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1

Thought disorder in high-functioning autistic adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examined thought disorder in a sample (n = 11) of high- functioning autistic young adults and older adolescents (mean IQ = 83) utilizing objective ratings from the Thought, Language and Communication Disorder Scale (TLC Scale) and projective data from the Rorschach inkblots. Results from the TLC Scale pointed to negative features of thought disorder in this sample (e.g., Poverty of

Elisabeth Dykens; Fred Volkmar; Marion Glick

1991-01-01

2

Audiovisual Integration in High Functioning Adults with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Autism involves various perceptual benefits and deficits, but it is unclear if the disorder also involves anomalous audiovisual integration. To address this issue, we compared the performance of high-functioning adults with autism and matched controls on experiments investigating the audiovisual integration of speech, spatiotemporal relations, and…

Keane, Brian P.; Rosenthal, Orna; Chun, Nicole H.; Shams, Ladan

2010-01-01

3

Challenging stereotypes: sexual functioning of single adults with high functioning autism spectrum disorder.  

PubMed

This study examined the sexual functioning of single adults (61 men, 68 women) with high functioning autism and Asperger syndrome living in the community with and without prior relationship experience. Participants completed an on-line questionnaire assessing autism symptoms, psychological functioning, and various aspects of sexual functioning. In general participants reported positive sexual functioning. Participants without prior relationship experience were significantly younger and more likely to be male and identify as heterosexual. They reported significantly higher sexual anxiety, lower sexual arousability, lower dyadic desire, and fewer positive sexual cognitions. The men reported better sexual function than did the women in a number of areas. These results counter negative societal perceptions about the sexuality of high functioning individuals on the autism spectrum. PMID:23526036

Byers, E Sandra; Nichols, Shana; Voyer, Susan D

2013-11-01

4

Parents' Criticisms and Attributions about Their Adult Children with High Functioning Autism or Schizophrenia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study examined the criticism component of expressed emotion (EE) and attributions in parents of adults diagnosed with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder (S/SA) or high functioning autism/Asperger's. Consistent with study hypotheses, parents of adults diagnosed with autism/Asperger's disorder exhibited lower levels of high

Wasserman, Stephanie; Weisman de Mamani, Amy; Mundy, Peter

2010-01-01

5

Perceptions of popularity among a group of high-functioning adults with autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine how a group of adults with autism perceived one another's interpersonal attributes and popularity. Five female and 11 male high-functioning autistic adults, 18–45 years old, participated in a social skills group together for several years. A sociogram and a questionnaire designed to determine perceptions of best looking, most athletic, and most humorous

Gary B. Mesibov; Janet Stephens

1990-01-01

6

Reading the Mind in the Voice: A Study with Normal Adults and Adults with Asperger Syndrome and High Functioning Autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

People with high functioning autism (HFA) and Asperger syndrome (AS) have deficits in theory of mind (ToM). Traditional ToM tasks are not sensitive enough to measure ToM deficits in adults, so more subtle ToM tests are needed. One adult level test, the Reading the Mind in the Eyes test has shown that AS and HFA subjects have measurable deficits in

M. D. Rutherford; Simon Baron-Cohen; Sally Wheelwright

2002-01-01

7

Functional alterations in neural substrates of geometric reasoning in adults with high-functioning autism.  

PubMed

Individuals with autism spectrum condition (ASC) are known to excel in some perceptual cognitive tasks, but such developed functions have been often regarded as "islets of abilities" that do not significantly contribute to broader intellectual capacities. However, recent behavioral studies have reported that individuals with ASC have advantages for performing Raven's (Standard) Progressive Matrices (RPM/RSPM), a standard neuropsychological test for general fluid intelligence, raising the possibility that ASC's cognitive strength can be utilized for more general purposes like novel problem solving. Here, the brain activity of 25 adults with high-functioning ASC and 26 matched normal controls (NC) was measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine neural substrates of geometric reasoning during the engagement of a modified version of the RSPM test. Among the frontal and parietal brain regions involved in fluid intelligence, ASC showed larger activation in the left lateral occipitotemporal cortex (LOTC) during an analytic condition with moderate difficulty than NC. Activation in the left LOTC and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) increased with task difficulty in NC, whereas such modulation of activity was absent in ASC. Furthermore, functional connectivity analysis revealed a significant reduction of activation coupling between the left inferior parietal cortex and the right anterior prefrontal cortex during both figural and analytic conditions in ASC. These results indicate altered pattern of functional specialization and integration in the neural system for geometric reasoning in ASC, which may explain its atypical cognitive pattern, including performance on the Raven's Matrices test. PMID:22912831

Yamada, Takashi; Ohta, Haruhisa; Watanabe, Hiromi; Kanai, Chieko; Tani, Masayuki; Ohno, Taisei; Takayama, Yuko; Iwanami, Akira; Kato, Nobumasa; Hashimoto, Ryuichiro

2012-01-01

8

Advanced Theory of Mind in High-Functioning Adults with Autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-four high-functioning adults with autism (16 men) who passed a first-order theory-of-mind task and 24 nonautistic adults (10 men) attributed mental states to recordings of various verbal intonations and to photos of people's eyes to assess advanced theory of mind. Participants with autism performed significantly worse than nonautistic participants on both tasks. Thus, the previously described inattention to others' eyes

Jamie Kleinman; Paul L. Marciano; Ruth L. Ault

2001-01-01

9

Virtual reality social cognition training for young adults with high-functioning autism.  

PubMed

Few evidence-based social interventions exist for young adults with high-functioning autism, many of whom encounter significant challenges during the transition into adulthood. The current study investigated the feasibility of an engaging Virtual Reality Social Cognition Training intervention focused on enhancing social skills, social cognition, and social functioning. Eight young adults diagnosed with high-functioning autism completed 10 sessions across 5 weeks. Significant increases on social cognitive measures of theory of mind and emotion recognition, as well as in real life social and occupational functioning were found post-training. These findings suggest that the virtual reality platform is a promising tool for improving social skills, cognition, and functioning in autism. PMID:22570145

Kandalaft, Michelle R; Didehbani, Nyaz; Krawczyk, Daniel C; Allen, Tandra T; Chapman, Sandra B

2013-01-01

10

Binding of Multiple Features in Memory by High-Functioning Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Diminished episodic memory and diminished use of semantic information to aid recall by individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are both thought to result from diminished relational binding of elements of complex stimuli. To test this hypothesis, we asked high-functioning adults with ASD and typical comparison participants to study grids in…

Bowler, Dermot M.; Gaigg, Sebastian B.; Gardiner, John M.

2014-01-01

11

Pragmatic Inferences in High-Functioning Adults with Autism and Asperger Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often have severe problems with pragmatic aspects of language, little is known about their pragmatic reasoning. We carried out a behavioral study on high-functioning adults with autistic disorder (n = 11) and Asperger syndrome (n = 17) and matched controls (n = 28) to investigate whether they…

Pijnacker, Judith; Hagoort, Peter; Buitelaar, Jan; Teunisse, Jan-Pieter; Geurts, Bart

2009-01-01

12

The Modality Shift Experiment in Adults and Children with High Functioning Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study used the modality shift experiment, a relatively simple reaction time measure to visual and auditory stimuli, to examine attentional shifting within and across modalities in 33 children and 42 adults with high-functioning autism as compared to matched numbers of age- and ability-matched typical controls. An exaggerated "modality shift…

Williams, Diane L.; Goldstein, Gerald; Minshew, Nancy J.

2013-01-01

13

Atypical Visual Orienting to Gaze and Arrow-Cues in Adults with High Functioning Autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigates visual orienting to directional cues (arrow or eyes) in adults with high functioning autism (n = 19) and age matched controls (n = 19). A choice reaction time paradigm is used in which eye- or arrow direction correctly (congruent) or incorrectly (incongruent) cues target location. In typically developing participants, the visual orienting reflex is longer for eyes than for arrows.

Petra H. J. M. Vlamings; Johannes E. A. Stauder; Ilona A. M. van Son; Laurent Mottron

2005-01-01

14

Brain Mapping of Language and Auditory Perception in High-Functioning Autistic Adults: A PET Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study used positron emission tomography (PET) to study patterns of brain activation during auditory processing in five high-functioning adults with autism. Results found that participants showed reversed hemispheric dominance during the verbal auditory stimulation and reduced activation of the auditory cortex and cerebellum. (CR)

Muller, R-A.; Behen, M. E.; Rothermel, R. D.; Chugani, D. C.; Muzik, O.; Mangner, T. J.; Chugani, H. T.

1999-01-01

15

Corpus callosum size in adults with high-functioning autism and the relevance of gender  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of the study was to investigate the size of the corpus callosum (CC) and its subsegments in relation to total brain volume (TBV) as an empirical indicator of impaired connectivity in autism with special respect to gender. In MRI data sets of 29 adults with high-functioning autism (HFA) and 29 age-, gender- and IQ-matched control subjects, the TBV

Ralf Tepest; Esther Jacobi; Astrid Gawronski; Barbara Krug; Walter Möller-Hartmann; Fritz G. Lehnhardt; Kai Vogeley

2010-01-01

16

Sexual Behavior in High-Functioning Male Adolescents and Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Group home caregivers of 24 institutionalized, male, high-functioning adolescents and young adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder, were interviewed with the Interview Sexuality Autism. Most subjects were reported to express sexual interest and to display some kind of sexual behavior. Knowledge of socio-sexual skills existed, but practical use was…

Hellemans, Hans; Colson, Kathy; Verbraeken, Christine; Vermeiren, Robert; Deboutte, Dirk

2007-01-01

17

Employment activities and experiences of adults with high-functioning autism and Asperger’s Disorder.  

