virginia G. Wadley; Daniel L. Roenker; Karlene K. Ball

2005-01-01

42

The secrets of highly active older adults.  

PubMed

Although physical activity is a recognized component in the management of many chronic diseases associated with aging, activity levels tend to progressively decline with increasing age (Manini & Pahor, 2009; Schutzer & Graves, 2004). In this article we examine the key factors that facilitate physical activity in highly active community-dwelling older adults. Using a strengths based approach, we examined the factors that facilitated physical activity in our sample of highly active older adults. Twenty-seven older adults participated in face-to face interviews. We extracted a sub-sample of 10 highly active older adults to be included in the analyses. Based on a framework analysis of our transcripts we identified three factors that facilitate physical activity in our sample, these include: 1) resourcefulness: engagement in self-help strategies such as self-efficacy, self-control and adaptability; 2) social connections: the presence of relationships (friend, neighborhood, institutions) and social activities that support or facilitate high levels of physical activity; and 3) the role of the built and natural environments: features of places and spaces that support and facilitate high levels of physical activity. Findings provide insight into, and factors that facilitate older adults' physical activity. We discuss implications for programs (e.g., accessible community centers, with appropriate programming throughout the lifecourse) and policies geared towards the promotion of physical activity (e.g., the development of spaces that facilitate both physical and social activities). PMID:24300060

Franke, Thea; Tong, Catherine; Ashe, Maureen C; McKay, Heather; Sims-Gould, Joanie

2013-12-01

43

Neurocognitive testing and functioning in adults sickle cell disease.  

PubMed

The impact of cerebrovascular events (CVE) on cognitive functioning in adults with sickle cell disease is not well understood. Sequelae of CVEs can adversely impact their quality of life. We reviewed neurocognitive presentation and testing in adults with sickle cell disease. We evaluated the frequency of complaints of memory disturbance using survey methodology in a sample of 109 adult patients with sickle cell disease (48 males, 61 females). A subsample of 24 patients also received a memory questionnaire where specific cognitive functions were assessed. Overall, we found that males and females did not differ in the frequency of experienced memory disturbance during painful crises. However, the frequency of men reporting that their ability to remember where they place common objects such as keys (p = 0.017) and remembering the item they intended to buy in a grocery store or pharmacy (p = 0.048) was worse now compared to when they were in high school and was greater when compared to women. The frequency of men who reported their memory was worse now than when they were in high school (p = 0.051) was also greater than in women. We concluded that memory dysfunction predicts global monthly presentation of pain. We suggest incorporating cost-effective neurocognitive screening measures as a standard of practice in sickle cell disease. PMID:22035043

Feliu, Miriam H; Crawford, Regina D; Edwards, Lekisha; Wellington, Chante; Wood, Mary; Whitfield, Keith E; Edwards, Christopher L

2011-01-01

44

Functional Impairment and Occupational Outcome in Adults with ADHD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: ADHD is associated with poor functional outcomes. The objectives were to investigate the prevalence of functional impairment and occupational status in a clinically referred sample of adults with ADHD and explore factors predicting occupational outcome. Method: A sample of 149 adults with a confirmed diagnosis of ADHD participated in…

Gjervan, Bjorn; Torgersen, Terje; Nordahl, Hans M.; Rasmussen, Kirsten

2012-01-01

45

Relationships with Adult Children: Support Functions and Vulnerabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The family is the primary source of supportive services to the aged in this country. A study was undertaken to examine two issues related to developmental functions of relationships with adult children: the parent's view of assistance received from adult children, and age differences in those views; and, secondly, the functions of assistance…

Thomas, Jeanne L.; And Others

46

Health-Related Variables and Functional Fitness among Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assesses the functional fitness of a convenient sample of older adults (greater than 70 years), to examine correlations between functional fitness and several other health-related variables and to compare with criterion performance data as established by Rikli and Jones (2001). One hundred and seven community-dwelling older adults with…

Wilkin, Linda D.; Haddock, Bryan L.

2010-01-01

47

The Perspective of Young Adult Siblings of Individuals with Asperger Syndrome and High Functioning Autism: An Exploration of Grief and Implications for Developmental Transition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Asperger syndrome (AS) and high functioning autism are complex developmental disabilities that have a significant impact on the individual and his/her family. Asperger syndrome is characterized by challenges with understanding non-verbal communication, difficulties with social relationships, and restricted interests. Having a brother or sister…

Allgood, Nicole R.

2010-01-01

48

Function of GATA Factors in the Adult Mouse Liver  

PubMed Central

GATA transcription factors and their Friend of Gata (FOG) cofactors control the development of diverse tissues. GATA4 and GATA6 are essential for the expansion of the embryonic liver bud, but their expression patterns and functions in the adult liver are unclear. We characterized the expression of GATA and FOG factors in whole mouse liver and purified hepatocytes. GATA4, GATA6, and FOG1 are the most prominently expressed family members in whole liver and hepatocytes. GATA4 chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) identified 4409 occupied sites, associated with genes enriched in ontologies related to liver function, including lipid and glucose metabolism. However, hepatocyte-specific excision of Gata4 had little impact on gross liver architecture and function, even under conditions of regenerative stress, and, despite the large number of GATA4 occupied genes, resulted in relatively few changes in gene expression. To address possible redundancy between GATA4 and GATA6, both factors were conditionally excised. Surprisingly, combined Gata4,6 loss did not exacerbate the phenotype resulting from Gata4 loss alone. This points to the presence of an unusually robust transcriptional network in adult hepatocytes that ensures the maintenance of liver function.

Zheng, Rena; Rebolledo-Jaramillo, Boris; Zong, Yiwei; Wang, Liqing; Russo, Pierre; Hancock, Wayne; Stanger, Ben Z.; Hardison, Ross C.; Blobel, Gerd A.

2013-01-01

49

Hyperglycemia enhances function and differentiation of adult rat cardiac fibroblasts.  

PubMed

Diabetes is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease that can eventually cause cardiomyopathy and heart failure. Cardiac fibroblasts (CF) are the critical mediators of physiological and pathological cardiac remodeling; however, the effects of hyperglycemia on cardiac fibroblast function and differentiation is not well known. Here, we performed a comprehensive investigation on the effects of hyperglycemia on cardiac fibroblasts and show that hyperglycemia enhances cardiac fibroblast function and differentiation. We found that high glucose treatment increased collagen I, III, and VI gene expression in rat adult cardiac fibroblasts. Interestingly, hyperglycemia increased CF migration and proliferation that is augmented by collagen I and III. Surprisingly, we found that short term hyperglycemia transiently inhibited ERK1/2 activation but increased AKT phosphorylation. Finally, high glucose treatment increased spontaneous differentiation of cardiac fibroblasts to myofibroblasts with increasing passage compared with low glucose. Taken together, these findings suggest that hyperglycemia induces cardiac fibrosis by modulating collagen expression, migration, proliferation, and differentiation of cardiac fibroblasts. PMID:24959995

Shamhart, Patricia E; Luther, Daniel J; Adapala, Ravi K; Bryant, Jennifer E; Petersen, Kyle A; Meszaros, J Gary; Thodeti, Charles K

2014-07-01

50

Impact of Training Modality on Strength and Physical Function in Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The importance of maintaining strength in older adults is well documented and various training modalities have been recommended; however, the effectiveness of various interventions with high translation to public health practice has not been completely characterized. Additionally, the interrelations among mode, strength, and lower extremity physical function (LEPF) changes in older adults warrant further investigation. Purpose: The primary aims

Mark M. Misic; Rudy J. Valentine; Karl S. Rosengren; Jeffrey A. Woods; Ellen M. Evans

2009-01-01

51

Psychosocial Functioning of Adult Epileptic and MS Patients and Adult Normal Controls on the WPSI.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Psychosocial functioning of adult epileptic outpatients as assessed by the Washington Psychosocial Seizure Inventory (WPSI) was compared to that of adult multiple sclerosis (MS) outpatients and normal subjects. When only valid WPSI profiles were considered, the only significant finding was that the epilepsy group and the MS group had more…

Tan, Siang-Yang

1986-01-01

52

False action memories in older adults: Relationship with executive functions?  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Merely observing another person performing an action can make young people later misremember having performed this action themselves (the observation-inflation effect). We examined this type of memory error in healthy older adults. Overall, both young and older adult groups showed robust observation inflation. Although the number of people committing observation-inflation errors did not differ between age groups, those older adults who were prone to this illusion showed a greater observation-inflation effect compared to the corresponding young. At the same time, observation also had beneficial effects on subsequent action memory, especially in older adults. Surprisingly, executive functioning was not correlated with the degree to which older adults made observation-inflation errors, but it was related to the degree to which older adults benefited from observation. We consider accounts of observation inflation based on source monitoring, familiarity misattribution, and motor simulation. PMID:24128163

Lindner, Isabel; Davidson, Patrick S R

2014-09-01

53

Functional food awareness and perceptions in relation to information sources in older adults  

PubMed Central

Background The functional food industry has experienced innovative and economic expansion, yet research into consumer perceptions of functional foods and their associated health claims is limited. Among consumers, older adults could benefit from functional foods due to age-related issues pertaining to food and health. The purpose of this research was to identify the need for information related to functional foods among older adults (?60 years old) and to assess awareness and perceptions of health claims on functional food packages. Methods Community-dwelling older adults (n?=?200) completed a researcher administered questionnaire designed to collect information about functional foods including current consumption, motivating factors for consumption, perceived need for information, sources of information for functional foods and awareness of health claims. Results Prevalence of functional food consumption among participants was 93.0%. Increased awareness and knowledge was the most commonly reported factor that would promote functional food consumption (85.5%) and 63.5% of participants wanted more information about functional foods with preferred sources being newspapers/magazines/books (68.5%) and food labels (66.1%). Participants were predominately (93.5%) aware of health claims on functional foods and those with more education were more likely to report being aware of health claims (p?=?0.045). Conclusions Although functional food consumption among older adults in this sample is high, there is a need for further information regarding functional foods. These results inform stakeholders regarding the potential for information to influence functional food acceptance among older adult consumers.

2014-01-01

54

Effect of extended-release niacin on serum lipids and on endothelial function in adults with sickle cell anemia and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels.  

PubMed

Through bound apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) activates endothelial nitric oxide synthase, inducing vasodilation. Because patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) have low apoA-I and endothelial dysfunction, we conducted a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial to test whether extended-release niacin (niacin-ER) increases apoA-I-containing HDL-C and improves vascular function in SCD. Twenty-seven patients with SCD with levels of HDL-C <39 mg/dl or apoA-I <99 mg/dl were randomized to 12 weeks of niacin-ER, increased in 500-mg increments to a maximum of 1,500 mg/day, or placebo. The primary outcome was the absolute change in HDL-C level after 12 weeks, with endothelial function assessed before and at the end of treatment. Niacin-ER-treated patients trended to greater increase in HDL-C level compared with placebo treatment at 12 weeks (5.1 ± 7.7 vs 0.9 ± 3.8 mg/dl, 1-tailed p = 0.07), associated with significantly greater improvements in the ratios of low-density lipoprotein to HDL-C levels (1.24 vs 1.95, p = 0.003) and apolipoprotein B to apoA-I levels (0.46 vs 0.58, p = 0.03) compared with placebo-treated patients. No improvements were detected in 3 independent vascular physiology assays of endothelial function. Thus, the relatively small changes in HDL-C levels achieved by the dose of niacin-ER used in our study are not associated with improved vascular function in patients with SCD with initially low levels of apoA-I or HDL-C. PMID:24035168

Scoffone, Heather M; Krajewski, Megan; Zorca, Suzana; Bereal-Williams, Candice; Littel, Patricia; Seamon, Catherine; Mendelsohn, Laurel; Footman, Eleni; Abi-Jaoudeh, Nadine; Sachdev, Vandana; Machado, Roberto F; Cuttica, Michael; Shamburek, Robert; Cannon, Richard O; Remaley, Alan; Minniti, Caterina P; Kato, Gregory J

2013-11-01

55

Sense of Time and Executive Functioning in Children and Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of patient studies suggest that impairments in frontal lobe functions are associated with disorders in temporal information processing. One implication of these findings is that subjective experience of time should be related to executive functions regardless of etiology. In two experiments, we examined sense of time in relation to components of executive functioning in healthy children and adults.

Maria Grazia Carelli; Helen Forman; Timo Mäntylä

2008-01-01

56

The Effects of Face Expertise Training on the Behavioral Performance and Brain Activity of Adults with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effect of expertise training with faces was studied in adults with ASD who showed initial impairment in face recognition. Participants were randomly assigned to a computerized training program involving either faces or houses. Pre- and post-testing included standardized and experimental measures of behavior and event-related brain potentials…

Faja, Susan; Webb, Sara Jane; Jones, Emily; Merkle, Kristen; Kamara, Dana; Bavaro, Joshua; Aylward, Elizabeth; Dawson, Geraldine

2012-01-01

57

Executive functioning in older adults with hoarding disorder  

PubMed Central

Background Hoarding disorder (HD) is a chronic and debilitating psychiatric condition. Midlife HD patients have been found to have neurocognitive impairment, particularly in areas of executive functioning, but the extent to which this is due to comorbid psychiatric disorders has not been clear. Aims/Method The purpose of the present investigation was to examine executive functioning in geriatric HD patients without any comorbid Axis I disorders (n = 42) compared with a healthy older adult comparison group (n = 25). We hypothesized that older adults with HD would perform significantly worse on measures of executive functioning (Wisconsin Card Sort Task [Psychological Assessment Resources, Lutz, Florida, USA] (Psychological Assessment Resources, 2003) and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV digit span and letter-number sequencing tests [Pearson, San Antonio, TX, USA]). Results Older adults with HD showed significant differences from healthy older controls in multiple aspects of executive functioning. Compared with healthy controls, older adults with HD committed significantly more total, non-perseverative errors and conceptual level responses on the Wisconsin Card Sort Task and had significantly worse performance on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV digit span and letter-number sequencing tests. Hoarding symptom severity was strongly correlated with executive dysfunction in the HD group. Conclusions Compared with demographically-matched controls, older adults with HD have dysfunction in several domains of executive functioning including mental control, working memory, inhibition, and set shifting. Executive dysfunction is strongly correlated with hoarding severity and is not because of comorbid psychiatric disorders in HD patients. These results have broad clinical implications suggesting that executive functioning should be assessed and taken into consideration when developing intervention strategies for older adults with HD.

Ayers, Catherine R.; Wetherell, Julie Loebach; Schiehser, Dawn; Almklov, Erin; Golshan, Shahrokh; Saxena, Sanjaya

2014-01-01

58

Post-High School Outcomes of High IQ Adults with Learning Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the long-term, post-high school outcomes of 80 adult-vocational-rehabilitation clients identified as having both high intellectual ability and learning disabilities. Subjects were generally functioning at levels consistent with their learning-disability deficits rather than at levels commensurate with their identified…

Holliday, Gregory A.; Koller, James R.; Thomas, Carol D.

1999-01-01

59

A Functional-Notional Syllabus for Adult Learners of Irish.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first functional-notional syllabus for adult learners of Irish, written in Irish and English, is presented. The syllabus begins with an introductory section about functional-notional syllabi, their definitions and implications, and the characteristics of this syllabus. The second section provides the general aims and specific behavioral…

Little, David, Comp.; And Others

60

Time Monitoring and Executive Functioning in Children and Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined time-based prospective memory performance in relation to individual and developmental differences in executive functioning. School-age children and young adults completed six experimental tasks that tapped three basic components of executive functioning: inhibition, updating, and mental shifting. Monitoring performance was…

Mantyla, Timo; Carelli, Maria Grazia; Forman, Helen

2007-01-01

61

Correlates of Cognitive Function in Middle-Aged Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study administered cognitive function tests to more than 14,000 middle-aged adults in 1990–1992. The battery included the Delayed Word Recall test, the Digit Symbol Subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised, and the Controlled Oral Word Association (Word Fluency) test. Test performance was correlated positively with education level, negatively with age, was better in women

James R. Cerhan; Aaron R. Folsom; James A. Mortimer; Eyal Shahar; David S. Knopman; Paul G. McGovern; Melissa A. Hays; Larry D. Crum; Gerardo Heiss

1998-01-01

62

Sensitivity and Specificity of Eustachian Tube Function Tests in Adults  

PubMed Central

Objective Determine if Eustachian Tube (ET) function (ETF) tests can identify ears with physician-diagnosed ET dysfunction (ETD) in a mixed population at high sensitivity and specificity and define the inter-relatedness of ETF test parameters. Methods ETF was evaluated using the Forced-Response, Inflation-Deflation, Valsalva and Sniffing tests in 15 control ears of adult subjects after unilateral myringotomy (Group I) and in 23 ears of 19 adult subjects with ventilation tubes inserted for ETD (Group II). Data were analyzed using logistic regression including each parameter independently and then a step-down Discriminant Analysis including all ETF test parameters to predict group assignment. Factor Analysis operating over all parameters was used to explore relatedness. Results The Discriminant Analysis identified 4 ETF test parameters (Valsalva, ET opening pressure, dilatory efficiency and % positive pressure equilibrated) that together correctly assigned ears to Group II at a sensitivity of 95% and a specificity of 83%. Individual parameters representing the efficiency of ET opening during swallowing showed moderately accurate assignments of ears to their respective groups. Three factors captured approximately 98% of the variance among parameters, the first had negative loadings of the ETF structural parameters, the second had positive loadings of the muscle-assisted ET opening parameters and the third had negative loadings of the muscle-assisted ET opening parameters and positive loadings of the structural parameters. Discussion These results show that ETF tests can correctly assign individual ears to physician-diagnosed ETD with high sensitivity and specificity and that ETF test parameters can be grouped into structural-functional categories.

Doyle, William J.; Swarts, J. Douglas; Banks, Julianne; Casselbrant, Margaretha L; Mandel, Ellen M; Alper, Cuneyt M.

2013-01-01

63

Tutoring Adults: Toward a Definition of Tutorial Role and Function in Adult Basic Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six generic teaching functions that comprise an essential part of the role of adult basic education tutor are presented. The six functions are delineated as (1) diagnosing student needs, (2) monitoring student progress, (3) recommending materials and task, (4) presenting information, (5) guiding student practice, and (6) providing feedback.…

Pratt, Daniel D.

1983-01-01

64

[Psychosocial functioning in adults with epilepsy].  

PubMed

The Washington Psychosocial Seizure Inventory (WPSI) was used in the assessment of psychosocial functioning of epileptic subjects in Chile. A total sample of 116 outpatients coming form an Epilepsy Program at a Public Health Service was evaluated. Disturbances in several areas relevant to psychosocial adjustment were noted. Their distribution was similar to that previously reported using the WPSI, although a greater severity of disturbances was noted. Peak score scales were financial status, emotional and interpersonal adjustment and overall psychosocial functioning. Rehabilitation measures could play a substantial role in the prevention and treatment of psychosocial disorders in epilepsy. PMID:9723093

Alvarado, L; Ivanovic-Zuvic, F; Candia, X; Ibarra, X; Méndez, M D; Alarcón, J; Campos, A; Marchant, P

1991-12-01

65

High Blood Pressure: Unique to Older Adults  

MedlinePLUS

... of your life any risk factors in your life style, such as high blood pressure, heart disease, diabetes, excess alcohol consumption, lack of exercise and smoking. ... out normal functions of daily life. There are many reasons why this can happen, ...

66

Change of Mnemonic Function in Adults.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study examines the change and development of memory as a mnemonic function, represented as the result of a fusion of natural and social development, expressed on the level of a complex of interconnected mnemonic properties of the brain and nervous sys...

Y. I. Petrov

1974-01-01

67

Validity and reliability of the Nintendo Wii Balance Board to assess standing balance and sensory integration in highly functional older adults.  

PubMed

Standing balance is an important motor task. Postural instability associated with age typically arises from deterioration of peripheral sensory systems. The modified Clinical Test of Sensory Integration for Balance and the Tandem test have been used to screen for balance. Timed tests present some limitations, whereas quantification of the motions of the center of pressure (CoP) with portable and inexpensive equipment may help to improve the sensitivity of these tests and give the possibility of widespread use. This study determines the validity and reliability of the Wii Balance Board (Wii BB) to quantify CoP motions during the mentioned tests. Thirty-seven older adults completed three repetitions of five balance conditions: eyes open, eyes closed, eyes open on a compliant surface, eyes closed on a compliant surface, and tandem stance, all performed on a force plate and a Wii BB simultaneously. Twenty participants repeated the trials for reliability purposes. CoP displacement was the main outcome measure. Regression analysis indicated that the Wii BB has excellent concurrent validity, and Bland-Altman plots showed good agreement between devices with small mean differences and no relationship between the difference and the mean. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) indicated modest-to-excellent test-retest reliability (ICC=0.64-0.85). Standard error of measurement and minimal detectable change were similar for both devices, except the 'eyes closed' condition, with greater standard error of measurement for the Wii BB. In conclusion, the Wii BB is shown to be a valid and reliable method to quantify CoP displacement in older adults. PMID:24445863

Scaglioni-Solano, Pietro; Aragón-Vargas, Luis F

2014-06-01

68

Nursing staff perceptions of physical function in hospitalized older adults.  

PubMed

Physical function is a common complication of hospitalized older adults, resulting in increased morbidity, mortality, institutionalization, and cost. Nursing staff play a central role in the hospital experience for older adults, including the promotion of physical function. Although quality geriatric care requires an organizational approach, there are no empirically based guidelines to promote the physical function of hospitalized older adults. A first step to develop an organizational intervention is to identify nursing staff perceptions of physical function, defined as basic activities of daily living (eating, dressing, toileting, transferring, bathing, and continence), in hospitalized older adults, including their beliefs about prevalence, risk factors, onset, effective interventions, and institutional barriers and facilitators to promoting physical function. Using purposive sampling, six focus groups yielding 55 participants were conducted at one of two sites, a suburban community hospital in New Jersey and an urban teaching hospital in New York, using a semistructured interview. Each site provided three focus groups composed of nursing staff cohorts as follows: two groups of registered nurses (staff nurses, managers, advanced practice nurses, and educators) and one group of patient care associates. There were important similarities identified in the themes of each group. Participants identified a system-level approach to preventing functional decline, including multimodal interventions and system-level enablers. PMID:20974088

Boltz, Marie; Capezuti, Elizabeth; Shabbat, Nina

2011-11-01

69

Quantifying Cardiac Functions in Embryonic and Adult Zebrafish  

PubMed Central

Zebrafish embryos have been extensively used to study heart development and cardiac function, mainly due to the unique embryology and genetics of this model organism. Since most human heart disease occurs during adulthood, adult zebrafish models of heart disease are being created to dissect mechanisms of the disease and discover novel therapies. However, due to its small heart size, the use of cardiac functional assays in the adult zebrafish has been limited. To address this bottleneck, the transparent fish line casper;Tg(cmlc2:nuDsRed) that has a red fluorescent heart can be used to document beating hearts in vivo and to quantify cardiac functions in adult zebrafish. Here, we describe our methods for quantifying shortening fraction and heart rate in embryonic zebrafish, as well as in the juvenile and adult casper;Tg(cmlc2:nuDsRed) fish. In addition, we describe the red blood cell flow rate assay that can be used to reflect cardiac function indirectly in zebrafish at any stage.

Hoage, Tiffany; Ding, Yonghe; Xu, Xiaolei

2013-01-01

70

Time monitoring and executive functioning in children and adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined time-based prospective memory performance in relation to individual and developmental differences in executive functioning. School-age children and young adults completed six experimental tasks that tapped three basic components of executive functioning: inhibition, updating, and mental shifting. Monitoring performance was examined in a time-based prospective memory task in which participants indicated the passing of time every 5min while

Timo Mäntylä; Maria Grazia Carelli; Helen Forman

2007-01-01

71

Depression, Immune Function, and Health in Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

In summary, there are clearly significant immunological declines associated with depression, depressed mood, and stress. Unfortunately,\\u000a these distress-related effects are magnified in elderly populations because the aging process itself contributes to downward\\u000a change in immune function. The interaction of distress and aging leaves older adults open to physical health complications.\\u000a Alterations of immune function have been linked to poorer vaccine

Katherine L. Applegate; Janice K. Kiecolt-Glaser; Ronald Glaser

72

Health Literacy and Functional Health Status Among Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 2923 enrollees was conducted in Cleveland, Ohio; Houston, Tex; Tampa, Fla; and Fort Lauderdale-Miami, Fla. Health literacy was measured using the short form of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. We used out- come measures that included scores on the physical and mental health functioning subscales of the Medical Out- comes Study 36-Item

Michael S. Wolf; Julie A. Gazmararian; David W. Baker

2005-01-01

73

[An oxygen delivery device with a jet nebulizer function (Inspiron Nebulizer or Aquapak Nebulizer) can not provide high concentrations of oxygen to adult patients with respiratory failure].  

PubMed

Oxygen delivery devices with a jet nebulizer function are widely used in Japan. The device, utilizing the Bernoulli principle, can provide oxygen concentrations of 24-100%. The present study demonstrated that maximal inspired oxygen concentration provided by this oxygen delivery device is theoretically 60%, as total gas flow is insufficient to meet all inspiratory requirements to provide oxygen concentrations of greater than 60%. This theoretical calculation was verified using a face model to which oxygen was delivered using an Inspiron Nebulizer or Aquapak Nebulizer. PMID:16218417

Miyamoto, Kenji

2005-09-01

74

High field functional MRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has become the most widely used approach for studying brain functions in humans. The rapid and widespread diffusion of fMRI has been favoured by the properties this technique presents, and particularly by its sensitivity in analysing brain functional phenomena and by the lack of biological invasiveness, resulting in an unprecedented and unparalleled flexibility of use.

F. Di Salle; F. Esposito; A. Elefante; T. Scarabino; A. Volpicelli; S. Cirillo; R. Elefante; E. Seifritz

2003-01-01

75

Ethnic differences in beta-cell function, dietary intake and expression of the metabolic syndrome among UK adults of South Asian, black African-Caribbean and white-European origin at high risk of metabolic syndrome.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional analysis of ethnic differences in dietary intake, insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function, using the intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT), was conducted on 497 healthy adult participants of the 'Reading, Imperial, Surrey, Cambridge, and Kings' (RISCK) study. Insulin sensitivity (Si) was significantly lower in African-Caribbean (AC) and South Asian (SA) participants [IVGTT-Si; AC: 2.13 vs SA: 2.25 vs white-European (WE): 2.84 (×10(-4) mL µU min)(2), p < 0.001]. AC participants had a higher prevalence of anti-hypertensive therapy (AC: 19.7% vs SA: 7.5%), the most cardioprotective lipid profile [total:high-density lipoprotein (HDL); AC: 3.52 vs SA: 4.08 vs WE: 3.83, p = 0.03] and more pronounced hyperinsulinaemia [IVGTT-acute insulin response (AIR)] [AC: 575 vs SA: 428 vs WE: 344 mL/µU/min)(2), p = 0.002], specifically in female participants. Intake of saturated fat and carbohydrate was lower and higher in AC (10.9% and 50.4%) and SA (11.1% and 52.3%), respectively, compared to WE (13.6% and 43.8%, p < 0.001). Insulin resistance in ACs is characterised by 'normal' lipid profiles but high rates of hypertension and pronounced hyperinsulinaemia. PMID:23288880

Goff, Louise M; Griffin, Bruce A; Lovegrove, Julie A; Sanders, Tom A; Jebb, Susan A; Bluck, Les J; Frost, Gary S

2013-07-01

76

Psychiatric comorbidity and functioning in a clinically referred population of adults with autism spectrum disorders: a comparative study.  

PubMed

To systematically examine the patterns of psychiatric comorbidity and functioning in clinically referred adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Psychiatrically referred adults with and without ASD were compared on measures assessing for psychiatric comorbidity and psychosocial functioning. Sixty-three adults with ASD participated in the study (mean age: 29 ± 11 years). Adults with ASD in their lifetime suffered from a higher burden of psychiatric disorders (6 ± 3.4 vs. 3.5 ± 2.7; p < 0.001) including major depressive disorder and multiple anxiety disorders, and were functionally more impaired with a significant proportion having received both counseling and pharmacotherapy. Adults with ASD have high levels of psychiatric comorbidity and dysfunction comparable to a clinically referred population of adults without ASD. PMID:23076506

Joshi, Gagan; Wozniak, Janet; Petty, Carter; Martelon, Mary Kate; Fried, Ronna; Bolfek, Anela; Kotte, Amelia; Stevens, Jonathan; Furtak, Stephannie L; Bourgeois, Michelle; Caruso, Janet; Caron, Ashley; Biederman, Joseph

2013-06-01

77

Reduced masticatory function in non-elderly obese Japanese adults.  

PubMed

Summary: Objectives: Abnormal eating behaviors such as compulsive overeating, eating fast, chewing less, palatable soft food preferences and avoiding hard food are often observed in obese individuals, and these behaviors may affect their masticatory function, but little information of masticatory function in obese subjects are available at present. The present study investigated masticatory function in non-elderly obese Japanese adults and explored the relationships between obesity and masticatory function.Methods: Seventy-five obese subjects (BMI ? 25; male: 34, female: 41) and 98 subjects with normal weight (BMI 18.5-25; male: 63, female: 35) aged 25-40 years old were enrolled in the present study. The status of masticatory function was determined using a chewing gum mixing method, a direct method of examining masticatory function, and the numbers of present teeth, untreated decayed teeth, missing teeth, and filled teeth were also examined.Results: Masticatory function was significantly lower in the obese subjects both in male and female, whereas the numbers of present teeth, decayed teeth, missing teeth and filled teeth did not differ significantly between the obese subjects and the controls both in male and female. Multiple regression analysis revealed a significant correlation between obesity and reduced masticatory function after adjustment for gender, age, and numbers of decayed teeth, missing teeth, and filled teeth.Conclusions: Significantly reduced masticatory function was found in male and female non-elderly obese adults based on direct measurement of masticatory function. Multiple regression analysis suggested that obesity might induce reduced masticatory function. PMID:24331130

Katagiri, Sayaka; Nitta, Hiroshi; Nagasawa, Toshiyuki; Izumi, Yuichi; Kanazawa, Masao; Matsuo, Akira; Chiba, Hiroshige; Miyazaki, Shigeru; Miyauchi, Takashi; Nakamura, Naoto; Oseko, Fumishige; Kanamura, Narisato; Ando, Yuichi; Hanada, Nobuhiro; Inoue, Shuji

2011-01-01

78

Folic acid improves arterial endothelial function in adults with hyperhomocystinemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESTo evaluate whether oral folic acid supplementation might improve endothelial function in the arteries of asymptomatic adults with hyperhomocystinemia.BACKGROUNDHyperhomocystinemia is an independent risk factor for endothelial dysfunction and occlusive vascular disease. Folic acid supplementation can lower homocystine levels in subjects with hyperhomocystinemia; however, the effect of this on arterial physiology is not known.METHODSAdults subjects were recruited from a community-based atherosclerosis

Kam S Woo; Ping Chook; Yvette I Lolin; John E Sanderson; Con Metreweli; David S Celermajer

1999-01-01

79

Comparison of two doses of an exercise intervention on mobility and function in older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Balance and Mobility are important functions for older adults to maintain in later life. Numerous exercise interventions have been proposed for improving and maintaining high levels of mobility and balance. The majority of the research to date has evaluated different types of exercise programming (strength, flexibility, endurance, power, tai chi) but has not evaluated the necessary dose or frequency needed

Dan M Ritchie

2009-01-01

80

The test of functional health literacy in adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To develop a valid, reliable instrument to measure the functional health literacy of patients.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a DESIGN: The Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (TOFHLA) was developed using actual hospital materials. The TOFHLA consists\\u000a of a 50-item reading comprehension and 17-item numerical ability test, taking up to 22 minutes to administer. The TOFHLA,\\u000a the Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised (WRAT-R), and

Ruth M. Parker; David W. Baker; Mark V. Williams; Joanne R. Nurss

1995-01-01

81

Social functioning in adults with neurofibromatosis type 1.  

PubMed

Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a common single-gene disorder characterised by a diverse range of cutaneous, neurological and neoplastic manifestations. It is well recognised that children with NF1 have poor peer interactions and are at risk for deficits in social skills. Few studies, however, have examined social functioning in adults with NF1. We aimed to determine whether adults with NF1 are at greater risk for impairment in social skills and to identify potential risk factors for social skills deficits. We evaluated social skills in 62 adults with NF1 and 39 controls using self-report and observer-report measures of social behaviour. We demonstrate that adults with NF1 exhibit significantly less prosocial behaviour than controls. This deficit was associated with social processing abilities and was more evident in males. The frequency of antisocial behaviour was comparable between the two groups, however was significantly associated with behavioural regulation in the NF1 group. These findings suggest that poor social skills in individuals with NF1 are due to deficits in prosocial behaviour, rather than an increase in antisocial behaviour. This will aid the design of interventions aimed at improving social skills in individuals with NF1. PMID:23911645

Pride, Natalie A; Crawford, Hilda; Payne, Jonathan M; North, Kathryn N

2013-10-01

82

Direct Evidence for Thymic Function in Adult Humans  

PubMed Central

The understanding of human thymic function and evaluation of its contribution to T cell homeostasis are matters of great importance. Here we report the development of a novel assay to quantitate the frequency and diversity of recent thymic emigrants (RTEs) in the peripheral blood of humans. Such cells were defined by the presence of T cell receptor (TCR) rearrangement deletion circles (DCs), episomal byproducts of TCR-? V(D)J rearrangement. DCs were detected in T cells in the thymus, cord blood, and adult peripheral blood. In the peripheral blood of adults aged 22 to 76 years, their frequency was highest in the CD4+CD45RA+ CD62L+ subpopulation of naive T cells. TCR DCs were also observed in other subpopulations of peripheral blood T cells, including those with the CD4+CD45RO?CD62L+ and CD4+CD45RO+CD62L+ phenotypes. RTEs were observed to have more than one V? rearrangement, suggesting that replenishment of the repertoire in the adult is at least oligoclonal. These results demonstrate that the normal adult thymus continues to contribute, even in older individuals, a diverse set of new T cells to the peripheral circulation.

Poulin, Jean-Francois; Viswanathan, Mohan N.; Harris, Jeffrey M.; Komanduri, Krishna V.; Wieder, Eric; Ringuette, Nancy; Jenkins, Morgan; McCune, Joseph M.; Sekaly, Rafick-Pierre

1999-01-01

83

Effects of Adult Age and Blood Pressure on Executive Function and Speed of Processing  

PubMed Central

Previous research has established that the effects of chronically increased blood pressure (BP) on cognition interact with adult age, but the relevant cognitive processes are not well defined. In this cross sectional study, using a sample matched for age, years of education, and sex, 134 individuals with either normal BP (n = 71) or chronically high BP (n = 63) were categorized into younger (19-39 years), middle-aged (41-58 years), and older (60-79 years) groups. Using a between-subjects ANOVA, covarying for race and years of education, composite measures of executive function and perceptual speed both exhibited age-related decline. The executive function measure, however, was associated with a differential decline in high BP older adults. This result held even when the executive function scores were covaried for speed, demonstrating an independent, age-related effect of higher BP on executive function.

Bucur, Barbara; Madden, David J.

2009-01-01

84

Increased odor detection speed in highly anxious healthy adults.  

PubMed

Anxiety can either impair or enhance performance depending on the context. Increased sensitivity to threat seems to be an important feature of sensory processing in anxiety since anxious individuals tend to be more attentive to threatening visual stimuli. Evidence of anxiety effects in olfaction is rare; though alterations of olfactory performance in psychiatric patients and some effects of trait and state anxiety on olfactory performance have been reported. Our main objective was thus to investigate whether olfactory processing speed varies as a function of trait anxiety levels. We additionally investigated a possible preferential bias for unpleasant odors in highly anxious participants. Thirty-eight healthy adults participated in a simple odor detection task, where response times (RTs) and anxiety levels were measured. We compared RTs to a pleasant and an unpleasant food odor between high- and low-trait anxiety participants. We found that high-trait anxiety participants detected both odors faster than low-trait anxiety participants, independently of odor pleasantness. Moreover, trait anxiety levels significantly correlated with reaction times to both odors, indicating that trait anxiety but not odor pleasantness influences olfactory detection speed. These findings provide new insights into olfactory processing in healthy adults showing how various levels of trait anxiety affect the olfactory modality. PMID:23811013

La Buissonnière-Ariza, Valérie; Lepore, Franco; Kojok, Kevin M; Frasnelli, Johannes

2013-09-01

85

Experience-enabled enhancement of adult visual cortex function.  

PubMed

We previously reported in adult mice that visuomotor experience during monocular deprivation (MD) augmented enhancement of visual-cortex-dependent behavior through the non-deprived eye (NDE) during deprivation, and enabled enhanced function to persist after MD. We investigated the physiological substrates of this experience-enabled form of adult cortical plasticity by measuring visual behavior and visually evoked potentials (VEPs) in binocular visual cortex of the same mice before, during, and after MD. MD on its own potentiated VEPs contralateral to the NDE during MD and shifted ocular dominance (OD) in favor of the NDE in both hemispheres. Whereas we expected visuomotor experience during MD to augment these effects, instead enhanced responses contralateral to the NDE, and the OD shift ipsilateral to the NDE were attenuated. However, in the same animals, we measured NMDA receptor-dependent VEP potentiation ipsilateral to the NDE during MD, which persisted after MD. The results indicate that visuomotor experience during adult MD leads to enduring enhancement of behavioral function, not simply by amplifying MD-induced changes in cortical OD, but through an independent process of increasing NDE drive in ipsilateral visual cortex. Because the plasticity is resident in the mature visual cortex and selectively effects gain of visual behavior through experiential means, it may have the therapeutic potential to target and non-invasively treat eye- or visual-field-specific cortical impairment. PMID:23516301

Tschetter, Wayne W; Alam, Nazia M; Yee, Christopher W; Gorz, Mario; Douglas, Robert M; Sagdullaev, Botir; Prusky, Glen T

2013-03-20

86

An Examination of Optimism, Pessimism, and Performance Perfectionism as Predictors of Positive Psychological Functioning in Middle-Aged Adults: Does Holding High Standards of Performance Matter Beyond Generalized Outcome Expectancies?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on a multifunctional model of perfectionism (E. Chang, Cognitive Ther Res, 30:677–697, 2006), this study examined the\\u000a relations between performance perfectionism, optimism, pessimism, and positive psychological functioning (e.g., self-acceptance,\\u000a positive relations with others, and personal growth) in a sample of 246 middle-aged adults. Results from correlational analyses\\u000a indicated that positive aspects of performance perfectionism, especially positive self-oriented performance perfectionism,

Edward C. Chang

2009-01-01

87

Cerebral functional asymmetry and phonological performance in dyslexic adults.  

PubMed

Developmental dyslexia is a frequent language-based learning disorder characterized by difficulty in reading. The predominant etiologic view postulates that reading impairment is related to phonological and orthographic dysfunction. The aim of this fMRI study was to evaluate the neural bases of phonological processing impairment in remediated dyslexic adults (DD). We used a rhyming words judgment task contrasted with an unreadable fonts font-matching judgment task to compare patterns of activation and functional asymmetry in DD and normal-reading young adults. We found evidence of a link between asymmetry in inferior frontal gyrus and performance during the phonological processing. We also observed that DD recruit a network including regions involved in articulatory control in order to achieve rhyme judgment suggesting that, due to a lack of hemispheric specialization, DD recruit the latter network to achieve rhyme judgment. PMID:24117474

Hernandez, N; Andersson, F; Edjlali, M; Hommet, C; Cottier, J P; Destrieux, C; Bonnet-Brilhault, F

2013-12-01

88

Impaired executive functioning in young adults born very preterm.  

PubMed

Individuals born very preterm (VPT) are at increased risk of perinatal brain injury and long-term cognitive and behavioral problems. Executive functioning, in particular, has been shown to be impaired in VPT children and adolescents. This study prospectively assessed executive function in young adults who were born VPT (<33 weeks of gestation) [n = 61; mean age, 22.25 (+/-1.07) years; range, 20.62-24.78 years] and controls [n = 64; mean age, 23.20 (+/-1.48) years; range, 19.97-25.46 years]. Tests used comprised the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI), the Hayling Sentence Completion Test (HSCT), the Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT), the Animal and Object test, the Trail-Making Test (TMT), and the Test of Attentional Performance (TAP). VPT participants showed specific executive function impairments in tasks involving response inhibition and mental flexibility, even when adjusting for IQ, gender, and age. No significant associations were observed between executive function test scores and perinatal variables or neonatal ultrasound classification. The results suggest that, although free from major physical disability, VPT young adults perform worse than controls on tasks involving selective aspects of executive processing, such as mental flexibility and response inhibition. PMID:17521479

Nosarti, Chiara; Giouroukou, Elena; Micali, Nadia; Rifkin, Larry; Morris, Robin G; Murray, Robin M

2007-07-01

89

Functional Impairment in Adult Sleepwalkers: A Case-Control Study  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To investigate the restorative quality of sleep and daytime functioning in sleepwalking adult patients in comparison with controls. Design: Prospective case-control study. Setting: Data were collected at the Sleep Disorders Center, Hôpital-Gui-de Chauliac, Montpellier, France between June 2007 and January 2011. Participants: There were 140 adult sleepwalkers (100 (median age 30 y, 55% male) in whom primary SW was diagnosed) who underwent 1 night of video polysomnography. All patients participated in a standardized clinical interview and completed a battery of questionnaires to assess clinical characteristics of parasomnia, daytime sleepiness, fatigue, insomnia, depressive and anxiety symptoms, and health-related quality of life. Results were compared with those of 100 sex- and age-matched normal controls. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Of the sleepwalkers, 22.3% presented with daily episodes and 43.5% presented with weekly episodes. Median age at sleepwalking onset was 9 y. Familial history of sleepwalking was reported in 56.6% of sleepwalkers and violent sleep related behaviors in 57.9%, including injuries requiring medical care for at least one episode in 17%. Significant associations were found between sleepwalking and daytime sleepiness, fatigue, insomnia, depressive and anxiety symptoms, and altered quality of life. Early-onset sleepwalkers had higher frequency of violent behaviors and injuries. Sleepwalkers with violent behaviors had higher frequency of sleep terrors and triggering factors, with greater alteration in health-related quality of life. Conclusion: Adult sleepwalking is a potentially serious condition that may induce violent behaviors, self-injury or injury to bed partners, sleep disruption, excessive daytime sleepiness, fatigue, and psychological distress, all of which affect health-related quality of life. Citation: Lopez R; Jaussent I; Scholz S; Bayard S; Montplaisir J; Dauvilliers Y. Functional impairment in adult sleepwalkers: a case-control study. SLEEP 2013;36(3):345-351.

Lopez, Regis; Jaussent, Isabelle; Scholz, Sabine; Bayard, Sophie; Montplaisir, Jacques; Dauvilliers, Yves

2013-01-01

90

Study of Adult Functional Illiteracy in the Appalachian Region, 1978-1980.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The adult performance level (APL) definition of functional competency was used as the operationalized definition of functional literacy to study the extent of adult functional illiteracy for adults from 25 through 44 years of age in three sites in the App...

M. E. Brady

1980-01-01

91

Hepatitis B Screening Proposed for All High-Risk Adults  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hepatitis B Screening Proposed for All High-Risk Adults Nearly ... Dallas Tuesday, February 11, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Hepatitis B Immunization TUESDAY, Feb. 11, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Adults ...

92

Low blood lead concentrations and thyroid function of American adults.  

PubMed

Lead is often present in our environment, but its effect on thyroid function is still unclear. In this study, multiple linear regressions were performed between log-transformed blood lead levels and thyroid function parameters of 4652 adults from the 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The models were adjusted for age, gender, race/ethnicity, smoking, alcohol consumption, body mass index, physical activity, iodine intake, medications, and bone mineral density. Blood lead concentrations (mean: 1.52 ± 1.20 ?g/dL [range 0.18-33.12]) were inversely associated with total thyroxine (regression coefficients [?]: -0.22 [95% CI: -0.34, -0.09] in the general population, but were not correlated with thyroid stimulating hormone, total or free triiodothyronine, nor free thyroxine. Blood lead may have no effect on the thyroid function; however, it could be associated with decreased concentrations in thyroid-binding proteins. PMID:23323812

Mendy, Angelico; Gasana, Janvier; Vieira, Edgar Ramos

2013-12-01

93

Risk of High Dietary Calcium for Arterial Calcification in Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Concern has recently arisen about the potential adverse effects of excessive calcium intakes, i.e., calcium loading from supplements, on arterial calcification and risks of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in older adults. Published reports that high calcium intakes in free-living adults have relatively little or no beneficial impact on bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture rates suggest that current recommendations of calcium for adults may be set too high. Because even healthy kidneys have limited capability of eliminating excessive calcium in the diet, the likelihood of soft-tissue calcification may increase in older adults who take calcium supplements, particularly in those with age or disease-related reduction in renal function. The maintenance of BMD and bone health continues to be an important goal of adequate dietary calcium consumption, but eliminating potential risks of CVDs from excessive calcium intakes needs to be factored into policy recommendations for calcium by adults.

Anderson, John J. B.; Klemmer, Philip J.

2013-01-01

94

Very high blood lead levels among adults - United States, 2002-2011.  

PubMed

Over the past several decades there has been a remarkable reduction in environmental sources of lead, improved protection from occupational lead exposure, and an overall decreasing trend in the prevalence of elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) in U.S. adults. As a result, the U.S. national BLL geometric mean among adults was 1.2 µg/dL during 2009-2010. Nonetheless, lead exposures continue to occur at unacceptable levels. Current research continues to find that BLLs previously considered harmless can have harmful effects in adults, such as decreased renal function and increased risk for hypertension and essential tremor at BLLs <10 µg/dL. CDC has designated 10 µg/dL as the reference BLL for adults; levels ?10 µg/dL are considered elevated. CDC's Adult Blood Lead Epidemiology and Surveillance (ABLES) program tracks elevated BLLs among adults in the United States. In contrast to the CDC reference level, prevailing Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) lead standards allow workers removed from lead exposure to return to lead work when their BLL falls below 40 µg/dL. During 2002-2011, ABLES identified 11,536 adults with very high BLLs (?40 µg/dL). Persistent very high BLLs (?40 µg/dL in ?2 years) were found among 2,210 (19%) of these adults. Occupational exposures accounted for 7,076 adults with very high BLLs (91% of adults with known exposure source) and 1,496 adults with persistent very high BLLs. Adverse health effects associated with very high BLLs underscore the need for increased efforts to prevent lead exposure at workplaces and in communities. PMID:24280917

2013-11-29

95

Structural and functional rich club organization of the brain in children and adults.  

PubMed

Recent studies using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) have proposed that the brain's white matter is organized as a rich club, whereby the most highly connected regions of the brain are also highly connected to each other. Here we use both functional and diffusion-weighted MRI in the human brain to investigate whether the rich club phenomena is present with functional connectivity, and how this organization relates to the structural phenomena. We also examine whether rich club regions serve to integrate information between distinct brain systems, and conclude with a brief investigation of the developmental trajectory of rich-club phenomena. In agreement with prior work, both adults and children showed robust structural rich club organization, comprising regions of the superior medial frontal/dACC, medial parietal/PCC, insula, and inferior temporal cortex. We also show that these regions were highly integrated across the brain's major networks. Functional brain networks were found to have rich club phenomena in a similar spatial layout, but a high level of segregation between systems. While no significant differences between adults and children were found structurally, adults showed significantly greater functional rich club organization. This difference appeared to be driven by a specific set of connections between superior parietal, insula, and supramarginal cortex. In sum, this work highlights the existence of both a structural and functional rich club in adult and child populations with some functional changes over development. It also offers a potential target in examining atypical network organization in common developmental brain disorders, such as ADHD and Autism. PMID:24505468

Grayson, David S; Ray, Siddharth; Carpenter, Samuel; Iyer, Swathi; Dias, Taciana G Costa; Stevens, Corinne; Nigg, Joel T; Fair, Damien A

2014-01-01

96

Adrenocortical function in young adults with diabetes mellitus type 1.  

