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1

Phonological and Orthographic Spelling in High-Functioning Adult Dyslexics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite a history of reading or spelling difficulties, some adults attain age-appropriate spelling skills and succeed at university. We compared the spelling of 29 such high-functioning dyslexics with that of 28 typical students, matched on general spelling ability, and controlling for vocabulary and non-verbal intelligence. Participants wrote…

Kemp, Nenagh; Parrila, Rauno K.; Kirby, John R.

2009-01-01

2

Challenging Stereotypes: Sexual Functioning of Single Adults with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the sexual functioning of single adults (61 men, 68 women) with high functioning autism and Asperger syndrome living in the community with and without prior relationship experience. Participants completed an on-line questionnaire assessing autism symptoms, psychological functioning, and various aspects of sexual functioning. In…

Byers, E. Sandra; Nichols, Shana; Voyer, Susan D.

2013-01-01

3

Psychosocial Functioning in a Group of Swedish Adults with Asperger Syndrome or High-Functioning Autism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated psychosocial functioning in 16 Swedish adults with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism. The majority lived independently; all but one were unemployed; and none was married or had children. Most persons needed a high level of public and/or private support. Overall adjustment was rated good in 12%. (Contains…

Engstrom, I.; Ekstrom, L.; Emilsson, B.

2003-01-01

4

Psychosocial Functioning in a Group of Swedish Adults with Asperger Syndrome or High Functioning Autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports on psychosocial functioning in Swedish adults with Asperger syndrome (AS) or high-functioning autism (HFA). A systematically selected sample of patients and relatives was interviewed concerning their psychosocial situation. The majority was living independently. All persons but one were unemployed. None was married and none had children. Only a few had some kind of partner. Most persons needed

I. Engström; L. Ekström; B. Emilsson

2003-01-01

5

Phonological and orthographic spelling in high-functioning adult dyslexics.  

PubMed

Despite a history of reading or spelling difficulties, some adults attain age-appropriate spelling skills and succeed at university. We compared the spelling of 29 such high-functioning dyslexics with that of 28 typical students, matched on general spelling ability, and controlling for vocabulary and non-verbal intelligence. Participants wrote derived real and pseudo words, whose spelling relationship to their base forms was categorized as phonologically simple (apt-aptly), orthographically simple (deceit-deceitful), phonologically complex (ash-ashen), or orthographically complex (plenty-plentiful). Dyslexic participants spelled all word and pseudoword categories more poorly than controls. Both groups spelled simple phonological words best. Dyslexics were particularly poor at spelling simple orthographic words, whose letter patterns and rules must likely be memorized. In contrast, dyslexics wrote more plausible spellings of orthographic than phonological pseudowords, but this might be an artefact of their more variable spelling attempts. These results suggest that high-functioning dyslexics make some use of phonological skills to spell familiar words, but they have difficulty in memorizing orthographic patterns, which makes it difficult to spell unfamiliar words consistently in the absence of sufficient phonological cues or orthographic rules. PMID:18489012

Kemp, Nenagh; Parrila, Rauno K; Kirby, John R

2009-05-01

6

Sexual attitudes and knowledge of high-functioning adolescents and adults with autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interviewed 21 high-functioning adults with autism and 20 mildly to moderately mentally retarded adults without autism about sexuality and dating. Sexual knowledge and interest were assessed by a sexuality vocabulary checklist and a multiple-choice questionnaire. Group differences were found in experience, with more sexual experiences among the mentally retarded adults, but not in knowledge or interest. In both groups IQ

Opal Y. Ousley; Gary B. Mesibov

1991-01-01

7

Parents' Criticisms and Attributions about Their Adult Children with High Functioning Autism or Schizophrenia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study examined the criticism component of expressed emotion (EE) and attributions in parents of adults diagnosed with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder (S/SA) or high functioning autism/Asperger's. Consistent with study hypotheses, parents of adults diagnosed with autism/Asperger's disorder exhibited lower levels of high

Wasserman, Stephanie; Weisman de Mamani, Amy; Mundy, Peter

2010-01-01

8

Reading the Mind in the Voice: A Study with Normal Adults and Adults with Asperger Syndrome and High Functioning Autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

People with high functioning autism (HFA) and Asperger syndrome (AS) have deficits in theory of mind (ToM). Traditional ToM tasks are not sensitive enough to measure ToM deficits in adults, so more subtle ToM tests are needed. One adult level test, the Reading the Mind in the Eyes test has shown that AS and HFA subjects have measurable deficits in

M. D. Rutherford; Simon Baron-Cohen; Sally Wheelwright

2002-01-01

9

Sexual Attitudes and Knowledge of High-Functioning Adolescents and Adults with Autism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviews with 21 high-functioning adults with autism and 20 mildly to moderately mentally retarded adults without autism indicated that the mentally retarded group had more sexual experiences, with no intergroup differences in sexual knowledge or interest. Intelligence quotient was positively correlated with knowledge scores and males had…

Ousley, Opal Y.; Mesibov, Gary B.

1991-01-01

10

Theory of Mind and Central Coherence in Adults with High-Functioning Autism or Asperger Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study investigated theory of mind and central coherence abilities in adults with high-functioning autism (HFA) or Asperger syndrome (AS) using naturalistic tasks. Twenty adults with HFA/AS correctly answered significantly fewer theory of mind questions than 20 controls on a forced-choice response task. On a narrative task, there were no…

Beaumont, Renae; Newcombe, Peter

2006-01-01

11

Brief Report: Feasibility of Social Cognition and Interaction Training for Adults with High Functioning Autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and utility of a group-based cognitive behavioral intervention to improve\\u000a social-cognitive functioning in adults with high-functioning autism (HFA). We modified the treatment manual of a previously\\u000a validated intervention, Social Cognition and Interaction Training (SCIT), for optimal use with HFA adults (SCIT-A). We then\\u000a conducted a pilot study to compare SCIT-A

Lauren M. Turner-Brown; Timothy D. Perry; Gabriel S. Dichter; James W. Bodfish; David L. Penn

2008-01-01

12

Functional Alterations in Neural Substrates of Geometric Reasoning in Adults with High-Functioning Autism  

PubMed Central

Individuals with autism spectrum condition (ASC) are known to excel in some perceptual cognitive tasks, but such developed functions have been often regarded as “islets of abilities” that do not significantly contribute to broader intellectual capacities. However, recent behavioral studies have reported that individuals with ASC have advantages for performing Raven's (Standard) Progressive Matrices (RPM/RSPM), a standard neuropsychological test for general fluid intelligence, raising the possibility that ASC?s cognitive strength can be utilized for more general purposes like novel problem solving. Here, the brain activity of 25 adults with high-functioning ASC and 26 matched normal controls (NC) was measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine neural substrates of geometric reasoning during the engagement of a modified version of the RSPM test. Among the frontal and parietal brain regions involved in fluid intelligence, ASC showed larger activation in the left lateral occipitotemporal cortex (LOTC) during an analytic condition with moderate difficulty than NC. Activation in the left LOTC and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) increased with task difficulty in NC, whereas such modulation of activity was absent in ASC. Furthermore, functional connectivity analysis revealed a significant reduction of activation coupling between the left inferior parietal cortex and the right anterior prefrontal cortex during both figural and analytic conditions in ASC. These results indicate altered pattern of functional specialization and integration in the neural system for geometric reasoning in ASC, which may explain its atypical cognitive pattern, including performance on the Raven's Matrices test. PMID:22912831

Yamada, Takashi; Ohta, Haruhisa; Watanabe, Hiromi; Kanai, Chieko; Tani, Masayuki; Ohno, Taisei; Takayama, Yuko; Iwanami, Akira; Kato, Nobumasa; Hashimoto, Ryuichiro

2012-01-01

13

Perception of Dialect Variation by Young Adults with High-Functioning Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The linguistic profile of people with Autism spectrum disorders typically involves intact perceptual processing, accompanied by deficits in the social functions of language. In a series of three experiments, the impact of this profile on the perception of regional dialect was examined. Young adults with High-Functioning Autism exhibited similar…

Clopper, Cynthia G.; Rohrbeck, Kristin L.; Wagner, Laura

2012-01-01

14

Brief Report: Feasibility of Social Cognition and Interaction Training for Adults with High Functioning Autism  

PubMed Central

The goal of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and utility of a group-based cognitive behavioral intervention to improve social-cognitive functioning in adults with high-functioning autism (HFA). We modified the treatment manual of a previously validated intervention, Social Cognition and Interaction Training (SCIT), for optimal use with HFA adults (SCIT-A). We then conducted a pilot study to compare SCIT-A (n = 6) to treatment as usual (TAU) (n = 5) for adults with HFA. Feasibility was supported; attendance was high (92%) and satisfaction reports were primarily positive. Participants in SCIT-A showed significant improvement in theory-of-mind skills and trend level improvements in social communication skills; TAU participants did not show these improvements. Findings indicate SCIT-A shows promise as an intervention for adults with HFA. PMID:18246419

Perry, Timothy D.; Dichter, Gabriel S.; Bodfish, James W.; Penn, David L.

2009-01-01

15

Sexual attitudes and knowledge of high-functioning adolescents and adults with autism.  

PubMed

Interviewed 21 high-functioning adults with autism and 20 mildly to moderately mentally retarded adults without autism about sexuality and dating. Sexual knowledge and interest were assessed by a sexuality vocabulary checklist and a multiple-choice questionnaire. Group differences were found in experience, with more sexual experiences among the mentally retarded adults, but not in knowledge or interest. In both groups IQ was positively correlated with knowledge scores and males had significantly greater interest in sexuality than females. Implications of sex and group differences are discussed. PMID:1778961

Ousley, O Y; Mesibov, G B

1991-12-01

16

The Modality Shift Experiment in Adults and Children with High Functioning Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study used the modality shift experiment, a relatively simple reaction time measure to visual and auditory stimuli, to examine attentional shifting within and across modalities in 33 children and 42 adults with high-functioning autism as compared to matched numbers of age- and ability-matched typical controls. An exaggerated "modality shift…

Williams, Diane L.; Goldstein, Gerald; Minshew, Nancy J.

2013-01-01

17

Binding of Multiple Features in Memory by High-Functioning Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Diminished episodic memory and diminished use of semantic information to aid recall by individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are both thought to result from diminished relational binding of elements of complex stimuli. To test this hypothesis, we asked high-functioning adults with ASD and typical comparison participants to study grids in…

Bowler, Dermot M.; Gaigg, Sebastian B.; Gardiner, John M.

2014-01-01

18

Virtual Reality Social Cognition Training for Young Adults with High-Functioning Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few evidence-based social interventions exist for young adults with high-functioning autism, many of whom encounter significant challenges during the transition into adulthood. The current study investigated the feasibility of an engaging Virtual Reality Social Cognition Training intervention focused on enhancing social skills, social cognition,…

Kandalaft, Michelle R.; Didehbani, Nyaz; Krawczyk, Daniel C.; Allen, Tandra T.; Chapman, Sandra B.

2013-01-01

19

Pragmatic Inferences in High-Functioning Adults with Autism and Asperger Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often have severe problems with pragmatic aspects of language, little is known about their pragmatic reasoning. We carried out a behavioral study on high-functioning adults with autistic disorder (n = 11) and Asperger syndrome (n = 17) and matched controls (n = 28) to investigate whether they…

Pijnacker, Judith; Hagoort, Peter; Buitelaar, Jan; Teunisse, Jan-Pieter; Geurts, Bart

2009-01-01

20

Narrative Discourse in Adults with High-Functioning Autism or Asperger Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We report a study comparing the narrative abilities of 12 adults with high-functioning autism (HFA) or Asperger Syndrome (AS) versus 12 matched controls. The study focuses on the use of referential expressions (temporal expressions and anaphoric pronouns) during a story-telling task. The aim was to assess pragmatics skills in people with HFA/AS in…

Colle, Livia; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Wheelwright, Sally; van der Lely, Heather K. J.

2008-01-01

21

High blood pressure, antihypertensive medication and lung function in a general adult population  

PubMed Central

Background Several studies showed that blood pressure and lung function are associated. Additionally, a potential effect of antihypertensive medication, especially beta-blockers, on lung function has been discussed. However, side effects of beta-blockers have been investigated mainly in patients with already reduced lung function. Thus, aim of this analysis is to determine whether hypertension and antihypertensive medication have an adverse effect on lung function in a general adult population. Methods Within the population-based KORA F4 study 1319 adults aged 40-65 years performed lung function tests and blood pressure measurements. Additionally, information on anthropometric measurements, medical history and use of antihypertensive medication was available. Multivariable regression models were applied to study the association between blood pressure, antihypertensive medication and lung function. Results High blood pressure as well as antihypertensive medication were associated with lower forced expiratory volume in one second (p = 0.02 respectively p = 0.05; R2: 0.65) and forced vital capacity values (p = 0.01 respectively p = 0.05, R2: 0.73). Furthermore, a detailed analysis of antihypertensive medication pointed out that only the use of beta-blockers was associated with reduced lung function, whereas other antihypertensive medication had no effect on lung function. The adverse effect of beta-blockers was significant for forced vital capacity (p = 0.04; R2: 0.65), while the association with forced expiratory volume in one second showed a trend toward significance (p = 0.07; R2: 0.73). In the same model high blood pressure was associated with reduced forced vital capacity (p = 0.01) and forced expiratory volume in one second (p = 0.03) values, too. Conclusion Our analysis indicates that both high blood pressure and the use of beta-blockers, but not the use of other antihypertensive medication, are associated with reduced lung function in a general adult population. PMID:21510847

2011-01-01

22

Mobility Stress Test Approach to Predicting Frailty, Disability, and Mortality In High Functioning Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Background A major challenge to developing primary preventive interventions for frailty and disability in older adults is lack of validated simple clinical tools to identify high-risk individuals without overt signs of poor health. Objectives To examine the validity of the Walking While Talking test (WWT), a mobility stress test, to predict frailty, disability and death in high functioning older adults. Design prospective cohort study. Setting Community sample. Participants 631 community-residing adults age 70 and older participating in the Einstein Aging Study (mean follow-up 32 months). High functioning status at baseline was defined as absence of disability, dementia, and normal walking speeds. Main outcome measures Hazard ratios for frailty, disability, and all-cause mortality. Frailty was defined as presence of three out of the following five attributes: weight loss, weakness, exhaustion, low physical activity and slow gait. We also compared predictive validity of WWT with Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) for study outcomes. Results 218 subjects developed frailty, 88 disability, and 49 died. Each 10 cm/s decrease in WWT speed was associated with increased risk of frailty (Hazard ratio 1.12, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.18), disability (Hazard ratio 1.13, 95% CI 1.03 ?1.23), and mortality (Hazard ratio 1.13, 95% CI 1.01 – 1.27). Most associations remained robust even after accounting for potential confounders and gait speed. Comparisons of HR and model fit suggest that WWT may better predict frailty whereas SPPB may better predict disability. Conclusion Mobility stress tests such as the WWT are robust predictors of risk of frailty, disability, and mortality in high functioning older adults. PMID:23002714

Verghese, Joe; Holtzer, Roee; Lipton, Richard B.; Wang, Cuiling

2012-01-01

23

The “Reading the Mind in the Eyes” Test Revised Version: A Study with Normal Adults, and Adults with Asperger Syndrome or High-functioning Autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1997 in this Journal we published the ''Reading the Mind in the Eyes'' Test, as a measure of adult ''mentalising''. Whilst that test succeeded in discriminating a group of adults with Asperger syndrome (AS) or high-functioning autism (HFA) from controls, it suered from several psychometric problems. In this paper these limitations are rectified by revising the test. The Revised

Simon Baron-Cohen; Sally Wheelwright; Jacqueline Hill; Yogini Raste; Ian Plumb

2001-01-01

24

Perception of dialect variation by young adults with high-functioning autism.  

PubMed

The linguistic profile of people with Autism spectrum disorders typically involves intact perceptual processing, accompanied by deficits in the social functions of language. In a series of three experiments, the impact of this profile on the perception of regional dialect was examined. Young adults with High-Functioning Autism exhibited similar performance to a typically developing comparison group in regional dialect classification and localness rating tasks, suggesting that they can use indexical information in speech to make judgments about the regional background of unfamiliar talkers. However, the participants with High-Functioning Autism were less able to differentiate among the dialects in a language attitudes task, suggesting that they do not share social stereotypes related to dialect variation with the typically developing comparison group. PMID:21671116

Clopper, Cynthia G; Rohrbeck, Kristin L; Wagner, Laura

2012-05-01

25

How stimulus and task complexity affect monitoring in high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder.  

PubMed

The present study examined whether individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are able to update and monitor working memory representations of visual input, and whether performance is influenced by stimulus and task complexity. 15 high-functioning adults with ASD and 15 controls were asked to allocate either elements of abstract figures or semantically meaningful pictures to the correct category, according to a certain set of rules. In general, the groups did not differ on measures of intelligence, working memory, attention, fluency and memory. For the monitoring of allocation of abstract figures, a similar pattern of reaction times was found for ASD and control participants. For the monitoring of allocation of semantically meaningful pictures, a different response pattern was found, with a stronger increase in response times for the ASD than for the control group when the number of categories increased. This suggests that participants with ASD are able to monitor working memory representations, but suffer under more complex circumstances. PMID:24838251

Koolen, Sophieke; Vissers, Constance Th W M; Egger, Jos I M; Verhoeven, Ludo

2014-10-01

26

Metacognition of agency and theory of mind in adults with high functioning autism.  

PubMed

We investigated metacognition of agency in adults with high functioning autism or Asperger Syndrome (HFA/AS) using a computer task in which participants moved the mouse to get the cursor to touch the downward moving X's and avoid the O's. They were then asked to make judgments of performance and judgments of agency. Objective control was either undistorted, or distorted by adding turbulence (i.e., random noise) or a time Lag between the mouse and cursor movements. Participants with HFA/AS used sensorimotor cues available in the turbulence and lag conditions to a lesser extent than control participants in making their judgments of agency. Furthermore, the failure to use these internal diagnostic cues to their own agency was correlated with decrements in a theory of mind task. These findings suggest that a reduced sensitivity to veridical internal cues about the sense of agency is related to mentalizing impairments in autism. PMID:25482271

Zalla, Tiziana; Miele, David; Leboyer, Marion; Metcalfe, Janet

2015-01-01

27

Metacognition, metamemory, and mindreading in high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder.  

PubMed

Metacognition refers to cognition about cognition and encompasses both knowledge of cognitive processes and the ability to monitor and control one's own cognitions. The current study aimed to establish whether metacognition is impaired in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). According to some theories, the ability to represent one's own mental states (an aspect of metacognition) relies on the same mechanism as the ability to represent others' mental states ("mindreading"). Given numerous studies have shown mindreading is impaired in ASD, there is good reason to predict concurrent impairments in metacognition. Metacognition is most commonly explored in the context of memory, often by assessing people's ability to monitor their memory processes. The current study addressed the question of whether people with ASD have difficulty monitoring the contents of their memory (alongside impaired mindreading). Eighteen intellectually high-functioning adults with ASD and 18 IQ- and age-matched neurotypical adults participated. Metamemory monitoring ability and mindreading ability were assessed by using a feeling-of-knowing task and the "animations" task, respectively. Participants also completed a self-report measure of metacognitive ability. In addition to showing impaired mindreading, participants with ASD made significantly less accurate feeling-of-knowing judgments than neurotypical adults, suggesting that metamemory monitoring (an aspect of metacognition) was impaired. Conversely, participants with ASD self-reported superior metacognitive abilities compared with those reported by neurotypical participants. This study provides evidence that individuals with ASD have metamemory monitoring impairments. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings for our current understanding of metacognition in ASD and typical development are discussed. PMID:24955572

Grainger, Catherine; Williams, David M; Lind, Sophie E

2014-08-01

28

A Behavioral Comparison of Male and Female Adults with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Conditions  

PubMed Central

Autism spectrum conditions (ASC) affect more males than females in the general population. However, within ASC it is unclear if there are phenotypic sex differences. Testing for similarities and differences between the sexes is important not only for clinical assessment but also has implications for theories of typical sex differences and of autism. Using cognitive and behavioral measures, we investigated similarities and differences between the sexes in age- and IQ-matched adults with ASC (high-functioning autism or Asperger syndrome). Of the 83 (45 males and 38 females) participants, 62 (33 males and 29 females) met Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) cut-off criteria for autism in childhood and were included in all subsequent analyses. The severity of childhood core autism symptoms did not differ between the sexes. Males and females also did not differ in self-reported empathy, systemizing, anxiety, depression, and obsessive-compulsive traits/symptoms or mentalizing performance. However, adult females with ASC showed more lifetime sensory symptoms (p?=?0.036), fewer current socio-communication difficulties (p?=?0.001), and more self-reported autistic traits (p?=?0.012) than males. In addition, females with ASC who also had developmental language delay had lower current performance IQ than those without developmental language delay (p<0.001), a pattern not seen in males. The absence of typical sex differences in empathizing-systemizing profiles within the autism spectrum confirms a prediction from the extreme male brain theory. Behavioral sex differences within ASC may also reflect different developmental mechanisms between males and females with ASC. We discuss the importance of the superficially better socio-communication ability in adult females with ASC in terms of why females with ASC may more often go under-recognized, and receive their diagnosis later, than males. PMID:21695147

Lai, Meng-Chuan; Lombardo, Michael V.; Pasco, Greg; Ruigrok, Amber N. V.; Wheelwright, Sally J.; Sadek, Susan A.; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Baron-Cohen, Simon

2011-01-01

29

Cognitive Profiles of Adults with Asperger's Disorder, High-Functioning Autism, and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified Based on the WAIS-III  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little is known about the cognitive profiles of high-functioning Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD) in adults based on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale III (WAIS-III). We examined cognitive profiles of adults with no intellectual disability (IQ greater than 70), and in adults with Asperger's disorder (AS; n = 47), high-functioning autism (HFA;…

Kanai, Chieko; Tani, Masayuki; Hashimoto, Ryuichiro; Yamada, Takashi; Ota, Haruhisa; Watanabe, Hiromi; Iwanami, Akira; Kato, Nobumasa

2012-01-01

30

Systemizing empathy: Teaching adults with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism to recognize complex emotions using interactive multimedia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated Mind Reading, an interactive systematic guide to emotions, for its effectiveness in teaching adults with Asperger syndrome ~AS! and high-functioning autism ~HFA! to recognize complex emotions in faces and voices. Experiment 1 tested a group of adults diagnosed with AS0HFA ~n 19! who used the software at home for 10-15 weeks. Participants were tested on recognition of

OFER GOLAN; SIMON BARON-COHEN

2006-01-01

31

Alterations in brain structures underlying language function in young adults at high familial risk for schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Introduction Neuroanatomical and cognitive alterations typical of schizophrenia (SZ) patients are observed to a lesser extent in their adolescent and adult first-degree relatives, likely reflecting neurodevelopmental abnormalities associated with genetic risk for the illness. The anatomical pathways for language are hypothesized to be abnormal and to underlie the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. Examining non-psychotic relatives at high familial risk (FHR) for schizophrenia may clarify if these deficits represent trait markers associated with genetic vulnerability, rather than specific markers resulting from the pathological process underlying schizophrenia. Methods T1 MRI scans from a 3T Siemens scanner of young adult FHR subjects (N=46) and controls with no family history of illness (i.e. at low genetic risk LRC; N=31) were processed using FreeSurfer 5.0. We explored volumetric and lateralization alterations in regions associated with language processing. An extensive neuropsychological battery of language measures was administered. Results No significant differences were observed between groups on any language measures. Controlling Intracranial volume, significantly smaller center Pars Triangularis (PT) (p<0.01) and right Pars Orbitalis (PO) (p < 0.01) volumes and reversal of the L > R Pars Orbitalis (p < 0.001) lateralization were observed in FHR subjects. In addition, the L Pars Triangularis and R Pars Orbitalis correlated with performance on tests of linguistic function in the FHR group. Conclusions Reduced volume and reversed structural asymmetry in language-related regions hypothesized to be altered in SZ are also found in first degree relatives at FHR, despite normal language performance. To clarify if these findings are endophenotypes for Sz, future studied would need to be performed of ill and well family members no longer within the age range of risk for illness to show these deficits segregate with schizophrenia within families. Moreover, measures of complex language need to be studied to determine if FHR individuals manifest impairments in some aspects of language function. PMID:22892286

Francis, Alan N.; Seidman, Larry J.; Jabbar, Gul A.; Mesholam-Gately, Raquelle; Thermenos, Heidi W.; Juelich, Richard; Proal, Ashley C.; Shenton, Martha; Kubicki, Marek; Mathew, Ian; Keshavan, Matcheri; DeLisi, Lynn E.

2012-01-01

32

The neuropsychology of male adults with high-functioning autism or asperger syndrome.  

PubMed

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is diagnosed on the basis of behavioral symptoms, but cognitive abilities may also be useful in characterizing individuals with ASD. One hundred seventy-eight high-functioning male adults, half with ASD and half without, completed tasks assessing IQ, a broad range of cognitive skills, and autistic and comorbid symptomatology. The aims of the study were, first, to determine whether significant differences existed between cases and controls on cognitive tasks, and whether cognitive profiles, derived using a multivariate classification method with data from multiple cognitive tasks, could distinguish between the two groups. Second, to establish whether cognitive skill level was correlated with degree of autistic symptom severity, and third, whether cognitive skill level was correlated with degree of comorbid psychopathology. Fourth, cognitive characteristics of individuals with Asperger Syndrome (AS) and high-functioning autism (HFA) were compared. After controlling for IQ, ASD and control groups scored significantly differently on tasks of social cognition, motor performance, and executive function (P's < 0.05). To investigate cognitive profiles, 12 variables were entered into a support vector machine (SVM), which achieved good classification accuracy (81%) at a level significantly better than chance (P < 0.0001). After correcting for multiple correlations, there were no significant associations between cognitive performance and severity of either autistic or comorbid symptomatology. There were no significant differences between AS and HFA groups on the cognitive tasks. Cognitive classification models could be a useful aid to the diagnostic process when used in conjunction with other data sources-including clinical history. PMID:24903974

Wilson, C Ellie; Happé, Francesca; Wheelwright, Sally J; Ecker, Christine; Lombardo, Michael V; Johnston, Patrick; Daly, Eileen; Murphy, Clodagh M; Spain, Debbie; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Sauter, Disa A; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Murphy, Declan G M

2014-10-01

33

Axonal deficits in young adults with High Functioning Autism and their impact on processing speed.  

PubMed

Microstructural white matter deficits in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) have been suggested by both histological findings and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) studies, which show reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) and increased mean diffusivity (MD). However, imaging reports are generally not consistent across studies and the underlying physiological causes of the reported differences in FA and MD remain poorly understood. In this study, we sought to further characterize white matter deficits in ASD by employing an advanced diffusion imaging method, the Diffusional Kurtosis Imaging (DKI), and a two-compartment diffusion model of white matter. This model differentially describes intra- and extra-axonal white matter compartments using Axonal Water Fraction (faxon ) a measure reflecting axonal caliber and density, and compartment-specific diffusivity measures. Diagnostic utility of these measures and associations with processing speed performance were also examined. Comparative studies were conducted in 16 young male adults with High Functioning Autism (HFA) and 17 typically developing control participants (TDC). Significantly decreased faxon was observed in HFA compared to the control group in most of the major white matter tracts, including the corpus callosum, cortico-spinal tracts, and superior longitudinal, inferior longitudinal and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculi. Intra-axonal diffusivity (Daxon ) was also found to be reduced in some of these regions. Decreased axial extra-axonal diffusivity (ADextra ) was noted in the genu of the corpus callosum. Reduced processing speed significantly correlated with decreased faxon and Daxon in several tracts. faxon of the left cortico-spinal tract and superior longitudinal fasciculi showed good accuracy in discriminating the HFA and TDC groups. In conclusion, these findings suggest altered axonal microstructure in young adults with HFA which is associated with reduced processing speed. Compartment-specific diffusion metrics appear to improve specificity and sensitivity to white matter deficits in this population. PMID:24624327

Lazar, Mariana; Miles, Laura M; Babb, James S; Donaldson, Jeffrey B

2014-01-01

34

Axonal deficits in young adults with High Functioning Autism and their impact on processing speed  

PubMed Central

Microstructural white matter deficits in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) have been suggested by both histological findings and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) studies, which show reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) and increased mean diffusivity (MD). However, imaging reports are generally not consistent across studies and the underlying physiological causes of the reported differences in FA and MD remain poorly understood. In this study, we sought to further characterize white matter deficits in ASD by employing an advanced diffusion imaging method, the Diffusional Kurtosis Imaging (DKI), and a two-compartment diffusion model of white matter. This model differentially describes intra- and extra-axonal white matter compartments using Axonal Water Fraction (faxon) a measure reflecting axonal caliber and density, and compartment-specific diffusivity measures. Diagnostic utility of these measures and associations with processing speed performance were also examined. Comparative studies were conducted in 16 young male adults with High Functioning Autism (HFA) and 17 typically developing control participants (TDC). Significantly decreased faxon was observed in HFA compared to the control group in most of the major white matter tracts, including the corpus callosum, cortico-spinal tracts, and superior longitudinal, inferior longitudinal and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculi. Intra-axonal diffusivity (Daxon) was also found to be reduced in some of these regions. Decreased axial extra-axonal diffusivity (ADextra) was noted in the genu of the corpus callosum. Reduced processing speed significantly correlated with decreased faxon and Daxon in several tracts. faxon of the left cortico-spinal tract and superior longitudinal fasciculi showed good accuracy in discriminating the HFA and TDC groups. In conclusion, these findings suggest altered axonal microstructure in young adults with HFA which is associated with reduced processing speed. Compartment-specific diffusion metrics appear to improve specificity and sensitivity to white matter deficits in this population. PMID:24624327

Lazar, Mariana; Miles, Laura M.; Babb, James S.; Donaldson, Jeffrey B.

2014-01-01

35

Effects of Related and Unrelated Context on Recall and Recognition by Adults with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Memory in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterised by greater difficulties with recall rather than recognition and with a diminished use of semantic or associative relatedness in the aid of recall. Two experiments are reported that test the effects of item-context relatedness on recall and recognition in adults with high-functioning ASD…

Bowler, Dermot M.; Gaigg, Sebastian B.; Gardiner, John M.

2008-01-01

36

Gaze cues in complex, real-world scenes direct the attention of high-functioning adults with autism  

E-print Network

. These data illustrate typical use of gaze cues in high- functioning adults with ASD even in the context a robust social learning tool for those who engage in them (e.g., Baldwin et al., 1996; Tomasello with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) (e.g., Charman, 2003; Mundy & Newell, 2007, but see Gernsbacher

Sinha, Pawan

37

The Friendship Questionnaire: An Investigation of Adults with Asperger Syndrome or High-Functioning Autism, and Normal Sex Differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Friendship is an important part of normal social functioning, yet there are precious few instruments for measuring individual differences in this domain. In this article, we report a new selfreport questionnaire, the Friendship Questionnaire (FQ), for use with adults of normal intelligence. A high score on the FQ is achieved by the respondent reporting that they enjoy close, empathic, supportive,

Simon Baron-Cohen; Sally Wheelwright

2003-01-01

38

Binding of multiple features in memory by high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder.  

PubMed

Diminished episodic memory and diminished use of semantic information to aid recall by individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are both thought to result from diminished relational binding of elements of complex stimuli. To test this hypothesis, we asked high-functioning adults with ASD and typical comparison participants to study grids in which some cells contained drawings of objects in non-canonical colours. Participants were told at study which features (colour, item, location) would be tested in a later memory test. In a second experiment, participants studied similar grids and were told that they would be tested on object-location or object-colour combinations. Recognition of combinations was significantly diminished in ASD, which survived covarying performance on the Color Trails Test (D'Elia et al. Color trails test. Professional manual. Psychological Assessment Resources, Lutz, 1996), a test of executive difficulties. The findings raise the possibility that medial temporal as well as frontal lobe processes are dysfunctional in ASD. PMID:24696375

Bowler, Dermot M; Gaigg, Sebastian B; Gardiner, John M

2014-09-01

39

Feelings of regret and disappointment in adults with high-functioning autism.  

PubMed

Impairments in emotional processing in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) can be characterised by failure to generate and recognize self-reflective, cognitive-based emotions, such as pride, embarrassment and shame. Among this type of emotions, regret and disappointment, as well as their positive counterparts, result from a counterfactual comparison, that is the comparison between an actual value ("what is") and a fictive value ("what might have been"). However, while disappointment is experienced when the obtained outcome is worse than the expected outcome that might have occurred from the same choice, regret occurs when one experiences an outcome that is worse than the outcome of foregone choices. By manipulating a simple gambling task, we examined subjective reports on the intensity of negative and positive emotions in a group of adults with High-Functioning Autism or Asperger syndrome (HFA/AS), and a control group matched for age, gender and educational level. Participants were asked to choose between two lotteries with different levels of risk under two conditions of outcome feedback: (i) Partial, in which only the outcome of the chosen lottery was visible, (ii) Complete, in which the outcomes of the two lotteries were simultaneously visible. By comparing partial and complete conditions, we aimed to investigate the differential effect between disappointment and regret, as well as between their positive counterparts. Relative to the control participants (CP), the group with HFA/AS reported reduced regret and no difference between regret and disappointment, along with a preserved ability to use counterfactual thinking and similar choice behaviour. Difficulties to distinguish the feeling of regret in participants with HFA/AS can be explained by diminished emotional awareness, likely associated with an abnormal fronto-limbic connectivity. PMID:25010486

Zalla, Tiziana; Sirigu, Angela; Robic, Suzanne; Chaste, Pauline; Leboyer, Marion; Coricelli, Giorgio

2014-09-01

40

Local Information Processing in Adults with High Functioning Autism and Asperger Syndrome: The Usefulness of Neuropsychological Tests and Self-Reports  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Local information processing in 42 adults with high functioning autism, 41 adults with Asperger syndrome and 41 neurotypical adults was examined. Contrary to our expectations, the disorder groups did not outperform the neurotypical group in the neuropsychological measures of local information processing. In line with our hypotheses, the…

Spek, Annelies A.; Scholte, Evert M.; Van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina A.

2011-01-01

41

The Outcome of a Supported Employment Scheme for High-Functioning Adults with Autism or Asperger Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article describes the outcome of a 2 year supported employment project for high-functioning adults with autism. Thirty individuals with a diagnosis of autism or Asperger syndrome living within the London area took part in the scheme. The control group comprised 20 individuals of similar intellectual and linguistic ability,and previous employment history, living in metropolitan areas out-side London. Over the

Lynn Mawhood; Patricia Howlin

1999-01-01

42

The Use of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient in Differentiating High-Functioning Adults with Autism, Adults with Schizophrenia and a Neurotypical Adult Control Group  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study compared 21 high functioning individuals with autism, 21 individuals with schizophrenia and 21 healthy individuals in self-reported features of autism, as measured by the Autism-spectrum Quotient (AQ). The individuals with autism reported impairment on all AQ subscales, compared to the neurotypical group. The schizophrenia group…

Wouters, Saskia G. M.; Spek, Annelies A.

2011-01-01

43

Effect of high-dose tyrosine supplementation on brain function in adults with phenylketonuria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To characterize abnormalities of brain function in patients with phenylketonuria (PKU) who had relaxed or stopped the dietary regimen and to test whether oral high-dose tyrosine (Tyr) supplementation has a beneficial effect. Design: Comparison with a control group; double-blind, placebo-controlled study comprising six test times; crossover treatment groups; oral high-dose Tyr therapy (100 mg\\/kg body weight per day) or

Joachim Pietz; Ralf Landwehr; Ansgar Kutscha; Hildgund Schmidt; Leo de Sonneville; Friedrich K. Trefz

1995-01-01

44

Directed Forgetting in High-Functioning Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rehearsal strategies of adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and demographically matched typically developed (TD) adults were strategically manipulated by cueing participants to either learn, or forget each list word prior to a recognition task. Participants were also asked to distinguish between autonoetic and noetic states of awareness…

Meyer, Brenda J.; Gardiner, John M.; Bowler, Dermot M.

2014-01-01

45

Autism and Schizophrenia in High Functioning Adults: Behavioral Differences and Overlap  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several recent studies have demonstrated a genetical overlap between autism and schizophrenia. However, at a behavioral level it remains unclear which features can validly distinguish adults with autism from an adult schizophrenia group. To this end, the present study compared 21 individuals with the autistic disorder and 21 individuals with…

Spek, Annelies A.; Wouters, Saskia G. M.

2010-01-01

46

Freezing of gait in older adults with high level gait disorders: association with impaired executive function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Freezing of gait (FOG) is frequently observed in high level gait disorders (HLGD), but its relationship to disease progression\\u000a and cognitive function is unknown. To study this relationship, episodic gait disturbances, affect and cognitive function were\\u000a assessed in twenty-five patients with HLGD (mean age: 78.2 ± 5.0?yrs). After a mean of 32.2 ± 4.2 months, twenty-two patients\\u000a were reassessed. FOG

N. Giladi; V. Huber-Mahlin; T. Herman; J. M. Hausdorff

2007-01-01

47

Local Information Processing in Adults with High Functioning Autism and Asperger Syndrome: The Usefulness of Neuropsychological Tests and Self-Reports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Local information processing in 42 adults with high functioning autism, 41 adults with Asperger syndrome and 41 neurotypical\\u000a adults was examined. Contrary to our expectations, the disorder groups did not outperform the neurotypical group in the neuropsychological\\u000a measures of local information processing. In line with our hypotheses, the self-reports did show higher levels of local information\\u000a processing and a stronger

Annelies A. SpekEvert; Evert M. Scholte; Ina A. Van Berckelaer-Onnes

2011-01-01

48

Use of Prosody and Information Structure in High Functioning Adults with Autism in Relation to Language Ability  

PubMed Central

Abnormal prosody is a striking feature of the speech of those with Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but previous reports suggest large variability among those with ASD. Here we show that part of this heterogeneity can be explained by level of language functioning. We recorded semi-spontaneous but controlled conversations in adults with and without ASD and measured features related to pitch and duration to determine (1) general use of prosodic features, (2) prosodic use in relation to marking information structure, specifically, the emphasis of new information in a sentence (focus) as opposed to information already given in the conversational context (topic), and (3) the relation between prosodic use and level of language functioning. We found that, compared to typical adults, those with ASD with high language functioning generally used a larger pitch range than controls but did not mark information structure, whereas those with moderate language functioning generally used a smaller pitch range than controls but marked information structure appropriately to a large extent. Both impaired general prosodic use and impaired marking of information structure would be expected to seriously impact social communication and thereby lead to increased difficulty in personal domains, such as making and keeping friendships, and in professional domains, such as competing for employment opportunities. PMID:22470358

DePape, Anne-Marie R.; Chen, Aoju; Hall, Geoffrey B. C.; Trainor, Laurel J.

2012-01-01

49

High intensity training improves health and physical function in middle aged adults.  

PubMed

High intensity training (HIT) is effective at improving health; however, it is unknown whether HIT also improves physical function. This study aimed to determine whether HIT improves metabolic health and physical function in untrained middle aged individuals. Fourteen (three male and eleven female) untrained individuals were recruited (control group n = 6: age 42 ± 8 y, weight 64 ± 10 kg, BMI 24 ± 2 kg·m-2 or HIT group n = 8: age 43 ± 8 y, weight 80 ± 8 kg, BMI 29 ± 5 kg·m-2). Training was performed twice weekly, consisting of 10 × 6-second sprints with a one minute recovery between each sprint. Metabolic health (oral glucose tolerance test), aerobic capacity (incremental time to exhaustion on a cycle ergometer) and physical function (get up and go test, sit to stand test and loaded 50 m walk) were determined before and after training. Following eight weeks of HIT there was a significant improvement in aerobic capacity (8% increase in VO2 peak; p < 0.001), physical function (11%-27% respectively; p < 0.05) and a reduction in blood glucose area under the curve (6% reduction; p < 0.05). This study demonstrates for the first time the potential of HIT as a training intervention to improve skeletal muscle function and glucose clearance as we age. PMID:24833513

Adamson, Simon; Lorimer, Ross; Cobley, James N; Lloyd, Ray; Babraj, John

2014-01-01

50

The systemizing quotient: an investigation of adults with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism, and normal sex differences.  

PubMed Central

Systemizing is the drive to analyse systems or construct systems. A recent model of psychological sex differences suggests that this is a major dimension in which the sexes differ, with males being more drawn to systemize than females. Currently, there are no self-report measures to assess this important dimension. A second major dimension of sex differences is empathizing (the drive to identify mental states and respond to these with an appropriate emotion). Previous studies find females score higher on empathy measures. We report a new self-report questionnaire, the Systemizing Quotient (SQ), for use with adults of normal intelligence. It contains 40 systemizing items and 20 control items. On each systemizing item, a person can score 2, 1 or 0, so the SQ has a maximum score of 80 and a minimum of zero. In Study 1, we measured the SQ of n = 278 adults (114 males, 164 females) from a general population, to test for predicted sex differences (male superiority) in systemizing. All subjects were also given the Empathy Quotient (EQ) to test if previous reports of female superiority would be replicated. In Study 2 we employed the SQ and the EQ with n = 47 adults (33 males, 14 females) with Asperger syndrome (AS) or high-functioning autism (HFA), who are predicted to be either normal or superior at systemizing, but impaired at empathizing. Their scores were compared with n = 47 matched adults from the general population in Study 1. In Study 1, as predicted, normal adult males scored significantly higher than females on the SQ and significantly lower on the EQ. In Study 2, again as predicted, adults with AS/HFA scored significantly higher on the SQ than matched controls, and significantly lower on the EQ than matched controls. The SQ reveals both a sex difference in systemizing in the general population and an unusually strong drive to systemize in AS/HFA. These results are discussed in relation to two linked theories: the 'empathizing-systemizing' (E-S) theory of sex differences and the extreme male brain (EMB) theory of autism. PMID:12639333

Baron-Cohen, Simon; Richler, Jennifer; Bisarya, Dheraj; Gurunathan, Nhishanth; Wheelwright, Sally

2003-01-01

51

MMPI-2 Personality Profiles of High-Functioning Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Second Edition was administered to 20 adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) who fell in the average to above average range of intelligence and 24 age-, intelligence-, and gender-matched college students. Large group differences, with the ASD group scoring higher, were found on the L validity…

Ozonoff, Sally; Garcia, Nicanor; Clark, Elaine; Lainhart, Janet E.

2005-01-01

52

How impaired is mind-reading in high-functioning adolescents and adults with autism?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Difficulties in understanding the mental states of others are considered to be a core cognitive feature of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Traditional false-belief tasks were not suitable to measure mind-reading in adolescents and adults with ASD and were replaced by so-called more “advanced” tasks. A first series of tasks included the presentation of static stimuli in the visual or auditory

Herbert Roeyers; Ellen Demurie

2010-01-01

53

Emerging perspectives on adolescents and young adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders, violence, and criminal law.  

PubMed

As the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) has increased, attention has shifted toward consideration of ASDs in adolescence and adulthood, as well as public health repercussions for this population. Since the social and emotional deficits within ASDs may be salient during incidents of unintended criminal or violent behavior, one area of focus is involvement of adolescents and young adults with ASD in the criminal justice system. Without a thorough understanding of how and why individuals with ASDs may exhibit criminal behavior, judicial and legislative state systems have begun to develop policies lacking a substantial evidence base. In this article, we attempt to synthesize the literature on one type of ASD (high functioning) and criminal behavior. Three specific deficits characteristic of individuals with ASDs (theory of mind, emotion regulation, and moral reasoning) are examined as potential confluent forces leading to criminal behavior among individuals with ASDs. Legal and policy recommendations are presented. PMID:22635288

Lerner, Matthew D; Haque, Omar Sultan; Northrup, Eli C; Lawer, Lindsay; Bursztajn, Harold J

2012-01-01

54

Waist-Hip-Ratio as a Predictor of All-Cause Mortality in High-Functioning Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Purpose The relationship between obesity and mortality in older adults is debated, with concern that body mass index (BMI) may be an imperfect measure of obesity in this age group. We assessed the relationship between three measures of obesity and all-cause mortality in a group of healthy older adults. Methods We analyzed data from the MacArthur Successful Aging Study, a longitudinal study of highfunctioning men and women, aged 70–79 years at baseline. We examined 12-year, all-cause mortality risk by BMI, waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip circumference ratio (WHR). Proportional hazards regression was used to adjust for gender, race, baseline age, and smoking status. We tested for obesity interactions with gender, race, and smoking status, and conducted stratified analyses based on the results of interaction testing. Results There was no association between all-cause mortality and BMI or WC in either unadjusted or adjusted analyses. In contrast, all-cause mortality increased with WHR. There was an interaction with sex, so that there was a graded relationship between WHR and mortality in women (relative hazard, 1.28 per 0.1 increase in WHR, 95% confidence interval 1.05, 1.55) and a threshold relationship in men (relative hazard 1.75 for WHR>1.0 compared to WHR<=1.0, 95% confidence interval 1.06, 2.91). Conclusion WHR rather than BMI, appears to be the more appropriate yardstick for risk stratification of high-functioning older adults. PMID:19596204

Srikanthan, Preethi; Seeman, Teresa E; Karlamangla, Arun S

2011-01-01

55

Impaired Identification of Impoverished Animate but not Inanimate Objects in Adults With High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder.  

PubMed

The ability to identify animate and inanimate objects from impoverished images was investigated in adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFA) and in matched typically developed (TD) adults, using a newly developed task. Consecutive frames were presented containing Gabor elements that slightly changed orientation from one frame to the next. For a subset of elements, the changes were such that these elements gradually formed the outline of an object. Elements enclosed within the object's outline gradually adopted one and the same orientation, outside elements adopted random orientations. The subjective experience was that of an object appearing out of a fog. The HFA group required significantly more frames to identify the impoverished objects than the TD group. Crucially, this difference depended on the nature of the objects: the HFA group required significantly more frames to identify animate objects, but with respect to the identification of inanimate objects the groups did not differ. The groups also did not differ with respect to the number and type of incorrect guesses they made. The results suggest a specific impairment in individuals with HFA in identifying animate objects. A number of possible explanations are discussed. Autism Res 2014, ??: ??-??. © 2014 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25256015

Burnett, Hollie G; Panis, Sven; Wagemans, Johan; Jellema, Tjeerd

2014-09-25

56

A nationwide survey on quality of life and associated factors of adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders.  

PubMed

The psychosocial outcomes of individuals with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD) appear to be diverse and are often poor relative to their intellectual or language level. To identify predictive variables that are potentially ameliorable by therapeutic intervention, this study investigated self-reported psychosocial quality of life and associated factors for adults with HFASD. All participants (n = 154) had a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder, were over 18 years of age, lived in the community, and had used one or more support services during the survey period. The results demonstrated that psychosocial quality of life was lower than that of the general Japanese adult population. Environmental factors, such as mother's support and early diagnosis, were associated with better quality of life, and aggressive behaviors were associated with poorer quality of life, while expressive language level at preschool years, a conventional outcome predictor, did not predict quality of life. These results emphasize that quality of life measures should be included as outcome indicators in treating individuals with HFASD. PMID:22399449

Kamio, Yoko; Inada, Naoko; Koyama, Tomonori

2013-01-01

57

High-frequency dual mode pulsed wave Doppler imaging for monitoring the functional regeneration of adult zebrafish hearts.  

PubMed

Adult zebrafish is a well-known small animal model for studying heart regeneration. Although the regeneration of scars made by resecting the ventricular apex has been visualized with histological methods, there is no adequate imaging tool for tracking the functional recovery of the damaged heart. For this reason, high-frequency Doppler echocardiography using dual mode pulsed wave Doppler, which provides both tissue Doppler (TD) and Doppler flow in a same cardiac cycle, is developed with a 30 MHz high-frequency array ultrasound imaging system. Phantom studies show that the Doppler flow mode of the dual mode is capable of measuring the flow velocity from 0.1 to 15 cm s(-1) with high accuracy (p-value = 0.974 > 0.05). In the in vivo study of zebrafish, both TD and Doppler flow signals were simultaneously obtained from the zebrafish heart for the first time, and the synchronized valve motions with the blood flow signals were identified. In the longitudinal study on the zebrafish heart regeneration, the parameters for diagnosing the diastolic dysfunction, for example, E/Em < 10, E/A < 0.14 for wild-type zebrafish, were measured, and the type of diastolic dysfunction caused by the amputation was found to be similar to the restrictive filling. The diastolic function was fully recovered within four weeks post-amputation. PMID:25505135

Kang, Bong Jin; Park, Jinhyoung; Kim, Jieun; Kim, Hyung Ham; Lee, Changyang; Hwang, Jae Youn; Lien, Ching-Ling; Shung, K Kirk

2015-02-01

58

Social Interest in High-Functioning Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are principally characterized by impairments in social functioning. Experimental investigation often is conducted using methods measuring social attention, social cognition, and social communication. In this study, we instead measured interest in social information, making a distinction between basic-level…

Fletcher-Watson, Sue; Leekam, Susan R.; Findlay, John M.

2013-01-01

59

Sexual functioning in older adults.  

PubMed

This article reviews recent medical and social science literature on sexual functioning in older adults. We provide a broad definition of sexual functioning that includes a range of solo and partnered forms of sexual expression. We identify four determinants of sexual functioning: biologic, psychological, social context (including culture), and interactions of these with each other. Recent literature on the impact of aging and physical health documents some decline in frequency of sexual activity. Interest continues in the role of hormones in male and female sexual functioning. Recent research highlights the role of the social context, especially the presence of a sexual partner and the relationship with that partner, in sexual activity. We discuss variations in sexual functioning by life course events, gender, and race and ethnicity. Relevant results from the Global Study of Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors; Male Attitudes Regarding Sexual Health Survey; and the National Social Life, Health and Aging Project are also reviewed. PMID:19187702

DeLamater, John; Karraker, Amelia

2009-02-01

60

Sexual Well-Being of a Community Sample of High-Functioning Adults on the Autism Spectrum Who Have Been in a Romantic Relationship  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored factors (gender, age, relationship status, symptomatology) associated with the sexual well-being of 141 (56 men and 85 women) adults with high-functioning autism and Asperger syndrome (HFA/AS) living in the community. Participants completed an online survey consisting of a measure of autistic symptoms as well as measures of…

Byers, E. Sandra; Nichols, Shana; Voyer, Susan D.; Reilly, Georgianna

2013-01-01

61

A cognitive-behavioral intervention for emotion regulation in adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have difficulties in social communication; thus, these individuals have trouble understanding the mental states of others. Recent research also suggests that adults with ASD are unable to understand their own mental states, which could lead to difficulties in emotion-regulation. Some studies have reported the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in improving emotion-regulation among children with ASD. The current study will investigate the efficacy of group-based CBT for adults with ASD. Methods/Design The study is a randomized, waitlist controlled, single-blinded trial. The participants will be 60 adults with ASD; 30 will be assigned to a CBT group and 30 to a waitlist control group. Primary outcome measures are the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale, the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations, the Motion Picture Mind-Reading task, and an ASD questionnaire. The secondary outcome measures are the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, the World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale 26-item version, the Global Assessment of Functioning, State-trait Anxiety Inventory, Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory, and Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale. All will be administered during the pre- and post-intervention, and 12 week follow-up periods. The CBT group will receive group therapy over an 8 week period (one session per week) with each session lasting approximately 100 minutes. Group therapy will consist of four or five adults with ASD and two psychologists. We will be using visual materials for this program, mainly the Cognitive Affective Training kit. Discussion This trial will hopefully indicate the efficacy of group-based CBT for adults with high- functioning ASD. Trial registration This trial was registered in The University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry No. UMIN000006236. PMID:23880333

2013-01-01

62

Local vs. global approaches to reproducing the Rey Osterrieth Complex Figure by children, adolescents, and adults with high-functioning autism.  

PubMed

Individuals with autism have an atypical pattern of visual processing. Various studies have provided evidence that individuals with autism perceive the details of stimuli before the gestalt, the reverse of the typical pattern of visual processing. This study used the Rey Osterreith Complex Figure (ROCF) task and an objective scoring system to examine local/global processing approaches to its reproduction in 37 individuals diagnosed with high-functioning autism (HFA) compared to 49 age-, IQ-, and gender-matched typically developing controls (TD). The sample was divided into children (aged 8-14 years) and adolescents/adults (aged 15-47 years) to assess age effects. Results showed no difference in overall performance on the ROCF between HFA and TD children. TD participants displayed improved organizational and planning skills with age and a shift to global processing approaches, but there were no differences in performance between children and adolescents/adults with HFA. There was no evidence of enhanced local processing in either HFA group. These findings suggest that HFA individuals with average IQ scores do not have the clinically demonstrable evidence of the enhanced local processing thought to reflect increased local brain connectivity in more severely autistic individuals. The deficient global processing of the HFA adults reflects dependence of performance on impaired strategic problem-solving abilities, which has been demonstrated to result from under development of neural connectivity between visuo-spatial and frontal brain regions in HFA adults. PMID:19950303

Kuschner, Emily S; Bodner, Kimberly E; Minshew, Nancy J

2009-12-01

63

A Nationwide Survey on Quality of Life and Associated Factors of Adults with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The psychosocial outcomes of individuals with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD) appear to be diverse and are often poor relative to their intellectual or language level. To identify predictive variables that are potentially ameliorable by therapeutic intervention, this study investigated self-reported psychosocial quality of life…

Kamio, Yoko; Inada, Naoko; Koyama, Tomonori

2013-01-01

64

Divergent muscle functional and architectural responses to two successive high intensity resistance exercise sessions in competitive weightlifters and resistance trained adults.  

