Sample records for high functioning adults

  1. Phonological and Orthographic Spelling in High-Functioning Adult Dyslexics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, Nenagh; Parrila, Rauno K.; Kirby, John R.

    2009-01-01

    Despite a history of reading or spelling difficulties, some adults attain age-appropriate spelling skills and succeed at university. We compared the spelling of 29 such high-functioning dyslexics with that of 28 typical students, matched on general spelling ability, and controlling for vocabulary and non-verbal intelligence. Participants wrote…

  2. Challenging Stereotypes: Sexual Functioning of Single Adults with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, E. Sandra; Nichols, Shana; Voyer, Susan D.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the sexual functioning of single adults (61 men, 68 women) with high functioning autism and Asperger syndrome living in the community with and without prior relationship experience. Participants completed an on-line questionnaire assessing autism symptoms, psychological functioning, and various aspects of sexual functioning. In…

  3. Psychosocial Functioning in a Group of Swedish Adults with Asperger Syndrome or High-Functioning Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engstrom, I.; Ekstrom, L.; Emilsson, B.

    2003-01-01

    A study investigated psychosocial functioning in 16 Swedish adults with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism. The majority lived independently; all but one were unemployed; and none was married or had children. Most persons needed a high level of public and/or private support. Overall adjustment was rated good in 12%. (Contains…

  4. Parents' Criticisms and Attributions about Their Adult Children with High Functioning Autism or Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Stephanie; Weisman de Mamani, Amy; Mundy, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the criticism component of expressed emotion (EE) and attributions in parents of adults diagnosed with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder (S/SA) or high functioning autism/Asperger's. Consistent with study hypotheses, parents of adults diagnosed with autism/Asperger's disorder exhibited lower levels of high

  5. Face Configuration Accuracy and Processing Speed among Adults with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faja, Susan; Webb, Sara Jane; Merkle, Kristen; Aylward, Elizabeth; Dawson, Geraldine

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigates the accuracy and speed of face processing employed by high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Two behavioral experiments measured sensitivity to distances between features and face recognition when performance depended on holistic versus featural information. Results suggest adults with ASD…

  6. Brief Report: Feasibility of Social Cognition and Interaction Training for Adults with High Functioning Autism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lauren M. Turner-Brown; Timothy D. Perry; Gabriel S. Dichter; James W. Bodfish; David L. Penn

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and utility of a group-based cognitive behavioral intervention to improve\\u000a social-cognitive functioning in adults with high-functioning autism (HFA). We modified the treatment manual of a previously\\u000a validated intervention, Social Cognition and Interaction Training (SCIT), for optimal use with HFA adults (SCIT-A). We then\\u000a conducted a pilot study to compare SCIT-A

  7. Functional Alterations in Neural Substrates of Geometric Reasoning in Adults with High-Functioning Autism

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Takashi; Ohta, Haruhisa; Watanabe, Hiromi; Kanai, Chieko; Tani, Masayuki; Ohno, Taisei; Takayama, Yuko; Iwanami, Akira; Kato, Nobumasa; Hashimoto, Ryuichiro

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum condition (ASC) are known to excel in some perceptual cognitive tasks, but such developed functions have been often regarded as “islets of abilities” that do not significantly contribute to broader intellectual capacities. However, recent behavioral studies have reported that individuals with ASC have advantages for performing Raven's (Standard) Progressive Matrices (RPM/RSPM), a standard neuropsychological test for general fluid intelligence, raising the possibility that ASC?s cognitive strength can be utilized for more general purposes like novel problem solving. Here, the brain activity of 25 adults with high-functioning ASC and 26 matched normal controls (NC) was measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine neural substrates of geometric reasoning during the engagement of a modified version of the RSPM test. Among the frontal and parietal brain regions involved in fluid intelligence, ASC showed larger activation in the left lateral occipitotemporal cortex (LOTC) during an analytic condition with moderate difficulty than NC. Activation in the left LOTC and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) increased with task difficulty in NC, whereas such modulation of activity was absent in ASC. Furthermore, functional connectivity analysis revealed a significant reduction of activation coupling between the left inferior parietal cortex and the right anterior prefrontal cortex during both figural and analytic conditions in ASC. These results indicate altered pattern of functional specialization and integration in the neural system for geometric reasoning in ASC, which may explain its atypical cognitive pattern, including performance on the Raven's Matrices test. PMID:22912831

  8. Largely typical patterns of resting-state functional connectivity in high-functioning adults with autism.

    PubMed

    Tyszka, J Michael; Kennedy, Daniel P; Paul, Lynn K; Adolphs, Ralph

    2014-07-01

    A leading hypothesis for the neural basis of autism postulates globally abnormal brain connectivity, yet the majority of studies report effects that are either very weak, inconsistent across studies, or explain results incompletely. Here we apply multiple analytical approaches to resting-state BOLD-fMRI data at the whole-brain level. Neurotypical and high-functioning adults with autism displayed very similar patterns and strengths of resting-state connectivity. We found only limited evidence in autism for abnormal resting-state connectivity at the regional level and no evidence for altered connectivity at the whole-brain level. Regional abnormalities in functional connectivity in autism spectrum disorder were primarily in the frontal and temporal cortices. Within these regions, functional connectivity with other brain regions was almost exclusively lower in the autism group. Further examination showed that even small amounts of head motion during scanning have large effects on functional connectivity measures and must be controlled carefully. Consequently, we suggest caution in the interpretation of apparent positive findings until all possible confounding effects can be ruled out. Additionally, we do not rule out the possibility that abnormal connectivity in autism is evident at the microstructural synaptic level, which may not be reflected sensitively in hemodynamic changes measured with BOLD-fMRI. PMID:23425893

  9. Brief Report: Feasibility of Social Cognition and Interaction Training for Adults with High Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner-Brown, Lauren M.; Perry, Timothy D.; Dichter, Gabriel S.; Bodfish, James W.; Penn, David L.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and utility of a group-based cognitive behavioral intervention to improve social-cognitive functioning in adults with high-functioning autism (HFA). We modified the treatment manual of a previously validated intervention, Social Cognition and Interaction Training (SCIT), for optimal use with…

  10. Brief Report: Feasibility of Social Cognition and Interaction Training for Adults with High Functioning Autism

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Timothy D.; Dichter, Gabriel S.; Bodfish, James W.; Penn, David L.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and utility of a group-based cognitive behavioral intervention to improve social-cognitive functioning in adults with high-functioning autism (HFA). We modified the treatment manual of a previously validated intervention, Social Cognition and Interaction Training (SCIT), for optimal use with HFA adults (SCIT-A). We then conducted a pilot study to compare SCIT-A (n = 6) to treatment as usual (TAU) (n = 5) for adults with HFA. Feasibility was supported; attendance was high (92%) and satisfaction reports were primarily positive. Participants in SCIT-A showed significant improvement in theory-of-mind skills and trend level improvements in social communication skills; TAU participants did not show these improvements. Findings indicate SCIT-A shows promise as an intervention for adults with HFA. PMID:18246419

  11. Pragmatic Inferences in High-Functioning Adults with Autism and Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pijnacker, Judith; Hagoort, Peter; Buitelaar, Jan; Teunisse, Jan-Pieter; Geurts, Bart

    2009-01-01

    Although people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often have severe problems with pragmatic aspects of language, little is known about their pragmatic reasoning. We carried out a behavioral study on high-functioning adults with autistic disorder (n = 11) and Asperger syndrome (n = 17) and matched controls (n = 28) to investigate whether they…

  12. Narrative Skills in Young Adults with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollins, Pamela Rosenthal

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the author investigated narrative performances of 10 high-functioning young adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) across personal and storybook narratives. Narratives were elicited with genre-specific procedures and then transcribed and scored using the narrative scoring scheme (NSS). One-tailed paired-sample t tests were…

  13. Virtual Reality Social Cognition Training for Young Adults with High-Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandalaft, Michelle R.; Didehbani, Nyaz; Krawczyk, Daniel C.; Allen, Tandra T.; Chapman, Sandra B.

    2013-01-01

    Few evidence-based social interventions exist for young adults with high-functioning autism, many of whom encounter significant challenges during the transition into adulthood. The current study investigated the feasibility of an engaging Virtual Reality Social Cognition Training intervention focused on enhancing social skills, social cognition,…

  14. Sexual Behavior in High-Functioning Male Adolescents and Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellemans, Hans; Colson, Kathy; Verbraeken, Christine; Vermeiren, Robert; Deboutte, Dirk

    2007-01-01

    Group home caregivers of 24 institutionalized, male, high-functioning adolescents and young adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder, were interviewed with the Interview Sexuality Autism. Most subjects were reported to express sexual interest and to display some kind of sexual behavior. Knowledge of socio-sexual skills existed, but practical use was…

  15. Brain Mapping of Language and Auditory Perception in High-Functioning Autistic Adults: A PET Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, R-A.; Behen, M. E.; Rothermel, R. D.; Chugani, D. C.; Muzik, O.; Mangner, T. J.; Chugani, H. T.

    1999-01-01

    A study used positron emission tomography (PET) to study patterns of brain activation during auditory processing in five high-functioning adults with autism. Results found that participants showed reversed hemispheric dominance during the verbal auditory stimulation and reduced activation of the auditory cortex and cerebellum. (CR)

  16. How Stimulus and Task Complexity Affect Monitoring in High-Functioning Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koolen, Sophieke; Vissers, Constance Th. W. M.; Egger, Jos I. M.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined whether individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are able to update and monitor working memory representations of visual input, and whether performance is influenced by stimulus and task complexity. 15 high-functioning adults with ASD and 15 controls were asked to allocate either elements of abstract figures or…

  17. Binding of Multiple Features in Memory by High-Functioning Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowler, Dermot M.; Gaigg, Sebastian B.; Gardiner, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Diminished episodic memory and diminished use of semantic information to aid recall by individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are both thought to result from diminished relational binding of elements of complex stimuli. To test this hypothesis, we asked high-functioning adults with ASD and typical comparison participants to study grids in…

  18. High blood pressure, antihypertensive medication and lung function in a general adult population

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Several studies showed that blood pressure and lung function are associated. Additionally, a potential effect of antihypertensive medication, especially beta-blockers, on lung function has been discussed. However, side effects of beta-blockers have been investigated mainly in patients with already reduced lung function. Thus, aim of this analysis is to determine whether hypertension and antihypertensive medication have an adverse effect on lung function in a general adult population. Methods Within the population-based KORA F4 study 1319 adults aged 40-65 years performed lung function tests and blood pressure measurements. Additionally, information on anthropometric measurements, medical history and use of antihypertensive medication was available. Multivariable regression models were applied to study the association between blood pressure, antihypertensive medication and lung function. Results High blood pressure as well as antihypertensive medication were associated with lower forced expiratory volume in one second (p = 0.02 respectively p = 0.05; R2: 0.65) and forced vital capacity values (p = 0.01 respectively p = 0.05, R2: 0.73). Furthermore, a detailed analysis of antihypertensive medication pointed out that only the use of beta-blockers was associated with reduced lung function, whereas other antihypertensive medication had no effect on lung function. The adverse effect of beta-blockers was significant for forced vital capacity (p = 0.04; R2: 0.65), while the association with forced expiratory volume in one second showed a trend toward significance (p = 0.07; R2: 0.73). In the same model high blood pressure was associated with reduced forced vital capacity (p = 0.01) and forced expiratory volume in one second (p = 0.03) values, too. Conclusion Our analysis indicates that both high blood pressure and the use of beta-blockers, but not the use of other antihypertensive medication, are associated with reduced lung function in a general adult population. PMID:21510847

  19. The Modality Shift Experiment in Adults and Children with High Functioning Autism

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Diane L.; Goldstein, Gerald; Minshew, Nancy J.

    2012-01-01

    This study used the modality shift experiment, a relatively simple reaction time measure to visual and auditory stimuli, to examine attentional shifting within and across modalities in 33 children and 42 adults with high-functioning autism as compared to matched numbers of age- and ability-matched typical controls. An exaggerated “modality shift effect” relative to the TD children occurred for the children with autism in conditions involving the reaction time when shifting from sound to light but not from light to sound. No exaggerated MSE was found for the adults with autism; rather, their responses were characterized by a generalized slowness relative to the adults with TD. These results suggest a lag in maturational development in autism in basic information processing mechanisms. PMID:22865151

  20. Obesity and diabetes as accelerators of functional decline: can lifestyle interventions maintain functional status in high risk older adults?

    PubMed

    Anton, Stephen D; Karabetian, Christy; Naugle, Kelly; Buford, Thomas W

    2013-09-01

    Obesity and diabetes are known risk factors for the development of physical disability among older adults. With the number of seniors with these conditions rising worldwide, the prevention and treatment of physical disability in these persons have become a major public health challenge. Sarcopenia, the progressive loss of muscle mass and strength, has been identified as a common pathway associated with the initial onset and progression of physical disability among older adults. A growing body of evidence suggests that metabolic dysregulation associated with obesity and diabetes accelerates the progression of sarcopenia, and subsequently functional decline in older adults. The focus of this brief review is on the contributions of obesity and diabetes in accelerating sarcopenia and functional decline among older adults. We also briefly discuss the underexplored interaction between obesity and diabetes that may further accelerate sarcopenia and place obese older adults with diabetes at particularly high risk of disability. Finally, we review findings from studies that have specifically tested the efficacy of lifestyle-based interventions in maintaining the functional status of older persons with obesity and/or diabetes. PMID:23832077

  1. The “Reading the Mind in the Eyes” Test Revised Version: A Study with Normal Adults, and Adults with Asperger Syndrome or High-functioning Autism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon Baron-Cohen; Sally Wheelwright; Jacqueline Hill; Yogini Raste; Ian Plumb

    2001-01-01

    In 1997 in this Journal we published the ''Reading the Mind in the Eyes'' Test, as a measure of adult ''mentalising''. Whilst that test succeeded in discriminating a group of adults with Asperger syndrome (AS) or high-functioning autism (HFA) from controls, it suered from several psychometric problems. In this paper these limitations are rectified by revising the test. The Revised

  2. Automatic facial responses to affective stimuli in high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Mathersul, Danielle; McDonald, Skye; Rushby, Jacqueline A

    2013-01-17

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate atypical behavioural responses to affective stimuli, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Investigating automatic responses to these stimuli may help elucidate these mechanisms. 18 high-functioning adults with ASDs and 18 typically developing controls viewed 54 extreme pleasant (erotica), extreme unpleasant (mutilations), and non-social neutral images from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS). Two-thirds of images received an acoustic startle probe 3s post-picture onset. Facial electromyography (EMG) activity (orbicularis, zygomaticus, corrugator), skin conductance (SCR) and cardiac responses were recorded. The adults with ASDs demonstrated typical affective startle modulation and automatic facial EMG responses but atypical autonomic (SCRs and cardiac) responses, suggesting a failure to orient to, or a deliberate effort to disconnect from, socially relevant stimuli (erotica, mutilations). These results have implications for neural systems known to underlie affective processes, including the orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala. PMID:23142408

  3. Employment Activities and Experiences of Adults with High-Functioning Autism and Asperger's Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Susanna; Costley, Debra; Warren, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    There is limited large-scale empirical research into the working lives of adults who have an autism spectrum disorder with no co-occurring intellectual disability. Drawing on data from a national survey, this report describes the employment activities and experiences of 130 adults with Asperger's Disorder (AD) and high functioning autism…

  4. Metacognition of agency and theory of mind in adults with high functioning autism.

    PubMed

    Zalla, Tiziana; Miele, David; Leboyer, Marion; Metcalfe, Janet

    2015-01-01

    We investigated metacognition of agency in adults with high functioning autism or Asperger Syndrome (HFA/AS) using a computer task in which participants moved the mouse to get the cursor to touch the downward moving X's and avoid the O's. They were then asked to make judgments of performance and judgments of agency. Objective control was either undistorted, or distorted by adding turbulence (i.e., random noise) or a time Lag between the mouse and cursor movements. Participants with HFA/AS used sensorimotor cues available in the turbulence and lag conditions to a lesser extent than control participants in making their judgments of agency. Furthermore, the failure to use these internal diagnostic cues to their own agency was correlated with decrements in a theory of mind task. These findings suggest that a reduced sensitivity to veridical internal cues about the sense of agency is related to mentalizing impairments in autism. PMID:25482271

  5. Prosody Recognition in Adults With High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders: From Psychoacoustics to Cognition.

    PubMed

    Globerson, Eitan; Amir, Noam; Kishon-Rabin, Liat; Golan, Ofer

    2014-11-26

    Prosody is an important tool of human communication, carrying both affective and pragmatic messages in speech. Prosody recognition relies on processing of acoustic cues, such as the fundamental frequency of the voice signal, and their interpretation according to acquired socioemotional scripts. Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) show deficiencies in affective prosody recognition. These deficiencies have been mostly associated with general difficulties in emotion recognition. The current study explored an additional association between affective prosody recognition in ASD and auditory perceptual abilities. Twenty high-functioning male adults with ASD and 32 typically developing male adults, matched on age and verbal abilities undertook a battery of auditory tasks. These included affective and pragmatic prosody recognition tasks, two psychoacoustic tasks (pitch direction recognition and pitch discrimination), and a facial emotion recognition task, representing nonvocal emotion recognition. Compared with controls, the ASD group demonstrated poorer performance on both vocal and facial emotion recognition, but not on pragmatic prosody recognition or on any of the psychoacoustic tasks. Both groups showed strong associations between psychoacoustic abilities and prosody recognition, both affective and pragmatic, although these were more pronounced in the ASD group. Facial emotion recognition predicted vocal emotion recognition in the ASD group only. These findings suggest that auditory perceptual abilities, alongside general emotion recognition abilities, play a significant role in affective prosody recognition in ASD. Autism Res 2014, ??: ??-??. © 2014 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25428545

  6. The neuropsychology of male adults with high-functioning autism or asperger syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wilson, C Ellie; Happé, Francesca; Wheelwright, Sally J; Ecker, Christine; Lombardo, Michael V; Johnston, Patrick; Daly, Eileen; Murphy, Clodagh M; Spain, Debbie; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Sauter, Disa A; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Murphy, Declan G M

    2014-10-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is diagnosed on the basis of behavioral symptoms, but cognitive abilities may also be useful in characterizing individuals with ASD. One hundred seventy-eight high-functioning male adults, half with ASD and half without, completed tasks assessing IQ, a broad range of cognitive skills, and autistic and comorbid symptomatology. The aims of the study were, first, to determine whether significant differences existed between cases and controls on cognitive tasks, and whether cognitive profiles, derived using a multivariate classification method with data from multiple cognitive tasks, could distinguish between the two groups. Second, to establish whether cognitive skill level was correlated with degree of autistic symptom severity, and third, whether cognitive skill level was correlated with degree of comorbid psychopathology. Fourth, cognitive characteristics of individuals with Asperger Syndrome (AS) and high-functioning autism (HFA) were compared. After controlling for IQ, ASD and control groups scored significantly differently on tasks of social cognition, motor performance, and executive function (P's < 0.05). To investigate cognitive profiles, 12 variables were entered into a support vector machine (SVM), which achieved good classification accuracy (81%) at a level significantly better than chance (P < 0.0001). After correcting for multiple correlations, there were no significant associations between cognitive performance and severity of either autistic or comorbid symptomatology. There were no significant differences between AS and HFA groups on the cognitive tasks. Cognitive classification models could be a useful aid to the diagnostic process when used in conjunction with other data sources-including clinical history. PMID:24903974

  7. Disability and Functioning (Adults)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Noninstitutionalized adults 18 years and older: Basic or complex activity limitations Number of adults with at least one basic actions ... Noninstitutionalized adults 65 years and older: Basic or complex activity limitations Number of adults 65 years and older with at ...

  8. Task Engagement in Young Adults with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders: Generalization Effects of Behavioral Skills Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmen, Annemiek; Didden, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a behavioral skills training package on task engagement in six young adults with high-functioning ASD who worked in a regular job-training setting. Experimental sessions were implemented in a small-group training format in a therapy room using unknown tasks. Data were collected on participant's off-task…

  9. Effects of Related and Unrelated Context on Recall and Recognition by Adults with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowler, Dermot M.; Gaigg, Sebastian B.; Gardiner, John M.

    2008-01-01

    Memory in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterised by greater difficulties with recall rather than recognition and with a diminished use of semantic or associative relatedness in the aid of recall. Two experiments are reported that test the effects of item-context relatedness on recall and recognition in adults with high-functioning ASD…

  10. Perception of emotions from facial expressions in high-functioning adults with autism

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Daniel P.; Adolphs, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    Impairment in social communication is one of the diagnostic hallmarks of autism spectrum disorders, and a large body of research has documented aspects of impaired social cognition in autism, both at the level of the processes and the neural structures involved. Yet one of the most common social communicative abilities in everyday life, the ability to judge somebody's emotion from their facial expression, has yielded conflicting findings. To investigate this issue, we used a sensitive task that has been used to assess facial emotion perception in a number of neurological and psychiatric populations. Fifteen high- functioning adults with autism and 19 control participants rated the emotional intensity of 36 faces displaying basic emotions. Every face was rated 6 times - once for each emotion category. The autism group gave ratings that were significantly less sensitive to a given emotion, and less reliable across repeated testing, resulting in overall decreased specificity in emotion perception. We thus demonstrate a subtle but specific pattern of impairments in facial emotion perception in people with autism. PMID:23022433

  11. Feelings of regret and disappointment in adults with high-functioning autism.

    PubMed

    Zalla, Tiziana; Sirigu, Angela; Robic, Suzanne; Chaste, Pauline; Leboyer, Marion; Coricelli, Giorgio

    2014-09-01

    Impairments in emotional processing in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) can be characterised by failure to generate and recognize self-reflective, cognitive-based emotions, such as pride, embarrassment and shame. Among this type of emotions, regret and disappointment, as well as their positive counterparts, result from a counterfactual comparison, that is the comparison between an actual value ("what is") and a fictive value ("what might have been"). However, while disappointment is experienced when the obtained outcome is worse than the expected outcome that might have occurred from the same choice, regret occurs when one experiences an outcome that is worse than the outcome of foregone choices. By manipulating a simple gambling task, we examined subjective reports on the intensity of negative and positive emotions in a group of adults with High-Functioning Autism or Asperger syndrome (HFA/AS), and a control group matched for age, gender and educational level. Participants were asked to choose between two lotteries with different levels of risk under two conditions of outcome feedback: (i) Partial, in which only the outcome of the chosen lottery was visible, (ii) Complete, in which the outcomes of the two lotteries were simultaneously visible. By comparing partial and complete conditions, we aimed to investigate the differential effect between disappointment and regret, as well as between their positive counterparts. Relative to the control participants (CP), the group with HFA/AS reported reduced regret and no difference between regret and disappointment, along with a preserved ability to use counterfactual thinking and similar choice behaviour. Difficulties to distinguish the feeling of regret in participants with HFA/AS can be explained by diminished emotional awareness, likely associated with an abnormal fronto-limbic connectivity. PMID:25010486

  12. The Use of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient in Differentiating High-Functioning Adults with Autism, Adults with Schizophrenia and a Neurotypical Adult Control Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wouters, Saskia G. M.; Spek, Annelies A.

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared 21 high functioning individuals with autism, 21 individuals with schizophrenia and 21 healthy individuals in self-reported features of autism, as measured by the Autism-spectrum Quotient (AQ). The individuals with autism reported impairment on all AQ subscales, compared to the neurotypical group. The schizophrenia group…

  13. Autism and Schizophrenia in high functioning adults: Behavioral differences and overlap

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annelies A Spek; Saskia G. M. Wouters

    2011-01-01

    Several recent studies have demonstrated a genetical overlap between autism and schizophrenia. However, at a behavioral level it remains unclear which features can validly distinguish adults with autism from an adult schizophrenia group. To this end, the present study compared 21 individuals with the autistic disorder and 21 individuals with schizophrenia in self-reported features of autism and schizophrenia, as measured

  14. Autism and schizophrenia in high functioning adults: Behavioral differences and overlap

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annelies A. Spek; Saskia G. M. Wouters

    2010-01-01

    Several recent studies have demonstrated a genetical overlap between autism and schizophrenia. However, at a behavioral level it remains unclear which features can validly distinguish adults with autism from an adult schizophrenia group. To this end, the present study compared 21 individuals with the autistic disorder and 21 individuals with schizophrenia in self-reported features of autism and schizophrenia, as measured

  15. Autism and Schizophrenia in High Functioning Adults: Behavioral Differences and Overlap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spek, Annelies A.; Wouters, Saskia G. M.

    2010-01-01

    Several recent studies have demonstrated a genetical overlap between autism and schizophrenia. However, at a behavioral level it remains unclear which features can validly distinguish adults with autism from an adult schizophrenia group. To this end, the present study compared 21 individuals with the autistic disorder and 21 individuals with…

  16. MMPI-2 Personality Profiles of High-Functioning Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozonoff, Sally; Garcia, Nicanor; Clark, Elaine; Lainhart, Janet E.

    2005-01-01

    The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Second Edition was administered to 20 adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) who fell in the average to above average range of intelligence and 24 age-, intelligence-, and gender-matched college students. Large group differences, with the ASD group scoring higher, were found on the L validity…

  17. Lung function and heart disease in American Indian adults with high frequency of metabolic abnormalities (from the Strong Heart Study).

    PubMed

    Yeh, Fawn; Dixon, Anne E; Best, Lyle G; Marion, Susan M; Lee, Elisa T; Ali, Tauqeer; Yeh, Jeunliang; Rhoades, Everett R; Howard, Barbara V; Devereux, Richard B

    2014-07-15

    The associations of pulmonary function with cardiovascular disease (CVD) independent of diabetes mellitus (DM) and metabolic syndrome have not been examined in a population-based setting. We examined prevalence and incidence CVD in relation to lower pulmonary function in the Strong Heart Study second examination (1993 to 1995) in 352 CVD and 2,873 non-CVD adults free of overt lung disease (mean age 60 years). Lung function was assessed by standard spirometry. Participants with metabolic syndrome or DM with or without CVD had lower pulmonary function than participants without these conditions after adjustment for hypertension, age, gender, abdominal obesity, smoking, physical activity index, and study field center. CVD participants with DM had significantly lower forced vital capacity than participants with CVD alone. Significant associations were observed between reduced pulmonary function, preclinical CVD, and prevalent CVD after adjustment for multiple CVD risk factors. During follow-up (median 13.3 years), pulmonary function did not predict CVD incidence, it predicted CVD mortality. Among 3,225 participants, 412 (298 without baseline CVD) died from CVD by the end of 2008. In models adjusted for multiple CVD risk factors, DM, metabolic syndrome, and baseline CVD, compared with highest quartile of lung function, lower lung function predicted CVD mortality (relative risk up to 1.5, 95% confidence interval 1.1 to 2.0, p<0.05). In conclusion, a population with a high prevalence of DM and metabolic syndrome and lower lung function was independently associated with prevalent clinical and preclinical CVD, and its impairment predicted CVD mortality. Additional research is needed to identify mechanisms linking metabolic abnormalities, low lung function, and CVD. PMID:24878118

  18. How impaired is mind-reading in high-functioning adolescents and adults with autism?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Herbert Roeyers; Ellen Demurie

    2010-01-01

    Difficulties in understanding the mental states of others are considered to be a core cognitive feature of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Traditional false-belief tasks were not suitable to measure mind-reading in adolescents and adults with ASD and were replaced by so-called more “advanced” tasks. A first series of tasks included the presentation of static stimuli in the visual or auditory

  19. Impaired Identification of Impoverished Animate but not Inanimate Objects in Adults With High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Hollie G; Panis, Sven; Wagemans, Johan; Jellema, Tjeerd

    2015-02-01

    The ability to identify animate and inanimate objects from impoverished images was investigated in adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFA) and in matched typically developed (TD) adults, using a newly developed task. Consecutive frames were presented containing Gabor elements that slightly changed orientation from one frame to the next. For a subset of elements, the changes were such that these elements gradually formed the outline of an object. Elements enclosed within the object's outline gradually adopted one and the same orientation, outside elements adopted random orientations. The subjective experience was that of an object appearing out of a fog. The HFA group required significantly more frames to identify the impoverished objects than the TD group. Crucially, this difference depended on the nature of the objects: the HFA group required significantly more frames to identify animate objects, but with respect to the identification of inanimate objects the groups did not differ. The groups also did not differ with respect to the number and type of incorrect guesses they made. The results suggest a specific impairment in individuals with HFA in identifying animate objects. A number of possible explanations are discussed. Autism Res 2015, 8: 52-60. © 2014 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25256015

  20. High Resolution Methylome Analysis Reveals Widespread Functional Hypomethylation during Adult Human Erythropoiesis*

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yiting; Mo, Yongkai; Ebenezer, David; Bhattacharyya, Sanchari; Liu, Hui; Sundaravel, Sriram; Giricz, Orsolya; Wontakal, Sandeep; Cartier, Jessy; Caces, Bennett; Artz, Andrew; Nischal, Sangeeta; Bhagat, Tushar; Bathon, Kathleen; Maqbool, Shahina; Gligich, Oleg; Suzuki, Masako; Steidl, Ulrich; Godley, Lucy; Skoultchi, Art; Greally, John; Wickrema, Amittha; Verma, Amit

    2013-01-01

    Differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells to red cells requires coordinated expression of numerous erythroid genes and is characterized by nuclear condensation and extrusion during terminal development. To understand the regulatory mechanisms governing these widespread phenotypic changes, we conducted a high resolution methylomic and transcriptomic analysis of six major stages of human erythroid differentiation. We observed widespread epigenetic differences between early and late stages of erythropoiesis with progressive loss of methylation being the dominant change during differentiation. Gene bodies, intergenic regions, and CpG shores were preferentially demethylated during erythropoiesis. Epigenetic changes at transcription factor binding sites correlated significantly with changes in gene expression and were enriched for binding motifs for SCL, MYB, GATA, and other factors not previously implicated in erythropoiesis. Demethylation at gene promoters was associated with increased expression of genes, whereas epigenetic changes at gene bodies correlated inversely with gene expression. Important gene networks encoding erythrocyte membrane proteins, surface receptors, and heme synthesis proteins were found to be regulated by DNA methylation. Furthermore, integrative analysis enabled us to identify novel, potential regulatory areas of the genome as evident by epigenetic changes in a predicted PU.1 binding site in intron 1 of the GATA1 gene. This intronic site was found to be conserved across species and was validated to be a novel PU.1 binding site by quantitative ChIP in erythroid cells. Altogether, our study provides a comprehensive analysis of methylomic and transcriptomic changes during erythroid differentiation and demonstrates that human terminal erythropoiesis is surprisingly associated with hypomethylation of the genome. PMID:23306203

  1. Effect of a High-Protein Diet on Kidney Function in Healthy Adults: Results From the OmniHeart Trial

    PubMed Central

    Juraschek, Stephen P.; Appel, Lawrence J.; Anderson, Cheryl A.M.; Miller, Edgar R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Consumption of a diet high in protein can cause glomerular hyperfiltration, a potentially maladaptive response, which may accelerate the progression of kidney disease. Study Design An ancillary study of the OmniHeart trial, a randomized 3-period crossover feeding trial testing the effects of partial replacement of carbohydrate with protein on kidney function. Setting & Participants Healthy adults (N=164) with prehypertension or stage 1 hypertension at a community-based research clinic with a metabolic kitchen. Intervention Participants were fed each of 3 diets for 6 weeks. Feeding periods were separated by a 2- to 4-week washout period. Weight was held constant on each diet. The 3 diets emphasized carbohydrate, protein, or unsaturated fat; dietary protein was either 15% (carbohydrate and unsaturated fat diets) or 25% (protein diet) of energy intake. Outcomes Fasting serum creatinine, cystatin C, and ?2-microglobulin levels, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Measurements Serum creatinine, cystatin C, and ?2-microglobulin collected at the end of each feeding period. Results Baseline cystatin C-based eGFR was 92.0±16.3 (SD) mL/min/1.73 m2. Compared with the carbohydrate and unsaturated fat diets, the protein diet increased cystatin C-based eGFR by ~4 mL/min/1.73 m2 (P < 0.001). The effects of the protein diet on kidney function were independent of changes in blood pressure. There was no significant difference between the carbohydrate and unsaturated fat diets. Limitations Participants did not have kidney disease at baseline. Conclusions A healthy diet rich in protein increased eGFR. Whether long-term consumption of a high-protein diet leads to kidney disease is uncertain. PMID:23219108

  2. Disturbed cingulate glutamate metabolism in adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder: evidence in support of the excitatory/inhibitory imbalance hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Tebartz van Elst, L; Maier, S; Fangmeier, T; Endres, D; Mueller, G T; Nickel, K; Ebert, D; Lange, T; Hennig, J; Biscaldi, M; Riedel, A; Perlov, E

    2014-12-01

    Over the last few years, awareness of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in adults has increased. The precise etiology of ASD is still unresolved. Animal research, genetic and postmortem studies suggest that the glutamate (Glu) system has an important role, possibly related to a cybernetic imbalance between neuronal excitation and inhibition. To clarify the possible disruption of Glu metabolism in adults with high-functioning autism, we performed a magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) study investigating the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the cerebellum in adults with high-functioning ASD. Twenty-nine adult patients with high-functioning ASD and 29 carefully matched healthy volunteers underwent MRS scanning of the pregenual ACC and the left cerebellar hemisphere. Metabolic data were compared between groups and were correlated with psychometric measures of autistic features. We found a significant decrease in the cingulate N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) and the combined Glu and glutamine (Glx) signals in adults with ASD, whereas we did not find other metabolic abnormalities in the ACC or the cerebellum. The Glx signal correlated significantly with psychometric measures of autism, particularly with communication deficits. Our data support the hypothesis that there is a link between disturbances of the cingulate NAA and Glx metabolism, and autism. The findings are discussed in the context of the hypothesis of excitatory/inhibitory imbalance in autism. Further research should clarify the specificity and dynamics of these findings regarding other neuropsychiatric disorders and other brain areas. PMID:25048006

  3. The Influences of Face Inversion and Facial Expression on Sensitivity to Eye Contact in High-Functioning Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vida, Mark D.; Maurer, Daphne; Calder, Andrew J.; Rhodes, Gillian; Walsh, Jennifer A.; Pachai, Matthew V.; Rutherford, M. D.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the influences of face inversion and facial expression on sensitivity to eye contact in high-functioning adults with and without an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants judged the direction of gaze of angry, fearful, and neutral faces. In the typical group only, the range of directions of gaze leading to the perception of eye…

  4. A Systematic Review of Behavioral Intervention Research on Adaptive Skill Building in High-Functioning Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmen, Annemiek; Didden, Robert; Lang, Russell

    2012-01-01

    This review involved a systematic search and analysis of behavioral intervention studies aimed at improving adaptive skills in high-functioning young adults with autism spectrum disorders. Through electronic databases and hand searching, 20 studies were identified meeting pre-determined inclusion criteria. Studies were summarized and analysed in…

  5. Sexual Well-Being of a Community Sample of High-Functioning Adults on the Autism Spectrum Who Have Been in a Romantic Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, E. Sandra; Nichols, Shana; Voyer, Susan D.; Reilly, Georgianna

    2013-01-01

    This study explored factors (gender, age, relationship status, symptomatology) associated with the sexual well-being of 141 (56 men and 85 women) adults with high-functioning autism and Asperger syndrome (HFA/AS) living in the community. Participants completed an online survey consisting of a measure of autistic symptoms as well as measures of…

  6. Perinatal Protein Malnutrition Affects Mitochondrial Function in Adult and Results in a Resistance to High Fat Diet-Induced Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Jousse, Céline; Muranishi, Yuki; Parry, Laurent; Montaurier, Christophe; Even, Patrick; Launay, Jean-Marie; Carraro, Valérie; Maurin, Anne-Catherine; Averous, Julien; Chaveroux, Cédric; Bruhat, Alain; Mallet, Jacques; Morio, Béatrice; Fafournoux, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological findings indicate that transient environmental influences during perinatal life, especially nutrition, may have deleterious heritable health effects lasting for the entire life. Indeed, the fetal organism develops specific adaptations that permanently change its physiology/metabolism and that persist even in the absence of the stimulus that initiated them. This process is termed “nutritional programming”. We previously demonstrated that mothers fed a Low-Protein-Diet (LPD) during gestation and lactation give birth to F1-LPD animals presenting metabolic consequences that are different from those observed when the nutritional stress is applied during gestation only. Compared to control mice, adult F1-LPD animals have a lower body weight and exhibit a higher food intake suggesting that maternal protein under-nutrition during gestation and lactation affects the energy metabolism of F1-LPD offspring. In this study, we investigated the origin of this apparent energy wasting process in F1-LPD and demonstrated that minimal energy expenditure is increased, due to both an increased mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle and an increased mitochondrial density in White Adipose Tissue. Importantly, F1-LPD mice are protected against high-fat-diet-induced obesity. Clearly, different paradigms of exposure to malnutrition may be associated with differences in energy expenditure, food intake, weight and different susceptibilities to various symptoms associated with metabolic syndrome. Taken together these results demonstrate that intra-uterine environment is a major contributor to the future of individuals and disturbance at a critical period of development may compromise their health. Consequently, understanding the molecular mechanisms may give access to useful knowledge regarding the onset of metabolic diseases. PMID:25118945

  7. Functional literacy of Young Guyanese Adults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, Zellyne

    2000-05-01

    Functional literacy is interpreted as the ability of the individual to apply skills in reading, writing, calculation and basic problem-solving in those activities in which literacy is required for effective functioning in his/her own group and community. The paper describes the rationale, development and administration of the test used for measuring levels (high, moderate, low) of achievement in functional literacy in three domains (document, prose and quantitative). An assumption of the study was that a high level of functional literacy was required for the individual to function effectively in his/her own group and community. The context of the study is Guyana the most underdeveloped and impoverished country in the English-speaking Caribbean. The subjects are out of school youth in Guyana aged 14-25. Amongst the main findings are: only approximately 11% of the young people show a high level of functional literacy; females tend to have a higher level of functional literacy than males: and most of those at the low level never went beyond primary and low status secondary schools and usually end up unemployed or in semi- or unskilled jobs. Attention is drawn to the difficulty of attracting funding for literacy programmes from international aid agencies, given the inflated adult literacy rate which is reported for Guyana in international statistics. While they credit Guyana with an adult literacy rate of 97.5%, the study suggests that a more realistic figure is in the 70s. The importance of adult and continuing education is underscored in view of the need to help those who are out of school to meet the ever-changing demands of society for improved skills in literacy and numeracy.

  8. Local vs. global approaches to reproducing the Rey Osterrieth Complex Figure by children, adolescents, and adults with high-functioning autism.

    PubMed

    Kuschner, Emily S; Bodner, Kimberly E; Minshew, Nancy J

    2009-12-01

    Individuals with autism have an atypical pattern of visual processing. Various studies have provided evidence that individuals with autism perceive the details of stimuli before the gestalt, the reverse of the typical pattern of visual processing. This study used the Rey Osterreith Complex Figure (ROCF) task and an objective scoring system to examine local/global processing approaches to its reproduction in 37 individuals diagnosed with high-functioning autism (HFA) compared to 49 age-, IQ-, and gender-matched typically developing controls (TD). The sample was divided into children (aged 8-14 years) and adolescents/adults (aged 15-47 years) to assess age effects. Results showed no difference in overall performance on the ROCF between HFA and TD children. TD participants displayed improved organizational and planning skills with age and a shift to global processing approaches, but there were no differences in performance between children and adolescents/adults with HFA. There was no evidence of enhanced local processing in either HFA group. These findings suggest that HFA individuals with average IQ scores do not have the clinically demonstrable evidence of the enhanced local processing thought to reflect increased local brain connectivity in more severely autistic individuals. The deficient global processing of the HFA adults reflects dependence of performance on impaired strategic problem-solving abilities, which has been demonstrated to result from under development of neural connectivity between visuo-spatial and frontal brain regions in HFA adults. PMID:19950303

  9. Local vs. Global Approaches to Reproducing the Rey Osterrieth Complex Figure By Children, Adolescents, and Adults with High-Functioning Autism

    PubMed Central

    Kuschner, Emily S.; Bodner, Kimberly E.; Minshew, Nancy J.

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with autism have an atypical pattern of visual processing. Various studies have provided evidence that individuals with autism perceive the details of stimuli before the gestalt, the reverse of the typical pattern of visual processing. This study used the Rey Osterreith Complex Figure (ROCF) task and an objective scoring system to examine local/global processing approaches to its reproduction in 37 individuals diagnosed with high-functioning autism (HFA) compared to 49 age-, IQ-, and gender-matched typically developing controls (TD). The sample was divided into children (aged 8–14 years) and adolescents/adults (aged 15–47 years) to assess age effects. Results showed no difference in overall performance on the ROCF between HFA and TD children. TD participants displayed improved organizational and planning skills with age and a shift to global processing approaches, but there were no differences in erformance between children and adolescents/adults with HFA. There was no evidence of enhanced local processing in ither HFA group. These findings suggest that HFA individuals with average IQ scores do not have the clinically emonstrable evidence of the enhanced local processing thought to reflect increased local brain connectivity in more severely autistic individuals. The deficient global processing of the HFA adults reflects dependence of performance on impaired strategic problem-solving abilities, which has been demonstrated to result from under development of neural connectivity between visuo-spatial and frontal brain regions in HFA adults. PMID:19950303

  10. A Nationwide Survey on Quality of Life and Associated Factors of Adults with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamio, Yoko; Inada, Naoko; Koyama, Tomonori

    2013-01-01

    The psychosocial outcomes of individuals with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD) appear to be diverse and are often poor relative to their intellectual or language level. To identify predictive variables that are potentially ameliorable by therapeutic intervention, this study investigated self-reported psychosocial quality of life…

  11. Upset Stomach (Functional Dyspepsia) in Adults (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... pain Diagnostic approach to abdominal pain in adults Differential diagnosis of abdominal pain in adults Functional dyspepsia in ... pain Diagnostic approach to abdominal pain in adults Differential diagnosis of abdominal pain in adults Functional dyspepsia in ...

  12. Divergent muscle functional and architectural responses to two successive high intensity resistance exercise sessions in competitive weightlifters and resistance trained adults.

    PubMed

    Storey, Adam; Wong, Samantha; Smith, Heather K; Marshall, Paul

    2012-10-01

    Peak force (PF), contractile rate of force development (RFD) and contractile impulse (CI) are of great importance to competitive weightlifters (WL). These athletes routinely perform successive bouts of high-intensity resistance exercise (HIRE) within the same day (double-day training) with the aim of improving muscular function and weightlifting performance. The purpose of this investigation was to determine and compare the PF, contractile RFD and CI responses to double-day training between WL and resistance trained (RT) adults (n = 16 per group). Furthermore, we sought to establish whether acute changes in muscle function were associated with acute changes in muscle architecture. Isometric front squat PF, contractile RFD, CI and the pennation angle (?(p)), anatomical and physiological thickness of the m. vastus lateralis (VL) were determined before and after two equivalent HIRE sessions separated by 4-6 h rest. Each session consisted of ten single repetitions of the dynamic barbell front squat interspersed with 2-min rest, using a load equivalent to 90% of the pre-session PF. Weightlifters demonstrated greater PF at all time points when compared to RT adults and exhibited no significant within or between session changes in PF, contractile RFD or CI. Conversely, RT adults demonstrated within- and between-session decreases in PF and between-session increases in contractile RFD and CI. As no correlations were found between the relative within-session changes in muscle function and the concomitant changes in muscle architecture, other factors must contribute to the divergent responses in PF, contractile RFD and CI between WL and RT adults. PMID:22350356

  13. Age and sensory processing abnormalities predict declines in encoding and recall of temporally manipulated speech in high-functioning adults with ASD.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Jennifer L; Heaton, Pamela F

    2014-02-01

    While temporal and perceptual processing abnormalities, identified in a number of electrophysiological and brain imaging studies of individuals with (ASD), are likely to impact on speech perception, surprisingly little is known about the behavioral outcomes of such abnormalities. It has been hypothesized that rapid temporal processing deficits may be linked to impaired language development through interference with acoustic information during speech perception. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of temporal changes on encoding and recall of speech, and the associated cognitive, clinical, and behavioral correlates in adults with ASD. Research carried out with typically developing (TD) adults has shown that word recall diminishes as the speed of speech increases, and it was predicted that the magnitude of this effect would be far greater in those with ASD because of a preexisting rapid temporal processing deficit. Nineteen high-functioning adults with ASD, and age- and intelligence-matched TD controls performed verbatim recall of temporally manipulated sentences. Reduced levels of word recall in response to increases in presentation speed were observed, and this effect was greater in the older participants in the ASD group than in the control group. This is the first study to show that both sensory abnormalities and aging impact on speech encoding in ASD. Auditory processing deficits in ASD may be indicative of an association with the sensory abnormalities and social and communication impairments characterizing the disorder. PMID:24106132

  14. Prospective memory in adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders: exploring effects of implementation intentions and retrospective memory load.

    PubMed

    Kretschmer, Anett; Altgassen, Mareike; Rendell, Peter G; Bölte, Sven

    2014-11-01

    This study examined, for the first time, the impact of implementation intentions on prospective memory (PM) performance in adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and further explored the role of retrospective memory for PM in ASD. PM was assessed with Virtual Week, a computerized game simulating upcoming everyday-life tasks. Twenty-seven adults with ASD and 27 age- and ability-matched controls were included. Half of the participants were instructed to form implementation intentions (i.e., encoding PM tasks in form of if-then statements), while the rest received simple PM instructions. Results provide first tentative evidence for beneficial effects of implementation intentions and PM tasks with low demands on retrospective memory for adults with ASD's PM. Overall, results point to the importance of planning and retrospective memory for successful prospective remembering in ASD. PMID:25151603

  15. Functional neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Praag, Henriette; Schinder, Alejandro F.; Christie, Brian R.; Toni, Nicolas; Palmer, Theo D.; Gage, Fred H.

    2002-02-01

    There is extensive evidence indicating that new neurons are generated in the dentate gyrus of the adult mammalian hippocampus, a region of the brain that is important for learning and memory. However, it is not known whether these new neurons become functional, as the methods used to study adult neurogenesis are limited to fixed tissue. We use here a retroviral vector expressing green fluorescent protein that only labels dividing cells, and that can be visualized in live hippocampal slices. We report that newly generated cells in the adult mouse hippocampus have neuronal morphology and can display passive membrane properties, action potentials and functional synaptic inputs similar to those found in mature dentate granule cells. Our findings demonstrate that newly generated cells mature into functional neurons in the adult mammalian brain.

  16. Social Skills Training for Young Adults with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gantman, Alexander; Kapp, Steven K.; Orenski, Kaely; Laugeson, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the psychosocial difficulties common among young adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), little to no evidence-based social skills interventions exist for this population. Using a randomized controlled trial (RCT) design, the current study tested the effectiveness of an evidence-based, caregiver-assisted social skills intervention…

  17. The Empathy Quotient: An Investigation of Adults with Asperger Syndrome or High Functioning Autism, and Normal Sex Differences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon Baron-Cohen; Sally Wheelwright

    2004-01-01

    Empathy is an essential part of normal social functioning, yet there are precious few instruments for measuring individual differences in this domain. In this article we review psychological theories of empathy and its measurement. Previous instruments that purport to measure this have not always focused purely on empathy. We report a new self-report questionnaire, the Empathy Quotient (EQ), for use

  18. Adult Roles & Functions. Objective Based Evaluation System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West Virginia State Vocational Curriculum Lab., Cedar Lakes.

    This book of objective-based test items is designed to be used with the Adult Roles and Functions curriculum for a non-laboratory home economic course for grades eleven and twelve. It contains item banks for each cognitive objective in the curriculum. In addition, there is a form for the table of specifications to be developed for each unit. This…

  19. Functional Literacy of Young Guyanese Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Zellyne

    2000-01-01

    Describes the rationale, development, and administration of the test used for measuring levels of achievement in functional literacy in Guyana. Draws attention to the difficulty of attracting funding for literacy programmes from international aid agencies, given the inflated adult literacy rate that is reported for Guyana in international…

  20. Relationship Functioning Among Adult Children of Alcoholics*

    PubMed Central

    Kearns-Bodkin, Jill N.; Leonard, Kenneth E.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the current research was to examine the impact of both maternal and paternal alcoholism on the relationship functioning of husbands and wives over the early years of marriage. Method: Couples (N = 634) were assessed at the time of marriage, and again at their first, second, and fourth anniversaries. Husbands and wives completed separate, self-administered questionnaires at home. Results: Results of separate repeated measures analyses of covariance revealed that, for both husbands and wives, the appraisal of their marital relationship was associated with alcoholism in the opposite gender parent. That is, for husbands, alcoholism in the mother was associated with lower marital satisfaction across the 4 years of marriage. For wives, alcoholism in the father was related to lower marital intimacy. Husbands' physical aggression was influenced by mother's and father's alcoholism; high levels of physical aggression were present among men with alcoholic mothers and nonalcoholic fathers. Interestingly, wives' experience of husband's aggression was also highest among women with alcoholic mothers and nonalcoholic fathers. Wives also reported engaging in high levels of physical aggression when they had an alcoholic mother and a nonalcoholic father, but this effect was restricted to the early part of the marriage. Finally, parental alcoholism was associated with both husbands' and wives' attachment representations. Conclusions: The present findings suggest that children raised in alcoholic families may carry the problematic effects of their early family environment into their adult romantic relationships. PMID:18925353

  1. A descriptive study of colorectal function in adults with Prader-Willi Syndrome: high prevalence of constipation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Some patients with Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) have symptoms of constipation, but bowel function in PWS has never been systematically evaluated. The aim of the present study was to describe colorectal function in PWS by means of validated techniques. Methods Twenty-one patients with PWS (14 women, age 17–47 (median?=?32)) were evaluated with the Rome III constipation criteria, stool diary, digital rectal examination, rectal diameter assessed from transabdominal ultrasound, and total gastrointestinal transit time (GITT) determined with radio-opaque markers. Results were compared with those of healthy controls. Results Among PWS patients able to provide information for Rome III criteria, 8/20 (40%) fulfilled the criteria for constipation. Most commonly reported symptoms were a feeling of obstructed defecation (8/19, 42%), <3 defecations per week (8/17, 47%), straining during defecation (7/19, 37%) and lumpy or hard stools (6/19, 32%). Rectal diameter did not differ between PWS (median 3.56 centimeters, range 2.24–5.36) and healthy controls (median 3.42 centimeters, range 2.67–4.72) (p?=?0.96), but more PWS patients (13/20; 65%) than healthy controls (3/25; 12%) (p?3 days in 5/21 (24%) of PWS and none of the controls (p?=?0.047). Conclusion Constipation is very common in PWS. Patients with PWS have an increased prevalence of prolonged GITT and palpable stools in the rectum at digital rectal examination. PMID:24708524

  2. High-dose statin use does not impair aerobic capacity or skeletal muscle function in older adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tinna Traustadóttir; Anthoney A. Stock; S. Mitchell Harman

    2008-01-01

    3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins) are lipid-lowering agents widely employed for\\u000a atherosclerosis prevention. HMG-CoA reductase blockade reduces skeletal muscle coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) levels and mitochondrial respiratory chain activities and may produce mild to severe skeletal muscle myopathy. This study\\u000a investigated whether high-dose statin treatment would result in measurably decreased exercise capacity in older men and women.\\u000a Maximal oxygen consumption,

  3. Nutraceutical Intervention Improves Older Adults' Cognitive Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Rawson, Kerri S.; Martin, Christina; Eisel, Sarah L.; Sanberg, Cyndy D.; McEvoy, Cathy L.; Sanberg, Paul R.; Shytle, R. Douglas; Tan, Jun; Bickford, Paula C.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Interventions to improve the cognitive health of older adults are of critical importance. In the current study, we conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial using a pill-based nutraceutical (NT-020) that contained a proprietary formulation of blueberry, carnosine, green tea, vitamin D3, and Biovin to evaluate the impact on changes in multiple domains of cognitive functioning. One hundred and five cognitively intact adults aged 65–85 years of age (M=73.6 years) were randomized to receive NT-020 (n=52) or a placebo (n=53). Participants were tested with a battery of cognitive performance tests that were classified into six broad domains—episodic memory, processing speed, verbal ability, working memory, executive functioning, and complex speed at baseline and 2 months later. The results indicated that persons taking NT-020 improved significantly on two measures of processing speed across the 2-month test period in contrast to persons on the placebo whose performance did not change. None of the other cognitive ability measures were related to intervention group. The results also indicated that the NT-020 was well tolerated by older adults, and the presence of adverse events or symptoms did not differ between the NT-020 and placebo groups. Overall, the results of the current study were promising and suggest the potential for interventions like these to improve the cognitive health of older adults. PMID:24134194

  4. Adult High School Diploma Program Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    This booklet provides information and direction to community college personnel who wish to offer adult high school diploma programs. The various elements needed for the operation and maintenance of an adult high school diploma program in Oregon are presented here, in two parts. Part I lists elements that are essential in any plan submitted to the…

  5. Lung function in young adults: evidence for differences in the chronological age at which various functions start to decline

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Hurwitz; J Allen; A Liben; M R Becklake

    1980-01-01

    In order to gather prospective information on the chronological age at which lung functions start to decline, follow-up measurements were carried out on 38 young adults (30 men and eight women) whose respiratory and cardiac function had been studied previously in the course of a survey of high school students. In the 15 subjects who had reached adult height at

  6. Predicting premorbid memory functioning in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Duff, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Assessing cognitive change during a single visit requires the comparison of estimated premorbid abilities and current neuropsychological functioning. Although premorbid intellect has been widely examined, estimating premorbid memory abilities has received less attention. The current study used demographic variables and an estimate of premorbid intellect to predict premorbid memory abilities in a sample of 95 community-dwelling, cognitively intact older adults. These prediction formulae were then applied to a sample of 74 individuals with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment to look for discrepancies between premorbid and current memory abilities. Despite minimal differences between premorbid and current memory abilities in the intact sample, large and statistically significant differences were observed in the impaired sample. Although validation in larger samples is needed, the current estimates of premorbid memory abilities may aid clinicians in determining change across time. PMID:21154041

  7. Endogenous Spatial Attention: Evidence for Intact Functioning in Adults With Autism

    E-print Network

    Carrasco, Marisa

    Endogenous Spatial Attention: Evidence for Intact Functioning in Adults With Autism Michael A aspect of human cognition, and previous research on spatial attention in individuals with autism spectrum stimulus). We found that high-functioning adults with autism exhibited slower reaction times overall

  8. Neuropsychological function in adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Larry J Seidman; Joseph Biederman; Wendy Weber; Mary Hatch; Stephen V Faraone

    1998-01-01

    Background: Recent studies indicate that attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) persists into adulthood, but little is known about the neuropsychological features of adult ADHD. Our objective was to assess neuropsychological functioning in adults with ADHD with a battery of executive function tests.Methods: Subjects were 64 unmedicated adults, 19–59 years of age, with DSM-III-R ADHD of childhood onset who met criteria for

  9. Functional Impairment and Occupational Outcome in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gjervan, Bjorn; Torgersen, Terje; Nordahl, Hans M.; Rasmussen, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    Objective: ADHD is associated with poor functional outcomes. The objectives were to investigate the prevalence of functional impairment and occupational status in a clinically referred sample of adults with ADHD and explore factors predicting occupational outcome. Method: A sample of 149 adults with a confirmed diagnosis of ADHD participated in…

  10. Functional Outcomes in the Treatment of Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Lenard A.; Spencer, Thomas J.; Levine, Louise R.; Ramsey, Janet L.; Tamura, Roy; Kelsey, Douglas; Ball, Susan G.; Allen, Albert J.; Biederman, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Objective: ADHD is associated with significant functional impairment in adults. The present study examined functional outcomes following 6-month double-blind treatment with either atomoxetine or placebo. Method: Patients were 410 adults (58.5% male) with "DSM-IV"--defined ADHD. They were randomly assigned to receive either atomoxetine 40 mg/day to…

  11. Health-Related Variables and Functional Fitness among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkin, Linda D.; Haddock, Bryan L.

    2010-01-01

    This study assesses the functional fitness of a convenient sample of older adults (greater than 70 years), to examine correlations between functional fitness and several other health-related variables and to compare with criterion performance data as established by Rikli and Jones (2001). One hundred and seven community-dwelling older adults with…

  12. Cognitive functioning of the prelingually deaf adults.

    PubMed

    Pokorski, Mieczys?aw; Klima?ska, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Deafness is a model of brain adaptation to sensory deprivation which entails psychomotor and cognitive domains. This study seeks to determine the level of emotional intelligence, assessed from the ability to discern emotions from facial expressions, visual and mental attention, and non-verbal fluency in the deaf people as compared with the hearing counterparts. Participants were 29 prelingually deaf, hearing loss of >70 dB, communicating only in sign language, and 30 hearing persons. The age range of all subjects was 40-50 years. Psychometric tools consisted of the Emotional Intelligence Scale-Faces, the d2 Test of Attention, and the Figural Fluency Test. Data elaboration took gender into account. The findings were that both deaf women and men defined significantly fewer emotions as known, compared with the hearing persons. However, the deaf men, but not women, were able to properly recognize a higher percentage of emotions associated with a definite face look, among the emotions they knew. There were no appreciable differences in attention indices between the deaf and hearing men, but deaf women's total performance on attention was worse. By contrast, deaf women, but not men, fared better in non-verbal fluency, compared with their hearing counterparts. We conclude that, on the whole, prelingual deafness does not impede cognitive functioning in adult age. The nature of detecting and executing of cognitive tasks, despite gender and task-specific variations, is preserved. Brain networks are able to compensate for the missing auditory input. PMID:25310953

  13. The Perspective of Young Adult Siblings of Individuals with Asperger Syndrome and High Functioning Autism: An Exploration of Grief and Implications for Developmental Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allgood, Nicole R.

    2010-01-01

    Asperger syndrome (AS) and high functioning autism are complex developmental disabilities that have a significant impact on the individual and his/her family. Asperger syndrome is characterized by challenges with understanding non-verbal communication, difficulties with social relationships, and restricted interests. Having a brother or sister…

  14. Brief Report: Examining Driving Behavior in Young Adults with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders--A Pilot Study Using a Driving Simulation Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reimer, Bryan; Fried, Ronna; Mehler, Bruce; Joshi, Gagan; Bolfek, Anela; Godfrey, Kathryn M.; Zhao, Nan; Goldin, Rachel; Biederman, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Although it is speculated that impairments associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) will adversely affect driving performance, little is known about the actual extent and nature of the presumed deficits. Ten males (18-24 years of age) with a diagnosis of high functioning autism and 10 age matched community controls were recruited for a…

  15. Impact of Training Modality on Strength and Physical Function in Older Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark M. Misic; Rudy J. Valentine; Karl S. Rosengren; Jeffrey A. Woods; Ellen M. Evans

    2009-01-01

    Background: The importance of maintaining strength in older adults is well documented and various training modalities have been recommended; however, the effectiveness of various interventions with high translation to public health practice has not been completely characterized. Additionally, the interrelations among mode, strength, and lower extremity physical function (LEPF) changes in older adults warrant further investigation. Purpose: The primary aims

  16. Cognitive Functioning and Work Success in Adults with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leather, Carol; Hogh, Henriette; Seiss, Ellen; Everatt, John

    2011-01-01

    Dyslexic adults completed questionnaires designed to investigate relationships between cognitive functioning, especially executive aspects, and work success. The study was designed to determine whether quantitative support could be provided for the model of adult dyslexic success derived from the work of Gerber and his colleagues (Gerber,…

  17. Neuropsychological Functioning in Adolescents and Young Adults at Genetic Risk for Schizophrenia and Affective Psychoses: Results from the Harvard and Hillside Adolescent High Risk Studies

    PubMed Central

    Seidman, Larry J.; Giuliano, Anthony J.; Smith, Christopher W.; Stone, William S.; Glatt, Stephen J.; Meyer, Eric; Faraone, Stephen V.; Tsuang, Ming T.; Cornblatt, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Siblings and offspring of persons with schizophrenia carry elevated genetic risk for the illness and manifest attentional and memory impairments. Because less is known about other neuropsychological functions and their specificity in adolescents, we conducted a genetic high-risk (HR) study of schizophrenia (HR-SCZ) and affective psychosis (HR-AFF). Participants (ages 12–25) were from the Harvard Adolescent High-Risk and Hillside Family studies, including 73 HR-SCZ, 18 HR-AFF, and 84 community controls (CCs) recruited in metropolitan Boston and New York. Groups were compared on overall neurocognitive functioning, 6 domains, and 13 test scores, controlling for age, parental education, and correlated data within families. The HR-SCZ group was significantly impaired overall, while the HR-AFF group demonstrated a trend toward overall impairment. HR-SCZ subjects showed significantly lower Verbal Ability (d = .73) and Executive Functioning/Working Memory (d = .47) than CCs. HR-AFF subjects showed reduced Verbal Ability (d = .64) compared to CCs. Excluding 12 CCs with a parental history of depression (without psychosis) led to larger differences between HR and CC groups across domains. Moreover, HR-SCZ and CC group differences in Verbal Memory (d = .39) and Visual-Spatial (d = .34) became statistically significant. There were no significant differences between HR-SCZ and HR-AFF groups. Data support a modest neuropsychological deficit in persons at genetic HR for psychosis, with a broader range of deficits in HR-SCZ. Future work should assess the relationship of neurocognition to adaptive functioning and possible onset of psychosis in HR samples. Ascertainment criteria for controls may markedly influence results and interpretation of group differences. PMID:16707777

  18. Adolescent Family Factors Promoting Healthy Adult Functioning: A Longitudinal Community Study

    PubMed Central

    Paradis, Angela D.; Giaconia, Rose M.; Reinherz, Helen Z.; Beardslee, William R.; Ward, Kirsten E.; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Although long-held wisdom and current research suggests that accepting and supportive family relationships may positively influence adult psychosocial functioning, few studies have prospectively investigated these associations. This study examined whether positive family factors during adolescence are associated with healthy adult functioning. Method The 353 participants were part of a single-age cohort whose psychosocial development has been prospectively traced. Two aspects of family functioning - feeling highly valued as a family member and having a family confidant - were measured at age 15. Developmentally-relevant areas of functioning were assessed at age 30. Results Both positive family factors were predictive of adaptive adult functioning across several domains, including mental health and social/interpersonal functioning. Conclusions Findings provide evidence about the salient relationships between positive family relationships and later healthy functioning. PMID:21532965

  19. The Effects of Face Expertise Training on the Behavioral Performance and Brain Activity of Adults with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan Faja; Sara Jane Webb; Emily Jones; Kristen Merkle; Dana Kamara; Joshua Bavaro; Elizabeth Aylward; Geraldine Dawson

    The effect of expertise training with faces was studied in adults with ASD who showed initial impairment in face recognition.\\u000a Participants were randomly assigned to a computerized training program involving either faces or houses. Pre- and post-testing\\u000a included standardized and experimental measures of behavior and event-related brain potentials (ERPs), as well as interviews\\u000a after training. After training, all participants met

  20. Adult-specific functions of animal microRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Kailiang; Lai, Eric C.

    2014-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are ~22 nucleotide (nt) RNAs that coordinate vast regulatory networks in animals, and thereby influence myriad processes. This review examines evidence that miRNAs play continuous roles in adults, in ways that are separable from developmental control. Adult-specific activities for miRNAs have been described in a variety of stem cell populations, in the context of neural function and cardiovascular biology, in metabolism and physiology, and during cancer. In addition to reviewing recent results, we also discuss methods for studying miRNA activities specifically in adults and evaluate their relative strengths and weaknesses. A fuller understanding of continuous functions of miRNAs in adults has bearing on efforts and opportunities to manipulate miRNAs for therapeutic purposes. PMID:23817310

  1. Sensitivity and Specificity of Eustachian Tube Function Tests in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, William J.; Swarts, J. Douglas; Banks, Julianne; Casselbrant, Margaretha L; Mandel, Ellen M; Alper, Cuneyt M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Determine if Eustachian Tube (ET) function (ETF) tests can identify ears with physician-diagnosed ET dysfunction (ETD) in a mixed population at high sensitivity and specificity and define the inter-relatedness of ETF test parameters. Methods ETF was evaluated using the Forced-Response, Inflation-Deflation, Valsalva and Sniffing tests in 15 control ears of adult subjects after unilateral myringotomy (Group I) and in 23 ears of 19 adult subjects with ventilation tubes inserted for ETD (Group II). Data were analyzed using logistic regression including each parameter independently and then a step-down Discriminant Analysis including all ETF test parameters to predict group assignment. Factor Analysis operating over all parameters was used to explore relatedness. Results The Discriminant Analysis identified 4 ETF test parameters (Valsalva, ET opening pressure, dilatory efficiency and % positive pressure equilibrated) that together correctly assigned ears to Group II at a sensitivity of 95% and a specificity of 83%. Individual parameters representing the efficiency of ET opening during swallowing showed moderately accurate assignments of ears to their respective groups. Three factors captured approximately 98% of the variance among parameters, the first had negative loadings of the ETF structural parameters, the second had positive loadings of the muscle-assisted ET opening parameters and the third had negative loadings of the muscle-assisted ET opening parameters and positive loadings of the structural parameters. Discussion These results show that ETF tests can correctly assign individual ears to physician-diagnosed ETD with high sensitivity and specificity and that ETF test parameters can be grouped into structural-functional categories. PMID:23868429

  2. Methylphenidate significantly improves declarative memory functioning of adults with ADHD

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joris C. Verster; Evelijne M. Bekker; J. J. Sandra Kooij; Jan K. Buitelaar; Marinus N. Verbaten; Edmund R. Volkerts; Berend Olivier

    2010-01-01

    Background  Declarative memory deficits are common in untreated adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but limited\\u000a evidence exists to support improvement after treatment with methylphenidate. The objective of this study was to examine the\\u000a effects of methylphenidate on memory functioning of adults with ADHD.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Eighteen adults with ADHD who were clinical responders to methylphenidate participated in this randomized crossover trial.\\u000a After

  3. Executive functioning in adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Rapport, L J; Van Voorhis, A; Tzelepis, A; Friedman, S R

    2001-12-01

    The present study examined the executive abilities of 35 adults diagnosed with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivily Disorder (ADHD) and 32 adults without the disorder (n = 67) who were equivalent in age, gender, years of education, and Full Scale IQ. The ADHD group performed significantly worse on Stroop Color-Word (eta(2) =.18) and Interference (eta( 2) =.08), as well as time to complete Trails B (eta(2) =.08) than the controls (all ps <. 05). Analysis of Design Fluency indicated that the ADHD group committed more perseverative (eta(2) =.06) and non-perseverative (eta(2) =.12) errors than did controls; however, novel output was equivalent for the groups. No group differences were observed on tests measuring cognitive initiation, abstract thinking, or working memory (all ps >.30; eta(2) =.00-.01). The distributions of WCST variables showed severe skew associated with high-functioning performance on the test among both groups. The pattern of results suggests the presence of specific deficits in response inhibition, with intact abilities in other cognitive domains, such as primary verbal and visuospatial skills. These findings are consistent with the literature on neuropsychological deficits among children with ADHD. That persons with ADHD present a primary deficit of behavioral inhibition supports Barkley's (1997) theory of ADHD, as opposed to theories by Denckla (1996) and Roberts and Pennington (1996) that emphasize intention and working memory. PMID:11935449

  4. Neuropsychological Predictors of Everyday Functioning in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, C. Y.; Chen, C. C.; Wuang, Y. P.; Lin, Y. H.; Wu, Y. Y.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Very little is known about the neuropsychological correlates of adaptive functioning in people with intellectual disabilities (ID). This study examined whether specific cognitive deficits and demographic variables predicted everyday functioning in adults with ID. Method: People with ID (n = 101; ages 19-41 years; mean education = 11…

  5. A Functional-Notional Syllabus for Adult Learners of Irish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, David, Comp.; And Others

    The first functional-notional syllabus for adult learners of Irish, written in Irish and English, is presented. The syllabus begins with an introductory section about functional-notional syllabi, their definitions and implications, and the characteristics of this syllabus. The second section provides the general aims and specific behavioral…

  6. Trait Routinization, Functional and Cognitive Status in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zisberg, Anna; Zysberg, Leehu; Young, Heather M.; Schepp, Karen G.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the associations between trait routinization and functional and cognitive as well as demographic indicators. A sample of American older adults living independently in a retirement community (n = 80) were assessed regarding their functional status, cognitive status, and preference for routine. Robust associations between…

  7. Time Monitoring and Executive Functioning in Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mantyla, Timo; Carelli, Maria Grazia; Forman, Helen

    2007-01-01

    This study examined time-based prospective memory performance in relation to individual and developmental differences in executive functioning. School-age children and young adults completed six experimental tasks that tapped three basic components of executive functioning: inhibition, updating, and mental shifting. Monitoring performance was…

  8. Executive and Visuo-Motor Function in Adolescents and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachse, Michael; Schlitt, Sabine; Hainz, Daniela; Ciaramidaro, Angela; Schirman, Shella; Walter, Henrik; Poustka, Fritz; Bolte, Sven; Freitag, Christine M.