PubMed

There is limited large-scale empirical research into the working lives of adults who have an autism spectrum disorder with no co-occurring intellectual disability. Drawing on data from a national survey, this report describes the employment activities and experiences of 130 adults with Asperger's Disorder (AD) and high functioning autism (HFA) in Australia. Outcome measures include current occupation; occupational skill level and alignment with educational attainment; type of job contract; hours of work; support received to find work; support received in the workplace; and positive and negative experiences of employment. The findings confirm and expand upon existing evidence that adults with AD and HFA, despite their capacity and willingness to work, face significant disadvantages in the labour market and a lack of understanding and support in employment settings. PMID:24715257

Baldwin, Susanna; Costley, Debra; Warren, Anthony

2014-10-01

18

Directed forgetting in high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorders.  

PubMed

Rehearsal strategies of adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and demographically matched typically developed (TD) adults were strategically manipulated by cueing participants to either learn, or forget each list word prior to a recognition task. Participants were also asked to distinguish between autonoetic and noetic states of awareness using the Remember/Know paradigm. The ASD group recognised a similar number of to-be-forgotten words as the TD group, but significantly fewer to-be-learned words. This deficit was only evident in Remember responses that reflect autonoetic awareness, or episodic memory, and not Know responses. These findings support the elaborative encoding deficit hypothesis and provide a link between the previously established mild episodic memory impairments in adults with high functioning autism and the encoding strategies employed. PMID:24722763

Meyer, Brenda J; Gardiner, John M; Bowler, Dermot M

2014-10-01

19

The Modality Shift Experiment in Adults and Children with High Functioning Autism  

PubMed Central

This study used the modality shift experiment, a relatively simple reaction time measure to visual and auditory stimuli, to examine attentional shifting within and across modalities in 33 children and 42 adults with high-functioning autism as compared to matched numbers of age- and ability-matched typical controls. An exaggerated “modality shift effect” relative to the TD children occurred for the children with autism in conditions involving the reaction time when shifting from sound to light but not from light to sound. No exaggerated MSE was found for the adults with autism; rather, their responses were characterized by a generalized slowness relative to the adults with TD. These results suggest a lag in maturational development in autism in basic information processing mechanisms. PMID:22865151

Williams, Diane L.; Goldstein, Gerald; Minshew, Nancy J.

2012-01-01

20

Employment Activities and Experiences of Adults with High-Functioning Autism and Asperger's Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is limited large-scale empirical research into the working lives of adults who have an autism spectrum disorder with no co-occurring intellectual disability. Drawing on data from a national survey, this report describes the employment activities and experiences of 130 adults with Asperger's Disorder (AD) and high functioning autism…

Baldwin, Susanna; Costley, Debra; Warren, Anthony

2014-01-01

21

Understanding advanced theory of mind and empathy in high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder.  

PubMed

It has been argued that higher functioning individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have specific deficits in advanced but not simple theory of mind (ToM), yet the questionable ecological validity of some tasks reduces the strength of this assumption. The present study employed The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT), which uses video vignettes to assess comprehension of subtle conversational inferences (sarcasm, lies/deception). Given the proposed relationships between advanced ToM and cognitive and affective empathy, these associations were also investigated. As expected, the high-functioning adults with ASDs demonstrated specific deficits in comprehending the beliefs, intentions, and meaning of nonliteral expressions. They also had significantly lower cognitive and affective empathy. Cognitive empathy was related to ToM and group membership whereas affective empathy was only related to group membership. PMID:23799244

Mathersul, Danielle; McDonald, Skye; Rushby, Jacqueline A

2013-01-01

22

How stimulus and task complexity affect monitoring in high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder.  

PubMed

The present study examined whether individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are able to update and monitor working memory representations of visual input, and whether performance is influenced by stimulus and task complexity. 15 high-functioning adults with ASD and 15 controls were asked to allocate either elements of abstract figures or semantically meaningful pictures to the correct category, according to a certain set of rules. In general, the groups did not differ on measures of intelligence, working memory, attention, fluency and memory. For the monitoring of allocation of abstract figures, a similar pattern of reaction times was found for ASD and control participants. For the monitoring of allocation of semantically meaningful pictures, a different response pattern was found, with a stronger increase in response times for the ASD than for the control group when the number of categories increased. This suggests that participants with ASD are able to monitor working memory representations, but suffer under more complex circumstances. PMID:24838251

Koolen, Sophieke; Vissers, Constance Th W M; Egger, Jos I M; Verhoeven, Ludo

2014-10-01

23

Corpus callosum size in adults with high-functioning autism and the relevance of gender.  

PubMed

The goal of the study was to investigate the size of the corpus callosum (CC) and its subsegments in relation to total brain volume (TBV) as an empirical indicator of impaired connectivity in autism with special respect to gender. In MRI data sets of 29 adults with high-functioning autism (HFA) and 29 age-, gender- and IQ-matched control subjects, the TBV was measured and the CC was analyzed as a whole and in subsegments employing two different manual segmentation procedures. With respect to diagnosis, there were no significant differences in the dependent variables (CC, CC subsegments, and TBV). With respect to gender, only TBV was significantly increased in males compared with females, resulting in a significantly decreased CC/TBV ratio in males. This finding, however, was independent from gender and can be fully attributed to brain size. Our findings do not support the following hypotheses: (1) a hypothesis of impaired CC in HFA adults as a subgroup of patients with autism spectrum disorders, and (2) the sexual dimorphism hypothesis of the CC. PMID:20542669

Tepest, Ralf; Jacobi, Esther; Gawronski, Astrid; Krug, Barbara; Möller-Hartmann, Walter; Lehnhardt, Fritz G; Vogeley, Kai

2010-07-30

24

Alterations in brain structures underlying language function in young adults at high familial risk for schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Introduction Neuroanatomical and cognitive alterations typical of schizophrenia (SZ) patients are observed to a lesser extent in their adolescent and adult first-degree relatives, likely reflecting neurodevelopmental abnormalities associated with genetic risk for the illness. The anatomical pathways for language are hypothesized to be abnormal and to underlie the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. Examining non-psychotic relatives at high familial risk (FHR) for schizophrenia may clarify if these deficits represent trait markers associated with genetic vulnerability, rather than specific markers resulting from the pathological process underlying schizophrenia. Methods T1 MRI scans from a 3T Siemens scanner of young adult FHR subjects (N=46) and controls with no family history of illness (i.e. at low genetic risk LRC; N=31) were processed using FreeSurfer 5.0. We explored volumetric and lateralization alterations in regions associated with language processing. An extensive neuropsychological battery of language measures was administered. Results No significant differences were observed between groups on any language measures. Controlling Intracranial volume, significantly smaller center Pars Triangularis (PT) (p<0.01) and right Pars Orbitalis (PO) (p < 0.01) volumes and reversal of the L > R Pars Orbitalis (p < 0.001) lateralization were observed in FHR subjects. In addition, the L Pars Triangularis and R Pars Orbitalis correlated with performance on tests of linguistic function in the FHR group. Conclusions Reduced volume and reversed structural asymmetry in language-related regions hypothesized to be altered in SZ are also found in first degree relatives at FHR, despite normal language performance. To clarify if these findings are endophenotypes for Sz, future studied would need to be performed of ill and well family members no longer within the age range of risk for illness to show these deficits segregate with schizophrenia within families. Moreover, measures of complex language need to be studied to determine if FHR individuals manifest impairments in some aspects of language function. PMID:22892286

Francis, Alan N.; Seidman, Larry J.; Jabbar, Gul A.; Mesholam-Gately, Raquelle; Thermenos, Heidi W.; Juelich, Richard; Proal, Ashley C.; Shenton, Martha; Kubicki, Marek; Mathew, Ian; Keshavan, Matcheri; DeLisi, Lynn E.

2012-01-01

25

Brief Report: Face Configuration Accuracy and Processing Speed Among Adults with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigates the accuracy and speed of face processing employed by high-functioning adults with autism spectrum\\u000a disorders (ASDs). Two behavioral experiments measured sensitivity to distances between features and face recognition when\\u000a performance depended on holistic versus featural information. Results suggest adults with ASD were less accurate, but responded\\u000a as quickly as controls for both tasks. In contrast to

Susan Faja; Sara Jane Webb; Kristen Merkle; Elizabeth Aylward; Geraldine Dawson

2009-01-01

26

Cognitive Profiles of Adults with Asperger's Disorder, High-Functioning Autism, and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified Based on the WAIS-III  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little is known about the cognitive profiles of high-functioning Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD) in adults based on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale III (WAIS-III). We examined cognitive profiles of adults with no intellectual disability (IQ greater than 70), and in adults with Asperger's disorder (AS; n = 47), high-functioning autism (HFA;…

Kanai, Chieko; Tani, Masayuki; Hashimoto, Ryuichiro; Yamada, Takashi; Ota, Haruhisa; Watanabe, Hiromi; Iwanami, Akira; Kato, Nobumasa

2012-01-01

27

Axonal deficits in young adults with High Functioning Autism and their impact on processing speed.  