PubMed

Peak force (PF), contractile rate of force development (RFD) and contractile impulse (CI) are of great importance to competitive weightlifters (WL). These athletes routinely perform successive bouts of high-intensity resistance exercise (HIRE) within the same day (double-day training) with the aim of improving muscular function and weightlifting performance. The purpose of this investigation was to determine and compare the PF, contractile RFD and CI responses to double-day training between WL and resistance trained (RT) adults (n = 16 per group). Furthermore, we sought to establish whether acute changes in muscle function were associated with acute changes in muscle architecture. Isometric front squat PF, contractile RFD, CI and the pennation angle (?(p)), anatomical and physiological thickness of the m. vastus lateralis (VL) were determined before and after two equivalent HIRE sessions separated by 4-6 h rest. Each session consisted of ten single repetitions of the dynamic barbell front squat interspersed with 2-min rest, using a load equivalent to 90% of the pre-session PF. Weightlifters demonstrated greater PF at all time points when compared to RT adults and exhibited no significant within or between session changes in PF, contractile RFD or CI. Conversely, RT adults demonstrated within- and between-session decreases in PF and between-session increases in contractile RFD and CI. As no correlations were found between the relative within-session changes in muscle function and the concomitant changes in muscle architecture, other factors must contribute to the divergent responses in PF, contractile RFD and CI between WL and RT adults. PMID:22350356

Storey, Adam; Wong, Samantha; Smith, Heather K; Marshall, Paul

2012-10-01

65

Functional Performance in Community Living Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Routinely, physical therapists use a variety of physical performance tests to determine functional status of older adults. Whereas many commonly used instruments have been evaluated for some aspects of reliability and valid- ity, few studies report typical performance for community liv- ing older adults, especially those who are 80 years and older and use an assistive ambulatory device. The

Michelle M. Lusardi; Geraldine L. Pellecchia

66

Age and sensory processing abnormalities predict declines in encoding and recall of temporally manipulated speech in high-functioning adults with ASD.  

PubMed

While temporal and perceptual processing abnormalities, identified in a number of electrophysiological and brain imaging studies of individuals with (ASD), are likely to impact on speech perception, surprisingly little is known about the behavioral outcomes of such abnormalities. It has been hypothesized that rapid temporal processing deficits may be linked to impaired language development through interference with acoustic information during speech perception. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of temporal changes on encoding and recall of speech, and the associated cognitive, clinical, and behavioral correlates in adults with ASD. Research carried out with typically developing (TD) adults has shown that word recall diminishes as the speed of speech increases, and it was predicted that the magnitude of this effect would be far greater in those with ASD because of a preexisting rapid temporal processing deficit. Nineteen high-functioning adults with ASD, and age- and intelligence-matched TD controls performed verbatim recall of temporally manipulated sentences. Reduced levels of word recall in response to increases in presentation speed were observed, and this effect was greater in the older participants in the ASD group than in the control group. This is the first study to show that both sensory abnormalities and aging impact on speech encoding in ASD. Auditory processing deficits in ASD may be indicative of an association with the sensory abnormalities and social and communication impairments characterizing the disorder. PMID:24106132

Mayer, Jennifer L; Heaton, Pamela F

2014-02-01

67

Influence of an Early Recovery Telehealth Intervention on Physical Activity and Functioning following Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery (CABS) among Older Adults with High Disease Burden  

PubMed Central

Background Older adults with poor functioning preoperatively are at risk for delayed recovery and more impaired outcomes following CABS. Purpose To determine if a 6-week early recovery telehealth intervention, designed to improve self-efficacy and management related to symptoms following CABS, was effective in improving outcomes (physical activity, physiological and psychological functioning) for older adults (> 65 years old) with higher disease burden. Design A descriptive, repeated measures experimental design was used. Follow-up data was collected at 3- and 6-weeks and 3-months after CABS. Sample Subjects were drawn from a larger randomized clinical trial (RCT). Parent study subjects who had high disease burden preoperatively [physical component score of <50 on the Medical Outcome Study Short Form 36 (MOS SF-36) and a RISKO score of > 6], were included (N=55); with 23 subjects in the early recovery intervention group and 31 subjects in the usual care group (n=31). Subjects ranged from 65–85 years old (M=71.6 + 5.1). Findings There was a significant main effect by group [F(1,209)=4.66, p<.05), the intervention group had a least square means of 27.9 kcal/kg/day of energy expenditure compared to the usual care group of 26.6 kcal/kg/day per the RT3® accelerometer. Both groups had significantly improved physical [F(2,171)=3.26, p<.05] and role-physical [F(2,171)=6.64, p<.005] functioning over time. Conclusions The subgroup of CABS subjects with high disease burden was responsive to an early recovery telehealth intervention. Improving patients’ physical activity and functioning can reduce morbidity and mortality associated with poor functioning after cardiac events. PMID:19944870

Barnason, Susan; Zimmerman, Lani; Schulz, Paula; Tu, Chunhao

2009-01-01

68

Social Skills Training for Young Adults with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the psychosocial difficulties common among young adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), little to no evidence-based social skills interventions exist for this population. Using a randomized controlled trial (RCT) design, the current study tested the effectiveness of an evidence-based, caregiver-assisted social skills intervention…

Gantman, Alexander; Kapp, Steven K.; Orenski, Kaely; Laugeson, Elizabeth A.

2012-01-01

69

A test of central coherence theory: Can adults with high-functioning autism or Asperger syndrome integrate objects in context?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weak central coherence was investigated by exploring the conceptual integration of objects. Normally intelligent adults with either autism or Asperger syndrome were given two novel experiments. Experiment 1, the Object Integration test, had sets of line drawings depicting objects and people. Each set had to be either visually integrated to make the most coherent scene, or compared for similarities. The

Therese Jolliffe; Simon Baron-Cohen

2001-01-01

70

No significant brain volume decreases or increases in adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder and above average intelligence: a voxel-based morphometric study.  

PubMed

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is increasingly being recognized as an important issue in adult psychiatry and psychotherapy. High intelligence indicates overall good brain functioning and might thus present a particularly good opportunity to study possible cerebral correlates of core autistic features in terms of impaired social cognition, communication skills, the need for routines, and circumscribed interests. Anatomical MRI data sets for 30 highly intelligent patients with high-functioning autism and 30 pairwise-matched control subjects were acquired and analyzed with voxel-based morphometry. The gray matter volume of the pairwise-matched patients and the controls did not differ significantly. When correcting for total brain volume influences, the patients with ASD exhibited smaller left superior frontal volumes on a trend level. Heterogeneous volumetric findings in earlier studies might partly be explained by study samples biased by a high inclusion rate of secondary forms of ASD, which often go along with neuronal abnormalities. Including only patients with high IQ scores might have decreased the influence of secondary forms of ASD and might explain the absence of significant volumetric differences between the patients and the controls in this study. PMID:24953998

Riedel, Andreas; Maier, Simon; Ulbrich, Melanie; Biscaldi, Monica; Ebert, Dieter; Fangmeier, Thomas; Perlov, Evgeniy; Tebartz van Elst, Ludger

2014-08-30

71

Functional Neuroscience of Psychopathic Personality in Adults.  

PubMed

Psychopathy is a personality disorder that involves a constellation of traits including callous-unemotionality, manipulativeness, and impulsiveness. Here we review recent advances in the research of functional neural correlates of psychopathic personality traits in adults. We first provide a concise overview of functional neuroimaging findings in clinical samples diagnosed with the PCL-R. We then review studies with community samples that have focused on how individual differences in psychopathic traits (variously measured) relate to individual differences in brain function. Where appropriate, we draw parallels between the findings from these studies and those with clinical samples. Extant data suggest that individuals with high levels of psychopathic traits show lower activity in affect-processing brain areas to emotional/salient stimuli, and that attenuated activity may be dependent on the precise content of the task. They also seem to show higher activity in regions typically associated with reward processing and cognitive control in tasks involving moral processing, decision making, and reward. Furthermore, affective-interpersonal and lifestyle-antisocial facets of psychopathy appear to be associated with different patterns of atypical neural activity. Neuroimaging findings from community samples typically mirror those observed in clinical samples, and largely support the notion that psychopathy is a dimensional construct. PMID:25041571

Seara-Cardoso, Ana; Viding, Essi

2014-07-14

72

Functional Literacy of Young Guyanese Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the rationale, development, and administration of the test used for measuring levels of achievement in functional literacy in Guyana. Draws attention to the difficulty of attracting funding for literacy programmes from international aid agencies, given the inflated adult literacy rate that is reported for Guyana in international…

Jennings, Zellyne

2000-01-01

73

Neuropsychological functioning in adults with Asperger syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is some consensus in the literature regarding the cognitive profile of people with Asperger syndrome (AS). Findings to date suggest that a proportion of people with AS have higher verbal than performance IQ, a non-verbal learning disability (NVLD) and impairments in some aspects of executive function (EF). However, there are few published studies on adults with AS and many

Fiona Z. Ambery; Ailsa J. Russell; Katie Perry; Robin Morris; Declan G. M. Murphy

2006-01-01

74

The Empathy Quotient: An Investigation of Adults with Asperger Syndrome or High Functioning Autism, and Normal Sex Differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Empathy is an essential part of normal social functioning, yet there are precious few instruments for measuring individual differences in this domain. In this article we review psychological theories of empathy and its measurement. Previous instruments that purport to measure this have not always focused purely on empathy. We report a new self-report questionnaire, the Empathy Quotient (EQ), for use

Simon Baron-Cohen; Sally Wheelwright

2004-01-01

75

The Empathy Quotient: An Investigation of Adults with Asperger Syndrome or High Functioning Autism, and Normal Sex Differences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Empathy is an essential part of normal social functioning, yet there are precious few instruments for measuring individual differences in this domain. In this article we review psychological theories of empathy and its measurement. Previous instruments that purport to measure this have not always focused purely on empathy. We report a new…

Baron-Cohen, Simon; Wheelwright, Sally

2004-01-01

76

The Interplay between Attentional Strategies and Language Processing in High-Functioning Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the hypothesis of an atypical interaction between attention and language in ASD. A dual-task experiment with three conditions was designed, in which sentences were presented that contained errors requiring attentional focus either at (a) low level, or (b) high level, or (c) both levels of language. Speed and accuracy for error…

Koolen, Sophieke; Vissers, Constance Th. W. M.; Hendriks, Angelique W. C. J.; Egger, Jos I. M.; Verhoeven, Ludo

2012-01-01

77

A descriptive study of colorectal function in adults with Prader-Willi Syndrome: high prevalence of constipation  

PubMed Central

Background Some patients with Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) have symptoms of constipation, but bowel function in PWS has never been systematically evaluated. The aim of the present study was to describe colorectal function in PWS by means of validated techniques. Methods Twenty-one patients with PWS (14 women, age 17–47 (median?=?32)) were evaluated with the Rome III constipation criteria, stool diary, digital rectal examination, rectal diameter assessed from transabdominal ultrasound, and total gastrointestinal transit time (GITT) determined with radio-opaque markers. Results were compared with those of healthy controls. Results Among PWS patients able to provide information for Rome III criteria, 8/20 (40%) fulfilled the criteria for constipation. Most commonly reported symptoms were a feeling of obstructed defecation (8/19, 42%), <3 defecations per week (8/17, 47%), straining during defecation (7/19, 37%) and lumpy or hard stools (6/19, 32%). Rectal diameter did not differ between PWS (median 3.56 centimeters, range 2.24–5.36) and healthy controls (median 3.42 centimeters, range 2.67–4.72) (p?=?0.96), but more PWS patients (13/20; 65%) than healthy controls (3/25; 12%) (p?3 days in 5/21 (24%) of PWS and none of the controls (p?=?0.047). Conclusion Constipation is very common in PWS. Patients with PWS have an increased prevalence of prolonged GITT and palpable stools in the rectum at digital rectal examination. PMID:24708524

2014-01-01

78

Spatial navigation impairments among intellectually high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder: exploring relations with theory of mind, episodic memory, and episodic future thinking.  

PubMed

Research suggests that spatial navigation relies on the same neural network as episodic memory, episodic future thinking, and theory of mind (ToM). Such findings have stimulated theories (e.g., the scene construction and self-projection hypotheses) concerning possible common underlying cognitive capacities. Consistent with such theories, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by concurrent impairments in episodic memory, episodic future thinking, and ToM. However, it is currently unclear whether spatial navigation is also impaired. Hence, ASD provides a test case for the scene construction and self-projection theories. The study of spatial navigation in ASD also provides a test of the extreme male brain theory of ASD, which predicts intact or superior navigation (purportedly a systemizing skill) performance among individuals with ASD. Thus, the aim of the current study was to establish whether spatial navigation in ASD is impaired, intact, or superior. Twenty-seven intellectually high-functioning adults with ASD and 28 sex-, age-, and IQ-matched neurotypical comparison adults completed the memory island virtual navigation task. Tests of episodic memory, episodic future thinking, and ToM were also completed. Participants with ASD showed significantly diminished performance on the memory island task, and performance was positively related to ToM and episodic memory, but not episodic future thinking. These results suggest that (contra the extreme male brain theory) individuals with ASD have impaired survey-based navigation skills--that is, difficulties generating cognitive maps of the environment--and adds weight to the idea that scene construction/self-projection are impaired in ASD. The theoretical and clinical implications of these results are discussed. PMID:24364620

Lind, Sophie E; Williams, David M; Raber, Jacob; Peel, Anna; Bowler, Dermot M

2013-11-01

79

Spatial Navigation Impairments Among Intellectually High-Functioning Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorder: Exploring Relations With Theory of Mind, Episodic Memory, and Episodic Future Thinking  

PubMed Central

Research suggests that spatial navigation relies on the same neural network as episodic memory, episodic future thinking, and theory of mind (ToM). Such findings have stimulated theories (e.g., the scene construction and self-projection hypotheses) concerning possible common underlying cognitive capacities. Consistent with such theories, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by concurrent impairments in episodic memory, episodic future thinking, and ToM. However, it is currently unclear whether spatial navigation is also impaired. Hence, ASD provides a test case for the scene construction and self-projection theories. The study of spatial navigation in ASD also provides a test of the extreme male brain theory of ASD, which predicts intact or superior navigation (purportedly a systemizing skill) performance among individuals with ASD. Thus, the aim of the current study was to establish whether spatial navigation in ASD is impaired, intact, or superior. Twenty-seven intellectually high-functioning adults with ASD and 28 sex-, age-, and IQ-matched neurotypical comparison adults completed the memory island virtual navigation task. Tests of episodic memory, episodic future thinking, and ToM were also completed. Participants with ASD showed significantly diminished performance on the memory island task, and performance was positively related to ToM and episodic memory, but not episodic future thinking. These results suggest that (contra the extreme male brain theory) individuals with ASD have impaired survey-based navigation skills—that is, difficulties generating cognitive maps of the environment—and adds weight to the idea that scene construction/self-projection are impaired in ASD. The theoretical and clinical implications of these results are discussed. PMID:24364620

2013-01-01

80

A New Option in Adult Basic Education: The Adult Performance Level High School Diploma.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the Adult Performance Level (APL) project, an alternative to external high school diplomas such as the General Educational Development (GED) test. Based on the need for "functional literacy" or "functional competency," the program teaches basic skills (reading, writing, speaking, listening, communication, computation, problem…

Hensler, Vicki

81

Age trajectories of functional activation under conditions of low and high processing demands: an adult lifespan fMRI study of the aging brain.  

PubMed

We examined functional activation across the adult lifespan in 316 healthy adults aged 20-89years on a judgment task that, across conditions, drew upon both semantic knowledge and ability to modulate neural function in response to cognitive challenge. Activation in core regions of the canonical semantic network (e.g., left IFG) were largely age-invariant, consistent with cognitive aging studies that show verbal knowledge is preserved across the lifespan. However, we observed a steady linear increase in activation with age in regions outside the core network, possibly as compensation to maintain function. Under conditions of increased task demands, we observed a stepwise reduction across the lifespan of modulation of activation to increasing task demands in cognitive control regions (frontal, parietal, anterior cingulate), paralleling the neural equivalent of "processing resources" described by cognitive aging theories. Middle-age was characterized by decreased modulation to task-demand in subcortical regions (caudate, nucleus accumbens, thalamus), and very old individuals showed reduced modulation to task difficulty in midbrain/brainstem regions (ventral tegmental, substantia nigra). These novel findings suggest that aging of activation to demand follows a gradient along the dopaminergic/nigrostriatal system, with earliest manifestation in fronto-parietal regions, followed by deficits in subcortical nuclei in middle-age and then to midbrain/brainstem dopaminergic regions in the very old. PMID:25284304

Kennedy, Kristen M; Rodrigue, Karen M; Bischof, Gérard N; Hebrank, Andrew C; Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia A; Park, Denise C

2015-01-01

82

Endogenous Spatial Attention: Evidence for Intact Functioning in Adults With Autism  

E-print Network

Endogenous Spatial Attention: Evidence for Intact Functioning in Adults With Autism Michael A aspect of human cognition, and previous research on spatial attention in individuals with autism spectrum stimulus). We found that high-functioning adults with autism exhibited slower reaction times overall

Carrasco, Marisa

83

Impulsivity and Social Functioning in Healthy Young Adults.  

E-print Network

??The relationship between impulsivity and social functioning in healthy adults is currently debated. Several studies have found an association between impulsivity and maladaptive social behaviors… (more)

Dawson, Erica Lind

2008-01-01

84

Neuropsychological function in adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Recent studies indicate that attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) persists into adulthood, but little is known about the neuropsychological features of adult ADHD. Our objective was to assess neuropsychological functioning in adults with ADHD with a battery of executive function tests.Methods: Subjects were 64 unmedicated adults, 19–59 years of age, with DSM-III-R ADHD of childhood onset who met criteria for

Larry J Seidman; Joseph Biederman; Wendy Weber; Mary Hatch; Stephen V Faraone

1998-01-01

85

Health-Related Variables and Functional Fitness among Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assesses the functional fitness of a convenient sample of older adults (greater than 70 years), to examine correlations between functional fitness and several other health-related variables and to compare with criterion performance data as established by Rikli and Jones (2001). One hundred and seven community-dwelling older adults with…

Wilkin, Linda D.; Haddock, Bryan L.

2010-01-01

86

Functional Outcomes in the Treatment of Adults with ADHD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: ADHD is associated with significant functional impairment in adults. The present study examined functional outcomes following 6-month double-blind treatment with either atomoxetine or placebo. Method: Patients were 410 adults (58.5% male) with "DSM-IV"--defined ADHD. They were randomly assigned to receive either atomoxetine 40 mg/day to…

Adler, Lenard A.; Spencer, Thomas J.; Levine, Louise R.; Ramsey, Janet L.; Tamura, Roy; Kelsey, Douglas; Ball, Susan G.; Allen, Albert J.; Biederman, Joseph

2008-01-01

87

Functional Impairment and Occupational Outcome in Adults with ADHD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: ADHD is associated with poor functional outcomes. The objectives were to investigate the prevalence of functional impairment and occupational status in a clinically referred sample of adults with ADHD and explore factors predicting occupational outcome. Method: A sample of 149 adults with a confirmed diagnosis of ADHD participated in…

Gjervan, Bjorn; Torgersen, Terje; Nordahl, Hans M.; Rasmussen, Kirsten

2012-01-01

88

Cognitive functioning of the prelingually deaf adults.  

PubMed

Deafness is a model of brain adaptation to sensory deprivation which entails psychomotor and cognitive domains. This study seeks to determine the level of emotional intelligence, assessed from the ability to discern emotions from facial expressions, visual and mental attention, and non-verbal fluency in the deaf people as compared with the hearing counterparts. Participants were 29 prelingually deaf, hearing loss of >70 dB, communicating only in sign language, and 30 hearing persons. The age range of all subjects was 40-50 years. Psychometric tools consisted of the Emotional Intelligence Scale-Faces, the d2 Test of Attention, and the Figural Fluency Test. Data elaboration took gender into account. The findings were that both deaf women and men defined significantly fewer emotions as known, compared with the hearing persons. However, the deaf men, but not women, were able to properly recognize a higher percentage of emotions associated with a definite face look, among the emotions they knew. There were no appreciable differences in attention indices between the deaf and hearing men, but deaf women's total performance on attention was worse. By contrast, deaf women, but not men, fared better in non-verbal fluency, compared with their hearing counterparts. We conclude that, on the whole, prelingual deafness does not impede cognitive functioning in adult age. The nature of detecting and executing of cognitive tasks, despite gender and task-specific variations, is preserved. Brain networks are able to compensate for the missing auditory input. PMID:25310953

Pokorski, Mieczys?aw; Klima?ska, Sandra

2015-01-01

89

The Perspective of Young Adult Siblings of Individuals with Asperger Syndrome and High Functioning Autism: An Exploration of Grief and Implications for Developmental Transition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Asperger syndrome (AS) and high functioning autism are complex developmental disabilities that have a significant impact on the individual and his/her family. Asperger syndrome is characterized by challenges with understanding non-verbal communication, difficulties with social relationships, and restricted interests. Having a brother or sister…

Allgood, Nicole R.

2010-01-01

90

Brief report: examining driving behavior in young adults with high functioning autism spectrum disorders: a pilot study using a driving simulation paradigm.  

PubMed

Although it is speculated that impairments associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) will adversely affect driving performance, little is known about the actual extent and nature of the presumed deficits. Ten males (18-24 years of age) with a diagnosis of high functioning autism and 10 age matched community controls were recruited for a driving simulation experiment. Driving behavior, skin conductance, heart rate, and eye tracking measurements were collected. The high functioning ASD participants displayed a nominally higher and unvaried heart rate compared to controls. With added cognitive demand, they also showed a gaze pattern suggestive of a diversion of visual attention away from high stimulus areas of the roadway. This pattern deviates from what is presumed to be optimal safe driving behavior and appears worthy of further study. PMID:23338532

Reimer, Bryan; Fried, Ronna; Mehler, Bruce; Joshi, Gagan; Bolfek, Anela; Godfrey, Kathryn M; Zhao, Nan; Goldin, Rachel; Biederman, Joseph

2013-09-01

91

Civic Engagement for Older Adults With Functional Limitations: Piloting an Intervention for Adult Day Health Participants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Past research has demonstrated the importance of civic engagement for older adults, yet previous studies have not focused specifically on the potential benefits of civic engagement for older adults with functional limitations. This pilot study explored the feasibility and effectiveness of an intervention designed to promote civic…

Dabelko-Schoeny, Holly; Anderson, Keith A.; Spinks, Katie

2010-01-01

92

Linked alterations in gray and white matter morphology in adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder: A multimodal brain imaging study.  

PubMed

Growing evidence suggests that a broad range of behavioral anomalies in people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can be linked with morphological and functional alterations in the brain. However, the neuroanatomical underpinnings of ASD have been investigated using either structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and the relationships between abnormalities revealed by these two modalities remain unclear. This study applied a multimodal data-fusion method, known as linked independent component analysis (ICA), to a set of structural MRI and DTI data acquired from 46 adult males with ASD and 46 matched controls in order to elucidate associations between different aspects of atypical neuroanatomy of ASD. Linked ICA identified two composite components that showed significant between-group differences, one of which was significantly correlated with age. In the other component, participants with ASD showed decreased gray matter (GM) volumes in multiple regions, including the bilateral fusiform gyri, bilateral orbitofrontal cortices, and bilateral pre- and post-central gyri. These GM changes were linked with a pattern of decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) in several white matter tracts, such as the bilateral inferior longitudinal fasciculi, bilateral inferior fronto-occipital fasciculi, and bilateral corticospinal tracts. Furthermore, unimodal analysis for DTI data revealed significant reductions of FA along with increased mean diffusivity in those tracts for ASD, providing further evidence of disrupted anatomical connectivity. Taken together, our findings suggest that, in ASD, alterations in different aspects of brain morphology may co-occur in specific brain networks, providing a comprehensive view for understanding the neuroanatomy of this disorder. PMID:25610777

Itahashi, Takashi; Yamada, Takashi; Nakamura, Motoaki; Watanabe, Hiromi; Yamagata, Bun; Jimbo, Daiki; Shioda, Seiji; Kuroda, Miho; Toriizuka, Kazuo; Kato, Nobumasa; Hashimoto, Ryuichiro

2015-01-01

93

Linked alterations in gray and white matter morphology in adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder: A multimodal brain imaging study  

PubMed Central

Growing evidence suggests that a broad range of behavioral anomalies in people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can be linked with morphological and functional alterations in the brain. However, the neuroanatomical underpinnings of ASD have been investigated using either structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and the relationships between abnormalities revealed by these two modalities remain unclear. This study applied a multimodal data-fusion method, known as linked independent component analysis (ICA), to a set of structural MRI and DTI data acquired from 46 adult males with ASD and 46 matched controls in order to elucidate associations between different aspects of atypical neuroanatomy of ASD. Linked ICA identified two composite components that showed significant between-group differences, one of which was significantly correlated with age. In the other component, participants with ASD showed decreased gray matter (GM) volumes in multiple regions, including the bilateral fusiform gyri, bilateral orbitofrontal cortices, and bilateral pre- and post-central gyri. These GM changes were linked with a pattern of decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) in several white matter tracts, such as the bilateral inferior longitudinal fasciculi, bilateral inferior fronto-occipital fasciculi, and bilateral corticospinal tracts. Furthermore, unimodal analysis for DTI data revealed significant reductions of FA along with increased mean diffusivity in those tracts for ASD, providing further evidence of disrupted anatomical connectivity. Taken together, our findings suggest that, in ASD, alterations in different aspects of brain morphology may co-occur in specific brain networks, providing a comprehensive view for understanding the neuroanatomy of this disorder. PMID:25610777

Itahashi, Takashi; Yamada, Takashi; Nakamura, Motoaki; Watanabe, Hiromi; Yamagata, Bun; Jimbo, Daiki; Shioda, Seiji; Kuroda, Miho; Toriizuka, Kazuo; Kato, Nobumasa; Hashimoto, Ryuichiro

2014-01-01

94

Lung function abnormalities in HIV-infected adults and children.  

PubMed

Despite the advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART), the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic remains a global health crisis with a high burden of respiratory disease among infected persons. While the early complications of the epidemic were dominated by opportunistic infections, improved survival has led to the emergence of non-infectious conditions that are associated with chronic respiratory symptoms and pulmonary disability. Obstructive ventilatory defects and reduced diffusing capacity are common findings in adults, and the association between HIV and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is increasingly recognized. There is synergism between viral factors, opportunistic infections, conventional influences like tobacco smoke and biomass fuel exposure, and potentially, the immunological effects of ART on the development of HIV-associated chronic obstructive lung disease. Pulmonary function data for HIV-infected infants and children are scarce, but shows that bronchiectasis and obliterative bronchiolitis with severe airflow limitation are major problems, particularly in the developing world. However, studies from these regions are sorely lacking. There is thus a major unmet need to understand the influences of chronic HIV infection on the lung in both adults and children, and to devise strategies to manage and prevent these diseases in HIV-infected individuals. It is important for clinicians working with HIV-infected individuals to have an appreciation of their effects on measurements of lung function. This review therefore summarizes the lung function abnormalities described in HIV-positive adults and children, with an emphasis on obstructive lung disease, and examines potential pathogenic links between HIV and the development of chronic pulmonary disability. PMID:25251876

Calligaro, Gregory L; Gray, Diane M

2015-01-01

95

Very old adults with better memory function have higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and lower triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratios: KOCOA project  

PubMed Central

We examined cross-sectionally which lipid profiles are associated with better cognitive function among those aged 80 and older-free of dementia (Clinical Dementia Rating ? 0.5), functionally independent and community-dwelling. Our cohort consisted of 193 participants from the “Keys to Optimal Cognitive Aging (KOCOA) Project”, a prospective cohort study in Okinawa, Japan. Higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and lower triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratios were associated with higher scores in memory performance after controlling for confounders. Further research is required to clarify the associations among LDL-C levels, TG/HDL-C ratios, and healthy cognitive aging. PMID:23207484

Katsumata, Yuriko; Todoriki, Hidemi; Higashiuesato, Yasushi; Yasura, Shotoku; Ohya, Yusuke; Willcox, D. Craig; Dodge, Hiroko H.

2013-01-01

96

Sense of Time and Executive Functioning in Children and Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of patient studies suggest that impairments in frontal lobe functions are associated with disorders in temporal information processing. One implication of these findings is that subjective experience of time should be related to executive functions regardless of etiology. In two experiments, we examined sense of time in relation to components of executive functioning in healthy children and adults.

Maria Grazia Carelli; Helen Forman; Timo Mäntylä

2008-01-01

97

Effect of Extended Release Niacin on Serum Lipids and on Endothelial Function in Adults with Sickle Cell Anemia and Low High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels  

PubMed Central

Through bound apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) activates endothelial nitric oxide synthase, inducing vasodilation. Because patients with sickle cell disease (SCD)have low apoA-I andendothelial dysfunction,we conducted a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial to test whether extended-release niacin (niacin-ER) increases apoA-I-containing HDL-C, and improves vascular function in SCD. Twenty-seven SCD patientswith HDL-C <39 mg/dL or apoA-I <99 mg/dL were randomized to 12 weeks of niacin-ER, increased in 500mg increments to a maximum of 1500mg daily, or placebo. The primary outcome was the absolute change in HDL-C after 12 weeks, with endothelial function assessed before and at the end of treatment. Niacin-ER-treated patients trended to greater increase in HDL-C compared with placebo treatment at 12 weeks (5.1±7.7 vs. 0.9±3.8 mg/dL, one-tailed p=0.07), associated with significantly greater, improvements in the ratios of low-density lipoprotein to HDL-C (1.24 vs. 1.95, p = 0.003), and apolipoprotein B to apoA-I (0.46 vs. 0.58, p = 0.03) compared with placebo-treated patients. No improvements were detected in three independent vascular physiology assays of endothelial function. Thus, the relatively small changes in HDL-C achieved by the dose of niacin-ER used in our study are not associated with improved vascular function in patients with SCD with initially low levels of apoA-I or HDL-C. PMID:24035168

Scoffone, Heather M.; Krajewski, Megan; Zorca, Suzana; Bereal-Williams, Candice; Littel, Patricia; Seamon, Catherine; Mendelsohn, Laurel; Footman, Eleni; Jaoudeh, Nadine Abi; Sachdev, Vandana; Machado, Roberto F.; Cuttica, Michael; Shamburek, Robert; Cannon, Richard O.; Remaley, Alan; Minniti, Caterina P.; Kato, Gregory J.

2014-01-01

98

The Effects of Face Expertise Training on the Behavioral Performance and Brain Activity of Adults with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effect of expertise training with faces was studied in adults with ASD who showed initial impairment in face recognition. Participants were randomly assigned to a computerized training program involving either faces or houses. Pre- and post-testing included standardized and experimental measures of behavior and event-related brain potentials…

Faja, Susan; Webb, Sara Jane; Jones, Emily; Merkle, Kristen; Kamara, Dana; Bavaro, Joshua; Aylward, Elizabeth; Dawson, Geraldine

2012-01-01

99

A test of central coherence theory: linguistic processing in high-functioning adults with autism or Asperger syndrome: is local coherence impaired?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central coherence theory (Frith, U., 1989. Autism: Explaining the Enigma. Blackwell, Oxford.) is addressed by exploring linguistic processing in normally intelligent adults with either autism or Asperger syndrome, to test whether local coherence is impaired. Local coherence is the ability to make contextually meaningful connections between linguistic information in short-term or working memory. Experiment 1 demonstrated that individuals with an

Therese Jolliffe; Simon Baron-Cohen

1999-01-01

100

Multiple roads lead to Rome: combined high-intensity aerobic and strength training vs. gross motor activities leads to equivalent improvement in executive functions in a cohort of healthy older adults.  

PubMed

The effects of physical activity on cognition in older adults have been extensively investigated in the last decade. Different interventions such as aerobic, strength, and gross motor training programs have resulted in improvements in cognitive functions. However, the mechanisms underlying the relationship between physical activity and cognition are still poorly understood. Recently, it was shown that acute bouts of exercise resulted in reduced executive control at higher relative exercise intensities. Considering that aging is characterized by a reduction in potential energy ([Formula: see text] max?-?energy cost of walking), which leads to higher relative walking intensity for the same absolute speed, it could be argued that any intervention aimed at reducing the relative intensity of the locomotive task would improve executive control while walking. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of a short-term (8 weeks) high-intensity strength and aerobic training program on executive functions (single and dual task) in a cohort of healthy older adults. Fifty-one participants were included and 47 (age, 70.7?±?5.6) completed the study which compared the effects of three interventions: lower body strength + aerobic training (LBS-A), upper body strength + aerobic training (UBS-A), and gross motor activities (GMA). Training sessions were held 3 times every week. Both physical fitness (aerobic, neuromuscular, and body composition) and cognitive functions (RNG) during a dual task were assessed before and after the intervention. Even though the LBS-A and UBS-A interventions increased potential energy to a higher level (Effect size: LBS-A-moderate, UBS-A-small, GMA-trivial), all groups showed equivalent improvement in cognitive function, with inhibition being more sensitive to the intervention. These findings suggest that different exercise programs targeting physical fitness and/or gross motor skills may lead to equivalent improvement in cognition in healthy older adults. Such results call for further investigation of the multiple physiological pathways by which physical exercise can impact cognition in older adults. PMID:25194940

Berryman, Nicolas; Bherer, Louis; Nadeau, Sylvie; Lauzière, Séléna; Lehr, Lora; Bobeuf, Florian; Lussier, Maxime; Kergoat, Marie Jeanne; Vu, Thien Tuong Minh; Bosquet, Laurent

2014-01-01

101

Adult High School Instruction Program. Technical Assistance Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is designed to provide local adult education administrators and teachers in Florida with information to help them to implement adult high school programs more effectively, in compliance with the State of Florida Adult High School Course Curriculum Framework. The paper addresses the following five areas: (1) purpose and terminology; (2)…

Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Workforce Development.

102

Adult Functional Illiteracy: A Pervasive Problem.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifies the immensity of the illiteracy problem, enumerates who are the functional illiterates, and explains what is being done by voluntary organizations such as Literacy Volunteers of America to eradicate it. Literacy Volunteers of New York City, the problem of financial support, and national awareness and progress are highlighted. (EJS)

Smith, Eleanor Touhey

1983-01-01

103

Neuropsychological Functioning in Adults with Asperger Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is some consensus in the literature regarding the cognitive profile of people with Asperger syndrome (AS). Findings to date suggest that a proportion of people with AS have higher verbal than performance IQ, a non-verbal learning disability (NVLD) and impairments in some aspects of executive function (EF). However, there are few published…

Ambery, Fiona Z.; Russell, Ailsa J.; Perry, Katie; Morris, Robin; Murphy, Declan G. M.

2006-01-01

104

Adolescent development, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function, and programming of adult learning and memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic exposure to stress is known to affect learning and memory in adults through the release of glucocorticoid hormones by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. In adults, glucocorticoids alter synaptic structure and function in brain regions that express high levels of glucocorticoid receptors and that mediate goal-directed behaviour and learning and memory. In contrast to relatively transient effects of stress on

Cheryl M. McCormick; Iva Z. Mathews

2010-01-01

105

Neuropsychological function in adults with von Recklinghausen's neurofibromatosis.  

PubMed

The cognitive function of adults with von Recklinghausen's neurofibromatosis (NF-1) was examined. This study sought to replicate in an adult sample the findings of decreased visuospatial and attention abilities reported for many children with NF-1. Specifically, it was anticipated that adults with NF-1 would be classified separately from unaffected controls according to visual and attention-executive function skills. Second, this study examined whether language skills discriminated between adults with NF-1 and unaffected controls. The sample included 20 participants with NF-1 and 25 control participants. All participants were administered a battery of neuropsychological tests (Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration (VMI), Judgment of Line Orientation (JLO), Visual Form Discrimination, Booklet Category Test, Figure Cancellation, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised (PPVT-R), Sentence Repetition, Controlled Oral Word Association). The results of a discriminant function analysis partially supported the hypothesis: Two of the tests of visual-spatial skill (VMI, JLO) and one of the language tests (PPVT-R) were found to be the best predictors for group membership. The discriminant function accounted for 45% of the variance between the groups and correctly classified 15 of the NF-1 participants and 21 of the control participants. Post hoc exploratory analyses revealed that the VMI was the most important test in discriminating between the groups. It is suggested that patients with NF-1 will tend to have sparing of basic cognitive functions but will have greater impairment on tests that use multiple cognitive skills. PMID:16671865

Pavol, Marykay; Hiscock, Merrill; Massman, Paul; Moore Iii, Bartlett; Foorman, Barbara; Meyers, Christina

2006-01-01

106

Determinants of Adult Day Center Attendance Among Older Adults With Functional Limitations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine factors related to regularity of adult day center (ADC) attendance among seniors with functional limitations. Methods: Using data collected as part of a larger study, we identified the proportion of scheduled days attended among 101 ADC users in Montréal and identified determinants of this attendance. Results: More regular attendance was associated with previous profession of ADC participant

Jacinthe Savard; Nicole Leduc; Paule Lebel; François Béland; Howard Bergman

2009-01-01

107

Prostaglandin E2 levels and platelet function are different in cord blood compared to adults.  

PubMed

Neonatal platelets support primary haemostasis and thrombin generation as well as adult platelets, despite observable hypoaggregability in vitro. High prostaglandin E2 levels at accouchement could account for inhibited platelet function via the EP4 receptor. We set out to determine prostaglandin E2 plasma levels in cord blood of healthy neonates and evaluate the impact of prostaglandin E2 on platelet function in adult and cord blood samples. Prostaglandin E2 plasma levels were measured in cord blood and venous adult blood using GC-MS. Impact of prostaglandin E2 on platelet aggregation was measured by spiking cord blood and adult samples. Contributions of EP3 and EP4 receptors were evaluated using respective antagonists. Intracellular cAMP concentrations were measured using a commercial ELISA-kit. Prostaglandin E2 plasma levels were substantially higher in cord blood than in adult samples. Spiking with prostaglandin E2 resulted in a slight but consistent reduction of platelet aggregation in adult blood, but response to PGE2 was blunted in cord blood samples. Aggregation response of spiked adult samples was still higher than with non-spiked cord blood samples. Blockage of EP4 receptors resulted in improved platelet aggregation in adult platelets upon prostaglandin E2 spiking, while aggregation in cord blood samples remained unaltered. Intracellular cAMP concentrations after preincubation with prostaglandin E2 were only increased in adult samples. In conclusion, very high prostaglandin E2 concentrations in cord blood affect platelet function. This effect may partially explain neonatal platelet hypoaggregability. Peak levels of prostaglandin E2 can potentially protect against birth stress-induced platelet activation. PMID:25118631

Schlagenhauf, A; Haidl, H; Leschnik, B; Leis, H-J; Heinemann, A; Muntean, W

2015-01-01

108

Axonal sprouting accompanies functional reorganization in adult cat striate cortex  

Microsoft Academic Search

REMOVAL of sensory input from a focal region of adult neocortex can lead to a large reorganization of cortical topography within the deprived area during subsequent months1-9. Although this form of functional recovery is now well documented across several sensory systems, the underlying cellular mechanisms remain elusive. Weeks after binocular retinal lesions silence a corresponding portion of striate cortex in

Corinna Darian-Smith; Charles D. Gilbert

1994-01-01

109

Longitudinal Changes in Cognitive Functioning in Adult Day Care Participants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines longitudinal changes in cognitive functioning over the course of 2 years in participants of adult day care programs. Cognitive measures included the Brief Cognitive Rating Scale (BCRS) and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Longitudinal data were available for five measurement points over 2 years for 82 participants (22 males and 60 females). Overall, results from this study

Jiska Cohen-Mansfield; Ann L. Gruber-Baldini; William J. Culpepper; Perla Werner

1996-01-01

110

Functional food awareness and perceptions in relation to information sources in older adults  

PubMed Central

Background The functional food industry has experienced innovative and economic expansion, yet research into consumer perceptions of functional foods and their associated health claims is limited. Among consumers, older adults could benefit from functional foods due to age-related issues pertaining to food and health. The purpose of this research was to identify the need for information related to functional foods among older adults (?60 years old) and to assess awareness and perceptions of health claims on functional food packages. Methods Community-dwelling older adults (n?=?200) completed a researcher administered questionnaire designed to collect information about functional foods including current consumption, motivating factors for consumption, perceived need for information, sources of information for functional foods and awareness of health claims. Results Prevalence of functional food consumption among participants was 93.0%. Increased awareness and knowledge was the most commonly reported factor that would promote functional food consumption (85.5%) and 63.5% of participants wanted more information about functional foods with preferred sources being newspapers/magazines/books (68.5%) and food labels (66.1%). Participants were predominately (93.5%) aware of health claims on functional foods and those with more education were more likely to report being aware of health claims (p?=?0.045). Conclusions Although functional food consumption among older adults in this sample is high, there is a need for further information regarding functional foods. These results inform stakeholders regarding the potential for information to influence functional food acceptance among older adult consumers. PMID:24886306

2014-01-01

111

BDNF function in adult synaptic plasticity: The synaptic consolidation hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest in BDNF as an activity-dependent modulator of neuronal structure and function in the adult brain has intensified in recent years. Localization of BDNF-TrkB to glutamate synapses makes this system attractive as a dynamic, activity-dependent regulator of excitatory transmission and plasticity. Despite individual breakthroughs, an integrated understanding of BDNF function in synaptic plasticity is lacking. Here, we attempt to distill

Clive R. Bramham; Elhoucine Messaoudi

2005-01-01

112

The association between energy cost of walking and physical function in older adults.  

PubMed

To assess the association between energy cost of walking and self-report of function, independent of comorbidity and gait speed, in older adults with mobility limitations. This cross-sectional observational study was conducted within an ambulatory clinical research training center. Forty-two older adults, age 65 and older, with slow and variable gait participated. Function was assessed using the Late Life Function and Disability Index-Basic Lower Extremity Subscale, while energy cost of walking was derived by standardizing the mean oxygen consumption recorded during physiological steady state by gait speed. Comorbidity and gait speed were collected as co-variates. Pearson's r correlation coefficient and regression analyses were used to assess the relationship between energy cost and function. Energy cost of walking was significantly correlated with self-reported function (Pearson's r=-0.50, p<0.001); furthermore, energy cost of walking explained an additional 17% (p=0.002) of the variance in self-reported function above and beyond the variance explained by comorbidity and gait speed combined. Energy cost of walking is emerging as another significant factor related to functional performance among older adults, even after controlling for comorbidity and gait speed - robust variables known for their strong contributions to function. Knowledge of and attention to the efficiency of how one moves (high energy cost of walking) may enhance rehabilitation efforts to further reduce "functional burden" in older adults. PMID:23680536

Wert, David M; Brach, Jennifer S; Perera, Subashan; VanSwearingen, Jessie

2013-01-01

113

Systemic inflammation and lung function in young adults  

PubMed Central

Background Impaired lung function is associated with systemic inflammation and is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in older adults. It is unknown when these associations emerge and to what extent they are mediated by smoking, chronic airways disease, and/or established atherosclerosis. We explored the association between the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and the systemic inflammatory marker C?reactive protein (CRP) in young adults. Methods Associations between spirometric lung function and blood CRP were assessed in a population based birth cohort of approximately 1000 New Zealanders at ages 26 and 32?years. Analyses adjusted for height and sex to account for differences in predicted lung function and excluded pregnant women. Results There were significant inverse associations between FEV1 and CRP at both ages. Similar results were found for the forced vital capacity. These associations were similar in men and women and were independent of smoking, asthma, and body mass index. Conclusions Reduced lung function is associated with systemic inflammation in young adults. This association is not related to smoking, asthma, or obesity. The reasons for the association are unexplained, but the findings indicate that the association between lower lung function and increased inflammation predates the development of either chronic lung disease or clinically significant atherosclerosis. The association between poor lung function and cardiovascular disease may be mediated by an inflammatory mechanism. PMID:17604302

Hancox, Robert J; Poulton, Richie; Greene, Justina M; Filsell, Susan; McLachlan, Christene R; Rasmussen, Finn; Taylor, D Robin; Williams, Michael J A; Williamson, Avis; Sears, Malcolm R

2007-01-01

114

Functional Language Networks in Sedentary and Physically Active Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have identified consistent age-related changes during various cognitive tasks, such that older individuals display more positive and less negative task-related activity than young adults. Recently, evidence shows that chronic physical exercise may alter aging-related changes in brain activity; however, the effect of exercise has not been studied for the neural substrates of language function. Additionally, the potential mechanisms by which aging alters neural recruitment remain understudied. To address these points, the present study enrolled elderly adults who were either sedentary or physically active to characterize the neural correlates of language function during semantic fluency between these groups in comparison to a young adult sample. Participants underwent fMRI during semantic fluency and transcranial magnetic stimulation to collect the ipsilateral silent period, a measure of interhemispheric inhibition. Results indicated that sedentary older adults displayed reductions in negative task-related activity compared to the active old group in areas of the attention network. Longer interhemispheric inhibition was associated with more negative task-related activity in the right and left posterior perisylvian cortex, suggesting that sedentary aging may result in losses in task facilitatory cortical inhibition. However, these losses may be mitigated by regular engagement in physical exercise. PMID:23458438

Zlatar, Zvinka Z.; Towler, Stephen; McGregor, Keith M.; Dzierzewski, Joseph M.; Bauer, Andrew; Phan, Stephanie; Cohen, Matthew; Marsiske, Michael; Manini, Todd M.; Crosson, Bruce

2013-01-01

115

Basal ganglia function, stuttering, sequencing, and repair in adult songbirds.  

PubMed

A pallial-basal-ganglia-thalamic-pallial loop in songbirds is involved in vocal motor learning. Damage to its basal ganglia part, Area X, in adult zebra finches has been noted to have no strong effects on song and its function is unclear. Here we report that neurotoxic damage to adult Area X induced changes in singing tempo and global syllable sequencing in all animals, and considerably increased syllable repetition in birds whose song motifs ended with minor repetitions before lesioning. This stuttering-like behavior started at one month, and improved over six months. Unexpectedly, the lesioned region showed considerable recovery, including immigration of newly generated or repaired neurons that became active during singing. The timing of the recovery and stuttering suggest that immature recovering activity of the circuit might be associated with stuttering. These findings indicate that even after juvenile learning is complete, the adult striatum plays a role in higher level organization of learned vocalizations. PMID:25307086

Kubikova, Lubica; Bosikova, Eva; Cvikova, Martina; Lukacova, Kristina; Scharff, Constance; Jarvis, Erich D

2014-01-01

116

Basal ganglia function, stuttering, sequencing, and repair in adult songbirds  

PubMed Central

A pallial-basal-ganglia-thalamic-pallial loop in songbirds is involved in vocal motor learning. Damage to its basal ganglia part, Area X, in adult zebra finches has been noted to have no strong effects on song and its function is unclear. Here we report that neurotoxic damage to adult Area X induced changes in singing tempo and global syllable sequencing in all animals, and considerably increased syllable repetition in birds whose song motifs ended with minor repetitions before lesioning. This stuttering-like behavior started at one month, and improved over six months. Unexpectedly, the lesioned region showed considerable recovery, including immigration of newly generated or repaired neurons that became active during singing. The timing of the recovery and stuttering suggest that immature recovering activity of the circuit might be associated with stuttering. These findings indicate that even after juvenile learning is complete, the adult striatum plays a role in higher level organization of learned vocalizations. PMID:25307086

Kubikova, Lubica; Bosikova, Eva; Cvikova, Martina; Lukacova, Kristina; Scharff, Constance; Jarvis, Erich D.

2014-01-01

117

Just How Adult Is This Young Adult Book: Young Adult Books for the Junior High Readers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses young adult novels and presents a bibliography to acquaint librarians with titles and authors that are suitable for emerging young adult readers in grades five through nine. Subject categories include realistic fiction, in the news, historical fiction, short stories, legendary characters, mysteries, science fiction/fantasy/horror, and…

Decker, Charlotte

1999-01-01

118

Multi-tasking, Executive Function, and Functional Abilities in Older Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus  

E-print Network

There is growing evidence that older adults with type 2 diabetes exhibit deficits in executive function, the set of processes responsible for planning, organizing, sequencing, and monitoring goal-oriented behavior. However, ...

Rucker, Jason Lee

2014-05-31

119

Psychiatric comorbidity and functioning in a clinically referred population of adults with autism spectrum disorders: a comparative study.  

PubMed

To systematically examine the patterns of psychiatric comorbidity and functioning in clinically referred adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Psychiatrically referred adults with and without ASD were compared on measures assessing for psychiatric comorbidity and psychosocial functioning. Sixty-three adults with ASD participated in the study (mean age: 29 ± 11 years). Adults with ASD in their lifetime suffered from a higher burden of psychiatric disorders (6 ± 3.4 vs. 3.5 ± 2.7; p < 0.001) including major depressive disorder and multiple anxiety disorders, and were functionally more impaired with a significant proportion having received both counseling and pharmacotherapy. Adults with ASD have high levels of psychiatric comorbidity and dysfunction comparable to a clinically referred population of adults without ASD. PMID:23076506

Joshi, Gagan; Wozniak, Janet; Petty, Carter; Martelon, Mary Kate; Fried, Ronna; Bolfek, Anela; Kotte, Amelia; Stevens, Jonathan; Furtak, Stephannie L; Bourgeois, Michelle; Caruso, Janet; Caron, Ashley; Biederman, Joseph

2013-06-01

120

Functional polymorphisms in dopamine-related genes: Effect on neurocognitive functioning in HIV+ adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dopaminergic dysfunction is a putative mechanism underlying HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Dopamine transporter (DAT), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) have been specifically implicated. We report analyses examining the main effects of functional polymorphisms within dopamine-modulating genes, as well as their interactive effects with disease severity, upon neurocognitive functioning in HIV+ adults. Method: A total of 184 HIV+ adults were

Andrew J. Levine; Janet S. Sinsheimer; Robert Bilder; Paul Shapshak; Elyse J. Singer

2012-01-01

121

Functional polymorphisms in dopamine-related genes: Effect on neurocognitive functioning in HIV+ adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dopaminergic dysfunction is a putative mechanism underlying HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Dopamine transporter (DAT), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) have been specifically implicated. We report analyses examining the main effects of functional polymorphisms within dopamine-modulating genes, as well as their interactive effects with disease severity, upon neurocognitive functioning in HIV+ adults. Method: A total of 184 HIV+ adults were

Andrew J. Levine; Janet S. Sinsheimer; Robert Bilder; Paul Shapshak; Elyse J. Singer

2011-01-01

122

Functional involvement of cerebral cortex in adult sleepwalking  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Abstract\\u000a   The pathophysiology of adult sleepwalking is still poorly understood. However, it is widely accepted that sleepwalking is\\u000a a disorder of arousal. Arousal circuits widely project to the cortex, including motor cortex. We hypothesized that functional\\u000a abnormality of these circuits could lead to changes in cortical excitability in sleepwalkers, even during wakefulness. We\\u000a used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to examine

A. Oliviero; G. Della Marca; P. A. Tonali; F. Pilato; E. Saturno; M. Dileone; M. Rubino; V. Di Lazzaro

2007-01-01

123

Economics and Adults Identified as Low-Functioning Deaf  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals who read below second-grade level, achieve in school below fourth-grade level, or have secondary conditions in addition to deafness may be identified by state rehabilitation agency counselors or other professionals as having “low-functioning deafness” (LFD). There are an estimated 125,000 to 165,000 adults with LFD in the United States today. Most do not work, but they tend to be

Frank G. Bowe

2004-01-01

124

Competency-Based Adult High School Curriculum Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This compilation of program materials serves as an introduction to and overview of Florida's Brevard Community College's (BCC's) Competency-Based Adult High School Completion Project, which was conducted to teach administrators, counselors, and teachers how to organize and implement a competency-based adult education (CBAE) program; to critique…

Singer, Elizabeth

125

Correlation of Symptoms to Function in Older Adults with Comorbidity  

PubMed Central

Objectives To (1) describe the relationship between symptom scores and mobility function measures, (2) assess whether symptom scores and disease scores are similarly associated with mobility function, and (3) identify clusters of symptoms that are most strongly associated with functional status in older adults Design Secondary analysis of cross-sectional data from three cohorts Setting Academic medical center Participants 195 community-dwelling subjects with poor flexibility or cardiorespiratory fitness (fitness cohort), 211 female retirement community residents with vertebral fractures (VF cohort), and 61 subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD cohort) Measurements 20-item self-reported symptom scale, 17-item self-reported disease scale, Short Form 36 (SF-36) Physical Functioning Scale, 5-item Nagi Disability scale, 10-meter walk time, supine to stand time Results Symptom scores correlated with mobility function measures (Spearman correlation coefficients range from 0.222 to 0.509) at least as strongly as, if not more strongly than did disease scores. Symptom scores remained associated with functional outcomes after controlling for disease score and demographic variables. Adding symptom scores to models that contained disease scores significantly increased the association with functional outcomes. In the fitness cohort, muscle weakness was the most explanatory single symptom, associated with an average decrease of 17.8 points on the Physical Functioning Scale. A model that included only muscle weakness, pain, and shortness of breath accounted for 21.2% of the variability in the Physical Functioning Score. Conclusion Symptoms represent useful indicators of disability burden in older adults and are promising targets for interventions to improve function in complex patients. PMID:19392960

Whitson, Heather E; Sanders, Linda L; Pieper, Carl F; Morey, Miriam C; Oddone, Eugene Z; Gold, Deborah T; Cohen, Harvey Jay

2009-01-01

126

Risk of High Dietary Calcium for Arterial Calcification in Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Concern has recently arisen about the potential adverse effects of excessive calcium intakes, i.e., calcium loading from supplements, on arterial calcification and risks of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in older adults. Published reports that high calcium intakes in free-living adults have relatively little or no beneficial impact on bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture rates suggest that current recommendations of calcium for adults may be set too high. Because even healthy kidneys have limited capability of eliminating excessive calcium in the diet, the likelihood of soft-tissue calcification may increase in older adults who take calcium supplements, particularly in those with age or disease-related reduction in renal function. The maintenance of BMD and bone health continues to be an important goal of adequate dietary calcium consumption, but eliminating potential risks of CVDs from excessive calcium intakes needs to be factored into policy recommendations for calcium by adults. PMID:24084054

Anderson, John J. B.; Klemmer, Philip J.