    2013-01-01

    This study broadly examines executive (EF) and visuo-motor function in 30 adolescent and adult individuals with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in comparison to 28 controls matched for age, gender, and IQ. ASD individuals showed impaired spatial working memory, whereas planning, cognitive flexibility, and inhibition were spared.…

  9. The Effects of Face Expertise Training on the Behavioral Performance and Brain Activity of Adults with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Sara Jane; Jones, Emily; Merkle, Kristen; Kamara, Dana; Bavaro, Joshua; Aylward, Elizabeth; Dawson, Geraldine

    2013-01-01

    The effect of expertise training with faces was studied in adults with ASD who showed initial impairment in face recognition. Participants were randomly assigned to a computerized training program involving either faces or houses. Pre- and post-testing included standardized and experimental measures of behavior and event-related brain potentials (ERPs), as well as interviews after training. After training, all participants met behavioral criteria for expertise with the specific stimuli on which they received training. Scores on standardized measures improved after training for both groups, but only the face training group showed an increased face inversion effect behaviorally and electrophysiological changes to faces in the P100 component. These findings suggest that individuals with ASD can gain expertise in face processing through training. PMID:21484517

  10. Validity and reliability of the Nintendo Wii Balance Board to assess standing balance and sensory integration in highly functional older adults.

    PubMed

    Scaglioni-Solano, Pietro; Aragón-Vargas, Luis F

    2014-06-01

    Standing balance is an important motor task. Postural instability associated with age typically arises from deterioration of peripheral sensory systems. The modified Clinical Test of Sensory Integration for Balance and the Tandem test have been used to screen for balance. Timed tests present some limitations, whereas quantification of the motions of the center of pressure (CoP) with portable and inexpensive equipment may help to improve the sensitivity of these tests and give the possibility of widespread use. This study determines the validity and reliability of the Wii Balance Board (Wii BB) to quantify CoP motions during the mentioned tests. Thirty-seven older adults completed three repetitions of five balance conditions: eyes open, eyes closed, eyes open on a compliant surface, eyes closed on a compliant surface, and tandem stance, all performed on a force plate and a Wii BB simultaneously. Twenty participants repeated the trials for reliability purposes. CoP displacement was the main outcome measure. Regression analysis indicated that the Wii BB has excellent concurrent validity, and Bland-Altman plots showed good agreement between devices with small mean differences and no relationship between the difference and the mean. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) indicated modest-to-excellent test-retest reliability (ICC=0.64-0.85). Standard error of measurement and minimal detectable change were similar for both devices, except the 'eyes closed' condition, with greater standard error of measurement for the Wii BB. In conclusion, the Wii BB is shown to be a valid and reliable method to quantify CoP displacement in older adults. PMID:24445863

  11. Functional food awareness and perceptions in relation to information sources in older adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The functional food industry has experienced innovative and economic expansion, yet research into consumer perceptions of functional foods and their associated health claims is limited. Among consumers, older adults could benefit from functional foods due to age-related issues pertaining to food and health. The purpose of this research was to identify the need for information related to functional foods among older adults (?60 years old) and to assess awareness and perceptions of health claims on functional food packages. Methods Community-dwelling older adults (n?=?200) completed a researcher administered questionnaire designed to collect information about functional foods including current consumption, motivating factors for consumption, perceived need for information, sources of information for functional foods and awareness of health claims. Results Prevalence of functional food consumption among participants was 93.0%. Increased awareness and knowledge was the most commonly reported factor that would promote functional food consumption (85.5%) and 63.5% of participants wanted more information about functional foods with preferred sources being newspapers/magazines/books (68.5%) and food labels (66.1%). Participants were predominately (93.5%) aware of health claims on functional foods and those with more education were more likely to report being aware of health claims (p?=?0.045). Conclusions Although functional food consumption among older adults in this sample is high, there is a need for further information regarding functional foods. These results inform stakeholders regarding the potential for information to influence functional food acceptance among older adult consumers. PMID:24886306

  12. Abnormal Pulmonary Function in Adults with Sickle Cell Anemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth S. Klings; Diego F. Wyszynski; Vikki G. Nolan; Martin H. Steinberg

    2006-01-01

    Rationale: Pulmonary complications of sickle cell anemia (Hb-SS) commonly cause morbidity, yet few large studies of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in this population have been reported. Objectives: PFTs (spirometry, lung volumes, and diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO)) from 310 adults with Hb-SS were ana- lyzed to determine the pattern of pulmonary dysfunction and their association with other systemic complications

  13. Reliability and Stability of Executive Functioning in Older Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark L. Ettenhofer; David Z. Hambrick; Norman Abeles

    2006-01-01

    A number of methodological questions have been raised about the reliability and validity of measuring executive functioning (EF) across multiple time points. In this study, correlational and latent-variable analyses were used to examine test–retest reliability of 5 common measures of EF and the stability of a latent EF construct. One hundred eighteen nondemented older adults were tested twice over a

  14. Regional White Matter and Neuropsychological Functioning across the Adult Lifespan

    E-print Network

    Regional White Matter and Neuropsychological Functioning across the Adult Lifespan Adam M. Brickman (MRI) to more fully elucidate the relationship among age, regional white matter, and neuropsychological neuropsychological assessment. MR images were spatially normalized and segmented by tissue type; relative white

  15. Health Literacy and Functional Health Status Among Older Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael S. Wolf; Julie A. Gazmararian; David W. Baker

    2005-01-01

    Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 2923 enrollees was conducted in Cleveland, Ohio; Houston, Tex; Tampa, Fla; and Fort Lauderdale-Miami, Fla. Health literacy was measured using the short form of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. We used out- come measures that included scores on the physical and mental health functioning subscales of the Medical Out- comes Study 36-Item

  16. The Association between Energy Cost of Walking and Physical Function in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Wert, David M.; Brach, Jennifer S.; Perera, Subashan; VanSwearingen, Jessie

    2013-01-01

    To assess the association between energy cost of walking and self-report of function, independent of comorbidity and gait speed, in older adults with mobility limitations. This cross-sectional observational study was conducted within an ambulatory clinical research training center. Forty-two older adults, age 65 and older, with slow and variable gait participated. Function was assessed using the Late Life Function and Disability Index- Basic Lower Extremity subscale, while energy cost of walking was derived by standardizing the mean oxygen consumption recorded during physiological steady state by gait speed. Comorbidity and gait speed were collected as co-variates. Pearson’s r correlation coefficient and regression analyses were used to assess the relationship between energy cost and function. Energy cost of walking was significantly correlated with self-reported function (Pearson’s r= ?.50, p <.001); furthermore, energy cost of walking explained an additional 17% (p=.002) of the variance in self-reported function above and beyond the variance explained by comorbidity and gait speed combined. Energy cost of walking is emerging as another significant factor related to functional performance among older adults, even after controlling for comorbidity and gait speed- robust variables known for their strong contributions to function. Knowledge of and attention to the efficiency of how one moves (high energy cost of walking) may enhance rehabilitation efforts to further reduce “functional burden” in older adults. PMID:23680536

  17. Fronto-cerebellar systems are associated with infant motor and adult executive functions in healthy adults but not in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Ridler, Khanum; Veijola, Juha M.; Tanskanen, Päivikki; Miettunen, Jouko; Chitnis, Xavier; Suckling, John; Murray, Graham K.; Haapea, Marianne; Jones, Peter B.; Isohanni, Matti K.; Bullmore, Edward T.

    2006-01-01

    Delineating longitudinal relationships between early developmental markers, adult cognitive function, and adult brain structure could clarify the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia. We aimed to identify brain structural correlates of infant motor development (IMD) and adult executive function in nonpsychotic adults and to test for abnormal associations between these measures in people with schizophrenia. Representative samples of nonpsychotic adults (n = 93) and people with schizophrenia (n = 49) were drawn from the Northern Finland 1966 general population birth cohort. IMD was prospectively assessed at age 1 year; executive function testing and MRI were completed at age 33–35 years. We found that earlier motor development in infancy was correlated with superior executive function in nonpsychotic subjects. Earlier motor development was also normally associated with increased gray matter density in adult premotor cortex, striatum, and cerebellum and increased white matter density in frontal and parietal lobes. Adult executive function was normally associated with increased gray matter density in a fronto-cerebellar system that partially overlapped, but was not identical to, the gray matter regions normally associated with IMD. People with schizophrenia had relatively delayed IMD and impaired adult executive function in adulthood. Furthermore, they demonstrated no normative associations between fronto-cerebellar structure, IMD, or executive function. We conclude that frontal cortico-cerebellar systems correlated with adult executive function are anatomically related to systems associated with normal infant motor development. Disruption of this anatomical system may underlie both the early developmental and adult cognitive abnormalities in schizophrenia. PMID:17028177

  18. Functional Language Networks in Sedentary and Physically Active Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Zlatar, Zvinka Z.; Towler, Stephen; McGregor, Keith M.; Dzierzewski, Joseph M.; Bauer, Andrew; Phan, Stephanie; Cohen, Matthew; Marsiske, Michael; Manini, Todd M.; Crosson, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have identified consistent age-related changes during various cognitive tasks, such that older individuals display more positive and less negative task-related activity than young adults. Recently, evidence shows that chronic physical exercise may alter aging-related changes in brain activity; however, the effect of exercise has not been studied for the neural substrates of language function. Additionally, the potential mechanisms by which aging alters neural recruitment remain understudied. To address these points, the present study enrolled elderly adults who were either sedentary or physically active to characterize the neural correlates of language function during semantic fluency between these groups in comparison to a young adult sample. Participants underwent fMRI during semantic fluency and transcranial magnetic stimulation to collect the ipsilateral silent period, a measure of interhemispheric inhibition. Results indicated that sedentary older adults displayed reductions in negative task-related activity compared to the active old group in areas of the attention network. Longer interhemispheric inhibition was associated with more negative task-related activity in the right and left posterior perisylvian cortex, suggesting that sedentary aging may result in losses in task facilitatory cortical inhibition. However, these losses may be mitigated by regular engagement in physical exercise. PMID:23458438

  19. Basal ganglia function, stuttering, sequencing, and repair in adult songbirds.

    PubMed

    Kubikova, Lubica; Bosikova, Eva; Cvikova, Martina; Lukacova, Kristina; Scharff, Constance; Jarvis, Erich D

    2014-01-01

    A pallial-basal-ganglia-thalamic-pallial loop in songbirds is involved in vocal motor learning. Damage to its basal ganglia part, Area X, in adult zebra finches has been noted to have no strong effects on song and its function is unclear. Here we report that neurotoxic damage to adult Area X induced changes in singing tempo and global syllable sequencing in all animals, and considerably increased syllable repetition in birds whose song motifs ended with minor repetitions before lesioning. This stuttering-like behavior started at one month, and improved over six months. Unexpectedly, the lesioned region showed considerable recovery, including immigration of newly generated or repaired neurons that became active during singing. The timing of the recovery and stuttering suggest that immature recovering activity of the circuit might be associated with stuttering. These findings indicate that even after juvenile learning is complete, the adult striatum plays a role in higher level organization of learned vocalizations. PMID:25307086

  20. Adolescent social isolation influences cognitive function in adult rats?

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Feng; Han, Xiao; Shao, Shuang; Wang, Weiwen

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is a critical period for neurodevelopment. Evidence from animal studies suggests that isolated rearing can exert negative effects on behavioral and brain development. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of adolescent social isolation on latent inhibition and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in the forebrain of adult rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into adolescent isolation (isolated housing, 38–51 days of age) and social groups. Latent inhibition was tested at adulthood. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels were measured in the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Adolescent social isolation impaired latent inhibition and increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in the medial prefrontal cortex of young adult rats. These data suggest that adolescent social isolation has a profound effect on cognitive function and neurotrophin levels in adult rats and may be used as an animal model of neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:25206396

  1. Basal ganglia function, stuttering, sequencing, and repair in adult songbirds

    PubMed Central

    Kubikova, Lubica; Bosikova, Eva; Cvikova, Martina; Lukacova, Kristina; Scharff, Constance; Jarvis, Erich D.

    2014-01-01

    A pallial-basal-ganglia-thalamic-pallial loop in songbirds is involved in vocal motor learning. Damage to its basal ganglia part, Area X, in adult zebra finches has been noted to have no strong effects on song and its function is unclear. Here we report that neurotoxic damage to adult Area X induced changes in singing tempo and global syllable sequencing in all animals, and considerably increased syllable repetition in birds whose song motifs ended with minor repetitions before lesioning. This stuttering-like behavior started at one month, and improved over six months. Unexpectedly, the lesioned region showed considerable recovery, including immigration of newly generated or repaired neurons that became active during singing. The timing of the recovery and stuttering suggest that immature recovering activity of the circuit might be associated with stuttering. These findings indicate that even after juvenile learning is complete, the adult striatum plays a role in higher level organization of learned vocalizations. PMID:25307086

  2. Multi-tasking, Executive Function, and Functional Abilities in Older Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    E-print Network

    Rucker, Jason Lee

    2014-05-31

    There is growing evidence that older adults with type 2 diabetes exhibit deficits in executive function, the set of processes responsible for planning, organizing, sequencing, and monitoring goal-oriented behavior. However, ...

  3. Comparison of two doses of an exercise intervention on mobility and function in older adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dan M Ritchie

    2009-01-01

    Balance and Mobility are important functions for older adults to maintain in later life. Numerous exercise interventions have been proposed for improving and maintaining high levels of mobility and balance. The majority of the research to date has evaluated different types of exercise programming (strength, flexibility, endurance, power, tai chi) but has not evaluated the necessary dose or frequency needed

  4. Inner speech is used to mediate short-term memory, but not planning, among intellectually high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Williams, David M; Bowler, Dermot M; Jarrold, Christopher

    2012-02-01

    Evidence regarding the use of inner speech by individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is equivocal. To clarify this issue, the current study employed multiple techniques and tasks used across several previous studies. In Experiment 1, participants with and without ASD showed highly similar patterns and levels of serial recall for visually presented stimuli. Both groups were significantly affected by the phonological similarity of items to be recalled, indicating that visual material was spontaneously recoded into a verbal form. Confirming that short-term memory is typically verbally mediated among the majority of people with ASD, recall performance among both groups declined substantially when inner speech use was prevented by the imposition of articulatory suppression during the presentation of stimuli. In Experiment 2, planning performance on a tower of London task was substantially detrimentally affected by articulatory suppression among comparison participants, but not among participants with ASD. This suggests that planning is not verbally mediated in ASD. It is important that the extent to which articulatory suppression affected planning among participants with ASD was uniquely associated with the degree of their observed and self-reported communication impairments. This confirms a link between interpersonal communication with others and intrapersonal communication with self as a means of higher order problem solving. PMID:22293006

  5. Functional Adult Literacy and Empowerment of Women: Impact of a Functional Literacy Program in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagitcibasi, Cigdem; Goksen, Fatos; Gulgoz, Sami

    2005-01-01

    This study addresses the impact of functional adult literacy on the empowerment of women in the absence of formal schooling. It examines whether the effects of functional literacy are exclusively content specific or whether there are gains going beyond the obvious benefits and extending to other spheres of everyday functioning, such as…

  6. Executive Function Processes Predict Mobility Outcomes in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gothe, Neha P.; Fanning, Jason; Awick, Elizabeth; Chung, David; Wójcicki, Thomas R.; Olson, Erin A.; Mullen, Sean P.; Voss, Michelle; Erickson, Kirk I.; Kramer, Arthur F.; McAuley, Edward

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence suggesting an association between cognitive function and physical performance in late life. This study examined the relationship between performance on executive function measures and subsequent mobility outcomes among community dwelling older adults across a 12-month randomized controlled exercise trial. DESIGN: Randomized controlled clinical trial SETTING: Champaign-Urbana, Illinois PARTICIPANTS: Community dwelling older adults (N = 179; Mage = 66.4) INTERVENTION: A 12-month exercise trial with two arms: an aerobic exercise group and a stretching and strengthening group MEASUREMENTS: Established cognitive tests of executive function including the flanker task, task switching and a dual task paradigm, and the Wisconsin card sort test. Mobility was assessed using the timed 8-foot up and go test and times to climb up and down a flight of stairs. METHODS: Participants completed the cognitive measures at baseline and the mobility measures at baseline and after 12 months of the intervention. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to determine whether baseline executive function predicted post-intervention functional performance after controlling for age, sex, education, cardiorespiratory fitness and baseline mobility levels. RESULTS: Our analyses revealed that selective baseline executive function measures, particularly performance on the flanker task (?’s =.15 to .17) and the Wisconsin card sort test (?’s =.11 to .16) consistently predicted mobility outcomes at month 12. The estimates were in the expected direction, such that better baseline performance on the executive function measures predicted better performance on the timed mobility tests independent of the intervention group. CONCLUSION: Executive functions of inhibitory control, mental set shifting and attentional flexibility were predictive of functional mobility. Given the literature associating mobility limitations with disability, morbidity, and mortality, these results are important for understanding the antecedents to poor mobility function that can be attenuated by well-designed interventions to improve cognitive performance. PMID:24521364

  7. Competency-Based Adult High School Curriculum Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Elizabeth

    This compilation of program materials serves as an introduction to and overview of Florida's Brevard Community College's (BCC's) Competency-Based Adult High School Completion Project, which was conducted to teach administrators, counselors, and teachers how to organize and implement a competency-based adult education (CBAE) program; to critique…

  8. The test of functional health literacy in adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruth M. Parker; David W. Baker; Mark V. Williams; Joanne R. Nurss

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop a valid, reliable instrument to measure the functional health literacy of patients.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a DESIGN: The Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (TOFHLA) was developed using actual hospital materials. The TOFHLA consists\\u000a of a 50-item reading comprehension and 17-item numerical ability test, taking up to 22 minutes to administer. The TOFHLA,\\u000a the Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised (WRAT-R), and

  9. Social functioning in adults with neurofibromatosis type 1.

    PubMed

    Pride, Natalie A; Crawford, Hilda; Payne, Jonathan M; North, Kathryn N

    2013-10-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a common single-gene disorder characterised by a diverse range of cutaneous, neurological and neoplastic manifestations. It is well recognised that children with NF1 have poor peer interactions and are at risk for deficits in social skills. Few studies, however, have examined social functioning in adults with NF1. We aimed to determine whether adults with NF1 are at greater risk for impairment in social skills and to identify potential risk factors for social skills deficits. We evaluated social skills in 62 adults with NF1 and 39 controls using self-report and observer-report measures of social behaviour. We demonstrate that adults with NF1 exhibit significantly less prosocial behaviour than controls. This deficit was associated with social processing abilities and was more evident in males. The frequency of antisocial behaviour was comparable between the two groups, however was significantly associated with behavioural regulation in the NF1 group. These findings suggest that poor social skills in individuals with NF1 are due to deficits in prosocial behaviour, rather than an increase in antisocial behaviour. This will aid the design of interventions aimed at improving social skills in individuals with NF1. PMID:23911645

  10. Direct Evidence for Thymic Function in Adult Humans

    PubMed Central

    Poulin, Jean-François; Viswanathan, Mohan N.; Harris, Jeffrey M.; Komanduri, Krishna V.; Wieder, Eric; Ringuette, Nancy; Jenkins, Morgan; McCune, Joseph M.; Sékaly, Rafick-Pierre

    1999-01-01

    The understanding of human thymic function and evaluation of its contribution to T cell homeostasis are matters of great importance. Here we report the development of a novel assay to quantitate the frequency and diversity of recent thymic emigrants (RTEs) in the peripheral blood of humans. Such cells were defined by the presence of T cell receptor (TCR) rearrangement deletion circles (DCs), episomal byproducts of TCR-? V(D)J rearrangement. DCs were detected in T cells in the thymus, cord blood, and adult peripheral blood. In the peripheral blood of adults aged 22 to 76 years, their frequency was highest in the CD4+CD45RA+ CD62L+ subpopulation of naive T cells. TCR DCs were also observed in other subpopulations of peripheral blood T cells, including those with the CD4+CD45RO?CD62L+ and CD4+CD45RO+CD62L+ phenotypes. RTEs were observed to have more than one V? rearrangement, suggesting that replenishment of the repertoire in the adult is at least oligoclonal. These results demonstrate that the normal adult thymus continues to contribute, even in older individuals, a diverse set of new T cells to the peripheral circulation. PMID:10449519

  11. DISTINCT FUNCTIONS OF SOCIAL SUPPORT AND COGNITIVE FUNCTION AMONG OLDER ADULTS

    PubMed Central

    Sims, Regina C.; Hosey, Megan; Levy, Shellie-Anne; Whitfield, Keith E.; Katzel, Leslie I.; Waldstein, Shari R.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Study Context Social support has been shown to buffer cognitive decline in older adults; however, few studies have examined the association of distinct functions of perceived social support and cognitive function. The current study examined the relations between distinct functions of social support and numerous cognitive domains in older adults. Methods Data were derived from a cross-sectional, correlational study of cardiovascular risk factors, cognitive function, and neuroimaging. The participants were 175 older adults with a mean age of 66.32. A number of neuropsychological tests and the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List were administered. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to determine cross-sectional relations of social support to cognitive function after controlling for age, gender, education, depressive symptomatology, systolic blood pressure, body-mass index, total cholesterol, and fasting glucose. Results No significant positive relations were found between distinct functions of social support and cognitive function in any domain; however, inverse relations emerged such that greater social support across several functions was associated with poorer nonverbal memory and response inhibition. Conclusion Results suggest that the receipt of social support may be a burden for some older adults. Within the current study, fluid cognitive abilities reflected this phenomenon. The mechanism through which social support is associated with poorer cognitive function in some domains deserves further exploration. PMID:24467699

  12. Executive function and bilingualism in young and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Kousaie, Shanna; Sheppard, Christine; Lemieux, Maude; Monetta, Laura; Taler, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that being bilingual results in advantages on executive control processes and disadvantages on language tasks relative to monolinguals. Furthermore, the executive function advantage is thought to be larger in older than younger adults, suggesting that bilingualism may buffer against age-related changes in executive function. However, there are potential confounds in some of the previous research, as well as inconsistencies in the literature. The goal of the current investigation was to examine the presence of a bilingual advantage in executive control and a bilingual disadvantage on language tasks in the same sample of young and older monolingual anglophones, monolingual francophones, and French/English bilinguals. Participants completed a series of executive function tasks, including a Stroop task, a Simon task, a sustained attention to response task (SART), the Wisconsin Card Sort Test (WCST), and the digit span subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, and language tasks, including the Boston Naming Test (BNT), and category and letter fluency. The results do not demonstrate an unequivocal advantage for bilinguals on executive function tasks and raise questions about the reliability, robustness and/or specificity of previous findings. The results also did not demonstrate a disadvantage for bilinguals on language tasks. Rather, they suggest that there may be an influence of the language environment. It is concluded that additional research is required to fully characterize any language group differences in both executive function and language tasks. PMID:25120442

  13. Functional significance of mononuclear phagocyte populations generated through adult hematopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Gutknecht, Michael F; Bouton, Amy H

    2014-12-01

    Tissue homeostasis requires a complete repertoire of functional macrophages in peripheral tissues. Recent evidence indicates that many resident tissue macrophages are seeded during embryonic development and persist through adulthood as a consequence of localized proliferation. Mononuclear phagocytes are also produced during adult hematopoiesis; these cells are then recruited to sites throughout the body, where they function in tissue repair and remodeling, resolution of inflammation, maintenance of homeostasis, and disease progression. The focus of this review is on mononuclear phagocytes that comprise the nonresident monocyte/macrophage populations in the body. Key features of monocyte differentiation are presented, focusing primarily on the developmental hierarchy that is established through this process, the markers used to identify discrete cell populations, and novel, functional attributes of these cells. These features are then explored in the context of the tumor microenvironment, where mononuclear phagocytes exhibit extensive plasticity in phenotype and function. PMID:25225678

  14. Advanced Echocardiography in Adult Zebrafish Reveals Delayed Recovery of Heart Function after Myocardial Cryoinjury

    PubMed Central

    Kossack, Mandy; Juergensen, Lonny; Fuchs, Dieter; Katus, Hugo A.; Hassel, David

    2015-01-01

    Translucent zebrafish larvae represent an established model to analyze genetics of cardiac development and human cardiac disease. More recently adult zebrafish are utilized to evaluate mechanisms of cardiac regeneration and by benefiting from recent genome editing technologies, including TALEN and CRISPR, adult zebrafish are emerging as a valuable in vivo model to evaluate novel disease genes and specifically validate disease causing mutations and their underlying pathomechanisms. However, methods to sensitively and non-invasively assess cardiac morphology and performance in adult zebrafish are still limited. We here present a standardized examination protocol to broadly assess cardiac performance in adult zebrafish by advancing conventional echocardiography with modern speckle-tracking analyses. This allows accurate detection of changes in cardiac performance and further enables highly sensitive assessment of regional myocardial motion and deformation in high spatio-temporal resolution. Combining conventional echocardiography measurements with radial and longitudinal velocity, displacement, strain, strain rate and myocardial wall delay rates after myocardial cryoinjury permitted to non-invasively determine injury dimensions and to longitudinally follow functional recovery during cardiac regeneration. We show that functional recovery of cryoinjured hearts occurs in three distinct phases. Importantly, the regeneration process after cryoinjury extends far beyond the proposed 45 days described for ventricular resection with reconstitution of myocardial performance up to 180 days post-injury (dpi). The imaging modalities evaluated here allow sensitive cardiac phenotyping and contribute to further establish adult zebrafish as valuable cardiac disease model beyond the larval developmental stage. PMID:25853735

  15. Advanced echocardiography in adult zebrafish reveals delayed recovery of heart function after myocardial cryoinjury.

    PubMed

    Hein, Selina J; Lehmann, Lorenz H; Kossack, Mandy; Juergensen, Lonny; Fuchs, Dieter; Katus, Hugo A; Hassel, David

    2015-01-01

    Translucent zebrafish larvae represent an established model to analyze genetics of cardiac development and human cardiac disease. More recently adult zebrafish are utilized to evaluate mechanisms of cardiac regeneration and by benefiting from recent genome editing technologies, including TALEN and CRISPR, adult zebrafish are emerging as a valuable in vivo model to evaluate novel disease genes and specifically validate disease causing mutations and their underlying pathomechanisms. However, methods to sensitively and non-invasively assess cardiac morphology and performance in adult zebrafish are still limited. We here present a standardized examination protocol to broadly assess cardiac performance in adult zebrafish by advancing conventional echocardiography with modern speckle-tracking analyses. This allows accurate detection of changes in cardiac performance and further enables highly sensitive assessment of regional myocardial motion and deformation in high spatio-temporal resolution. Combining conventional echocardiography measurements with radial and longitudinal velocity, displacement, strain, strain rate and myocardial wall delay rates after myocardial cryoinjury permitted to non-invasively determine injury dimensions and to longitudinally follow functional recovery during cardiac regeneration. We show that functional recovery of cryoinjured hearts occurs in three distinct phases. Importantly, the regeneration process after cryoinjury extends far beyond the proposed 45 days described for ventricular resection with reconstitution of myocardial performance up to 180 days post-injury (dpi). The imaging modalities evaluated here allow sensitive cardiac phenotyping and contribute to further establish adult zebrafish as valuable cardiac disease model beyond the larval developmental stage. PMID:25853735

  16. Functional Impairment in Adult Sleepwalkers: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Regis; Jaussent, Isabelle; Scholz, Sabine; Bayard, Sophie; Montplaisir, Jacques; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate the restorative quality of sleep and daytime functioning in sleepwalking adult patients in comparison with controls. Design: Prospective case-control study. Setting: Data were collected at the Sleep Disorders Center, Hôpital-Gui-de Chauliac, Montpellier, France between June 2007 and January 2011. Participants: There were 140 adult sleepwalkers (100 (median age 30 y, 55% male) in whom primary SW was diagnosed) who underwent 1 night of video polysomnography. All patients participated in a standardized clinical interview and completed a battery of questionnaires to assess clinical characteristics of parasomnia, daytime sleepiness, fatigue, insomnia, depressive and anxiety symptoms, and health-related quality of life. Results were compared with those of 100 sex- and age-matched normal controls. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Of the sleepwalkers, 22.3% presented with daily episodes and 43.5% presented with weekly episodes. Median age at sleepwalking onset was 9 y. Familial history of sleepwalking was reported in 56.6% of sleepwalkers and violent sleep related behaviors in 57.9%, including injuries requiring medical care for at least one episode in 17%. Significant associations were found between sleepwalking and daytime sleepiness, fatigue, insomnia, depressive and anxiety symptoms, and altered quality of life. Early-onset sleepwalkers had higher frequency of violent behaviors and injuries. Sleepwalkers with violent behaviors had higher frequency of sleep terrors and triggering factors, with greater alteration in health-related quality of life. Conclusion: Adult sleepwalking is a potentially serious condition that may induce violent behaviors, self-injury or injury to bed partners, sleep disruption, excessive daytime sleepiness, fatigue, and psychological distress, all of which affect health-related quality of life. Citation: Lopez R; Jaussent I; Scholz S; Bayard S; Montplaisir J; Dauvilliers Y. Functional impairment in adult sleepwalkers: a case-control study. SLEEP 2013;36(3):345-351. PMID:23450499

  17. Adrenocortical function in young adults with diabetes mellitus type 1.

    PubMed

    Simunkova, Katerina; Hampl, Richard; Hill, Martin; Kriz, Lubomir; Hrda, Pavlina; Janickova-Zdarska, Denisa; Zamrazil, Vaclav; Vrbikova, Jana; Vondra, Karel

    2010-10-01

    In 75 young adults with diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM 1) we have performed a cross-sectional study to gain more information about their adrenocortical function. We have found in a surprisingly large portion of patients (25%) a subnormal response (<500 nmol/L, low responders) of the serum cortisol during low-dose Synacthen test, accompanied by significantly decreased stimulated values of aldosterone and salivary cortisol. Basal serum cortisol, aldosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (in women only) were significantly reduced in low responders as well, while ACTH, cortisol binding globulin, plasma renin activity, urinary free cortisol/24h, and salivary cortisol did not differ. The results indicate that the disorder of adrenocortical function in low responders occurs in all adrenocortical zones. The patients with the highest risk in respect to revealed hypocorticalism were DM 1 with autoimmune thyroiditis, 13 out of 36 in contrast to 5 out of 39 suffered from isolated form of DM 1, with onset around 30 years, independently on sex. The biorhythm of salivary cortisol in low responders under real-life conditions did not significantly differ from normal responders, except of the decreased values in the morning. Antibodies against 21-hydroxylase and adrenal cortex were negative in the entire group of diabetics studied. In conclusion, this is the first study to demonstrate in as much as 25% of young adults with DM 1 patients without any signs of adrenal autoimmunity decreased both basal and stimulated serum cortisol and aldosterone levels, implying existence of subclinical primary hypocorticalism. PMID:20433924

  18. Functional Literacy of Older Adults: The Case of the Netherlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Kamp, Max; Scheeren, Jo

    As part of the International Adult Literacy Survey, the literacy levels of older adults in the Netherlands were investigated. A sample of 918 adults aged 50-75 was tested on prose, document, and quantitative scales; 40 older adults were interviewed to determine in what contexts they experience literacy problems and what kinds of coping strategies…

  19. Executive functioning and adaptive coping in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Villegas, Ana Lilia; Salvador Cruz, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Middle-aged individuals encounter multiple environmental demands to which they must develop efficient solutions, thus making the study of executive functions and coping strategies within this age group important. This study evaluated the relationship between the planning and flexible organization of executive function with adaptive coping strategies (ACS) in adults aged 43 to 52 years old. The study included 104 participants, including 52 men and 52 women, with no history of neurological or psychiatric illnesses, diabetes, or hypertension. The participants engaged in the Tower of London(DX) (TOL(DX)) test, the Wisconsin Card-Sorting Test (WCST), and the Coping Strategies Inventory. A relationship was observed between the percentage of errors and conceptual-level responses (WCST) and the Problem Solving ACS. In a separate analysis performed on the men, a negative relationship was discovered between the WCST and the Emotional Expression ACS. In the female group, the dimensions of the WCST and the TOL(DX) were associated with the ACS Emotional Expression and Problem-Solving subscales and the maladaptive coping strategy Social Withdrawal subscale. The relationship between executive functioning and the ACS is multidimensional, complex, and different between men and women. This study adds a neuropsychological characterization of the relationship between executive functions and ACS with ecological validity. The study confirms a relationship between the flexible organization of executive function and the Problem-Solving ACS. PMID:25074520

  20. Functional Imaging of Working Memory and Peripheral Endothelial Function in Middle-Aged Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzales, Mitzi M.; Tarumi, Takashi; Tanaka, Hirofumi; Sugawara, Jun; Swann-Sternberg, Tali; Goudarzi, Katayoon; Haley, Andreana P.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between a prognostic indicator of vascular health, flow-mediated dilation (FMD), and working memory-related brain activation in healthy middle-aged adults. Forty-two participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while completing a 2-Back working memory task. Brachial artery…

  1. Objectively Measured Physical Activity is Related to Cognitive Function in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Jacqueline; Marshall, Simon J.; Patterson, Ruth E.; Marinac, Catherine R.; Natarajan, Loki; Rosenberg, Dori; Wasilenko, Kari; Crist, Katie

    2013-01-01

    Background/Objectives To explore the relationship between cognitive functioning and the time spent at different intensities of physical activity (PA) in free-living older adults. Design, Setting Cross sectional analyses of participants enrolled in a randomized controlled trial set in continuing care retirement communities. Participants 215 older adults residing in 7 continuing care retirement communities in San Diego County: average age 83 years, 70% female and 35% with graduate level education. Measurements PA was measured objectively by hip worn accelerometers with data aggregated to the minute level. Three cut points were used to assess low-light, high-light, and moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA (MVPA). Trail Making Tests A and B were completed and time for each test (sec) and test B-minus- A time (sec) were used as measures of cognitive functioning. Variables were log transformed and entered into linear regression models adjusting for demographic factors (age, education, gender) and other PA intensity variables. Results Low-light PA was not related to any Trails test score. High-light PA was significantly related to Trails A, B and B-minus-A; but only in unadjusted models. MVPA was related to Trails B and B-minus-A after adjusting for demographic variables. Conclusion These data suggest there may be a dose response between PA intensity and cognitive functioning in older adults. The stronger findings supporting a relationship between MVPA and cognitive functioning are consistent with previous observational and intervention studies. PMID:24219194

  2. A bidirectional relationship between physical activity and executive function in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Michael; McMinn, David; Allan, Julia L.

    2015-01-01

    Physically active lifestyles contribute to better executive function. However, it is unclear whether high levels of executive function lead people to be more active. This study uses a large sample and multi-wave data to identify whether a reciprocal association exists between physical activity and executive function. Participants were 4555 older adults tracked across four waves of the English Longitudinal Study of Aging. In each wave executive function was assessed using a verbal fluency test and a letter cancelation task and participants reported their physical activity levels. Fixed effects regressions showed that changes in executive function corresponded with changes in physical activity. In longitudinal multilevel models low levels of physical activity led to subsequent declines in executive function. Importantly, poor executive function predicted reductions in physical activity over time. This association was found to be over 50% larger in magnitude than the contribution of physical activity to changes in executive function. This is the first study to identify evidence for a robust bidirectional link between executive function and physical activity in a large sample of older adults tracked over time. PMID:25628552

  3. Adrenal and gonadal function in hypothyroid adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Tohei, A; Akai, M; Tomabechi, T; Mamada, M; Taya, K

    1997-01-01

    The functional relationship between thyroid, adrenal and gonadal hormones was investigated using adult male rats. Hypothyroidism was produced by the administration of 4-methyl-2-thiouracil (thiouracil) in the drinking water for 2 weeks. Plasma concentrations of TSH dramatically increased, whereas plasma concentrations of tri-iodothyronine and thyroxine decreased in thiouraciltreated rats as compared with euthyroid rats. Hypothyroidism increased basal levels of plasma ACTH and pituitary content of ACTH. The pituitary responsiveness to CRH for ACTH release markedly increased, whereas the adrenal responsiveness to ACTH for corticosterone release decreased. These results indicated that hypothyroidism causes adrenal dysfunction in adult male rats. Pituitary contents of LH and prolactin decreased in hypothyroid rats as compared with euthyroid rats. In addition, hypothyroidism lowered pituitary LH responsiveness to LHRH. Testicular responsiveness to human chorionic gonadotrophin for testosterone release, however, was not different between euthyroid and hypothyroid animals. These results indicated that hypothyroidism causes adrenal dysfunction and results in hypersecretion of ACTH from the pituitary gland. Adrenal dysfunction may contribute to the inhibition of LHRH secretion from the hypothalamus, possibly mediated by excess CRH. PMID:9014850

  4. Circadian rhythms and endocrine functions in adult insects.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Guy; Hazan, Esther; Rafaeli, Ada

    2013-01-01

    Many behavioral and physiological processes in adult insects are influenced by both the endocrine and circadian systems, suggesting that these two key physiological systems interact. We reviewed the literature and found that experiments explicitly testing these interactions in adult insects have only been conducted for a few species. There is a shortage of measurements of hormone titers throughout the day under constant conditions even for the juvenile hormones (JHs) and ecdysteroids, the best studied insect hormones. Nevertheless, the available measurements of hormone titers coupled with indirect evidence for circadian modulation of hormone biosynthesis rate, and the expression of genes encoding proteins involved in hormone biosynthesis, binding or degradation are consistent with the hypothesis that the circulating levels of many insect hormones are influenced by the circadian system. Whole genome microarray studies suggest that the modulation of farnesol oxidase levels is important for the circadian regulation of JH biosynthesis in honey bees, mosquitoes, and fruit flies. Several studies have begun to address the functional significance of circadian oscillations in endocrine signaling. The best understood system is the circadian regulation of Pheromone Biosynthesis Activating Neuropeptide (PBAN) titers which is important for the temporal organization of sexual behavior in female moths. The evidence that the circadian and endocrine systems interact has important implications for studies of insect physiology and behavior. Additional studies on diverse species and physiological processes are needed for identifying basic principles underlying the interactions between the circadian and endocrine systems in insects. PMID:23103982

  5. High Blood Pressure: Unique to Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to help this. High Blood Pressure and Vascular Ulcers : Vascular ulcers are skin sores that can appear in your ... nutrition to the skin and can lead to ulcers. You are at risk of developing vascular ulcers ...

  6. Binge Drinking Impairs Vascular Function in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Goslawski, Melissa; Piano, Mariann R.; Bian, Jing-Tan; Church, Emily; Szczurek, Mary; Phillips, Shane A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The study aimed to assess whether young binge drinkers have impaired macrovascular and microvascular function and cardiovascular (CV) disease risk factors compared to age-matched alcohol abstainers. Background Binge drinking rates are highest on college campuses and among 18- to 25-year-olds; however, macrovascular and microvascular endothelial function in young adults with a history of repeated binge drinking (?5 standard drinks in 2 hrs. in men; ?4 standard drinks in 2 hrs. in women) has not been investigated Methods We evaluated the cardiovascular profile, brachial artery endothelial-dependent flow mediated vasodilation (FMD), and flow independent nitroglycerin (NTG)-mediated dilation and vasoreactivity of resistance arteries (isolated from gluteal fat biopsies) in abstainers and binge drinkers. Results Men and women (18–25 years of age, abstainers [A] n = 17, binge drinkers [BD] n = 19) were enrolled. Among the BD group, past-month average number of binge episodes was 6 ± 1, and average duration of binge drinking behavior was 4 ± 0.6 years. FMD and NTG-mediated dilations were significantly lower in the BD (FMD: 8.4% ± 0.7, P = 0.022; NTG: 19.6% ± 2, P = 0.009) than the A group (FMD: 11 ± 0.7%; NTG: 28.6 ± 2%). ACh- and SNP-induced dilation in resistance arteries was not significantly different between the A and BD groups. However, ET-1-induced constriction was significantly enhanced in the BD group compared to the A group (P = 0.032). No differences between groups were found in blood pressure, lipoproteins, and C-reactive protein. Conclusions Alterations in the macrocirculation and microcirculation may represent early clinical manifestations of CV risk in otherwise healthy young binge drinkers. This study has important clinical implications for screening young adults for a repeated history of binge drinking. PMID:23623907

  7. Ventilatory function in young adults and dietary antioxidant intake.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Larsen, Vanessa; Amigo, Hugo; Bustos, Patricia; Bakolis, Ioannis; Rona, Roberto J

    2015-01-01

    Dietary antioxidants may protect against poor ventilatory function. We assessed the relation between ventilatory function and antioxidant components of diet in young Chileans. Forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and the ratio FEV1/FVC were measured in 1232 adults aged 22-28 years, using a Vitalograph device. Dietary intake was ascertained with a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) designed for this study, from which nutrient and flavonoid intakes were estimated. Dietary patterns were derived with Principal Component Analysis (PCA). After controlling for potential confounders, dietary intake of total catechins was positively associated with FVC (Regression coefficient (RC) of highest vs. lowest quintile of intake 0.07; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.15; p per trend 0.006). Total fruit intake was related to FVC (RC of highest vs. lowest quintile 0.08; 95% CI 0.003 to 0.15; p per trend 0.02). Intake of omega 3 fatty acids was associated with a higher FEV1 (RC for highest vs. lowest quintile 0.08; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.15 L; p per trend 0.02) and with FVC 0.08 (RC in highest vs. lowest quintile of intake 0.08, 95% CI 0.001 to 0.16; p per trend 0.04). Our results show that fresh fruits, flavonoids, and omega 3 fatty acids may contribute to maintain ventilatory function. PMID:25884660

  8. The function of BDNF in the adult auditory system.

    PubMed

    Singer, Wibke; Panford-Walsh, Rama; Knipper, Marlies

    2014-01-01

    The inner ear of vertebrates is specialized to perceive sound, gravity and movements. Each of the specialized sensory organs within the cochlea (sound) and vestibular system (gravity, head movements) transmits information to specific areas of the brain. During development, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) orchestrates the survival and outgrowth of afferent fibers connecting the vestibular organ and those regions in the cochlea that map information for low frequency sound to central auditory nuclei and higher-auditory centers. The role of BDNF in the mature inner ear is less understood. This is mainly due to the fact that constitutive BDNF mutant mice are postnatally lethal. Only in the last few years has the improved technology of performing conditional cell specific deletion of BDNF in vivo allowed the study of the function of BDNF in the mature developed organ. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of the expression pattern and function of BDNF in the peripheral and central auditory system from just prior to the first auditory experience onwards. A special focus will be put on the differential mechanisms in which BDNF drives refinement of auditory circuitries during the onset of sensory experience and in the adult brain. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'BDNF Regulation of Synaptic Structure, Function, and Plasticity'. PMID:23688926

  9. Childhood Parental Loss and Adult Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Function

    PubMed Central

    Tyrka, Audrey R.; Wier, Lauren; Price, Lawrence H.; Ross, Nicole; Anderson, George M.; Wilkinson, Charles W.; Carpenter, Linda L.

    2009-01-01

    Background Several decades of research link childhood parental loss with risk for major depression and other forms of psychopathology. A large body of preclinical work on maternal separation and some recent studies of humans with childhood parental loss have demonstrated alterations of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function which could predispose to the development of psychiatric disorders. Methods Eighty-eight healthy adults with no current Axis I psychiatric disorder participated in this study. Forty-four participants experienced parental loss during childhood, including 19 with a history of parental death and 25 with a history of prolonged parental separation. The loss group was compared to a matched group of individuals who reported no history of childhood parental separation or childhood maltreatment. Participants completed diagnostic interviews and questionnaires and the dexamethasone/corticotropin-releasing hormone (Dex/CRH) test. Repeated measures general linear models were used to test the effects of parental loss, a measure of parental care, sex, and age on the hormone responses to the Dex/CRH test. Results Parental loss was associated with increased cortisol responses to the test, particularly in males. The effect of loss was moderated by levels of parental care; participants with parental desertion and very low levels of care had attenuated cortisol responses. ACTH responses to the Dex/CRH test did not differ significantly as a function of parental loss. Conclusions These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that early parental loss induces enduring changes in neuroendocrine function. PMID:18339361

  10. Cognitive Function and Oral Health Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bei Wu; Brenda L. Plassman; Richard J. Crout; Jersey Liang

    Background. Both oral health problems and cognitive impairment are relatively common among older adults. Poorer oral health appears to contribute to a decline in quality of life and to be related to various medical conditions. Little is known about the relationship of cognitive function to oral health among community-dwelling older adults. Methods. The sample included 1984 dentate community-dwelling older adults

  11. Cognitive apprenticeship in a CAL-environment for functionally illiterate adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. F. M. Bruijn

    1995-01-01

    When cognitive apprenticeship principles are compared with adult learning theories and in particular with learning theories concerning functionally illiterate adults, they have several aspects in common. In order to check these resemblances in practice and to explore at the same time the way in which the cognitive apprenticeship methods can be operationalized in a computer aided learning environment for adult

  12. Health. Nevada Competency-Based Adult High School Diploma Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevada Univ., Las Vegas. Coll. of Education.

    This document is one of ten curriculum guides developed by the Nevada Competency-Based Adult High School Diploma (CBAHSD) Project. This curriculum guide on health is divided into ten topics. The topics included are Nutrition, Reproduction, Menstruation, Contraception, Alcohol Abuse, Tobacco, Immunization, Disease, Accident Prevention, and…

  13. GATA4 deficiency impairs ovarian function in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Kyrönlahti, Antti; Vetter, Melanie; Euler, Rosemarie; Bielinska, Malgorzata; Jay, Patrick Y; Anttonen, Mikko; Heikinheimo, Markku; Wilson, David B

    2011-05-01

    Transcription factor GATA4 is expressed in granulosa cells and, to a lesser extent, in other ovarian cell types. Studies of mutant mice have shown that interactions between GATA4 and its cofactor, ZFPM2 (also termed FOG2), are required for proper development of the fetal ovary. The role of GATA4 in postnatal ovarian function, however, has remained unclear, in part because of prenatal lethality of homozygous mutations in the Gata4 gene in mice. To circumvent this limitation, we studied ovarian function in two genetically engineered mouse lines: C57BL/6 (B6) female mice heterozygous for a Gata4-null allele, and 129;B6 female mice in which Gata4 is deleted specifically in proliferating granulosa cells using the Cre-loxP recombination system and Amhr2-cre. Female B6 Gata4(+/-) mice had delayed puberty but normal estrous cycle lengths and litter size. Compared to wild-type mice, the ovaries of gonadotropin-stimulated B6 Gata4(+/-) mice were significantly smaller, released fewer oocytes, produced less estrogen, and expressed less mRNA for the putative GATA4 target genes Star, Cyp11a1, and Cyp19. Gata4 conditional knockout (cKO) mice had a more severe phenotype, including impaired fertility and cystic ovarian changes. Like Gata4(+/-) mice, the ovaries of gonadotropin-stimulated cKO mice released fewer oocytes and expressed less Cyp19 than those of control mice. Our findings, coupled with those of other investigators, support the premise that GATA4 is a key transcriptional regulator of ovarian somatic cell function in both fetal and adult mice. PMID:21248289

  14. Functional outcome in older adults with joint pain and comorbidity: design of a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Joint pain is a highly prevalent condition in the older population. Only a minority of the older adults consult the general practitioner for joint pain, and during consultation joint pain is often poorly recognized and treated, especially when other co-existing chronic conditions are involved. Therefore, older adults with joint pain and comorbidity may have a higher risk of poor functional outcome and decreased quality of life (QoL), and possibly need more attention in primary care. The main purpose of the study is to explore functioning in older adults with joint pain and comorbidity, in terms of mobility, functional independence and participation and to identify possible predictors of poor functional outcome. The study will also identify predictors of decreased QoL. The results will be used to develop prediction models for the early identification of subgroups at high risk of poor functional outcome and decreased QoL. This may contribute to better targeting of treatment and to more effective health care in this population. Methods/Design The study has been designed as a prospective cohort study, with measurements at baseline and after 6, 12 and 18 months. For the recruitment of 450 patients, 25 general practices will be approached. Patients are eligible for participation if they are 65 years or older, have at least two chronic conditions and report joint pain on most days. Data will be collected using various methods (i.e. questionnaires, physical tests, patient interviews and focus groups). We will measure different aspects of functioning (e.g. mobility, functional independence and participation) and QoL. Other measurements concern possible predictors of functioning and QoL (e.g. pain, co-existing chronic conditions, markers for frailty, physical performance, psychological factors, environmental factors and individual factors). Furthermore, health care utilization, health care needs and the meaning and impact of joint pain will be investigated from an older person's perspective. Discussion In this paper, we describe the protocol of a prospective cohort study in Dutch older adults with joint pain and comorbidity and discuss the potential strengths and limitations of the study. PMID:22024146

  15. Lifestyle Engagement Affects Cognitive Status Differences and Trajectories on Executive Functions in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    de Frias, Cindy M.; Dixon, Roger A.

    2014-01-01

    The authors first examined the concurrent moderating role of lifestyle engagement on the relation between cognitive status (cognitively elite, cognitively normal [CN], and cognitively impaired [CI]) and executive functioning (EF) in older adults. Second, the authors examined whether baseline participation in lifestyle activities predicted differential 4.5-year stabilities and transitions in cognitive status. Participants (initial N = 501; 53–90 years) were from the Victoria Longitudinal Study. EF was represented by a 1-factor structure. Lifestyle activities were measured in multiple domains of engagement (e.g., cognitive, physical, and social). Two-wave status stability groups included sustained normal aging, transitional early impairment, and chronic impairment. Hierarchical regressions showed that baseline participation in social activities moderated cognitive status differences in EF. CI adults with high (but not low) social engagement performed equivalently to CN adults on EF. Longitudinally, logistic regressions showed that engagement in physical activities was a significant predictor of stability of cognitive status. CI adults who were more engaged in physical activities were more likely to improve in their cognitive status over time than their more sedentary peers. Participation in cognitive activities was a significant predictor of maintenance in a higher cognitive status group. Given that lifestyle engagement plays a detectable role in healthy, normal, and impaired neuropsychological aging, further research in activity-related associations and interventions is recommended. PMID:24323561

  16. Natural History of Thyroid Function in Adults with Down Syndrome--10-Year Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasher, V.; Gomez, G.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The natural history of thyroid function in adults with Down syndrome (DS) is unknown. Method: This study investigated annual thyroid function tests in 200 adults with DS over a 10-year period. Results: Transient and persistent thyroid dysfunction was common. The 5- and 10-year incidence of definite hypothyroidism was 0.9%-1.64% and…

  17. Older Adults in Cardiac Rehabilitation: A New Strategy for Enhancing Physical Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rejeski, W. Jack; Foy, Capri Gabrielle; Brawley, Lawrence R.; Brubaker, Peter H.; Focht, Brian C.; Norris, James L., III; Smith, Marci L.

    2002-01-01

    Contrasted the effect of a group-mediated cognitive- behavioral intervention (GMCB) versus traditional cardiac rehabilitation (CRP) upon changes in objective and self-reported physical function of older adults after 3 months of exercise therapy. Both groups improved significantly. Adults with lower function at the outset of the intervention…

  18. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Lung function in adults following in utero and childhood exposure

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Lung function in adults following in utero and childhood exposure to arsenic water causes non-malignant lung disease, but nearly all data concern exposed adults. The desert city and long-term lung function. We present these preliminary findings because of the magnitude of the effects

  19. Adult neurogenesis and functional plasticity in neuronal circuits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mariana Alonso; Matthew S. Grubb; Pierre-Marie Lledo

    2006-01-01

    The adult brain is a plastic place. To ensure that the mature nervous system's control of behaviour is flexible in the face of a varying environment, morphological and physiological changes are possible at many levels, including that of the entire cell. In two areas of the adult brain — the olfactory bulb and the dentate gyrus — new neurons are

  20. Clinical Assessment of Functional Movement in Adults with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Christopher T.; Horvat, Michael; Williams, Michael; Blasch, Bruce B.

    2007-01-01

    Adults with visual impairments have significantly more health risks than do sighted adults because of a number of factors, including the lower mineral density of their femoral neck bones, which is indicative of reduced weight-bearing exercise; their lesser maximal strength; and their higher rates of stroke, osteoporosis, depression, hypertension,…

  1. Functional polymorphisms in dopamine-related genes: Effect on neurocognitive functioning in HIV+ adults

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Andrew J.; Sinsheimer, Janet S.; Bilder, Robert; Shapshak, Paul; Singer, Elyse J.

    2015-01-01

    Dopaminergic dysfunction is a putative mechanism underlying HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Dopamine transporter (DAT), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) have been specifically implicated. We report analyses examining the main effects of functional polymorphisms within dopamine-modulating genes, as well as their interactive effects with disease severity, upon neurocognitive functioning in HIV+ adults. Method A total of 184 HIV+ adults were included in the analysis. Three polymorphisms were examined within dopamine-modulating genes: COMT val158met, BDNF val66met, and the DAT 3 variable number tandem repeat. Separate hierarchical regression analyses for five neurocognitive domains (working memory, processing speed, learning, memory, motor) were conducted. Predictor variables were age, ethnicity, gender, education, CD4+ T-cell count, current depression, genotype, and an interaction term capturing genotype and disease severity (CD4). Results None of the polymorphisms or HIV disease variables significantly improved the hierarchical regression models. Younger age, higher education, and Caucasian ethnicity were almost invariably associated with better functioning across all five cognitive domains. A trend was noted for current depression as a predictor of motor and learning ability. Conclusion This study did not find evidence to support direct or interactive effects of dopamine-related genes and HIV disease severity on neurocognitive functioning. PMID:22082040

  2. Discrete-Trial Functional Analysis and Functional Communication Training with Three Adults with Intellectual Disabilities and Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chezan, Laura C.; Drasgow, Erik; Martin, Christian A.

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a sequence of two studies on the use of discrete-trial functional analysis and functional communication training. First, we used discrete-trial functional analysis (DTFA) to identify the function of problem behavior in three adults with intellectual disabilities and problem behavior. Results indicated clear patterns of problem…

  3. High prevalence of thymic tissue in adults with human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection.

    PubMed Central

    McCune, J M; Loftus, R; Schmidt, D K; Carroll, P; Webster, D; Swor-Yim, L B; Francis, I R; Gross, B H; Grant, R M

    1998-01-01

    The thymus in adults infected with the HIV-1 is generally thought to be inactive, both because of age-related involution and viral destruction. We have revisited the question of thymic function in adults, using chest-computed tomography (CT) to measure thymic tissue in HIV-1-seropositive (n = 99) or HIV-1-seronegative (n = 32) subjects, and correlating these results with the level of circulating CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells that are phenotypically described as naive thymic emigrants. Abundant thymic tissue was detectable in many (47/99) HIV-1-seropositive adults, aged 20-59. Independent of age, radiographic demonstration of thymic tissue was significantly associated with both a higher CD4(+) T cell count (P = 0.02) and a higher percentage and absolute number of circulating naive (CD45RA+CD62L+) CD4(+) T cells (P < 0.04). The prevalence of an abundant thymus was especially high in younger HIV-1-seropositive adults ( 40 yr) regardless of CD4 count (P = 0.03). These studies suggest that the thymus is functional in some but not all adults with HIV-1 disease. PMID:9616201

  4. Loss of function of the yellow-e gene causes dehydration-induced mortality of adult Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Noh, Mi Young; Kramer, Karl J; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam; Beeman, Richard W; Kanost, Michael R; Arakane, Yasuyuki

    2015-03-15

    Yellow protein (dopachrome conversion enzyme, DCE) is involved in the melanin biosynthetic pathway that significantly accelerates pigmentation reactions in insects. Recent studies have suggested that the insect yellow genes represent a rapidly evolving gene family generating functionally diverse paralogs, but the exact physiological functions of several yellow genes are still not understood. To study the function(s) of one of the yellow genes, yellow-e (TcY-e), in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, we performed real-time PCR to analyze its developmental and tissue-specific expression, and utilized immunohistochemistry to identify the localization of the TcY-e protein in adult cuticle. Injection of double-stranded RNA for TcY-e (dsTcY-e) into late instar larvae had no effect on larval-pupal molting or pupal development. The pupal cuticle, including that lining the setae, gin traps and urogomphi, underwent normal tanning. Adult cuticle tanning including that of the head, mandibles and legs viewed through the translucent pupal cuticle was initiated on schedule (pupal days 4-5), indicating that TcY-e is not required for pupal or pharate adult cuticle pigmentation in T. castaneum. The subsequent pupal-adult molt, however, was adversely affected. Although pupal cuticle apolysis and slippage were evident, some of the adults (~25%) were unable to shed their exuvium and died entrapped in their pupal cuticle. In addition, the resulting adults rapidly became highly desiccated. Interestingly, both the failure of the pupal-adult molt and desiccation-induced mortality were prevented by maintaining the dsTcY-e-treated insects at 100% relative humidity (rh). However, when the high humidity-rescued adults were removed from 100% rh and transferred to 50% rh, they rapidly dehydrated and died, whereas untreated beetles thrived throughout development at 50% rh. We also observed that the body color of the high humidity-rescued dsTcY-e-adults was slightly darker than that of control animals. These results support the hypothesis that TcY-e has a role not only in normal body pigmentation in T. castaneum adults but also has a vital waterproofing function. PMID:25614237

  5. Effects of air pollution on adult pulmonary function

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, X.P.; Dockery, D.W.; Wang, L.H. (School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, MA (USA))

    1991-07-01

    The authors conducted a study in three representative areas of Beijing to determine respiratory health effects of indoor and outdoor air pollution. In August 1986, they measured the lung function of 1,440 adults who were 40-69 y of age and who had never smoked. Forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1.0) were adjusted for height, sex, and age. Outdoor ambient air pollution measurements from the World Health Organization Global Air Pollution Monitoring Station were very different in the three study areas; the annual mean concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in residential, suburban, and industrial areas were 128, 18, and 57 micrograms/m3, respectively, and annual mean concentrations of total suspended particulate matter (TSPM) were 389, 261, and 449 micrograms/m3, respectively. Coal was most frequently used for domestic heating in the residential (92%) and suburban (96%) areas compared with the industrial area (17%). Heating with coal was associated with a reduced FEV1.0 (-91 {plus minus} 36 ml) and FVC (-84 {plus minus} 41 ml). Living in the residential area was associated with an additional reduction in FEV1.0 (-69 {plus minus} 34 ml) and FVC (-257 {plus minus} 37 ml). After the authors adjusted for age, height, and sex, an inverse linear association was found between In outdoor SO2 (or TSPM) concentration and FEV1.0 and FVC in subjects who had and had not used coal stove heating. Regression analysis results showed that a per-unit increase in In SO2 (TSPM) concentration (microgram/m3) could result in a 35.6 (131.4) ml reduction in FEV1.0 and a 142.2 (478.7) ml reduction in FVC.

  6. Pulse wave velocity and cognitive function in older adults.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Wenjun; Cruickshanks, Karen J; Schubert, Carla R; Carlsson, Cynthia M; Chappell, Richard J; Klein, Barbara E K; Klein, Ronald; Acher, Charles W

    2014-01-01

    Arterial stiffness may be associated with cognitive function. In this study, pulse wave velocity (PWV) was measured from the carotid to femoral (CF-PWV) and from the carotid to radial (CR-PWV) with the Complior SP System. Cognitive function was measured by 6 tests of executive function, psychomotor speed, memory, and language fluency. A total of 1433 participants were included (mean age 75 y, 43% men). Adjusting for age, sex, education, pulse rate, hemoglobin A1C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hypertension, cardiovascular disease history, smoking, drinking, and depression symptoms, a CF-PWV>12 m/s was associated with a lower Mini-Mental State Examination score (coefficient: -0.31, SE: 0.11, P=0.005), fewer words recalled on Auditory Verbal Learning Test (coefficient: -1.10, SE: 0.43, P=0.01), and lower score on the composite cognition score (coefficient: -0.10, SE: 0.05, P=0.04) and marginally significantly associated with longer time to complete Trail Making Test-part B (coefficient: 6.30, SE: 3.41, P=0.06), CF-PWV was not associated with Trail Making Test-part A, Digit Symbol Substation Test, or Verbal Fluency Test. No associations were found between CR-PWV and cognitive performance measures. Higher large artery stiffness was associated with worse cognitive function, and longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these associations. PMID:23632267

  7. Premorbid factors in relation to motor, memory, and executive functions deficits in adult schizophrenia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marshall L Silverstein; George Mavrolefteros; Ayme Turnbull

    2003-01-01

    This study examined two areas of premorbid adjustment (attentional functioning and social adaptation) and three areas of adult neuropsychological performance (executive functions, learning\\/memory, and motor functions) in a clinically stable outpatient sample of schizophrenics (n=61). The study examined three components of premorbid attentional functioning (concentration, hyperactivity, and requiring supervision for organizing activities or tasks) and three components of premorbid social

  8. Functional mitochondrial analysis in acute brain sections from adult rats reveals mitochondrial dysfunction in a rat model of migraine.