PubMed

In 75 young adults with diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM 1) we have performed a cross-sectional study to gain more information about their adrenocortical function. We have found in a surprisingly large portion of patients (25%) a subnormal response (<500 nmol/L, low responders) of the serum cortisol during low-dose Synacthen test, accompanied by significantly decreased stimulated values of aldosterone and salivary cortisol. Basal serum cortisol, aldosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (in women only) were significantly reduced in low responders as well, while ACTH, cortisol binding globulin, plasma renin activity, urinary free cortisol/24h, and salivary cortisol did not differ. The results indicate that the disorder of adrenocortical function in low responders occurs in all adrenocortical zones. The patients with the highest risk in respect to revealed hypocorticalism were DM 1 with autoimmune thyroiditis, 13 out of 36 in contrast to 5 out of 39 suffered from isolated form of DM 1, with onset around 30 years, independently on sex. The biorhythm of salivary cortisol in low responders under real-life conditions did not significantly differ from normal responders, except of the decreased values in the morning. Antibodies against 21-hydroxylase and adrenal cortex were negative in the entire group of diabetics studied. In conclusion, this is the first study to demonstrate in as much as 25% of young adults with DM 1 patients without any signs of adrenal autoimmunity decreased both basal and stimulated serum cortisol and aldosterone levels, implying existence of subclinical primary hypocorticalism. PMID:20433924

Simunkova, Katerina; Hampl, Richard; Hill, Martin; Kriz, Lubomir; Hrda, Pavlina; Janickova-Zdarska, Denisa; Zamrazil, Vaclav; Vrbikova, Jana; Vondra, Karel

2010-10-01

97

Lung Function and Risk for Heart Failure Among Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Background The impact of abnormal spirometric findings on risk for incident heart failure among older adults without clinically apparent lung disease is not well elucidated. Methods We evaluated the association of baseline lung function with incident heart failure, defined as first hospitalization for heart failure, in 2125 participants of the community-based Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study (age, 73.6±2.9 years; 50.5% men; 62.3% white; 37.7% black) without prevalent lung disease or heart failure. Abnormal lung function was defined either as forced vital capacity (FVC) or forced expiratory volume in 1st second (FEV1) to FVC ratio below lower limit of normal. Percent predicted FVC and FEV1 were also assessed as continuous variables. Results During follow-up (median, 9.4years), heart failure developed in 68 of 350 (19.4%) participants with abnormal baseline lung function, as compared to 172 of 1775 (9.7%) participants with normal lung function (hazard ratio [HR], 2.31; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.74-3.07; P<.001). This increased risk persisted after adjusting for previously identified heart failure risk factors in the Health ABC Study, body mass index, incident coronary heart disease, and inflammatory markers (HR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.33-2.50; P<.001). Percent predicted (%) FVC and FEV1 had a linear association with heart failure risk (HR, 1.21; 95%CI, 1.11-1.32 and 1.18; 95%CI, 1.10-1.26, per 10% lower %FVC and %FEV1, respectively; both P<.001 in fully adjusted models). Findings were consistent in sex and race subgroups, and for heart failure with preserved or reduced ejection fraction. Conclusions Abnormal spirometric findings in older adults without clinical lung disease are associated with increased heart failure risk.

Georgiopoulou, Vasiliki V.; Kalogeropoulos, Andreas P.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Rodondi, Nicolas; Bauer, Douglas C.; Butler, Abida B.; Koster, Annemarie; Smith, Andrew L.; Harris, Tamara B.; Newman, Anne B.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Butler, Javed

2011-01-01

98

Psychosocial functioning of adult epileptic and MS patients and adult normal controls on the WPSI.  

PubMed

The psychosocial functioning of adult epileptic outpatients (N = 68) as assessed by the Washington Psychosocial Seizure Inventory (WPSI) was compared to that of control groups of adult MS outpatients (N = 37) and normal subjects (N = 42). When all WPSI profiles were considered, the epilepsy group showed distinct difficulties in Emotional Adjustment and Adjustment to Seizures, whereas the MS group had difficulties only in Emotional Adjustment. However, the MS group had significantly higher Lie Scale scores than did normal subjects. The epilepsy group had significantly more emotional problems than normal subjects and significantly more problems adjusting to their disorder than did the MS group. However, when only valid WPSI profiles were considered, the only significant finding was that the epilepsy group (N = 44) and the MS group (N = 20) had more emotional problems than normal subjects (N = 35). The epilepsy group showed distinct difficulties in Emotional Adjustment and Adjustment to Seizures, whereas the MS group had difficulties in Emotional Adjustment, Interpersonal Adjustment, and Overall Psychosocial Functioning. Implications are discussed. PMID:3711354

Tan, S Y

1986-05-01

99

Functional Imaging of Working Memory and Peripheral Endothelial Function in Middle-Aged Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study examined the relationship between a prognostic indicator of vascular health, flow-mediated dilation (FMD), and working memory-related brain activation in healthy middle-aged adults. Forty-two participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while completing a 2-Back working memory task. Brachial artery…

Gonzales, Mitzi M.; Tarumi, Takashi; Tanaka, Hirofumi; Sugawara, Jun; Swann-Sternberg, Tali; Goudarzi, Katayoon; Haley, Andreana P.

2010-01-01

100

Stronger vection in junior high school children than in adults  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have shown that even elementary school-aged children (7 and 11 years old) experience visually induced perception of illusory self-motion (vection) (Lepecq et al., 1995, Perception, 24, 435–449) and that children of a similar age (mean age = 9.2 years) experience more rapid and stronger vection than do adults (Shirai et al., 2012, Perception, 41, 1399–1402). These findings imply that although elementary school-aged children experience vection, this ability is subject to further development. To examine the subsequent development of vection, we compared junior high school students' (N = 11, mean age = 14.4 years) and adults' (N = 10, mean age = 22.2 years) experiences of vection. Junior high school students reported significantly stronger vection than did adults, suggesting that the perceptual experience of junior high school students differs from that of adults with regard to vection and that this ability undergoes gradual changes over a relatively long period of development.

Shirai, Nobu; Imura, Tomoko; Tamura, Rio; Seno, Takeharu

2014-01-01

101

High sugar intake exacerbates cardiac reperfusion injury in perinatal taurine depleted adult rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perinatal taurine depletion and high sugar diets blunted baroreflex function and heightens sympathetic nerve activity in adult rats. Cardiac ischemia\\/reperfusion also produces these disorders and taurine treatment appears to improve these effects. This study tests the hypothesis that perinatal taurine exposure predisposes recovery from reperfusion injury in rats on either a basal or high sugar diet. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were

Supaporn Kulthinee; J Michael Wyss; Dusit Jirakulsomchok; Sanya Roysommuti

2010-01-01

102

Linguistic Skills of Adult Native Speakers, as a Function of Age and Level of Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assessed, in a sample of 98 adult native speakers of Dutch, how their lexical skills and their speaking proficiency varied as a function of their age and level of education and profession (EP). Participants, categorized in terms of their age (18-35, 36-50, and 51-76 years old) and the level of their EP (low versus high), were tested on…

Mulder, Kimberley; Hulstijn, Jan H.

2011-01-01

103

Adolescent social defeat alters markers of adult dopaminergic function  

PubMed Central

Stressful experiences during adolescence can alter the trajectory of neural development and contribute to psychiatric disorders in adulthood. We previously demonstrated that adolescent male rats exposed to repeated social defeat stress show changes in mesocorticolimbic dopamine content both at baseline and in response to amphetamine when tested in adulthood. In the present study we examined whether markers of adult dopamine function are also compromised by adolescent experience of social defeat. Given that the dopamine transporter as well as dopamine D1 receptors act as regulators of psychostimulant action, are stress sensitive and undergo changes during adolescence, quantitative autoradiography was used to measure [3H]-GBR12935 binding to the dopamine transporter and [3H]-SCH23390 binding to dopamine D1 receptors, respectively. Our results indicate that social defeat during adolescence led to higher dopamine transporter binding in the infralimbic region of the medial prefrontal cortex and higher dopamine D1 receptor binding in the caudate putamen, while other brain regions analyzed were comparable to controls. Thus it appears that social defeat during adolescence causes specific changes to the adult DA system, which may contribute to behavioral alterations and increased drug seeking.

Novick, Andrew M.; Forster, Gina L.; Tejani-Butt, Shanaz M.; Watt, Michael J.

2011-01-01

104

Circadian rhythms and endocrine functions in adult insects.  

PubMed

Many behavioral and physiological processes in adult insects are influenced by both the endocrine and circadian systems, suggesting that these two key physiological systems interact. We reviewed the literature and found that experiments explicitly testing these interactions in adult insects have only been conducted for a few species. There is a shortage of measurements of hormone titers throughout the day under constant conditions even for the juvenile hormones (JHs) and ecdysteroids, the best studied insect hormones. Nevertheless, the available measurements of hormone titers coupled with indirect evidence for circadian modulation of hormone biosynthesis rate, and the expression of genes encoding proteins involved in hormone biosynthesis, binding or degradation are consistent with the hypothesis that the circulating levels of many insect hormones are influenced by the circadian system. Whole genome microarray studies suggest that the modulation of farnesol oxidase levels is important for the circadian regulation of JH biosynthesis in honey bees, mosquitoes, and fruit flies. Several studies have begun to address the functional significance of circadian oscillations in endocrine signaling. The best understood system is the circadian regulation of Pheromone Biosynthesis Activating Neuropeptide (PBAN) titers which is important for the temporal organization of sexual behavior in female moths. The evidence that the circadian and endocrine systems interact has important implications for studies of insect physiology and behavior. Additional studies on diverse species and physiological processes are needed for identifying basic principles underlying the interactions between the circadian and endocrine systems in insects. PMID:23103982

Bloch, Guy; Hazan, Esther; Rafaeli, Ada

2013-01-01

105

Efficiency of route selection as a function of adult age  

PubMed Central

Two tasks hypothesized to assess the efficiency of route selection were administered to 328 adults ranging from 18 to 93 years of age. Increased age was associated with slower completion of mazes, even after adjusting for differences in perceptual-motor speed, and with longer and less accurate routes in a task in which participants were asked to visit designated exhibits in a zoo. The route selection measures were correlated with measures hypothesized to represent executive functioning, such as the number of categories in the Wisconsin card sorting test and the number of words generated in a category fluency test. However, most of the age-related influences on the measures from the route selection tasks were shared with age-related effects on established cognitive abilities, which implies that the same mechanisms may account for the relations of age on both sets of variables.

Salthouse, Timothy A.; Siedlecki, Karen L.

2013-01-01

106

Childhood Parental Loss and Adult Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Function  

PubMed Central

Background Several decades of research link childhood parental loss with risk for major depression and other forms of psychopathology. A large body of preclinical work on maternal separation and some recent studies of humans with childhood parental loss have demonstrated alterations of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function which could predispose to the development of psychiatric disorders. Methods Eighty-eight healthy adults with no current Axis I psychiatric disorder participated in this study. Forty-four participants experienced parental loss during childhood, including 19 with a history of parental death and 25 with a history of prolonged parental separation. The loss group was compared to a matched group of individuals who reported no history of childhood parental separation or childhood maltreatment. Participants completed diagnostic interviews and questionnaires and the dexamethasone/corticotropin-releasing hormone (Dex/CRH) test. Repeated measures general linear models were used to test the effects of parental loss, a measure of parental care, sex, and age on the hormone responses to the Dex/CRH test. Results Parental loss was associated with increased cortisol responses to the test, particularly in males. The effect of loss was moderated by levels of parental care; participants with parental desertion and very low levels of care had attenuated cortisol responses. ACTH responses to the Dex/CRH test did not differ significantly as a function of parental loss. Conclusions These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that early parental loss induces enduring changes in neuroendocrine function.

Tyrka, Audrey R.; Wier, Lauren; Price, Lawrence H.; Ross, Nicole; Anderson, George M.; Wilkinson, Charles W.; Carpenter, Linda L.

2009-01-01

107

Affecting Rhomboid-3 Function Causes a Dilated Heart in Adult Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Drosophila is a well recognized model of several human diseases, and recent investigations have demonstrated that Drosophila can be used as a model of human heart failure. Previously, we described that optical coherence tomography (OCT) can be used to rapidly examine the cardiac function in adult, awake flies. This technique provides images that are similar to echocardiography in humans, and therefore we postulated that this approach could be combined with the vast resources that are available in the fly community to identify new mutants that have abnormal heart function, a hallmark of certain cardiovascular diseases. Using OCT to examine the cardiac function in adult Drosophila from a set of molecularly-defined genomic deficiencies from the DrosDel and Exelixis collections, we identified an abnormally enlarged cardiac chamber in a series of deficiency mutants spanning the rhomboid 3 locus. Rhomboid 3 is a member of a highly conserved family of intramembrane serine proteases and processes Spitz, an epidermal growth factor (EGF)–like ligand. Using multiple approaches based on the examination of deficiency stocks, a series of mutants in the rhomboid-Spitz–EGF receptor pathway, and cardiac-specific transgenic rescue or dominant-negative repression of EGFR, we demonstrate that rhomboid 3 mediated activation of the EGF receptor pathway is necessary for proper adult cardiac function. The importance of EGF receptor signaling in the adult Drosophila heart underscores the concept that evolutionarily conserved signaling mechanisms are required to maintain normal myocardial function. Interestingly, prior work showing the inhibition of ErbB2, a member of the EGF receptor family, in transgenic knock-out mice or individuals that received herceptin chemotherapy is associated with the development of dilated cardiomyopathy. Our results, in conjunction with the demonstration that altered ErbB2 signaling underlies certain forms of mammalian cardiomyopathy, suggest that an evolutionarily conserved signaling mechanism may be necessary to maintain post-developmental cardiac function.

Yu, Lin; Lee, Teresa; Lin, Na; Wolf, Matthew J.

2010-01-01

108

Gene expression analysis distinguishes tissue specific and gender related functions among adult Ascaris suum tissues  

PubMed Central

Over a billion people are infected by Ascaris spp. intestinal parasites. To clarify functional differences among tissues of adult A. suum, we compared gene expression by various tissues of these worms by expression microarray methods.. The A. suum genome was sequenced and assembled to allow generation of microarray elements. Expression of over 40,000 60-mer elements was investigated in a variety of tissues from both male and female adult worms. Nearly 50 percent of the elements for which signal was detected exhibited differential expression among different tissues. The unique profile of transcripts identified for each tissue clarified functional distinctions among tissues, such as chitin binding in the ovary and peptidase activity in the intestines. Interestingly, hundreds of gender-specific elements were characterized in multiple non-reproductive tissues of female or male worms, with most prominence of gender differences in intestinal tissue. A. suum genes from the same family were frequently expressed differently among tissues. Transcript abundance for genes specific to A. suum, by comparison to Caenorhabditis elegans, varied to a greater extent among tissues than for genes conserved between A. suum and C. elegans. Analysis using C. elegans protein interaction data identified functional modules conserved between these two nematodes, resulting in identification of functional predictions of essential subnetworks of protein interactions and how these networks may vary among nematode tissues. A notable finding was very high module similarity between adult reproductive tissues and intestine. Our results provide the most comprehensive assessment of gene expression among tissues of a parasitic nematode to date.

Wang, Zhengyuan; Gao, Xin; Martin, John; Yin, Yong; Abubucker, Sahar; Rash, Amy C.; Li, Ben-Wen; Nash, Bill; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kym; Jasmer, Douglas P.; Mitreva, Makedonka

2013-01-01

109

The Marital and Family Functioning of Adults with ADHD and Their Spouses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little is known about the family relationships of adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Thus, the marital adjustment and family functioning of 33 married adults with ADHD and their spouses was compared to 26 non-ADHD control participants and their spouses. Results revealed that married adults with ADHD reported poorer…

Eakin, L.; Minde, K.; Hechtman, L.; Ochs, E.; Krane, E.; Bouffard, R.; Greenfield, B.; Looper, K.

2004-01-01

110

Impact of Low Birth Weight and Cardiovascular Risk Factors on Endothelial Function in Early Adult Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Low birth weight is related to increased risk of coronary heart disease in adults and recently has been associated with vascular endothelial dysfunction in children. We investigated whether the relation between birth weight and endothelial function was still present in early adult life and whether there was an interaction with emerging risk factors. Methods and Results—In 315 adults (165 women,

C. P. M. Leeson; M. Kattenhorn; R. Morley; A. Lucas; J. E. Deanfield

2010-01-01

111

Apolipoprotein E and kidney function in older adults  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies suggest that the ?4 and ?2 alleles of apolipoprotein E (APOE) may be associated with decreased and increased risks of CKD, respectively, but there are limited data in older adults. We evaluated the associations of apolipoprotein E alleles with kidney function among older adults in the cardiovascular health study (CHS). Methods Caucasian participants had APOE allelic analysis and serum creatinine and cystatin C measured at baseline (n = 3,844 for cross sectional analysis) and in follow up (n = 3,226 for longitudinal analysis). APOE variation was evaluated as an additive model with number of ?2, ?3 and ?4 alleles. GFR was estimated using the CKD epidemiology equation (eGFRcreat) and the cystatin C demographic equation (eGFRcys). The primary outcome was CKD defined by eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2. The secondary outcome was rapid progression defined by annual loss of eGFR > 3 ml/min/1.73 m2. Results Mean eGFRcreat was 72 ml/min/1.73 m2 (25% CKD). Compared with the ?3 allele, the APOE ?4 allele was associated with reduced risk of CKD by eGFRcreat: unadjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.79 (0.67 – 0.93) per allele, fully adjusted OR (95% CI) 0.80 (0.68 – 0.96) per allele. Results were consistent using eGFRcys. There was no association of the ?2 allele with CKD or between the apolipoprotein E gene with rapid progression. Conclusions The apolipoprotein ?4 allele was associated with lower odds of CKD in elderly Caucasian individuals. Future research should confirm these findings in other races and explore mechanisms to explain these results.

Seshasai, Rebecca Kurnik; Katz, Ronit; de Boer, Ian H.; Siscovick, David; Shlipak, Michael G.; Rifkin, Dena E.; Sarnak, Mark J.

2013-01-01

112

Structural and functional recovery from early monocular deprivation in adult rats  

PubMed Central

Visual deficits caused by abnormal visual experience during development are hard to recover in adult animals. Removal of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans from the mature extracellular matrix with chondroitinase ABC promotes plasticity in the adult visual cortex. We tested whether chondroitinase ABC treatment of adult rats facilitates anatomical, functional, and behavioral recovery from the effects of a period of monocular deprivation initiated during the critical period for monocular deprivation. We found that chondroitinase ABC treatment coupled with reverse lid-suturing causes a complete recovery of ocular dominance, visual acuity, and dendritic spine density in adult rats. Thus, manipulations of the extracellular matrix can be used to promote functional recovery in the adult cortex.

Pizzorusso, Tommaso; Medini, Paolo; Landi, Silvia; Baldini, Sara; Berardi, Nicoletta; Maffei, Lamberto

2006-01-01

113

GATA4 Deficiency Impairs Ovarian Function in Adult Mice1  

PubMed Central

Transcription factor GATA4 is expressed in granulosa cells and, to a lesser extent, in other ovarian cell types. Studies of mutant mice have shown that interactions between GATA4 and its cofactor, ZFPM2 (also termed FOG2), are required for proper development of the fetal ovary. The role of GATA4 in postnatal ovarian function, however, has remained unclear, in part because of prenatal lethality of homozygous mutations in the Gata4 gene in mice. To circumvent this limitation, we studied ovarian function in two genetically engineered mouse lines: C57BL/6 (B6) female mice heterozygous for a Gata4-null allele, and 129;B6 female mice in which Gata4 is deleted specifically in proliferating granulosa cells using the Cre-loxP recombination system and Amhr2-cre. Female B6 Gata4+/? mice had delayed puberty but normal estrous cycle lengths and litter size. Compared to wild-type mice, the ovaries of gonadotropin-stimulated B6 Gata4+/? mice were significantly smaller, released fewer oocytes, produced less estrogen, and expressed less mRNA for the putative GATA4 target genes Star, Cyp11a1, and Cyp19. Gata4 conditional knockout (cKO) mice had a more severe phenotype, including impaired fertility and cystic ovarian changes. Like Gata4+/? mice, the ovaries of gonadotropin-stimulated cKO mice released fewer oocytes and expressed less Cyp19 than those of control mice. Our findings, coupled with those of other investigators, support the premise that GATA4 is a key transcriptional regulator of ovarian somatic cell function in both fetal and adult mice.

Kyronlahti, Antti; Vetter, Melanie; Euler, Rosemarie; Bielinska, Malgorzata; Jay, Patrick Y.; Anttonen, Mikko; Heikinheimo, Markku; Wilson, David B.

2011-01-01

114

Generation of functional multipotent adult stem cells from GPR125+ germline progenitors.  

PubMed

Adult mammalian testis is a source of pluripotent stem cells. However, the lack of specific surface markers has hampered identification and tracking of the unrecognized subset of germ cells that gives rise to multipotent cells. Although embryonic-like cells can be derived from adult testis cultures after only several weeks in vitro, it is not known whether adult self-renewing spermatogonia in long-term culture can generate such stem cells as well. Here, we show that highly proliferative adult spermatogonial progenitor cells (SPCs) can be efficiently obtained by cultivation on mitotically inactivated testicular feeders containing CD34+ stromal cells. SPCs exhibit testicular repopulating activity in vivo and maintain the ability in long-term culture to give rise to multipotent adult spermatogonial-derived stem cells (MASCs). Furthermore, both SPCs and MASCs express GPR125, an orphan adhesion-type G-protein-coupled receptor. In knock-in mice bearing a GPR125-beta-galactosidase (LacZ) fusion protein under control of the native Gpr125 promoter (GPR125-LacZ), expression in the testis was detected exclusively in spermatogonia and not in differentiated germ cells. Primary GPR125-LacZ SPC lines retained GPR125 expression, underwent clonal expansion, maintained the phenotype of germline stem cells, and reconstituted spermatogenesis in busulphan-treated mice. Long-term cultures of GPR125+ SPCs (GSPCs) also converted into GPR125+ MASC colonies. GPR125+ MASCs generated derivatives of the three germ layers and contributed to chimaeric embryos, with concomitant downregulation of GPR125 during differentiation into GPR125- cells. MASCs also differentiated into contractile cardiac tissue in vitro and formed functional blood vessels in vivo. Molecular bookmarking by GPR125 in the adult mouse and, ultimately, in the human testis could enrich for a population of SPCs for derivation of GPR125+ MASCs, which may be employed for genetic manipulation, tissue regeneration and revascularization of ischaemic organs. PMID:17882221

Seandel, Marco; James, Daylon; Shmelkov, Sergey V; Falciatori, Ilaria; Kim, Jiyeon; Chavala, Sai; Scherr, Douglas S; Zhang, Fan; Torres, Richard; Gale, Nicholas W; Yancopoulos, George D; Murphy, Andrew; Valenzuela, David M; Hobbs, Robin M; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo; Rafii, Shahin

2007-09-20

115

Adult neurogenesis and functional plasticity in neuronal circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adult brain is a plastic place. To ensure that the mature nervous system's control of behaviour is flexible in the face of a varying environment, morphological and physiological changes are possible at many levels, including that of the entire cell. In two areas of the adult brain — the olfactory bulb and the dentate gyrus — new neurons are

Mariana Alonso; Matthew S. Grubb; Pierre-Marie Lledo

2006-01-01

116

Generation of Functional Thymocytes in the Human Adult  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reconstituting the immune response will be critical for the survival of HIV-infected individuals once viral load is brought under control. While the adult thymus was previously thought to be relatively inactive, new data suggest it may play a role in T cell reconstitution. We examined thymopoiesis in adults up to 56 years of age and found active T cell receptor

Beth D Jamieson; Daniel C Douek; Scott Killian; Lance E Hultin; Deirdre D Scripture-Adams; Janis V Giorgi; Daniel Marelli; Richard A Koup; Jerome A Zack

1999-01-01

117

Lifestyle engagement affects cognitive status differences and trajectories on executive functions in older adults.  

PubMed

The authors first examined the concurrent moderating role of lifestyle engagement on the relation between cognitive status (cognitively elite, cognitively normal [CN], and cognitively impaired [CI]) and executive functioning (EF) in older adults. Second, the authors examined whether baseline participation in lifestyle activities predicted differential 4.5-year stabilities and transitions in cognitive status. Participants (initial N = 501; 53-90 years) were from the Victoria Longitudinal Study. EF was represented by a 1-factor structure. Lifestyle activities were measured in multiple domains of engagement (e.g., cognitive, physical, and social). Two-wave status stability groups included sustained normal aging, transitional early impairment, and chronic impairment. Hierarchical regressions showed that baseline participation in social activities moderated cognitive status differences in EF. CI adults with high (but not low) social engagement performed equivalently to CN adults on EF. Longitudinally, logistic regressions showed that engagement in physical activities was a significant predictor of stability of cognitive status. CI adults who were more engaged in physical activities were more likely to improve in their cognitive status over time than their more sedentary peers. Participation in cognitive activities was a significant predictor of maintenance in a higher cognitive status group. Given that lifestyle engagement plays a detectable role in healthy, normal, and impaired neuropsychological aging, further research in activity-related associations and interventions is recommended. PMID:24323561

de Frias, Cindy M; Dixon, Roger A

2014-02-01

118

Cognitive Ability as a Resource for Everyday Functioning among Older Adults Who Are Visually Impaired  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on a study that investigated the role of cognitive resources in the everyday functioning of 121 older adults who were visually impaired and 150 sighted older adults, with a mean age of 82 years. Cognitive performance and everyday functioning were most strongly related in the group who were visually impaired. The authors…

Heyl, Vera; Wahl, Hans-Werner

2010-01-01

119

THE FUNCTIONS AND TRAINING NEEDS OF ADULT EDUCATION DIRECTORS IN PUBLIC SCHOOL SYSTEMS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A QUESTIONNAIRE WAS SENT TO 200 DIRECTORS OF PUBLIC SCHOOL ADULT EDUCATION IN ORDER TO IDENTIFY FUNCTIONS, ROLE, AND SKILLS AND ABILITIES OF ADMINISTRATORS OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY ADULT EDUCATION. RESPONDENTS RATED EACH FUNCTION ON A SCALE FROM ESSENTIAL TO INAPPLICABLE AND COMPETENCIES ON A SIMILAR SCALE. CHIEF PROBLEM AREAS INCLUDED…

MADRY, ARTHUR CHESTER

120

Predictors of Psychological Functioning and Adoption Experience in Adults Searching for Their Birthparents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined potential predictors of psychological functioning and adoption experience in adults who had either already met or were in the process of meeting their birthparents. A sample (n = 345) of adults was surveyed with questions targeting a variety of psychological, structural, and sociodemographic variables. The results showed that adoption experience and psychological functioning were closely interrelated.

Ulrich Miiller; Peter Gibbs; Sumi Gupta Ariely

2002-01-01

121

Parental Divorce and Family Functioning: Effects on Differentiation Levels of Young Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Study examines the effect of parental divorce and various dimensions of functioning in the family of origin on young adult development. Results indicate that parental divorce and family functioning significantly affect differentiation levels of young adults. Implications of the results for counselors and future researchers are provided. (Contains…

Johnson, Patrick; Throngren, Jill M.; Smith, Adina J.

2001-01-01

122

Expression and function of orphan nuclear receptor TLX in adult neural stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The finding of neurogenesis in the adult brain led to the discovery of adult neural stem cells. TLX was initially identified as an orphan nuclear receptor expressed in vertebrate forebrains and is highly expressed in the adult brain. The brains of TLX-null mice have been reported to have no obvious defects during embryogenesis; however, mature mice suffer from retinopathies, severe

Yanhong Shi; D. Chichung Lie; Philippe Taupin; Kinichi Nakashima; Jasodhara Ray; Ruth T. Yu; Fred H. Gage; Ronald M. Evans

2004-01-01

123

A Genetic and Functional Relationship between T Cells and Cellular Proliferation in the Adult Hippocampus  

PubMed Central

Neurogenesis continues through the adult life of mice in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus, but its function remains unclear. Measuring cellular proliferation in the hippocampus of 719 outbred heterogeneous stock mice revealed a highly significant correlation with the proportions of CD8+ versus CD4+ T lymphocyte subsets. This correlation reflected shared genetic loci, with the exception of the H-2Ea locus that had a dominant influence on T cell subsets but no impact on neurogenesis. Analysis of knockouts and repopulation of TCR?-deficient mice by subsets of T cells confirmed the influence of T cells on adult neurogenesis, indicating that CD4+ T cells or subpopulations thereof mediate the effect. Our results reveal an organismal impact, broader than hitherto suspected, of the natural genetic variation that controls T cell development and homeostasis.

Huang, Guo-Jen; Smith, Adrian L.; Gray, Daniel H.D.; Cosgrove, Cormac; Singer, Benjamin H.; Edwards, Andrew; Sim, Stuart; Parent, Jack M.; Johnsen, Alyssa; Mott, Richard; Mathis, Diane; Klenerman, Paul; Benoist, Christophe; Flint, Jonathan

2010-01-01

124

Executive Functioning as a Potential Mediator of Age-Related Cognitive Decline in Normal Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Critical requirements for the hypothesis that executive functioning is a potential mediator of age-related effects on cognitive functioning are that variables assumed to reflect executive functioning represent a distinct construct and that age-related effects on other types of cognitive functioning are reduced when measures of executive functioning are statistically controlled. These issues were investigated in a study involving 261 adults

Timothy A. Salthouse; Thomas M. Atkinson; Diane E. Berish

2003-01-01

125

Daily egg consumption in hyperlipidemic adults - Effects on endothelial function and cardiovascular risk  

PubMed Central

Background Limiting consumption of eggs, which are high in cholesterol, is generally recommended to reduce risk of cardiovascular disease. However, recent evidence suggests that dietary cholesterol has limited influence on serum cholesterol or cardiac risk. Objective To assess the effects of egg consumption on endothelial function and serum lipids in hyperlipidemic adults. Methods Randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial of 40 hyperlipidemic adults (24 women, 16 men; average age = 59.9 ± 9.6 years; weight = 76.3 ± 21.8 kilograms; total cholesterol = 244 ± 24 mg/dL). In the acute phase, participants were randomly assigned to one of the two sequences of a single dose of three medium hardboiled eggs and a sausage/cheese breakfast sandwich. In the sustained phase, participants were then randomly assigned to one of the two sequences of two medium hardboiled eggs and 1/2 cup of egg substitute daily for six weeks. Each treatment assignment was separated by a four-week washout period. Outcome measures of interest were endothelial function measured as flow mediated dilatation (FMD) and lipid panel. Results Single dose egg consumption had no effects on endothelial function as compared to sausage/cheese (0.4 ± 1.9 vs. 0.4 ± 2.4%; p = 0.99). Daily consumption of egg substitute for 6 weeks significantly improved endothelial function as compared to egg (1.0 ± 1.2% vs. -0.1 ± 1.5%; p < 0.01) and lowered serum total cholesterol (-18 ± 18 vs. -5 ± 21 mg/dL; p < 0.01) and LDL (-14 ± 20 vs. -2 ± 19 mg/dL; p = 0.01). Study results (positive or negative) are expressed in terms of change relative to baseline. Conclusions Egg consumption was found to be non-detrimental to endothelial function and serum lipids in hyperlipidemic adults, while egg substitute consumption was beneficial.

2010-01-01

126

Neurocognitive Function and CNS Integrity in Adult Survivors of Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Purpose Long-term survivors of childhood Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) are at risk for cardiopulmonary complications and CNS stroke, although neurocognitive function has not been previously examined. The aim of this study was to examine neurocognitive and brain imaging outcomes in adult survivors of childhood HL. Patients and Methods In all, 62 adult survivors (mean age, 42.2 years; standard deviation [SD], 4.77; mean age at diagnosis, 15.1 years; SD, 3.30) were identified by stratified random selection from a large cohort treated with either high-dose (? 30 Gy) thoracic radiation (n = 38) or lower-dose (< 30 Gy) thoracic radiation combined with anthracycline (n = 24). Patients underwent neurocognitive evaluations, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), echocardiograms, pulmonary function tests, and physical examinations. Results Compared with national age-adjusted norms, HL survivors demonstrated lower performance on sustained attention (P = .004), short-term memory (P = .001), long-term memory (P = .006), working memory (P < .001), naming speed (P < .001), and cognitive fluency (P = .007). MRI revealed leukoencephalopathy in 53% of survivors, and 37% had evidence of cerebrovascular injury. Higher thoracic radiation dose was associated with impaired cardiac diastolic function (E/E?; ratio of peak mitral flow velocity of early rapid filling [E] to early diastolic velocity of the mitral annulus [E?]; P = .003), impaired pulmonary function (diffusing capacity of lungs for carbon monoxide [DLcocorr; P = .04), and leukoencephalopathy (P = .02). Survivors with leukoencephalopathy demonstrated reduced cognitive fluency (P = .001). Working memory impairment was associated with E/E?, although impaired sustained attention and naming speed were associated with DLcocorr. Neurocognitive performance was associated with academic and vocational functioning. Conclusion These results suggest that adult long-term survivors of childhood HL are at risk for neurocognitive impairment, which is associated with radiologic indices suggestive of reduced brain integrity and which occurs in the presence of symptoms of cardiopulmonary dysfunction.

Krull, Kevin R.; Sabin, Noah D.; Reddick, Wilburn E.; Zhu, Liang; Armstrong, Gregory T.; Green, Daniel M.; Arevalo, Alejandro R.; Krasin, Matthew J.; Srivastava, Deo Kumar; Robison, Leslie L.; Hudson, Melissa M.

2012-01-01

127

Aging Gracefully: Compensatory Brain Activity in High-Performing Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whereas some older adults show significant cognitive deficits, others perform as well as young adults. We investigated the neural basis of these different aging patterns using positron emission tomography (PET). In PET and functional MRI (fMRI) studies, prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity tends to be less asymmetric in older than in younger adults (Hemispheric Asymmetry Reduction in Old Adults or HAROLD).

Roberto Cabeza; Nicole D. Anderson; Jill K. Locantore; Anthony R. McIntosh

2002-01-01

128

Automated cellular annotation for high-resolution images of adult Caenorhabditis elegans  

PubMed Central

Motivation: Advances in high-resolution microscopy have recently made possible the analysis of gene expression at the level of individual cells. The fixed lineage of cells in the adult worm Caenorhabditis elegans makes this organism an ideal model for studying complex biological processes like development and aging. However, annotating individual cells in images of adult C.elegans typically requires expertise and significant manual effort. Automation of this task is therefore critical to enabling high-resolution studies of a large number of genes. Results: In this article, we describe an automated method for annotating a subset of 154 cells (including various muscle, intestinal and hypodermal cells) in high-resolution images of adult C.elegans. We formulate the task of labeling cells within an image as a combinatorial optimization problem, where the goal is to minimize a scoring function that compares cells in a test input image with cells from a training atlas of manually annotated worms according to various spatial and morphological characteristics. We propose an approach for solving this problem based on reduction to minimum-cost maximum-flow and apply a cross-entropy–based learning algorithm to tune the weights of our scoring function. We achieve 84% median accuracy across a set of 154 cell labels in this highly variable system. These results demonstrate the feasibility of the automatic annotation of microscopy-based images in adult C.elegans. Contact: saerni@cs.stanford.edu

Batzoglou, Serafim

2013-01-01

129

Differentiation of multipotent adult progenitor cells into functional endothelial and smooth muscle cells.  

PubMed

Stem cells are not only a promising in vivo tool for the treatment of diseases characterized by irreversible tissue damage, but can also be exploited as in vitro systems to study the conditions required to generate molecularly and functionally defined cell types. Constructing functional arteries with luminal arterial endothelial cells stabilized by a medial layer of smooth muscle cells is one of the challenges of regenerative medicine. This unit describes the conditions for generating endothelial and smooth muscle cells from multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPCs). It elaborates on the importance of certain parameters, e.g., quality control of the stem cell population used, serum lot variations, seeding density, use of appropriate cytokines, critical to obtaining high differentiation efficiencies. It further focuses on the molecular and functional characterization of the obtained cell types. PMID:18432970

Luttun, Aernout; Ross, Jeffrey J; Verfaillie, Catherine; Aranguren, Xabier L; Prósper, Felipe

2006-12-01

130

Functional Imaging of Working Memory and Peripheral Endothelial Function in Middle-Aged Adults  

PubMed Central

The current study examined the relationship between a prognostic indicator of vascular health, flow-mediated dilation (FMD), and working memory-related brain activation in healthy middle-aged adults. Forty-two participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while completing a 2-Back working memory task. Brachial artery endothelial-dependent flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was assessed using B-mode ultrasound. The relationship between FMD and task-related brain activation in a priori regions of interest was modeled using hierarchical linear regression. Brachial FMD, was significantly related to reduced working memory-related activation in the right superior parietal lobule (?=0.338, p=0.027), independent of age, sex, systolic blood pressure, and full scale IQ (F(5,36)=2.66, p=0.038). These data provide preliminary support for the association between a preclinical marker of endothelial dysfunction and cerebral hemodynamic alterations in healthy middle-aged adults. Considering the modifiable nature of endothelial function, additional investigations on the prognostic significance of FMD on future cognitive impairment are warranted.

Gonzales, Mitzi M.; Tarumi, Takashi; Tanaka, Hirofumi; Sugawara, Jun; Swann-Sternberg, Tali; Goudarzi, Katyoon; Haley, Andreana P.

2010-01-01

131

High prevalence of thymic tissue in adults with human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection.  

PubMed Central

The thymus in adults infected with the HIV-1 is generally thought to be inactive, both because of age-related involution and viral destruction. We have revisited the question of thymic function in adults, using chest-computed tomography (CT) to measure thymic tissue in HIV-1-seropositive (n = 99) or HIV-1-seronegative (n = 32) subjects, and correlating these results with the level of circulating CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells that are phenotypically described as naive thymic emigrants. Abundant thymic tissue was detectable in many (47/99) HIV-1-seropositive adults, aged 20-59. Independent of age, radiographic demonstration of thymic tissue was significantly associated with both a higher CD4(+) T cell count (P = 0.02) and a higher percentage and absolute number of circulating naive (CD45RA+CD62L+) CD4(+) T cells (P < 0.04). The prevalence of an abundant thymus was especially high in younger HIV-1-seropositive adults ( 40 yr) regardless of CD4 count (P = 0.03). These studies suggest that the thymus is functional in some but not all adults with HIV-1 disease.

McCune, J M; Loftus, R; Schmidt, D K; Carroll, P; Webster, D; Swor-Yim, L B; Francis, I R; Gross, B H; Grant, R M

1998-01-01

132

A Reevaluation of the Common Factor Theory of Shared Variance Among Age, Sensory Function, and Cognitive Function in Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The common cause hypothesis of the relationship among age, sensory measures, and cognitive measures in very old adults was reevaluated. Both sensory function and processing speed were evaluated as mediators of the rela- tionship between age and cognitive function. Cognitive function was a latent variable that comprised 3 factors in- cluding memory, speed, and verbal ability. The sample was population

Kaarin J. Anstey; Mary A. Luszcz; Linnett Sanchez

2001-01-01

133

Neighborhood Psychosocial Hazards and the Association of Cumulative Lead Dose With Cognitive Function in Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Before the 1970s, today's older Americans were exposed to high levels of lead in the environment. The authors previously reported that lifetime cumulative lead dose was associated with lower cognitive test performance in older adults. Experiments suggest that environmental stress may intensify the detrimental influence of lead. No large, population-based studies of this question have been done. The authors evaluated whether cross-sectional associations of tibia lead with cognitive function were modified by neighborhood psychosocial hazards in the Baltimore Memory Study (2001–2005), a longitudinal cohort study of determinants of cognitive decline. Tibia lead was measured via 109Cd-induced K-shell X-ray fluorescence. Neighborhood psychosocial hazards were measured independently of study subjects. Complete data were available among 1,001 demographically diverse adults aged 50–70 years, randomly selected from 65 contiguous neighborhoods in Baltimore City. Hierarchical mixed-effects regression models showed that neighborhood psychosocial hazards exacerbated the adverse associations of tibia lead in 3 of 7 cognitive domains after adjustment for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, testing technician, and time of day (language, P = 0.039; processing speed, P = 0.067; executive functioning, P = 0.025). The joint occurrence of environmental stress and lead exposure across the life span may partially explain persistent racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities in cognitive function in late life.

Bandeen-Roche, Karen; McAtee, Matthew; Bolla, Karen; Todd, Andrew C.; Schwartz, Brian S.

2009-01-01

134

Perinatal Taurine Alters Arterial Pressure Control and Renal Function in Adult Offspring  

PubMed Central

The present study investigates the effect of perinatal taurine exposure on renal function in adult, female rats on a high sugar diet. Perinatal taurine depleted (TD), supplemented (TS) or untreated control (C) female offspring were fed normal rat chow and tap water (CW,TDW or TSW) or tap water with 5% glucose (CG, TDG or TSG) after weaning. At 7–8 weeks of age, renal function was studied in the conscious, restrained rats. Mean arterial pressure was significantly higher in TDW, TDG, and TSG rats. Plasma sodium concentration was significantly lower in all glucose treated animals, but the greatest decrease was in TDW rats. Basal renal blood flow was lowest in TSW and TSG, and the responses to a saline load were also lowest in those two groups. These changes were consistent with increased renal vascular resistance. The basal glomerular filtration rate was lowest in TSW, but the responses to a saline load were similar in all of the groups. Water excretion was lower in TSG and TSW, consistent with increased renal tubular water reabsorption. These data suggest that perinatal taurine exposure alters normal renal function and renal responses to dietary sugar in adult female offspring.

Roysommuti, Sanya; Lerdweeraphon, Wichaporn; Malila, Pisamai; Jirakulsomchok, Dusit; Wyss, J. Michael

2009-01-01

135

Assessing function and endurance in adults with spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy: validity of the adult myopathy assessment tool.  

PubMed

Purpose. The adult myopathy assessment tool (AMAT) is a performance-based battery comprised of functional and endurance subscales that can be completed in approximately 30 minutes without the use of specialized equipment. The purpose of this study was to determine the construct validity and internal consistency of the AMAT with a sample of adults with spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA). Methods. AMAT validity was assessed in 56-male participants with genetically confirmed SBMA (mean age, 53?±?10 years). The participants completed the AMAT and assessments for disease status, strength, and functional status. Results. Lower AMAT scores were associated with longer disease duration (r = -0.29; P < 0.03) and lower serum androgen levels (r = 0.49-0.59; P < 0.001). The AMAT was significantly correlated with strength and functional status (r = 0.82-0.88; P < 0.001). The domains of the AMAT exhibited good internal consistency (Cronbach's ? ?=?0.77-0.89; P < 0.001). Conclusions. The AMAT is a standardized, performance-based tool that may be used to assess functional limitations and muscle endurance. The AMAT has good internal consistency, and the construct validity of the AMAT is supported by its significant associations with hormonal, strength, and functional characteristics of adults with SBMA. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT00303446. PMID:24876969

Harris-Love, Michael O; Fernandez-Rhodes, Lindsay; Joe, Galen; Shrader, Joseph A; Kokkinis, Angela; La Pean Kirschner, Alison; Auh, Sungyoung; Chen, Cheunju; Li, Li; Levy, Ellen; Davenport, Todd E; Di Prospero, Nicholas A; Fischbeck, Kenneth H

2014-01-01

136

Assessing Function and Endurance in Adults with Spinal and Bulbar Muscular Atrophy: Validity of the Adult Myopathy Assessment Tool  

PubMed Central

Purpose. The adult myopathy assessment tool (AMAT) is a performance-based battery comprised of functional and endurance subscales that can be completed in approximately 30 minutes without the use of specialized equipment. The purpose of this study was to determine the construct validity and internal consistency of the AMAT with a sample of adults with spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA). Methods. AMAT validity was assessed in 56-male participants with genetically confirmed SBMA (mean age, 53?±?10 years). The participants completed the AMAT and assessments for disease status, strength, and functional status. Results. Lower AMAT scores were associated with longer disease duration (r = ?0.29; P < 0.03) and lower serum androgen levels (r = 0.49–0.59; P < 0.001). The AMAT was significantly correlated with strength and functional status (r = 0.82–0.88; P < 0.001). The domains of the AMAT exhibited good internal consistency (Cronbach's ??=?0.77–0.89; P < 0.001). Conclusions. The AMAT is a standardized, performance-based tool that may be used to assess functional limitations and muscle endurance. The AMAT has good internal consistency, and the construct validity of the AMAT is supported by its significant associations with hormonal, strength, and functional characteristics of adults with SBMA. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT00303446.

Harris-Love, Michael O.; Fernandez-Rhodes, Lindsay; Joe, Galen; Shrader, Joseph A.; Kokkinis, Angela; La Pean Kirschner, Alison; Auh, Sungyoung; Chen, Cheunju; Li, Li; Levy, Ellen; Davenport, Todd E.; Di Prospero, Nicholas A.; Fischbeck, Kenneth H.

2014-01-01

137

Shared and Distinctive Origins and Correlates of Adult Attachment Representations: The Developmental Organization of Romantic Functioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To test proposals regarding the hierarchical organization of adult attachment, this study examined developmental origins of generalized and romantic attachment representations and their concurrent associations with romantic functioning. Participants (N = 112) in a 35-year prospective study completed the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) and Current…

Haydon, Katherine C.; Collins, W. A.; Salvatore, Jessica E.; Simpson, Jeffry A.; Roisman, Glenn I.

2012-01-01

138

Functional Literacy in Older Adults: Proactive Approaches to Research and Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two separate research projects were undertaken in Georgia and Texas to examine the current and future needs of older adults for functional literacy and to analyze the involvement of adult basic education (ABE) programs to better serve those needs. The projects involved literature reviews; mail-out surveys; and one-on-one interviews with senior…

Kasworm, Carol; Courtenay, Bradley C.

139

Does Impaired Executive Functioning Differentially Impact Verbal Memory Measures in Older Adults with Suspected Dementia?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine whether executive dysfunction differentially impacts list-learning and story recall tasks in a sample of older adults referred for suspected cognitive impairment. Older adults (N = 61) with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or probable mild dementia, and those who did not meet criteria for diagnosis of dementia, were assessed using measures of executive function and

Brian L. Brooks; Linda E. Weaver; Charles T. Scialfa

2006-01-01

140

Efficiency of Route Selection as a Function of Adult Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two tasks hypothesized to assess the efficiency of route selection were administered to 328 adults ranging from 18 to 93 years of age. Increased age was associated with slower completion of mazes, even after adjusting for differences in perceptual-motor speed, and with longer and less accurate routes in a task in which participants were asked to…

Salthouse, Timothy A.; Siedlecki, Karen L.