2013-01-01

127

The test of functional health literacy in adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To develop a valid, reliable instrument to measure the functional health literacy of patients.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a DESIGN: The Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (TOFHLA) was developed using actual hospital materials. The TOFHLA consists\\u000a of a 50-item reading comprehension and 17-item numerical ability test, taking up to 22 minutes to administer. The TOFHLA,\\u000a the Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised (WRAT-R), and

Ruth M. Parker; David W. Baker; Mark V. Williams; Joanne R. Nurss

1995-01-01

128

Executive function and bilingualism in young and older adults  

PubMed Central

Research suggests that being bilingual results in advantages on executive control processes and disadvantages on language tasks relative to monolinguals. Furthermore, the executive function advantage is thought to be larger in older than younger adults, suggesting that bilingualism may buffer against age-related changes in executive function. However, there are potential confounds in some of the previous research, as well as inconsistencies in the literature. The goal of the current investigation was to examine the presence of a bilingual advantage in executive control and a bilingual disadvantage on language tasks in the same sample of young and older monolingual anglophones, monolingual francophones, and French/English bilinguals. Participants completed a series of executive function tasks, including a Stroop task, a Simon task, a sustained attention to response task (SART), the Wisconsin Card Sort Test (WCST), and the digit span subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, and language tasks, including the Boston Naming Test (BNT), and category and letter fluency. The results do not demonstrate an unequivocal advantage for bilinguals on executive function tasks and raise questions about the reliability, robustness and/or specificity of previous findings. The results also did not demonstrate a disadvantage for bilinguals on language tasks. Rather, they suggest that there may be an influence of the language environment. It is concluded that additional research is required to fully characterize any language group differences in both executive function and language tasks. PMID:25120442

Kousaie, Shanna; Sheppard, Christine; Lemieux, Maude; Monetta, Laura; Taler, Vanessa

2014-01-01

129

Rfx6 Maintains the Functional Identity of Adult Pancreatic ? Cells.  

PubMed

Increasing evidence suggests that loss of ? cell characteristics may cause insulin secretory deficiency in diabetes, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we show that Rfx6, whose mutation leads to neonatal diabetes in humans, is essential to maintain key features of functionally mature ? cells in mice. Rfx6 loss in adult ? cells leads to glucose intolerance, impaired ? cell glucose sensing, and defective insulin secretion. This is associated with reduced expression of core components of the insulin secretion pathway, including glucokinase, the Abcc8/SUR1 subunit of KATP channels and voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels, which are direct targets of Rfx6. Moreover, Rfx6 contributes to the silencing of the vast majority of "disallowed" genes, a group usually specifically repressed in adult ? cells, and thus to the maintenance of ? cell maturity. These findings raise the possibility that changes in Rfx6 expression or activity may contribute to ? cell failure in humans. PMID:25497096

Piccand, Julie; Strasser, Perrine; Hodson, David J; Meunier, Aline; Ye, Tao; Keime, Céline; Birling, Marie-Christine; Rutter, Guy A; Gradwohl, Gérard

2014-12-24

130

Functional Impairment in Adult Sleepwalkers: A Case-Control Study  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To investigate the restorative quality of sleep and daytime functioning in sleepwalking adult patients in comparison with controls. Design: Prospective case-control study. Setting: Data were collected at the Sleep Disorders Center, Hôpital-Gui-de Chauliac, Montpellier, France between June 2007 and January 2011. Participants: There were 140 adult sleepwalkers (100 (median age 30 y, 55% male) in whom primary SW was diagnosed) who underwent 1 night of video polysomnography. All patients participated in a standardized clinical interview and completed a battery of questionnaires to assess clinical characteristics of parasomnia, daytime sleepiness, fatigue, insomnia, depressive and anxiety symptoms, and health-related quality of life. Results were compared with those of 100 sex- and age-matched normal controls. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Of the sleepwalkers, 22.3% presented with daily episodes and 43.5% presented with weekly episodes. Median age at sleepwalking onset was 9 y. Familial history of sleepwalking was reported in 56.6% of sleepwalkers and violent sleep related behaviors in 57.9%, including injuries requiring medical care for at least one episode in 17%. Significant associations were found between sleepwalking and daytime sleepiness, fatigue, insomnia, depressive and anxiety symptoms, and altered quality of life. Early-onset sleepwalkers had higher frequency of violent behaviors and injuries. Sleepwalkers with violent behaviors had higher frequency of sleep terrors and triggering factors, with greater alteration in health-related quality of life. Conclusion: Adult sleepwalking is a potentially serious condition that may induce violent behaviors, self-injury or injury to bed partners, sleep disruption, excessive daytime sleepiness, fatigue, and psychological distress, all of which affect health-related quality of life. Citation: Lopez R; Jaussent I; Scholz S; Bayard S; Montplaisir J; Dauvilliers Y. Functional impairment in adult sleepwalkers: a case-control study. SLEEP 2013;36(3):345-351. PMID:23450499

Lopez, Regis; Jaussent, Isabelle; Scholz, Sabine; Bayard, Sophie; Montplaisir, Jacques; Dauvilliers, Yves

2013-01-01

131

Structural and Functional Rich Club Organization of the Brain in Children and Adults  

PubMed Central

Recent studies using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) have proposed that the brain’s white matter is organized as a rich club, whereby the most highly connected regions of the brain are also highly connected to each other. Here we use both functional and diffusion-weighted MRI in the human brain to investigate whether the rich club phenomena is present with functional connectivity, and how this organization relates to the structural phenomena. We also examine whether rich club regions serve to integrate information between distinct brain systems, and conclude with a brief investigation of the developmental trajectory of rich-club phenomena. In agreement with prior work, both adults and children showed robust structural rich club organization, comprising regions of the superior medial frontal/dACC, medial parietal/PCC, insula, and inferior temporal cortex. We also show that these regions were highly integrated across the brain’s major networks. Functional brain networks were found to have rich club phenomena in a similar spatial layout, but a high level of segregation between systems. While no significant differences between adults and children were found structurally, adults showed significantly greater functional rich club organization. This difference appeared to be driven by a specific set of connections between superior parietal, insula, and supramarginal cortex. In sum, this work highlights the existence of both a structural and functional rich club in adult and child populations with some functional changes over development. It also offers a potential target in examining atypical network organization in common developmental brain disorders, such as ADHD and Autism. PMID:24505468

Grayson, David S.; Ray, Siddharth; Carpenter, Samuel; Iyer, Swathi; Dias, Taciana G. Costa; Stevens, Corinne; Nigg, Joel T.; Fair, Damien A.

2014-01-01

132

Physical Function and Disability in Older Adults with Diabetes.  

PubMed

Functional decline and physical disability are an important clinical and public health problem in older adults because they are associated with loss of independence, nursing home admission, and mortality. Several impairments and comorbidities related to or associated with diabetes are potential disabling conditions that could account for the excess risk of disability. But in most studies, no single condition explains this association. Accelerated loss of muscle strength is a potential mediator in the disabling effect of diabetes. Because some diabetes-related comorbidities are potential modifiable risk factors, preventing and reducing the excess risk of disability associated with diabetes needs further study. PMID:25453301

de Rekeneire, Nathalie; Volpato, Stefano

2015-02-01

133

High Glucose Accelerates Autophagy in Adult Rat Intervertebral Disc Cells  

PubMed Central

Study Design In vitro cell culture. Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of high glucose on autophagy in adult rat intervertebral disc cells. Overview of Literature Diabetes mellitus is considered to be an important etiologic factor for intervertebral disc degeneration, resulting in degenerative disc diseases. A glucose-mediated increase of autophagy is a major causative factor for the development of diseases associated with diabetes mellitus. However, no information is available for the effect of high glucose on autophagy in adult intervertebral disc cells. Methods Nucleus pulposus and annulus fibrosus cells were isolated from 24-week-old adult rats, cultured and placed in either 10% fetal bovine serum (normal control) or 10% fetal bovine serum plus two different high glucose concentrations (0.1 M and 0.2 M) (experimental conditions) for one and three days, respectively. The expressions of autophagy markers, such as beclin-1, light chain 3-I (LC3-I) and LC3-II, autophagy-related gene (Atg) 3, 5, 7 and 12, were identified and quantified. Results Two high glucoses significantly increased the expressions of beclin-1, LC3-II, Atg3, 5, 7, and 12 in adult rat nucleus pulposus and annulus fibrosus cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The ratio of LC3-II/LC3-I expression was also increased in a dose-respectively time-dependent manner. Conclusions The results suggest that autophagy of adult nucleus pulposus and annulus fibrosus cells might be a potential mechanism for the intervertebral disc degeneration in adult patients with diabetes mellitus. Thus, the prevention of autophagy in adult intervertebral disc cells might be considered as a novel therapeutic target to prevent or to delay the intervertebral disc degeneration in adult patients with diabetes mellitus. PMID:25346805

Kong, Chae-Gwan; Kim, Man Soo; Park, Eun-Young

2014-01-01

134

Executive Functioning and Adaptive Coping in Healthy Adults.  

PubMed

Middle-aged individuals encounter multiple environmental demands to which they must develop efficient solutions, thus making the study of executive functions and coping strategies within this age group important. This study evaluated the relationship between the planning and flexible organization of executive function with adaptive coping strategies (ACS) in adults aged 43 to 52 years old. The study included 104 participants, including 52 men and 52 women, with no history of neurological or psychiatric illnesses, diabetes, or hypertension. The participants engaged in the Tower of London(DX) (TOL(DX)) test, the Wisconsin Card-Sorting Test (WCST), and the Coping Strategies Inventory. A relationship was observed between the percentage of errors and conceptual-level responses (WCST) and the Problem Solving ACS. In a separate analysis performed on the men, a negative relationship was discovered between the WCST and the Emotional Expression ACS. In the female group, the dimensions of the WCST and the TOL(DX) were associated with the ACS Emotional Expression and Problem-Solving subscales and the maladaptive coping strategy Social Withdrawal subscale. The relationship between executive functioning and the ACS is multidimensional, complex, and different between men and women. This study adds a neuropsychological characterization of the relationship between executive functions and ACS with ecological validity. The study confirms a relationship between the flexible organization of executive function and the Problem-Solving ACS. PMID:25074520

Rodríguez Villegas, Ana Lilia; Salvador Cruz, Judith

2014-07-29

135

Linguistic Skills of Adult Native Speakers, as a Function of Age and Level of Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assessed, in a sample of 98 adult native speakers of Dutch, how their lexical skills and their speaking proficiency varied as a function of their age and level of education and profession (EP). Participants, categorized in terms of their age (18-35, 36-50, and 51-76 years old) and the level of their EP (low versus high), were tested on…

Mulder, Kimberley; Hulstijn, Jan H.

2011-01-01

136

Thyroid function in adult Nigerians with metabolic syndrome  

PubMed Central

Introduction Metabolic syndrome and thyroid dysfunction are two common disorders encountered in the metabolic clinic. Recently, there has been increased interest in the association between the two disorders because of the similarities between symptoms of hypothyroidism and components of the metabolic syndrome. While some reports suggest that metabolic syndrome is associated with subclinical hypothyroidism, this concept is largely under investigated in Nigerian adults with metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study is to determine the thyroid function status of adult Nigerians with metabolic syndrome and determine the association, if any, between metabolic syndrome and thyroid function. Methods This was a cross sectional study of one hundred and fifty adults, members of staff of the College of Medicine of the University of Lagos. The participants were recruited using a cluster random sampling method. The Ethical Research & Review Committee of the institution approved the study protocol and signed informed consent was obtained from the participants. The statistics was analysed using the IBM SPSS Software of version 19.0. The Student's t test, Chi square test and multivariate regression analysis were employed for the analysis. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Results Thirty nine (twenty-six percent) of the study participants had metabolic syndrome and one hundred and eleven (seventy-four percent) of the study participants did not have metabolic syndrome, served as controls. Those who had metabolic syndrome group were significantly older (p = 0.03), metabolic syndrome was significantly associated with the female gender (p = 0.0002), higher systolic blood pressure (p = 0.0034), diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.0009), waist circumference (p < 0.0001), body mass index (p < 0.0001), waist-hip ratio (p = 0.003), fasting serum glucose (p = 0.0457) and free thyroxine (fT4) levels (p = 0.0496). Those with metabolic syndrome had significantly lower HDL (P = 0.004) and free triiodothyronine (fT3) levels (p = 0.037). There was no statistically significant difference in the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels between individuals with and without metabolic syndrome. Thirty-three percent of the metabolic syndrome cases had sick euthyroid syndrome (p= < 0.0001). In multivariate regression, waist circumference was significantly and inversely associated with the sick euthyroid syndrome (p = 0.011). Conclusion Metabolic syndrome is associated with the sick euthyroid syndrome in adult Nigerians. Abdominal obesity appears to be the link between metabolic syndrome and the sick euthyroid syndrome.

Udenze, Ifeoma; Nnaji, Ilochi; Oshodi, Temitope

2014-01-01

137

Functional Imaging of Working Memory and Peripheral Endothelial Function in Middle-Aged Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study examined the relationship between a prognostic indicator of vascular health, flow-mediated dilation (FMD), and working memory-related brain activation in healthy middle-aged adults. Forty-two participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while completing a 2-Back working memory task. Brachial artery…

Gonzales, Mitzi M.; Tarumi, Takashi; Tanaka, Hirofumi; Sugawara, Jun; Swann-Sternberg, Tali; Goudarzi, Katayoon; Haley, Andreana P.

2010-01-01

138

A bidirectional relationship between physical activity and executive function in older adults  

PubMed Central

Physically active lifestyles contribute to better executive function. However, it is unclear whether high levels of executive function lead people to be more active. This study uses a large sample and multi-wave data to identify whether a reciprocal association exists between physical activity and executive function. Participants were 4555 older adults tracked across four waves of the English Longitudinal Study of Aging. In each wave executive function was assessed using a verbal fluency test and a letter cancelation task and participants reported their physical activity levels. Fixed effects regressions showed that changes in executive function corresponded with changes in physical activity. In longitudinal multilevel models low levels of physical activity led to subsequent declines in executive function. Importantly, poor executive function predicted reductions in physical activity over time. This association was found to be over 50% larger in magnitude than the contribution of physical activity to changes in executive function. This is the first study to identify evidence for a robust bidirectional link between executive function and physical activity in a large sample of older adults tracked over time. PMID:25628552

Daly, Michael; McMinn, David; Allan, Julia L.

2015-01-01

139

Suicidal ideation and its determinants in Korean adults: The role of physical activity and functional limitations.  

PubMed

The recognition of suicide as a major public health problem has suggested the need to identify risk factors that have implications for preventive intervention. In the suicidal process, suicidal ideation is a key stage in the pathway leading to eventual suicide. This study investigated the influence of physical activity and functional limitations on suicidal ideation among young and middle-aged adults in a high suicidal society. Data for the current study were obtained from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2009 (KNHANES), a cross-sectional study conducted by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The survey conducted face-to-face interviews with young adults (n = 2326) and middle-aged adults (n = 3396). Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, the relationship of physical activity and functional limitations with suicidal ideation in young and middle-aged adults was assessed. A notable outcome was that the absence of a regular walking was correlated with increased suicidal ideation in middle-aged women. The other major finding was that young women and middle-aged adults with functional limitations had a high rate of suicidal thoughts. Multiple intervention approaches, including informational, social and behavioural approaches, are needed to promote regular walking in middle-aged women. For instance, mass media campaigns, community walking groups and individually adapted health behaviour modification may provide opportunities for positive intervention. Additionally, another important public health implication from these findings is the need for a suicide-intervention support system that includes screening for suicide risk in healthcare settings, especially among young women with physical limitations. PMID:25434531

Park, S M

2014-12-01

140

The relationship between functional health literacy and health promoting behaviors among older adults  

PubMed Central

Background: Health literacy is a measure of individual's ability to read, comprehend, and act on medical instructions. Older adults are one of the most important at risk groups affected by the impact of inadequate health literacy. Health promoting behaviors in older adults have potential impact on their health and quality of life and reduce the costs incurred to health care. Given the paucity of information health literacy and health promoting behavior, the purpose of this study was to examine health literacy level in older adults and the relationship between health literacy and health promoting behaviors. Materials and Method: A cross-sectional survey of 354 older adults was conducted in Isfahan. The method of sampling was clustering. Health literacy was measured using the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (TOFHLA). Data were collected via home interviewing. Health promoting behaviors were measured based on self-reported smoking status, exercise, and consumption of fruit and vegetables. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and one-way ANOVA and ?2 tests under SPSS 18 software. Results: The sample group averaged 67 ± 6.97 years in age. Approximately 79.6% of adults were found to have inadequate health literacy. They tended to be older, have fewer years of schooling, lower household income, and being female Individuals with inadequate health literacy were more likely to report limitations in activity and lower consumption of fruit and vegetables (P < 0.001). No significant association was found between health literacy and smoking status. Conclusion: Considering high prevalence of inadequate health literacy among older adults, and its inverse relationship with some health promoting behaviors. Simple educational materials and effective interventions for low health literacy people can improve health promotion in society and mitigate the adverse health effects of low health literacy.

Reisi, Mahnoush; Javadzade, Seyed Homamodin; Heydarabadi, Akbar Babaei; Mostafavi, Firouzeh; Tavassoli, Elahe; Sharifirad, Gholamreza

2014-01-01

141

Affecting Rhomboid-3 Function Causes a Dilated Heart in Adult Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Drosophila is a well recognized model of several human diseases, and recent investigations have demonstrated that Drosophila can be used as a model of human heart failure. Previously, we described that optical coherence tomography (OCT) can be used to rapidly examine the cardiac function in adult, awake flies. This technique provides images that are similar to echocardiography in humans, and therefore we postulated that this approach could be combined with the vast resources that are available in the fly community to identify new mutants that have abnormal heart function, a hallmark of certain cardiovascular diseases. Using OCT to examine the cardiac function in adult Drosophila from a set of molecularly-defined genomic deficiencies from the DrosDel and Exelixis collections, we identified an abnormally enlarged cardiac chamber in a series of deficiency mutants spanning the rhomboid 3 locus. Rhomboid 3 is a member of a highly conserved family of intramembrane serine proteases and processes Spitz, an epidermal growth factor (EGF)–like ligand. Using multiple approaches based on the examination of deficiency stocks, a series of mutants in the rhomboid-Spitz–EGF receptor pathway, and cardiac-specific transgenic rescue or dominant-negative repression of EGFR, we demonstrate that rhomboid 3 mediated activation of the EGF receptor pathway is necessary for proper adult cardiac function. The importance of EGF receptor signaling in the adult Drosophila heart underscores the concept that evolutionarily conserved signaling mechanisms are required to maintain normal myocardial function. Interestingly, prior work showing the inhibition of ErbB2, a member of the EGF receptor family, in transgenic knock-out mice or individuals that received herceptin chemotherapy is associated with the development of dilated cardiomyopathy. Our results, in conjunction with the demonstration that altered ErbB2 signaling underlies certain forms of mammalian cardiomyopathy, suggest that an evolutionarily conserved signaling mechanism may be necessary to maintain post-developmental cardiac function. PMID:20523889

Yu, Lin; Lee, Teresa; Lin, Na; Wolf, Matthew J.

2010-01-01

142

Binge Drinking Impairs Vascular Function in Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Objectives The study aimed to assess whether young binge drinkers have impaired macrovascular and microvascular function and cardiovascular (CV) disease risk factors compared to age-matched alcohol abstainers. Background Binge drinking rates are highest on college campuses and among 18- to 25-year-olds; however, macrovascular and microvascular endothelial function in young adults with a history of repeated binge drinking (?5 standard drinks in 2 hrs. in men; ?4 standard drinks in 2 hrs. in women) has not been investigated Methods We evaluated the cardiovascular profile, brachial artery endothelial-dependent flow mediated vasodilation (FMD), and flow independent nitroglycerin (NTG)-mediated dilation and vasoreactivity of resistance arteries (isolated from gluteal fat biopsies) in abstainers and binge drinkers. Results Men and women (18–25 years of age, abstainers [A] n = 17, binge drinkers [BD] n = 19) were enrolled. Among the BD group, past-month average number of binge episodes was 6 ± 1, and average duration of binge drinking behavior was 4 ± 0.6 years. FMD and NTG-mediated dilations were significantly lower in the BD (FMD: 8.4% ± 0.7, P = 0.022; NTG: 19.6% ± 2, P = 0.009) than the A group (FMD: 11 ± 0.7%; NTG: 28.6 ± 2%). ACh- and SNP-induced dilation in resistance arteries was not significantly different between the A and BD groups. However, ET-1-induced constriction was significantly enhanced in the BD group compared to the A group (P = 0.032). No differences between groups were found in blood pressure, lipoproteins, and C-reactive protein. Conclusions Alterations in the macrocirculation and microcirculation may represent early clinical manifestations of CV risk in otherwise healthy young binge drinkers. This study has important clinical implications for screening young adults for a repeated history of binge drinking. PMID:23623907

Goslawski, Melissa; Piano, Mariann R.; Bian, Jing-Tan; Church, Emily; Szczurek, Mary; Phillips, Shane A.

2013-01-01

143

Adult-born granule cells mature through two functionally distinct states  

PubMed Central

Adult-born granule cells (ABGCs) are involved in certain forms of hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. It has been proposed that young but functionally integrated ABGCs (4-weeks-old) specifically contribute to pattern separation functions of the dentate gyrus due to their heightened excitability, whereas old ABGCs (>8 weeks old) lose these capabilities. Measuring multiple cellular and integrative characteristics of 3- 10-week-old individual ABGCs, we show that ABGCs consist of two functionally distinguishable populations showing highly distinct input integration properties (one group being highly sensitive to narrow input intensity ranges while the other group linearly reports input strength) that are largely independent of the cellular age and maturation stage, suggesting that ‘classmate’ cells (born during the same period) can contribute to the network with fundamentally different functions. Thus, ABGCs provide two temporally overlapping but functionally distinct neuronal cell populations, adding a novel level of complexity to our understanding of how life-long neurogenesis contributes to adult brain function. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03104.001 PMID:25061223

Brunner, János; Neubrandt, Máté; Van-Weert, Susan; Andrási, Tibor; Kleine Borgmann, Felix B; Jessberger, Sebastian; Szabadics, János

2014-01-01

144

Environmental disorder and functional decline among older adults: A layered context approach.  

PubMed

Environmental context is widely recognized as a critical influence on older adults' well-being. Disorderly conditions, in particular, are believed to threaten health and to potentially accelerate functional decline. The current article develops a layered context approach that integrates neighborhood and household disorder and considers their impact on various status groups of older adults in American society. Using two waves of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (n = 1608), we assess longitudinal fall risk and the incidence of functional limitations as a function of layered environmental risk-constructs measured systematically by trained observers. Results indicate a weak/moderate correlation between neighborhood and household disorder (r = 0.29). In multivariate analysis, disorderly household conditions raise the risk of falling, particularly for older adults with at least a high school level of education. Neighborhood disorder, moreover, was associated with incident functional limitations only among the most educated seniors. Together, these findings highlight the complex interplay between older people and their environments and the importance of investigating differential vulnerability in the effects of layered contextual risk. PMID:25461872

Schafer, Markus H; Upenieks, Laura

2015-01-01

145

Health. Nevada Competency-Based Adult High School Diploma Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is one of ten curriculum guides developed by the Nevada Competency-Based Adult High School Diploma (CBAHSD) Project. This curriculum guide on health is divided into ten topics. The topics included are Nutrition, Reproduction, Menstruation, Contraception, Alcohol Abuse, Tobacco, Immunization, Disease, Accident Prevention, and…

Nevada Univ., Las Vegas. Coll. of Education.

146

Apolipoprotein E and kidney function in older adults  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies suggest that the ?4 and ?2 alleles of apolipoprotein E (APOE) may be associated with decreased and increased risks of CKD, respectively, but there are limited data in older adults. We evaluated the associations of apolipoprotein E alleles with kidney function among older adults in the cardiovascular health study (CHS). Methods Caucasian participants had APOE allelic analysis and serum creatinine and cystatin C measured at baseline (n = 3,844 for cross sectional analysis) and in follow up (n = 3,226 for longitudinal analysis). APOE variation was evaluated as an additive model with number of ?2, ?3 and ?4 alleles. GFR was estimated using the CKD epidemiology equation (eGFRcreat) and the cystatin C demographic equation (eGFRcys). The primary outcome was CKD defined by eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2. The secondary outcome was rapid progression defined by annual loss of eGFR > 3 ml/min/1.73 m2. Results Mean eGFRcreat was 72 ml/min/1.73 m2 (25% CKD). Compared with the ?3 allele, the APOE ?4 allele was associated with reduced risk of CKD by eGFRcreat: unadjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.79 (0.67 – 0.93) per allele, fully adjusted OR (95% CI) 0.80 (0.68 – 0.96) per allele. Results were consistent using eGFRcys. There was no association of the ?2 allele with CKD or between the apolipoprotein E gene with rapid progression. Conclusions The apolipoprotein ?4 allele was associated with lower odds of CKD in elderly Caucasian individuals. Future research should confirm these findings in other races and explore mechanisms to explain these results. PMID:22874105

Seshasai, Rebecca Kurnik; Katz, Ronit; de Boer, Ian H.; Siscovick, David; Shlipak, Michael G.; Rifkin, Dena E.; Sarnak, Mark J.

2013-01-01

147

"Real world" functioning in schizophrenia patients and healthy adults: assessing validity of the Multidimensional Scale of Independent Functioning.  

PubMed

As treatment efforts to enhance cognitive abilities in schizophrenia increase, so too does the need for a critical appraisal of instruments that measure functionality and adjustment to community living. The Multidimensional Scale of Independent Functioning (MSIF; Jaeger et al., 2003) is a promising instrument that assesses functionality in relation to different life settings, performance levels, responsibilities and environmental supports. However, its applicability to the schizophrenia population has been questioned because relevant data are scarce. This study provides descriptive and validity-related information by reporting MSIF scores in healthy community-dwelling adults (n=71) and in schizophrenia outpatients (n=156). Results show that healthy adults performed within defined "normal" ranges in most MSIF domains in comparison to schizophrenia patients who showed moderate to severe impairments. Moreover, the MSIF distinguished between the two groups with accuracy rates as high as 98% and effect sizes (standardized mean group difference) above 2.0 in almost all domains. Accordingly, the MSIF is a potentially valuable measure of community independence that can inform treatment initiatives and may be adaptable to the evaluation of functionality changes over time. The unique structure and content of information obtained by the MSIF makes it a candidate for inclusion in studies aimed at developing a new generation of instruments for the assessment of real world functioning in schizophrenia. PMID:20797798

Miles, Ashley A; Heinrichs, R Walter; Ammari, Narmeen

2011-03-30

148

Generation of functional multipotent adult stem cells from GPR125+ germline progenitors  

PubMed Central

Adult mammalian testis is a source of pluripotent stem cells1. However, the lack of specific surface markers has hampered identification and tracking of the unrecognized subset of germ cells that gives rise to multipotent cells2. Although embryonic-like cells can be derived from adult testis cultures after only several weeks in vitro1, it is not known whether adult self-renewing spermatogonia in long-term culture can generate such stem cells as well. Here, we show that highly proliferative adult spermatogonial progenitor cells (SPCs) can be efficiently obtained by cultivation on mitotically inactivated testicular feeders containing CD34+ stromal cells. SPCs exhibit testicular repopulating activity in vivo and maintain the ability in long-term culture to give rise to multi-potent adult spermatogonial-derived stem cells (MASCs). Furthermore, both SPCs and MASCs express GPR125, an orphan adhesion-type G-protein-coupled receptor. In knock-in mice bearing a GPR125–?-galactosidase (LacZ) fusion protein under control of the native Gpr125 promoter (GPR125–LacZ), expression in the testis was detected exclusively in spermatogonia and not in differentiated germ cells. Primary GPR125–LacZ SPC lines retained GPR125 expression, underwent clonal expansion, maintained the phenotype of germline stem cells, and reconstituted spermatogenesis in busulphan-treated mice. Long-term cultures of GPR125+ SPCs (GSPCs) also converted into GPR125+ MASC colonies. GPR125+MASCs generated derivatives of the three germ layers and contributed to chimaeric embryos, with concomitant downregulation of GPR125 during differentiation into GPR125? cells. MASCs also differentiated into contractile cardiac tissue in vitro and formed functional blood vessels in vivo. Molecular book marking by GPR125 in the adult mouse and, ultimately, in the human testis could enrich for a population of SPCs for derivation of GPR125+ MASCs, which may be employed for genetic manipulation, tissue regeneration and revascularization of ischaemic organs. PMID:17882221

Seandel, Marco; James, Daylon; Shmelkov, Sergey V.; Falciatori, Ilaria; Kim, Jiyeon; Chavala, Sai; Scherr, Douglas S.; Zhang, Fan; Torres, Richard; Gale, Nicholas W.; Yancopoulos, George D.; Murphy, Andrew; Valenzuela, David M.; Hobbs, Robin M.; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo; Rafii, Shahin

2010-01-01

149

Stronger vection in junior high school children than in adults  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have shown that even elementary school-aged children (7 and 11 years old) experience visually induced perception of illusory self-motion (vection) (Lepecq et al., 1995, Perception, 24, 435–449) and that children of a similar age (mean age = 9.2 years) experience more rapid and stronger vection than do adults (Shirai et al., 2012, Perception, 41, 1399–1402). These findings imply that although elementary school-aged children experience vection, this ability is subject to further development. To examine the subsequent development of vection, we compared junior high school students' (N = 11, mean age = 14.4 years) and adults' (N = 10, mean age = 22.2 years) experiences of vection. Junior high school students reported significantly stronger vection than did adults, suggesting that the perceptual experience of junior high school students differs from that of adults with regard to vection and that this ability undergoes gradual changes over a relatively long period of development. PMID:24971067

Shirai, Nobu; Imura, Tomoko; Tamura, Rio; Seno, Takeharu

2014-01-01

150

Low level methylmercury exposure affects neuropsychological function in adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The neurotoxic effects of methylmercury (MeHg) have been demonstrated in both human and animal studies. Both adult and fetal brains are susceptible to the effects of MeHg toxicity. However, the specific effects of adult exposures have been less well-documented than those of children with prenatal exposures. This is largely because few studies of MeHg exposures in adults have used

Edna M. Yokoo; Joaquim G Valente; Lynn Grattan; Sérgio Luís Schmidt; Illeane Platt; Ellen K Silbergeld

2003-01-01

151

Influence of Abdominal Obesity on Vascular Endothelial Function in Overweight\\/Obese Adult Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been suggested that body fat distribution may be an important determinant of the impact of adiposity on endothelial function. We tested the hypothesis that overweight\\/obese adults with abdominal adiposity exhibit worse endothelial vasodilator and fibrinolytic function than overweight\\/obese adults without abdominal adiposity. Sixty adult men were studied: 20 normal weight (BMI: 22.3 ± 0.7 kg\\/m2; waist circumference (WC):

Brian R. Weil; Brian L. Stauffer; Michael L. Mestek; Christopher A. DeSouza

2011-01-01

152

Cognitive Ability as a Resource for Everyday Functioning among Older Adults Who Are Visually Impaired  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on a study that investigated the role of cognitive resources in the everyday functioning of 121 older adults who were visually impaired and 150 sighted older adults, with a mean age of 82 years. Cognitive performance and everyday functioning were most strongly related in the group who were visually impaired. The authors…

Heyl, Vera; Wahl, Hans-Werner

2010-01-01

153

Older Adults in Cardiac Rehabilitation: A New Strategy for Enhancing Physical Function.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contrasted the effect of a group-mediated cognitive- behavioral intervention (GMCB) versus traditional cardiac rehabilitation (CRP) upon changes in objective and self-reported physical function of older adults after 3 months of exercise therapy. Both groups improved significantly. Adults with lower function at the outset of the intervention…

Rejeski, W. Jack; Foy, Capri Gabrielle; Brawley, Lawrence R.; Brubaker, Peter H.; Focht, Brian C.; Norris, James L., III; Smith, Marci L.

2002-01-01

154

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Lung function in adults following in utero and childhood exposure  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Lung function in adults following in utero and childhood exposure to arsenic water causes non-malignant lung disease, but nearly all data concern exposed adults. The desert city and long-term lung function. We present these preliminary findings because of the magnitude of the effects

California at Berkeley, University of

155

Cardiovascular risks and brain function: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study of executive function in older adults  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular (CV) risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia are associated with cognitive impairment and risk of dementia in older adults. However, the mechanisms linking them are not clear. This study aims to investigate the association between aggregate CV risk, assessed by the Framingham general cardiovascular risk profile, and functional brain activation in a group of community-dwelling older adults. Sixty participants (mean age: 64.6 years) from the Brain Health Study, a nested study of the Baltimore Experience Corps Trial, underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging using the Flanker task. We found that participants with higher CV risk had greater task-related activation in the left inferior parietal region, and this increased activation was associated with poorer task performance. Our results provide insights into the neural systems underlying the relationship between CV risk and executive function. Increased activation of the inferior parietal region may offer a pathway through which CV risk increases risk for cognitive impairment. PMID:24439485

Chuang, Yi-Fang; Eldreth, Dana; Erickson, Kirk I.; Varma, Vijay; Harris, Gregory; Fried, Linda P.; Rebok, George W.; Tanner, Elizabeth K.; Carlson, Michelle C.

2014-01-01

156

The developmental significance of late adolescent substance use for early adult functioning.  

PubMed

This study examines the predictive significance of late adolescent substance use groups (i.e., abstainers, experimental users, at-risk users, and abusers) for early adult adaptation. Participants (N = 159) were drawn from a prospective longitudinal study of first-born children of low-income mothers. At 17.5 years of age, participants were assigned to substance use groups on the basis of their level of substance use involvement. At 26 years, early adult competence was assessed in the areas of education, work, romantic relationships, and global adaptation. Results indicate that 17.5-year substance use group membership significantly predicted high school completion, regular involvement in a long-term romantic relationship, good or better work ethic, and good or better global adjustment at 26 years when controlling for gender; IQ; 16-year internalizing and externalizing behavior problems, parental monitoring, and peer competence; and current substance use at 26 years. Group comparisons indicate that late adolescent substance use experimenters were significantly more likely in early adulthood to have (a) a high school diploma or higher level of education compared with abstainers (OR = 8.83); (b) regular involvement in long-term romantic relationships (OR = 3.23), and good or better global adaptation (OR = 4.08) compared with at-risk users; and (c) good or better work ethic (OR = 4.04) compared with abusers. This research indicates that patterns of late adolescent substance use has implications for early adult functioning in salient developmental domains. PMID:23025264

Englund, Michelle M; Siebenbruner, Jessica; Oliva, Elizabeth M; Egeland, Byron; Chung, Chu-Ting; Long, Jeffrey D

2013-08-01

157

The Impact of Obesity on Pulmonary Function in Adult Women  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Obesity can cause deleterious effects on respiratory function and impair health and quality of life. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effects of obesity on the pulmonary function of adult women. METHODS An obese group, constituted of 20 women between 20 and 35 years old with a BMI of 35 – 49.99 kg/m2 who were non-smokers and sedentary and had no lung disease were recruited. The non-obese group consisted of 20 women between 20 and 35 years old who were sedentary and non-smokers and had no lung disease and a body mass index between 18.5 and 24.99 kg/m2. Spirometry was performed in all subjects. The statistical analysis consisted of parametric or non-parametric tests, depending on the distribution of each variable, considering p < 0.05 to be statistically significant. RESULTS The obese group presented a mean age of 25.85 ± 3.89 years and a mean BMI of 41.1 ± 3.46 kg/m2, and the non-obese group presented a mean age of 23.9 ± 2.97 years and a mean body mass index of 21.91 ± 1.81 kg/m2. There were no significant differences between the obese group and the non-obese group as to the age, vital capacity, tidal volume, forced vital capacity, and forced expiratory volume in one second. However, the obese group presented a greater inspiratory reserve volume (2.44 ± 0.47 L vs. 1.87 ± 0.42 L), a lower expiratory reserve volume (0.52 ± 0.32 L vs. 1.15 ± 0.32 L), and a maximal voluntary ventilation (108.5 ± 13.3 L/min vs. 122.6 ± 19.8 L/min) than the non-obese group, respectively. CONCLUSION The alterations evidenced in the components of the vital capacity (inspiratory reserve volume and expiratory reserve volume) suggest damage to the chest mechanics caused by obesity. These factors probably contributed to a reduction of the maximal voluntary ventilation. PMID:19060990

Costa, Dirceu; Barbalho, Marcela Cangussu; Miguel, Gustavo Peixoto Soares; Forti, Eli Maria Pazzianotto; Azevedo, João Luiz Moreira Coutinho

2008-01-01

158

An old test for new neurons: refining the Morris water maze to study the functional relevance of adult hippocampal neurogenesis  

PubMed Central

The Morris water maze represents the de-facto standard for testing hippocampal function in laboratory rodents. In the field of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, however, using this paradigm to assess the functional relevance of the new neurons yielded surprisingly inconsistent results. While some authors found aspects of water maze performance to be linked to adult neurogenesis, others obtained different results or could not demonstrate any effect of manipulating adult neurogenesis. In this review we discuss evidence that the large diversity of protocols and setups used is an important aspect in interpreting the differences in the results that have been obtained. Even simple parameters such as pool size, number, and configuration of visual landmarks, or number of trials can become highly relevant for getting the new neurons involved at all. Sets of parameters are often chosen with implicit or explicit concepts in mind and these might lead to different views on the function of adult-generated neurons. We propose that the classical parameters usually used to measure spatial learning performance in the water maze might not be particularly well-suited to sensitively and specifically detect the supposedly highly specific functional changes elicited by the experimental modulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. As adult neurogenesis is supposed to affect specific aspects of information processing only in the hippocampus, any claim for a functional relevance of the new neurons has to be based on hippocampus-specific parameters. We also placed a special emphasis on the fact that the dentate gyrus (DG) facilitates the differentiation between contexts as opposed to just differentiating places. In conclusion, while the Morris water maze has proven to be one of the most effective testing paradigms to assess hippocampus-dependent spatial learning, new and more specific questions ask for new parameters. Therefore, the full potential of the water maze task remains to be tapped. PMID:23653589

Garthe, Alexander; Kempermann, Gerd

2013-01-01

159

Health, functioning, and participation of adolescents and adults with cerebral palsy: a review of outcomes research.  

PubMed

With medical advances, more individuals with cerebral palsy (CP) syndromes who reside in developed countries are surviving to adolescence and adulthood. However, there continues to be a paucity of research examining long-term health, functional activities, and participatory outcomes over their life-course. This article reviews the current literature assessing adult outcomes for individuals with CP within the framework of the International Classification of Functioning (ICF), Disability, and Health model of enablement. Preliminary data over the last decade indicate that among adults with cerebral palsy without intellectual disability, 60-80% completed high school, 14-25% completed college, up to 61% were living independently in the community, 25-55% were competitively employed, and 14-28% were involved in long term relationships with partners or had established families. These outcomes occurred with biomedical advances in the management of spasticity, deformity, and medical co-morbidities, as well as with concurrent policy initiatives to increase access to a continuum of habilitative and education services. Although we have incomplete population data to inform comprehensive life-course planning, there are opportunities to create clinical and translational community networks with improved measures of functioning and participation that can better inform us about the factors influencing lifespan development of people with CP. PMID:23949832

Frisch, Dana; Msall, Michael E

2013-08-01

160

Developmental integration in a functional unit: deciphering processes from adult dental morphology.  

PubMed

The evolution of mammalian dentition is constrained by functional necessity and by the non-independence of morphological structures. Efficient chewing implies coherent tooth coordination from development to motion, involving covariation patterns (integration) within dental parts. Using geometric morphometrics, we investigate the modular organization of the highly derived vole dentition. Integration patterns between and within the upper and lower molar rows are analyzed to identify potential modules and their origins (functional and developmental). Results support an integrated adult dentition pattern for both developmental and functional aspects. The integration patterns between opposing molar pairs suggest a transient role for the second upper and lower molars during the chewing motion. Upper and lower molar rows form coherent units but the relative integration of molar pairs is in contradiction with existing developmental models. Emphasis on the first three cusps to grow leads to a very different integration pattern, which would be congruent with developmental models. The early developmental architecture of traits is masked by later stages of growth, but may still be deciphered from the adult phenotype, if careful attention is paid to relevant features. PMID:25040671

Labonne, Gaëlle; Navarro, Nicolas; Laffont, Rémi; Chateau-Smith, Carmela; Montuire, Sophie

2014-01-01

161

Assessing Function and Endurance in Adults with Spinal and Bulbar Muscular Atrophy: Validity of the Adult Myopathy Assessment Tool  

PubMed Central

Purpose. The adult myopathy assessment tool (AMAT) is a performance-based battery comprised of functional and endurance subscales that can be completed in approximately 30 minutes without the use of specialized equipment. The purpose of this study was to determine the construct validity and internal consistency of the AMAT with a sample of adults with spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA). Methods. AMAT validity was assessed in 56-male participants with genetically confirmed SBMA (mean age, 53?±?10 years). The participants completed the AMAT and assessments for disease status, strength, and functional status. Results. Lower AMAT scores were associated with longer disease duration (r = ?0.29; P < 0.03) and lower serum androgen levels (r = 0.49–0.59; P < 0.001). The AMAT was significantly correlated with strength and functional status (r = 0.82–0.88; P < 0.001). The domains of the AMAT exhibited good internal consistency (Cronbach's ??=?0.77–0.89; P < 0.001). Conclusions. The AMAT is a standardized, performance-based tool that may be used to assess functional limitations and muscle endurance. The AMAT has good internal consistency, and the construct validity of the AMAT is supported by its significant associations with hormonal, strength, and functional characteristics of adults with SBMA. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT00303446. PMID:24876969

Harris-Love, Michael O.; Fernandez-Rhodes, Lindsay; Joe, Galen; Shrader, Joseph A.; Kokkinis, Angela; La Pean Kirschner, Alison; Auh, Sungyoung; Chen, Cheunju; Li, Li; Levy, Ellen; Davenport, Todd E.; Di Prospero, Nicholas A.; Fischbeck, Kenneth H.

2014-01-01

162

Demonstration Projects To Establish a System-Wide Functional Literacy Program for Adult Prisoners. Project Abstracts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication provides abstracts of the 11 grants awarded to demonstrate model functional literacy programs for incarcerated adults. These programs, to the extent possible, make use of advanced technologies, such as interactive video- and computer-based adult literacy learning. Information provided in each abstract includes the following:…

Office of Vocational and Adult Education (ED), Washington, DC. Office of Correctional Education.

163

The Sexual Functioning of Adult Women Molested as Children: A Review of Empirical Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews the research literature from 1978 to 1991 that addresses long-term effects of childhood sexual abuse on adult women's sexual functioning. Frequently reported long-term effects of childhood sexual abuse are noted, including both sexual dissatisfaction and sexual dysfunction. In terms of sexual dysfunction, it is noted that adult

Clarke, Julie Lynn

164

Treatment of Functional Decline in Adults with Down Syndrome Using Selective Serotonin-Reuptake Inhibitor Drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common cause of functional decline in Down syndrome (DS) adults. Acquired cognitive deficits may be difficult to evaluate in the context of baseline impairments. Behavioral symptoms are also common and may represent the effects of depression, AD, or both. Therefore, the objective of this study was to report a clinical case series of selected adults

David S. Geldmacher; Alan J. Lerner; J. Mathew Voci; Elizabeth A. Noelker; Lauren C. Somple; Peter J. Whitehouse

1997-01-01

165

High Prevalence of Self-Reported Photophobia in Adult ADHD  

PubMed Central

Many adult outpatients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) report an oversensitivity to light. We explored the link between ADHD and photophobia in an online survey (N?=?494). Self-reported photophobia was prevalent in 69% of respondents with, and in 28% of respondents without, ADHD (symptoms). The ADHD (symptoms) group wore sunglasses longer during daytime in all seasons. Photophobia may be related to the functioning of the eyes, which mediate dopamine and melatonin production systems in the eye. In the brain, dopamine and melatonin are involved in both ADHD and circadian rhythm disturbances. Possibly, the regulation of the dopamine and melatonin systems in the eyes and in the brain are related. Despite the study’s limitations, the results are encouraging for further study on the pathophysiology of ADHD, eye functioning, and circadian rhythm disturbances.

Kooij, J. J. Sandra; Bijlenga, Denise

2014-01-01

166

Health, functioning, and disability in older adults-present status and future implications.  

PubMed

Ageing is a dynamic process, and trends in the health status of older adults aged at least 60 years vary over time because of several factors. We examined reported trends in morbidity and mortality in older adults during the past two decades to identify patterns of ageing across the world. We showed some evidence for compression of morbidity (ie, a reduced amount of time spent in worse health), in four types of studies: 1) of good quality based on assessment criteria scores; 2) those in which a disability-related or impairment-related measure of morbidity was used; 3) longitudinal studies; or 4) studies undertaken in the USA and other high-income countries. Many studies, however, reported contrasting evidence (ie, for an expansion of morbidity), but with different methods, these measures are not directly comparable. Expansion of morbidity was more common when trends in chronic disease prevalence were studied. Our secondary analysis of data from longitudinal ageing surveys presents similar results. However, patterns of limitations in functioning vary substantially between countries and within countries over time, with no discernible explanation. Data from low-income countries are very sparse, and efforts to obtain information about the health of older adults in less-developed regions of the world are urgently needed. We especially need studies that focus on refining measurements of health, functioning, and disability in older people, with a core set of domains of functioning, that investigate the effects of these evolving patterns on the health-care system and their economic implications. PMID:25468158

Chatterji, Somnath; Byles, Julie; Cutler, David; Seeman, Teresa; Verdes, Emese

2014-11-01

167

Disruption of Functional Connectivity in Clinically Normal Older Adults Harboring Amyloid Burden  

PubMed Central

Amyloid deposition is present in 20–50% of nondemented older adults yet the functional consequences remain unclear. The current study found that amyloid accumulation is correlated with functional disruption of the default network as measured by intrinsic activity correlations. Clinically normal participants (n=38, aged 60–88) were characterized using [11C]-Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) PET imaging to estimate fibrillar amyloid burden and, separately, underwent functional MRI (fMRI). The integrity of the default network was estimated by correlating rest-state fMRI time courses extracted from a priori regions including the posterior cingulate, lateral parietal, and medial prefrontal cortices. Clinically normal participants with high amyloid burden displayed significantly reduced functional correlations within the default network relative to participants with low amyloid burden. These reductions were also observed when amyloid burden was treated as a continuous, rather than a dichotomous, measure and when controlling for age and structural atrophy. Whole-brain analyses initiated by seeding the posterior cingulate cortex, a region of high amyloid burden in Alzheimer1s disease (AD), revealed significant disruption in the default network including functional disconnection of the hippocampal formation. PMID:19812343

Hedden, Trey; Van Dijk, Koene R. A.; Becker, J. Alex; Mehta, Angel; Sperling, Reisa A.; Johnson, Keith A.; Buckner, Randy L.

2009-01-01

168

DOES FAMILY OF ORIGIN FUNCTIONING PREDICT ADULT SOMATIC COMPLAINTS?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

It has long been believed that adult somatic complaints are associated with early family dysfunction. Yet few studies have examined this hypothesis in community samples, where medically unexplained symptom complaints are estimated to be very common. Given the potential population-wide impact of subt...

169

Memory Functioning in Adult Women Traumatized by Childhood Sexual Abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Memory impairment has been reported in some studies of patients with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and in rape victims with PTSD. The authors tested whether explicit memory impairment was evident in adult women who were traumatized by severe sexual abuse in childhood. The California Verbal Learning Test (Delis, Kramer, Kaplan, & Ober, 1987) and the Benton Visual Retention Task

Murray B. Stein; Cindy Hanna; Vibeke Vaerum; Catherine Koverola

1999-01-01

170

Kidney Function, Electrocardiographic Findings, and Cardiovascular Events among Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with cardiovascular (CV) disease and mortality. It is not known whether cardiac rhythm disturbances are more prevalent among individuals with CKD or whether resting electrocardiogram findings predict future CV events in the CKD setting. Data were obtained from the Cardiovascular Health Study, a community-based study of adults aged >65 yr. After exclusions for prevalent

Bryan Kestenbaum; Kyle D. Rudser; Michael G. Shlipak; Linda F. Fried; Anne B. Newman; Ronit Katz; Mark J. Sarnak; Stephen Seliger; Catherine Stehman-Breen; Ronald Prineas; David S. Siscovick

171

The Impact of Sustained Engagement on Cognitive Function in Older Adults: The Synapse Project  

PubMed Central

In the research reported here, we tested the hypothesis that sustained engagement in learning new skills that activated working memory, episodic memory, and reasoning over a period of 3 months would enhance cognitive function in older adults. In three conditions with high cognitive demands, participants learned to quilt, learned digital photography, or engaged in both activities for an average of 16.51 hr a week for 3 months. Results at posttest indicated that episodic memory was enhanced in these productive-engagement conditions relative to receptive-engagement conditions, in which participants either engaged in nonintellectual activities with a social group or performed low-demand cognitive tasks with no social contact. The findings suggest that sustained engagement in cognitively demanding, novel activities enhances memory function in older adulthood, but, somewhat surprisingly, we found limited cognitive benefits of sustained engagement in social activities. PMID:24214244

Park, Denise C.; Lodi-Smith, Jennifer; Drew, Linda; Haber, Sara; Hebrank, Andrew; Bischof, Gérard N.; Aamodt, Whitley

2014-01-01

172

Cognitive Training Improves Sleep Quality and Cognitive Function among Older Adults with Insomnia  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives To investigate the effect of an eight-week, home-based, personalized, computerized cognitive training program on sleep quality and cognitive performance among older adults with insomnia. Design Participants (n?=?51) were randomly allocated to a cognitive training group (n?=?34) or to an active control group (n?=?17). The participants in the cognitive training group completed an eight-week, home-based, personalized, computerized cognitive training program, while the participants in the active control group completed an eight-week, home-based program involving computerized tasks that do not engage high-level cognitive functioning. Before and after training, all participants' sleep was monitored for one week by an actigraph and their cognitive performance was evaluated. Setting Community setting: residential sleep/performance testing facility. Participants Fifty-one older adults with insomnia (aged 65–85). Interventions Eight weeks of computerized cognitive training for older adults with insomnia. Results Mixed models for repeated measures analysis showed between-group improvements for the cognitive training group on both sleep quality (sleep onset latency and sleep efficiency) and cognitive performance (avoiding distractions, working memory, visual memory, general memory and naming). Hierarchical linear regressions analysis in the cognitive training group indicated that improved visual scanning is associated with earlier advent of sleep, while improved naming is associated with the reduction in wake after sleep onset and with the reduction in number of awakenings. Likewise the results indicate that improved “avoiding distractions” is associated with an increase in the duration of sleep. Moreover, the results indicate that in the active control group cognitive decline observed in working memory is associated with an increase in the time required to fall asleep. Conclusions New learning is instrumental in promoting initiation and maintenance of sleep in older adults with insomnia. Lasting and personalized cognitive training is particularly indicated to generate the type of learning necessary for combined cognitive and sleep enhancements in this population. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00901641 PMID:23577218

Haimov, Iris; Shatil, Evelyn

2013-01-01

173

Behavioural aspects of cerebellar function in adults with Asperger EMMA GOWEN & R. CHRIS MIALL  

E-print Network

Behavioural aspects of cerebellar function in adults with Asperger syndrome EMMA GOWEN & R. CHRIS from social deficits, Asperger and autistic individuals also exhibit motor control abnormalities in Asperger individuals. Tests examining visually guided movement (rapid pointing), speeded complex movement

Miall, Chris

174

Stability and Change in Health, Functional Abilities, and Behavior Problems among Adults with and without Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Changes in health, functional abilities, and behavior problems among 150 adults with Down syndrome and 240 adults with mental retardation due to other causes were examined with seven assessments over a 9-year period. Adults were primarily younger than 40, the age at which declines begin to be evident in individuals with Down syndrome. Adults with…

Esbensen, Anna J.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Krauss, Marty Wyngaarden

2008-01-01

175

Altered Frontal and Temporal Brain Function during Olfactory Stimulation in Adult Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Olfactory processing depends on dopamine metabolism and orbitofrontal cortex functioning, both known to be disturbed in attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Some investigations suggested alterations in olfactory processing (identification and sensitivity) in childhood and adult ADHD. Methods: In the present study we investigated olfactory function (Sniffin’ Sticks) of 29 adult patients with ADHD (17 combined, 11 inattentive, and 1 hyperactive\\/impulsive subtype)

Martin Schecklmann; Eva Schenk; Andreas Maisch; Susanne Kreiker; Christian Jacob; Andreas Warnke; Manfred Gerlach; Andreas J. Fallgatter; Marcel Romanos

2011-01-01

176

Dual transcriptional activator and repressor roles of TBX20 regulate adult cardiac structure and function  

PubMed Central

The ongoing requirement in adult heart for transcription factors with key roles in cardiac development is not well understood. We recently demonstrated that TBX20, a transcriptional regulator required for cardiac development, has key roles in the maintenance of functional and structural phenotypes in adult mouse heart. Conditional ablation of Tbx20 in adult cardiomyocytes leads to a rapid onset and progression of heart failure, with prominent conduction and contractility phenotypes that lead to death. Here we describe a more comprehensive molecular characterization of the functions of TBX20 in adult mouse heart. Coupling genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation and transcriptome analyses (RNA-Seq), we identified a subset of genes that change expression in Tbx20 adult cardiomyocyte-specific knockout hearts which are direct downstream targets of TBX20. This analysis revealed a dual role for TBX20 as both a transcriptional activator and a repressor, and that each of these functions regulates genes with very specialized and distinct molecular roles. We also show how TBX20 binds to its targets genome-wide in a context-dependent manner, using various cohorts of co-factors to either promote or repress distinct genetic programs within adult heart. Our integrative approach has uncovered several novel aspects of TBX20 and T-box protein function within adult heart. Sequencing data accession number (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo): GSE30943. PMID:22328084

Sakabe, Noboru J.; Aneas, Ivy; Shen, Tao; Shokri, Leila; Park, Soo-Young; Bulyk, Martha L.; Evans, Sylvia M.; Nobrega, Marcelo A.