PubMed

Microstructural white matter deficits in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) have been suggested by both histological findings and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) studies, which show reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) and increased mean diffusivity (MD). However, imaging reports are generally not consistent across studies and the underlying physiological causes of the reported differences in FA and MD remain poorly understood. In this study, we sought to further characterize white matter deficits in ASD by employing an advanced diffusion imaging method, the Diffusional Kurtosis Imaging (DKI), and a two-compartment diffusion model of white matter. This model differentially describes intra- and extra-axonal white matter compartments using Axonal Water Fraction (faxon ) a measure reflecting axonal caliber and density, and compartment-specific diffusivity measures. Diagnostic utility of these measures and associations with processing speed performance were also examined. Comparative studies were conducted in 16 young male adults with High Functioning Autism (HFA) and 17 typically developing control participants (TDC). Significantly decreased faxon was observed in HFA compared to the control group in most of the major white matter tracts, including the corpus callosum, cortico-spinal tracts, and superior longitudinal, inferior longitudinal and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculi. Intra-axonal diffusivity (Daxon ) was also found to be reduced in some of these regions. Decreased axial extra-axonal diffusivity (ADextra ) was noted in the genu of the corpus callosum. Reduced processing speed significantly correlated with decreased faxon and Daxon in several tracts. faxon of the left cortico-spinal tract and superior longitudinal fasciculi showed good accuracy in discriminating the HFA and TDC groups. In conclusion, these findings suggest altered axonal microstructure in young adults with HFA which is associated with reduced processing speed. Compartment-specific diffusion metrics appear to improve specificity and sensitivity to white matter deficits in this population. PMID:24624327

Lazar, Mariana; Miles, Laura M; Babb, James S; Donaldson, Jeffrey B

2014-01-01

28

Axonal deficits in young adults with High Functioning Autism and their impact on processing speed  

PubMed Central

Microstructural white matter deficits in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) have been suggested by both histological findings and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) studies, which show reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) and increased mean diffusivity (MD). However, imaging reports are generally not consistent across studies and the underlying physiological causes of the reported differences in FA and MD remain poorly understood. In this study, we sought to further characterize white matter deficits in ASD by employing an advanced diffusion imaging method, the Diffusional Kurtosis Imaging (DKI), and a two-compartment diffusion model of white matter. This model differentially describes intra- and extra-axonal white matter compartments using Axonal Water Fraction (faxon) a measure reflecting axonal caliber and density, and compartment-specific diffusivity measures. Diagnostic utility of these measures and associations with processing speed performance were also examined. Comparative studies were conducted in 16 young male adults with High Functioning Autism (HFA) and 17 typically developing control participants (TDC). Significantly decreased faxon was observed in HFA compared to the control group in most of the major white matter tracts, including the corpus callosum, cortico-spinal tracts, and superior longitudinal, inferior longitudinal and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculi. Intra-axonal diffusivity (Daxon) was also found to be reduced in some of these regions. Decreased axial extra-axonal diffusivity (ADextra) was noted in the genu of the corpus callosum. Reduced processing speed significantly correlated with decreased faxon and Daxon in several tracts. faxon of the left cortico-spinal tract and superior longitudinal fasciculi showed good accuracy in discriminating the HFA and TDC groups. In conclusion, these findings suggest altered axonal microstructure in young adults with HFA which is associated with reduced processing speed. Compartment-specific diffusion metrics appear to improve specificity and sensitivity to white matter deficits in this population. PMID:24624327

Lazar, Mariana; Miles, Laura M.; Babb, James S.; Donaldson, Jeffrey B.

2014-01-01

29

Selective impairment of cognitive empathy for moral judgment in adults with high functioning autism  

PubMed Central

Faced with a moral dilemma, conflict arises between a cognitive controlled response aimed at maximizing welfare, i.e. the utilitarian judgment, and an emotional aversion to harm, i.e. the deontological judgment. In the present study, we investigated moral judgment in adult individuals with high functioning autism/Asperger syndrome (HFA/AS), a clinical population characterized by impairments in prosocial emotions and social cognition. In Experiment 1, we compared the response patterns of HFA/AS participants and neurotypical controls to moral dilemmas with low and high emotional saliency. We found that HFA/AS participants more frequently delivered the utilitarian judgment. Their perception of appropriateness of moral transgression was similar to that of controls, but HFA/AS participants reported decreased levels of emotional reaction to the dilemma. In Experiment 2, we explored the way in which demographic, clinical and social cognition variables including emotional and cognitive aspects of empathy and theory of mind influenced moral judgment. We found that utilitarian HFA/AS participants showed a decreased ability to infer other people’s thoughts and to understand their intentions, as measured both by performance on neuropsychological tests and through dispositional measures. We conclude that greater prevalence of utilitarianism in HFA/AS is associated with difficulties in specific aspects of social cognition. PMID:22689217

Torralva, Teresa; Rattazzi, Alexia; Marenco, Victoria; Roca, Maria; Manes, Facundo

2013-01-01

30

Binding of multiple features in memory by high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder.  

PubMed

Diminished episodic memory and diminished use of semantic information to aid recall by individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are both thought to result from diminished relational binding of elements of complex stimuli. To test this hypothesis, we asked high-functioning adults with ASD and typical comparison participants to study grids in which some cells contained drawings of objects in non-canonical colours. Participants were told at study which features (colour, item, location) would be tested in a later memory test. In a second experiment, participants studied similar grids and were told that they would be tested on object-location or object-colour combinations. Recognition of combinations was significantly diminished in ASD, which survived covarying performance on the Color Trails Test (D'Elia et al. Color trails test. Professional manual. Psychological Assessment Resources, Lutz, 1996), a test of executive difficulties. The findings raise the possibility that medial temporal as well as frontal lobe processes are dysfunctional in ASD. PMID:24696375

Bowler, Dermot M; Gaigg, Sebastian B; Gardiner, John M

2014-09-01

31

"Hath Charms to Soothe...": An Exploratory Study of How High-Functioning Adults with ASD Experience Music  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 high-functioning adults on the autism spectrum, in order to examine the nature of their personal experiences of music. Consistent with the literature on typically developing people's engagement with music, the analysis showed that most participants exploit music for a wide range of purposes in the…

Allen, Rory; Hill, Elizabeth; Heaton, Pam

2009-01-01

32

Disability and Functioning (Adults)  

MedlinePLUS

... table 49 [PDF - 9.8 MB] Noninstitutionalized adults 65 years and older: Need help with personal care ... 2012, table 5 [PDF - 1 MB] Noninstitutionalized adults 65 years and older: Basic or complex activity limitations ...

33

The Use of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient in Differentiating High-Functioning Adults with Autism, Adults with Schizophrenia and a Neurotypical Adult Control Group  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study compared 21 high functioning individuals with autism, 21 individuals with schizophrenia and 21 healthy individuals in self-reported features of autism, as measured by the Autism-spectrum Quotient (AQ). The individuals with autism reported impairment on all AQ subscales, compared to the neurotypical group. The schizophrenia group…

Wouters, Saskia G. M.; Spek, Annelies A.

2011-01-01

34

Functional Decline in Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Functional disability is common in older adults. It is often episodic and is associated with a high risk of subsequent health decline. The severity of disability is determined by physical impairments caused by underlying medical conditions, and by external factors such as social support, financial support, and the environment. When multiple health conditions are present, they often result in greater disability than expected because the patient’s ability to compensate for one problem may be affected by comorbid conditions. Evaluation of functional disability is most effective when the physician determines the course of the disability, associated symptoms, effects on specific activities, and coping mechanisms the patient uses to compensate for the functional problem. Underlying health conditions, impairments, and contextual factors (e.g., finances, social support) should be identified using validated screening tools. Interventions should focus on increasing the patient’s capacity to cope with task demands and reducing the demands of the task itself. Interventions for functional decline in older adults are almost always multifactorial because they must address multiple conditions, impairments, and contextual factors. PMID:24134046

Colon-Emeric, Cathleen S.; Whitson, Heather E.; Pavon, Juliessa; Hoenig, Helen

2014-01-01

35

Directed Forgetting in High-Functioning Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rehearsal strategies of adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and demographically matched typically developed (TD) adults were strategically manipulated by cueing participants to either learn, or forget each list word prior to a recognition task. Participants were also asked to distinguish between autonoetic and noetic states of awareness…

Meyer, Brenda J.; Gardiner, John M.; Bowler, Dermot M.

2014-01-01

36

Autism and Schizophrenia in High Functioning Adults: Behavioral Differences and Overlap  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several recent studies have demonstrated a genetical overlap between autism and schizophrenia. However, at a behavioral level it remains unclear which features can validly distinguish adults with autism from an adult schizophrenia group. To this end, the present study compared 21 individuals with the autistic disorder and 21 individuals with…

Spek, Annelies A.; Wouters, Saskia G. M.

2010-01-01

37

'Hath charms to soothe . . .': an exploratory study of how high-functioning adults with ASD experience music.  

PubMed

Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 high-functioning adults on the autism spectrum, in order to examine the nature of their personal experiences of music. Consistent with the literature on typically developing people's engagement with music, the analysis showed that most participants exploit music for a wide range of purposes in the cognitive, emotional and social domains, including mood management, personal development and social inclusion. However, in contrast to typically developing people, the ASD group's descriptions of mood states reflected a greater reliance on internally focused (arousal) rather than externally focused (emotive) language. PMID:19176575

Allen, Rory; Hill, Elizabeth; Heaton, Pam

2009-01-01

38

Use of Prosody and Information Structure in High Functioning Adults with Autism in Relation to Language Ability  

PubMed Central

Abnormal prosody is a striking feature of the speech of those with Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but previous reports suggest large variability among those with ASD. Here we show that part of this heterogeneity can be explained by level of language functioning. We recorded semi-spontaneous but controlled conversations in adults with and without ASD and measured features related to pitch and duration to determine (1) general use of prosodic features, (2) prosodic use in relation to marking information structure, specifically, the emphasis of new information in a sentence (focus) as opposed to information already given in the conversational context (topic), and (3) the relation between prosodic use and level of language functioning. We found that, compared to typical adults, those with ASD with high language functioning generally used a larger pitch range than controls but did not mark information structure, whereas those with moderate language functioning generally used a smaller pitch range than controls but marked information structure appropriately to a large extent. Both impaired general prosodic use and impaired marking of information structure would be expected to seriously impact social communication and thereby lead to increased difficulty in personal domains, such as making and keeping friendships, and in professional domains, such as competing for employment opportunities. PMID:22470358

DePape, Anne-Marie R.; Chen, Aoju; Hall, Geoffrey B. C.; Trainor, Laurel J.