2007-01-01

141

Functional Significance of Tie2 Signaling in the Adult Vasculature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abundant data now demonstrate that the growth of new blood vessels, termed angiogenesis, plays both pathological and beneficial roles in human disease. Based on these data, a tremendous effort has been undertaken to understand the molecular mechanisms that drive blood vessel growth in adult tissues. Tie2 recently was identified as a receptor tyrosine kinase expressed principally on vascular endothelium. Disrupting

KEVIN G. PETERS; CHRISTOPHER D. KONTOS; P. CHARLES LIN; ADRIANNE L. WONG; PREMA RAO; LIWEN HUANG; MARK W. DEWHIRST; SABITA SANKAR

2010-01-01

142

Factors Influencing Functional Literacy Performance among Adult Basic Education Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A comprehensive profile of the adult learner and his or her literacy performance was educed by examining factors that are manifestations of both the formal school experience and the environment. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine the tenability of 10 research hypotheses that each included one of the 10 literacy subtests of the…

Pleasant, Gregory R.

143

The Human Function Compunction: Teleological Explanation in Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has found that children possess a broad bias in favor of teleological--or purpose-based--explanations of natural phenomena. The current two experiments explored whether adults implicitly possess a similar bias. In Study 1, undergraduates judged a series of statements as "good" (i.e., correct) or "bad" (i.e., incorrect) explanations for…

Kelemen, Deborah; Rosset, Evelyn

2009-01-01

144

Mediterranean diet and cognitive function in older adults  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review The effectiveness of the Mediterranean diet in reducing the prevalence of cardiovascular and chronic diseases has been largely evidenced. Although nutrition constitutes an interesting approach in preventing age-related brain disorders, the association between the Mediterranean-style diet and cognitive functions has been very occasionally explored. Recent findings Results are provided from only two recent prospective cohorts of older Americans and French individuals (?65 y) on the relationship of Mediterranean diet to cognitive functions. A high adherence to the Mediterranean diet has been associated with slower cognitive decline, with reduced risk of Mild Cognitive Impairment conversion to Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) and with reduced risk of AD. Summary The possibility that the Mediterranean diet may affect not only the risk for AD, but also the evolution of cognitive performances a long time before the clinical diagnosis of dementia and subsequent disease course constitutes major promising results. Replication of these results in other populations seems necessary to allow their generalization and to propose the Mediterranean diet as a potential preventive approach against cognitive decline or dementia in addition to its expected benefits against many other unfavorable outcomes in a public health perspective.

Feart, Catherine; Samieri, Cecilia; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale

2010-01-01

145

Going home better not worse: older adults' views on physical function during hospitalization.  

PubMed

Functional decline is a common complication for hospitalized older adults. Illuminating the factors that influence the physical function of hospitalized older adults is critical in order to develop effective interventions to prevent avoidable loss of function. Twenty-four older adults in three senior centres located in metropolitan New York City, who had recent experience with hospitalization, participated in focus groups to discover these factors. An exploratory qualitative design was used. Participants defined physical function as the ability to be mobile and resume the enactment of their roles, routines and relationships. Participants also believed that hospitalization should improve physical function. They described staff and system supports of, as well as the challenges to physical function in the hospital setting. The findings provide evidence for developing education programmes as well as new models of nursing care aimed at preventing functional decline. PMID:20649670

Boltz, Marie; Capezuti, Elizabeth; Shabbat, Nina; Hall, Kimberly

2010-08-01

146

Disruption of Functional Connectivity in Clinically Normal Older Adults Harboring Amyloid Burden  

PubMed Central

Amyloid deposition is present in 20–50% of nondemented older adults yet the functional consequences remain unclear. The current study found that amyloid accumulation is correlated with functional disruption of the default network as measured by intrinsic activity correlations. Clinically normal participants (n=38, aged 60–88) were characterized using [11C]-Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) PET imaging to estimate fibrillar amyloid burden and, separately, underwent functional MRI (fMRI). The integrity of the default network was estimated by correlating rest-state fMRI time courses extracted from a priori regions including the posterior cingulate, lateral parietal, and medial prefrontal cortices. Clinically normal participants with high amyloid burden displayed significantly reduced functional correlations within the default network relative to participants with low amyloid burden. These reductions were also observed when amyloid burden was treated as a continuous, rather than a dichotomous, measure and when controlling for age and structural atrophy. Whole-brain analyses initiated by seeding the posterior cingulate cortex, a region of high amyloid burden in Alzheimer1s disease (AD), revealed significant disruption in the default network including functional disconnection of the hippocampal formation.

Hedden, Trey; Van Dijk, Koene R. A.; Becker, J. Alex; Mehta, Angel; Sperling, Reisa A.; Johnson, Keith A.; Buckner, Randy L.

2009-01-01

147

The human function compunction: teleological explanation in adults.  

PubMed

Research has found that children possess a broad bias in favor of teleological--or purpose-based--explanations of natural phenomena. The current two experiments explored whether adults implicitly possess a similar bias. In Study 1, undergraduates judged a series of statements as "good" (i.e., correct) or "bad" (i.e., incorrect) explanations for why different phenomena occur. Judgments occurred in one of three conditions: fast speeded, moderately speeded, or unspeeded. Participants in speeded conditions judged significantly more scientifically unwarranted teleological explanations as correct (e.g., "the sun radiates heat because warmth nurtures life"), but were not more error-prone on control items (e.g., unwarranted physical explanations such as "hills form because floodwater freezes"). Study 2 extended these findings by examining the relationship between different aspects of adults' "promiscuous teleology" and other variables such as scientific knowledge, religious beliefs, and inhibitory control. Implications of these findings for scientific literacy are discussed. PMID:19200537

Kelemen, Deborah; Rosset, Evelyn

2009-04-01

148

Expression and Function of Pluripotency Genes in Adult Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this chapter we will discuss the data published regarding expression of two key ESC transcription factors, Oct4 and Nanog, in adult stem cells. In an introduction, we will discuss what is known regarding these two genes during embryonic development,\\u000a as well as the evidence existing for the presence of pseudogenes as well as alternative spliced forms of these two

Antonio Lo Nigro; Philip Roelandt; Catherine M. Verfaillie

149

Nonlinear effects of noradrenergic modulation of olfactory bulb function in adult rodents  

PubMed Central

The mammalian main olfactory bulb receives a significant noradrenergic input from the locus coeruleus. Norepinephrine (NE) is involved in acquisition of conditioned odor preferences in neonatal animals, in some species-specific odor-dependent behaviors, and in adult odor perception. We provide a detailed review of the functional role of NE in adult rodent main olfactory bulb function. We include cellular, synaptic, network, and behavioral data and use computational simulations to tie these different types of data together.

Nai, Qiang; Ennis, Matthew

2011-01-01

150

High-fat diets, insulin resistance and declining cognitive function.  

PubMed

Results from our work in rats and others findings from human epidemiologic studies demonstrate deficits in cognitive performance following chronic ingestion of high fat, high saturated fat, diets. Yet, the precise physiologic mechanism underlying these deficits is not well understood. We report that older adults with insulin resistance show remarkably similar deficits in cognitive function and respond to glucose ingestion in a comparable manner to rodents fed a high-fat diet, suggesting that insulin resistance is a probable mediator of these diet-induced deficits. As insulin resistance worsens to overt type 2 diabetes, profound deficits in cognitive functions, especially those dependent on the medial temporal lobes, are apparent in both obese Zucker rats and humans with type 2 diabetes. Unlike the older adult with insulin resistance, glucose ingestion further impairs medial temporal lobe function in adults with type 2 diabetes. Collectively, the human and rodent data point to a role of diet-induced endocrine abnormalities, including the development of insulin resistance, as mediating the cognitive deficits associated with high fat consumption. PMID:16257476

Greenwood, Carol E; Winocur, Gordon

2005-12-01

151

Long-term consequences of adolescent gang membership for adult functioning.  

PubMed

Objectives. We examined the possible public health consequences of adolescent gang membership for adult functioning. Methods. Data were drawn from the Seattle Social Development Project, a longitudinal study focusing on the development of positive and problem outcomes. Using propensity score matching and logistic regression analyses, we assessed the effects of adolescent gang membership on illegal behavior, educational and occupational attainment, and physical and mental health at the ages of 27, 30, and 33 years. Results. In comparison with their nongang peers, who had been matched on 23 confounding risk variables known to be related to selection into gang membership, those who had joined a gang in adolescence had poorer outcomes in multiple areas of adult functioning, including higher rates of self-reported crime, receipt of illegal income, incarceration, drug abuse or dependence, poor general health, and welfare receipt and lower rates of high school graduation. Conclusions. The finding that adolescent gang membership has significant consequences in adulthood beyond criminal behavior indicates the public health importance of the development of effective gang prevention programs. PMID:24625155

Gilman, Amanda B; Hill, Karl G; Hawkins, J David

2014-05-01

152

High-resolution interferometric imaging of stress propagation in pediatric and adult skulls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variations based on bone growth and development make stress and fracture propagation differ greatly in pediatric skulls as compared to adult skulls. Differentiating the stress propagation between the pediatric and adult skulls can improve diagnostic prediction when presented with direct frontal impact on a pediatric skull, a fairly common occurrence in the clinical environment. Critical diagnostic information can be learned from an in depth study of stress propagation as a function of impact force at critical locations on the periorbital region of the human skull. The Division of Pediatric Otolaryngology at Albany Medical College and InterScience, Inc. are utilizing electronic speckle pattern interferometry detection (ESPI) and high resolution imaging to evaluate and compare stress propagation in pediatric and adult skulls. A dual detection ESPI system was developed which integrates a medium resolution (2/3') CCD capable of real-time image processing, with a high resolution, megapixel detector capable of limited real time acquisition and image processing in software. Options to allow for high speed detection include integrating a custom, high performance image intensifier with the megapixel detector leg to be used as a high speed gate. The dual optical layout will allow for continuous and pulsed ESPI evaluation of calibrated impacts at specific landmarks on the skull. The goal of this work is to produce a full quantitative analysis of the stress propagation in pediatric versus adult skulls for a better understanding of bone dynamics. The work presented below concentrates on the development of the dual detection ESPI system and initial results achieved with an adult cadaver skull.

Conerty, Michelle; Castracane, James; Clow, Lawrence P.; Koltai, Peter J.; Mouzakes, Jason

1997-05-01

153

Indications of reduced prefrontal cortical function in chronically homeless adults.  

PubMed

This study investigated why some homeless individuals seem unable to transition towards self-reliance, following traditional supportive services. It was hypothesized that this may be due to some cognitive dysfunction. Chronically homeless adults were compared to controls on three tests of prefrontal competency: the Iowa Gambling Task, Word Fluency (FAS), and the Burglar's Story; they performed significantly worse than controls on all three tests. These results indicate a relationship between chronic homelessness and possible pre-frontal deficits. This may explain why some long-term homeless fail to learn from the consequences of unproductive behavior and to develop more constructive behaviors needed to attain stability. PMID:24337470

Davidson, Dale; Chrosniak, Linda D; Wanschura, Patricia; Flinn, Jane M

2014-07-01

154

Functional and Molecular Characterization of Rod-like Cells from Retinal Stem Cells Derived from the Adult Ciliary Epithelium  

PubMed Central

In vitro generation of photoreceptors from stem cells is of great interest for the development of regenerative medicine approaches for patients affected by retinal degeneration and for high throughput drug screens for these diseases. In this study, we show unprecedented high percentages of rod-fated cells from retinal stem cells of the adult ciliary epithelium. Molecular characterization of rod-like cells demonstrates that they lose ciliary epithelial characteristics but acquire photoreceptor features. Rod maturation was evaluated at two levels: gene expression and electrophysiological functionality. Here we present a strong correlation between phototransduction protein expression and functionality of the cells in vitro. We demonstrate that in vitro generated rod-like cells express cGMP-gated channels that are gated by endogenous cGMP. We also identified voltage-gated channels necessary for rod maturation and viability. This level of analysis for the first time provides evidence that adult retinal stem cells can generate highly homogeneous rod-fated cells.

Demontis, Gian Carlo; Aruta, Claudia; Comitato, Antonella; De Marzo, Anna; Marigo, Valeria

2012-01-01

155

Brief Report: Biochemical Correlates of Clinical Impairment in High Functioning Autism and Asperger's Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Amygdala dysfunction has been proposed as a critical contributor to social impairment in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The current study investigated biochemical abnormalities in the amygdala in 20 high functioning adults with autistic disorder or Asperger's disorder and 19 typically developing adults matched on age and IQ. Magnetic resonance…

Kleinhans, Natalia M.; Richards, Todd; Weaver, Kurt E.; Liang, Olivia; Dawson, Geraldine; Aylward, Elizabeth

2009-01-01

156

Becoming Social: Interventions with Youth Who Have High-Functioning Autism and Asperger Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many adults come up short on social skills. Some of these may be co-workers, friends, or family members who make occasional blunders. Some of these individuals may experience marked social skills deficits throughout life, as is the case with young adults who are diagnosed with High Functioning Autism or Asperger Syndrome (HFA/AS). Following years…

Blacher, Jan; Howell, Erica

2008-01-01

157

Adult Male Circumcision: Effects on Sexual Function and Sexual Satisfaction in Kisumu, Kenya  

PubMed Central

Introduction Male circumcision is being promoted for HIV prevention in high-risk heterosexual populations. However, there is a concern that circumcision may impair sexual function. Aim To assess adult male circumcision’s effect on men’s sexual function and pleasure. Methods Participants in a controlled trial of circumcision to reduce HIV incidence in Kisumu, Kenya were uncircumcised, HIV negative, sexually active men, aged 18–24 years, with a hemoglobin ?9.0 mmol/L. Exclusion criteria included foreskin covering less than half the glans, a condition that might unduly increase surgical risks, or a medical indication for circumcision. Participants were randomized 1:1 to either immediate circumcision or delayed circumcision after 2 years (control group). Detailed evaluations occurred at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Main Outcome Measures (i) Sexual function between circumcised and uncircumcised men; and (ii) sexual satisfaction and pleasure over time following circumcision. Results Between February 2002 and September 2005, 2,784 participants were randomized, including the 100 excluded from this analysis because they crossed over, were not circumcised within 30 days of randomization, did not complete baseline interviews, or were outside the age range. For the circumcision and control groups, respectively, rates of any reported sexual dysfunction decreased from 23.6% and 25.9% at baseline to 6.2% and 5.8% at month 24. Changes over time were not associated with circumcision status. Compared to before they were circumcised, 64.0% of circumcised men reported their penis was “much more sensitive,” and 54.5% rated their ease of reaching orgasm as “much more” at month 24. Conclusions Adult male circumcision was not associated with sexual dysfunction. Circumcised men reported increased penile sensitivity and enhanced ease of reaching orgasm. These data indicate that integration of male circumcision into programs to reduce HIV risk is unlikely to adversely effect male sexual function.

Krieger, John N.; Mehta, Supriya D.; Bailey, Robert C.; Agot, Kawango; Ndinya-Achola, Jeckoniah O.; Parker, Corette; Moses, Stephen

2010-01-01

158

Brain Training Game Boosts Executive Functions, Working Memory and Processing Speed in the Young Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Do brain training games work? The beneficial effects of brain training games are expected to transfer to other cognitive functions. Yet in all honesty, beneficial transfer effects of the commercial brain training games in young adults have little scientific basis. Here we investigated the impact of the brain training game (Brain Age) on a wide range of cognitive functions in young adults. Methods We conducted a double-blind (de facto masking) randomized controlled trial using a popular brain training game (Brain Age) and a popular puzzle game (Tetris). Thirty-two volunteers were recruited through an advertisement in the local newspaper and randomly assigned to either of two game groups (Brain Age, Tetris). Participants in both the Brain Age and the Tetris groups played their game for about 15 minutes per day, at least 5 days per week, for 4 weeks. Measures of the cognitive functions were conducted before and after training. Measures of the cognitive functions fell into eight categories (fluid intelligence, executive function, working memory, short-term memory, attention, processing speed, visual ability, and reading ability). Results and Discussion Our results showed that commercial brain training game improves executive functions, working memory, and processing speed in young adults. Moreover, the popular puzzle game can engender improvement attention and visuo-spatial ability compared to playing the brain training game. The present study showed the scientific evidence which the brain training game had the beneficial effects on cognitive functions (executive functions, working memory and processing speed) in the healthy young adults. Conclusions Our results do not indicate that everyone should play brain training games. However, the commercial brain training game might be a simple and convenient means to improve some cognitive functions. We believe that our findings are highly relevant to applications in educational and clinical fields. Trial Registration UMIN Clinical Trial Registry 000005618.

Nouchi, Rui; Taki, Yasuyuki; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Nozawa, Takayuki; Kambara, Toshimune; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Miyauchi, Carlos Makoto; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nouchi, Haruka; Kawashima, Ryuta

2013-01-01

159

Vivo-Morpholino knockdown of ?IIb: A novel approach to inhibit thrombocyte function in adult zebrafish  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Knockdown of protein function by antisense oligonucleotides has been used to understand the protein function not only in development but also in human diseases. Recently, Vivo-Morpholinos, chemically modified morpholinos which penetrate the cells, have been used in adult experimental animal models to alter the splicing and thereby change the protein expression. Until now, there have been no such studies using Vivo-Morpholinos, to evaluate hemostatic function in adult animals. We injected ?IIb Vivo-Morpholinos intravenously into adult zebrafish. Thrombocyte function was assayed by time to aggregation assay of the citrated blood, annexin V binding to thrombocytes, and gill bleeding. The thrombocyte functional inhibition occurred in 24 hrs after ?IIb Vivo-Morpholinos injection and reached a maximum in 48 hrs. However, in 72 hrs, the inhibition was no longer observed. Reduction of annexin V binding to thrombocytes and increased gill bleeding were observed 48 hrs after ?IIb Vivo-Morpholino injections. The action of the ?IIb Vivo-Morpholino was demonstrated by the presence of an alternatively spliced ?IIb mRNA and the reduction of ?IIb in thrombocytes of fish treated with ?IIb Vivo-Morpholino. These results provide the first proof of principle that thrombocyte function can be inhibited by thrombocyte-specific Vivo-Morpholinos in adult zebrafish and presents an approach to knockdown thrombocyte-specific genes to conduct biochemical studies in thrombocytes. This study also provides the first antisense antithrombotic approach to inhibit thrombocyte function in adult zebrafish.

Kim, Seongcheol; Radhakrishnan, Uvaraj P; Rajpurohit, Surendra Kumar; Kulkarni, Vrinda; Jagadeeswaran, Pudur

2010-01-01

160

Relation of fetal growth to adult lung function in south India  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Follow up studies in Britain have shown that low rates of fetal growth are followed by reduced lung function in adult life, independent of smoking and social class. It is suggested that fetal adaptations to undernutrition in utero result in permanent changes in lung structure, which in turn lead to chronic airflow obstruction. India has high rates of intrauterine growth retardation, but no study has examined the association between fetal growth and adult lung function in Indian people. We have related size at birth to lung function in an urban Indian population aged 38-59 years. METHODS: Two hundred and eighty six men and women born in one hospital in Mysore City, South India, during 1934-1953 were traced by a house-to-house survey of the city. Their mean forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) were measured using a turbine spirometer. These measurements were linked to their size at birth, recorded at the time. RESULTS: In both men and women mean FEV1 fell with decreasing birthweight. Adjusted for age and height, it fell by 0.09 litres with each pound (454 g) decrease in birthweight in men (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.01 to 0.16) and by 0.06 (95% CI -0.01 to 0.13) in women. Likewise, mean FVC fell by 0.11 litres (95% CI 0.02 to 0.19) with each pound decrease in birthweight in men, and by 0.08 litres (95% CI 0.002 to 0.16) in women. FEV1 and FVC were lower in men who smoked, but the associations with size at birth were independent of smoking. Small head circumference at birth was associated with a low FEV1/FVC ratio in men which may reflect restriction in airway growth in early gestation. CONCLUSION: This is further evidence that adult lung function is "programmed" in fetal life. Smoking may be particularly detrimental to the lung function of populations already disadvantaged by poor rates of fetal growth. ???

Stein, C. E.; Kumaran, K.; Fall, C. H.; Shaheen, S. O.; Osmond, C.; Barker, D. J.

1997-01-01

161

The amount of thiolic antioxidant ingestion needed to improve several immune functions is higher in aged than in adult mice.  

PubMed

With aging there is an increase of oxidative stress due to an imbalance between the oxidant production and the antioxidant levels in favor of the former. Since immune cell functions are specially linked to reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, the oxidant/antioxidant balance is essential for these cells. Although low levels of antioxidants cause a decrease in immune function, very high levels of antioxidant compounds could show prooxidant effects. In the present work, we have studied the effect of diet supplementation, for 4 weeks, with two different doses of two thiolic antioxidants, namely thioproline (TP) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC), at 0.1% (w/w) and 0.3% (w/w, of each antioxidant) on the main immune system cells, i.e.: macrophages, lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cells of adult (33+/-1 week old) and aged (75+/-1 week old) female Swiss mice. Two groups of animals, adult and aged mice, fed standard diet were used as controls. The results show that the ingestion of 0.1% doses of thiols improves, in the adult mice, several immune functions such as the chemotaxis capacity of both macrophages and lymphocytes, the phagocytosis of macrophages, the lymphoproliferative response to the mitogen Con A and the NK activity. Moreover, no change was observed in adherence capacity of immune cells, and superoxide production was decreased. By contrast, in aged mice the ingestion of these amounts of antioxidants did not change the immune functions studied with the exception of NK activity, which was stimulated. The ingestion of 0.3% of antioxidants by adult mice only increased some immune functions such as adherence and superoxide production, which are markers of oxidative stress. Other functions such as chemotaxis or lymphoproliferative response decreased. However, the ingestion of these very high amounts of thiols by aged animals increased the phagocytosis, the NK activity and specially the lymphoproliferative response to the mitogen, a function that is very depressed with aging. PMID:11999379

De La Fuente, M; Miquel, J; Catalán, M P; Víctor, V M; Guayerbas, N

2002-02-01

162

Functional Change in Older Adults. Abstract and Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The prevention of functional decline and finding ways to improve functional status are essential for achieving policy goals of improved quality of life in older adulthood. The study relied upon the Longitudinal Study on Aging (LSOA), a supplement to the 1...

V. Mor

1995-01-01

163

Parenting Style, Perfectionism, and Creativity in High-Ability and High-Achieving Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study explores the potential relationships among perceived parenting style, perfectionism, and creativity in a high-ability and high-achieving young adult population. Using data from 323 honors college students at a Midwestern university, bivariate correlations suggested positive relationships between (a) permissive parenting style and…

Miller, Angie L.; Lambert, Amber D.; Speirs Neumeister, Kristie L.

2012-01-01

164

Comorbidity adjustment for functional outcomes in community-dwelling older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To characterize relationships between self-reported co-morbidity and functional outcomes in community-dwelling older adults, and to assess whether the impact of co-morbidity persists even after adjustment for baseline functional status.Design: Prospective observational study. We examined associations between self-reported co-morbidity at baseline and functional outcomes at one year, with and without adjustment for baseline functional status.Setting: Outpatient clinics at a managed

Sally K Rigler; Stephanie Studenski; Dennis Wallace; Dean M Reker; Pamela W Duncan

2002-01-01

165

Shared and Distinctive Origins and Correlates of Adult Attachment Representations: The Developmental Organization of Romantic Functioning  

PubMed Central

To test proposals regarding the hierarchical organization of adult attachment, this study examined developmental origins of generalized and romantic attachment representations and their concurrent associations with romantic functioning. Participants (N = 112) in a 35-year prospective study completed the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) and Current Relationship Interview (CRI). Two-way ANOVAs tested interactive associations of AAI and CRI security with infant attachment, early parenting quality, preschool ego resiliency, adolescent friendship quality, and adult romantic functioning. Both representations were associated with earlier parenting and core attachment-related romantic behavior, but romantic representations had distinctive links to ego resiliency and relationship-specific romantic behaviors. Attachment representations were independent and did not interactively predict romantic functioning, suggesting that they confer somewhat distinctive benefits for romantic functioning.

Haydon, Katherine C.; Collins, W. Andrew; Salvatore, Jessica E.; Simpson, Jeffry A.; Roisman, Glenn I.

2012-01-01

166

[Psychopathology and psychosocial functioning of adults with epilepsy. Preliminary evaluation].  

PubMed

To examine the relationship between psychosocial functioning and psychopathology in epilepsy, a total 37-outpatient sample was assessed by means of both the Washington Psychosocial Seizure Inventory (WPSI) and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). Patients came from an epilepsy program of the Hospital psiquiátrico, Chile. Disorders in several areas pertaining to psychosocial functioning and psychopathology were observed: Their distribution was quite similar to disorders previously reported when using both instruments. The WPSI scales showed a positive correlation with the MMPI's--a relevant correlation as far as the Overall Psychosocial Functioning, and Emotional adjustment sub-scales are concerned. The relationship between psychopathology and psychosocial functioning in epilepsy is discussed as well as the usefulness of the WPSI as a screening-test for the psychosocial assessment of epileptic subjects. PMID:1305358

Alvarado, L; Ivanovic-Zuvic, F; Candia, X; Ibarra, X; Méndez, M D; Campos, A; Alarcón, J

1992-03-01

167

The Influence of Family Factors on the Executive Functioning of Adult Children of Alcoholics in College  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined executive functioning in college aged adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs; n = 84) and non-ACOAs (188). We examined whether characteristics of the family environment and family responsibility in one's family of origin were associated with executive functioning above the contribution of ACOA status. ACOAs reported more…

Schroeder, Valarie M.; Kelley, Michelle L.

2008-01-01

168

Psychosocial functioning of young adults with cystic fibrosis and their families  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND--The psychosocial functioning of adolescents and young adults with cystic fibrosis still living in the parental home was investigated. With its proven genetic aetiology cystic fibrosis is an ideal model with which to assess the impact of a chronic and life threatening disorder on family and individual psychological and social functioning. METHODS--Twenty nine patients with cystic fibrosis and their families

C Blair; A Cull; C P Freeman

1994-01-01

169

Psychosocial Functioning of Young Adults Who Have Experienced and Recovered From Major Depressive Disorder During Adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examined whether adolescent major depressive disorder (MDD) was associated with difficulties in young adult functioning and whether differences would remain significant after accounting for nonmood disorder, MDD recurrence, functioning in adolescence, or current mood state. A total of 941 participants were assessed twice during adolescence and at age 24. In unadjusted analyses, adolescent MDD was associated with most

Peter M. Lewinsohn; Paul Rohde; John R. Seeley; Daniel N. Klein; Ian H. Gotlib

2003-01-01

170

Factors affecting renal function in 119 985 adults over three years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Blood pressure, proteinuria and serum creatinine (SCr) were examined in 119 985 adults, aged 40 years and older, who attended annual health examinations both in 1993 and 3 years later. Renal function was assessed from SCr; changes in individuals' renal function were estimated using the slope of the regression line for the reciprocal of the SCr level vs. time

K. Ishida; H. ISHIDA; M. NARITA; T. SAIRENCHI; Y. SAITO; H. FUKUTOMI; H. TAKAHASHI; K. YAMAGATA; A. KOYAMA

2001-01-01

171

Cognitive function with glucose tolerance status and obesity in Chinese middle-aged and aged adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To evaluate the relationship of cognitive function with glucose tolerance status and obesity in Chinese middle-aged or aged adults.Methods: A sample of 1722 subjects aged 40 years or order was investigated from four communities in Shijingshan District, Beijing, China. People with any emotional disorder, substance abuse, known diabetes or stroke were excluded. Global cognitive function was measured by the

Yanhui Lu; Juming Lu; Shuyu Wang; Chunlin Li; Lisheng Liu; Runping Zheng; Hui Tian; Xianling Wang; Lijuan Yang; Yuqing Zhang; Changyu Pan

2012-01-01

172

Oral Narrative Skills in French Adults Who Are Functionally Illiterate: Linguistic Features and Discourse Organization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To investigate the nature and extent of oral language difficulties encountered by adults who are functionally illiterate. Method: Fifty-two men and women identified as functionally illiterate, together with a group of control individuals of comparable age, sex, and socioprofessional background, produced a narrative intended for an absent…

Eme, Elsa; Lacroix, Agnes; Almecija, Yves

2010-01-01

173

Developmental Continuity in Teleo-Functional Explanation: Reasoning about Nature among Romanian Romani Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teleo-functional explanations account for objects in terms of purpose, helping us understand objects such as pencils (for writing) and body parts such as ears (for hearing). Western-educated adults restrict teleo-functional attributions to artifact, biological, and behavioral phenomena, considering such explanations less appropriate for nonliving…

Casler, Krista; Kelemen, Deborah

2008-01-01

174

The Form and Function of Attachment Behavior in the Daily Lives of Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Central to attachment theory is the postulation of an inborn system to regulate attachment behavior. This system has been well studied in infancy and childhood, but much less is known about its functioning at later ages. The goal of this study was to explore the form and function of attachment behavior in the daily lives of young adults. Twenty…

Campa, Mary I.; Hazan, Cindy; Wolfe, Jared E.

2009-01-01

175

The Functional Profile of Young Adults with Suspected Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We assessed the non-academic and academic functioning of young adults with DCD, and investigated the emotional influences and the role of strategy use within this population. A random sample of 2379 adolescents and young adults aged 19-25 (1081 males [45.4%]; mean age = 20.68, SD = 3.42) was used to develop the instruments. From this sample, three…

Tal-Saban, Miri; Zarka, Salman; Grotto, Itamar; Ornoy, Asher; Parush, Shula

2012-01-01

176

Right ventricular function declines after cardiac surgery in adult patients with congenital heart disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Right ventricular function (RVF) is often selectively declined after coronary artery bypass graft surgery. In adult patients\\u000a with congenital heart disease (CHD) the incidence and persistence of declined RVF after cardiac surgery is unknown. The current\\u000a study aimed to describe RVF after cardiac surgery in these patients. Adult CHD patients operated between January 2008 and\\u000a December 2009 in the Academic

Mark J. Schuuring; Pauline P. M. Bolmers; Barbara J. M. Mulder; Rianne A. C. M. de Bruin-Bon; Dave R. Koolbergen; Mark G. Hazekamp; Wim K. Lagrand; Stefan G. De Hert; E. M. F. H. de Beaumont; Berto J. Bouma

177

Adult Diagnostic and Functional Outcomes of DSM-5 Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) is a new disorder for DSM-5 that is uncommon and frequently co-occurs with other psychiatric disorders. Here, the authors test whether meeting diagnostic criteria for this disorder in childhood predicts adult diagnostic and functional outcomes. METHOD In a prospective, population-based study, individuals were assessed with structured interviews up to six times in childhood and adolescence (ages 10 to 16 years; 5,336 observations of 1,420 youths) for symptoms of DMDD and three times in young adulthood (ages 19, 21, and 24-26 years; 3,215 observations of 1,273 young adults) for psychiatric and functional outcomes (health, risky/illegal behavior, financial/educational functioning, and social functioning). RESULTS Young adults with a history of childhood DMDD had elevated rates of anxiety and depression and were more likely to meet criteria for more than one adult disorder relative to comparison subjects with no history of childhood psychiatric disorders (noncases) or individuals meeting criteria for psychiatric disorders other than DMDD in childhood or adolescence (psychiatric comparison subjects). Participants with a history of DMDD were more likely to have adverse health outcomes, be impoverished, have reported police contact, and have low educational attainment as adults compared with either psychiatric or noncase comparison subjects. CONCLUSIONS The long-term prognosis of children with DMDD is one of pervasive impaired functioning that in many cases is worse than that of other childhood psychiatric disorders. PMID:24781389

Copeland, William E; Shanahan, Lilly; Egger, Helen; Angold, Adrian; Costello, E Jane

2014-06-01

178

Sustained expression of the transcription factor GLIS3 is required for normal beta cell function in adults  

PubMed Central

Genome-wide association studies identified GLIS3 as a susceptibility locus for type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Global Glis3 deficiency in mice leads to congenital diabetes and neonatal lethality. In this study, we explore the role of Glis3 in adulthood using Glis3+/? and conditional knockout animals. We challenged Glis3+/? mice with high fat diet for 20 weeks and found that they developed diabetes because of impaired beta cell mass expansion. GLIS3 controls beta cell proliferation in response to high-fat feeding at least partly by regulating Ccnd2 transcription. To determine if sustained Glis3 expression is essential to normal beta cell function, we generated Glis3fl/fl/Pdx1CreERT+ animal by intercrossing Glis3fl/fl mice with Pdx1CreERT+ mice and used tamoxifen (TAM) to induce Glis3 deletion in adults. Adult Glis3fl/fl/Pdx1CreERT+ mice are euglycaemic. TAM-mediated beta cell-specific inactivation of Glis3 in adult mice downregulates insulin expression, leading to hyperglycaemia and subsequently enhanced beta cell apoptosis. We conclude that normal Glis3 expression is required for pancreatic beta cell function and mass maintenance during adulthood, which impairment leads to diabetes in adults.

Yang, Yisheng; Chang, Benny Hung-Junn; Chan, Lawrence

2013-01-01

179

Do stimulants improve functioning in adults with ADHD? A review of the literature.  

PubMed

ADHD is prevalent in adulthood and stimulant pharmacotherapy is the primary treatment for uncomplicated presentations. ADHD is associated with significant functional impairment in major life roles. Measurement of the efficacy of stimulant treatment for adult ADHD therefore should include assessment of improvement in role function. A literature search was conducted to identify studies that measured change in function with stimulant treatment in adult ADHD using measures other than global clinical impression or global assessment of function ratings. Five studies were identified that met our search criteria. Evidence of functional improvement with stimulant treatment was found with the following validated self-report measures of functional wellbeing employed across these studies: the Medical Outcome Study 36-item Short Form Health Survey; ADHD Impact Module for Adults; Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction scale-Short Form; Sheehan Disability Scale, and Social Adjustment Scale-Self-Report. We conclude that investigations using self-report scales provide evidence that stimulant treatment translates into measurable improvement in daily function for adults with ADHD. Further investigation could better characterize the mediators and moderators of individual improvement, an important step towards the personalization of treatment for ADHD in adulthood. PMID:23391411

Surman, Craig B H; Hammerness, Paul G; Pion, Katie; Faraone, Stephen V

2013-06-01

180

Limited Health Literacy and Decline in Executive Function in Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Limited health literacy is associated with worse executive function, but the association between limited health literacy and decline in executive function has not been established because of a lack of longitudinal studies. The authors aimed to examine this association by studying a prospective cohort in the setting of a randomized controlled trial to promote walking in older adults. Participants were community-dwelling older adults (65 years of age or older) who scored 2 or more on the Mini-Cog, without depression (score of less than 15 on the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire), and who completed baseline and 12-month evaluations (n = 226). Health literacy was measured using the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Executive function measured at baseline and 12 months using the Trail Making Test (TMT), Controlled Oral Word Association Test, and Category Fluency. The associations between health literacy and 12-month decline in each test of executive function were modeled using multivariate linear regression. Health literacy was found to be limited in 37% of participants. Limited health literacy was associated with reduced performance on all 3 executive function tests. In fully adjusted models, limited health literacy was associated with greater 12-month decline in performance on the TMT than higher health literacy (p = .01). In conclusion, older adults with limited health literacy are at risk for more rapid decline in scores on the TMT, a measure of executive function.

Sequeira, Shwetha S.; Eggermont, Laura H. P.; Silliman, Rebecca A.; Bickmore, Timothy W.; Henault, Lori E.; Winter, Michael R.; Nelson, Kerrie; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K.

2013-01-01

181

Renal Function in Adult Beta-Thalassemia\\/Hb E Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

?-Thalassemia hemoglobin E (?-thal\\/Hb E) is the commonest form of hemoglobinopathy in Thailand. Shortened red cell life span, rapid iron turnover and tissue deposition of excess iron are major factors responsible for functional and physiological abnormalities found in various forms of thalassemia. Increased deposition of iron had been found in renal parenchyma of thalassemic patients, but no systematic study of

Leena Ong-ajyooth; Prida Malasit; Sompong Ong-ajyooth; Suthat Fucharoen; Pensri Pootrakul; Somkiat Vasuvattakul; Nopadol Siritanaratkul; Sanga Nilwarangkur

1998-01-01

182

Pulmonary Function Test Trend in Adult Bronchiolitis Obliterans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Some histopathologic patterns of bronchiolar disease may be relatively unique to a specific clinical entity, such as respiratory bronchiolitis caused by cigarette smoking and toxic fumes i.e. sulfur mustard (SM). The aim of this study was to determine the trend of pulmonary function indices in SM-exposed patients with the diagnosis of bronchiolitis obliterans. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective

Mostafa Ghanei; Mehdi Eshraghi; Mohammadreza Peyman; Farshid Alaeddini; Ahmad Reza Jalali; Vahid Sajadi

2007-01-01

183

Morphological and functional alterations in adult boar epididymis: Effects of prenatal and postnatal administration of flutamide  

PubMed Central

Background The dynamic cross-talk between epididymal cells is hormonally regulated and, in part, through direct cell-to-cell interactions. To date, no information is available regarding possible impact of anti-androgens on the proteins involved in the gap junctional communication within the boar epididymis. Thus, a question arised whether prenatal or postnatal exposure to an anti-androgen flutamide alters the expression of gap junction protein - connexin43 (Cx43) and androgen receptor (AR) expression in the caput, corpus and cauda epididymis and leads to delayed effects on morphology and function of adult pig epididymis. Methods First two experimental groups received flutamide prenatally on gestational days 20-28 and 80-88 (GD20 and GD80) and further two groups were exposed to flutamide postanatally on days 2-10 and 90-98 after birth (PD2 and PD90). Epididymides were collected from adult boars. Routine histology was performed using hematoxylin-eosin staining. The expression of Cx43 and AR were analyzed using immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Both analyses were supported by quantitative approaches to demonstrate the variations of the expression levels following the treatment. Apoptotic cells were identified using TUNEL assay. Results Histological examination revealed differences in epididymal morphology of flutamide-exposed boars when compared to controls. Scarce spermatic content were seen within the corpus and cauda lumina of GD20, PD2 and PD90 groups. Concomitantly, frequency of epididymal cell apoptosis was significantly higher (p < 0.05) after exposure to flutamide at GD20. Moreover, in GD20, PD2, and PD90 groups, significantly lower AR expression (p < 0.05) was found in the principal and basal cells of the corpus and cauda regions, while in the stromal cells AR expression was significantly reduced (p < 0.05) along the epididymal duct. Concomitantly, a decrease in Cx43 expression (p < 0.05) was noticed in the stromal cells of the cauda region of GD20 and PD2 groups. This indicates high sensitivity of the stromal cells to androgen withdrawal. Conclusions The region-specific alterations in the epididymis morphology and scarce spermatic content within the lumina of the corpus and cauda indicate that flutamide can induce delayed effects on the epididymal function of the adult boar by decrease in AR protein levels that results in altered androgen signaling. This may cause disturbances in androgen-dependent processes including Cx43 (de)regulation, however, we can not exclude the possibility that in response to flutamide decreased Cx43 expression may represent one mechanism responsible for functional disturbance of the boar epididymis.

2011-01-01

184

Heart on a plate: histological and functional assessment of isolated adult zebrafish hearts maintained in culture.  

PubMed

The zebrafish is increasingly used for cardiovascular genetic and functional studies. We present a novel protocol to maintain and monitor whole isolated beating adult zebrafish hearts in culture for long-term experiments. Excised whole adult zebrafish hearts were transferred directly into culture dishes containing optimized L-15 Leibovitz growth medium and maintained for 5 days. Hearts were assessed daily using video-edge analysis of ventricle function using low power microscopy images. High-throughput histology techniques were used to assess changes in myocardial architecture and cell viability. Mean spontaneous Heart rate (HR, min(-1)) declined significantly between day 0 and day 1 in culture (96.7 ± 19.5 to 45.2 ± 8.2 min-1, mean ± SD, p = 0.001), and thereafter declined more slowly to 27.6 ± 7.2 min(-1) on day 5. Ventricle wall motion amplitude (WMA) did not change until day 4 in culture (day 0, 46.7 ± 13.0 µm vs day 4, 16.9 ± 1.9 µm, p = 0.08). Contraction velocity (CV) declined between day 0 and day 3 (35.6 ± 14.8 vs 15.2 ± 5.3 µms(-1), respectively, p = 0.012) while relaxation velocity (RV) declined quite rapidly (day 0, 72.5 ± 11.9 vs day 1, 29.5 ± 5.8 µms(-1), p = 0.03). HR and WMA responded consistently to isoproterenol from day 0 to day 5 in culture while CV and RV showed less consistent responses to beta-agonist. Cellular architecture and cross-striation pattern of cardiomyocytes remained unchanged up to day 3 in culture and thereafter showed significant deterioration with loss of striation pattern, pyknotic nuclei and cell swelling. Apoptotic markers within the myocardium became increasingly frequent by day 3 in culture. Whole adult zebrafish hearts can be maintained in culture-medium for up to 3 days. However, after day-3 there is significant deterioration in ventricle function and heart rate accompanied by significant histological changes consistent with cell death and loss of cardiomyocyte cell integrity. Further studies are needed to assess whether this preparation can be optimised for longer term survival. PMID:24824845

Pieperhoff, Sebastian; Wilson, Kathryn S; Baily, James; de Mora, Kim; Maqsood, Sana; Vass, Sharron; Taylor, Jonathan; Del-Pozo, Jorge; MacRae, Calum A; Mullins, John J; Denvir, Martin A

2014-01-01

185

Heart on a Plate: Histological and Functional Assessment of Isolated Adult Zebrafish Hearts Maintained in Culture  

PubMed Central

The zebrafish is increasingly used for cardiovascular genetic and functional studies. We present a novel protocol to maintain and monitor whole isolated beating adult zebrafish hearts in culture for long-term experiments. Excised whole adult zebrafish hearts were transferred directly into culture dishes containing optimized L-15 Leibovitz growth medium and maintained for 5 days. Hearts were assessed daily using video-edge analysis of ventricle function using low power microscopy images. High-throughput histology techniques were used to assess changes in myocardial architecture and cell viability. Mean spontaneous Heart rate (HR, min?1) declined significantly between day 0 and day 1 in culture (96.7±19.5 to 45.2±8.2 min?1, mean±SD, p?=?0.001), and thereafter declined more slowly to 27.6±7.2 min?1 on day 5. Ventricle wall motion amplitude (WMA) did not change until day 4 in culture (day 0, 46.7±13.0 µm vs day 4, 16.9±1.9 µm, p?=?0.08). Contraction velocity (CV) declined between day 0 and day 3 (35.6±14.8 vs 15.2±5.3 µms?1, respectively, p?=?0.012) while relaxation velocity (RV) declined quite rapidly (day 0, 72.5±11.9 vs day 1, 29.5±5.8 µms?1, p?=?0.03). HR and WMA responded consistently to isoproterenol from day 0 to day 5 in culture while CV and RV showed less consistent responses to beta-agonist. Cellular architecture and cross-striation pattern of cardiomyocytes remained unchanged up to day 3 in culture and thereafter showed significant deterioration with loss of striation pattern, pyknotic nuclei and cell swelling. Apoptotic markers within the myocardium became increasingly frequent by day 3 in culture. Whole adult zebrafish hearts can be maintained in culture-medium for up to 3 days. However, after day-3 there is significant deterioration in ventricle function and heart rate accompanied by significant histological changes consistent with cell death and loss of cardiomyocyte cell integrity. Further studies are needed to assess whether this preparation can be optimised for longer term survival.

Pieperhoff, Sebastian; Wilson, Kathryn S.; Baily, James; de Mora, Kim; Maqsood, Sana; Vass, Sharron; Taylor, Jonathan; Del-Pozo, Jorge; MacRae, Calum A.; Mullins, John J.; Denvir, Martin A.

2014-01-01

186

Stability and Change in Health, Functional Abilities, and Behavior Problems Among Adults With and Without Down Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Changes in health, functional abilities, and behavior problems among 150 adults with Down syndrome and 240 adults with mental retardation due to other causes were examined with seven assessments over a 9-year period. Adults were primarily younger than 40, the age at which declines begin to be evident in individuals with Down syndrome. Adults with Down syndrome were advantaged in their functional abilities and lack of behavior problems, comparable in health, and exhibited comparable rates of change on these measures as adults with mental retardation due to other causes. Placement out of the parental home and parental death were predictors of change in health, functional abilities, and behavior problems.

Esbensen, Anna J.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Krauss, Marty Wyngaarden

2010-01-01

187

The culture and maintenance of functional retinal pigment epithelial monolayers from adult human eye.  

PubMed

The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is implicated in many eye diseases, including age-related macular degeneration, and therefore isolating and culturing these cells from recently deceased adult human donors is the ideal source for disease studies. Adult RPE could also be used as a cell source for transplantation therapy for RPE degenerative disease, likely requiring first in vitro expansion of the cells obtained from a patient. Previous protocols have successfully extracted RPE from adult donors; however improvements in yield, cell survival, and functionality are needed. We describe here a protocol optimized for adult human tissue that yields expanded cultures of RPE with morphological, phenotypic, and functional characteristics similar to freshly isolated RPE. These cells can be expanded and cultured for several months without senescence, gross cell death, or undergoing morphological changes. The protocol takes around a month to obtain functional RPE monolayers with accurate morphological characteristics and normal protein expression, as shown through immunohistochemistry analysis, RNA expression profiles via quantitative PCR (qPCR), and transepithelial resistance (TER) measurements. Included in this chapter are steps used to extract RPE from human adult globes, cell culture, cell splitting, cell bleaching, immunohistochemistry, and qPCR for RPE markers, and TER measurements as functional test. PMID:23097100

Blenkinsop, Timothy A; Salero, Enrique; Stern, Jeffrey H; Temple, Sally

2013-01-01

188

Psychosocial functioning of young adults with cystic fibrosis and their families.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND--The psychosocial functioning of adolescents and young adults with cystic fibrosis still living in the parental home was investigated. With its proven genetic aetiology cystic fibrosis is an ideal model with which to assess the impact of a chronic and life threatening disorder on family and individual psychological and social functioning. METHODS--Twenty nine patients with cystic fibrosis and their families were compared with those of 27 patients with anorexia nervosa and 31 well controls. Assessments were made using self reporting, interview, and observational methods. RESULTS--Most patients with cystic fibrosis were in robust psychological health and only differed from their healthy peers in that they were much less likely to be in employment. Mothers of patients with cystic fibrosis or anorexia nervosa were more likely than the mothers of the well group to be emotionally distressed, although this was not so for fathers. Young people in both illness groups were more likely to have parents with high levels of expressed emotion. Most families of patients with cystic fibrosis had good problem solving abilities. CONCLUSIONS--In spite of the burden of illness in cystic fibrosis psychological functioning in many respects matches that of well young people.

Blair, C.; Cull, A.; Freeman, C. P.