    PubMed

    Fried, Nathan T; Moffat, Cynthia; Seifert, Erin L; Oshinsky, Michael L

    2014-12-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in many neurological disorders that only develop or are much more severe in adults, yet no methodology exists that allows for medium-throughput functional mitochondrial analysis of brain sections from adult animals. We developed a technique for quantifying mitochondrial respiration in acutely isolated adult rat brain sections with the Seahorse XF Analyzer. Evaluating a range of conditions made quantifying mitochondrial function from acutely derived adult brain sections from the cortex, cerebellum, and trigeminal nucleus caudalis possible. Optimization of this technique demonstrated that the ideal section size was 1 mm wide. We found that sectioning brains at physiological temperatures was necessary for consistent metabolic analysis of trigeminal nucleus caudalis sections. Oxygen consumption in these sections was highly coupled to ATP synthesis, had robust spare respiratory capacities, and had limited nonmitochondrial respiration, all indicative of healthy tissue. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this technique by identifying a decreased spare respiratory capacity in the trigeminal nucleus caudalis of a rat model of chronic migraine, a neurological disorder that has been associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. This technique allows for 24 acutely isolated sections from multiple brain regions of a single adult rat to be analyzed simultaneously with four sequential drug treatments, greatly advancing the ability to study mitochondrial physiology in adult neurological disorders. PMID:25252946

  9. Developmental integration in a functional unit: deciphering processes from adult dental morphology.

    PubMed

    Labonne, Gaëlle; Navarro, Nicolas; Laffont, Rémi; Chateau-Smith, Carmela; Montuire, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of mammalian dentition is constrained by functional necessity and by the non-independence of morphological structures. Efficient chewing implies coherent tooth coordination from development to motion, involving covariation patterns (integration) within dental parts. Using geometric morphometrics, we investigate the modular organization of the highly derived vole dentition. Integration patterns between and within the upper and lower molar rows are analyzed to identify potential modules and their origins (functional and developmental). Results support an integrated adult dentition pattern for both developmental and functional aspects. The integration patterns between opposing molar pairs suggest a transient role for the second upper and lower molars during the chewing motion. Upper and lower molar rows form coherent units but the relative integration of molar pairs is in contradiction with existing developmental models. Emphasis on the first three cusps to grow leads to a very different integration pattern, which would be congruent with developmental models. The early developmental architecture of traits is masked by later stages of growth, but may still be deciphered from the adult phenotype, if careful attention is paid to relevant features. PMID:25040671

  10. Effect of Nutritional Supplements on Immune Function and Body Weight in Malnourished Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cheskin, Lawrence J.; Margolick, Joseph; Kahan, Scott; Mitola, Andrea H.; Poddar, Kavita H.; Nilles, Tricia; Kolge, Sanjivani; Menendez, Frederick; Ridoré, Michelande; Wang, Shing-Jung; Chou, Jacob; Carlson, Eve

    2010-01-01

    In the United States, approximately 5% of the population is malnourished or has low body weight, which can adversely affect immune function. Malnutrition is more prevalent in older adults and is often a result of energy imbalance from various causes. Dietary supplementation to promote positive energy balance can reverse malnutrition, but has not been assessed for its effect on immune parameters. This 8-week clinical feeding trial evaluated the effect of a commercially available, high-protein, high-energy formula on body weight and immune parameters in 30 adult volunteers with body-mass indices (BMI) <21 kg/m2. After the intervention, participants gained a mean of 3.74 lbs and increased BMI by 0.58 kg/m2. The intervention improved lean body mass and limited body fat accumulation. However, no clinically significant improvements in immune measures were observed. These results support the use of high-protein, high-energy supplements in the treatment of underweight/malnutrition. Further investigation utilizing feeding studies of longer duration, and/or studying severely malnourished individuals may be needed to detect an effect on immune parameters of weight gain promoted by nutritional supplements. PMID:23966789

  11. Assessing Function and Endurance in Adults with Spinal and Bulbar Muscular Atrophy: Validity of the Adult Myopathy Assessment Tool

    PubMed Central

    Harris-Love, Michael O.; Fernandez-Rhodes, Lindsay; Joe, Galen; Shrader, Joseph A.; Kokkinis, Angela; La Pean Kirschner, Alison; Auh, Sungyoung; Chen, Cheunju; Li, Li; Levy, Ellen; Davenport, Todd E.; Di Prospero, Nicholas A.; Fischbeck, Kenneth H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. The adult myopathy assessment tool (AMAT) is a performance-based battery comprised of functional and endurance subscales that can be completed in approximately 30 minutes without the use of specialized equipment. The purpose of this study was to determine the construct validity and internal consistency of the AMAT with a sample of adults with spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA). Methods. AMAT validity was assessed in 56-male participants with genetically confirmed SBMA (mean age, 53?±?10 years). The participants completed the AMAT and assessments for disease status, strength, and functional status. Results. Lower AMAT scores were associated with longer disease duration (r = ?0.29; P < 0.03) and lower serum androgen levels (r = 0.49–0.59; P < 0.001). The AMAT was significantly correlated with strength and functional status (r = 0.82–0.88; P < 0.001). The domains of the AMAT exhibited good internal consistency (Cronbach's ??=?0.77–0.89; P < 0.001). Conclusions. The AMAT is a standardized, performance-based tool that may be used to assess functional limitations and muscle endurance. The AMAT has good internal consistency, and the construct validity of the AMAT is supported by its significant associations with hormonal, strength, and functional characteristics of adults with SBMA. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT00303446. PMID:24876969

  12. Relation of Childhood Socioeconomic Status and Family Environment to Adult Metabolic Functioning in the CARDIA Study

    E-print Network

    Lehman, Barbara J.

    a history of physical or sexual abuse to be associated with a broad array of physical symptoms and medicalRelation of Childhood Socioeconomic Status and Family Environment to Adult Metabolic Functioning measures of childhood socioeconomic status (SES), risky early family environment (RF), adult psychosocial

  13. Functional and electrophysiological changes after graded traumatic spinal cord injury in adult rat

    E-print Network

    Harkema, Susan

    Functional and electrophysiological changes after graded traumatic spinal cord injury in adult rat,b,d , Christopher B. Shieldsa,b,d , Scott R. Whittemorea,b,d,* a Kentucky Spinal Cord Injury Research Center spinal cord injury (SCI) was created in the adult rat spinal cord using the Infinite Horizons (IH

  14. Effect of Atomoxetine on Executive Function Impairments in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Thomas E.; Holdnack, James; Saylor, Keith; Adler, Lenard; Spencer, Thomas; Williams, David W.; Padival, Anoop K.; Schuh, Kory; Trzepacz, Paula T.; Kelsey, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effect of atomoxetine on ADHD-related executive functions over a 6-month period using the Brown Attention-Deficit Disorder Scale (BADDS) for Adults, a normed, 40-item, self-report scale in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Method: In a randomized, double-blind clinical trial, adults with ADHD…

  15. Shared and Distinctive Origins and Correlates of Adult Attachment Representations: The Developmental Organization of Romantic Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haydon, Katherine C.; Collins, W. A.; Salvatore, Jessica E.; Simpson, Jeffry A.; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2012-01-01

    To test proposals regarding the hierarchical organization of adult attachment, this study examined developmental origins of generalized and romantic attachment representations and their concurrent associations with romantic functioning. Participants (N = 112) in a 35-year prospective study completed the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) and Current…

  16. Physical activity in prefrail older adults: confidence and satisfaction related to physical function

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined the hypothesis that physical activity will have favorable effects on measures of self-efficacy for a 400-m walk and satisfaction with physical functioning in older adults 701 years of age who have deficits in mobility. We randomized a total of 412 adults aged 70–89 years at elevated risk...

  17. Speech production variability in fricatives of children and adults: Results of functional data analysis

    E-print Network

    Lucero, Jorge Carlos

    Speech production variability in fricatives of children and adults: Results of functional data intrasubject variability in children than adults, in speech as well as nonspeech tasks, but authors have to explain developmental differences in speech production variability. © 2008 Acoustical Society of America

  18. Health, functioning, and disability in older adults--present status and future implications.

    PubMed

    Chatterji, Somnath; Byles, Julie; Cutler, David; Seeman, Teresa; Verdes, Emese

    2015-02-01

    Ageing is a dynamic process, and trends in the health status of older adults aged at least 60 years vary over time because of several factors. We examined reported trends in morbidity and mortality in older adults during the past two decades to identify patterns of ageing across the world. We showed some evidence for compression of morbidity (ie, a reduced amount of time spent in worse health), in four types of studies: 1) of good quality based on assessment criteria scores; 2) those in which a disability-related or impairment-related measure of morbidity was used; 3) longitudinal studies; or 4) studies undertaken in the USA and other high-income countries. Many studies, however, reported contrasting evidence (ie, for an expansion of morbidity), but with different methods, these measures are not directly comparable. Expansion of morbidity was more common when trends in chronic disease prevalence were studied. Our secondary analysis of data from longitudinal ageing surveys presents similar results. However, patterns of limitations in functioning vary substantially between countries and within countries over time, with no discernible explanation. Data from low-income countries are very sparse, and efforts to obtain information about the health of older adults in less-developed regions of the world are urgently needed. We especially need studies that focus on refining measurements of health, functioning, and disability in older people, with a core set of domains of functioning, that investigate the effects of these evolving patterns on the health-care system and their economic implications. PMID:25468158

  19. High Prevalence of Self-Reported Photophobia in Adult ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Kooij, J. J. Sandra; Bijlenga, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Many adult outpatients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) report an oversensitivity to light. We explored the link between ADHD and photophobia in an online survey (N?=?494). Self-reported photophobia was prevalent in 69% of respondents with, and in 28% of respondents without, ADHD (symptoms). The ADHD (symptoms) group wore sunglasses longer during daytime in all seasons. Photophobia may be related to the functioning of the eyes, which mediate dopamine and melatonin production systems in the eye. In the brain, dopamine and melatonin are involved in both ADHD and circadian rhythm disturbances. Possibly, the regulation of the dopamine and melatonin systems in the eyes and in the brain are related. Despite the study’s limitations, the results are encouraging for further study on the pathophysiology of ADHD, eye functioning, and circadian rhythm disturbances. PMID:25540636

  20. The Impact of Sustained Engagement on Cognitive Function in Older Adults: The Synapse Project

    PubMed Central

    Park, Denise C.; Lodi-Smith, Jennifer; Drew, Linda; Haber, Sara; Hebrank, Andrew; Bischof, Gérard N.; Aamodt, Whitley

    2014-01-01

    In the research reported here, we tested the hypothesis that sustained engagement in learning new skills that activated working memory, episodic memory, and reasoning over a period of 3 months would enhance cognitive function in older adults. In three conditions with high cognitive demands, participants learned to quilt, learned digital photography, or engaged in both activities for an average of 16.51 hr a week for 3 months. Results at posttest indicated that episodic memory was enhanced in these productive-engagement conditions relative to receptive-engagement conditions, in which participants either engaged in nonintellectual activities with a social group or performed low-demand cognitive tasks with no social contact. The findings suggest that sustained engagement in cognitively demanding, novel activities enhances memory function in older adulthood, but, somewhat surprisingly, we found limited cognitive benefits of sustained engagement in social activities. PMID:24214244

  1. High-resolution interferometric imaging of stress propagation in pediatric and adult skulls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conerty, Michelle D.; Castracane, James; Clow, Lawrence P., Jr.; Koltai, Peter J.; Mouzakes, Jason

    1997-05-01

    Variations based on bone growth and development make stress and fracture propagation differ greatly in pediatric skulls as compared to adult skulls. Differentiating the stress propagation between the pediatric and adult skulls can improve diagnostic prediction when presented with direct frontal impact on a pediatric skull, a fairly common occurrence in the clinical environment. Critical diagnostic information can be learned from an in depth study of stress propagation as a function of impact force at critical locations on the periorbital region of the human skull. The Division of Pediatric Otolaryngology at Albany Medical College and InterScience, Inc. are utilizing electronic speckle pattern interferometry detection (ESPI) and high resolution imaging to evaluate and compare stress propagation in pediatric and adult skulls. A dual detection ESPI system was developed which integrates a medium resolution (2/3') CCD capable of real-time image processing, with a high resolution, megapixel detector capable of limited real time acquisition and image processing in software. Options to allow for high speed detection include integrating a custom, high performance image intensifier with the megapixel detector leg to be used as a high speed gate. The dual optical layout will allow for continuous and pulsed ESPI evaluation of calibrated impacts at specific landmarks on the skull. The goal of this work is to produce a full quantitative analysis of the stress propagation in pediatric versus adult skulls for a better understanding of bone dynamics. The work presented below concentrates on the development of the dual detection ESPI system and initial results achieved with an adult cadaver skull.

  2. DOES FAMILY OF ORIGIN FUNCTIONING PREDICT ADULT SOMATIC COMPLAINTS?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has long been believed that adult somatic complaints are associated with early family dysfunction. Yet few studies have examined this hypothesis in community samples, where medically unexplained symptom complaints are estimated to be very common. Given the potential population-wide impact of subt...

  3. Sport-Related Concussion and Sensory Function in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Robert D.; Broglio, Steven P.; Hillman, Charles H.

    2014-01-01

    Context: The long-term implications of concussive injuries for brain and cognitive health represent a growing concern in the public consciousness. As such, identifying measures sensitive to the subtle yet persistent effects of concussive injuries is warranted. Objective: To investigate how concussion sustained early in life influences visual processing in young adults. We predicted that young adults with a history of concussion would show decreased sensory processing, as noted by a reduction in P1 event-related potential component amplitude. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Thirty-six adults (18 with a history of concussion, 18 controls) between the ages of 20 and 28 years completed a pattern-reversal visual evoked potential task while event-related potentials were recorded. Main Outcome Measure(s): The groups did not differ in any demographic variables (all P values > .05), yet those with a concussive history exhibited reduced P1 amplitude compared with the control participants (P = .05). Conclusions: These results suggest that concussion history has a negative effect on visual processing in young adults. Further, upper-level neurocognitive deficits associated with concussion may, in part, result from less efficient downstream sensory capture. PMID:24377961

  4. Cognitive Training Improves Sleep Quality and Cognitive Function among Older Adults with Insomnia

    PubMed Central

    Haimov, Iris; Shatil, Evelyn

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives To investigate the effect of an eight-week, home-based, personalized, computerized cognitive training program on sleep quality and cognitive performance among older adults with insomnia. Design Participants (n?=?51) were randomly allocated to a cognitive training group (n?=?34) or to an active control group (n?=?17). The participants in the cognitive training group completed an eight-week, home-based, personalized, computerized cognitive training program, while the participants in the active control group completed an eight-week, home-based program involving computerized tasks that do not engage high-level cognitive functioning. Before and after training, all participants' sleep was monitored for one week by an actigraph and their cognitive performance was evaluated. Setting Community setting: residential sleep/performance testing facility. Participants Fifty-one older adults with insomnia (aged 65–85). Interventions Eight weeks of computerized cognitive training for older adults with insomnia. Results Mixed models for repeated measures analysis showed between-group improvements for the cognitive training group on both sleep quality (sleep onset latency and sleep efficiency) and cognitive performance (avoiding distractions, working memory, visual memory, general memory and naming). Hierarchical linear regressions analysis in the cognitive training group indicated that improved visual scanning is associated with earlier advent of sleep, while improved naming is associated with the reduction in wake after sleep onset and with the reduction in number of awakenings. Likewise the results indicate that improved “avoiding distractions” is associated with an increase in the duration of sleep. Moreover, the results indicate that in the active control group cognitive decline observed in working memory is associated with an increase in the time required to fall asleep. Conclusions New learning is instrumental in promoting initiation and maintenance of sleep in older adults with insomnia. Lasting and personalized cognitive training is particularly indicated to generate the type of learning necessary for combined cognitive and sleep enhancements in this population. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00901641 PMID:23577218

  5. ORIGINAL RESEARCH--PSYCHOLOGY Sexual Function and Satisfaction in Adults Based on the

    E-print Network

    Meston, Cindy

    of Child Sexual Abuse Alessandra Rellini, MA,* and Cindy Meston, PhD *Department of Psychology, University sexual dysfunction. Rellini A, and Meston C. Sexual function and satisfaction in adults based

  6. Comparing illness presentation, treatment and functioning between patients with adolescent- and adult-onset psychosis.

    PubMed

    Hui, Christy Lai-Ming; Li, Adrienne Wing-Yee; Leung, Chung-Ming; Chang, Wing-Chung; Chan, Sherry Kit-Wa; Lee, Edwin Ho-Ming; Chen, Eric Yu-Hai

    2014-12-30

    Studies have shown that early- and adult-onset schizophrenia patients differ in pre-morbid traits, illness presentation, psychopathology, and prognosis. We aimed to compare adult-onset patients (age range 26-55 years) with an adolescent-onset cohort (15-25 years) in demographics, illness presentation and functioning at baseline. Participants were from two territory-wide early intervention services for adolescent-onset (n=671) and adult-onset psychosis patients (n=360) in Hong Kong. The adolescent-onset cohort had their initial psychotic episode from 2001-2003; retrospective data collection was done through systematic case note review. The adult-onset cohort was recruited for a larger interventional study from 2009-2011; information was collected via face-to-face interviews. Adult-onset psychosis was significantly associated with more females, more smokers, more non-local birth, more full-time employment, better functioning, poorer medication adherence, more psychiatric hospitalization and fewer with schizophrenia than adolescent-onset psychosis (mean age: 20.4). The effect sizes were small, except for medication adherence where a robust effect was found. No group difference in DUP was found. The finding that adult-onset patients had better functioning challenges the view that adolescent- and adult-onset psychoses share a similar prognostic trajectory. Implications for adapting intervention processes for adolescent- and adult-onset psychosis are discussed. PMID:25238985

  7. Altered Frontal and Temporal Brain Function during Olfactory Stimulation in Adult Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Schecklmann; Eva Schenk; Andreas Maisch; Susanne Kreiker; Christian Jacob; Andreas Warnke; Manfred Gerlach; Andreas J. Fallgatter; Marcel Romanos

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Olfactory processing depends on dopamine metabolism and orbitofrontal cortex functioning, both known to be disturbed in attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Some investigations suggested alterations in olfactory processing (identification and sensitivity) in childhood and adult ADHD. Methods: In the present study we investigated olfactory function (Sniffin’ Sticks) of 29 adult patients with ADHD (17 combined, 11 inattentive, and 1 hyperactive\\/impulsive subtype)

  8. Stability and Change in Health, Functional Abilities, and Behavior Problems among Adults with and without Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esbensen, Anna J.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Krauss, Marty Wyngaarden

    2008-01-01

    Changes in health, functional abilities, and behavior problems among 150 adults with Down syndrome and 240 adults with mental retardation due to other causes were examined with seven assessments over a 9-year period. Adults were primarily younger than 40, the age at which declines begin to be evident in individuals with Down syndrome. Adults with…

  9. Gender Differences in Functional Limitations in Adults Living with Type 2 Diabetes: Biobehavioral and Psychosocial Mediators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ching-Ju Chiu; Linda A. Wray

    2011-01-01

    Background  Differences in functional limitations between adults with and without diabetes are more evident in women than they are in\\u000a men.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Purpose  This study aims to investigate if there are gender differences in biological, behavioral, and psychosocial variables, and\\u000a how these gender-related variables explain the gender–functional limitations relationship in adults with type 2 diabetes.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We drew data on 1,619 adults with type

  10. More Young Adults at Risk for High Blood Pressure | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... young adults have high blood pressure. NIH-funded analysis indicates higher risk for young adults than previously ... health problems. Another healthy move is to limit alcohol intake. Excess alcohol can raise blood pressure as ...

  11. Conditions affecting primary cell cultures of functional adult rat hepatocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian A. Laishes; Gary M. Williams

    1976-01-01

    Summary  The conditions for obtaining representative, primary adult rat hepatocyte cultures were explored. The methods applied included\\u000a enzymatic liver perfusion which was nondestructive to hepatocytes, the prevention of aggregation of dissociated cells and\\u000a the selective attachment of viable cells. These procedures yielded a recovery of 50% of the liver cells which gave rise to\\u000a cultures representing 14% of the total liver

  12. The effects of vitamin D and calcium supplementation on pancreatic beta cell function, insulin sensitivity and glycemia in adults at high risk for diabetes. The CaDDM Randomized Controlled Trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Suboptimal vitamin D and calcium status has been associated with higher risk of type 2 diabetes in observational studies but evidence from trials is lacking. The objective of this trial was to determine whether vitamin D supplementation, with or without calcium, improves glucose homeostasis in adult...

  13. Parenting Style, Perfectionism, and Creativity in High-Ability and High-Achieving Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Angie L.; Lambert, Amber D.; Speirs Neumeister, Kristie L.

    2012-01-01

    The current study explores the potential relationships among perceived parenting style, perfectionism, and creativity in a high-ability and high-achieving young adult population. Using data from 323 honors college students at a Midwestern university, bivariate correlations suggested positive relationships between (a) permissive parenting style and…

  14. Functional Neuroanatomy of Executive Function after Neonatal Brain Injury in Adults Who Were Born Very Preterm

    PubMed Central

    Kalpakidou, Anastasia K.; Allin, Matthew P. G.; Walshe, Muriel; Giampietro, Vincent; McGuire, Philip K.; Rifkin, Larry; Murray, Robin M.; Nosarti, Chiara

    2014-01-01

    Individuals who were born very preterm (VPT; <33 gestational weeks) are at risk of experiencing deficits in tasks involving executive function in childhood and beyond. In addition, the type and severity of neonatal brain injury associated with very preterm birth may exert differential effects on executive functioning by altering its neuroanatomical substrates. Here we addressed this question by investigating with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) the haemodynamic response during executive-type processing using a phonological verbal fluency and a working memory task in VPT-born young adults who had experienced differing degrees of neonatal brain injury. 12 VPT individuals with a history of periventricular haemorrhage and ventricular dilatation (PVH+VD), 17 VPT individuals with a history of uncomplicated periventricular haemorrhage (UPVH), 13 VPT individuals with no history of neonatal brain injury and 17 controls received an MRI scan whilst completing a verbal fluency task with two cognitive loads (‘easy’ and ‘hard’ letters). Two groups of VPT individuals (PVH+VD; n?=?10, UPVH; n?=?8) performed an n-back task with three cognitive loads (1-, 2-, 3-back). Results demonstrated that VPT individuals displayed hyperactivation in frontal, temporal, and parietal cortices and in caudate nucleus, insula and thalamus compared to controls, as demands of the verbal fluency task increased, regardless of type of neonatal brain injury. On the other hand, during the n-back task and as working memory load increased, the PVH+VD group showed less engagement of the frontal cortex than the UPVH group. In conclusion, this study suggests that the functional neuroanatomy of different executive-type processes is altered following VPT birth and that neural activation associated with specific aspects of executive function (i.e., working memory) may be particularly sensitive to the extent of neonatal brain injury. PMID:25438043

  15. Effects of Tai Chi on cognitive function in community-dwelling older adults: a review.

    PubMed

    Miller, Sally M; Taylor-Piliae, Ruth E

    2014-01-01

    As the population of the United States ages, activities to maintain or improve cognitive function will become increasingly important to preserve functional ability, independence and health-related quality of life. This article is a review of recent research on Tai Chi and cognitive function in community-dwelling older adults. Of the 12 studies reviewed, 10 reported improvement in measures of executive function, language, learning, and/or memory. Several design features make comparisons across studies challenging. As a moderate-intensity, low-impact form of exercise, Tai Chi is appropriate for older adults and seems to offer positive cognitive benefits. Recommendations for future research are provided. PMID:24252560

  16. Behavior Modification of Adult Illiterates and Functional Illiterates Who Learned To Read.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warsh, Herman Enoch

    The present study examined some effects of literacy achievement on the lives of 184 of the 215 adults who had successfully completed literacy training between 1962 and 1966 in the Flint, Michigan, Adult High School. Interviews and public records were used to gather data on student background, experiences during literary training, participants'…

  17. Adult Male Circumcision: Effects on Sexual Function and Sexual Satisfaction in Kisumu, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Krieger, John N.; Mehta, Supriya D.; Bailey, Robert C.; Agot, Kawango; Ndinya-Achola, Jeckoniah O.; Parker, Corette; Moses, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Male circumcision is being promoted for HIV prevention in high-risk heterosexual populations. However, there is a concern that circumcision may impair sexual function. Aim To assess adult male circumcision’s effect on men’s sexual function and pleasure. Methods Participants in a controlled trial of circumcision to reduce HIV incidence in Kisumu, Kenya were uncircumcised, HIV negative, sexually active men, aged 18–24 years, with a hemoglobin ?9.0 mmol/L. Exclusion criteria included foreskin covering less than half the glans, a condition that might unduly increase surgical risks, or a medical indication for circumcision. Participants were randomized 1:1 to either immediate circumcision or delayed circumcision after 2 years (control group). Detailed evaluations occurred at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Main Outcome Measures (i) Sexual function between circumcised and uncircumcised men; and (ii) sexual satisfaction and pleasure over time following circumcision. Results Between February 2002 and September 2005, 2,784 participants were randomized, including the 100 excluded from this analysis because they crossed over, were not circumcised within 30 days of randomization, did not complete baseline interviews, or were outside the age range. For the circumcision and control groups, respectively, rates of any reported sexual dysfunction decreased from 23.6% and 25.9% at baseline to 6.2% and 5.8% at month 24. Changes over time were not associated with circumcision status. Compared to before they were circumcised, 64.0% of circumcised men reported their penis was “much more sensitive,” and 54.5% rated their ease of reaching orgasm as “much more” at month 24. Conclusions Adult male circumcision was not associated with sexual dysfunction. Circumcised men reported increased penile sensitivity and enhanced ease of reaching orgasm. These data indicate that integration of male circumcision into programs to reduce HIV risk is unlikely to adversely effect male sexual function. PMID:18761593

  18. Intellectual Functioning in Adults with ADHD: A Meta-Analytic Examination of Full Scale IQ Differences between Adults with and without ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgett, David J.; Walker, Michael E.

    2006-01-01

    Although attention has been given to the intellectual functioning of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) relative to their non-ADHD peers, few studies have examined intellectual functioning in adults with ADHD. The purpose of the current investigation was to examine differences in intellectual ability between adults with…

  19. Functional dissociation of adult-born neurons along the dorsoventral axis of the dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Wu, Melody V; Hen, René

    2014-07-01

    Adult-born granule cells in the mammalian dentate gyrus have long been implicated in hippocampal dependent spatial learning and behavioral effects of chronic antidepressant treatment. Although recent anatomical and functional evidence indicates a dissociation of the dorsal and ventral regions of the hippocampus, it is not known if adult neurogenesis within each region specifically contributes to distinct functions or whether adult-born cells along the entire dorsoventral axis are required for these behaviors. We examined the role of distinct subpopulations of adult-born hippocampal granule cells in learning- and anxiety-related behaviors using low-dose focal x-irradiation directed specifically to the dorsal or ventral dentate gyrus. Our findings indicate a functional dissociation between adult-born neurons along the longitudinal axis of the dentate gyrus wherein new neurons in the dorsal dentate gyrus are required for timely acquisition of contextual discrimination while immature neurons in the ventral dentate gyrus are necessary for anxiolytic/antidepressant-related effects of fluoxetine. Interestingly, when contexts are presented with altered temporal cues, or fluoxetine is administered alongside chronic glucocorticoid treatment, this dissociation is abrogated such that adult-born neurons across the entire dorsoventral extent of the dentate gyrus appear to contribute to these behaviors. Our results suggest that individual subpopulations of adult-born hippocampal neurons may be sufficient to mediate distinct behaviors in certain conditions, but are required to act in concert in more challenging situations. PMID:24550158

  20. Functional Brain Activation Associated with Inhibitory Control Deficits in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Coxon, James P; Goble, Daniel J; Leunissen, Inge; Van Impe, Annouchka; Wenderoth, Nicole; Swinnen, Stephan P

    2014-08-01

    In young adults, canceling an initiated action depends on the right inferior frontal cortex (IFC), presupplementary motor area (preSMA), and the basal ganglia. Older adults show response inhibition deficits, but how this relates to functional brain activation remains unclear. Using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging, we tested whether older adults (N = 20) exhibit overactivation during stop-signal inhibition as shown for attentional control tasks, or reduced activity compared with young adults (N = 20). We used a modified stop-signal task involving coupled bimanual responses and manipulated whether both or just one hand was cued to stop. Stop-task difficulty was matched across groups. We found a group by condition interaction in supramarginal gyrus, anterior insula, rIFC, and preSMA, with activation increasing for successful Stop versus Go trials in the young adults only. Comparing the groups on Stop trials revealed preSMA and striatum hypoactivity for older adults. White matter tracts connecting rIFC, preSMA, and the subthalamic nuclei were associated with stronger activation of preSMA in older adults, suggesting that maintenance of the brain's structure has positive implications for brain function. PMID:25085883

  1. Psychiatric Comorbidity and Functioning in a Clinically Referred Population of Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joshi, Gagan; Wozniak, Janet; Petty, Carter; Martelon, Mary Kate; Fried, Ronna; Bolfek, Anela; Kotte, Amelia; Stevens, Jonathan; Furtak, Stephannie L.; Bourgeois, Michelle; Caruso, Janet; Caron, Ashley; Biederman, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    To systematically examine the patterns of psychiatric comorbidity and functioning in clinically referred adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Psychiatrically referred adults with and without ASD were compared on measures assessing for psychiatric comorbidity and psychosocial functioning. Sixty-three adults with ASD participated in the…

  2. High-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy in adults.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Masaji

    2015-01-01

    High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) oxygen therapy comprises an air/oxygen blender, an active humidifier, a single heated circuit, and a nasal cannula. It delivers adequately heated and humidified medical gas at up to 60 L/min of flow and is considered to have a number of physiological effects: reduction of anatomical dead space, PEEP effect, constant fraction of inspired oxygen, and good humidification. While there have been no big randomized clinical trials, it has been gaining attention as an innovative respiratory support for critically ill patients. Most of the available data has been published in the neonatal field. Evidence with critically ill adults are poor; however, physicians apply it to a variety of patients with diverse underlying diseases: hypoxemic respiratory failure, acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, post-extubation, pre-intubation oxygenation, sleep apnea, acute heart failure, patients with do-not-intubate order, and so on. Many published reports suggest that HFNC decreases breathing frequency and work of breathing and reduces needs of escalation of respiratory support in patients with diverse underlying diseases. Some important issues remain to be resolved, such as its indication, timing of starting and stopping HFNC, and escalating treatment. Despite these issues, HFNC oxygen therapy is an innovative and effective modality for the early treatment of adults with respiratory failure with diverse underlying diseases. PMID:25866645

  3. Renal function in adult Jamaicans with homozygous sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Asnani, Monika R; Reid, Marvin E

    2014-11-28

    Objectives As populations with sickle cell disease (SCD) live longer, it is likely that the burden of renal dysfunction will be an increasing challenge for patients. In this study, we aim to determine the prevalence of renal dysfunction and its possible predictors in persons with SCD. Methods Ninety-eight patients with the homozygous SCD (SS disease;55 females, 43 males; mean age 34 ± 2.3 years) in their steady state had measurements of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using 99mTc-DTPA nuclear renal scan, serum creatinine, and urinary albumin: creatinine ratio. Other haematological and biochemical measurements and data on clinical events were completed for each individual. Results Chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages 3 and above was present in 6% of the study population, and 65.3% had albuminuria. Hyperfiltration occurred in 24.5% patients with two-thirds having albuminuria as well. Serum creatinine was an insensitive marker of renal dysfunction as started rising after measured GFR fell below 50 mls/min/1.73 m(2). Multiple regression modelling showed serum creatinine and height to be significantly associated with GFR. Serum creatinine was also significantly associated with albuminuria, and age was not a predictor in any of the models. There was no association with markers of haemolysis. Conclusion We conclude that the burden of renal dysfunction is quite high in this young cohort with SS disease. Serum creatinine is a late and insensitive marker of worsening glomerular function, and screening for albuminuria could begin early in life. Longitudinal studies will continue to increase our understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms that lead to CKD in this specific population. PMID:25431929

  4. Esophageal peristaltic defects in adults with functional dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Ratuapli, Shiva K; Hansel, Stephanie L; Umar, Sarah B; Burdick, George E; Ramirez, Francisco C; Fleischer, David E; Harris, Lucinda A; Lacy, Brian E; DiBaise, John K; Crowell, Michael D

    2014-08-01

    Functional dysphagia (FD) is characterized by the presence of dysphagia without evidence of mechanical esophageal obstruction, GERD, and histopathology-based esophageal motor disorders. Dysphagia is common in older patients; however, there is a paucity of information regarding the type and frequency of peristaltic abnormalities compared to younger patients. Based on recently validated criteria for classification of weak peristalsis using high-resolution manometry (HRM), we hypothesized that older patients with FD would have more peristaltic defects detected by HRM compared to younger FD patients. A retrospective review of our motility database yielded 65 patients that met inclusion criteria. Patients were divided into two groups based on age (younger: <70 years; older: ?70 years). Patients were interviewed, completed a quality-of-life questionnaire, and underwent solid-state HRM. The two groups differed in age but in no other demographic characteristics, severity of dysphagia, or quality of life. Dyspeptic symptoms, including nausea (p < 0.001), early satiety (p = 0.01), bloating (p = 0.02), and belching (p = 0.01), were also more prevalent in younger FD patients. Older age was associated with weak peristalsis involving frequent failed peristalsis, small proximal peristaltic defects (2-5 cm), and large proximal peristaltic defects (>5 cm) (p < 0.001). The mean contraction amplitude was also lower in the older group (p < 0.05). These data support the hypothesis that older patients with FD have a higher frequency of peristaltic abnormalities on HRM compared to younger patients. Older age was associated with increased frequency of weak peristalsis with small and large peristaltic defects. PMID:24894375

  5. Alteration of mitochondrial function in adult rat offspring of malnourished dams

    PubMed Central

    Reusens, Brigitte; Theys, Nicolas; Remacle, Claude

    2011-01-01

    Under-nutrition as well as over-nutrition during pregnancy has been associated with the development of adult diseases such as diabetes and obesity. Both epigenetic modifications and programming of the mitochondrial function have been recently proposed to explain how altered intrauterine metabolic environment may produce such a phenotype. This review aims to report data reported in several animal models of fetal malnutrition due to maternal low protein or low calorie diet, high fat diet as well as reduction in placental blood flow. We focus our overview on the ? cell. We highlight that, notwithstanding early nutritional events, mitochondrial dysfunctions resulting from different alteration by diet or gender are programmed. This may explain the higher propensity to develop obesity and diabetes in later life. PMID:21954419

  6. Nitric oxide regulates multiple functions and fate of adult progenitor and stem cells.

    PubMed

    Bonafè, Francesca; Guarnieri, Carlo; Muscari, Claudio

    2015-03-01

    Nitric oxide is an endogenous gas which exerts autocrine/paracrine actions by different signaling pathways and/or direct interactions with intracellular compounds and structures. Several processes are regulated by nitric oxide in stem cells including self-renewal, viability, migration, proliferation, and differentiation. The modulation of cell functions depends on its concentrations because opposite effects can be observed when low and high levels of nitric oxide are compared. Here, the responses to nitric oxide of adult stem/progenitor cells which are often used in regenerative medicine, including mesenchymal stem cells, hematopoietic stem cells, neural stem cells, endothelial progenitor cells, satellite cells, and fibro-adipogenic precursor cells, are reviewed. Therapeutic strategies which employ drugs releasing nitric oxide or modulating nitric oxide intracellular pathways are suggested to perform new ex vivo preconditioning or in vivo treatments suitable for stem/progenitor cell therapy and tissue engineering applications. PMID:25526859

  7. Self-renewal pattern-associated genes and their role in adult stem cell functions

    E-print Network

    Noh, Minsoo

    2006-01-01

    Molecular markers for adult stem cells (ASCs) are highly demanded for research and clinical applications. The development of specific molecular markers for ASCs has been difficult mainly due to the technical barriers in ...

  8. Shared and distinctive origins and correlates of adult attachment representations: the developmental organization of romantic functioning.

    PubMed

    Haydon, Katherine C; Collins, W A; Salvatore, Jessica E; Simpson, Jeffry A; Roisman, Glenn I

    2012-01-01

    To test proposals regarding the hierarchical organization of adult attachment, this study examined developmental origins of generalized and romantic attachment representations and their concurrent associations with romantic functioning. Participants (N=112) in a 35-year prospective study completed the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) and Current Relationship Interview (CRI). Two-way analysis of variance tested interactive associations of AAI and CRI security with infant attachment, early parenting quality, preschool ego resiliency, adolescent friendship quality, and adult romantic functioning. Both representations were associated with earlier parenting and core attachment-related romantic behavior, but romantic representations had distinctive links to ego resiliency and relationship-specific romantic behaviors. Attachment representations were independent and did not interactively predict romantic functioning, suggesting that they confer somewhat distinctive benefits for romantic functioning. PMID:22694197

  9. Mouse model of CADASIL reveals novel insights into Notch3 function in adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ehret, Fanny; Vogler, Steffen; Pojar, Sherin; Elliott, David A; Bradke, Frank; Steiner, Barbara; Kempermann, Gerd

    2015-03-01

    Could impaired adult hippocampal neurogenesis be a relevant mechanism underlying CADASIL (cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy)? Memory symptoms in CADASIL, the most common hereditary form of vascular dementia, are usually thought to be primarily due to vascular degeneration and white matter lacunes. Since adult hippocampal neurogenesis, a process essential for the integration of new spatial memory occurs in a highly vascularized niche, we considered dysregulation of adult neurogenesis as a potential mechanism for the manifestation of dementia in CADASIL. Analysis in aged mice overexpressing Notch3 with a CADASIL mutation, revealed vascular deficits in arteries of the hippocampal fissure but not in the niche of the dentate gyrus. At 12months of age, cell proliferation and survival of newborn neurons were reduced not only in CADASIL mice but also in transgenic controls overexpressing wild type Notch3. At 6months, hippocampal neurogenesis was altered in CADASIL mice independent of overt vascular abnormalities in the fissure. Further, we identified Notch3 expression in hippocampal precursor cells and maturing neurons in vivo as well as in cultured hippocampal precursor cells. Overexpression and knockdown experiments showed that Notch3 signaling negatively regulated precursor cell proliferation. Notch3 overexpression also led to deficits in KCl-induced precursor cell activation. This suggests a cell-autonomous effect of Notch3 signaling in the regulation of precursor proliferation and activation and a loss-of-function effect in CADASIL. Consequently, besides vascular damage, aberrant precursor cell proliferation and differentiation due to Notch3 dysfunction might be an additional independent mechanism for the development of hippocampal dysfunction in CADASIL. PMID:25555543

  10. Medical and functional status of adults with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Murphy, K P; Molnar, G E; Lankasky, K

    1995-12-01

    One hundred and one adults (19 to 74 years of age) with cerebral palsy were interviewed and examined. There were 52 subjects with dyskinesia, 28 with spastic quadriparesis, 11 with spastic diplegia, and 10 with spastic hemiplegia. Neuromuscular dysfunction was mild in two cases, moderate in 72 and severe in 27. 76 per cent of the subjects had multiple musculoskeletal problems. In 63 per cent, these occurred under 50 years of age, suggesting that abnormal biomechanical forces and immobility had led to excessive physical stress and strain, overuse syndromes, and possibly early joint degeneration. A number of the patients had urinary complaints due to difficulties with toilet accessibility and possible neurogenic bladder. General health care seemed satisfactory for acute illnesses, but preventive health care was almost totally lacking. Treatment for the musuculoskeletal system and availability of adaptive devices were less adequate than for children with cerebral palsy. PMID:8566465

  11. A quantitative review of cognitive functioning in homeless adults.

    PubMed

    Depp, Colin A; Vella, Lea; Orff, Henry J; Twamley, Elizabeth W

    2015-02-01

    Homeless people experience elevated rates of risk factors for cognitive impairment. We reviewed available peer-reviewed studies reporting data from objective measures of cognition in samples identified as homeless. Pooled sample-weighted estimates of global cognitive screening measures, full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ), and premorbid IQ were calculated, in addition to pooled sample characteristics, to understand the representativeness of available studies. A total of 24 unique studies were identified, with 2969 subjects. The pooled estimate for the frequency of cognitive impairment was 25%, and the mean full-scale IQ score was 85, 1 standard deviation below the mean of the normal population. Cognitive impairment was found to be common among homeless adults and may be a transdiagnostic problem that impedes rehabilitative efforts in this population. Comparatively little data are available about cognition in homeless women and unsheltered persons. PMID:25594792

  12. The impact of cognitive functioning on mortality and the development of functional disability in older adults with diabetes: the second longitudinal study on aging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa C McGuire; Earl S Ford; Umed A Ajani

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For older adults without diabetes, cognitive functioning has been implicated as a predictor of death and functional disability for older adults and those with mild to severe cognitive impairment. However, little is known about the relationship between cognition functioning on mortality and the development of functional disability in late life for persons with diabetes. We examined the relative contribution

  13. Prevalence of celiac disease in adult patients with refractory functional dyspepsia: Value of routine duodenal biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Giangreco, Emiliano; D’agate, Cinzia; Barbera, Carmelo; Puzzo, Lidia; Aprile, Giuseppe; Naso, Pietro; Bonanno, Giacomo; Russo, Francesco Paolo; Nicoletti, Alessandra; Incarbone, Salvatore; Trama, Giuseppe; Russo, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the prevalence of celiac disease (CD) in adult patients referred to an open access gastroenterology clinic in the south of Italy and submitted to esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy (EGD) for evaluation of refractory functional dyspepsia. METHODS: Seven hundred and twenty six consecutive dyspeptic patients (282 male, 444 female; mean age 39.6 years, range 18-75 years) with unexplained prolonged dyspepsia were prospectively enrolled. Duodenal biopsies were taken and processed by standard staining. Histological evaluation was carried out according to the Marsh-Oberhuber criteria. RESULTS: The endoscopic findings were: normal in 61.2%, peptic lesions in 20.5%, malignancies in 0.5%, miscellaneous in 16.7%. CD was endoscopically diagnosed in 8 patients (1.1%), histologically in 15 patients (2%). The endoscopic features alone showed a sensitivity of 34.8% and specificity of 100%, with a positive predictive value (PPV) of 100% and a negative predictive value (NPP) of 97.9%. CONCLUSION: This prospective study showed that CD has a high prevalence (1:48) in adult dyspeptic patients and suggests the routine use of duodenal biopsy in this type of patient undergoing EGD. PMID:19058330

  14. Flexibility Training and Functional Ability in Older Adults: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Stathokostas, Liza; Little, Robert M. D.; Vandervoort, A. A.; Paterson, Donald H.

    2012-01-01

    Background. As indicated in a recent systematic review relating to Canada's Physical Activity Guidelines for Older Adults, exercise interventions in older adults can maintain or improve functional abilities. Less is known about the role of flexibility in the maintenance or improvement of functional abilities, and there currently does not exist a synthesis of the literature supporting a consensus on flexibility training prescription. Purpose. To systematically review the effects of flexibility-specific training interventions on measures of functional outcomes in healthy older adults over the age of 65 years. Methods. Five electronic databases were searched for intervention studies involving concepts related to aging, flexibility, functional outcomes, and training interventions. After evaluating the articles for relevance, 22 studies were considered. Results. The results suggested that while flexibility-specific interventions may have effects on range of motion (ROM) outcomes, there is conflicting information regarding both the relationship between flexibility interventions and functional outcomes or daily functioning. Conclusions. Due to the wide range of intervention protocols, body parts studied, and functional measurements, conclusive recommendations regarding flexibility training for older adults or the validity of flexibility training interventions as supplements to other forms of exercise, or as significant positive influences on functional ability, require further investigation. PMID:23209904

  15. The Influence of Family Factors on the Executive Functioning of Adult Children of Alcoholics in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Valarie M.; Kelley, Michelle L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined executive functioning in college aged adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs; n = 84) and non-ACOAs (188). We examined whether characteristics of the family environment and family responsibility in one's family of origin were associated with executive functioning above the contribution of ACOA status. ACOAs reported more…

  16. Psychosocial Functioning of Young Adults Who Have Experienced and Recovered From Major Depressive Disorder During Adolescence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter M. Lewinsohn; Paul Rohde; John R. Seeley; Daniel N. Klein; Ian H. Gotlib

    2003-01-01

    The authors examined whether adolescent major depressive disorder (MDD) was associated with difficulties in young adult functioning and whether differences would remain significant after accounting for nonmood disorder, MDD recurrence, functioning in adolescence, or current mood state. A total of 941 participants were assessed twice during adolescence and at age 24. In unadjusted analyses, adolescent MDD was associated with most

  17. Effects of Functional Mobility Skills Training for Adults with Severe Multiple Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whinnery, Stacie B.; Whinnery, Keith W.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a functional mobility program on the functional standing and walking skills of five adults with developmental disabilities. The Mobility Opportunities Via Education (MOVE) Curriculum was implemented using a multiple-baseline across subjects design. Repeated measures were taken during baseline, intervention…

  18. Cognitive function with glucose tolerance status and obesity in Chinese middle-aged and aged adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yanhui Lu; Juming Lu; Shuyu Wang; Chunlin Li; Lisheng Liu; Runping Zheng; Hui Tian; Xianling Wang; Lijuan Yang; Yuqing Zhang; Changyu Pan

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the relationship of cognitive function with glucose tolerance status and obesity in Chinese middle-aged or aged adults.Methods: A sample of 1722 subjects aged 40 years or order was investigated from four communities in Shijingshan District, Beijing, China. People with any emotional disorder, substance abuse, known diabetes or stroke were excluded. Global cognitive function was measured by the

  19. Functional Changes in Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krakovsky, Gina; Huth, Myra Martz; Lin, Li; Levin, Ron S.

    2007-01-01

    Children with multiple handicaps, including cerebral palsy (CP), often lose or regress in their functional ability through adolescence and young adulthood. The purpose of this study was to examine functional and psychosocial changes in children, adolescents, and young adults with CP. A retrospective chart review and a prospective telephone…

  20. Atypical Cerebral Lateralisation in Adults with Compensated Developmental Dyslexia Demonstrated Using Functional Transcranial Doppler Ultrasound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illingworth, Sarah; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.

    2009-01-01

    Functional transcranial Doppler ultrasound (fTCD) is a relatively new and non-invasive technique that assesses cerebral lateralisation through measurements of blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral arteries. In this study fTCD was used to compare functional asymmetry during a word generation task between a group of 30 dyslexic adults and a…

  1. The Functional Profile of Young Adults with Suspected Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tal-Saban, Miri; Zarka, Salman; Grotto, Itamar; Ornoy, Asher; Parush, Shula

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the non-academic and academic functioning of young adults with DCD, and investigated the emotional influences and the role of strategy use within this population. A random sample of 2379 adolescents and young adults aged 19-25 (1081 males [45.4%]; mean age = 20.68, SD = 3.42) was used to develop the instruments. From this sample, three…

  2. Loss of olfactory function and nutritional status in vital older adults and geriatric patients.

    PubMed

    Toussaint, Nicole; de Roon, Margot; van Campen, Jos P C M; Kremer, Stefanie; Boesveldt, Sanne

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the association of olfactory function and nutritional status in vital older adults and geriatric patients. Three hundred forty-five vital (mean age 67.1 years) and 138 geriatric older adults (mean age 80.9 years) were included. Nutritional status was assessed using the mini nutritional assessment-short form. The Sniffin' Sticks was used to measure olfactory function. Eleven percentage of the vital older adults were at risk of malnutrition, whereas 60% of the geriatric participants were malnourished or at risk. Only 2% of the vital older adults were anosmic, compared with 46% of the geriatric participants. Linear regression demonstrated a significant association (P = 0.015) between olfactory function and nutritional status in the geriatric subjects. However, this association became insignificant after adjustment for confounders. Both crude and adjusted analysis in the vital older adults did not show a significant association. The results indicate that, in both groups of elderly, there is no direct relation between olfactory function and nutritional status. We suggest that a decline in olfactory function may still be considered as one of the risk-factors for malnutrition in geriatric patients-once co-occurring with other mental and/or physical problems that are more likely to occur in those patients experience. PMID:25680372

  3. Prediction of functional status in older adults: the ecological validity of four Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System tests.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Meghan; Miller, L Stephen

    2008-08-01

    This study tested the ecological validity of four Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS) tests by examining how well performance on D-KEFS measures predicted observed daily functioning in community-dwelling older adults. Older adults ages 65 to 92 years completed four D-KEFS tests requiring planning and cognitive fluency. The four combined D-KEFS measures accounted for approximately 26% of the variance in observed functional ability, when controlling for education and depression, thus supporting the ecological validity of the D-KEFS (Pearson r = .66). However, in a multiple regression analysis, the D-KEFS Trail Making Test-4 was the only measure of executive functioning that accounted for unique, independent variance in observed functional ability. PMID:18608647

  4. Heart on a Plate: Histological and Functional Assessment of Isolated Adult Zebrafish Hearts Maintained in Culture

    PubMed Central

    Pieperhoff, Sebastian; Wilson, Kathryn S.; Baily, James; de Mora, Kim; Maqsood, Sana; Vass, Sharron; Taylor, Jonathan; Del-Pozo, Jorge; MacRae, Calum A.; Mullins, John J.; Denvir, Martin A.

    2014-01-01

    The zebrafish is increasingly used for cardiovascular genetic and functional studies. We present a novel protocol to maintain and monitor whole isolated beating adult zebrafish hearts in culture for long-term experiments. Excised whole adult zebrafish hearts were transferred directly into culture dishes containing optimized L-15 Leibovitz growth medium and maintained for 5 days. Hearts were assessed daily using video-edge analysis of ventricle function using low power microscopy images. High-throughput histology techniques were used to assess changes in myocardial architecture and cell viability. Mean spontaneous Heart rate (HR, min?1) declined significantly between day 0 and day 1 in culture (96.7±19.5 to 45.2±8.2 min?1, mean±SD, p?=?0.001), and thereafter declined more slowly to 27.6±7.2 min?1 on day 5. Ventricle wall motion amplitude (WMA) did not change until day 4 in culture (day 0, 46.7±13.0 µm vs day 4, 16.9±1.9 µm, p?=?0.08). Contraction velocity (CV) declined between day 0 and day 3 (35.6±14.8 vs 15.2±5.3 µms?1, respectively, p?=?0.012) while relaxation velocity (RV) declined quite rapidly (day 0, 72.5±11.9 vs day 1, 29.5±5.8 µms?1, p?=?0.03). HR and WMA responded consistently to isoproterenol from day 0 to day 5 in culture while CV and RV showed less consistent responses to beta-agonist. Cellular architecture and cross-striation pattern of cardiomyocytes remained unchanged up to day 3 in culture and thereafter showed significant deterioration with loss of striation pattern, pyknotic nuclei and cell swelling. Apoptotic markers within the myocardium became increasingly frequent by day 3 in culture. Whole adult zebrafish hearts can be maintained in culture-medium for up to 3 days. However, after day-3 there is significant deterioration in ventricle function and heart rate accompanied by significant histological changes consistent with cell death and loss of cardiomyocyte cell integrity. Further studies are needed to assess whether this preparation can be optimised for longer term survival. PMID:24824845

  5. Morphological and functional alterations in adult boar epididymis: Effects of prenatal and postnatal administration of flutamide

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The dynamic cross-talk between epididymal cells is hormonally regulated and, in part, through direct cell-to-cell interactions. To date, no information is available regarding possible impact of anti-androgens on the proteins involved in the gap junctional communication within the boar epididymis. Thus, a question arised whether prenatal or postnatal exposure to an anti-androgen flutamide alters the expression of gap junction protein - connexin43 (Cx43) and androgen receptor (AR) expression in the caput, corpus and cauda epididymis and leads to delayed effects on morphology and function of adult pig epididymis. Methods First two experimental groups received flutamide prenatally on gestational days 20-28 and 80-88 (GD20 and GD80) and further two groups were exposed to flutamide postanatally on days 2-10 and 90-98 after birth (PD2 and PD90). Epididymides were collected from adult boars. Routine histology was performed using hematoxylin-eosin staining. The expression of Cx43 and AR were analyzed using immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Both analyses were supported by quantitative approaches to demonstrate the variations of the expression levels following the treatment. Apoptotic cells were identified using TUNEL assay. Results Histological examination revealed differences in epididymal morphology of flutamide-exposed boars when compared to controls. Scarce spermatic content were seen within the corpus and cauda lumina of GD20, PD2 and PD90 groups. Concomitantly, frequency of epididymal cell apoptosis was significantly higher (p < 0.05) after exposure to flutamide at GD20. Moreover, in GD20, PD2, and PD90 groups, significantly lower AR expression (p < 0.05) was found in the principal and basal cells of the corpus and cauda regions, while in the stromal cells AR expression was significantly reduced (p < 0.05) along the epididymal duct. Concomitantly, a decrease in Cx43 expression (p < 0.05) was noticed in the stromal cells of the cauda region of GD20 and PD2 groups. This indicates high sensitivity of the stromal cells to androgen withdrawal. Conclusions The region-specific alterations in the epididymis morphology and scarce spermatic content within the lumina of the corpus and cauda indicate that flutamide can induce delayed effects on the epididymal function of the adult boar by decrease in AR protein levels that results in altered androgen signaling. This may cause disturbances in androgen-dependent processes including Cx43 (de)regulation, however, we can not exclude the possibility that in response to flutamide decreased Cx43 expression may represent one mechanism responsible for functional disturbance of the boar epididymis. PMID:21342526

  6. Acquisition of high-quality digital video of Drosophila larval and adult behaviors from a lateral perspective.

    PubMed

    Zenger, Beatrix; Wetzel, Sabine; Duncan, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster is a powerful experimental model system for studying the function of the nervous system. Gene mutations that cause dysfunction of the nervous system often produce viable larvae and adults that have locomotion defective phenotypes that are difficult to adequately describe with text or completely represent with a single photographic image. Current modes of scientific publishing, however, support the submission of digital video media as supplemental material to accompany a manuscript. Here we describe a simple and widely accessible microscopy technique for acquiring high-quality digital video of both Drosophila larval and adult phenotypes from a lateral perspective. Video of larval and adult locomotion from a side-view is advantageous because it allows the observation and analysis of subtle distinctions and variations in aberrant locomotive behaviors. We have successfully used the technique to visualize and quantify aberrant crawling behaviors in third instar larvae, in addition to adult mutant phenotypes and behaviors including grooming. PMID:25350294

  7. High-efficiency immunomagnetic isolation of solid tissue-originated integrin-expressing adult stem cells.

    PubMed

    Palmon, Aaron; David, Ran; Neumann, Yoav; Stiubea-Cohen, Raluca; Krief, Guy; Aframian, Doron J

    2012-02-01

    Isolation of highly pure specific cell types is crucial for successful adult stem cell-based therapy. As the number of such cells in adult tissue is low, an extremely efficient method is needed for their isolation. Here, we describe cell-separation methodologies based on magnetic-affinity cell sorting (MACS) MicroBeads with monoclonal antibodies against specific membrane proteins conjugated to superparamagnetic particles. Cells labeled with MACS MicroBeads are retained in a magnetic field within a MACS column placed in a MACS separator, allowing fast and efficient separation. Both positively labeled and non-labeled fractions can be used directly for downstream applications as the separated cell fractions remain viable with no functional impairment. As immunomagnetic separation depends on the interaction between a cell's membrane and the magnetically labeled antibody, separation of specific cells originating from solid tissues is more complex and demands a cell-dissociating pretreatment. In this paper, we detail the use of immunomagnetic separation for the purpose of regenerating damaged salivary gland (SG) function in animal and human models of irradiated head and neck cancer. Each year 500,000 new cases of head and neck cancer occur worldwide. Most of these patients lose SG function following irradiation therapy. SGs contain integrin ?6?1-expressing epithelial stem cells. We hypothesized that these cells can be isolated, multiplied in culture and auto-implanted into the irradiated SGs to regenerate damaged SG function. PMID:22019721

  8. Virtual reality using games for improving physical functioning in older adults: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Molina, Karina Iglesia; Ricci, Natalia Aquaroni; de Moraes, Suzana Albuquerque; Perracini, Monica Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    The use of virtual reality through exergames or active video game, i.e. a new form of interactive gaming, as a complementary tool in rehabilitation has been a frequent focus in research and clinical practice in the last few years. However, evidence of their effectiveness is scarce in the older population. This review aim to provide a summary of the effects of exergames in improving physical functioning in older adults. A search for randomized controlled trials was performed in the databases EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsyInfo, Cochrane data base, PEDro and ISI Web of Knowledge. Results from the included studies were analyzed through a critical review and methodological quality by the PEDro scale. Thirteen studies were included in the review. The most common apparatus for exergames intervention was the Nintendo Wii gaming console (8 studies), followed by computers games, Dance video game with pad (two studies each) and only one study with the Balance Rehabilitation Unit. The Timed Up and Go was the most frequently used instrument to assess physical functioning (7 studies). According to the PEDro scale, most of the studies presented methodological problems, with a high proportion of scores below 5 points (8 studies). The exergames protocols and their duration varied widely, and the benefits for physical function in older people remain inconclusive. However, a consensus between studies is the positive motivational aspect that the use of exergames provides. Further studies are needed in order to achieve better methodological quality, external validity and provide stronger scientific evidence. PMID:25399408

  9. Cell death may regulate visual functionality in the retina of adults of the dipteran Ceratitis capitata.

    PubMed

    Conforti, Elena; Barni, Sergio; Pisu, Maria Bonaria; Vaccarone, Rita; Malacrida, Anna Rodolfa; Bernocchi, Graziella

    2002-01-14

    The white eye mutation in the medfly Ceratitis capitata, like the homologous mutation in Drosophila melanogaster, was shown to impair visual function. Light and electron microscopy, combined with the DNA-end labelling histochemistry (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL) technique), were used to investigate whether programmed cell death may contribute to the morpho-functional differences between the retina of adults from the white eye and wild type strains. Several photoreceptor nuclei in mature white eye flies appeared smaller and showed intensely Toluidine Blue-stained chromatin masses. At the ultrastructural level, they showed different stages of degeneration, resembling apoptotic figures. Positive TUNEL labelling in the white eye retina indicates that apoptosis may be a candidate mechanism for retinal cell degeneration in adult flies, where visual functionality is altered, to achieve the proper cell number. Apoptosis also appears to occur in the wild type retina in early adult life during normal tissue development. PMID:11755263

  10. High throughput reproducible cantilever functionalization

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Barbara R; Lee, Ida

    2014-01-21

    A method for functionalizing cantilevers is provided that includes providing a holder having a plurality of channels each having a width for accepting a cantilever probe and a plurality of probes. A plurality of cantilever probes are fastened to the plurality of channels of the holder by the spring clips. The wells of a well plate are filled with a functionalization solution, wherein adjacent wells in the well plate are separated by a dimension that is substantially equal to a dimension separating adjacent channels of the plurality of channels. Each cantilever probe that is fastened within the plurality of channels of the holder is applied to the functionalization solution that is contained in the wells of the well plate.

  11. High throughout reproducible cantilever functionalization

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Barbara R; Lee, Ida

    2014-11-25

    A method for functionalizing cantilevers is provided that includes providing a holder having a plurality of channels each having a width for accepting a cantilever probe and a plurality of probes. A plurality of cantilever probes are fastened to the plurality of channels of the holder by the spring clips. The wells of a well plate are filled with a functionalization solution, wherein adjacent wells in the well plate are separated by a dimension that is substantially equal to a dimension separating adjacent channels of the plurality of channels. Each cantilever probe that is fastened within the plurality of channels of the holder is applied to the functionalization solution that is contained in the wells of the well plate.

  12. Impact of Training Modality on Strength and Physical Function in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Misic, Mark M.; Valentine, Rudy J.; Rosengren, Karl S.; Woods, Jeffrey A.; Evans, Ellen M.

    2009-01-01

    Background The importance of maintaining strength in older adults is well documented and various training modalities have been recommended; however, the effectiveness of various interventions with high translation to public health practice has not been completely characterized. Additionally, the interrelations among mode, strength, and lower extremity physical function (LEPF) changes in older adults warrant further investigation. Purpose The primary aims were to examine the effectiveness of cardiovascular endurance training (CVE) compared with balance and flexibility training (FLEX) and to explore the relationship of muscle strength to LEPF. Methods Fifty-five adults (69.1 ± 5.6 years, 35 female) were randomly assigned to 10 months of CVE or FLEX. Knee extension and flexion at 60 and 120°·s–1 were measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. LEPF was measured using a battery of tasks. The CVE group exercised using treadmills, cycles, and elliptical trainers. The FLEX group participated in a group exercise class that incorporated flexibility and balance activities. Results The CVE training group significantly improved peak oxygen consumption by 6% (p = 0.03), while the FLEX training group showed no change (p = 0.47). Participants significantly improved peak torque at both speeds and muscle actions by 21–65% (p ? 0.05), with no group effect (p > 0.05). Both groups also significantly improved performance on all LEPF tasks included in this study (4–7%, p ? 0.05). Significant correlations (all p = 0.00) were found between improvements in strength and improvements in LEPF including timed walk and peak torque extension and flexion at 60°·s–1 (r = 0.40 and 0.27, respectively), obstacle walk and peak torque extension and flexion at 60 and 120°·s–1 (r range 0.27–0.40), and stair ascent and peak torque extension at 120°·s–1 (r = 0.37). Conclusions Sedentary older adults achieve similar improvements in strength and LEPF with either CVE or FLEX training with the latter being related to improvements in leg strength. PMID:19590159

  13. Extensive stimulus repetition leads older adults to show delayed functional magnetic resonance imaging adaptation.

    PubMed

    Miyakoshi, Makoto; Chen, S-H Annabel; Matsuo, Kayako; Wu, Chiao-Yi; Suzuki, Atsunobu; Nakai, Toshiharu

    2012-09-01

    We investigated whether extensive repetition can diminish age-related differences between younger and older adults in functional magnetic resonance adaptation (fMR-A). Datasets were obtained from 26 younger and 24 older healthy adults presented with two scenes that repeated 20 times amongst other novel scenes during fMRI scanning. The average cortical responses to the first eight (Repetitions 1-7) and the last eight (Repetitions 12-19) presentations out of 20 were compared within each group. Younger adults showed similar levels of fMR-A in both repetition sets. Conversely, older adults did not show reliable fMR-A in Repetitions 1-7, but they did in Repetitions 12-19; subtracting the latter from the former revealed a significant effect within left inferior occipital, left lingual, and the posterior part of fusiform gyrus. We concluded that cortical responsiveness in older adults are compromised, but extensive repetition can lead older adults to show a delayed but closer level of fMR-A compared to younger adults. PMID:22274135

  14. Food insecurity and cognitive function in Puerto Rican adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food insecurity is associated with nutrient inadequacy and a variety of unfavorable health outcomes. However, little is known about whether food security is associated with lower cognitive function in the elderly. We investigated the prevalence of food insecurity in a representative sample of 1358 P...