2012-01-01

39

The systemizing quotient: an investigation of adults with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism, and normal sex differences.  

PubMed Central

Systemizing is the drive to analyse systems or construct systems. A recent model of psychological sex differences suggests that this is a major dimension in which the sexes differ, with males being more drawn to systemize than females. Currently, there are no self-report measures to assess this important dimension. A second major dimension of sex differences is empathizing (the drive to identify mental states and respond to these with an appropriate emotion). Previous studies find females score higher on empathy measures. We report a new self-report questionnaire, the Systemizing Quotient (SQ), for use with adults of normal intelligence. It contains 40 systemizing items and 20 control items. On each systemizing item, a person can score 2, 1 or 0, so the SQ has a maximum score of 80 and a minimum of zero. In Study 1, we measured the SQ of n = 278 adults (114 males, 164 females) from a general population, to test for predicted sex differences (male superiority) in systemizing. All subjects were also given the Empathy Quotient (EQ) to test if previous reports of female superiority would be replicated. In Study 2 we employed the SQ and the EQ with n = 47 adults (33 males, 14 females) with Asperger syndrome (AS) or high-functioning autism (HFA), who are predicted to be either normal or superior at systemizing, but impaired at empathizing. Their scores were compared with n = 47 matched adults from the general population in Study 1. In Study 1, as predicted, normal adult males scored significantly higher than females on the SQ and significantly lower on the EQ. In Study 2, again as predicted, adults with AS/HFA scored significantly higher on the SQ than matched controls, and significantly lower on the EQ than matched controls. The SQ reveals both a sex difference in systemizing in the general population and an unusually strong drive to systemize in AS/HFA. These results are discussed in relation to two linked theories: the 'empathizing-systemizing' (E-S) theory of sex differences and the extreme male brain (EMB) theory of autism. PMID:12639333

Baron-Cohen, Simon; Richler, Jennifer; Bisarya, Dheraj; Gurunathan, Nhishanth; Wheelwright, Sally

2003-01-01

40

How impaired is mind-reading in high-functioning adolescents and adults with autism?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Difficulties in understanding the mental states of others are considered to be a core cognitive feature of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Traditional false-belief tasks were not suitable to measure mind-reading in adolescents and adults with ASD and were replaced by so-called more “advanced” tasks. A first series of tasks included the presentation of static stimuli in the visual or auditory

Herbert Roeyers; Ellen Demurie

2010-01-01

41

High blood pressure, antihypertensive medication and lung function in a general adult population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Several studies showed that blood pressure and lung function are associated. Additionally, a potential effect of antihypertensive\\u000a medication, especially beta-blockers, on lung function has been discussed. However, side effects of beta-blockers have been\\u000a investigated mainly in patients with already reduced lung function. Thus, aim of this analysis is to determine whether hypertension\\u000a and antihypertensive medication have an adverse effect on

Eva Schnabel; Stefan Karrasch; Holger Schulz; Sven Gläser; Christa Meisinger; Margit Heier; Annette Peters; H-Erich Wichmann; Jürgen Behr; Rudolf M Huber; Joachim Heinrich

2011-01-01

42

Emerging perspectives on adolescents and young adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders, violence, and criminal law.  

PubMed

As the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) has increased, attention has shifted toward consideration of ASDs in adolescence and adulthood, as well as public health repercussions for this population. Since the social and emotional deficits within ASDs may be salient during incidents of unintended criminal or violent behavior, one area of focus is involvement of adolescents and young adults with ASD in the criminal justice system. Without a thorough understanding of how and why individuals with ASDs may exhibit criminal behavior, judicial and legislative state systems have begun to develop policies lacking a substantial evidence base. In this article, we attempt to synthesize the literature on one type of ASD (high functioning) and criminal behavior. Three specific deficits characteristic of individuals with ASDs (theory of mind, emotion regulation, and moral reasoning) are examined as potential confluent forces leading to criminal behavior among individuals with ASDs. Legal and policy recommendations are presented. PMID:22635288

Lerner, Matthew D; Haque, Omar Sultan; Northrup, Eli C; Lawer, Lindsay; Bursztajn, Harold J

2012-01-01

43

Social Interest in High-Functioning Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are principally characterized by impairments in social functioning. Experimental investigation often is conducted using methods measuring social attention, social cognition, and social communication. In this study, we instead measured interest in social information, making a distinction between basic-level…

Fletcher-Watson, Sue; Leekam, Susan R.; Findlay, John M.

2013-01-01

44

High Resolution Methylome Analysis Reveals Widespread Functional Hypomethylation during Adult Human Erythropoiesis*  

PubMed Central

Differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells to red cells requires coordinated expression of numerous erythroid genes and is characterized by nuclear condensation and extrusion during terminal development. To understand the regulatory mechanisms governing these widespread phenotypic changes, we conducted a high resolution methylomic and transcriptomic analysis of six major stages of human erythroid differentiation. We observed widespread epigenetic differences between early and late stages of erythropoiesis with progressive loss of methylation being the dominant change during differentiation. Gene bodies, intergenic regions, and CpG shores were preferentially demethylated during erythropoiesis. Epigenetic changes at transcription factor binding sites correlated significantly with changes in gene expression and were enriched for binding motifs for SCL, MYB, GATA, and other factors not previously implicated in erythropoiesis. Demethylation at gene promoters was associated with increased expression of genes, whereas epigenetic changes at gene bodies correlated inversely with gene expression. Important gene networks encoding erythrocyte membrane proteins, surface receptors, and heme synthesis proteins were found to be regulated by DNA methylation. Furthermore, integrative analysis enabled us to identify novel, potential regulatory areas of the genome as evident by epigenetic changes in a predicted PU.1 binding site in intron 1 of the GATA1 gene. This intronic site was found to be conserved across species and was validated to be a novel PU.1 binding site by quantitative ChIP in erythroid cells. Altogether, our study provides a comprehensive analysis of methylomic and transcriptomic changes during erythroid differentiation and demonstrates that human terminal erythropoiesis is surprisingly associated with hypomethylation of the genome. PMID:23306203

Yu, Yiting; Mo, Yongkai; Ebenezer, David; Bhattacharyya, Sanchari; Liu, Hui; Sundaravel, Sriram; Giricz, Orsolya; Wontakal, Sandeep; Cartier, Jessy; Caces, Bennett; Artz, Andrew; Nischal, Sangeeta; Bhagat, Tushar; Bathon, Kathleen; Maqbool, Shahina; Gligich, Oleg; Suzuki, Masako; Steidl, Ulrich; Godley, Lucy; Skoultchi, Art; Greally, John; Wickrema, Amittha; Verma, Amit

2013-01-01

45

Effect of a High-Protein Diet on Kidney Function in Healthy Adults: Results From the OmniHeart Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Consumption of a diet high in protein can cause glomerular hyperfiltration, a potentially maladaptive response, which may accelerate the progression of kidney disease. Study Design An ancillary study of the OmniHeart trial, a randomized 3-period crossover feeding trial testing the effects of partial replacement of carbohydrate with protein on kidney function. Setting & Participants Healthy adults (N=164) with prehypertension or stage 1 hypertension at a community-based research clinic with a metabolic kitchen. Intervention Participants were fed each of 3 diets for 6 weeks. Feeding periods were separated by a 2- to 4-week washout period. Weight was held constant on each diet. The 3 diets emphasized carbohydrate, protein, or unsaturated fat; dietary protein was either 15% (carbohydrate and unsaturated fat diets) or 25% (protein diet) of energy intake. Outcomes Fasting serum creatinine, cystatin C, and ?2-microglobulin levels, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Measurements Serum creatinine, cystatin C, and ?2-microglobulin collected at the end of each feeding period. Results Baseline cystatin C-based eGFR was 92.0±16.3 (SD) mL/min/1.73 m2. Compared with the carbohydrate and unsaturated fat diets, the protein diet increased cystatin C-based eGFR by ~4 mL/min/1.73 m2 (P < 0.001). The effects of the protein diet on kidney function were independent of changes in blood pressure. There was no significant difference between the carbohydrate and unsaturated fat diets. Limitations Participants did not have kidney disease at baseline. Conclusions A healthy diet rich in protein increased eGFR. Whether long-term consumption of a high-protein diet leads to kidney disease is uncertain. PMID:23219108

Juraschek, Stephen P.; Appel, Lawrence J.; Anderson, Cheryl A.M.; Miller, Edgar R.

2013-01-01

46

Health-related quality of life in adolescents and young adults with high functioning autism-spectrum disorder  

PubMed Central

Aim: Over the last years, health-related quality of life (HRQOL) has emerged as an important measure not only in somatic medicine but also in psychiatry. To date, there are only few reports on HRQOL in patients with autism-spectrum disorder (ASD). This study aimed at studying HRQOL in ASD patients with an IQ >70, using a self-report HRQOL questionnaire with cross-cultural validity. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, twenty-six male adolescents and young adults with the diagnosis of Asperger Syndrome, high functioning autism and atypical autism were evaluated, using the German version of the WHOQOL-BREF HRQOL questionnaire. Results: Mean WHOQOL-BREF global scores were 60.6 (SD ±26.1), mean WHOQOL-BREF subscale scores were 70.1 (SD ±19.1) for the domain “physical health”, 61.5 (SD ±21.9) for the domain “psychological health”, 53.8 (SD ±23.5) for the domain “social relationships” and 67.9 (SD ±17.4) for the domain “environment”. Compared to a reference population of healthy controls, our sample scored significantly lower in three of four WHOQOL-BREF domains. In comparison to a reference sample of individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD), HRQOL of our sample was significantly better in all domains except for the “social relations” domain. There was a significant association between HRQOL and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales domain “daily living skills”, but not with age, IQ, or ADOS-G summary scores. Conclusion: Overall self-reported HRQOL in patients with high functioning ASD seems to be lower than in healthy individuals, but better than in patients with SSD. Also, higher HRQOL was associated with better daily living skills. This interrelationship should especially be accounted for in the design and application of treatment programmes for individuals with ASD, as it is of importance for the level of self-perceived HRQOL. PMID:20930927

Kamp-Becker, Inge; Schroder, Johanna; Remschmidt, Helmut; Bachmann, Christian J.