1994-01-01

189

Food insecurity and cognitive function in Puerto Rican adults123  

PubMed Central

Background: Food insecurity is associated with nutrient inadequacy and a variety of unfavorable health outcomes. However, little is known about whether food security is associated with lower cognitive function in the elderly. Objective: We investigated the prevalence of food insecurity in a representative sample of 1358 Puerto Ricans aged 45–75 y living in Massachusetts in relation to cognitive function performances. Design: Food security was assessed with the US Household Food Security Scale. Cognitive function was measured to capture general cognition with a battery of 7 tests: Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), word list learning (verbal memory), digit span (attention), clock drawing and figure copying (visual-spatial ability), and Stroop and verbal fluency tests (fluency executive functioning). Results: The overall prevalence of food insecurity during the past 12 mo was 12.1%; 6.1% of the subjects reported very low food security. Food insecurity was inversely associated with global cognitive performance, as assessed by the MMSE score. The adjusted difference in the MMSE score was ?0.90 (95% CI: ?1.6, ?0.19; P for trend = 0.003) for a comparison of participants with very low food security with those who were food secure, after adjustment for age, smoking, education, poverty status, income, acculturation, plasma homocysteine, alcohol, diabetes, and hypertension. Food insecurity was significantly associated with lower scores for word-list learning, percentage retention, letter fluency, and digit span backward tests. Conclusions: Very low food security was prevalent among the study subjects and was associated with lower cognitive performance. Further studies, both observational and experimental, are warranted to clarify the direction of causality in this association.

Gao, Xiang; Scott, Tammy; Falcon, Luis M; Wilde, Parke E; Tucker, Katherine L

2009-01-01

190

Disparities in psychosocial functioning in a diverse sample of adults with anxiety disorders.  

PubMed

Anxiety disorders are associated with psychosocial functional impairments, but no study has compared how these impairments might vary by ethno-racial status. We examined whether minority status was uniquely associated with functional impairments in 431 adults with anxiety disorders. Functioning was measured in the rater-assessed domains of: Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF); global psychosocial functioning; work, relationship, and recreational functioning; and, self-reported: life satisfaction, mental health functioning, physical functioning, and disability status. After controlling for demographic and clinical variables, results revealed evidence of disparities, whereby African Americans (AAs), particularly those with low income, had worse GAF, worse global psychosocial functioning, and were more likely to be disabled compared to non-Latino Whites. Latinos, particularly those with low income, had worse global psychosocial functioning than non-Latino Whites. Results suggest AAs and Latinos are at increased risk for functional impairments not better accounted for by other demographic or clinical variables. PMID:24685821

Moitra, Ethan; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Stout, Robert L; Angert, Erica; Weisberg, Risa B; Keller, Martin B

2014-04-01

191

Plasticity of functional connectivity in the adult spinal cord  

PubMed Central

This paper emphasizes several characteristics of the neural control of locomotion that provide opportunities for developing strategies to maximize the recovery of postural and locomotor functions after a spinal cord injury (SCI). The major points of this paper are: (i) the circuitry that controls standing and stepping is extremely malleable and reflects a continuously varying combination of neurons that are activated when executing stereotypical movements; (ii) the connectivity between neurons is more accurately perceived as a functional rather than as an anatomical phenomenon; (iii) the functional connectivity that controls standing and stepping reflects the physiological state of a given assembly of synapses, where the probability of these synaptic events is not deterministic; (iv) rather, this probability can be modulated by other factors such as pharmacological agents, epidural stimulation and/or motor training; (v) the variability observed in the kinematics of consecutive steps reflects a fundamental feature of the neural control system and (vi) machine-learning theories elucidate the need to accommodate variability in developing strategies designed to enhance motor performance by motor training using robotic devices after an SCI.

Cai, L.L; Courtine, G; Fong, A.J; Burdick, J.W; Roy, R.R; Edgerton, V.R

2006-01-01

192

Fundamental Differences in Callosal Structure, Neurophysiologic Function, and Bimanual Control in Young and Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Bimanual actions involve coordinated motion but often rely on the movements performed with each hand to be different. Older adults exhibit differentially greater variability for bimanual actions in which each hand has an independent movement goal. Such actions rely on interhemispheric communication via the corpus callosum, including both facilitatory and inhibitory interactions. Here, we investigated whether age differences in callosal structure and interhemispheric function contribute to this selective movement difficulty. Participants performed 3 force production tasks: 1) unimanual, 2) bimanual simultaneous, and 3) bimanual independent. Older adults had significantly greater interhemispheric facilitation during voluntary muscle activation. We also report a fundamental shift with age in the relationship between callosal tract microstructural integrity and interhemispheric inhibition (IHI). Specifically, older adults with relatively greater callosal tract microstructural integrity have less IHI. Furthermore, greater IHI was related to poorer bimanual performance (assessed by dominant hand force variability) in older adults on all tasks, whereas this relationship was only observed in young adults for the bimanual independent condition. These findings indicate changes in interhemispheric communication with advancing age such that older adults may rely on bilateral cortical cooperation to a greater extent than young adults for manual actions.

Seidler, R. D.

2012-01-01

193

Quantitative Expression Profile of Distinct Functional Regions in the Adult Mouse Brain  

PubMed Central

The adult mammalian brain is composed of distinct regions with specialized roles including regulation of circadian clocks, feeding, sleep/awake, and seasonal rhythms. To find quantitative differences of expression among such various brain regions, we conducted the BrainStars (B*) project, in which we profiled the genome-wide expression of ?50 small brain regions, including sensory centers, and centers for motion, time, memory, fear, and feeding. To avoid confounds from temporal differences in gene expression, we sampled each region every 4 hours for 24 hours, and pooled the samples for DNA-microarray assays. Therefore, we focused on spatial differences in gene expression. We used informatics to identify candidate genes with expression changes showing high or low expression in specific regions. We also identified candidate genes with stable expression across brain regions that can be used as new internal control genes, and ligand-receptor interactions of neurohormones and neurotransmitters. Through these analyses, we found 8,159 multi-state genes, 2,212 regional marker gene candidates for 44 small brain regions, 915 internal control gene candidates, and 23,864 inferred ligand-receptor interactions. We also found that these sets include well-known genes as well as novel candidate genes that might be related to specific functions in brain regions. We used our findings to develop an integrated database (http://brainstars.org/) for exploring genome-wide expression in the adult mouse brain, and have made this database openly accessible. These new resources will help accelerate the functional analysis of the mammalian brain and the elucidation of its regulatory network systems.

Nagano, Mamoru; Uno, Kenichiro D.; Tsujino, Kaori; Hanashima, Carina; Shigeyoshi, Yasufumi; Ueda, Hiroki R.

2011-01-01

194

Interparental conflict and relations with parents as predictors of young adult functioning.  

PubMed

Interparental conflict is a known risk factor for child adjustment problems; yet few studies have examined its long-term effects. This study tests the following hypotheses: Interparental conflict has both longitudinal and concurrent influences on the functioning of young adult children, and the relationship between young adults and their parents mediates these influences. We assessed a community sample (N = 243) of families when the target child was in early to middle adolescence. We then reassessed them 6 years later during young adulthood. The links of interparental conflict measured at the two time points to young adults' general psychopathology and antisocial behavior were examined using multiple regression analyses. The quality of the relationship between young adults and each parent was added to each equation as a potential mediating variable. Results showed that concurrent, but not earlier, interparental conflict predicted males' antisocial behavior. No support was found for the mediational model, but support was found for an alternate model positing direct effects for interparental conflict and the parent-young adult relationship on young adult functioning. For females and males, problematic relationships with mothers and father predicted greater general psychopathology, while problems in paternal relationships predicted higher levels of antisocial behavior only for females. PMID:9089130

Neighbors, B D; Forehand, R; Bau, J J

1997-01-01

195

Intelligence and Medial Temporal Lobe Function in Older Adults: A Functional MR Imaging-Based Investigation  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The influence of general intelligence and formal education on functional MR imaging (fMRI) activation has not been thoroughly studied in older adults. Although these factors could be controlled for through study design, this approach makes sample selection more difficult and reduces power. This study was undertaken to examine our hypothesis that intelligence and education would impact medial temporal lobe (MTL) fMRI responses to an episodic memory task in healthy elderly subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS Thirty-six women and 38 men, 50–83 years of age (mean, 63.4 ± 7.9 years), completed an auditory paired-associates paradigm in a 1.5T magnet. The amplitude and volume of fMRI activation for both the right and left MTLs and MTL subregions were correlated with the intelligence quotients (IQs) and educational levels by using Pearson correlation coefficient tests and regression analyses. RESULTS The participants’ mean estimated full scale IQ and verbal IQ scores were 110.4 ± 7.6 (range, 92–123) and 108.9 ± 8.7 (range, 88–123), respectively. The years of education showed a mean of 16.1 ± 3.2 years (range, 8–25 years). The paradigm produced significant activation in the MTL and subregions. However, the volume and amplitude of activation were unrelated to either IQ or years of schooling in men and/or women. CONCLUSIONS We found no evidence of an effect of IQ or education on either the volume or amplitude of fMRI activation, suggesting that these factors do not necessarily need to be incorporated into study design or considered when evaluating other group relationships with fMRI.

Yousem, D.M.; Yassa, M.A.; Cristinzio, C.; Kusevic, I.; Mohamed, M.; Caffo, B.S.; Bassett, S.S.

2010-01-01

196

Prefrontal Response and Frontostriatal Functional Connectivity to Monetary Reward in Abstinent Alcohol-Dependent Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Although altered function in neural reward circuitry is widely proposed in models of addiction, more recent conceptual views have emphasized the role of disrupted response in prefrontal regions. Changes in regions such as the orbitofrontal cortex, medial prefrontal cortex, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex are postulated to contribute to the compulsivity, impulsivity, and altered executive function that are central to addiction. In addition, few studies have examined function in these regions during young adulthood, when exposure is less chronic than in typical samples of alcohol-dependent adults. To address these issues, we examined neural response and functional connectivity during monetary reward in 24 adults with alcohol dependence and 24 psychiatrically healthy adults. Adults with alcohol dependence exhibited less response to the receipt of monetary reward in a set of prefrontal regions including the medial prefrontal cortex, lateral orbitofrontal cortex, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Adults with alcohol dependence also exhibited greater negative correlation between function in each of these regions and that in the nucleus accumbens. Within the alcohol-dependent group, those with family history of alcohol dependence exhibited lower mPFC response, and those with more frequent drinking exhibited greater negative functional connectivity between the mPFC and the nucleus accumbens. These findings indicate that alcohol dependence is associated with less engagement of prefrontal cortical regions, suggesting weak or disrupted regulation of ventral striatal response. This pattern of prefrontal response and frontostriatal connectivity has consequences for the behavior patterns typical of addiction. Furthermore, brain-behavior findings indicate that the potential mechanisms of disruption in frontostriatal circuitry in alcohol dependence include family liability to alcohol use problems and more frequent use of alcohol. In all, these findings build on the extant literature on reward-circuit function in addiction and suggest mechanisms for disrupted function in alcohol dependence.

Forbes, Erika E.; Rodriguez, Eric E.; Musselman, Samuel; Narendran, Rajesh

2014-01-01

197

Neurons born in the adult dentate gyrus form functional synapses with target cells  

PubMed Central

Adult neurogenesis occurs in the hippocampus and the olfactory bulb of the mammalian CNS. Recent studies have demonstrated that newborn granule cells of the adult hippocampus are postsynaptic targets of excitatory and inhibitory neurons, but evidence of synapse formation by the axons of these cells is still lacking. By combining retroviral expression of green fluorescent protein in adult-born neurons of the mouse dentate gyrus with immuno-electron microscopy, we found output synapses that were formed by labeled terminals on appropriate target cells in the CA3 area and the hilus. Furthermore, retroviral expression of channelrhodopsin-2 allowed us to light-stimulate newborn granule cells and identify postsynaptic target neurons by whole-cell recordings in acute slices. Our structural and functional evidence indicates that axons of adult-born granule cells establish synapses with hilar interneurons, mossy cells and CA3 pyramidal cells and release glutamate as their main neurotransmitter.

Toni, Nicolas; Laplagne, Diego A; Zhao, Chunmei; Lombardi, Gabriela; Ribak, Charles E; Gage, Fred H; Schinder, Alejandro F

2008-01-01

198

Dynamic regulation of NMDAR function in the adult brain by the stress hormone corticosterone  

PubMed Central

Stress and corticosteroids dynamically modulate the expression of synaptic plasticity at glutamatergic synapses in the developed brain. Together with alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptors (AMPAR), N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) are critical mediators of synaptic function and are essential for the induction of many forms of synaptic plasticity. Regulation of NMDAR function by cortisol/corticosterone (CORT) may be fundamental to the effects of stress on synaptic plasticity. Recent reports of the efficacy of NMDAR antagonists in treating certain stress-associated psychopathologies further highlight the importance of understanding the regulation of NMDAR function by CORT. Knowledge of how corticosteroids regulate NMDAR function within the adult brain is relatively sparse, perhaps due to a common belief that NMDAR function is stable in the adult brain. We review recent results from our laboratory and others demonstrating dynamic regulation of NMDAR function by CORT in the adult brain. In addition, we consider the issue of how differences in the early life environment may program differential sensitivity to modulation of NMDAR function by CORT and how this may influence synaptic function during stress. Findings from these studies demonstrate that NMDAR function in the adult hippocampus remains sensitive to even brief exposures to CORT and that the capacity for modulation of NMDAR may be programmed, in part, by the early life environment. Modulation of NMDAR function may contribute to dynamic regulation of synaptic plasticity and adaptation in the face of stress, however, enhanced NMDAR function may be implicated in mechanisms of stress-related psychopathologies including depression.

Tse, Yiu Chung; Bagot, Rosemary C.; Wong, Tak Pan

2012-01-01

199

Leptin injection during lactation alters thyroid function in adult rats.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of hyperleptinemia during the first ten days of life on thyroid function in adulthood. After birth, pups were separated into two groups: L8 - receiving daily injections of recombinant mouse leptin (8 microg/100 g body weight, sc) and control (C) - receiving the same volume of saline. Both groups were treated for the first 10 days of lactation. The animals were sacrificed at 150 days of age, and the blood was collected for leptin, TSH, total triiodothyronine (TT 3 ) and total thyroxin (TT 4 ) serum concentration determinations by radioimmunoassay. The thyroid gland was excised to determine thyroid iodine uptake. Leptin, TT 3 and TT 4 serum concentrations in L8 group were significantly (108 %, 47 % and 32 %; p < 0.05) higher than that of controls. There was no significant difference between the groups related to thyroid iodine uptake and TSH serum concentration. These data suggest that the first half of lactation period is important in determining thyroid function in adulthood, and that it can be programmed by serum leptin concentration. PMID:12920660

Teixeira, C V; Ramos, C D; Mouco, T; Passos, M C; De Moura, E G

2003-06-01

200

Vitamin K status and cognitive function in healthy older adults.  

PubMed

Evidence is accumulating that vitamin K could have a role in cognition, especially in aging. Using data from the Québec Longitudinal Study on Nutrition and Successful Aging (NuAge), a cross-sectional analysis was conducted to examine the associations between vitamin K status, measured as serum phylloquinone concentrations, and performance in verbal and non-verbal episodic memory, executive functions, and speed of processing. The sample included 320 men and women aged 70 to 85 years who were free of cognitive impairment. After adjustment for covariates, higher serum phylloquinone concentration (log-transformed) was associated with better verbal episodic memory performances (F = 2.43, p = 0.048); specifically with the scores (Z-transformed) on the second (? = 0.47; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.13-0.82), third (? = 0.41; 95% CI = 0.06-0.75), and 20-minute delayed (? = 0.47; 95% CI = 0.12-0.82) free recall trials of the RL/RI-16 Free and Cued Recall Task. No associations were found with non-verbal episodic memory, executive functions, and speed of processing. Our study adds evidence to the possible role of vitamin K in cognition during aging, specifically in the consolidation of the memory trace. PMID:23850343

Presse, Nancy; Belleville, Sylvie; Gaudreau, Pierrette; Greenwood, Carol E; Kergoat, Marie-Jeanne; Morais, Jose A; Payette, Hélène; Shatenstein, Bryna; Ferland, Guylaine

2013-12-01

201

Driving in young adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Knowledge, performance, adverse outcomes, and the role of executive functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past studies find that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) creates a higher risk for adverse driving outcomes. This study comprehensively evaluated driving in adults with ADHD by comparing 105 young adults with the disorder (age 17-28) to 64 community control (CC) adults on five domains of driving ability and a battery of executive function tasks. The ADHD group self-reported significantly

RUSSELL A. BARKLEY; KEVIN R. MURPHY; GEORGE J. DUPAUL; TRACIE BUSH

2002-01-01

202

Exploring the aggregation of four functional measures in a population of older adults with joint pain and comorbidity  

PubMed Central

Background In clinical settings, it is important for health care providers to measure different aspects of functioning in older adults with joint pain and comorbidity. Besides the use of distinct measures, it could also be attractive to have one general measure of functioning that incorporates several distinct measures, but provides one summary score to quantify overall level of functioning, for example for the identification of older adults at risk of poor functional outcome. Therefore, we selected four measures of functioning: Physical Functioning (PF), Activities of Daily Living (ADL), Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) and participation, and tested the possibility to aggregate these measures into one general measure of functioning. Methods A prospective cohort study of older adults (?65 years) with joint pain and comorbidity provided baseline data (n?=?407) consisting of PF (PF subscale, RAND-36; 10 items), ADL (KATZ index; 6 items), IADL (Lawton index; 7 items) and participation (KAP; 6 items). We tested two models with confirmatory factor analysis: first, a bifactor model with all four measures and second, a bifactor model with PF, ADL and IADL and a correlated but distinct subgroup factor for participation. Several model fit indexes and reliability coefficients, such as explained common variance (ECV) and omegas were computed for both models. Results The first model fitted the data well, but the reliability analysis indicated multidimensionality and unique information in the subgroup factor participation. The second model showed similar model fits, but better reliability; ECV?=?0.67, omega-t?=?0.94, low omega-s?=?0.18-0.22 on the subgroup factors and high omega of 0.82 on participation, which all were in favour of the second model. Conclusions The results indicate that PF, ADL and IADL could be aggregated into one general measure of functioning, whereas participation should be considered as a distinct measure.

2013-01-01

203

Adult Adjustment among High School Graduates with Mild Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Iowa young adults with learning disabilities (n=737), behavior disorders (n=59), and mental disabilities (n=142), all graduates of resource room programs, were surveyed concerning adult adjustment. Results are reported in terms of marital status, living arrangements, competitive employment, unemployment, postsecondary education, and comparison of…

Sitlington, Patricia L.; And Others

1993-01-01

204

Prospective identification of functionally distinct stem cells and neurosphere-initiating cells in adult mouse forebrain.  

PubMed

Neurosphere formation is commonly used as a surrogate for neural stem cell (NSC) function but the relationship between neurosphere-initiating cells (NICs) and NSCs remains unclear. We prospectively identified, and isolated by flow cytometry, adult mouse lateral ventricle subventricular zone (SVZ) NICs as Glast(mid)EGFR(high)PlexinB2(high)CD24(-/low)O4/PSA-NCAM(-/low)Ter119/CD45(-) (GEPCOT) cells. They were highly mitotic and short-lived in vivo based on fate-mapping with Ascl1(CreERT2) and Dlx1(CreERT2). In contrast, pre-GEPCOT cells were quiescent, expressed higher Glast, and lower EGFR and PlexinB2. Pre-GEPCOT cells could not form neurospheres but expressed the stem cell markers Slc1a3-CreER(T), GFAP-CreER(T2), Sox2(CreERT2), and Gli1(CreERT2) and were long-lived in vivo. While GEPCOT NICs were ablated by temozolomide, pre-GEPCOT cells survived and repopulated the SVZ. Conditional deletion of the Bmi-1 polycomb protein depleted pre-GEPCOT and GEPCOT cells, though pre-GEPCOT cells were more dependent upon Bmi-1 for Cdkn2a (p16(Ink4a)) repression. Our data distinguish quiescent NSCs from NICs and make it possible to study their properties in vivo.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02669.001. PMID:24843006

Mich, John K; Signer, Robert Aj; Nakada, Daisuke; Pineda, André; Burgess, Rebecca J; Vue, Tou Yia; Johnson, Jane E; Morrison, Sean J

2014-01-01

205

Mediating Effect of Executive Function on Memory in Normal Aging Adults  

PubMed Central

Objective We hypothesize that the effect of aging on memory is mediated by executive function. Methods Two hundred and thirty healthy adults (101 male, 129 female) were recruited for the study. We used a promising, newly developed, computerized neuropsychological test for the measurement of executive function and memory. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling and path analysis. Results The full mediation model showed a good fit to the data. However, chi-squared (?2) tests for model comparison indicated that the partial mediation model better fits our data. Thus, the partial mediation model was used as the final model. In terms of auditory-verbal memory, the effect of aging on memory was fully mediated by executive function. However, visuo-spatial memory was significantly affected both indirectly (through executive function) and directly (by aging). Gender differences were not significant in this model. Conclusion This study demonstrated the importance of executive function in the memory functioning of normal aging adults. It is noteworthy that modality differences were found between auditory-verbal and visuo-spatial memory. Aging is not the only factor that drives memory decline, and its direct, adverse effect on memory was more prominent in the visuo-spatial memory task than auditory-verbal memory task. Since performance in both modalities is fully or partially mediated by executive function, it is important to train normal aging adults in executive control skills, such as planning, strategy formation, and rapid decision making.

Kim, Min-Jae; Kwon, Jun Soo

2013-01-01

206

Effect of a high intensity quadriceps fatigue protocol on knee joint mechanics and muscle activation during gait in young adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of impaired quadriceps function on knee joint biomechanics and neuromuscular\\u000a function during gait. Surface electromyograms, three-dimensional motion and ground reaction forces were collected during gait\\u000a before and after 20 healthy adults completed a high intensity quadriceps fatigue protocol. Pattern recognition techniques\\u000a were utilized to examine changes in amplitude and temporal

Gillian Hatfield Murdock; Cheryl L. Hubley-Kozey

207

Cognitive Function and Treatment Adherence in Older Adults with Heart Failure  

PubMed Central

Objective Treatment recommendation and guidelines for patients with heart failure (HF) can be complex, and past work has shown HF patients to demonstrate low rates of adherence to recommended health behaviors. While previous work has identified several medical, demographic, and psychosocial predictors of HF persons’ capacity to adhere to treatment recommendations, little is known about the contribution of cognitive impairment to reported treatment adherence in this population. Methods 149 persons with HF (68.08 years; SD = 10.74) completed a brief fitness assessment and neuropsychological testing. Treatment adherence was assessed using the Heart Failure Compliance Questionnaire, a brief measure that asks participants to report their adherence to a variety of recommended health behaviors (i.e., medication management, diet, exercise, among others). Results 16.1% of participants reported poor overall adherence, with particularly high rates of non-adherence to dietary and exercise recommendations. Hierarchical regression analyses adjusting for possible confounds revealed reduced performance on attention (? = .26, p = .01), executive function (? = .18, p = .04), and language (? = .22, p = .01) were associated with poorer overall adherence. Follow-up analyses showed these cognitive domains were associated with behaviors such as keeping doctor appointments, medication management, and dietary recommendations (p < .05 for all). Conclusion The current findings demonstrate that cognitive function is an independent contributor to adherence in older adults with HF. Prospective studies that objectively measure treatment adherence are needed to clarify these findings and identify possible strategies to improve outcomes in this population.

Alosco, Michael L.; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; van Dulmen, Manfred; Raz, Naftali; Cohen, Ronald; Sweet, Lawrence H.; Colbert, Lisa H.; Josephson, Richard; Hughes, Joel; Rosneck, Jim; Gunstad, John

2012-01-01

208

Passaged Adult Chondrocytes Can Form Engineered Cartilage with Functional Mechanical Properties: A Canine Model  

PubMed Central

It was hypothesized that previously optimized serum-free culture conditions for juvenile bovine chondrocytes could be adapted to generate engineered cartilage with physiologic mechanical properties in a preclinical, adult canine model. Primary or passaged (using growth factors) adult chondrocytes from three adult dogs were encapsulated in agarose, and cultured in serum-free media with transforming growth factor-?3. After 28 days in culture, engineered cartilage formed by primary chondrocytes exhibited only small increases in glycosaminoglycan content. However, all passaged chondrocytes on day 28 elaborated a cartilage matrix with compressive properties and glycosaminoglycan content in the range of native adult canine cartilage values. A preliminary biocompatibility study utilizing chondral and osteochondral constructs showed no gross or histological signs of rejection, with all implanted constructs showing excellent integration with surrounding cartilage and subchondral bone. This study demonstrates that adult canine chondrocytes can form a mechanically functional, biocompatible engineered cartilage tissue under optimized culture conditions. The encouraging findings of this work highlight the potential for tissue engineering strategies using adult chondrocytes in the clinical treatment of cartilage defects.

Ng, Kenneth W.; Lima, Eric G.; Bian, Liming; O'Conor, Christopher J.; Jayabalan, Prakash S.; Stoker, Aaron M.; Kuroki, Keiichi; Cook, Cristi R.; Ateshian, Gerard A.; Cook, James L.

2010-01-01

209

Childhood Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Substance Use, and Adult Functioning among Incarcerated Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To estimate prevalence of childhood ADHD among incarcerated women and determine its association with substance use and adult functioning. Method: 192 female participants are recruited from the Department of Corrections in Rhode Island. Childhood ADHD is defined as scoring >46 on the Wender Utah Rating Scale. Results: The findings…

Hennessey, Kathleen A.; Stein, Michael D.; Rosengard, Cynthia; Rose, Jennifer S.; Clarke, Jennifer G.

2010-01-01

210

Analysis of the physical and functional parameters of older adults with chronic venous disease.  

PubMed

The chronic venous disease (CVD) results from a situation of venous hypertension which occurs when there is a dysfunction of the calf pump musculature. Such alteration contributes to the worsening of the disease and may generate physical and functional limitations among older adults, carriers of CVD. In the present study, we aimed to compare the performance of the plantar flexor, the range of motion (ROM) of the ankle, gait speed and functional capacity among older adults with and without CVD. This is a cross-sectional study, with a convenience sample of 30 older adults with CVD and 30 without the disease. Gait speed was assessed by the GAITrite system, version 3.9; the dorsiflexion (DF) and plantar flexion (PF) ROMs, by goniometry, and the function of the plantar flexors by the isokinetic dynamometry. Functional capacity was evaluated by Katz and Lawton scales and by the assessment of the activities of social nature. The CVD group presented lesser ROM of DF and PF, peak torque and power of plantar flexors, gait speed and social restriction when compared to the control group (p<0.05). We concluded that older adults with CVD present important limitations of ROM and strength, mobility and social restriction confirming findings of previous studies. Such results might guide professionals in their approaches both for determining the relevance of parameters to be assessed and of their therapeutic approaches. PMID:22682424

de Moura, Regina Márcia Faria; Gomes, Henrique de Alencar; da Silva, Silvia Lanziotti Azevedo; Britto, Raquel Rodrigues; Dias, Rosângela Correa

2012-01-01

211

From pattern to purpose: how comparative studies contribute to understanding the function of adult neurogenesis.  

PubMed

The study of adult neurogenesis has had an explosion of fruitful growth. Yet numerous uncertainties and challenges persist. Our review begins with a survey of species that show evidence of adult neurogenesis. We then discuss how neurogenesis varies across brain regions and point out that regional specializations can indicate functional adaptations. Lifespan and aging are key life-history traits. Whereas 'adult neurogenesis' is the common term in the literature, it does not reflect the reality of neurogenesis being primarily a 'juvenile' phenomenon. We discuss the sharp decline with age as a universal trait of neurogenesis with inevitable functional consequences. Finally, the main body of the review focuses on the function of neurogenesis in birds and mammals. Selected examples illustrate how our understanding of avian and mammalian neurogenesis can complement each other. It is clear that although the two phyla have some common features, the function of adult neurogenesis may not be similar between them and filling the gaps will help us understand neurogenesis as an evolutionarily conserved trait to meet particular ecological pressures. PMID:21929628

Barker, Jennifer M; Boonstra, Rudy; Wojtowicz, Jan Martin

2011-09-01

212

Relation of Physical Activity to Memory Functioning in Older Adults: The Memory Workout Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Memory Workout, a CD-ROM program designed to help older adults increase changes in physical and cognitive activity influencing memory, was tested with 24 subjects. Results revealed a significant relationship between exercise time, exercise efficacy, and cognitive function, as well as interest in improving memory and physical activity.…

Rebok, George W.; Plude, Dana J.

2001-01-01

213

Intrapersonal and Interpersonal Functioning among Middle-Aged Female Adult Children of Alcoholics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined differences among middle-aged, middle-class female adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) and female non-ACOAs with regard to interpersonal and intrapersonal functioning. ACOAs report higher levels of depression, marital conflict, and parental role distress; lower levels of self-esteem, perceived social support, family cohesion, marital…

Domenico, Donna; Windle, Michael

1993-01-01

214

Effects of ambient ozone on respiratory function in healthy adults exercising outdoors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of exposure to ozone (O3) in ambient air on respiratory function was studied in 30 healthy adult nonsmokers engaged in a regular daily program of outdoor exercise in Tuxedo, NY during the summer of 1985. Each subject did the same exercise each day, but exercise intensity and duration varied widely between subjects, with minute ventilation ranging from 20

D. M. Spektor; M. Lippmann; G. D. Thurston; P. J. Lioy; J. Stecko; G. OConnor; E. Garshick; F. E. Speizer; C. Hayes

1988-01-01

215

Effects of ambient ozone on respiratory function in healthy adults exercising outdoors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of exposure to ozone (Oâ) in ambient air on respiratory function was studied in 30 healthy adult nonsmokers engaged in a regular daily program of outdoor exercise in Tuxedo, NY during the summer of 1985. Each subject did the same exercise each day, but exercise intensity and duration varied widely between subjects, with minute ventilation ranging from 20

D. M. Spektor; M. Lippmann; G. D. Thurston; P. J. Lioy; J. Stecko

1988-01-01

216

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LUNG FUNCTION AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS IN YOUNG ADULT BLACK AND WHITE MALES AND FEMALES  

EPA Science Inventory

The relationships of lung function to physical characteristics in young adults have not been adequately described for different gender-race groups in the United States. s part of a study of the effects of ozone exposure upon Black and White men and women, we measured lung volumes...

217

Ego-Centricism and Cognitive Functioning in Iranian Young Adults' Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This introspective paper proves Iranian young adults' ego-centricism and its cognitive functioning an encumbrance in English language learning. Thru a brief look at the initiation of language acquisition in children and the generalizibility to language teaching and learning programs, it is realized that the ego of every learner is the main axis of…

Ebrahimi, Pouria

2008-01-01

218

The role of executive functioning in CBT: a pilot study with anxious older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for late life anxiety and depression. The successful use of CBT is assumed to rely on cognitive skills known as executive functions (EF; e.g., hypothesis generation, allocation of attention, self-monitoring) governed by the prefrontal cortex. Because older adults sometimes have executive deficits as a consequence of normal aging, EF may be a

Jan Mohlman; Jack M. Gorman

2005-01-01

219

Age of Acquisition Effects on the Functional Organization of Language in the Adult Brain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we neuroimaged deaf adults as they performed two linguistic tasks with sentences in American Sign Language, grammatical judgment and phonemic-hand judgment. Participants' age-onset of sign language acquisition ranged from birth to 14 years; length of sign language experience was substantial and…

Mayberry, Rachel I.; Chen, Jen-Kai; Witcher, Pamela; Klein, Denise

2011-01-01

220

Education, Functional Limitations, and Life Satisfaction among Older Adults in South Korea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the associations of educational level with functioning and life satisfaction among community-dwelling older adults in South Korea ("n" = 4,152). The sample was drawn from Wave I of the Korean Longitudinal Study on Aging. To examine educational disparities, separate analyses were run to note predictors in less educated…

Lee, Eun-Kyoung Othelia; Lee, Jungui

2013-01-01

221

Cardiac Autonomic Function during Submaximal Treadmill Exercise in Adults with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study determined whether the cardiac autonomic function of adults with Down syndrome (DS) differs from that of nondisabled persons during submaximal dynamic exercise. Thirteen participants with DS and 12 nondisabled individuals performed maximal and submaximal treadmill tests with metabolic and heart rate (HR) measurements. Spectral analysis…

Mendonca, Goncalo V.; Pereira, Fernando D.; Fernhall, Bo

2011-01-01

222

The Association between Cardiovascular Disease and Cochlear Function in Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this research was to evaluate the relation between self-reported cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cochlear function in older adults. The Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study (EHLS) is an ongoing population-based study of hearing loss and its risk factors in Beaver Dam, Wisconsin. As part of the EHLS questionnaire, participants were…

Torre, Peter, III; Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Klein, Barbara E.K.; Klein, Ronald; Nondahl, David M.

2005-01-01

223

Identity Diffusion as a Function of Sex-Roles in Adult Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study sought to demonstrate that the relative degree of adult female identity diffusion, as well as certain personality correlates, would be a function of specific sex roles and their combinations. Three groups of 32 women each were selected as married and noncareer, married and career, or unmarried and career women. They were administered a…

Jabury, Donald Eugene

224

Legally Prescribed Functions of Adult and Juvenile Probation Officers: Worlds Apart?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Historically, there have been two competing goals of probation: law enforcement and rehabilitation of the offender. Accordingly, the role, functions, and tasks of probation officers are at times in conflict. In this paper we explore the roles of adult and juvenile probation officers and compare their statutorily prescribed duties. In so doing we…

Steiner, Benjamin; Purkiss, Marcus; Kifer, Misty; Roberts, Elizabeth; Hemmens, Craig

2004-01-01

225

The Revised Direct Assessment of Functional Status for Independent Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The original version of the Direct Assessment of Functional Status (DAFS), a measure of instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs), was found to have a ceiling effect in older adults living independently in the community. This suggested that the tasks measured, although relevant, do not require full use of this population's…

McDougall, Graham J.; Becker, Heather; Vaughan, Phillip W.; Acee, Taylor W.; Delville, Carol L.

2010-01-01

226

Physical activity and functional limitations in older adults: a systematic review related to Canada's Physical Activity Guidelines  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose was to conduct systematic reviews of the relationship between physical activity of healthy community-dwelling older (>65 years) adults and outcomes of functional limitations, disability, or loss of independence. Methods Prospective cohort studies with an outcome related to functional independence or to cognitive function were searched, as well as exercise training interventions that reported a functional outcome. Electronic database search strategies were used to identify citations which were screened (title and abstract) for inclusion. Included articles were reviewed to complete standardized data extraction tables, and assess study quality. An established system of assessing the level and grade of evidence for recommendations was employed. Results Sixty-six studies met inclusion criteria for the relationship between physical activity and functional independence, and 34 were included with a cognitive function outcome. Greater physical activity of an aerobic nature (categorized by a variety of methods) was associated with higher functional status (expressed by a host of outcome measures) in older age. For functional independence, moderate (and high) levels of physical activity appeared effective in conferring a reduced risk (odds ratio ~0.5) of functional limitations or disability. Limitation in higher level performance outcomes was reduced (odds ratio ~0.5) with vigorous (or high) activity with an apparent dose-response of moderate through to high activity. Exercise training interventions (including aerobic and resistance) of older adults showed improvement in physiological and functional measures, and suggestion of longer-term reduction in incidence of mobility disability. A relatively high level of physical activity was related to better cognitive function and reduced risk of developing dementia; however, there were mixed results of the effects of exercise interventions on cognitive function indices. Conclusions There is a consistency of findings across studies and a range of outcome measures related to functional independence; regular aerobic activity and short-term exercise programmes confer a reduced risk of functional limitations and disability in older age. Although a precise characterization of a minimal or effective physical activity dose to maintain functional independence is difficult, it appears moderate to higher levels of activity are effective and there may be a threshold of at least moderate activity for significant outcomes.

2010-01-01

227

Association of Body Mass Index with Physical Function and Health-Related Quality of Life in Adults with Arthritis  

PubMed Central

Arthritis and obesity, both highly prevalent, contribute greatly to the burden of disability in US adults. We examined whether body mass index (BMI) was associated with physical function and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) measures among adults with arthritis and other rheumatic conditions. We assessed objectively measured BMI and physical functioning (six-minute walk, chair stand, seated reach, walking velocity, hand grip) and self-reported HRQOL (depression, stiffness, pain, fatigue, disability, quality of life-mental, and quality of life, physical) were assessed. Self-reported age, gender, race, physical activity, and arthritis medication use (covariates) were also assessed. Unadjusted and adjusted linear regression models examined the association between BMI and objective measures of functioning and self-reported measures of HRQOL. BMI was significantly associated with all functional (Ps ? 0.007) and HRQOL measures (Ps ? 0.03) in the unadjusted models. Associations between BMI and all functional measures (Ps ? 0.001) and most HRQOL measures remained significant in the adjusted models (Ps ? 0.05); depression and quality of life, physical, were not significant. The present analysis of a range of HRQOL and objective measures of physical function demonstrates the debilitating effects of the combination of overweight and arthritis and other rheumatic conditions. Future research should focus on developing effective group and self-management programs for weight loss for people with arthritis and other rheumatic conditions (registered on clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01172327).

Schoffman, Danielle E.

2013-01-01

228

Absolute Vs. Relative Machine Strength as Predictors of Function in Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationship between absolute and relative (1 repetition maximum\\/LBM) strength vs. 13 differ- ent functional measurements in 143 older adults (mean 5 70.28, standard deviation 5 7.90 years). Strength for 11 ma- chine lifts was determined using a predicted 1-repetition maximal strength measurement. Zero-order correlation re- sults between absolute and relative strength vs. function measures demonstrated very

KATHLEEN M. KNUTZEN; LORRAINE BRILLA; DENNIS CAINE; GORDON CHALMERS; KATHY GUNTER; PHILIP SCHOT

2002-01-01

229

MRI and MRS-derived hippocampal correlates of quantitative locomotor function in older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gait measures have been shown to predict cognitive decline and dementia in older adults. Investigation of the neurobiology associated with locomotor function is needed to elucidate this relationship with cognitive abilities. This study aimed to examine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI; hippocampal volume)- and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS; N-acetylaspartate to creatine (NAA\\/Cr) ratios)-derived hippocampal correlates of quantitative gait function (swing

Molly E. Zimmerman; Richard B. Lipton; Jullie W. Pan; Hoby P. Hetherington; Joe Verghese

2009-01-01

230

Metabolic Syndrome and Cognitive Function in Healthy Middle-Aged and Older Adults without Diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Few studies have addressed whether the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its individual components are associated with cognitive function in middle-aged and older populations, as well as whether specific areas of cognition are more affected than others. We examined the cross-sectional association between MetS and six areas of cognitive function in healthy cognitively intact adults without diabetes (n?=?853, mean age

Nicole M. Gatto; Victor W. Henderson; Jan A. St. John; Carol McCleary; Howard N. Hodis; Wendy J. Mack

2008-01-01

231

Quantified Self and Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment: Older Adults Are Able to Evaluate Their Own Health and Functional Status  

PubMed Central

Background There is an increased interest of individuals in quantifying their own health and functional status. The aim of this study was to examine the concordance of answers to a self-administered questionnaire exploring health and functional status with information collected during a full clinical examination performed by a physician among cognitively healthy adults (CHI) and older patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or mild-to-moderate Alzheimer disease (AD). Methods Based on cross-sectional design, a total of 60 older adults (20 CHI, 20 patients with MCI, and 20 patients with mild-to-moderate AD) were recruited in the memory clinic of Angers, France. All participants completed a self-administered questionnaire in paper format composed of 33 items exploring age, gender, nutrition, place of living, social resources, drugs daily taken, memory complaint, mood and general feeling, fatigue, activities of daily living, physical activity and history of falls. Participants then underwent a full clinical examination by a physician exploring the same domains. Results High concordance between the self-administered questionnaire and physician's clinical examination was showed. The few divergences were related to cognitive status, answers of AD and MCI patients to the self-administered questionnaire being less reliable than those of CHI. Conclusion Older adults are able to evaluate their own health and functional status, regardless of their cognitive status. This result needs to be confirmed and opens new perspectives for the quantified self-trend and could be helpful in daily clinical practice of primary care.

Beauchet, Olivier; Launay, Cyrille P.; Merjagnan, Christine; Kabeshova, Anastasiia; Annweiler, Cedric

2014-01-01

232

The independent contributions of cognitive impairment and neuropsychiatric symptoms to everyday function in older adults.  

PubMed

The everyday functional capacities of older adults are determined by multiple factors. The primary goal of the present study was to evaluate whether apathy and depression have unique influences on degree of functional impairment, independent of the effects of specific cognitive impairments. Participants included 344 older adults (199 normal, 87 with MCI, 58 with dementia). The Everyday Cognition (ECog) scales were used to measure both global and domain-specific functional abilities. Neuropsychiatric symptoms of depression and apathy were measured by the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), and specific neuropsychological domains measured included episodic memory and executive functioning. Results indicated that worse memory and executive function, as well as greater depression and apathy, were all independent and additive determinants of poorer functional abilities. Apathy had a slightly more restricted effect than the other variables across the specific functional domains assessed. Secondary analysis suggested that neuropsychiatric symptoms may be more strongly associated with everyday function within cognitively normal and MCI groups, while cognitive impairment is more strongly associated with everyday function in dementia. Thus, a somewhat different set of factors may be associated with functional status across various clinical groups. PMID:24502686

Rog, Lauren A; Park, Lovingly Quitania; Harvey, Danielle J; Huang, Chun-Jung; Mackin, Scott; Farias, Sarah Tomaszewski

2014-01-01

233

Systemic vascular function is associated with muscular power in older adults.  

PubMed

Age-associated loss of muscular strength and muscular power is a critical determinant of loss of physical function and progression to disability in older adults. In this study, we examined the association of systemic vascular function and measures of muscle strength and power in older adults. Measures of vascular endothelial function included brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and the pulse wave amplitude reactive hyperemia index (PWA-RHI). Augmentation index (AIx) was taken as a measure of systemic vascular function related to arterial stiffness and wave reflection. Measures of muscular strength included one repetition maximum (1RM) for a bilateral leg press. Peak muscular power was measured during 5 repetitions performed as fast as possible for bilateral leg press at 40% 1RM. Muscular power was associated with brachial FMD (r = 0.43, P < 0.05), PWA-RHI (r = 0.42, P < 0.05), and AIx (r = -0.54, P < 0.05). Muscular strength was not associated with any measure of vascular function. In conclusion, systemic vascular function is associated with lower-limb muscular power but not muscular strength in older adults. Whether loss of muscular power with aging contributes to systemic vascular deconditioning or vascular dysfunction contributes to decrements in muscular power remains to be determined. PMID:22966457

Heffernan, Kevin S; Chalé, Angela; Hau, Cynthia; Cloutier, Gregory J; Phillips, Edward M; Warner, Patrick; Nickerson, Heather; Reid, Kieran F; Kuvin, Jeffrey T; Fielding, Roger A

2012-01-01

234

Systemic Vascular Function Is Associated with Muscular Power in Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Age-associated loss of muscular strength and muscular power is a critical determinant of loss of physical function and progression to disability in older adults. In this study, we examined the association of systemic vascular function and measures of muscle strength and power in older adults. Measures of vascular endothelial function included brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and the pulse wave amplitude reactive hyperemia index (PWA-RHI). Augmentation index (AIx) was taken as a measure of systemic vascular function related to arterial stiffness and wave reflection. Measures of muscular strength included one repetition maximum (1RM) for a bilateral leg press. Peak muscular power was measured during 5 repetitions performed as fast as possible for bilateral leg press at 40% 1RM. Muscular power was associated with brachial FMD (r = 0.43, P < 0.05), PWA-RHI (r = 0.42, P < 0.05), and AIx (r = ?0.54, P < 0.05). Muscular strength was not associated with any measure of vascular function. In conclusion, systemic vascular function is associated with lower-limb muscular power but not muscular strength in older adults. Whether loss of muscular power with aging contributes to systemic vascular deconditioning or vascular dysfunction contributes to decrements in muscular power remains to be determined.

Heffernan, Kevin S.; Chale, Angela; Hau, Cynthia; Cloutier, Gregory J.; Phillips, Edward M.; Warner, Patrick; Nickerson, Heather; Reid, Kieran F.; Kuvin, Jeffrey T.; Fielding, Roger A.

2012-01-01

235

Prospective identification of functionally distinct stem cells and neurosphere-initiating cells in adult mouse forebrain  

PubMed Central

Neurosphere formation is commonly used as a surrogate for neural stem cell (NSC) function but the relationship between neurosphere-initiating cells (NICs) and NSCs remains unclear. We prospectively identified, and isolated by flow cytometry, adult mouse lateral ventricle subventricular zone (SVZ) NICs as GlastmidEGFRhighPlexinB2highCD24?/lowO4/PSA-NCAM?/lowTer119/CD45? (GEPCOT) cells. They were highly mitotic and short-lived in vivo based on fate-mapping with Ascl1CreERT2 and Dlx1CreERT2. In contrast, pre-GEPCOT cells were quiescent, expressed higher Glast, and lower EGFR and PlexinB2. Pre-GEPCOT cells could not form neurospheres but expressed the stem cell markers Slc1a3-CreERT, GFAP-CreERT2, Sox2CreERT2, and Gli1CreERT2 and were long-lived in vivo. While GEPCOT NICs were ablated by temozolomide, pre-GEPCOT cells survived and repopulated the SVZ. Conditional deletion of the Bmi-1 polycomb protein depleted pre-GEPCOT and GEPCOT cells, though pre-GEPCOT cells were more dependent upon Bmi-1 for Cdkn2a (p16Ink4a) repression. Our data distinguish quiescent NSCs from NICs and make it possible to study their properties in vivo. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02669.001

Mich, John K; Signer, Robert AJ; Nakada, Daisuke; Pineda, Andre; Burgess, Rebecca J; Vue, Tou Yia; Johnson, Jane E; Morrison, Sean J

2014-01-01

236

Physiological time model for predicting adult emergence of western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in the Texas High Plains.  

PubMed

Field observations at three locations in the Texas High Plains were used to develop and validate a degree-day phenology model to predict the onset and proportional emergence of adult Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) adults. Climatic data from the Texas High Plains Potential Evapotranspiration network were used with records of cumulative proportional adult emergence to determine the functional lower developmental temperature, optimum starting date, and the sum of degree-days for phenological events from onset to 99% adult emergence. The model base temperature, 10 degrees C (50 degrees F), corresponds closely to known physiological lower limits for development. The model uses a modified Gompertz equation, y = 96.5 x exp (-(exp(6.0 - 0.00404 x (x - 4.0), where x is cumulative heat (degree-days), to predict y, cumulative proportional emergence expressed as a percentage. The model starts degree-day accumulation on the date of corn, Zea mays L., emergence, and predictions correspond closely to corn phenological stages from tasseling to black layer development. Validation shows the model predicts cumulative proportional adult emergence within a satisfactory interval of 4.5 d. The model is flexible enough to accommodate early planting, late emergence, and the effects of drought and heat stress. The model provides corn producers ample lead time to anticipate and implement adult control practices. PMID:18950040

Stevenson, Douglass E; Michels, Gerald J; Bible, John B; Jackman, John A; Harris, Marvin K

2008-10-01

237

Effect of the antioxidant dibunol on adrenocortical, thyroid, and adenohypopyseal function in adult and old rats  

SciTech Connect

This paper studies the effect of dibunol (4-methyl-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol) (D) on the function of the adrenal cortex, thyroid gland, and adenhypophysis, which produces trophic hormones for the other two glands. Experiments were carried out on adult rats. After injection of D concentrations of corticosterone (CS), triodothyronine (T/sub 3/), ACTH, and thyrotrophin (TSH) in the blood plasma and the CS concentration in tssue of the adenohypophysis were determined. It is shown that injection of D caused biphasic changes in the CS concentration in both tissues studied in adult and old animals.

Gorban', E.N.