2012-01-01

177

Maternal serotonin influences cardiac function in adult offspring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the Tph1-invalidated mouse line, in which blood is depleted in serotonin (5-hydroxytryp- tamine, 5-HT), we have demonstrated previously that maternal 5-HT is required for normal embryonic devel- opment. Here, we address the issue of the influence of the maternal 5-HT concentration on the cardiac func- tion of the offspring as adults. We investigated the cardiac phenotype of Tph1-invalidated mice

Cecile Fligny; Yves Fromes; Philippe Bonnin; Michele Darmon; Elisa Bayard; Jean-Marie Launay; Francine Cote; Jacques Mallet; Guilan Vodjdani

2008-01-01

178

Behavior Modification of Adult Illiterates and Functional Illiterates Who Learned To Read.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined some effects of literacy achievement on the lives of 184 of the 215 adults who had successfully completed literacy training between 1962 and 1966 in the Flint, Michigan, Adult High School. Interviews and public records were used to gather data on student background, experiences during literary training, participants'…

Warsh, Herman Enoch

179

Brief Report: Biochemical Correlates of Clinical Impairment in High Functioning Autism and Asperger's Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Amygdala dysfunction has been proposed as a critical contributor to social impairment in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The current study investigated biochemical abnormalities in the amygdala in 20 high functioning adults with autistic disorder or Asperger's disorder and 19 typically developing adults matched on age and IQ. Magnetic resonance…

Kleinhans, Natalia M.; Richards, Todd; Weaver, Kurt E.; Liang, Olivia; Dawson, Geraldine; Aylward, Elizabeth

2009-01-01

180

Acute effect of a high nitrate diet on brain perfusion in older adults  

PubMed Central

Aims Poor blood flow and hypoxia/ischemia contribute to many disease states and may also be a factor in the decline of physical and cognitive function in aging. Nitrite has been discovered to be a vasodilator that is preferentially harnessed in hypoxia. Thus, both infused and inhaled nitrite are being studied as therapeutic agents for a variety of diseases. In addition, nitrite derived from nitrate in the diet has been shown to decrease blood pressure and improve exercise performance. Thus, dietary nitrate may also be important when increased blood flow in hypoxic or ischemic areas is indicated. These conditions could include age-associated dementia and cognitive decline. The goal of this study was to determine if dietary nitrate would increase cerebral blood flow in older adults. Methods and Results In this investigation we administered a high vs. low nitrate diet to older adults (74.7 ± 6.9 years) and measured cerebral perfusion using arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging. We found that the high nitrate diet did not alter global cerebral perfusion, but did lead to increased regional cerebral perfusion in frontal lobe white matter, especially between the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex. Conclusion These results suggest that dietary nitrate may be useful in improving regional brain perfusion in older adults in critical brain areas known to be involved in executive functioning. PMID:20951824

Presley, Tennille D.; Morgan, Ashley R.; Bechtold, Erika; Clodfelter, William; Dove, Robin W.; Jennings, Janine M.; Kraft, Robert A.; King, S. Bruce; Laurienti, Paul J.; Rejeski, W. Jack; Burdette, Jonathan H.; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B.; Miller, Gary D.

2010-01-01

181

Psychiatric Comorbidity and Functioning in a Clinically Referred Population of Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Comparative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To systematically examine the patterns of psychiatric comorbidity and functioning in clinically referred adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Psychiatrically referred adults with and without ASD were compared on measures assessing for psychiatric comorbidity and psychosocial functioning. Sixty-three adults with ASD participated in the…

Joshi, Gagan; Wozniak, Janet; Petty, Carter; Martelon, Mary Kate; Fried, Ronna; Bolfek, Anela; Kotte, Amelia; Stevens, Jonathan; Furtak, Stephannie L.; Bourgeois, Michelle; Caruso, Janet; Caron, Ashley; Biederman, Joseph

2013-01-01

182

A new multichannel near infrared spectrophotometry system for functional studies of the brain in adults and neonates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have designed a versatile, multi-channel near-infrared spectrophotometry (NIRS) instrument for the purpose of mapping neuronal activation in the neonatal and adult brain in response to motor, tactile, and visual stimulation. The optical linearity, stability, and high signal to noise ratio (>70 dB) of the instrument were demonstrated using an in vitro validation procedure. In vivo measurements on the adult forearm were also performed. Changes in oxygenation, induced by arterial occlusion of the forearm, were recorded and were shown to compare well with measurements acquired using a conventional NIRS instrument. To demonstrate the capabilities of the instrument, functional measurements in adults and neonates were performed. The instrument exhibited the capability to differentiate with a spatial resolution in the order of cm, local activation patterns associated with a finger tapping sequence.

Haensse, Daniel; Szabo, Peter; Brown, Derek; Fauchère, Jean-Claude; Niederer, Peter; Bucher, Hans-Ulrich; Wolf, Martin

2005-06-01

183

Self-renewal pattern-associated genes and their role in adult stem cell functions  

E-print Network

Molecular markers for adult stem cells (ASCs) are highly demanded for research and clinical applications. The development of specific molecular markers for ASCs has been difficult mainly due to the technical barriers in ...

Noh, Minsoo

2006-01-01

184

Esophageal peristaltic defects in adults with functional dysphagia.  

PubMed

Functional dysphagia (FD) is characterized by the presence of dysphagia without evidence of mechanical esophageal obstruction, GERD, and histopathology-based esophageal motor disorders. Dysphagia is common in older patients; however, there is a paucity of information regarding the type and frequency of peristaltic abnormalities compared to younger patients. Based on recently validated criteria for classification of weak peristalsis using high-resolution manometry (HRM), we hypothesized that older patients with FD would have more peristaltic defects detected by HRM compared to younger FD patients. A retrospective review of our motility database yielded 65 patients that met inclusion criteria. Patients were divided into two groups based on age (younger: <70 years; older: ?70 years). Patients were interviewed, completed a quality-of-life questionnaire, and underwent solid-state HRM. The two groups differed in age but in no other demographic characteristics, severity of dysphagia, or quality of life. Dyspeptic symptoms, including nausea (p < 0.001), early satiety (p = 0.01), bloating (p = 0.02), and belching (p = 0.01), were also more prevalent in younger FD patients. Older age was associated with weak peristalsis involving frequent failed peristalsis, small proximal peristaltic defects (2-5 cm), and large proximal peristaltic defects (>5 cm) (p < 0.001). The mean contraction amplitude was also lower in the older group (p < 0.05). These data support the hypothesis that older patients with FD have a higher frequency of peristaltic abnormalities on HRM compared to younger patients. Older age was associated with increased frequency of weak peristalsis with small and large peristaltic defects. PMID:24894375

Ratuapli, Shiva K; Hansel, Stephanie L; Umar, Sarah B; Burdick, George E; Ramirez, Francisco C; Fleischer, David E; Harris, Lucinda A; Lacy, Brian E; DiBaise, John K; Crowell, Michael D

2014-08-01

185

Endothelial Function and the Regulation of Muscle Protein Anabolism in Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Sarcopenia, the loss of skeletal muscle mass and function with aging, is a major contributor to frailty and morbidity in older adults. Recent evidence has emerged suggesting that endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance of muscle protein metabolism may significantly contribute to the development of sarcopenia. In this article we review: 1) recent studies and theories on the regulation of skeletal muscle protein balance in older adults; 2) the link between insulin-resistance of muscle protein synthesis and endothelial dysfunction in aging; 3) mechanisms for impaired endothelial responsiveness in aging; and 4) potential treatments that may restore the endothelial responsiveness and muscle protein anabolic sensitivity in older adults. PMID:22902187

Timmerman, Kyle L.; Volpi, Elena

2012-01-01

186

A quantitative review of cognitive functioning in homeless adults.  

PubMed

Homeless people experience elevated rates of risk factors for cognitive impairment. We reviewed available peer-reviewed studies reporting data from objective measures of cognition in samples identified as homeless. Pooled sample-weighted estimates of global cognitive screening measures, full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ), and premorbid IQ were calculated, in addition to pooled sample characteristics, to understand the representativeness of available studies. A total of 24 unique studies were identified, with 2969 subjects. The pooled estimate for the frequency of cognitive impairment was 25%, and the mean full-scale IQ score was 85, 1 standard deviation below the mean of the normal population. Cognitive impairment was found to be common among homeless adults and may be a transdiagnostic problem that impedes rehabilitative efforts in this population. Comparatively little data are available about cognition in homeless women and unsheltered persons. PMID:25594792

Depp, Colin A; Vella, Lea; Orff, Henry J; Twamley, Elizabeth W

2015-02-01

187

The Functional Profile of Young Adults with Suspected Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We assessed the non-academic and academic functioning of young adults with DCD, and investigated the emotional influences and the role of strategy use within this population. A random sample of 2379 adolescents and young adults aged 19-25 (1081 males [45.4%]; mean age = 20.68, SD = 3.42) was used to develop the instruments. From this sample, three…

Tal-Saban, Miri; Zarka, Salman; Grotto, Itamar; Ornoy, Asher; Parush, Shula

2012-01-01

188

Regional White Matter and Neuropsychological Functioning across the Adult Lifespan  

E-print Network

white matter were of largest magnitude, followed by temporal lobe (F (6, 579) 3.32, p 0.003). Age-related cognitive decline in several domains. Decline in neuropsychological functioning is, in part, mediated matter, cognition, memory, executive functioning I n an effort to better characterize brain changes

189

Large-Scale Application of a Telephone-Based Test of Cognitive Functioning in Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: The study of cognitive functioning in large epidemiological settings is hampered by a lack of instruments for the remote assessment of cognitive performance, especially when targeting variability across the full range of adult functioning. The present study examined the practicability of such investigations using a recently developed telephone interview (Cognitive Telephone Screening Instrument, COGTEL). Methods: A subcohort of an

Lutz P. Breitling; Melanie Wolf; Heiko Müller; Elke Raum; Matthias Kliegel; Hermann Brenner

2010-01-01

190

Functional Analysis and Treatment of Problem Behavior of Elderly Adults in Long-Term Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Functional analyses were conducted for the problem behavior of 3 older adults in a long-term care setting. Two of the problem behaviors were maintained by attention, and a third was maintained by escape from demands. Function-based interventions were implemented that resulted in decreases in problem behavior in each case. Implications for the use…

Dwyer-Moore, Kimberly J.; Dixon, Mark R.

2007-01-01

191

Flexibility Training and Functional Ability in Older Adults: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background. As indicated in a recent systematic review relating to Canada's Physical Activity Guidelines for Older Adults, exercise interventions in older adults can maintain or improve functional abilities. Less is known about the role of flexibility in the maintenance or improvement of functional abilities, and there currently does not exist a synthesis of the literature supporting a consensus on flexibility training prescription. Purpose. To systematically review the effects of flexibility-specific training interventions on measures of functional outcomes in healthy older adults over the age of 65 years. Methods. Five electronic databases were searched for intervention studies involving concepts related to aging, flexibility, functional outcomes, and training interventions. After evaluating the articles for relevance, 22 studies were considered. Results. The results suggested that while flexibility-specific interventions may have effects on range of motion (ROM) outcomes, there is conflicting information regarding both the relationship between flexibility interventions and functional outcomes or daily functioning. Conclusions. Due to the wide range of intervention protocols, body parts studied, and functional measurements, conclusive recommendations regarding flexibility training for older adults or the validity of flexibility training interventions as supplements to other forms of exercise, or as significant positive influences on functional ability, require further investigation. PMID:23209904

Stathokostas, Liza; Little, Robert M. D.; Vandervoort, A. A.; Paterson, Donald H.

2012-01-01

192

Developmental Continuity in Teleo-Functional Explanation: Reasoning about Nature among Romanian Romani Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teleo-functional explanations account for objects in terms of purpose, helping us understand objects such as pencils (for writing) and body parts such as ears (for hearing). Western-educated adults restrict teleo-functional attributions to artifact, biological, and behavioral phenomena, considering such explanations less appropriate for nonliving…

Casler, Krista; Kelemen, Deborah

2008-01-01

193

A Hypothesis About the Role of Adult Neurogenesis in Hippocampal Function  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The functional relevance of adult hippocampal neurogenesis has long been a matter of intense experimentation and debate, but the precise role of new neurons has not been sufficiently elaborated. Here we propose a hypothesis in which specific features of newly generated neurons contribute to hippocampal plasticity and function and discuss the most recent and relevant findings in the context of the proposed hypothesis.

PhD Alejandro F. Schinder (Leloir Institute Foundation)

2004-10-01

194

Atypical Cerebral Lateralisation in Adults with Compensated Developmental Dyslexia Demonstrated Using Functional Transcranial Doppler Ultrasound  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Functional transcranial Doppler ultrasound (fTCD) is a relatively new and non-invasive technique that assesses cerebral lateralisation through measurements of blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral arteries. In this study fTCD was used to compare functional asymmetry during a word generation task between a group of 30 dyslexic adults and a…

Illingworth, Sarah; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.

2009-01-01

195

Functional connectivity in an fMRI working memory task in high-functioning autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

An fMRI study was used to measure the brain activation of a group of adults with high-functioning autism compared to a Full Scale and Verbal IQ and age-matched control group during an n-back working memory task with letters. The behavioral results showed comparable performance, but the fMRI results suggested that the normal controls might use verbal codes to perform the

Hideya Koshino; Patricia A. Carpenter; Nancy J. Minshew; Vladimir L. Cherkassky; Timothy A. Keller; Marcel Adam Just

2005-01-01

196

Mothers' exercise during pregnancy programs vasomotor function in adult offspring  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background: The intrauterine environment is influenced by maternal behavior and known to influence lifelong atherosclerotic disease susceptibility in offspring. The purpose of this investigation was to test the hypothesis that maternal exercise during pregnancy increases endothelial function in offs...

197

Acquisition of high-quality digital video of Drosophila larval and adult behaviors from a lateral perspective.  

PubMed

Drosophila melanogaster is a powerful experimental model system for studying the function of the nervous system. Gene mutations that cause dysfunction of the nervous system often produce viable larvae and adults that have locomotion defective phenotypes that are difficult to adequately describe with text or completely represent with a single photographic image. Current modes of scientific publishing, however, support the submission of digital video media as supplemental material to accompany a manuscript. Here we describe a simple and widely accessible microscopy technique for acquiring high-quality digital video of both Drosophila larval and adult phenotypes from a lateral perspective. Video of larval and adult locomotion from a side-view is advantageous because it allows the observation and analysis of subtle distinctions and variations in aberrant locomotive behaviors. We have successfully used the technique to visualize and quantify aberrant crawling behaviors in third instar larvae, in addition to adult mutant phenotypes and behaviors including grooming. PMID:25350294

Zenger, Beatrix; Wetzel, Sabine; Duncan, Jason

2014-01-01

198

Heart on a Plate: Histological and Functional Assessment of Isolated Adult Zebrafish Hearts Maintained in Culture  

PubMed Central

The zebrafish is increasingly used for cardiovascular genetic and functional studies. We present a novel protocol to maintain and monitor whole isolated beating adult zebrafish hearts in culture for long-term experiments. Excised whole adult zebrafish hearts were transferred directly into culture dishes containing optimized L-15 Leibovitz growth medium and maintained for 5 days. Hearts were assessed daily using video-edge analysis of ventricle function using low power microscopy images. High-throughput histology techniques were used to assess changes in myocardial architecture and cell viability. Mean spontaneous Heart rate (HR, min?1) declined significantly between day 0 and day 1 in culture (96.7±19.5 to 45.2±8.2 min?1, mean±SD, p?=?0.001), and thereafter declined more slowly to 27.6±7.2 min?1 on day 5. Ventricle wall motion amplitude (WMA) did not change until day 4 in culture (day 0, 46.7±13.0 µm vs day 4, 16.9±1.9 µm, p?=?0.08). Contraction velocity (CV) declined between day 0 and day 3 (35.6±14.8 vs 15.2±5.3 µms?1, respectively, p?=?0.012) while relaxation velocity (RV) declined quite rapidly (day 0, 72.5±11.9 vs day 1, 29.5±5.8 µms?1, p?=?0.03). HR and WMA responded consistently to isoproterenol from day 0 to day 5 in culture while CV and RV showed less consistent responses to beta-agonist. Cellular architecture and cross-striation pattern of cardiomyocytes remained unchanged up to day 3 in culture and thereafter showed significant deterioration with loss of striation pattern, pyknotic nuclei and cell swelling. Apoptotic markers within the myocardium became increasingly frequent by day 3 in culture. Whole adult zebrafish hearts can be maintained in culture-medium for up to 3 days. However, after day-3 there is significant deterioration in ventricle function and heart rate accompanied by significant histological changes consistent with cell death and loss of cardiomyocyte cell integrity. Further studies are needed to assess whether this preparation can be optimised for longer term survival. PMID:24824845

Pieperhoff, Sebastian; Wilson, Kathryn S.; Baily, James; de Mora, Kim; Maqsood, Sana; Vass, Sharron; Taylor, Jonathan; Del-Pozo, Jorge; MacRae, Calum A.; Mullins, John J.; Denvir, Martin A.

2014-01-01

199

Morphological and functional alterations in adult boar epididymis: Effects of prenatal and postnatal administration of flutamide  

PubMed Central

Background The dynamic cross-talk between epididymal cells is hormonally regulated and, in part, through direct cell-to-cell interactions. To date, no information is available regarding possible impact of anti-androgens on the proteins involved in the gap junctional communication within the boar epididymis. Thus, a question arised whether prenatal or postnatal exposure to an anti-androgen flutamide alters the expression of gap junction protein - connexin43 (Cx43) and androgen receptor (AR) expression in the caput, corpus and cauda epididymis and leads to delayed effects on morphology and function of adult pig epididymis. Methods First two experimental groups received flutamide prenatally on gestational days 20-28 and 80-88 (GD20 and GD80) and further two groups were exposed to flutamide postanatally on days 2-10 and 90-98 after birth (PD2 and PD90). Epididymides were collected from adult boars. Routine histology was performed using hematoxylin-eosin staining. The expression of Cx43 and AR were analyzed using immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Both analyses were supported by quantitative approaches to demonstrate the variations of the expression levels following the treatment. Apoptotic cells were identified using TUNEL assay. Results Histological examination revealed differences in epididymal morphology of flutamide-exposed boars when compared to controls. Scarce spermatic content were seen within the corpus and cauda lumina of GD20, PD2 and PD90 groups. Concomitantly, frequency of epididymal cell apoptosis was significantly higher (p < 0.05) after exposure to flutamide at GD20. Moreover, in GD20, PD2, and PD90 groups, significantly lower AR expression (p < 0.05) was found in the principal and basal cells of the corpus and cauda regions, while in the stromal cells AR expression was significantly reduced (p < 0.05) along the epididymal duct. Concomitantly, a decrease in Cx43 expression (p < 0.05) was noticed in the stromal cells of the cauda region of GD20 and PD2 groups. This indicates high sensitivity of the stromal cells to androgen withdrawal. Conclusions The region-specific alterations in the epididymis morphology and scarce spermatic content within the lumina of the corpus and cauda indicate that flutamide can induce delayed effects on the epididymal function of the adult boar by decrease in AR protein levels that results in altered androgen signaling. This may cause disturbances in androgen-dependent processes including Cx43 (de)regulation, however, we can not exclude the possibility that in response to flutamide decreased Cx43 expression may represent one mechanism responsible for functional disturbance of the boar epididymis. PMID:21342526

2011-01-01

200

Virtual reality using games for improving physical functioning in older adults: a systematic review.  

PubMed

The use of virtual reality through exergames or active video game, i.e. a new form of interactive gaming, as a complementary tool in rehabilitation has been a frequent focus in research and clinical practice in the last few years. However, evidence of their effectiveness is scarce in the older population. This review aim to provide a summary of the effects of exergames in improving physical functioning in older adults. A search for randomized controlled trials was performed in the databases EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsyInfo, Cochrane data base, PEDro and ISI Web of Knowledge. Results from the included studies were analyzed through a critical review and methodological quality by the PEDro scale. Thirteen studies were included in the review. The most common apparatus for exergames intervention was the Nintendo Wii gaming console (8 studies), followed by computers games, Dance video game with pad (two studies each) and only one study with the Balance Rehabilitation Unit. The Timed Up and Go was the most frequently used instrument to assess physical functioning (7 studies). According to the PEDro scale, most of the studies presented methodological problems, with a high proportion of scores below 5 points (8 studies). The exergames protocols and their duration varied widely, and the benefits for physical function in older people remain inconclusive. However, a consensus between studies is the positive motivational aspect that the use of exergames provides. Further studies are needed in order to achieve better methodological quality, external validity and provide stronger scientific evidence. PMID:25399408

Molina, Karina Iglesia; Ricci, Natalia Aquaroni; de Moraes, Suzana Albuquerque; Perracini, Monica Rodrigues

2014-01-01

201

Quantitative Expression Profile of Distinct Functional Regions in the Adult Mouse Brain  

PubMed Central

The adult mammalian brain is composed of distinct regions with specialized roles including regulation of circadian clocks, feeding, sleep/awake, and seasonal rhythms. To find quantitative differences of expression among such various brain regions, we conducted the BrainStars (B*) project, in which we profiled the genome-wide expression of ?50 small brain regions, including sensory centers, and centers for motion, time, memory, fear, and feeding. To avoid confounds from temporal differences in gene expression, we sampled each region every 4 hours for 24 hours, and pooled the samples for DNA-microarray assays. Therefore, we focused on spatial differences in gene expression. We used informatics to identify candidate genes with expression changes showing high or low expression in specific regions. We also identified candidate genes with stable expression across brain regions that can be used as new internal control genes, and ligand-receptor interactions of neurohormones and neurotransmitters. Through these analyses, we found 8,159 multi-state genes, 2,212 regional marker gene candidates for 44 small brain regions, 915 internal control gene candidates, and 23,864 inferred ligand-receptor interactions. We also found that these sets include well-known genes as well as novel candidate genes that might be related to specific functions in brain regions. We used our findings to develop an integrated database (http://brainstars.org/) for exploring genome-wide expression in the adult mouse brain, and have made this database openly accessible. These new resources will help accelerate the functional analysis of the mammalian brain and the elucidation of its regulatory network systems. PMID:21858037

Nagano, Mamoru; Uno, Kenichiro D.; Tsujino, Kaori; Hanashima, Carina; Shigeyoshi, Yasufumi; Ueda, Hiroki R.

2011-01-01

202

Competency-Based Adult High School Completion Student Services Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed as part of a 310 Special Demonstration and Teacher Training Project undertaken at Brevard Community College, this student services guide contains information to assist adult education administrators, counselors, instructors, and office personnel in meeting the needs of students enrolled in adult/community education schools. Primary…

Singer, Elizabeth; And Others

203

Disparities in psychosocial functioning in a diverse sample of adults with anxiety disorders.  

PubMed

Anxiety disorders are associated with psychosocial functional impairments, but no study has compared how these impairments might vary by ethno-racial status. We examined whether minority status was uniquely associated with functional impairments in 431 adults with anxiety disorders. Functioning was measured in the rater-assessed domains of: Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF); global psychosocial functioning; work, relationship, and recreational functioning; and, self-reported: life satisfaction, mental health functioning, physical functioning, and disability status. After controlling for demographic and clinical variables, results revealed evidence of disparities, whereby African Americans (AAs), particularly those with low income, had worse GAF, worse global psychosocial functioning, and were more likely to be disabled compared to non-Latino Whites. Latinos, particularly those with low income, had worse global psychosocial functioning than non-Latino Whites. Results suggest AAs and Latinos are at increased risk for functional impairments not better accounted for by other demographic or clinical variables. PMID:24685821

Moitra, Ethan; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Stout, Robert L; Angert, Erica; Weisberg, Risa B; Keller, Martin B

2014-04-01

204

A Study of the Adult Zebrafish Ventricular Function by Retrospective Doppler-Gated Ultrahigh-Frame-Rate Echocardiography  

PubMed Central

The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has become a preferred animal model for studying various human diseases, particularly those related to cardiovascular regeneration; therefore, a noninvasive imaging modality is needed for observing the cardiac function of zebrafish. Because of its high resolution, high-frequency ultrasound B-mode imaging has recently been used successfully to observe the heart of adult zebrafish. However, ultrahigh-frame-rate echocardiography combining B-mode imaging and color flow imaging is still needed to observe the detailed transient motions of the zebrafish ventricle. This study develops an 80-MHz ultrahigh-frame-rate echocardiography system for this purpose, based on retrospective Doppler- gated technology. B-mode and color flow images of the cardiovascular system of the zebrafish were reconstructed by two-dimensional autocorrelation at maximum frame rates of up to 40 000 and 400 fps, respectively. The timings of end diastole (ED) and end systole (ES) of ventricle can be determined by using this high-resolution image system. Two ventricular function parameters—fractional shortening (FS) and fractional area change (FAC)—were measured for evaluating the ventricular function by using ED and ES with their corresponding ventricular dimensions. The experimental results indicated that the measured FS values were 42 ± 4% (mean ± standard deviation) and 60 ± 13% for the long axis and short axis of the ventricle, respectively, and that FAC was 77 ± 9%. This is the first report of these ventricular function parameters for a normal adult zebrafish. The results showed that retrospective high-frequency echocardiography is a useful tool for studying the cardiac function of normal adult zebrafish. PMID:24658716

Liu, Ting-Yu; Lee, Po-Yang; Huang, Chih-Chung; Sun, Lei; Shung, K. Kirk

2014-01-01

205

Obesity in older adults: relationship to functional limitation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Purpose of review – This review is intended to provide a critical overview of recent investigations of obesity among older persons with emphasis upon associated functional limitations, potential for intervention, and a future research agenda. Recent findings – Obesity is growing in prevalence among...

206

Neurons born in the adult dentate gyrus form functional synapses with target cells  

PubMed Central

Adult neurogenesis occurs in the hippocampus and the olfactory bulb of the mammalian CNS. Recent studies have demonstrated that newborn granule cells of the adult hippocampus are postsynaptic targets of excitatory and inhibitory neurons, but evidence of synapse formation by the axons of these cells is still lacking. By combining retroviral expression of green fluorescent protein in adult-born neurons of the mouse dentate gyrus with immuno-electron microscopy, we found output synapses that were formed by labeled terminals on appropriate target cells in the CA3 area and the hilus. Furthermore, retroviral expression of channelrhodopsin-2 allowed us to light-stimulate newborn granule cells and identify postsynaptic target neurons by whole-cell recordings in acute slices. Our structural and functional evidence indicates that axons of adult-born granule cells establish synapses with hilar interneurons, mossy cells and CA3 pyramidal cells and release glutamate as their main neurotransmitter. PMID:18622400

Toni, Nicolas; Laplagne, Diego A; Zhao, Chunmei; Lombardi, Gabriela; Ribak, Charles E; Gage, Fred H; Schinder, Alejandro F

2008-01-01

207

Driving in young adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Knowledge, performance, adverse outcomes, and the role of executive functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past studies find that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) creates a higher risk for adverse driving outcomes. This study comprehensively evaluated driving in adults with ADHD by comparing 105 young adults with the disorder (age 17-28) to 64 community control (CC) adults on five domains of driving ability and a battery of executive function tasks. The ADHD group self-reported significantly

RUSSELL A. BARKLEY; KEVIN R. MURPHY; GEORGE J. DUPAUL; TRACIE BUSH

2002-01-01

208

Dynamic regulation of NMDAR function in the adult brain by the stress hormone corticosterone  

PubMed Central

Stress and corticosteroids dynamically modulate the expression of synaptic plasticity at glutamatergic synapses in the developed brain. Together with alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptors (AMPAR), N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) are critical mediators of synaptic function and are essential for the induction of many forms of synaptic plasticity. Regulation of NMDAR function by cortisol/corticosterone (CORT) may be fundamental to the effects of stress on synaptic plasticity. Recent reports of the efficacy of NMDAR antagonists in treating certain stress-associated psychopathologies further highlight the importance of understanding the regulation of NMDAR function by CORT. Knowledge of how corticosteroids regulate NMDAR function within the adult brain is relatively sparse, perhaps due to a common belief that NMDAR function is stable in the adult brain. We review recent results from our laboratory and others demonstrating dynamic regulation of NMDAR function by CORT in the adult brain. In addition, we consider the issue of how differences in the early life environment may program differential sensitivity to modulation of NMDAR function by CORT and how this may influence synaptic function during stress. Findings from these studies demonstrate that NMDAR function in the adult hippocampus remains sensitive to even brief exposures to CORT and that the capacity for modulation of NMDAR may be programmed, in part, by the early life environment. Modulation of NMDAR function may contribute to dynamic regulation of synaptic plasticity and adaptation in the face of stress, however, enhanced NMDAR function may be implicated in mechanisms of stress-related psychopathologies including depression. PMID:22408607

Tse, Yiu Chung; Bagot, Rosemary C.; Wong, Tak Pan

2012-01-01

209

High Treatment Burden in Adults with Cystic Fibrosis: Challenges to Disease Self-Management  

PubMed Central

Background More aggressive management of cystic fibrosis (CF), along with the use of new therapies, has led to increasing survival. Thus, the recommended daily treatment regimens for most CF adults are complex and time consuming. Methods In the Project on Adult Care in CF (PAC-CF), an ongoing longitudinal study of CF adults, we assessed self-reported daily treatment activities and perceived treatment burden as measured by the CF Questionnaire-Revised (CFQ-R), a disease-specific quality of life measure. Results Among the 204 respondents, the median number of daily therapies reported was 7 (IQR 5-9) and the mean reported time spent on treatment activities was 108 minutes per day (SD 58 minutes). Respondents reported a median of 3 inhaled and 3 oral therapies on the day prior to the survey. Only 49% reported performing airway clearance (ACT) on that day. There were no differences in the number of medications or the time to complete therapies based on gender, age or FEV1. The mean CFQ-R treatment burden domain score was 52.3 (SD 22.1), with no significant differences in the treatment burden based on age or FEV1. In a multivariable model controlling for age, gender, and FEV1, using 2 or more nebulized medications and performing ACT for ?30 minutes were significantly associated with increased treatment burden. Conclusion The level of daily treatment activity is high for CF adults regardless of age or disease severity. Increasing number of nebulized therapies and increased ACT time, but not gender, age, or pulmonary function, is associated with higher perceived treatment burden. Efforts to assess the effects of high treatment burden on outcomes such as quality of life are warranted. PMID:18952504

Sawicki, Gregory S.; Sellers, Deborah E.; Robinson, Walter M.

2009-01-01

210

Exploring the aggregation of four functional measures in a population of older adults with joint pain and comorbidity  

PubMed Central

Background In clinical settings, it is important for health care providers to measure different aspects of functioning in older adults with joint pain and comorbidity. Besides the use of distinct measures, it could also be attractive to have one general measure of functioning that incorporates several distinct measures, but provides one summary score to quantify overall level of functioning, for example for the identification of older adults at risk of poor functional outcome. Therefore, we selected four measures of functioning: Physical Functioning (PF), Activities of Daily Living (ADL), Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) and participation, and tested the possibility to aggregate these measures into one general measure of functioning. Methods A prospective cohort study of older adults (?65 years) with joint pain and comorbidity provided baseline data (n?=?407) consisting of PF (PF subscale, RAND-36; 10 items), ADL (KATZ index; 6 items), IADL (Lawton index; 7 items) and participation (KAP; 6 items). We tested two models with confirmatory factor analysis: first, a bifactor model with all four measures and second, a bifactor model with PF, ADL and IADL and a correlated but distinct subgroup factor for participation. Several model fit indexes and reliability coefficients, such as explained common variance (ECV) and omegas were computed for both models. Results The first model fitted the data well, but the reliability analysis indicated multidimensionality and unique information in the subgroup factor participation. The second model showed similar model fits, but better reliability; ECV?=?0.67, omega-t?=?0.94, low omega-s?=?0.18-0.22 on the subgroup factors and high omega of 0.82 on participation, which all were in favour of the second model. Conclusions The results indicate that PF, ADL and IADL could be aggregated into one general measure of functioning, whereas participation should be considered as a distinct measure. PMID:24192234

2013-01-01

211

Explaining daily functioning in young adults with obstetric brachial plexus lesion.  

PubMed

Abstract Purpose: To study the influence of obstetric brachial plexus lesion (OBPL) on arm-hand function and daily functioning in adults, and to investigate the relationship of arm-hand function and pain to daily functioning. Method: Adults with unilateral OBPL who consulted the brachial plexus team at the VU University Medical Center in the past were invited to participate. Daily functioning was measured with the Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaire and the SF36, pain with VAS Pain Scales and arm-hand function with the Nine Hole Peg Test (9-HP-test) and the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT). Scores of the affected arm were compared to those of the non-affected arm or norm values for healthy controls. Results: Twenty-seven persons (mean age 22, SD 4.2 years), of whom 10 men, participated. The ARAT and 9-HP-test scores for the affected arm were significantly worse than those for the non-affected arm. Moderate to severe pain in the affected arm, the non-affected arm or the back was reported by 50% of the participants. The DASH general, sports/music and SF36 physical functioning scores were significantly worse than norm values. The ARAT/9-HP-test and daily functioning showed little association. Low to moderate associations were found between pain and daily functioning. Conclusions: Many young adults with OBPL experience limitations in daily functioning. Pain, rather than arm-hand function, seems to explain these limitations. Implications for Rehabilitation Obstetric brachial plexus lesion (OBPL) is caused by traction to the brachial plexus during labour, resulting in denervation of the muscles of the arm and shoulder girdle. Adults with OBPL are hardly seen in rehabilitation medicine. This study shows that many young adults with OBPL experience limitations in daily functioning. Pain, rather than arm-hand function, seems to explain these limitations. Fifty percent of the participants complained about moderate or severe pain, which was located in the affected arm, the back and the non-affected arm. There seems an age-related increase in pain prevalence. Persons who had undergone plexus surgery had a significantly worse arm-hand function, but comparable scores on daily functioning scales compared to persons without plexus surgery. When limitations in daily functioning or pain occur, referral to a rehabilitation physician is indicated. PMID:25332088

de Heer, Conny; Beckerman, Heleen; Groot, Vincent de

2014-10-21

212

Cognitive functioning in relation to brain amyloid-? in healthy adults with Down syndrome.  

PubMed

Nearly all adults with Down syndrome show neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease, including amyloid-? deposition, by their fifth decade of life. In the current study, we examined the association between brain amyloid-? deposition, assessed via in vivo assessments of neocortical Pittsburgh compound B, and scores on an extensive neuropsychological battery of measures of cognitive functioning in 63 adults (31 male, 32 female) with Down syndrome aged 30-53 years who did not exhibit symptoms of dementia. Twenty-two of the adults with Down syndrome were identified as having elevated neocortical Pittsburgh compound B retention levels. There was a significant positive correlation (r = 0.62, P < 0.0001) between age and neocortical Pittsburgh compound B retention. This robust association makes it difficult to discriminate normative age-related decline in cognitive functioning from any potential effects of amyloid-? deposition. When controlling for chronological age in addition to mental age, there were no significant differences between the adults with Down syndrome who had elevated neocortical Pittsburgh compound B retention levels and those who did not on any of the neuropsychological measures. Similarly, when examining Pittsburgh compound B as a continuous variable, after controlling for mental age and chronological age, only the Rivermead Picture Recognition score was significantly negatively associated with neocortical Pittsburgh compound B retention. Our findings indicate that many adults with Down syndrome can tolerate amyloid-? deposition without deleterious effects on cognitive functioning. However, we may have obscured true effects of amyloid-? deposition by controlling for chronological age in our analyses. Moreover, our sample included adults with Down syndrome who were most 'resistant' to the effects of amyloid-? deposition, as adults already exhibiting clinical symptoms of dementia symptoms were excluded from the study. PMID:24993958

Hartley, Sigan L; Handen, Benjamin L; Devenny, Darlynne A; Hardison, Regina; Mihaila, Iulia; Price, Julie C; Cohen, Annie D; Klunk, William E; Mailick, Marsha R; Johnson, Sterling C; Christian, Bradley T

2014-09-01

213

Positive Childhood Experiences and Positive Adult Functioning: Prosocial Continuity and the Role of Adolescent Substance Use  

PubMed Central

Purpose To examine positive childhood experiences as predictors of positive adult functioning, including civic involvement, productivity and responsibility, interpersonal connection, and physical exercise; and to examine adolescent substance use as a mediator of prosocial continuity. Methods Four hundred and twenty-nine rural participants were interviewed across 7 waves from age 11 to 22. Structural equation models examined the relationship between positive childhood experiences and adult functioning, with adolescent substance use added to each model as a possible mediating mechanism. Results Positive childhood experiences predicted significantly better adult functioning for each model, even after accounting for adolescent substance use. Positive childhood experiences also consistently predicted significantly less adolescent substance use. In turn, adolescent substance use predicted significantly less civic involvement and less productivity and responsibility, but was not associated with interpersonal connection or physical exercise when accounting for childhood experiences. Results were largely consistent across gender and levels of family income. Conclusions Findings show the enduring importance of positive childhood experiences in predicting positive functioning in early adulthood. Although adolescent substance use increased risk for poorer functioning in important domains of adult life, results suggest that positive experiences in late childhood continued to have a significant prosocial effect into young adulthood. The study also highlights the late elementary grades as a time when parents, teachers, and others can potentially have a large influence in proactively providing prosocial opportunities for children. PMID:21783051

Kosterman, Rick; Mason, W. Alex; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Hawkins, J. David; Spoth, Richard; Redmond, Cleve

2011-01-01

214

High throughput reproducible cantilever functionalization  

DOEpatents

A method for functionalizing cantilevers is provided that includes providing a holder having a plurality of channels each having a width for accepting a cantilever probe and a plurality of probes. A plurality of cantilever probes are fastened to the plurality of channels of the holder by the spring clips. The wells of a well plate are filled with a functionalization solution, wherein adjacent wells in the well plate are separated by a dimension that is substantially equal to a dimension separating adjacent channels of the plurality of channels. Each cantilever probe that is fastened within the plurality of channels of the holder is applied to the functionalization solution that is contained in the wells of the well plate.

Evans, Barbara R; Lee, Ida

2014-01-21

215

High throughout reproducible cantilever functionalization  

DOEpatents

A method for functionalizing cantilevers is provided that includes providing a holder having a plurality of channels each having a width for accepting a cantilever probe and a plurality of probes. A plurality of cantilever probes are fastened to the plurality of channels of the holder by the spring clips. The wells of a well plate are filled with a functionalization solution, wherein adjacent wells in the well plate are separated by a dimension that is substantially equal to a dimension separating adjacent channels of the plurality of channels. Each cantilever probe that is fastened within the plurality of channels of the holder is applied to the functionalization solution that is contained in the wells of the well plate.

Evans, Barbara R; Lee, Ida

2014-11-25

216

The effects of a brief, water-based exercise intervention on cognitive function in older adults.  

PubMed

Physical inactivity is a modifiable risk factor for accelerated cognitive decline in older adults. Water-based exercise provides the same physiological benefits as land-based exercise with reduced risk of acute injury. The current study evaluated the effects of a brief, water-based exercise intervention on cognitive functioning and cardiovascular fitness in a group of community dwelling older adults. The exercise group (n = 27, Mage = 63.26 ± 7.64, 78% female) attended one moderate intensity water aerobics class per day for six consecutive days whereas the control group (n = 33, Mage = 65.67 ± 6.69, 75% female) continued their typical routine. Neuropsychological and cardiovascular fitness tests were given the week before and the week after the intervention to both groups. The exercise group demonstrated significant improvements in cardiovascular fitness, as well as executive function, attention, and memory over controls. This suggests a brief exercise program can provide benefits for older adults. PMID:25638041

Fedor, Andrew; Garcia, Sarah; Gunstad, John

2015-03-01

217

Female zebra finches require early song exposure to prefer high-quality song as adults  

E-print Network

Female zebra finches require early song exposure to prefer high-quality song as adults CHRISTINE adult female zebra finch, Taeniopygia guttata, song preferences. Females were reared in conditions on song learning has focused on highly sexually dimorphic species such as the zebra finch, Taeniopygia

Devoogd, Timothy John

218

Structural and Functional Plasticity in Long-term Cultures of Adult Ventricular Myocytes  

PubMed Central

Cultured heart cells have long been valuable for characterizing biological mechanism and disease pathogenesis. However, these preparations have limitations, relating to immaturity in key properties like excitation-contraction coupling and ?-adrenergic stimulation. Progressive attenuation of the latter is intimately related to pathogenesis and therapy in heart failure. Highly valuable would be a long-term culture system that emulates the structural and functional changes that accompany disease and development, while concurrently permitting ready access to underlying molecular events. Accordingly, we here produce functional monolayers of adult guinea-pig ventricular myocytes (aGPVMs) that can be maintained in long-term culture for several weeks. At baseline, these monolayers exhibit considerable myofibrillar organization and a significant contribution of sarcoplasmic reticular (SR) Ca2+ release to global Ca2+ transients. In terms of electrical signaling, these monolayers support propagated electrical activity and manifest monophasic restitution of action-potential duration and conduction velocity. Intriguingly, ?-adrenergic stimulation increases chronotropy but not inotropy, indicating selective maintenance of ?-adrenergic signaling. It is interesting that this overall phenotypic profile is not fixed, but can be readily enhanced by chronic electrical stimulation of cultures. This simple environmental cue significantly enhances myofibrillar organization as well as ?-adrenergic sensitivity. In particular, the chronotropic response increased, and an inotropic effect now emerges, mimicking a reversal of the progression seen in heart failure. Thus, these aGPVM monolayer cultures offer a valuable platform for clarifying long elusive features of ?-adrenergic signaling and its plasticity. PMID:24076394

Joshi-Mukherjee, Rosy; Dick, Ivy E.; Liu, Ting; O'Rourke, Brian; Yue, David T.; Tung, Leslie

2014-01-01

219

Quantified Self and Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment: Older Adults Are Able to Evaluate Their Own Health and Functional Status  

PubMed Central

Background There is an increased interest of individuals in quantifying their own health and functional status. The aim of this study was to examine the concordance of answers to a self-administered questionnaire exploring health and functional status with information collected during a full clinical examination performed by a physician among cognitively healthy adults (CHI) and older patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or mild-to-moderate Alzheimer disease (AD). Methods Based on cross-sectional design, a total of 60 older adults (20 CHI, 20 patients with MCI, and 20 patients with mild-to-moderate AD) were recruited in the memory clinic of Angers, France. All participants completed a self-administered questionnaire in paper format composed of 33 items exploring age, gender, nutrition, place of living, social resources, drugs daily taken, memory complaint, mood and general feeling, fatigue, activities of daily living, physical activity and history of falls. Participants then underwent a full clinical examination by a physician exploring the same domains. Results High concordance between the self-administered questionnaire and physician's clinical examination was showed. The few divergences were related to cognitive status, answers of AD and MCI patients to the self-administered questionnaire being less reliable than those of CHI. Conclusion Older adults are able to evaluate their own health and functional status, regardless of their cognitive status. This result needs to be confirmed and opens new perspectives for the quantified self-trend and could be helpful in daily clinical practice of primary care. PMID:24968016

Beauchet, Olivier; Launay, Cyrille P.; Merjagnan, Christine; Kabeshova, Anastasiia; Annweiler, Cédric

2014-01-01

220

Functional Communication Goals for Adolescents and Adults Who Are Severely and Moderately Mentally Handicapped.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Goals are presented for communication skills needed to function independently in the community. The goals, developed for adolescents/adults with severe/moderate mental handicaps, are situation-specific, outcome-oriented, and community-based. They deal with telephone use, shopping, leisure activities, traveling, banking, and going to a restaurant…

Mire, Stephen P.; Chisholm, Rebecca Wise

1990-01-01

221

Adult German Cockroach (Orthoptera: Blattellidae) Feeding and Drinking Behavior as a Function of Density and  

E-print Network

Adult German Cockroach (Orthoptera: Blattellidae) Feeding and Drinking Behavior as a Function or drinking during the recording period. THE DIEL ACTIVITY and exploratory behavior of the German cockroach) developed an instrument that recorded weight shifts of in- dividual cockroaches as they moved from a har

Buckel, Jeffrey A.

222

Education, Functional Limitations, and Life Satisfaction among Older Adults in South Korea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the associations of educational level with functioning and life satisfaction among community-dwelling older adults in South Korea ("n" = 4,152). The sample was drawn from Wave I of the Korean Longitudinal Study on Aging. To examine educational disparities, separate analyses were run to note predictors in less educated…

Lee, Eun-Kyoung Othelia; Lee, Jungui

2013-01-01

223

Age of Acquisition Effects on the Functional Organization of Language in the Adult Brain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we neuroimaged deaf adults as they performed two linguistic tasks with sentences in American Sign Language, grammatical judgment and phonemic-hand judgment. Participants' age-onset of sign language acquisition ranged from birth to 14 years; length of sign language experience was substantial and…

Mayberry, Rachel I.; Chen, Jen-Kai; Witcher, Pamela; Klein, Denise

2011-01-01

224

The Association between Cardiovascular Disease and Cochlear Function in Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this research was to evaluate the relation between self-reported cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cochlear function in older adults. The Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study (EHLS) is an ongoing population-based study of hearing loss and its risk factors in Beaver Dam, Wisconsin. As part of the EHLS questionnaire, participants were…

Torre, Peter, III; Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Klein, Barbara E.K.; Klein, Ronald; Nondahl, David M.

2005-01-01

225

Childhood Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Substance Use, and Adult Functioning among Incarcerated Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To estimate prevalence of childhood ADHD among incarcerated women and determine its association with substance use and adult functioning. Method: 192 female participants are recruited from the Department of Corrections in Rhode Island. Childhood ADHD is defined as scoring >46 on the Wender Utah Rating Scale. Results: The findings…

Hennessey, Kathleen A.; Stein, Michael D.; Rosengard, Cynthia; Rose, Jennifer S.; Clarke, Jennifer G.

2010-01-01

226

Mediterranean diet and cognitive function in older adults Catherine Fart, Ccilia Samieri, Pascale Barberger-Gateau  

E-print Network

- 1 - TITLE PAGE Title Mediterranean diet and cognitive function in older adults Authors Catherine running head Mediterranean Diet, Cognitive Decline and Dementia Word count: 2690 (text) inserm-00418647: The effectiveness of the Mediterranean diet in reducing the prevalence of cardiovascular and chronic diseases has

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

227

Cardiac Autonomic Function during Submaximal Treadmill Exercise in Adults with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study determined whether the cardiac autonomic function of adults with Down syndrome (DS) differs from that of nondisabled persons during submaximal dynamic exercise. Thirteen participants with DS and 12 nondisabled individuals performed maximal and submaximal treadmill tests with metabolic and heart rate (HR) measurements. Spectral analysis…

Mendonca, Goncalo V.; Pereira, Fernando D.; Fernhall, Bo

2011-01-01

228

Analysis of Narrative Discourse Structure as an Ecologically Relevant Measure of Executive Function in Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the narrative discourse production and executive function (EF) abilities of 46 neuro-typical adults (18-98 years old). Two questions were addressed: Is the analysis of narrative structure sensitive to changes associated with aging? & What is the relationship between measures of narrative structure and EF? Narratives were…

Cannizzaro, Michael S.; Coelho, Carl A.

2013-01-01

229

Higher Functioning Adolescents and Young Adults with Autism: A Teacher's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide offers strategies for working with students with autism in the areas of academic instruction, organization and time management, and social skills. The importance of considering the autistic student's use of language and thinking style is stressed. Chapter 1, "Who Are Higher Functioning Young Adults with Autism?" (Ann Fullerton),…

Fullerton, Ann; And Others

230

Spinal Cord Repair in Adult Paraplegic Rats: Partial Restoration of Hind Limb Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complete spinal cord gaps in adult rats were bridged with multiple intercostal nerve grafts that redirected specific pathways from white to gray matter. The grafted area was stabilized with fibrin glue containing acidic fibroblast growth factor and by compressive wiring of posterior spinal processes. Hind limb function improved progressively during the first 6 months, as assessed by two scoring systems.

Henrich Cheng; Yihai Cao; Lars Olson

1996-01-01

231

Associations among Childhood Sexual Abuse, Language Use, and Adult Sexual Functioning and Satisfaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: To better understand the link between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adult sexual functioning and satisfaction, we examined cognitive differences between women with (N = 128) and without (NSA, N = 99) CSA histories. Methods: We used the Linguistic Inquiry Word Count, a computerized text analysis program, to investigate language…

Lorenz, Tierney Ahrold; Meston, Cindy May

2012-01-01

232

Legally Prescribed Functions of Adult and Juvenile Probation Officers: Worlds Apart?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Historically, there have been two competing goals of probation: law enforcement and rehabilitation of the offender. Accordingly, the role, functions, and tasks of probation officers are at times in conflict. In this paper we explore the roles of adult and juvenile probation officers and compare their statutorily prescribed duties. In so doing we…

Steiner, Benjamin; Purkiss, Marcus; Kifer, Misty; Roberts, Elizabeth; Hemmens, Craig

2004-01-01

233

Voluntary sway and rapid orthogonal transitions of voluntary sway in young adults, and low and high fall-risk older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundFalls amongst older people have been linked to reduced postural stability and slowed movement responses. The objective of this study was to examine differences in postural stability and the speed of response between young adults, low fall-risk older adults, and high fall-risk older adults during voluntary postural sway movements.

Murray G. Tucker; Justin J. Kavanagh; Steven Morrison; Rod S. Barrett

2009-01-01

234

Handwriting measures as reflectors of executive functions among adults with Developmental Coordination Disorders (DCD)  

PubMed Central

Planning ahead and organizational abilities in time and space are ingredients of high-level cognitive functions labeled as ‘Executive Functions’ (EF) required for daily activities such as writing or home management. EF deficits are considered a possible underlying brain mechanism involved in Developmental Coordination Disorders (DCD). The aim: of the study was to compare the handwriting process measures and the planning and organizational abilities in space and time of students with DCD with those of matched controls and to find whether handwriting measures can predict daily planning and organizational abilities among students with DCD. Method: 30 students diagnosed with DCD, between the ages of 24–41, and 30 age- and gender-matched controls participated in the study. They filled out the Handwriting Proficiency Screening Questionnaire (HPSQ) and the Adult Developmental Co-ordination Disorders Checklist (ADC). Furthermore, they copied a paragraph on a digitizer that is part of a computerized system Computerised Penmanship Evaluation Toll (ComPET). Results: Significant group differences were found for the HPSQ subscales scores as well as for the temporal and spatial measures of the paragraph copy task. Significant group differences were also found for the planning and organizational abilities in space and time as reflected through the ADC subscales. Significant medium correlations were found in both groups between the mean HPSQ time subscale and the ADC-B subscale mean score (r = 0.50/0.58, p < 0.05). Series of regression analyses indicated that two handwriting performance measures (mean HPSQ time subscale and mean stroke duration) predicted 19% of planning and organizational abilities as reflected through daily functions (ADC-B) [F(3, 54) = 38.37, ? = 0.40, p < 0.0001]. Conclusion: The results support previous evidence about EF deficits as an underlying brain mechanism involved in motor coordination disorders, their significance as related to theoretical models of handwriting and daily function among DCD will be examined. PMID:23805113

Rosenblum, Sara

2013-01-01

235

Adult human dental pulp stem cells differentiate toward functionally active neurons under appropriate environmental cues.  

PubMed

Human adult dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) reside within the perivascular niche of dental pulp and are thought to originate from migrating cranial neural crest (CNC) cells. During embryonic development, CNC cells differentiate into a wide variety of cell types, including neurons of the peripheral nervous system. Previously, we have demonstrated that DPSCs derived from adult human third molar teeth differentiate into cell types reminiscent of CNC embryonic ontology. We hypothesized that DPSCs exposed to the appropriate environmental cues would differentiate into functionally active neurons. The data demonstrated that ex vivo-expanded human adult DPSCs responded to neuronal inductive conditions both in vitro and in vivo. Human adult DPSCs, but not human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs), acquired a neuronal morphology, and expressed neuronal-specific markers at both the gene and protein levels. Culture-expanded DPSCs also exhibited the capacity to produce a sodium current consistent with functional neuronal cells when exposed to neuronal inductive media. Furthermore, the response of human DPSCs and HFFs to endogenous neuronal environmental cues was determined in vivo using an avian xenotransplantation assay. DPSCs expressed neuronal markers and acquired a neuronal morphology following transplantation into the mesencephalon of embryonic day-2 chicken embryo, whereas HFFs maintained a thin spindle fibroblastic morphology. We propose that adult human DPSCs provide a readily accessible source of exogenous stem/precursor cells that have the potential for use in cell-therapeutic paradigms to treat neurological disease. PMID:18499892

Arthur, Agnes; Rychkov, Grigori; Shi, Songtao; Koblar, Simon Andrea; Gronthos, Stan

2008-07-01

236

Reading Performance of Young Adults With ADHD Diagnosed in Childhood: Relations With Executive Functioning.  