  15. Pulse Wave Velocity and Cognitive Function in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Wenjun; Cruickshanks, Karen J; Schubert, Carla R; Carlsson, Cynthia M; Chappell, Richard J; Klein, Barbara EK; Klein, Ronald; Acher, Charles W

    2013-01-01

    Arterial stiffness may be associated with cognitive function. In this study, pulse wave velocity (PWV) was measured from the carotid to femoral (CF-PWV) and from the carotid to radial (CR-PWV) with the Complior SP System (Alam Medical, Vincennes, France). Cognitive function was measured by six tests of executive function, psychomotor speed, memory, and language fluency. A total of 1433 participants were included (mean age 75 years, 43% men). Adjusting for age, sex, education, pulse rate, hemoglobin A1C, HDL cholesterol, hypertension, CVD history, smoking ,drinking, and depression symptoms, a CF-PWV > 12 m/s was associated with a lower Mini-Mental State Examination score (coefficient: ?0.31, se: 0.11, p=0.005), fewer words recalled on Auditory Verbal Learning Test (coefficient: ?1.10, se: 0.43, p=0.01), and lower score on the composite cognition score (coefficient: ?0.10, se: 0.05, p=0.04) and marginally significantly associated with longer time to complete Trail Making Test-B (coefficient: 6.30, se: 3.41, p=0.06), CF-PWV was not associated with Trail Making Test-A, Digit Symbol Substation Test, or Verbal Fluency Test. No associations were found between CR-PWV and cognitive performance measures. Higher large artery stiffness was associated with worse cognitive function, and longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these associations. PMID:23632267

  16. A Study of the Adult Zebrafish Ventricular Function by Retrospective Doppler-Gated Ultrahigh-Frame-Rate Echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ting-Yu; Lee, Po-Yang; Huang, Chih-Chung; Sun, Lei; Shung, K. Kirk

    2014-01-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has become a preferred animal model for studying various human diseases, particularly those related to cardiovascular regeneration; therefore, a noninvasive imaging modality is needed for observing the cardiac function of zebrafish. Because of its high resolution, high-frequency ultrasound B-mode imaging has recently been used successfully to observe the heart of adult zebrafish. However, ultrahigh-frame-rate echocardiography combining B-mode imaging and color flow imaging is still needed to observe the detailed transient motions of the zebrafish ventricle. This study develops an 80-MHz ultrahigh-frame-rate echocardiography system for this purpose, based on retrospective Doppler- gated technology. B-mode and color flow images of the cardiovascular system of the zebrafish were reconstructed by two-dimensional autocorrelation at maximum frame rates of up to 40 000 and 400 fps, respectively. The timings of end diastole (ED) and end systole (ES) of ventricle can be determined by using this high-resolution image system. Two ventricular function parameters—fractional shortening (FS) and fractional area change (FAC)—were measured for evaluating the ventricular function by using ED and ES with their corresponding ventricular dimensions. The experimental results indicated that the measured FS values were 42 ± 4% (mean ± standard deviation) and 60 ± 13% for the long axis and short axis of the ventricle, respectively, and that FAC was 77 ± 9%. This is the first report of these ventricular function parameters for a normal adult zebrafish. The results showed that retrospective high-frequency echocardiography is a useful tool for studying the cardiac function of normal adult zebrafish. PMID:24658716

  17. Competency-Based Adult High School Completion Student Services Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Elizabeth; And Others

    Designed as part of a 310 Special Demonstration and Teacher Training Project undertaken at Brevard Community College, this student services guide contains information to assist adult education administrators, counselors, instructors, and office personnel in meeting the needs of students enrolled in adult/community education schools. Primary…

  18. Adult Learning and High-Stakes Testing: Strategies for Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Grace

    2004-01-01

    In this world of increasing competition for jobs and accountability in the workplace, adults are facing many new pressures, one of which is passing tests as part of the application process. This is especially difficult for adults who are academically challenged or did not go far enough with their education to feel comfortable in testing…

  19. Dynamic regulation of NMDAR function in the adult brain by the stress hormone corticosterone

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Yiu Chung; Bagot, Rosemary C.; Wong, Tak Pan

    2012-01-01

    Stress and corticosteroids dynamically modulate the expression of synaptic plasticity at glutamatergic synapses in the developed brain. Together with alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptors (AMPAR), N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) are critical mediators of synaptic function and are essential for the induction of many forms of synaptic plasticity. Regulation of NMDAR function by cortisol/corticosterone (CORT) may be fundamental to the effects of stress on synaptic plasticity. Recent reports of the efficacy of NMDAR antagonists in treating certain stress-associated psychopathologies further highlight the importance of understanding the regulation of NMDAR function by CORT. Knowledge of how corticosteroids regulate NMDAR function within the adult brain is relatively sparse, perhaps due to a common belief that NMDAR function is stable in the adult brain. We review recent results from our laboratory and others demonstrating dynamic regulation of NMDAR function by CORT in the adult brain. In addition, we consider the issue of how differences in the early life environment may program differential sensitivity to modulation of NMDAR function by CORT and how this may influence synaptic function during stress. Findings from these studies demonstrate that NMDAR function in the adult hippocampus remains sensitive to even brief exposures to CORT and that the capacity for modulation of NMDAR may be programmed, in part, by the early life environment. Modulation of NMDAR function may contribute to dynamic regulation of synaptic plasticity and adaptation in the face of stress, however, enhanced NMDAR function may be implicated in mechanisms of stress-related psychopathologies including depression. PMID:22408607

  20. Proceedings: High performance functional computing

    SciTech Connect

    Boehm, A.P.W. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Feo, J.T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [eds.

    1995-04-01

    The discipline of functional programming offers the advantage of writing programs for concurrent execution with a guarantee of determinacy, first introduced in [Karp/Miller 1966], the property that all runs of the program on an asynchronous interpreter will yield identical results. The absence of this guarantee in most other approaches to programming for parallel computers leads to programs that are needlessly large, hard to understand, and troublesome to debug. Nevertheless, the ability to express nondeterminacy appears to be essential in writing programs for certain kinds of applications: transactions systems that respond to inputs that arrive asynchronously from several sources; heuristic search problems where the extensive available parallelism can be exploited only if speculative execution is performed, leading to nondeterminacy; and other tasks where use of nondeterminate mechanisms may be shown to yield programs having greater efficiency than purely functional programs for the same tasks.

  1. Food insecurity and cognitive function in Puerto Rican adults123

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiang; Scott, Tammy; Falcon, Luis M; Wilde, Parke E; Tucker, Katherine L

    2009-01-01

    Background: Food insecurity is associated with nutrient inadequacy and a variety of unfavorable health outcomes. However, little is known about whether food security is associated with lower cognitive function in the elderly. Objective: We investigated the prevalence of food insecurity in a representative sample of 1358 Puerto Ricans aged 45–75 y living in Massachusetts in relation to cognitive function performances. Design: Food security was assessed with the US Household Food Security Scale. Cognitive function was measured to capture general cognition with a battery of 7 tests: Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), word list learning (verbal memory), digit span (attention), clock drawing and figure copying (visual-spatial ability), and Stroop and verbal fluency tests (fluency executive functioning). Results: The overall prevalence of food insecurity during the past 12 mo was 12.1%; 6.1% of the subjects reported very low food security. Food insecurity was inversely associated with global cognitive performance, as assessed by the MMSE score. The adjusted difference in the MMSE score was ?0.90 (95% CI: ?1.6, ?0.19; P for trend = 0.003) for a comparison of participants with very low food security with those who were food secure, after adjustment for age, smoking, education, poverty status, income, acculturation, plasma homocysteine, alcohol, diabetes, and hypertension. Food insecurity was significantly associated with lower scores for word-list learning, percentage retention, letter fluency, and digit span backward tests. Conclusions: Very low food security was prevalent among the study subjects and was associated with lower cognitive performance. Further studies, both observational and experimental, are warranted to clarify the direction of causality in this association. PMID:19225117

  2. Driving in young adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Knowledge, performance, adverse outcomes, and the role of executive functioning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RUSSELL A. BARKLEY; KEVIN R. MURPHY; GEORGE J. DUPAUL; TRACIE BUSH

    2002-01-01

    Past studies find that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) creates a higher risk for adverse driving outcomes. This study comprehensively evaluated driving in adults with ADHD by comparing 105 young adults with the disorder (age 17-28) to 64 community control (CC) adults on five domains of driving ability and a battery of executive function tasks. The ADHD group self-reported significantly

  3. Lung function, 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and mortality in US adults.

    PubMed

    Ford, E S

    2014-08-13

    Objective:To explore the associations between serum concentrations of vitamin D (25(OH)D) and all-cause mortality among US adults defined by lung function (LF) status, particularly among adults with obstructive LF (OLF).Methods:Data from 10?795 adults aged 20-79 years (685 with restrictive LF (RLF) and 1309 with OLF) who participated in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994), had a spirometric examination, and were followed through 2006 were included.Results:During 14.2 years of follow-up, 1792 participants died. Mean adjusted concentrations of 25(OH)D were 75.0?nmol/l (s.e. 0.7) for adults with normal LF (NLF), 70.4?nmol/l (s.e. 1.8) for adults with RLF, 75.5?nmol/l (s.e. 1.5) for adults with mild obstruction and 71.0?nmol/l (s.e. 1.9) among adults with moderate or worse obstruction (P=0.030). After adjustment for sociodemographic factors, lifestyle factors, clinical variables and prevalent chronic conditions, a concentration of <25?nmol/l compared with ?75?nmol//l was associated with mortality only among adults with NLF (hazard ratio (HR) 1.76; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03, 3.00). Among participants with OLF, adjusted HRs were 0.65 (95% CI 0.29, 1.48), 1.21 (95% CI 0.89, 1.66) and 0.97 (95% CI 0.78, 1.19) among those with concentrations <25, 25-<50 and 50-<75?nmol/l, respectively.Conclusions:Baseline concentrations of 25(OH)D did not significantly predict mortality among US adults with impaired LF.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 13 August 2014; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2014.162. PMID:25118000

  4. Cognitive functioning in relation to brain amyloid-? in healthy adults with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hartley, Sigan L; Handen, Benjamin L; Devenny, Darlynne A; Hardison, Regina; Mihaila, Iulia; Price, Julie C; Cohen, Annie D; Klunk, William E; Mailick, Marsha R; Johnson, Sterling C; Christian, Bradley T

    2014-09-01

    Nearly all adults with Down syndrome show neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease, including amyloid-? deposition, by their fifth decade of life. In the current study, we examined the association between brain amyloid-? deposition, assessed via in vivo assessments of neocortical Pittsburgh compound B, and scores on an extensive neuropsychological battery of measures of cognitive functioning in 63 adults (31 male, 32 female) with Down syndrome aged 30-53 years who did not exhibit symptoms of dementia. Twenty-two of the adults with Down syndrome were identified as having elevated neocortical Pittsburgh compound B retention levels. There was a significant positive correlation (r = 0.62, P < 0.0001) between age and neocortical Pittsburgh compound B retention. This robust association makes it difficult to discriminate normative age-related decline in cognitive functioning from any potential effects of amyloid-? deposition. When controlling for chronological age in addition to mental age, there were no significant differences between the adults with Down syndrome who had elevated neocortical Pittsburgh compound B retention levels and those who did not on any of the neuropsychological measures. Similarly, when examining Pittsburgh compound B as a continuous variable, after controlling for mental age and chronological age, only the Rivermead Picture Recognition score was significantly negatively associated with neocortical Pittsburgh compound B retention. Our findings indicate that many adults with Down syndrome can tolerate amyloid-? deposition without deleterious effects on cognitive functioning. However, we may have obscured true effects of amyloid-? deposition by controlling for chronological age in our analyses. Moreover, our sample included adults with Down syndrome who were most 'resistant' to the effects of amyloid-? deposition, as adults already exhibiting clinical symptoms of dementia symptoms were excluded from the study. PMID:24993958

  5. Prospective identification of functionally distinct stem cells and neurosphere-initiating cells in adult mouse forebrain.

    PubMed

    Mich, John K; Signer, Robert Aj; Nakada, Daisuke; Pineda, André; Burgess, Rebecca J; Vue, Tou Yia; Johnson, Jane E; Morrison, Sean J

    2014-01-01

    Neurosphere formation is commonly used as a surrogate for neural stem cell (NSC) function but the relationship between neurosphere-initiating cells (NICs) and NSCs remains unclear. We prospectively identified, and isolated by flow cytometry, adult mouse lateral ventricle subventricular zone (SVZ) NICs as Glast(mid)EGFR(high)PlexinB2(high)CD24(-/low)O4/PSA-NCAM(-/low)Ter119/CD45(-) (GEPCOT) cells. They were highly mitotic and short-lived in vivo based on fate-mapping with Ascl1(CreERT2) and Dlx1(CreERT2). In contrast, pre-GEPCOT cells were quiescent, expressed higher Glast, and lower EGFR and PlexinB2. Pre-GEPCOT cells could not form neurospheres but expressed the stem cell markers Slc1a3-CreER(T), GFAP-CreER(T2), Sox2(CreERT2), and Gli1(CreERT2) and were long-lived in vivo. While GEPCOT NICs were ablated by temozolomide, pre-GEPCOT cells survived and repopulated the SVZ. Conditional deletion of the Bmi-1 polycomb protein depleted pre-GEPCOT and GEPCOT cells, though pre-GEPCOT cells were more dependent upon Bmi-1 for Cdkn2a (p16(Ink4a)) repression. Our data distinguish quiescent NSCs from NICs and make it possible to study their properties in vivo.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02669.001. PMID:24843006

  6. Validating the measurement of executive functions in an occupational context for adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Stern, Adi; Maeir, Adina

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The objectives of this study were to better understand the cognitive profile of adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), their occupational performance, and their quality of life (QoL) and to examine the validity of a cognitive-functional evaluation (CFE) battery for these adults. METHOD. Eighty-one adults with ADHD and 58 without ADHD completed ADHD symptom ratings, the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version, and the Adult ADHD Quality-of-Life Scale. An occupational performance interview was administered to the ADHD group. RESULTS. A broad range of occupational concerns were reported. We found significant differences between groups on all measures. In the ADHD group, we found medium significant correlations among the measures. CONCLUSION. Adults with ADHD experience cognitive and functional difficulties in their daily lives associated with QoL. The results support the use of a CFE battery that has been shown to be sensitive and specific for these adults. PMID:25397767

  7. Female zebra finches require early song exposure to prefer high-quality song as adults

    E-print Network

    Devoogd, Timothy John

    Female zebra finches require early song exposure to prefer high-quality song as adults CHRISTINE adult female zebra finch, Taeniopygia guttata, song preferences. Females were reared in conditions on song learning has focused on highly sexually dimorphic species such as the zebra finch, Taeniopygia

  8. Teaching a High-Level Contextualized Mathematics Curriculum to Adult Basic Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Showalter, Daniel A.; Wollett, Chelsie; Reynolds, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the implementation of a high level contextualized mathematics curriculum by 12 adult basic instructors in a midwestern state. The 10-week pilot curriculum embedded high level mathematics in contexts that were familiar to adult learners. Instructors' weekly online posts were coded, and the following themes emerged: (a)…

  9. Characterizing Vibratory Kinematics in Children and Adults with High-Speed Digital Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Rita; Dubrovskiy, Denis; Döllinger, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to quantify and identify characteristic vibratory motion in typically developing prepubertal children and young adults using high-speed digital imaging. Method: The vibrations of the vocal folds were recorded from 27 children (ages 5-9 years) and 35 adults (ages 21-45 years), with high speed at 4,000 frames per…

  10. Education, Functional Limitations, and Life Satisfaction among Older Adults in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Eun-Kyoung Othelia; Lee, Jungui

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the associations of educational level with functioning and life satisfaction among community-dwelling older adults in South Korea ("n" = 4,152). The sample was drawn from Wave I of the Korean Longitudinal Study on Aging. To examine educational disparities, separate analyses were run to note predictors in less educated…

  11. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and lung function in adults with asthma: the HUNT Study.

    PubMed

    Larose, Tricia L; Langhammer, Arnulf; Chen, Yue; Camargo, Carlos A; Romundstad, Pål; Mai, Xiao-Mei

    2015-04-01

    The association between vitamin D status and lung function in adults with asthma remains unclear. We studied this cross-sectional association and possible modification by sex and allergic rhinitis in 760 adults (aged 19-55 years) with self-reported asthma in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) level <50 nmol·L(-1) was considered deficient. Lung function measurements included forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) % predicted, forced vital capacity (FVC) % predicted and FEV1/FVC ratio. Multiple linear regression models were used to estimate adjusted regression coefficients (?) and 95% confidence intervals. 44% of asthma adults had serum 25(OH)D levels <50 nmol·L(-1). Its associations with lung function measures seemed to be modified by sex and allergic rhinitis (p<0.03 for three-way interaction term). Overall, a serum 25(OH)D level <50 nmol·L(-1) was not associated with lung function measurements in subjects with allergic rhinitis in this asthma cohort. In men with asthma but without allergic rhinitis, however, a serum 25(OH)D level <50 nmol·L(-1) was significantly associated with lower FEV1/FVC ratio (?=-8.60%; 95% CI: -16.95%- -0.25%). Low serum 25(OH)D level was not associated with airway obstruction in most asthma adults with the exception of men with asthma but without allergic rhinitis. PMID:25395037

  12. Legally Prescribed Functions of Adult and Juvenile Probation Officers: Worlds Apart?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner, Benjamin; Purkiss, Marcus; Kifer, Misty; Roberts, Elizabeth; Hemmens, Craig

    2004-01-01

    Historically, there have been two competing goals of probation: law enforcement and rehabilitation of the offender. Accordingly, the role, functions, and tasks of probation officers are at times in conflict. In this paper we explore the roles of adult and juvenile probation officers and compare their statutorily prescribed duties. In so doing we…

  13. Age of Acquisition Effects on the Functional Organization of Language in the Adult Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayberry, Rachel I.; Chen, Jen-Kai; Witcher, Pamela; Klein, Denise

    2011-01-01

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we neuroimaged deaf adults as they performed two linguistic tasks with sentences in American Sign Language, grammatical judgment and phonemic-hand judgment. Participants' age-onset of sign language acquisition ranged from birth to 14 years; length of sign language experience was substantial and…

  14. Students' Perceptions of Long-Functioning Cooperative Teams in Accelerated Adult Degree Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Favor, Judy

    2012-01-01

    This study examined 718 adult students' perceptions of long-functioning cooperative study teams in accelerated associate's, bachelor's, and master's business degree programs. Six factors were examined: attraction toward team, alignment of performance expectations, intrateam conflict, workload sharing, preference for teamwork, and impact on…

  15. Relationship of Early Life Stress and Psychological Functioning to Adult C-Reactive Protein in the

    E-print Network

    Lehman, Barbara J.

    Relationship of Early Life Stress and Psychological Functioning to Adult C-Reactive Protein of inflammatory processes, may play an important role in these relations. C-reactive protein has been reliably socioeco- nomic status (SES) and risky family (RF) environment marked by harsh parenting to the development

  16. Spinal Cord Repair in Adult Paraplegic Rats: Partial Restoration of Hind Limb Function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henrich Cheng; Yihai Cao; Lars Olson

    1996-01-01

    Complete spinal cord gaps in adult rats were bridged with multiple intercostal nerve grafts that redirected specific pathways from white to gray matter. The grafted area was stabilized with fibrin glue containing acidic fibroblast growth factor and by compressive wiring of posterior spinal processes. Hind limb function improved progressively during the first 6 months, as assessed by two scoring systems.

  17. Attributional Styles and Psychosocial Functioning of Adults with ADHD: Practice Issues and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rucklidge, Julia; Brown, Deborah; Crawford, Susan; Kaplan, Bonnie

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study investigates attributional styles and psychosocial functioning of men and women with ADHD identified in adulthood to inform practice issues. Method: One hundred and eighty adults participate: 52 females with ADHD, 37 males with ADHD, 51 female controls, and 40 male controls are administered questionnaires broadly assessing…

  18. What is the functional role of new neurons in the adult dentate gyrus?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerd Kempermann; Laurenz Wiskott

    2004-01-01

    Summary The exponential growth in research results on the regulation of adult hippocampal neurogene- sis, the life-long addition of new neurons to the hippocampal dentate gyrus, is paralleled by an increasing puzzlement about the potential function of these new cells. But to determine the func- tional relevance of these new neurons several fundamental problems have to be overcome. Two of

  19. Ego-Centricism and Cognitive Functioning in Iranian Young Adults' Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebrahimi, Pouria

    2008-01-01

    This introspective paper proves Iranian young adults' ego-centricism and its cognitive functioning an encumbrance in English language learning. Thru a brief look at the initiation of language acquisition in children and the generalizibility to language teaching and learning programs, it is realized that the ego of every learner is the main axis of…

  20. Gender Differences in Functioning for Older Adults in Rural Bangladesh. The Impact of Differential Reporting?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Omar Rahman; Ji-hong Liu

    2000-01-01

    Background. The purpose of this study is to examine gender differences in functional ability among older adults in rural Bangladesh in terms of both self-reported activities of daily living and observed physical performance and to evaluate the extent to which differential reporting by gender contributes to disparities between the two measures. Methods. In 1996, the Matlab Health and Socio-Economic Survey

  1. Brief functional analysis and treatment of bizarre vocalizations in an adult with schizophrenia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DAVID A. WILDER; A KIHIKO MASUDA; C O'Connor; M Baham

    2001-01-01

    Variables responsible for the maintenance of bizarre vocalizations emitted by an adult diagnosed with schizophrenia were examined via a brief functional analysis, and results suggested that the behavior was maintained by attention. A treatment consisting of ex- tinction and differential reinforcement of appropriate vocalizations was effective in re- ducing bizarre vocalizations and increasing appropriate vocalizations. The use of func- tional

  2. Sexual Function and Satisfaction in Adults Based on the Definition of Child Sexual Abuse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alessandra Rellini; Cindy Meston

    2007-01-01

    Introduction. The literature shows a discrepancy in the association between child sexual abuse (CSA) and adult sexual function. One of the proposed explanations for this discrepancy is the different ways in which CSA is assessed. While some studies explicitly ask potential participants whether they are sexual abuse survivors, others ask whether participants experienced specific unwanted sexual behaviors. Aim. This study

  3. Cardiac Autonomic Function during Submaximal Treadmill Exercise in Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendonca, Goncalo V.; Pereira, Fernando D.; Fernhall, Bo

    2011-01-01

    This study determined whether the cardiac autonomic function of adults with Down syndrome (DS) differs from that of nondisabled persons during submaximal dynamic exercise. Thirteen participants with DS and 12 nondisabled individuals performed maximal and submaximal treadmill tests with metabolic and heart rate (HR) measurements. Spectral analysis…

  4. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LUNG FUNCTION AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS IN YOUNG ADULT BLACK AND WHITE MALES AND FEMALES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relationships of lung function to physical characteristics in young adults have not been adequately described for different gender-race groups in the United States. s part of a study of the effects of ozone exposure upon Black and White men and women, we measured lung volumes...

  5. Childhood Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Substance Use, and Adult Functioning among Incarcerated Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennessey, Kathleen A.; Stein, Michael D.; Rosengard, Cynthia; Rose, Jennifer S.; Clarke, Jennifer G.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To estimate prevalence of childhood ADHD among incarcerated women and determine its association with substance use and adult functioning. Method: 192 female participants are recruited from the Department of Corrections in Rhode Island. Childhood ADHD is defined as scoring >46 on the Wender Utah Rating Scale. Results: The findings…

  6. Associations among Childhood Sexual Abuse, Language Use, and Adult Sexual Functioning and Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenz, Tierney Ahrold; Meston, Cindy May

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To better understand the link between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adult sexual functioning and satisfaction, we examined cognitive differences between women with (N = 128) and without (NSA, N = 99) CSA histories. Methods: We used the Linguistic Inquiry Word Count, a computerized text analysis program, to investigate language…

  7. Adult German Cockroach (Orthoptera: Blattellidae) Feeding and Drinking Behavior as a Function of Density and

    E-print Network

    Buckel, Jeffrey A.

    Adult German Cockroach (Orthoptera: Blattellidae) Feeding and Drinking Behavior as a Function or drinking during the recording period. THE DIEL ACTIVITY and exploratory behavior of the German cockroach) developed an instrument that recorded weight shifts of in- dividual cockroaches as they moved from a har

  8. The role of executive functioning in CBT: a pilot study with anxious older adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Mohlman; Jack M. Gorman

    2005-01-01

    Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for late life anxiety and depression. The successful use of CBT is assumed to rely on cognitive skills known as executive functions (EF; e.g., hypothesis generation, allocation of attention, self-monitoring) governed by the prefrontal cortex. Because older adults sometimes have executive deficits as a consequence of normal aging, EF may be a

  9. Manual Signing in Adults with Intellectual Disability: Influence of Sign Characteristics on Functional Sign Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meuris, Kristien; Maes, Bea; De Meyer, Anne-Marie; Zink, Inge

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of sign characteristics in a key word signing (KWS) system on the functional use of those signs by adults with intellectual disability (ID). Method: All 507 signs from a Flemish KWS system were characterized in terms of phonological, iconic, and referential characteristics.…

  10. Assessing cognitive function and capacity in older adults with cancer.

    PubMed

    McKoy, June M; Burhenn, Peggy S; Browner, Ilene S; Loeser, Kari L; Tulas, Katrina M; Oden, Megan R; Rupper, Randall W

    2014-01-01

    The number of older individuals with cancer is increasing exponentially, mandating that oncologists contemplate more comprehensive and multidisciplinary approaches to treatment of this cohort. Recruitment of assessment instruments validated in older patients can be invaluable for guiding treatment and decision-making by both patients and providers, and can arguably contribute to improving outcomes and health-related quality of life. The Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment is one such validated instrument that can be used by oncologists to assess patient readiness and appropriateness for prescribed cancer therapy. As a multidisciplinary diagnostic and treatment process, it comprises functional status, cognitive status, social support, and advance care preferences, and is an ideal instrument for evaluating complex older individuals. It is well established that many older individuals with cancer travel with multiple comorbid illnesses, including cognitive impairment, and when presented with a cancer diagnosis struggle to choose from multiple treatment options. In addition to the complete medical history, the ability of patients to decide on a course of therapy in concert with their oncologist is critically important. Alternatively, many oncologists are conflicted as to whether true informed consent for treatment can be obtained from many older patients. Having a roadmap to decision-making capacity is therefore an inescapable imperative in geriatric oncology, because careful attention must be directed at identifying older patients with cancer who might benefit from these assessments and the individualized treatment plans that emerge. PMID:24453297

  11. Tbx20 regulates a genetic program essential to adult mouse cardiomyocyte function

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Tao; Aneas, Ivy; Sakabe, Noboru; Dirschinger, Ralf J.; Wang, Gang; Smemo, Scott; Westlund, John M.; Cheng, Hongqiang; Dalton, Nancy; Gu, Yusu; Boogerd, Cornelis J.; Cai, Chen-leng; Peterson, Kirk; Chen, Ju; Nobrega, Marcelo A.; Evans, Sylvia M.

    2011-01-01

    Human mutations in or variants of TBX20 are associated with congenital heart disease, cardiomyopathy, and arrhythmias. To investigate whether cardiac disease in patients with these conditions results from an embryonic or ongoing requirement for Tbx20 in myocardium, we ablated Tbx20 specifically in adult cardiomyocytes in mice. This ablation resulted in the onset of severe cardiomyopathy accompanied by arrhythmias, with death ensuing within 1 to 2 weeks of Tbx20 ablation. Accounting for this dramatic phenotype, we identified molecular signatures that posit Tbx20 as a central integrator of a genetic program that maintains cardiomyocyte function in the adult heart. Expression of a number of genes encoding critical transcription factors, ion channels, and cytoskeletal/myofibrillar proteins was downregulated consequent to loss of Tbx20. Genome-wide ChIP analysis of Tbx20-binding regions in the adult heart revealed that many of these genes were direct downstream targets of Tbx20 and uncovered a previously undescribed DNA-binding site for Tbx20. Bioinformatics and in vivo functional analyses revealed a cohort of transcription factors that, working with Tbx20, integrated multiple environmental signals to maintain ion channel gene expression in the adult heart. Our data provide insight into the mechanisms by which mutations in TBX20 cause adult heart disease in humans. PMID:22080862

  12. Reading Performance of Young Adults With ADHD Diagnosed in Childhood: Relations With Executive Functioning.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Ana; Mercader, Jessica; Fernández, M Inmaculada; Colomer, Carla

    2013-10-22

    Objective: To study reading performance of young adults with ADHD and its relation with executive functioning. Method: Thirty young adults with a childhood diagnosis of ADHD and 30 with normal development (ND) were compared on reading accuracy, fluency, and comprehension. Furthermore, ADHD with reading disabilities (ADHD+RD) and ADHD without reading disabilities (ADHD-RD) subgroups were compared using self-report and informant-report versions of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult version (BRIEF-A). Results: Adults with ADHD obtained significantly worse results than the ND adults on reading speed, responses to literal questions, and a cloze test. Although the comparison of the ADHD+RD and ADHD-RD groups did not show significant differences on the BRIEF-A subscales, the ADHD+RD group surpassed the critical percentile (85) on more subscales, with working memory and metacognition especially affected. Conclusion: The findings point out that reading should be assessed in individuals with ADHD as part of their evaluation to design effective early interventions. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX). PMID:24149941

  13. Perfluoroalkyl substances and thyroid function in older adults.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Srishti; Bloom, Michael S; Yucel, Recai; Seegal, Richard F; Wu, Qian; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Rej, Robert; Fitzgerald, Edward F

    2015-02-01

    Current understanding of the thyroid disruptive properties of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), particularly in aging populations, is limited. The objectives of this study were to (i) assess associations between thyroid function, as measured by serum thyrotropin (thyroid stimulating hormone, TSH), free thyroxine (fT4), total thyroxine (T4), and total triiodothyronine (T3), and serum perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in an aging population and (ii) determine if other persistent organic pollutants with thyroid disruptive properties including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) modify such associations. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 87 men and women 55 to 74years of age, without clinically-diagnosed thyroid disease, who resided in upper Hudson River communities in New York. Geometric means (standard deviations) of serum PFOS and PFOA were 31.6 (1.7) ng/mL and 9.17 (1.72) ng/mL, respectively. Multivariable linear regression analyses indicated that one interquartile range difference in PFOS corresponded to 4% and 9% increases in fT4 and T4 respectively. We detected statistical interactions between PFOA and age for effects on fT4 and T4; joint increases in PFOA and age were associated with increases in fT4 and T4, of 3% and 7%, respectively. We also detected statistical interactions between PFOS and total PCBs for the effect on T3 and between PFOA and total PBDEs for the effect on TSH. Our results suggest that PFASs are associated with subtle alterations in thyroid hormone levels in this population, and that these associations are likely to vary by age, and levels of PCBs and PBDEs. PMID:25483837

  14. Prospective identification of functionally distinct stem cells and neurosphere-initiating cells in adult mouse forebrain

    PubMed Central

    Mich, John K; Signer, Robert AJ; Nakada, Daisuke; Pineda, André; Burgess, Rebecca J; Vue, Tou Yia; Johnson, Jane E; Morrison, Sean J

    2014-01-01

    Neurosphere formation is commonly used as a surrogate for neural stem cell (NSC) function but the relationship between neurosphere-initiating cells (NICs) and NSCs remains unclear. We prospectively identified, and isolated by flow cytometry, adult mouse lateral ventricle subventricular zone (SVZ) NICs as GlastmidEGFRhighPlexinB2highCD24?/lowO4/PSA-NCAM?/lowTer119/CD45? (GEPCOT) cells. They were highly mitotic and short-lived in vivo based on fate-mapping with Ascl1CreERT2 and Dlx1CreERT2. In contrast, pre-GEPCOT cells were quiescent, expressed higher Glast, and lower EGFR and PlexinB2. Pre-GEPCOT cells could not form neurospheres but expressed the stem cell markers Slc1a3-CreERT, GFAP-CreERT2, Sox2CreERT2, and Gli1CreERT2 and were long-lived in vivo. While GEPCOT NICs were ablated by temozolomide, pre-GEPCOT cells survived and repopulated the SVZ. Conditional deletion of the Bmi-1 polycomb protein depleted pre-GEPCOT and GEPCOT cells, though pre-GEPCOT cells were more dependent upon Bmi-1 for Cdkn2a (p16Ink4a) repression. Our data distinguish quiescent NSCs from NICs and make it possible to study their properties in vivo. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02669.001 PMID:24843006

  15. Systemic Vascular Function Is Associated with Muscular Power in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Heffernan, Kevin S.; Chalé, Angela; Hau, Cynthia; Cloutier, Gregory J.; Phillips, Edward M.; Warner, Patrick; Nickerson, Heather; Reid, Kieran F.; Kuvin, Jeffrey T.; Fielding, Roger A.

    2012-01-01

    Age-associated loss of muscular strength and muscular power is a critical determinant of loss of physical function and progression to disability in older adults. In this study, we examined the association of systemic vascular function and measures of muscle strength and power in older adults. Measures of vascular endothelial function included brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and the pulse wave amplitude reactive hyperemia index (PWA-RHI). Augmentation index (AIx) was taken as a measure of systemic vascular function related to arterial stiffness and wave reflection. Measures of muscular strength included one repetition maximum (1RM) for a bilateral leg press. Peak muscular power was measured during 5 repetitions performed as fast as possible for bilateral leg press at 40% 1RM. Muscular power was associated with brachial FMD (r = 0.43, P < 0.05), PWA-RHI (r = 0.42, P < 0.05), and AIx (r = ?0.54, P < 0.05). Muscular strength was not associated with any measure of vascular function. In conclusion, systemic vascular function is associated with lower-limb muscular power but not muscular strength in older adults. Whether loss of muscular power with aging contributes to systemic vascular deconditioning or vascular dysfunction contributes to decrements in muscular power remains to be determined. PMID:22966457

  16. Insights from a Chimpanzee Adipose Stromal Cell Population: Opportunities for Adult Stem Cells to Expand Primate Functional Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Pfefferle, Lisa W.; Wray, Gregory A.

    2013-01-01

    Comparisons between humans and chimpanzees are essential for understanding traits unique to each species. However, linking important phenotypic differences to underlying molecular changes is often challenging. The ability to generate, differentiate, and profile adult stem cells provides a powerful but underutilized opportunity to investigate the molecular basis for trait differences between species within specific cell types and in a controlled environment. Here, we characterize adipose stromal cells (ASCs) from Clint, the chimpanzee whose genome was first sequenced. Using imaging and RNA-Seq, we compare the chimpanzee ASCs with three comparable human cell lines. Consistent with previous studies on ASCs in humans, the chimpanzee cells have fibroblast-like morphology and express genes encoding components of the extracellular matrix at high levels. Differentially expressed genes are enriched for distinct functional classes between species: immunity and protein processing are higher in chimpanzees, whereas cell cycle and DNA processing are higher in humans. Although hesitant to draw definitive conclusions from these data given the limited sample size, we wish to stress the opportunities that adult stem cells offer for studying primate evolution. In particular, adult stem cells provide a powerful means to investigate the profound disease susceptibilities unique to humans and a promising tool for conservation efforts with nonhuman primates. By allowing for experimental perturbations in relevant cell types, adult stem cells promise to complement classic comparative primate genomics based on in vivo sampling. PMID:24092797

  17. Percentage of Adults with High Blood Pressure Whose Hypertension Is Adequately Controlled

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Sign Out Percentage of Adults with High Blood Pressure Whose Hypertension is Adequately Controlled Heart disease and ... and third leading causes of death. High blood pressure is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, ...

  18. Associations between Conceptual Reasoning, Problem Solving, and Adaptive Ability in High-Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Diane L.; Mazefsky, Carla A.; Walker, Jon D.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Goldstein, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Abstract thinking is generally highly correlated with problem-solving ability which is predictive of better adaptive functioning. Measures of conceptual reasoning, an ecologically-valid laboratory measure of problem-solving, and a report measure of adaptive functioning in the natural environment, were administered to children and adults with and…

  19. Marginal neurofunctional changes in high-performing older adults in a verbal fluency task.

    PubMed

    Marsolais, Yannick; Methqal, Ikram; Joanette, Yves

    2015-01-01

    The maintenance of a high level of performance in aging has often been associated with changes in cerebral activations patterns for various cognitive components. However, relatively few studies have investigated this phenomenon in light of lexical speech production abilities, which have not been systematically found to benefit from neurofunctional reorganization during verbal fluency tasks. In this study, functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess overt self-paced semantic and orthographic verbal fluency tasks performed by healthy younger and older adults within a mixed block/event-related fMRI design. Behavioral results indicated similarly high levels of performance between tasks and age groups, while whole brain analysis revealed significant task-related differences in patterns of brain activity, but no significant effect of age or task-by-age interaction across the speech conditions. Only local activity differences were found between age groups. These marginal neurofunctional changes in high-performing older adults are discussed in terms of task demands. PMID:25461916

  20. Effect of the antioxidant dibunol on adrenocortical, thyroid, and adenohypopyseal function in adult and old rats

    SciTech Connect

    Gorban', E.N.

    1986-04-01

    This paper studies the effect of dibunol (4-methyl-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol) (D) on the function of the adrenal cortex, thyroid gland, and adenhypophysis, which produces trophic hormones for the other two glands. Experiments were carried out on adult rats. After injection of D concentrations of corticosterone (CS), triodothyronine (T/sub 3/), ACTH, and thyrotrophin (TSH) in the blood plasma and the CS concentration in tssue of the adenohypophysis were determined. It is shown that injection of D caused biphasic changes in the CS concentration in both tissues studied in adult and old animals.

  1. Consequences of cancer treatments on adult hippocampal neurogenesis: implications for cognitive function and depressive symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Pereira Dias, Gisele; Hollywood, Ronan; Bevilaqua, Mário Cesar do Nascimento; da Silveira da Luz, Anna Claudia Domingos; Hindges, Robert; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Thuret, Sandrine

    2014-01-01

    The human brain is capable of generating new functional neurons throughout life, a phenomenon known as adult neurogenesis. The generation of new neurons is sustained throughout adulthood due to the proliferation and differentiation of adult neural stem cells. This process in humans is uniquely located in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) is thought to play a major role in hippocampus-dependent functions, such as spatial awareness, long-term memory, emotionality, and mood. The overall aim of current treatments for cancer (such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy) is to prevent aberrant cell division of cell populations associated with malignancy. However, the treatments in question are absolutist in nature and hence inhibit all cell division. An unintended consequence of this cessation of cell division is the impairment of adult neural stem cell proliferation and AHN. Patients undergoing treatment for cancerous malignancies often display specific forms of memory deficits, as well as depressive symptoms. This review aims to discuss the effects of cancer treatments on AHN and propose a link between the inhibition of the neurogenetic process in the hippocampus and the advent of the cognitive and mood-based deficits observed in patients and animal models undergoing cancer therapies. Possible evidence for coadjuvant interventions aiming to protect neural cells, and subsequently the mood and cognitive functions they regulate, from the ablative effects of cancer treatment are discussed as potential clinical tools to improve mental health among cancer patients. PMID:24470543

  2. Exploring the Relationship of Autonomic and Endocrine Activity with Social Functioning in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smeekens, I.; Didden, R.; Verhoeven, E. W. M.

    2015-01-01

    Several studies indicate that autonomic and endocrine activity may be related to social functioning in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), although the number of studies in adults is limited. The present study explored the relationship of autonomic and endocrine activity with social functioning in young adult males with ASD compared…

  3. Cigarillo use among high-risk urban young adults.

    PubMed

    Milam, Adam J; Bone, Lee R; Byron, M Justin; Hoke, Kathleen; Williams, Carla D; Furr-Holden, C Debra; Stillman, Frances A

    2013-11-01

    In the U.S., cigar use doubled from 5.0 to 10.6 billion cigars consumed annually between 1997 and 2007, driven in large part by increased sales of cigarette-sized "little cigars" and narrow, mid-sized "cigarillos." The present study examined prevalence of cigarillo use as well as attitudes, knowledge and behaviors related to cigarillo use among a sample of predominantly urban African American young adults 18-24 not in school and not employed. Survey data were collected from 131 young adults attending education and job training centers in Baltimore, Maryland and from 78 young adults attending education, job training, or recreational programs in Washington, D.C. In Baltimore, 22% of young adults had smoked a cigarillo in the past 30 days, compared with nearly 63% in D.C. Both populations were heavily exposed to cigarillo advertising and marketing. Cigarillo use in this urban young adult population is a growing public health problem and undermines the progress made in decreasing cigarette use. PMID:24185161

  4. Speed of processing and depression affect function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Patrick J.; Liu, Xinhua; Sneed, Joel R.; Pimontel, Monique A.; Devanand, D.P.; Roose, Steven P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effect of depression and cognition on function in older adults with amnestic and nonamnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI; nonaMCI). Design The study uses baseline data from the National Alzheimer’s Coordinating Center. Setting Data was collected at multiple Alzheimer’s Disease Centers in the United States. Participants The sample included a total of 3117 individuals with MCI, mean age = 74.37 years, SD = 9.37 (aMCI n =2488; nonaMCI n = 629). Measurements The 10-item Pfeffer Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ) assessed function. Results Depressive symptoms (Geriatric Depression Scale), memory impairment (Logical Memory II), and processing speed decrements (Digit Symbol Substitution Test) were significantly associated with functional impairment (p < .001). Processing speed partially mediated the effect of depression on function and fully mediated the effect of executive dysfunction on function (p < .001) in the total MCI and aMCI subsample, while in the nonaMCI subsample processing speed mediated the effect of executive function but not the effect of depression (p = .20) on function. Conclusions The findings show that processing speed is central to the effect that depression and executive dysfunction have on functional impairment in cognitively impaired older adults. Future studies are needed to better understand the physiological underpinnings in age-related and disease-specific decrements in processing speed, and to address the problems in the assessment of processing speed in clinical samples. PMID:23567401

  5. Functional deficits of pertussis-specific CD4+ T cells in infants compared to adults following DTaP vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, S K; Pichichero, M E

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the immune responses that explain why infants require multiple doses of pertussis vaccine to achieve protection against infection is a high priority. The objective of this study was to compare the function and phenotypes of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells in adults (n = 12), compared to infants (n = 20), following vaccination with acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were stimulated with pertussis toxoid (PT), pertactin (PRN) and filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA). Multi-parameter flow cytometry was used to delineate CD4+ T cell populations and phenotypes producing interferon (IFN)-?, interleukin (IL)-2, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-? and IL-4. Based on surface CD69 expression, infants demonstrated activation of vaccine antigen-specific CD4+ T cells similar to adults. However, among infants, Boolean combinations of gates suggested that type 1 (Th-1) CD4+ T cell responses were confined largely to TNF-?+IL-2+IFN-?- or TNF-?+IL-2-IFN-?-. A significantly lower percentage of polyfunctional T helper type 1 (Th1) responses (TNF-?+IFN-?+IL-2+) and type 2 (Th2) responses (IL-4) were present in the infants compared to adults. Moreover, a significantly higher percentage of infants' functional CD4+ T cells were restricted to CD45RA-CCR7+CD27+ phenotype, consistent with early-stage differentiated pertussis-specific memory CD4+ T cells. We show for the first time that DTaP vaccination-induced CD4+ T cells in infants are functionally and phenotypically dissimilar from those of adults. PMID:22861368

  6. The effects on the pulmonary function of normal adults proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation respiration pattern exercise.

    PubMed

    Seo, KyoChul; Cho, MiSuk

    2014-10-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine whether proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) respiration exercise increases the pulmonary function of normal adults. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight normal adults in their 20s were randomly assigned to an experimental group (n=14) or control group (n=14). Over the course of four weeks, the experimental group participated in PNF respiration pattern exercises for 30 minutes three times per week. Subjects were assessed pre-test and post-test by measurement of pulmonary function (tidal volume, inspiratory reserve volume, expiratory reserve volume, inspiratory capacity, and vital capacity). [Results] Our findings show that the experimental group had significant improvements in expiratory reserve volume and vital capacity. In the comparison of the two groups, the experimental group had higher pulmonary function than the control group. [Conclusion] In this study, the experimental group showed greater improvement in pulmonary function than the control group, which indicates that the PNF respiration exercise is effective at increasing the pulmonary function of normal adults. PMID:25364117

  7. The Effects on the Pulmonary Function of Normal Adults Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Respiration Pattern Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Seo, KyoChul; Cho, MiSuk

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine whether proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) respiration exercise increases the pulmonary function of normal adults. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight normal adults in their 20s were randomly assigned to an experimental group (n=14) or control group (n=14). Over the course of four weeks, the experimental group participated in PNF respiration pattern exercises for 30 minutes three times per week. Subjects were assessed pre-test and post-test by measurement of pulmonary function (tidal volume, inspiratory reserve volume, expiratory reserve volume, inspiratory capacity, and vital capacity). [Results] Our findings show that the experimental group had significant improvements in expiratory reserve volume and vital capacity. In the comparison of the two groups, the experimental group had higher pulmonary function than the control group. [Conclusion] In this study, the experimental group showed greater improvement in pulmonary function than the control group, which indicates that the PNF respiration exercise is effective at increasing the pulmonary function of normal adults. PMID:25364117

  8. Combined Cognitive-Psychological-Physical Intervention Induces Reorganization of Intrinsic Functional Brain Architecture in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zhiwei; Zhu, Xinyi; Yin, Shufei; Wang, Baoxi; Niu, Yanan; Huang, Xin; Li, Rui; Li, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that enriched mental, physical, and socially stimulating activities are beneficial for counteracting age-related decreases in brain function and cognition in older adults. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to demonstrate the functional plasticity of brain activity in response to a combined cognitive-psychological-physical intervention and investigated the contribution of the intervention-related brain changes to individual performance in healthy older adults. The intervention was composed of a 6-week program of combined activities including cognitive training, Tai Chi exercise, and group counseling. The results showed improved cognitive performance and reorganized regional homogeneity of spontaneous fluctuations in the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals in the superior and middle temporal gyri, and the posterior lobe of the cerebellum, in the participants who attended the intervention. Intriguingly, the intervention-induced changes in the coherence of local spontaneous activity correlated with the improvements in individual cognitive performance. Taken together with our previous findings of enhanced resting-state functional connectivity between the medial prefrontal cortex and medial temporal lobe regions following a combined intervention program in older adults, we conclude that the functional plasticity of the aging brain is a rather complex process, and an effective cognitive-psychological-physical intervention is helpful for maintaining a healthy brain and comprehensive cognition during old age.

  9. Combined cognitive-psychological-physical intervention induces reorganization of intrinsic functional brain architecture in older adults.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhiwei; Zhu, Xinyi; Yin, Shufei; Wang, Baoxi; Niu, Yanan; Huang, Xin; Li, Rui; Li, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that enriched mental, physical, and socially stimulating activities are beneficial for counteracting age-related decreases in brain function and cognition in older adults. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to demonstrate the functional plasticity of brain activity in response to a combined cognitive-psychological-physical intervention and investigated the contribution of the intervention-related brain changes to individual performance in healthy older adults. The intervention was composed of a 6-week program of combined activities including cognitive training, Tai Chi exercise, and group counseling. The results showed improved cognitive performance and reorganized regional homogeneity of spontaneous fluctuations in the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals in the superior and middle temporal gyri, and the posterior lobe of the cerebellum, in the participants who attended the intervention. Intriguingly, the intervention-induced changes in the coherence of local spontaneous activity correlated with the improvements in individual cognitive performance. Taken together with our previous findings of enhanced resting-state functional connectivity between the medial prefrontal cortex and medial temporal lobe regions following a combined intervention program in older adults, we conclude that the functional plasticity of the aging brain is a rather complex process, and an effective cognitive-psychological-physical intervention is helpful for maintaining a healthy brain and comprehensive cognition during old age. PMID:25810927

  10. Activity Adherence and Physical Function in Older Adults with Functional Limitations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders Pilot (LIFE-P) was a trial to examine the effects of physical activity on measures of disability risk in previously sedentary older adults at risk for disability. We examined adherence and retention to the LIPE-P physical activity (PA) interventio...

  11. Pedagogical cues encourage toddlers' transmission of recently demonstrated functions to unfamiliar adults.

    PubMed

    Vredenburgh, Christopher; Kushnir, Tamar; Casasola, Marianella

    2014-10-01

    Young children use pedagogical cues as a signal that others' actions are social or cultural conventions. Here we show that children selectively transmit (enact in a new social situation) causal functions demonstrated pedagogically, even when they have learned and can produce alternative functions as well. Two-year-olds saw two novel toys, each with two functions. One experimenter demonstrated one function using pedagogical cues (eye contact and child-directed speech) and a second experimenter demonstrated the alternative function using intentional actions towards the object, but without pedagogical cues. Children imitated both functions at equal rates initially, indicating equal causal learning from both types of demonstration. However, they were significantly more likely to enact the pedagogical function for a new adult not present during the initial demonstrations. These results indicate that pedagogical cues influence children's transmission of information, perhaps playing a role in the dissemination of cultural conventions from a young age. PMID:25284008

  12. Adaptive Modulation of Adult Brain Gray and White Matter to High Altitude: Structural MRI Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiaxing; Zhang, Haiyan; Li, Jinqiang; Chen, Ji; Han, Qiaoqing; Lin, Jianzhong; Yang, Tianhe; Fan, Ming

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate brain structural alterations in adult immigrants who adapted to high altitude (HA). Voxel-based morphometry analysis of gray matter (GM) volumes, surface-based analysis of cortical thickness, and Tract-Based Spatial Statistics analysis of white matter fractional anisotropy (FA) based on MRI images were conducted on 16 adults (20–22 years) who immigrated to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (2300–4400 m) for 2 years. They had no chronic mountain sickness. Control group consisted of 16 matched sea level subjects. A battery of neuropsychological tests was also conducted. HA immigrants showed significantly decreased GM volumes in the right postcentral gyrus and right superior frontal gyrus, and increased GM volumes in the right middle frontal gyrus, right parahippocampal gyrus, right inferior and middle temporal gyri, bilateral inferior ventral pons, and right cerebellum crus1. While there was some divergence in the left hemisphere, surface-based patterns of GM changes in the right hemisphere resembled those seen for VBM analysis. FA changes were observed in multiple WM tracts. HA immigrants showed significant impairment in pulmonary function, increase in reaction time, and deficit in mental rotation. Parahippocampal and middle frontal GM volumes correlated with vital capacity. Superior frontal GM volume correlated with mental rotation and postcentral GM correlated with reaction time. Paracentral lobule and frontal FA correlated with mental rotation reaction time. There might be structural modifications occurred in the adult immigrants during adaptation to HA. The changes in GM may be related to impaired respiratory function and psychological deficits. PMID:23874692

  13. Recollection of childhood abdominal pain in adults with functional gastrointestinal disorders

    PubMed Central

    CHITKARA, DENESH K.; TALLEY, NICHOLAS J.; SCHLECK, CATHY; ZINSMEISTER, ALAN R.; SHAH, NILAY D.; LOCKE, G. RICHARD

    2009-01-01

    Objective It is hypothesized that adults who can recall abdominal pain as children are at risk of experiencing a functional gastrointestinal disorder (FGID), but this is not specific to any particular FGID. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between recollecting abdominal pain as a child and experiencing a FGID. Material and methods A valid self-reported questionnaire of GI symptoms was mailed to a random population-based sample in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Logistic regression models adjusting for age, gender, body mass index (BMI), somatization, and other factors were used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) for having a FGID in individuals recalling bouts of stomach or abdominal pain in childhood (before age 15). Results Overall, 2298 (55%) of a total of 4194 eligible adult subjects returned a completed questionnaire. Of the respondents, 213 (9%) recalled experiencing abdominal pain as children. Adults who recalled experiencing abdominal pain in childhood had greater odds for reporting symptoms of a FGID (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.4–2.7). Recalling abdominal pain in childhood was significantly associated with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) (OR 2.5; 95% CI 1.7–3.6) but not gastroesophageal reflux, dyspepsia, constipation, or diarrhea, adjusting for age, gender, BMI, somatic symptoms, marital status, and education. Conclusions Recollection of childhood abdominal pain is specifically associated with IBS in adults. This suggests that a proportion of adults with IBS may have onset of symptoms of abdominal pain during childhood. PMID:19016078

  14. The role of sleep continuity and total sleep time in executive function across the adult lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Wilckens, Kristine A.; Woo, Sarah G.; Kirk, Afton R.; Erickson, Kirk I.; Wheeler, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    The importance of sleep for cognition in young adults is well established, but the role of habitual sleep behavior in cognition across the adult lifespan remains unknown. We examined the relationship between sleep continuity and total sleep time assessed with a sleep detection device and cognitive performance using a battery of tasks in young (n = 59, mean age = 23.05) and older (n = 53, mean age = 62.68) adults. Across age groups, higher sleep continuity was associated with better cognitive performance. In the younger group, higher sleep continuity was associated with better working memory and inhibitory control. In the older group, higher sleep continuity was associated with better inhibitory control, memory recall, and verbal fluency. Very short and very long total sleep time was associated with poorer working memory and verbal fluency, specifically in the younger group. Total sleep time was not associated with cognitive performance in any domains for the older group. These findings reveal that sleep continuity is important for executive function in both young and older adults, but total sleep time may be more important for cognition in young adults. PMID:25244484

  15. Older Adults are Highly Responsive to Recent Events During Decision-Making

    PubMed Central

    Worthy, Darrell A.; Otto, A. Ross; Doll, Bradley B.; Byrne, Kaileigh A.; Maddox, W. Todd

    2014-01-01

    Recent work suggests that older adults’ decision-making behavior is highly affected by recent events. In the present work younger and older adults performed a two-choice task where one option provided a larger average reward, but there was a large amount of noise around the mean reward for each option which led to sharp improvements or declines in rewards over trials. Older adults showed greater responsiveness to recent events than younger adults as evidenced by fits of Reinforcement Learning (RL) models. Older adults were particularly sensitive to recent negative events, which was evidenced by a strong tendency for older adults to switch to the other option following steep declines in reward. This tendency led to superior performance for older adults in one condition where heightened sensitivity to recent negative events was advantageous. These results extend prior work that has found an older adult bias toward negative feedback, and suggest that older adults engage in more abrupt switching in response to negative outcomes than younger adults. PMID:25580469

  16. High-Frequency Auditory Feedback Is Not Required for Adult Song Maintenance in Bengalese Finches

    E-print Network

    Rubel, Edwin

    High-Frequency Auditory Feedback Is Not Required for Adult Song Maintenance in Bengalese Finches 98195 Male Bengalese finches do not normally change their vocal patterns in adulthood; song are sufficient for song maintenance in adult Bengalese finches. Key words: song; auditory feedback; hair cell

  17. Poems by Adolescents and Adults: A Thematic Collection for Middle School and High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewbaker, James, Ed.; Hyland, Dawnelle J., Ed.

    This book, a collection of poems by adolescents and adults, is designed to offer teachers a supplement to the standard middle school and high school literature anthologies. Divided into 11 themed sections, the collection mixes more than 100 poems by students in grades 5 to 12 with more than 40 pieces by adults, including well-known writers such as…

  18. Do Individuals with High Functioning Autism Have the IQ Profile Associated with Nonverbal Learning Disability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Diane L.; Goldstein, Gerald; Kojkowski, Nicole; Minshew, Nancy J.

    2008-01-01

    Previously researchers have noted a high level of occurrence of the IQ profile associated with nonverbal learning disability (NLD) in Asperger syndrome (ASP) but not in high functioning autism (HFA). We examined the IQ profile scores of a large sample of children (n=69) and adults (n=77) with HFA, stringently diagnosed according to ADOS, ADI-R,…

  19. Exogenous spatial attention: Evidence for intact functioning in adults with autism spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Grubb, Michael A.; Behrmann, Marlene; Egan, Ryan; Minshew, Nancy J.; Heeger, David J.; Carrasco, Marisa

    2013-01-01

    Deficits or atypicalities in attention have been reported in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), yet no consensus on the nature of these deficits has emerged. We conducted three experiments that paired a peripheral precue with a covert discrimination task, using protocols for which the effects of covert exogenous spatial attention on early vision have been well established in typically developing populations. Experiment 1 assessed changes in contrast sensitivity, using orientation discrimination of a contrast-defined grating; Experiment 2 evaluated the reduction of crowding in the visual periphery, using discrimination of a letter-like figure with flanking stimuli at variable distances; and Experiment 3 assessed improvements in visual search, using discrimination of the same letter-like figure with a variable number of distractor elements. In all three experiments, we found that exogenous attention modulated visual discriminability in a group of high-functioning adults with ASD and that it did so in the same way and to the same extent as in a matched control group. We found no evidence to support the hypothesis that deficits in exogenous spatial attention underlie the emergence of core ASD symptomatology. PMID:24326863

  20. Exogenous spatial attention: evidence for intact functioning in adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Grubb, Michael A; Behrmann, Marlene; Egan, Ryan; Minshew, Nancy J; Heeger, David J; Carrasco, Marisa

    2013-01-01

    Deficits or atypicalities in attention have been reported in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), yet no consensus on the nature of these deficits has emerged. We conducted three experiments that paired a peripheral precue with a covert discrimination task, using protocols for which the effects of covert exogenous spatial attention on early vision have been well established in typically developing populations. Experiment 1 assessed changes in contrast sensitivity, using orientation discrimination of a contrast-defined grating; Experiment 2 evaluated the reduction of crowding in the visual periphery, using discrimination of a letter-like figure with flanking stimuli at variable distances; and Experiment 3 assessed improvements in visual search, using discrimination of the same letter-like figure with a variable number of distractor elements. In all three experiments, we found that exogenous attention modulated visual discriminability in a group of high-functioning adults with ASD and that it did so in the same way and to the same extent as in a matched control group. We found no evidence to support the hypothesis that deficits in exogenous spatial attention underlie the emergence of core ASD symptomatology. PMID:24326863

  1. Oppositional COMT Val158Met effects on resting state functional connectivity in adolescents and adults.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Bernhard M; Huemer, Julia; Rabl, Ulrich; Boubela, Roland N; Kalcher, Klaudius; Berger, Andreas; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth; Bokde, Arun; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia; Desrivières, Sylvane; Flor, Herta; Frouin, Vincent; Gallinat, Jurgen; Garavan, Hugh; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Jia, Tianye; Lathrop, Mark; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Nees, Frauke; Rietschel, Marcella; Smolka, Michael N; Bartova, Lucie; Popovic, Ana; Scharinger, Christian; Sitte, Harald H; Steiner, Hans; Friedrich, Max H; Kasper, Siegfried; Perkmann, Thomas; Praschak-Rieder, Nicole; Haslacher, Helmuth; Esterbauer, Harald; Moser, Ewald; Schumann, Gunter; Pezawas, Lukas

    2014-10-16

    Prefrontal dopamine levels are relatively increased in adolescence compared to adulthood. Genetic variation of COMT (COMT Val158Met) results in lower enzymatic activity and higher dopamine availability in Met carriers. Given the dramatic changes of synaptic dopamine during adolescence, it has been suggested that effects of COMT Val158Met genotypes might have oppositional effects in adolescents and adults. The present study aims to identify such oppositional COMT Val158Met effects in adolescents and adults in prefrontal brain networks at rest. Resting state functional connectivity data were collected from cross-sectional and multicenter study sites involving 106 healthy young adults (mean age 24 ± 2.6 years), gender matched to 106 randomly chosen 14-year-olds. We selected the anterior medial prefrontal cortex (amPFC) as seed due to its important role as nexus of the executive control and default mode network. We observed a significant age-dependent reversal of COMT Val158Met effects on resting state functional connectivity between amPFC and ventrolateral as well as dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and parahippocampal gyrus. Val homozygous adults exhibited increased and adolescents decreased connectivity compared to Met homozygotes for all reported regions. Network analyses underscored the importance of the parahippocampal gyrus as mediator of observed effects. Results of this study demonstrate that adolescent and adult resting state networks are dose-dependently and diametrically affected by COMT genotypes following a hypothetical model of dopamine function that follows an inverted U-shaped curve. This study might provide cues for the understanding of disease onset or dopaminergic treatment mechanisms in major neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. PMID:25319752

  2. Social network types and functional dependency in older adults in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Social networks play a key role in caring for older adults. A better understanding of the characteristics of different social networks types (TSNs) in a given community provides useful information for designing policies to care for this age group. Therefore this study has three objectives: 1) To derive the TSNs among older adults affiliated with the Mexican Institute of Social Security; 2) To describe the main characteristics of the older adults in each TSN, including the instrumental and economic support they receive and their satisfaction with the network; 3) To determine the association between functional dependency and the type of social network. Methods Secondary data analysis of the 2006 Survey of Autonomy and Dependency (N = 3,348). The TSNs were identified using the structural approach and cluster analysis. The association between functional dependency and the TSNs was evaluated with Poisson regression with robust variance analysis in which socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle and medical history covariates were included. Results We identified five TSNs: diverse with community participation (12.1%), diverse without community participation (44.3%); widowed (32.0%); nonfriends-restricted (7.6%); nonfamily-restricted (4.0%). Older adults belonging to widowed and restricted networks showed a higher proportion of dependency, negative self-rated health and depression. Older adults with functional dependency more likely belonged to a widowed network (adjusted prevalence ratio 1.5; 95%CI: 1.1-2.1). Conclusion The derived TSNs were similar to those described in developed countries. However, we identified the existence of a diverse network without community participation and a widowed network that have not been previously described. These TSNs and restricted networks represent a potential unmet need of social security affiliates. PMID:20187973

  3. Feeding behaviour of adult Centropages hamatus (Copepoda, Calanoida): Functional response and selective feeding experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saage, Andrea; Vadstein, Olav; Sommer, Ulrich

    2009-06-01

    The feeding behaviour of adults of the marine calanoid copepod Centropages hamatus was studied in laboratory experiments with ciliates and phytoplankton as food sources. The ingestion rate of algal (flagellates, diatoms) and ciliate prey (oligotrichs) as a function of prey concentration could be described by a Holling type III functional response, with close to zero ingestion rates at concentrations below 5 µg C l - 1 . In general, ingestion of ciliates was higher than ingestion of algae, and maximum feeding rates by adult males reached were half the feeding rates of adult females at prey concentrations exceeding 50 µg C l - 1 . When diatoms and ciliates were offered together C. hamatus (both sexes) fed exclusively on ciliates as long as they contributed with more than 5% to the mixture. This indicates the capability of active prey selection and switching between suspension feeding and ambush predation. Therefore, the feeding behaviour of adult C. hamatus can be characterised as omnivorous with a preference for larger motile prey. This implies a trophic level above two, if there is a sufficient abundance of protozoan food available.

  4. Personality Traits, Education, Physical Exercise, and Childhood Neurological Function as Independent Predictors of Adult Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Helen; Furnham, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether personality traits, education, physical exercise, parental socio-economic conditions, and childhood neurological function are independently associated with obesity in 50 year old adults in a longitudinal birth cohort study. Method The sample consisted of 5,921 participants born in Great Britain in 1958 and followed up at 7, 11, 33, 42, and 50 years with data on body mass index measured at 42 and 50 years. Results There was an increase of adult obesity from 14.2% at age 42 to 23.6% at 50 years. Cohort members who were reported by teachers on overall clumsiness as “certainly applied” at age 7 were more likely to become obese at age 50. In addition, educational qualifications, traits Conscientiousness and Extraversion, psychological distress, and physical exercise were all significantly associated with adult obesity. The associations remained to be significant after controlling for birth weight and gestation, maternal and paternal BMI, childhood BMI, childhood intelligence and behavioural adjustment, as well as diet. Conclusion Neurological function in childhood, education, trait Conscientiousness, and exercise were all significantly and independently associated with adult obesity, each explained unique individual variability. PMID:24250828

  5. Mechanisms of recovery of visual function in adult amblyopia through a tailored action video game.

    PubMed

    Vedamurthy, Indu; Nahum, Mor; Bavelier, Daphne; Levi, Dennis M

    2015-01-01

    Amblyopia is a deficit in vision that arises from abnormal visual experience early in life. It was long thought to develop into a permanent deficit, unless properly treated before the end of the sensitive period for visual recovery. However, a number of studies now suggest that adults with long-standing amblyopia may at least partially recover visual acuity and stereopsis following perceptual training. Eliminating or reducing interocular suppression has been hypothesized to be at the root of these changes. Here we show that playing a novel dichoptic video game indeed results in reduced suppression, improved visual acuity and, in some cases, improved stereopsis. Our relatively large cohort of adults with amblyopia, allowed us, for the first time, to assess the link between visual function recovery and reduction in suppression. Surprisingly, no significant correlation was found between decreased suppression and improved visual function. This finding challenges the prevailing view and suggests that while dichoptic training improves visual acuity and stereopsis in adult amblyopia, reduced suppression is unlikely to be at the root of visual recovery. These results are discussed in the context of their implication on recovery of amblyopia in adults. PMID:25719537

  6. Temporal lobe functional activity and connectivity in young adult APOE e4 carriers

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Nancy A.; Browndyke, Jeffrey N.; Stokes, Jared; Need, Anna; Burke, James R.; Welsh-Bohmer, Kathleen A.; Cabeza, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Background To determine if the APOE e4 allele influences both the functional activation and connectivity of the medial temporal lobes (MTL) during successful memory encoding in young adults. Methods Twenty-four healthy young adults, twelve carriers and twelve non-carriers of the APOE e4 allele, were scanned in a subsequent memory paradigm, using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The neuroanatomical correlates of successful encoding were measured as greater neural activity for subsequently remembered versus forgotten task items, or in short, encoding success activity (ESA). Group differences in ESA within the MTL, as well as whole brain functional connectivity with the MTL, were assessed. Results In the absence of demographic or performance differences, APOE e4 allele carriers exhibited greater bilateral MTL activity relative to the non-carriers to accomplish the same encoding task. Additionally, while e4 carriers demonstrated greater functional connectivity of ESA-related MTL activity with the posterior cingulate (PCC) and other peri-limbic regions, overall connectivity reductions were found across anterior and posterior cortices. Conclusions These results suggest that the APOE e4 allele may influence not only functional activations within the MTL, but functional connectivity of the MTL to other regions implicated in memory encoding. Enhanced functional connectivity of the MTL with the PCC in young adult e4 carriers suggests that APOE may be expressed early in brain regions known to be involved in Alzheimer's disease long before late-onset dementia is a practical risk or consideration. It is also possible that these functional connectivity differences reflect pleiotropic effects of APOE during early development. PMID:19744893

  7. Functional impairment, disability, and frailty in adults aging with HIV-infection.

    PubMed

    Erlandson, Kristine M; Schrack, Jennifer A; Jankowski, Catherine M; Brown, Todd T; Campbell, Thomas B

    2014-09-01

    The integration of antiretroviral therapy (i.e., ART) into HIV care has dramatically extended the life expectancy of those living with HIV. However, in comparison to similar HIV-uninfected populations, HIV-infected persons experience an excess of morbidity and mortality with an early onset of aging complications including neurocognitive decline, osteoporosis, impaired physical function, frailty, and falls. Recent consensus guidelines encourage clinicians and researchers to consider functional impairment of HIV-infected adults as a measure to understand the impact of aging across a range of abilities. Despite the importance of assessing function in persons aging with HIV infection, a lack of consistent terminology and standardization of assessment tools has limited the application of functional assessments in clinical or research settings. Herein, we distinguish between different approaches used to assess function, describe what is known about function in the aging HIV population, and consider directions for future research. PMID:24966138

  8. Assessment of Macular Function Using the SKILL Card in Adults With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Dhamdhere, Kavita P.; Schneck, Marilyn E.; Bearse, Marcus A.; Lam, Wendy; Barez, Shirin; Adams, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the impact of reduced contrast and reduced luminance on visual acuity (VA) using the Smith–Kettlewell Institute Low Luminance (SKILL) Card in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods. We studied adults aged 27 to 65 years, 32 with T2DM and no retinopathy (NoRet group), 22 with T2DM and nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR group), and 38 healthy control subjects. Monocular high-contrast (SKILL light) and low-contrast, low-luminance (SKILL dark) near visual acuities were tested. The SKILL score was calculated as the difference between dark chart and light chart acuities and was corrected for age. Contrast sensitivity (CS) was also measured. Subject group differences were examined using ANOVA and Tukey honestly significant difference test. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to assess the ability of the SKILL Card and CS to discriminate the subject groups. Results. The SKILL score and CS were significantly worse in both diabetes groups compared with the controls (P < 0.01). SKILL scores in the NPDR group were poorest (highest) and significantly worse than those in the NoRet group (P < 0.05). SKILL scores discriminated NPDR and NoRet patients from the controls with high accuracy (99% and 88%, respectively), which was significantly (P < 0.03) better than CS (78% and 74%, respectively). Conclusions. The SKILL Card demonstrated vision function changes in diabetes even in the absence of clinically evident retinopathy. Diabetic retinopathy led to a further increase in the SKILL score, while high-contrast VA remained unchanged. PMID:24825104

  9. Effect of High Glucose on Stress-Induced Senescence of Nucleus Pulposus Cells of Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Jae-Gwan; Lee, Donghwan; Park, Eun-Young

    2015-01-01

    Study Design In vitro cell culture model. Purpose We investigated the effect of diabetes mellitus (DM) on senescence of adult nucleus pulposus (NP) cells. Overview of Literature DM is a major public health issue worldwide, especially adult-onset (type 2) DM. DM is also thought to be an important etiological factor in disc degeneration. Hyperglycemia is considered to be a major causative factor in the development of DM-associated diseases through senescence. However, little is known about the effects of DM on senescence in adult NP cells. Methods Adult NP cells were isolated from 24-week-old rats, cultured, and placed in either 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS, normal control) and 10% FBS plus two different high glucose concentrations (0.1 M or 0.2 M; experimental conditions) for 1 or 3 days. We identified and quantified the occurrence of senescence in adult rat NP cells using senescence-associated-beta-galactosidase (SA-?-Gal) staining. We also investigated the expression of proteins related to the replicative senescence (p53-p21-pRB) and stress-induced premature senescence (p16-pRB) pathways. Results The mean SA-?-Gal-positive percentage was increased in adult rat NP cells treated with high glucose in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Both high glucose levels increased the expression of p16 and pRB proteins in adult rat NP cells. However, the levels of p53 and p21 proteins were decreased in adult rat NP cells treated with both high glucose concentrations. Conclusions The current study demonstrated that high glucose accelerated stress-induced senescence in adult rat NP cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Accelerated stress-induced senescence in adult NP cells could be an emerging risk factor for intervertebral disc degeneration in older patients with DM. These results suggest that strict blood glucose control is important in prevent or delaying intervertebral disc degeneration in older patients with DM.