1986-04-01

238

Cognitive function is preserved in older adults with a reported history of childhood sexual abuse.  

PubMed

Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with mood and cognitive deficits in children and young adults. Evidence suggests that the effects of early-life adversity persist throughout adulthood; however, the impact of CSA on cognition in older adults is largely unknown. This study investigated cognitive function in older adults with a reported history of CSA. Data are from a population-based study (The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing) of 6,912 adults aged 50 years and older. Participants answered questions about CSA as part of a stressful life events questionnaire. Global cognition, executive function, memory (both objective and self-rated), attention, and processing speed were measured via a comprehensive battery of tests. Anxiety and depression, other childhood adversity, health behaviours, chronic disease, and medication use were also assessed. Of the total sample, 6.5% reported CSA. These individuals were more likely to have experienced other forms of childhood adversity and to exhibit poor mental health compared to those who reported no history of CSA. Multivariate regression analyses revealed, however, that CSA was associated with better global cognition, memory, executive function, and processing speed, despite poorer psychological health in this group. Future studies should aim to investigate possible reasons for this finding. PMID:24265204

Feeney, Joanne; Kamiya, Yumiko; Robertson, Ian H; Kenny, Rose Anne

2013-12-01

239

What do we know about cognitive functioning in adult congenital heart disease?  

PubMed

With the advent of improved medical and surgical care in congenital heart disease, there has been an increase in the number of patients who survive into adulthood, giving rise to a new patient population 'Adults with congenital heart disease'. In the past, morbidity and mortality were the primary concerns for this group. However, with improvements in outcome attention has shifted to other factors such as psychosocial and cognitive functioning. This paper reviews the literature on the cognitive functioning in adult congenital heart disease patients. A total of five relevant articles were retrieved via electronic searches of six databases, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, PsychINFO, and PubMed. The results displayed a consensus on the presence of some cognitive difficulties in adult congenital heart disease patients. The aetiology of cognitive dysfunctions appears to be multifactorial. The literature is limited by the very small number of studies looking at adults with congenital heart disease, with the majority focusing on cognitive functioning among children with congenital heart disease. However, the presence of cognitive dysfunctions and the resulting impact on the patient's day to day lives warrant for a more detailed and prospective research to enhance the understanding of its aetiology and impact. PMID:23759080

Tyagi, Manavi; Austin, Katie; Stygall, Jan; Deanfield, John; Cullen, Shay; Newman, Stanton P

2014-02-01

240

Cognitive reserve moderates relation between global cognition and functional status in older adults.  

PubMed

The ability to perform instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) is necessary for independent living. Research suggests that community-dwelling older adults are at risk for experiencing subtle decrements in the performance of IADLs. Neuropsychological tests have been used to account for differences in IADL status. Studies of the relationship between cognitive ability and functional status have produced variable results, however, and cognitive ability appears to be only a moderate predictor. Several studies of normal aging have revealed cognitive and functional benefits of higher cognitive reserve (CR) in healthy, nondemented older adults. The purposes of the present study were to: (a) examine the relationship between global cognitive ability and IADL performance among 53 community-dwelling older adults, and (b) determine whether formal education, as a proxy of CR, significantly moderates this relationship. Consistent with previous findings, global cognitive ability accounted for a considerable portion of variance in IADL performance [?R(2) = .54; ?F(2, 53) = 67.96; p < .001]. Additionally, CR modestly but significantly attenuated this relationship [?R(2) = .044; ?F(4, 53) = 5.98; p = .018; total R(2) = .65]. This finding suggests that community-dwelling older adults with lower levels of formal education may be at greater risk for functional decrements associated with age-related cognitive decline. PMID:24611794

Duda, Bryant; Puente, Antonio N; Miller, Lloyd Stephen

2014-05-01

241

The influence of prior rape on the psychological and physical health functioning of older adults.  

PubMed

Objectives: Older adults who have experienced traumatic events earlier in life may be especially vulnerable to additional challenges associated with aging. In a cross-sectional study of older females, the present study examines whether a history of rape is associated with current psychological and health problems. Method: This study used existing data from the female respondents (N = 1228) in the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP), a national probability sample of adults between the ages of 57 and 85 interviewed in their homes. It was determined whether or not the participant experienced forced sexual contact since the age of 18. Measures of psychological health (e.g., scales of depression, anxiety, and loneliness), the presence or absence of a number of serious health problems, and a one-item measure of self-esteem were obtained. Results: Adult rape occurred in 7% of the sample. On average, 36 years had elapsed since the rape had occurred. Using structural equation modeling (SEM), rape was associated with lower self-esteem, psychological, and physical health functioning. Self-esteem partially mediated the association between rape and psychological functioning, but not health functioning. These associations were significant even after controlling for participant characteristics and risky health behaviors. Conclusions: Mechanisms linking prior rape to psychological and health problems in older age are discussed, as well as treatment recommendations for symptomatic older adults. PMID:24521090

Sachs-Ericsson, Natalie; Kendall-Tackett, Kathleen A; Sheffler, Julia; Arce, Darleine; Rushing, Nicole C; Corsentino, Elizabeth

2014-08-01

242

Insights from a Chimpanzee Adipose Stromal Cell Population: Opportunities for Adult Stem Cells to Expand Primate Functional Genomics  

PubMed Central

Comparisons between humans and chimpanzees are essential for understanding traits unique to each species. However, linking important phenotypic differences to underlying molecular changes is often challenging. The ability to generate, differentiate, and profile adult stem cells provides a powerful but underutilized opportunity to investigate the molecular basis for trait differences between species within specific cell types and in a controlled environment. Here, we characterize adipose stromal cells (ASCs) from Clint, the chimpanzee whose genome was first sequenced. Using imaging and RNA-Seq, we compare the chimpanzee ASCs with three comparable human cell lines. Consistent with previous studies on ASCs in humans, the chimpanzee cells have fibroblast-like morphology and express genes encoding components of the extracellular matrix at high levels. Differentially expressed genes are enriched for distinct functional classes between species: immunity and protein processing are higher in chimpanzees, whereas cell cycle and DNA processing are higher in humans. Although hesitant to draw definitive conclusions from these data given the limited sample size, we wish to stress the opportunities that adult stem cells offer for studying primate evolution. In particular, adult stem cells provide a powerful means to investigate the profound disease susceptibilities unique to humans and a promising tool for conservation efforts with nonhuman primates. By allowing for experimental perturbations in relevant cell types, adult stem cells promise to complement classic comparative primate genomics based on in vivo sampling.

Pfefferle, Lisa W.; Wray, Gregory A.

2013-01-01

243

Speed of processing and depression affect function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment  

PubMed Central

Objectives To evaluate the effect of depression and cognition on function in older adults with amnestic and nonamnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI; nonaMCI). Design The study uses baseline data from the National Alzheimer’s Coordinating Center. Setting Data was collected at multiple Alzheimer’s Disease Centers in the United States. Participants The sample included a total of 3117 individuals with MCI, mean age = 74.37 years, SD = 9.37 (aMCI n =2488; nonaMCI n = 629). Measurements The 10-item Pfeffer Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ) assessed function. Results Depressive symptoms (Geriatric Depression Scale), memory impairment (Logical Memory II), and processing speed decrements (Digit Symbol Substitution Test) were significantly associated with functional impairment (p < .001). Processing speed partially mediated the effect of depression on function and fully mediated the effect of executive dysfunction on function (p < .001) in the total MCI and aMCI subsample, while in the nonaMCI subsample processing speed mediated the effect of executive function but not the effect of depression (p = .20) on function. Conclusions The findings show that processing speed is central to the effect that depression and executive dysfunction have on functional impairment in cognitively impaired older adults. Future studies are needed to better understand the physiological underpinnings in age-related and disease-specific decrements in processing speed, and to address the problems in the assessment of processing speed in clinical samples.

Brown, Patrick J.; Liu, Xinhua; Sneed, Joel R.; Pimontel, Monique A.; Devanand, D.P.; Roose, Steven P.

2012-01-01

244

The socioeconomic origins of physical functioning among older U.S. adults.  

PubMed

Mounting evidence finds that adult health reflects socioeconomic circumstances (SES) in early life and adulthood. However, it is unclear how the health consequences of SES in early life and adulthood accumulate-for example, additively, synergistically. This study tests four hypotheses about how the health effects of early-life SES (measured by parental education) and adult SES (measured by own education) accumulate to shape functional limitations, whether the accumulation differs between men and women, and the extent to which key mechanisms explain the accumulation. It uses data from the 1994-2010 Health and Retirement Study on U.S. adults 50-100 years of age (N=24,026). The physical functioning benefits of parental and own education accumulated additively among men. While the physical functioning benefits generally accumulated among women, the functioning benefits from one's own education were dampened among women with low-educated mothers. The dampening partly reflected a strong tie between mothers' education level and women's obesity risk. Taken together, the findings reveal subtle differences between men and women in the life course origins of physical functioning. They also shed light on a key mechanism-obesity-that may help explain why a growing number of studies find that early-life SES is especially important for women's health. PMID:24796709

Montez, Jennifer Karas

2013-12-01

245

Simple Synthesis of Highly Functionalized Ketenimines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1:1 reactive intermediate generated by the addition of alkyl isocyanides to dibenzoylacetylene or dialkyl acetylenedicarboxylates was trapped by fairly strong NH acids such as isatin, phthalimide, 4-nitroimidazole, or 2-benzoylimidazole to yield highly functionalized ketenimines.

Mohammad Bayat; Hossien Imanieh; Elham Hossieninejad

2008-01-01

246

Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis: Regulation, Functional Implications, And Contribution to Disease Pathology  

PubMed Central

It is now well established that the mammalian brain has the capacity to produce new neurons into adulthood. One such region that provides the proper milieu to sustain progenitor cells and is permissive to neuronal fate determination is located in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. This review will discuss in detail the complex process of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, including proliferation, differentiation, survival, and incorporation into neuronal networks. The regulation of this phenomenon by a number of factors is described, including neurotransmitter systems, growth factors, paracrine signaling molecules, neuropeptides, transcription factors, endogenous psychotropic systems, sex hormones, stress, and others. This review also addresses the functional significance of adult born hippocampal granule cells with regard to hippocampal circuitry dynamics and behavior. Furthermore, the relevance of perturbations in adult hippocampal neurogenesis to the pathophysiology of various disease states, including depression, schizophrenia, epilepsy, and diabetes are examined. Finally, this review discusses the potential of using hippocampal neurogenesis as a therapeutic target for these disorders.

Balu, Darrick T.; Lucki, Irwin

2009-01-01

247

Neuropsychological functioning in posttraumatic stress disorder following forced displacement in older adults and their offspring.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to investigate neuropsychological performance in an untried trauma sample of older adults displaced during childhood at the end of World War II (WWII) with and without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as well as transgenerational effects of trauma and PTSD on their offspring. Displaced older adults with (n=20) and without PTSD (n=24) and nondisplaced healthy individuals (n=11) as well as one of their respective offspring were assessed with a large battery of cognitive tests (primarily targeting memory functioning). No evidence for deficits in neuropsychological performance was found in the aging group of displaced people with PTSD. Moreover, no group difference emerged in the offspring groups. Findings may be interpreted as first evidence for a rather resilient PTSD group of older adults that is available for assessment 60 years after displacement. PMID:23896354

Jelinek, Lena; Wittekind, Charlotte E; Moritz, Steffen; Kellner, Michael; Muhtz, Christoph

2013-12-15

248

Does Executive Functioning (EF) Predict Depression in Clinic-Referred Adults?: EF Tests vs. Rating Scales  

PubMed Central

Background Deficits in executive functioning (EF) are implicated in neurobiological and cognitive-processing theories of depression. EF deficits are also associated with Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults, who are also at increased risk for depressive disorders. Given debate about the ecological validity of laboratory measures of EF, we investigated the relationship between depression diagnoses and symptoms and EF as measured by both rating scales and tests in a sample of adults referred for evaluation of adult ADHD. Method Data from two groups of adults recruited from an ADHD specialty clinic were analyzed together: Adults diagnosed with ADHD (N=146) and a clinical control group of adults referred for adult ADHD assessment but not diagnosed with the disorder ADHD (N=97). EF was assessed using a rating scale of EF deficits in daily life and a battery of tests tapping various EF constructs. Depression was assessed using current and lifetime SCID diagnoses (major depression, dysthymia) and self-report symptom ratings. Results EF as assessed via rating scale predicted depression across measures even when controlling for current anxiety and impairment. Self-Management to Time and Self-Organization and Problem-Solving showed the most robust relationships. EF tests were weakly and inconsistently related to depression measures. Limitations Prospective studies are needed to rigorously evaluate EF problems as true risk factors for depressive onset. Conclusions EF problems in everyday life were important predictors of depression. Researchers and clinicians should consistently assess for the ADHD-depression comorbidity. Clinicians should consider incorporating strategies to address EF deficits when treating people with depression.

Knouse, Laura E.; Barkley, Russell A.; Murphy, Kevin R.

2012-01-01

249

Social network types and functional dependency in older adults in Mexico  

PubMed Central

Background Social networks play a key role in caring for older adults. A better understanding of the characteristics of different social networks types (TSNs) in a given community provides useful information for designing policies to care for this age group. Therefore this study has three objectives: 1) To derive the TSNs among older adults affiliated with the Mexican Institute of Social Security; 2) To describe the main characteristics of the older adults in each TSN, including the instrumental and economic support they receive and their satisfaction with the network; 3) To determine the association between functional dependency and the type of social network. Methods Secondary data analysis of the 2006 Survey of Autonomy and Dependency (N = 3,348). The TSNs were identified using the structural approach and cluster analysis. The association between functional dependency and the TSNs was evaluated with Poisson regression with robust variance analysis in which socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle and medical history covariates were included. Results We identified five TSNs: diverse with community participation (12.1%), diverse without community participation (44.3%); widowed (32.0%); nonfriends-restricted (7.6%); nonfamily-restricted (4.0%). Older adults belonging to widowed and restricted networks showed a higher proportion of dependency, negative self-rated health and depression. Older adults with functional dependency more likely belonged to a widowed network (adjusted prevalence ratio 1.5; 95%CI: 1.1-2.1). Conclusion The derived TSNs were similar to those described in developed countries. However, we identified the existence of a diverse network without community participation and a widowed network that have not been previously described. These TSNs and restricted networks represent a potential unmet need of social security affiliates.

2010-01-01

250

Personality Traits, Education, Physical Exercise, and Childhood Neurological Function as Independent Predictors of Adult Obesity  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate whether personality traits, education, physical exercise, parental socio-economic conditions, and childhood neurological function are independently associated with obesity in 50 year old adults in a longitudinal birth cohort study. Method The sample consisted of 5,921 participants born in Great Britain in 1958 and followed up at 7, 11, 33, 42, and 50 years with data on body mass index measured at 42 and 50 years. Results There was an increase of adult obesity from 14.2% at age 42 to 23.6% at 50 years. Cohort members who were reported by teachers on overall clumsiness as “certainly applied” at age 7 were more likely to become obese at age 50. In addition, educational qualifications, traits Conscientiousness and Extraversion, psychological distress, and physical exercise were all significantly associated with adult obesity. The associations remained to be significant after controlling for birth weight and gestation, maternal and paternal BMI, childhood BMI, childhood intelligence and behavioural adjustment, as well as diet. Conclusion Neurological function in childhood, education, trait Conscientiousness, and exercise were all significantly and independently associated with adult obesity, each explained unique individual variability.

Cheng, Helen; Furnham, Adrian

2013-01-01

251

High fat nutritional formula for infants and adults  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The present invention provides a new fat mixture for infant and adult nutrition which possesses adequate levels and ratios of polyunsaturated fats and long chain polyunsaturated fats. These fat mixtures possess adequate levels of phospholipids and an adequate relationship between oleic acid, linoleic acid and .alpha.-linolenic acid as well as adequate levels of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids of both the n6 and n3 series. In addition, the fat mixtures of the present invention possess an adequate ratio of arachidonic acid (20:4n6) to docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n3). These fat mixtures are modeled on the fat content of human milk for infant diets and on the mediterranean diet for adult nutritional products. Diets containing these mixtures promote the growth and development of the infant and contribute to the prevention and treatment of some diseases in adults.

1998-01-20

252

Homeotic functions of the Teashirt transcription factor during adult Drosophila development  

PubMed Central

Summary During Drosophila development region-specific regulation of target genes by Hox proteins is modulated by genetic interactions with various cofactors and genetic collaborators. During embryogenesis one such modulator of Hox target specificity is the zinc-finger transcription factor Teashirt (Tsh) that is expressed in the developing trunk and cooperatively functions with trunk-specific Hox proteins to promote appropriate segment fate. This embryonic function of Tsh is characterized as homeotic since loss of embryonic Tsh activity leads to transformation of trunk segments toward head identity. In addition to this embryonic homeotic role, Tsh also performs vital Hox-independent functions through patterning numerous embryonic, larval and adult structures. Here we address whether the homeotic function of Tsh is maintained throughout development by investigating its contribution to patterning the adult abdomen. We show that Tsh is expressed throughout the developing abdomen and that this expression is dependent on the three Bithorax Hox proteins Ultrabithorax, Abdominal-A and Abdominal-B. Conditional reduction of Tsh activity during pupation reveals broad homeotic roles for this transcription factor throughout the adult abdomen. Additionally we show that, as during embryogenesis, the tsh paralog tiptop (tio) plays a partially redundant role in this homeotic activity.

Wang, Wei; Tindell, Neil; Yan, Shun; Yoder, John H.

2013-01-01

253

The APOE ?4 allele affects complexity and functional connectivity of resting brain activity in healthy adults.  

PubMed

The apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene is associated with structural and functional brain changes. We have used multiscale entropy (MSE) analysis to detect changes in the complexity of resting blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals associated with aging and cognitive function. In this study, we further hypothesized that the APOE genotype may affect the complexity of spontaneous BOLD activity in younger and older adults, and such altered complexity may be associated with certain changes in functional connectivity. We conducted a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment in a cohort of 100 younger adults (aged 20-39 years; mean 27.2?±?4.3 years; male/female: 53/47) and 112 older adults (aged 60-79 years; mean 68.4?±?6.5 years; male/female: 54/58), and applied voxelwise MSE analysis to assess the main effect of APOE genotype on resting-state BOLD complexity and connectivity. Although the main effect of APOE genotype on BOLD complexity was not observed in younger group, we observed that older APOE ?4 allele carriers had significant reductions in BOLD complexity in precuneus and posterior cingulate regions, relative to noncarriers. We also observed that reduced BOLD complexity in precuneus and posterior cingulate regions was associated with increased functional connectivity to the superior and inferior frontal gyrus in the older group. These results support the compensatory recruitment hypothesis in older APOE ?4 carriers, and confer the impact of the APOE genotype on the temporal dynamics of brain activity in older adults. Hum Brain Mapp 35:3238-3248, 2014. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24193893

Yang, Albert C; Huang, Chu-Chung; Liu, Mu-En; Liou, Yin-Jay; Hong, Chen-Jee; Lo, Men-Tzung; Huang, Norden E; Peng, Chung-Kang; Lin, Ching-Po; Tsai, Shih-Jen

2014-07-01

254

Grammar learning in older adults is linked to white matter microstructure and functional connectivity.  

PubMed

Age-related decline in cognitive function has been linked to alterations of white matter and functional brain connectivity. With regard to language, aging has been shown to be associated with impaired syntax processing, but the underlying structural and functional correlates are poorly understood. In the present study, we used an artificial grammar learning (AGL) task to determine the ability to extract grammatical rules from new material in healthy older adults. White matter microstructure and resting-state functional connectivity (FC) of task-relevant brain regions were assessed using multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). AGL performance correlated positively with fractional anisotropy (FA) underlying left and right Brodmann areas (BA) 44/45 and in tracts originating from left BA 44/45. An inverse relationship was found between task performance and FC of left and right BA 44/45, linking lower performance to stronger inter-hemispheric functional coupling. Our results suggest that white matter microstructure underlying specific prefrontal regions and their functional coupling affect acquisition of syntactic knowledge in the aging brain, offering further insight into mechanisms of functional decline in older adults. PMID:22659480

Antonenko, Daria; Meinzer, Marcus; Lindenberg, Robert; Witte, A Veronica; Flöel, Agnes

2012-09-01

255

Physical Activity and Functional Limitations in Older Adults: The Influence of Self-Efficacy and Functional Performance  

PubMed Central

Objectives. Data from the Healthy Aging Network (HAN) study (Prohaska, T., Eisenstein, A., Satariano, W., Hunter, R., Bayles, C., Kurtovich, E., … Ivey, S. [2009]. Walking and the preservation of cognitive function in older populations. The Gerontologist, 49[Suppl. 1], S86–S93; and Satariano, W., Ivey, S., Kurtovich, E., Kealey, M., Hubbard, A., Bayles, C., … Prohaska, T. [2010]. Lower-body function, neighborhoods, and walking in an older population. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 38, 419–428.) were used to examine the relationships among physical activity, self-efficacy, functional performance, and limitations. Method. Interviews were conducted within homes and senior centers in 4 geographic regions across the United States. Participants were 884 older adults (M age = 74.8; 77% female; 35% minority status) who completed measures of walking behavior, way-finding self-efficacy, walking self-efficacy, functional performance, functional limitations, and demographic characteristics. Results. Path analysis within a covariance modeling framework revealed significant direct effects of walking on self-efficacy constructs, functional performance on functional limitations, and efficacy on limitations. Additionally, significant indirect effects were also found, including walking on limitations via walking self-efficacy and performance and walking self-efficacy on limitations via performance. Furthermore, we found support for invariance of the model across geographical grouping. Discussion. Our findings provide further validation for an efficacy-based model of functional limitations. Walking-related efficacy may help reduce or possibly delay the onset of functional limitations.

Mullen, Sean P.; Satariano, William A.; Kealey, Melissa; Prohaska, Thomas R.

2012-01-01

256

Adaptive Modulation of Adult Brain Gray and White Matter to High Altitude: Structural MRI Studies  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate brain structural alterations in adult immigrants who adapted to high altitude (HA). Voxel-based morphometry analysis of gray matter (GM) volumes, surface-based analysis of cortical thickness, and Tract-Based Spatial Statistics analysis of white matter fractional anisotropy (FA) based on MRI images were conducted on 16 adults (20–22 years) who immigrated to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (2300–4400 m) for 2 years. They had no chronic mountain sickness. Control group consisted of 16 matched sea level subjects. A battery of neuropsychological tests was also conducted. HA immigrants showed significantly decreased GM volumes in the right postcentral gyrus and right superior frontal gyrus, and increased GM volumes in the right middle frontal gyrus, right parahippocampal gyrus, right inferior and middle temporal gyri, bilateral inferior ventral pons, and right cerebellum crus1. While there was some divergence in the left hemisphere, surface-based patterns of GM changes in the right hemisphere resembled those seen for VBM analysis. FA changes were observed in multiple WM tracts. HA immigrants showed significant impairment in pulmonary function, increase in reaction time, and deficit in mental rotation. Parahippocampal and middle frontal GM volumes correlated with vital capacity. Superior frontal GM volume correlated with mental rotation and postcentral GM correlated with reaction time. Paracentral lobule and frontal FA correlated with mental rotation reaction time. There might be structural modifications occurred in the adult immigrants during adaptation to HA. The changes in GM may be related to impaired respiratory function and psychological deficits.

Zhang, Jiaxing; Zhang, Haiyan; Li, Jinqiang; Chen, Ji; Han, Qiaoqing; Lin, Jianzhong; Yang, Tianhe; Fan, Ming

2013-01-01

257

Impact of Antiretroviral Therapy on Renal Function among HIV-Infected Tanzanian Adults: A Retrospective Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background Data regarding the outcomes of HIV-infected adults with baseline renal dysfunction who start antiretroviral therapy are conflicting. Methods We followed up a previously-published cohort of HIV-infected adult outpatients in northwest Tanzania who had high prevalence of renal dysfunction at the time of starting antiretroviral therapy (between November 2009 and February 2010). Patients had serum creatinine, proteinuria, microalbuminuria, and CD4+ T-cell count measured at the time of antiretroviral therapy initiation and at follow-up. We used the adjusted Cockroft-Gault equation to calculate estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs). Results In this cohort of 171 adults who had taken antiretroviral therapy for a median of two years, the prevalence of renal dysfunction (eGFR <90 mL/min/1.73 m2) decreased from 131/171 (76.6%) at the time of ART initiation to 50/171 (29.2%) at the time of follow-up (p<0.001). Moderate dysfunction (eGFR<60 mL/min/1.73 m2) decreased from 21.1% at antiretroviral therapy initiation to 1.1% at follow-up (p<0.001), as did the prevalence of microalbuminuria (72% to 44%, p<0.001). Use of tenofovir was not associated with renal dysfunction at follow-up. Conclusion Mild and moderate renal dysfunction were common in this cohort of HIV-infected adults initiating antiretroviral therapy, and both significantly improved after a median follow-up time of 2 years. Our work supports the renal safety of antiretroviral therapy in African adults with mild-moderate renal dysfunction, suggesting that these regimens do not lead to renal damage in the majority of patients and that they may even improve renal function in patients with mild to moderate renal dysfunction.

Mpondo, Bonaventura C. T.; Kalluvya, Samuel E.; Peck, Robert N.; Kabangila, Rodrick; Kidenya, Benson R.; Ephraim, Lucheri; Fitzgerald, Daniel W.; Downs, Jennifer A.

2014-01-01

258

Pressure chamber tests of eustachian tube function document lower efficiency in adults with colds when compared to without colds.  

PubMed

Abstract Conclusions: Fractional gradient equilibrated (FGE) for ears with applied positive but not negative middle ear (ME)-ambient pressure gradients is highly sensitive to a cold-like illness (CLI). Objective: The sequential development of eustachian tube (ET) dysfunction, ME under-pressure, and otitis media (OM) characterizes many children during a CLI. If linked, OM burden would be lessened by interventions that promote/preserve good ET function during a CLI. Evaluating this requires a quantitative ET function test for MEs with an intact tympanic membrane responsive to a CLI. Methods: Pressure chamber testing of ET function was performed at +200 and -200 daPa in 3 groups of adults: group I, 21 subjects with an extant CLI and groups II and III, 14 and 57 adults, respectively, without a CLI. ME-chamber pressure gradient was recorded by tympanometry before and after the subject swallowed twice. ET functional efficiency was quantified as the FGE, which was then compared among groups using a Mann-Whitney U test. Results: At chamber pressures of 200 daPa, the ME-chamber pressure gradient was negative, and FGE was low and not different among groups. At chamber pressures of -200 daPa that gradient was positive, and FGE was significantly higher in groups II and III when compared with group I. PMID:24834936

Doyle, William J; Singla, Alok; Banks, Juliane; El-Wagaa, Jenna; Swarts, J Douglas

2014-07-01

259

Altered Cerebellar Functional Connectivity with Intrinsic Connectivity Networks in Adults with Major Depressive Disorder  

PubMed Central

Background Numerous studies have demonstrated the higher-order functions of the cerebellum, including emotion regulation and cognitive processing, and have indicated that the cerebellum should therefore be included in the pathophysiological models of major depressive disorder. The aim of this study was to compare the resting-state functional connectivity of the cerebellum in adults with major depression and healthy controls. Methods Twenty adults with major depression and 20 gender-, age-, and education-matched controls were investigated using seed-based resting-state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging. Results Compared with the controls, depressed patients showed significantly increased functional connectivity between the cerebellum and the temporal poles. However, significantly reduced cerebellar functional connectivity was observed in the patient group in relation to both the default-mode network, mainly including the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and the posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus, and the executive control network, mainly including the superior frontal cortex and orbitofrontal cortex. Moreover, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score was negatively correlated with the functional connectivity between the bilateral Lobule VIIb and the right superior frontal gyrus in depressed patients. Conclusions This study demonstrated increased cerebellar coupling with the temporal poles and reduced coupling with the regions in the default-mode and executive control networks in adults with major depression. These differences between patients and controls could be associated with the emotional disturbances and cognitive control function deficits that accompany major depression. Aberrant cerebellar connectivity during major depression may also imply a substantial role for the cerebellum in the pathophysiological models of depression.

Liu, Li; Zeng, Ling-Li; Li, Yaming; Ma, Qiongmin; Li, Baojuan; Shen, Hui; Hu, Dewen

2012-01-01

260

High Cost Residential Placements for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Concern has been expressed repeatedly about the cost and quality of residential placements for adults with learning disabilities and additional needs. This study sought to identify characteristics of the highest cost placements in the South-East of England. Method: Lead learning disability commissioners in the South-East of England…

McGill, Peter; Poynter, Jo

2012-01-01

261

Intrapersonal and Interpersonal Functioning Among Middle-Aged Female Adult Children of Alcoholics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined group differences among a middle-aged, middle-class, community sample (N = 616) of female adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) and female non-ACOAs with regard to features of intra- and interpersonal functioning. Consistent with previous research, ACOAs reported higher levels of depression and lower levels of self-esteem. ACOAs also reported lower levels of perceived social support, family cohesion, and

Donna Domenico; Michael Windle

1993-01-01

262

Laparoscopic nephroureterectomy for adult incontinence caused by functioning ectopic pelvic kidney draining into vagina.  

PubMed

A 29-year-old woman had been continent of the majority of her urine for her entire life but had constant, uncontrollable dribbling. A contrast CT scan showed a solitary functioning left kidney and a dysplastic right pelvic kidney with a tortuous dilated ureter running close to the vaginal vault. The kidney was removed whole at transperitoneal laparoscopy, rendering the patient continent. This is the first such case reported in an adult. PMID:15253815

Challacombe, Ben; Kelleher, Con; Sami, Tariq; Scott, Helena; Chandra, Ashish; O'Brien, Tim; Dasgupta, Prokar

2004-06-01

263

Functional and mechanistic exploration of an adult neurogenesis-promoting small molecule  

PubMed Central

Adult neurogenesis occurs throughout life in the mammalian hippocampus and is essential for memory and mood control. There is significant interest in identifying ways to promote neurogenesis and ensure maintenance of these hippocampal functions. Previous work with a synthetic small molecule, isoxazole 9 (Isx-9), highlighted its neuronal-differentiating properties in vitro. However, the ability of Isx-9 to drive neurogenesis in vivo or improve hippocampal function was unknown. Here we show that Isx-9 promotes neurogenesis in vivo, enhancing the proliferation and differentiation of hippocampal subgranular zone (SGZ) neuroblasts, and the dendritic arborization of adult-generated dentate gyrus neurons. Isx-9 also improves hippocampal function, enhancing memory in the Morris water maze. Notably, Isx-9 enhances neurogenesis and memory without detectable increases in cellular or animal activity or vascularization. Molecular exploration of Isx-9-induced regulation of neurogenesis (via FACS and microarray of SGZ stem and progenitor cells) suggested the involvement of the myocyte-enhancer family of proteins (Mef2). Indeed, transgenic-mediated inducible knockout of all brain-enriched Mef2 isoforms (Mef2a/c/d) specifically from neural stem cells and their progeny confirmed Mef2's requirement for Isx-9-induced increase in hippocampal neurogenesis. Thus, Isx-9 enhances hippocampal neurogenesis and memory in vivo, and its effects are reliant on Mef2, revealing a novel cell-intrinsic molecular pathway regulating adult neurogenesis.—Petrik, D., Jiang, Y., Birnbaum, S. G., Powell, C. M., Kim, M.-S., Hsieh, J., Eisch, A. J. Functional and mechanistic exploration of an adult neurogenesis-promoting small molecule.

Petrik, David; Jiang, Yindi; Birnbaum, Shari G.; Powell, Craig M.; Kim, Mi-Sung; Hsieh, Jenny; Eisch, Amelia J.

2012-01-01

264

APOE and BDNF Val66Met polymorphisms combine to influence episodic memory function in older adults.  

PubMed

Genetic polymorphisms of apolipoprotein E (APOE) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) have shown inconsistent associations with healthy adult cognitive functions. Recent investigations have suggested that APOE polymorphisms do not contribute to non-pathological cognitive function and that any effect is likely due to prodromal Alzheimer's disease (AD). Similarly, although BDNF Val66Met polymorphisms affect hippocampal morphology and function, associations with learning and/or memory have not always been found. This study sought to determine whether APOE and BDNF polymorphisms were associated, either independently or in combination, with adult cognition. Comprehensive neuropsychological assessments were conducted on 433 older adults, aged 50-79 years (M=62.16, SD=6.81), which yielded measures of episodic memory, working memory, executive function, and language processing. Participants underwent comprehensive neuropsychological assessment to ensure that only cognitively intact individuals comprised the sample. APOE and BDNF polymorphic data were used as predictors in general linear models that assessed composite cognitive domain variables, while covarying for education and age. Although no main effects for APOE or BDNF were found, the analysis identified a significant APOE×BDNF interaction that predicted episodic memory performance (p=.02, ?(2)=.02). Post-hoc analyses demonstrated that in BDNF Val homozygotes, the cognitive consequences of APOE polymorphisms were minimal. However, in BDNF Met carriers, the hypothesized beneficial/detrimental effects of APOE polymorphisms were found. Our data show that concurrent consideration of both APOE and BDNF polymorphisms are required in order to witness a cognitive effect in healthy older adults. PMID:24946073

Ward, David D; Summers, Mathew J; Saunders, Nichole L; Janssen, Pierce; Stuart, Kimberley E; Vickers, James C

2014-09-01

265

RESISTANCE TRAINING IMPROVES METABOLIC ECONOMY DURING FUNCTIONAL TASKS IN OLDER ADULTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hartman, M.J., D.A. Fields, N.M. Byrne, and G.R. Hunter. Resistance training improves metabolic economy during functional tasks in older adults. J. Strength Cond. Res. 21(1):91- 95. 2007.—The purpose of this study was to determine the effect resistance training has on metabolic economy during typical ac- tivities of daily living in a geriatric population. Twenty-nine men and women (age: 66.7 4.4

MICHAEL J. HARTMAN; DAVID A. FIELDS; NUALA M. BYRNE; GARY R. HUNTER

2007-01-01

266

Functional fitness and physical activity of Portuguese community-residing older adults.  

PubMed

The purposes of this study were to generate functional-fitness norms for Portuguese older adults, to determine age and sex differences, and to analyze the physical activity-associated variation in functional fitness. The sample was composed of 802 older adults, 401 men and 401 women, age 60-79 yr. Functional fitness was assessed using the Senior Fitness Test. Physical activity level was estimated via the Baecke questionnaire. The P50 values decreased from 60 to 64 to 75 to 79 yr of age. A significant main effect for age group was found in all functional-fitness tests. Men scored significantly better than women in the chair stand, 8-ft up-and-go, and 6-min walk. Women scored significantly better than men in chair sit-and-reach and back scratch. Active participants scored better in functional-fitness tests than their average and nonactive peers. This study showed a decline in functional fitness with age, better performance of men, and increased proficiency in active participants. PMID:22715032

Gouveia, Élvio R; Maia, José A; Beunen, Gaston P; Blimkie, Cameron J; Fena, Ercília M; Freitas, Duarte L

2013-01-01

267

Normal Glucagon Signaling and ?-Cell Function After Near-Total ?-Cell Ablation in Adult Mice  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether healthy or diabetic adult mice can tolerate an extreme loss of pancreatic ?-cells and how this sudden massive depletion affects ?-cell function and blood glucose homeostasis. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We generated a new transgenic model allowing near-total ?-cell removal specifically in adult mice. Massive ?-cell ablation was triggered in normally grown and healthy adult animals upon diphtheria toxin (DT) administration. The metabolic status of these mice was assessed in 1) physiologic conditions, 2) a situation requiring glucagon action, and 3) after ?-cell loss. RESULTS Adult transgenic mice enduring extreme (98%) ?-cell removal remained healthy and did not display major defects in insulin counter-regulatory response. We observed that 2% of the normal ?-cell mass produced enough glucagon to ensure near-normal glucagonemia. ?-Cell function and blood glucose homeostasis remained unaltered after ?-cell loss, indicating that direct local intraislet signaling between ?- and ?-cells is dispensable. Escaping ?-cells increased their glucagon content during subsequent months, but there was no significant ?-cell regeneration. Near-total ?-cell ablation did not prevent hyperglycemia in mice having also undergone massive ?-cell loss, indicating that a minimal amount of ?-cells can still guarantee normal glucagon signaling in diabetic conditions. CONCLUSIONS An extremely low amount of ?-cells is sufficient to prevent a major counter-regulatory deregulation, both under physiologic and diabetic conditions. We previously reported that ?-cells reprogram to insulin production after extreme ?-cell loss and now conjecture that the low ?-cell requirement could be exploited in future diabetic therapies aimed at regenerating ?-cells by reprogramming adult ?-cells.

Thorel, Fabrizio; Damond, Nicolas; Chera, Simona; Wiederkehr, Andreas; Thorens, Bernard; Meda, Paolo; Wollheim, Claes B.; Herrera, Pedro L.

2011-01-01

268

A Comparative Assessment of the Cognitive Functioning of Adults with Childhood Histories of Learning Disability and Adults with Noncognitive Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Demographic, cognitive, and academic achievement data were collected from 591 adults evaluated as part of an outpatient Vocational\\u000a Rehabilitation service. The specific aims of the research were to systematically compare adults with a childhood history of\\u000a LD (putative LD) to groups of adults with principally physical or psychiatric disorders and assess the extent to which the\\u000a LD group continued to

Michael Ferrari

2009-01-01

269

Critical role of jak2 in the maintenance and function of adult hematopoietic stem cells.  

PubMed

Jak2, a member of the Janus kinase family of nonreceptor protein tyrosine kinases, is activated in response to a variety of cytokines, and functions in survival and proliferation of cells. An activating JAK2V617F mutation has been found in most patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms, and patients treated with Jak2 inhibitors show significant hematopoietic toxicities. However, the role of Jak2 in adult hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) has not been clearly elucidated. Using a conditional Jak2 knockout allele, we have found that Jak2 deletion results in rapid loss of HSCs/progenitors leading to bone marrow failure and early lethality in adult mice. Jak2 deficiency causes marked impairment in HSC function, and the mutant HSCs are severely defective in reconstituting hematopoiesis in recipient animals. Jak2 deficiency also causes significant apoptosis and loss of quiescence in HSC-enriched LSK (Lin(-) Sca-1(+) c-Kit(+) ) cells. Jak2-deficient LSK cells exhibit elevated reactive oxygen species levels and enhanced p38 MAPK activation. Mutant LSK cells also show defective Stat5, Erk, and Akt activation in response to thrombopoietin and stem cell factor. Gene expression analysis reveals significant downregulation of genes related to HSC quiescence and self-renewal in Jak2-deficient LSK cells. These data suggest that Jak2 plays a critical role in the maintenance and function of adult HSCs. Stem Cells 2014;32:1878-1889. PMID:24677703

Akada, Hajime; Akada, Saeko; Hutchison, Robert E; Sakamoto, Kazuhito; Wagner, Kay-Uwe; Mohi, Golam

2014-07-01

270

GATA4 regulates Sertoli cell function and fertility in adult male mice  

PubMed Central

Transcription factor GATA4 is expressed in Sertoli and Leydig cells and is required for proper development of the murine fetal testis. The role of GATA4 in adult testicular function, however, has remained unclear due to prenatal lethality of mice harboring homozygous mutations in Gata4. To characterize the function of GATA4 in the adult testis, we generated mice in which Gata4 was conditionally deleted in Sertoli cells using Cre-LoxP recombination with Amhr2-Cre. Conditional knockout (cKO) mice developed age-dependent testicular atrophy and loss of fertility, which coincided with decreases in the quantity and motility of sperm. Histological analysis demonstrated Sertoli cell vacuolation, impaired spermatogenesis, and increased permeability of the blood-testis barrier. RT-PCR analysis of cKO testes showed decreased expression of germ cell markers and increased expression of testicular injury markers. Our findings support the premise that GATA4 is a key transcriptional regulator of Sertoli cell function in adult mice.

Kyronlahti, Antti; Euler, Rosemarie; Bielinska, Malgorzata; Schoeller, Erica L.; Moley, Kelle H.; Toppari, Jorma; Heikinheimo, Markku; Wilson, David B.

2011-01-01

271

Carboxymethyl-lysine, an advanced glycation end product, and decline of renal function in older community-dwelling adults  

PubMed Central

Background Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are bioactive molecules found in greater concentrations in foods that have been processed at high temperatures. AGEs have been associated with impaired renal function in diabetes and in uremia. The relationship between AGEs and renal function in community-dwelling adults has not been well characterized. Aim of the Study The objective was to determine whether plasma AGEs are independently associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and predictive of renal function in older adults. Methods The relationship between plasma carboxymethyl-lysine (CML), an AGE, and CKD (?stage 3 of National Kidney Foundation classification; estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] <60 mL/min/1.73 m2) and eGFR at 3- and 6-years follow-up was examined in a population-based study of aging, the InCHIANTI study, in Tuscany, Italy. Results Of 1,008 adults, aged ?65 years, 153 (15.2%) had CKD at enrollment. Mean (Standard Deviation [S.D.]) plasma CML was 365 (110) ng/mL. Plasma CML was associated with CKD (Odds Ratio [O.R.] expressed per 1 S.D., 1.53, 95% Confidence Interval [C.I.] 1.27-1.84, P <0.0001) in a multivariate logistic regression model, adjusting for potential confounders. Plasma CML was associated with eGFR (beta = -2.77, standard error [S.E.] = 0.51, P <0.0001) at baseline, 3-year (beta = -2.54, S.E. = 0.61, P <0.0001) and 6-year follow-up visits (beta = -1.21, S.E. = 0.70, P = 0.08) in multivariate linear regression models, adjusting for potential confounders. The associations between plasma CML and prevalent CKD, eGFR, and eGFR at 3- and 6-year follow-up were significant and nearly unchanged after exclusion of adults with diabetes. Conclusion Plasma CML is independently associated with CKD and is an independent predictor of decline in renal function in older community-dwelling adults.

Semba, Richard D.; Fink, Jeffrey C.; Sun, Kai; Bandinelli, Stefania; Guralnik, Jack M.; Ferrucci, Luigi

2008-01-01

272

Poems by Adolescents and Adults: A Thematic Collection for Middle School and High School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book, a collection of poems by adolescents and adults, is designed to offer teachers a supplement to the standard middle school and high school literature anthologies. Divided into 11 themed sections, the collection mixes more than 100 poems by students in grades 5 to 12 with more than 40 pieces by adults, including well-known writers such as…

Brewbaker, James, Ed.; Hyland, Dawnelle J., Ed.

273

Long-term exposure to decabrominated diphenyl ether impairs CD8 T-cell function in adult mice.  

PubMed

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants that accumulate to high levels in human populations that are subject to occupational or regional industry exposure. PBDEs have been shown to affect human neuronal, endocrine and reproductive systems, but their effect on the immune system is not well understood. In this study, experimental adult mice were intragastrically administered 2,2',3,3',4,4',5,5',6,6'-decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) at doses of 8, 80 or 800 mg/kg of body weight (bw) at 2-day intervals. Our results showed that continuous exposure to BDE-209 resulted in high levels of BDE-209 in the plasma that approached the levels found in people who work in professions with high risks of PDBE exposure. Reduced leukocytes, decreased cytokine (IFN-?, IL-2 and TNF-?) production and lower CD8 T-cell proliferation were observed in the mice exposed to BDE-209. Additionally, mice with long-term BDE-209 exposure had lower numbers of antigen-specific CD8 T cells after immunization with recombinant Listeria monocytogenes expressing ovalbumin (rLm-OVA) and the OVA-specific CD8 T cells had reduced functionality. Taken together, our study demonstrates that continuous BDE-209 exposure causes adverse effects on the number and functionality of immune cells in adult mice. PMID:24705197

Zeng, Weihong; Wang, Ying; Liu, Zhicui; Khanniche, Asma; Hu, Qingliang; Feng, Yan; Ye, Weiyi; Yang, Jianglong; Wang, Shujun; Zhou, Lin; Shen, Hao; Wang, Yan

2014-07-01

274

Place Attachment and Place Disruption: The Perceptions of Selected Adults and High School Students on a Rural School District Reorganization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviews with adult residents and high school students in two rural Kansas communities that had consolidated their high schools found that adults in the community that lost its high school had more negative reactions and feelings of loss than adults in the community that retained its high school. Student reactions were generally positive.…

Wieland, Regi Leann

2001-01-01

275

Gene expression analysis distinguishes tissue-specific and gender-related functions among adult Ascaris suum tissues.  

PubMed

Over a billion people are infected by Ascaris spp. intestinal parasites. To clarify functional differences among tissues of adult A. suum, we compared gene expression by various tissues of these worms by expression microarray methods. The A. suum genome was sequenced and assembled to allow generation of microarray elements. Expression of over 40,000 60-mer elements was investigated in a variety of tissues from both male and female adult worms. Nearly 50 percent of the elements for which signal was detected exhibited differential expression among different tissues. The unique profile of transcripts identified for each tissue clarified functional distinctions among tissues, such as chitin binding in the ovary and peptidase activity in the intestines. Interestingly, hundreds of gender-specific elements were characterized in multiple non-reproductive tissues of female or male worms, with most prominence of gender differences in intestinal tissue. A. suum genes from the same family were frequently expressed differently among tissues. Transcript abundance for genes specific to A. suum, by comparison to Caenorhabditis elegans, varied to a greater extent among tissues than for genes conserved between A. suum and C. elegans. Analysis using C. elegans protein interaction data identified functional modules conserved between these two nematodes, resulting in identification of functional predictions of essential subnetworks of protein interactions and how these networks may vary among nematode tissues. A notable finding was very high module similarity between adult reproductive tissues and intestine. Our results provide the most comprehensive assessment of gene expression among tissues of a parasitic nematode to date. PMID:23572074

Wang, Zhengyuan; Gao, Xin; Martin, John; Yin, Yong; Abubucker, Sahar; Rash, Amy C; Li, Ben-Wen; Nash, Bill; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kym; Jasmer, Douglas P; Mitreva, Makedonka

2013-06-01

276

Factors Affecting Recovery of Functional Status in Older Adults After Cancer Surgery  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES To explore factors influencing functional status over time after cancer surgery in adults aged 65 and older. DESIGN Secondary data analysis of combined data subsets. SETTING Five prospective, longitudinal oncology nurse-directed clinical studies conducted at three academic centers in the northwest and northeast United States. PARTICIPANTS Three hundred sixteen community-residing patients diagnosed with digestive system, thoracic, genitourinary, and gynecological cancers treated primarily with surgery. MEASUREMENTS Functional status, defined as performance of current life roles, was measured using the Enforced Social Dependency Scale and the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Survey (using physical component summary measures) after surgery (baseline) and again at 3 and 6 months. Number of symptoms, measured using the Symptom Distress Scale, quantified the effect of each additional common cancer symptom on functional status. RESULTS After controlling for cancer site and stage, comorbidities, symptoms, psychological status, treatment, and demographic variables, functional status was found to be significantly better at 3 and 6 months after surgery than at baseline. Factors associated with better functional status included higher income and better mental health. Factors associated with poorer average functional status were a greater number of symptoms and comorbidities. Persons reporting three or more symptoms experienced statistically significant and clinically meaningful poorer functional status than those without symptoms. Persons reporting three or more comorbidities were also found to have poorer functional status than those without comorbidities. No significant relationship existed between age and functional status in patients aged 65 and older. CONCLUSION Factors other than age affect recovery of functional status in older adults after cancer surgery.