2010-01-01

47

Disturbed cingulate glutamate metabolism in adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder: evidence in support of the excitatory/inhibitory imbalance hypothesis.  

PubMed

Over the last few years, awareness of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in adults has increased. The precise etiology of ASD is still unresolved. Animal research, genetic and postmortem studies suggest that the glutamate (Glu) system has an important role, possibly related to a cybernetic imbalance between neuronal excitation and inhibition. To clarify the possible disruption of Glu metabolism in adults with high-functioning autism, we performed a magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) study investigating the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the cerebellum in adults with high-functioning ASD. Twenty-nine adult patients with high-functioning ASD and 29 carefully matched healthy volunteers underwent MRS scanning of the pregenual ACC and the left cerebellar hemisphere. Metabolic data were compared between groups and were correlated with psychometric measures of autistic features. We found a significant decrease in the cingulate N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) and the combined Glu and glutamine (Glx) signals in adults with ASD, whereas we did not find other metabolic abnormalities in the ACC or the cerebellum. The Glx signal correlated significantly with psychometric measures of autism, particularly with communication deficits. Our data support the hypothesis that there is a link between disturbances of the cingulate NAA and Glx metabolism, and autism. The findings are discussed in the context of the hypothesis of excitatory/inhibitory imbalance in autism. Further research should clarify the specificity and dynamics of these findings regarding other neuropsychiatric disorders and other brain areas. PMID:25048006

Tebartz van Elst, L; Maier, S; Fangmeier, T; Endres, D; Mueller, G T; Nickel, K; Ebert, D; Lange, T; Hennig, J; Biscaldi, M; Riedel, A; Perlov, E

2014-12-01

48

A Systematic Review of Behavioral Intervention Research on Adaptive Skill Building in High-Functioning Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review involved a systematic search and analysis of behavioral intervention studies aimed at improving adaptive skills in high-functioning young adults with autism spectrum disorders. Through electronic databases and hand searching, 20 studies were identified meeting pre-determined inclusion criteria. Studies were summarized and analysed in…

Palmen, Annemiek; Didden, Robert; Lang, Russell

2012-01-01

49

The Influences of Face Inversion and Facial Expression on Sensitivity to Eye Contact in High-Functioning Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined the influences of face inversion and facial expression on sensitivity to eye contact in high-functioning adults with and without an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants judged the direction of gaze of angry, fearful, and neutral faces. In the typical group only, the range of directions of gaze leading to the perception of eye…

Vida, Mark D.; Maurer, Daphne; Calder, Andrew J.; Rhodes, Gillian; Walsh, Jennifer A.; Pachai, Matthew V.; Rutherford, M. D.

2013-01-01

50

Sexual Well-Being of a Community Sample of High-Functioning Adults on the Autism Spectrum Who Have Been in a Romantic Relationship  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored factors (gender, age, relationship status, symptomatology) associated with the sexual well-being of 141 (56 men and 85 women) adults with high-functioning autism and Asperger syndrome (HFA/AS) living in the community. Participants completed an online survey consisting of a measure of autistic symptoms as well as measures of…

Byers, E. Sandra; Nichols, Shana; Voyer, Susan D.; Reilly, Georgianna

2013-01-01

51

A cognitive-behavioral intervention for emotion regulation in adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have difficulties in social communication; thus, these individuals have trouble understanding the mental states of others. Recent research also suggests that adults with ASD are unable to understand their own mental states, which could lead to difficulties in emotion-regulation. Some studies have reported the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in improving emotion-regulation among children with ASD. The current study will investigate the efficacy of group-based CBT for adults with ASD. Methods/Design The study is a randomized, waitlist controlled, single-blinded trial. The participants will be 60 adults with ASD; 30 will be assigned to a CBT group and 30 to a waitlist control group. Primary outcome measures are the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale, the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations, the Motion Picture Mind-Reading task, and an ASD questionnaire. The secondary outcome measures are the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, the World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale 26-item version, the Global Assessment of Functioning, State-trait Anxiety Inventory, Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory, and Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale. All will be administered during the pre- and post-intervention, and 12 week follow-up periods. The CBT group will receive group therapy over an 8 week period (one session per week) with each session lasting approximately 100 minutes. Group therapy will consist of four or five adults with ASD and two psychologists. We will be using visual materials for this program, mainly the Cognitive Affective Training kit. Discussion This trial will hopefully indicate the efficacy of group-based CBT for adults with high- functioning ASD. Trial registration This trial was registered in The University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry No. UMIN000006236. PMID:23880333

2013-01-01

52

Premorbid teacher-rated social functioning predicts adult schizophrenia-spectrum disorder: a high-risk prospective investigation.  

PubMed

Social functioning deficits are a core component of schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and may emerge years prior to the onset of diagnosable illness. The current study prospectively examines the relation between teacher-rated childhood social dysfunction and later mental illness among participants who were at genetic high-risk for schizophrenia and controls (n=244). The teacher-rated social functioning scale significantly predicted psychiatric outcomes (schizophrenia-spectrum vs. other psychiatric disorder vs. no mental illness). Poor premorbid social functioning appears to constitute a marker of illness vulnerability and may also function as a chronic stressor potentially exacerbating risk for illness. PMID:24210529

Tsuji, Thomas; Kline, Emily; Sorensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik L; Michelsen, Niels M; Ekstrom, Morten; Mednick, Sarnoff; Schiffman, Jason

2013-12-01

53

A Nationwide Survey on Quality of Life and Associated Factors of Adults with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The psychosocial outcomes of individuals with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD) appear to be diverse and are often poor relative to their intellectual or language level. To identify predictive variables that are potentially ameliorable by therapeutic intervention, this study investigated self-reported psychosocial quality of life…

Kamio, Yoko; Inada, Naoko; Koyama, Tomonori

2013-01-01

54

Family functioning and suicidality in depressed adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the association between suicidality, family factors, and clinical and diagnostic variables in depressed adult inpatients. The subjects were 121 depressed adult inpatients living with a family member or significant other. Demographic, clinical, and diagnostic information about the patient, and subjective and observer ratings of family functioning were obtained. Trained interviewers rated families of suicidal depressed patients as

Wilson McDermut; Ivan W. Miller; David Solomon; Christine E. Ryan; Gabor I. Keitner

2001-01-01

55

Functional Performance in Community Living Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Routinely, physical therapists use a variety of physical performance tests to determine functional status of older adults. Whereas many commonly used instruments have been evaluated for some aspects of reliability and valid- ity, few studies report typical performance for community liv- ing older adults, especially those who are 80 years and older and use an assistive ambulatory device. The

Michelle M. Lusardi; Geraldine L. Pellecchia

56

High-intensity interval training on an aquatic treadmill in adults with osteoarthritis: effect on pain, balance, function, and mobility.  

PubMed

Although aquatic exercise is considered a potentially effective treatment intervention for people with osteoarthritis (OA), previous research has focused primarily on calisthenics in a shallow pool with the inherent limitations on regulating exercise intensity. The purpose of this study was to quantify the efficacy of a 6-week aquatic treadmill exercise program on measures of pain, balance, function, and mobility. Eighteen participants (age = 64.5 ± 10.2 years) with knee OA completed a non-exercise control period followed by a 6-week exercise period. Outcome measures included visual analog scales for pain, posturography for balance, sit-to-stand test for function, and a 10-m walk test for mobility. The exercise protocol included balance training and high-intensity interval training (HIT) in an aquatic treadmill using water jets to destabilize while standing and achieve high ratings of perceived exertion (14-19) while walking. In comparison with pretests, participants displayed reduced joint pain (pre = 50.3 ± 24.8 mm vs. post = 15.8 ± 10.6 mm), improved balance (equilibrium pre = 66.6 ± 11.0 vs. post = 73.5 ± 7.1), function (rising index pre = 0.49 ± 0.19% vs. post = 0.33 ± 0.11%), and mobility (walk pre = 8.6 ± 1.4 s vs. post = 7.8 ± 1.1 s) after participating in the exercise protocol (p = 0.03-0.001). The same benefits were not observed after the non-exercise control period. Adherence to the exercise protocol was exceptional and no participants reported adverse effects, suggesting that aquatic treadmill exercise that incorporates balance and HIT training was well tolerated by patients with OA and may be effective at managing symptoms of OA. PMID:25057845

Bressel, Eadric; Wing, Jessica E; Miller, Andrew I; Dolny, Dennis G

2014-08-01

57

Prospective memory in adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders: exploring effects of implementation intentions and retrospective memory load.  