  10. Using Question Words or Asking Yes/No Questions: Failure and Success in Clarifying the Intentions of a Boy with High-Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oi, Manabu

    2008-01-01

    This paper examined the processes that resulted in an adult failing to comprehend the intentions of a boy with high-functioning autism. In a dyadic conversation between an adult and a young boy, the adult used questions to elicit clarification of intentions. The boy's responses were examined frame-by-frame using videotape microanalysis. Two causes…

  11. Long-term exposure to decabrominated diphenyl ether impairs CD8 T-cell function in adult mice

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Weihong; Wang, Ying; Liu, Zhicui; Khanniche, Asma; Hu, Qingliang; Feng, Yan; Ye, Weiyi; Yang, Jianglong; Wang, Shujun; Zhou, Lin; Shen, Hao; Wang, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants that accumulate to high levels in human populations that are subject to occupational or regional industry exposure. PBDEs have been shown to affect human neuronal, endocrine and reproductive systems, but their effect on the immune system is not well understood. In this study, experimental adult mice were intragastrically administered 2,2?,3,3?,4,4?,5,5?,6,6?-decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) at doses of 8, 80 or 800 mg/kg of body weight (bw) at 2-day intervals. Our results showed that continuous exposure to BDE-209 resulted in high levels of BDE-209 in the plasma that approached the levels found in people who work in professions with high risks of PDBE exposure. Reduced leukocytes, decreased cytokine (IFN-?, IL-2 and TNF-?) production and lower CD8 T-cell proliferation were observed in the mice exposed to BDE-209. Additionally, mice with long-term BDE-209 exposure had lower numbers of antigen-specific CD8 T cells after immunization with recombinant Listeria monocytogenes expressing ovalbumin (rLm-OVA) and the OVA-specific CD8 T cells had reduced functionality. Taken together, our study demonstrates that continuous BDE-209 exposure causes adverse effects on the number and functionality of immune cells in adult mice. PMID:24705197

  12. Functional and Molecular Characterization of Rod-like Cells from Retinal Stem Cells Derived from the Adult Ciliary Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Demontis, Gian Carlo; Aruta, Claudia; Comitato, Antonella; De Marzo, Anna; Marigo, Valeria

    2012-01-01

    In vitro generation of photoreceptors from stem cells is of great interest for the development of regenerative medicine approaches for patients affected by retinal degeneration and for high throughput drug screens for these diseases. In this study, we show unprecedented high percentages of rod-fated cells from retinal stem cells of the adult ciliary epithelium. Molecular characterization of rod-like cells demonstrates that they lose ciliary epithelial characteristics but acquire photoreceptor features. Rod maturation was evaluated at two levels: gene expression and electrophysiological functionality. Here we present a strong correlation between phototransduction protein expression and functionality of the cells in vitro. We demonstrate that in vitro generated rod-like cells express cGMP-gated channels that are gated by endogenous cGMP. We also identified voltage-gated channels necessary for rod maturation and viability. This level of analysis for the first time provides evidence that adult retinal stem cells can generate highly homogeneous rod-fated cells. PMID:22432014

  13. Do adults make scale errors too? How function sometimes trumps size.

    PubMed

    Casler, Krista; Hoffman, Kathleen; Eshleman, Angelica

    2014-08-01

    Scale errors-futile attempts to use impossibly sized items as though they were appropriately scaled-have been thought to exist only in young children. Here, we document a similar version of the underlying phenomenon among adults. When asked to select 1 of 2 tools to achieve an instrumental goal, adults in Study 1 frequently selected, via keypress, a tool that was "for" the goal despite the tool being clearly ill sized in the given instance. In doing so, adults ignored an alternative tool that was perfectly sized for the task. Study 2 revealed this outcome did not emerge from a shape bias. Study 3 confirmed findings using a reaching task. Results support proposals that teleofunctional (purpose-based) reasoning is a highly powerful influence on categorization and behavior across development. Toddlers' scale errors may not be a symptom of immature thinking, but reflect a type of reasoning apparent in mature cognition. PMID:24684259

  14. Attentional Control and Subjective Executive Function in Treatment-Naive Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Grane, Venke Arntsberg; Endestad, Tor; Pinto, Arnfrid Farbu; Solbakk, Anne-Kristin

    2014-01-01

    We investigated performance-derived measures of executive control, and their relationship with self- and informant reported executive functions in everyday life, in treatment-naive adults with newly diagnosed Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; n?=?36) and in healthy controls (n?=?35). Sustained attentional control and response inhibition were examined with the Test of Variables of Attention (T.O.V.A.). Delayed responses, increased reaction time variability, and higher omission error rate to Go signals in ADHD patients relative to controls indicated fluctuating levels of attention in the patients. Furthermore, an increment in NoGo commission errors when Go stimuli increased relative to NoGo stimuli suggests reduced inhibition of task-irrelevant stimuli in conditions demanding frequent responding. The ADHD group reported significantly more cognitive and behavioral executive problems than the control group on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version (BRIEF-A). There were overall not strong associations between task performance and ratings of everyday executive function. However, for the ADHD group, T.O.V.A. omission errors predicted self-reported difficulties on the Organization of Materials scale, and commission errors predicted informant reported difficulties on the same scale. Although ADHD patients endorsed more symptoms of depression and anxiety on the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA) than controls, ASEBA scores were not significantly associated with T.O.V.A. performance scores. Altogether, the results indicate multifaceted alteration of attentional control in adult ADHD, and accompanying subjective difficulties with several aspects of executive function in everyday living. The relationships between the two sets of data were modest, indicating that the measures represent non-redundant features of adult ADHD. PMID:25545156

  15. Antenatal maternal stress alters functional brain responses in adult offspring during conditioned fear

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Theodore R. Sadler; Peter T. Nguyen; Jun Yang; Tina K. Givrad; Emeran A. Mayer; Jean-Michel I. Maarek; David R. Hinton; Daniel P. Holschneider

    2011-01-01

    Antenatal maternal stress has been shown in rodent models and in humans to result in altered behavioral and neuroendocrine responses, yet little is known about its effects on functional brain activation. Pregnant female rats received a daily foot-shock stress or sham-stress two days after testing plug-positive and continuing for the duration of their pregnancy. Adult male offspring (age 14weeks) with

  16. Pre-operative sinus node function in adult patients with atrial septal defect (ostium secundum type).

    PubMed

    Benedini, G; Affatato, A; Bellandi, M; Cuccia, C; Niccoli, L; Renaldini, E; Visioli, O

    1985-03-01

    The authors studied, pre-operatively, the sinus node function in adult patients with secundum atrial septal defect and large left-right shunts, using Holter ECG and electrophysiological tests. Sinus node electrophysiological tests were found abnormal in 17 out of 26 patients; on the contrary, Holter monitoring was always within normal limits. The authors believe that concealed sinus node dysfunction existing before surgical correction may be a cause of early, acute, and reversible, post-operative sick sinus syndrome. PMID:4029183

  17. Functional and mechanistic exploration of an adult neurogenesis-promoting small molecule

    PubMed Central

    Petrik, David; Jiang, Yindi; Birnbaum, Shari G.; Powell, Craig M.; Kim, Mi-Sung; Hsieh, Jenny; Eisch, Amelia J.

    2012-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis occurs throughout life in the mammalian hippocampus and is essential for memory and mood control. There is significant interest in identifying ways to promote neurogenesis and ensure maintenance of these hippocampal functions. Previous work with a synthetic small molecule, isoxazole 9 (Isx-9), highlighted its neuronal-differentiating properties in vitro. However, the ability of Isx-9 to drive neurogenesis in vivo or improve hippocampal function was unknown. Here we show that Isx-9 promotes neurogenesis in vivo, enhancing the proliferation and differentiation of hippocampal subgranular zone (SGZ) neuroblasts, and the dendritic arborization of adult-generated dentate gyrus neurons. Isx-9 also improves hippocampal function, enhancing memory in the Morris water maze. Notably, Isx-9 enhances neurogenesis and memory without detectable increases in cellular or animal activity or vascularization. Molecular exploration of Isx-9-induced regulation of neurogenesis (via FACS and microarray of SGZ stem and progenitor cells) suggested the involvement of the myocyte-enhancer family of proteins (Mef2). Indeed, transgenic-mediated inducible knockout of all brain-enriched Mef2 isoforms (Mef2a/c/d) specifically from neural stem cells and their progeny confirmed Mef2's requirement for Isx-9-induced increase in hippocampal neurogenesis. Thus, Isx-9 enhances hippocampal neurogenesis and memory in vivo, and its effects are reliant on Mef2, revealing a novel cell-intrinsic molecular pathway regulating adult neurogenesis.—Petrik, D., Jiang, Y., Birnbaum, S. G., Powell, C. M., Kim, M.-S., Hsieh, J., Eisch, A. J. Functional and mechanistic exploration of an adult neurogenesis-promoting small molecule. PMID:22542682

  18. Do childhood and adult socioeconomic circumstances influence health and physical function in middle-age?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Merete Osler; Mia Madsen; Anne-Marie Nybo Andersen; Kirsten Avlund; Matt Mcgue; Bernard Jeune; Kaare Christensen

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the joint and separate contribution of social class in early and adult life to differences in health and physical function in middle-aged men. We use data from the Metropolit project which includes men born in 1953 in Copenhagen and a study of middle-aged Danish twins (MADT). In total 6292 Metropolit participants in a follow-up survey on health

  19. Testis Structure and Function in a Nongenetic Hyperadipose Rat Model at Prepubertal and Adult Ages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. R. Franca; M. O. Suescun; J. R. Miranda; A. Giovambattista; M. Perello; E. Spinedi; R. S. Calandra

    2005-01-01

    There are few data for hormonal levels and testis structure and function during postnatal development in rats neonatally treated with monosodium L-glutamate (MSG). In our study, newborn male pups were ip injected with MSG (4 mg\\/g body weight) ever y2du p to 10 do f age andinvestigated at pre- pubertal and adult ages. Plasma levels of leptin, LH, FSH, prolactin,

  20. Adult Literacy in the Commonwealth Caribbean with Special Reference to a Study of the Functional Literacy of Young Guyanese Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Zellynne

    2000-01-01

    A test measuring document, prose, and quantitative literacy of out-of-school youth in Guyana found that only 11% had high levels of functional literacy, a literacy rate much lower than usually reported. Failure to represent the situation accurately prolongs the lack of political will to deal with the issue. (SK)

  1. A Comparative Assessment of the Cognitive Functioning of Adults with Childhood Histories of Learning Disability and Adults with Noncognitive Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Ferrari

    2009-01-01

    Demographic, cognitive, and academic achievement data were collected from 591 adults evaluated as part of an outpatient Vocational\\u000a Rehabilitation service. The specific aims of the research were to systematically compare adults with a childhood history of\\u000a LD (putative LD) to groups of adults with principally physical or psychiatric disorders and assess the extent to which the\\u000a LD group continued to

  2. Normal Glucagon Signaling and ?-Cell Function After Near-Total ?-Cell Ablation in Adult Mice

    PubMed Central

    Thorel, Fabrizio; Damond, Nicolas; Chera, Simona; Wiederkehr, Andreas; Thorens, Bernard; Meda, Paolo; Wollheim, Claes B.; Herrera, Pedro L.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether healthy or diabetic adult mice can tolerate an extreme loss of pancreatic ?-cells and how this sudden massive depletion affects ?-cell function and blood glucose homeostasis. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We generated a new transgenic model allowing near-total ?-cell removal specifically in adult mice. Massive ?-cell ablation was triggered in normally grown and healthy adult animals upon diphtheria toxin (DT) administration. The metabolic status of these mice was assessed in 1) physiologic conditions, 2) a situation requiring glucagon action, and 3) after ?-cell loss. RESULTS Adult transgenic mice enduring extreme (98%) ?-cell removal remained healthy and did not display major defects in insulin counter-regulatory response. We observed that 2% of the normal ?-cell mass produced enough glucagon to ensure near-normal glucagonemia. ?-Cell function and blood glucose homeostasis remained unaltered after ?-cell loss, indicating that direct local intraislet signaling between ?- and ?-cells is dispensable. Escaping ?-cells increased their glucagon content during subsequent months, but there was no significant ?-cell regeneration. Near-total ?-cell ablation did not prevent hyperglycemia in mice having also undergone massive ?-cell loss, indicating that a minimal amount of ?-cells can still guarantee normal glucagon signaling in diabetic conditions. CONCLUSIONS An extremely low amount of ?-cells is sufficient to prevent a major counter-regulatory deregulation, both under physiologic and diabetic conditions. We previously reported that ?-cells reprogram to insulin production after extreme ?-cell loss and now conjecture that the low ?-cell requirement could be exploited in future diabetic therapies aimed at regenerating ?-cells by reprogramming adult ?-cells. PMID:21926270

  3. The Role of Affect in Attentional Functioning for Younger and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Soo Rim; Larcom, Mary Jo; Liu, Xiaodong; Isaacowitz, Derek M.

    2012-01-01

    Although previous research has shown that positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) modulate attentional functioning in distinct ways, few studies have considered whether the links between affect and attentional functioning may vary as a function of age. Using the Attention Network Test (Fan et al., 2002), we tested whether participants’ current state of PA and NA influenced distinct attentional functions (i.e., alerting, orienting, and executive attention) and how the relationships between affective states and attentional functioning differ in younger (18–25?years) and older (60–85?years) age groups. While there were age differences in alerting efficiency, these age differences were mediated by PA, indicating that the higher state PA found in older adults may contribute to age differences in alerting. Furthermore, age group moderated the relationship between PA and orienting as well as NA and orienting. That is, higher levels of PA and lower levels of NA were associated with enhanced orienting efficiency in older adults. Neither PA nor NA had any influence on executive attention. The current results suggest that PA and NA may influence attentional functioning in distinct ways, but that these patterns may depend on age groups. PMID:22969741

  4. GATA4 regulates Sertoli cell function and fertility in adult male mice

    PubMed Central

    Kyrönlahti, Antti; Euler, Rosemarie; Bielinska, Malgorzata; Schoeller, Erica L.; Moley, Kelle H.; Toppari, Jorma; Heikinheimo, Markku; Wilson, David B.

    2011-01-01

    Transcription factor GATA4 is expressed in Sertoli and Leydig cells and is required for proper development of the murine fetal testis. The role of GATA4 in adult testicular function, however, has remained unclear due to prenatal lethality of mice harboring homozygous mutations in Gata4. To characterize the function of GATA4 in the adult testis, we generated mice in which Gata4 was conditionally deleted in Sertoli cells using Cre-LoxP recombination with Amhr2-Cre. Conditional knockout (cKO) mice developed age-dependent testicular atrophy and loss of fertility, which coincided with decreases in the quantity and motility of sperm. Histological analysis demonstrated Sertoli cell vacuolation, impaired spermatogenesis, and increased permeability of the blood-testis barrier. RT-PCR analysis of cKO testes showed decreased expression of germ cell markers and increased expression of testicular injury markers. Our findings support the premise that GATA4 is a key transcriptional regulator of Sertoli cell function in adult mice. PMID:21172404

  5. Systematic Review of Structural and Functional Neuroimaging Findings in Children and Adults with CKD

    PubMed Central

    Reiser, Kathryn A.; Detre, John A.; Schultz, Robert T.; Herrington, John D.; Davatzikos, Christos; Doshi, Jimit J.; Erus, Guray; Liu, Hua-Shan; Radcliffe, Jerilynn; Furth, Susan L.; Hooper, Stephen R.

    2013-01-01

    Summary CKD has been linked with cognitive deficits and affective disorders in multiple studies. Analysis of structural and functional neuroimaging in adults and children with kidney disease may provide additional important insights into the pathobiology of this relationship. This paper comprehensively reviews neuroimaging studies in both children and adults. Major databases (PsychLit, MEDLINE, WorldCat, ArticleFirst, PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE) were searched using consistent search terms, and studies published between 1975 and 2012 were included if their samples focused on CKD as the primary disease process. Exclusion criteria included case reports, chapters, and review articles. This systematic process yielded 43 studies for inclusion (30 in adults, 13 in children). Findings from this review identified several clear trends: (1) presence of cerebral atrophy and cerebral density changes in patients with CKD; (2) cerebral vascular disease, including deep white matter hyperintensities, white matter lesions, cerebral microbleeds, silent cerebral infarction, and cortical infarction, in patients with CKD; and (3) similarities in regional cerebral blood flow between patients with CKD and those with affective disorders. These findings document the importance of neuroimaging procedures in understanding the effect of CKD on brain structure, function, and associated behaviors. Results provide a developmental linkage between childhood and adulthood, with respect to the effect of CKD on brain functioning across the lifespan, with strong implications for a cerebrovascular mechanism contributing to this developmental linkage. Use of neuroimaging methods to corroborate manifest neuropsychological deficits or perhaps to indicate preventive actions may prove useful to individuals with CKD. PMID:23723341

  6. The Impact of Financial Reward Contingencies on Cognitive Function Profiles in Adult ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Marx, Ivo; Höpcke, Cornelia; Berger, Christoph; Wandschneider, Roland; Herpertz, Sabine C.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Although it is well established that cognitive performance in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is affected by reward and that key deficits associated with the disorder may thereby be attenuated or even compensated, this phenomenon in adults with ADHD has thus far not been addressed. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the motivating effect of financial reward on task performance in adults with ADHD by focusing on the domains of executive functioning, attention, time perception, and delay aversion. Methods We examined male and female adults aged 18–40 years with ADHD (n?=?38) along with a matched control group (n?=?40) using six well-established experimental paradigms. Results Impaired performance in the ADHD group was observed for stop-signal omission errors, n-back accuracy, reaction time variability in the continuous performance task, and time reproduction accuracy, and reward normalized time reproduction accuracy. Furthermore, when rewarded, subjects with ADHD exhibited longer reaction times and fewer false positives in the continuous performance task, which suggests the use of strategies to prevent impulsivity errors. Conclusions Taken together, our results support the existence of both cognitive and motivational mechanisms for the disorder, which is in line with current models of ADHD. Furthermore, our data suggest cognitive strategies of “stopping and thinking” as a possible underlying mechanism for task improvement that seems to be mediated by reward, which highlights the importance of the interaction between motivation and cognition in adult ADHD. PMID:23840573

  7. Adult-Derived Liver Stem Cells Acquire a Cardiomyocyte Structural and Functional Phenotype ex Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Muller-Borer, Barbara J.; Cascio, Wayne E.; Anderson, Page A.W.; Snowwaert, John N.; Frye, James R.; Desai, Niyati; Esch, Gwyn L.; Brackham, Joe A.; Bagnell, C. Robert; Coleman, William B.; Grisham, Joe W.; Malouf, Nadia N.

    2004-01-01

    We examined the differentiation potential of an adult liver stem cell line (WB F344) in a cardiac microenvironment, ex vivo. WB F344 cells were established from a single cloned nonparenchymal epithelial cell isolated from a normal male adult rat liver. Genetically modified, WB F344 cells that express ?-galactosidase and green fluorescent protein or only ?-galactosidase were co-cultured with dissociated rat or mouse neonatal cardiac cells. After 4 to 14 days, WB F344-derived cardiomyocytes expressed cardiac-specific proteins and exhibited myofibrils, sarcomeres, and a nascent sarcoplasmic reticulum. Further, rhythmically beating WB F344-derived cardiomyocytes displayed calcium transients. Fluorescent recovery after photobleaching demonstrated that WB F344-derived cardiomyocytes were coupled with adjacent neonatal cardiomyocytes and other WB F344-derived cardiomyocytes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization experiments suggested that fusion between WB F344 cells and neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes did not take place. Collectively, these results support the conclusion that these adult-derived liver stem cells respond to signals generated in a cardiac microenvironment ex vivo acquiring a cardiomyocyte phenotype and function. The identification ex vivo of microenvironmental signals that appear to cross germ layer and species specificities should prove valuable in understanding the molecular basis of adult stem cell differentiation and phenotypic plasticity. PMID:15215169

  8. Evidence for NG2-glia Derived, Adult-Born Functional Neurons in the Hypothalamus

    PubMed Central

    Robins, Sarah C.; Trudel, Eric; Rotondi, Olivia; Liu, Xiaohong; Djogo, Tina; Kryzskaya, Darya; Bourque, Charles W.; Kokoeva, Maia V.

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that the adult murine hypothalamus, a control site of several fundamental homeostatic processes, has neurogenic capacity. Correspondingly, the adult hypothalamus exhibits considerable cell proliferation that is ongoing even in the absence of external stimuli, and some of the newborn cells have been shown to mature into cells that express neuronal fate markers. However, the identity and characteristics of proliferating cells within the hypothalamic parenchyma have yet to be thoroughly investigated. Here we show that a subset of NG2-glia distributed throughout the mediobasal hypothalamus are proliferative and express the stem cell marker Sox2. We tracked the constitutive differentiation of hypothalamic NG2-glia by employing genetic fate mapping based on inducible Cre recombinase expression under the control of the NG2 promoter, demonstrating that adult hypothalamic NG2-glia give rise to substantial numbers of APC+ oligodendrocytes and a smaller population of HuC/D+ or NeuN+ neurons. Labelling with the cell proliferation marker BrdU confirmed that some NG2-derived neurons have proliferated shortly before differentiation. Furthermore, patch-clamp electrophysiology revealed that some NG2-derived cells display an immature neuronal phenotype and appear to receive synaptic input indicative of their electrical integration in local hypothalamic circuits. Together, our studies show that hypothalamic NG2-glia are able to take on neuronal fates and mature into functional neurons, indicating that NG2-glia contribute to the neurogenic capacity of the adult hypothalamus. PMID:24205170

  9. Abnormal regional homogeneity in young adult suicide attempters with no diagnosable psychiatric disorder: A resting state functional magnetic imaging study.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jun; Chen, Jian-Mei; Kuang, Li; Ai, Ming; Fang, Wei-Dong; Gan, Yao; Wang, Wo; Chen, Xiao-Rong; Xu, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Heng-Guang; Lv, Zhen

    2015-02-28

    Many young adults who attempt suicide have no discernible mental illness, suggesting an etiology distinct from other psychiatric disorders. Neurological anomalies associated with a history of suicidal behavior may predict future risk. In the present study, we explored changes in neural circuit organization associated with suicidal behavior by comparing local synchronization of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging signals in suicide attempters without a psychiatric diagnosis (SA group, 19.84±1.61 years, n=19) with those in healthy controls (HC group, 20.30±1.72 years, n=20) using regional homogeneity (ReHo) analysis. The SA group exhibited significantly lower mean ReHo in the left (L) fusiform and supraorbital inferior frontal gyri, L hippocampus, bilateral parahippocampal and middle frontal gyri, right (R) angular gyrus, and cerebellar lobules RVIII, RII, and LVI compared with the HC group. Conversely, in the SA group, ReHo was higher in the R supraorbital middle frontal gyrus, R inferior parietal lobe, and L precuneus. The SA group also had significantly higher total Barratt Impulsiveness Scale scores compared with the HC group. Local functional connectivity is altered in multiple regions of the cerebral cortex, limbic system, and cerebellum of suicidal young adults. Elucidating the functional deficits associated with these ReHo changes may clarify the pathophysiological mechanisms of suicidal behavior and assist in identifying high-risk individuals. PMID:25496980

  10. Neonatal Bladder Inflammation Produces Functional Changes and Alters Neuropeptide Content in Bladders of Adult Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    DeBerry, Jennifer; Randich, Alan; Shaffer, Amber D.; Robbins, Meredith T.; Ness, Timothy J.

    2009-01-01

    Neonatal bladder inflammation has been demonstrated to produce hypersensitivity to bladder re-inflammation as an adult. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of neonatal urinary bladder inflammation on adult bladder function and structure. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were treated on postnatal days 14-16 with intravesical zymosan or anesthesia alone. At 12-16 weeks of age, micturition frequency and cystometrograms were measured. Similarly treated rats had their bladders removed for measurement of plasma extravasation following intravesical mustard oil, for neuropeptide analysis (CGRP or SubP), or for detailed histological examination. Rats treated with zymosan as neonates exhibited increased micturition frequency, reduced micturition volume thresholds, greater extravasation of Evan's Blue following intravesical mustard oil administration, and greater total bladder content of CGRP and SubP. In contrast, there were no quantitative histological changes in the thickness, fibrosis or mast cells of bladder tissue due to neonatal zymosan treatments. Functional changes in urologic systems observed in adulthood, coupled with the increased neuropeptide content and neurogenic plasma extravasation in adult bladders, suggest that the neonatal bladder inflammation treatment enhanced the number, function and/or neurochemical content of primary afferent neurons. These data support the hypothesis that insults to the urologic system in infancy may contribute to the development of adult bladder hypersensitivity. Perspective Inflammation of the bladder early in life in the rat has multiple sequelae including laboratory measures that suggest an alteration of the neurophysiological substrates related to the bladder. Some painful bladder syndromes in humans have similar characteristics and so may be due to similar mechanisms. PMID:19945355

  11. Functional compensation in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex improves memory-dependent decisions in older adults.

    PubMed

    Lighthall, Nichole R; Huettel, Scott A; Cabeza, Roberto

    2014-11-19

    Everyday consumer choices frequently involve memory, as when we retrieve information about consumer products when making purchasing decisions. In this context, poor memory may affect decision quality, particularly in individuals with memory decline, such as older adults. However, age differences in choice behavior may be reduced if older adults can recruit additional neural resources that support task performance. Although such functional compensation is well documented in other cognitive domains, it is presently unclear whether it can support memory-guided decision making and, if so, which brain regions play a role in compensation. The current study engaged younger and older humans in a memory-dependent choice task in which pairs of consumer products from a popular online-shopping site were evaluated with different delays between the first and second product. Using functional imaging (fMRI), we found that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) supports compensation as defined by three a priori criteria: (1) increased vmPFC activation was observed in older versus younger adults; (2) age-related increases in vmPFC activity were associated with increased retrieval demands; and (3) increased vmPFC activity was positively associated with performance in older adults-evidence of successful compensation. Extending these results, we observed evidence for compensation in connectivity between vmPFC and the dorsolateral PFC during memory-dependent choice. In contrast, we found no evidence for age differences in value-related processing or age-related compensation for choices without delayed retrieval. Together, these results converge on the conclusion that age-related decline in memory-dependent choice performance can be minimized via functional compensation in vmPFC. PMID:25411493

  12. Adult Bone Marrow-Derived Cells Do Not Acquire Functional Attributes of Cardiomyocytes Upon Transplantation Into Peri-Infarct Myocardium

    PubMed Central

    Scherschel, John A.; Soonpaa, Mark H.; Srour, Edward F.; Field, Loren J.; Rubart, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The cardiomyogenic potential of adult bone marrow (BM) cells following their direct transplantation into the ischemically injured heart remains controversial. Here, we investigated the ability of transplanted BM cells to develop intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) transients in response to membrane depolarization in situ. Low-density mononuclear (LDM) BM cells, c-kit-enriched (c-kitenr) BM cells, and highly enriched lin? c-kit+ BM cells, were obtained from adult transgenic mice ubiquitously expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and injected into peri-infarct myocardium of non-transgenic mice. After 9–10 days the hearts were harvested, perfused in Langendorff mode, loaded with the calcium-sensitive fluorophore rhod-2, and subjected to two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy to monitor action potential-induced [Ca2+]i transients in EGFP-expressing donor-derived cells and non-expressing host cardiomyocytes. Whereas spontaneous and electrically evoked [Ca2+]i transients were found to occur synchronously in host cardiomyocytes along the graft-host border and in areas remote from the infarct, they were absent in all of the more than 3,000 imaged BM-derived cells that were located in clusters throughout the infarct scar or peri-infarct zone. We conclude that engrafted BM-derived cells lack attributes of functioning cardiomyocytes, calling into question the concept that adult BM cells can give rise to substantive cardiomyocyte regeneration within the infarcted heart. PMID:18431364

  13. The Relationship between Cognitive Function and Non-Prescribed Therapy Use in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Ha T.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Quandt, Sara A.; Neiberg, Rebecca H.; Lang, Wei; Altizer, Kathryn; Stoller, Eleanor P.; Bell, Ronny A.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To examine the association of cognitive function with use of non-prescribed therapies for managing acute and chronic conditions, and to determine whether use of non-prescribed therapies changes over time in relation to baseline cognitive function. Methods 200 community-dwelling adults aged 65 and older were recruited from three counties in south central North Carolina. Repeated measures of daily symptoms and treatment were collected on three consecutive days at intervals of at least one month. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the primary cognitive measure, was collected as part of the baseline survey. Data were collected on the daily use of common non-prescribed therapies (use of prayer, ignore symptoms, over-the-counter remedies, food and beverage therapies, home remedies, and vitamin, herb, or supplements) on each of the three days of the follow-up interviews for up to six consecutive months. Results Older adults with poorer cognitive function were more likely to pray and ignore symptoms on days that they experienced acute symptoms. Poorer cognitive function was associated with increased use of home remedies for treating symptoms related to existing chronic conditions. Conclusions Cognitive function may play a role in why older patients use some non-prescribed therapies in response to acute and chronic conditions. PMID:22304694

  14. ?? Integrin Inhibits Chronic and High Level Activation of JNK to Repress Senescence Phenotypes in Drosophila Adult Midgut

    PubMed Central

    Okumura, Takashi; Takeda, Koji; Taniguchi, Kiichiro; Adachi-Yamada, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Proper control of adult stem cells including their proliferation and differentiation is crucial in maintaining homeostasis of well-organized tissues/organs throughout an organism's life. The Drosophila adult midgut has intestinal stem cells (ISCs), which have been exploited as a simple model system to investigate mechanisms controlling adult tissue homeostasis. Here, we found that a viable mutant of ?? integrin (?int-?), encoding one of two Drosophila integrin ? subunits, showed a short midgut and abnormal multilayered epithelia accompanied by an increase in ISC proliferation and misdifferentiation defects. The increase in ISC proliferation and misdifferentiation was due to frequent ISC duplication expanding a pool of ISCs, which was caused by depression of the Notch signalling, and up-regulation of unpaired (upd), a gene encoding an extracellular ligand in the JAK/STAT signalling pathway. In addition, we observed that abnormally high accumulation of filamentous actin (F-actin) was caused in the ?int-? mutant enterocytes. Furthermore, the defects were rescued by suppressing c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signalling, which was up-regulated in a manner correlated with the defect levels in the above-mentioned ?int-? mutant phenotype. These symptoms observed in young ?int-? mutant midgut were very similar to those in the aged midgut in wild type. Our results suggested that ?int-? has a novel function for the Drosophila adult midgut homeostasis under normal conditions and provided a new insight into possible age-related diseases caused by latent abnormality of an integrin function. PMID:24586740

  15. The Relationship of Vitamin B12 and Sensory and Motor Peripheral Nerve Function in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Leishear, Kira; Boudreau, Robert M.; Studenski, Stephanie A.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Rosano, Caterina; de Rekeneire, Nathalie; Houston, Denise K.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Schwartz, Ann V.; Vinik, Aaron I.; Hogervorst, Eva; Yaffe, Kristine; Harris, Tamara B.; Newman, Anne B.; Strotmeyer, Elsa S.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether deficient B12 status or low serum B12 levels are associated with worse sensory and motor peripheral nerve function in older adults. Design Cross-sectional. Setting Health, Aging and Body Composition Study. Participants Two thousand two hundred eighty-seven adults aged 72–83 years [mean age: 76.5 ± 2.9 years; 51.4% female; 38.3% black]. Measurements Low serum B12 was defined based solely on serum B12 of <260 pmol/L, whereas deficient B12 status was defined as B12 <260 pmol/L, methylmalonic acid [MMA] >271 nmol/L and MMA >2-methylcitrate. Peripheral nerve function was assessed by peroneal nerve conduction amplitude and velocity [NCV] (motor); 1.4g/10g monofilament detection; average vibration threshold detection; and peripheral neuropathy symptoms [numbness; aching/burning pain] (sensory). Results B12 deficient status was found in 7.0% and an additional 10.1% had low serum B12 levels. B12 deficient status was associated with greater insensitivity to light (1.4g) touch (OR: 1.50; 95% CI: [1.06, 2.13]) and worse NCV [42.3 m/s vs. 43.5 m/s] (? =?1.16; p=0.01), after multivariable adjustment for demographics, lifestyle factors, and health conditions. Associations were consistent for the alternative definition using low serum B12 only. No significant associations were found for deficient B12 status or the alternative low serum B12 definition and vibration detection, nerve conduction amplitude, or peripheral neuropathy symptoms. Conclusion Poor B12 (deficient B12 status and low serum B12) is associated with worse sensory and motor peripheral nerve function. Nerve function impairments may lead to physical function declines and disability in older adults, suggesting that prevention and treatment of low B12 levels may be important to evaluate. PMID:22690982

  16. Early mastery motivation as a predictor of executive function in young adults with developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Hauser-Cram, Penny; Woodman, Ashley Cynthia; Heyman, Miriam

    2014-11-01

    The role of early childhood mastery motivation as a predictor of executive function 20 years later was examined in a sample of 39 individuals who had early diagnosed developmental disabilities. Multilevel modeling was used to analyze predictors of accuracy and response time on a Flanker task measuring executive function. As predicted, participants had relatively poorer performance on trials requiring inhibition and rule switches. Individuals with Down syndrome, in comparison to other participants, demonstrated longer response times. Young adults who had higher levels of persistence on mastery motivation tasks during early childhood displayed higher levels of accuracy and shorter response times on the executive function task. Possible mechanisms by which early mastery motivation relates to later executive function are discussed. PMID:25354123

  17. Current social functioning in adult-onset schizophrenia and its relation with positive symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Kundu, Partha S.; Sinha, Vinod K.; Paul, Sarita E.; Desarkar, Pushpal

    2013-01-01

    Background: In schizophrenia, relation exists between psychopathology and social functioning. Aim and Objectives: Determining relationship of positive symptoms with current social functioning in adult-onset (?19 years) schizophrenia. Materials and Methods: Eighty schizophrenia patients [ICD-10-DCR], of both sexes (18-60 years), on follow-up for ?6 months, with no change of diagnosis and without co-morbidities, having onset of illness ?19 years of age, accompanied by informants having contact with the patient for a period of >12 months prior the first psychiatric contact or symptom onset were assessed with SCARF- Social Functioning Index and SAPS. Results: Family role, occupational role, and other social role have negative correlation with all positive symptoms. Conclusion: Current social functioning has significant negative correlation with concurrent positive symptoms. PMID:24459377

  18. Human-derived neural progenitors functionally replace astrocytes in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Qian, Kun; Chen, Wei; Hu, Baoyang; Blackbourn, Lisle W; Du, Zhongwei; Ma, Lixiang; Liu, Huisheng; Knobel, Karla M; Ayala, Melvin; Zhang, Su-Chun

    2015-03-01

    Astrocytes are integral components of the homeostatic neural network as well as active participants in pathogenesis of and recovery from nearly all neurological conditions. Evolutionarily, compared with lower vertebrates and nonhuman primates, humans have an increased astrocyte-to-neuron ratio; however, a lack of effective models has hindered the study of the complex roles of human astrocytes in intact adult animals. Here, we demonstrated that after transplantation into the cervical spinal cords of adult mice with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), human pluripotent stem cell-derived (PSC-derived) neural progenitors migrate a long distance and differentiate to astrocytes that nearly replace their mouse counterparts over a 9-month period. The human PSC-derived astrocytes formed networks through their processes, encircled endogenous neurons, and extended end feet that wrapped around blood vessels without altering locomotion behaviors, suggesting structural, and potentially functional, integration into the adult mouse spinal cord. Furthermore, in SCID mice transplanted with neural progenitors derived from induced PSCs from patients with ALS, astrocytes were generated and distributed to a similar degree as that seen in mice transplanted with healthy progenitors; however, these mice exhibited motor deficit, highlighting functional integration of the human-derived astrocytes. Together, these results indicate that this chimeric animal model has potential for further investigating the roles of human astrocytes in disease pathogenesis and repair. PMID:25642771

  19. The effects of a brief, water-based exercise intervention on cognitive function in older adults.

    PubMed

    Fedor, Andrew; Garcia, Sarah; Gunstad, John

    2015-03-01

    Physical inactivity is a modifiable risk factor for accelerated cognitive decline in older adults. Water-based exercise provides the same physiological benefits as land-based exercise with reduced risk of acute injury. The current study evaluated the effects of a brief, water-based exercise intervention on cognitive functioning and cardiovascular fitness in a group of community dwelling older adults. The exercise group (n = 27, M(age) = 63.26 ± 7.64, 78% female) attended one moderate intensity water aerobics class per day for six consecutive days whereas the control group (n = 33, M(age) = 65.67 ± 6.69, 75% female) continued their typical routine. Neuropsychological and cardiovascular fitness tests were given the week before and the week after the intervention to both groups. The exercise group demonstrated significant improvements in cardiovascular fitness, as well as executive function, attention, and memory over controls. This suggests a brief exercise program can provide benefits for older adults. PMID:25638041

  20. Conditional Hypovascularization and Hypoxia in Islets Do Not Overtly Influence Adult ?-Cell Mass or Function

    PubMed Central

    D'Hoker, Joke; De Leu, Nico; Heremans, Yves; Baeyens, Luc; Minami, Kohtaro; Ying, Cai; Lavens, Astrid; Chintinne, Marie; Stangé, Geert; Magenheim, Judith; Swisa, Avital; Martens, Geert; Pipeleers, Daniel; van de Casteele, Mark; Seino, Susumo; Keshet, Eli; Dor, Yuval; Heimberg, Harry

    2013-01-01

    It is generally accepted that vascularization and oxygenation of pancreatic islets are essential for the maintenance of an optimal ?-cell mass and function and that signaling by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is crucial for pancreas development, insulin gene expression/secretion, and (compensatory) ?-cell proliferation. A novel mouse model was designed to allow conditional production of human sFlt1 by ?-cells in order to trap VEGF and study the effect of time-dependent inhibition of VEGF signaling on adult ?-cell fate and metabolism. Secretion of sFlt1 by adult ?-cells resulted in a rapid regression of blood vessels and hypoxia within the islets. Besides blunted insulin release, ?-cells displayed a remarkable capacity for coping with these presumed unfavorable conditions: even after prolonged periods of blood vessel ablation, basal and stimulated blood glucose levels were only slightly increased, while ?-cell proliferation and mass remained unaffected. Moreover, ablation of blood vessels did not prevent ?-cell generation after severe pancreas injury by partial pancreatic duct ligation or partial pancreatectomy. Our data thus argue against a major role of blood vessels to preserve adult ?-cell generation and function, restricting their importance to facilitating rapid and adequate insulin delivery. PMID:23974922

  1. Visual function and color vision in adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soyeon; Chen, Samantha; Tannock, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Color vision and self-reported visual function in everyday life in young adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) were investigated. Method Participants were 30 young adults with ADHD and 30 controls matched for age and gender. They were tested individually and completed the Visual Activities Questionnaire (VAQ), Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue Test (FMT) and A Quick Test of Cognitive Speed (AQT). Results The ADHD group reported significantly more problems in 4 of 8 areas on the VAQ: depth perception, peripheral vision, visual search and visual processing speed. Further analyses of VAQ items revealed that the ADHD group endorsed more visual problems associated with driving than controls. Color perception difficulties on the FMT were restricted to the blue spectrum in the ADHD group. FMT and AQT results revealed slower processing of visual stimuli in the ADHD group. Conclusion A comprehensive investigation of mechanisms underlying visual function and color vision in adults with ADHD is warranted, along with the potential impact of these visual problems on driving performance. PMID:24646898

  2. Optimising the structure and function of the adult P23H-3 retina by light management in the juvenile and adult.

    PubMed

    Valter, Krisztina; Kirk, Diana K; Stone, Jonathan

    2009-12-01

    This study tests the potential of light restriction to optimise retinal structure and function in adulthood, using the P23H-3 rhodopsin-mutant transgenic rat as a model. P23H-3 rats were reared in scotopic (5 lux) or mesopic (40-60 lux) cyclic (12 h/12 h light/dark) light. A further 2 groups were reared in one of these light conditions to P(postnatal day)30, and then were transferred to the other condition. Retinae were examined at P30-365. Rod and cone function were assessed by the dark-adapted flash electroretinogram. The rate of photoreceptor death was assessed with the TUNEL technique, and photoreceptor survival by the thickness of the outer nuclear layer (ONL). Photoreceptor structural changes were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Mesopic rearing severely reduced the number, function and outer segment (OS) length of photoreceptors. Light restriction in the adult (achieved by moving mesopic-reared animals to scotopic conditions at P30) slowed photoreceptor death, induced recovery of the ERG and of OS length in survivors, resulting in an adult retina that matched the scotopic-reared in function, photoreceptor survival (stability) and structure. Conversely, light exposure in the adult (achieved by moving scotopic-reared animals to mesopic conditions at P30) accelerated photoreceptor death, shortened OSs and reduced the ERG, resulting in a retina that was as damaged and dysfunctional as a mesopic-reared retina, and showed greater photoreceptor instability. Present observations suggest, that the stability and function of adult photoreceptors are determined by both early and adult ambient light experience. Light restriction in the adult was effective in inducing the self-repair of photoreceptors, and the recovery of their function and stability. Light restriction in the juvenile (before P30) improved early photoreceptor survival but made adult photoreceptors vulnerable to brighter light experienced in adulthood. For comparable human dystrophies, these results suggest that light restriction begun after retinal maturation may be effective in optimising the structure, function and stability of the adult retina. PMID:19729008

  3. Activation of Rho GTPases triggers structural remodeling and functional plasticity in the adult rat visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Cerri, Chiara; Fabbri, Alessia; Vannini, Eleonora; Spolidoro, Maria; Costa, Mario; Maffei, Lamberto; Fiorentini, Carla; Caleo, Matteo

    2011-10-19

    A classical example of age-dependent plasticity is ocular dominance (OD) plasticity, triggered by monocular deprivation (MD). Sensitivity of cortical circuits to a brief period of MD is maximal in juvenile animals and downregulated in adult age. It remains unclear whether a reduced potential for morphological remodeling underlies this downregulation of physiological plasticity in adulthood. Here we have tested whether stimulation of structural rearrangements is effective in promoting experience-dependent plasticity in adult age. We have exploited a bacterial protein toxin, cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 (CNF1), that regulates actin dynamics and structure of neuronal processes via a persistent activation of Rho GTPases. Injection of CNF1 into the adult rat visual cortex triggered a long-lasting activation of the Rho GTPase Rac1, with a consequent increase in spine density and length in pyramidal neurons. Adult rats treated with CNF1, but not controls, showed an OD shift toward the open eye after MD. CNF1-mediated OD plasticity was selectively attributable to the enhancement of open-eye responses, whereas closed-eye inputs were unaffected. This effect correlated with an increased density of geniculocortical terminals in layer IV of monocularly deprived, CNF1-treated rats. Thus, Rho GTPase activation reinstates OD plasticity in the adult cortex via the potentiation of more active inputs from the open eye. These data establish a direct link between structural remodeling and functional plasticity and demonstrate a role for Rho GTPases in brain plasticity in vivo. The plasticizing effects of Rho GTPase activation may be exploited to promote brain repair. PMID:22016550

  4. From Drosophila development to adult: clues to Notch function in long-term memory

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiabin; Yin, Jerry C. P.; Wesley, Cedric S.

    2013-01-01

    Notch is a cell surface receptor that is well known to mediate inter-cellular communication during animal development. Data in the field indicate that it is also involved in the formation of long-term memory (LTM) in the fully developed adults and in memory loss upon neurodegeneration. Our studies in the model organism Drosophila reveal that a non-canonical Notch-protein kinase C activity that plays critical roles in embryonic development also regulates cyclic-AMP response element binding protein during LTM formation in adults. Here we present a perspective on how the various known features of Notch function relate to LTM formation and how they might interface with elements of Wingless/Wnt signaling in this process. PMID:24312012

  5. Inhibition of JAK/STAT signaling stimulates adult satellite cell function

    PubMed Central

    Price, Feodor D.; von Maltzahn, Julia; Bentzinger, C. Florian; Dumont, Nicolas A.; Yin, Hang; Chang, Natasha C.; Wilson, David H.; Frenette, Jérôme; Rudnicki, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Diminished regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle occurs during adulthood. We identified a reduction in the intrinsic capacity of murine adult satellite cells to contribute to regeneration and repopulate the niche. Gene expression analysis identified an increase in expression of JAK/STAT signaling targets between 3 week old and 18 month old mice. Knockdown of Jak2 or Stat3 significantly stimulated symmetric satellite stem cell divisions on cultured myofibers. Knockdown of Jak2 or Stat3 in prospectively isolated satellite cells markedly enhanced their ability to repopulate the satellite cell niche. Pharmacological inhibition of Jak2 and Stat3 similarly stimulated symmetric expansion of satellite cells in vitro and their engraftment in vivo. Intramuscular injection of these drugs resulted in a dramatic enhancement of muscle repair and force generation. Together these results reveal intrinsic properties that functionally distinguish adult satellite cells and suggest a promising therapeutic avenue for the treatment of muscle wasting diseases. PMID:25194569

  6. Individualized piano instruction enhances executive functioning and working memory in older adults.

    PubMed

    Bugos, J A; Perlstein, W M; McCrae, C S; Brophy, T S; Bedenbaugh, P H

    2007-07-01

    This study evaluates transfer from domain-specific, sensorimotor training to cognitive abilities associated with executive function. We examined Individualized Piano Instruction (IPI) as a potential cognitive intervention to mitigate normal age-related cognitive decline in older adults. Thirty-one musically naïve community-dwelling older adults (ages 60-85) were randomly assigned to either the experimental group (n = 16) or control group (n = 15). Neuropsychological assessments were administered at three time points: pre-training, following six months of intervention, and following a three-month delay. The experimental group significantly improved performance on the Trail Making Test and Digit Symbol measures as compared to healthy controls. Results of this study suggest that IPI may serve as an effective cognitive intervention for age-related cognitive decline. PMID:17612811

  7. Nuclear diffractive structure functions at high energies

    E-print Network

    C. Marquet; H. Kowalski; T. Lappi; R. Venugopalan

    2008-05-30

    A future high-energy electron-ion collider would explore the non-linear weakly-coupled regime of QCD, and test the Color Glass Condensate (CGC) approach to high-energy scattering. Hard diffraction in deep inelastic scattering off nuclei will provide many fundamental measurements. In this work, the nuclear diffractive structure function F_{2,A}^D is predicted in the CGC framework, and the features of nuclear enhancement and suppression are discussed.

  8. Effects of dark chocolate and cocoa consumption on endothelial function and arterial stiffness in overweight adults.

    PubMed

    West, Sheila G; McIntyre, Molly D; Piotrowski, Matthew J; Poupin, Nathalie; Miller, Debra L; Preston, Amy G; Wagner, Paul; Groves, Lisa F; Skulas-Ray, Ann C

    2014-02-01

    The consumption of cocoa and dark chocolate is associated with a lower risk of CVD, and improvements in endothelial function may mediate this relationship. Less is known about the effects of cocoa/chocolate on the augmentation index (AI), a measure of vascular stiffness and vascular tone in the peripheral arterioles. We enrolled thirty middle-aged, overweight adults in a randomised, placebo-controlled, 4-week, cross-over study. During the active treatment (cocoa) period, the participants consumed 37 g/d of dark chocolate and a sugar-free cocoa beverage (total cocoa = 22 g/d, total flavanols (TF) = 814 mg/d). Colour-matched controls included a low-flavanol chocolate bar and a cocoa-free beverage with no added sugar (TF = 3 mg/d). Treatments were matched for total fat, saturated fat, carbohydrates and protein. The cocoa treatment significantly increased the basal diameter and peak diameter of the brachial artery by 6% (+2 mm) and basal blood flow volume by 22%. Substantial decreases in the AI, a measure of arterial stiffness, were observed in only women. Flow-mediated dilation and the reactive hyperaemia index remained unchanged. The consumption of cocoa had no effect on fasting blood measures, while the control treatment increased fasting insulin concentration and insulin resistance (P= 0·01). Fasting blood pressure (BP) remained unchanged, although the acute consumption of cocoa increased resting BP by 4 mmHg. In summary, the high-flavanol cocoa and dark chocolate treatment was associated with enhanced vasodilation in both conduit and resistance arteries and was accompanied by significant reductions in arterial stiffness in women. PMID:24274771

  9. Multimodal neuroimaging evidence of alterations in cortical structure and function in HIV-infected older adults.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Tony W; Heinrichs-Graham, Elizabeth; Becker, Katherine M; Aloi, Joseph; Robertson, Kevin R; Sandkovsky, Uriel; White, Matthew L; O'Neill, Jennifer; Knott, Nichole L; Fox, Howard S; Swindells, Susan

    2015-03-01

    Combination antiretroviral therapy transformed human immunodefiency virus (HIV)-infection from a terminal illness to a manageable condition, but these patients remain at a significantly elevated risk of developing cognitive impairments and the mechanisms are not understood. Some previous neuroimaging studies have found hyperactivation in frontoparietal networks of HIV-infected patients, whereas others reported aberrations restricted to sensory cortices. In this study, we utilize high-resolution structural and neurophysiological imaging to determine whether alterations in brain structure, function, or both contribute to HIV-related cognitive impairments. HIV-infected adults and individually matched controls completed 3-Tesla structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) and a mechanoreception task during magnetoencephalography (MEG). MEG data were examined using advanced beamforming methods, and sMRI data were analyzed using the latest voxel-based morphometry methods with DARTEL. We found significantly reduced theta responses in the postcentral gyrus and increased alpha activity in the prefrontal cortices of HIV-infected patients compared with controls. Patients also had reduced gray matter volume in the postcentral gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, and other regions. Importantly, reduced gray matter volume in the left postcentral gyrus was spatially coincident with abnormal MEG responses in HIV-infected patients. Finally, left prefrontal and postcentral gyrus activity was correlated with neuropsychological performance and, when used in conjunction, these two MEG findings had a sensitivity and specificity of over 87.5% for HIV-associated cognitive impairment. This study is the first to demonstrate abnormally increased activity in association cortices with simultaneously decreased activity in sensory areas. These MEG findings had excellent sensitivity and specificity for HIV-associated cognitive impairment, and may hold promise as a potential disease marker. Hum Brain Mapp 36:897-910, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25376125

  10. Cognitive Function and Oral Health-Related Quality of Life in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyung Hee; Wu, Bei; Plassman, Brenda L.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To examine the relationship between cognitive function and self-reported oral health-related quality of life (QoL) in community dwelling older adults. Design Cross-sectional Setting Community in West Virginia Participants Two hundred twenty six community-dwelling older adults Measurements Oral health-related QoL was measured by the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI) (score range of 12 to 60) and cognitive function was assessed using comprehensive neuropsychological test battery. Oral health examinations were performed by dental professionals. Results Participants with normal cognitive function had higher GOHAI total scores (mean: 55.1), indicating better oral health-related QoL, than participants with cognitive impairment without dementia (CIND) (mean: 52.3) and mild dementia (mean: 51.0). The difference remained significant after controlling for covariates including socio-demographics, health status, comorbidity, and clinical dental status. Conclusion Oral health-related QoL, as measured by the GOHAI, was better among those with normal cognitive function compared to those with CIND and those with mild dementia in the population we studied. PMID:24028360

  11. Association of television violence exposure with executive functioning and white matter volume in young adult males.

    PubMed

    Hummer, Tom A; Kronenberger, William G; Wang, Yang; Anderson, Caitlin C; Mathews, Vincent P

    2014-07-01

    Prior research has indicated that self-reported violent media exposure is associated with poorer performance on some neuropsychological tests in adolescents. This study aimed to examine the relationship of executive functioning to violent television viewing in healthy young adult males and examine how brain structure is associated with media exposure measures. Sixty-five healthy adult males (ages 18-29) with minimal video game experience estimated their television viewing habits over the past year and, during the subsequent week, recorded television viewing time and characteristics in a daily media diary. Participants then completed a battery of neuropsychological laboratory tests quantifying executive functions and underwent a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. Aggregate measures of executive functioning were not associated with measures of overall television viewing (any content type) during the past week or year. However, the amount of television viewing of violent content only, as indicated by both past-year and daily diary measures, was associated with poorer scores on an aggregate score of inhibition, interference control and attention, with no relationship to a composite working memory score. In addition, violent television exposure, as measured with daily media diaries, was associated with reduced frontoparietal white matter volume. Future longitudinal work is necessary to resolve whether individuals with poor executive function and slower white matter growth are more drawn to violent programming, or if extensive media violence exposure modifies cognitive control mechanisms mediated primarily via prefrontal cortex. Impaired inhibitory mechanisms may be related to reported increases in aggression with higher media violence exposure. PMID:24836970

  12. Estrogen-induced disruption of neonatal porcine uterine development alters adult uterine function.

    PubMed

    Tarleton, Becky J; Braden, Tim D; Wiley, Anne A; Bartol, Frank F

    2003-04-01

    In the pig, estradiol-17beta valerate (EV) exposure from birth (Postnatal Day [PND] 0) disrupts estrogen receptor-alpha (ER)-dependent uterine development and increases embryo mortality in adults. To determine effects of neonatal EV exposure on adult uterine morphology and function, 36 gilts received corn oil (CO) or EV from PND 0 to PND 13. Cyclic and pregnant (PX) adults from each treatment group were hysterectomized on Day 12 after estrus/mating. Treatment and pregnancy effects were determined for uterine weight and horn volume, uterine luminal fluid (ULF) protein and estradiol content, endometrial incorporation of 3H-leucine (3H-Leu) into nondialyzable product, and endometrial mRNA levels for ER, progesterone receptor (PR), uteroferrin (UF), retinol-binding protein (RBP), and keratinocyte growth factor (KGF). Adults cycled normally and had similar numbers of corpora lutea. Uteri of PX gilts contained tubular/filamentous conceptuses, and ULF estradiol content was unaffected by treatment. However, pregnancy increased uterine weight and size only in CO gilts (Treatment x Status, P < 0.01). Treatment reduced ULF protein content (P < 0.01), endometrial 3H-Leu incorporation (P < 0.05), and the pregnancy-associated increase in ULF protein (Treatment x Status, P < 0.01). Treatment did not affect endometrial ER or PR mRNA levels but attenuated the pregnancy-associated increase in UF mRNA (Treatment x Status; P < 0.01), increased RBP (P < 0.10), and decreased KGF mRNA levels (P < 0.05). These results establish that transient postnatal estrogen exposure affects porcine uterine responsiveness to potentially embryotrophic signals and that estrogen-sensitive postnatal uterine organizational events are determinants of uterine size and functionality. PMID:12606348

  13. Benzodiazepine (BZD) use in community-dwelling older adults: Longitudinal associations with mobility, functioning, and pain.

    PubMed

    Petrov, Megan E; Sawyer, Patricia; Kennedy, Richard; Bradley, Laurence A; Allman, Richard M

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prospective association between baseline BZD use and mobility, functioning, and pain among urban and rural African-American and non-Hispanic white community-dwelling older adults. From 1999 to 2001, a cohort of 1000 community-dwelling adults, aged ? 65 years, representing a random sample of Medicare beneficiaries, stratified by ethnicity, sex, and urban/rural residence were recruited. BZD use was assessed at an in-home visit. Every six months thereafter, study outcomes were assessed via telephone for 8.5-years. Mobility was assessed with the Life-Space Assessment (LSA). Functioning was quantified with level of difficulty in five basic activities of daily living (ADL: bathing, dressing, transferring, toileting, eating), and six instrumental activities of daily living (IADL: shopping, managing money, preparing meals, light and heavy housework, telephone use). Pain was measured by frequency per week and the magnitude of interference with daily tasks. All analytic models were adjusted for relevant covariates and mental health symptoms. After multivariable adjustment, baseline BZD use was significantly associated with greater difficulty with basic ADL (Estimate=0.39, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.04-0.74), and more frequent pain (Estimate=0.41, 95%CI: 0.09-0.74) in the total sample and declines in mobility among rural residents (Estimate=-0.67, t(5,902)=-1.98, p=0.048), over 8.5 years. BZD use was prospectively associated with greater risk for basic ADL difficulties and frequent pain among African-American and non-Hispanic white community-dwelling older adults, and life-space mobility declines among rural-dwellers, independently of relevant covariates. These findings highlight the potential long-term negative impact of BZD use among community-dwelling older adults. PMID:24880195

  14. Hypertension, Abnormal Cholesterol, and High Body Mass Index among Non-Hispanic Asian Adults: United States, 2011-2012

    MedlinePLUS

    ... non-Hispanic Asian adults did not differ by sex, age, education, or foreign-born status. The prevalence ... 2012. The prevalence of high BMI differed by sex and age among non-Hispanic Asian adults. The ...