PubMed

Objective: To study reading performance of young adults with ADHD and its relation with executive functioning. Method: Thirty young adults with a childhood diagnosis of ADHD and 30 with normal development (ND) were compared on reading accuracy, fluency, and comprehension. Furthermore, ADHD with reading disabilities (ADHD+RD) and ADHD without reading disabilities (ADHD-RD) subgroups were compared using self-report and informant-report versions of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult version (BRIEF-A). Results: Adults with ADHD obtained significantly worse results than the ND adults on reading speed, responses to literal questions, and a cloze test. Although the comparison of the ADHD+RD and ADHD-RD groups did not show significant differences on the BRIEF-A subscales, the ADHD+RD group surpassed the critical percentile (85) on more subscales, with working memory and metacognition especially affected. Conclusion: The findings point out that reading should be assessed in individuals with ADHD as part of their evaluation to design effective early interventions. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX). PMID:24149941

Miranda, Ana; Mercader, Jessica; Fernández, M Inmaculada; Colomer, Carla

2013-10-22

237

Behavioural aspects of cerebellar function in adults with Asperger syndrome.  

PubMed

Aside from social deficits, Asperger and autistic individuals also exhibit motor control abnormalities such as impaired gait, balance, manual dexterity and grip. One brain area that has consistently been reported on autopsy and imaging studies to be abnormal in such individuals is the cerebellum. As the cerebellum controls sensorimotor coordination and lesions here typically cause hypotonia, dysmetria and dyscoordination, we performed a series of quantitative tests aimed at investigating cerebellar function in Asperger individuals. Tests examining visually guided movement (rapid pointing), speeded complex movement (finger tapping, rapid hand turning), muscle tone (catching dropped weight), prediction, coordination and timing (balance, grip force and interval timing) were conducted on 12 Asperger subjects and 12 age and IQ matched controls. In comparison to control subjects, Asperger subject's demonstrated: (i) decreased pointing accuracy and rate, (ii) increased postural instability, and (iii) decreased timing accuracy. IQ was found to co-vary with some parameters of each of these tasks and no further impairments were found on the remaining tests. We suggest that these specific deficits reflect impairment in the ability to integrate sensory input with appropriate motor commands and are consistent with cerebellar dysfunction in Asperger syndrome. PMID:16321884

Gowen, Emma; Miall, R Chris

2005-01-01

238

Assessing cognitive function and capacity in older adults with cancer.  

PubMed

The number of older individuals with cancer is increasing exponentially, mandating that oncologists contemplate more comprehensive and multidisciplinary approaches to treatment of this cohort. Recruitment of assessment instruments validated in older patients can be invaluable for guiding treatment and decision-making by both patients and providers, and can arguably contribute to improving outcomes and health-related quality of life. The Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment is one such validated instrument that can be used by oncologists to assess patient readiness and appropriateness for prescribed cancer therapy. As a multidisciplinary diagnostic and treatment process, it comprises functional status, cognitive status, social support, and advance care preferences, and is an ideal instrument for evaluating complex older individuals. It is well established that many older individuals with cancer travel with multiple comorbid illnesses, including cognitive impairment, and when presented with a cancer diagnosis struggle to choose from multiple treatment options. In addition to the complete medical history, the ability of patients to decide on a course of therapy in concert with their oncologist is critically important. Alternatively, many oncologists are conflicted as to whether true informed consent for treatment can be obtained from many older patients. Having a roadmap to decision-making capacity is therefore an inescapable imperative in geriatric oncology, because careful attention must be directed at identifying older patients with cancer who might benefit from these assessments and the individualized treatment plans that emerge. PMID:24453297

McKoy, June M; Burhenn, Peggy S; Browner, Ilene S; Loeser, Kari L; Tulas, Katrina M; Oden, Megan R; Rupper, Randall W

2014-01-01

239

Absolute Vs. Relative Machine Strength as Predictors of Function in Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationship between absolute and relative (1 repetition maximum\\/LBM) strength vs. 13 differ- ent functional measurements in 143 older adults (mean 5 70.28, standard deviation 5 7.90 years). Strength for 11 ma- chine lifts was determined using a predicted 1-repetition maximal strength measurement. Zero-order correlation re- sults between absolute and relative strength vs. function measures demonstrated very

KATHLEEN M. KNUTZEN; LORRAINE BRILLA; DENNIS CAINE; GORDON CHALMERS; KATHY GUNTER; PHILIP SCHOT

2002-01-01

240

Many Docs Fail to Counsel Young Adults with High Blood Pressure  

MedlinePLUS

... Fail to Counsel Young Adults With High Blood Pressure Too few physicians urge lifestyle changes, study finds (* ... 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Healthy Living High Blood Pressure Talking With Your Doctor MONDAY, Nov. 10, 2014 ( ...

241

Prospective identification of functionally distinct stem cells and neurosphere-initiating cells in adult mouse forebrain  

PubMed Central

Neurosphere formation is commonly used as a surrogate for neural stem cell (NSC) function but the relationship between neurosphere-initiating cells (NICs) and NSCs remains unclear. We prospectively identified, and isolated by flow cytometry, adult mouse lateral ventricle subventricular zone (SVZ) NICs as GlastmidEGFRhighPlexinB2highCD24?/lowO4/PSA-NCAM?/lowTer119/CD45? (GEPCOT) cells. They were highly mitotic and short-lived in vivo based on fate-mapping with Ascl1CreERT2 and Dlx1CreERT2. In contrast, pre-GEPCOT cells were quiescent, expressed higher Glast, and lower EGFR and PlexinB2. Pre-GEPCOT cells could not form neurospheres but expressed the stem cell markers Slc1a3-CreERT, GFAP-CreERT2, Sox2CreERT2, and Gli1CreERT2 and were long-lived in vivo. While GEPCOT NICs were ablated by temozolomide, pre-GEPCOT cells survived and repopulated the SVZ. Conditional deletion of the Bmi-1 polycomb protein depleted pre-GEPCOT and GEPCOT cells, though pre-GEPCOT cells were more dependent upon Bmi-1 for Cdkn2a (p16Ink4a) repression. Our data distinguish quiescent NSCs from NICs and make it possible to study their properties in vivo. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02669.001 PMID:24843006

Mich, John K; Signer, Robert AJ; Nakada, Daisuke; Pineda, André; Burgess, Rebecca J; Vue, Tou Yia; Johnson, Jane E; Morrison, Sean J

2014-01-01

242

Cutaneous vascular function during acute hyperglycemia in healthy young adults.  

PubMed

Although it is well established that severe chronic hyperglycemia is associated with microvascular disease, it is not known whether transient hyperglycemia similar to that observed with impaired glucose tolerance or early Type 2 diabetes contributes to this pathology by altering microvascular function. To test the hypothesis that acute hyperglycemia decreases microvascular vasodilator responsiveness in human skin, we measured the cutaneous vasodilator response to local warming. This response can be divided into two phases, an initial peak that relies predominantly on local sensory nerves and a second slower phase that is largely dependent on endothelial nitric oxide. We reasoned that a change in one or both phases would indicate a change in the corresponding mechanism(s) with hyperglycemia. Twenty-eight healthy volunteers (14 women, 14 men) were randomly divided into three groups, corresponding to 6 h of euglycemia (n = 8), 6 h when glucose was clamped at approximately 7 mmol/l (n = 10), or 6 h when glucose was varied to mimic a postprandial pattern (i.e., peak glucose approximately 11.1 mmol/l) commonly observed in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (n = 10). Insulin concentrations in all instances were maintained at approximately 65 pmol/l by means of continuous infusions of somatostatin and insulin. Glucagon and growth hormone were also continuously infused to maintain their basal concentrations. Despite substantial differences in both the level and pattern of glucose concentrations, neither maximum cutaneous vasodilation nor the pattern of the vasodilator response to local warming differed over the 6 h of study. We conclude that acute hyperglycemia similar to levels commonly observed in people with either early Type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance does not alter the vasodilator response to local warming of the skin in humans. PMID:12235021

Charkoudian, N; Vella, A; Reed, A S; Minson, C T; Shah, P; Rizza, R A; Joyner, M J

2002-10-01

243

Perfluoroalkyl substances and thyroid function in older adults.  

PubMed

Current understanding of the thyroid disruptive properties of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), particularly in aging populations, is limited. The objectives of this study were to (i) assess associations between thyroid function, as measured by serum thyrotropin (thyroid stimulating hormone, TSH), free thyroxine (fT4), total thyroxine (T4), and total triiodothyronine (T3), and serum perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in an aging population and (ii) determine if other persistent organic pollutants with thyroid disruptive properties including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) modify such associations. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 87 men and women 55 to 74years of age, without clinically-diagnosed thyroid disease, who resided in upper Hudson River communities in New York. Geometric means (standard deviations) of serum PFOS and PFOA were 31.6 (1.7) ng/mL and 9.17 (1.72) ng/mL, respectively. Multivariable linear regression analyses indicated that one interquartile range difference in PFOS corresponded to 4% and 9% increases in fT4 and T4 respectively. We detected statistical interactions between PFOA and age for effects on fT4 and T4; joint increases in PFOA and age were associated with increases in fT4 and T4, of 3% and 7%, respectively. We also detected statistical interactions between PFOS and total PCBs for the effect on T3 and between PFOA and total PBDEs for the effect on TSH. Our results suggest that PFASs are associated with subtle alterations in thyroid hormone levels in this population, and that these associations are likely to vary by age, and levels of PCBs and PBDEs. PMID:25483837

Shrestha, Srishti; Bloom, Michael S; Yucel, Recai; Seegal, Richard F; Wu, Qian; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Rej, Robert; Fitzgerald, Edward F

2015-02-01

244

Marginal neurofunctional changes in high-performing older adults in a verbal fluency task.  

PubMed

The maintenance of a high level of performance in aging has often been associated with changes in cerebral activations patterns for various cognitive components. However, relatively few studies have investigated this phenomenon in light of lexical speech production abilities, which have not been systematically found to benefit from neurofunctional reorganization during verbal fluency tasks. In this study, functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess overt self-paced semantic and orthographic verbal fluency tasks performed by healthy younger and older adults within a mixed block/event-related fMRI design. Behavioral results indicated similarly high levels of performance between tasks and age groups, while whole brain analysis revealed significant task-related differences in patterns of brain activity, but no significant effect of age or task-by-age interaction across the speech conditions. Only local activity differences were found between age groups. These marginal neurofunctional changes in high-performing older adults are discussed in terms of task demands. PMID:25461916

Marsolais, Yannick; Methqal, Ikram; Joanette, Yves

2015-01-01

245

Insights from a Chimpanzee Adipose Stromal Cell Population: Opportunities for Adult Stem Cells to Expand Primate Functional Genomics  

PubMed Central

Comparisons between humans and chimpanzees are essential for understanding traits unique to each species. However, linking important phenotypic differences to underlying molecular changes is often challenging. The ability to generate, differentiate, and profile adult stem cells provides a powerful but underutilized opportunity to investigate the molecular basis for trait differences between species within specific cell types and in a controlled environment. Here, we characterize adipose stromal cells (ASCs) from Clint, the chimpanzee whose genome was first sequenced. Using imaging and RNA-Seq, we compare the chimpanzee ASCs with three comparable human cell lines. Consistent with previous studies on ASCs in humans, the chimpanzee cells have fibroblast-like morphology and express genes encoding components of the extracellular matrix at high levels. Differentially expressed genes are enriched for distinct functional classes between species: immunity and protein processing are higher in chimpanzees, whereas cell cycle and DNA processing are higher in humans. Although hesitant to draw definitive conclusions from these data given the limited sample size, we wish to stress the opportunities that adult stem cells offer for studying primate evolution. In particular, adult stem cells provide a powerful means to investigate the profound disease susceptibilities unique to humans and a promising tool for conservation efforts with nonhuman primates. By allowing for experimental perturbations in relevant cell types, adult stem cells promise to complement classic comparative primate genomics based on in vivo sampling. PMID:24092797

Pfefferle, Lisa W.; Wray, Gregory A.

2013-01-01

246

Systemic Vascular Function Is Associated with Muscular Power in Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Age-associated loss of muscular strength and muscular power is a critical determinant of loss of physical function and progression to disability in older adults. In this study, we examined the association of systemic vascular function and measures of muscle strength and power in older adults. Measures of vascular endothelial function included brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and the pulse wave amplitude reactive hyperemia index (PWA-RHI). Augmentation index (AIx) was taken as a measure of systemic vascular function related to arterial stiffness and wave reflection. Measures of muscular strength included one repetition maximum (1RM) for a bilateral leg press. Peak muscular power was measured during 5 repetitions performed as fast as possible for bilateral leg press at 40% 1RM. Muscular power was associated with brachial FMD (r = 0.43, P < 0.05), PWA-RHI (r = 0.42, P < 0.05), and AIx (r = ?0.54, P < 0.05). Muscular strength was not associated with any measure of vascular function. In conclusion, systemic vascular function is associated with lower-limb muscular power but not muscular strength in older adults. Whether loss of muscular power with aging contributes to systemic vascular deconditioning or vascular dysfunction contributes to decrements in muscular power remains to be determined. PMID:22966457

Heffernan, Kevin S.; Chalé, Angela; Hau, Cynthia; Cloutier, Gregory J.; Phillips, Edward M.; Warner, Patrick; Nickerson, Heather; Reid, Kieran F.; Kuvin, Jeffrey T.; Fielding, Roger A.

2012-01-01

247

Cigarillo use among High-Risk Urban Young Adults  

PubMed Central

In the U.S., cigar use doubled from 5.0 to 10.6 billion cigars consumed annually between 1997 and 2007, driven in large part by increased sales of cigarette-sized “little cigars” and narrow, mid-sized “cigarillos.” The present study examined prevalence of cigarillo use as well as attitudes, knowledge and behaviors related to cigarillo use among a sample of predominantly urban African American young adults 18–24 not in school and not employed. Survey data were collected from 131 young adults attending education and job training centers in Baltimore, Maryland and from 78 young adults attending education, job training, or recreational programs in Washington, D.C. In Baltimore, 22% of young adults had smoked a cigarillo in the past 30 days, compared with nearly 63% in D.C. Both populations were heavily exposed to cigarillo advertising and marketing. Cigarillo use in this urban young adult population is a growing public health problem and undermines the progress made in decreasing cigarette use. PMID:24185161

Milam, Adam J.; Bone, Lee R.; Byron, M. Justin; Hoke, Kathleen; Williams, Carla D.; Furr-Holden, C. Debra; Stillman, Frances A.

2014-01-01

248

Effect of Physical Activity Guidelines on Physical Function in Older Adults  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES To determine whether elderly people who meet national guidelines have higher physical function (PF) scores than those who do not and the effect on functional trajectory when physical activity (PA) levels change from above to below this threshold, or vice versa. DESIGN Pooled data. SETTING Two 6-month randomized controlled trials aimed at increasing PA in adults. PARTICIPANTS Adults aged 65 to 94 (N 5 357). INTERVENTION PA counseling over the telephone and through mailed materials. MEASUREMENTS Self-reported PA dichotomized at 150 minutes/week and PF using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short Form Questionnaire PF subscale. RESULTS At baseline, individuals reporting 150 minutes or more of moderate PA/week had mean PF scores that were 20.3 points higher than those who did not (Po<.001). Change in PA minutes from above threshold to below threshold or from below threshold to above threshold from baseline to 6 months resulted in an average change in PF of 11.18 (P<.001) and +5.10 (P =.05), respectively. CONCLUSION These findings suggest that PA is an important predictor of functional status. Older sedentary adults can improve PF by meeting recommended PA levels. Conversely, dropping below recommended PA levels has a deleterious effect on PF. Given the importance of PF in maintenance of independence and quality of life in older adults, adherence to recommended PA guidelines should be endorsed. PMID:18800990

Morey, Miriam C.; Sloane, Richard; Pieper, Carl F.; Peterson, Matthew J.; Pearson, Megan P.; Ekelund, Carola C.; Crowley, Gail M.; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Snyder, Denise C.; Clipp, Elizabeth C.; Cohen, Harvey J.

2009-01-01

249

Exploring the Relationship of Autonomic and Endocrine Activity with Social Functioning in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several studies indicate that autonomic and endocrine activity may be related to social functioning in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), although the number of studies in adults is limited. The present study explored the relationship of autonomic and endocrine activity with social functioning in young adult males with ASD compared…

Smeekens, I.; Didden, R.; Verhoeven, E. W. M.

2015-01-01

250

Associations between Conceptual Reasoning, Problem Solving, and Adaptive Ability in High-Functioning Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Abstract thinking is generally highly correlated with problem-solving ability which is predictive of better adaptive functioning. Measures of conceptual reasoning, an ecologically-valid laboratory measure of problem-solving, and a report measure of adaptive functioning in the natural environment, were administered to children and adults with and…

Williams, Diane L.; Mazefsky, Carla A.; Walker, Jon D.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Goldstein, Gerald

2014-01-01

251

Longitudinal change in cognitive function and medication adherence in HIV-infected adults.  

PubMed

Neuropsychological (NP) dysfunction has been linked to poor medication adherence among HIV-infected adults. However, there is a dearth of research examining longitudinal changes in the relationship between NP status and adherence rates. We hypothesized that declines in NP functioning would be associated with a corresponding decline in medication adherence while stable NP functioning would be associated with stable or improving adherence rates. Participants included 215 HIV-infected adults who underwent cognitive testing at study entry and six months later. Compared to the NP stable group, the NP decline group showed a greater drop in adherence rates. Further analysis revealed that, beyond global NP, learning and memory was significantly associated with changes in adherence rates. These findings further support the link between cognitive functioning and medication adherence and illustrates the importance of documenting changes in cognitive abilities for identifying individuals at risk for poor adherence. PMID:21437726

Becker, Brian W; Thames, April D; Woo, Ellen; Castellon, Steven A; Hinkin, Charles H

2011-11-01

252

Stalking, and Social and Romantic Functioning Among Adolescents and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the nature and predictors of social and romantic functioning in adolescents and adults with ASD. Parental reports\\u000a were obtained for 25 ASD adolescents and adults (13–36 years), and 38 typical adolescents and adults (13–30 years). The ASD\\u000a group relied less upon peers and friends for social (OR = 52.16, p p 2\\u000a \\u000a df = 19 \\u000a =\\u000a  3168.74, p 2\\u000a \\u000a df = 5 = 2335.40, p t = ?2.23, df = 18.79, p  .05). These results show that

Mark Stokes; Naomi Newton; Archana Kaur

2007-01-01

253

Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis: Regulation, Functional Implications, And Contribution to Disease Pathology  

PubMed Central

It is now well established that the mammalian brain has the capacity to produce new neurons into adulthood. One such region that provides the proper milieu to sustain progenitor cells and is permissive to neuronal fate determination is located in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. This review will discuss in detail the complex process of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, including proliferation, differentiation, survival, and incorporation into neuronal networks. The regulation of this phenomenon by a number of factors is described, including neurotransmitter systems, growth factors, paracrine signaling molecules, neuropeptides, transcription factors, endogenous psychotropic systems, sex hormones, stress, and others. This review also addresses the functional significance of adult born hippocampal granule cells with regard to hippocampal circuitry dynamics and behavior. Furthermore, the relevance of perturbations in adult hippocampal neurogenesis to the pathophysiology of various disease states, including depression, schizophrenia, epilepsy, and diabetes are examined. Finally, this review discusses the potential of using hippocampal neurogenesis as a therapeutic target for these disorders. PMID:18786562

Balu, Darrick T.; Lucki, Irwin

2009-01-01

254

Function in context: Why American and Trinidadian young and older adults remember the personal past.  

PubMed

Multiple and interacting contextual (culture, life phase) and person-specific predictors (i.e., personality, tendency to think-talk about the past) of the functions of autobiographical memory were examined using the Thinking about Life Experiences Scale. American (N = 174) and Trinidadian (N = 182) young and older adults self-reported how frequently they remembered the personal past to serve self, social and directive functions, how often they thought and talked about their past overall, and completed a measure of trait personality. Independent contextual and person-specific predictors were found for using memory to serve a social-bonding function: Americans, young adults, those higher in extraversion, lower in conscientiousness and individuals who frequently think and talk about the past more often use autobiographical memory for social bonding. Across cultures, younger adults report more frequently using memory to serve all three functions, whereas Trinidadians who think more often about the past compared with those who reflect less often are more likely to use it for self and directive functions. Findings are discussed in terms of the individual's embeddedness in cultural and life phase contexts when remembering. PMID:24992649

Alea, Nicole; Bluck, Susan; Ali, Sideeka

2015-01-01

255

The Effects on the Pulmonary Function of Normal Adults Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Respiration Pattern Exercise  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine whether proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) respiration exercise increases the pulmonary function of normal adults. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight normal adults in their 20s were randomly assigned to an experimental group (n=14) or control group (n=14). Over the course of four weeks, the experimental group participated in PNF respiration pattern exercises for 30 minutes three times per week. Subjects were assessed pre-test and post-test by measurement of pulmonary function (tidal volume, inspiratory reserve volume, expiratory reserve volume, inspiratory capacity, and vital capacity). [Results] Our findings show that the experimental group had significant improvements in expiratory reserve volume and vital capacity. In the comparison of the two groups, the experimental group had higher pulmonary function than the control group. [Conclusion] In this study, the experimental group showed greater improvement in pulmonary function than the control group, which indicates that the PNF respiration exercise is effective at increasing the pulmonary function of normal adults. PMID:25364117

Seo, KyoChul; Cho, MiSuk

2014-01-01

256

Older Adults are Highly Responsive to Recent Events During Decision-Making  

PubMed Central

Recent work suggests that older adults’ decision-making behavior is highly affected by recent events. In the present work younger and older adults performed a two-choice task where one option provided a larger average reward, but there was a large amount of noise around the mean reward for each option which led to sharp improvements or declines in rewards over trials. Older adults showed greater responsiveness to recent events than younger adults as evidenced by fits of Reinforcement Learning (RL) models. Older adults were particularly sensitive to recent negative events, which was evidenced by a strong tendency for older adults to switch to the other option following steep declines in reward. This tendency led to superior performance for older adults in one condition where heightened sensitivity to recent negative events was advantageous. These results extend prior work that has found an older adult bias toward negative feedback, and suggest that older adults engage in more abrupt switching in response to negative outcomes than younger adults. PMID:25580469

Worthy, Darrell A.; Otto, A. Ross; Doll, Bradley B.; Byrne, Kaileigh A.; Maddox, W. Todd

2014-01-01

257

Pedagogical cues encourage toddlers' transmission of recently demonstrated functions to unfamiliar adults.  

PubMed

Young children use pedagogical cues as a signal that others' actions are social or cultural conventions. Here we show that children selectively transmit (enact in a new social situation) causal functions demonstrated pedagogically, even when they have learned and can produce alternative functions as well. Two-year-olds saw two novel toys, each with two functions. One experimenter demonstrated one function using pedagogical cues (eye contact and child-directed speech) and a second experimenter demonstrated the alternative function using intentional actions towards the object, but without pedagogical cues. Children imitated both functions at equal rates initially, indicating equal causal learning from both types of demonstration. However, they were significantly more likely to enact the pedagogical function for a new adult not present during the initial demonstrations. These results indicate that pedagogical cues influence children's transmission of information, perhaps playing a role in the dissemination of cultural conventions from a young age. PMID:25284008

Vredenburgh, Christopher; Kushnir, Tamar; Casasola, Marianella

2014-10-01

258

High-Frequency Auditory Feedback Is Not Required for Adult Song Maintenance in Bengalese Finches  

E-print Network

High-Frequency Auditory Feedback Is Not Required for Adult Song Maintenance in Bengalese Finches 98195 Male Bengalese finches do not normally change their vocal patterns in adulthood; song are sufficient for song maintenance in adult Bengalese finches. Key words: song; auditory feedback; hair cell

Rubel, Edwin

259

HIGH CARDIOVASCULAR RISK IN AN ADULT POPULATION OF THE FRENCH WEST INDIES  

E-print Network

HIGH CARDIOVASCULAR RISK IN AN ADULT POPULATION OF THE FRENCH WEST INDIES: WIDE SOCIAL INEQUALITIES and the expression of multiple cardiovascular risk factors in an adult Caribbean population. Design and method sampling. The expression of multiple cardiovascular risk factors was defined by the presence of 3 or more

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

260

High Cost Residential Placements for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Concern has been expressed repeatedly about the cost and quality of residential placements for adults with learning disabilities and additional needs. This study sought to identify characteristics of the highest cost placements in the South-East of England. Method: Lead learning disability commissioners in the South-East of England…

McGill, Peter; Poynter, Jo

2012-01-01

261

High rates of nonbreeding adult bald eagles in southeastern Alaska  

SciTech Connect

Present knowledge of bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) demography is derived primarily from populations in environments that have been drastically altered by man. Most reproductive studies were done in the 1960's and 1970's when chemical toxins were inhibiting bald eagle productivity. Earlier, the removal of old-growth forests and decimation of anadromous fish runs by Euro-Americans may have greatly reduced bald eagle abundance from presettlement levels. Historical trends in this species are of interest because fundamental differences may exist between populations in pristine and man-altered environments. One difference may be breeding rate. Surpluses of nonbreeding adult bald eagles during the nesting season are rarely mentioned in the literature. Most surveys of reproductive success focus exclusively on eagles at nest sites, which assumes nearly all adults attempt to breed each year. The authors report that a majority of adults in the relatively pristine habitats of southeastern Alaska do not breed annually. This finding is important because if surpluses of non-breeding adults are a natural feature of the population, then hypotheses on density dependent population regulation and the evolution of delayed maturation are suggested. If, on the other hand, the abundance of nonbreeders is an artifact of recent environmental perturbations, serious population declines may occur in southeastern Alaska.

Hansen, A.J.; Hodges, J.I. Jr.

1985-01-01

262

Manipulation of Length and Lexicality Localizes the Functional Neuroanatomy of Phonological Processing in Adult Readers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a previous study of single word reading, regions in the left supramarginal gyrus and left angular gyrus showed positive BOLD activity in children but significantly less activity in adults for high-frequency words [Church, J. A., Coalson, R. S., Lugar, H. M., Petersen, S. E., & Schlaggar, B. L. "A developmental fMRI study of reading and…

Church, Jessica A.; Balota, David A.; Petersen, Steven E.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.

2011-01-01

263

Oppositional COMT Val158Met effects on resting state functional connectivity in adolescents and adults.  

PubMed

Prefrontal dopamine levels are relatively increased in adolescence compared to adulthood. Genetic variation of COMT (COMT Val158Met) results in lower enzymatic activity and higher dopamine availability in Met carriers. Given the dramatic changes of synaptic dopamine during adolescence, it has been suggested that effects of COMT Val158Met genotypes might have oppositional effects in adolescents and adults. The present study aims to identify such oppositional COMT Val158Met effects in adolescents and adults in prefrontal brain networks at rest. Resting state functional connectivity data were collected from cross-sectional and multicenter study sites involving 106 healthy young adults (mean age 24 ± 2.6 years), gender matched to 106 randomly chosen 14-year-olds. We selected the anterior medial prefrontal cortex (amPFC) as seed due to its important role as nexus of the executive control and default mode network. We observed a significant age-dependent reversal of COMT Val158Met effects on resting state functional connectivity between amPFC and ventrolateral as well as dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and parahippocampal gyrus. Val homozygous adults exhibited increased and adolescents decreased connectivity compared to Met homozygotes for all reported regions. Network analyses underscored the importance of the parahippocampal gyrus as mediator of observed effects. Results of this study demonstrate that adolescent and adult resting state networks are dose-dependently and diametrically affected by COMT genotypes following a hypothetical model of dopamine function that follows an inverted U-shaped curve. This study might provide cues for the understanding of disease onset or dopaminergic treatment mechanisms in major neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. PMID:25319752

Meyer, Bernhard M; Huemer, Julia; Rabl, Ulrich; Boubela, Roland N; Kalcher, Klaudius; Berger, Andreas; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth; Bokde, Arun; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia; Desrivières, Sylvane; Flor, Herta; Frouin, Vincent; Gallinat, Jurgen; Garavan, Hugh; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Jia, Tianye; Lathrop, Mark; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Nees, Frauke; Rietschel, Marcella; Smolka, Michael N; Bartova, Lucie; Popovic, Ana; Scharinger, Christian; Sitte, Harald H; Steiner, Hans; Friedrich, Max H; Kasper, Siegfried; Perkmann, Thomas; Praschak-Rieder, Nicole; Haslacher, Helmuth; Esterbauer, Harald; Moser, Ewald; Schumann, Gunter; Pezawas, Lukas

2014-10-16

264

Enriched Monolayer Precursor Cell Cultures from Micro-Dissected Adult Mouse Dentate Gyrus Yield Functional Granule Cell-Like Neurons  

PubMed Central

Background Stem cell cultures are key tools of basic and applied research in Regenerative Medicine. In the adult mammalian brain, lifelong neurogenesis originating from local precursor cells occurs in the neurogenic regions of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Despite widespread interest in adult hippocampal neurogenesis and the use of mouse models to study it, no protocol existed for adult murine long-term precursor cell cultures with hippocampus-specific differentiation potential. Methodology/Principal Findings We describe a new strategy to obtain serum-free monolayer cultures of neural precursor cells from microdissected dentate gyrus of adult mice. Neurons generated from these adherent hippocampal precursor cell cultures expressed the characteristic markers like transcription factor Prox1 and showed the TTX-sensitive sodium currents of mature granule cells in vivo. Similar to granule cells in vivo, treatment with kainic acid or brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) elicited the expression of GABAergic markers, further supporting the correspondence between the in vitro and in vivo phenotype. When plated as single cells (in individual wells) or at lowest density for two to three consecutive generations, a subset of the cells showed self-renewal and gave rise to cells with properties of neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. The precursor cell fate was sensitive to culture conditions with their phenotype highly influenced by factors within the media (sonic hedgehog, BMP, LIF) and externally applied growth factors (EGF, FGF2, BDNF, and NT3). Conclusions/Significance We report the conditions required to generate adult murine dentate gyrus precursor cell cultures and to analyze functional properties of precursor cells and their differentiated granule cell-like progeny in vitro. PMID:17460755

Babu, Harish; Cheung, Giselle; Kettenmann, Helmut; Palmer, Theo D.; Kempermann, Gerd

2007-01-01

265

Acute Hypoglycemia Impairs Executive Cognitive Function in Adults With and Without Type 1 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Acute hypoglycemia impairs cognitive function in several domains. Executive cognitive function governs organization of thoughts, prioritization of tasks, and time management. This study examined the effect of acute hypoglycemia on executive function in adults with and without diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Thirty-two adults with and without type 1 diabetes with no vascular complications or impaired awareness of hypoglycemia were studied. Two hyperinsulinemic glucose clamps were performed at least 2 weeks apart in a single-blind, counterbalanced order, maintaining blood glucose at 4.5 mmol/L (euglycemia) or 2.5 mmol/L (hypoglycemia). Executive functions were assessed with a validated test suite (Delis-Kaplan Executive Function). A general linear model (repeated-measures ANOVA) was used. Glycemic condition (euglycemia or hypoglycemia) was the within-participant factor. Between-participant factors were order of session (euglycemia-hypoglycemia or hypoglycemia-euglycemia), test battery used, and diabetes status (with or without diabetes). RESULTS Compared with euglycemia, executive functions (with one exception) were significantly impaired during hypoglycemia; lower test scores were recorded with more time required for completion. Large Cohen d values (>0.8) suggest that hypoglycemia induces decrements in aspects of executive function with large effect sizes. In some tests, the performance of participants with diabetes was more impaired than those without diabetes. CONCLUSIONS Executive cognitive function, which is necessary to carry out many everyday activities, is impaired during hypoglycemia in adults with and without type 1 diabetes. This important aspect of cognition has not received previous systematic study with respect to hypoglycemia. The effect size is large in terms of both accuracy and speed. PMID:23780950

Graveling, Alex J.; Deary, Ian J.; Frier, Brian M.

2013-01-01

266

Assessment of Macular Function Using the SKILL Card in Adults With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To evaluate the impact of reduced contrast and reduced luminance on visual acuity (VA) using the Smith–Kettlewell Institute Low Luminance (SKILL) Card in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods. We studied adults aged 27 to 65 years, 32 with T2DM and no retinopathy (NoRet group), 22 with T2DM and nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR group), and 38 healthy control subjects. Monocular high-contrast (SKILL light) and low-contrast, low-luminance (SKILL dark) near visual acuities were tested. The SKILL score was calculated as the difference between dark chart and light chart acuities and was corrected for age. Contrast sensitivity (CS) was also measured. Subject group differences were examined using ANOVA and Tukey honestly significant difference test. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to assess the ability of the SKILL Card and CS to discriminate the subject groups. Results. The SKILL score and CS were significantly worse in both diabetes groups compared with the controls (P < 0.01). SKILL scores in the NPDR group were poorest (highest) and significantly worse than those in the NoRet group (P < 0.05). SKILL scores discriminated NPDR and NoRet patients from the controls with high accuracy (99% and 88%, respectively), which was significantly (P < 0.03) better than CS (78% and 74%, respectively). Conclusions. The SKILL Card demonstrated vision function changes in diabetes even in the absence of clinically evident retinopathy. Diabetic retinopathy led to a further increase in the SKILL score, while high-contrast VA remained unchanged. PMID:24825104

Dhamdhere, Kavita P.; Schneck, Marilyn E.; Bearse, Marcus A.; Lam, Wendy; Barez, Shirin; Adams, Anthony J.

2014-01-01

267

Risk factors related to cognitive functioning: a cross-national comparison of U.S. and Korean older adults.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to conduct a cross-national comparison of factors related to cognitive functioning in later life in a U.S. and Korean sample. The study sample was comprised of subjects from the HRS (N = 10,175) and the KLoSA (N = 3,550). Separate multivariate regression models were employed to examine the impact of socio-demographic, health, and health behaviors on cognitive functioning among older adults. Regression results showed that age, gender, education, wealth, self-rated health, ADL, IADL, stroke, and poor eyesight were significantly associated with cognitive functioning in both countries. However, depression, high blood pressure, diabetes, and drinking were significantly associated with cognition only among Americans, while marital status and poor hearing were significantly associated with cognition only among Koreans. In addition, gender-specific models suggested several socio-economic and health factors had significantly different effects by gender in both countries. Cross-national comparative research identified similar risk factors, suggesting robust associations. Unique factors related to cognitive functioning in U.S. and Korean older adults highlight the important role of societal influences on cognitive outcomes. PMID:25486720

Lyu, Jiyoung; Lee, Chae Man; Dugan, Elizabeth

2014-01-01

268

Risk factors related to cognitive functioning: a cross-national comparison of U.S. and Korean older adults.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to conduct a cross-national comparison of factors related to cognitive functioning in later life in a U.S. and Korean sample. The study sample was comprised of subjects from the HRS (N = 10,175) and the KLoSA (N = 3,550). Separate multivariate regression models were employed to examine the impact of socio-demographic, health, and health behaviors on cognitive functioning among older adults. Regression results showed that age, gender, education, wealth, self-rated health, ADL, IADL, stroke, and poor eyesight were significantly associated with cognitive functioning in both countries. However, depression, high blood pressure, diabetes, and drinking were significantly associated with cognition only among Americans, while marital status and poor hearing were significantly associated with cognition only among Koreans. In addition, gender-specific models suggested several socio-economic and health factors had significantly different effects by gender in both countries. Cross-national comparative research identified similar risk factors, suggesting robust associations. Unique factors related to cognitive functioning in U.S. and Korean older adults highlight the important role of societal influences on cognitive outcomes. PMID:25508851

Lyu, Jiyoung; Lee, Chae Man; Dugan, Elizabeth

2014-01-01

269

Do Individuals with High Functioning Autism Have the IQ Profile Associated with Nonverbal Learning Disability?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previously researchers have noted a high level of occurrence of the IQ profile associated with nonverbal learning disability (NLD) in Asperger syndrome (ASP) but not in high functioning autism (HFA). We examined the IQ profile scores of a large sample of children (n=69) and adults (n=77) with HFA, stringently diagnosed according to ADOS, ADI-R,…

Williams, Diane L.; Goldstein, Gerald; Kojkowski, Nicole; Minshew, Nancy J.

2008-01-01

270

Self-Concept, Motivational Orientation, and Help-Seeking Behavior in Mathematics: A Study of Adults Returning to High School  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to explore relations between mathematics achievement, self-concept, goal orientation, intrinsic motivation, and help-seeking behavior among adults studying for a high school diploma. Participants in this study were 145 adults (55 males and 90 females) enrolled in nine first year high school classes for adult students at five high schools in three cities in Norway.

Sidsel Skaalvik; Einar M. Skaalvik

2005-01-01

271

Functional and Molecular Characterization of Rod-like Cells from Retinal Stem Cells Derived from the Adult Ciliary Epithelium  

PubMed Central

In vitro generation of photoreceptors from stem cells is of great interest for the development of regenerative medicine approaches for patients affected by retinal degeneration and for high throughput drug screens for these diseases. In this study, we show unprecedented high percentages of rod-fated cells from retinal stem cells of the adult ciliary epithelium. Molecular characterization of rod-like cells demonstrates that they lose ciliary epithelial characteristics but acquire photoreceptor features. Rod maturation was evaluated at two levels: gene expression and electrophysiological functionality. Here we present a strong correlation between phototransduction protein expression and functionality of the cells in vitro. We demonstrate that in vitro generated rod-like cells express cGMP-gated channels that are gated by endogenous cGMP. We also identified voltage-gated channels necessary for rod maturation and viability. This level of analysis for the first time provides evidence that adult retinal stem cells can generate highly homogeneous rod-fated cells. PMID:22432014

Demontis, Gian Carlo; Aruta, Claudia; Comitato, Antonella; De Marzo, Anna; Marigo, Valeria

2012-01-01

272

Long-term exposure to decabrominated diphenyl ether impairs CD8 T-cell function in adult mice  

PubMed Central

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants that accumulate to high levels in human populations that are subject to occupational or regional industry exposure. PBDEs have been shown to affect human neuronal, endocrine and reproductive systems, but their effect on the immune system is not well understood. In this study, experimental adult mice were intragastrically administered 2,2?,3,3?,4,4?,5,5?,6,6?-decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) at doses of 8, 80 or 800 mg/kg of body weight (bw) at 2-day intervals. Our results showed that continuous exposure to BDE-209 resulted in high levels of BDE-209 in the plasma that approached the levels found in people who work in professions with high risks of PDBE exposure. Reduced leukocytes, decreased cytokine (IFN-?, IL-2 and TNF-?) production and lower CD8 T-cell proliferation were observed in the mice exposed to BDE-209. Additionally, mice with long-term BDE-209 exposure had lower numbers of antigen-specific CD8 T cells after immunization with recombinant Listeria monocytogenes expressing ovalbumin (rLm-OVA) and the OVA-specific CD8 T cells had reduced functionality. Taken together, our study demonstrates that continuous BDE-209 exposure causes adverse effects on the number and functionality of immune cells in adult mice. PMID:24705197

Zeng, Weihong; Wang, Ying; Liu, Zhicui; Khanniche, Asma; Hu, Qingliang; Feng, Yan; Ye, Weiyi; Yang, Jianglong; Wang, Shujun; Zhou, Lin; Shen, Hao; Wang, Yan

2014-01-01

273

Pax7 is critical for the normal function of satellite cells in adult skeletal muscle  

PubMed Central

Extensive analyses of mice carrying null mutations in paired box 7 (Pax7) have confirmed the progressive loss of the satellite cell lineage in skeletal muscle, resulting in severe muscle atrophy and death. A recent study using floxed alleles and tamoxifen-induced inactivation concluded that after 3 wk of age, Pax7 was entirely dispensable for satellite cell function. Here, we demonstrate that Pax7 is an absolute requirement for satellite cell function in adult skeletal muscle. Following Pax7 deletion, satellite cells and myoblasts exhibit cell-cycle arrest and dysregulation of myogenic regulatory factors. Maintenance of Pax7 deletion through continuous tamoxifen administration prevented regrowth of Pax7-expressing satellite cells and a profound muscle regeneration deficit that resembles the phenotype of skeletal muscle following genetically engineered ablation of satellite cells. Therefore, we conclude that Pax7 is essential for regulating the expansion and differentiation of satellite cells during both neonatal and adult myogenesis. PMID:24065826

von Maltzahn, Julia; Jones, Andrew E.; Parks, Robin J.; Rudnicki, Michael A.

2013-01-01

274

Using Question Words or Asking Yes/No Questions: Failure and Success in Clarifying the Intentions of a Boy with High-Functioning Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examined the processes that resulted in an adult failing to comprehend the intentions of a boy with high-functioning autism. In a dyadic conversation between an adult and a young boy, the adult used questions to elicit clarification of intentions. The boy's responses were examined frame-by-frame using videotape microanalysis. Two causes…

Oi, Manabu

2008-01-01

275

Effects of Maximal Isometric and Isokinetic Resistance Training on Strength and Functional Mobility in Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. The aim of the present study was to compare the changes in voluntary strength (isometric, concentric, and eccentric) and functional mobility in response to maximal isokinetic eccentric-only resistance training to those elicited by maximal isometric-only or maximal isokinetic concentric-only resistance training in older adults. Methods. Twelve women (73 6 7 years) and 18 men (73 6 5 years) completed

T. Brock Symons; Anthony A. Vandervoort; Charles L. Rice; Tom J. Overend; Greg D. Marsh

2005-01-01

276

Attentional Control and Subjective Executive Function in Treatment-Naive Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder  

PubMed Central

We investigated performance-derived measures of executive control, and their relationship with self- and informant reported executive functions in everyday life, in treatment-naive adults with newly diagnosed Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; n?=?36) and in healthy controls (n?=?35). Sustained attentional control and response inhibition were examined with the Test of Variables of Attention (T.O.V.A.). Delayed responses, increased reaction time variability, and higher omission error rate to Go signals in ADHD patients relative to controls indicated fluctuating levels of attention in the patients. Furthermore, an increment in NoGo commission errors when Go stimuli increased relative to NoGo stimuli suggests reduced inhibition of task-irrelevant stimuli in conditions demanding frequent responding. The ADHD group reported significantly more cognitive and behavioral executive problems than the control group on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version (BRIEF-A). There were overall not strong associations between task performance and ratings of everyday executive function. However, for the ADHD group, T.O.V.A. omission errors predicted self-reported difficulties on the Organization of Materials scale, and commission errors predicted informant reported difficulties on the same scale. Although ADHD patients endorsed more symptoms of depression and anxiety on the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA) than controls, ASEBA scores were not significantly associated with T.O.V.A. performance scores. Altogether, the results indicate multifaceted alteration of attentional control in adult ADHD, and accompanying subjective difficulties with several aspects of executive function in everyday living. The relationships between the two sets of data were modest, indicating that the measures represent non-redundant features of adult ADHD. PMID:25545156

Grane, Venke Arntsberg; Endestad, Tor; Pinto, Arnfrid Farbu; Solbakk, Anne-Kristin

2014-01-01

277

Lung Function and Long-Term Exposure to Air Pollutants in Middle-Aged American Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examined the association of long-term exposure to ozone (O3) and ambient particulate matter < 10 ?m in diameter (PM10) with pulmonary function by using cross-sectional data of 10,240 middle-aged adults who participated in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study. Air-pollution data came from the US Environmental Protection Agency's Aerometric Information Retrieval System. After an adjustment for important covariates,

Zhengmin Qian; Duanping Liao; Hung-Mo Lin; Eric A. Whitsel; Kathryn M. Rose; Yinkang Duan

2005-01-01

278

Obese adults have visual attention bias for food cue images: evidence for altered reward system function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:The major aim of this study was to investigate whether the motivational salience of food cues (as reflected by their attention-grabbing properties) differs between obese and normal-weight subjects in a manner consistent with altered reward system function in obesity.Methodology\\/Principal Findings:A total of 18 obese and 18 normal-weight, otherwise healthy, adult women between the ages of 18 and 35 participated in

E H Castellanos; E Charboneau; M S Dietrich; B P Bradley; K Mogg; R L Cowan

2009-01-01

279

Adult Literacy in the Commonwealth Caribbean with Special Reference to a Study of the Functional Literacy of Young Guyanese Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A test measuring document, prose, and quantitative literacy of out-of-school youth in Guyana found that only 11% had high levels of functional literacy, a literacy rate much lower than usually reported. Failure to represent the situation accurately prolongs the lack of political will to deal with the issue. (SK)

Jennings, Zellynne

2000-01-01

280

The association of depressive symptoms and pulmonary function in healthy adults  

PubMed Central

Objective Chronic lung disease is exacerbated by comorbid psychiatric issues and treatment of depression may improve disease symptoms. We sought to add to the literature as to whether depression is associated with pulmonary function in healthy adults. Methods In 2,551 healthy adults from New York State, USA, we studied the association of depression via the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D) score and forced expiratory volume (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) using general linear models and a cross sectional design. Results We identified statistically significant inverse trends in FEV1, FVC, FEV1% and FVC% by CES-D category especially in ever smokers and men. When adjusted for covariates, the difference in FEV1 and FEV1% for smokers with >18.5 lifetime pack years from CES-D score 0-3 to ?16 (depressed) is approximately 0.25 L and 5.0%; adjusted P for trend are <0.001 and 0.019, respectively. In men, we also observed statistically significant inverse trends in pulmonary function with increasing CES-D. Conclusions We identified an inverse association of depressive symptoms and pulmonary function in healthy adults especially in men and individuals with a heavy smoking history. Further studies of these associations are essential for the development and tailoring of interventions for the prevention and treatment of chronic lung disease. PMID:23960159

Ochs-Balcom, Heather M.; Lainhart, William; Mnatsakanova, Anna; Charles, Luenda E.; Violanti, John M.; Andrew, Michael E.; Freudenheim, Jo L.; Muti, Paola; Trevisan, Maurizio; Burchfiel, Cecil M.; Schünemann, Holger J.

2013-01-01

281

GATA4 regulates Sertoli cell function and fertility in adult male mice  

PubMed Central

Transcription factor GATA4 is expressed in Sertoli and Leydig cells and is required for proper development of the murine fetal testis. The role of GATA4 in adult testicular function, however, has remained unclear due to prenatal lethality of mice harboring homozygous mutations in Gata4. To characterize the function of GATA4 in the adult testis, we generated mice in which Gata4 was conditionally deleted in Sertoli cells using Cre-LoxP recombination with Amhr2-Cre. Conditional knockout (cKO) mice developed age-dependent testicular atrophy and loss of fertility, which coincided with decreases in the quantity and motility of sperm. Histological analysis demonstrated Sertoli cell vacuolation, impaired spermatogenesis, and increased permeability of the blood-testis barrier. RT-PCR analysis of cKO testes showed decreased expression of germ cell markers and increased expression of testicular injury markers. Our findings support the premise that GATA4 is a key transcriptional regulator of Sertoli cell function in adult mice. PMID:21172404

Kyrönlahti, Antti; Euler, Rosemarie; Bielinska, Malgorzata; Schoeller, Erica L.; Moley, Kelle H.; Toppari, Jorma; Heikinheimo, Markku; Wilson, David B.

2011-01-01

282

Generation of Functional Blood Vessels from a Single c-kit+ Adult Vascular Endothelial Stem Cell  

PubMed Central

In adults, the growth of blood vessels, a process known as angiogenesis, is essential for organ growth and repair. In many disorders including cancer, angiogenesis becomes excessive. The cellular origin of new vascular endothelial cells (ECs) during blood vessel growth in angiogenic situations has remained unknown. Here, we provide evidence for adult vascular endothelial stem cells (VESCs) that reside in the blood vessel wall endothelium. VESCs constitute a small subpopulation within CD117+ (c-kit+) ECs capable of undergoing clonal expansion while other ECs have a very limited proliferative capacity. Isolated VESCs can produce tens of millions of endothelial daughter cells in vitro. A single transplanted c-kit-expressing VESC by the phenotype lin?CD31+CD105+Sca1+CD117+ can generate in vivo functional blood vessels that connect to host circulation. VESCs also have long-term self-renewal capacity, a defining functional property of adult stem cells. To provide functional verification on the role of c-kit in VESCs, we show that a genetic deficit in endothelial c-kit expression markedly decreases total colony-forming VESCs. In vivo, c-kit expression deficit resulted in impaired EC proliferation and angiogenesis and retardation of tumor growth. Isolated VESCs could be used in cell-based therapies for cardiovascular repair to restore tissue vascularization after ischemic events. VESCs also provide a novel cellular target to block pathological angiogenesis and cancer growth. PMID:23091420

Fang, Shentong; Wei, Jing; Pentinmikko, Nalle; Leinonen, Hannele; Salven, Petri

2012-01-01

283

Physical Activity and Functional Limitations in Older Adults: The Influence of Self-Efficacy and Functional Performance  

PubMed Central

Objectives. Data from the Healthy Aging Network (HAN) study (Prohaska, T., Eisenstein, A., Satariano, W., Hunter, R., Bayles, C., Kurtovich, E., … Ivey, S. [2009]. Walking and the preservation of cognitive function in older populations. The Gerontologist, 49[Suppl. 1], S86–S93; and Satariano, W., Ivey, S., Kurtovich, E., Kealey, M., Hubbard, A., Bayles, C., … Prohaska, T. [2010]. Lower-body function, neighborhoods, and walking in an older population. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 38, 419–428.) were used to examine the relationships among physical activity, self-efficacy, functional performance, and limitations. Method. Interviews were conducted within homes and senior centers in 4 geographic regions across the United States. Participants were 884 older adults (M age = 74.8; 77% female; 35% minority status) who completed measures of walking behavior, way-finding self-efficacy, walking self-efficacy, functional performance, functional limitations, and demographic characteristics. Results. Path analysis within a covariance modeling framework revealed significant direct effects of walking on self-efficacy constructs, functional performance on functional limitations, and efficacy on limitations. Additionally, significant indirect effects were also found, including walking on limitations via walking self-efficacy and performance and walking self-efficacy on limitations via performance. Furthermore, we found support for invariance of the model across geographical grouping. Discussion. Our findings provide further validation for an efficacy-based model of functional limitations. Walking-related efficacy may help reduce or possibly delay the onset of functional limitations. PMID:22473023

Mullen, Sean P.; Satariano, William A.; Kealey, Melissa; Prohaska, Thomas R.

2012-01-01

284

The functional profile of young adults with suspected Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD).  

PubMed

We assessed the non-academic and academic functioning of young adults with DCD, and investigated the emotional influences and the role of strategy use within this population. A random sample of 2379 adolescents and young adults aged 19-25 (1081 males [45.4%]; mean age=20.68, SD=3.42) was used to develop the instruments. From this sample, three study groups were identified (n=429) based on the Adolescents & Adults Coordination Questionnaire: probable DCD (n=135; 67.2% males), suspected borderline DCD (n=149; 51.4% males) and control (145; 70.5% males). Participants completed the Daily Life Functions Questionnaire (assessing non-academic and academic functioning), the Recent Emotional State Test (assessing feelings resulting from task performance), the Internal Factors Attributed to Success Questionnaire and the Problem Solving Questionnaire to assess strategy and executive strategy use. A MANOVA revealed statistically significant differences between-groups (F[7,422]=16.19; p<.001; ?=.197); post hoc analyses revealed differences for all measures (except the Problem Solving Questionnaire), with the probable DCD and suspected borderline DCD groups performing worse than controls. Severity of motor deficits was correlated with all outcomes except strategy use. Logistic regression revealed that non-academic functioning was the most significant predictor of group placement (B=-1.32; p<.001); academic functioning/handwriting was the second most significant predictor (B=0.44; p=.047). Deficits in motor coordination continue into adulthood and have an effect on academic and non-academic function, as well as on the emotional state of the individual. PMID:22789703

Tal-Saban, Miri; Zarka, Salman; Grotto, Itamar; Ornoy, Asher; Parush, Shula

2012-01-01

285

The Impact of Financial Reward Contingencies on Cognitive Function Profiles in Adult ADHD  

PubMed Central

Objectives Although it is well established that cognitive performance in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is affected by reward and that key deficits associated with the disorder may thereby be attenuated or even compensated, this phenomenon in adults with ADHD has thus far not been addressed. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the motivating effect of financial reward on task performance in adults with ADHD by focusing on the domains of executive functioning, attention, time perception, and delay aversion. Methods We examined male and female adults aged 18–40 years with ADHD (n?=?38) along with a matched control group (n?=?40) using six well-established experimental paradigms. Results Impaired performance in the ADHD group was observed for stop-signal omission errors, n-back accuracy, reaction time variability in the continuous performance task, and time reproduction accuracy, and reward normalized time reproduction accuracy. Furthermore, when rewarded, subjects with ADHD exhibited longer reaction times and fewer false positives in the continuous performance task, which suggests the use of strategies to prevent impulsivity errors. Conclusions Taken together, our results support the existence of both cognitive and motivational mechanisms for the disorder, which is in line with current models of ADHD. Furthermore, our data suggest cognitive strategies of “stopping and thinking” as a possible underlying mechanism for task improvement that seems to be mediated by reward, which highlights the importance of the interaction between motivation and cognition in adult ADHD. PMID:23840573

Marx, Ivo; Höpcke, Cornelia; Berger, Christoph; Wandschneider, Roland; Herpertz, Sabine C.