PubMed

This study examined, for the first time, the impact of implementation intentions on prospective memory (PM) performance in adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and further explored the role of retrospective memory for PM in ASD. PM was assessed with Virtual Week, a computerized game simulating upcoming everyday-life tasks. Twenty-seven adults with ASD and 27 age- and ability-matched controls were included. Half of the participants were instructed to form implementation intentions (i.e., encoding PM tasks in form of if-then statements), while the rest received simple PM instructions. Results provide first tentative evidence for beneficial effects of implementation intentions and PM tasks with low demands on retrospective memory for adults with ASD's PM. Overall, results point to the importance of planning and retrospective memory for successful prospective remembering in ASD. PMID:25151603

Kretschmer, Anett; Altgassen, Mareike; Rendell, Peter G; Bölte, Sven

2014-11-01

58

Social Skills Training for Young Adults with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the psychosocial difficulties common among young adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), little to no evidence-based social skills interventions exist for this population. Using a randomized controlled trial (RCT) design, the current study tested the effectiveness of an evidence-based, caregiver-assisted social skills intervention…

Gantman, Alexander; Kapp, Steven K.; Orenski, Kaely; Laugeson, Elizabeth A.

2012-01-01

59

No significant brain volume decreases or increases in adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder and above average intelligence: a voxel-based morphometric study.  

PubMed

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is increasingly being recognized as an important issue in adult psychiatry and psychotherapy. High intelligence indicates overall good brain functioning and might thus present a particularly good opportunity to study possible cerebral correlates of core autistic features in terms of impaired social cognition, communication skills, the need for routines, and circumscribed interests. Anatomical MRI data sets for 30 highly intelligent patients with high-functioning autism and 30 pairwise-matched control subjects were acquired and analyzed with voxel-based morphometry. The gray matter volume of the pairwise-matched patients and the controls did not differ significantly. When correcting for total brain volume influences, the patients with ASD exhibited smaller left superior frontal volumes on a trend level. Heterogeneous volumetric findings in earlier studies might partly be explained by study samples biased by a high inclusion rate of secondary forms of ASD, which often go along with neuronal abnormalities. Including only patients with high IQ scores might have decreased the influence of secondary forms of ASD and might explain the absence of significant volumetric differences between the patients and the controls in this study. PMID:24953998

Riedel, Andreas; Maier, Simon; Ulbrich, Melanie; Biscaldi, Monica; Ebert, Dieter; Fangmeier, Thomas; Perlov, Evgeniy; Tebartz van Elst, Ludger

2014-08-30

60

Functional genomics suggest neurogenesis in the adult human olfactory bulb.  

PubMed

The human olfactory bulb displays high morphologic dynamics changing its volume with olfactory function, which has been explained by active neurogenetic processes. Discussion continues whether the human olfactory bulb hosts a continuous turnover of neurons. We analyzed the transcriptome via RNA quantification of adult human olfactory bulbs and intersected the set of expressed transcriptomic genes with independently available proteomic expression data. To obtain a functional genomic perspective, this intersection was analyzed for higher-level organization of gene products into biological pathways established in the gene ontology database. We report that a fifth of genes expressed in adult human olfactory bulbs serve functions of nervous system or neuron development, half of them functionally converging to axonogenesis but no other non-neurogenetic biological processes. Other genes were expectedly involved in signal transmission and response to chemical stimuli. This provides a novel, functional genomics perspective supporting the existence of neurogenesis in the adult human olfactory bulb. PMID:23928746

Lötsch, Jörn; Schaeffeler, Elke; Mittelbronn, Michel; Winter, Stefan; Gudziol, Volker; Schwarzacher, Stephan W; Hummel, Thomas; Doehring, Alexandra; Schwab, Matthias; Ultsch, Alfred

2014-11-01

61

Functional Literacy of Young Guyanese Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the rationale, development, and administration of the test used for measuring levels of achievement in functional literacy in Guyana. Draws attention to the difficulty of attracting funding for literacy programmes from international aid agencies, given the inflated adult literacy rate that is reported for Guyana in international…

Jennings, Zellyne

2000-01-01

62

A descriptive study of colorectal function in adults with Prader-Willi Syndrome: high prevalence of constipation  

PubMed Central

Background Some patients with Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) have symptoms of constipation, but bowel function in PWS has never been systematically evaluated. The aim of the present study was to describe colorectal function in PWS by means of validated techniques. Methods Twenty-one patients with PWS (14 women, age 17–47 (median?=?32)) were evaluated with the Rome III constipation criteria, stool diary, digital rectal examination, rectal diameter assessed from transabdominal ultrasound, and total gastrointestinal transit time (GITT) determined with radio-opaque markers. Results were compared with those of healthy controls. Results Among PWS patients able to provide information for Rome III criteria, 8/20 (40%) fulfilled the criteria for constipation. Most commonly reported symptoms were a feeling of obstructed defecation (8/19, 42%), <3 defecations per week (8/17, 47%), straining during defecation (7/19, 37%) and lumpy or hard stools (6/19, 32%). Rectal diameter did not differ between PWS (median 3.56 centimeters, range 2.24–5.36) and healthy controls (median 3.42 centimeters, range 2.67–4.72) (p?=?0.96), but more PWS patients (13/20; 65%) than healthy controls (3/25; 12%) (p?3 days in 5/21 (24%) of PWS and none of the controls (p?=?0.047). Conclusion Constipation is very common in PWS. Patients with PWS have an increased prevalence of prolonged GITT and palpable stools in the rectum at digital rectal examination. PMID:24708524

2014-01-01

63

Maternal high-fat diet induces insulin resistance and deterioration of pancreatic ?-cell function in adult offspring with sex differences in mice.  

PubMed

Intrauterine environment may influence the health of postnatal offspring. There have been many studies on the effects of maternal high-fat diet (HFD) on diabetes and glucose metabolism in offspring. Here, we investigated the effects in male and female offspring. C57/BL6J mice were bred and fed either control diet (CD) or HFD from conception to weaning, and offspring were fed CD or HFD from 6 to 20 wk. At 20 wk, maternal HFD induced glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in offspring. Additionally, liver triacylglycerol content, adipose tissue mass, and inflammation increased in maternal HFD. In contrast, extending previous observations, insulin secretion at glucose tolerance test, islet area, insulin content, and PDX-1 mRNA levels in isolated islets were lower in maternal HFD in males, whereas they were higher in females. Oxidative stress in islets increased in maternal HFD in males, whereas there were no differences in females. Plasma estradiol levels were lower in males than in females and decreased in offspring fed HFD and also decreased by maternal HFD, suggesting that females may be protected from insulin deficiency by inhibiting oxidative stress. In conclusion, maternal HFD induced insulin resistance and deterioration of pancreatic ?-cell function, with marked sex differences in adult offspring accompanied by adipose tissue inflammation and liver steatosis. Additionally, our results demonstrate that potential mechanisms underlying sex differences in pancreatic ?-cell function may be related partially to increases in oxidative stress in male islets and decreased plasma estradiol levels in males. PMID:24691028

Yokomizo, Hisashi; Inoguchi, Toyoshi; Sonoda, Noriyuki; Sakaki, Yuka; Maeda, Yasutaka; Inoue, Tomoaki; Hirata, Eiichi; Takei, Ryoko; Ikeda, Noriko; Fujii, Masakazu; Fukuda, Kei; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Takayanagi, Ryoichi

2014-05-15

64

The effects of red meat consumption and high-intensity resistance training of skeletal muscle strength, muscle mass and functional status in healthy older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the older adult representing an increasingly large percentage of the Western world, attempts are being sought to improve their healthy aging through various modes of prevention. The age-associated declines that occur in the physiological and functional systems along with levels of physical activity and quality of life have the potential to be attenuated and ameliorated with various forms of

Irene Fe Gutteridge

2008-01-01

65

Biochemical and functional characterization of charge-defined subfractions of high-density lipoprotein from normal adults.  

PubMed

High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is regarded as atheroprotective because it provides antioxidant and anti-inflammatory benefits and plays an important role in reverse cholesterol transport. In this paper, we outline a novel methodology for studying the heterogeneity of HDL. Using anion-exchange chromatography, we separated HDL from 6 healthy individuals into five subfractions (H1 through H5) with increasing charge and evaluated the composition and biologic activities of each subfraction. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis showed that apolipoprotein (apo) AI and apoAII were present in all 5 subfractions; apoCI was present only in H1, and apoCIII and apoE were most abundantly present in H4 and H5. HDL-associated antioxidant enzymes such as lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase, lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2, and paraoxonase 1 were most abundant in H4 and H5. Lipoprotein isoforms were analyzed in each subfraction by using matrix-assisted laser desorption-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. To quantify other proteins in the HDL subfractions, we used the isobaric tags for the relative and absolute quantitation approach followed by nanoflow liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Most antioxidant proteins detected were found in H4 and H5. The ability of each subfraction to induce cholesterol efflux from macrophages increased with increasing HDL electronegativity, with the exception of H5, which promoted the least efflux activity. In conclusion, anion-exchange chromatography is an attractive method for separating HDL into subfractions with distinct lipoprotein compositions and biologic activities. By comparing the properties of these subfractions, it may be possible to uncover HDL-specific proteins that play a role in disease. PMID:24171625

Hsieh, Ju-Yi; Chang, Chiz-Tzung; Huang, Max T; Chang, Chia-Ming; Chen, Chia-Ying; Shen, Ming-Yi; Liao, Hsin-Yi; Wang, Guei-Jane; Chen, Chu-Huang; Chen, Chao-Jung; Yang, Chao-Yuh

2013-12-01

66

Spatial Navigation Impairments Among Intellectually High-Functioning Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorder: Exploring Relations With Theory of Mind, Episodic Memory, and Episodic Future Thinking  

PubMed Central

Research suggests that spatial navigation relies on the same neural network as episodic memory, episodic future thinking, and theory of mind (ToM). Such findings have stimulated theories (e.g., the scene construction and self-projection hypotheses) concerning possible common underlying cognitive capacities. Consistent with such theories, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by concurrent impairments in episodic memory, episodic future thinking, and ToM. However, it is currently unclear whether spatial navigation is also impaired. Hence, ASD provides a test case for the scene construction and self-projection theories. The study of spatial navigation in ASD also provides a test of the extreme male brain theory of ASD, which predicts intact or superior navigation (purportedly a systemizing skill) performance among individuals with ASD. Thus, the aim of the current study was to establish whether spatial navigation in ASD is impaired, intact, or superior. Twenty-seven intellectually high-functioning adults with ASD and 28 sex-, age-, and IQ-matched neurotypical comparison adults completed the memory island virtual navigation task. Tests of episodic memory, episodic future thinking, and ToM were also completed. Participants with ASD showed significantly diminished performance on the memory island task, and performance was positively related to ToM and episodic memory, but not episodic future thinking. These results suggest that (contra the extreme male brain theory) individuals with ASD have impaired survey-based navigation skills—that is, difficulties generating cognitive maps of the environment—and adds weight to the idea that scene construction/self-projection are impaired in ASD. The theoretical and clinical implications of these results are discussed. PMID:24364620

2013-01-01

67

Nutraceutical intervention improves older adults' cognitive functioning.  