  15. Vascular Health and Cognitive Function in Older Adults with Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Forman, Daniel E.; Cohen, Ronald A.; Hoth, Karin F.; Haley, Andreana P.; Poppas, Athena; Moser, David J.; Gunstad, John; Paul, Robert H.; Jefferson, Angela L.; Tate, David F.; Ono, Makoto; Wake, Nicole; Gerhard-Herman, Marie

    2010-01-01

    Background We hypothesized that changes in vascular flow dynamics resulting from age and cardiovascular disease (CVD) would correlate to neurocognitive capacities, even in adults screened to exclude dementia and neurological disease. We studied endothelial-dependent as well as endothelial-independent brachial responses in older adults with CVD to study the associations of vascular responses with cognition. Comprehensive neurocognitive testing was used to discern which specific cognitive domain(s) correlated to the vascular responses. Methods Eighty-eight independent, community-dwelling older adults (70.02+7.67 years) with mild to severe CVD were recruited. Enrollees were thoroughly screened to exclude neurological disease and dementia. Flow-mediated (endothelial-dependent) and nitroglycerin-mediated (endothelial-independent) brachial artery responses were assessed using 2-d ultrasound. Cognitive functioning was assessed using comprehensive neuropsychological testing. Linear regression analyses were used to evaluate the relationships between the endothelial-dependent and endothelial-independent vascular flow dynamics and specific domains of neurocognitive function. Results Endothelial-dependent and endothelial-independent brachial artery responses both correlated with neurocognitive testing indices. The strongest independent relationship was between endothelial function and measures of attention-executive functioning. Conclusions Endothelial-dependent and endothelial-independent vascular responsiveness correlate with neurocognitive performance among older CVD patients, particularly in the attention-executive domain. While further study is needed to substantiate causal relationships, our data demonstrate that brachial responses serve as important markers of risk for common neurocognitive changes. Learning and behavior-modifying therapeutic strategies that compensate for such common, insidious neurocognitive limitations will likely improve caregiving efficacy. PMID:21179381

  16. The Asparaginyl Endopeptidase Legumain Is Essential for Functional Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury in Adult Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Liping; Shen, Yan-Qin; Khatri, Harsh P.; Schachner, Melitta

    2014-01-01

    Unlike mammals, adult zebrafish are capable of regenerating severed axons and regaining locomotor function after spinal cord injury. A key factor for this regenerative capacity is the innate ability of neurons to re-express growth-associated genes and regrow their axons after injury in a permissive environment. By microarray analysis, we have previously shown that the expression of legumain (also known as asparaginyl endopeptidase) is upregulated after complete transection of the spinal cord. In situ hybridization showed upregulation of legumain expression in neurons of regenerative nuclei during the phase of axon regrowth/sprouting after spinal cord injury. Upregulation of Legumain protein expression was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Interestingly, upregulation of legumain expression was also observed in macrophages/microglia and neurons in the spinal cord caudal to the lesion site after injury. The role of legumain in locomotor function after spinal cord injury was tested by reducing Legumain expression by application of anti-sense morpholino oligonucleotides. Using two independent anti-sense morpholinos, locomotor recovery and axonal regrowth were impaired when compared with a standard control morpholino. We conclude that upregulation of legumain expression after spinal cord injury in the adult zebrafish is an essential component of the capacity of injured neurons to regrow their axons. Another feature contributing to functional recovery implicates upregulation of legumain expression in the spinal cord caudal to the injury site. In conclusion, we established for the first time a function for an unusual protease, the asparaginyl endopeptidase, in the nervous system. This study is also the first to demonstrate the importance of legumain for repair of an injured adult central nervous system of a spontaneously regenerating vertebrate and is expected to yield insights into its potential in nervous system regeneration in mammals. PMID:24747977

  17. Vascular Health and Cognitive Function in Older Adults with Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Forman, Daniel E; Cohen, Ronald A; Hoth, Karin F; Haley, Andreana P; Poppas, Athena; Moser, David J; Gunstad, John; Paul, Robert H; Jefferson, Angela L; Tate, David F; Ono, Makoto; Wake, Nicole; Gerhard-Herman, Marie

    2008-02-01

    BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that changes in vascular flow dynamics resulting from age and cardiovascular disease (CVD) would correlate to neurocognitive capacities, even in adults screened to exclude dementia and neurological disease. We studied endothelial-dependent as well as endothelial-independent brachial responses in older adults with CVD to study the associations of vascular responses with cognition. Comprehensive neurocognitive testing was used to discern which specific cognitive domain(s) correlated to the vascular responses. METHODS: Eighty-eight independent, community-dwelling older adults (70.02+7.67 years) with mild to severe CVD were recruited. Enrollees were thoroughly screened to exclude neurological disease and dementia. Flow-mediated (endothelial-dependent) and nitroglycerin-mediated (endothelial-independent) brachial artery responses were assessed using 2-d ultrasound. Cognitive functioning was assessed using comprehensive neuropsychological testing. Linear regression analyses were used to evaluate the relationships between the endothelial-dependent and endothelial-independent vascular flow dynamics and specific domains of neurocognitive function. RESULTS: Endothelial-dependent and endothelial-independent brachial artery responses both correlated with neurocognitive testing indices. The strongest independent relationship was between endothelial function and measures of attention-executive functioning. CONCLUSIONS: Endothelial-dependent and endothelial-independent vascular responsiveness correlate with neurocognitive performance among older CVD patients, particularly in the attention-executive domain. While further study is needed to substantiate causal relationships, our data demonstrate that brachial responses serve as important markers of risk for common neurocognitive changes. Learning and behavior-modifying therapeutic strategies that compensate for such common, insidious neurocognitive limitations will likely improve caregiving efficacy. PMID:21179381

  18. The Effectiveness of Community-Based Occupational Therapy Education and Functional Training Programs for Older Adults: A Critical Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Seanne; Jung, Bonny; Wishart, Laurie; Edwards, Mary; Norton, Shelley Gamble

    2003-01-01

    Results of a literature review describing the provision of education and occupational therapy training programs for older adults indicate that programs are effective in three areas: prevention of functional decline and falls, stroke, and rheumatoid arthritis. (Contains 37 references.) (JOW)

  19. Growth Hormone Deficiency and Memory Functioning in Adults Visualized by Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lucia I. Arwert; Dick J. Veltman; Jan Berend Deijen; P. Sytze van Dam; Henriette A. Delemarre-van deWaal; Madeleine L. Drent

    2005-01-01

    Cognitive functioning, especially memory performance, is known to be impaired in patients with childhood-onset growth hormone deficiency (CO-GHD), and growth hormone substitution has been found to counteract this memory impairment. Neuropsychological and functional magnetic resonance imagining (fMRI) data acquired during a working memory task in 13 childhood-onset GH-deficient patients were compared with 13 age, sex and education level matched healthy

  20. Recommendations on screening for high blood pressure in Canadian adults

    PubMed Central

    Lindsay, Patrice; Connor Gorber, Sarah; Joffres, Michel; Birtwhistle, Richard; McKay, Donald; Cloutier, Lyne

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To provide recommendations on screening for hypertension in adults aged 18 years and older without previously diagnosed hypertension. Quality of evidence Evidence was found through a systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (EBM Reviews), from January 1985 to September 2011. Study types were limited to randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, and observational studies with control groups. Main message Three strong recommendations were made based on moderate-quality evidence. It is recommended that blood pressure measurement occur at all appropriate primary care visits, according to the current techniques described in the Canadian Hypertension Education Program recommendations for office and ambulatory blood pressure measurement. The Canadian Hypertension Education Program criteria for assessment and diagnosis of hypertension should be applied for people found to have elevated blood pressure. Conclusion After review of the most recent evidence, the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care continues to recommend blood pressure measurement during regular physician visits. PMID:24029505

  1. Gestalt Perception and Local-Global Processing in High-Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolte, Sven; Holtmann, Martin; Poustka, Fritz; Scheurich, Armin; Schmidt, Lutz

    2007-01-01

    This study examined gestalt perception in high-functioning autism (HFA) and its relation to tasks indicative of local visual processing. Data on of gestalt perception, visual illusions (VI), hierarchical letters (HL), Block Design (BD) and the Embedded Figures Test (EFT) were collected in adult males with HFA, schizophrenia, depression and…

  2. Child Child Child Child Interactions: Lessons from Conversations with Typically Interactions: Lessons from Conversations with Typically Interactions: Lessons from Conversations with Typically Interactions: Lessons from Conversations with Typically Developing Children and High Functioning Children Developing Children and High Functioning Children Developing Children and High Functioning Children Developing Children and High Functioning Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kerrie Delves; Lesley Stirling

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Abstract Abstract. This paper investigates misunderstanding and repair in a corpus of dyadic interactions between an adult and 10 children aged 4-7 years, half of whom were typically-developing (TD), and half of whom had been diagnosed with high functioning autism (HFA). These interactions have been transcribed and analysed using CA con- ventions and used as the focus of a

  3. The Role of Causal and Intentional Judgments in Moral Reasoning in Individuals with High Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buon, Marine; Dupoux, Emmanuel; Jacob, Pierre; Chaste, Pauline; Leboyer, Marion; Zalla, Tiziana

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the ability to assign moral responsibility and punishment in adults with high functioning autism or Asperger Syndrome (HFA/AS), using non-verbal cartoons depicting an aggression, an accidental harm or a mere coincidence. Participants were asked to evaluate the agent's causal and intentional roles, his…

  4. Measures of Submaximal Aerobic Performance Evaluate and Predict Functional Response to Growth Hormone (GH) Treatment in GH-Deficient Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LINDA J. WOODHOUSE; SYLVIA L. ASA; SCOTT G. THOMAS; SHEREEN EZZAT

    2010-01-01

    The impact of GH on functional performance in GH-deficient adults is not well understood. To investigate the effects of GH on skeletal muscle, physical, and functional capacity, we randomized 28 GH- deficient adults to receive 3 months of recombinant human GH (rhGH: somatotropin, 6.25 mg\\/kg lean body mass (LBM) for 1 month, 12.5 mg\\/kg LBM thereafter) in a double-blind placebo-controlled

  5. Physical and mental health-related correlates of physical function in community dwelling older adults: a cross sectional study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carol Ewing Garber; Mary L Greaney; Deborah Riebe; Claudio R Nigg; Patricia A Burbank; Phillip G Clark

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physical function is the ability to perform both basic and instrumental activities of daily living, and the ability of older adults to reside in the community depends to a large extent on their level of physical function. Multiple physical and health-related variables may differentially affect physical function, but they have not been well characterized. The purpose of this investigation

  6. Cardiovascular Fitness and Lung Function of Adult Men and Women in the United States: NHANES 1999-2002

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hannah Jackson

    2008-01-01

    There is a distinct disparity between adult males and females in lung function and cardiovascular fitness in the United States. This study utilizes a nationally representative sample in order to determine predictors of lung function between men and women. Simple means analysis, logistic and linear regressions were utilized in order to determine predictors of lung function between genders. Continuous analyses

  7. Why adult stem cell functionality declines with age? Studies from the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster model organism.

    PubMed

    Gonen, Oren; Toledano, Hila

    2014-06-01

    Highly regenerative adult tissues are supported by rare populations of stem cells that continuously divide to self-renew and generate differentiated progeny. This process is tightly regulated by signals emanating from surrounding cells to fulfill the dynamic demands of the tissue. One of the hallmarks of aging is slow and aberrant tissue regeneration due to deteriorated function of stem and supporting cells. Several Drosophila regenerative tissues are unique in that they provide exact identification of stem and neighboring cells in whole-tissue anatomy. This allows for precise tracking of age-related changes as well as their targeted manipulation within the tissue. In this review we present the stem cell niche of Drosophila testis, ovary and intestine and describe the major changes and phenotypes that occur in the course of aging. Specifically we discuss changes in both intrinsic properties of stem cells and their microenvironment that contribute to the decline in tissue functionality. Understanding these mechanisms in adult Drosophila tissues will likely provide new paradigms in the field of aging. PMID:24955030

  8. Monitoring cognitive functioning: psychometric properties of the brief test of adult cognition by telephone.

    PubMed

    Lachman, Margie E; Agrigoroaei, Stefan; Tun, Patricia A; Weaver, Suzanne L

    2014-08-01

    Assessment of cognitive functioning is an important component of telephone surveys of health. Previous cognitive telephone batteries have been limited in scope with a primary focus on dementia screening. The Brief Test of Adult Cognition by Telephone (BTACT) assesses multiple dimensions central for effective functioning across adulthood: episodic memory, working memory, reasoning, verbal fluency, and executive function. The BTACT is the first instrument that includes measures of processing speed, reaction time, and task-switching/inhibitory control for use over the telephone. We administered the battery to a national sample (N = 4,268), age 32 to 84 years, from the study of Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) and examined age, education, and sex differences; reliability; and factor structure. We found good evidence for construct validity with a subsample tested in person. Implications of the findings are considered for efficient neuropsychological assessment and monitoring changes in cognitive aging, for clinical and research applications by telephone or in person. PMID:24322011

  9. Fog2 is critical for cardiac function and maintenance of coronary vasculature in the adult mouse heart.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bin; Ma, Qing; Kong, Sek Won; Hu, Yongwu; Campbell, Patrick H; McGowan, Francis X; Ackerman, Kate G; Wu, Bingruo; Zhou, Bin; Tevosian, Sergei G; Pu, William T

    2009-06-01

    Aberrant transcriptional regulation contributes to the pathogenesis of both congenital and adult forms of heart disease. While the transcriptional regulator friend of Gata 2 (FOG2) is known to be essential for heart morphogenesis and coronary development, its tissue-specific function has not been previously investigated. Additionally, little is known about the role of FOG2 in the adult heart. Here we used spatiotemporally regulated inactivation of Fog2 to delineate its function in both the embryonic and adult mouse heart. Early cardiomyocyte- restricted loss of Fog2 recapitulated the cardiac and coronary defects of the Fog2 germline murine knockouts. Later cardiomyocyte-restricted loss of Fog2 (Fog2MC) did not result in defects in cardiac structure or coronary vessel formation. However, Fog2MC adult mice had severely depressed ventricular function and died at 8-14 weeks. Fog2MC adult hearts displayed a paucity of coronary vessels, associated with myocardial hypoxia, increased cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and cardiac fibrosis. Induced inactivation of Fog2 in the adult mouse heart resulted in similar phenotypes, as did ablation of the FOG2 interaction with the transcription factor GATA4. Loss of the FOG2 or FOG2-GATA4 interaction altered the expression of a panel of angiogenesis-related genes. Collectively, our data indicate that FOG2 regulates adult heart function and coronary angiogenesis. PMID:19411759

  10. Executive Functioning in Highly Talented Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Verburgh, Lot; Scherder, Erik J. A.; van Lange, Paul A.M.; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2014-01-01

    Executive functions might be important for successful performance in sports, particularly in team sports requiring quick anticipation and adaptation to continuously changing situations in the field. The executive functions motor inhibition, attention and visuospatial working memory were examined in highly talented soccer players. Eighty-four highly talented youth soccer players (mean age 11.9), and forty-two age-matched amateur soccer players (mean age 11.8) in the age range 8 to 16 years performed a Stop Signal task (motor inhibition), the Attention Network Test (alerting, orienting, and executive attention) and a visuospatial working memory task. The highly talented soccer players followed the talent development program of the youth academy of a professional soccer club and played at the highest national soccer competition for their age. The amateur soccer players played at a regular soccer club in the same geographical region as the highly talented soccer players and play in a regular regional soccer competition. Group differences were tested using analyses of variance. The highly talented group showed superior motor inhibition as measured by stop signal reaction time (SSRT) on the Stop Signal task and a larger alerting effect on the Attention Network Test, indicating an enhanced ability to attain and maintain an alert state. No group differences were found for orienting and executive attention and visuospatial working memory. A logistic regression model with group (highly talented or amateur) as dependent variable and executive function measures that significantly distinguished between groups as predictors showed that these measures differentiated highly talented soccer players from amateur soccer players with 89% accuracy. Highly talented youth soccer players outperform youth amateur players on suppressing ongoing motor responses and on the ability to attain and maintain an alert state; both may be essential for success in soccer. PMID:24632735

  11. Genetic influence on exercise-induced changes in physical function among mobility-limited older adults

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Fang-Chi; Brinkley, Tina E.; Carter, Christy S.; Church, Timothy S.; Dodson, John A.; Goodpaster, Bret H.; McDermott, Mary M.; Nicklas, Barbara J.; Yank, Veronica; Johnson, Julie A.; Pahor, Marco

    2014-01-01

    To date, physical exercise is the only intervention consistently demonstrated to attenuate age-related declines in physical function. However, variability exists in seniors' responsiveness to training. One potential source of variability is the insertion (I allele) or deletion (D allele) of a 287 bp fragment in intron 16 of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene. This polymorphism is known to influence a variety of physiological adaptions to exercise. However, evidence is inconclusive regarding the influence of this polymorphism on older adults' functional responses to exercise. This study aimed to evaluate the association of ACE I/D genotypes with changes in physical function among Caucasian older adults (n = 283) following 12 mo of either structured, multimodal physical activity or health education. Measures of physical function included usual-paced gait speed and performance on the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). After checking Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, we used using linear regression to evaluate the genotype*treatment interaction for each outcome. Covariates included clinic site, body mass index, age, sex, baseline score, comorbidity, and use of angiotensin receptor blockers or ACE inhibitors. Genotype frequencies [II (19.4%), ID (42.4%), DD (38.2%)] were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P > 0.05). The genotype*treatment interaction was statistically significant for both gait speed (P = 0.002) and SPPB (P = 0.020). Exercise improved gait speed by 0.06 ± 0.01 m/sec and SPPB score by 0.72 ± 0.16 points among those with at least one D allele (ID/DD carriers), but function was not improved among II carriers. Thus, ACE I/D genotype appears to play a role in modulating functional responses to exercise training in seniors. PMID:24423970

  12. Relative Contributions of Adiposity and Muscularity to Physical Function in Community-dwelling Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jankowski, Catherine M.; Gozansky, Wendolyn S.; Van Pelt, Rachael E.; Schenkman, Margaret L.; Wolfe, Pamela; Schwartz, Robert S.; Kohrt, Wendy M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the relative contributions of adiposity and muscularity to multi-dimensional performance-based and perceived physical function in older adults living independently. Methods and Procedures Data from 109 women and men, aged 60 or older, with low serum dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) sulfate levels were included in this cross-sectional analysis of baseline measures from a single-site, randomized, controlled trial of DHEA replacement therapy. Physical function was determined by means of performance on the 100-point Continuous Scale-Physical Functional Performance (CS-PFP) test and by self-reporting using the physical function subscale of the Medical Outcomes Short Form-36 (SF36PF). Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Linear regression analyses were used to determine the contributions of body mass index (BMI; kg body mass/m2), fat index (FI; kg fat/m2), and appendicular skeletal muscle index (ASMI; kg muscle/m2) to the CS-PFP and SF36PF scores, adjusted for age and sex. Results Age-adjusted regression analyses indicated that FI, but not ASMI, was a significant (P < 0.001) determinant of CS-PFP (R2 = 0.54) and SF36PF (R2 = 0.37). When adjusted for age and sex, BMI was nearly as good a predictor of CS-PFP (R2 = 0.50) and SF36PF (R2 = 0.34) as FI. Discussion Adiposity was a stronger predictor of measured and self-reported physical function than was muscularity in older adults living independently. BMI, adjusted for sex, is a reasonable substitute for adiposity in the prediction of physical function. PMID:18292753

  13. Serum Methylarginines and Spirometry-Measured Lung Function in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    McEvoy, Mark A.; Schofield, Peter W.; Smith, Wayne T.; Agho, Kingsley; Mangoni, Arduino A.; Soiza, Roy L.; Peel, Roseanne; Hancock, Stephen J.; Carru, Ciriaco; Zinellu, Angelo; Attia, John R.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Methylarginines are endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitors that have been implicated in animal models of lung disease but have not previously been examined for their association with spirometric measures of lung function in humans. Objectives This study measured serum concentrations of asymmetric and symmetric dimethylarginine in a representative sample of older community-dwelling adults and determined their association with spirometric lung function measures. Methods Data on clinical, lifestyle, and demographic characteristics, methylated arginines, and L-arginine (measured using LC-MS/MS) were collected from a population-based sample of older Australian adults from the Hunter Community Study. The five key lung function measures included as outcomes were Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second, Forced Vital Capacity, Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second to Forced Vital Capacity ratio, Percent Predicted Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second, and Percent Predicted Forced Vital Capacity. Measurements and Main Results In adjusted analyses there were statistically significant independent associations between a) higher asymmetric dimethylarginine, lower Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second and lower Forced Vital Capacity; and b) lower L-arginine/asymmetric dimethylarginine ratio, lower Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second, lower Percent Predicted Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second and lower Percent Predicted Forced Vital Capacity. By contrast, no significant associations were observed between symmetric dimethylarginine and lung function. Conclusions After adjusting for clinical, demographic, biochemical, and pharmacological confounders, higher serum asymmetric dimethylarginine was independently associated with a reduction in key measures of lung function. Further research is needed to determine if methylarginines predict the decline in lung function. PMID:23690915

  14. Acute effects of ?-naphthoflavone on cardiorespiratory function and metabolism in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Gerger, Courtney J; Thomas, Jith K; Janz, David M; Weber, Lynn P

    2015-02-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists are known to cause lethal cardiovascular deformities in fish after developmental exposure. Acute adult fish toxicity of AhR agonists is thought to be minimal, but limited evidence suggests sublethal effects may also involve the cardiac system in fish. In the present study, adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) were aqueously exposed to solvent control or three nominal concentrations of the commonly used model AhR agonist, ?-naphthoflavone (BNF), for 48 h. Following exposure, fish were subjected to echocardiography to determine cardiac function or swimming tests with concurrent oxygen consumption measurement. Critical swimming speed and standard metabolic rate were not significantly changed, while active metabolic rate decreased with increasing BNF exposure, reaching statistical significance at the highest BNF exposure. Factorial aerobic scope was the most sensitive end-point and was decreased at even lower BNF concentrations, indicating a reduced aerobic capacity after acute AhR agonist exposure in adult fish. The highest BNF concentration caused a significant decrease in cardiac output, while increasing the ratio of atrial to ventricular heart rate (indicating atrioventricular conduction blockade). In conclusion, the effect of acute BNF exposure on zebrafish metabolic capacity and cardiac function is likely to be physiologically important given that fish have a critical need for adequate oxygen to fuel essential survival behaviors such as swimming, growth, and reproduction. Future studies should be directed at examining the effects of other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on fish cardiorespiratory function to determine whether their effects and modes of action are similar to BNF. PMID:25186110

  15. Do Clinical Symptoms and Signs Predict Reduced Renal Function Among Hospitalized Adults?

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, S; Joshi, R; Joge, V

    2013-01-01

    Background: Reduced renal function manifests as reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR), which is estimated using the serum creatinine levels. This condition is frequently encountered among hospitalized adults. Renal dysfunction remains clinically asymptomatic, until late in the course of disease, and its symptoms and screening strategies are poorly defined. Aim: We conducted this study to understand if the presence of renal dysfunction related clinical symptom and signs (either alone or in combination) can predict reduced GFR. Further, we aimed to determine if the combination of symptoms and signs are useful for prediction of different levels of reduced GFR. Subjects and Methods: We performed a cross-sectional clinical prediction study and included all consecutive patients admitted to the medical wards of the hospital. We used a renal dysfunction related clinical predictors as index tests and low estimated GFR ([eGFR] < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2) as a reference standard. We identified symptoms with a high likelihood ratio (LR) for prediction of low eGFR and constructed different risk score models. We plotted receiver operating curves for each score and used area under the curve (AUC) for comparison. The score with the highest AUC was considered as most discriminant. All statistical analysis was performed using the statistical software STATA (version 11.0, lake drive, Texas, USA). Results: A total of 341 patients participated in the study. None of the predictor variables had statistically significant LRs for eGFR less than 60 ml/min or eGFR less than 30 ml/min. Positive LRs were significant for prediction of eGFR < 15 ml/min for the presence of hypertension, vomiting pruritis, peripheral edema, hyperpigmentation, peripheral neuropathy and severe anemia. The best predictive model for eGFR less than 15 ml/min/1.73 m2, included Age > 45 years, the presence of hypertension, vomiting, peripheral edema, hyperpigmentation, and severe anemia and had AUC of 0.82. Conclusion: Clinical symptoms and signs are poorly predictive of reduced renal function, except for very low eGFR of less than 15 ml/min/1.73 m2. PMID:24379997

  16. Cognitive Longitudinal Predictors of Older Adults’ Self-Reported IADL Function

    PubMed Central

    Yam, Anna; Marsiske, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine basic and everyday cognitive predictors of older adults’ self-reported instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). Methods Basic and everyday cognitive predictors of self-reported IADL were examined in a sample of healthy, community-dwelling older adults (n = 698) assessed over five years of measurement. Results Multilevel longitudinal analyses revealed linear and quadratic change trends for self-reported IADL function, with steeper declines at higher ages. Within-person, when participants exhibited lower cognitive performance, they also reported more IADL impairment. Everyday cognition remained a significant unique predictor of self-reported IADL after controlling for attrition, re-sampling effects, temporal gradients, and baseline levels and changes in demographic, sensory, functional, and basic cognitive measures. Discussion By itself, everyday cognition appears to be an important predictor of self-reported IADL, and maintains a unique predictive contribution after many covariates are controlled. Future research should consider the inclusion of everyday cognitive measures in functional assessment batteries. PMID:24385635

  17. Antenatal Maternal Stress Alters Functional Brain Responses In Adult Offspring During Conditioned Fear

    PubMed Central

    Sadler, Theodore R.; Nguyen, Peter T.; Yang, Jun; Givrad, Tina K.; Mayer, Emeran A.; Maarek, Jean-Michel I.; Hinton, David R.; Holschneider, Daniel P.

    2011-01-01

    Antenatal maternal stress has been shown in rodent models and in humans to result in altered behavioral and neuroendocrine responses, yet little is known about its effects on functional brain activation. Pregnant female rats received a daily foot-shock stress or sham-stress two days after testing plug-positive and continuing for the duration of their pregnancy. Adult male offspring (age 14 weeks) with and without prior maternal stress (MS) were exposed to an auditory fear conditioning (CF) paradigm. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was assessed during recall of the tone cue in the nonsedated, nontethered animal using the 14C-iodoantipyrine method, in which the tracer was administered intravenously by remote activation of an implantable minipump. Regional CBF distribution was examined by autoradiography and analyzed by statistical parametric mapping in the three-dimensionally reconstructed brains. Presence of fear memory was confirmed by behavioral immobility (‘freezing’). Corticosterone plasma levels during the CF paradigm were measured by ELISA in a separate group of rats. Antenatal MS exposure altered functional brain responses to the fear conditioned cue in adult offspring. Rats with prior MS exposure compared to those without demonstrated heightened fear responsivity, exaggerated and prolonged corticosterone release, increased functional cerebral activation of limbic/paralimbic regions (amygdala, ventral hippocampus, insula, ventral striatum, nucleus acumbens), the locus coeruleus, and white matter, and deactivation of medial prefrontal cortical regions. Dysregulation of corticolimbic circuits may represent risk factors in the future development of anxiety disorders and associated alterations in emotional regulation. PMID:21300034

  18. Chronic early life stress alters developmental and adult neurogenesis and impairs cognitive function in mice.

    PubMed

    Naninck, Eva F G; Hoeijmakers, Lianne; Kakava-Georgiadou, Nefeli; Meesters, Astrid; Lazic, Stanley E; Lucassen, Paul J; Korosi, Aniko

    2015-03-01

    Early life stress (ES) increases vulnerability to psychopathology and impairs cognition in adulthood. These ES-induced deficits are associated with lasting changes in hippocampal plasticity. Detailed information on the neurobiological basis, the onset, and progression of such changes and their sex-specificity is currently lacking but is required to tailor specific intervention strategies. Here, we use a chronic ES mouse model based on limited nesting and bedding material from postnatal day (P) 2-9 to investigate; (1) if ES leads to impairments in hippocampus-dependent cognitive function in adulthood and (2) if these alterations are paralleled by changes in developmental and/or adult hippocampal neurogenesis. ES increased developmental neurogenesis (proliferation and differentiation) in the dentate gyrus (DG) at P9, and the number of immature (NeurD1(+) ) cells migrating postnatally from the secondary dentate matrix, indicating prompt changes in DG structure in both sexes. ES lastingly reduced DG volume and the long-term survival of developmentally born neurons in both sexes at P150. In adult male mice only, ES reduced survival of adult-born neurons (BrdU/NeuN(+) cells), while proliferation (Ki67(+) ) and differentiation (DCX(+) ) were unaffected. These changes correlated with impaired performance in all learning and memory tasks used here. In contrast, in female mice, despite early alterations in developmental neurogenesis, no lasting changes were present in adult neurogenesis after ES and the cognitive impairments were less prominent and only apparent in some cognitive tasks. We further show that, although neurogenesis and cognition correlate positively, only the hippocampus-dependent functions depend on changes in neurogenesis, whereas cognitive functions that are not exclusively hippocampus-dependent do not. This study indicates that chronic ES has lasting consequences on hippocampal structure and function in mice and suggests that male mice are more susceptible to ES than females. Unraveling the mechanisms that underlie the persistent ES-induced effects may have clinical implications for treatments to counteract ES-induced deficits. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25269685

  19. A Meta-Analysis of High Dose, Intermittent Vitamin D Supplementation among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Ya Ting; Cui, Qi Qi; Hong, Yi Min; Yao, Wei Guang

    2015-01-01

    Background The effects of intermittent, high dose vitamin D treatment in older adults have not been documented. We conducted a meta-analysis to provide a quantitative assessment of the efficiency of intermittent, high dose vitamin D treatment on falls, fractures, and mortality among older adults. Methods Electronic databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on high dose, intermittent vitamin D supplementation among older adults. Two researchers independently screened the literature according to specified inclusive and exclusive criteria to extract the data. Meta-analysis was performed by using Review Manager 5.1.0 software. Results Nine trials were included in this meta-analysis. High dose, intermittent vitamin D therapy did not decrease all-cause mortality among older adults. The risk ratio (95% CI) was 1.04 (0.91–1.17). No benefit was seen in fracture or fall prevention. The risk ratio for hip fractures (95% CI) was 1.17 (0.97–1.41) while for non-vertebral fractures (95% CI) it was 1.06 (0.91–1.22), and the risk ratio for falls (95% CI) was 1.02 (0.96–1.08). Results remained robust after sensitivity analysis. Conclusion Supplementation of intermittent, high dose vitamin D may not be effective in preventing overall mortality, fractures, or falls among older adults. The route of administration of vitamin D supplements may well change the physiological effects. PMID:25602255

  20. Extremely high serum ferritin levels as a main diagnostic tool of adult-onset Still's disease.

    PubMed

    Novak, Srdan; Anic, Felina; Luke-Vrbani?, Tea Schnurrerer

    2012-04-01

    Adult-onset Still's disease is a rare systemic inflammatory disease of unknown aetiology characterised by typical symptoms including daily high spiking fever, evanescent salmon-pink rash, sore throat, arthritis/arthralgias and polyserositis. The laboratory findings usually show neutrophilic leucocytosis, seronegativity and raised serum transaminases. We describe six typical cases. All of them had serum ferritin above 5,000 µg/L. Although there are few theories about the origin of the high ferritin level, an extremely high serum ferritin above 5,000 µg/L should be the main diagnostic tool of adult-onset Still's disease. PMID:21359498

  1. The Acute Effects of Grape Polyphenols Supplementation on Endothelial Function in Adults: Meta-Analyses of Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shao-Hua; Tian, Hong-Bo; Zhao, Hong-Jin; Chen, Liang-Hua; Cui, Lian-Qun

    2013-01-01

    Background The acute effects of grape polyphenols on endothelial function in adults are inconsistent. Here, we performed meta-analyses to determine these acute effects as measured by flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Methods Trials were searched in PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library database. Summary estimates of weighted mean differences (WMDs) and 95% CIs were obtained by using random-effects models. Meta-regression and subgroup analyses were performed to identify the source of heterogeneity. The protocol details of our meta-analysis have been submitted to the PROSPERO register and our registration number is CRD42013004157. Results Nine studies were included in the present meta-analyses. The results showed that the FMD level was significantly increased in the initial 120 min after intake of grape polyphenols as compared with controls. Meta-regression and subgroup analyses were performed and showed that a health status was the main effect modifier of the significant heterogeneity. Subgroups indicated that intake of grape polyphenols could significantly increase FMD in healthy subjects, and the increased FMD appeared to be more obviously in subjects with high cardiovascular risk factors. Moreover, the peak effect of grape polyphenols on FMD in healthy subjects was found 30 min after ingestion, which was different from the effect in subjects with high cardiovascular risk factors, in whom the peak effect was found 60 min after ingestion. Conclusions Endothelial function can be significantly improved in healthy adults in the initial 2 h after intake of grape polyphenols. The acute effect of grape polyphenols on endothelial function may be more significant but the peak effect is delayed in subjects with a smoking history or coronary heart disease as compared with the healthy subjects. PMID:23894543

  2. Amygdala functional connectivity with medial prefrontal cortex at rest predicts the positivity effect in older adults’ memory

    PubMed Central

    Sakaki, Michiko; Nga, Lin; Mather, Mara

    2014-01-01

    As people get older, they tend to remember more positive than negative information. This age-by-valence interaction has been called ‘positivity effect.’ The current study addressed the hypotheses that baseline functional connectivity at rest is predictive of older adults’ brain activity when learning emotional information and their positivity effect in memory. Using fMRI, we examined the relationship among resting-state functional connectivity, subsequent brain activity when learning emotional faces, and individual differences in the positivity effect (the relative tendency to remember faces expressing positive versus negative emotions). Consistent with our hypothesis, older adults with a stronger positivity effect had increased functional coupling between amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) during rest. In contrast, younger adults did not show the association between resting connectivity and memory positivity. A similar age-by-memory positivity interaction was also found when learning emotional faces. That is, memory positivity in older adults was associated with a) enhanced MPFC activity when learning emotional faces and b) increased negative functional coupling between amygdala and MPFC when learning negative faces. In contrast, memory positivity in younger adults was related to neither enhanced MPFC activity to emotional faces, nor MPFC-amygdala connectivity to negative faces. Furthermore, stronger MPFC-amygdala connectivity during rest was predictive of subsequent greater MPFC activity when learning emotional faces. Thus, emotion-memory interaction in older adults depends not only on the task-related brain activity but also on the baseline functional connectivity. PMID:23530897

  3. Genome-wide association study of lung function decline in adults with and without asthma

    PubMed Central

    Imboden, Medea; Bouzigon, Emmanuelle; Curjuric, Ivan; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Kumar, Ashish; Hancock, Dana B; Wilk, Jemma B; Vonk, Judith M; Thun, Gian A; Siroux, Valerie; Nadif, Rachel; Monier, Florent; Gonzalez, Juan R; Wjst, Matthias; Heinrich, Joachim; Loehr, Laura R; Franceschini, Nora; North, Kari E; Altmüller, Janine; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Guerra, Stefano; Kronenberg, Florian; Lathrop, Mark; Moffatt, Miriam F; O’Connor, George T; Strachan, David P; Postma, Dirkje S; London, Stephanie J; Schindler, Christian; Kogevinas, Manolis; Kauffmann, Francine; Jarvis, Debbie L; Demenais, Florence; Probst-Hensch, Nicole M

    2012-01-01

    Background Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified determinants of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma and lung function level, however none addressed decline in lung function. Aim We conducted the first GWAS on age-related decline in forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) and in its ratio to forced vital capacity (FVC) stratified a priori by asthma status. Methods Discovery cohorts included adults of European ancestry (1441 asthmatics, 2677 non-asthmatics; Epidemiological Study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma (EGEA); Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution And Lung And Heart Disease In Adults (SAPALDIA); European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS)). The associations of FEV1 and FEV1/FVC decline with 2.5 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were estimated. Thirty loci were followed-up by in silico replication (1160 asthmatics, 10858 non-asthmatics: Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC); Framingham Heart Study (FHS); British 1958 Birth Cohort (B58C); Dutch asthma study). Results Main signals identified differed between asthmatics and non-asthmatics. None of the SNPs reached genome-wide significance. The association between the height related gene DLEU7 and FEV1 decline suggested for non-asthmatics in the discovery phase was replicated (discovery P=4.8×10?6; replication P=0.03) and additional sensitivity analyses point to a relation to growth. The top ranking signal, TUSC3, associated with FEV1/FVC decline in asthmatics (P=5.3×10?8) did not replicate. SNPs previously associated with cross-sectional lung function were not prominently associated with decline. Conclusions Genetic heterogeneity of lung function may be extensive. Our results suggest that genetic determinants of longitudinal and cross-sectional lung function differ and vary by asthma status. PMID:22424883

  4. Emotional Complexity and Emotional Well-being in Older Adults: Risks of High Neuroticism

    PubMed Central

    Ready, Rebecca E.; Åkerstedt, Anna M.; Mroczek, Daniel K.

    2011-01-01

    Older and midlife adults tend to report greater emotional complexity and greater emotional wellbeing than younger adults but there is variability in these factors across the lifespan. The current study determined how the personality trait of Neuroticism at baseline predicts emotional complexity and emotional well-being 10 years later; a goal was to determine if Neuroticism is a stronger predictor of these emotion outcomes with increasing age in adulthood. Data were from two waves of the MIDUS projects (N = 1,503; aged 34 to 84). Greater Neuroticism predicted less emotional complexity as indicated by associations between Positive (PA) and Negative Affect (NA), particularly for older participants. Neuroticism predicted lower emotional well-being and this association was stronger for older and midlife than for younger adults. Overall, high Neuroticism may be greater liability for poor emotion outcomes for older and perhaps for midlife adults than for younger persons. Clinical and theoretical implications of this conclusion are discussed. PMID:21854349

  5. Clinical evidence on high flow oxygen therapy and active humidification in adults.

    PubMed

    Gotera, C; Díaz Lobato, S; Pinto, T; Winck, J C

    2013-01-01

    Recently there has been growing interest in an alternative to conventional oxygen therapy: the heated, humidified high flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy (HFNC). A number of physiological effects have been described with HFNC: pharyngeal dead space washout, reduction of nasopharyngeal resistance, a positive expiratory pressure effect, an alveolar recruitment, greater humidification, more comfort and better tolerance by the patient, better control of FiO2 and mucociliary clearance. There is limited experience of HFNC in adults. There are no established guidelines or decision-making pathways to guide use of the HFNC therapy for adults. In this article we review the existing evidence of HFNC oxygen therapy in adult patients, its advantages, limitations and the current literature on clinical applications. Further research is required to determine the long-term effect of this therapy and identify the adult patient population to whom it is most beneficial. PMID:23845744

  6. Evidence of Left Inferior Frontal–Premotor Structural and Functional Connectivity Deficits in Adults Who Stutter

    PubMed Central

    Horwitz, Barry; Ostuni, John; Reynolds, Richard; Ludlow, Christy L.

    2011-01-01

    The neurophysiological basis for stuttering may involve deficits that affect dynamic interactions among neural structures supporting fluid speech processing. Here, we examined functional and structural connectivity within corticocortical and thalamocortical loops in adults who stutter. For functional connectivity, we placed seeds in the left and right inferior frontal Brodmann area 44 (BA44) and in the ventral lateral nucleus (VLN) of the thalamus. Subject-specific seeds were based on peak activation voxels captured during speech and nonspeech tasks using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Psychophysiological interaction (PPI) was used to find brain regions with heightened functional connectivity with these cortical and subcortical seeds during speech and nonspeech tasks. Probabilistic tractography was used to track white matter tracts in each hemisphere using the same seeds. Both PPI and tractrography supported connectivity deficits between the left BA44 and the left premotor regions, while connectivity among homologous right hemisphere structures was significantly increased in the stuttering group. No functional connectivity differences between BA44 and auditory regions were found between groups. The functional connectivity results derived from the VLN seeds were less definitive and were not supported by the tractography results. Our data provide strongest support for deficient left hemisphere inferior frontal to premotor connectivity as a neural correlate of stuttering. PMID:21471556

  7. Drosophila Notch Receptor Activity Suppresses Hairless Function during Adult External Sensory Organ Development

    PubMed Central

    Lyman, D. F.; Yedvobnick, B.

    1995-01-01

    The neurogenic Notch locus of Drosophila encodes a receptor necessary for cell fate decisions within equivalence groups, such as proneural clusters. Specification of alternate fates within clusters results from inhibitory communication among cells having comparable neural fate potential. Genetically, Hairless (H) acts as an antagonist of most neurogenic genes and may insulate neural precursor cells from inhibition. H function is required for commitment to the bristle sensory organ precursor (SOP) cell fate and for daughter cell fates. Using Notch gain-of-function alleles and conditional expression of an activated Notch transgene, we show that enhanced signaling produces H-like loss-of-function phenotypes by suppressing bristle SOP cell specification or by causing an H-like transformation of sensillum daughter cell fates. Furthermore, adults carrying Notch gain of function and H alleles exhibit synergistic enhancement of mutant phenotypes. Over-expression of an H(+) transgene product suppressed virtually all phenotypes generated by Notch gain-of-function genotypes. Phenotypes resulting from over-expression of the H(+) transgene were blocked by the Notch gain-of-function products, indicating a balance between Notch and H activity. The results suggest that H insulates SOP cells from inhibition and indicate that H activity is suppressed by Notch signaling. PMID:8601489

  8. Educational Needs Assessment for Wisconsin Adults with Less than High School Graduation or GED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreitlow, Burton W.; And Others

    This study was conducted to assess the educational needs of Wisconsin adults aged 16 years and older who had not graduated from and were not attending high school or had not received a high school equivalency credential. The project staff interviewed 1,680 Wisconsin residents who met these criteria by telephone, using computerized random digit…

  9. 66 FR 33136 - Office of Vocational and Adult Education; High School Reform State Grants; Notice Inviting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2001-06-20

    ...independent study, school-based...individual high school under...Secondary Education Act or State...existing and future commitment...and Adult Education, U.S. Department of Education, 400 Maryland...Independent study is self-directed...student's curriculum and, if...variety of high school...

  10. SLJ Presents the Best Adult Books for High School Students 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsmith, Francisca

    2008-01-01

    This article lists 30 titles, published between September 2007 and November 2008 (with reviews published in 2008), which the "School Library Journal's" ("SLJ's") Adult Books for High School Students Committee decided to recognize as the best for high school readers. The list includes realistic and historical novels as well as some genre-blending…

  11. The Impact of Childhood ADHD on Dropping Out of High School in Urban Adolescents\\/ Young Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joey W. Trampush; Carlin J. Miller; Jeffrey H. Newcorn; Jeffrey M. Halperin

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine cognitive and psychosocial factors associated with high school dropout in urban adolescents with and without childhood ADHD. Method: In a longitudinal study, 49 adolescents\\/young adults with childhood ADHD and 44 controls who either dropped out or graduated from high school are included. Risk factors examined as potential correlates of dropout were intelligence, reading skills, socioeconomic status, marijuana

  12. A Controlled Study of Autonomic Nervous System Function in Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Treated with Stimulant Medications: Results of a Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schubiner, Howard; Hassunizadeh, Bischan; Kaczynski, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Despite the fact that autonomic nervous system (ANS) abnormalities are commonly found in adults and predict increased cardiovascular mortality, no studies have assessed ANS function in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) taking stimulants. Method: This pilot study evaluated ANS function in adults with ADHD in…

  13. Purines regulate adult brain subventricular zone cell functions: contribution of reactive astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Boccazzi, Marta; Rolando, Chiara; Abbracchio, Maria P; Buffo, Annalisa; Ceruti, Stefania

    2014-03-01

    Brain injuries modulate activation of neural stem cells (NSCs) in the adult brain. In pathological conditions, the concentrations of extracellular nucleotides (eNTs) raise several folds, contribute to reactive gliosis, and possibly directly affect subventricular zone (SVZ) cell functioning. Among eNTs and derived metabolites, the P2Y1 receptor agonist ADP strongly promotes astrogliosis and might also influence SVZ progenitor activity. Here, we tested the ability of the stable P2Y1 agonist adenosine 5'-O-(2-thiodiphosphate) (ADP?S) to control adult NSC functions both in vitro and in vivo, with a focus on the possible effects exerted by reactive astrocytes. In the absence of growth factors, ADP?S promoted proliferation and differentiation of SVZ progenitors. Moreover, ADP?S-activated astrocytes markedly changed the pattern of released cytokines and chemokines, and strongly modulated neurosphere-forming capacity of SVZ progenitors. Notably, a significant enhancement in proliferation was observed when SVZ cells, initially grown in the supernatant of astrocytes exposed to ADP?S, were shifted to normal medium. In vivo, ADP?S administration in the lateral ventricle of adult mice by osmotic minipumps caused diffused reactive astrogliosis, and a strong response of SVZ progenitors. Indeed, proliferation of glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive NSCs increased and led to a significant expansion of SVZ transit-amplifying progenitors and neuroblasts. Lineage tracing experiments performed in the GLAST::CreERT2;Rosa-YFP transgenic mice further demonstrated that ADP?S promoted proliferation of glutamate/aspartate transporter-positive progenitors and sustained their progression toward the generation of rapidly dividing progenitors. Altogether, our results show that the purinergic system crucially affects SVZ progenitor activities both directly and through the involvement of reactive astrocytes. PMID:24382645

  14. Programming of adult cardiovascular function after early maternal undernutrition in sheep.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan, G S; Gardner, D S; Rhind, S M; Rae, M T; Kyle, C E; Brooks, A N; Walker, R M; Ramsay, M M; Keisler, D H; Stephenson, T; Symonds, M E

    2004-07-01

    The prenatal nutritional environment influences the subsequent risk of hypertension in adulthood. Animal studies have used, generally, the rat as a model species to illustrate the association between maternal nutrient intake and blood pressure in the resulting adult offspring. No study to date has shown programming of adult cardiovascular function in the sheep through maternal dietary intervention. We therefore fed pregnant sheep to either 100% recommended intake from day 0 of gestation to term [ approximately 147 days gestational age (dGA); controls n = 8] or to 50% recommended intake from day 0 to 95 dGA and thereafter to 100% intake (NR; n = 9). Sheep lambed naturally, offspring were weaned at 16 wk, and the male offspring were reared on pasture until 3 yr of age. At this time, cardiovascular catheters were inserted under halothane anesthesia and sheep were allowed 2-4 days recovery. Basal cardiovascular status and pressor responses to infusion of norepinephrine, angiotensin II, and captopril were then assessed alongside basal plasma concentrations of glucose, cortisol, and leptin. NR sheep were of similar birth weight to controls but at 3 yr of age had higher blood pressure before, but not after, feeding. Peripheral sensitivity to vasoconstrictor infusion was similar between dietary groups, although a reflex bradycardia was not apparent in NR sheep during norepinephrine infusion. Circulating leptin correlated well with fat mass and increased more after vasoconstrictor infusion in NR sheep. In conclusion, early NR has been shown to program aspects of cardiovascular control and adipocyte function in adult sheep. PMID:14975924

  15. Functional Vascular Smooth Muscle-like Cells Derived from Adult Mouse Uterine Mesothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lachaud, Christian Claude; Pezzolla, Daniela; Domínguez-Rodríguez, Alejandro; Smani, Tarik

    2013-01-01

    In mammalian visceral organs, vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) originate from an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of embryonic mesothelial cells (MCs). The ability of adult MCs to recapitulate EMT and to acquire smooth muscle (SM) markers upon provasculogenic culture suggested they might retain embryonic vasculogenic differentiation potential. However, it remains unknown whether adult MCs-derived SM-like cells may acquire specific vascular SM lineage markers and the functionality of differentiated contractile VSMCs. Here, we describe how a gentle trypsinization of adult mouse uterine cords could selectively detach their outermost uterine mesothelial layer cells. As other MCs; uterine MCs (UtMCs) uniformly expressed the epithelial markers ?-catenin, ZO-1, E-cadherin, CD54, CD29, and CK18. When cultured in a modified SM differentiation media (SMDM) UtMCs initiated a loss of epithelial characteristics and gained markers expression of EMT (Twist, Snail, and Slug), stem and progenitor (Nanog, Sox2, C-kit, Gata-4, Isl-1, and nestin), SM (?-SMA, calponin, caldesmon, SM22?, desmin, SM-MHC, and smoothelin-B) and cardiac (BMP2, BMP4, ACTC1, sACTN, cTnI, cTnT, ANF, Cx43, and MLC2a). UtMCs repeatedly subcultured in SMDM acquired differentiated VSM-like characteristics and expressed smoothelin-B in the typical stress-fiber pattern expression of contractile VSMCs. Relevantly, UtMCs-derived VSM-like cells could generate “mechanical force” to compact collagen lattices and displayed in diverse degree voltage (K+) and receptor (endothelin-1, oxytocin, norepinephrine, carbachol and vasopressin)-induced [Ca2+]i rises and contraction. Thus, we show for the first time that UtMCs could recapitulate in vitro differentiative events of early cardiovascular differentiation and transdifferentiate in cells exhibiting molecular and functional characteristics of VSMCs. PMID:23405120

  16. Functional assessment in older adults: should we use timed up and go or gait speed test?

    PubMed

    Kubicki, Alexandre

    2014-08-01

    In order to assess functional skills of older adults, both timed up and go (TUG) test and gait speed (GS) test are well validated concerning their predictive capacities. However, the question remains unclear which one of these tests represents better the whole physical performance of older adults. The aim of this study is to determine the more representative test, between TUG and GS, of the whole motor control quality. To study links between locomotion capacities and arm function, we measured, in a population of frail aged patients, the locomotion tests and the mean arm maximal velocity developed during a speed-accuracy trade-off. This arm movement consisted in reaching the hand toward a target in a virtual game scene. We plotted the different couples of variables obtained on graphs, and calculate Pearson correlation coefficients between each couple. The Pearson correlation between GS and hand maximal velocity was significant (r=0.495; p=0.046). Interestingly, we found a non significant Pearson correlation between timed up and go score (TUG) and hand maximal velocity (r=-0.139; p=0.243). Our results suggest that GS score is more representative of the whole motor ability of frail patients than the TUG. We propose that the relative complexity of the TUG motor sequence could be involved in this difference. For a few patients with motor automatisms deficiencies, this motor sequence complexity could leads to a dual task perturbation. In this way, we conclude that GS should be preferred over the TUG with older adults. PMID:24933540

  17. Weight Loss, Exercise, or Both and Physical Function in Obese Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Villareal, Dennis T.; Chode, Suresh; Parimi, Nehu; Sinacore, David R.; Hilton, Tiffany; Armamento-Villareal, Reina; Napoli, Nicola; Qualls, Clifford; Shah, Krupa

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Obesity exacerbates the age-related decline in physical function and causes frailty in older adults; however, the appropriate treatment for obese older adults is controversial. METHODS In this 1-year, randomized, controlled trial, we evaluated the independent and combined effects of weight loss and exercise in 107 adults who were 65 years of age or older and obese. Participants were randomly assigned to a control group, a weightmanagement (diet) group, an exercise group, or a weight-management-plus-exercise (diet–exercise) group. The primary outcome was the change in score on the modified Physical Performance Test. Secondary outcomes included other measures of frailty, body composition, bone mineral density, specific physical functions, and quality of life. RESULTS A total of 93 participants (87%) completed the study. In the intention-to-treat analysis, the score on the Physical Performance Test, in which higher scores indicate better physical status, increased more in the diet–exercise group than in the diet group or the exercise group (increases from baseline of 21% vs. 12% and 15%, respectively); the scores in all three of those groups increased more than the scores in the control group (in which the score increased by 1%) (P<0.001 for the between-group differences). Moreover, the peak oxygen consumption improved more in the diet–exercise group than in the diet group or the exercise group (increases of 17% vs. 10% and 8%, respectively; P<0.001); the score on the Functional Status Questionnaire, in which higher scores indicate better physical function, increased more in the diet–exercise group than in the diet group (increase of 10% vs. 4%, P<0.001). Body weight decreased by 10% in the diet group and by 9% in the diet–exercise group, but did not decrease in the exercise group or the control group (P<0.001). Lean body mass and bone mineral density at the hip decreased less in the diet–exercise group than in the diet group (reductions of 3% and 1%, respectively, in the diet–exercise group vs. reductions of 5% and 3%, respectively, in the diet group; P<0.05 for both comparisons). Strength, balance, and gait improved consistently in the diet–exercise group (P<0.05 for all comparisons). Adverse events included a small number of exercise-associated musculoskeletal injuries. CONCLUSIONS These findings suggest that a combination of weight loss and exercise provides greater improvement in physical function than either intervention alone. PMID:21449785

  18. Multiwave Associations Between Depressive Symptoms and Endothelial Function in Adolescent and Young Adult Females

    PubMed Central

    Tomfohr, Lianne M.; Murphy, Michael L.M.; Miller, Gregory E.; Puterman, Eli

    2011-01-01

    Objective Depression has been linked to endothelial dysfunction, and some research suggests that past depressive episodes are associated with a lasting, negative impact on the endothelium. However, investigations in this area have been predominantly cross-sectional, raising questions about the direction of these associations. Using a multiwave design, we sought to extend previous research in this area by examining whether depressive symptoms have a lasting negative influence on endothelial function. Methods A total of 135 adolescent and young adult females with no known or suspected major health problems were followed for 2½ years. Endothelial function was assessed at three time points throughout the study. The Beck Depression Inventory was administered, and information about health practices was collected every 6 months. Results Self-reported depressive symptoms covaried with endothelial functioning on a within-person basis (? = ?0.23, p < .05). As a participant’s depression symptoms rose beyond her typical level, her endothelial function declined commensurately. This association persisted after controlling for health practices and adiposity. There was no evidence that depressive symptoms predicted endothelial function at later time points or interacted with time to predict the trajectories of endothelial function over the follow-up period. Conclusions Depressive symptoms were concurrently associated with endothelial function in this cohort of healthy adolescent girls and young women. On visits when participants endorsed depressive symptoms that were higher than their mean level of depression, they tended to have worse endothelial function. We did not observe a lasting negative effect of depression on endothelial function. PMID:21715299

  19. Pericytes control key neurovascular functions and neuronal phenotype in the adult brain and during brain aging

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Robert D.; Winkler, Ethan A.; Sagare, Abhay P.; Singh, Itender; LaRue, Barb; Deane, Rashid; Zlokovic, Berislav V.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Pericytes play a key role in the development of cerebral microcirculation. The exact role of pericytes in the neurovascular unit in the adult brain and during brain aging remains, however, elusive. Using adult viable pericyte-deficient mice, we show that pericyte loss leads to brain vascular damage by two parallel pathways: (1) reduction in brain microcirculation causing diminished brain capillary perfusion, cerebral blood flow and cerebral blood flow responses to brain activation which ultimately mediates chronic perfusion stress and hypoxia, and (2) blood-brain barrier breakdown associated with brain accumulation of serum proteins and several vasculotoxic and/or neurotoxic macromolecules ultimately leading to secondary neuronal degenerative changes. We show that age-dependent vascular damage in pericyte-deficient mice precedes neuronal degenerative changes, learning and memory impairment and the neuroinflammatory response. Thus, pericytes control key neurovascular functions that are necessary for proper neuronal structure and function, and pericytes loss results in a progressive age-dependent vascular-mediated neurodegeneration. PMID:21040844

  20. Progerin expression disrupts critical adult stem cell functions involved in tissue repair

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco, Laurin Marie; Gomez, Lourdes Adriana; Dias, Janice; Ziebarth, Noel M; Howard, Guy A; Schiller, Paul C

    2014-01-01

    Vascular disease is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Vascular repair, essential for tissue maintenance, is critically reduced during vascular disease and aging. Efficient vascular repair requires functional adult stem cells unimpaired by aging or mutation. One protein candidate for reducing stem cell–mediated vascular repair is progerin, an alternative splice variant of lamin A. Progerin results from erroneous activation of cryptic splice sites within the LMNA gene, and significantly increases during aging. Mutations triggering progerin overexpression cause the premature aging disorder Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS), in which patients die at approximately 13-years of age due to atherosclerosis-induced disease. Progerin expression affects tissues rich in cells that can be derived from marrow stromal cells (MSCs). Studies using various MSC subpopulations and models have led to discrepant results. Using a well-defined, immature subpopulation of MSCs, Marrow Isolated Adult Multilineage Inducible (MIAMI) cells, we find progerin significantly disrupts expression and localization of self-renewal markers, proliferation, migration, and membrane elasticity. One potential treatment, farnesyltransferase inhibitor, ameliorates some of these effects. Our results confirm proposed progerin-induced mechanisms and suggest novel ways in which progerin disturbs critical stem cell functions collectively required for proper tissue repair, offering promising treatment targets for future therapies. PMID:25567453

  1. Decreased Cognitive/CNS Function in Young Adults at Risk for Hypertension: Effects of Sleep Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    McCubbin, James A.; Peach, Hannah; Moore, DeWayne D.; Pilcher, June J.

    2012-01-01

    Hypertension has been linked to impaired cognitive/CNS function, and some of these changes may precede development of frank essential hypertension. The stress and fatigue of sleep deprivation may exacerbate these cognitive changes in young adults at risk. We hypothesize that individuals at risk for hypertension will show significant declines in cognitive function during a night of sleep deprivation. Fifty-one young adults were recruited for 28-hour total sleep deprivation studies. Hypertension risk was assessed by mildly elevated resting blood pressure and by family history of hypertension. A series of cognitive memory tasks was given at four test sessions across the sleep deprivation period. Although initially comparable in cognitive performance, persons at risk showed larger declines across the night for several indices of working memory, including code substitution, category, and order recall. These results suggest that cognitive/CNS changes may parallel or precede blood pressure dysregulation in the early stages of hypertension development. The role of CNS changes in the etiology of essential hypertension is discussed. PMID:22315669

  2. Dietary resistant starch improves selected brain and behavioral functions in adult and aged rodents

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, June; Keenan, Michael J.; Fernandez-Kim, Sun Ok; Pistell, Paul J.; Ingram, Donald K.; Li, Bing; Raggio, Anne M.; Shen, Li; Zhang, Hanjie; McCutcheon, Kathleen L; Tulley, Richard T.; Blackman, Marc R.; Keller, Jeffrey N.; Martin, Roy J.

    2013-01-01

    Resistant starch (RS) is a dietary fiber that exerts multiple beneficial effects. The current study explored the effects of dietary RS on selected brain and behavioral functions in adult and aged rodents. Because glucokinase (GK) expression in hypothalamic arcuate nucleus and area postrema of the brainstem is important for brain glucose sensing, GK mRNA was measured by brain nuclei microdissection and PCR. Adult RS-fed rats had a higher GK mRNA than controls in both brain nuclei, an indicator of improved brain glucose sensing. Next, we tested whether dietary RS improve selected behaviors in aged mice. RS-fed aged mice exhibited (1) an increased eating responses to fasting, a behavioral indicator of improvement in aged brain glucose sensing; (2) a longer latency to fall from an accelerating rotarod, a behavioral indicator of improved motor coordination; and (3) a higher serum active GLP-1. Third, GLP-1 receptor null (GLP-1RKO) mice were used to test the role of GLP-1 in brain glucose sensing, and they exhibited impaired eating responses to fasting. We conclude that in rodents (1) dietary RS improves two important indicators of brain function: glucose sensing and motor coordination, and that (2) GLP-1 is important in the optimal feeding response to a fast. PMID:23818307

  3. Concord grape juice supplementation improves memory function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Krikorian, Robert; Nash, Tiffany A; Shidler, Marcelle D; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Joseph, James A

    2010-03-01

    Concord grape juice contains polyphenol compounds, which have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and influence neuronal signalling. Concord grape juice supplementation has been shown to reduce inflammation, blood pressure and vascular pathology in individuals with CVD, and consumption of such flavonoid-containing foods is associated with a reduced risk for dementia. In addition, preliminary animal data have indicated improvement in memory and motor function with grape juice supplementation, suggesting potential for cognitive benefit in ageing humans. In this initial investigation of neurocognitive effects, we enrolled twelve older adults with memory decline but not dementia in a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial with Concord grape juice supplementation for 12 weeks. We observed significant improvement in a measure of verbal learning and non-significant enhancement of verbal and spatial recall. There was no appreciable effect of the intervention on depressive symptoms and no effect on weight or waist circumference. A small increase in fasting insulin was observed for those consuming grape juice. These preliminary findings suggest that supplementation with Concord grape juice may enhance cognitive function for older adults with early memory decline and establish a basis for more comprehensive investigations to evaluate potential benefit and assess mechanisms of action. PMID:20028599

  4. Influence of renal function on the pharmacokinetics of cerivastatin in normocholesterolemic adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. L. Mazzu; J. T. Lettieri; E. Kelly; R. Vargas; T. Marbury; M.-C. Liu; P. Sundaresan

    2000-01-01

    Objective: The influence of impaired renal function on the pharmacokinetics of single and multiple doses of cerivastatin was evaluated\\u000a in this non-randomized, non-blinded, 7-day, multiple-dose study.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods: Thirty-five adults between the ages of 21?years and 75?years with normal renal function (CLCR >90?ml\\/min\\/1.73?m2, n=9), or patients with either mild (CLCR 61?ml\\/min\\/1.73?m2 to ?90?ml\\/min\\/1.73?m2, n=9), moderate (CLCR 30?ml\\/min\\/1.73?m2 to ?60?ml\\/min\\/1.73?m2, n=8), or

  5. Feeding Mechanisms of Adult Lepidoptera: Structure, Function, and Evolution of the Mouthparts

    PubMed Central

    Krenn, Harald W.