2013-01-01

286

Evidence for NG2-glia Derived, Adult-Born Functional Neurons in the Hypothalamus  

PubMed Central

Accumulating evidence suggests that the adult murine hypothalamus, a control site of several fundamental homeostatic processes, has neurogenic capacity. Correspondingly, the adult hypothalamus exhibits considerable cell proliferation that is ongoing even in the absence of external stimuli, and some of the newborn cells have been shown to mature into cells that express neuronal fate markers. However, the identity and characteristics of proliferating cells within the hypothalamic parenchyma have yet to be thoroughly investigated. Here we show that a subset of NG2-glia distributed throughout the mediobasal hypothalamus are proliferative and express the stem cell marker Sox2. We tracked the constitutive differentiation of hypothalamic NG2-glia by employing genetic fate mapping based on inducible Cre recombinase expression under the control of the NG2 promoter, demonstrating that adult hypothalamic NG2-glia give rise to substantial numbers of APC+ oligodendrocytes and a smaller population of HuC/D+ or NeuN+ neurons. Labelling with the cell proliferation marker BrdU confirmed that some NG2-derived neurons have proliferated shortly before differentiation. Furthermore, patch-clamp electrophysiology revealed that some NG2-derived cells display an immature neuronal phenotype and appear to receive synaptic input indicative of their electrical integration in local hypothalamic circuits. Together, our studies show that hypothalamic NG2-glia are able to take on neuronal fates and mature into functional neurons, indicating that NG2-glia contribute to the neurogenic capacity of the adult hypothalamus. PMID:24205170

Robins, Sarah C.; Trudel, Eric; Rotondi, Olivia; Liu, Xiaohong; Djogo, Tina; Kryzskaya, Darya; Bourque, Charles W.; Kokoeva, Maia V.

2013-01-01

287

Substance use and mental health characteristics associated with cognitive functioning among adults who use methamphetamine.  

PubMed

This study describes cognitive functioning and its relation to psychiatric and substance use severity among adults with long duration methamphetamine use. Study participants (N = 405) completed a battery of tests from the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics that examined cognitive accuracy, processing speed, and efficiency. Multivariate analyses indicate that lower accuracy but faster speed on learning, spatial memory and delayed memory were correlated with more days of past-month methamphetamine use. Lifetime months of methamphetamine use was not related to cognitive functioning. Poorer cognitive efficiency was related to other problems, including crack/cocaine use, symptoms of depression, and poorer emotional state. PMID:23480244

Herbeck, Diane M; Brecht, Mary-Lynn

2013-01-01

288

Functional compensation in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex improves memory-dependent decisions in older adults.  

PubMed

Everyday consumer choices frequently involve memory, as when we retrieve information about consumer products when making purchasing decisions. In this context, poor memory may affect decision quality, particularly in individuals with memory decline, such as older adults. However, age differences in choice behavior may be reduced if older adults can recruit additional neural resources that support task performance. Although such functional compensation is well documented in other cognitive domains, it is presently unclear whether it can support memory-guided decision making and, if so, which brain regions play a role in compensation. The current study engaged younger and older humans in a memory-dependent choice task in which pairs of consumer products from a popular online-shopping site were evaluated with different delays between the first and second product. Using functional imaging (fMRI), we found that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) supports compensation as defined by three a priori criteria: (1) increased vmPFC activation was observed in older versus younger adults; (2) age-related increases in vmPFC activity were associated with increased retrieval demands; and (3) increased vmPFC activity was positively associated with performance in older adults-evidence of successful compensation. Extending these results, we observed evidence for compensation in connectivity between vmPFC and the dorsolateral PFC during memory-dependent choice. In contrast, we found no evidence for age differences in value-related processing or age-related compensation for choices without delayed retrieval. Together, these results converge on the conclusion that age-related decline in memory-dependent choice performance can be minimized via functional compensation in vmPFC. PMID:25411493

Lighthall, Nichole R; Huettel, Scott A; Cabeza, Roberto

2014-11-19

289

Abnormal regional homogeneity in young adult suicide attempters with no diagnosable psychiatric disorder: A resting state functional magnetic imaging study.  

PubMed

Many young adults who attempt suicide have no discernible mental illness, suggesting an etiology distinct from other psychiatric disorders. Neurological anomalies associated with a history of suicidal behavior may predict future risk. In the present study, we explored changes in neural circuit organization associated with suicidal behavior by comparing local synchronization of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging signals in suicide attempters without a psychiatric diagnosis (SA group, 19.84±1.61 years, n=19) with those in healthy controls (HC group, 20.30±1.72 years, n=20) using regional homogeneity (ReHo) analysis. The SA group exhibited significantly lower mean ReHo in the left (L) fusiform and supraorbital inferior frontal gyri, L hippocampus, bilateral parahippocampal and middle frontal gyri, right (R) angular gyrus, and cerebellar lobules RVIII, RII, and LVI compared with the HC group. Conversely, in the SA group, ReHo was higher in the R supraorbital middle frontal gyrus, R inferior parietal lobe, and L precuneus. The SA group also had significantly higher total Barratt Impulsiveness Scale scores compared with the HC group. Local functional connectivity is altered in multiple regions of the cerebral cortex, limbic system, and cerebellum of suicidal young adults. Elucidating the functional deficits associated with these ReHo changes may clarify the pathophysiological mechanisms of suicidal behavior and assist in identifying high-risk individuals. PMID:25496980

Cao, Jun; Chen, Jian-Mei; Kuang, Li; Ai, Ming; Fang, Wei-Dong; Gan, Yao; Wang, Wo; Chen, Xiao-Rong; Xu, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Heng-Guang; Lv, Zhen

2015-02-28

290

Effects of dance on depression, physical function, and disability in underserved adults.  

PubMed

This study documented the feasibility and immediate effects of a dance intervention two times per week for 12 weeks on depression, physical function, and disability in older, underserved adults. The one-group, pretest-posttest study had a convenience sample of 40 participants recruited from a federally subsidized apartment complex located in an economically depressed, inner-city neighborhood. Depression, physical function, and disability were measured at baseline and 12 weeks. Average age was 63 years (SD = 7.9), 92% were female, and 75% were African American. At baseline, participants reported increased depression (M = 20.0, SD = 12.4), decreased physical function (M = 56.6, SD = 10.9), and increased disability limitations (M = 65.7, SD = 14.9). At posttest, paired t tests showed that the dance intervention significantly decreased depression, t = 6.11, p < .001, and disability, t = -2.70, p = .014, and significantly increased physical function, t = -2.74, p = .013. The results indicate that the 12-week dance intervention may be an effective adjunct therapy to improve depression, disability, and physical function in underserved adults. PMID:23945631

Murrock, Carolyn J; Graor, Christine Heifner

2014-07-01

291

Apolipoprotein E and measured physical and pulmonary function in older Taiwanese adults.  

PubMed

The apolipoprotein E (ApoE) gene, which has three common alleles (?2, ?3, and ?4), has been linked to a number of health outcomes and longevity. The ?2 allele has been reported to have neuroprotective effects, whereas the ?4 allele has been shown to be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and Alzheimer's disease in various populations. The relationships between ApoE and mortality and ApoE and physical function, however, are not clear-cut. We used the Social Environment and Biomarkers of Aging Study (SEBAS) to examine the relationship between ApoE polymorphisms and physical and pulmonary function in approximately 1,000 Taiwanese adults aged 53 years and older in 2006. In the 2006 SEBAS wave, measures of physical function included self-reported difficulties with respect to activities of daily living (ADLs) and other physical function indicators, as well as performance-based measures of grip strength (kg), walking speed (m/s) over a distance of 3 m, and chair stand speed (stand/s). Peak expiratory flow (PEF; L/min) rate was also examined as an indicator of pulmonary function. We used logistic regression models to determine the association between ApoE and inability to complete each of the tests of physical and pulmonary function. These models revealed no significant association between ApoE carrier status and any of the indicators of function. Among participants able to complete a given task, we next used linear regression models to examine self-reported limitations with ADLs and performance on the given test by ApoE carrier status. Similarly, there were no significant relationships between ApoE carrier status and the measures of function. Our estimates provide further confirmation that the ApoE gene may not be a risk factor for functional decline among older Taiwanese adults. PMID:23701536

Vasunilashorn, Sarinnapha; Glei, Dana A; Lin, Yu-Hsuan; Goldman, Noreen

2013-01-01

292

Exposure to Traffic: Lung Function and Health Status in Adults with Asthma  

PubMed Central

Background Exposure to traffic has been associated with asthma outcomes in children, but its effect on asthma in adults has not been well studied. Objective To test the hypothesis that lung function and health status are associated with traffic exposures. Methods We measured forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) % predicted, general health status using the Physical Component Scale of the Short Form (SF-12 PCS) and quality of life (QoL) using the Marks Asthma Quality of Life questionnaire in a cohort of adults with asthma or rhinitis (n=176; 145 with asthma). We assessed exposures to traffic by geo-coding subjects’ residential addresses and assigning distance to roadways. Associations between distance to nearest roadway and distance to nearest major roadway and FEV1 % predicted or SF-12 PCS were studied using linear regression. Results FEV1 % predicted was positively associated with distance from nearest roadway (p=0.01) and major roadway (p=0.02). SF-12 PCS and QoL were not significantly associated with either traffic variable. Adjustment for income, smoking, and obesity did not substantively change the associations of the traffic variables with FEV1 % predicted (p=0.04 for nearest roadway and p=0.02 for nearest major roadway) and did not cause associations with either SF-12 PCS or OoL to become significant Conclusions Traffic exposure was associated with decreased lung function in adults with asthma. PMID:19152968

Balmes, John R.; Earnest, Gillian; Katz, Patricia P.; Yelin, Edward H.; Eisner, Mark D.; Chen, Hubert; Trupin, Laura; Lurmann, Fred; Blanc, Paul D.

2009-01-01

293

Lower Extremity Muscle Function After Strength or Power Training in Older Adults  

PubMed Central

It is unclear whether strength training (ST) or power training (PT) is the more effective intervention at improving muscle strength and power and physical function in older adults. The authors compared the effects of lower extremity PT with those of ST on muscle strength and power in 45 older adults (74.8 ± 5.7 yr) with self-reported difficulty in common daily activities. Participants were randomized to 1 of 3 treatment groups: PT, ST, or wait-list control. PT and ST trained 3 times/wk for 12 wk using knee-extension (KE) and leg-press (LP) machines at ~70% of 1-repetition maximum (1RM). For PT, the concentric phase of the KE and LP was completed “as fast as possible,” whereas for ST the concentric phase was 2–3 s. Both PT and ST paused briefly at the midpoint of the movement and completed the eccentric phase of the movement in 2–3 s. PT and ST groups showed significant improvements in KE and LP 1RM compared with the control group. Maximum KE and LP power increased approximately twofold in PT compared with ST. At 12 wk, compared with control, maximum KE and LP power were significantly increased for the PT group but not for the ST group. In older adults with compromised function, PT leads to similar increases in strength and larger increases in power than ST. PMID:19940322

Marsh, Anthony P.; Miller, Michael E.; Rejeski, W. Jack; Hutton, Stacy L.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.

2015-01-01

294

Putting lung function and physiology into perspective: cystic fibrosis in adults.  

PubMed

Adult cystic fibrosis (CF) is notable for the wide heterogeneity in severity of disease expression, both between patients and within the lungs of individuals. Although CF airways disease appears to start in the small airways, in adults there is typically widespread bronchiectasis, increased airway secretions, and extensive obstruction and inflammation of the small airways. The complexity and heterogeneity of airways disease in CF means that although there are many different methods of assessing and describing lung 'function', none of these single-dimensional tests is able to provide a comprehensive assessment of lung physiology across the spectrum seen in adult CF. The most widely described measure, the forced expiratory volume in 1?s, remains a useful and simple clinical tool, but is insensitive to early changes and may be dissociated from other more detailed assessments of disease severity such as computed tomography. In this review, we also discuss the use of more sensitive novel assessments such as multiple breath washout tests and impulse oscillometry, as well as the role of cardiopulmonary exercise testing. In the future, hyperpolarized gas magnetic resonance imaging techniques that combine regional structural and functional information may help us to better understand these measures, their applications and limitations. PMID:25219816

Horsley, Alex; Siddiqui, Salman

2015-01-01

295

Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for Older Adults: Effects on Executive Function, Frontal Alpha Asymmetry and Immune Function  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) has enhanced cognition, positive emotion, and immunity in younger and middle-aged samples; its benefits are less well known for older persons. Here we report on a randomized controlled trial of MBSR for older adults and its effects on executive function, left frontal asymmetry of the EEG alpha band, and antibody response. Methods Older adults (n = 201) were randomized to MBSR or waiting list control. The outcome measures were: the Trail Making Test part B/A (Trails B/A) ratio, a measure of executive function; changes in left frontal alpha asymmetry, an indicator of positive emotions or approach motivation; depression, mindfulness, and perceived stress scores, and the immunoglobulin G response to a protein antigen, a measure of adaptive immunity. Results MBSR participants had a lower Trails B/A ratio immediately after intervention (p <0.05); reduced shift to rightward frontal alpha activation after intervention (p = 0.03); higher baseline antibody levels after intervention (p <0.01), but lower antibody responses 24 weeks after antigen challenge (p <0.04), and improved mindfulness after intervention (p = 0.023) and at 21 weeks of follow-up (p = 0.006). Conclusions MBSR produced small but significant changes in executive function, mindfulness, and sustained left frontal alpha asymmetry. The antibody findings at follow-up were unexpected. Further study of the effects of MBSR on immune function should assess changes in antibody responses in comparison to T-cell-mediated effector functions, which decline as a function of age. PMID:23774986

Moynihan, Jan A.; Chapman, Benjamin P.; Klorman, Rafael; Krasner, Michael S.; Duberstein, Paul R.; Brown, Kirk Warren; Talbot, Nancy L.

2013-01-01

296

The Tumor Gene Survivin Is Highly Expressed in Adult Renal Tubular Cells  

PubMed Central

The inhibitor of apoptosis protein survivin is of critical importance for regulation of cellular division and survival. Published data point to a restricted function of survivin in embryonic development and cancer; thus survivin has been broadly proposed as an ideal molecular target for specific anti-cancer therapy. In contrast to this paradigm, we report here broad expression of survivin in adult differentiated tissues, as demonstrated at the mRNA and protein levels. Focusing on the kidney, survivin is strongly expressed in proximal tubuli, particularly at the apical membrane, which can be verified in rat, mouse, and human kidneys. In the latter, survivin expression seems to be even stronger in proximal tubuli than in adjacent cancerous tissue. Primary and immortalized human renal tubular cells also showed high levels of survivin protein expression, and RNA interference resulted in a partial G2/M arrest of the cell cycle and increased rate of apoptosis. In conclusion, survivin may be of importance for renal pathophysiology and pathology. The predominant apical expression of survivin may indicate a further, yet unknown, function. Interventional strategies to inhibit survivin’s function in malignancy need to be carefully (re)evaluated for renal side effects, as well as for other possible organ dysfunctions. PMID:17982126

Lechler, Philipp; Wu, Xiaoqing; Bernhardt, Wanja; Campean, Valentina; Gastiger, Susanne; Hackenbeck, Thomas; Klanke, Bernd; Weidemann, Alexander; Warnecke, Christina; Amann, Kerstin; Engehausen, Dirk; Willam, Carsten; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Rödel, Franz; Wiesener, Michael Sean

2007-01-01

297

Effects of exposure to nanoparticle-rich diesel exhaust on adrenocortical function in adult male mice.  

PubMed

To investigate the effects of nanoparticle-rich diesel exhaust (NR-DE) on adrenocortical function, seven-week-old male mice were divided into four groups and exposed to either whole NR-DE at low (41.73 ?g/m(3), 8.21 × 10(5) particles/cm3), high (152.01 ?g/m3, 1.80 × 10(6) particles/cm3) concentrations, filtered diesel exhaust (F-DE) or clean air for 8 weeks (5 h/day, 5 days/week). After 8 weeks of exposure, the animals were euthanized under pentobarbital anesthesia and the blood samples were collected to detect serum progesterone and corticosterone. In addition, adrenal glands were excised, and adrenal cells were cultured in the absence or presence of rat adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) (10(-15) to 10(-10)M) for 4 h. There were no significant differences in the body weight, absolute and relative adrenal gland weight among the groups. Serum concentration of corticosterone and progesterone was not changed significantly. Administration of ACTH resulted in a dose-dependent increase in corticosterone and progesterone release in mice-exposed to low-concentration NR-DE and clean air. Moreover, corticosterone and progesterone concentrations in adrenal cells increased significantly in mice-exposed to low-concentration NR-DE basal and administrated with ACTH (10(-15) to 10(-11)M for corticosterone; 10(-14) to 10(-11)M for progesterone) compared with the control mice. In contrast, the concentration of corticosterone and progesterone decreased significantly in mice-exposed to high-concentration NR-DE or F-DE basal and administrated with ACTH (10(-12) to 10(-10)M for corticosterone; 10(-15) to 10(-10)M for progesterone) compared with the control mice. These results suggest that exposure to NR-DE or F-DE may disrupt adrenocortical function in adult male mice. PMID:22260943

Li, ChunMei; Li, Xuezheng; Suzuki, Akira K; Fujitani, Yuji; Jigami, Junko; Nagaoka, Kentaro; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi

2012-03-25

298

Functional Impairment Mediates the Relationship Between Adult ADHD Inattentiveness and Occupational Outcome.  

PubMed

Objective: In spite of an expanding use of health-related quality of life assessment in research and treatment of ADHD, there is still limited knowledge about the role of impaired quality of life in symptomatic outcomes. This study investigates how specific functional domains affect the relationship between ADHD symptoms and occupational outcome. Method: A total of 149 referred adults with ADHD participated in the study. We used mediation analyses to test a model with two 36-item short form health survey (SF-36) Mental Component scales, that is, role-emotion function and social function as mediators for the relationship between ADHD inattentiveness and occupational outcome. Results: The relationship between ADHD inattentiveness and occupational outcome was completely mediated by both role-emotion function and social function. Conclusion: Role-emotion function and social function may identify specific aspects of functional impairment as potentially important treatment targets for ADHD patients with impaired occupational function. (J. of Att. Dis. 2013; XX(X) 1-XX). PMID:23407280

Gjervan, Bjørn; Hjemdal, Odin; Nordahl, Hans M

2013-02-13

299

High School Community Service as a Predictor of Adult Voting and Volunteering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influences of high school community service participation, extracurricular involvement, and civic knowledge on voting and volunteering in early adulthood were examined using the National Educational Longitudinal Study. The major finding in this study is that both voluntary and school-required community service in high school were strong predictors of adult voting and volunteering. In addition, involvement in high school extracurricular

Daniel Hart; Thomas M. Donnelly; James Youniss; Robert Atkins

2007-01-01

300

Associations Between Abnormal Rod-Mediated Dark Adaptation and Health and Functioning in Older Adults With Normal Macular Health  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Delayed rod-mediated dark adaptation (DA) is characteristic of early age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and also can be observed in some older adults in normal macular health. We examine cross-sectional associations between rod-mediated DA and risk factors for AMD in older adults in normal macular health. Methods. The sample consisted of adults aged ?60 years old in normal macular health per grading of fundus photos using an established disease classification system. Rod-mediated DA was measured psychophysically following a photobleach using a computer-automated dark adaptometer with targets centered at 5° on the inferior vertical meridian. The speed of DA was characterized by the rod-intercept value, with abnormal DA defined as rod-intercept ? 12.3 minutes. We assessed several health and functional characteristics that the literature has suggested increase AMD risk (e.g., smoking, alcohol use, inflammatory markers, apolipoproteins, low luminance visual acuity, chronic medical conditions, body mass, family history). Results. Among 381 participants (mean age, 68.5 years; SD, 5.5), 78% had normal and 22% had abnormal DA, with the prevalence of abnormal DA increasing with age. After age-adjustment, abnormal DA was associated with increased odds of elevated C-reactive protein (CRP), heavy use of or abstention from alcohol, high blood pressure, and drop in visual acuity under mesopic conditions. Conclusions. Despite having normal macular health according to accepted definitions of AMD presence, approximately one-quarter of older adults recruited from primary eye care clinics had abnormal DA, which was associated with known risk factors for AMD, including elevated CRP. PMID:24854857

Owsley, Cynthia; Huisingh, Carrie; Jackson, Gregory R.; Curcio, Christine A.; Szalai, Alexander J.; Dashti, Nassrin; Clark, Mark; Rookard, Kia; McCrory, Mark A.; Wright, Tyler T.; Callahan, Michael A.; Kline, Lanning B.; Witherspoon, C. Douglas; McGwin, Gerald

2014-01-01

301

Multimodal neuroimaging evidence of alterations in cortical structure and function in HIV-infected older adults.  

PubMed

Combination antiretroviral therapy transformed human immunodefiency virus (HIV)-infection from a terminal illness to a manageable condition, but these patients remain at a significantly elevated risk of developing cognitive impairments and the mechanisms are not understood. Some previous neuroimaging studies have found hyperactivation in frontoparietal networks of HIV-infected patients, whereas others reported aberrations restricted to sensory cortices. In this study, we utilize high-resolution structural and neurophysiological imaging to determine whether alterations in brain structure, function, or both contribute to HIV-related cognitive impairments. HIV-infected adults and individually matched controls completed 3-Tesla structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) and a mechanoreception task during magnetoencephalography (MEG). MEG data were examined using advanced beamforming methods, and sMRI data were analyzed using the latest voxel-based morphometry methods with DARTEL. We found significantly reduced theta responses in the postcentral gyrus and increased alpha activity in the prefrontal cortices of HIV-infected patients compared with controls. Patients also had reduced gray matter volume in the postcentral gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, and other regions. Importantly, reduced gray matter volume in the left postcentral gyrus was spatially coincident with abnormal MEG responses in HIV-infected patients. Finally, left prefrontal and postcentral gyrus activity was correlated with neuropsychological performance and, when used in conjunction, these two MEG findings had a sensitivity and specificity of over 87.5% for HIV-associated cognitive impairment. This study is the first to demonstrate abnormally increased activity in association cortices with simultaneously decreased activity in sensory areas. These MEG findings had excellent sensitivity and specificity for HIV-associated cognitive impairment, and may hold promise as a potential disease marker. Hum Brain Mapp 36:897-910, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25376125

Wilson, Tony W; Heinrichs-Graham, Elizabeth; Becker, Katherine M; Aloi, Joseph; Robertson, Kevin R; Sandkovsky, Uriel; White, Matthew L; O'Neill, Jennifer; Knott, Nichole L; Fox, Howard S; Swindells, Susan

2015-03-01

302

Effects of dark chocolate and cocoa consumption on endothelial function and arterial stiffness in overweight adults.  

PubMed

The consumption of cocoa and dark chocolate is associated with a lower risk of CVD, and improvements in endothelial function may mediate this relationship. Less is known about the effects of cocoa/chocolate on the augmentation index (AI), a measure of vascular stiffness and vascular tone in the peripheral arterioles. We enrolled thirty middle-aged, overweight adults in a randomised, placebo-controlled, 4-week, cross-over study. During the active treatment (cocoa) period, the participants consumed 37 g/d of dark chocolate and a sugar-free cocoa beverage (total cocoa = 22 g/d, total flavanols (TF) = 814 mg/d). Colour-matched controls included a low-flavanol chocolate bar and a cocoa-free beverage with no added sugar (TF = 3 mg/d). Treatments were matched for total fat, saturated fat, carbohydrates and protein. The cocoa treatment significantly increased the basal diameter and peak diameter of the brachial artery by 6% (+2 mm) and basal blood flow volume by 22%. Substantial decreases in the AI, a measure of arterial stiffness, were observed in only women. Flow-mediated dilation and the reactive hyperaemia index remained unchanged. The consumption of cocoa had no effect on fasting blood measures, while the control treatment increased fasting insulin concentration and insulin resistance (P= 0·01). Fasting blood pressure (BP) remained unchanged, although the acute consumption of cocoa increased resting BP by 4 mmHg. In summary, the high-flavanol cocoa and dark chocolate treatment was associated with enhanced vasodilation in both conduit and resistance arteries and was accompanied by significant reductions in arterial stiffness in women. PMID:24274771

West, Sheila G; McIntyre, Molly D; Piotrowski, Matthew J; Poupin, Nathalie; Miller, Debra L; Preston, Amy G; Wagner, Paul; Groves, Lisa F; Skulas-Ray, Ann C

2014-02-01

303

Cerebral dominance for language function in adults with specific language impairment or autism  

PubMed Central

A link between developmental language disorders and atypical cerebral lateralization has been postulated since the 1920s, but evidence has been indirect and inconsistent. The current study investigated this proposal using functional transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (fTCD), which assesses blood flow through the middle cerebral arteries serving the left and right cerebral hemispheres. A group of young adults with specific language impairment (SLI; n = 11) were recruited along with three comparison groups: (i) adults with a history of childhood SLI, but who did not meet criteria for language impairment in adulthood (SLI-history; n = 9); (ii) adults with an autism spectrum disorder and a comorbid language impairment (ASD; n = 11) and (iii) adults with no history of developmental disorder (typical; n = 11). There was no difference between the chronological age of the four groups, and the SLI and typical groups were individually matched on gender and handedness. During fTCD measurement, participants were asked to silently generate words starting with a given letter and then later required to verbalize these. All of the participants in the SLI-history group and the majority of participants in the ASD (81.8%) and typical (90.9%) groups had greater activation in the left compared to the right middle cerebral arteries, indicating left hemisphere dominance. In contrast, the majority of participants in the SLI groups had language function lateralized to the right hemisphere (54.5%) or dispersed bilaterally (27.3%). These findings suggest that atypical cerebral dominance is not implicated in all cases of poor language development (i.e. ASD and SLI-history groups), but may act as a biological marker of persisting SLI. PMID:18953053

Bishop, Dorothy V. M.

2008-01-01

304

Hindlimb stretching alters locomotor function after spinal cord injury in the adult rat.  

PubMed

Background. Stretching is a widely accepted standard-of-care therapy following spinal cord injury (SCI) that has not been systematically studied in animal models. Objective. To investigate the influence of a daily stretch-based physical therapy program on locomotor recovery in adult rats with moderate T9 contusive SCI. Methods. A randomized treatment and control study of stretching in an animal model of acute SCI. Moderate SCIs were delivered with the NYU Impactor. Daily stretching (30 min/day, 5 days/wk for 8 weeks) was provided by a team of animal handlers. Hindlimb function was assessed using the BBB Open Field Locomotor Scale and kinematically. Passive range-of-motion for each joint was determined weekly using a goniometer. Results. Declines in hindlimb function during overground stepping were observed for the first 4 weeks for stretched animals. BBB scores improved weeks 5 to 10 but remained below the control group. Stretched animals had significant deficits in knee passive range of motion starting at week 4 and for the duration of the study. Kinematic assessment showed decreased joint excursion during stepping that partially recovered beginning at week 5. Conclusion. Stretch-based therapy significantly impaired functional recovery in adult rats with a moderate contusive SCI at T10. The negative impact on function was greatest acutely but persisted even after the stretching ceased at 8 weeks postinjury. PMID:25106555

Caudle, Krista L; Atkinson, Darryn A; Brown, Edward H; Donaldson, Katie; Seibt, Erik; Chea, Tim; Smith, Erin; Chung, Karianne; Shum-Siu, Alice; Cron, Courtney C; Magnuson, David S K

2015-03-01

305

Cognitive functioning of adults with Noonan syndrome: a case-control study.  

PubMed

Noonan syndrome (NS) is a genetic disorder characterised by short stature, facial dysmorphia, congenital heart defects and mildly lowered intellectual abilities. Research has mainly focused on genetic and somatic aspects, while intellectual and cognitive functioning has been documented scarcely. Also, to date studies have been primarily performed in children. This is the first study in which functioning within the major cognitive domains is systematically evaluated in a group of adults with NS and compared with a control group. Extensive neuropsychological assessment, including the domains intelligence, speed of information processing, memory (working memory, immediate recall and delayed recall), executive function and visuoconstruction, was performed in a sample of 42 patients with NS and 42 healthy controls, matched on age, sex and education level. In addition, subjective cognitive complaints were assessed with self-report questionnaires. On the domain speed of information processing patients performed worse than controls (P?functioning in other cognitive domains characterises the cognitive profile of adult patients, in contrast to previous findings in children with NS, who seem to have more generalised cognitive deficits. PMID:22783933

Wingbermühle, E; Roelofs, R L; van der Burgt, I; Souren, P M; Verhoeven, W M A; Kessels, R P C; Egger, J I M

2012-10-01

306

Is there an association between postural balance and pulmonary function in adults with asthma?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Asthma may cause systemic repercussions due to its severity and the effects of treatment. Our objective was to compare posture, balance, functional capacity, and quality of life (QOL) according to the severity of disease, as assessed by pulmonary function levels. METHOD: This cross-sectional study evaluated fifty individuals with asthma. We compared two groups of adult individuals who were divided according to the median of the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) as follows: group A ?=? FEV1>74% predicted; group B ?=? FEV1<74% predicted. All patients underwent the following tests: spirometry, whole-body plethysmography, diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLco), respiratory muscle strength, posture assessment, stabilometry, six-minute walking distance (6MWD), and QOL. RESULTS: All pulmonary function variables exhibited statistically significant differences between the two groups, except for the DLco. The maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP), maximal expiratory pressure (MEP), and 6MWD were lower in group B. The maximal mediolateral velocity and the mediolateral displacement were significantly different, while the postural changes and QOL were similar between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: In adult individuals with asthma, the pulmonary function is associated with balance control in the mediolateral direction but does not influence the postural changes or QOL. PMID:24270954

de Almeida, Vívian Pinto; Guimarães, Fernando Silva; Moço, Vanessa Joaquim Ribeiro; de Sá Ferreira, Arthur; de Menezes, Sara Lucia Silveira; Lopes, Agnaldo José

2013-01-01

307

The Effect of Music Therapy on Executive Function Skills in Male, Incarcerated Adults in a Correctional Facility  

E-print Network

The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of participation in a music therapy group on the executive function skills of male, incarcerated adults in a county correctional facility. Participants (N=16) were recruited from the medium...

Ellis, Elisha

2014-05-31

308

The Effectiveness of Community-Based Occupational Therapy Education and Functional Training Programs for Older Adults: A Critical Literature Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results of a literature review describing the provision of education and occupational therapy training programs for older adults indicate that programs are effective in three areas: prevention of functional decline and falls, stroke, and rheumatoid arthritis. (Contains 37 references.) (JOW)

Wilkins, Seanne; Jung, Bonny; Wishart, Laurie; Edwards, Mary; Norton, Shelley Gamble

2003-01-01

309

The Asparaginyl Endopeptidase Legumain Is Essential for Functional Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury in Adult Zebrafish  

PubMed Central

Unlike mammals, adult zebrafish are capable of regenerating severed axons and regaining locomotor function after spinal cord injury. A key factor for this regenerative capacity is the innate ability of neurons to re-express growth-associated genes and regrow their axons after injury in a permissive environment. By microarray analysis, we have previously shown that the expression of legumain (also known as asparaginyl endopeptidase) is upregulated after complete transection of the spinal cord. In situ hybridization showed upregulation of legumain expression in neurons of regenerative nuclei during the phase of axon regrowth/sprouting after spinal cord injury. Upregulation of Legumain protein expression was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Interestingly, upregulation of legumain expression was also observed in macrophages/microglia and neurons in the spinal cord caudal to the lesion site after injury. The role of legumain in locomotor function after spinal cord injury was tested by reducing Legumain expression by application of anti-sense morpholino oligonucleotides. Using two independent anti-sense morpholinos, locomotor recovery and axonal regrowth were impaired when compared with a standard control morpholino. We conclude that upregulation of legumain expression after spinal cord injury in the adult zebrafish is an essential component of the capacity of injured neurons to regrow their axons. Another feature contributing to functional recovery implicates upregulation of legumain expression in the spinal cord caudal to the injury site. In conclusion, we established for the first time a function for an unusual protease, the asparaginyl endopeptidase, in the nervous system. This study is also the first to demonstrate the importance of legumain for repair of an injured adult central nervous system of a spontaneously regenerating vertebrate and is expected to yield insights into its potential in nervous system regeneration in mammals. PMID:24747977

Ma, Liping; Shen, Yan-Qin; Khatri, Harsh P.; Schachner, Melitta

2014-01-01

310

The asparaginyl endopeptidase legumain is essential for functional recovery after spinal cord injury in adult zebrafish.  

PubMed

Unlike mammals, adult zebrafish are capable of regenerating severed axons and regaining locomotor function after spinal cord injury. A key factor for this regenerative capacity is the innate ability of neurons to re-express growth-associated genes and regrow their axons after injury in a permissive environment. By microarray analysis, we have previously shown that the expression of legumain (also known as asparaginyl endopeptidase) is upregulated after complete transection of the spinal cord. In situ hybridization showed upregulation of legumain expression in neurons of regenerative nuclei during the phase of axon regrowth/sprouting after spinal cord injury. Upregulation of Legumain protein expression was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Interestingly, upregulation of legumain expression was also observed in macrophages/microglia and neurons in the spinal cord caudal to the lesion site after injury. The role of legumain in locomotor function after spinal cord injury was tested by reducing Legumain expression by application of anti-sense morpholino oligonucleotides. Using two independent anti-sense morpholinos, locomotor recovery and axonal regrowth were impaired when compared with a standard control morpholino. We conclude that upregulation of legumain expression after spinal cord injury in the adult zebrafish is an essential component of the capacity of injured neurons to regrow their axons. Another feature contributing to functional recovery implicates upregulation of legumain expression in the spinal cord caudal to the injury site. In conclusion, we established for the first time a function for an unusual protease, the asparaginyl endopeptidase, in the nervous system. This study is also the first to demonstrate the importance of legumain for repair of an injured adult central nervous system of a spontaneously regenerating vertebrate and is expected to yield insights into its potential in nervous system regeneration in mammals. PMID:24747977

Ma, Liping; Shen, Yan-Qin; Khatri, Harsh P; Schachner, Melitta

2014-01-01

311

Multipotent stem cells isolated from the adult mouse retina are capable of producing functional photoreceptor cells  

PubMed Central

Various stem cell types have been tested for their potential application in treating photoreceptor degenerative diseases, such as retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Only embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have so far been shown to generate functional photoreceptor cells restoring light response of photoreceptor-deficient mice, but there is still some concern of tumor formation. In this study, we have successfully cultured Nestin+Sox2+Pax6+ multipotent retinal stem cells (RSCs) from the adult mouse retina, which are capable of producing functional photoreceptor cells that restore the light response of photoreceptor-deficient rd1 mutant mice following transplantation. After they have been expanded for over 35 passages in the presence of FGF and EGF, the cultured RSCs still maintain stable proliferation and differentiation potential. Under proper differentiation conditions, they can differentiate into all the major retinal cell types found in the adult retina. More importantly, they can efficiently differentiate into photoreceptor cells under optimized differentiation conditions. Following transplantation into the subretinal space of slowly degenerating rd7 mutant eyes, RSC-derived photoreceptor cells integrate into the retina, morphologically resembling endogenous photoreceptors and forming synapases with resident retinal neurons. When transplanted into eyes of photoreceptor-deficient rd1 mutant mice, a RP model, RSC-derived photoreceptors can partially restore light response, indicating that those RSC-derived photoreceptors are functional. Finally, there is no evidence for tumor formation in the photoreceptor-transplanted eyes. Therefore, this study has demonstrated that RSCs isolated from the adult retina have the potential of producing functional photoreceptor cells that can potentially restore lost vision caused by loss of photoreceptor cells in RP and AMD. PMID:23567557

Li, Tianqing; Lewallen, Michelle; Chen, Shuyi; Yu, Wei; Zhang, Nian; Xie, Ting

2013-01-01

312

Association of Dynamic Joint Power With Functional Limitations in Older Adults With Symptomatic Knee Osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine which lower-limb joint moments and powers characterize the level of gait performance of older adults with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA). Design Cross-sectional observational study. Setting University motion analysis laboratory. Participants Community-dwelling adults (N=60; 27 men, 33 women; age 50–79y) with symptomatic knee OA. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures Physical function was measured using the long-distance corridor walk, the Short Physical Performance Battery, and the Late Life Function and Disability Instrument (LLFDI Function). Joint moments and power were estimated using an inverse dynamics solution after 3-dimensional computerized motion analysis. Results Subjects aged 64.2±7.4 years were recruited. Ranges (mean ± SD) for the 400-m walk time and the LLFDI Advanced Lower-Limb Function score were 215.3 to 536.8 (304.1±62.3) seconds and 31.5 to 100 (57.0±14.9) points, respectively. In women, hip abductor moment (loading response), hip abductor power (midstance), eccentric hamstring moment (terminal stance), and power (terminal swing) accounted for 41%, 31%, 14%, and 48% of the variance in the 400-m walk time, respectively (model R2=.61, P<.003). In men, plantar flexor and hip flexor power (preswing) accounted for 19% and 24% of the variance in the 400-m walk time, respectively (model R2=.32, P=.025). Conclusions There is evidence that men and women with higher mobility function tend to rely more on an ankle strategy rather than a hip strategy for gait. In higher functioning men, higher knee extensor and flexor strength may contribute to an ankle strategy, whereas hip abductor weakness may bias women with lower mobility function to minimize loading across the knee via use of a hip strategy. These parameters may serve as foci for rehabilitation interventions aimed at reducing mobility limitations. PMID:19887204

Segal, Neil A.; Yack, H. John; Brubaker, Morgan; Torner, James C.; Wallace, Robert

2010-01-01

313

Hoxb13 knockout adult skin exhibits high levels of hyaluronan and enhanced wound healing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In contrast to adult cutaneous wound repair, early gestational fetal cutaneous wounds heal by a process of regeneration, resulting in little or no scarring. Previous studies indicate that down- regulation of HoxB13, a member of the highly conserved family of Hox transcription factors, occurs during fetal scarless wound healing. No down-regulation was noted in adult wounds. Here, we evaluate healing

Judith A. Mack; Susan R. Abramson; Yixen Ben; Jerusha C. Coffin; James K. Rothrock; Edward V. Maytin; Vincent C. Hascall; Corey Largman; Eric J. Stelnicki

2003-01-01

314

Measures of Submaximal Aerobic Performance Evaluate and Predict Functional Response to Growth Hormone (GH) Treatment in GH-Deficient Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of GH on functional performance in GH-deficient adults is not well understood. To investigate the effects of GH on skeletal muscle, physical, and functional capacity, we randomized 28 GH- deficient adults to receive 3 months of recombinant human GH (rhGH: somatotropin, 6.25 mg\\/kg lean body mass (LBM) for 1 month, 12.5 mg\\/kg LBM thereafter) in a double-blind placebo-controlled

LINDA J. WOODHOUSE; SYLVIA L. ASA; SCOTT G. THOMAS; SHEREEN EZZAT

2010-01-01

315

The Impact of Recurrent Acute Chest Syndrome on the Lung Function of Young Adults with Sickle Cell Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to assess the impact of recurrent acute chest syndrome (ACS) episodes on the lung function of young\\u000a adults with sickle cell disease (SCD). Our prospective study included 80 SCD adults [26 with recurrent acute chest syndrome\\u000a (ACS)] and 80 ethnically matched controls aged between 18 and 28 years. Lung function (spirometry and lung volumes)

Jennifer M. Knight-Madden; Terrence S. Forrester; Norma A. Lewis; Anne Greenough

2010-01-01

316

A Comparative Analysis of the Functional Disability Levels of Adult Day Care, Adult Day Health and ICF-Level Nursing Home Elderly in Hawaii.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared the functional disability levels of participants in adult day centers with patients in intermediate care facilities (ICFs). A three-page questionnaire measuring demographics, social resources, physical health, mental health, and activities of daily living as assessed by the Activities of Daily Living scale and the Instrumental…

Hayashida, Cullen T.

317

Fog2 is critical for cardiac function and maintenance of coronary vasculature in the adult mouse heart  

PubMed Central

Aberrant transcriptional regulation contributes to the pathogenesis of both congenital and adult forms of heart disease. While the transcriptional regulator friend of Gata 2 (FOG2) is known to be essential for heart morphogenesis and coronary development, its tissue-specific function has not been previously investigated. Additionally, little is known about the role of FOG2 in the adult heart. Here we used spatiotemporally regulated inactivation of Fog2 to delineate its function in both the embryonic and adult mouse heart. Early cardiomyocyte-restricted loss of Fog2 recapitulated the cardiac and coronary defects of the Fog2 germline murine knockouts. Later cardiomyocyte-restricted loss of Fog2 (Fog2MC) did not result in defects in cardiac structure or coronary vessel formation. However, Fog2MC adult mice had severely depressed ventricular function and died at 8–14 weeks. Fog2MC adult hearts displayed a paucity of coronary vessels, associated with myocardial hypoxia, increased cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and cardiac fibrosis. Induced inactivation of Fog2 in the adult mouse heart resulted in similar phenotypes, as did ablation of the FOG2 interaction with the transcription factor GATA4. Loss of the FOG2 or FOG2-GATA4 interaction altered the expression of a panel of angiogenesis-related genes. Collectively, our data indicate that FOG2 regulates adult heart function and coronary angiogenesis. PMID:19411759

Zhou, Bin; Ma, Qing; Kong, Sek Won; Hu, Yongwu; Campbell, Patrick H.; McGowan, Francis X.; Ackerman, Kate G.; Wu, Bingruo; Zhou, Bin; Tevosian, Sergei G.; Pu, William T.

2009-01-01

318

Why Adult Stem Cell Functionality Declines with Age? Studies from the Fruit Fly Drosophila Melanogaster Model Organism  

PubMed Central

Highly regenerative adult tissues are supported by rare populations of stem cells that continuously divide to self-renew and generate differentiated progeny. This process is tightly regulated by signals emanating from surrounding cells to fulfill the dynamic demands of the tissue. One of the hallmarks of aging is slow and aberrant tissue regeneration due to deteriorated function of stem and supporting cells. Several Drosophila regenerative tissues are unique in that they provide exact identification of stem and neighboring cells in whole-tissue anatomy. This allows for precise tracking of age-related changes as well as their targeted manipulation within the tissue. In this review we present the stem cell niche of Drosophila testis, ovary and intestine and describe the major changes and phenotypes that occur in the course of aging. Specifically we discuss changes in both intrinsic properties of stem cells and their microenvironment that contribute to the decline in tissue functionality. Understanding these mechanisms in adult Drosophila tissues will likely provide new paradigms in the field of aging. PMID:24955030

Gonen, Oren; Toledano, Hila

2014-01-01

319

Acute effects of ?-naphthoflavone on cardiorespiratory function and metabolism in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio).  

PubMed

Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists are known to cause lethal cardiovascular deformities in fish after developmental exposure. Acute adult fish toxicity of AhR agonists is thought to be minimal, but limited evidence suggests sublethal effects may also involve the cardiac system in fish. In the present study, adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) were aqueously exposed to solvent control or three nominal concentrations of the commonly used model AhR agonist, ?-naphthoflavone (BNF), for 48 h. Following exposure, fish were subjected to echocardiography to determine cardiac function or swimming tests with concurrent oxygen consumption measurement. Critical swimming speed and standard metabolic rate were not significantly changed, while active metabolic rate decreased with increasing BNF exposure, reaching statistical significance at the highest BNF exposure. Factorial aerobic scope was the most sensitive end-point and was decreased at even lower BNF concentrations, indicating a reduced aerobic capacity after acute AhR agonist exposure in adult fish. The highest BNF concentration caused a significant decrease in cardiac output, while increasing the ratio of atrial to ventricular heart rate (indicating atrioventricular conduction blockade). In conclusion, the effect of acute BNF exposure on zebrafish metabolic capacity and cardiac function is likely to be physiologically important given that fish have a critical need for adequate oxygen to fuel essential survival behaviors such as swimming, growth, and reproduction. Future studies should be directed at examining the effects of other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on fish cardiorespiratory function to determine whether their effects and modes of action are similar to BNF. PMID:25186110

Gerger, Courtney J; Thomas, Jith K; Janz, David M; Weber, Lynn P

2015-02-01

320

Genetic influence on exercise-induced changes in physical function among mobility-limited older adults.  

PubMed

To date, physical exercise is the only intervention consistently demonstrated to attenuate age-related declines in physical function. However, variability exists in seniors' responsiveness to training. One potential source of variability is the insertion (I allele) or deletion (D allele) of a 287 bp fragment in intron 16 of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene. This polymorphism is known to influence a variety of physiological adaptions to exercise. However, evidence is inconclusive regarding the influence of this polymorphism on older adults' functional responses to exercise. This study aimed to evaluate the association of ACE I/D genotypes with changes in physical function among Caucasian older adults (n = 283) following 12 mo of either structured, multimodal physical activity or health education. Measures of physical function included usual-paced gait speed and performance on the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). After checking Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, we used using linear regression to evaluate the genotype*treatment interaction for each outcome. Covariates included clinic site, body mass index, age, sex, baseline score, comorbidity, and use of angiotensin receptor blockers or ACE inhibitors. Genotype frequencies [II (19.4%), ID (42.4%), DD (38.2%)] were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P > 0.05). The genotype*treatment interaction was statistically significant for both gait speed (P = 0.002) and SPPB (P = 0.020). Exercise improved gait speed by 0.06 ± 0.01 m/sec and SPPB score by 0.72 ± 0.16 points among those with at least one D allele (ID/DD carriers), but function was not improved among II carriers. Thus, ACE I/D genotype appears to play a role in modulating functional responses to exercise training in seniors. PMID:24423970

Buford, Thomas W; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Brinkley, Tina E; Carter, Christy S; Church, Timothy S; Dodson, John A; Goodpaster, Bret H; McDermott, Mary M; Nicklas, Barbara J; Yank, Veronica; Johnson, Julie A; Pahor, Marco

2014-03-01

321

High-throughput analysis of signals regulating stem cell fate and function  

E-print Network

transplan- tation and tissue engineering schemes, stem cell targeted pharmaceuticals, and gene delivery, adult or somatic stem cells, which contribute to both tissue formation in development and regenerationHigh-throughput analysis of signals regulating stem cell fate and function Gregory H Underhill1

Bhatia, Sangeeta

322

Gestalt Perception and Local-Global Processing in High-Functioning Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined gestalt perception in high-functioning autism (HFA) and its relation to tasks indicative of local visual processing. Data on of gestalt perception, visual illusions (VI), hierarchical letters (HL), Block Design (BD) and the Embedded Figures Test (EFT) were collected in adult males with HFA, schizophrenia, depression and…

Bolte, Sven; Holtmann, Martin; Poustka, Fritz; Scheurich, Armin; Schmidt, Lutz

2007-01-01

323

The Role of Causal and Intentional Judgments in Moral Reasoning in Individuals with High Functioning Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the present study, we investigated the ability to assign moral responsibility and punishment in adults with high functioning autism or Asperger Syndrome (HFA/AS), using non-verbal cartoons depicting an aggression, an accidental harm or a mere coincidence. Participants were asked to evaluate the agent's causal and intentional roles, his…

Buon, Marine; Dupoux, Emmanuel; Jacob, Pierre; Chaste, Pauline; Leboyer, Marion; Zalla, Tiziana

2013-01-01

324

Impaired Mirror-Image Imitation in Asperger and High-Functioning Autistic Subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Imitation is crucial for proper development of social and communicative skills. Here, we argue that, based on an error analysis of a behavioral imitation task, adult Asperger and high-functioning autistic subjects suffer from an intriguing deficit of imitation: they lack the natural preference for imitation in a mirror-image fashion. The imitation task consisted of a simple movement sequence of putting

Sari Avikainen; Andreas Wohlschläger; Sasu Liuhanen; Ritva Hänninen; Riitta Hari

2003-01-01

325

Functional Network Endophenotypes Unravel the Effects of Apolipoprotein E Epsilon 4 in Middle-Aged Adults  

PubMed Central

Apolipoprotein E-?4 (APOE-?4) accentuates memory decline, structural volume loss and cerebral amyloid deposition in cognitively healthy adults. We investigated whether APOE-?4 carriers will show disruptions in the intrinsic cognitive networks, including the default mode (DMN), executive control (ECN) and salience (SN) networks, relative to noncarriers in middle-aged healthy adults; and the extent to which episodic-memory performance is related to the altered functional connectivity (Fc) in these networks. Resting-state functional connectivity MRI (R-fMRI) was used to measure the differences in the DMN, ECN and SN Fc between 20 APOE-?4 carriers and 26 noncarriers. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to determine the relationship between episodic-memory performance and Fc differences in the three resting-state networks across all subjects. There were no significant differences in the demographic and neuropsychological characteristics and the gray-matter volumes in the carriers and noncarriers. While mostly diminished DMN and ECN functional connectivities were seen, enhanced connections to the DMN structures were found in the SN in ?4 carriers. Altered DMN and ECN were associated with episodic memory performance. Significant Fc differences in the brain networks implicated in cognition were seen in middle-aged individuals with a genetic risk for AD, in the absence of cognitive decline and gray-matter atrophy. Prospective studies are essential to elucidate the potential of R-fMRI technique as a biomarker for predicting conversion from normal to early AD in healthy APOE-?4 carriers. PMID:23424640

Chen, Gang; Li, Wenjun; Ward, B. Douglas; Franczak, Malgorzata B.; Jones, Jennifer L.; Antuono, Piero G.; Li, Shi-Jiang

2013-01-01

326

Tai Ji Quan and global cognitive function in older adults with cognitive impairment: a pilot study.  

PubMed

This study evaluated whether Tai Ji Quan: Moving for Better Balance (TJQMBB) could improve global cognitive function in older adults with cognitive impairment. Using a nonrandomized control group pretest-posttest design, participants aged ?65 years who scored between 20 and 25 on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) were allocated into either a 14-week TJQMBB program (n=22) or a control group (n=24). The primary outcome was MMSE as a measure of global cognitive function with secondary outcomes of 50-ft speed walk, Timed Up&Go, and Activities-Specific Balance Confidence (ABC) scale. At 14 weeks, Tai Ji Quan participants showed significant improvement on MMSE (mean=2.26, p<0.001) compared to controls (mean=0.63, p=0.08). Similarly, Tai Ji Quan participants performed significantly better compared to the controls in both physical performance and balance efficacy measures (p<0.05). Improvement in cognition as measured by MMSE was related to improved physical performance and balance efficacy. These results provide preliminary evidence of the utility of the TJQMBB program to promote cognitive function in older adults in addition to physical benefits. PMID:24398166

Li, Fuzhong; Harmer, Peter; Liu, Yu; Chou, Li-Shan

2014-01-01

327

Age and sex related changes in episodic memory function in middle aged and older adults  

PubMed Central

Age-related change in episodic memory function is commonly reported in older adults. When detected on neuropsychological tests, it may still be difficult to distinguish normal from pathological changes. The present study investigates age-and sex-related changes in a group of healthy middle-aged and older adults, participating in a three-wave study on cognitive aging. The California Verbal Learning test (CVLT-II) was used to assess their episodic memory function. A cross-sectional analysis of results from the first wave showed higher performance in females than males, with a steeper age-related decline in males. This was confirmed in a longitudinal analysis using a mixed effects regression model, but with a lower age-related change and smaller difference between the sexes. Information about learning strategies and errors in the third wave turned out to contribute significantly to explain change in episodic memory function across the three waves. We argue that the results from the longitudinal analyses are generalizable to the population of healthy middle-aged and older individuals, and that they could be useful in guiding clinicians when evaluating individuals with respect to cognitive change. PMID:24601911

Lundervold, Astri J; Wollschläger, Daniel; Wehling, Eike

2014-01-01

328

Nuclear diffractive structure functions at high energies  

E-print Network

A future high-energy electron-ion collider would explore the non-linear weakly-coupled regime of QCD, and test the Color Glass Condensate (CGC) approach to high-energy scattering. Hard diffraction in deep inelastic scattering off nuclei will provide many fundamental measurements. In this work, the nuclear diffractive structure function F_{2,A}^D is predicted in the CGC framework, and the features of nuclear enhancement and suppression are discussed.

C. Marquet; H. Kowalski; T. Lappi; R. Venugopalan

2008-05-30

329

The functional organisation of glia in the adult brain of Drosophila and other insects  

PubMed Central

This review annotates and categorises the glia of adult Drosophila and other model insects and describes the developmental origins of these in the Drosophila optic lobe. The functions of glia in the adult vary depending upon their sub-type and location in the brain. The task of annotating glia is essentially complete only for the glia of the fly's lamina, which comprise: two types of surface glia - the pseudocartridge and fenestrated glia; two types of cortex glia - the distal and proximal satellite glia; and two types of neuropile glia - the epithelial and marginal glia. We advocate that the term subretinal glia, as used to refer to both pseudocartridge and fenestrated glia, be abandoned. Other neuropiles contain similar glial subtypes, but other than the antennal lobes these have not been described in detail. Surface glia form the blood brain barrier, regulating the flow of substances into and out of the nervous system, both for the brain as a whole and the optic neuropiles in particular. Cortex glia provide a second level of barrier, wrapping axon fascicles and isolating neuronal cell bodies both from neighbouring brain regions and from their underlying neuropiles. Neuropile glia can be generated in the adult and a subtype, ensheathing glia, are responsible for cleaning up cellular debris during Wallerian degeneration. Both the neuropile ensheathing and astrocyte-like glia may be involved in clearing neurotransmitters from the extracellular space, thus modifying the levels of histamine, glutamate and possibly dopamine at the synapse to ultimately affect behaviour. PMID:20109517

Edwards, Tara N.; Meinertzhagen, Ian A.