Van Cleave, Janet H.; Egleston, Brian L.; McCorkle, Ruth

2011-01-01

277

The functional profile of young adults with suspected Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD).  

PubMed

We assessed the non-academic and academic functioning of young adults with DCD, and investigated the emotional influences and the role of strategy use within this population. A random sample of 2379 adolescents and young adults aged 19-25 (1081 males [45.4%]; mean age=20.68, SD=3.42) was used to develop the instruments. From this sample, three study groups were identified (n=429) based on the Adolescents & Adults Coordination Questionnaire: probable DCD (n=135; 67.2% males), suspected borderline DCD (n=149; 51.4% males) and control (145; 70.5% males). Participants completed the Daily Life Functions Questionnaire (assessing non-academic and academic functioning), the Recent Emotional State Test (assessing feelings resulting from task performance), the Internal Factors Attributed to Success Questionnaire and the Problem Solving Questionnaire to assess strategy and executive strategy use. A MANOVA revealed statistically significant differences between-groups (F[7,422]=16.19; p<.001; ?=.197); post hoc analyses revealed differences for all measures (except the Problem Solving Questionnaire), with the probable DCD and suspected borderline DCD groups performing worse than controls. Severity of motor deficits was correlated with all outcomes except strategy use. Logistic regression revealed that non-academic functioning was the most significant predictor of group placement (B=-1.32; p<.001); academic functioning/handwriting was the second most significant predictor (B=0.44; p=.047). Deficits in motor coordination continue into adulthood and have an effect on academic and non-academic function, as well as on the emotional state of the individual. PMID:22789703

Tal-Saban, Miri; Zarka, Salman; Grotto, Itamar; Ornoy, Asher; Parush, Shula

2012-01-01

278

Blood lead levels in relation to cognitive function in older U.S. adults.  

PubMed

Studies suggest that cumulative exposure to lead, as measured in the bone, is associated with accelerated cognitive decline at older age. It is presently unclear, however, whether current blood lead levels (BLLs) are adversely related to cognitive functioning in older adults. We evaluated BLLs in relation to cognition in the continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The current study was limited to adults age 60 and older. We examined two measures of cognitive functioning: self-reported functional limitation due to difficulty remembering or periods of confusion (NHANES 1999-2008; n=7277) and performance on the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST; NHANES 1999-2002; n=2299). We evaluated quintiles of BLL (<1.30, 1.79-<2.30, 2.30-<3.20, and ?3.20?g/dL) in relation to cognitive functioning using logistic (functional limitation) and linear (DSST scores) regression in SUDAAN, adjusting for age, sex, race, poverty-income ratio, education, and self-reported general health status. BLLs were not associated with self-reported confusion or memory problems in crude and adjusted analyses, with adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of 1.0 (ref.), 0.9 (CI=0.7-1.3), 0.8 (CI=0.6-1.2), 1.0 (CI=0.7-1.3), 1.0 (CI=0.7-1.4), respectively, in increasing quintiles. Similarly, there was no clear association between performance on the DSST and BLL after accounting for all covariates. Our findings add to the inconsistent evidence regarding the association between concurrent BLLs and cognitive function in older adults. Early-life or long-term, accumulated lead exposures may be etiologically more relevant to accelerated cognitive decline at older age. PMID:21093481

van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Winters, Paul C; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A

2011-01-01

279

Effects of lifestyle physical activity on perceived symptoms and physical function in adults with fibromyalgia: results of a randomized trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Although exercise is therapeutic for adults with fibromyalgia (FM), its symptoms often create obstacles that discourage exercise. We evaluated the effects of accumulating at least 30 minutes of self-selected lifestyle physical activity (LPA) on perceived physical function, pain, fatigue, body mass index, depression, tenderness, and the six-minute walk test in adults with FM. METHODS: Eighty-four minimally active adults with

Kevin R Fontaine; Lora Conn; Daniel J Clauw

2010-01-01

280

Liver function in asymptomatic adult individuals with severe alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency (Pi Z).  

PubMed

Eleven adult individuals (aged 24 to 66 years) with severe alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency, Pi Z, and with no clinical signs of liver disease, were investigated with a broad spectrum of liver function tests. Except for low alpha1-antitrypsin levels, no evidence of abnormal hepatic protein synthesis was found. Neither could any biochemical signs of liver cell necrosis or increased liver cell regeneration be disclosed. In spite of the well-known pronounced distension of hepatic endoplasmic reticulum (E.R.) by aggregated asialo-alpha1-antitrypsin in this disease, the function of the E.R. tested with the aminopyrine breath test was not found to be impaired. PMID:303370

Larsson, C; Eriksson, S

1977-01-01

281

The relationship between victimization and mental health functioning in homeless youth and adults.  

PubMed

This study examined the relationship between victimization and mental health functioning in homeless individuals. Homeless populations experience higher levels of victimization than the general population, which in turn have a detrimental effect on their mental health. A sample of 304 homeless adults and youth completed one-on-one interviews, answering questions on mental health, past victimization, and recent victimization experiences. A hierarchical linear regression showed that experiences of childhood sexual abuse predicted lower mental health functioning after controlling for the sex and age of individuals. The study findings are applicable to current support programs for victims in the homeless population and are relevant to future research on homelessness and victimization. PMID:24323694

Rattelade, Stephanie; Farrell, Susan; Aubry, Tim; Klodawsky, Fran

2014-06-01

282

Increased marijuana use and gender predict poorer cognitive functioning in adolescents and emerging adults.  

PubMed

This study sought to characterize neuropsychological functioning in MJ-using adolescents and emerging adults (ages 18-26) and to investigate whether gender moderated these effects. Data were collected from 59 teens and emerging adults including MJ users (n = 23, 56% female) and controls (n = 35, 50% female) aged 18-26 (M = 21 years). Exclusionary criteria included independent Axis I disorders (besides SUD), and medical and neurologic disorders. After controlling for reading ability, gender, subclinical depressive symptoms, body mass index, and alcohol and other drug use, increased MJ use was associated with slower psychomotor speed/sequencing ability (p < .01), less efficient sustained attention (p < .05), and increased cognitive inhibition errors (p < .03). Gender significantly moderated the effects of MJ on psychomotor speed/sequencing ability (p < .003) in that males had a more robust negative relationship. The current study demonstrated that MJ exposure was associated with poorer psychomotor speed, sustained attention and cognitive inhibition in a dose-dependent manner in young adults, findings that are consistent with other samples of adolescent MJ users. Male MJ users demonstrated greater cognitive slowing than females. Future studies need to examine the neural substrates underlying with these cognitive deficits and whether cognitive rehabilitation or exercise interventions may serve as a viable treatments of cognitive deficits in emerging adult MJ users. PMID:22613255

Lisdahl, Krista M; Price, Jenessa S

2012-07-01

283

Neonatal chlamydial pneumonia induces altered respiratory structure and function lasting into adult life.  

PubMed

Respiratory dysfunction in adults has been correlated with neonatal Chlamydia trachomatis pneumonia in several studies, but a causal association has not been clearly demonstrated. In this study, we examined radial alveolar counts (RACs) by microscopy, and airway and parenchymal lung function using a small animal ventilator in juvenile (5 weeks age) and adult (8 weeks age) BALB/c mice challenged as neonates with Chlamydia muridarum (C. mur) on day 1 or day 7 after birth, representing saccular (human pre-term neonates) and alveolar (human term neonates) stages of lung development, respectively. Pups challenged with C. mur on either day 1 or 7 after birth demonstrated significantly enhanced airway hyperreactivity and lung compliance, both as juveniles (5 weeks age) and adults (8 weeks age), compared with mock-challenged mice. Moreover, mice challenged neonatally with Chlamydia displayed significantly reduced RACs, suggesting emphysematous changes. Antimicrobial treatment during the neonatal infection induced early bacterial clearance and partially ameliorated the Chlamydia-induced lung dysfunction as adults. These results suggest that neonatal chlamydial pneumonia, especially in pre-term neonates, is a cause of respiratory dysfunction continuing into adulthood, and that antimicrobial administration may be partially effective in preventing the adverse respiratory sequelae in adulthood. The results of our studies also emphasize the importance of prenatal screening and treatment of pregnant women for C. trachomatis in order to prevent the infection of neonates. PMID:21769086

Jupelli, Madhulika; Murthy, Ashlesh K; Chaganty, Bharat K R; Guentzel, M Neal; Selby, Dale M; Vasquez, Margarita M; Mustafa, Shamimunisa B; Henson, Barbara M; Seidner, Steven R; Zhong, Guangming; Arulanandam, Bernard P

2011-10-01

284

MRI- and MRS-Derived Hippocampal Correlates of Quantitative Locomotor Function in Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Gait measures have been shown to predict cognitive decline and dementia in older adults. Investigation of the neurobiology associated with locomotor function is needed to elucidate this relationship with cognitive abilities. This study aimed to examine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI; hippocampal volume)- and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS; N-acetylaspartate to creatine (NAA/Cr) ratios)-derived hippocampal correlates of quantitative gait function (swing time (seconds), stride length (cm), and stride length variability (standard deviation)) in a subset of 48 nondemented older adults (24 males; mean age=81 years) drawn from the Einstein Aging Study, a community-based sample of individuals over the age of 70 residing in the Bronx, New York. Linear regression analyses controlling for age were used to examine hippocampal volume and neurochemistry as predictors of gait function. We found that stride length was associated with hippocampal volume (?=0.36, p=0.03; overall model R2=0.33, p=0.01), but not hippocampal neurochemistry (?=0.09, p=0.48). Stride length variability was more strongly associated with hippocampal NAA/Cr (?=?0.38, p=0.01; overall model R2=0.14, p=0.04) than hippocampal volume (?=?0.33, p=0.08). Gait swing time was not significantly related to any neuroimaging measure. These relationships remained significant after accounting for memory and clinical gait impairments. These findings suggest that nondemented older adults exhibit increased stride length variability that is associated with lower levels of hippocampal neuronal metabolism, but not hippocampal volume. Conversely, decreased stride length is associated with smaller hippocampal volumes, but not hippocampal neurochemistry. Distinct neurobiological hippocampal substrates may support decreased stride length and increased stride length variability in older adults.

Zimmerman, Molly E.; Lipton, Richard B.; Pan, Jullie W.; Hetherington, Hoby P.; Verghese, Joe

2009-01-01

285

Resting-State Functional Connectivity Indexes Reading Competence in Children and Adults  

PubMed Central

Task-based neuroimaging studies face the challenge of developing tasks capable of equivalently probing reading networks across different age groups. Resting-state fMRI, which requires no specific task, circumvents these difficulties. Here, in 25 children (8–14 years) and 25 adults (21–46 years), we examined the extent to which individual differences in reading competence can be related to resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) of regions implicated in reading. In both age groups, reading standard scores correlated positively with RSFC between the left precentral gyrus and other motor regions, and between Broca's and Wernicke's areas. This suggests that, regardless of age group, stronger coupling among motor regions, as well as between language/speech regions, subserves better reading, presumably reflecting automatized articulation. We also observed divergent RSFC–behavior relationships in children and adults, particularly those anchored in the left fusiform gyrus (FFG) (the visual word form area). In adults, but not children, better reading performance was associated with stronger positive correlations between FFG and phonology-related regions (Broca's area and the left inferior parietal lobule), and with stronger negative relationships between FFG and regions of the “task-negative” default network. These results suggest that both positive RSFC (functional coupling) between reading regions and negative RSFC (functional segregation) between a reading region and default network regions are important for automatized reading, characteristic of adult readers. Together, our task-independent RSFC findings highlight the importance of appreciating developmental changes in the neural correlates of reading competence, and suggest that RSFC may serve to facilitate the identification of reading disorders in different age groups.

Di Martino, Adriana; Zuo, Xi-Nian; Kelly, Clare; Mennes, Maarten; Jutagir, Devika R.; Castellanos, F. Xavier

2011-01-01

286

Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for Older Adults: Effects on Executive Function, Frontal Alpha Asymmetry and Immune Function  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) has enhanced cognition, positive emotion, and immunity in younger and middle-aged samples; its benefits are less well known for older persons. Here we report on a randomized controlled trial of MBSR for older adults and its effects on executive function, left frontal asymmetry of the EEG alpha band, and antibody response. Methods Older adults (n = 201) were randomized to MBSR or waiting list control. The outcome measures were: the Trail Making Test part B/A (Trails B/A) ratio, a measure of executive function; changes in left frontal alpha asymmetry, an indicator of positive emotions or approach motivation; depression, mindfulness, and perceived stress scores, and the immunoglobulin G response to a protein antigen, a measure of adaptive immunity. Results MBSR participants had a lower Trails B/A ratio immediately after intervention (p <0.05); reduced shift to rightward frontal alpha activation after intervention (p = 0.03); higher baseline antibody levels after intervention (p <0.01), but lower antibody responses 24 weeks after antigen challenge (p <0.04), and improved mindfulness after intervention (p = 0.023) and at 21 weeks of follow-up (p = 0.006). Conclusions MBSR produced small but significant changes in executive function, mindfulness, and sustained left frontal alpha asymmetry. The antibody findings at follow-up were unexpected. Further study of the effects of MBSR on immune function should assess changes in antibody responses in comparison to T-cell-mediated effector functions, which decline as a function of age.

Moynihan, Jan A.; Chapman, Benjamin P.; Klorman, Rafael; Krasner, Michael S.; Duberstein, Paul R.; Brown, Kirk Warren; Talbot, Nancy L.

2013-01-01

287

The Relationship between Cognitive Function and Non-Prescribed Therapy Use in Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine the association of cognitive function with use of non-prescribed therapies for managing acute and chronic conditions, and to determine whether use of non-prescribed therapies changes over time in relation to baseline cognitive function. Methods 200 community-dwelling adults aged 65 and older were recruited from three counties in south central North Carolina. Repeated measures of daily symptoms and treatment were collected on three consecutive days at intervals of at least one month. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the primary cognitive measure, was collected as part of the baseline survey. Data were collected on the daily use of common non-prescribed therapies (use of prayer, ignore symptoms, over-the-counter remedies, food and beverage therapies, home remedies, and vitamin, herb, or supplements) on each of the three days of the follow-up interviews for up to six consecutive months. Results Older adults with poorer cognitive function were more likely to pray and ignore symptoms on days that they experienced acute symptoms. Poorer cognitive function was associated with increased use of home remedies for treating symptoms related to existing chronic conditions. Conclusions Cognitive function may play a role in why older patients use some non-prescribed therapies in response to acute and chronic conditions.

Nguyen, Ha T.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Quandt, Sara A.; Neiberg, Rebecca H.; Lang, Wei; Altizer, Kathryn; Stoller, Eleanor P.; Bell, Ronny A.; Arcury, Thomas A.

2012-01-01

288

Differential contributions of executive and episodic memory functions to problem solving in younger and older adults.  

PubMed

The relationship of higher order problem solving to basic neuropsychological processes likely depends on the type of problems to be solved. Well-defined problems (e.g., completing a series of errands) may rely primarily on executive functions. Conversely, ill-defined problems (e.g., navigating socially awkward situations) may, in addition, rely on medial temporal lobe (MTL) mediated episodic memory processes. Healthy young (N = 18; M = 19; SD = 1.3) and old (N = 18; M = 73; SD = 5.0) adults completed a battery of neuropsychological tests of executive and episodic memory function, and experimental tests of problem solving. Correlation analyses and age group comparisons demonstrated differential contributions of executive and autobiographical episodic memory function to well-defined and ill-defined problem solving and evidence for an episodic simulation mechanism underlying ill-defined problem solving efficacy. Findings are consistent with the emerging idea that MTL-mediated episodic simulation processes support the effective solution of ill-defined problems, over and above the contribution of frontally mediated executive functions. Implications for the development of intervention strategies that target preservation of functional independence in older adults are discussed. PMID:24044692

Vandermorris, Susan; Sheldon, Signy; Winocur, Gordon; Moscovitch, Morris

2013-11-01

289

Effects of dance on depression, physical function, and disability in underserved adults.  

PubMed

This study documented the feasibility and immediate effects of a dance intervention two times per week for 12 weeks on depression, physical function, and disability in older, underserved adults. The one-group, pretest-posttest study had a convenience sample of 40 participants recruited from a federally subsidized apartment complex located in an economically depressed, inner-city neighborhood. Depression, physical function, and disability were measured at baseline and 12 weeks. Average age was 63 years (SD = 7.9), 92% were female, and 75% were African American. At baseline, participants reported increased depression (M = 20.0, SD = 12.4), decreased physical function (M = 56.6, SD = 10.9), and increased disability limitations (M = 65.7, SD = 14.9). At posttest, paired t tests showed that the dance intervention significantly decreased depression, t = 6.11, p < .001, and disability, t = -2.70, p = .014, and significantly increased physical function, t = -2.74, p = .013. The results indicate that the 12-week dance intervention may be an effective adjunct therapy to improve depression, disability, and physical function in underserved adults. PMID:23945631

Murrock, Carolyn J; Graor, Christine Heifner

2014-07-01

290

Attempts to restore visual function after optic nerve damage in adult mammals.  

PubMed

Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and their axons, i.e., optic nerve (ON) fibers, provide a good experimental model for research on damaged CNS neurons and their functional ecovery. After the ON transection most RGCs undergo retrograde and anterograde degeneration but they can be rescued and regenerated by transplantation of a piece of peripheral nerve (PN). When the nerve graft was bridged to the visual center, regenerating RGC axons can restore the central visual projection. Behavioral recovery of relatively simple visual function has been proved in such PN-grafted rodents. Intravitreal injections of various neurotrophic factors and cytokines to activate intracellular signaling mechanism of RGCs and electrical stimulation to the cut end of ON have promoting effects on their survival and axonal regeneration. Axotomized RGCs in adult cats are also shown to survive and regenerate their axons through the PN graft. Among the cat RGC types, Y cells, which function as visual motion detector, tend to survive and regenerate axons better than others. X cells, which are essential for acute vision, suffer from rapid death after ON transection but they can be rescued by intravitreal application of neurotrophins accompanied with elevation of cAMP. To restore visual function in adult mammals with damaged optic pathway, the comprehensive and integrative strategies of multiple approaches will be needed, taking care of functional diversity of RGC types. PMID:16955708

Miyoshi, Tomomitsu; Kurimoto, Takuji; Fukuda, Yutaka

2006-01-01

291

APOLIPOPROTEIN E AND MEASURED PHYSICAL AND PULMONARY FUNCTION IN OLDER TAIWANESE ADULTS  

PubMed Central

The apolipoprotein E (ApoE) gene, which has three common alleles (?2, ?3, and ?4), has been linked to a number of health outcomes and longevity. The ?2 allele has been reported to have neuroprotective effects, whereas the ?4 allele has been shown to be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and Alzheimer’s disease in various populations. The relationships between ApoE and mortality and ApoE and physical function, however, are not clearcut. We used the Social Environment and Biomarkers of Aging Study (SEBAS) to examine the relationship between ApoE polymorphisms and physical and pulmonary function in approximately 1,000 Taiwanese adults ages 53 and older in 2006. In the 2006 wave, measures of physical function included self-reported difficulties with respect to activities of daily living (ADLs) and other physical function indicators, as well as performance-based measures of grip strength (kg), 3m walking speed (m/sec), and chair stand speed (stand/sec). Peak expiratory flow (PEF; L/min) rate was also examined as an indicator of pulmonary function. We used logistic regression models to determine the association between ApoE and inability to complete each of the tests of physical and pulmonary function. This revealed no significant association between ApoE carrier status and any of the indicators of function. Among participants able to complete a given task, we next used linear regression models to examine self-reported limitations with ADLs and performance on the given test by ApoE carrier status. Similarly, there were no significant relationships between ApoE carrier status and the measures of function. Our estimates provide further confirmation that the ApoE gene may not be a risk factor for functional decline among older Taiwanese adults.

Vasunilashorn, Sarinnapha; Glei, Dana A.; Lin, Yu-Hsuan; Goldman, Noreen

2013-01-01

292

Nuclear diffractive structure functions at high energies  

SciTech Connect

A future high-energy electron-ion collider would explore the non-linear weakly-coupled regime of QCD, and test the Color Glass Condensate (CGC) approach to high-energy scattering. Hard diffraction in deep inelastic scattering off nuclei will provide many fundamental measurements. In this work, the nuclear diffractive structure function F{sub 2,A}{sup D} is predicted in the CGC framework, and the features of nuclear enhancement and suppression are discussed.

Marquet,C.; Kowalski, H.; Lappi, T.; Venugopalan, R.

2008-08-08

293

Current social functioning in adult-onset schizophrenia and its relation with positive symptoms  

PubMed Central

Background: In schizophrenia, relation exists between psychopathology and social functioning. Aim and Objectives: Determining relationship of positive symptoms with current social functioning in adult-onset (?19 years) schizophrenia. Materials and Methods: Eighty schizophrenia patients [ICD-10-DCR], of both sexes (18-60 years), on follow-up for ?6 months, with no change of diagnosis and without co-morbidities, having onset of illness ?19 years of age, accompanied by informants having contact with the patient for a period of >12 months prior the first psychiatric contact or symptom onset were assessed with SCARF- Social Functioning Index and SAPS. Results: Family role, occupational role, and other social role have negative correlation with all positive symptoms. Conclusion: Current social functioning has significant negative correlation with concurrent positive symptoms.

Kundu, Partha S.; Sinha, Vinod K.; Paul, Sarita E.; Desarkar, Pushpal

2013-01-01

294

Mediators and moderators of functional impairment in adults with obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

The current study examined correlates, moderators, and mediators of functional impairment in 98 treatment-seeking adults with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Participants completed or were administered measures assessing obsessive-compulsive symptom severity, functional impairment, resistance against symptoms, interference due to obsessive-compulsive symptoms, depressive symptoms, insight, and anxiety sensitivity. Results indicated that all factors, except insight into symptoms, were significantly correlated with functional impairment. The relationship between obsessive-compulsive symptom severity and functional impairment was not moderated by patient insight, resistance against obsessive-compulsive symptoms, or anxiety sensitivity. Mediational analyses indicated that obsessive-compulsive symptom severity mediated the relationship between anxiety sensitivity and obsessive-compulsive related impairment. Indeed, anxiety sensitivity may play an important contributory role in exacerbating impairment through increases in obsessive-compulsive symptom severity. Depressive symptoms mediated the relationship between obsessive-compulsive symptom severity and obsessive-compulsive related impairment. Implications for assessment and treatment are discussed. PMID:24342055

Storch, Eric A; Wu, Monica S; Small, Brent J; Crawford, Erika A; Lewin, Adam B; Horng, Betty; Murphy, Tanya K

2014-04-01

295

Growth Hormone Deficiency and Memory Functioning in Adults Visualized by Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive functioning, especially memory performance, is known to be impaired in patients with childhood-onset growth hormone deficiency (CO-GHD), and growth hormone substitution has been found to counteract this memory impairment. Neuropsychological and functional magnetic resonance imagining (fMRI) data acquired during a working memory task in 13 childhood-onset GH-deficient patients were compared with 13 age, sex and education level matched healthy

Lucia I. Arwert; Dick J. Veltman; Jan Berend Deijen; P. Sytze van Dam; Henriette A. Delemarre-van deWaal; Madeleine L. Drent

2005-01-01

296

Exposure to Traffic: Lung Function and Health Status in Adults with Asthma  

PubMed Central

Background Exposure to traffic has been associated with asthma outcomes in children, but its effect on asthma in adults has not been well studied. Objective To test the hypothesis that lung function and health status are associated with traffic exposures. Methods We measured forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) % predicted, general health status using the Physical Component Scale of the Short Form (SF-12 PCS) and quality of life (QoL) using the Marks Asthma Quality of Life questionnaire in a cohort of adults with asthma or rhinitis (n=176; 145 with asthma). We assessed exposures to traffic by geo-coding subjects’ residential addresses and assigning distance to roadways. Associations between distance to nearest roadway and distance to nearest major roadway and FEV1 % predicted or SF-12 PCS were studied using linear regression. Results FEV1 % predicted was positively associated with distance from nearest roadway (p=0.01) and major roadway (p=0.02). SF-12 PCS and QoL were not significantly associated with either traffic variable. Adjustment for income, smoking, and obesity did not substantively change the associations of the traffic variables with FEV1 % predicted (p=0.04 for nearest roadway and p=0.02 for nearest major roadway) and did not cause associations with either SF-12 PCS or OoL to become significant Conclusions Traffic exposure was associated with decreased lung function in adults with asthma.

Balmes, John R.; Earnest, Gillian; Katz, Patricia P.; Yelin, Edward H.; Eisner, Mark D.; Chen, Hubert; Trupin, Laura; Lurmann, Fred; Blanc, Paul D.

2009-01-01

297

Functional alterations in adult rat myocytes after overexpression of phospholamban with use of adenovirus.  

PubMed

An increased phospholamban (PLB)-to-sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) ratio has been suggested to contribute to the slowing of relaxation in failing human ventricle. We have used an adenoviral vector carrying the sequence for PLB to increase this ratio in isolated adult rat ventricular myocytes, and we have examined the functional consequences. With use of adenoviral vectors, the PLB content of adult rat myocytes was increased 2.73-fold, with SERCA2a levels unchanged. Maximum contraction amplitude of PLB-overexpressing myocytes was decreased to 6.9 +/- 0.3% shortening compared with 11.2 +/- 0.8% for 24-h controls (Con; P < 0.001, 5 preparations, 103 myocytes). Maximum rates of shortening and relengthening were also significantly decreased. Ca(2+) transient amplitudes were slightly depressed, and time to 50% decay of the transients was significantly increased: 237 +/- 18 (n = 14 myocytes) and 432 +/- 32 ms in Con and PLB (n = 15) myocytes, respectively (P < 0.001). The amount of Ca(2+) in the sarcoplasmic reticulum stores was reduced by 21% (P < 0.05). Relaxation was significantly slower in PLB than in Con myocytes when the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger was blocked but not when sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) uptake was inhibited. Adenovirus infection with Ad.RSV.PLB was therefore able to produce functional changes in adult cardiac myocytes within 24 h, consistent with overexpression of PLB and similar to those seen in failing human heart. PMID:11015560

Davia, K; Hajjar, R J; Terracciano, C M; Kent, N S; Ranu, H K; O'Gara, P; Rosenzweig, A; Harding, S E

1999-08-31

298

Conditional hypovascularization and hypoxia in islets do not overtly influence adult ?-cell mass or function.  

PubMed

It is generally accepted that vascularization and oxygenation of pancreatic islets are essential for the maintenance of an optimal ?-cell mass and function and that signaling by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is crucial for pancreas development, insulin gene expression/secretion, and (compensatory) ?-cell proliferation. A novel mouse model was designed to allow conditional production of human sFlt1 by ?-cells in order to trap VEGF and study the effect of time-dependent inhibition of VEGF signaling on adult ?-cell fate and metabolism. Secretion of sFlt1 by adult ?-cells resulted in a rapid regression of blood vessels and hypoxia within the islets. Besides blunted insulin release, ?-cells displayed a remarkable capacity for coping with these presumed unfavorable conditions: even after prolonged periods of blood vessel ablation, basal and stimulated blood glucose levels were only slightly increased, while ?-cell proliferation and mass remained unaffected. Moreover, ablation of blood vessels did not prevent ?-cell generation after severe pancreas injury by partial pancreatic duct ligation or partial pancreatectomy. Our data thus argue against a major role of blood vessels to preserve adult ?-cell generation and function, restricting their importance to facilitating rapid and adequate insulin delivery. PMID:23974922

D'Hoker, Joke; De Leu, Nico; Heremans, Yves; Baeyens, Luc; Minami, Kohtaro; Ying, Cai; Lavens, Astrid; Chintinne, Marie; Stangé, Geert; Magenheim, Judith; Swisa, Avital; Martens, Geert; Pipeleers, Daniel; van de Casteele, Mark; Seino, Susumo; Keshet, Eli; Dor, Yuval; Heimberg, Harry

2013-12-01

299

The Role of the Right Hemisphere for Processing of Social Interactions in Normal Adults Using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The main purpose of this study was to evaluate whole-brain and hemispheric activation in normal adult volunteers to videos depicting positive and negative social encounters. There are few studies that have utilized dynamic social stimuli to evaluate brain activation. Method: Twenty young adults viewed videotaped vignettes during an functional magnetic resonance imaging procedure. The vignettes included positive and negative

Margaret Semrud-Clikeman; Jodene Goldenring Fine; David C. Zhu

2011-01-01

300

Do individuals with high functioning autism have the IQ profile associated with nonverbal learning disability?  

PubMed Central

Previously researchers have noted a high level of occurrence of the IQ profile associated with nonverbal learning disability (NLD) in Asperger syndrome (ASP) but not in high functioning autism (HFA). We examined the IQ profile scores of a large sample of children (n = 69) and adults (n = 77) with HFA, stringently diagnosed according to ADOS, ADI-R, and DSM-IV criteria, and a corresponding sample of typical child (n = 72) and adult controls (n = 107). At least one of the three primary components of the Wechsler pattern seen in NLD were found in 17–26% of the children and 20–32% of the adults with HFA. All three components occurred in slightly more than 5% of the children and adults with autism. Overall, the VIQ > PIQ profile seen in NLD occurred in 18% of the sample of individuals stringently diagnosed with HFA. Therefore, obtaining this IQ profile is not a valid clinical discriminator between NLD and HFA.

Williams, Diane L.; Goldstein, Gerald; Kojkowski, Nicole; Minshew, Nancy J.

2008-01-01

301

Individualized piano instruction enhances executive functioning and working memory in older adults.  

PubMed

This study evaluates transfer from domain-specific, sensorimotor training to cognitive abilities associated with executive function. We examined Individualized Piano Instruction (IPI) as a potential cognitive intervention to mitigate normal age-related cognitive decline in older adults. Thirty-one musically naïve community-dwelling older adults (ages 60-85) were randomly assigned to either the experimental group (n = 16) or control group (n = 15). Neuropsychological assessments were administered at three time points: pre-training, following six months of intervention, and following a three-month delay. The experimental group significantly improved performance on the Trail Making Test and Digit Symbol measures as compared to healthy controls. Results of this study suggest that IPI may serve as an effective cognitive intervention for age-related cognitive decline. PMID:17612811

Bugos, J A; Perlstein, W M; McCrae, C S; Brophy, T S; Bedenbaugh, P H

2007-07-01

302

From Drosophila development to adult: clues to Notch function in long-term memory  

PubMed Central

Notch is a cell surface receptor that is well known to mediate inter-cellular communication during animal development. Data in the field indicate that it is also involved in the formation of long-term memory (LTM) in the fully developed adults and in memory loss upon neurodegeneration. Our studies in the model organism Drosophila reveal that a non-canonical Notch-protein kinase C activity that plays critical roles in embryonic development also regulates cyclic-AMP response element binding protein during LTM formation in adults. Here we present a perspective on how the various known features of Notch function relate to LTM formation and how they might interface with elements of Wingless/Wnt signaling in this process.

Zhang, Jiabin; Yin, Jerry C. P.; Wesley, Cedric S.

2013-01-01

303

Function-focused care and changes in physical function in Chinese American and non-Chinese American hospitalized older adults.  

PubMed

Function-focused care (FFC) is a rehabilitative philosophy of care with which nurses help patients engage in activities of daily living and physical activity with the goal of preventing avoidable functional decline. This prospective, observational study described the degree of FFC provided by nursing staff to Chinese American (n = 32) and non-Chinese American (n = 43) older adults in medical-surgical units of an urban hospital. In both groups, only a few ADLs were a focus of FFC. Loss of physical function occurred, and physical function did not return to baseline by discharge in both groups; however, FFC was associated with less decline. Results suggest that hospitalized elders, both Chinese American and non-Chinese American, can benefit from nurse-led FFC. FFC may help minimize functional decline and decrease the use of postacute care rehabilitation. The gerontological rehabilitation nurse can play an essential role, guiding a function-focused approach throughout the hospital stay, including with the transitional care plan. PMID:22073502

Boltz, Marie; Resnick, Barbara; Capezuti, Elizabeth; Shabbat, Nina; Secic, Michelle

2011-01-01

304

Association of television violence exposure with executive functioning and white matter volume in young adult males.  

PubMed

Prior research has indicated that self-reported violent media exposure is associated with poorer performance on some neuropsychological tests in adolescents. This study aimed to examine the relationship of executive functioning to violent television viewing in healthy young adult males and examine how brain structure is associated with media exposure measures. Sixty-five healthy adult males (ages 18-29) with minimal video game experience estimated their television viewing habits over the past year and, during the subsequent week, recorded television viewing time and characteristics in a daily media diary. Participants then completed a battery of neuropsychological laboratory tests quantifying executive functions and underwent a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. Aggregate measures of executive functioning were not associated with measures of overall television viewing (any content type) during the past week or year. However, the amount of television viewing of violent content only, as indicated by both past-year and daily diary measures, was associated with poorer scores on an aggregate score of inhibition, interference control and attention, with no relationship to a composite working memory score. In addition, violent television exposure, as measured with daily media diaries, was associated with reduced frontoparietal white matter volume. Future longitudinal work is necessary to resolve whether individuals with poor executive function and slower white matter growth are more drawn to violent programming, or if extensive media violence exposure modifies cognitive control mechanisms mediated primarily via prefrontal cortex. Impaired inhibitory mechanisms may be related to reported increases in aggression with higher media violence exposure. PMID:24836970

Hummer, Tom A; Kronenberger, William G; Wang, Yang; Anderson, Caitlin C; Mathews, Vincent P

2014-07-01

305

Sleep and cognition on everyday functioning in older adults: implications for nursing practice and research.  

PubMed

Nearly 50% of older adults experience difficulty with sleeping, and 21% of older adults also experience cognitive complaints to which sleep difficulties can also contribute to poorer cognitive functioning. Combined, such sleep difficulties and age-related cognitive declines can contribute to poorer performance on everyday activities necessary for independence, quality of life, and successful aging. Activities that may be especially compromised are driving, instrumental activities of daily living, and employment. In nursing practice, it is necessary to understand the relationship between sleep and cognition and what contributes to poorer sleep hygiene and cognitive functioning, whether it is medications and polypharmacy, comorbidities, habits and lifestyle factors, or negative mood. Such an understanding can help nurses provide evidence-based interventions to improve sleep and cognition in older patients. In research, nurses must devise and test ways to improve sleep hygiene and cognitive functioning in older patients with methods such as sleep hygiene education and speed-of-processing training to ameliorate everyday functioning and quality of life. PMID:21926521

Vance, David E; Heaton, Karen; Eaves, Yvonne; Fazeli, Pariya L

2011-10-01

306

Characterization and Functional Properties of Gastric Tissue-Resident Memory T Cells from Children, Adults, and the Elderly  

PubMed Central

T cells are the main orchestrators of protective immunity in the stomach; however, limited information on the presence and function of the gastric T subsets is available mainly due to the difficulty in recovering high numbers of viable cells from human gastric biopsies. To overcome this shortcoming we optimized a cell isolation method that yielded high numbers of viable lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMC) from gastric biopsies. Classic memory T subsets were identified in gastric LPMC and compared to peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) obtained from children, adults, and the elderly using an optimized 14 color flow cytometry panel. A dominant effector memory T (TEM) phenotype was observed in gastric LPMC CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in all age groups. We then evaluated whether these cells represented a population of gastric tissue-resident memory T (TRM) cells by assessing expression of CD103 and CD69. The vast majority of gastric LPMC CD8+ T cells either co-expressed CD103/CD69 (>70%) or expressed CD103 alone (~20%). Gastric LPMC CD4+ T cells also either co-expressed CD103/CD69 (>35%) or expressed at least one of these markers. Thus, gastric LPMC CD8+ and CD4+ T cells had the characteristics of TRM cells. Gastric CD8+ and CD4+ TRM cells produced multiple cytokines (IFN-?, IL-2, TNF-?, IL-17A, MIP-1?) and up-regulated CD107a upon stimulation. However, marked differences were observed in their cytokine and multi-cytokine profiles when compared to their PBMC TEM counterparts. Furthermore, gastric CD8+ TRM and CD4+ TRM cells demonstrated differences in the frequency, susceptibility to activation, and cytokine/multi-cytokine production profiles among the age groups. Most notably, children’s gastric TRM cells responded differently to stimuli than gastric TRM cells from adults or the elderly. In conclusion, we demonstrate the presence of gastric TRM, which exhibit diverse functional characteristics in children, adults, and the elderly.

Booth, Jayaum S.; Toapanta, Franklin R.; Salerno-Goncalves, Rosangela; Patil, Seema; Kader, Howard A.; Safta, Anca M.; Czinn, Steven J.; Greenwald, Bruce D.; Sztein, Marcelo B.

2014-01-01

307

Maternal vitamin D deficiency programmes adult renal renin gene expression and renal function.  

PubMed

Renin is essential for renal development and in adult kidneys vitamin D deficiency increases renin gene expression. We aimed to determine whether maternal vitamin D deficiency upregulates fetal renal renin expression, and if this is sustained. We also examined growth and the long-term renal effects in offspring on a normal diet. Female Sprague-Dawley rats in UVB-free housing were fed either vitamin D deficient chow (DEF) or normal chow from 4 weeks and mated with vitamin D replete males at 10 weeks. Fetuses were collected at E20 or dams littered and the pups were weaned onto normal chow. Kidney mRNA levels for renin, (pro)renin receptor [(P)RR], transforming growth factor ? 1 (TGF-?1), and nephrin were determined in E20 fetuses and in male offspring at 38 weeks. Renal function was assessed at 33 weeks (24 h, metabolic cage) in both sexes. Renal mRNA expression was upregulated for renin in fetuses (P < 0.05) and was almost doubled in adult male offspring from DEF dams (P < 0.05). Adult males had reduced creatinine clearance, solute excretion and a suppressed urinary sodium-to-potassium ratio (P < 0.05). Female adult DEF offspring drank more and excreted more urine (P < 0.05) but creatinine clearance was not impaired. We conclude that maternal vitamin D depletion upregulates fetal renal renin gene expression and this persists into adulthood where, in males only, there is evidence of sodium retention and compromised renal function. Importantly these effects occurred despite the animals being on a normal diet from the time of weaning onwards. PMID:24970730

Boyce, A C; Palmer-Aronsten, B J; Kim, M Y; Gibson, K J

2013-10-01

308

Multipotent stem cells isolated from the adult mouse retina are capable of producing functional photoreceptor cells  

PubMed Central

Various stem cell types have been tested for their potential application in treating photoreceptor degenerative diseases, such as retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Only embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have so far been shown to generate functional photoreceptor cells restoring light response of photoreceptor-deficient mice, but there is still some concern of tumor formation. In this study, we have successfully cultured Nestin+Sox2+Pax6+ multipotent retinal stem cells (RSCs) from the adult mouse retina, which are capable of producing functional photoreceptor cells that restore the light response of photoreceptor-deficient rd1 mutant mice following transplantation. After they have been expanded for over 35 passages in the presence of FGF and EGF, the cultured RSCs still maintain stable proliferation and differentiation potential. Under proper differentiation conditions, they can differentiate into all the major retinal cell types found in the adult retina. More importantly, they can efficiently differentiate into photoreceptor cells under optimized differentiation conditions. Following transplantation into the subretinal space of slowly degenerating rd7 mutant eyes, RSC-derived photoreceptor cells integrate into the retina, morphologically resembling endogenous photoreceptors and forming synapases with resident retinal neurons. When transplanted into eyes of photoreceptor-deficient rd1 mutant mice, a RP model, RSC-derived photoreceptors can partially restore light response, indicating that those RSC-derived photoreceptors are functional. Finally, there is no evidence for tumor formation in the photoreceptor-transplanted eyes. Therefore, this study has demonstrated that RSCs isolated from the adult retina have the potential of producing functional photoreceptor cells that can potentially restore lost vision caused by loss of photoreceptor cells in RP and AMD.

Li, Tianqing; Lewallen, Michelle; Chen, Shuyi; Yu, Wei; Zhang, Nian; Xie, Ting

2013-01-01

309

Multipotent stem cells isolated from the adult mouse retina are capable of producing functional photoreceptor cells.  

PubMed

Various stem cell types have been tested for their potential application in treating photoreceptor degenerative diseases, such as retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Only embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have so far been shown to generate functional photoreceptor cells restoring light response of photoreceptor-deficient mice, but there is still some concern of tumor formation. In this study, we have successfully cultured Nestin(+)Sox2(+)Pax6(+) multipotent retinal stem cells (RSCs) from the adult mouse retina, which are capable of producing functional photoreceptor cells that restore the light response of photoreceptor-deficient rd1 mutant mice following transplantation. After they have been expanded for over 35 passages in the presence of FGF and EGF, the cultured RSCs still maintain stable proliferation and differentiation potential. Under proper differentiation conditions, they can differentiate into all the major retinal cell types found in the adult retina. More importantly, they can efficiently differentiate into photoreceptor cells under optimized differentiation conditions. Following transplantation into the subretinal space of slowly degenerating rd7 mutant eyes, RSC-derived photoreceptor cells integrate into the retina, morphologically resembling endogenous photoreceptors and forming synapases with resident retinal neurons. When transplanted into eyes of photoreceptor-deficient rd1 mutant mice, a RP model, RSC-derived photoreceptors can partially restore light response, indicating that those RSC-derived photoreceptors are functional. Finally, there is no evidence for tumor formation in the photoreceptor-transplanted eyes. Therefore, this study has demonstrated that RSCs isolated from the adult retina have the potential of producing functional photoreceptor cells that can potentially restore lost vision caused by loss of photoreceptor cells in RP and AMD. PMID:23567557

Li, Tianqing; Lewallen, Michelle; Chen, Shuyi; Yu, Wei; Zhang, Nian; Xie, Ting

2013-06-01

310

Tolerance of pupae and pharate adults of Callosobruchus subinnotatus Pic (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) to modified atmospheres: a function of metabolic rate.  

PubMed

Three developmental stages (pupae, early pharate and late pharate adults) of Callosobruchus subinnotatus (Pic.) were investigated for their tolerance or susceptibility to four modified atmospheres. Two of these atmospheres were hypercarbic and two were hypoxic. The hypercarbic atmospheres were found to cause mortality earlier than hypoxic atmospheres. Late pharate adults died earlier than pupae or early pharate adults. Late pharate adults that survived the exposure took a longer time to eclose than the pupae or early pharate adult.Using high resolution microrespirometric techniques, it was possible to record the oxygen consumption rate and CO(2) output of different developmental stages in air. The metabolic rate was determined manometrically as the oxygen uptake rate at an ambient temperature of 25 degrees C. The oxygen uptake rate differed significantly between groups of 20 individuals of different stages (p<0.01; t-test). The lowest rate of oxygen uptake (510.6+/-52.2 &mgr;l g(-1) h(-1)) was recorded in pupae. Higher oxygen uptake rates were found in early pharate adults (668.4+/-45.6 &mgr;l g(-1) h(-1)) and late pharate adults (1171.2+/-45.0 &mgr;l g(-1) h(-1)), and adult beetles (1310.4+/-53.4 &mgr;l g(-1) h(-1)). The patterns of CO(2) release were similar to those of oxygen uptake. CO(2) release was highest in eclosed adults and late pharate adults followed by early pharate adults, and lowest in pupae. The mode of CO(2) release ranged from continuous CO(2) release in pupae to discontinuous CO(2) release in late pharate and eclosed adults. Thus, high metabolic rates, and perhaps, in conjunction with discontinuous CO(2) of late pharate adults are responsible for their higher susceptibility to modified atmospheres than pupae and early pharate adults. PMID:12770246

Mbata, G N.; Hetz, S K.; Reichmuth, C; Adler, C

2000-02-01

311

Executive Functioning in Highly Talented Soccer Players  

PubMed Central

Executive functions might be important for successful performance in sports, particularly in team sports requiring quick anticipation and adaptation to continuously changing situations in the field. The executive functions motor inhibition, attention and visuospatial working memory were examined in highly talented soccer players. Eighty-four highly talented youth soccer players (mean age 11.9), and forty-two age-matched amateur soccer players (mean age 11.8) in the age range 8 to 16 years performed a Stop Signal task (motor inhibition), the Attention Network Test (alerting, orienting, and executive attention) and a visuospatial working memory task. The highly talented soccer players followed the talent development program of the youth academy of a professional soccer club and played at the highest national soccer competition for their age. The amateur soccer players played at a regular soccer club in the same geographical region as the highly talented soccer players and play in a regular regional soccer competition. Group differences were tested using analyses of variance. The highly talented group showed superior motor inhibition as measured by stop signal reaction time (SSRT) on the Stop Signal task and a larger alerting effect on the Attention Network Test, indicating an enhanced ability to attain and maintain an alert state. No group differences were found for orienting and executive attention and visuospatial working memory. A logistic regression model with group (highly talented or amateur) as dependent variable and executive function measures that significantly distinguished between groups as predictors showed that these measures differentiated highly talented soccer players from amateur soccer players with 89% accuracy. Highly talented youth soccer players outperform youth amateur players on suppressing ongoing motor responses and on the ability to attain and maintain an alert state; both may be essential for success in soccer.

Verburgh, Lot; Scherder, Erik J. A.; van Lange, Paul A.M.; Oosterlaan, Jaap

2014-01-01

312

Esophageal motility, vagal function and gastroesophageal reflux in a cohort of adult asthmatics  

PubMed Central

Background Asthmatics are known to have esophageal hypomotility. Vagal hypofunction and prolonged intra-esophageal acidification cause esophageal hypomotility. The contribution of gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and vagal function to esophageal motility in asthmatics is unclear. We studied the relationship between esophageal motility, GER and vagal function in a cohort of adult asthmatics. Methods Thirty mild, stable asthmatics (ATS criteria) and 30 healthy volunteers underwent 24-hour ambulatory esophageal monitoring, manometry, autonomic function testing and GER symptom assessment. 27 asthmatics underwent gastroscopy. A vagal function score calculated from 3 tests (valsalva maneuver, heart rate response to deep breathing and to standing from supine position) was correlated with esophageal function parameters. Results Asthmatics (mean age 34.8 (SD 8.4), 60% female) had more frequent GERD symptoms than controls (mean age 30.9 (SD 7.7), 50% female). 10/27 asthmatics had esophageal mucosal damage, 22 showed hypervagal response, none had a hyperadrenergic response. 14 asthmatics had ineffective esophageal motility. Higher GERD-score asthmatics had significantly fewer peristaltic and more simultaneous contractions than controls, and higher esophageal acid contact times than those with lower scores. All reflux parameters were significantly higher and acid clearance time prolonged in asthmatics than controls (p?function score and esophageal function parameters. Conclusions A cohort of adult asthmatics was found to have peristaltic dysfunction and pathological GER, but otherwise normal esophageal motility. The peristaltic dysfunction seems to be associated with vagal hyperreactivity rather than vagal hypofunction.