PubMed

Interventions to improve the cognitive health of older adults are of critical importance. In the current study, we conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial using a pill-based nutraceutical (NT-020) that contained a proprietary formulation of blueberry, carnosine, green tea, vitamin D3, and Biovin to evaluate the impact on changes in multiple domains of cognitive functioning. One hundred and five cognitively intact adults aged 65-85 years of age (M=73.6 years) were randomized to receive NT-020 (n=52) or a placebo (n=53). Participants were tested with a battery of cognitive performance tests that were classified into six broad domains--episodic memory, processing speed, verbal ability, working memory, executive functioning, and complex speed at baseline and 2 months later. The results indicated that persons taking NT-020 improved significantly on two measures of processing speed across the 2-month test period in contrast to persons on the placebo whose performance did not change. None of the other cognitive ability measures were related to intervention group. The results also indicated that the NT-020 was well tolerated by older adults, and the presence of adverse events or symptoms did not differ between the NT-020 and placebo groups. Overall, the results of the current study were promising and suggest the potential for interventions like these to improve the cognitive health of older adults. PMID:24134194

Small, Brent J; Rawson, Kerri S; Martin, Christina; Eisel, Sarah L; Sanberg, Cyndy D; McEvoy, Cathy L; Sanberg, Paul R; Shytle, R Douglas; Tan, Jun; Bickford, Paula C

2014-02-01

68

Impact of intravenous infusions of low and high doses of gamma globulins (IVIG) on phagocytic functions in adults with primary humoral immunodeficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve adult patients with primary humoral immunodeficiency were treated for at least six months with IVIG 200 mg\\/kg\\/mo and then crossed over to a high dose of 600 mg\\/kg\\/mo. Polymorphonuclear and mononuclear cells of these patients were tested after the third infusion in the low-dose cycle and then after the third infusion in the high-dose cycle, each time a day

T. Van; G. Sussman; W. Pruzanski

1994-01-01

69

The effect of semantic and emotional context on written recall for verbal language in high functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—Several deficits have been proposed to account for cognitive impairment in autism including an inability to comprehend the perspectives of others ("theory of mind"), an inability to process emotional information, and difficulty drawing together diverse information in context ("central coherence"). Because context (central coherence) and emotion can influence memory, a study was designed to show if autism spectrum disorder was associated with impaired utilisation of context and emotion in recall; and if impairments in theory of mind processing would influence recall in autism spectrum disorder.?METHODS—Ten high functioning subjects with autism spectrum disorder and 13 age and IQ matched controls were tested using recall tests. In the first coherence memory test, subjects listened to a series of word lists that were in varying degrees of syntactic and semantic (coherent) order and were asked to recall the words. In the second coherence memory test, subjects listened to stories consisting of sentences that were, or were not, in logical (coherent) order. In the emotional memory test, the subjects listened to sentences that were highly emotional or non-emotional. In the theory of mind test, the subjects listened to stories requiring varying levels of understanding of the perspectives of others.?RESULTS—There were no significant differences between groups in recall of coherent versus incoherent word lists, nor was there a significant difference between groups in recall of coherent versus incoherent stories. However, the control subjects recalled more of the emotional than non-emotional sentences, whereas the autism spectrum disorder group did not show such a difference. No significant difference existed in recall of stories requiring varying levels of understanding of the perspectives of others among subjects with autism spectrum disorder, and subjects with autism spectrum disorder did not differ from control subjects in the influence of theory of mind content on story recall.?CONCLUSION—The study shows that memory in high functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder is facilitated by emotional content to a lesser degree than it is facilitated by coherence. Therefore, impairments in emotional processing cannot be considered as simply an effect of the "weak central coherence" theory in autism spectrum disorder. Whereas the reasons for this emotional deficit are unknown, evidence of abnormalities of the limbic structures in autism spectrum disorder may provide an anatomical explanation.?? PMID:9810938

Beversdorf, D; Anderson, J; Manning, S; Anderson, S; Nordgren, R; Felopulos, G; Nadeau, S; Heilman, K; Bauman, M

1998-01-01

70

High Velocity Power Training in Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increases in both the age and the number of older adults in the United States will likely result in more people living with functional limitations and physical disabilities. The impact of this change in demographics will not only sig- nificantly impact older adult quality of life but may overwhelm existing health care services for this population. Resis- tance training with

Stephen P. Sayers

2008-01-01

71

Young Adult Literature in the High School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses three ways that high school English teachers can use young adult books: as books for whole-class study, as read-alouds, and as "classroom library" books to recommend to students for independent reading. Presents criteria for selecting novels for classroom study and for reading aloud. Mentions 53 young adult novels to consider for these…

Wilder, Ann, Ed.; Teasley, Alan B., Ed.

1998-01-01

72

Predicting young adult social functioning from developmental trajectories of externalizing behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results. Children with high-level trajectories of opposition and status violations reported more impaired social functioning as young adults than children with high-level trajectories of aggression and property violations. Young adults who showed onset of problems in adolescence reported overall less impaired social functioning than individuals with high-level externalizing problems starting in childhood. Overall, males reported more impaired social functioning in

J. van der Ende

2008-01-01

73

Sensory and Cognitive Factors Influencing Functional Ability in Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Age-related sensory and cognitive impairments have been related to functional performance in older adults. With regard to cognitive abilities, processing speed in particular may be strongly related to older adults’ abilities to perform everyday tasks. Identifying and comparing cognitive correlates of functional performance is particularly important in order to design interventions to promote independence and prevent functional disability. Objective:

Kimberly M. Wood; Jerri D. Edwards; Olivio J. Clay; Virginia G. Wadley; Daniel L. Roenker; Karlene K. Ball

2005-01-01

74

Endogenous Spatial Attention: Evidence for Intact Functioning in Adults With Autism  

E-print Network

Endogenous Spatial Attention: Evidence for Intact Functioning in Adults With Autism Michael A aspect of human cognition, and previous research on spatial attention in individuals with autism spectrum stimulus). We found that high-functioning adults with autism exhibited slower reaction times overall

Carrasco, Marisa

75

Aerobic reserve and physical functional performance in older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: older adults can be limited in their performance of daily tasks due to an inadequate aerobic capacity. Aerobic capacity below minimum physiological thresholds required to maintain independence leaves older adults with little, or no, aerobic reserve. Objective: the aim of this study was to measure functional performance and aerobic reserve in older adults during the serial performance of daily

SCOTT W. ARNETT; J ENNIFER; H. LAITY; S UBODH K. AGRAWAL; M. ELAINE CRESS

76

Brief Report: Examining Driving Behavior in Young Adults with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders--A Pilot Study Using a Driving Simulation Paradigm  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although it is speculated that impairments associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) will adversely affect driving performance, little is known about the actual extent and nature of the presumed deficits. Ten males (18-24 years of age) with a diagnosis of high functioning autism and 10 age matched community controls were recruited for a…

Reimer, Bryan; Fried, Ronna; Mehler, Bruce; Joshi, Gagan; Bolfek, Anela; Godfrey, Kathryn M.; Zhao, Nan; Goldin, Rachel; Biederman, Joseph

2013-01-01

77

Health-Related Variables and Functional Fitness among Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assesses the functional fitness of a convenient sample of older adults (greater than 70 years), to examine correlations between functional fitness and several other health-related variables and to compare with criterion performance data as established by Rikli and Jones (2001). One hundred and seven community-dwelling older adults with…

Wilkin, Linda D.; Haddock, Bryan L.

2010-01-01

78

Functional Impairment and Occupational Outcome in Adults with ADHD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: ADHD is associated with poor functional outcomes. The objectives were to investigate the prevalence of functional impairment and occupational status in a clinically referred sample of adults with ADHD and explore factors predicting occupational outcome. Method: A sample of 149 adults with a confirmed diagnosis of ADHD participated in…

Gjervan, Bjorn; Torgersen, Terje; Nordahl, Hans M.; Rasmussen, Kirsten

2012-01-01

79

Function of GATA Factors in the Adult Mouse Liver  

PubMed Central

GATA transcription factors and their Friend of Gata (FOG) cofactors control the development of diverse tissues. GATA4 and GATA6 are essential for the expansion of the embryonic liver bud, but their expression patterns and functions in the adult liver are unclear. We characterized the expression of GATA and FOG factors in whole mouse liver and purified hepatocytes. GATA4, GATA6, and FOG1 are the most prominently expressed family members in whole liver and hepatocytes. GATA4 chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) identified 4409 occupied sites, associated with genes enriched in ontologies related to liver function, including lipid and glucose metabolism. However, hepatocyte-specific excision of Gata4 had little impact on gross liver architecture and function, even under conditions of regenerative stress, and, despite the large number of GATA4 occupied genes, resulted in relatively few changes in gene expression. To address possible redundancy between GATA4 and GATA6, both factors were conditionally excised. Surprisingly, combined Gata4,6 loss did not exacerbate the phenotype resulting from Gata4 loss alone. This points to the presence of an unusually robust transcriptional network in adult hepatocytes that ensures the maintenance of liver function. PMID:24367609

Zheng, Rena; Rebolledo-Jaramillo, Boris; Zong, Yiwei; Wang, Liqing; Russo, Pierre; Hancock, Wayne; Stanger, Ben Z.; Hardison, Ross C.; Blobel, Gerd A.