2010-01-01

330

A Meta-Analysis of High Dose, Intermittent Vitamin D Supplementation among Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Background The effects of intermittent, high dose vitamin D treatment in older adults have not been documented. We conducted a meta-analysis to provide a quantitative assessment of the efficiency of intermittent, high dose vitamin D treatment on falls, fractures, and mortality among older adults. Methods Electronic databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on high dose, intermittent vitamin D supplementation among older adults. Two researchers independently screened the literature according to specified inclusive and exclusive criteria to extract the data. Meta-analysis was performed by using Review Manager 5.1.0 software. Results Nine trials were included in this meta-analysis. High dose, intermittent vitamin D therapy did not decrease all-cause mortality among older adults. The risk ratio (95% CI) was 1.04 (0.91–1.17). No benefit was seen in fracture or fall prevention. The risk ratio for hip fractures (95% CI) was 1.17 (0.97–1.41) while for non-vertebral fractures (95% CI) it was 1.06 (0.91–1.22), and the risk ratio for falls (95% CI) was 1.02 (0.96–1.08). Results remained robust after sensitivity analysis. Conclusion Supplementation of intermittent, high dose vitamin D may not be effective in preventing overall mortality, fractures, or falls among older adults. The route of administration of vitamin D supplements may well change the physiological effects. PMID:25602255

Zheng, Ya Ting; Cui, Qi Qi; Hong, Yi Min; Yao, Wei Guang

2015-01-01

331

Chronic early life stress alters developmental and adult neurogenesis and impairs cognitive function in mice.  

PubMed

Early life stress (ES) increases vulnerability to psychopathology and impairs cognition in adulthood. These ES-induced deficits are associated with lasting changes in hippocampal plasticity. Detailed information on the neurobiological basis, the onset, and progression of such changes and their sex-specificity is currently lacking but is required to tailor specific intervention strategies. Here, we use a chronic ES mouse model based on limited nesting and bedding material from postnatal day (P) 2-9 to investigate; (1) if ES leads to impairments in hippocampus-dependent cognitive function in adulthood and (2) if these alterations are paralleled by changes in developmental and/or adult hippocampal neurogenesis. ES increased developmental neurogenesis (proliferation and differentiation) in the dentate gyrus (DG) at P9, and the number of immature (NeurD1(+) ) cells migrating postnatally from the secondary dentate matrix, indicating prompt changes in DG structure in both sexes. ES lastingly reduced DG volume and the long-term survival of developmentally born neurons in both sexes at P150. In adult male mice only, ES reduced survival of adult-born neurons (BrdU/NeuN(+) cells), while proliferation (Ki67(+) ) and differentiation (DCX(+) ) were unaffected. These changes correlated with impaired performance in all learning and memory tasks used here. In contrast, in female mice, despite early alterations in developmental neurogenesis, no lasting changes were present in adult neurogenesis after ES and the cognitive impairments were less prominent and only apparent in some cognitive tasks. We further show that, although neurogenesis and cognition correlate positively, only the hippocampus-dependent functions depend on changes in neurogenesis, whereas cognitive functions that are not exclusively hippocampus-dependent do not. This study indicates that chronic ES has lasting consequences on hippocampal structure and function in mice and suggests that male mice are more susceptible to ES than females. Unraveling the mechanisms that underlie the persistent ES-induced effects may have clinical implications for treatments to counteract ES-induced deficits. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25269685

Naninck, Eva F G; Hoeijmakers, Lianne; Kakava-Georgiadou, Nefeli; Meesters, Astrid; Lazic, Stanley E; Lucassen, Paul J; Korosi, Aniko

2014-10-01

332

Neuroglial differentiation of adult enteric neuronal progenitor cells as a function of extracellular matrix composition.  

PubMed

Enteric neuronal progenitor cells are neural crest-derived stem cells that can be isolated from fetal, post-natal and adult gut. Neural stem cell transplantation is an emerging therapeutic paradigm to replace dysfunctional or lost enteric neurons in several aganglionic disorders of the GI tract. The impetus to identify an appropriate microenvironment for enteric neuronal progenitor cells derives from the need to improve survival and phenotypic stability following implantation. Extracellular matrix composition can modulate stem cell fate and direct differentiation. Adult mammalian myenteric ganglia in vivo are surrounded by a matrix composed primarily of Collagen IV, Laminin and a Heparan sulfate proteoglycan. In these studies, adult mammalian enteric neuronal progenitor cells isolated from full thickness rabbit intestines were induced to differentiate when cultured on various combinations of neural ECM substrates. Neuronal and glial differentiation was studied as a function of ECM composition on coated glass coverslips. Poly-lysine coated coverslips (control) supported extensive glial differentiation but very minimal neuronal differentiation. Individual culture substrata (Laminin, Collagen I and Collagen IV) were conducive for both neuronal and glial differentiation. The addition of laminin or heparan sulfate to collagen substrates improved neuronal differentiation, significantly increased neurite lengths, branching and initiation of neuronal network formation. Glial differentiation was extensive on control poly lysine coated coverslips. Addition of laminin or heparan sulfate to composite collagen substrates significantly reduced glial immunofluorescence. Various neural ECM components were evaluated individually and in combination to study their effect of neuroglial differentiation of adult enteric neuronal progenitor cells. Our results indicate that specific ECM substrates that include type IV Collagen, laminin and heparan sulfate support and maintain neuronal and glial differentiation to different extents. Here, we identify a matrix composition optimized to tissue engineer transplantable innervated GI smooth muscle constructs to remedy aganglionic disorders. PMID:23746858

Raghavan, Shreya; Gilmont, Robert R; Bitar, Khalil N

2013-09-01

333

Neuroglial differentiation of adult enteric neuronal progenitor cells as a function of extracellular matrix composition  

PubMed Central

Enteric neuronal progenitor cells are neural crest-derived stem cells that can be isolated from fetal, post-natal and adult gut. Neural stem cell transplantation is an emerging therapeutic paradigm to replace dysfunctional or lost enteric neurons in several aganglionic disorders of the GI tract. The impetus to identify an appropriate microenvironment for enteric neuronal progenitor cells derives from the need to improve survival and phenotypic stability following implantation. Extracellular matrix composition can modulate stem cell fate and direct differentiation. Adult mammalian myenteric ganglia in vivo are surrounded by a matrix composed primarily of Collagen IV, Laminin and a Heparan sulfate proteoglycan. In these studies, adult mammalian enteric neuronal progenitor cells isolated from full thickness rabbit intestines were induced to differentiate when cultured on various combinations of neural ECM substrates. Neuronal and glial differentiation was studied as a function of ECM composition on coated glass coverslips. Poly- lysine coated coverslips (control) supported extensive glial differentiation but very minimal neuronal differentiation. Individual culture substrata (Laminin, Collagen I and Collagen IV) were conducive for both neuronal and glial differentiation. The addition of laminin or heparan sulfate to collagen substrates improved neuronal differentiation, significantly increased neurite lengths, branching and initiation of neuronal network formation. Glial differentiation was extensive on control poly lysine coated coverslips. Addition of laminin or heparan sulfate to composite collagen substrates significantly reduced glial immunofluorescence. Various neural ECM components were evaluated individually and in combination to study their effect of neuroglial differentiation of adult enteric neuronal progenitor cells. Our results indicate that specific ECM substrates that include type IV Collagen, laminin and heparan sulfate support and maintain neuronal and glial differentiation to different extents. Here, we identify a matrix composition optimized to tissue engineer transplantable innervated GI smooth muscle constructs to remedy aganglionic disorders. PMID:23746858

Raghavan, Shreya; Gilmont, Robert R.; Bitar, Khalil N.

2013-01-01

334

Do Mismatches between Pre- and Post-Natal Environments Influence Adult Physiological Functioning?  

PubMed Central

Purpose Mismatches between pre- and post-natal environments have implications for disease in adulthood. However, less is known about how this mismatch can affect physiological systems more generally, especially at younger ages. We hypothesised that mismatches between pre- and post-natal environments, as measured by the measures of birthweight and adult leg length, would be associated with poorer biomarker levels across five key physiological systems in young adults. Methods Data were collected from 923, 36 year-old respondents from the West of Scotland Twenty-07 Study. The biomarkers were: systolic blood pressure (sBP); forced expiratory volume (FEV1); glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c); glomerular filtration rate (eGFR); and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT). These biomarkers were regressed against pre-natal conditions (birthweight), post-natal conditions (leg length) and the interaction between pre- and post-natal measures. Sex, childhood socioeconomic position and adult lifestyle characteristics were adjusted for as potential effect modifiers and confounders, respectively. Results There were no associations between birthweight and leg length and sBP, FEV1, HbA1c, or GGT. Higher birthweight and longer leg length were associated with better kidney function (eGFR). However, there was no evidence for mismatches between birthweight and leg length to be associated with worse sBP, FEV1, HbA1c, eGFR or GGT levels (P>0.05). Conclusions Our hypothesis that early signs of physiological damage would be present in young adults given mismatches in childhood environments, as measured by growth markers, was not proven. This lack of association could be because age 36 is too young to identify significant trends for future health, or the associations simply not being present. PMID:24498001

Robertson, Tony; Benzeval, Michaela

2014-01-01

335

HIV testing among clients in high HIV prevalence venues: disparities between older and younger adults.  

PubMed

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends routine human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing of every client presenting for services in venues where HIV prevalence is high. Because older adults (aged ?50 years) have particularly poor prognosis if they receive their diagnosis late in the course of HIV disease, any screening provided to younger adults in these venues should also be provided to older adults. We examined aging-related disparities in recent (past 12 months) and ever HIV testing in a probability sample of at-risk adults (N = 1238) seeking services in needle exchange sites, sexually transmitted disease clinics, and Latino community clinics that provide HIV testing. Using multiple logistic regression with generalized estimating equations, we estimated associations between age category (<50 years vs. ?50 years) and each HIV testing outcome. Even after controlling for covariates such as recent injection drug use, older adults had 40% lower odds than younger adults did of having tested in the past 12 months (odds ratio [OR] = 0.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.40-0.90) or ever (OR = 0.6; 95% CI = 0.40-0.90). Aging-related disparities in HIV testing exist among clients of these high HIV prevalence venues and may contribute to known aging-related disparities in late diagnosis of HIV infection and poor long-term prognosis. PMID:25303208

Ford, Chandra L; Lee, Sung-Jae; Wallace, Steven P; Nakazono, Terry; Newman, Peter A; Cunningham, William E

2015-02-01

336

Total and High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Adults with Mental Retardation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study evaluated the total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein cholesterol of 40 adults (mean age 37.5 years) with mental retardation residing at an intermediate care facility. Results indicated that 59 percent of the males and 68 percent of the females were at moderate to high risk for coronary heart disease. (DB)

Rimmer, James H.; Kelly, Luke E.

1990-01-01

337

High-Quality Preschool Programs Found to Improve Adult Status.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The longitudinal High Scope/Perry Preschool Study of 123 African Americans in poverty and at high risk of school failure interviewed 95% of participants at age 27. Profiles indicate that participants had fewer criminal arrests, higher earnings and property wealth, and greater commitment to marriage than nonparticipants, suggesting significant…

Weikart, David

1996-01-01

338

Effect of increased fruit and vegetable consumption on physical function and muscle strength in older adults.  

PubMed

Fruit and vegetable (FV) intake, which is often low in older people, may be associated with improved muscle strength and physical function. However, there is a shortage of intervention trial evidence to support this. The current study examined the effect of increased FV consumption on measures of muscle strength and physical function among healthy, free-living older adults. A randomized controlled intervention study was undertaken. Eighty-three participants aged 65-85 years, habitually consuming ? 2 portions of FV/day, were randomised to continue their normal diet (? 2 portions/day), or to consume ? 5 portions of FV/day for 16 weeks. FV were delivered to all participants each week, free of charge. Compliance was monitored at baseline, 6, 12 and 16 weeks by diet history and by measuring biomarkers of micronutrient status. Grip strength was measured by a hand-held dynamometer, while lower-extremity physical function was assessed by performance-based measures. Eighty-two participants completed the intervention. The 5 portions/day group showed greater change in daily FV consumption compared to the 2 portions/day group (P < 0.001). This was reflected in significant increases in biomarkers of micronutrient status. No significant differences were evident in change in physical function between the two groups. However, there was a trend towards a greater change in grip strength in the 5 portions/day compared to the 2 portions/day group (mean change at 16 weeks ± SD, 2.04 ± 5.16 and 0.11 ± 3.26 kg, respectively, P = 0.06). Increased FV consumption may modestly increase grip strength but has no effect on physical function in healthy older adults. PMID:23543264

Neville, Charlotte E; Young, Ian S; Gilchrist, Sarah E C M; McKinley, Michelle C; Gibson, Andrew; Edgar, J David; Woodside, Jayne V

2013-12-01

339

Gender differences in the effect of adult amphetamine on cognitive functions of rats prenatally exposed to methamphetamine.  

PubMed

Psychostimulants have been shown to affect brain regions involved in the process of learning and memory consolidation. It has been shown that females are more sensitive to the effects of drugs than males. The aim of our study was to investigate how prenatal methamphetamine (MA) exposure and application of amphetamine (AMP) in adulthood would affect spatial learning of adult female and male rats. Mothers of the tested offspring were exposed to injections of MA (5mg/kg) or saline (SA) throughout the entire gestation period. Cognitive functions of adult rats were evaluated in the Morris Water Maze (MWM) tests. Adult offspring were injected daily with AMP (5mg/kg) or SA through the period of MWM testing. Our data from the MWM tests demonstrates the following. Prenatal MA exposure did not change the learning ability of adult male and female rats. However, AMP administration to adult animals affected cognitive function in terms of exacerbation of spatial learning (increasing the latency to reach the hidden platform, the distance traveled and the search error) only in female subjects. There were sex differences in the speed of swimming. Prenatal MA exposure and adult AMP treatment increased the speed of swimming in female groups greater than in males. Overall, the male subjects showed a better learning ability than females. Thus, our results indicate that the adult AMP treatment affects the cognitive function and behavior of rats in a sex-specific manner, regardless of prenatal exposure. PMID:24786327

Macúchová, E; Nohejlová, K; Slamberová, R

2014-08-15

340

A Controlled Study of Autonomic Nervous System Function in Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Treated with Stimulant Medications: Results of a Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Despite the fact that autonomic nervous system (ANS) abnormalities are commonly found in adults and predict increased cardiovascular mortality, no studies have assessed ANS function in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) taking stimulants. Method: This pilot study evaluated ANS function in adults with ADHD in…

Schubiner, Howard; Hassunizadeh, Bischan; Kaczynski, Richard

2006-01-01

341

Growth hormone deficiency and memory functioning in adults visualized by functional magnetic resonance imaging.  

PubMed

Cognitive functioning, especially memory performance, is known to be impaired in patients with childhood-onset growth hormone deficiency (CO-GHD), and growth hormone substitution has been found to counteract this memory impairment. Neuropsychological and functional magnetic resonance imagining (fMRI) data acquired during a working memory task in 13 childhood-onset GH-deficient patients were compared with 13 age, sex and education level matched healthy controls. Results demonstrated that there is no difference in the quality of the performance in the working memory task between GH-deficient patients and control subjects. However, memory speed was found to be subnormal in patients. Concerning mood, patients reported more complaints of fatigue, and less vigor. Imaging data showed that patients had increased activity in dorsolateral/ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, parietal cortex, supplementary motor and motor cortex, as well as in the thalamus and precuneus area. Increasing task load was also associated with an increase in brain activity in similar areas in patients compared to control subjects. In conclusion, this fMRI study shows that GH-deficient patients have a subnormal memory speed, but no impaired quality of memory performance, which may be due to compensatory recruitment of dorsal prefrontal brain regions. These findings indicate that the GH-IGF-1 axis contributes to prefrontal functioning in patients with CO-GHD. PMID:16330884

Arwert, Lucia I; Veltman, Dick J; Deijen, Jan Berend; van Dam, P Sytze; Delemarre-van deWaal, Henriette A; Drent, Madeleine L

2005-01-01

342

Drosophila Notch Receptor Activity Suppresses Hairless Function during Adult External Sensory Organ Development  

PubMed Central

The neurogenic Notch locus of Drosophila encodes a receptor necessary for cell fate decisions within equivalence groups, such as proneural clusters. Specification of alternate fates within clusters results from inhibitory communication among cells having comparable neural fate potential. Genetically, Hairless (H) acts as an antagonist of most neurogenic genes and may insulate neural precursor cells from inhibition. H function is required for commitment to the bristle sensory organ precursor (SOP) cell fate and for daughter cell fates. Using Notch gain-of-function alleles and conditional expression of an activated Notch transgene, we show that enhanced signaling produces H-like loss-of-function phenotypes by suppressing bristle SOP cell specification or by causing an H-like transformation of sensillum daughter cell fates. Furthermore, adults carrying Notch gain of function and H alleles exhibit synergistic enhancement of mutant phenotypes. Over-expression of an H(+) transgene product suppressed virtually all phenotypes generated by Notch gain-of-function genotypes. Phenotypes resulting from over-expression of the H(+) transgene were blocked by the Notch gain-of-function products, indicating a balance between Notch and H activity. The results suggest that H insulates SOP cells from inhibition and indicate that H activity is suppressed by Notch signaling. PMID:8601489

Lyman, D. F.; Yedvobnick, B.

1995-01-01

343

Evidence of Left Inferior Frontal–Premotor Structural and Functional Connectivity Deficits in Adults Who Stutter  

PubMed Central

The neurophysiological basis for stuttering may involve deficits that affect dynamic interactions among neural structures supporting fluid speech processing. Here, we examined functional and structural connectivity within corticocortical and thalamocortical loops in adults who stutter. For functional connectivity, we placed seeds in the left and right inferior frontal Brodmann area 44 (BA44) and in the ventral lateral nucleus (VLN) of the thalamus. Subject-specific seeds were based on peak activation voxels captured during speech and nonspeech tasks using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Psychophysiological interaction (PPI) was used to find brain regions with heightened functional connectivity with these cortical and subcortical seeds during speech and nonspeech tasks. Probabilistic tractography was used to track white matter tracts in each hemisphere using the same seeds. Both PPI and tractrography supported connectivity deficits between the left BA44 and the left premotor regions, while connectivity among homologous right hemisphere structures was significantly increased in the stuttering group. No functional connectivity differences between BA44 and auditory regions were found between groups. The functional connectivity results derived from the VLN seeds were less definitive and were not supported by the tractography results. Our data provide strongest support for deficient left hemisphere inferior frontal to premotor connectivity as a neural correlate of stuttering. PMID:21471556

Horwitz, Barry; Ostuni, John; Reynolds, Richard; Ludlow, Christy L.

2011-01-01

344

Executive Functioning in Highly Talented Soccer Players  

PubMed Central

Executive functions might be important for successful performance in sports, particularly in team sports requiring quick anticipation and adaptation to continuously changing situations in the field. The executive functions motor inhibition, attention and visuospatial working memory were examined in highly talented soccer players. Eighty-four highly talented youth soccer players (mean age 11.9), and forty-two age-matched amateur soccer players (mean age 11.8) in the age range 8 to 16 years performed a Stop Signal task (motor inhibition), the Attention Network Test (alerting, orienting, and executive attention) and a visuospatial working memory task. The highly talented soccer players followed the talent development program of the youth academy of a professional soccer club and played at the highest national soccer competition for their age. The amateur soccer players played at a regular soccer club in the same geographical region as the highly talented soccer players and play in a regular regional soccer competition. Group differences were tested using analyses of variance. The highly talented group showed superior motor inhibition as measured by stop signal reaction time (SSRT) on the Stop Signal task and a larger alerting effect on the Attention Network Test, indicating an enhanced ability to attain and maintain an alert state. No group differences were found for orienting and executive attention and visuospatial working memory. A logistic regression model with group (highly talented or amateur) as dependent variable and executive function measures that significantly distinguished between groups as predictors showed that these measures differentiated highly talented soccer players from amateur soccer players with 89% accuracy. Highly talented youth soccer players outperform youth amateur players on suppressing ongoing motor responses and on the ability to attain and maintain an alert state; both may be essential for success in soccer. PMID:24632735

Verburgh, Lot; Scherder, Erik J. A.; van Lange, Paul A.M.; Oosterlaan, Jaap

2014-01-01

345

Functional Lateralization of Speech Processing in Adults and Children Who Stutter  

PubMed Central

Developmental stuttering is a speech disorder in fluency characterized by repetitions, prolongations, and silent blocks, especially in the initial parts of utterances. Although their symptoms are motor related, people who stutter show abnormal patterns of cerebral hemispheric dominance in both anterior and posterior language areas. It is unknown whether the abnormal functional lateralization in the posterior language area starts during childhood or emerges as a consequence of many years of stuttering. In order to address this issue, we measured the lateralization of hemodynamic responses in the auditory cortex during auditory speech processing in adults and children who stutter, including preschoolers, with near-infrared spectroscopy. We used the analysis–resynthesis technique to prepare two types of stimuli: (i) a phonemic contrast embedded in Japanese spoken words (/itta/ vs. /itte/) and (ii) a prosodic contrast (/itta/ vs. /itta?/). In the baseline blocks, only /itta/ tokens were presented. In phonemic contrast blocks, /itta/ and /itte/ tokens were presented pseudo-randomly, and /itta/ and /itta?/ tokens in prosodic contrast blocks. In adults and children who do not stutter, there was a clear left-hemispheric advantage for the phonemic contrast compared to the prosodic contrast. Adults and children who stutter, however, showed no significant difference between the two stimulus conditions. A subject-by-subject analysis revealed that not a single subject who stutters showed a left advantage in the phonemic contrast over the prosodic contrast condition. These results indicate that the functional lateralization for auditory speech processing is in disarray among those who stutter, even at preschool age. These results shed light on the neural pathophysiology of developmental stuttering. PMID:21687442

Sato, Yutaka; Mori, Koichi; Koizumi, Toshizo; Minagawa-Kawai, Yasuyo; Tanaka, Akihiro; Ozawa, Emi; Wakaba, Yoko; Mazuka, Reiko

2011-01-01

346

Functional vascular smooth muscle-like cells derived from adult mouse uterine mesothelial cells.  

PubMed

In mammalian visceral organs, vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) originate from an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of embryonic mesothelial cells (MCs). The ability of adult MCs to recapitulate EMT and to acquire smooth muscle (SM) markers upon provasculogenic culture suggested they might retain embryonic vasculogenic differentiation potential. However, it remains unknown whether adult MCs-derived SM-like cells may acquire specific vascular SM lineage markers and the functionality of differentiated contractile VSMCs. Here, we describe how a gentle trypsinization of adult mouse uterine cords could selectively detach their outermost uterine mesothelial layer cells. As other MCs; uterine MCs (UtMCs) uniformly expressed the epithelial markers ?-catenin, ZO-1, E-cadherin, CD54, CD29, and CK18. When cultured in a modified SM differentiation media (SMDM) UtMCs initiated a loss of epithelial characteristics and gained markers expression of EMT (Twist, Snail, and Slug), stem and progenitor (Nanog, Sox2, C-kit, Gata-4, Isl-1, and nestin), SM (?-SMA, calponin, caldesmon, SM22?, desmin, SM-MHC, and smoothelin-B) and cardiac (BMP2, BMP4, ACTC1, sACTN, cTnI, cTnT, ANF, Cx43, and MLC2a). UtMCs repeatedly subcultured in SMDM acquired differentiated VSM-like characteristics and expressed smoothelin-B in the typical stress-fiber pattern expression of contractile VSMCs. Relevantly, UtMCs-derived VSM-like cells could generate "mechanical force" to compact collagen lattices and displayed in diverse degree voltage (K(+)) and receptor (endothelin-1, oxytocin, norepinephrine, carbachol and vasopressin)-induced [Ca(2+)](i) rises and contraction. Thus, we show for the first time that UtMCs could recapitulate in vitro differentiative events of early cardiovascular differentiation and transdifferentiate in cells exhibiting molecular and functional characteristics of VSMCs. PMID:23405120

Lachaud, Christian Claude; Pezzolla, Daniela; Domínguez-Rodríguez, Alejandro; Smani, Tarik; Soria, Bernat; Hmadcha, Abdelkrim

2013-01-01

347

Functional Vascular Smooth Muscle-like Cells Derived from Adult Mouse Uterine Mesothelial Cells  

PubMed Central

In mammalian visceral organs, vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) originate from an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of embryonic mesothelial cells (MCs). The ability of adult MCs to recapitulate EMT and to acquire smooth muscle (SM) markers upon provasculogenic culture suggested they might retain embryonic vasculogenic differentiation potential. However, it remains unknown whether adult MCs-derived SM-like cells may acquire specific vascular SM lineage markers and the functionality of differentiated contractile VSMCs. Here, we describe how a gentle trypsinization of adult mouse uterine cords could selectively detach their outermost uterine mesothelial layer cells. As other MCs; uterine MCs (UtMCs) uniformly expressed the epithelial markers ?-catenin, ZO-1, E-cadherin, CD54, CD29, and CK18. When cultured in a modified SM differentiation media (SMDM) UtMCs initiated a loss of epithelial characteristics and gained markers expression of EMT (Twist, Snail, and Slug), stem and progenitor (Nanog, Sox2, C-kit, Gata-4, Isl-1, and nestin), SM (?-SMA, calponin, caldesmon, SM22?, desmin, SM-MHC, and smoothelin-B) and cardiac (BMP2, BMP4, ACTC1, sACTN, cTnI, cTnT, ANF, Cx43, and MLC2a). UtMCs repeatedly subcultured in SMDM acquired differentiated VSM-like characteristics and expressed smoothelin-B in the typical stress-fiber pattern expression of contractile VSMCs. Relevantly, UtMCs-derived VSM-like cells could generate “mechanical force” to compact collagen lattices and displayed in diverse degree voltage (K+) and receptor (endothelin-1, oxytocin, norepinephrine, carbachol and vasopressin)-induced [Ca2+]i rises and contraction. Thus, we show for the first time that UtMCs could recapitulate in vitro differentiative events of early cardiovascular differentiation and transdifferentiate in cells exhibiting molecular and functional characteristics of VSMCs. PMID:23405120

Lachaud, Christian Claude; Pezzolla, Daniela; Domínguez-Rodríguez, Alejandro; Smani, Tarik

2013-01-01

348

Dietary resistant starch improves selected brain and behavioral functions in adult and aged rodents  

PubMed Central

Resistant starch (RS) is a dietary fiber that exerts multiple beneficial effects. The current study explored the effects of dietary RS on selected brain and behavioral functions in adult and aged rodents. Because glucokinase (GK) expression in hypothalamic arcuate nucleus and area postrema of the brainstem is important for brain glucose sensing, GK mRNA was measured by brain nuclei microdissection and PCR. Adult RS-fed rats had a higher GK mRNA than controls in both brain nuclei, an indicator of improved brain glucose sensing. Next, we tested whether dietary RS improve selected behaviors in aged mice. RS-fed aged mice exhibited (1) an increased eating responses to fasting, a behavioral indicator of improvement in aged brain glucose sensing; (2) a longer latency to fall from an accelerating rotarod, a behavioral indicator of improved motor coordination; and (3) a higher serum active GLP-1. Third, GLP-1 receptor null (GLP-1RKO) mice were used to test the role of GLP-1 in brain glucose sensing, and they exhibited impaired eating responses to fasting. We conclude that in rodents (1) dietary RS improves two important indicators of brain function: glucose sensing and motor coordination, and that (2) GLP-1 is important in the optimal feeding response to a fast. PMID:23818307

Zhou, June; Keenan, Michael J.; Fernandez-Kim, Sun Ok; Pistell, Paul J.; Ingram, Donald K.; Li, Bing; Raggio, Anne M.; Shen, Li; Zhang, Hanjie; McCutcheon, Kathleen L; Tulley, Richard T.; Blackman, Marc R.; Keller, Jeffrey N.; Martin, Roy J.

2013-01-01

349

Effect of methamphetamine on cognitive functions of adult female rats prenatally exposed to the same drug.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of prenatal methamphetamine (MA) exposure and application of the same drug in adulthood on cognitive functions of adult female rats. Animals were prenatally exposed to MA (5 mg/kg) or saline (control group). The cognitive function was tested as ability of spatial learning in the Morris Water Maze (MWM). Each day of the experiment animals received an injection of MA (1 mg/kg) or saline. Our results demonstrated that prenatal MA exposure did not affect the latency to reach the hidden platform or the distance traveled during the Place Navigation Test; however, the speed of swimming was increased in prenatally MA-exposed rats compared to controls regardless of the treatment in adulthood. MA treatment in adulthood increased the latency and distance when compared to controls regardless of the prenatal exposure. Neither prenatal exposure, nor treatment in adulthood affected memory retrieval. As far as the estrous cycle is concerned, our results showed that prenatally MA-exposed females in proestrus/estrus swam faster than females in diestrus. This effect of estrous cycle was not apparent in control females. In conclusion, our results indicate that postnatal, but not prenatal exposure to MA affects learning of adult female rats. PMID:24329708

Macúchová, E; Nohejlová-Deykun, K; Slamberová, R

2013-12-12

350

Effects of age, genes, and pulse pressure on executive functions in healthy adults  

PubMed Central

Executive functions (EF) evidence significant age-related declines, but the mechanisms underpinning those changes are unclear. In this study, we focus on two potential sources of variation: a physiological indicator of vascular health, and genetic variants related to vascular functions. In a sample of healthy adults (n = 158, ages 18–81), we examine the effects of age, pulse pressure, and two polymorphisms (comt val158met and ace insertion/deletion) on working memory and cognitive flexibility. Results indicate that in addition to often-replicated age differences, the alleles of two polymorphisms that promote vasoconstriction (comt val and ace D) and reduced availability of dopamine in neocortical synapses (comt val), negatively impact virtually all aspects of EF tasks that involve working memory. In some cases, suppression of cognitive performance is limited to men or necessitates a combination of both risk-associated alleles. After accounting for genetic and age-related variation, pulse pressure had no additional effect on EF. These findings suggest that in healthy adults, the effects of genetic risk factors significantly modulate the course of cognitive aging. PMID:19559505

Raz, Naftali; Dahle, Cheryl L.; Rodrigue, Karen M.; Kennedy, Kristen M.; Land, Susan

2009-01-01

351

Can Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Improve Cognitive Functioning in Adults with Schizophrenia?  

PubMed

Cognitive impairment is nearly ubiquitous in schizophrenia. First-degree relatives of persons with schizophrenia often show similar but milder deficits. Current methods for the treatment of schizophrenia are often ineffective in cognitive remediation. Since transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can enhance cognitive functioning in healthy adults, it might provide a viable option to enhance cognition in schizophrenia. We sought to explore whether tDCS can be tolerated by persons with schizophrenia and potentially improve their cognitive functioning. We examined the effects of anodal versus cathodal tDCS on working memory and other cognitive tasks in five outpatients with schizophrenia and six first-degree relatives of persons with schizophrenia. Each participant completed tasks thought to be mediated by the prefrontal cortex during two 30-minute sessions of tDCS to the left and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Anodal stimulation over the left DLPFC improved performance relative to cathodal stimulation on measures of working memory and aspects of verbal fluency relevant to word retrieval. The patient group showed differential changes in novel design production without alteration of overall productivity, suggesting that tDCS might be capable of altering selfmonitoring and executive control. All participants tolerated tDCS well. None withdrew from the study or experienced any adverse reaction. We conclude that adults with schizophrenia can tolerate tDCS while engaging in cognitive tasks and that tDCS can alter their performance. PMID:25367166

Schretlen, David J; van Steenburgh, Joseph J; Varvaris, Mark; Vannorsdall, Tracy D; Andrejczuk, Megan A; Gordon, Barry

2014-11-01

352

Progerin expression disrupts critical adult stem cell functions involved in tissue repair  

PubMed Central

Vascular disease is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Vascular repair, essential for tissue maintenance, is critically reduced during vascular disease and aging. Efficient vascular repair requires functional adult stem cells unimpaired by aging or mutation. One protein candidate for reducing stem cell–mediated vascular repair is progerin, an alternative splice variant of lamin A. Progerin results from erroneous activation of cryptic splice sites within the LMNA gene, and significantly increases during aging. Mutations triggering progerin overexpression cause the premature aging disorder Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS), in which patients die at approximately 13-years of age due to atherosclerosis-induced disease. Progerin expression affects tissues rich in cells that can be derived from marrow stromal cells (MSCs). Studies using various MSC subpopulations and models have led to discrepant results. Using a well-defined, immature subpopulation of MSCs, Marrow Isolated Adult Multilineage Inducible (MIAMI) cells, we find progerin significantly disrupts expression and localization of self-renewal markers, proliferation, migration, and membrane elasticity. One potential treatment, farnesyltransferase inhibitor, ameliorates some of these effects. Our results confirm proposed progerin-induced mechanisms and suggest novel ways in which progerin disturbs critical stem cell functions collectively required for proper tissue repair, offering promising treatment targets for future therapies. PMID:25567453

Pacheco, Laurin Marie; Gomez, Lourdes Adriana; Dias, Janice; Ziebarth, Noel M; Howard, Guy A; Schiller, Paul C

2014-01-01

353

The effect of brief neonatal cryoanesthesia on physical development and adult cognitive function in mice  

PubMed Central

Deep hypothermia (cryoanesthesia) is often used as general anesthesia during surgery in neonatal rodents. Neonatal cryoanesthesia has been used recently to generate somatic brain transgenic (SBT) mouse models via intracerebral ventricular injection of rAAV vectors into both non-transgenic mice and numerous transgenic mouse models. Since, the evaluation of cognition is one of the main experimental endpoints in many of these studies, we examined the consequences of brief neonatal cryoanesthesia on the physical development and mnemonic function of adult mice. Two groups of 129FVBF1 pups from reciprocal breeding crosses underwent cryoanesthesia for 6 (Cryo6) or 12 (Cryo12) min, respectively, within the first hours (< 12hr) of postnatal life. A group of pups separated from the nest and kept in ambient temperature of 33 °C for 6 min served as a control. Our results revealed that lowering the temperature of pups to ~8 °C (Cryo6) or ~5 °C (Cryo12) did not affect their body weight at pre-weaning stage and in the adulthood. The evaluation of cognitive function in adult mice revealed strong and comparable to controls spatial reference, and context and tone fear memories of neonatally cryoanesthetized mice. Also, the experimental and control groups had comparable brain weight at the end of the study. Our results demonstrate that neonatal cryoanesthesia, lasting up to 12 min, has no adverse effects on the body weight of mice during development, and on their cognition in the adulthood. PMID:24239696

Janus, Christopher; Golde, Todd

2013-01-01

354

Feeding Mechanisms of Adult Lepidoptera: Structure, Function, and Evolution of the Mouthparts  

PubMed Central

The form and function of the mouthparts in adult Lepidoptera and their feeding behavior are reviewed from evolutionary and ecological points of view. The formation of the suctorial proboscis encompasses a fluid-tight food tube, special linking structures, modified sensory equipment, and novel intrinsic musculature. The evolution of these functionally important traits can be reconstructed within the Lepidoptera. The proboscis movements are explained by a hydraulic mechanism for uncoiling, whereas recoiling is governed by the intrinsic proboscis musculature and the cuticular elasticity. Fluid uptake is accomplished by the action of the cranial sucking pump, which enables uptake of a wide range of fluid quantities from different food sources. Nectar-feeding species exhibit stereotypical proboscis movements during flower handling. Behavioral modifications and derived proboscis morphology are often associated with specialized feeding preferences or an obligatory switch to alternative food sources. PMID:19961330

Krenn, Harald W.

2014-01-01

355

Perceived Stress and Change in Cognitive Function Among Adults Aged 65 and Older  

PubMed Central

Objective Exposure to acute and chronic stress can affect learning and memory but most evidence comes from animal studies or clinical observations. Almost no population-based studies have investigated the relation of stress to cognition or changes in cognition over time. We examined whether higher levels of perceived stress were associated with accelerated decline in cognitive function in older blacks and whites from a community-based population sample. Methods Participants included 6,207 black and white adults (65.7% black, 63.3% women) from the Chicago Health and Aging project. Two to five in-home assessments were completed over an average of 6.8 years of follow up, and included sociodemographics, health behaviors, psychosocial measures, cognitive function tests, and health history. Perceived stress was measured by a 6-item scale, and a composite measure of four tests of cognition was used to determine cognitive function at each assessment. Results Mixed effects regression models showed that increasing levels of perceived stress were related to lower initial cognitive scores (B=-0.0379, SE=0.0025, p<.001) and a faster rate of cognitive decline (stress × time interaction: B=-0.0015, SE=0.0004, p<.001). Results were similar after adjusting for demographic variables, smoking, systolic blood pressure, body mass index, chronic medical conditions, and psychosocial factors and did not vary by race, sex, age or education. Conclusion Increasing levels of stress are independently associated with accelerated declines in cognitive function in black and white adults aged 65 and above. PMID:24367123

Aggarwal, Neelum T.; Wilson, Robert S.; Beck, Todd L.; Rajan, Kumar B.; Mendes de Leon, Carlos F.; Evans, Denis A.; Everson-Rose, Susan A.

2014-01-01

356

Lutein, zeaxanthin, macular pigment, and visual function in adult cystic fibrosis patients123  

PubMed Central

Background Pancreatic insufficiency in cystic fibrosis (CF), even with replacement pancreatic enzyme therapy, is often associated with decreased carotenoid absorption. Because the macular pigment of the retina is largely derived from 2 carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin, the decreased serum concentrations seen in CF may have consequences for ocular and retinal health Objectives Our aims were to determine plasma carotenoid concentrations, determine absorption and distribution of macular pigment, and assess retinal health and visual function in CF patients. Design In 10 adult CF patients (ages 21–47 y) and 10 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects, we measured macular pigment density in vivo, measured serum lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations, and comprehensively assessed visual performance (including contrast sensitivity, color discrimination, and retinal function) under conditions of daylight illumination. Results Serum lutein and zeaxanthin were significantly reduced (P< 0.005) in CF patients (x?± SD:87 ± 36.1 and 27 ± 15.8 nmol/L, respectively) compared with control subjects (190 ± 72.1 and 75 ± 23.6 nmol/L, respectively). Although macular pigment optical density was significantly lower (P < 0.0001) in the CF group (0.24 ± 0.11) than in the control group (0.53 ± 0.12), no significant differences in visual function were observed. Conclusions Adults with CF have dramatically low serum and macular concentrations of carotenoids (lutein and zeaxanthin), but their ocular status and visual function are surprisingly good. The clinical implications of low plasma concentrations of carotenoids in CF are yet to be clarified. PMID:15159235

Schupp, Christine; Olano-Martin, Estibaliz; Gerth, Christina; Morrissey, Brian M; Cross, Carroll E; Werner, John S

2008-01-01

357

No association between plasma adiponectin levels and central auditory function in adults.  

PubMed

Adiponectin might play a protective role in cardiometabolic and peripheral auditory disorders, but its role on central auditory function was still unclear. The aim of this study was to examine whether there is an association between plasma adiponectin levels and central auditory function in adults. We recruited 297 adults, with normal or symmetrical sensorineural hearing loss and normal cognitive functions. Multivariate linear regression was performed to assess the association between plasma adiponectin concentrations and pitch pattern sequence (PPS) score, which was one of central auditory tests. The results showed that there were 224 (75.4 %) women and 73 (24.6 %) men in this study. The mean age was 58.1?±?8.4 years, the mean waist circumference (WC) was 81.1?±?8.3 cm, and the mean body mass index (BMI) was 24.0?±?3.0 kg/m(2). The mean PPS score was 71.5?±?14.1 %, and plasma adiponectin concentration was 12.7?±?5.5 g/mL. After adjusting for age, gender, WC, coronary artery disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, smoking and drinking, plasma adiponectin concentrations (coefficient?±?standard error, ??±?SE?=?-0.09?±?0.16, p?=?0.563) were found to have no significant associations with PPS score. When WC was excluded from these variables in the multivariate linear regression model, plasma adiponectin concentrations (??±?SE?=?-0.03?±?0.15, p?=?0.855) were still not significantly associated with PPS score. In conclusion, plasma adiponectin levels were not significantly associated with PPS score, which was one of central auditory function tests. More studies should be conducted for the underlying mechanisms of obesity-related central auditory dysfunction. PMID:25108594

Hwang, Juen-Haur; Tseng, Fen-Yu; Liu, Tien-Chen; Yang, Wei-Shiung

2015-02-01

358

Dysbindin-1 gene contributes differentially to early- and adult-onset forms of functional psychosis.  

PubMed

Dysbindin-1 is a relatively ubiquitous protein in the brain which is involved in the modulation of synaptic homeostasis. The dysbindin-1 gene (DTNBP1) has been associated with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder diagnoses. However, its contribution to the severity of the clinical and neurocognitive expression of these disorders remains controversial. We aimed to explore the association between DTNBP1 and the phenotypes which are more directly linked with the underlying biology, such as age at onset and neurocognitive impairment. The present family sample comprised 894 Caucasian individuals: 268 patients affected by functional psychosis [58% with illness onset before 18 years, mean age at onset (SD): 14.71 (2.10)], 483 parents and 143 siblings. Ten DTNBP1 single nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped in all individuals and their transmission disequilibrium was tested in relation to: (i) the risk for psychosis; (ii) patients' age at onset; and (iii) familial neurocognitive performance (including IQ estimation and executive functioning). In early-onset families a 5-marker haplotype encompassing exons 2-4 and the surrounding introns was significantly over-transmitted to cases, while in adult-onset families two haplotypes corresponding to the region between introns 4 and 7 were over-transmitted to cases. Estimated IQ was associated with the rs760666 marker in the whole sample, whereas a significant association between executive functioning and the rs2619522 marker appeared in early-onset families. Our findings confirm the role of the dysbindin-1 gene in the risk for functional psychosis and show a differential haplotypic risk pattern in families with early as opposed to adult onset in the affected offspring. PMID:21305691

Fatjó-Vilas, Mar; Papiol, Sergi; Estrada, Gemma; Bombín, Igor; Peralta, Victor; Rosa, Araceli; Parellada, Mara; Miret, Salvador; Martín, María; Lázaro, Luisa; Campanera, Sílvia; Muñoz, Ma José; Lera-Miguel, Sara; Arias, Bárbara; Navarro, Ma Eulalia; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; Cuesta, Manuel J; Arango, Celso; Fañanás, Lourdes

2011-04-01

359

Testing a family-centered intervention to promote functional and cognitive recovery in hospitalized older adults.  

PubMed

A comparative trial using a repeated-measures design was designed to evaluate the feasibility and outcomes of the Family-Centered Function-Focused-Care (Fam-FFC) intervention, which is intended to promote functional recovery in hospitalized older adults. A family-centered resource nurse and a facility champion implemented a three-component intervention (environmental assessment and modification, staff education, individual and family education and partnership in care planning with follow-up after hospitalization for an acute illness). Control units were exposed to function-focused-care education only. Ninety-seven dyads of medical patients aged 65 and older and family caregivers (FCGs) were recruited from three medical units of a community teaching hospital. Fifty-three percent of patients were female, 89% were white, 51% were married, and 40% were widowed, and they had a mean age of 80.8 ± 7.5. Seventy-eight percent of FCGs were married, 34% were daughters, 31% were female spouses or partners, and 38% were aged 46 to 65. Patient outcomes included functional outcomes (activities of daily living (ADLs), walking performance, gait, balance) and delirium severity and duration. FCG outcomes included preparedness for caregiving, anxiety, depression, role strain, and mutuality. The intervention group demonstrated less severity and shorter duration of delirium and better ADL and walking performance but not better gait and balance performance than the control group. FCGs who participated in Fam-FFC showed a significant increase in preparedness for caregiving and a decrease in anxiety and depression from admission to 2 months after discharge but no significant differences in strain or quality of the relationship with the care recipient from FCGs in the control group. Fam-FFC is feasible and has the potential to improve outcomes for hospitalized older adults and their caregivers. PMID:25481973

Boltz, Marie; Resnick, Barbara; Chippendale, Tracy; Galvin, James

2014-12-01

360

Pulmonary function before and after anterior spinal surgery in adult idiopathic scoliosis.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the long term effects of anterior spinal surgery on pulmonary function in adult patients with idiopathic scoliosis. A study was therefore undertaken of pulmonary function before and after anterior spinal surgery in this group of patients. METHODS: Fourteen patients (12 women) of mean age 26.5 years (range 17-50, 10 > or = 20 years) were studied. All 14 patients underwent thoracotomy and anterior arthrodesis, and five also underwent posterior arthrodesis. Scoliosis curves and lung volumes were measured preoperatively and at a mean follow up of 32 months (range 14-49) after surgery. RESULTS: At long term follow up after surgery the mean (SD) Cobb angle of the thoracic curve improved from 59 degrees (25 degrees) to 39 degrees (18 degrees), a correction of 31%. Despite this there was a fall in mean forced vital capacity (FVC) of 0.21 litres (95% confidence interval 0.04 to 0.38). In the patients who underwent anterior surgery without posterior surgery (n = 9) there was a fall in mean FVC of 0.31 litres (95% confidence interval 0.12 to 0.50); mean forced expiratory volume in one second and total lung capacity were also reduced and there was an increase in mean residual volume. CONCLUSIONS: Forced vital capacity is reduced at long term follow up in adult patients with idiopathic scoliosis who undergo anterior spinal surgery. The fall in FVC is small and is unlikely to be of clinical significance in patients with reasonable lung function in whom surgery is planned for prevention of curve progression or improvement of cosmetic appearance and pain. However, surgical intervention should not be undertaken in an attempt to improve pulmonary function. Images PMID:8711684

Wong, C. A.; Cole, A. A.; Watson, L.; Webb, J. K.; Johnston, I. D.; Kinnear, W. J.

1996-01-01

361

Screening of Cognitive Function and Hearing Impairment in Older Adults: A Preliminary Study  

PubMed Central

Background. Previous research has found that hearing loss is associated with poorer cognitive function. The question is that when a hearing impairment is being compensated for by appropriately fitted monaural hearing aids, special precautions are still needed when screening cognitive function in older adults. Objective. This research examined cognitive function in elderly hearing aid users who used monaural hearing aids and whether the presence of a hearing impairment should be accounted for when screening cognitive function in these individuals. Methods. Auditory thresholds, sentence reception thresholds, and self-reported outcomes with hearing aids were measured in 34 older hearing aid users to ensure hearing aids were appropriately fitted. Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) results obtained in these participants were then compared to normative data obtained in a general older population exhibiting similar demographic characteristics. Stepwise multiple regression analyses were used to examine the effects of demographic and auditory variables on MMSE scores. Conclusions. Results showed that, even with appropriately fitted hearing aids, cognitive decline was significant. Besides the factors commonly measured in the literature, we believed that auditory deprivation was not being fully compensated for by hearing aids. Most importantly, screening of cognitive function should take into account the effects of hearing impairment, even when hearing devices have been appropriately fitted. PMID:25140321

Wong, Lena Lar Nar; Yu, Joannie Ka Yin; Chan, Shaina Shing; Tong, Michael Chi Fai

2014-01-01

362

Brain functional connectivity density and individual fluid reasoning capacity in healthy young adults.  

PubMed

Functional connectivity density (FCD) is a newly developed data-driven method to measure the number of functional connections of each voxel, possibly providing new insight into the neural correlates of fluid reasoning. Here, we recruited 211 healthy young adults (91 men and 120 women) to investigate associations between the global FCD and fluid reasoning capacity as measured by the Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices. Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices scores were correlated negatively with the global FCD in multiple brain regions of the frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal cortices in male participants. No significant correlation was found in female participants. Our findings confirmed the association between fluid reasoning and functional connectivity of multiple cognitive-related brain regions. The positive correlation with the functional connectivity strength and the negative correlation between fluid reasoning and FCD suggest that individuals with superior fluid reasoning capacity may possess a small number of strong functional connections. The sex dichotomy of this association indicates that the fluid reasoning capacity of men and women may have different neural substrates. PMID:25426825

Lang, Xu; Liu, Hao; Qin, Wen; Zhang, Yunting; Xuan, Yun; Yu, Chunshui

2015-01-01

363

Columbus Unified High School: Every Adult Advocates, Every Student Graduates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article features Columbus Unified High School, a school that takes pride in knowing that each student will graduate prepared for his or her future. Although poverty (45%) and unemployment (25%) are widespread in this rural Kansas community, the community members are fierce in their loyalty to the school. Last year, 97.8% of the four-year…

Principal Leadership, 2011

2011-01-01

364

Physical capacity and functional abilities improve in young adults with intellectual disabilities after functional training.  

PubMed

Individuals with an intellectual disability (ID) have higher rates of obesity, lower rates of physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and muscular endurance than do typically developed individuals (TDI) and are twice as likely to develop chronic disease, living half as long as TDIs do. The purpose of this study was to examine the improvements in physical capacity and functional ability in Special Olympic Athletes (SOAs) aged 19-22 years after participating in a functional training (FT) program and compare these scores with those of the SOAs in a resistance weight training (WT) program. Twenty SOAs (13 men, 7 women with mild to moderate ID) participated in a 1-hour FT program, twice a week, for 10 weeks, compared with 22 same-aged SOAs (14 men, 8 women) participating in a 1-hour WT program (2× week for 8 weeks). Prefitness and postfitness tests consisting of heart rate (HR) for the 3-minute step test, static plank, body weight squats, static bar hang, and knee push-ups were conducted. Two-tailed, paired sample t-tests (p < 0.05) were used to evaluate the differences in the FT group. Change scores were used to compare FTG with the WT group. The HR decreased by 31.8 b·min?¹ pre-post in the FTG (p < 0.001). Static plank duration improved by 22.4 seconds in the FTG (p = 0.016); static plank change scores improved (p = 0.037) for the FTG (26.5 ± 32.1 seconds compared with that for the WT group (4.6 ± 22 seconds). Height and weight values were unchanged in both the groups. The results of this study demonstrate the value of FT programs for this population, because weight equipment is not always available in many settings. PMID:21912297

Barwick, Ryan B; Tillman, Mark D; Stopka, Christine B; Dipnarine, Krishna; Delisle, Anthony; Sayedul Huq, Mona

2012-06-01

365

Relationships among body weight, joint moments generated during functional activities, and hip bone mass in older adults  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the relationships among hip joint moments produced during functional activities and hip bone mass in sedentary older adults. Methods Eight male and eight female older adults (70–85 yr) performed functional activities including walking, chair sit–stand–sit, and stair stepping at a self-selected pace while instrumented for biomechanical analysis. Bone mass at proximal femur, femoral neck, and greater trochanter were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Three-dimensional hip moments were obtained using a six-camera motion analysis system, force platforms, and inverse dynamics techniques. Pearson’s correlation coefficients were employed to assess the relationships among hip bone mass, height, weight, age, and joint moments. Stepwise regression analyses were performed to determine the factors that significantly predicted bone mass using all significant variables identified in the correlation analysis. Findings Hip bone mass was not significantly correlated with moments during activities in men. Conversely, in women bone mass at all sites were significantly correlated with weight, moments generated with stepping, and moments generated with walking (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001). Regression analysis results further indicated that the overall moments during stepping independently predicted up to 93% of the variability in bone mass at femoral neck and proximal femur; whereas weight independently predicted up to 92% of the variability in bone mass at greater trochanter. Interpretation Submaximal loading events produced during functional activities were highly correlated with hip bone mass in sedentary older women, but not men. The findings may ultimately be used to modify exercise prescription for the preservation of bone mass. PMID:16631283

Wang, Man-Ying; Flanagan, Sean P.; Song, Joo-Eun; Greendale, Gail A.; Salem, George J.

2012-01-01

366

Exploring the Effects of an ''Everyday'' Activity Program on Executive Function and Memory in Older Adults: Experience Corps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: There is little empirical translation of multi- modal cognitive activity programs in ''real-world'' community-based settings. This study sought to demonstrate in a short-term pilot randomized trial that such an activity program improves components of cognition critical to independent function among sedentary older adults at greatest risk. Design and Methods: We randomized 149 older adults to Experience Corps (EC) or

Michelle C. Carlson; Jane S. Saczynski; George W. Rebok; Teresa Seeman; Thomas A. Glass; Sylvia McGill; James Tielsch; Kevin D. Frick; Joel Hill; Linda P. Fried

2008-01-01

367

Novel chemotherapeutic approaches in adult high-grade gliomas.  

PubMed

Despite decades of advancing science and clinical trials, average survival remains dismal for individuals with high-grade gliomas. Our understanding of the genetic and molecular aberrations that contribute to the aggressive nature of these tumors is continually growing, as is our ability to target such specific traits. Herein, we review the major classes of such targeted therapies, as well as the relevant clinical trial outcomes regarding their efficacy. PMID:25468229

Jordan, Justin T; Wen, Patrick Y

2015-01-01

368

High Prevalence of Chronic Non-Communicable Conditions Among Adult Refugees: Implications for Practice and Policy  

PubMed Central

The global rise in non-communicable disease (NCD) suggests that US-based refugees are increasingly affected by chronic conditions. However, health services have focused on the detection of infectious disease, with relatively limited data on chronic NCDs. Using data from a retrospective medical record review of a refugee health program in the urban Northeast (n = 180), we examined the prevalence of chronic NCDs and NCD risk factors among adult refugees who had recently arrived in the US, with attention to region of origin and family composition. Family composition was included because low-income adults without dependent children are at high risk of becoming uninsured. We found that half of the adult refugees in this sample had at least one chronic NCD (51.1%), and 9.5% had three or more NCDs. Behavioral health diagnoses were most common (15.0%), followed by hypertension (13.3%). Half of adults were overweight or obese (54.6%). Chronic NCDs were somewhat more common among adults from Iraq, but this difference was not significant (56.8 vs. 44.6%). Chronic NCDs were common among adults with and without dependent children (61.4 vs. 44.6%, respectively), and these two groups did not significantly differ in their likelihood of having a chronic NCD after adjustment for age and gender (AOR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.39, 1.55). This study suggests that chronic NCDs are common among adult refugees in the US, including refugees at high risk for uninsurance. We propose that refugee health services accommodate screening and treatment for chronic NCDs and NCD risk factors, and that insurance outreach and enrollment programs target recently arrived refugees. PMID:22382428

Yun, Katherine; Hebrank, Kelly; Graber, Lauren K.; Sullivan, Mary-Christine; Chen, Isabel; Gupta, Jhumka

2013-01-01

369

High prevalence of chronic non-communicable conditions among adult refugees: implications for practice and policy.  