2012-01-01

313

Blood Pressure and Cognitive Function in Older adults with Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Past studies link elevated blood pressure (BP) and BP variability to adverse neurocognitive changes in community samples. However, little is known about the relationship between BP indices and cognitive function in older CVD patients. Methods A total of 99 older adults with CVD completed a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery. Resting BP measurements were collected every 10 minutes for two hours during a separate cardiac assessment. Five BP indices were generated: average and standard deviation of systolic blood pressure, average and standard deviation of diastolic blood pressure, and a function of systolic variability and average diastolic pressure. We examined the relationship between these BP indices and cognitive function. Results Partial correlation adjusting for age and education revealed that the function of systolic variability and average diastolic pressure (systolic BP standard deviation divided by the average diastolic BP) was most closely related to test performance, showing significant associations to both Learning/Memory (r = 0.25) and Language functioning (r = 0.22). Systolic BP indices were also related to Language functioning (SBP avg, r = 0.22; SBP sd, r = 0.25), though diastolic BP indices were unrelated to performance in any cognitive domain. Conclusions The current findings indicate that BP is modestly related to cognitive function in older CVD patients. Contrary to expectations, greater BP variability was associated with better, not poorer, cognitive test performance. Such findings suggest that the relationship between BP and cognitive function is more complicated than typically hypothesized and requires further examination.

Gunstad, John; Keary, Therese Anne; Poppas, Athena; Paul, Robert H.; Jefferson, Angela L.; Sweet, Lawrence H.; Hoth, Karin F.; Haley, Andreana P.; Forman, Daniel E.; Cohen, Ronald A.

2010-01-01

314

The Effectiveness of Community-Based Occupational Therapy Education and Functional Training Programs for Older Adults: A Critical Literature Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results of a literature review describing the provision of education and occupational therapy training programs for older adults indicate that programs are effective in three areas: prevention of functional decline and falls, stroke, and rheumatoid arthritis. (Contains 37 references.) (JOW)

Wilkins, Seanne; Jung, Bonny; Wishart, Laurie; Edwards, Mary; Norton, Shelley Gamble

2003-01-01

315

Chronic, low-dose prenatal exposure to methylmercury impairs motor and mnemonic function in adult C57/B6 mice.  

PubMed

Methylmercury (MeHg) has cytotoxic effects on animals and humans, and a major target organ for MeHg is the central nervous system (CNS). It is well known that the developing CNS is extremely vulnerable to MeHg-induced changes in comparison to the mature brain. Most studies have concentrated on the direct effects of high levels of prenatal MeHg exposure. Surprisingly, behavioral outcomes found in adult offspring exposed developmentally to the neurotoxic effects of chronic, low-dose mercury more akin to ingestion in humans are not well characterized. The objective of this study was to determine whether such exposure produces deleterious effects on behavior in adult mice, including motor/coordination abilities, overall activity and mnemonic function. Developing mouse fetuses were exposed in utero during gestational days 8-18 by giving pregnant C57Bl/6J female mice food containing MeHg at a daily dose of 0.01 mg/kg body weight. Adult mice prenatally exposed to MeHg exhibited significant deficits in motor abilities, coordination, and overall activity, as measured by rotarod, footprint analysis and open field. In addition, MeHg-exposed mice were impaired with respect to reference memory but not in a visible, cued version of the Morris water maze task. These results indicate that prenatal exposure to the lowest dose of MeHg examined to date can have long-lasting motor and cognitive consequences on adult offspring. These findings have far reaching implications related to putative safe levels of MeHg ingestion, particularly during pregnancy, and increasing rates of cognitive and psychological disorders (e.g. attention hyperactivity deficit disorder, autism) in our society. PMID:18436314

Montgomery, Karienn S; Mackey, Jessica; Thuett, Kerry; Ginestra, Stephanie; Bizon, Jennifer L; Abbott, Louise C

2008-08-01

316

High sugar intake exacerbates cardiac reperfusion injury in perinatal taurine depleted adult rats  

PubMed Central

Perinatal taurine depletion and high sugar diets blunted baroreflex function and heightens sympathetic nerve activity in adult rats. Cardiac ischemia/reperfusion also produces these disorders and taurine treatment appears to improve these effects. This study tests the hypothesis that perinatal taurine exposure predisposes recovery from reperfusion injury in rats on either a basal or high sugar diet. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed normal rat chow with 3% beta-alanine (taurine depletion, TD), 3% taurine (taurine supplementation, TS) or water alone (control, C) from conception to weaning. Male offspring were fed normal rat chow and water containing 5% glucose (G) or water alone (W) throughout the experiment. At 7-8 weeks of age, all rats were anesthetized and their trachea clamped until cardiac arrest occurred and mean arterial pressure fell below 60 mm Hg. The clamp was immediately released and cardiopulmonary resuscitation was performed with cardiac function returning within 4 min. Twenty-four hours later, arterial pressure, heart rate, and baroreflex function were measured in conscious and one day later in anesthetized conditions. Basic blood chemistry and circulating markers of cardiac injury were also measured. Baroreflex sensitivity was depressed moderately in CG and TDW, and severely in TDG. TSW displayed increased baroreflex and high sugar intake returned it to CW. Sympathetic nerve activity increased and parasympathetic decreased in TDW but not TSW and these effects were exacerbated sharply in TDG and slightly in TSG. Arterial pressure and heart rate increased in all groups but to a lesser degree in TDG. Plasma aspartate aminotransferase increased in all groups except TSW, but the increase was nearly 3X greater in TDG vs. any other group. Creatine kinase-MB increased in all groups except TSG and was far greater in TD than other groups. Troponin-T and brain natriuretic peptide were greatly increased in TDG compared to all other groups. Thus, perinatal taurine depletion increases injury from cardiac ischemia/reperfusion, and in adult rats on a high sugar diet, these effects are greatly exacerbated.

2010-01-01

317

Effects of high-altitude exercise training on contractile function of rat skinned cardiomyocyte  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Previous studies have questioned whether there is an improved cardiac function after high-altitude training. Accordingly, the present study was designed specifically to test whether this apparent blunted response of the whole heart to training can be accounted for by altered mechanical properties at the cellular level. Methods: Adult rats were trained for 5 weeks under normoxic (N, NT for

O. Cazorla; Y AITMOU; L. Goret; G. Vassort; M. Dauzat; A. Lacampagne; S. Tanguy; P. Obert

2006-01-01

318

The Role of Causal and Intentional Judgments in Moral Reasoning in Individuals with High Functioning Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the present study, we investigated the ability to assign moral responsibility and punishment in adults with high functioning autism or Asperger Syndrome (HFA/AS), using non-verbal cartoons depicting an aggression, an accidental harm or a mere coincidence. Participants were asked to evaluate the agent's causal and intentional roles, his…

Buon, Marine; Dupoux, Emmanuel; Jacob, Pierre; Chaste, Pauline; Leboyer, Marion; Zalla, Tiziana

2013-01-01

319

Work, Postsecondary Education, and Psychosocial Functioning Following the Transition from High School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through a two-wave panel study of emerging adults, the authors examine how living situation, work and school roles, and experiences in those roles affect psychosocial functioning following the transition from high school. Enrollment in college programs and fulltime work are associated with lower levels of depressed mood and more positive quality…

Aseltine, Robert H., Jr.; Gore, Susan

2005-01-01

320

High-Throughput Screening of Gene Function in Stem Cells Using Clonal Microarrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a microarray-based approach for the high- throughput screening of gene function in stem cells and dem- onstrate the potential of this method by growing and isolating clonal populations of both adult and embryonic neural stem cells. Clonal microarrays are constructed by seeding a popu- lation of cells at clonal density on micropatterned surfaces generated using soft lithographic microfabrication

Randolph S. Ashton; Joseph Peltier; Christopher A. Fasano; Analeah O'Neill; Joshua Leonard; Sally Temple; David V. Schaffer; Ravi S. Kane

2007-01-01

321

Serum Methylarginines and Spirometry-Measured Lung Function in Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Rationale Methylarginines are endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitors that have been implicated in animal models of lung disease but have not previously been examined for their association with spirometric measures of lung function in humans. Objectives This study measured serum concentrations of asymmetric and symmetric dimethylarginine in a representative sample of older community-dwelling adults and determined their association with spirometric lung function measures. Methods Data on clinical, lifestyle, and demographic characteristics, methylated arginines, and L-arginine (measured using LC-MS/MS) were collected from a population-based sample of older Australian adults from the Hunter Community Study. The five key lung function measures included as outcomes were Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second, Forced Vital Capacity, Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second to Forced Vital Capacity ratio, Percent Predicted Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second, and Percent Predicted Forced Vital Capacity. Measurements and Main Results In adjusted analyses there were statistically significant independent associations between a) higher asymmetric dimethylarginine, lower Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second and lower Forced Vital Capacity; and b) lower L-arginine/asymmetric dimethylarginine ratio, lower Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second, lower Percent Predicted Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second and lower Percent Predicted Forced Vital Capacity. By contrast, no significant associations were observed between symmetric dimethylarginine and lung function. Conclusions After adjusting for clinical, demographic, biochemical, and pharmacological confounders, higher serum asymmetric dimethylarginine was independently associated with a reduction in key measures of lung function. Further research is needed to determine if methylarginines predict the decline in lung function.

McEvoy, Mark A.; Schofield, Peter W.; Smith, Wayne T.; Agho, Kingsley; Mangoni, Arduino A.; Soiza, Roy L.; Peel, Roseanne; Hancock, Stephen J.; Carru, Ciriaco; Zinellu, Angelo; Attia, John R.

2013-01-01

322

Adult height and lung function as markers of life course exposures: Associations with risk factors and cause-specific mortality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and objective:  Pulmonary function and height may be regarded as adult indices of exposures accumulated across the entire life course and in early life, respectively. As such, we hypothesised that pulmonary function would be more strongly related to mortality than height. Studies of the association of height and lung function with mortality – which are currently modest in number –

G. David Batty; David Gunnell; Claudia Langenberg; George Davey Smith; Michael G. Marmot; Martin J. Shipley

2006-01-01

323

Age and sex related changes in episodic memory function in middle aged and older adults.  

PubMed

Age-related change in episodic memory function is commonly reported in older adults. When detected on neuropsychological tests, it may still be difficult to distinguish normal from pathological changes. The present study investigates age-and sex-related changes in a group of healthy middle-aged and older adults, participating in a three-wave study on cognitive aging. The California Verbal Learning test (CVLT-II) was used to assess their episodic memory function. A cross-sectional analysis of results from the first wave showed higher performance in females than males, with a steeper age-related decline in males. This was confirmed in a longitudinal analysis using a mixed effects regression model, but with a lower age-related change and smaller difference between the sexes. Information about learning strategies and errors in the third wave turned out to contribute significantly to explain change in episodic memory function across the three waves. We argue that the results from the longitudinal analyses are generalizable to the population of healthy middle-aged and older individuals, and that they could be useful in guiding clinicians when evaluating individuals with respect to cognitive change. PMID:24601911

Lundervold, Astri J; Wollschläger, Daniel; Wehling, Eike

2014-06-01

324

Fat Modulates the Relationship between Sarcopenia and Physical Function in Nonobese Older Adults  

PubMed Central

It is intuitive to think that sarcopenia should be associated with declines in physical function though recent evidence questions this assertion. This study investigated the relationship between absolute and relative sarcopenia, with physical performance in 202 nonobese (mean BMI = 26.6?kg/ht2) community-dwelling older (mean age = 73.8 ± 5.9 years) adults. While absolute sarcopenia (appendicular skeletal mass (ASM)/ht2) was either not associated, or weakly associated with physical performance, relative sarcopenia (ASM/kg) demonstrated moderate (r = 0.31 to r = 0.51, P < 0.01) relationships with performance outcomes in both males and females. Knee extension strength (r = 0.27) and leg extension power (r = 0.41) were both related to absolute sarcopenia (P < 0.001) in females and not in males. Strength and power were associated with relative sarcopenia in both sexes (from r = 0.47 to r = 0.67,?P < 0.001). The ratio of lean mass to total body mass, that is, relative sarcopenia, is an important consideration relative to physical function in older adults even in the absence of obesity. Stratifying these individuals into equal tertiles of total body fat revealed a trend of diminished regression coefficients across each incrementally higher fat grouping for performance measures, providing further evidence that total body fat modulates the relationship between sarcopenia and physical function.

Marcus, Robin L.; Brixner, Diana I.; Ghate, Sameer; LaStayo, Paul

2012-01-01

325

Antenatal Maternal Stress Alters Functional Brain Responses In Adult Offspring During Conditioned Fear  

PubMed Central

Antenatal maternal stress has been shown in rodent models and in humans to result in altered behavioral and neuroendocrine responses, yet little is known about its effects on functional brain activation. Pregnant female rats received a daily foot-shock stress or sham-stress two days after testing plug-positive and continuing for the duration of their pregnancy. Adult male offspring (age 14 weeks) with and without prior maternal stress (MS) were exposed to an auditory fear conditioning (CF) paradigm. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was assessed during recall of the tone cue in the nonsedated, nontethered animal using the 14C-iodoantipyrine method, in which the tracer was administered intravenously by remote activation of an implantable minipump. Regional CBF distribution was examined by autoradiography and analyzed by statistical parametric mapping in the three-dimensionally reconstructed brains. Presence of fear memory was confirmed by behavioral immobility (‘freezing’). Corticosterone plasma levels during the CF paradigm were measured by ELISA in a separate group of rats. Antenatal MS exposure altered functional brain responses to the fear conditioned cue in adult offspring. Rats with prior MS exposure compared to those without demonstrated heightened fear responsivity, exaggerated and prolonged corticosterone release, increased functional cerebral activation of limbic/paralimbic regions (amygdala, ventral hippocampus, insula, ventral striatum, nucleus acumbens), the locus coeruleus, and white matter, and deactivation of medial prefrontal cortical regions. Dysregulation of corticolimbic circuits may represent risk factors in the future development of anxiety disorders and associated alterations in emotional regulation.

Sadler, Theodore R.; Nguyen, Peter T.; Yang, Jun; Givrad, Tina K.; Mayer, Emeran A.; Maarek, Jean-Michel I.; Hinton, David R.; Holschneider, Daniel P.

2011-01-01

326

[The neuroanatomy of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults: structural and functional neuroimaging findings].  

PubMed

The objective of this work is to review the existing literature on findings from structural and functional magnetic resonance and connectivity. For a long time it was thought that children 'grew out' of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on reaching adolescence. Yet, it is now known that up to 70% of children who present ADHD in childhood go on to present symptoms in the behavioural and cognitive sphere in adulthood. Neuroimaging studies conducted in adults with ADHD have shown alterations in the brain at the structural and functional levels, and also in terms of connectivity. These findings have been observed mainly in the inferior frontal and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, as well as in striatal, anterior cingulate, parietotemporal and cerebellar regions. However, certain inconsistencies have also been found, which may be related with the presence of comorbidity, a history of medication, gender-related differences and the small size of the sample used in some studies. Differences have also been noted in relation to studies carried out in children with ADHD. Hence the importance for future studies of avoiding the existence of variables that can affect the findings in ADHD in adults and, moreover, of being able to determine whether the anatomical and functional deficits continue into adulthood. PMID:23446729

Ramos-Quiroga, Josep Antoni; Picado, Marisol; Mallorquí-Bagué, Nuria; Vilarroya, Oscar; Palomar, Gloria; Richarte, Vanesa; Vidal, Raquel; Casas, Miguel

2013-02-22

327

Functional Network Endophenotypes Unravel the Effects of Apolipoprotein E Epsilon 4 in Middle-Aged Adults  

PubMed Central

Apolipoprotein E-?4 (APOE-?4) accentuates memory decline, structural volume loss and cerebral amyloid deposition in cognitively healthy adults. We investigated whether APOE-?4 carriers will show disruptions in the intrinsic cognitive networks, including the default mode (DMN), executive control (ECN) and salience (SN) networks, relative to noncarriers in middle-aged healthy adults; and the extent to which episodic-memory performance is related to the altered functional connectivity (Fc) in these networks. Resting-state functional connectivity MRI (R-fMRI) was used to measure the differences in the DMN, ECN and SN Fc between 20 APOE-?4 carriers and 26 noncarriers. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to determine the relationship between episodic-memory performance and Fc differences in the three resting-state networks across all subjects. There were no significant differences in the demographic and neuropsychological characteristics and the gray-matter volumes in the carriers and noncarriers. While mostly diminished DMN and ECN functional connectivities were seen, enhanced connections to the DMN structures were found in the SN in ?4 carriers. Altered DMN and ECN were associated with episodic memory performance. Significant Fc differences in the brain networks implicated in cognition were seen in middle-aged individuals with a genetic risk for AD, in the absence of cognitive decline and gray-matter atrophy. Prospective studies are essential to elucidate the potential of R-fMRI technique as a biomarker for predicting conversion from normal to early AD in healthy APOE-?4 carriers.

Chen, Gang; Li, Wenjun; Ward, B. Douglas; Franczak, Malgorzata B.; Jones, Jennifer L.; Antuono, Piero G.; Li, Shi-Jiang

2013-01-01

328

Recommendations on screening for high blood pressure in Canadian adults  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To provide recommendations on screening for hypertension in adults aged 18 years and older without previously diagnosed hypertension. Quality of evidence Evidence was found through a systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (EBM Reviews), from January 1985 to September 2011. Study types were limited to randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, and observational studies with control groups. Main message Three strong recommendations were made based on moderate-quality evidence. It is recommended that blood pressure measurement occur at all appropriate primary care visits, according to the current techniques described in the Canadian Hypertension Education Program recommendations for office and ambulatory blood pressure measurement. The Canadian Hypertension Education Program criteria for assessment and diagnosis of hypertension should be applied for people found to have elevated blood pressure. Conclusion After review of the most recent evidence, the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care continues to recommend blood pressure measurement during regular physician visits.

Lindsay, Patrice; Connor Gorber, Sarah; Joffres, Michel; Birtwhistle, Richard; McKay, Donald; Cloutier, Lyne

2013-01-01

329

Systemic Inflammation in Young Adults Is Associated with Abnormal Lung Function in Middle Age  

PubMed Central

Background Systemic inflammation is associated with reduced lung function in both healthy individuals and those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Whether systemic inflammation in healthy young adults is associated with future impairment in lung health is uncertain. Methodology/Principal Findings We evaluated the association between plasma fibrinogen and C-reactive protein (CRP) in young adults and lung function in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults cohort study. Higher year 7 fibrinogen was associated with greater loss of forced vital capacity (FVC) between years 5 and 20 (439 mL in quartile 4 vs. 398 mL in quartile 1, P<0.001) and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) (487 mL in quartile 4 vs. 446 mL in quartile 1, P<0.001) independent of cigarette smoking, body habitus, baseline lung function and demographic factors. Higher year 7 CRP was also associated with both greater loss of FVC (455 mL in quartile 4 vs. 390 mL in quartile 1, P<0.001) and FEV1 (491 mL in quartile 4 vs. 442 mL in quartile 1, P?=?0.001). Higher year 7 fibrinogen and CRP were associated with abnormal FVC at year 20 (odds ratio (OR) per standard deviation 1.51 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.30–1.75) for fibrinogen and 1.35 (95% CI: 1.14–1.59) for CRP). Higher year 5 fibrinogen was additionally associated with abnormal FEV1. A positive interaction was observed between pack-years cigarette smoking and year 7 CRP for the COPD endpoint, and among participants with greater than 10 pack-years of cigarette exposure, year 7 CRP was associated with greater odds of COPD at year 20 (OR per standard deviation 1.53 (95% CI: 1.08–2.16). Conclusion/Significance Systemic inflammation in young adults is associated with abnormal lung function in middle age. In particular, elevated CRP may identify vulnerability to COPD among individuals who smoke. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00005130

Kalhan, Ravi; Tran, Betty T.; Colangelo, Laura A.; Rosenberg, Sharon R.; Liu, Kiang; Thyagarajan, Bharat; Jacobs, David R.; Smith, Lewis J.

2010-01-01

330

Why adult stem cell functionality declines with age? Studies from the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster model organism.  

PubMed

Highly regenerative adult tissues are supported by rare populations of stem cells that continuously divide to self-renew and generate differentiated progeny. This process is tightly regulated by signals emanating from surrounding cells to fulfill the dynamic demands of the tissue. One of the hallmarks of aging is slow and aberrant tissue regeneration due to deteriorated function of stem and supporting cells. Several Drosophila regenerative tissues are unique in that they provide exact identification of stem and neighboring cells in whole-tissue anatomy. This allows for precise tracking of age-related changes as well as their targeted manipulation within the tissue. In this review we present the stem cell niche of Drosophila testis, ovary and intestine and describe the major changes and phenotypes that occur in the course of aging. Specifically we discuss changes in both intrinsic properties of stem cells and their microenvironment that contribute to the decline in tissue functionality. Understanding these mechanisms in adult Drosophila tissues will likely provide new paradigms in the field of aging. PMID:24955030

Gonen, Oren; Toledano, Hila

2014-06-01

331

Functional Mapping of Protein Kinase A Reveals Its Importance in Adult Schistosoma mansoni Motor Activity  

PubMed Central

Cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase/protein kinase A (PKA) is the major transducer of cAMP signalling in eukaryotic cells. Here, using laser scanning confocal microscopy and ‘smart’ anti-phospho PKA antibodies that exclusively detect activated PKA, we provide a detailed in situ analysis of PKA signalling in intact adult Schistosoma mansoni, a causative agent of debilitating human intestinal schistosomiasis. In both adult male and female worms, activated PKA was consistently found associated with the tegument, oral and ventral suckers, oesophagus and somatic musculature. In addition, the seminal vesicle and gynaecophoric canal muscles of the male displayed activated PKA whereas in female worms activated PKA localized to the ootype wall, the ovary, and the uterus particularly around eggs during expulsion. Exposure of live worms to the PKA activator forskolin (50 µM) resulted in striking PKA activation in the central and peripheral nervous system including at nerve endings at/near the tegument surface. Such neuronal PKA activation was also observed without forskolin treatment, but only in a single batch of worms. In addition, PKA activation within the central and peripheral nervous systems visibly increased within 15 min of worm-pair separation when compared to that observed in closely coupled worm pairs. Finally, exposure of adult worms to forskolin induced hyperkinesias in a time and dose dependent manner with 100 µM forskolin significantly increasing the frequency of gross worm movements to 5.3 times that of control worms (P?0.001). Collectively these data are consistent with PKA playing a central part in motor activity and neuronal communication, and possibly interplay between these two systems in S. mansoni. This study, the first to localize a protein kinase when exclusively in an activated state in adult S. mansoni, provides valuable insight into the intricacies of functional protein kinase signalling in the context of whole schistosome physiology.

de Saram, Paulu S. R.; Ressurreicao, Margarida; Davies, Angela J.; Rollinson, David; Emery, Aidan M.; Walker, Anthony J.

2013-01-01

332

Hypertension, Abnormal Cholesterol, and High Body Mass Index among Non-Hispanic Asian Adults: United States, 2011-2012  

MedlinePLUS

... non-Hispanic Asian adults did not differ by sex, age, education, or foreign-born status. The prevalence ... 2012. The prevalence of high BMI differed by sex and age among non-Hispanic Asian adults. The ...

333

Drosophila Notch Receptor Activity Suppresses Hairless Function during Adult External Sensory Organ Development  

PubMed Central

The neurogenic Notch locus of Drosophila encodes a receptor necessary for cell fate decisions within equivalence groups, such as proneural clusters. Specification of alternate fates within clusters results from inhibitory communication among cells having comparable neural fate potential. Genetically, Hairless (H) acts as an antagonist of most neurogenic genes and may insulate neural precursor cells from inhibition. H function is required for commitment to the bristle sensory organ precursor (SOP) cell fate and for daughter cell fates. Using Notch gain-of-function alleles and conditional expression of an activated Notch transgene, we show that enhanced signaling produces H-like loss-of-function phenotypes by suppressing bristle SOP cell specification or by causing an H-like transformation of sensillum daughter cell fates. Furthermore, adults carrying Notch gain of function and H alleles exhibit synergistic enhancement of mutant phenotypes. Over-expression of an H(+) transgene product suppressed virtually all phenotypes generated by Notch gain-of-function genotypes. Phenotypes resulting from over-expression of the H(+) transgene were blocked by the Notch gain-of-function products, indicating a balance between Notch and H activity. The results suggest that H insulates SOP cells from inhibition and indicate that H activity is suppressed by Notch signaling.

Lyman, D. F.; Yedvobnick, B.

1995-01-01

334

Evidence of Left Inferior Frontal-Premotor Structural and Functional Connectivity Deficits in Adults Who Stutter  

PubMed Central

The neurophysiological basis for stuttering may involve deficits that affect dynamic interactions among neural structures supporting fluid speech processing. Here, we examined functional and structural connectivity within corticocortical and thalamocortical loops in adults who stutter. For functional connectivity, we placed seeds in the left and right inferior frontal Brodmann area 44 (BA44) and in the ventral lateral nucleus (VLN) of the thalamus. Subject-specific seeds were based on peak activation voxels captured during speech and nonspeech tasks using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Psychophysiological interaction (PPI) was used to find brain regions with heightened functional connectivity with these cortical and subcortical seeds during speech and nonspeech tasks. Probabilistic tractography was used to track white matter tracts in each hemisphere using the same seeds. Both PPI and tractrography supported connectivity deficits between the left BA44 and the left premotor regions, while connectivity among homologous right hemisphere structures was significantly increased in the stuttering group. No functional connectivity differences between BA44 and auditory regions were found between groups. The functional connectivity results derived from the VLN seeds were less definitive and were not supported by the tractography results. Our data provide strongest support for deficient left hemisphere inferior frontal to premotor connectivity as a neural correlate of stuttering.

Horwitz, Barry; Ostuni, John; Reynolds, Richard; Ludlow, Christy L.

2011-01-01

335

Functional changes in children, adolescents, and young adults with cerebral palsy.  

PubMed

Children with multiple handicaps, including cerebral palsy (CP), often lose or regress in their functional ability through adolescence and adulthood. The purpose of this study was to examine functional and psychological changes in children, adolescents and young adults with CP. A retrospective chart review and a prospective telephone interview of 30 patients (11-29 years, M = 16.8, S.D. = 4.9) was conducted. Seventy-three percent of the patients were male (n = 22) and 83% (n = 25) had spastic CP. According to the McNemar's test, four significant functional losses were found including crawling (p = 0.03), standing independently (p = 0.05), walking with or without assistance (p = 0.014), and eating by mouth (p = 0.01). Standing function loss was significantly related to walking function loss (p = 0.02). Sixty-three percent (n = 19) of the patients experienced anxiety and 10% (n = 3) reported depression. Results of this study indicate that a validated yearly assessment tool is needed to measure functional and emotional changes in children with CP rather than relying on parent recall. This data may also lead to a review of the current physical therapy national standards. PMID:16772110

Krakovsky, Gina; Huth, Myra Martz; Lin, Li; Levin, Ron S

2007-01-01

336

Health-Related Quality of Life Among Older Adults With and Without Functional Limitations  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined factors that influence health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among individuals aged 50 years and older with and without functional limitations. Methods. We analyzed data from the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System to assess associations among demographic characteristics, health care access and utilization indicators, modifiable health behaviors, and HRQOL characterized by recent physically and mentally unhealthy days in those with and those without functional limitations. We defined functional limitations as activity limitations owing to physical, mental, or emotional health or as the need for special equipment because of health. Results. Age, medical care costs, leisure-time physical activity, and smoking were strongly associated with both physically and mentally unhealthy days among those with functional limitations. Among those without functional limitations, the direction of the effects was similar, but the size of the effects was substantially smaller. Conclusions. The availability of lower cost medical care, increasing leisure-time physical activity, and reducing rates of cigarette smoking will improve population HRQOL among older adults with and without functional limitations. These factors provide valuable information for determining future public health priorities.

Zack, Matthew M.; Krahn, Gloria L.; Andresen, Elena M.; Barile, John P.

2012-01-01

337

Amygdala functional connectivity with medial prefrontal cortex at rest predicts the positivity effect in older adults' memory  

PubMed Central

As people get older, they tend to remember more positive than negative information. This age-by-valence interaction has been called ‘positivity effect.’ The current study addressed the hypotheses that baseline functional connectivity at rest is predictive of older adults’ brain activity when learning emotional information and their positivity effect in memory. Using fMRI, we examined the relationship among resting-state functional connectivity, subsequent brain activity when learning emotional faces, and individual differences in the positivity effect (the relative tendency to remember faces expressing positive versus negative emotions). Consistent with our hypothesis, older adults with a stronger positivity effect had increased functional coupling between amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) during rest. In contrast, younger adults did not show the association between resting connectivity and memory positivity. A similar age-by-memory positivity interaction was also found when learning emotional faces. That is, memory positivity in older adults was associated with a) enhanced MPFC activity when learning emotional faces and b) increased negative functional coupling between amygdala and MPFC when learning negative faces. In contrast, memory positivity in younger adults was related to neither enhanced MPFC activity to emotional faces, nor MPFC-amygdala connectivity to negative faces. Furthermore, stronger MPFC-amygdala connectivity during rest was predictive of subsequent greater MPFC activity when learning emotional faces. Thus, emotion-memory interaction in older adults depends not only on the task-related brain activity but also on the baseline functional connectivity.

Sakaki, Michiko; Nga, Lin; Mather, Mara

2014-01-01

338

The Acute Effects of Grape Polyphenols Supplementation on Endothelial Function in Adults: Meta-Analyses of Controlled Trials  

PubMed Central

Background The acute effects of grape polyphenols on endothelial function in adults are inconsistent. Here, we performed meta-analyses to determine these acute effects as measured by flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Methods Trials were searched in PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library database. Summary estimates of weighted mean differences (WMDs) and 95% CIs were obtained by using random-effects models. Meta-regression and subgroup analyses were performed to identify the source of heterogeneity. The protocol details of our meta-analysis have been submitted to the PROSPERO register and our registration number is CRD42013004157. Results Nine studies were included in the present meta-analyses. The results showed that the FMD level was significantly increased in the initial 120 min after intake of grape polyphenols as compared with controls. Meta-regression and subgroup analyses were performed and showed that a health status was the main effect modifier of the significant heterogeneity. Subgroups indicated that intake of grape polyphenols could significantly increase FMD in healthy subjects, and the increased FMD appeared to be more obviously in subjects with high cardiovascular risk factors. Moreover, the peak effect of grape polyphenols on FMD in healthy subjects was found 30 min after ingestion, which was different from the effect in subjects with high cardiovascular risk factors, in whom the peak effect was found 60 min after ingestion. Conclusions Endothelial function can be significantly improved in healthy adults in the initial 2 h after intake of grape polyphenols. The acute effect of grape polyphenols on endothelial function may be more significant but the peak effect is delayed in subjects with a smoking history or coronary heart disease as compared with the healthy subjects.

Li, Shao-Hua; Tian, Hong-Bo; Zhao, Hong-Jin; Chen, Liang-Hua; Cui, Lian-Qun

2013-01-01

339

Sleep spindles in normal elderly: comparison with young adult patterns and relation to nocturnal awakening, cognitive function and brain atrophy.  

PubMed

Visual measurements of sleep spindles were carried out in 48 elderly and 20 young normal adults. Computed tomography brain scans and psychometric testing were also performed. Earlier findings of reduced spindle abundance, amplitude and duration in the elderly were confirmed. In addition, we demonstrated a linear increase in spindle density and duration across NREMPs in young adults that was absent in the elderly, indicating that age affects the temporal pattern as well as the quantity of spindles. Contrary to what seemed a highly plausible hypothesis, the amount of waking in the elderly was not inversely correlated with spindle abundance, confirming earlier observations (Feinberg et al. 1967) but in a much larger group. This finding suggests that spindle abundance does not reflect the integrity of the systems that maintain the brain in NREM sleep. We also were unable to show any clear evidence that relative preservation of spindles in the elderly is associated with relative preservation of cognitive skills: psychometric performance and spindle measures were, in most instances, not significantly correlated. However, the test of this hypothesis was limited by the high level of function and the narrow range of impairment of these Ss. One intriguing positive finding was the significant inverse relation between ratings of sulcal atrophy and spindle amplitude. This observation suggests an etiology for the reduced amplitude of the sleep EEG in old age. This change is one of the most striking effects of age on brain electrophysiology. PMID:2422002

Guazzelli, M; Feinberg, I; Aminoff, M; Fein, G; Floyd, T C; Maggini, C

1986-06-01

340

Cumulative Lead Dose and Cognitive Function in Adults: A Review of Studies That Measured Both Blood Lead and Bone Lead  

PubMed Central

Objective We review empirical evidence for the relations of recent and cumulative lead dose with cognitive function in adults. Data Sources A systematic search of electronic databases resulted in 21 environmental and occupational studies from 1996 to 2006 that examined and compared associations of recent (in blood) and cumulative (in bone) lead doses with neurobehavioral outcomes. Data extraction Data were abstracted after consideration of exclusion criteria and quality assessment, and then compiled into summary tables. Conclusions At exposure levels encountered after environmental exposure, associations with bio-markers of cumulative dose (mainly lead in tibia) were stronger and more consistent than associations with blood lead levels. Similarly, in studies of former workers with past occupational lead exposure, associations were also stronger and more consistent with cumulative dose than with recent dose (in blood). In contrast, studies of currently exposed workers generally found associations that were more apparent with blood lead levels; we speculate that the acute effects of high, recent dose may mask the chronic effects of cumulative dose. There is moderate evidence for an association between psychiatric symptoms and lead dose but only at high levels of current occupational lead exposure or with cumulative dose in environmentally exposed adults.

Shih, Regina A.; Hu, Howard; Weisskopf, Marc G.; Schwartz, Brian S.

2007-01-01

341

Hoxb13 knockout adult skin exhibits high levels of hyaluronan and enhanced wound healing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In contrast to adult cutaneous wound repair, early gestational fetal cutaneous wounds heal by a process of regeneration, resulting in little or no scarring. Previous studies indicate that down- regulation of HoxB13, a member of the highly conserved family of Hox transcription factors, occurs during fetal scarless wound healing. No down-regulation was noted in adult wounds. Here, we evaluate healing

Judith A. Mack; Susan R. Abramson; Yixen Ben; Jerusha C. Coffin; James K. Rothrock; Edward V. Maytin; Vincent C. Hascall; Corey Largman; Eric J. Stelnicki

2003-01-01

342

Substrate Stiffness affects Sarcomere and Costamere Structure and Electrophysiological Function of Isolated Adult Cardiomyocytes  

PubMed Central

Introduction The mechanical environment is a key regulator of function in cardiomyocytes. We studied the role of substrate stiffness on the organization of sarcomeres and costameres in adult rat cardiomyocytes, and further examined the resulting changes in cell shortening and calcium dynamics. Methods Cardiomyocytes isolated from adult rats were plated on laminin-coated polydimethylsiloxane substrates of defined stiffness (255 kPa, 117 kPa, 27 kPa, and 7 kPa) for 48 h. Levels of ?-actinin and ?1 integrins were determined by immunofluoresence imaging and immunoblotting, both in the absence and presence of the phosphatase inhibitor calyculin A. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to measure message levels of key structural proteins (?-actinin, ?7 integrin, ?1 integrin, vinculin). Sarcomere shortening and calcium dynamics were measured at 2, 24, and 48 hours. Results Overall cardiomyocyte morphology was similar on all substrates. However, well organized sarcomere structures were observed on only the stiffest (255 kPa) and the most compliant (7 kPa) substrates. Levels of ?-actinin in cells were the same on all substrates, while message levels of structural proteins were upregulated on substrates of intermediate stiffness. Inhibition of phosphatase activity blocked the degradation of contractile structures, but altered overall cardiomyocyte morphology. Shortening and calcium dynamics also were dependent on substrate stiffness, however there was no clear causative relationship between the phenomena. Conclusions Extracellular matrix stiffness can affect structural remodeling by adult cardiomyocytes, and the resulting contractile activity. These findings illuminate changes in cardiomyocyte function in cardiac fibrosis, and may suggest cardiac-specific phosphatases as a target for therapeutic intervention

Galie, Peter A.; Khalid, Nashmia; Carnahan, Kelly E.; Westfall, Margaret V.; Stegemann, Jan P.

2012-01-01

343

Functional assessment in older adults: Should we use timed up and go or gait speed test?  

PubMed

In order to assess functional skills of older adults, both timed up and go (TUG) test and gait speed (GS) test are well validated concerning their predictive capacities. However, the question remains unclear which one of these tests represents better the whole physical performance of older adults. The aim of this study is to determine the more representative test, between TUG and GS, of the whole motor control quality. To study links between locomotion capacities and arm function, we measured, in a population of frail aged patients, the locomotion tests and the mean arm maximal velocity developed during a speed-accuracy trade-off. This arm movement consisted in reaching the hand toward a target in a virtual game scene. We plotted the different couples of variables obtained on graphs, and calculate Pearson correlation coefficients between each couple. The Pearson correlation between GS and hand maximal velocity was significant (r=0.495; p=0.046). Interestingly, we found a non significant Pearson correlation between timed up and go score (TUG) and hand maximal velocity (r=-0.139; p=0.243). Our results suggest that GS score is more representative of the whole motor ability of frail patients than the TUG. We propose that the relative complexity of the TUG motor sequence could be involved in this difference. For a few patients with motor automatisms deficiencies, this motor sequence complexity could leads to a dual task perturbation. In this way, we conclude that GS should be preferred over the TUG with older adults. PMID:24933540

Kubicki, Alexandre

2014-08-01

344

Gender differences in the effect of adult amphetamine on cognitive functions of rats prenatally exposed to methamphetamine.  

PubMed

Psychostimulants have been shown to affect brain regions involved in the process of learning and memory consolidation. It has been shown that females are more sensitive to the effects of drugs than males. The aim of our study was to investigate how prenatal methamphetamine (MA) exposure and application of amphetamine (AMP) in adulthood would affect spatial learning of adult female and male rats. Mothers of the tested offspring were exposed to injections of MA (5mg/kg) or saline (SA) throughout the entire gestation period. Cognitive functions of adult rats were evaluated in the Morris Water Maze (MWM) tests. Adult offspring were injected daily with AMP (5mg/kg) or SA through the period of MWM testing. Our data from the MWM tests demonstrates the following. Prenatal MA exposure did not change the learning ability of adult male and female rats. However, AMP administration to adult animals affected cognitive function in terms of exacerbation of spatial learning (increasing the latency to reach the hidden platform, the distance traveled and the search error) only in female subjects. There were sex differences in the speed of swimming. Prenatal MA exposure and adult AMP treatment increased the speed of swimming in female groups greater than in males. Overall, the male subjects showed a better learning ability than females. Thus, our results indicate that the adult AMP treatment affects the cognitive function and behavior of rats in a sex-specific manner, regardless of prenatal exposure. PMID:24786327

Macúchová, E; Nohejlová, K; Slamberová, R

2014-08-15

345

Association between Cytomegalovirus Antibody Levels and Cognitive Functioning in Non-Elderly Adults  

PubMed Central

Background Elevated levels of antibodies to Cytomegalovirus (CMV) have been associated with cognitive impairment, but the quantitative relationship between CMV antibody levels and domains of cognitive functioning in younger adults has not been established. Methods We measured IgG class antibodies to Cytomegalovirus in 521 individuals, mean age 32.8 years. Participants were selected for the absence of psychiatric disorder and of a serious medical condition that could affect brain functioning. Cognitive functioning was measured with the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS), the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Trail Making Test part A, and the WAIS III Letter Number Sequencing subtest. Linear regression analyses were used to measure the quantitative association between cognitive scores and Cytomegalovirus IgG antibody level. Logistic regression analyses were used to measure the odds of low cognitive scores and elevated antibody levels defined as an antibody level >?=?50th, 75th, and 90th percentile of the group. Results Higher levels of CMV antibodies were associated with lower performance on RBANS Total (coefficient ?1.03, p<.0002), Delayed Memory (coefficient ?0.94, p<.001), Visuospatial/Constructional (coefficient ?1.77, p<5×10?7), and Letter Number Sequencing (coefficient ?0.15, p<.03). There was an incremental relationship between the level of CMV antibody elevation and the odds of a low RBANS Total score. The odds of a low total cognitive score were 1.63 (95th % CI 1.01, 2.64; p<.045), 2.22 (95th % CI 1.33, 3.70; p<.002), and 2.46 (95th % CI 1.24, 4.86; p<.010) with a CMV antibody level greater than or equal to the 50th, 75th, and 90th percentile respectively. Conclusions Higher levels of Cytomegalovirus antibodies are associated with lower levels of cognitive functioning in non-elderly adults. Methods for the prevention and treatment of CMV infection should be evaluated to determine if they result in an improvement in cognitive functioning in otherwise healthy adults.

Dickerson, Faith; Stallings, Cassie; Origoni, Andrea; Katsafanas, Emily; Schweinfurth, Lucy A. B.; Savage, Christina L. G.; Yolken, Robert

2014-01-01

346

An active lifestyle is associated with better neurocognitive functioning in adults living with HIV infection.  

PubMed

Studies of healthy adults show that engagement in physical, social, and mental activities is associated with better cognitive outcomes, suggesting that these activities may increase cognitive reserve. Given the prevalence and real-world impact of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), the present study examined the association between neurocognitive outcomes and self-reported proxies for physical exercise, social activity, and mental activity (employment was used as a proxy for mental activity) among 139 HIV-infected adults (M age = 48.7; 48 % age 50+). Participants completed a neuromedical and neuropsychological battery and were classified based on the number of self-reported active lifestyle factors (ALFs; 0 to 3), including physical exercise, social activity, and current employment. The association between ALFs and both demographically adjusted average neuropsychological T-scores and HAND diagnoses was examined. Results revealed that an increased number of ALFs were associated with better global neurocognitive performance as well as a lower prevalence of HAND. These cross-sectional findings suggest that an active engagement in life may bolster neurocognitive functioning, perhaps by enhancing cognitive and/or brain reserve. However, an alternative explanation might be that persons with better neurocognitive functioning are more inclined and able to engage in these life activities. Future studies should utilize neuroimaging methodology, longitudinal data, and interventional approaches to establish cause-effect relationships and uncover the neural mechanisms whereby physical, social, and mental stimulation may protect neurocognition via cognitive reserve among those living with HIV. PMID:24554483

Fazeli, Pariya L; Woods, Steven Paul; Heaton, Robert K; Umlauf, Anya; Gouaux, Ben; Rosario, Debra; Moore, Raeanne C; Grant, Igor; Moore, David J

2014-06-01

347

The effect of brief neonatal cryoanesthesia on physical development and adult cognitive function in mice.  

PubMed

Deep hypothermia (cryoanesthesia) is often used as general anesthesia during surgery in neonatal rodents. Neonatal cryoanesthesia has been used recently to generate somatic brain transgenic (SBT) mouse models via intracerebral ventricular injection of rAAV vectors into both non-transgenic mice and numerous transgenic mouse models. Since, the evaluation of cognition is one of the main experimental endpoints in many of these studies, we examined the consequences of brief neonatal cryoanesthesia on the physical development and mnemonic function of adult mice. Two groups of 129FVBF1 pups from reciprocal breeding crosses underwent cryoanesthesia for 6 min (Cryo6) or 12 min (Cryo12), respectively, within the first hours (<12h) of postnatal life. A group of pups separated from the nest and kept in ambient temperature of 33 °C for 6 min served as a control. Our results revealed that lowering the temperature of pups to ~8 °C (Cryo6) or ~5 °C (Cryo12) did not affect their body weight at pre-weaning stage and in the adulthood. The evaluation of cognitive function in adult mice revealed strong and comparable to control spatial reference, and context and tone fear memories of neonatally cryoanesthetized mice. Also, the experimental and control groups had comparable brain weight at the end of the study. Our results demonstrate that neonatal cryoanesthesia, lasting up to 12 min, has no adverse effects on the body weight of mice during development, and on their cognition in the adulthood. PMID:24239696

Janus, Christopher; Golde, Todd

2014-02-01

348

Functional Impairment, Illness Burden, and Depressive Symptoms in Older Adults: Does Type of Social Relationship Matter?  

PubMed Central

Objective The nature of interpersonal relationships, whether supportive or critical, may affect the association between health status and mental health outcomes. We examined the potential moderating effects of social support, as a buffer, and family criticism, as an exacerbating factor, on the association between illness burden, functional impairment and depressive symptoms. Methods Our sample of 735 older adults, aged 65 and older, was recruited from internal and family medicine primary care offices. Trained interviewers administered the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, Duke Social Support Inventory, and Family Emotional Involvement and Criticism Scale. Physician-rated assessments of health, including the Karnofsky Performance Status Scale and Cumulative Illness Rating Scale were also completed. Results Linear multivariable hierarchical regression results indicate that social interaction was a significant buffer, weakening the association between illness burden and depressive symptoms, whereas perceived social support buffered the relationship between functional impairment and depressive symptoms. Family criticism and instrumental social support were not significant moderators. Conclusions Type of medical dysfunction, whether illness or impairment, may require different therapeutic and supportive approaches. Enhancement of perceived social support, for those who are impaired, and encouragement of social interactions, for those who are ill, may be important intervention targets for treatment of depressive symptoms in older adult primary care patients.

Hatfield, Joshua P.; Hirsch, Jameson K.; Lyness, Jeffrey M.

2012-01-01

349

Multipotent adult progenitor cells sustain function of ischemic limbs in mice.  

PubMed

Despite progress in cardiovascular research, a cure for peripheral vascular disease has not been found. We compared the vascularization and tissue regeneration potential of murine and human undifferentiated multipotent adult progenitor cells (mMAPC-U and hMAPC-U), murine MAPC-derived vascular progenitors (mMAPC-VP), and unselected murine BM cells (mBMCs) in mice with moderate limb ischemia, reminiscent of intermittent claudication in human patients. mMAPC-U durably restored blood flow and muscle function and stimulated muscle regeneration, by direct and trophic contribution to vascular and skeletal muscle growth. This was in contrast to mBMCs and mMAPC-VP, which did not affect muscle regeneration and provided only limited and transient improvement. Moreover, mBMCs participated in a sustained inflammatory response in the lower limb, associated with progressive deterioration in muscle function. Importantly, mMAPC-U and hMAPC-U also remedied vascular and muscular deficiency in severe limb ischemia, representative of critical limb ischemia in humans. Thus, unlike BMCs or vascular-committed progenitors, undifferentiated multipotent adult progenitor cells offer the potential to durably repair ischemic damage in peripheral vascular disease patients. PMID:18172550

Aranguren, Xabier L; McCue, Jonathan D; Hendrickx, Benoit; Zhu, Xiao-Hong; Du, Fei; Chen, Eleanor; Pelacho, Beatriz; Peñuelas, Ivan; Abizanda, Gloria; Uriz, Maialen; Frommer, Sarah A; Ross, Jeffrey J; Schroeder, Betsy A; Seaborn, Meredith S; Adney, Joshua R; Hagenbrock, Julianna; Harris, Nathan H; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Xiaoliang; Nelson-Holte, Molly H; Jiang, Yuehua; Billiau, An D; Chen, Wei; Prósper, Felipe; Verfaillie, Catherine M; Luttun, Aernout

2008-02-01

350

Feeding Mechanisms of Adult Lepidoptera: Structure, Function, and Evolution of the Mouthparts  

PubMed Central

The form and function of the mouthparts in adult Lepidoptera and their feeding behavior are reviewed from evolutionary and ecological points of view. The formation of the suctorial proboscis encompasses a fluid-tight food tube, special linking structures, modified sensory equipment, and novel intrinsic musculature. The evolution of these functionally important traits can be reconstructed within the Lepidoptera. The proboscis movements are explained by a hydraulic mechanism for uncoiling, whereas recoiling is governed by the intrinsic proboscis musculature and the cuticular elasticity. Fluid uptake is accomplished by the action of the cranial sucking pump, which enables uptake of a wide range of fluid quantities from different food sources. Nectar-feeding species exhibit stereotypical proboscis movements during flower handling. Behavioral modifications and derived proboscis morphology are often associated with specialized feeding preferences or an obligatory switch to alternative food sources.