    2014-01-01

    The form and function of the mouthparts in adult Lepidoptera and their feeding behavior are reviewed from evolutionary and ecological points of view. The formation of the suctorial proboscis encompasses a fluid-tight food tube, special linking structures, modified sensory equipment, and novel intrinsic musculature. The evolution of these functionally important traits can be reconstructed within the Lepidoptera. The proboscis movements are explained by a hydraulic mechanism for uncoiling, whereas recoiling is governed by the intrinsic proboscis musculature and the cuticular elasticity. Fluid uptake is accomplished by the action of the cranial sucking pump, which enables uptake of a wide range of fluid quantities from different food sources. Nectar-feeding species exhibit stereotypical proboscis movements during flower handling. Behavioral modifications and derived proboscis morphology are often associated with specialized feeding preferences or an obligatory switch to alternative food sources. PMID:19961330

  6. Psychosocial functioning in adults with beta-thalassaemia major: Evidence for resilience.

    PubMed

    Zani, Bruna; Prati, Gabriele

    2015-04-01

    Our aims were to compare the psychosocial functioning of a sample of adults with beta-thalassaemia major to that of a control sample and to examine the protective role of quality of relationship with parents during adolescence and perceived quality of care. A total of 85 Italian beta-thalassaemia major participants and 73 controls completed an ad hoc questionnaire. Compared with controls, beta-thalassaemia major participants did not differ on relationships with significant others and coping strategies. Beta-thalassaemia major participants reported higher scores on job satisfaction, self-esteem and self-description. The relationship with parents during adolescence and the perceived quality of care significantly predicted higher well-being and psychosocial functioning. PMID:24058126

  7. Testing a family-centered intervention to promote functional and cognitive recovery in hospitalized older adults.

    PubMed

    Boltz, Marie; Resnick, Barbara; Chippendale, Tracy; Galvin, James

    2014-12-01

    A comparative trial using a repeated-measures design was designed to evaluate the feasibility and outcomes of the Family-Centered Function-Focused-Care (Fam-FFC) intervention, which is intended to promote functional recovery in hospitalized older adults. A family-centered resource nurse and a facility champion implemented a three-component intervention (environmental assessment and modification, staff education, individual and family education and partnership in care planning with follow-up after hospitalization for an acute illness). Control units were exposed to function-focused-care education only. Ninety-seven dyads of medical patients aged 65 and older and family caregivers (FCGs) were recruited from three medical units of a community teaching hospital. Fifty-three percent of patients were female, 89% were white, 51% were married, and 40% were widowed, and they had a mean age of 80.8 ± 7.5. Seventy-eight percent of FCGs were married, 34% were daughters, 31% were female spouses or partners, and 38% were aged 46 to 65. Patient outcomes included functional outcomes (activities of daily living (ADLs), walking performance, gait, balance) and delirium severity and duration. FCG outcomes included preparedness for caregiving, anxiety, depression, role strain, and mutuality. The intervention group demonstrated less severity and shorter duration of delirium and better ADL and walking performance but not better gait and balance performance than the control group. FCGs who participated in Fam-FFC showed a significant increase in preparedness for caregiving and a decrease in anxiety and depression from admission to 2 months after discharge but no significant differences in strain or quality of the relationship with the care recipient from FCGs in the control group. Fam-FFC is feasible and has the potential to improve outcomes for hospitalized older adults and their caregivers. PMID:25481973

  8. Perceived Stress and Change in Cognitive Function Among Adults Aged 65 and Older

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Neelum T.; Wilson, Robert S.; Beck, Todd L.; Rajan, Kumar B.; Mendes de Leon, Carlos F.; Evans, Denis A.; Everson-Rose, Susan A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Exposure to acute and chronic stress can affect learning and memory but most evidence comes from animal studies or clinical observations. Almost no population-based studies have investigated the relation of stress to cognition or changes in cognition over time. We examined whether higher levels of perceived stress were associated with accelerated decline in cognitive function in older blacks and whites from a community-based population sample. Methods Participants included 6,207 black and white adults (65.7% black, 63.3% women) from the Chicago Health and Aging project. Two to five in-home assessments were completed over an average of 6.8 years of follow up, and included sociodemographics, health behaviors, psychosocial measures, cognitive function tests, and health history. Perceived stress was measured by a 6-item scale, and a composite measure of four tests of cognition was used to determine cognitive function at each assessment. Results Mixed effects regression models showed that increasing levels of perceived stress were related to lower initial cognitive scores (B=-0.0379, SE=0.0025, p<.001) and a faster rate of cognitive decline (stress × time interaction: B=-0.0015, SE=0.0004, p<.001). Results were similar after adjusting for demographic variables, smoking, systolic blood pressure, body mass index, chronic medical conditions, and psychosocial factors and did not vary by race, sex, age or education. Conclusion Increasing levels of stress are independently associated with accelerated declines in cognitive function in black and white adults aged 65 and above. PMID:24367123

  9. Living longer with adult high-grade glioma: setting a research agenda for patients and their caregivers.

    PubMed

    Russell, Bethany; Collins, Anna; Dally, Michael; Dowling, Anthony; Gold, Michelle; Murphy, Michael; Philip, Jennifer

    2014-10-01

    The long-term survival of patients with adult high-grade glioma (HGG) remains poor, but for those who do live longer functional status and neurocognitive ability may be influenced by residual or recurrent tumour, or treatment-related complications. The aim of this review was to examine the current literature regarding the quality of life and experience of patients living longer with adult HGG and their caregivers, with a view to understanding the burden of treatment on patient abilities and deficits over time. Medline, PsychINFO and CINAHL databases were searched for the core concept of HGG in combination with an aspect of quality of long-term survival. Key findings of the 12 included studies were identified and synthesised thematically. There is a paucity of dedicated studies which have investigated the experiences of this cohort. The strength of existing literature is limited by the systematic exclusion of the poorest functioning patients and the under-representation of caregiver perspectives. Discrepancies in how patients view their quality of life were highlighted, despite consistent findings of significant physical and functional impairment. This review confirmed the presence of important differences between patient and caregiver views regarding patient abilities following treatment. Caregiver burden was found to be high, due to multiple dynamic and relentless stressors. The true experience of patients living longer with adult HGG and their caregivers remains unclear, particularly for patients with poorer neurocognitive and functional outcomes. Further research is required to clarify and replicate findings, explore discrepancies between patient and caregiver views, and to specifically investigate how caregiver needs and experiences may evolve over time. PMID:24980038

  10. Brain functional connectivity density and individual fluid reasoning capacity in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Lang, Xu; Liu, Hao; Qin, Wen; Zhang, Yunting; Xuan, Yun; Yu, Chunshui

    2015-01-01

    Functional connectivity density (FCD) is a newly developed data-driven method to measure the number of functional connections of each voxel, possibly providing new insight into the neural correlates of fluid reasoning. Here, we recruited 211 healthy young adults (91 men and 120 women) to investigate associations between the global FCD and fluid reasoning capacity as measured by the Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices. Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices scores were correlated negatively with the global FCD in multiple brain regions of the frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal cortices in male participants. No significant correlation was found in female participants. Our findings confirmed the association between fluid reasoning and functional connectivity of multiple cognitive-related brain regions. The positive correlation with the functional connectivity strength and the negative correlation between fluid reasoning and FCD suggest that individuals with superior fluid reasoning capacity may possess a small number of strong functional connections. The sex dichotomy of this association indicates that the fluid reasoning capacity of men and women may have different neural substrates. PMID:25426825

  11. Childhood maltreatment and social functioning in adults with sub-clinical psychosis.

    PubMed

    Boyda, David; McFeeters, Danielle

    2015-03-30

    Studies now acknowledge a robust association between childhood maltreatment and psychosis development in adulthood. Research shows that maltreatment not only influences the child?s psychological wellbeing but also inhibits domains of social development. These social impairments have been found to predate the onset of psychosis and may crucially represent an intervening factor which triggers the decline towards psychosis. To examine social functioning as a potential mediating pathway between early maltreatment and sub-clinical psychosis. The study utilised data from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey (N=7403). Psychotic-like experiences were assessed using the Psychosis Screening Questionnaire (PSQ) along with measures designed to capture childhood maltreatment and social impairment. Results revealed that maltreatment was associated with both social functioning deficits as well as psychotic symptomology. Furthermore, social functioning was found to mediate the relationship between maltreatment and psychosis. The results align with literature linking maltreatment to both social functioning deficits and psychosis. Crucially, the study bridges these research areas by presenting functional decline as possible risk indicator and intervening factor between maltreatment and psychosis. Intervention strategies should therefore seek to capitalise on treatments which boost social aptitude as a means of averting further decline towards psychopathology. PMID:25669137

  12. Physical Activity and Brain Function in Older Adults at Increased Risk for Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Smith, J. Carson; Nielson, Kristy A.; Woodard, John L.; Seidenberg, Michael; Rao, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    Leisure-time physical activity (PA) and exercise training are known to help maintain cognitive function in healthy older adults. However, relatively little is known about the effects of PA on cognitive function or brain function in those at increased risk for Alzheimer’s disease through the presence of the apolipoproteinE epsilon4 (APOE-?4) allele, diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), or the presence of metabolic disease. Here, we examine the question of whether PA and exercise interventions may differentially impact cognitive trajectory, clinical outcomes, and brain structure and function among individuals at the greatest risk for AD. The literature suggests that the protective effects of PA on risk for future dementia appear to be larger in those at increased genetic risk for AD. Exercise training is also effective at helping to promote stable cognitive function in MCI patients, and greater cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with greater brain volume in early-stage AD patients. In APOE-?4 allele carriers compared to non-carriers, greater levels of PA may be more effective in reducing amyloid burden and are associated with greater activation of semantic memory-related neural circuits. A greater research emphasis should be placed on randomized clinical trials for exercise, with clinical, behavioral, and neuroimaging outcomes in people at increased risk for AD. PMID:24961307

  13. Serotonergic, noradrenergic and dopaminergic markers are related to cognitive function in adults with 22q11 deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Evers, Laurens J M; Curfs, Leopold M G; Bakker, Jaap A; Boot, Erik; da Silva Alves, Fabiana; Abeling, Nico; Bierau, Jörgen; Drukker, Marjan; van Amelsvoort, Therese A M J

    2014-08-01

    Patients with 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) have a high prevalence of psychiatric disorders and intellectual disability. At present the neurobiology underlying psychopathology in 22q11DS is still not understood. In the present study, we analyzed urinary serotonergic, dopaminergic and noradrenergic markers in 67 adults with 22q11DS. Levels of serotonin and the catecholamine metabolite homovanillic acid were significantly lower in the 22q11DS subjects compared to healthy controls. Within the 22q11DS group, levels of dopamine, homovanillic acid, norepinephrine, vanillyl mandelic acid and serotonin positively correlated with Full Scale Intelligence Quotient scores. Our results suggest that cognitive deficits in 22q11DS are associated with abnormal function of several neurotransmitters. PMID:24713114

  14. Columbus Unified High School: Every Adult Advocates, Every Student Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Principal Leadership, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This article features Columbus Unified High School, a school that takes pride in knowing that each student will graduate prepared for his or her future. Although poverty (45%) and unemployment (25%) are widespread in this rural Kansas community, the community members are fierce in their loyalty to the school. Last year, 97.8% of the four-year…

  15. Education and physical activity mediate the relationship between ethnicity and cognitive function in late middle-aged adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meredith C. Masel; Mukaila Raji; M. Kristen Peek

    2010-01-01

    Objective. Minority status has been implicated as a risk factor for disparate scores on cognitive function tests in older adults. Research on ethnicity and cognitive function has yielded socioeconomic status, particularly education, as a primary reason for the discrepancy. Other factors, such as physical activity may provide insight into the relationship. Despite this knowledge, few studies have thoroughly examined the

  16. Usefulness of visceral obesity (waist\\/hip ratio) in predicting vascular endothelial function in healthy overweight adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert D. Brook; Robert L. Bard; Melvyn Rubenfire; Paul M. Ridker; Sanjay Rajagopalan

    2001-01-01

    Vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) is associated with obesity; however, its etiology remains controversial. By determining the predictors of fasting and postprandial endothelial function in overweight adults without other cardiovascular risk factors, we were able to investigate novel mechanisms directly linking obesity to VED. Thirty-two healthy adults (body mass index [BMI] ?27 kg\\/m2) underwent determination of fasting low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particle

  17. The Impact of Isolated Obesity on Right Ventricular Function in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sokmen, Abdullah; Sokmen, Gulizar; Acar, Gurkan; Akcay, Ahmet; Koroglu, Sedat; Koleoglu, Murat; Yalcintas, Sila; Aydin, M. Naci

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The effects of obesity on left ventricular structure and function have been reported, but relatively little is known regarding right ventricular (RV) function in obesity. Objective To evaluate subclinical RV alterations in obese, but otherwise healthy, young adults by conventional echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI). Methods In this study, we included 35 normal weight healthy subjects with a body mass index (BMI) < 25 kg/m2 (group I), 27 subjects with a BMI of 30-34.99 kg/m2 (group II), and 42 subjects with a BMI ? 35 kg/m2 (group III). All subjects underwent transthoracic echocardiography. In addition to standard echocardiographic measurements, tricuspid annular peak systolic (Sm), peak early (Em), and late diastolic (Am) velocities, isovolumetric contraction (ICTm), relaxation (IRTm) time, and ejection time (ETm) were obtained by TDI, and RV myocardial performance index (MPIm) was calculated. Results In group II, RV Em/Am was significantly decreased and IRTm and MPIm were significantly increased compared to group I (p < 0.01). RV Sm, Em, and the Em/Am ratio were significantly lower and RV IRTm and MPIm were significantly higher in group III than in group II (p < 0.05 for RV Sm and IRTm and p < 0.01 for others). RV Am differed significantly between groups III and I (p < 0.05). BMI was significantly and negatively correlated with RV Sm, Em, and the Em/Am ratio, but positively correlated with RV MPI (p < 0.01). Conclusion Our study showed that isolated obesity in young normotensive adults was associated with subclinical abnormalities in RV structure and function. PMID:23842799

  18. Relationship Between Stroop Performance and Resting State Functional Connectivity in Cognitively Normal Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Abraham Z.; Rich, Patrick; Benzinger, Tammie L.; Fagan, Anne M.; Holtzman, David M.; Morris, John C.; Ances, Beau M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Early biomarkers of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are needed for developing therapeutic interventions. Measures of attentional control in Stroop-type tasks discriminate healthy aging from early stage AD (Hutchison et al., 2010) and predict future development of AD (Balota et al., 2010) in cognitively normal individuals. Disruption in resting state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fcMRI) has been reported in AD (Greicius et al., 2004), and in healthy controls at risk for AD (Sheline et al, 2010a). We explored the relationship among Stroop performance, rs-fcMRI, and CSF A?42 levels in cognitively normal older adults. Methods A computerized Stroop task (along with standard neuropsychological measures), rs-fcMRI, and CSF were obtained in 237 cognitively normal older adults. We compared the relationship between Stroop performance, including measures from reaction distributional analyses, and composite scores from four resting state networks (RSNs) [default mode (DMN), salience (SAL), dorsal attention (DAN), and sensory motor (SMN)], and the modulatory influence of CSF A?42 levels. Results A larger Stroop effect in errors was associated with reduced rs-fcMRI within the DMN and SAL. Reaction time distributional analyses indicated the slow tail of the reaction time distribution was related to reduced rs-fcMRI functional connectivity within the SAL. Standard psychometric measures were not related to RSN composite scores. A relationship between Stroop performance and DMN (but not SAL) functional connectivity was stronger in CSF A?42 positive individuals. Conclusions A link exists between RSN composite scores and specific attentional performance measures. Both measures may be sensitive biomarkers for AD. PMID:24040929

  19. Executive function and self-regulated exergaming adherence among older adults.

    PubMed

    Anderson-Hanley, Cay; Arciero, Paul J; Barcelos, Nicole; Nimon, Joseph; Rocha, Tracey; Thurin, Marisa; Maloney, Molly

    2014-01-01

    The rise in dementia and the evidence of cognitive benefits of exercise for the older adult population together make salient the research into variables affecting cognitive benefit and exercise behavior. One promising avenue for increasing exercise participation has been the introduction of exergaming, a type of exercise that works in combination with virtual reality to enhance both the exercise experience and health outcomes. Past research has revealed that executive function (EF) was related to greater use of self-regulatory strategies, which in turn was related to greater adherence to exercise following an intervention (McAuley et al., 2011). Best et al. (2014) found improvement in EF related to adherence to exercise post- intervention. Anderson-Hanley et al. (2012) found that for older adults aerobic exergaming yielded greater cognitive benefit than traditional exercise alone; however, questions remain as to the possible impact of greater cognitive benefit and other factors on participants' involvement in exercise following the end of an intervention. The current study presents follow-up data exploring the relationship between EF, self-regulation, and exercise behavior in the post-intervention (naturalistic) period. Herein, it was predicted that higher EF at the start of the naturalistic window, would predict subsequent exercise with an exergame. Contrary to expectations, results suggest that those with poorer EF are likely to exergame more frequently. The results of this study contradict previous literature, but suggest an interesting relationship between EF, self-regulation, and exercise behaviors when exergaming is employed, particularly with older adults with some cognitive decline. We hypothesize that other factors may be at work, perhaps expectation of cognitive benefit might act as a unique motivator. PMID:25538608

  20. Executive function and self-regulated exergaming adherence among older adults

    PubMed Central

    Anderson-Hanley, Cay; Arciero, Paul J.; Barcelos, Nicole; Nimon, Joseph; Rocha, Tracey; Thurin, Marisa; Maloney, Molly

    2014-01-01

    The rise in dementia and the evidence of cognitive benefits of exercise for the older adult population together make salient the research into variables affecting cognitive benefit and exercise behavior. One promising avenue for increasing exercise participation has been the introduction of exergaming, a type of exercise that works in combination with virtual reality to enhance both the exercise experience and health outcomes. Past research has revealed that executive function (EF) was related to greater use of self-regulatory strategies, which in turn was related to greater adherence to exercise following an intervention (McAuley et al., 2011). Best et al. (2014) found improvement in EF related to adherence to exercise post- intervention. Anderson-Hanley et al. (2012) found that for older adults aerobic exergaming yielded greater cognitive benefit than traditional exercise alone; however, questions remain as to the possible impact of greater cognitive benefit and other factors on participants’ involvement in exercise following the end of an intervention. The current study presents follow-up data exploring the relationship between EF, self-regulation, and exercise behavior in the post-intervention (naturalistic) period. Herein, it was predicted that higher EF at the start of the naturalistic window, would predict subsequent exercise with an exergame. Contrary to expectations, results suggest that those with poorer EF are likely to exergame more frequently. The results of this study contradict previous literature, but suggest an interesting relationship between EF, self-regulation, and exercise behaviors when exergaming is employed, particularly with older adults with some cognitive decline. We hypothesize that other factors may be at work, perhaps expectation of cognitive benefit might act as a unique motivator. PMID:25538608

  1. The Impact of Depressive Symptoms in Adults with ADHD Symptoms on Family Function and ADHD Symptoms of Their Children

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Soon-Beom; Lee, Jong-Ha; Chun, Duk Hee; Shin, Min-Sup; Yoo, Hee-Jeong; Kim, Boong-Nyun; Cho, Soo-Churl

    2014-01-01

    Objective People with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) exhibit considerable impairment in social, academic, or occupational functioning. The present study aimed to examine the patterns of associations between ADHD symptoms, depression, and family functioning. Methods The sample consisted of 1,022 adults randomly selected from a district in Seoul, South Korea. Several self-assessment scales were utilized to rate ADHD symptoms (both past and current), current symptoms of depression, and level of family functioning. ADHD symptoms in the children of these participants were also assessed. Pearson's correlation and multiple linear regression analyses were performed; structural equation modeling (SEM) was conducted to determine the best fitting model. Results Adult ADHD symptoms were positively associated with depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms, in turn, mediated the relationship between adult ADHD symptoms and cohesion among family members. In addition, depressive symptoms mediated the relationship between adult ADHD symptoms and their children's ADHD symptoms. Conclusion The relationship between adult ADHD symptoms and family dysfunction may be influenced by depressive symptoms. When treating ADHD in adults, clinicians should pay attention to the presence or absence of depression. PMID:24843366

  2. Neuropsychological functioning in adolescents and young adults with major depressive disorder--a review.

    PubMed

    Baune, Bernhard T; Fuhr, Margarete; Air, Tracy; Hering, Carola

    2014-08-30

    While neuropsychological dysfunction is a contributor to major depressive disorder (MDD) in adult MDD, little is known about neuropsychological function in MDD during adolescence and early adulthood. The aim of this review is to evaluate literature on neuropsychological function in this young age group. A database search of Medline, the Cochrane database and PsycInfo was conducted. Inclusion/exclusion criteria yielded seven case-control studies on neuropsychological functioning in MDD (12-25 years of age) published since 1995. Effect sizes were calculated. Results show a broader range of statistically significant neuropsychological deficits in MDD compared to controls in the cognitive domains of executive function (EF), working memory (WM), psychomotor and processing speed (PPS), verbal fluency (VF) and visual (-spatial) memory (VM). Most convincingly, three out of four studies investigating WM and three out of four studies investigating PPS found statistically significant impairments in MDD with varying effect sizes. EF deficits were reported only in three out of seven studies with small, medium and large effect sizes. While some evidence was found for impaired VM and VF, no evidence was observed for attention and verbal learning and memory; however, these domains have been less extensively studied. Further research is required to broaden the study base. PMID:24851725

  3. Input-output functions for stimulus-frequency otoacoustic emissions in normal-hearing adult ears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schairer, Kim S.; Fitzpatrick, Denis; Keefe, Douglas H.

    2003-08-01

    Input-output (I/O) functions for stimulus-frequency (SFOAE) and distortion-product (DPOAE) otoacoustic emissions were recorded in 30 normal-hearing adult ears using a nonlinear residual method. SFOAEs were recorded at half octaves from 500-8000 Hz in an L1=L2 paradigm with L2=0 to 85 dB SPL, and in a paradigm with L1 fixed and L2 varied. DPOAEs were elicited with primary levels of Kummer et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 103, 3431-3444 (1998)] at f2 frequencies of 2000 and 4000 Hz. Interpretable SFOAE responses were obtained from 1000-6000 Hz in the equal-level paradigm. SFOAE levels were larger than DPOAEs levels, signal-to-noise ratios were smaller, and I/O functions were less compressive. A two-slope model of SFOAE I/O functions predicted the low-level round-trip attenuation, the breakpoint between linearity and compression, and compressive slope. In ear but not coupler recordings, the noise at the SFOAE frequency increased with increasing level (above 60 dB SPL), whereas noise at adjacent frequencies did not. This suggests the existence of a source of signal-dependent noise producing cochlear variability, which is predicted to influence basilar-membrane motion and neural responses. A repeatable pattern of notched SFOAE I/O functions was present in some ears, and explained using a two-source mechanism of SFOAE generation.

  4. High-throughput imaging of adult fluorescent zebrafish with an LED fluorescence macroscope

    PubMed Central

    Blackburn, Jessica S; Liu, Sali; Raimondi, Aubrey R; Ignatius, Myron S; Salthouse, Christopher D; Langenau, David M

    2011-01-01

    Zebrafish are a useful vertebrate model for the study of development, behavior, disease and cancer. A major advantage of zebrafish is that large numbers of animals can be economically used for experimentation; however, high-throughput methods for imaging live adult zebrafish had not been developed. Here, we describe protocols for building a light-emitting diode (LED) fluorescence macroscope and for using it to simultaneously image up to 30 adult animals that transgenically express a fluorescent protein, are transplanted with fluorescently labeled tumor cells or are tagged with fluorescent elastomers. These protocols show that the LED fluorescence macroscope is capable of distinguishing five fluorescent proteins and can image unanesthetized swimming adult zebrafish in multiple fluorescent channels simultaneously. The macroscope can be built and used for imaging within 1 day, whereas creating fluorescently labeled adult zebrafish requires 1 hour to several months, depending on the method chosen. The LED fluorescence macroscope provides a low-cost, high-throughput method to rapidly screen adult fluorescent zebrafish and it will be useful for imaging transgenic animals, screening for tumor engraftment, and tagging individual fish for long-term analysis. PMID:21293462

  5. Factors affecting the psychological functioning of Australian adults with chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Viggers, Lorna C; Caltabiano, Marie L

    2012-12-01

    The role of resilience, for adults facing ongoing adversity in the form of chronic medical conditions, has received little attention in the past. This research investigated the impact of resilience and coping strategies on the psychological functioning of 87 Australian adults with chronic pain, using a self-report questionnaire. It included the McGill Pain Questionnaire, the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, the Coping Strategies Questionnaire, the 36-item Short Form Health Survey, and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale. Using hierarchical regression, after the effects of pain severity, catastrophizing, and ignoring the pain were controlled for, resilience was significantly associated with mental health-related quality of life (??=?0.18, P?

  6. Recovery of function following regeneration of the damaged retina in the adult newt, Notophthalmus viridescens.

    PubMed

    Beddaoui, Margaret; Coupland, Stuart G; Tsilfidis, Catherine

    2012-10-01

    The red-spotted newt, Notophthalmus viridescens, is one of few adult vertebrate organisms that has retained the remarkable ability to regenerate a complete retina following injury or removal. The aim of this study was to develop a non-invasive method to monitor recovery of components within the retinal circuitry, in vivo, following surgical removal (retinectomy) of the adult newt retina. A novel and reproducible protocol was established for full-field electroretinography in the intact newt retina. Electroretinograms (ERGs) were measured at the corneal surface. The effects of dilation and external body temperature on the ERG amplitudes were measured as well as the reproducibility in recording ERGs in the same animal over time. Retinectomies were conducted on 15 newts, and the a- and b-wave amplitudes were measured prior to retinectomy and at various timepoints after retinectomy. Surgical removal of the retina resulted in an initial loss of ERG a- and b-waves, representing loss of photoreceptor cells and cells of the inner nuclear layer. The ERG amplitudes recovered to baseline levels by 15 weeks post-retinectomy, indicative of subsequent restoration of retinal function after regeneration. PMID:22729667

  7. MyoD is required for myogenic stem cell function in adult skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Megeney, L A; Kablar, B; Garrett, K; Anderson, J E; Rudnicki, M A

    1996-05-15

    To investigate the function of MyoD in adult skeletal muscle, we interbred MyoD mutant mice with mdx mice, a model for Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy. Mice lacking both MyoD and dystrophin displayed a marked increase in severity of myopathy leading to premature death, suggesting a role for MyoD in muscle regeneration. Examination of MyoD mutant muscle revealed elevated numbers of myogenic cells; however, myoblasts derived from these cells displayed normal differentiation potential in vitro. Following injury, MyoD mutant muscle was severely deficient in regenerative ability, and we observed a striking reduction in the in vivo proliferation of myogenic cells during regeneration. Therefore, we propose that the failure of MyoD-deficient muscle to regenerate efficiently is not caused by a reduction in numbers of satellite cells, the stem cells of adult skeletal muscle, but results from an increased propensity for stem-cell self-renewal rather than progression through the myogenic program. PMID:8675005

  8. Effects of Rolipram on Adult Rat Oligodendrocytes and Functional Recovery after Contusive Cervical Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Beaumont, Eric; Whitaker, Christopher M.; Burke, Darlene A.; Hetman, Michal; Onifer, Stephen M.

    2009-01-01

    Traumatic human spinal cord injury causes devastating and long-term hardships. These are due to the irreparable primary mechanical injury and secondary injury cascade. In particular, oligodendrocyte cell death, white matter axon damage, spared axon demyelination, and the ensuing dysfunction in action potential conduction lead to the initial deficits and impair functional recovery. For these reasons, and that oligodendrocyte and axon survival may be related, various neuroprotective strategies after SCI are being investigated. We previously demonstrated that oligodendrocytes in the adult rat epicenter ventrolateral funiculus express 3?-5?-cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent phosphodiesterase 4 subtypes and that their death was attenuated up to 3 days after contusive cervical spinal cord injury when rolipram, a specific inhibitor of phosphodiesterase 4, was administered. Here, we report that 1) there are more oligodendrocyte somata in the adult rat epicenter ventrolateral funiculus, 2) descending and ascending axonal conductivity in the ventrolateral funiculus improves, and that 3) there are fewer hindlimb footfall errors during grid-walking at 5 weeks after contusive cervical spinal cord injury when rolipram is delivered for 2 weeks. This is the first demonstration of improved descending and ascending long-tract axonal conductivity across a spinal cord injury with this pharmacological approach. Since descending long-tract axonal conductivity did not return to normal, further evaluations of the pharmacokinetics and therapeutic window of rolipram as well as optimal combinations are necessary before consideration for neuroprotection in humans with spinal cord injury. PMID:19635528

  9. Pharmacological stimulation of Edar signaling in the adult enhances sebaceous gland size and function.

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk-Quintas, Christine; Schuepbach-Mallepell, Sonia; Willen, Laure; Smith, Terry K; Huttner, Kenneth; Kirby, Neil; Headon, Denis J; Schneider, Pascal

    2015-02-01

    Impaired ectodysplasin A (EDA) receptor (EDAR) signaling affects ectodermally derived structures including teeth, hair follicles, and cutaneous glands. The X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XLHED), resulting from EDA deficiency, can be rescued with lifelong benefits in animal models by stimulation of ectodermal appendage development with EDAR agonists. Treatments initiated later in the developmental period restore progressively fewer of the affected structures. It is unknown whether EDAR stimulation in adults with XLHED might have beneficial effects. In adult Eda mutant mice treated for several weeks with agonist anti-EDAR antibodies, we find that sebaceous gland size and function can be restored to wild-type levels. This effect is maintained upon chronic treatment but reverses slowly upon cessation of treatment. Sebaceous glands in all skin regions respond to treatment, although to varying degrees, and this is accompanied in both Eda mutant and wild-type mice by sebum secretion to levels higher than those observed in untreated controls. Edar is expressed at the periphery of the glands, suggesting a direct homeostatic effect of Edar stimulation on the sebaceous gland. Sebaceous gland size and sebum production may serve as biomarkers for EDAR stimulation, and EDAR agonists may improve skin dryness and eczema frequently observed in XLHED. PMID:25207818

  10. Review: molecular pathology in adult high-grade gliomas: from molecular diagnostics to target therapies.

    PubMed

    Masui, K; Cloughesy, T F; Mischel, P S

    2012-06-01

    The classification of malignant gliomas is moving from a morphology-based guide to a system built on molecular criteria. The development of a genomic landscape for gliomas and a better understanding of its functional consequences have led to the development of internally consistent molecular classifiers. However, development of a biologically insightful classification to guide therapy is still a work in progress. Response to targeted treatments is based not only on the presence of drugable targets, but rather on the molecular circuitry of the cells. Further, tumours are heterogeneous and change and adapt in response to drugs. Therefore, the challenge of developing molecular classifiers that provide meaningful ways to stratify patients for therapy remains a major challenge for the field. In this review, we examine the potential role of MGMT methylation, IDH1/2 mutations, 1p/19q deletions, aberrant epidermal growth factor receptor and PI3K pathways, abnormal p53/Rb pathways, cancer stem-cell markers and microRNAs as prognostic and predictive molecular markers in the setting of adult high-grade gliomas and we outline the clinically relevant subtypes of glioblastoma with genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic integrated analyses. Furthermore, we describe how these advances, especially in epidermal growth factor receptor/PI3K/mTOR signalling pathway, affect our approaches towards targeted therapy, raising new challenges and identifying new leads. PMID:22098029

  11. Characterization and Functional Properties of Gastric Tissue-Resident Memory T Cells from Children, Adults, and the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Jayaum S.; Toapanta, Franklin R.; Salerno-Goncalves, Rosangela; Patil, Seema; Kader, Howard A.; Safta, Anca M.; Czinn, Steven J.; Greenwald, Bruce D.; Sztein, Marcelo B.

    2014-01-01

    T cells are the main orchestrators of protective immunity in the stomach; however, limited information on the presence and function of the gastric T subsets is available mainly due to the difficulty in recovering high numbers of viable cells from human gastric biopsies. To overcome this shortcoming we optimized a cell isolation method that yielded high numbers of viable lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMC) from gastric biopsies. Classic memory T subsets were identified in gastric LPMC and compared to peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) obtained from children, adults, and the elderly using an optimized 14 color flow cytometry panel. A dominant effector memory T (TEM) phenotype was observed in gastric LPMC CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in all age groups. We then evaluated whether these cells represented a population of gastric tissue-resident memory T (TRM) cells by assessing expression of CD103 and CD69. The vast majority of gastric LPMC CD8+ T cells either co-expressed CD103/CD69 (>70%) or expressed CD103 alone (~20%). Gastric LPMC CD4+ T cells also either co-expressed CD103/CD69 (>35%) or expressed at least one of these markers. Thus, gastric LPMC CD8+ and CD4+ T cells had the characteristics of TRM cells. Gastric CD8+ and CD4+ TRM cells produced multiple cytokines (IFN-?, IL-2, TNF-?, IL-17A, MIP-1?) and up-regulated CD107a upon stimulation. However, marked differences were observed in their cytokine and multi-cytokine profiles when compared to their PBMC TEM counterparts. Furthermore, gastric CD8+ TRM and CD4+ TRM cells demonstrated differences in the frequency, susceptibility to activation, and cytokine/multi-cytokine production profiles among the age groups. Most notably, children’s gastric TRM cells responded differently to stimuli than gastric TRM cells from adults or the elderly. In conclusion, we demonstrate the presence of gastric TRM, which exhibit diverse functional characteristics in children, adults, and the elderly. PMID:24995010

  12. Cognitive and daily functioning in older adults with vegetative symptoms of depression

    PubMed Central

    Paradiso, Sergio; Duff, Kevin; Vaidya, Jatin G.; Hoth, Angela; Mold, James W.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives In primary care 50–95% of patients with depression present with vegetative symptoms (VS). Based on the extant literature, older adults showing VS (but no dysphoria) may show functional impairment but this hypothesis has not been empirically tested. The goal of this study was to examine neurocognitive and daily functioning of elderly patients showing exclusively VS in comparison with patients presenting with VS and dysphoria. Methods Seven hundred and eighty-seven primary care patients received measures of neurocognition and daily functioning. Neurocognition was measured with the repeatable battery for the assessment of neuropsychological status (RBANS). Three groups were compared: (1) patients with two or more VS of depression without dysphoria (VS ? D), (2) patients with at least one VS and dysphoria (VS + D), and (3) comparison patients without multiple VS or dysphoria. Results Nearly one third of the sample (31%) fell into the VS ? D group, whereas 15% fell into the VS + D group. Both VS groups showed poorer neurocognition and activities of daily living than comparisons. Only one subtest of the RBANS (i.e., picture naming) showed a significant difference between VS + D and VS ? D, and there was no significant difference on daily functioning. VS ? D patients reported less frequent past history of depression and endorsed less anxiety compared to VS + D. Conclusions Elderly patients presenting with clusters of VS with or without dysphoria show poorer neurocognitive and functional performance. Relative poorer cognition and daily functioning in VS ? D are potential harbingers of further decline and consistent with under-reporting of sadness in older age. PMID:19806600

  13. High-temperature adult-plant resistance, the key for sustainable control of stripe rust

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High-temperature adult-plant (HTAP) resistance expresses when plants grow old and the weather becomes warm. This non-race specific and durable type of resistance has been used successfully in control of wheat stripe rust in the U.S. since early 1960s. This article describes practical procedures f...

  14. ESL Software for Use with High School and Adult Students. A MicroSIFT Quarterly Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrick, Bruce

    Forty-four computer programs specifically designed to help students learn English as a second language (ESL) are listed. The programs chosen focus on a linguistic activity, are appropriate for any proficiency level, are considered appropriate for students of high school and adult age (excluding college-level foreign students), and have been…

  15. Burst Swimming in Areas of High Flow: Delayed Consequences of Anaerobiosis in Wild Adult Sockeye Salmon

    E-print Network

    Hinch, Scott G.

    carryover effects on wild aquatic animals. Introduction Reproductive migrations are challenging life000 Burst Swimming in Areas of High Flow: Delayed Consequences of Anaerobiosis in Wild Adult2 Collin T. Middleton2 Samantha M. Wilson2 Steven J. Cooke2 1 Fish Ecology and Conservation

  16. Retinotopic mapping of adult human visual cortex with high-density diffuse optical tomography

    E-print Network

    Larson-Prior, Linda

    Retinotopic mapping of adult human visual cortex with high-density diffuse optical tomography maps of angle and eccentricity in the visual field are consistent with retinotopic studies using clinical tool. Diffuse optical imaging is an emerging, noninvasive technique with unique portability

  17. Connecting Youth to High-Resource Adults: Lessons from Effective Youth Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Patrick J.; Larson, Reed W.

    2010-01-01

    Adolescents benefit from contact with high-resource community adults, but intergenerational obstacles make these interactions difficult, fragile, and rare. This qualitative research investigated the success of seven, primarily urban, leadership, and arts programs that attempted to facilitate these interactions within their programming. Program…

  18. JAMA Patient Page: New Guideline for Treatment of High Blood Pressure in Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the most common conditions in adults seen in primary care clinics. There are 2 numbers in a blood pressure measurement: systolic blood pressure (the top number) and diastolic blood pressure (the bottom number). High blood pressure occurs when either of these numbers is too ...

  19. United States History. Nevada Competency-Based Adult High School Diploma Proejct.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevada Univ., Las Vegas. Coll. of Education.

    This document is one of ten curriculum guides developed by the Nevada Competency-Based Adult High School Diploma (CBAHSD) Project. This curriculum guide on United States history is divided into twenty-four topics. The topics included are: Backgrounds of American Colonization; Colonial Life; Causes of the American Revolution; Creating a New…

  20. Public library computer training for older adults to access high-quality Internet health information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bo Xie; Julie M. Bugg

    2009-01-01

    An innovative experiment to develop and evaluate a public library computer training program to teach older adults to access and use high-quality Internet health information involved a productive collaboration among public libraries, the National Institute on Aging and the National Library of Medicine of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and a Library and Information Science (LIS) academic program at

  1. Earth and Physical Science. Nevada Competency-Based Adult High School Diploma Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevada Univ., Las Vegas. Coll. of Education.

    This document is one of ten curriculum guides developed by the Nevada Competency-Based Adult High School Diploma (CBAHSD) Project. This curriculum guide on earth and physical science is divided into twelve topics. The topics included are Geology, Meteorology, Astronomy, Natural Disasters, Chemical Reaction, Laboratory, States of Matter, Force and…

  2. The Influence of Emotional State on the Masticatory Muscles Function in the Group of Young Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Anna, Stocka; Joanna, Kuc; Teresa, Sierpinska; Maria, Golebiewska; Aneta, Wieczorek

    2015-01-01

    Stress may affect the function of all the components of the masticatory system and may ultimately lead to differentiated symptoms and finally to systemic and structural dysfunctions. Objective. To determine the effect of stress on the masticatory muscles function in young healthy adults. Material and Methods. A total of 201 young, Angle's first class, healthy volunteers, 103 female and 98 male, in the age between 18 and 21 years were recruited into the study. All the participants underwent clinical examination according to the Slavicek scheme, questionnaire survey according to Perceived Stress Scale, and assessment of masticatory muscles function in central occlusion. Results. Symptoms of masticatory system dysfunction were found in the group of 86 subjects (46,24%). All the muscles activity in central occlusion was comparable in female and male groups. Mean values of masseters activities in the group of low stress subjects (75,52?µV ± 15,97) were statistically different from the groups with medium (82,43?µV ± 15,04) and high (81,33 ± 12,05) perceived stress (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Chronic stress may reveal or exacerbate symptoms of masticatory dysfunction.

  3. Functional Characterization of Friedreich Ataxia iPS-Derived Neuronal Progenitors and Their Integration in the Adult Brain

    PubMed Central

    Bird, Matthew J.; Needham, Karina; Frazier, Ann E.; van Rooijen, Jorien; Leung, Jessie; Hough, Shelley; Denham, Mark; Thornton, Matthew E.; Parish, Clare L.; Nayagam, Bryony A.; Pera, Martin; Thorburn, David R.; Thompson, Lachlan H.; Dottori, Mirella

    2014-01-01

    Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is an autosomal recessive disease characterised by neurodegeneration and cardiomyopathy that is caused by an insufficiency of the mitochondrial protein, frataxin. Our previous studies described the generation of FRDA induced pluripotent stem cell lines (FA3 and FA4 iPS) that retained genetic characteristics of this disease. Here we extend these studies, showing that neural derivatives of FA iPS cells are able to differentiate into functional neurons, which don't show altered susceptibility to cell death, and have normal mitochondrial function. Furthermore, FA iPS-derived neural progenitors are able to differentiate into functional neurons and integrate in the nervous system when transplanted into the cerebellar regions of host adult rodent brain. These are the first studies to describe both in vitro and in vivo characterization of FA iPS-derived neurons and demonstrate their capacity to survive long term. These findings are highly significant for developing FRDA therapies using patient-derived stem cells. PMID:25000412

  4. Ultrastructural and functional effects of lead poisoning on adult canine myocardium: assessment of thiamin treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Kincaid, N.G.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of lead (Pb) poisoning on the adult canine myocardium were assessed quantitatively using stereological techniques, functional testing, and blood analyses as well as qualitatively by morphological investigation. Relative measurements using stereological techniques compared the volume fractions of cellular components of the three groups. Blood was analyzed for lead, hemoglobin, hematocrit, total erythrocytes, total leukocytes, thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP), delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity (ALAD), and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP). The major finding of the stereological analysis was the statistically significant increase of 3.2% in myofilament volume in the Pb treated group and the significant decrease in mitochondrial volume in both the Pb treated and Pb + B/sub 1/ treated groups. A statistically significant decrease in the mitochondria/myofilament volume ratio was found in the Pb treated, but no Pb + B/sub 1/ treated group. This may indicate either a protective effect of thiamin on mitochondria or a reduced compensatory need of the myocyte to increase myofilament volume.

  5. The functional effect of a distal rectus femoris tenotomy in adults with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Drefus, Lisa C; Buckland, Melanie A; Backus, Sherry I; Root, Leon

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a distal rectus femoris tenotomy on function and gait in adults with cerebral palsy who had diminished knee flexion during swing. A stiff knee gait pattern is commonly seen in individuals with cerebral palsy and frequently leads to tripping and falling. Five subjects, 25-51 years, (34.6±10.3 years) participated in the study; each individual had the surgery after the age of 18. Four of the five subjects underwent bilateral distal rectus femoris tenotomies for a total of nine limbs being studied. Four of the five subjects had a single procedure of a distal rectus femoris tenotomy and one subject also had bilateral adductor tenotomies. All individuals underwent a pre-operative and post-operative, (3.28±1.6 years) three-dimensional gait analysis. Pre-operative gait revealed diminished peak knee flexion and out of phase rectus femoris activity with a quiet vastus lateralis during swing in all subjects. Significant findings after a distal rectus femoris tenotomy included: improved peak swing knee flexion, improved peak stance hip extension, and increased total knee excursion without loss in knee extension strength. During swing, knee flexion angle improved on average 11° which correlated with subjective report of less shoe wear, tripping, and falling due to improved clearance. In conclusion, a distal rectus femoris tenotomy should be considered a surgical option for adults with cerebral palsy and a stiff knee gait pattern to improve mobility, function, and quality of life. PMID:24742707

  6. TrkB kinase activity maintains synaptic function and structural integrity at adult neuromuscular junctions.

    PubMed

    Mantilla, Carlos B; Stowe, Jessica M; Sieck, Dylan C; Ermilov, Leonid G; Greising, Sarah M; Zhang, Chao; Shokat, Kevan M; Sieck, Gary C

    2014-10-15

    Activation of the tropomyosin-related kinase receptor B (TrkB) by brain-derived neurotrophic factor acutely regulates synaptic transmission at adult neuromuscular junctions (NMJs). The role of TrkB kinase activity in the maintenance of NMJ function and structure at diaphragm muscle NMJs was explored using a chemical-genetic approach that permits reversible inactivation of TrkB kinase activity in TrkB(F616A) mice by 1NMPP1. Inhibiting TrkB kinase activity for 7 days resulted in significant, yet reversible, impairments in neuromuscular transmission at diaphragm NMJs. Neuromuscular transmission failure following 2 min of repetitive phrenic nerve stimulation increased from 42% in control to 59% in 1NMPP1-treated TrkB(F616A) mice (P = 0.010). Recovery of TrkB kinase activity following withdrawal of 1NMPP1 treatment improved neuromuscular transmission (P = 0.006). Electrophysiological measurements at individual diaphragm NMJs documented lack of differences in quantal content in control and 1NMPP1-treated mice (P = 0.845). Morphological changes at diaphragm NMJs were modest following inhibition and recovery of TrkB kinase activity. Three-dimensional reconstructions of diaphragm NMJs revealed no differences in volume at motor end plates (labeled by ?-bungarotoxin; P = 0.982) or presynaptic terminals (labeled by synaptophysin; P = 0.515). Inhibition of TrkB kinase activity by 1NMPP1 resulted in more compact NMJs, with increased apposition of presynaptic terminals and motor end plates (P = 0.017) and reduced fragmentation of motor end plates (P = 0.005). Recovery of TrkB kinase activity following withdrawal of 1NMPP1 treatment resulted in postsynaptic remodeling likely reflecting increased gutter depth (P = 0.007), without significant presynaptic changes. These results support an essential role for TrkB kinase activity in maintaining synaptic function and structural integrity at NMJs in the adult mouse diaphragm muscle. PMID:25170066

  7. Mediterranean Diet, Healthy Eating Index-2005, and Cognitive Function in Middle-Aged and Older Puerto Rican Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Xingwang; Scott, Tammy; Gao, Xiang; Maras, Janice E.; Bakun, Peter J.; Tucker, Katherine L.

    2013-01-01

    Adherence to a Mediterranean diet (MeD) has recently been shown to protect against cognitive decline and dementia. It remains unclear, however, whether such protection extends to differing ethnic groups and middle-aged individuals, and how it may compare with adherence to the USDA Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005 (measured with Healthy Eating Index-2005, HEI-2005). This study examined associations between diet quality, as assessed by the MeD and HEI-2005, and cognitive performance in a sample of 1,269 Puerto Rican adults, aged 45–75 years, living in the Greater Boston area, Massachusetts. Dietary intake was assessed with a food-frequency questionnaire specifically designed for and validated with this population. Adherence to the MeD was assessed with a 0 to 9 point scale, and the HEI-2005 score was calculated with a maximum score of 100. Cognitive performance was measured with a battery of seven tests; the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) was used for global cognitive function. Greater adherence to the MeD was associated with higher MMSE score (P trend = 0.012) and lower likelihood (OR = 0.87 for each additional point, 95% CI, 0.80–0.94, P <0.001) of cognitive impairment, after adjustment for confounders. Similarly, individuals with higher HEI-2005 score had higher MMSE score (P trend = 0.011) and lower odds of cognitive impairment (OR = 0.86 for each 10 points, 95% CI, 0.74–0.99, P = 0.033). In conclusion, high adherence to either the MeD or the diet recommended by the USDA dietary guidelines may protect cognitive function in middle-aged and older adults. PMID:23351632

  8. High-speed power training in older adults: A shift of the external resistance at which peak power is produced

    PubMed Central

    Sayers, Stephen P.; Gibson, Kyle

    2013-01-01

    Studies have shown that power training increases peak power in older adults. Evaluating the external resistance (% one repetition-maximum [1RM]) at which peak power is developed is critical given that changes in the components of peak power (force and velocity) are dependent on the %1RM at which peak power occurs. The purpose of this study was to compare the changes in peak power (and the external resistance at which peak power occurred) after 12 weeks of high-speed power training versus traditional slow-speed strength training. Seventy-two older men and women were randomized to high-speed power training at 40% of the one-repetition maximum (1RM) (HSPT: n=24 [70.8±6.8 yrs]); traditional RT at 80% 1RM (STR: n=22 [68.6±7.8 yrs]); or control (CON: n=18 [71.5±6.1 yrs]). Measures of muscle performance were obtained at baseline and after the 12-week training intervention. Changes in muscle power and 1RM strength improved similarly with both HSPT and SSST, but HSPT shifted the external resistance at which peak power was produced to a lower external resistance (from 67%1RM to 52%1RM) compared to SSST (from 65%1RM to 62%1RM)(p<0.05), thus increasing the velocity component of peak power (change: HSPT=0.18±0.21m/s; SSST=?0.03±0.15 m/s)(p<0.05). Because sufficient speed of the lower limb is necessary for functional tasks related to safety (crossing a busy intersection, fall prevention), HSPT should be implemented in older adults to improve power at lower external resistances, thus increasing the velocity component of power and making older adults safer in their environment. These data provide clinicians with the necessary information to tailor exercise programs to the individual needs of the older adult, affecting the components of power. PMID:23897022

  9. Loss-of-function mutations in ABCA1 and enhanced ?-cell secretory capacity in young adults.

    PubMed

    Rickels, Michael R; Goeser, Eugen S; Fuller, Carissa; Lord, Christine; Bowler, Anne M; Doliba, Nicolai M; Hegele, Robert A; Cuchel, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Loss-of-function mutations affecting the cholesterol transporter ATP-binding cassette transporter subfamily A member 1 (ABCA1) impair cellular cholesterol efflux and are associated with reduced HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. ABCA1 may also be important in regulating ?-cell cholesterol homeostasis and insulin secretion. We sought to determine whether loss-of-function ABCA1 mutations affect ?-cell secretory capacity in humans by performing glucose-potentiated arginine tests in three subjects homozygous for ABCA1 mutations (age 25 ± 11 years), eight heterozygous subjects (28 ± 7 years), and eight normal control subjects pair-matched to the heterozygous carriers. To account for any effect of low HDL-C on insulin secretion, we studied nine subjects with isolated low HDL-C with no ABCA1 mutations (age 26 ± 6 years) and nine pair-matched control subjects. Homozygotes for ABCA1 mutations exhibited enhanced oral glucose tolerance and dramatically increased ?-cell secretory capacity that was also greater in ABCA1 heterozygous subjects than in control subjects, with no differences in insulin sensitivity. Isolated low HDL-C subjects also demonstrated an increase in ?-cell secretory capacity but in contrast to those with ABCA1 mutations, exhibited impaired insulin sensitivity, supporting ?-cell compensation for increased insulin demand. These data indicate that loss-of-function mutations in ABCA1 in young adults may be associated with enhanced ?-cell secretory capacity and normal insulin sensitivity and support the importance of cellular cholesterol homeostasis in regulating ?-cell insulin secretion. PMID:25125487

  10. Associations among childhood sexual abuse, language use and adult sexual functioning and satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Tierney Ahrold; Meston, Cindy May

    2012-01-01

    To better understand the link between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adult sexual functioning and satisfaction, we examined cognitive differences between women with (N = 128) and without (NSA, N = 99) CSA histories. We used the Linguistic Inquiry Word Count, a computerized text analysis program, to investigate language differences between women with and without CSA histories when writing about their daily life (neutral essay) and their beliefs about sexuality and their sexual experiences (sexual essay). Compared to NSA women, women with CSA histories used fewer first person pronouns in the neutral essay but more in the sexual essay, suggesting women with CSA histories have greater self-focus when thinking about sexuality. Women who reported CSA used more intimacy words and more language consistent with psychological distancing in the sexual essay than did NSA women. Use of positive emotion words in the sexual essay predicted sexual functioning and satisfaction in both groups. These findings support the view that language use differs in significant ways between women with and without sexual abuse histories, and that these differences relate to sexual functioning and satisfaction. PMID:22387124

  11. Respiratory function following bilateral mid-cervical contusion injury in the adult rat.

    PubMed

    Lane, Michael A; Lee, Kun-Ze; Salazar, Krystal; O'Steen, Barbara E; Bloom, David C; Fuller, David D; Reier, Paul J

    2012-05-01

    The consequences of spinal cord injury (SCI) are often viewed as the result of white matter damage. However, injuries occurring at any spinal level, especially in cervical and lumbar enlargement regions, also entail segmental neuronal loss. Yet, the contributions of gray matter injury and plasticity to functional outcomes are poorly understood. The present study addressed this issue by investigating changes in respiratory function following bilateral C(3)/C(4) contusion injuries at the level of the phrenic motoneuron (PhMN) pool which in the adult rat extends from C(3) to C(5/6) and provides innervation to the diaphragm. Despite extensive white and gray matter pathology associated with two magnitudes of injury severity, ventilation was relatively unaffected during both quiet breathing and respiratory challenge (hypercapnia). On the other hand, bilateral diaphragm EMG recordings revealed that the ability to increase diaphragm activity during respiratory challenge was substantially, and chronically, impaired. This deficit has not been seen following predominantly white matter lesions at higher cervical levels. Thus, the impact of gray matter damage relative to PhMNs and/or interneurons becomes evident during conditions associated with increased respiratory drive. Unaltered ventilatory behavior, despite significant deficits in diaphragm function, suggests compensatory neuroplasticity involving recruitment of other spinal respiratory networks which may entail remodeling of connections. Transynaptic tracing, using pseudorabies virus (PRV), revealed changes in PhMN-related interneuronal labeling rostral to the site of injury, thus offering insight into the potential anatomical reorganization and spinal plasticity following cervical contusion. PMID:21963673

  12. Interleukin-6 and memory functions of encoding and recall in healthy and depressed elderly adults.

    PubMed

    Elderkin-Thompson, Virginia; Irwin, Michael R; Hellemann, Gerhard; Kumar, Anand

    2012-09-01

    Activation of proinflammatory cytokines is associated with depressed mood, feelings of fatigue, and changes in cognitive function. This study examined the relationships between cognitive performance and circulating cellular markers of inflammation, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP), in moderately depressed and comparison healthy older adults. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 87 volunteers (45 nondepressed and 42 depressed) in which participants completed the Structured Clinical Diagnostic Interview and were evaluated by a geriatric psychiatrist for dementia, depression, stroke risk, and neurologic disorders. Volunteers also completed an electrocardiogram, standard battery of laboratory tests, and neuropsychological examination that assessed memory functions of Encoding and Recall, Executive Function, and Attention/Processing. Mid-morning IL-6 and CRP levels were assessed. The data analysis showed that Encoding and Recall were inversely associated with IL-6 across diagnostic groups after controlling for chronological age, Mini-Mental State Examination, body mass index, literacy level, depression severity, and sex. CRP was not associated with cognition. Depression status was associated with recall independent of IL-6 levels. In conclusion, IL-6 serum levels among elderly individuals is a significant correlate of memory performance. Women, in particular, appear sensitive to IL-6 fluctuations across diagnostic groups. PMID:22892560

  13. Human adult dental pulp stem cells enhance poststroke functional recovery through non-neural replacement mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Leong, Wai Khay; Henshall, Tanya L; Arthur, Agnes; Kremer, Karlea L; Lewis, Martin D; Helps, Stephen C; Field, John; Hamilton-Bruce, Monica A; Warming, Scott; Manavis, Jim; Vink, Robert; Gronthos, Stan; Koblar, Simon A

    2012-03-01

    Human adult dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), derived from third molar teeth, are multipotent and have the capacity to differentiate into neurons under inductive conditions both in vitro and following transplantation into the avian embryo. In this study, we demonstrate that the intracerebral transplantation of human DPSCs 24 hours following focal cerebral ischemia in a rodent model resulted in significant improvement in forelimb sensorimotor function at 4 weeks post-treatment. At this time, 2.3 ± 0.7% of engrafted cells had survived in the poststroke brain and demonstrated targeted migration toward the stroke lesion. In the peri-infarct striatum, transplanted DPSCs differentiated into astrocytes in preference to neurons. Our data suggest that the dominant mechanism of action underlying DPSC treatment that resulted in enhanced functional recovery is unlikely to be due to neural replacement. Functional improvement is more likely to be mediated through DPSC-dependent paracrine effects. This study provides preclinical evidence for the future use of human DPSCs in cell therapy to improve outcome in stroke patients. PMID:23197777

  14. Mental Health Services for Individuals with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Lake, Johanna K.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents and adults with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who do not have an intellectual impairment or disability (ID), described here as individuals with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD), represent a complex and underserved psychiatric population. While there is an emerging literature on the mental health needs of children with ASD with normal intelligence, we know less about these issues in adults. Of the few studies of adolescents and adults with HFASD completed to date, findings suggest that they face a multitude of cooccurring psychiatric (e.g., anxiety, depression), psychosocial, and functional issues, all of which occur in addition to their ASD symptomatology. Despite this, traditional mental health services and supports are falling short of meeting the needs of these adults. This review highlights the service needs and the corresponding gaps in care for this population. It also provides an overview of the literature on psychiatric risk factors, identifies areas requiring further study, and makes recommendations for how existing mental health services could include adults with HFASD. PMID:25276425

  15. Mental health services for individuals with high functioning autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Lake, Johanna K; Perry, Andrea; Lunsky, Yona

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents and adults with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who do not have an intellectual impairment or disability (ID), described here as individuals with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD), represent a complex and underserved psychiatric population. While there is an emerging literature on the mental health needs of children with ASD with normal intelligence, we know less about these issues in adults. Of the few studies of adolescents and adults with HFASD completed to date, findings suggest that they face a multitude of cooccurring psychiatric (e.g., anxiety, depression), psychosocial, and functional issues, all of which occur in addition to their ASD symptomatology. Despite this, traditional mental health services and supports are falling short of meeting the needs of these adults. This review highlights the service needs and the corresponding gaps in care for this population. It also provides an overview of the literature on psychiatric risk factors, identifies areas requiring further study, and makes recommendations for how existing mental health services could include adults with HFASD. PMID:25276425

  16. Indoor nitrous acid and respiratory symptoms and lung function in adults

    PubMed Central

    Jarvis, D; Leaderer, B; Chinn, S; Burney, P

    2005-01-01

    Background: Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is an important pollutant of indoor and outdoor air, but epidemiological studies show inconsistent health effects. These inconsistencies may be due to failure to account for the health effects of nitrous acid (HONO) which is generated directly from gas combustion and indirectly from NO2. Methods: Two hundred and seventy six adults provided information on respiratory symptoms and lung function and had home levels of NO2 and HONO measured as well as outdoor levels of NO2. The association of indoor HONO levels with symptoms and lung function was examined. Results: The median indoor HONO level was 3.10 ppb (IQR 2.05–5.09), with higher levels in homes with gas hobs, gas ovens, and in those measured during the winter months. Non-significant increases in respiratory symptoms were observed in those living in homes with higher HONO levels. An increase of 1 ppb in indoor HONO was associated with a decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) percentage predicted (–0.96%; 95% CI –0.09 to –1.82) and a decrease in percentage FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) (–0.45%; 95% CI –0.06 to –0.83) after adjustment for relevant confounders. Measures of indoor NO2 were correlated with HONO (r = 0.77), but no significant association of indoor NO2 with symptoms or lung function was observed. After adjustment for NO2 measures, the association of HONO with low lung function persisted. Conclusion: Indoor HONO levels are associated with decrements in lung function and possibly with more respiratory symptoms. Inconsistencies between studies examining health effects of NO2 and use of gas appliances may be related to failure to account for this association. PMID:15923247

  17. Age differences in high frequency phasic heart rate variability and performance response to increased executive function load in three executive function tasks

    PubMed Central

    Byrd, Dana L.; Reuther, Erin T.; McNamara, Joseph P. H.; DeLucca, Teri L.; Berg, William K.

    2015-01-01

    The current study examines similarity or disparity of a frontally mediated physiological response of mental effort among multiple executive functioning tasks between children and adults. Task performance and phasic heart rate variability (HRV) were recorded in children (6 to 10 years old) and adults in an examination of age differences in executive functioning skills during periods of increased demand. Executive load levels were varied by increasing the difficulty levels of three executive functioning tasks: inhibition (IN), working memory (WM), and planning/problem solving (PL). Behavioral performance decreased in all tasks with increased executive demand in both children and adults. Adults’ phasic high frequency HRV was suppressed during the management of increased IN and WM load. Children’s phasic HRV was suppressed during the management of moderate WM load. HRV was not suppressed during either children’s or adults’ increasing load during the PL task. High frequency phasic HRV may be most sensitive to executive function tasks that have a time-response pressure, and simply requiring performance on a self-paced task requiring frontal lobe activation may not be enough to generate HRV responsitivity to increasing demand.

  18. Psychiatric comorbidity and functional impairment in a clinically referred sample of adults with attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Esther Sobanski; Daniel Brüggemann; Barbara Alm; Sebastian Kern; Monika Deschner; Thomas Schubert; Alexandra Philipsen; Marcella Rietschel

    2007-01-01

    Objective  This exploratory study aims to compare lifetime psychiatric axis-I-comorbidity and psychosocial functioning in a clinically\\u000a referred sample of adult patients with attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with a population-based healthy control\\u000a group and to examine whether patients with ADHD and lifetime comorbid diagnoses differ from patients with pure ADHD in their\\u000a functional impairment.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  Seventy adult patients with ADHD according to DSM-IV criteria

  19. Adult Kawasaki's disease with myocarditis, splenomegaly, and highly elevated serum ferritin levels.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Burke A; Pherez, Francisco M; Alexiadis, Varvara; Gagos, Marios; Strollo, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    Kawasaki's disease is a disease of unknown cause. The characteristic clinical features of Kawasaki's disease are fever> or =102 degrees F for> or =5 days accompanied by a bilateral bulbar conjunctivitis/conjunctival suffusion, erythematous rash, cervical adenopathy, pharyngeal erythema, and swelling of the dorsum of the hands/feet. Kawasaki's disease primarily affects children and is rare in adults. In children, Kawasaki's disease is more likely to be associated with aseptic meningitis, coronary artery aneurysms, and thrombocytosis. In adult Kawasaki's disease, unilateral cervical adenopathy, arthritis, conjunctival suffusion/conjunctivitis, and elevated serum transaminases (serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase [SGOT]/serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase [SGPT]) are more likely. Kawasaki's disease in adults may be mimicked by other acute infections with fever and rash, that is, group A streptococcal scarlet fever, toxic shock syndrome (TSS), and Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF). Because there are no specific tests for Kawasaki's disease, diagnosis is based on clinical criteria and the syndromic approach. In addition to rash and fever, scarlet fever is characterized by circumoral pallor, oropharyngeal edema, Pastia's lines, and peripheral eosinophilia, but not conjunctival suffusion, splenomegaly, swelling of the dorsum of the hands/feet, thrombocytosis, or an elevated SGOT/SGPT. In TSS, in addition to rash and fever, there is conjunctival suffusion, oropharyngeal erythema, and edema of the dorsum of the hands/feet, an elevated SGOT/SGPT, and thrombocytopenia. Patients with TSS do not have cervical adenopathy or splenomegaly. RMSF presents with fever and a maculopapular rash that becomes petechial, first appearing on the wrists/ankles after 3 to 5 days. RMSF is accompanied by a prominent headache, periorbital edema, conjunctival suffusion, splenomegaly, thrombocytopenia, an elevated SGOT/SGPT, swelling of the dorsum of the hands/feet, but not oropharyngeal erythema. We present a case of adult Kawasaki's disease with myocarditis and splenomegaly. The patient's myocarditis rapidly resolved, and he did not develop coronary artery aneurysms. In addition to splenomegaly, this case of adult Kawasaki's disease is remarkable because the patient had highly elevated serum ferritin levels of 944-1303 ng/mL; (normal<189 ng/mL). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of adult Kawasaki's disease with highly elevated serum ferritin levels. This is also the first report of splenomegaly in adult Kawasaki's disease. We conclude that Kawasaki's disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis in adult patients with rash/fever for> or =5 days with conjunctival suffusion, cervical adenopathy, swelling of the dorsum of the hands/feet, thrombocytosis and otherwise unexplained highly elevated ferritin levels. PMID:20207278

  20. Highly efficient generation of induced neurons from human fibroblasts that survive transplantation into the adult rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Maria; Pfisterer, Ulrich; Rylander, Daniella; Torper, Olof; Lau, Shong; Lundblad, Martin; Grealish, Shane; Parmar, Malin

    2014-01-01

    Induced neurons (iNs) offer a novel source of human neurons that can be explored for applications of disease modelling, diagnostics, drug screening and cell replacement therapy. Here we present a protocol for highly efficient generation of functional iNs from fetal human fibroblasts, and also demonstrate the ability of these converted human iNs (hiNs) to survive transplantation and maintain their phenotype in the adult rat brain. The protocol encompasses a delay in transgene activation after viral transduction that resulted in a significant increase in conversion efficiency. Combining this approach with treatment of small molecules that inhibit SMAD signalling and activate WNT signalling provides a further increase in the conversion efficiency and neuronal purity, resulting in a protocol that provides a highly efficient method for the generation of large numbers of functional and transplantable iNs from human fibroblasts without the use of a selection step. When transplanting the converted neurons from different stages of in vitro culture into the brain of adult rats, we observed robust survival and maintenance of neuronal identity four weeks post-transplantation. Interestingly, the positive effect of small molecule treatment observed in vitro did not result in a higher yield of iNs surviving transplantation. PMID:25208484

  1. Traffic-related Air Pollution in Relation to Cognitive Function in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Elbaz, Alexis; Beevers, Sean; Singh-Manoux, Archana

    2014-01-01

    Background: Few epidemiologic studies have investigated associations of air pollution with cognition in older adults, and none has specifically compared associations across particle sources. We investigated whether exposure to particulate air pollution, characterized by size and source, was associated with cognitive function and decline in cognitive function. Methods: We included participants of the Whitehall II cohort who were residents of greater London and who attended the medical examination in study wave 2007–2009 (n = 2867). Annual average concentrations of particulate matter (PM) (PM10 and PM2.5 from all sources and from traffic exhaust) were modeled at resolution of 20 × 20 m for 2003–2009. We investigated the relationship between exposure to particles and a cognitive battery composed of tests of reasoning, memory, and phonemic and semantic fluency. We also investigated exposure in relation to decline in these tests over 5 years. Results: Mean age of participants was 66 (standard deviation = 6) years. All particle metrics were associated with lower scores in reasoning and memory measured in the 2007–2009 wave but not with lower verbal fluency. Higher PM2.5 of 1.1 ?g/m3 (lag 4) was associated with a 0.03 (95% confidence interval = ?0.06 to 0.002) 5-year decline in standardized memory score and a 0.04 (?0.07 to ?0.01) decline when restricted to participants remaining in London between study waves. Conclusions: This study provides support for an association between particulate air pollution and some measures of cognitive function, as well as decline over time in cognition; however, it does not support the hypothesis that traffic-related particles are more strongly associated with cognitive function than particles from all sources. PMID:25036434

  2. Reduced lung function due to biomass smoke exposure in young adults in rural Nepal.

    PubMed

    Kurmi, Om P; Devereux, Graham S; Smith, W Cairns S; Semple, Sean; Steiner, Markus F C; Simkhada, Padam; Lam, Kin-Bong Hubert; Ayres, Jon G

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the effects of biomass smoke exposure on lung function in a Nepalese population, addressing some of the methodological issues seen in previous studies. We carried out a cross-sectional study of adults in a population exposed to biomass smoke and a non-exposed population in Nepal. Questionnaire and lung function data were acquired along with direct measures of indoor and outdoor air quality. Ventilatory function (forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)), forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory flow at 25-75% of FVC) was significantly reduced in the population using biomass across all age groups compared to the non-biomass-using population, even in the youngest (16-25 yrs) age group (mean FEV(1) (95% CI) 2.65 (2.57-2.73) versus 2.83 (2.74-2.91) L; p=0.004). Airflow obstruction was twice as common among biomass users compared with liquefied petroleum gas users (8.1% versus 3.6%; p<0.001), with similar patterns for males (7.4% versus 3.3%; p=0.022) and females (10.8% versus 3.8%; p<0.001), based on the lower limit of normal. Smoking was a major risk factor for airflow obstruction, but biomass exposure added to the risk. Exposure to biomass smoke is associated with deficits in lung function, an effect that can be detected as early as the late teenage years. Biomass smoke and cigarette smoke have additive adverse effects on airflow obstruction in this setting. PMID:22556024

  3. EEC- and ADULT-associated TP63 mutations exhibit functional heterogeneity toward P63 responsive sequences.

    PubMed

    Monti, Paola; Russo, Debora; Bocciardi, Renata; Foggetti, Giorgia; Menichini, Paola; Divizia, Maria T; Lerone, Margherita; Graziano, Claudio; Wischmeijer, Anita; Viadiu, Hector; Ravazzolo, Roberto; Inga, Alberto; Fronza, Gilberto

    2013-06-01

    TP63 germ-line mutations are responsible for a group of human ectodermal dysplasia syndromes, underlining the key role of P63 in the development of ectoderm-derived tissues. Here, we report the identification of two TP63 alleles, G134V (p.Gly173Val) and insR155 (p.Thr193_Tyr194insArg), associated to ADULT and EEC syndromes, respectively. These alleles, along with previously identified G134D (p.Gly173Asp) and R204W (p.Arg243Trp), were functionally characterized in yeast, studied in a mammalian cell line and modeled based on the crystal structure of the P63 DNA-binding domain. Although the p.Arg243Trp mutant showed both complete loss of transactivation function and ability to interfere over wild-type P63, the impact of p.Gly173Asp, p.Gly173Val, and p.Thr193_Tyr194insArg varied depending on the response element (RE) tested. Interestingly, p.Gly173Asp and p.Gly173Val mutants were characterized by a severe defect in transactivation along with interfering ability on two DN-P63?-specific REs derived from genes closely related to the clinical manifestations of the TP63-associated syndromes, namely PERP and COL18A1. The modeling of the mutations supported the distinct functional effect of each mutant. The present results highlight the importance of integrating different functional endpoints that take in account the features of P63 proteins' target sequences to examine the impact of TP63 mutations and the associated clinical variability. PMID:23463580

  4. Peripheral Nerve Damage Facilitates Functional Innervation of Brain Grafts in Adult Sensory Cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebner, Ford F.; Erzurumlu, Reha S.; Lee, Stefan M.

    1989-01-01

    The neuralb pathways that relay information from cutaneous receptors to the cortex provide the somatic sensory information needed for cortical function. The last sensory relay neurons in this pathway have cell bodies in the thalamus and axons that synapse on neurons in the somatosensory cortex. After cortical lesions that damage mature thalamocortical fibers in the somatosensory cortex, we have attempted to reestablish somatosensory cortical function by grafting embryonic neocortical cells into the lesioned area. Such grafts survive in adult host animals but are not innervated by thalamic neurons, and consequently the grafted neurons show little if any spontaneous activity and no responses to cutaneous stimuli. We have reported that transection of peripheral sensory nerves prior to grafting ``conditions'' or ``primes'' the thalamic neurons in the ventrobasal complex so that they extend axons into grafts subsequently placed in the cortical domain of the cut nerve. In this report we present evidence that the ingrowth of ventrobasal fibers leads to graft neurons that become functionally integrated into the sensory circuitry of the host brain. Specifically, the conditioning lesions made prior to grafting produce graft neurons that are spontaneously active and can be driven by natural activation of cutaneous receptors or electrical stimulation of the transected nerve after it regenerates. Furthermore, oxidative metabolism in these grafts reaches levels that are comparable to normal cortex, whereas without prior nerve cut, oxidative metabolism is abnormally low in neocortical grafts. We conclude that damage to the sensory periphery transsynaptically stimulates reorganization of sensory pathways through mechanisms that include axonal elongation and functional synaptogenesis.

  5. Peripheral nerve damage facilitates functional innervation of brain grafts in adult sensory cortex.

    PubMed Central

    Ebner, F F; Erzurumlu, R S; Lee, S M

    1989-01-01

    The neural pathways that relay information from cutaneous receptors to the cortex provide the somatic sensory information needed for cortical function. The last sensory relay neurons in this pathway have cell bodies in the thalamus and axons that synapse on neurons in the somatosensory cortex. After cortical lesions that damage mature thalamocortical fibers in the somatosensory cortex, we have attempted to reestablish somatosensory cortical function by grafting embryonic neocortical cells into the lesioned area. Such grafts survive in adult host animals but are not innervated by thalamic neurons, and consequently the grafted neurons show little if any spontaneous activity and no responses to cutaneous stimuli. We have reported that transection of peripheral sensory nerves prior to grafting "conditions" or "primes" the thalamic neurons in the ventrobasal complex so that they extend axons into grafts subsequently placed in the cortical domain of the cut nerve. In this report we present evidence that the ingrowth of ventrobasal fibers leads to graft neurons that become functionally integrated into the sensory circuitry of the host brain. Specifically, the conditioning lesions made prior to grafting produce graft neurons that are spontaneously active and can be driven by natural activation of cutaneous receptors or electrical stimulation of the transected nerve after it regenerates. Furthermore, oxidative metabolism in these grafts reaches levels that are comparable to normal cortex, whereas without prior nerve cut, oxidative metabolism is abnormally low in neocortical grafts. We conclude that damage to the sensory periphery transsynaptically stimulates reorganization of sensory pathways through mechanisms that include axonal elongation and functional synaptogenesis. Images PMID:2911603

  6. Functional connectivity changes in adults with developmental stuttering: a preliminary study using quantitative electro-encephalography

    PubMed Central

    Joos, Kathleen; De Ridder, Dirk; Boey, Ronny A.; Vanneste, Sven

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Stuttering is defined as speech characterized by verbal dysfluencies, but should not be seen as an isolated speech disorder, but as a generalized sensorimotor timing deficit due to impaired communication between speech related brain areas. Therefore we focused on resting state brain activity and functional connectivity. Method: We included 11 patients with developmental stuttering and 11 age matched controls. To objectify stuttering severity and the impact on quality of life (QoL), we used the Dutch validated Test for Stuttering Severity-Readers (TSS-R) and the Overall Assessment of the Speaker’s Experience of Stuttering (OASES), respectively. Furthermore, we used standardized low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) analyses to look at resting state activity and functional connectivity differences and their correlations with the TSS-R and OASES. Results: No significant results could be obtained when looking at neural activity, however significant alterations in resting state functional connectivity could be demonstrated between persons who stutter (PWS) and fluently speaking controls, predominantly interhemispheric, i.e., a decreased functional connectivity for high frequency oscillations (beta and gamma) between motor speech areas (BA44 and 45) and the contralateral premotor (BA6) and motor (BA4) areas. Moreover, a positive correlation was found between functional connectivity at low frequency oscillations (theta and alpha) and stuttering severity, while a mixed increased and decreased functional connectivity at low and high frequency oscillations correlated with QoL. Discussion: PWS are characterized by decreased high frequency interhemispheric functional connectivity between motor speech, premotor and motor areas in the resting state, while higher functional connectivity in the low frequency bands indicates more severe speech disturbances, suggesting that increased interhemispheric and right sided functional connectivity is maladaptive. PMID:25352797

  7. Galaxy luminosity function: evolution at high redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinet, N.; Durret, F.; Guennou, L.; Adami, C.