PubMed

The global rise in non-communicable disease (NCD) suggests that US-based refugees are increasingly affected by chronic conditions. However, health services have focused on the detection of infectious disease, with relatively limited data on chronic NCDs. Using data from a retrospective medical record review of a refugee health program in the urban Northeast (n = 180), we examined the prevalence of chronic NCDs and NCD risk factors among adult refugees who had recently arrived in the US, with attention to region of origin and family composition. Family composition was included because low-income adults without dependent children are at high risk of becoming uninsured. We found that half of the adult refugees in this sample had at least one chronic NCD (51.1%), and 9.5% had three or more NCDs. Behavioral health diagnoses were most common (15.0%), followed by hypertension (13.3%). Half of adults were overweight or obese (54.6%). Chronic NCDs were somewhat more common among adults from Iraq, but this difference was not significant (56.8 vs. 44.6%). Chronic NCDs were common among adults with and without dependent children (61.4 vs. 44.6%, respectively), and these two groups did not significantly differ in their likelihood of having a chronic NCD after adjustment for age and gender (AOR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.39, 1.55). This study suggests that chronic NCDs are common among adult refugees in the US, including refugees at high risk for uninsurance. We propose that refugee health services accommodate screening and treatment for chronic NCDs and NCD risk factors, and that insurance outreach and enrollment programs target recently arrived refugees. PMID:22382428

Yun, Katherine; Hebrank, Kelly; Graber, Lauren K; Sullivan, Mary-Christine; Chen, Isabel; Gupta, Jhumka

2012-10-01

370

The effect of dynamic versus isometric resistance training on pain and functioning among adults with osteoarthritis of the knee  

Microsoft Academic Search

Topp R, Woolley S, Hornyak J III, Khuder S, Kahaleh B. The effect of dynamic versus isometric resistance training on pain and functioning among adults with osteoarthritis of the knee. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2002;83:1187-95. Objective: To compare 16 weeks of isometric versus dynamic resistance training versus a control on knee pain and functioning among patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA).

Robert Topp; Sandra Woolley; Joseph Hornyak; Sadik Khuder; Bashar Kahaleh

2002-01-01

371

Education and physical activity mediate the relationship between ethnicity and cognitive function in late middle-aged adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Minority status has been implicated as a risk factor for disparate scores on cognitive function tests in older adults. Research on ethnicity and cognitive function has yielded socioeconomic status, particularly education, as a primary reason for the discrepancy. Other factors, such as physical activity may provide insight into the relationship. Despite this knowledge, few studies have thoroughly examined the

Meredith C. Masel; Mukaila Raji; M. Kristen Peek

2010-01-01

372

Assessment of Functional Illiteracy in Washoe County and a Strategy of Recruitment for the Adult Basic Education Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study considers two questions: (1) Who are the functional illiterates in the Reno-Sparks area? and (2) How can they be brought into the adult basic education program if they are not at present enrolled? A survey was made of the area to obtain statistical information concerning the functional illiterates. A compilation of the statistics is…

Davis, Mary A.

373

The Impact of Isolated Obesity on Right Ventricular Function in Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The effects of obesity on left ventricular structure and function have been reported, but relatively little is known regarding right ventricular (RV) function in obesity. Objective To evaluate subclinical RV alterations in obese, but otherwise healthy, young adults by conventional echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI). Methods In this study, we included 35 normal weight healthy subjects with a body mass index (BMI) < 25 kg/m2 (group I), 27 subjects with a BMI of 30-34.99 kg/m2 (group II), and 42 subjects with a BMI ? 35 kg/m2 (group III). All subjects underwent transthoracic echocardiography. In addition to standard echocardiographic measurements, tricuspid annular peak systolic (Sm), peak early (Em), and late diastolic (Am) velocities, isovolumetric contraction (ICTm), relaxation (IRTm) time, and ejection time (ETm) were obtained by TDI, and RV myocardial performance index (MPIm) was calculated. Results In group II, RV Em/Am was significantly decreased and IRTm and MPIm were significantly increased compared to group I (p < 0.01). RV Sm, Em, and the Em/Am ratio were significantly lower and RV IRTm and MPIm were significantly higher in group III than in group II (p < 0.05 for RV Sm and IRTm and p < 0.01 for others). RV Am differed significantly between groups III and I (p < 0.05). BMI was significantly and negatively correlated with RV Sm, Em, and the Em/Am ratio, but positively correlated with RV MPI (p < 0.01). Conclusion Our study showed that isolated obesity in young normotensive adults was associated with subclinical abnormalities in RV structure and function. PMID:23842799

Sokmen, Abdullah; Sokmen, Gulizar; Acar, Gurkan; Akcay, Ahmet; Koroglu, Sedat; Koleoglu, Murat; Yalcintas, Sila; Aydin, M. Naci

2013-01-01

374

Relationship Between Stroop Performance and Resting State Functional Connectivity in Cognitively Normal Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Objective Early biomarkers of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are needed for developing therapeutic interventions. Measures of attentional control in Stroop-type tasks discriminate healthy aging from early stage AD (Hutchison et al., 2010) and predict future development of AD (Balota et al., 2010) in cognitively normal individuals. Disruption in resting state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fcMRI) has been reported in AD (Greicius et al., 2004), and in healthy controls at risk for AD (Sheline et al, 2010a). We explored the relationship among Stroop performance, rs-fcMRI, and CSF A?42 levels in cognitively normal older adults. Methods A computerized Stroop task (along with standard neuropsychological measures), rs-fcMRI, and CSF were obtained in 237 cognitively normal older adults. We compared the relationship between Stroop performance, including measures from reaction distributional analyses, and composite scores from four resting state networks (RSNs) [default mode (DMN), salience (SAL), dorsal attention (DAN), and sensory motor (SMN)], and the modulatory influence of CSF A?42 levels. Results A larger Stroop effect in errors was associated with reduced rs-fcMRI within the DMN and SAL. Reaction time distributional analyses indicated the slow tail of the reaction time distribution was related to reduced rs-fcMRI functional connectivity within the SAL. Standard psychometric measures were not related to RSN composite scores. A relationship between Stroop performance and DMN (but not SAL) functional connectivity was stronger in CSF A?42 positive individuals. Conclusions A link exists between RSN composite scores and specific attentional performance measures. Both measures may be sensitive biomarkers for AD. PMID:24040929

Snyder, Abraham Z.; Rich, Patrick; Benzinger, Tammie L.; Fagan, Anne M.; Holtzman, David M.; Morris, John C.; Ances, Beau M.

2013-01-01

375

Early aging in adult survivors of childhood medulloblastoma: long-term neurocognitive, functional, and physical outcomes.  

PubMed

Treatment for medulloblastoma during childhood impairs neurocognitive function in survivors. While those diagnosed at younger ages are most vulnerable, little is known about the long-term neurocognitive, functional, and physical outcomes in survivors as they approach middle age. In this retrospective cohort study, we assessed 20 adults who were treated with surgery and radiotherapy for medulloblastoma during childhood (median age at assessment, 21.9 years [range, 18-47 years]; median time since diagnosis, 15.5 years [range, 6.5-42.2 years]). Nine patients also underwent chemotherapy. Cross-sectional analyses of current neurocognitive, functional, and physical status were conducted. Data from prior neuropsychological assessments were available for 18 subjects; longitudinal analyses were used to model individual change over time for those subjects. The group was well below average across multiple neurocognitive domains, and 90% had required accommodations at school for learning disorders. Longer time since diagnosis, but not age at diagnosis, was associated with continued decline in working memory, a common sign of aging. Younger age at diagnosis was associated with lower intelligence quotient and academic achievement scores, even many years after treatment had been completed. The most common health complications in survivors were hearing impairment, second cancers, diabetes, hypertension, and endocrine deficiencies. Adult survivors of childhood medulloblastoma exhibit signs of early aging regardless of how young they were at diagnosis. As survival rates for brain tumors continue to improve, these neurocognitive and physical sequelae may become evident in survivors diagnosed at different ages across the lifespan. It will become increasingly important to identify factors that contribute to risk and resilience in this growing population. PMID:21367970

Edelstein, Kim; Spiegler, Brenda J; Fung, Sharon; Panzarella, Tony; Mabbott, Donald J; Jewitt, Natalie; D'Agostino, Norma Mammone; Mason, Warren P; Bouffet, Eric; Tabori, Uri; Laperriere, Normand; Hodgson, David C

2011-05-01

376

Endothelial Function and White Matter Hyperintensities in Older Adults With Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose The presence of white matter hyperintensities on brain MRI is common among elderly individuals. Previous research suggests that cardiovascular risk factors are associated with increased white matter hyperintensities. Examining the role of direct physiological measures of vascular function will help to clarify the vascular mechanisms related to white matter hyperintensities. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between endothelial-dependent and endothelial-independent vasodilatation and white matter hyperintensity volume. Methods Twenty-five older adults with a range of cardiovascular diseases underwent brain MRI and completed assessments of blood vessel integrity using endothelial-dependent and independent flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery. A semi-automated pixel-based method was used to quantify total brain volume and white matter hyperintensity volume, with white matter hyperintensity volume corrected for total brain volume. The association between measures of flow-mediated dilation and log-transformed white matter hyperintensities was examined. Results Correlation analysis revealed that endothelial-dependent vasodilatation was significantly and inversely associated with white matter hyperintensity volume. In contrast, endothelial-independent vasodilatation was not associated with white matter hyperintensities. Neither endothelial-dependent nor endothelial-independent vasodilatation was associated with total brain volume. Conclusions These data provide preliminary evidence that the integrity of the vascular endothelium is associated with white matter hyperintensities in older adults with cardiovascular disease. Impaired vascular function may be one mechanism that contributes to the development of white matter hyperintensities in the brain. Additional longitudinal research combining measures of vessel function, neuroimaging and cognition will be helpful in clarifying this potential mechanism. PMID:17204686

Hoth, Karin F.; Tate, David F.; Poppas, Athena; Forman, Daniel E.; Gunstad, John; Moser, David J.; Paul, Robert H.; Jefferson, Angela L.; Haley, Andreana P.; Cohen, Ronald A.

2009-01-01

377

Thyroid Function and Plasma Concentrations of Polyhalogenated Compounds in Inuit Adults  

PubMed Central

Background Several ubiquitous polyhalogenated compounds (PHCs) have been shown to alter thyroid function in animal and in vitro studies. So far, epidemiologic studies have focused on the potential effect of a small number of them, namely, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and some organochlorines (OCs), without paying attention to other important PHCs. Objectives We investigated the relationship between exposure to several PHCs and thyroid hormone homeostasis in Inuit adults from Nunavik. Methods We measured thyroid parameters [thyroid-stimulating-hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (fT4), total triiodothyronine (tT3), and thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG)] and concentrations of 41 contaminants, including PCBs and their metabolites, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), and a measure of dioxin-like compounds, detected in plasma samples from Inuit adults (n = 623). Results We found negative associations between tT3 concentrations and levels of 14 PCBs, 7 hydroxylated PCBs (HO-PCBs), all methylsulfonyl metabolites of PCBs (MeSO2-PCBs), and 2 OCPs. Moreover, we found negative associations between fT4 levels and hexachlorobenzene Concentrations. TBG concentrations were inversely related to 8 PCBs, 5 HO-PCBs, and 3 OCPs. Exposure to BDE-47 was positively related to tT 3, whereas PFOS concentrations were negatively associated with TSH, tT3, and TBG and positively with fT4 concentrations. Conclusion Exposure to several PHCs was associated with modifications of the thyroid parameters in adult Inuit, mainly by reducing tT3 and TBG circulating concentrations. The effects of PFOS and BDE-47 on thyroid homeostasis require further investigation because other human populations display similar or higher concentrations of these chemicals. PMID:19750101

Dallaire, Renée; Dewailly, Éric; Pereg, Daria; Dery, Serge; Ayotte, Pierre

2009-01-01

378

Executive function and self-regulated exergaming adherence among older adults  

PubMed Central

The rise in dementia and the evidence of cognitive benefits of exercise for the older adult population together make salient the research into variables affecting cognitive benefit and exercise behavior. One promising avenue for increasing exercise participation has been the introduction of exergaming, a type of exercise that works in combination with virtual reality to enhance both the exercise experience and health outcomes. Past research has revealed that executive function (EF) was related to greater use of self-regulatory strategies, which in turn was related to greater adherence to exercise following an intervention (McAuley et al., 2011). Best et al. (2014) found improvement in EF related to adherence to exercise post- intervention. Anderson-Hanley et al. (2012) found that for older adults aerobic exergaming yielded greater cognitive benefit than traditional exercise alone; however, questions remain as to the possible impact of greater cognitive benefit and other factors on participants’ involvement in exercise following the end of an intervention. The current study presents follow-up data exploring the relationship between EF, self-regulation, and exercise behavior in the post-intervention (naturalistic) period. Herein, it was predicted that higher EF at the start of the naturalistic window, would predict subsequent exercise with an exergame. Contrary to expectations, results suggest that those with poorer EF are likely to exergame more frequently. The results of this study contradict previous literature, but suggest an interesting relationship between EF, self-regulation, and exercise behaviors when exergaming is employed, particularly with older adults with some cognitive decline. We hypothesize that other factors may be at work, perhaps expectation of cognitive benefit might act as a unique motivator. PMID:25538608

Anderson-Hanley, Cay; Arciero, Paul J.; Barcelos, Nicole; Nimon, Joseph; Rocha, Tracey; Thurin, Marisa; Maloney, Molly

2014-01-01

379

The Impact of Depressive Symptoms in Adults with ADHD Symptoms on Family Function and ADHD Symptoms of Their Children  

PubMed Central

Objective People with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) exhibit considerable impairment in social, academic, or occupational functioning. The present study aimed to examine the patterns of associations between ADHD symptoms, depression, and family functioning. Methods The sample consisted of 1,022 adults randomly selected from a district in Seoul, South Korea. Several self-assessment scales were utilized to rate ADHD symptoms (both past and current), current symptoms of depression, and level of family functioning. ADHD symptoms in the children of these participants were also assessed. Pearson's correlation and multiple linear regression analyses were performed; structural equation modeling (SEM) was conducted to determine the best fitting model. Results Adult ADHD symptoms were positively associated with depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms, in turn, mediated the relationship between adult ADHD symptoms and cohesion among family members. In addition, depressive symptoms mediated the relationship between adult ADHD symptoms and their children's ADHD symptoms. Conclusion The relationship between adult ADHD symptoms and family dysfunction may be influenced by depressive symptoms. When treating ADHD in adults, clinicians should pay attention to the presence or absence of depression. PMID:24843366

Hong, Soon-Beom; Lee, Jong-Ha; Chun, Duk Hee; Shin, Min-Sup; Yoo, Hee-Jeong; Kim, Boong-Nyun; Cho, Soo-Churl

2014-01-01

380

Pharmacological stimulation of edar signaling in the adult enhances sebaceous gland size and function.  

PubMed

Impaired ectodysplasin A (EDA) receptor (EDAR) signaling affects ectodermally derived structures including teeth, hair follicles, and cutaneous glands. The X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XLHED), resulting from EDA deficiency, can be rescued with lifelong benefits in animal models by stimulation of ectodermal appendage development with EDAR agonists. Treatments initiated later in the developmental period restore progressively fewer of the affected structures. It is unknown whether EDAR stimulation in adults with XLHED might have beneficial effects. In adult Eda mutant mice treated for several weeks with agonist anti-EDAR antibodies, we find that sebaceous gland size and function can be restored to wild-type levels. This effect is maintained upon chronic treatment but reverses slowly upon cessation of treatment. Sebaceous glands in all skin regions respond to treatment, although to varying degrees, and this is accompanied in both Eda mutant and wild-type mice by sebum secretion to levels higher than those observed in untreated controls. Edar is expressed at the periphery of the glands, suggesting a direct homeostatic effect of Edar stimulation on the sebaceous gland. Sebaceous gland size and sebum production may serve as biomarkers for EDAR stimulation, and EDAR agonists may improve skin dryness and eczema frequently observed in XLHED. PMID:25207818

Kowalczyk-Quintas, Christine; Schuepbach-Mallepell, Sonia; Willen, Laure; Smith, Terry K; Huttner, Kenneth; Kirby, Neil; Headon, Denis J; Schneider, Pascal

2015-02-01

381

The effect of letrozole on bone age progression, predicted adult height, and adrenal gland function.  

PubMed

A common problem in pediatric endocrinology is limited growth potential resulting from advancing skeletal maturation. We determined the efficacy of letrozole, an aromatase inhibitor, on delaying bone age advancement in adolescent males with limited growth potential. Twenty-four patients met the study inclusion criteria. Six patients treated with androgen were analyzed separately. Low-dose ACTH stimulation tests were performed to ascertain the effect of letrozole on adrenal gland function. In patients not on androgen, bone age progression decelerated from 1.51+/-0.57 (deltabone age/deltachronological age) before treatment to 0.68+/-0.66 on therapy (mean duration 12.4 months; p <0.0005). Predicted adult height standard deviation scores (SDS) increased from -1.41+/-0.54 to -0.64+/-0.65 on treatment (p <0.0005). Similar results were noted in androgen-treated patients. Approximately one-fourth of patients displayed subnormal responsiveness to ACTH. In summary: 1) letrozole decelerates skeletal maturation, resulting in significant increases in predicted adult height, and 2) letrozole causes mild adrenal suppression. PMID:15813607

Karmazin, Alexander; Moore, Wayne V; Popovic, Jadranka; Jacobson, Jill D

2005-03-01

382

Review: Molecular pathology in adult high-grade gliomas: from molecular diagnostics to target therapies  

PubMed Central

The classification of malignant gliomas is moving from a morphology-based guide to a system built on molecular criteria. The development of a genomic landscape for gliomas and a better understanding of its functional consequences have led to the development of internally consistent molecular classifiers. However, development of a biologically insightful classification to guide therapy is still a work in progress. Response to targeted treatments is based not only on the presence of drugable targets, but rather on the molecular circuitry of the cells. Further, tumours are heterogeneous and change and adapt in response to drugs. Therefore, the challenge of developing molecular classifiers that provide meaningful ways to stratify patients for therapy remains a major challenge for the field. In this review, we examine the potential role of MGMT methylation, IDH1/2 mutations, 1p/19q deletions, aberrant epidermal growth factor receptor and PI3K pathways, abnormal p53/Rb pathways, cancer stem-cell markers and microRNAs as prognostic and predictive molecular markers in the setting of adult high-grade gliomas and we outline the clinically relevant subtypes of glioblastoma with genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic integrated analyses. Furthermore, we describe how these advances, especially in epidermal growth factor receptor/PI3K/mTOR signalling pathway, affect our approaches towards targeted therapy, raising new challenges and identifying new leads. PMID:22098029

Masui, K.; Cloughesy, T. F.; Mischel, P. S.

2014-01-01

383

Earth and Physical Science. Nevada Competency-Based Adult High School Diploma Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is one of ten curriculum guides developed by the Nevada Competency-Based Adult High School Diploma (CBAHSD) Project. This curriculum guide on earth and physical science is divided into twelve topics. The topics included are Geology, Meteorology, Astronomy, Natural Disasters, Chemical Reaction, Laboratory, States of Matter, Force and…

Nevada Univ., Las Vegas. Coll. of Education.

384

Preexposure prophylaxis: An emerging clinical approach to preventing HIV in high-risk adults.  

PubMed

The HIV antiretroviral drug emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (Truvada) was recently approved as preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) therapy for adults at high risk for sexually acquired HIV infection. This article reviews the data supporting the efficacy of PrEP, and provides other relevant data regarding the implementation of PrEP. PMID:25140852

Blackwell, Christopher W

2014-09-18

385

High-temperature adult-plant resistance, the key for sustainable control of stripe rust  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

High-temperature adult-plant (HTAP) resistance expresses when plants grow old and the weather becomes warm. This non-race specific and durable type of resistance has been used successfully in control of wheat stripe rust in the U.S. since early 1960s. This article describes practical procedures f...

386

Career Technical Education: Keeping Adult Learners Competitive for High-Demand Jobs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In today's turbulent economy, how can adult workers best position themselves to secure jobs in high-demand fields where they are more likely to remain competitive and earn more? Further, how can employers up-skill current employees so that they meet increasingly complex job demands? Research indicates that Career Technical Education (CTE) aligned…

National Association of State Directors of Career Technical Education Consortium, 2011

2011-01-01

387

Characterization and Functional Properties of Gastric Tissue-Resident Memory T Cells from Children, Adults, and the Elderly  

PubMed Central

T cells are the main orchestrators of protective immunity in the stomach; however, limited information on the presence and function of the gastric T subsets is available mainly due to the difficulty in recovering high numbers of viable cells from human gastric biopsies. To overcome this shortcoming we optimized a cell isolation method that yielded high numbers of viable lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMC) from gastric biopsies. Classic memory T subsets were identified in gastric LPMC and compared to peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) obtained from children, adults, and the elderly using an optimized 14 color flow cytometry panel. A dominant effector memory T (TEM) phenotype was observed in gastric LPMC CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in all age groups. We then evaluated whether these cells represented a population of gastric tissue-resident memory T (TRM) cells by assessing expression of CD103 and CD69. The vast majority of gastric LPMC CD8+ T cells either co-expressed CD103/CD69 (>70%) or expressed CD103 alone (~20%). Gastric LPMC CD4+ T cells also either co-expressed CD103/CD69 (>35%) or expressed at least one of these markers. Thus, gastric LPMC CD8+ and CD4+ T cells had the characteristics of TRM cells. Gastric CD8+ and CD4+ TRM cells produced multiple cytokines (IFN-?, IL-2, TNF-?, IL-17A, MIP-1?) and up-regulated CD107a upon stimulation. However, marked differences were observed in their cytokine and multi-cytokine profiles when compared to their PBMC TEM counterparts. Furthermore, gastric CD8+ TRM and CD4+ TRM cells demonstrated differences in the frequency, susceptibility to activation, and cytokine/multi-cytokine production profiles among the age groups. Most notably, children’s gastric TRM cells responded differently to stimuli than gastric TRM cells from adults or the elderly. In conclusion, we demonstrate the presence of gastric TRM, which exhibit diverse functional characteristics in children, adults, and the elderly. PMID:24995010

Booth, Jayaum S.; Toapanta, Franklin R.; Salerno-Goncalves, Rosangela; Patil, Seema; Kader, Howard A.; Safta, Anca M.; Czinn, Steven J.; Greenwald, Bruce D.; Sztein, Marcelo B.

2014-01-01

388

FUNCTIONAL VS. STRENGTH TRAINING IN ADULTS: SPECIFIC NEEDS DEFINE THE BEST INTERVENTION  

PubMed Central

Background/Purpose: Studies that have aimed to compare different strategies to improve functional capacity have produced controversial results. Furthermore, such studies have focused solely on dependent individuals. In contrast, the present study aimed to compare traditional training to functional training for independent individuals. The purpose of this study was to compare traditional training to functional training in healthy and independent middle?aged adults (40?60 years old) and elderly subjects (older than 60 years old). Methods: One hundred and one subjects (54.75 ± 8.84 years) were divided into two groups that each performed 24 sessions of a training protocol twice per week. The subjects were assessed using quantitative (Y?Balance Test) and qualitative methods (Functional Movement Screen™). The individuals were compared by observing changes between pretest and posttest according to their intervention group, sex and age. Results: When the entire sample was considered, the results showed that there were no differences in improvement between the training protocols. However, when specific groups were analyzed, functional training was less effective for women compared to men in the same group (Z=–2.598; p=0.009; effect size=0.43) and compared to women in the conventional group (Z=–2.704; p=0.007; effect size=0.41). Conclusions: There were no differences between the two protocols in their ability to improve functional capacity as measured by the two chosen outcome measures. However, each subject's condition before the intervention must be considered. Some individuals may require additional basic training or specific training. In the current study, the women may have needed to improve their basic capabilities before practicing more specific training protocols. Level of evidence: 2b. This is a pre? and post?intervention analysis using within?group and between?groups comparisons. PMID:23439782

Teixeira, Luis Antonio Cespedes; Franchini, Emerson; Takito, Monica Yuri

2013-01-01

389

Ultrastructural and functional effects of lead poisoning on adult canine myocardium: assessment of thiamin treatment  

SciTech Connect

The effects of lead (Pb) poisoning on the adult canine myocardium were assessed quantitatively using stereological techniques, functional testing, and blood analyses as well as qualitatively by morphological investigation. Relative measurements using stereological techniques compared the volume fractions of cellular components of the three groups. Blood was analyzed for lead, hemoglobin, hematocrit, total erythrocytes, total leukocytes, thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP), delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity (ALAD), and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP). The major finding of the stereological analysis was the statistically significant increase of 3.2% in myofilament volume in the Pb treated group and the significant decrease in mitochondrial volume in both the Pb treated and Pb + B/sub 1/ treated groups. A statistically significant decrease in the mitochondria/myofilament volume ratio was found in the Pb treated, but no Pb + B/sub 1/ treated group. This may indicate either a protective effect of thiamin on mitochondria or a reduced compensatory need of the myocyte to increase myofilament volume.

Kincaid, N.G.

1985-01-01

390

Functional Characterization of Friedreich Ataxia iPS-Derived Neuronal Progenitors and Their Integration in the Adult Brain  

PubMed Central

Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is an autosomal recessive disease characterised by neurodegeneration and cardiomyopathy that is caused by an insufficiency of the mitochondrial protein, frataxin. Our previous studies described the generation of FRDA induced pluripotent stem cell lines (FA3 and FA4 iPS) that retained genetic characteristics of this disease. Here we extend these studies, showing that neural derivatives of FA iPS cells are able to differentiate into functional neurons, which don't show altered susceptibility to cell death, and have normal mitochondrial function. Furthermore, FA iPS-derived neural progenitors are able to differentiate into functional neurons and integrate in the nervous system when transplanted into the cerebellar regions of host adult rodent brain. These are the first studies to describe both in vitro and in vivo characterization of FA iPS-derived neurons and demonstrate their capacity to survive long term. These findings are highly significant for developing FRDA therapies using patient-derived stem cells. PMID:25000412

Bird, Matthew J.; Needham, Karina; Frazier, Ann E.; van Rooijen, Jorien; Leung, Jessie; Hough, Shelley; Denham, Mark; Thornton, Matthew E.; Parish, Clare L.; Nayagam, Bryony A.; Pera, Martin; Thorburn, David R.; Thompson, Lachlan H.; Dottori, Mirella

2014-01-01

391

TrkB kinase activity maintains synaptic function and structural integrity at adult neuromuscular junctions.  

PubMed

Activation of the tropomyosin-related kinase receptor B (TrkB) by brain-derived neurotrophic factor acutely regulates synaptic transmission at adult neuromuscular junctions (NMJs). The role of TrkB kinase activity in the maintenance of NMJ function and structure at diaphragm muscle NMJs was explored using a chemical-genetic approach that permits reversible inactivation of TrkB kinase activity in TrkB(F616A) mice by 1NMPP1. Inhibiting TrkB kinase activity for 7 days resulted in significant, yet reversible, impairments in neuromuscular transmission at diaphragm NMJs. Neuromuscular transmission failure following 2 min of repetitive phrenic nerve stimulation increased from 42% in control to 59% in 1NMPP1-treated TrkB(F616A) mice (P = 0.010). Recovery of TrkB kinase activity following withdrawal of 1NMPP1 treatment improved neuromuscular transmission (P = 0.006). Electrophysiological measurements at individual diaphragm NMJs documented lack of differences in quantal content in control and 1NMPP1-treated mice (P = 0.845). Morphological changes at diaphragm NMJs were modest following inhibition and recovery of TrkB kinase activity. Three-dimensional reconstructions of diaphragm NMJs revealed no differences in volume at motor end plates (labeled by ?-bungarotoxin; P = 0.982) or presynaptic terminals (labeled by synaptophysin; P = 0.515). Inhibition of TrkB kinase activity by 1NMPP1 resulted in more compact NMJs, with increased apposition of presynaptic terminals and motor end plates (P = 0.017) and reduced fragmentation of motor end plates (P = 0.005). Recovery of TrkB kinase activity following withdrawal of 1NMPP1 treatment resulted in postsynaptic remodeling likely reflecting increased gutter depth (P = 0.007), without significant presynaptic changes. These results support an essential role for TrkB kinase activity in maintaining synaptic function and structural integrity at NMJs in the adult mouse diaphragm muscle. PMID:25170066

Mantilla, Carlos B; Stowe, Jessica M; Sieck, Dylan C; Ermilov, Leonid G; Greising, Sarah M; Zhang, Chao; Shokat, Kevan M; Sieck, Gary C

2014-10-15

392

Mediterranean Diet, Healthy Eating Index-2005, and Cognitive Function in Middle-Aged and Older Puerto Rican Adults  

PubMed Central

Adherence to a Mediterranean diet (MeD) has recently been shown to protect against cognitive decline and dementia. It remains unclear, however, whether such protection extends to differing ethnic groups and middle-aged individuals, and how it may compare with adherence to the USDA Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005 (measured with Healthy Eating Index-2005, HEI-2005). This study examined associations between diet quality, as assessed by the MeD and HEI-2005, and cognitive performance in a sample of 1,269 Puerto Rican adults, aged 45–75 years, living in the Greater Boston area, Massachusetts. Dietary intake was assessed with a food-frequency questionnaire specifically designed for and validated with this population. Adherence to the MeD was assessed with a 0 to 9 point scale, and the HEI-2005 score was calculated with a maximum score of 100. Cognitive performance was measured with a battery of seven tests; the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) was used for global cognitive function. Greater adherence to the MeD was associated with higher MMSE score (P trend = 0.012) and lower likelihood (OR = 0.87 for each additional point, 95% CI, 0.80–0.94, P <0.001) of cognitive impairment, after adjustment for confounders. Similarly, individuals with higher HEI-2005 score had higher MMSE score (P trend = 0.011) and lower odds of cognitive impairment (OR = 0.86 for each 10 points, 95% CI, 0.74–0.99, P = 0.033). In conclusion, high adherence to either the MeD or the diet recommended by the USDA dietary guidelines may protect cognitive function in middle-aged and older adults. PMID:23351632

Ye, Xingwang; Scott, Tammy; Gao, Xiang; Maras, Janice E.; Bakun, Peter J.; Tucker, Katherine L.

2013-01-01

393

Mediterranean diet, healthy eating index 2005, and cognitive function in middle-aged and older Puerto Rican adults.  

PubMed

Adherence to a Mediterranean diet has recently been shown to protect against cognitive decline and dementia. It remains unclear, however, whether such protection extends to different ethnic groups and middle-aged individuals and how it might compare with adherence to the US Department of Agriculture's 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (measured with Healthy Eating Index 2005 [HEI 2005]). This study examined associations between diet quality, as assessed by the Mediterranean diet and HEI 2005, and cognitive performance in a sample of 1,269 Puerto Rican adults aged 45 to 75 years and living in the Greater Boston area of Massachusetts. Dietary intake was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire specifically designed for and validated with this population. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was assessed with a 0- to 9-point scale, and the HEI 2005 score was calculated with a maximum score of 100. Cognitive performance was measured with a battery of seven tests and the Mini Mental State Examination was used for global cognitive function. Greater adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with higher Mini Mental State Examination score (P trend=0.012) and lower likelihood (odds ratio=0.87 for each additional point; 95% CI 0.80 to 0.94; P<0.001) of cognitive impairment, after adjustment for confounders. Similarly, individuals with higher HEI 2005 score had higher Mini Mental State Examination score (P trend=0.011) and lower odds of cognitive impairment (odds ratio=0.86 for each 10 points; 95% CI 0.74 to 0.99; P=0.033). In conclusion, high adherence to either the Mediterranean diet or the diet recommended by the US Department of Agriculture 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans can protect cognitive function in middle-aged and older adults. PMID:23351632

Ye, Xingwang; Scott, Tammy; Gao, Xiang; Maras, Janice E; Bakun, Peter J; Tucker, Katherine L

2013-02-01

394

Prenatal inflammation exacerbates hyperoxia-induced functional and structural changes in adult mice.  

PubMed

Maternally derived inflammatory mediators, such as IL-6 and IL-8, contribute to preterm delivery, low birth weight, and respiratory insufficiency, which are routinely treated with oxygen. Premature infants are at risk for developing adult-onset cardiac, metabolic, and pulmonary diseases. Long-term pulmonary consequences of perinatal inflammation are unclear. We tested the hypothesis that a hostile perinatal environment induces profibrotic pathways resulting in pulmonary fibrosis, including persistently altered lung structure and function. Pregnant C3H/HeN mice injected with LPS or saline on embryonic day 16. Offspring were placed in room air (RA) or 85% O(2) for 14 days and then returned to RA. Pulmonary function tests, microCTs, molecular and histological analyses were performed between embryonic day 18 and 8 wk. Alveolarization was most compromised in LPS/O(2)-exposed offspring. Collagen staining and protein levels were increased, and static compliance was decreased only in LPS/O(2)-exposed mice. Three-dimensional microCT reconstruction and quantification revealed increased tissue densities only in LPS/O(2) mice. Diffuse interstitial fibrosis was associated with decreased micro-RNA-29, increased transforming growth factor-? expression, and phosphorylation of Smad2 during embryonic or early fetal lung development. Systemic maternal LPS administration in combination with neonatal hyperoxic exposure induces activation of profibrotic pathways, impaired alveolarization, and diminished lung function that are associated with prenatal and postnatal suppression of miR-29 expression. PMID:22718803

Velten, Markus; Britt, Rodney D; Heyob, Kathryn M; Welty, Stephen E; Eiberger, Britta; Tipple, Trent E; Rogers, Lynette K

2012-08-01

395

Associations among childhood sexual abuse, language use and adult sexual functioning and satisfaction  

PubMed Central

To better understand the link between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adult sexual functioning and satisfaction, we examined cognitive differences between women with (N = 128) and without (NSA, N = 99) CSA histories. We used the Linguistic Inquiry Word Count, a computerized text analysis program, to investigate language differences between women with and without CSA histories when writing about their daily life (neutral essay) and their beliefs about sexuality and their sexual experiences (sexual essay). Compared to NSA women, women with CSA histories used fewer first person pronouns in the neutral essay but more in the sexual essay, suggesting women with CSA histories have greater self-focus when thinking about sexuality. Women who reported CSA used more intimacy words and more language consistent with psychological distancing in the sexual essay than did NSA women. Use of positive emotion words in the sexual essay predicted sexual functioning and satisfaction in both groups. These findings support the view that language use differs in significant ways between women with and without sexual abuse histories, and that these differences relate to sexual functioning and satisfaction. PMID:22387124

Lorenz, Tierney Ahrold; Meston, Cindy May

2012-01-01

396

Loss-of-Function Mutations in ABCA1 and Enhanced ?-Cell Secretory Capacity in Young Adults.  

PubMed

Loss-of-function mutations affecting the cholesterol transporter ATP-binding cassette transporter subfamily A member 1 (ABCA1) impair cellular cholesterol efflux and are associated with reduced HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. ABCA1 may also be important in regulating ?-cell cholesterol homeostasis and insulin secretion. We sought to determine whether loss-of-function ABCA1 mutations affect ?-cell secretory capacity in humans by performing glucose-potentiated arginine tests in three subjects homozygous for ABCA1 mutations (age 25 ± 11 years), eight heterozygous subjects (28 ± 7 years), and eight normal control subjects pair-matched to the heterozygous carriers. To account for any effect of low HDL-C on insulin secretion, we studied nine subjects with isolated low HDL-C with no ABCA1 mutations (age 26 ± 6 years) and nine pair-matched control subjects. Homozygotes for ABCA1 mutations exhibited enhanced oral glucose tolerance and dramatically increased ?-cell secretory capacity that was also greater in ABCA1 heterozygous subjects than in control subjects, with no differences in insulin sensitivity. Isolated low HDL-C subjects also demonstrated an increase in ?-cell secretory capacity but in contrast to those with ABCA1 mutations, exhibited impaired insulin sensitivity, supporting ?-cell compensation for increased insulin demand. These data indicate that loss-of-function mutations in ABCA1 in young adults may be associated with enhanced ?-cell secretory capacity and normal insulin sensitivity and support the importance of cellular cholesterol homeostasis in regulating ?-cell insulin secretion. PMID:25125487

Rickels, Michael R; Goeser, Eugen S; Fuller, Carissa; Lord, Christine; Bowler, Anne M; Doliba, Nicolai M; Hegele, Robert A; Cuchel, Marina

2015-01-01

397

Differential regulation of two histidine ammonia-lyase genes during Xenopus development implicates distinct functions during thyroid hormone-induced formation of adult stem cells  

PubMed Central

Background Organ-specific, adult stem cells are essential for organ-homeostasis and tissue repair and regeneration. The formation of such stem cells during vertebrate development remains to be investigated. Frog metamorphosis offers an excellent opportunity to study the formation of adult stem cells as this process involves essentially the transformations of all larval tissues/organs into the adult form. Of particular interest is the remodeling of the intestine. Early studies in Xenopus laevis have shown that this process involves complete degeneration of the larval epithelium and de novo formation of adult stem cells through dedifferentiation of some larval epithelial cells. A major advantage of this metamorphosis model is its total dependence on thyroid hormone (T3). In an effort to identify genes that are important for stem cell development, we have previously carried out tissue-specific microarray analysis of intestinal gene expression during Xenopus laevis metamorphosis. Results We report the detailed characterization of one of the genes thus identified, the histidine ammonia-lyase (HAL) gene, which encodes an enzyme known as histidase or histidinase. We show that there are two duplicated HAL genes, HAL1 and HAL2, in both Xenopus laevis and Xenopus tropicalis, a highly related but diploid species. Interestingly, only HAL2 is highly upregulated by T3 and appears to be specifically expressed in the adult intestinal progenitor/stem cells while HAL1 is not expressed in the intestine during metamorphosis. Furthermore, when analyzed in whole animals, HAL1 appears to be expressed only during embryogenesis but not metamorphosis while the opposite appears to be true for HAL2. Conclusions Our results suggest that the duplicated HAL genes have distinct functions with HAL2 likely involved in the formation and/or proliferation of the adult stem cells during metamorphosis. PMID:24499573

2013-01-01

398

Generation of functional multipotent adult stem cells from GPR125+ germline progenitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult mammalian testis is a source of pluripotent stem cells. However, the lack of specific surface markers has hampered identification and tracking of the unrecognized subset of germ cells that gives rise to multipotent cells. Although embryonic-like cells can be derived from adult testis cultures after only several weeks in vitro, it is not known whether adult self-renewing spermatogonia in

Marco Seandel; Daylon James; Sergey V. Shmelkov; Ilaria Falciatori; Jiyeon Kim; Sai Chavala; Douglas S. Scherr; Fan Zhang; Richard Torres; Nicholas W. Gale; George D. Yancopoulos; Andrew Murphy; David M. Valenzuela; Robin M. Hobbs; Pier Paolo Pandolfi; Shahin Rafii

2007-01-01

399

GST-omega genes interact with environmental tobacco smoke on adult level of lung function  

PubMed Central

Background Lung growth in utero and lung function loss during adulthood can be affected by exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Both ETS exposure and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Glutathione S-Transferase (GST) Omega genes have been associated with the level of lung function. This study aimed to assess if GSTO SNPs interact with ETS exposure in utero and during adulthood on the level of lung function during adulthood. Methods We used cross-sectional data of 8,128 genotyped participants from the LifeLines cohort study. Linear regression models (adjusted for age, sex, height, weight, current smoking, ex-smoking and packyears smoked) were used to analyze the associations between in utero, daily and workplace ETS exposure, GSTO SNPs, the interaction between ETS and GSTOs, and level of lung function (FEV1, FEV1/FVC). Since the interactions between ETS and GSTOs may be modified by active tobacco smoking we additionally assessed associations in never and ever smokers separately. A second sample of 5,308 genotyped LifeLines participants was used to verify our initial findings. Results Daily and workplace ETS exposure was associated with significantly lower FEV1 levels. GSTO SNPs (recessive model) interacted with in utero ETS and were associated with higher levels of FEV1, whereas the interactions with daily and workplace ETS exposure were associated with lower levels of FEV1, effects being more pronounced in never smokers. The interaction of GSTO2 SNP rs156697 with in utero ETS associated with a higher level of FEV1 was significantly replicated in the second sample. Overall, the directions of the interactions of in utero and workplace ETS exposure with the SNPs found in the second (verification) sample were in line with the first sample. Conclusions GSTO genotypes interact with in utero and adulthood ETS exposure on adult lung function level, but in opposite directions. PMID:23937118

2013-01-01

400

Functional Consequences of Neurite Orientation Dispersion and Density in Humans across the Adult Lifespan.  

PubMed

As humans age, a characteristic pattern of widespread neocortical dendritic disruption coupled with compensatory effects in hippocampus and other subcortical structures is shown in postmortem investigations. It is now possible to address age-related effects on gray matter (GM) neuritic organization and density in humans using multishell diffusion-weighted MRI and the neurite-orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI) model. In 45 healthy individuals across the adult lifespan (21-84 years), we used a multishell diffusion imaging and the NODDI model to assess the intraneurite volume fraction and neurite orientation-dispersion index (ODI) in GM tissues. We also determined the functional correlates of variations in GM microstructure by obtaining resting-state fMRI and behavioral data. We found a significant age-related deficit in neocortical ODI (most prominently in frontoparietal regions), whereas increased ODI was observed in hippocampus and cerebellum with advancing age. Neocortical ODI outperformed cortical thickness and white matter fractional anisotropy for the prediction of chronological age in the same individuals. Higher GM ODI sampled from resting-state networks with known age-related susceptibility (default mode and visual association networks) was associated with increased functional connectivity of these networks, whereas the task-positive networks tended to show no association or even decreased connectivity. Frontal pole ODI mediated the negative relationship of age with executive function, whereas hippocampal ODI mediated the positive relationship of age with executive function. Our in vivo findings align very closely with the postmortem data and provide evidence for vulnerability and compensatory neural mechanisms of aging in GM microstructure that have functional and cognitive impact in vivo. PMID:25632148

Nazeri, Arash; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Rotenberg, David J; Rajji, Tarek K; Rathi, Yogesh; Michailovich, Oleg V; Voineskos, Aristotle N

2015-01-28

401

Highly efficient generation of induced neurons from human fibroblasts that survive transplantation into the adult rat brain.  

PubMed

Induced neurons (iNs) offer a novel source of human neurons that can be explored for applications of disease modelling, diagnostics, drug screening and cell replacement therapy. Here we present a protocol for highly efficient generation of functional iNs from fetal human fibroblasts, and also demonstrate the ability of these converted human iNs (hiNs) to survive transplantation and maintain their phenotype in the adult rat brain. The protocol encompasses a delay in transgene activation after viral transduction that resulted in a significant increase in conversion efficiency. Combining this approach with treatment of small molecules that inhibit SMAD signalling and activate WNT signalling provides a further increase in the conversion efficiency and neuronal purity, resulting in a protocol that provides a highly efficient method for the generation of large numbers of functional and transplantable iNs from human fibroblasts without the use of a selection step. When transplanting the converted neurons from different stages of in vitro culture into the brain of adult rats, we observed robust survival and maintenance of neuronal identity four weeks post-transplantation. Interestingly, the positive effect of small molecule treatment observed in vitro did not result in a higher yield of iNs surviving transplantation. PMID:25208484

Pereira, Maria; Pfisterer, Ulrich; Rylander, Daniella; Torper, Olof; Lau, Shong; Lundblad, Martin; Grealish, Shane; Parmar, Malin

2014-01-01

402

Highly efficient generation of induced neurons from human fibroblasts that survive transplantation into the adult rat brain  

PubMed Central

Induced neurons (iNs) offer a novel source of human neurons that can be explored for applications of disease modelling, diagnostics, drug screening and cell replacement therapy. Here we present a protocol for highly efficient generation of functional iNs from fetal human fibroblasts, and also demonstrate the ability of these converted human iNs (hiNs) to survive transplantation and maintain their phenotype in the adult rat brain. The protocol encompasses a delay in transgene activation after viral transduction that resulted in a significant increase in conversion efficiency. Combining this approach with treatment of small molecules that inhibit SMAD signalling and activate WNT signalling provides a further increase in the conversion efficiency and neuronal purity, resulting in a protocol that provides a highly efficient method for the generation of large numbers of functional and transplantable iNs from human fibroblasts without the use of a selection step. When transplanting the converted neurons from different stages of in vitro culture into the brain of adult rats, we observed robust survival and maintenance of neuronal identity four weeks post-transplantation. Interestingly, the positive effect of small molecule treatment observed in vitro did not result in a higher yield of iNs surviving transplantation. PMID:25208484

Pereira, Maria; Pfisterer, Ulrich; Rylander, Daniella; Torper, Olof; Lau, Shong; Lundblad, Martin; Grealish, Shane; Parmar, Malin

2014-01-01

403

Protocol for Fit Bodies, Fine Minds: a randomized controlled trial on the affect of exercise and cognitive training on cognitive functioning in older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Declines in cognitive functioning are a normal part of aging that can affect daily functioning and quality of life. This study will examine the impact of an exercise training program, and a combined exercise and cognitive training program, on the cognitive and physical functioning of older adults. METHODS\\/DESIGN: Fit Bodies, Fine Minds is a randomized, controlled trial. Community-dwelling adults,

Siobhan T O'Dwyer; Nicola W Burton; Nancy A Pachana; Wendy J Brown

2007-01-01

404

Neuromuscular determinants of maximum walking speed in well-functioning older adults  

PubMed Central

Maximum walking speed may offer an advantage over usual walking speed for clinical assessment of age-related declines in mobility function that are due to neuromuscular impairment. The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which maximum walking speed is affected by neuromuscular function of the lower extremities in older adults. We recruited two groups of healthy, well functioning older adults who differed primarily on maximum walking speed. We hypothesized that individuals with slower maximum walking speed would exhibit reduced lower extremity muscle size and impaired plantarflexion force production and neuromuscular activation during a rapid contraction of the triceps surae muscle group (soleus (SO) and gastrocnemius (MG)). All participants were required to have usual 10-meter walking speed >1.0 m/s. If the difference between usual and maximum 10m walking speed was < 0.6 m/s, the individual was assigned to the “Slower” group (n=8). If the difference between usual and maximum 10-meter walking speed was > 0.6 m/s, the individual was assigned to the “Faster” group (n=12). Peak rate of force development (RFD) and rate of neuromuscular activation (rate of EMG rise) of the triceps surae muscle group were assessed during a rapid plantarflexion movement. Muscle cross sectional area of the right triceps surae, quadriceps and hamstrings muscle groups was determined by magnetic resonance imaging. Across participants, the difference between usual and maximal walking speed was predominantly dictated by maximum walking speed (r=.85). We therefore report maximum walking speed (1.76 and 2.17 m/s in Slower and Faster, p<.001) rather than the difference between usual and maximal. Plantarflexion RFD was 38% lower (p=.002) in Slower compared to Faster. MG rate of EMG rise was 34% lower (p=.01) in Slower than Faster, but SO rate of EMG rise did not differ between groups (p=.73). Contrary to our hypothesis, muscle CSA was not lower in Slower than Faster for the muscle groups tested, which included triceps surae (p=.44), quadriceps (p=.76) and hamstrings (p=.98). MG rate of EMG rise was positively associated with RFD and maximum 10m walking speed, but not usual 10m walking speed. These findings support the conclusion that maximum walking speed is limited by impaired neuromuscular force and activation of the triceps surae muscle group. Future research should further evaluate the utility of maximum walking speed for use in clinical assessment to detect and monitor age-related functional decline. PMID:23376102

Clark, David J.; Manini, Todd M.; Fielding, Roger A.; Patten, Carolynn

2013-01-01

405

Acute effects of whole-body vibration on trunk muscle functioning in young healthy adults.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to explore the immediate effects of different frequencies of whole-body vibration (WBV) on the performance of trunk muscles of healthy young adults. A group of 30 healthy subjects (15 men; 15 women; age, 26.8 ± 3.74 years; body mass index, 21.9 ± 1.802) participated in the study. Each subject received 3 sessions of vibration exercise with different exercise parameters with frequencies of 25 Hz and 40 Hz and sham stimulation in a random order on different days. Before and after each WBV exercise session, subjects were assessed for trunk muscle strength/endurance tests and trunk proprioception tests. There was a significant increase in trunk extensor strength (p ? 0.05) after low-frequency (25 Hz) WBV exercise, but high-frequency (40 Hz) vibration exercise had resulted in a significant decrease in trunk extensor endurance (p ? 0.05). Statistical gender difference (p = 0.04) was found for trunk extensor endurance with lower WBV training. No change was noted in the trunk proprioception with different frequencies of WBV. In conclusions, the immediate response of the body to WBV was different for low and high frequencies. Low-frequency vibration enhanced trunk extensor strength, but high-frequency vibration would decrease endurance of the trunk extensor muscles. Males are more sensitive than females in trunk extensor endurance for lower frequency WBV exposure. These results indicated that short-term WBV with low frequency was effective to improve trunk extensor strength in healthy adults, and that could be helpful for relevant activities of trunk extensor performing and preventing sport injury. PMID:24714536

Ye, Jiajia; Ng, Gabriel; Yuen, Kenneth

2014-10-01

406

The functional demand (FD) placed on the knee and hip of older adults during everyday activities.  

PubMed

Age-related decline in physical capacity and diminishing physiological reserves may increase the demand placed on lower extremity joints during everyday activities. This study aimed to characterize the FD at the knee and hip joints of older adults during various mobility activities. Eighty-four healthy participants (60-88 years) performed strength tests using a custom-built dynamometer. Biomechanical assessment of gait, chair rise (CR) and sit-down (CSt), stair ascent (SA) and descent (SD) was performed using an 8-camera VICON system (120Hz) and Kistler force plates. Comparisons between groups (60s, 70s and 80s) were made using ANOVA. The FD was defined as the muscle moment generated during a task, divided by the maximum isometric strength (expressed as a percentage). FD was higher in the 80s age group compared to those in the 60s. The demand on hip and knee extensors was normally higher than those of flexors across all the activities. The knee extensor demand during gait (101%), SA (103%) and SD (120%), and hip extensor demand during gait (127%) were high requiring moments in excess of the maximum isometric muscle strength available at these joints. FD during CR and CSt was comparatively lower with knee extensor demands of 73% and 69% and hip extensor demands of 88% and 51%, respectively. Gait, SA and SD placed high demands on the knee extensors while hip extensor demand was high for gait, CR, CSt and SA. The levels of demand leave little reserve capacity for the older adult to draw on in unexpected circumstances. PMID:23561852

Samuel, Dinesh; Rowe, Philip; Nicol, Alexander

2013-01-01

407

Engineering High-Potency R-spondin Adult Stem Cell Growth Factors.  

PubMed

Secreted R-spondin proteins (RSPOs1-4) function as adult stem cell growth factors by potentiating Wnt signaling. Simultaneous binding of distinct regions of the RSPO Fu1-Fu2 domain module to the extracellular domains (ECDs) of the LGR4 G protein-coupled receptor and the ZNRF3 transmembrane E3 ubiquitin ligase regulates Wnt receptor availability. Here, we examine the molecular basis for the differing signaling strengths of RSPOs1-4 using purified RSPO Fu1-Fu2, LGR4 ECD, and ZNRF3 ECD proteins in Wnt signaling and receptor binding assays, and we engineer novel high-potency RSPOs. RSPO2/3/4 had similar signaling potencies that were stronger than that of RSPO1, whereas RSPO1/2/3 had similar efficacies that were greater than that of RSPO4. The RSPOs bound LGR4 with affinity rank order RSPO4 > RSPO2/3 > RSPO1 and ZNRF3 with affinity rank order RSPO2/3 > > RSPO1 > RSPO4. An RSPO2-4 chimera combining RSPO2 ZNRF3 binding with RSPO4 LGR4 binding was a "Superspondin" that exhibited enhanced ternary complex formation and 10-fold stronger signaling potency than RSPO2 and efficacy equivalent to RSPO2. An RSPO4-1 chimera combining RSPO4 ZNRF3 binding with RSPO1 LGR4 binding was a "Poorspondin" that exhibited signaling potency similar to RSPO1 and efficacy equivalent to RSPO4. Conferring increased ZNRF3 binding upon RSPO4 with amino acid substitutions L56F, I58L, and I63M enhanced its signaling potency and efficacy. Our results reveal the molecular basis for RSPOs1-4 activity differences and suggest that signaling potency is determined by ternary complex formation ability, whereas efficacy depends on ZNRF3 recruitment. High-potency RSPOs may be of value for regenerative medicine and/or therapeutic applications. PMID:25504990

Warner, Margaret L; Bell, Tufica; Pioszak, Augen A