Krenn, Harald W.

2014-01-01

351

Functional enrichment analyses and construction of functional similarity networks with high confidence function prediction by PFP  

PubMed Central

Background A new paradigm of biological investigation takes advantage of technologies that produce large high throughput datasets, including genome sequences, interactions of proteins, and gene expression. The ability of biologists to analyze and interpret such data relies on functional annotation of the included proteins, but even in highly characterized organisms many proteins can lack the functional evidence necessary to infer their biological relevance. Results Here we have applied high confidence function predictions from our automated prediction system, PFP, to three genome sequences, Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Plasmodium falciparum (malaria). The number of annotated genes is increased by PFP to over 90% for all of the genomes. Using the large coverage of the function annotation, we introduced the functional similarity networks which represent the functional space of the proteomes. Four different functional similarity networks are constructed for each proteome, one each by considering similarity in a single Gene Ontology (GO) category, i.e. Biological Process, Cellular Component, and Molecular Function, and another one by considering overall similarity with the funSim score. The functional similarity networks are shown to have higher modularity than the protein-protein interaction network. Moreover, the funSim score network is distinct from the single GO-score networks by showing a higher clustering degree exponent value and thus has a higher tendency to be hierarchical. In addition, examining function assignments to the protein-protein interaction network and local regions of genomes has identified numerous cases where subnetworks or local regions have functionally coherent proteins. These results will help interpreting interactions of proteins and gene orders in a genome. Several examples of both analyses are highlighted. Conclusion The analyses demonstrate that applying high confidence predictions from PFP can have a significant impact on a researchers' ability to interpret the immense biological data that are being generated today. The newly introduced functional similarity networks of the three organisms show different network properties as compared with the protein-protein interaction networks.

2010-01-01

352

Functional Expression of Aquaporins in Embryonic, Postnatal, and Adult Mouse Lenses  

PubMed Central

Aquaporin 0 (AQP0) and AQP1 are expressed in the lens, each in a different cell type, and their functional roles are not thoroughly understood. Our previous study showed that these two AQPs function as water transporters. In order to further understand the functional significance of these two different aquaporins in the lens, we investigated their initiation and continued expression. AQP0 transcript and protein were first detected at embryonic stage (E) 11.25 in the differentiating primary fiber cells of the developing lens; its synthesis continued through the adult stage in the secondary fiber cells. Low levels of AQP1 expression were first seen in lens anterior epithelial cells at E17.5; following postnatal day (P) 6.5, the expression gradually progressed towards the equatorial epithelial cells. In the postnatal lens, the increase in membrane water permeability of epithelial cells and lens transparency coincides with the increase in AQP1 expression. AQP1 expression reaches its peak at P30 and continues through the adult stage both in the anterior and equatorial epithelial cells. The enhancement in AQP1 expression concomitant with the increase in the size of the lens suggests the progression in the establishment of the lens microcirculatory system. In vitro and in vivo studies show that both aquaporins share at least one important function, which is water transport in the lens microcirculatory system. However, the temporal expression of these two AQPs suggests an apparently unique role/s in lens development and transparency. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the expression patterns of AQP0 and AQP1 during lens development and differentiation and their relation to lens transparency.

Varadaraj, Kulandaiappan; Kumari, Sindhu S.; Mathias, Richard T.

2008-01-01

353

Lutein, zeaxanthin, macular pigment, and visual function in adult cystic fibrosis patients123  

PubMed Central

Background Pancreatic insufficiency in cystic fibrosis (CF), even with replacement pancreatic enzyme therapy, is often associated with decreased carotenoid absorption. Because the macular pigment of the retina is largely derived from 2 carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin, the decreased serum concentrations seen in CF may have consequences for ocular and retinal health Objectives Our aims were to determine plasma carotenoid concentrations, determine absorption and distribution of macular pigment, and assess retinal health and visual function in CF patients. Design In 10 adult CF patients (ages 21–47 y) and 10 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects, we measured macular pigment density in vivo, measured serum lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations, and comprehensively assessed visual performance (including contrast sensitivity, color discrimination, and retinal function) under conditions of daylight illumination. Results Serum lutein and zeaxanthin were significantly reduced (P< 0.005) in CF patients (x?± SD:87 ± 36.1 and 27 ± 15.8 nmol/L, respectively) compared with control subjects (190 ± 72.1 and 75 ± 23.6 nmol/L, respectively). Although macular pigment optical density was significantly lower (P < 0.0001) in the CF group (0.24 ± 0.11) than in the control group (0.53 ± 0.12), no significant differences in visual function were observed. Conclusions Adults with CF have dramatically low serum and macular concentrations of carotenoids (lutein and zeaxanthin), but their ocular status and visual function are surprisingly good. The clinical implications of low plasma concentrations of carotenoids in CF are yet to be clarified.

Schupp, Christine; Olano-Martin, Estibaliz; Gerth, Christina; Morrissey, Brian M; Cross, Carroll E; Werner, John S

2008-01-01

354

A Controlled Study of Autonomic Nervous System Function in Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Treated with Stimulant Medications: Results of a Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Despite the fact that autonomic nervous system (ANS) abnormalities are commonly found in adults and predict increased cardiovascular mortality, no studies have assessed ANS function in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) taking stimulants. Method: This pilot study evaluated ANS function in adults with ADHD in…

Schubiner, Howard; Hassunizadeh, Bischan; Kaczynski, Richard

2006-01-01

355

Physiologic Dysfunction Scores and Cognitive Function Test Performance in United States Adults  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the relationship between a measure of cumulative physiologic dysfunction and specific domains of cognitive function. Methods We examined a summary score measuring physiological dysfunction, a multisystem measure of the body’s ability to effectively adapt to physical and psychological demands, in relation to cognitive function deficits in a population of 4511 adults aged 20 to 59 who participated in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988–1994). Measures of cognitive function comprised three domains: working memory, visuomotor speed, and perceptual-motor speed. ‘Physiologic dysfunction’ scores summarizing measures of cardiovascular, immunologic, kidney, and liver function were explored. We used multiple linear regression models to estimate associations between cognitive function measures and physiological dysfunction scores, adjusting for socioeconomic factors, test conditions, and self-reported health factors. Results We noted a dose-response relationship between physiologic dysfunction and working memory (coefficient = 0.207, 95% CI = (0.066, 0.348), p < 0.0001) that persisted after adjustment for all covariates (p = 0.03). We did not observe any significant relationships between dysfunction scores and visuomotor (p = 0.37) or perceptual-motor ability (p = 0.33). Conclusions Our findings suggest that multisystem physiologic dysfunction is associated with working memory. Future longitudinal studies are needed to clarify the underlying mechanisms and explore the persistency of this association into later life. We suggest that such studies should incorporate physiologic data, neuroendocrine parameters, and a wide range of specific cognitive domains.

Kobrosly, Roni W; Seplaki, Christopher L; Jones, Courtney M; van Wijngaarden, Edwin

2013-01-01

356

Functional network connectivity underlying food processing: disturbed salience and visual processing in overweight and obese adults.  

PubMed

In order to adequately explore the neurobiological basis of eating behavior of humans and their changes with body weight, interactions between brain areas or networks need to be investigated. In the current functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we examined the modulating effects of stimulus category (food vs. nonfood), caloric content of food, and body weight on the time course and functional connectivity of 5 brain networks by means of independent component analysis in healthy lean and overweight/obese adults. These functional networks included motor sensory, default-mode, extrastriate visual, temporal visual association, and salience networks. We found an extensive modulation elicited by food stimuli in the 2 visual and salience networks, with a dissociable pattern in the time course and functional connectivity between lean and overweight/obese subjects. Specifically, only in lean subjects, the temporal visual association network was modulated by the stimulus category and the salience network by caloric content, whereas overweight and obese subjects showed a generalized augmented response in the salience network. Furthermore, overweight/obese subjects showed changes in functional connectivity in networks important for object recognition, motivational salience, and executive control. These alterations could potentially lead to top-down deficiencies driving the overconsumption of food in the obese population. PMID:22586138

Kullmann, Stephanie; Pape, Anna-Antonia; Heni, Martin; Ketterer, Caroline; Schick, Fritz; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Fritsche, Andreas; Preissl, Hubert; Veit, Ralf

2013-05-01

357

Anorectal manometry with water-perfused catheter in healthy adults with no functional bowel disorders.  

PubMed

Anorectal manometry provides an objective assessment of anal sphincter pressure and rectal sensitivity and anorectal reflexes in response to distension. However, its clinical utility is hampered by a lack of standardized protocols and normative data from healthy subjects. Previous studies have used water-perfused systems in normal subjects, but some adopted a rapid pull-through technique; others did not evaluate rectal sensations and others did not carefully exclude patients with functional bowel disorders. Objective To evaluate anorectal function in healthy adults without functional bowel disorders, using a water-perfused system with the stationary technique in order to obtain normative values for anorectal manometry. Method Fifty-two healthy volunteers with no Rome II diagnostic criteria for functional bowel disorders, including only nulliparous women, underwent anorectal manometry with a water-perfused system, according to a standardized protocol. Results Maximum squeeze pressure of the anal sphincter as well as the area under the pressure-time curve during squeeze was significantly lower in women than men (P < 0.01), while sphincter length, resting pressure, volume thresholds for reflex inhibitory recto-anal and rectal sensations were similar. Conclusions This study describes a protocol for stationary anorectal manometry using a water-perfused system, and a method for analysing the various parameters obtained during the procedure, as recently suggested in the international literature. It supplies normative data obtained in a population of healthy subjects including nulliparous women, with no functional bowel disorders. PMID:19210672

2010-03-01

358

Physical Activity and Brain Function in Older Adults at Increased Risk for Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

Leisure-time physical activity (PA) and exercise training are known to help maintain cognitive function in healthy older adults. However, relatively little is known about the effects of PA on cognitive function or brain function in those at increased risk for Alzheimer’s disease through the presence of the apolipoproteinE epsilon4 (APOE-?4) allele, diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), or the presence of metabolic disease. Here, we examine the question of whether PA and exercise interventions may differentially impact cognitive trajectory, clinical outcomes, and brain structure and function among individuals at the greatest risk for AD. The literature suggests that the protective effects of PA on risk for future dementia appear to be larger in those at increased genetic risk for AD. Exercise training is also effective at helping to promote stable cognitive function in MCI patients, and greater cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with greater brain volume in early-stage AD patients. In APOE-?4 allele carriers compared to non-carriers, greater levels of PA may be more effective in reducing amyloid burden and are associated with greater activation of semantic memory-related neural circuits. A greater research emphasis should be placed on randomized clinical trials for exercise, with clinical, behavioral, and neuroimaging outcomes in people at increased risk for AD.

Smith, J. Carson; Nielson, Kristy A.; Woodard, John L.; Seidenberg, Michael; Rao, Stephen M.

2013-01-01

359

Temporal context memory in high-functioning autism.  

PubMed

Episodic memory, i.e. memory for specific episodes situated in space and time, seems impaired in individuals with autism. According to weak central coherence theory, individuals with autism have general difficulty connecting contextual and item information which then impairs their capacity to memorize information in context. This study investigated temporal context memory for visual information in individuals with autism. Eighteen adolescents and adults with high-functioning autism (HFA) or Asperger syndrome (AS) and age- and IQ-matched typically developing participants were tested using a recency judgement task. The performance of the autistic group did not differ from that of the control group, nor did the performance between the AS and HFA groups. We conclude that autism in high-functioning individuals does not impair temporal context memory as assessed on this task. We suggest that individuals with autism are as efficient on this task as typically developing subjects because contextual memory performance here involves more automatic than organizational processing. PMID:17947288

Gras-Vincendon, Agnès; Mottron, Laurent; Salamé, Pierre; Bursztejn, Claude; Danion, Jean-Marie

2007-11-01

360

Deficit in switching between functional brain networks underlies the impact of multitasking on working memory in older adults.  

PubMed

Multitasking negatively influences the retention of information over brief periods of time. This impact of interference on working memory is exacerbated with normal aging. We used functional MRI to investigate the neural basis by which an interruption is more disruptive to working memory performance in older individuals. Younger and older adults engaged in delayed recognition tasks both with and without interruption by a secondary task. Behavioral analysis revealed that working memory performance was more impaired by interruptions in older compared with younger adults. Functional connectivity analyses showed that when interrupted, older adults disengaged from a memory maintenance network and reallocated attentional resources toward the interrupting stimulus in a manner consistent with younger adults. However, unlike younger individuals, older adults failed to both disengage from the interruption and reestablish functional connections associated with the disrupted memory network. These results suggest that multitasking leads to more significant working memory disruption in older adults because of an interruption recovery failure, manifest as a deficient ability to dynamically switch between functional brain networks. PMID:21482762

Clapp, Wesley C; Rubens, Michael T; Sabharwal, Jasdeep; Gazzaley, Adam

2011-04-26

361

Kidney function and cognitive health in older adults: the cardiovascular health study.  

PubMed

Recent evidence has demonstrated the importance of kidney function in healthy aging. We examined the association between kidney function and change in cognitive function in 3,907 participants in the Cardiovascular Health Study who were recruited from 4 US communities and studied from 1992 to 1999. Kidney function was measured by cystatin C-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFRcys). Cognitive function was assessed using the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination and the Digit Symbol Substitution Test, which were administered up to 7 times during annual visits. There was an association between eGFRcys and change in cognitive function after adjustment for confounders; persons with an eGFRcys of less than 60 mL/minute/1.73 m(2) had a 0.64 (95% confidence interval: 0.51, 0.77) points/year faster decline in Modified Mini-Mental State Examination score and a 0.42 (95% confidence interval: 0.28, 0.56) points/year faster decline in Digit Symbol Substitution Test score compared with persons with an eGFRcys of 90 or more mL/minute/1.73 m(2). Additional adjustment for intermediate cardiovascular events modestly affected these associations. Participants with an eGFRcys of less than 60 mL/minute/1.73 m(2) had fewer cognitive impairment-free life-years on average compared with those with eGFRcys of 90 or more mL/minute/1.73 m(2), independent of confounders and mediating cardiovascular events (mean difference = -0.44, 95% confidence interval: -0.62, -0.26). Older adults with lower kidney function are at higher risk of worsening cognitive function. PMID:24844846

Darsie, Brendan; Shlipak, Michael G; Sarnak, Mark J; Katz, Ronit; Fitzpatrick, Annette L; Odden, Michelle C

2014-07-01

362

Clinical and functional evaluation of the joint status of hemophiliac adults at a Brazilian blood center  

PubMed Central

Background Hemophilia is a potentially disabling condition as hemophilic arthropathy develops early in life and is progressive, especially in patients treated in an on-demand regime. Objective This study aimed to describe the structural joint status and the functional independence score of hemophiliac adults and correlate structural damage with the functional deficits found in these patients. Methods Hemophiliacs at the Juiz de Fora Regional Blood Center - HEMOMINAS Foundation, aged 18 years and over and treated in an on-demand regime, were clinically evaluated in respect to structural joint damage using the World Federation of Hemophilia Physical Examination Scale (WFH-PE) and functional deficits using the Functional Independence Score in Hemophilia (FISH). The Spearman rank test was used to evaluate the correlation between the two scores. Results Thirty-nine patients were evaluated. The mean age was 36.8 years. Target joints were detected in 69.2% of patients studied. The mean Physical Examination Scale and Functional Independence Score were 16.87 and 25.64, respectively. Patients with mild hemophilia showed no significant joint involvement. Patients with severe or moderate hemophilia had similar results regarding structural damage (p-value < 0.001) and functional deficits (p-value = 0.001). There was statistical significance in the correlation between the two scores (r = -0.850; p-value = 0.01). Conclusions The World Federation of Hemophilia Physical Examination Scale and Functional Independence Score in Hemophilia may be useful to clinically assess structural joint damage and functional deficits in hemophiliacs as the tools are inexpensive and easy to administer and may be able to detect hemophilic arthropathy, which results from recurrent hemarthrosis and is common in the population studied.

Ferreira, Adriana Aparecida; Bustamante-Teixeira, Maria Teresa; Leite, Isabel Cristina Goncalves; Correa, Camila Soares Lima; Rodrigues, Daniela de Oliveira Werneck; da Cruz, Danielle Teles

2013-01-01

363

Medication Use and Functional Status Decline in Older Adults: A Narrative Review  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To critically review published articles that have examined the relationship between medication use and functional status decline in the elderly. METHODS The MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched for English-language articles published from January 1986 to December 2010. Search terms included aged, humans, drug utilization, polypharmacy, inappropriate prescribing, anticholinergics, psychotropics, antihypertensives, drug burden index, functional status, function change or decline, activities of daily living, gait, mobility limitation, and disability. A manual search of the reference lists of the identified articles and the authors’ article files, book chapters, and recent reviews was conducted to retrieve additional publications. Only articles that used rigorous observational or interventional designs were included. Cross-sectional studies and case series were excluded from this review. RESULTS Nineteenstudies met the inclusion criteria. Five studies addressed the impact of suboptimal prescribing on function, three of which found an increased risk of worse function in community-dwelling subjects receiving polypharmacy. Three of the four studies that assessed benzodiazepine use and functional status decline found a statistically significant association. One cohort study identified no relationship between antidepressant use and functional status while a randomized trial found that amitriptyline, but not desipramine or paroxetine, impaired certain measures of gait. Two studies found that increasing anticholinergic burden was associated with worse functional status. In a study of hospitalized rehabilitation patients, users of hypnotics/anxiolytics (e.g., phenobarbital, zolpidem) had lower relative Functional Independence Measure motor gains than nonusers. Use of multiple central nervous system (CNS) drugs (using different definitions) was linked to greater declines in self-reported mobility and Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) scores in two community-based studies. Another study of nursing home patients did not report a significant decline in SPPB scores in those taking multiple CNS drugs. Finally, two studies found mixed effects between antihypertensive use and functional status in the elderly. CONCLUSION Benzodiazepines and anticholinergics have been consistently associated with impairments in functional status in the elderly. The relationships between suboptimal prescribing, antidepressants, and antihypertensives and functional status decline were mixed. Further research using established measures and methods is needed to better describe the impact of medication use on functional status in older adults.

Peron, Emily P.; Gray, Shelly L.; Hanlon, Joseph T.

2012-01-01

364

The Relation of Peripheral Arterial Disease to Leg Force, Gait Speed, and Functional Dependence Among Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Atherosclerotic peripheral arterial disease (PAD), common among older adults, is associated with poor low-extremity functioning. In considering functional status, varying domains exist, including activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), low-extremity mobility (LEM), and leisure and\\/or social activities (LSA). However, little is known about how PAD is related to functional status beyond low-extremity functioning. Methods.

Hsu-Ko Kuo; Yau-Hua Yu

365

Association of renal function with cardiac calcifications in older adults: the cardiovascular health study  

PubMed Central

Background. Aortic valve sclerosis (AVS) and mitral annulus calcification (MAC) are highly prevalent in patients with end-stage renal disease. It is less well established whether milder kidney disease is associated with cardiac calcifications. We evaluated the relationships between renal function and MAC, aortic annular calcification (AAC) and AVS in the elderly. Methods. From the Cardiovascular Health Study, a community-based cohort of ambulatory adults ? age 65, a total of 3929 individuals (mean ± SD age 74 ± 5 years, 60% women) were evaluated with two-dimensional echocardiography. Renal function was assessed by means of creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and cystatin C. Results. The prevalences of MAC and AAC were significantly higher in individuals with an eGFR < 45 mL/ min/1.73 m2 (P < 0.01 for each), and cystatin C levels were significantly higher in individuals with MAC or AAC compared to individuals without these cardiac calcifications (P < 0.001 for each). After multivariate-adjustment, an eGFR <45 mL/min/1.73 m2 was significantly associated with MAC [odds ratio 1.54 (95% CI 1.16–2.06), P = 0.003] and not associated with AAC [1.30 (0.97–1.74), P = 0.085] and AVS [1.15 (0.86–1.53), P = 0.355]. In addition, cystatin C levels were independently associated with MAC [odds ratio per SD 1.12 (1.05–1.21), P = 0.001] and not associated with AAC [1.07 (1.00–1.15), P = 0.054] and AVS [0.99 (0.93–1.06), P = 0.82]. Furthermore, the prevalence of multiple cardiac calcifications was higher in subjects with an eGFR < 45 mL/ min/1.73 m2 and increased per quartile of cystatin C (P-values < 0.001). In addition, a significant trend was observed between an eGFR < 45 mL/min/1.73 m2, increasing levels of cystatin C and the number of cardiac calcifications (P < 0.05). Conclusions. In a community-based cohort of the elderly, moderate kidney disease as defined by an eGFR <45 mL/min/1.73m2 and elevated levels of cystatin C was associated with prevalent MAC. In addition, a significant trend was observed between an eGFR <45 mL/min/1.73m2, increasing levels of cystatin C and the number of cardiac calcifications. No associations were found between renal function and AAC or AVS.

Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Katz, Ronit; Kestenbaum, Bryan; Fried, Linda F.; Gottdiener, John S.; Shlipak, Michael G.; Siscovick, David S.

2009-01-01

366

Children and adults recall the names of highly familiar faces faster than semantic information.  

PubMed

Adults find it harder to remember the names of familiar people than other biographical information such as occupation or nationality. It has been suggested that the opposite effect occurs in children (Scanlan & Johnston, 1997). We failed to replicate the effects found by Scanlan and Johnston and instead found that children were slower to match a name than an occupation to a famous face (Experiment 1). In Experiments 2 and 3, however, we show a temporal advantage for names in both adults and children when highly familiar faces are used. This is the case for famous and personally known faces. These results show that the speed of name retrieval is influenced by familiarity in the same way in both children and adults and indicate that children do not represent knowledge for familiar people differently from adults. The implications of these results for current models of name retrieval difficulties are discussed. PMID:17018182

Calderwood, L; Burton, A M

2006-11-01

367

UCSD Performance-Based Skills Assessment: development of a new measure of everyday functioning for severely mentally ill adults.  

PubMed

Instruments to assess everyday functioning have utilized self-report, proxy report, clinician ratings, or direct observation of performance. Each of these methods has strengths and weaknesses. In this article we argue for the inclusion of performance-based measures of functional capacity in studies of severely mentally ill persons and describe a new measure, the UCSD Performance-Based Skills Assessment (UPSA). We administered the UPSA to 50 middle-aged and older outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, and 20 normal comparison subjects. Participants' performance in five domains of functioning (Household Chores; Communication; Finance; Transportation; and Planning Recreational Activities) was assessed in standardized role-play situations. Administration of the UPSA required an average of 30 minutes to complete. Interrater reliability of ratings was excellent. Patients' performance was significantly more impaired than that of normal subjects. Among patients, the UPSA performance correlated significantly with severity of negative symptoms and of cognitive impairment but not with that of positive or depressive symptoms. The UPSA scores correlated highly with those on another performance-based measure. We believe that UPSA would be useful for assessing everyday functioning in severely mentally ill adults. PMID:11354591

Patterson, T L; Goldman, S; McKibbin, C L; Hughs, T; Jeste, D V

2001-01-01

368

Serotonergic, noradrenergic and dopaminergic markers are related to cognitive function in adults with 22q11 deletion syndrome.  

PubMed

Patients with 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) have a high prevalence of psychiatric disorders and intellectual disability. At present the neurobiology underlying psychopathology in 22q11DS is still not understood. In the present study, we analyzed urinary serotonergic, dopaminergic and noradrenergic markers in 67 adults with 22q11DS. Levels of serotonin and the catecholamine metabolite homovanillic acid were significantly lower in the 22q11DS subjects compared to healthy controls. Within the 22q11DS group, levels of dopamine, homovanillic acid, norepinephrine, vanillyl mandelic acid and serotonin positively correlated with Full Scale Intelligence Quotient scores. Our results suggest that cognitive deficits in 22q11DS are associated with abnormal function of several neurotransmitters. PMID:24713114

Evers, Laurens J M; Curfs, Leopold M G; Bakker, Jaap A; Boot, Erik; da Silva Alves, Fabiana; Abeling, Nico; Bierau, Jörgen; Drukker, Marjan; van Amelsvoort, Therese A M J

2014-08-01

369

Educational Needs Assessment for Wisconsin Adults with Less than High School Graduation or GED.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted to assess the educational needs of Wisconsin adults aged 16 years and older who had not graduated from and were not attending high school or had not received a high school equivalency credential. The project staff interviewed 1,680 Wisconsin residents who met these criteria by telephone, using computerized random digit…

Kreitlow, Burton W.; And Others

370

Population based prevalence of high blood pressure among adults in Addis Ababa: uncovering a silent epidemic  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The prevention and control of high blood pressure or other cardiovascular diseases has not received due attention in many developing countries. This study aims to describe the epidemiology of high blood pressure among adults in Addis Ababa, so as to inform policy and lay the ground for surveillance interventions. METHODS: Addis Ababa is the largest urban centre and national

Fikru Tesfaye; Peter Byass; Stig Wall

2009-01-01

371

The Impact of Isolated Obesity on Right Ventricular Function in Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The effects of obesity on left ventricular structure and function have been reported, but relatively little is known regarding right ventricular (RV) function in obesity. Objective To evaluate subclinical RV alterations in obese, but otherwise healthy, young adults by conventional echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI). Methods In this study, we included 35 normal weight healthy subjects with a body mass index (BMI) < 25 kg/m2 (group I), 27 subjects with a BMI of 30-34.99 kg/m2 (group II), and 42 subjects with a BMI ? 35 kg/m2 (group III). All subjects underwent transthoracic echocardiography. In addition to standard echocardiographic measurements, tricuspid annular peak systolic (Sm), peak early (Em), and late diastolic (Am) velocities, isovolumetric contraction (ICTm), relaxation (IRTm) time, and ejection time (ETm) were obtained by TDI, and RV myocardial performance index (MPIm) was calculated. Results In group II, RV Em/Am was significantly decreased and IRTm and MPIm were significantly increased compared to group I (p < 0.01). RV Sm, Em, and the Em/Am ratio were significantly lower and RV IRTm and MPIm were significantly higher in group III than in group II (p < 0.05 for RV Sm and IRTm and p < 0.01 for others). RV Am differed significantly between groups III and I (p < 0.05). BMI was significantly and negatively correlated with RV Sm, Em, and the Em/Am ratio, but positively correlated with RV MPI (p < 0.01). Conclusion Our study showed that isolated obesity in young normotensive adults was associated with subclinical abnormalities in RV structure and function.

Sokmen, Abdullah; Sokmen, Gulizar; Acar, Gurkan; Akcay, Ahmet; Koroglu, Sedat; Koleoglu, Murat; Yalcintas, Sila; Aydin, M. Naci

2013-01-01

372

Early aging in adult survivors of childhood medulloblastoma: long-term neurocognitive, functional, and physical outcomes  

PubMed Central

Treatment for medulloblastoma during childhood impairs neurocognitive function in survivors. While those diagnosed at younger ages are most vulnerable, little is known about the long-term neurocognitive, functional, and physical outcomes in survivors as they approach middle age. In this retrospective cohort study, we assessed 20 adults who were treated with surgery and radiotherapy for medulloblastoma during childhood (median age at assessment, 21.9 years [range, 18–47 years]; median time since diagnosis, 15.5 years [range, 6.5–42.2 years]). Nine patients also underwent chemotherapy. Cross-sectional analyses of current neurocognitive, functional, and physical status were conducted. Data from prior neuropsychological assessments were available for 18 subjects; longitudinal analyses were used to model individual change over time for those subjects. The group was well below average across multiple neurocognitive domains, and 90% had required accommodations at school for learning disorders. Longer time since diagnosis, but not age at diagnosis, was associated with continued decline in working memory, a common sign of aging. Younger age at diagnosis was associated with lower intelligence quotient and academic achievement scores, even many years after treatment had been completed. The most common health complications in survivors were hearing impairment, second cancers, diabetes, hypertension, and endocrine deficiencies. Adult survivors of childhood medulloblastoma exhibit signs of early aging regardless of how young they were at diagnosis. As survival rates for brain tumors continue to improve, these neurocognitive and physical sequelae may become evident in survivors diagnosed at different ages across the lifespan. It will become increasingly important to identify factors that contribute to risk and resilience in this growing population.

Edelstein, Kim; Spiegler, Brenda J.; Fung, Sharon; Panzarella, Tony; Mabbott, Donald J.; Jewitt, Natalie; D'Agostino, Norma Mammone; Mason, Warren P.; Bouffet, Eric; Tabori, Uri; Laperriere, Normand; Hodgson, David C.

2011-01-01

373

Prenatal and neonatal exposure to flutamide affects function of Leydig cells in adult boar.  

PubMed

In this study, flutamide, an androgen receptor antagonist, was used as a tool to better understand the role of androgen receptor signaling and androgen signaling disruption during fetal and neonatal periods on porcine Leydig cell development and function. Flutamide, 50 mg kg(-1) d(-1) was administered into pregnant gilts during gestational days 20 to 28 and days 80 to 88 and into male piglets on postnatal days 2 to 10 (PD2). Leydig cells of flutamide-exposed boars, especially those of PD2 males, displayed morphologic alterations, increased size, and occupied increased area (P < 0.001) of the testes when compared with the control. Despite this, testosterone concentrations were reduced significantly in comparison with those of controls (P < 0.05, P < 0.001). Reduced testosterone production in response to flutamide exposure appeared to be related to changes in testosterone metabolism, as shown by increased aromatase mRNA (P < 0.05, P < 0.01), protein expression (P < 0.01, P < 0.001), and elevated estradiol concentrations (P < 0.001). Moreover, impaired Leydig cell responsiveness to LH was indicated by the decreased expression of LH receptor (P < 0.05, P < 0.001). No significant effect of flutamide was found on LH and FSH concentrations. Taken together, our data indicate that flutamide when administered during prenatal or neonatal period have a long-term effect on Leydig cell structure and function, leading to androgen-estrogen imbalance. Leydig cell failure was most evident in adult boars neonatally exposed to flutamide, suggesting that androgen action during neonatal development is of pivotal importance for the differentiation and function of porcine adult Leydig cell population. PMID:22177695

Kotula-Balak, M; Hejmej, A; Kopera, I; Lydka, M; Bilinska, B

2012-04-01

374

Vision Therapy in Adults with Convergence Insufficiency: Clinical and Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Measures  

PubMed Central

Purpose This research quantified clinical measurements and functional neural changes associated with vision therapy in subjects with convergence insufficiency (CI). Methods Convergence and divergence 4° step responses were compared between 13 control adult subjects with normal binocular vision and four CI adult subjects. All CI subjects participated in 18 h of vision therapy. Clinical parameters quantified throughout the therapy included: nearpoint of convergence, recovery point of convergence, positive fusional vergence at near, near dissociated phoria, and eye movements that were quantified using peak velocity. Neural correlates of the CI subjects were quantified with functional magnetic resonance imaging scans comparing random vs. predictable vergence movements using a block design before and after vision therapy. Images were quantified by measuring the spatial extent of activation and the average correlation within five regions of interests (ROI). The ROIs were the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, a portion of the frontal lobe, part of the parietal lobe, the cerebellum, and the brain stem. All measurements were repeated 4 months to 1 year post-therapy in three of the CI subjects. Results Convergence average peak velocities to step stimuli were significantly slower (p = 0.016) in CI subjects compared with controls; however, significant differences in average peak velocities were not observed for divergence step responses (p = 0.30). The investigation of CI subjects participating in vision therapy showed that the nearpoint of convergence, recovery point of convergence, and near dissociated phoria significantly decreased. Furthermore, the positive fusional vergence, average peak velocity from 4° convergence steps, and the amount of functional activity within the frontal areas, cerebellum, and brain stem significantly increased. Several clinical and cortical parameters were significantly correlated. Conclusions Convergence peak velocity was significantly slower in CI subjects compared with controls, which may result in asthenopic complaints reported by the CI subjects. Vision therapy was associated with and may have evoked clinical and cortical activity changes.

Alvarez, Tara L.; Vicci, Vincent R.; Alkan, Yelda; Kim, Eun H.; Gohel, Suril; Barrett, Anna M.; Chiaravalloti, Nancy; Biswal, Bharat B.

2011-01-01

375

Improving Functional Communication Skills in Adolescents and Young Adults with Severe Autism Using Gentle Teaching and Positive Approaches.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study evaluated a therapeutic intervention program for young adults with severe autism at the Oasi Institute in Troina, Sicily. The program, which integrates gentle teaching, humanistic applied behavior analysis, and functional communication training, provides opportunities to acquire functional skills through errorless learning activities.…

Polirstok, Susan Rovet; Dana, Lawrence; Buono, Serafino; Mongelli, Vita; Trubia, Grazia

2003-01-01

376

Education and physical activity mediate the relationship between ethnicity and cognitive function in late middle-aged adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Minority status has been implicated as a risk factor for disparate scores on cognitive function tests in older adults. Research on ethnicity and cognitive function has yielded socioeconomic status, particularly education, as a primary reason for the discrepancy. Other factors, such as physical activity may provide insight into the relationship. Despite this knowledge, few studies have thoroughly examined the

Meredith C. Masel; Mukaila Raji; M. Kristen Peek

2010-01-01

377

Growth and Endocrine Function in Long-term Adult Survivors of Childhood Stem Cell Transplant  

PubMed Central

The number of long-term surviving stem cell transplant (SCT) recipients has increased steadily, and attention has now extended to the late complications of this procedure. The objective of this study was to investigate relationship among growth and endocrine functions in long-term adult survivors of childhood SCT. The inclusion criteria of this study were survival at least 5 yr after SCT and achievement of adult height. Fifty-four patients (39 males) fulfilled these criteria and were included in this study. Growth was mainly evaluated by height standard deviation score (SDS) and individual longitudinal growth curves. Among the 54 patients, those that received SCT before 10 yr of age showed significantly greater reductions in changes in height SDS (mean –1.75, range –4.80 to –0.10) compared with those that received SCT at or after 10 yr of age (mean –0.50, range –1.74 to 1.20; P<0.001). The mean loss of height for all patients who received SCT during childhood was estimated to be approximately 1 SDS/6.5 yr (r=0.517). Individual longitudinal growth curves indicated that a significant growth spurt was absent in severe short stature patients during the pubertal period without severe endocrine dysfunctions including GH deficiency. The incidence of growth disorder in long-term adult survivors depends on the age at SCT and whether they received radiation therapy. Life-long follow-up is necessary for survivors to detect, prevent and treat the late endocrine complications in SCT survivors.

Ishiguro, Hiroyuki; Yasuda, Yukiharu; Hyodo, Hiromi; Tomita, Yuichiro; Koike, Takashi; Shinagawa, Tsuyoshi; Shimizu, Takashi; Morimoto, Tsuyoshi; Hattori, Kinya; Matsumoto, Masae; Inoue, Hiroyasu; Yabe, Hiromasa; Yabe, Miharu; Shinohara, Osamu; Kato, Shunichi

2009-01-01

378

Impact of Falls on the Balance, Gait, and Activities of Daily Living Functioning in Community-Dwelling Chinese Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. The objective of the present study was to investigate the impact of incident falls on the balance, gait, and Activities of Daily Living functioning in community-dwelling older adults. Methods. This was a population-based, 1-year prospective cohort study in older adults. We performed baseline assessment of potential predictors, the 1-year occurrence of falls, and then 1-year reassessment of the following

Leung-Wing Chu; Alice Y. Y. Chiu; Iris Chi

2006-01-01

379

Characterisation of the function of adult guinea-pig ventricular myocytes following co-culture with neonatal rat myocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult guinea-pig myocytes were co-cultured with a layer of spontaneously contracting neonatal rat myocytes based on a method\\u000a described by Weisensee D. (In Vitro Cell Dev Biol 31: 190–195, 1995). Contractile studies were performed on freshly isolated,\\u000a 24 and 48 h co-cultured adult guinea-pig myocytes to investigate whether alterations in contractile function had occurred.\\u000a No difference was found between freshly

N. Singh Kent; K. Davia; S. E. Harding

1999-01-01

380

Physical functioning, perceived disability, and depressive symptoms in adults with arthritis.  

PubMed

This study investigated how physical functioning and perceived disability are related to depressive symptoms in adults with arthritis (n = 401). Participants self-reported depressive symptoms and disability. Objective measures of physical functioning included the 30-second chair stand test, 6-minute walk test, gait speed, balance, grip strength, and the seated reach test. Separate quantile regression models tested associations between each functional measure and depressive symptoms, controlling for age, gender, race, BMI, self-reported health status, and arthritis medication use. The association between perceived disability and depressive symptoms was also tested. Participants averaged 56.3 ± 10.7 years; 85.8% were women; 64.3% were white. Lower distance in the 6-minute walk test, fewer chair stands, slower gait speed, and greater perceived disability were associated with greater depressive symptoms in unadjusted models (Ps < 0.05). Fewer chair stands and greater perceived disability were associated with more depressive symptoms in adjusted models (Ps < 0.05). Balance, grip strength, and seated reach were not related to depressive symptoms. The perception of being disabled was more strongly associated with depressive symptoms than reduced physical functioning. To reduce the risk of depression in arthritic populations, it may be critical to not only address physical symptoms but also to emphasize coping skills and arthritis self-efficacy. PMID:24093063

Becofsky, Katie; Baruth, Meghan; Wilcox, Sara

2013-01-01

381

Cytokine-induced differentiation of multipotent adult progenitor cells into functional smooth muscle cells  

PubMed Central

Smooth muscle formation and function are critical in development and postnatal life. Hence, studies aimed at better understanding SMC differentiation are of great importance. Here, we report that multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPCs) isolated from rat, murine, porcine, and human bone marrow demonstrate the potential to differentiate into cells with an SMC-like phenotype and function. TGF-?1 alone or combined with PDGF-BB in serum-free medium induces a temporally correct expression of transcripts and proteins consistent with smooth muscle development. Furthermore, SMCs derived from MAPCs (MAPC-SMCs) demonstrated functional L-type calcium channels. MAPC-SMCs entrapped in fibrin vascular molds became circumferentially aligned and generated force in response to KCl, the L-type channel opener FPL64176, or the SMC agonists 5-HT and ET-1, and exhibited complete relaxation in response to the Rho-kinase inhibitor Y-27632. Cyclic distention (5% circumferential strain) for 3 weeks increased responses by 2- to 3-fold, consistent with what occurred in neonatal SMCs. These results provide evidence that MAPC-SMCs are phenotypically and functionally similar to neonatal SMCs and that the in vitro MAPC-SMC differentiation system may be an ideal model for the study of SMC development. Moreover, MAPC-SMCs may lend themselves to tissue engineering applications.

Ross, Jeffrey J.; Hong, Zhigang; Willenbring, Ben; Zeng, Lepeng; Isenberg, Brett; Lee, Eu Han; Reyes, Morayma; Keirstead, Susan A.; Weir, E. Kenneth; Tranquillo, Robert T.; Verfaillie, Catherine M.

2006-01-01

382

Neuropsychological functioning in adolescents and young adults with major depressive disorder--a review.  

PubMed

While neuropsychological dysfunction is a contributor to major depressive disorder (MDD) in adult MDD, little is known about neuropsychological function in MDD during adolescence and early adulthood. The aim of this review is to evaluate literature on neuropsychological function in this young age group. A database search of Medline, the Cochrane database and PsycInfo was conducted. Inclusion/exclusion criteria yielded seven case-control studies on neuropsychological functioning in MDD (12-25 years of age) published since 1995. Effect sizes were calculated. Results show a broader range of statistically significant neuropsychological deficits in MDD compared to controls in the cognitive domains of executive function (EF), working memory (WM), psychomotor and processing speed (PPS), verbal fluency (VF) and visual (-spatial) memory (VM). Most convincingly, three out of four studies investigating WM and three out of four studies investigating PPS found statistically significant impairments in MDD with varying effect sizes. EF deficits were reported only in three out of seven studies with small, medium and large effect sizes. While some evidence was found for impaired VM and VF, no evidence was observed for attention and verbal learning and memory; however, these domains have been less extensively studied. Further research is required to broaden the study base. PMID:24851725

Baune, Bernhard T; Fuhr, Margarete; Air, Tracy; Hering, Carola

2014-08-30

383

Physical Functioning, Perceived Disability, and Depressive Symptoms in Adults with Arthritis  

PubMed Central

This study investigated how physical functioning and perceived disability are related to depressive symptoms in adults with arthritis (n = 401). Participants self-reported depressive symptoms and disability. Objective measures of physical functioning included the 30-second chair stand test, 6-minute walk test, gait speed, balance, grip strength, and the seated reach test. Separate quantile regression models tested associations between each functional measure and depressive symptoms, controlling for age, gender, race, BMI, self-reported health status, and arthritis medication use. The association between perceived disability and depressive symptoms was also tested. Participants averaged 56.3 ± 10.7 years; 85.8% were women; 64.3% were white. Lower distance in the 6-minute walk test, fewer chair stands, slower gait speed, and greater perceived disability were associated with greater depressive symptoms in unadjusted models (Ps < 0.05). Fewer chair stands and greater perceived disability were associated with more depressive symptoms in adjusted models (Ps < 0.05). Balance, grip strength, and seated reach were not related to depressive symptoms. The perception of being disabled was more strongly associated with depressive symptoms than reduced physical functioning. To reduce the risk of depression in arthritic populations, it may be critical to not only address physical symptoms but also to emphasize coping skills and arthritis self-efficacy.

2013-01-01

384

Self-Perception of Gifts and Talents among Adults in a Longitudinal Study of Academically Talented High-School Graduates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Definitions of giftedness and self-perceptions of abilities were examined among adults who have been participating in a longitudinal study of academically talented students since their high-school graduation in 1988. For the present study, participants answered open-ended questions and completed scales measuring adult giftedness and adult

Perrone, Kristin M.; Perrone, Philip A.; Ksiazak, Tracy M.; Wright, Stephen L.; Jackson, Z. Vance

2007-01-01

385

Long term effects of exposure to automobile exhaust on the pulmonary function of female adults in Tokyo, Japan  

PubMed Central

Aims: To investigate the chronic effects of air pollution caused mainly by automobiles in healthy adult females. Methods: Respiratory symptoms were investigated in 5682 adult females who had lived in the Tokyo metropolitan area for three years or more in 1987; 733 of them were subjected to pulmonary function tests over eight years from 1987 to 1994. The subjects were divided into three groups by the level of air pollution they were exposed to during the study period. The concentrations of nitrogen dioxide and suspended particulate matter were the highest in group 1, and the lowest in group 3. Results: The prevalence rates of respiratory symptoms in group 1 were higher than those in groups 2 and 3, except for wheezing. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed significant differences in persistent phlegm and breathlessness. The subjects selected for the analysis of pulmonary function were 94, 210, and 102 females in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The annual mean change of FEV1 in group 1 was the largest (-0.020 l/y), followed by that in group 2 (-0.015 l/y), and that in group 3 (-0.009 l/y). Testing for trends showed a significant larger decrease of FEV1 with the increase in the level of air pollution. Conclusions: The subjects living in areas with high levels of air pollution showed higher prevalence rates of respiratory symptoms and a larger decrease of FEV1 compared with those living in areas with low levels of air pollution. Since the traffic density is larger in areas with high air pollution, the differences among the groups may reflect the effect of air pollution attributable to particulate matter found in automobile exhaust.

Sekine, K; Shima, M; Nitta, Y; Adachi, M

2004-01-01

386

Pituitary function and functional outcome in adults after severe traumatic brain injury: the long-term perspective.  

PubMed

Post-traumatic hypopituitarism (PTHP) has been linked to disability and decreased quality of life. However, no studies have addressed the long-term consequences of PTHP in adults with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) only. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between pituitary function, quality of life, and functioning in 51 patients (16-65 years of age) with severe TBI who were admitted to Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg from 1999 to 2002. The patients were assessed once, 2-10 years after trauma. Data from the time of injury were collected retrospectively to adjust for injury severity. Outcome measures included hormonal testing, the Short Form-36 Health Survey, the Glasgow outcome scale-extended, and a self-report questionnaire specifically designed for this study and based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Of 51 patients, 14 (27.5%) presented with PTHP, and 11 (21.6%) had isolated growth hormone deficiency. Patients with PTHP were more often overweight at follow-up (p=0.01); the higher body mass index was partially explained by PTHP (R2 change=0.07, p=0.001). Otherwise no significant correlation was found among PTHP, functioning, or patient-reported quality of life. This study-which is unique in the homogeneity of the patients, the long follow-up time, and the use of injury severity as an outcome predictor-did not confirm results from previous studies linking PTHP to a worse outcome. Therefore, screening for PTHP might be restricted to specific subgroups such as overweight patients, indicating growth hormone deficiency. PMID:23121499

Ulfarsson, Trandur; Arnar Gudnason, Gudni; Rosén, Thord; Blomstrand, Christian; Sunnerhagen, Katharina Stibrant; Lundgren-Nilsson, Asa; Nilsson, Michael

2013-02-15

387

The Impact of Depressive Symptoms in Adults with ADHD Symptoms on Family Function and ADHD Symptoms of Their Children  

PubMed Central

Objective People with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) exhibit considerable impairment in social, academic, or occupational functioning. The present study aimed to examine the patterns of associations between ADHD symptoms, depression, and family functioning. Methods The sample consisted of 1,022 adults randomly selected from a district in Seoul, South Korea. Several self-assessment scales were utilized to rate ADHD symptoms (both past and current), current symptoms of depression, and level of family functioning. ADHD symptoms in the children of these participants were also assessed. Pearson's correlation and multiple linear regression analyses were performed; structural equation modeling (SEM) was conducted to determine the best fitting model. Results Adult ADHD symptoms were positively associated with depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms, in turn, mediated the relationship between adult ADHD symptoms and cohesion among family members. In addition, depressive symptoms mediated the relationship between adult ADHD symptoms and their children's ADHD symptoms. Conclusion The relationship between adult ADHD symptoms and family dysfunction may be influenced by depressive symptoms. When treating ADHD in adults, clinicians should pay attention to the presence or absence of depression.

Hong, Soon-Beom; Lee, Jong-Ha; Chun, Duk Hee; Shin, Min-Sup; Yoo, Hee-Jeong; Kim, Boong-Nyun; Cho, Soo-Churl

2014-01-01

388

Hippocampal volumes and cognitive functions in adult alcoholic patients with adolescent-onset.  

PubMed

This study investigated hippocampal volumes and cognitive functions in adult alcoholic patients with adolescent- or late-onset alcohol use. Twenty-one male alcohol dependent inpatients and 13 healthy male controls were enrolled in this study. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging to measure hippocampal volumes and neuropsychological tests were performed in week 4 of abstinence in the patients and controls. The patients were divided into two subgroups (adolescent- and late-onset subgroups) according to the onset age of alcohol use. Alcoholic patients in general had significantly smaller right hippocampal volumes than the healthy controls. Patients' immediate memory, attention, acquisition and working memory subtest scores were inferior to those of the controls. The right hippocampus was significantly smaller in adult alcoholic patients with adolescent-onset use compared to the controls and the late-onset group. There was no significant correlation between neuropsychological test scores and hippocampal volumes. Our results suggest that hippocampal volume loss might be a feature of adolescent-onset alcoholic patients rather than of late-onset ones. PMID:23063480

Ozsoy, Saliha; Durak, Ahmet Candan; Esel, Ertugrul

2013-02-01

389<