    2014-12-01

    There are some disagreements about the abundance of faint galaxies in high redshift clusters. DAFT/FADA (Dark energy American French Team) is a medium redshift (0.4functions (GLFs) based on photometric redshifts for 30 clusters in B, V, R and I restframe bands. We show that completeness is a key parameter to understand the different observed behaviors when fitting the GLFs. We also investigate the evolution of GLFs with redshift for red and blue galaxy populations separately. We find a drop of the faint end of red GLFs which is more important at higher redshift while the blue GLF faint end remains flat in our redshift range. These results can be interpreted in terms of galaxy quenching. Faint blue galaxies transform into red ones which enrich the red sequence from high to low redshifts in clusters while some blue galaxies are still accreted from the environment, compensating for this evolution so that the global GLF does not seem to evolve.

  8. Air pollution and lung function among susceptible adult subjects: a panel study

    PubMed Central

    Lagorio, Susanna; Forastiere, Francesco; Pistelli, Riccardo; Iavarone, Ivano; Michelozzi, Paola; Fano, Valeria; Marconi, Achille; Ziemacki, Giovanni; Ostro, Bart D

    2006-01-01

    Background Adverse health effects at relatively low levels of ambient air pollution have consistently been reported in the last years. We conducted a time-series panel study of subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and ischemic heart disease (IHD) to evaluate whether daily levels of air pollutants have a measurable impact on the lung function of adult subjects with pre-existing lung or heart diseases. Methods Twenty-nine patients with COPD, asthma, or IHD underwent repeated lung function tests by supervised spirometry in two one-month surveys. Daily samples of coarse (PM10–2.5) and fine (PM2.5) particulate matter were collected by means of dichotomous samplers, and the dust was gravimetrically analyzed. The particulate content of selected metals (cadmium, chrome, iron, nickel, lead, platinum, vanadium, and zinc) was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Ambient concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), and sulphur dioxide (SO2) were obtained from the regional air-quality monitoring network. The relationships between concentrations of air pollutants and lung function parameters were analyzed by generalized estimating equations (GEE) for panel data. Results Decrements in lung function indices (FVC and/or FEV1) associated with increasing concentrations of PM2.5, NO2 and some metals (especially zinc and iron) were observed in COPD cases. Among the asthmatics, NO2 was associated with a decrease in FEV1. No association between average ambient concentrations of any air pollutant and lung function was observed among IHD cases. Conclusion This study suggests that the short-term negative impact of exposure to air pollutants on respiratory volume and flow is limited to individuals with already impaired respiratory function. The fine fraction of ambient PM seems responsible for the observed effects among COPD cases, with zinc and iron having a potential role via oxidative stress. The respiratory function of the relatively young and mild asthmatics included in this study seems to worsen when ambient levels of NO2 increase. PMID:16674831

  9. Do Executive Function Deficits Predict Later Substance Use Disorders Among Adolescents and Young Adults?

    PubMed Central

    Wilens, Timothy E.; Martelon, MaryKate; Fried, Ronna; Petty, Carter; Bateman, Clancey; Biederman, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Objective There is increasing interest regarding the risk and overlap of executive function deficits (EFDs) in stable cigarette smoking and substance use disorders (SUD). Therefore, we examined whether earlier EFD was a risk factor for subsequent cigarette smoking and SUD and further explored the relationship between EFD and SUD. Method We assessed 435 subjects at the five-year follow-up (232 cases of ADHD; mean age ± SD: 15.4 ± 3.43 and 203 controls: 16.3 ± 3.42 years) and again four to five years later as part of a prospective family study of ADHD youth. Individuals were assessed by structured psychiatric interview for psychopathology and SUD. EFD was categorically defined in an individual that had at least 2 out of 6 abnormal neuropsychological tests of executive functioning. Results At the final follow-up period, ADHD was found to be a significant predictor of stable cigarette smoking (p<0.01) and SUD into late adolescence and young adult years (p<0.01). However, EFDs were not associated with an increase in subsequent substance use outcomes. New onset stable cigarette smoking, but not SUD, was associated with subsequent EFD (p<0.01). Conclusions Our results do not support the hypothesis that EFDs predicts later stable cigarette smoking or SUD in children with ADHD growing up. However, stable cigarette smoking is associated with subsequent EFD. PMID:21241951

  10. Cognitive Functioning and Driving Simulator Performance in Middle-aged and Older Adults with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Vance, David E.; Fazeli, Pariya L.; Ball, David A.; Slater, Larry Z.; Ross, Lesley A.

    2014-01-01

    Nearly half of people living with HIV experience cognitive deficits that may impact instrumental activities of daily living. As the number of people aging with HIV increases, concerns mount that disease-related cognitive deficits may be compounded by age-related deficits, which may further compromise everyday functions such as driving. In this cross-sectional pilot study, during a 2.5-hour visit, 26 middle-aged and older adults (40+ years) were administered demographic, health, psychosocial, and driving habits questionnaires; cognitive assessments; and driving simulator tests. Although CD4+T lymphocyte count and viral load were unrelated to driving performance, older age was related to poorer driving. Furthermore, poorer visual speed of processing performance (i.e., Useful Field of View) was related to poorer driving performance (e.g., average gross reaction time). Mixed findings were observed between driving performance and cognitive function on self-reported driving habits of participants. Implications for these findings on nursing practice and research are posited. PMID:24513104

  11. Pathological ?-synuclein impairs adult-born granule cell development and functional integration in the olfactory bulb

    PubMed Central

    Neuner, Johanna; Ovsepian, Saak V.; Dorostkar, Mario; Filser, Severin; Gupta, Aayush; Michalakis, Stylianos; Biel, Martin; Herms, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    Although the role of noxious ?-synuclein (?-SYN) in the degeneration of midbrain dopaminergic neurons and associated motor deficits of Parkinson’s disease is recognized, its impact on non-motor brain circuits and related symptoms remains elusive. Through combining in vivo two-photon imaging with time-coded labelling of neurons in the olfactory bulb of A30P ?-SYN transgenic mice, we show impaired growth and branching of dendrites of adult-born granule cells (GCs), with reduced gain and plasticity of dendritic spines. The spine impairments are especially pronounced during the critical phase of integration of new neurons into existing circuits. Functionally, retarded dendritic expansion translates into reduced electrical capacitance with enhanced intrinsic excitability and responsiveness of GCs to depolarizing inputs, while the spine loss correlates with decreased frequency of AMPA-mediated miniature EPSCs. Changes described here are expected to interfere with the functional integration and survival of new GCs into bulbar networks, contributing towards olfactory deficits and related behavioural impairments. PMID:24867427

  12. Targeting pleiotropic signaling pathways to control adult cardiac stem cell fate and function

    PubMed Central

    Pagliari, Stefania; Jelinek, Jakub; Grassi, Gabriele; Forte, Giancarlo

    2014-01-01

    The identification of different pools of cardiac progenitor cells resident in the adult mammalian heart opened a new era in heart regeneration as a means to restore the loss of functional cardiac tissue and overcome the limited availability of donor organs. Indeed, resident stem cells are believed to participate to tissue homeostasis and renewal in healthy and damaged myocardium although their actual contribution to these processes remain unclear. The poor outcome in terms of cardiac regeneration following tissue damage point out at the need for a deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling CPC behavior and fate determination before new therapeutic strategies can be developed. The regulation of cardiac resident stem cell fate and function is likely to result from the interplay between pleiotropic signaling pathways as well as tissue- and cell-specific regulators. Such a modular interaction—which has already been described in the nucleus of a number of different cells where transcriptional complexes form to activate specific gene programs—would account for the unique responses of cardiac progenitors to general and tissue-specific stimuli. The study of the molecular determinants involved in cardiac stem/progenitor cell regulatory mechanisms may shed light on the processes of cardiac homeostasis in health and disease and thus provide clues on the actual feasibility of cardiac cell therapy through tissue-specific progenitors. PMID:25071583

  13. Sexual function in adult male rats after prenatal modulation of the cholinergic system.

    PubMed

    Bairamov, A A; Poletaeva, A O; Proshin, S N; Efremov, O M; Sapronov, N S

    2009-06-01

    Prenatal administration of the n-cholinolytic ganglerone to pregnant female rats at different periods of gestation was found to lead to long-term changes in sexual behavior in pubescent offspring: there was a reduced dynamic of acquiring sexual experience and a very low level of sexual activity, with significant impairment to the motivational and ejaculatory components of sexual behavior. The number of males with reduced sexual activity in the experimental groups was significantly greater than that in control offspring. The results obtained here provide evidence that impairments of sexual function in adult offspring induced by prenatal administration of the n-cholinolytic ganglerone at 9-11 and 12-14 days of gestation and, to a lesser extent, the m-cholinolytic metamyzil at 9-11 days of gestation, were due to impairment to the central mechanisms regulating sexual function due to stable changes in neurotransmitter activity in the hippocampus and hypothalamus, along with a significant reduction in the blood testosterone level. PMID:19430975

  14. Impaired cardiovascular structure and function in adult survivors of severe acute malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Tennant, Ingrid A; Barnett, Alan T; Thompson, Debbie S; Kips, Jan; Boyne, Michael S; Chung, Edward E; Chung, Andrene P; Osmond, Clive; Hanson, Mark A; Gluckman, Peter D; Segers, Patrick; Cruickshank, J Kennedy; Forrester, Terrence E

    2014-09-01

    Malnutrition below 5 years remains a global health issue. Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) presents in childhood as oedematous (kwashiorkor) or nonoedematous (marasmic) forms, with unknown long-term cardiovascular consequences. We hypothesized that cardiovascular structure and function would be poorer in SAM survivors than unexposed controls. We studied 116 adult SAM survivors, 54 after marasmus, 62 kwashiorkor, and 45 age/sex/body mass index-matched community controls who had standardized anthropometry, blood pressure, echocardiography, and arterial tonometry performed. Left ventricular indices and outflow tract diameter, carotid parameters, and pulse wave velocity were measured, with systemic vascular resistance calculated. All were expressed as SD scores. Mean (SD) age was 28.8±7.8 years (55% men). Adjusting for age, sex, height, and weight, SAM survivors had mean (SE) reductions for left ventricular outflow tract diameter of 0.67 (0.16; P<0.001), stroke volume 0.44 (0.17; P=0.009), cardiac output 0.5 (0.16; P=0.001), and pulse wave velocity 0.32 (0.15; P=0.03) compared with controls but higher diastolic blood pressures (by 4.3; 1.2-7.3 mm Hg; P=0.007). Systemic vascular resistance was higher in marasmus and kwashiorkor survivors (30.2 [1.2] and 30.8 [1.1], respectively) than controls 25.3 (0.8), overall difference 5.5 (95% confidence interval, 2.8-8.4 mm Hg min/L; P<0.0001). No evidence of large vessel or cardiac remodeling was found, except closer relationships between these indices in former marasmic survivors. Other parameters did not differ between SAM survivor groups. We conclude that adult SAM survivors had smaller outflow tracts and cardiac output when compared with controls, yet markedly elevated peripheral resistance. Malnutrition survivors are thus likely to develop excess hypertension in later life, especially when exposed to obesity. PMID:24980666

  15. Total and High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011-2012

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Blood Institute. 2002. Carroll MD, Kit BK, Lacher DA. Total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in adults: ... 2001. Suggested citation Carroll MD, Kit BK, Lacher DA, Yoon SS. Total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in ...

  16. Impact of social integration on metabolic functions: evidence from a nationally representative longitudinal study of US older adults

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Metabolic functions may operate as important biophysiological mechanisms through which social relationships affect health. It is unclear how social embeddedness or the lack thereof is related to risk of metabolic dysregulation. To fill this gap we tested the effects of social integration on metabolic functions over time in a nationally representative sample of older adults in the United States and examined population heterogeneity in the effects. Methods Using longitudinal data from 4,323 adults aged over 50 years in the Health and Retirement Study and latent growth curve models, we estimated the trajectories of social integration spanning five waves, 1998–2006, in relation to biomarkers of energy metabolism in 2006. We assessed social integration using a summary index of the number of social ties across five domains. We examined six biomarkers, including total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glycosylated hemoglobin, waist circumference, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and the summary index of the overall burden of metabolic dysregulation. Results High social integration predicted significantly lower risks of both individual and overall metabolic dysregulation. Specifically, adjusting for age, sex, race, and body mass index, having four to five social ties reduced the risks of abdominal obesity by 61% (odds ratio [OR] [95% confidence interval {CI}]?=?0.39 [0.23, 0.67], p?=?.007), hypertension by 41% (OR [95% CI]?=?0.59 [0.42, 0.84], p?=?.021), and the overall metabolic dysregulation by 46% (OR [95% CI]?=?0.54 [0.40, 0.72], p?high social integration had more potent metabolic impacts over time than changes therein. Such effects were consistent across subpopulations and more salient for the younger old (those under age 65), males, whites, and the socioeconomically disadvantaged. Conclusions This study addressed important challenges in previous research linking social integration to metabolic health by clarifying the nature and direction of the relationship as it applies to different objectively measured markers and population subgroups. It suggests additional psychosocial and biological pathways to consider in future research on the contributions of social deficits to disease etiology and old-age mortality. PMID:24359332

  17. Ear-Canal Wideband Acoustic Transfer Functions of Adults and Two-to Nine-Month-Old Infants

    E-print Network

    Allen, Jont

    Ear-Canal Wideband Acoustic Transfer Functions of Adults and Two- to Nine-Month-Old Infants Lynne A) measured in the ear canal have been shown to be effective in the diagnosis of middle ear dysfunction ears were compared. Test­retest reliability was assessed, and the relationship between the 226-Hz

  18. Methods to evaluate functional nerve recovery in adult rats: walking track analysis, video analysis and the withdrawal reflex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeroen R. Dijkstra; Marcel F. Meek; Peter H. Robinson; Albert Gramsbergen

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare different methods for the evaluation of functional nerve recovery. Three groups of adult male Wistar rats were studied. In group A, a 12-mm gap between nerve ends was bridged by an autologous nerve graft; in rats of group B we performed a crush lesion of the sciatic nerve and group C consisted

  19. Executive Functioning Differences between Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Autistic Spectrum Disorder in Initiation, Planning and Strategy Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bramham, Jessica; Ambery, Fiona; Young, Susan; Morris, Robin; Russell, Ailsa; Xenitidis, Kiriakos; Asherson, Philip; Murphy, Declan

    2009-01-01

    Executive functioning deficits characterize the neuropsychological profiles of the childhood neurodevelopmental disorders of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). This study sought to determine whether similar impairments exist in adults with ADHD (N = 53) and ASD (N = 45) in comparison with a…

  20. Ensheathing Cells and Methylprednisolone Promote Axonal Regeneration and Functional Recovery in the Lesioned Adult Rat Spinal Cord

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Holly H. Nash; Rosemary C. Borke; Juanita J. Anders

    2002-01-01

    Axons fail to regenerate after spinal cord injury (SCI) in adult mammals, leading to permanent loss of function. After SCI, ensheathing cells (ECs) promote recovery in animal models, whereas methylprednisolone (MP) promotes neurological re- covery in humans. In this study, the effectiveness of combining ECs and MP after SCI was investigated for the first time. After lesioning the corticospinal tract

  1. Differentiating Forms and Functions of Aggression in Emerging Adults: Associations with Hostile Attribution Biases and Normative Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Christopher A.; Ostrov, Jamie M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to extend the current literature on forms (i.e., physical and relational) and functions (i.e., proactive and reactive) of participants' cognitions and beliefs about aggressive behavior. Participants included an ethnically diverse group of emerging adults (N = 165; M = 19.05 years; SD = 1.55) and completed a battery of…

  2. Assessing Family-of-Origin Functioning in Mexican American Adults: Retrospective Application of the Family Environment Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Negy, Charles; Snyder, Douglas K.

    2006-01-01

    Although both theoretical and empirical literature suggests that individuals' family-of-origin experiences affect subsequent relationship functioning as adults, few studies have examined the appropriateness of family assessment techniques when applied retrospectively for use in either theory development or clinical applications. This study…

  3. Imboden et al. 1 Genome-wide association study of lung function decline in adults with and1

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Imboden et al. 1 Genome-wide association study of lung function decline in adults with and1 without Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA37 j ­ Departments of Neurology and Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine,38 Boston, Massachusetts, USA39 k ­ Department of Pulmonology, Pediatric Pulmonology

  4. Impact of dissociation and interpersonal functioning on inpatient treatment for early sexually abused adults

    PubMed Central

    Jepsen, Ellen K. K.; Langeland, Willie; Heir, Trond

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about the possible predictors of treatment outcome in early chronically sexually abused adults. The current study aimed to investigate what impact initial levels of dissociation and pre-treatment negative change in interpersonal functioning have on treatment response after 3 months of first-phase trauma inpatient treatment as well as after a period of 1 year the patients returned to their usual lives. Methods The sample comprised 48 inpatients with childhood sexual abuse histories and mixed trauma-related disorders who were examined at discharge and prospectively followed up for a period of 1 year under naturalistic conditions. Outcome variables were general psychiatric symptoms and interpersonal problems as measured with the Symptom Check List-Revised (SCL-R) and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP) Circumplex. Results The central findings were that pathological dissociation and deterioration in interpersonal functioning prior to admittance predicted general psychiatric symptom levels and interpersonal problems at the end of treatment and at 1-year follow-up. Pathological dissociation, involving memory and identity problems, alone predicted negative outcome at the end of treatment. The findings at 1-year follow-up indicate that it is not pathological dissociation in isolation that affects outcomes, but rather the interaction between dissociation and change in interpersonal functioning prior to treatment. Conclusion These findings indicate the need of addressing dissociation and interpersonal problems in treatment planning and favor an integrated treatment approach for complex trauma patients. Future research should investigate whether and how this leads to better outcome, including long-term maintenance of gains after the end of treatment. PMID:24386549

  5. Effects of ambient ozone on respiratory function in healthy adults exercising outdoors

    SciTech Connect

    Spektor, D.M.; Lippmann, M.; Thurston, G.D.; Lioy, P.J.; Stecko, J.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of exposure to ozone (O{sub 3}) in ambient air on respiratory function was studied in 30 healthy adult nonsmokers engaged in a regular daily program of outdoor exercise in Tuxedo, NY during the summer of 1985. Each subject did the same exercise each day, but exercise intensity and duration varied widely between subjects, with minute ventilation ranging from 20 to 153 L and duration ranging from 15 to 55 min. Spirometry was performed immediately before and after each exercise period. O3 concentrations during exercise ranged from 21 to 124 parts per billion (ppb). All measured functional indexes showed significant (p<0.01) O{sub 3}-associated mean decrements with FVC at -2.1 ml/ppb, FEV1 at -1.4 ml/ppb, PEFR at -9.2 ml/s/ppb, FEF25-75 at -6.0 ml/s/ppb, and FEV1/FVC at -0.038%/ppb. Mean decrements were smaller for 10 subjects with minute ventilations >100 L than for 10 other subjects with minute ventilations between 60 and 100 L or for the 10 subjects with minute ventilations below 60 L. Overall, the functional decrements were similar in magnitude to those seen in children engaged in supervised recreational programs in summer camps. For 10 subjects with minute ventilations comparable to those used in controlled 1- and 2-h exposures to O3 in purified air in chambers (50 to 80 L), the effects were about twice as large as those reported for the chamber studies.

  6. Effects of ambient ozone on respiratory function in healthy adults exercising outdoors

    SciTech Connect

    Spektor, D.M.; Lippmann, M.; Thurston, G.D.; Lioy, P.J.; Stecko, J.; O'Connor, G.; Garshick, E.; Speizer, F.E.; Hayes, C.

    1988-10-01

    The effect of exposure to ozone (O3) in ambient air on respiratory function was studied in 30 healthy adult nonsmokers engaged in a regular daily program of outdoor exercise in Tuxedo, NY during the summer of 1985. Each subject did the same exercise each day, but exercise intensity and duration varied widely between subjects, with minute ventilation ranging from 20 to 153 L and duration ranging from 15 to 55 min. Spirometry was performed immediately before and after each exercise period. O3 concentrations during exercise ranged from 21 to 124 parts per billion (ppb). All measured functional indexes showed significant (p less than 0.01) O3-associated mean decrements with FVC at -2.1 ml/ppb, FEV1 at -1.4 ml/ppb, PEFR at -9.2 ml/s/ppb, FEF25-75 at -6.0 ml/s/ppb, and FEV1/FVC at -0.038%/ppb. Mean decrements were smaller for 10 subjects with minute ventilations greater than 100 L than for 10 other subjects with minute ventilations between 60 and 100 L or for the 10 subjects with minute ventilations below 60 L. Overall, the functional decrements were similar in magnitude to those we have seen in children engaged in supervised recreational programs in summer camps. For 10 subjects with minute ventilations comparable to those used in controlled 1- and 2-h exposures to O3 in purified air in chambers (50 to 80 L), the effects were about twice as large as those reported for the chamber studies.

  7. Alcohol consumption, drinking patterns, and cognitive function in older Eastern European adults

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Marcus; Kubinova, Ruzena; Pajak, Andrzej; Malyutina, Sofia; Shishkin, Sergey; Pikhart, Hynek; Peasey, Anne; Marmot, M.G.; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Bobak, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate associations of frequency, quantity, binge, and problem drinking with cognitive function in older Eastern European adults. Methods: The investigation included 14,575 participants, aged 47 to 78 years at cognitive assessment in 2006–2008 from Novosibirsk (Russia), Krakow (Poland), and 6 Czech towns participating in the HAPIEE (Health, Alcohol, and Psychosocial Factors in Eastern Europe) prospective cohort study. Average response rates were 59% at baseline (2002–2005) and 63% in 2006–2008. Alcohol consumption was assessed at baseline and in 2006–2008. Cognitive tests included immediate and delayed word recall, semantic fluency (animal naming), and letter cancellation. Associations between alcohol indices and cognitive scores were analyzed cross-sectionally (all measures from 2006 to 2008) and prospectively (alcohol and covariates from 2002 to 2005 and cognition from 2006 to 2008). Results: In cross-sectional analyses, nondrinkers had lower cognitive scores and female moderate drinkers had better cognitive performance than light drinkers. Heavy, binge, and problem drinking were not consistently associated with cognitive function. Few associations were replicated in prospective analyses. Participants who stopped drinking during follow-up had worse cognition than stable drinkers; in men, regression coefficients (95% confidence interval) ranged from ?0.26 (?0.36, ?0.16) for immediate recall to ?0.14 (?0.24, ?0.04) for fluency. Conclusion: Regular and episodic heavy drinking were not consistently associated with cognitive function. Worse cognition in participants who stopped drinking during follow-up suggests that inclusion of less healthy ex-drinkers may partly explain poorer cognition in nondrinkers. PMID:25503981

  8. Dietary intake of advanced glycation end products did not affect endothelial function and inflammation in healthy adults in a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Semba, Richard D; Gebauer, Sarah K; Baer, David J; Sun, Kai; Turner, Randi; Silber, Harry A; Talegawkar, Sameera; Ferrucci, Luigi; Novotny, Janet A

    2014-07-01

    When food is heated to high temperatures, the characteristic "browning" generates advanced glycation end products (AGEs). AGEs are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and other adverse outcomes. Whether dietary AGEs are absorbed and are harmful to human health remains highly controversial. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of a diet high or low in AGEs on endothelial function, circulating AGEs, inflammatory mediators, and circulating receptors for AGEs in healthy adults. A randomized, parallel-arm, controlled dietary intervention was conducted for 6 wk with 24 healthy adults, aged 50-69 y, that compared isocaloric, food-equivalent diets that were prepared at either high or mild temperatures. Peripheral arterial tonometry, serum and urine carboxymethyl-lysine (CML), inflammatory mediators (interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, vascular adhesion molecule-1, and tumor necrosis factor-? receptors I and II), soluble receptor for AGEs, and endogenous secretory receptor for AGEs were measured at baseline and after 6 wk of dietary intervention. In the low-AGE diet group, the following changed from baseline to 6 wk (mean ± SE): serum CML from 763 ± 24 to 679 ± 29 ng/mL (P = 0.03) and urine CML from 1.37 ± 1.47 to 0.77 ± 2.01 ?g/mL creatinine (P = 0.02). There were no significant changes in serum and urinary CML concentrations from baseline to follow-up in the high-AGE diet group. A high- or low-AGE diet had no significant impact on peripheral arterial tonometry or any inflammatory mediators after 6 wk of dietary intervention. In healthy middle-aged to older adults, consumption of a diet high or low in AGEs for 6 wk had no impact on endothelial function and inflammatory mediators, 2 precursors of cardiovascular disease. PMID:24744309

  9. Enhancing dentate gyrus function with dietary flavanols improves cognition in older adults.

    PubMed

    Brickman, Adam M; Khan, Usman A; Provenzano, Frank A; Yeung, Lok-Kin; Suzuki, Wendy; Schroeter, Hagen; Wall, Melanie; Sloan, Richard P; Small, Scott A

    2014-12-01

    The dentate gyrus (DG) is a region in the hippocampal formation whose function declines in association with human aging and is therefore considered to be a possible source of age-related memory decline. Causal evidence is needed, however, to show that DG-associated memory decline in otherwise healthy elders can be improved by interventions that enhance DG function. We addressed this issue by first using a high-resolution variant of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to map the precise site of age-related DG dysfunction and to develop a cognitive task whose function localized to this anatomical site. Then, in a controlled randomized trial, we applied these tools to study healthy 50-69-year-old subjects who consumed either a high or low cocoa flavanol-containing diet for 3 months. A high-flavanol intervention was found to enhance DG function, as measured by fMRI and by cognitive testing. Our findings establish that DG dysfunction is a driver of age-related cognitive decline and suggest non-pharmacological means for its amelioration. PMID:25344629

  10. Differential Effects of Early- and Late-Life Access to Carotenoids on Adult Immune Function and Ornamentation in Mallard Ducks (Anas platyrhynchos)

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Michael W.; McGraw, Kevin J.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental conditions early in life can affect an organism’s phenotype at adulthood, which may be tuned to perform optimally in conditions that mimic those experienced during development (Environmental Matching hypothesis), or may be generally superior when conditions during development were of higher quality (Silver Spoon hypothesis). Here, we tested these hypotheses by examining how diet during development interacted with diet during adulthood to affect adult sexually selected ornamentation and immune function in male mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos). Mallards have yellow, carotenoid-pigmented beaks that are used in mate choice, and the degree of beak coloration has been linked to adult immune function. Using a 2×2 factorial experimental design, we reared mallards on diets containing either low or high levels of carotenoids (nutrients that cannot be synthesized de novo) throughout the period of growth, and then provided adults with one of these two diets while simultaneously quantifying beak coloration and response to a variety of immune challenges. We found that both developmental and adult carotenoid supplementation increased circulating carotenoid levels during dietary treatment, but that birds that received low-carotenoid diets during development maintained relatively higher circulating carotenoid levels during an adult immune challenge. Individuals that received low levels of carotenoids during development had larger phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-induced cutaneous immune responses at adulthood; however, dietary treatment during development and adulthood did not affect antibody response to a novel antigen, nitric oxide production, natural antibody levels, hemolytic capacity of the plasma, or beak coloration. However, beak coloration prior to immune challenges positively predicted PHA response, and strong PHA responses were correlated with losses in carotenoid-pigmented coloration. In sum, we did not find consistent support for either the Environmental Matching or Silver Spoon hypotheses. We then describe a new hypothesis that should be tested in future studies examining developmental plasticity. PMID:22666443

  11. Chemical differences are observed in children's versus adults' laten fingerprints as a function of time

    SciTech Connect

    Antoine, K.M.; Miller, L.; Mortazavi, S.; Miller, A.D.

    2010-03-01

    The identification of aged latent fingerprints is often difficult, especially for those of children. To understand this phenomenon, the chemical composition of children's versus adults latent fingerprints was examined over time using Fourier transform infrared microscopy. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed that children's and adults prints were distinguishable for up to 4 weeks after deposition, based on differences in sebum composition. Specifically, adults had a higher lipid content than children, but both decreased over time, attributable to the volatility of free fatty acids. The aliphatic CH{sub 3}, aliphatic CH{sub 2}, and carbonyl ester compositions changed differently in adults versus children over time, consistent with higher cholesterol and cholesteryl esters in children's prints and wax esters and glycerides in adults prints. Thus, fingerprint composition changes with time differently in children versus adults, making it a sensitive metric to estimate the age of an individual, especially when the age of the print is known.

  12. Religiosity and Major Depression in Adults at High Risk: A Ten-Year Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Lisa; Wickramaratne, Priya; Gameroff, Marc J.; Sage, Mia; Tenke, Craig E.; Weissman, Myrna M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Previously the authors found that personal importance of religion or spirituality was associated with a lower risk for major depression in a study of adults with and without a history of depression. Here the authors examine the association of personal importance of religion or spirituality with major depression in the adult offspring of the original sample using a 10-year prospective longitudinal design. Method Participants were 114 adult offspring of depressed and nondepressed parents, followed longitudinally. The analysis covers the period from the 10-year to the 20-year follow-up assessments. Diagnosis was assessed with the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia–Lifetime Version. Religiosity measures included personal importance of religion or spirituality, frequency of attendance at religious services, and denomination (all participants were Catholic or Protestant). In a logistic regression analysis, major depression at 20 years was used as the outcome measure and the three religiosity variables at 10 years as predictors. Results Offspring who reported at year 10 that religion or spirituality was highly important to them had about one-fourth the risk of experiencing major depression between years 10 and 20 compared with other participants. Religious attendance and denomination did not significantly predict this outcome. The effect was most pronounced among offspring at high risk for depression by virtue of having a depressed parent; in this group, those who reported a high importance of religion or spirituality had about one-tenth the risk of experiencing major depression between years 10 and 20 compared with those who did not. The protective effect was found primarily against recurrence rather than onset of depression. Conclusions A high self-report rating of the importance of religion or spirituality may have a protective effect against recurrence of depression, particularly in adults with a history of parental depression. PMID:21865527

  13. Disabled Student Services, CSULB High Functioning Autism and Asperger's

    E-print Network

    Sorin, Eric J.

    © Disabled Student Services, CSULB High Functioning Autism and Asperger's Disorder Do you feelings or thoughts High Functioning Autism High Functioning Autisms is a mild form of autism in which/interaction, motor skills, and repetitive behavior (Autism United). Asperger's Disorder ". . . disorder characterized

  14. The relation of circulating YKL-40 to levels and decline of lung function in adult life

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Stefano; Halonen, Marilyn; Sherrill, Duane L; Venker, Claire; Spangenberg, Amber; Carsin, Anne-elie; Tarès, Lluïsa; Lavi, Iris; Barreiro, Esther; Martinez, Jesús; Urrutia, Isabel; Sunyer, Jordi; Antó, Josep M; Martinez, Fernando D

    2013-01-01

    Background YKL-40 is a chitinase-like protein that, in cross-sectional clinical studies, has been associated with severe asthma and COPD in smokers. Aim To determine the longitudinal relation of circulating YKL-40 to levels and lung function decline in the general population. Methods We used longitudinal data from up to 12 surveys from the population-based TESAOD study which was conducted in Tucson, Arizona between 1972-1996. In cross-sectional analyses, we also used data from 3 Spanish centers of the multicenter ECRHS study (ECRHS-Sp). Serum YKL-40 was measured at baseline in TESAOD and in survey 2 in ECRHS-Sp using ELISAs. Multivariate linear regression was used to test associations of serum YKL-40 to concomitant lung function. In TESAOD, random coefficients models were used to test associations of serum YKL-40 to subsequent decline of lung function. Results Data on YKL-40 and lung function were available from 1088 TESAOD and 854 ECRHS-Sp adult participants (59% and 51% females; respectively). In adjusted multivariate meta-analyses, being in the highest YKL-40 quartile was associated cross-sectionally with significant deficits in FEV1 and FVC %predicted. In adjusted longitudinal analyses, TESAOD participants in the top YKL-40 quartile had an FEV1 decline that was 5 ml/yr (p=0.05) faster than subjects in the third quartile, 5 ml/yr (p=0.02) faster than subjects in the second quartile, and 10 ml/yr (p<0.001) faster than subjects in the lowest YKL-40 quartile. These longitudinal effects were particularly strong in smokers and absent in never smokers. After adjusting for covariates, as compared with the other three quartiles combined the top YKL-40 quartile was associated with a 9 ml/yr (p=0.001) faster FEV1 decline among smokers, while no significant effects were found among never smokers (2 ml/yr, p=0.35). Conclusions Circulating YKL-40 is associated with levels and decline of lung function in the general population and may be a biomarker of susceptibility to the long-term effects of cigarette smoking. PMID:23920328

  15. Phenotypic and functional analyses show stem cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells better mimic fetal rather than adult hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Melissa; Withey, Sarah; Harrison, Sean; Segeritz, Charis-Patricia; Zhang, Fang; Atkinson-Dell, Rebecca; Rowe, Cliff; Gerrard, Dave T.; Sison-Young, Rowena; Jenkins, Roz; Henry, Joanne; Berry, Andrew A.; Mohamet, Lisa; Best, Marie; Fenwick, Stephen W.; Malik, Hassan; Kitteringham, Neil R.; Goldring, Chris E.; Piper Hanley, Karen; Vallier, Ludovic; Hanley, Neil A.

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims Hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs), differentiated from pluripotent stem cells by the use of soluble factors, can model human liver function and toxicity. However, at present HLC maturity and whether any deficit represents a true fetal state or aberrant differentiation is unclear and compounded by comparison to potentially deteriorated adult hepatocytes. Therefore, we generated HLCs from multiple lineages, using two different protocols, for direct comparison with fresh fetal and adult hepatocytes. Methods Protocols were developed for robust differentiation. Multiple transcript, protein and functional analyses compared HLCs to fresh human fetal and adult hepatocytes. Results HLCs were comparable to those of other laboratories by multiple parameters. Transcriptional changes during differentiation mimicked human embryogenesis and showed more similarity to pericentral than periportal hepatocytes. Unbiased proteomics demonstrated greater proximity to liver than 30 other human organs or tissues. However, by comparison to fresh material, HLC maturity was proven by transcript, protein and function to be fetal-like and short of the adult phenotype. The expression of 81% phase 1 enzymes in HLCs was significantly upregulated and half were statistically not different from fetal hepatocytes. HLCs secreted albumin and metabolized testosterone (CYP3A) and dextrorphan (CYP2D6) like fetal hepatocytes. In seven bespoke tests, devised by principal components analysis to distinguish fetal from adult hepatocytes, HLCs from two different source laboratories consistently demonstrated fetal characteristics. Conclusions HLCs from different sources are broadly comparable with unbiased proteomic evidence for faithful differentiation down the liver lineage. This current phenotype mimics human fetal rather than adult hepatocytes. PMID:25457200

  16. The neural basis of deictic shifting in linguistic perspective-taking in high-functioning autism

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yanni; Williams, Diane L.; Keller, Timothy A.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Just, Marcel Adam

    2011-01-01

    Personal pronouns, such as ‘I’ and ‘you’, require a speaker/listener to continuously re-map their reciprocal relation to their referent, depending on who is saying the pronoun. This process, called ‘deictic shifting’, may underlie the incorrect production of these pronouns, or ‘pronoun reversals’, such as referring to oneself with the pronoun ‘you’, which has been reported in children with autism. The underlying neural basis of deictic shifting, however, is not understood, nor has the processing of pronouns been studied in adults with autism. The present study compared the brain activation pattern and functional connectivity (synchronization of activation across brain areas) of adults with high-functioning autism and control participants using functional magnetic resonance imaging in a linguistic perspective-taking task that required deictic shifting. The results revealed significantly diminished frontal (right anterior insula) to posterior (precuneus) functional connectivity during deictic shifting in the autism group, as well as reliably slower and less accurate behavioural responses. A comparison of two types of deictic shifting revealed that the functional connectivity between the right anterior insula and precuneus was lower in autism while answering a question that contained the pronoun ‘you’, querying something about the participant’s view, but not when answering a query about someone else’s view. In addition to the functional connectivity between the right anterior insula and precuneus being lower in autism, activation in each region was atypical, suggesting over reliance on individual regions as a potential compensation for the lower level of collaborative interregional processing. These findings indicate that deictic shifting constitutes a challenge for adults with high-functioning autism, particularly when reference to one’s self is involved, and that the functional collaboration of two critical nodes, right anterior insula and precuneus, may play a critical role for deictic shifting by supporting an attention shift between oneself and others. PMID:21733887

  17. Transplantation of Adult Mouse iPS Cell-Derived Photoreceptor Precursors Restores Retinal Structure and Function in Degenerative Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Budd A.; Park, In-Hyun; Qi, Sara D.; Klassen, Henry J.; Jiang, Caihui; Yao, Jing; Redenti, Stephen; Daley, George Q.; Young, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to determine whether adult mouse induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), could be used to produce retinal precursors and subsequently photoreceptor cells for retinal transplantation to restore retinal function in degenerative hosts. iPSCs were generated using adult dsRed mouse dermal fibroblasts via retroviral induction of the transcription factors Oct4, Sox2, KLF4 and c-Myc. As with normal mouse ES cells, adult dsRed iPSCs expressed the pluripotency genes SSEA1, Oct4, Sox2, KLF4, c-Myc and Nanog. Following transplantation into the eye of immune-compromised retinal degenerative mice these cells proceeded to form teratomas containing tissue comprising all three germ layers. At 33 days post-differentiation a large proportion of the cells expressed the retinal progenitor cell marker Pax6 and went on to express the photoreceptor markers, CRX, recoverin, and rhodopsin. When tested using calcium imaging these cells were shown to exhibit characteristics of normal retinal physiology, responding to delivery of neurotransmitters. Following subretinal transplantation into degenerative hosts differentiated iPSCs took up residence in the retinal outer nuclear layer and gave rise to increased electro retinal function as determined by ERG and functional anatomy. As such, adult fibroblast-derived iPSCs provide a viable source for the production of retinal precursors to be used for transplantation and treatment of retinal degenerative disease. PMID:21559507

  18. Cell surface phenotype and in vitro function of adult T-cell leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, T; Hattori, T; Wano, Y; Tsudo, M; Takatsuki, K; Uchino, H

    1983-01-01

    The cell surface phenotypes of leukemic cells obtained from 30 patients with adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) were examined by means of a panel of OKT monoclonal antibodies and an anti-Tac monoclonal antibody. These leukemic cells were reactive with OKT1, OKT3, OKT4, OKT10, and OKT11 but not with OKT5, OKT6, OKT8 antibodies, suggesting that they were derived from peripheral mature cells included in the OKT4+ "helper/inducer" T-cell subset. Functionally, leukemic cells from none of the nine patients studied stimulated pokeweed mitogen (PWM)-driven immunoglobulin (Ig) synthesis by normal B cells. Suppressor cell activity, however, was found in 17 of 25 patients in PWM-induced Ig production. Fresh or cultured ATL cells from 22 of 23 patients tested expressed Tac antigen (interleukin-2 receptor) on the cell surface. The significance of Tac antigen on ATL cells is discussed in relation to the abnormal regulation of Tac antigen and leukemogenesis. PMID:6094084

  19. The benefit of deep processing and high educational level for verbal learning in young and middle-aged adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Editrice Kurtis; Willemien A. Meijer; Pascal W. M. Van Gerven; Renate H. M. de Groot; Martin P. J. Van Boxtel; Jelle Jolles

    Background and aims: The aim of the present study was to examine whether deeper pro - cessing of words during encoding in middle-aged adults leads to a smaller increase in word-learning per - formance and a smaller decrease in retrieval effort than in young adults. It was also assessed whether high education attenuates age-related differences in per - formance. Methods:

  20. Amphetamine-induced dopamine release and neurocognitive function in treatment-naive adults with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Cherkasova, Mariya V; Faridi, Nazlie; Casey, Kevin F; O'Driscoll, Gillian A; Hechtman, Lily; Joober, Ridha; Baker, Glen B; Palmer, Jennifer; Dagher, Alain; Leyton, Marco; Benkelfat, Chawki

    2014-05-01

    Converging evidence from clinical, preclinical, neuroimaging, and genetic research implicates dopamine neurotransmission in the pathophysiology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The in vivo neuroreceptor imaging evidence also suggests alterations in the dopamine system in ADHD; however, the nature and behavioral significance of those have not yet been established. Here, we investigated striatal dopaminergic function in ADHD using [(11)C]raclopride PET with a d-amphetamine challenge. We also examined the relationship of striatal dopamine responses to ADHD symptoms and neurocognitive function. A total of 15 treatment-free, noncomorbid adult males with ADHD (age: 29.87 ± 8.65) and 18 healthy male controls (age: 25.44 ± 6.77) underwent two PET scans: one following a lactose placebo and the other following d-amphetamine (0.3 mg/kg, p.o.), administered double blind and in random order counterbalanced across groups. In a separate session without a drug, participants performed a battery of neurocognitive tests. Relative to the healthy controls, the ADHD patients, as a group, showed greater d-amphetamine-induced decreases in striatal [(11)C]raclopride binding and performed more poorly on measures of response inhibition. Across groups, a greater magnitude of d-amphetamine-induced change in [(11)C]raclopride binding potential was associated with poorer performance on measures of response inhibition and ADHD symptoms. Our findings suggest an augmented striatal dopaminergic response in treatment-naive ADHD. Though in contrast to results of a previous study, this finding appears consistent with a model proposing exaggerated phasic dopamine release in ADHD. A susceptibility to increased phasic dopamine responsivity may contribute to such characteristics of ADHD as poor inhibition and impulsivity. PMID:24378745

  1. Curcumins-Rich Curry Diet and Pulmonary Function in Asian Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Tze Pin; Niti, Mathew; Yap, Keng Bee; Tan, Wan Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Background Research on the effects of dietary nutrients on respiratory health in human populations have not investigated curcumin, a potent anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory compound present principally in turmeric used in large amounts in Asian curry meals. Objectives To examine the association of curry intake with pulmonary function among smokers and non-smokers. Design The frequency of curry intake, respiratory risk factors and spirometry were measured in a population-based study of 2,478 Chinese older adults aged 55 and above in the Singapore Longitudinal Ageing Studies. Results Curry intake (at least once monthly) was significantly associated with better FEV1 (b?=?0.045±0.018, p?=?0.011) and FEV1/FVC (b?=?1.14±0.52, p?=?0.029) in multivariate analyses that controlled simultaneously for gender, age, height, height-squared, smoking, occupational exposure and asthma/COPD history and other dietary or supplementary intakes. Increasing levels of curry intake (‘never or rarely’, ‘occasional’, ‘often’, ‘very often’) were associated with higher mean adjusted FEV1 (p for linear trend?=?0.001) and FEV1/FVC% (p for linear trend?=?0.048). Significant effect modifications were observed for FEV1 (curry* smoking interaction, p?=?0.028) and FEV1/FVC% (curry*smoking interaction, p?=?0.05). There were significantly larger differences in FEV1 and FEV1/FVC% between curry intake and non-curry intake especially among current and past smokers. The mean adjusted FEV1 associated with curry intake was 9.2% higher among current smokers, 10.3% higher among past smokers, and 1.5% higher among non-smokers. Conclusion The possible role of curcumins in protecting the pulmonary function of smokers should be investigated in further clinical studies. PMID:23300564

  2. Programming effects of high-carbohydrate feeding of larvae on adult glucose metabolism in zebrafish, Danio rerio.

    PubMed

    Fang, Liu; Liang, Xu-Fang; Zhou, Yi; Guo, Xiao-Ze; He, Yan; Yi, Ti-Lin; Liu, Li-Wei; Yuan, Xiao-Chen; Tao, Ya-Xiong

    2014-03-14

    The aim of the present study was to determine the potential long-term metabolic effects of early nutritional programming on carbohydrate utilisation in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio). High-carbohydrate diets were fed to fish during four ontogenetic stages: from the first-feeding stage to the end of the yolk-sac larval stage; from the first-feeding stage to 2 d after yolk-sac exhaustion; after yolk-sac exhaustion for 3 or 5 d. The carbohydrate stimuli significantly increased the body weight of the first-feeding groups in the short term. The expression of genes was differentially regulated by the early dietary intervention. The high-carbohydrate diets resulted in decreased plasma glucose levels in the adult fish. The mRNA levels and enzyme activities of glucokinase, pyruvate kinase, ?-amylase and sodium-dependent glucose co-transporter 1 were up-regulated in the first-feeding groups. There was no significant change in the mRNA levels of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) in any experimental group, and the activity of G6Pase enzyme in the FF-5 (first feeding to 2 d after yolk-sac exhaustion) group was significantly different from that of the other groups. The expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene in all the groups was significantly decreased. In the examined early programming range, growth performance was not affected. Taken together, data reported herein indicate that the period ranging from the polyculture to the external feeding stage is an important window for potential modification of the long-term physiological functions. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that it is possible to permanently modify carbohydrate digestion, transport and metabolism of adult zebrafish through early nutritional programming. PMID:24112146

  3. Sexual Function and Satisfaction in Adults Based on the Definition of Child Sexual Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Rellini, Alessandra; Meston, Cindy

    2008-01-01

    Introduction The literature shows a discrepancy in the association between child sexual abuse (CSA) and adult sexual function. One of the proposed explanations for this discrepancy is the different ways in which CSA is assessed. While some studies explicitly ask potential participants whether they are sexual abuse survivors, others ask whether participants experienced specific unwanted sexual behaviors. Aim This study investigated the differences between women who self-identified as CSA survivors, women who experienced similar unwanted sexual experiences but did not identify as CSA survivors (NSA), and women with no history of sexual abuse (control). CSA was defined as unwanted touching or penetration of the genitals before the age of 16. Methods A sample of 699 college students anonymously completed a battery of questionnaires on sexuality and sexual abuse history. Main Outcome Measures Sexual function was measured with the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), and sexual satisfaction was measured with the Sexual Satisfaction Scale-Women. History of CSA was measured with a modified version of Carlin and Ward’s childhood abuse items. Results Differences emerged between women who experienced sexual abuse before age 16 and women who never experienced sexual abuse (control) on the personal distress subscale of the Sexual Satisfaction Scale. The CSA group (N = 89) reported greater sexual distress compared to the NSA (N = 98) group, and the NSA group reported more distress than the control group (N = 512). No significant group differences were observed in the FSFI. Characteristics of the abuse that predicted whether women identified as CSA survivors included vaginal penetration, fear at the time of the abuse, familial relationship with the perpetrator, and chronic frequency of the abuse. These abuse characteristics were associated with sexual satisfaction but not with sexual function. Conclusions Differences in levels of sexual satisfaction between women with and without a history of CSA were associated with the type of CSA definition adopted. It remains unexplained why the CSA group showed more personal distress about their sexuality but not more sexual dysfunction. PMID:17727351

  4. Anaerobic Power and Physical Function in Strength-Trained and Non-Strength-Trained Older Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jill M. Slade; Tanya A. Miszko; Jennifer H. Laity; Subodoh K. Agrawal; M. Elaine Cress

    2002-01-01

    Background. Challenging daily tasks, such as transferring heavy items or rising from the floor, may be dependent on the ability to generate short bursts of energy anaerobically. The purposes of this study were to determine if strength- trained (ST) older adults have higher anaerobic power output compared with non-strength-trained (NST) older adults and to determine the relationship between anaerobic power

  5. Oxygen uptake efficiency slope as a useful measure of cardiorespiratory functional reserve in adult cardiac patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reizo Baba; Kazuo Tsuyuki; Yasuo Kimura; Kenji Ninomiya; Masahiko Aihara; Kunio Ebine; Nobuo Tauchi; Kenji Nishibata; Masami Nagashima

    1999-01-01

    In this study we aimed to elucidate the validity and usefulness of the oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES) in the evaluation of adult cardiac patients. Cardiopulmonary exercise tests were performed on a treadmill by 50 adult patients with chronic heart failure. The OUES was calculated from data for the first 75%, 90%, and 100% of exercise duration. The OUES is

  6. Naturalistic Assessment of Executive Function and Everyday Multitasking in Healthy Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    McAlister, Courtney; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen

    2013-01-01

    Everyday multitasking and its cognitive correlates were investigated in an older adult population using a naturalistic task, the Day Out Task. Fifty older adults and 50 younger adults prioritized, organized, initiated and completed a number of subtasks in a campus apartment to prepare for a day out (e.g., gather ingredients for a recipe, collect change for a bus ride). Participants also completed tests assessing cognitive constructs important in multitasking. Compared to younger adults, the older adults took longer to complete the everyday tasks and more poorly sequenced the subtasks. Although they initiated, completed, and interweaved a similar number of subtasks, the older adults demonstrated poorer task quality and accuracy, completing more subtasks inefficiently. For the older adults, reduced prospective memory abilities were predictive of poorer task sequencing, while executive processes and prospective memory were predictive of inefficiently completed subtasks. The findings suggest that executive dysfunction and prospective memory difficulties may contribute to the age-related decline of everyday multitasking abilities in healthy older adults. PMID:23557096

  7. Aspects of ADHD in adults : neurocognitive functioning, actigraphy, effects of methylphenidate, and association with genetic polymorphisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aukje Marije Boonstra

    2006-01-01

    The current thesis encompasses a number of empirical, clinical studies into various aspects of ADHD in adults. The common theme of the studies and thereby the overall aim of the thesis is to further substantiate the external validity (especially the concurrent and predictive validity) of the diagnosis ADHD in adults. The first study describes a meta-analysis of executive and non-executive

  8. Predictors of Physical Functioning Trajectories among Chinese Oldest Old Adults: Rural and Urban Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Fei; Park, Nan Sook; Klemmack, David L.; Roff, Lucinda L.; Li, Zhihong

    2009-01-01

    This article examined the differences between rural/urban older adults in their trajectories of activities of daily living (ADL) over a 4-year period. The sample included 2,490 community dwelling older adults who completed three waves (1998, 2000, and 2002) of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey. Among them, 63.5% were from rural…

  9. Ontogenetic change in novel functions: waterfall climbing in adult Hawaiian gobiid fishes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. W. Blob; K. M. Wright; M. Becker; T. Maie; T. J. Iverson; M. L. Julius; H. L. Schoenfuss

    2007-01-01

    Juveniles from three species of Hawaiian gobiid fishes climb waterfalls as part of an amphidromous life cycle, allowing them to re-penetrate adult upstream habitats after being swept out to the ocean upon hatching. The importance of climbing for juvenile stream gobies is well established, but adult fish in upstream island habitats also face potential downstream displacement by periodic disturbances. Thus,

  10. TEMPORAL NEUROTRANSMITTER CONDITIONING RESTORES THE FUNCTIONAL ACTIVITY OF ADULT SPINAL-CORD NEURONS IN LONG-TERM CULTURE

    PubMed Central

    Das, Mainak; Bhargava, Neelima; Bhalkikar, Abhijeet; Kang, Jung Fong; Hickman, James J

    2008-01-01

    The ability to culture functional adult mammalian spinal-cord neurons represents an important step in the understanding and treatment of a spectrum of neurological disorders including spinal cord injury. Previously, the limited functional recovery of these cells, as characterized by a diminished ability to initiate action potentials and to exhibit repetitive firing patterns, has arisen as a major impediment to their physiological relevance. In this report we demonstrate that single temporal doses of the neurotransmitters serotonin, glutamate (N-acetyl-DL-glutamic acid) and acetylcholine-chloride leads to the full electrophysiological functional recovery of adult mammalian spinal-cord neurons, when they are cultured under defined serum-free conditions. Approximately 60% of the neurons treated regained their electrophysiological signature, often firing single, double and, most importantly, multiple action potentials. PMID:18005959

  11. Inactivation of Drosophila Huntingtin affects long-term adult functioning and the pathogenesis of a Huntington’s disease model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Sheng; Feany, Mel B.; Saraswati, Sudipta; Littleton, J. Troy; Perrimon, Norbert

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY A polyglutamine expansion in the huntingtin (HTT) gene causes neurodegeneration in Huntington’s disease (HD), but the in vivo function of the native protein (Htt) is largely unknown. Numerous biochemical and in vitro studies have suggested a role for Htt in neuronal development, synaptic function and axonal trafficking. To test these models, we generated a null mutant in the putative Drosophila HTT homolog (htt, hereafter referred to asdhtt) and, surprisingly, found that dhtt mutant animals are viable with no obvious developmental defects. Instead, dhtt is required for maintaining the mobility and long-term survival of adult animals, and for modulating axonal terminal complexity in the adult brain. Furthermore, removing endogenous dhtt significantly accelerates the neurodegenerative phenotype associated with a Drosophila model of polyglutamine Htt toxicity (HD-Q93), providing in vivo evidence that disrupting the normal function of Htt might contribute to HD pathogenesis. PMID:19380309

  12. Learn to Read. A Project to Serve Functionally Illiterate English-Dominant Adults and Limited English Proficient Adults, Involving Instructors, Tutors and Students Interacting to Try New Approaches, Techniques and Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appelson, Marilyn; And Others

    A 310 Project, Learn to Read, was conducted by Oakton Community College in suburban Chicago to teach reading to functionally illiterate and limited English speaking (LEP) adults using a variety of approaches. Participants included two groups. One group consisted of American-born adults who had basic oral competency but had failed to acquire…

  13. Right ventricular function and ventricular perfusion defects in adults with congenitally corrected transposition: correlation of echocardiography and nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Espinola-Zavaleta, Nilda; Alexanderson, Erick; Attié, Fause; Castellanos, Luis Muñoz; Dueñas, Roy; Rosas, Martín; Keirns, Candace

    2004-04-01

    We undertook our study in order to evaluate right ventricular function and perfusion by conventional and contrast echocardiography in adults with congenitally corrected transposition who had not undergone cardiac surgery, comparing the echocardiographic findings with those obtained using equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography and gated single-photon emission computed tomography with Technetiumc-99 m sestamibi. We discovered severe tricuspid regurgitation in 8 patients (61%). Right ventricular ejection fraction, as calculated by nuclear medicine, had a correlation of 0.67 (p = 0.059) with area fractional shortening and 0.84 (p = 0.01) with ejection fraction calculated by the method depending on descent of the tricuspid ring. All patients with severe tricuspid regurgitation also had right ventricular dysfunction. Of these 8 patients, 7 had persistent perfusion defects, while 6 also had ischemic perfusion defects. Echo contrast had a high sensitivity, at 91%, and also specificity and positive predictive value, both at 100%, for persistent defects, and a negative predictive value of 66% compared to methods depending on nuclear medicine. The sensitivity of contrast echocardiography for detection of ischemic defects was 66%, the specificity 100%, the positive predictive value 100%, and the negative predictive value 77% compared to the methods involving nuclear medicine. The method depending on descent of the tricuspid ring had the highest correlation with equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography in evaluation of right ventricular function in patients with congenitally corrected transposition. We conclude that contrast echocardiography is extremely valuable when assessing right ventricular myocardial perfusion, having high sensitivity and specificity for detecting persistent defects, although sensitivity was less for detection of ischemic defects than that of gated single-photon emission computed tomography with Technetium-99 m Sestamibi. Persistent and ischemic perfusion defects, together with chronic volume overload from tricuspid regurgitation, are the determining factors of right ventricular dysfunction. PMID:15691407

  14. From the Cover: Cell-replacement therapy for diabetes: Generating functional insulin-producing tissue from adult human liver cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapir, Tamar; Shternhall, Keren; Meivar-Levy, Irit; Blumenfeld, Tamar; Cohen, Hamutal; Skutelsky, Ehud; Eventov-Friedman, Smadar; Barshack, Iris; Goldberg, Iris; Pri-Chen, Sarah; Ben-Dor, Lya; Polak-Charcon, Sylvie; Karasik, Avraham; Shimon, Ilan; Mor, Eytan; Ferber, Sarah

    2005-05-01

    Shortage in tissue availability from cadaver donors and the need for life-long immunosuppression severely restrict the large-scale application of cell-replacement therapy for diabetic patients. This study suggests the potential use of adult human liver as alternate tissue for autologous beta-cell-replacement therapy. By using pancreatic and duodenal homeobox gene 1 (PDX-1) and soluble factors, we induced a comprehensive developmental shift of adult human liver cells into functional insulin-producing cells. PDX-1-treated human liver cells express insulin, store it in defined granules, and secrete the hormone in a glucose-regulated manner. When transplanted under the renal capsule of diabetic, immunodeficient mice, the cells ameliorated hyperglycemia for prolonged periods of time. Inducing developmental redirection of adult liver offers the potential of a cell-replacement therapy for diabetics by allowing the patient to be the donor of his own insulin-producing tissue. pancreas | transdifferentiation

  15. Congenital hypothyroidism: no adverse effects of high dose thyroxine treatment on adult memory, attention, and behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Oerbeck, B; Sundet, K; Kase, B; Heyerdahl, S

    2005-01-01

    Background: In congenital hypothyroidism (CH) it has been questioned whether high dose thyroxine replacement therapy has detrimental effects on memory, attention, and behaviour. Aims: To describe memory, attention, and behaviour problems in young adults with CH, and to study possible negative effects of high dose thyroxine replacement therapy. Methods: A cohort based follow up study of 49 young adults (mean age 20 years) with early treated CH, and sibling controls (n = 41). Results: Controlled for age and sex, the CH group attained significantly lower scores than sibling controls on some tests of memory (Wechsler Logical Memory part II: 12.9 versus 17.8; difference 5.2, 95% CI 3.6 to 6.8) and attention (Wechsler Freedom From Distractibility factor: 95.6 versus 104.8; difference 9.9, 95% CI 6.4 to 13.4). They rated themselves with more behaviour problems than did sibling controls (52.7 versus 44.7; difference –7.6, 95% CI –11.2 to –4.0) on the Achenbach Self Report. A high thyroxine starting dose, high serum thyroxine treatment levels during the first six childhood years, and high levels at assessment had no adverse effects on outcome measures at age 20. On the contrary, the results suggest better outcome with higher childhood treatment levels. Conclusions: Long term outcome revealed deficits in some aspects of memory, attention, and behaviour in young adults with CH relative to sibling controls. No adverse effects of high dose thyroxine therapy were found on measures of memory, attention, and behaviour problems. PMID:15665163

  16. Balanced Boolean Functions with Optimum Algebraic Immunity and High Nonlinearity

    E-print Network

    Balanced Boolean Functions with Optimum Algebraic Immunity and High Nonlinearity Xiangyong Zeng of balanced Boolean functions with optimum algebraic immunity are proposed. The cryptographical properties such as balancedness, high algebraic degree, high algebraic immunity, high nonlinearity and good immunity to fast

  17. High antibody titer in an adult with Pompe disease affects treatment with alglucosidase alfa.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Juna M; van der Beek, Nadine A M E; Kroos, Marian A; Ozkan, Lale; van Doorn, Pieter A; Richards, Susan M; Sung, Crystal C C; Brugma, Jan-Dietert C; Zandbergen, Adrienne A M; van der Ploeg, Ans T; Reuser, Arnold J J

    2010-12-01

    Clinical trials have demonstrated beneficial effects of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with alglucosidase alfa in infants, children and adults with Pompe disease. Recent studies have shown that high antibody titers can occur in patients receiving ERT and counteract the effect of treatment. This particularly occurs in those patients with classic-infantile Pompe disease that do not produce any endogenous acid ?-glucosidase (CRIM-negative). It is still unclear to what extent antibody formation affects the outcome of ERT in adults with residual enzyme activity. We present the case of a patient with adult-onset Pompe disease. He was diagnosed at the age of 39years by enzymatic testing (10.7% residual activity in fibroblasts) and DNA analysis (genotype: c.-32-13T>G/p.Trp516X). Infusion-associated reactions occurred during ERT and the patient's disease progressed. Concurrently, the antibody titer rose to a similarly high level as reported for some CRIM-negative patients with classic-infantile Pompe disease. Using newly developed immunologic-assays we could calculate that approximately 40% of the administered alglucosidase alfa was captured by circulating antibodies. Further, we could demonstrate that uptake of alglucosidase alfa by cultured fibroblasts was inhibited by admixture of the patient's serum. This case demonstrates that also patients with an appreciable amount of properly folded and catalytically active endogenous acid ?-glucosidase can develop antibodies against alglucosidase alfa that affect the response to ERT. PMID:20826098

  18. Adult age differences in the functional neuroanatomy of visual attention: A combined fMRI and DTI study

    PubMed Central

    Madden, David J.; Spaniol, Julia; Whiting, Wythe L.; Bucur, Barbara; Provenzale, James M.; Cabeza, Roberto; White, Leonard E.; Huettel, Scott A.

    2007-01-01

    We combined measures from event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and cognitive performance (visual search response time) to test the hypotheses that differences between younger and older adults in top-down (goal-directed) attention would be related to cortical activation, and that white matter integrity as measured by DTI (fractional anisotropy, FA) would be a mediator of this age-related effect. Activation in frontal and parietal cortical regions was overall greater for older adults than for younger adults. The relation between activation and search performance supported the hypothesis of age differences in top-down attention. When the task involved top-down control (increased target predictability), performance was associated with frontoparietal activation for older adults, but with occipital (fusiform) activation for younger adults. White matter integrity (FA) exhibited an age-related decline that was more pronounced for anterior brain regions than for posterior regions, but white matter integrity did not specifically mediate the age-related increase in activation of the frontoparietal attentional network. PMID:16500004

  19. Neurogenesis and astrogenesis contribution to recovery of vestibular functions in the adult cat following unilateral vestibular neurectomy: cellular and behavioral evidence.

    PubMed

    Dutheil, S; Brezun, J M; Leonard, J; Lacour, M; Tighilet, B

    2009-12-29

    In physiological conditions, neurogenesis occurs in restricted regions of the adult mammalian brain, giving rise to integrated neurons into functional networks. In pathological or postlesional conditions neurogenesis and astrogenesis can also occur, as demonstrated in the deafferented vestibular nuclei after immediate unilateral vestibular neurectomy (UVN) in the adult cat. To determine whether the reactive cell proliferation and beyond neurogenesis and astrogenesis following UVN plays a functional role in the vestibular functions recovery, we examined the effects of an antimitotic drug: the cytosine-beta-d arabinofuranoside (AraC), infused in the fourth ventricle after UVN. Plasticity mechanisms were evidenced at the immunohistochemical level with bromodeoxyuridine, GAD67 and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) stainings. Consequences of immediate or delayed AraC infusion on the behavioral recovery processes were evaluated with oculomotor and posturo-locomotor tests. We reported that after UVN, immediate AraC infusion blocked the cell proliferation and decreased the number of GFAP-immunoreactive cells and GABAergic neurons observed in the vestibular nuclei of neurectomized cats. At the behavioral level, after UVN and immediate AraC infusion the time course of posturo-locomotor function recovery was drastically delayed, and no alteration of the horizontal spontaneous nystagmus was observed. In contrast, an infusion of AraC beginning 3 weeks after UVN had no influence neither on the time course of the behavioral recovery, nor on the reactive cell proliferation and its differentiation. We conclude that the first 3 weeks after UVN represent a possible critical period in which important neuroplasticity mechanisms take place for promoting vestibular function recovery: reactive neurogenesis and astrogenesis might contribute highly to vestibular compensation in the adult cat. PMID:19782724

  20. Reducing high calorie snack food in young adults: a role for social norms and health based messages

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Consumption of high calorie junk foods has increased recently, especially among young adults and higher intake may cause weight gain. There is a need to develop public health approaches to motivate people to reduce their intake of junk food. Objective To assess the effect of health and social norm messages on high calorie snack food intake (a type of junk food) as a function of usual intake of junk food. Design In a between-subjects design, 129 young adults (45 men and 84 women, mean age?=?22.4 years, SD?=?4.5) were assigned to one of three conditions: 1) a social norm condition, in which participants saw a message about the junk food eating habits of others; 2) a health condition, in which participants saw a message outlining the health benefits of reducing junk food consumption and; 3) a control condition, in which participants saw a non-food related message. After exposure to the poster messages, participants consumed a snack and the choice and amount of snack food consumed was examined covertly. We also examined whether usual intake of junk food moderated the effect of message type on high calorie snack food intake. Results The amount of high calorie snack food consumed was significantly lower in both the health and the social norm message condition compared with the control message condition (36% and 28%, both p?high calorie snack food. PMID:23738741