2013-01-01

80

Hyperglycemia enhances function and differentiation of adult rat cardiac fibroblasts.  

PubMed

Diabetes is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease that can eventually cause cardiomyopathy and heart failure. Cardiac fibroblasts (CF) are the critical mediators of physiological and pathological cardiac remodeling; however, the effects of hyperglycemia on cardiac fibroblast function and differentiation is not well known. Here, we performed a comprehensive investigation on the effects of hyperglycemia on cardiac fibroblasts and show that hyperglycemia enhances cardiac fibroblast function and differentiation. We found that high glucose treatment increased collagen I, III, and VI gene expression in rat adult cardiac fibroblasts. Interestingly, hyperglycemia increased CF migration and proliferation that is augmented by collagen I and III. Surprisingly, we found that short term hyperglycemia transiently inhibited ERK1/2 activation but increased AKT phosphorylation. Finally, high glucose treatment increased spontaneous differentiation of cardiac fibroblasts to myofibroblasts with increasing passage compared with low glucose. Taken together, these findings suggest that hyperglycemia induces cardiac fibrosis by modulating collagen expression, migration, proliferation, and differentiation of cardiac fibroblasts. PMID:24959995

Shamhart, Patricia E; Luther, Daniel J; Adapala, Ravi K; Bryant, Jennifer E; Petersen, Kyle A; Meszaros, J Gary; Thodeti, Charles K

2014-07-01

81

Very old adults with better memory function have higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and lower triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratios: KOCOA project  

PubMed Central

We examined cross-sectionally which lipid profiles are associated with better cognitive function among those aged 80 and older-free of dementia (Clinical Dementia Rating ? 0.5), functionally independent and community-dwelling. Our cohort consisted of 193 participants from the “Keys to Optimal Cognitive Aging (KOCOA) Project”, a prospective cohort study in Okinawa, Japan. Higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and lower triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratios were associated with higher scores in memory performance after controlling for confounders. Further research is required to clarify the associations among LDL-C levels, TG/HDL-C ratios, and healthy cognitive aging. PMID:23207484

Katsumata, Yuriko; Todoriki, Hidemi; Higashiuesato, Yasushi; Yasura, Shotoku; Ohya, Yusuke; Willcox, D. Craig; Dodge, Hiroko H.

2013-01-01

82

Effect of Extended Release Niacin on Serum Lipids and on Endothelial Function in Adults with Sickle Cell Anemia and Low High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels  

PubMed Central

Through bound apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) activates endothelial nitric oxide synthase, inducing vasodilation. Because patients with sickle cell disease (SCD)have low apoA-I andendothelial dysfunction,we conducted a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial to test whether extended-release niacin (niacin-ER) increases apoA-I-containing HDL-C, and improves vascular function in SCD. Twenty-seven SCD patientswith HDL-C <39 mg/dL or apoA-I <99 mg/dL were randomized to 12 weeks of niacin-ER, increased in 500mg increments to a maximum of 1500mg daily, or placebo. The primary outcome was the absolute change in HDL-C after 12 weeks, with endothelial function assessed before and at the end of treatment. Niacin-ER-treated patients trended to greater increase in HDL-C compared with placebo treatment at 12 weeks (5.1±7.7 vs. 0.9±3.8 mg/dL, one-tailed p=0.07), associated with significantly greater, improvements in the ratios of low-density lipoprotein to HDL-C (1.24 vs. 1.95, p = 0.003), and apolipoprotein B to apoA-I (0.46 vs. 0.58, p = 0.03) compared with placebo-treated patients. No improvements were detected in three independent vascular physiology assays of endothelial function. Thus, the relatively small changes in HDL-C achieved by the dose of niacin-ER used in our study are not associated with improved vascular function in patients with SCD with initially low levels of apoA-I or HDL-C. PMID:24035168

Scoffone, Heather M.; Krajewski, Megan; Zorca, Suzana; Bereal-Williams, Candice; Littel, Patricia; Seamon, Catherine; Mendelsohn, Laurel; Footman, Eleni; Jaoudeh, Nadine Abi; Sachdev, Vandana; Machado, Roberto F.; Cuttica, Michael; Shamburek, Robert; Cannon, Richard O.; Remaley, Alan; Minniti, Caterina P.; Kato, Gregory J.

2014-01-01

83

Executive Function Predicts Artificial Language Learning in Children and Adults  

E-print Network

learners. The goal of the current studies was to test whether executive function abilities predict novel artificial language learning outcomes among children and adults. An artificial language was used to simulate the processes involved in natural language...

Kapa, Leah Lynn

2013-12-31

84

The Effects of Face Expertise Training on the Behavioral Performance and Brain Activity of Adults with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effect of expertise training with faces was studied in adults with ASD who showed initial impairment in face recognition. Participants were randomly assigned to a computerized training program involving either faces or houses. Pre- and post-testing included standardized and experimental measures of behavior and event-related brain potentials…

Faja, Susan; Webb, Sara Jane; Jones, Emily; Merkle, Kristen; Kamara, Dana; Bavaro, Joshua; Aylward, Elizabeth; Dawson, Geraldine

2012-01-01

85

Sense of Time and Executive Functioning in Children and Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of patient studies suggest that impairments in frontal lobe functions are associated with disorders in temporal information processing. One implication of these findings is that subjective experience of time should be related to executive functions regardless of etiology. In two experiments, we examined sense of time in relation to components of executive functioning in healthy children and adults.

Maria Grazia Carelli; Helen Forman; Timo Mäntylä

2008-01-01

86

Fronto-cerebellar systems are associated with infant motor and adult executive functions in healthy adults but not in schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delineating longitudinal relationships between early developmen- tal markers, adult cognitive function, and adult brain structure could clarify the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia. We aimed to identify brain structural cor- relates of infant motor development (IMD) and adult executive function in nonpsychotic adults and to test for abnormal associa- tions between these measures in people with schizophrenia. Rep-

Khanum Ridler; J. M. Veijola; Paivikki Tanskanen; Jouko Miettunen; Xavier Chitnis; John Suckling; G. K. Murray; Marianne Haapea; P. B. Jones; M. K. Isohanni; E. T. Bullmore

2006-01-01

87

The Effects of Face Expertise Training on the Behavioral Performance and Brain Activity of Adults with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of expertise training with faces was studied in adults with ASD who showed initial impairment in face recognition.\\u000a Participants were randomly assigned to a computerized training program involving either faces or houses. Pre- and post-testing\\u000a included standardized and experimental measures of behavior and event-related brain potentials (ERPs), as well as interviews\\u000a after training. After training, all participants met

Susan Faja; Sara Jane Webb; Emily Jones; Kristen Merkle; Dana Kamara; Joshua Bavaro; Elizabeth Aylward; Geraldine Dawson

88

A Functional-Notional Syllabus for Adult Learners of Irish.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first functional-notional syllabus for adult learners of Irish, written in Irish and English, is presented. The syllabus begins with an introductory section about functional-notional syllabi, their definitions and implications, and the characteristics of this syllabus. The second section provides the general aims and specific behavioral…

Little, David, Comp.; And Others

89

Functional Literacy in the Context of Adult Education. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In presenting the work of participants before and during the Symposium, the report begins with an introduction giving an overall view of concepts, projects, and problems of functional literacy with reference to other sections of the report. The keynote lecture deals with functional literacy in the context of adult education--results and innovative…

Muller, Josef, Ed.

90

Adult-specific functions of animal microRNAs  

PubMed Central

microRNAs (miRNAs) are ~22 nucleotide (nt) RNAs that coordinate vast regulatory networks in animals, and thereby influence myriad processes. This review examines evidence that miRNAs play continuous roles in adults, in ways that are separable from developmental control. Adult-specific activities for miRNAs have been described in a variety of stem cell populations, in the context of neural function and cardiovascular biology, in metabolism and physiology, and during cancer. In addition to reviewing recent results, we also discuss methods for studying miRNA activities specifically in adults and evaluate their relative strengths and weaknesses. A fuller understanding of continuous functions of miRNAs in adults has bearing on efforts and opportunities to manipulate miRNAs for therapeutic purposes. PMID:23817310

Sun, Kailiang; Lai, Eric C.

2014-01-01

91

Sensitivity and Specificity of Eustachian Tube Function Tests in Adults  

PubMed Central

Objective Determine if Eustachian Tube (ET) function (ETF) tests can identify ears with physician-diagnosed ET dysfunction (ETD) in a mixed population at high sensitivity and specificity and define the inter-relatedness of ETF test parameters. Methods ETF was evaluated using the Forced-Response, Inflation-Deflation, Valsalva and Sniffing tests in 15 control ears of adult subjects after unilateral myringotomy (Group I) and in 23 ears of 19 adult subjects with ventilation tubes inserted for ETD (Group II). Data were analyzed using logistic regression including each parameter independently and then a step-down Discriminant Analysis including all ETF test parameters to predict group assignment. Factor Analysis operating over all parameters was used to explore relatedness. Results The Discriminant Analysis identified 4 ETF test parameters (Valsalva, ET opening pressure, dilatory efficiency and % positive pressure equilibrated) that together correctly assigned ears to Group II at a sensitivity of 95% and a specificity of 83%. Individual parameters representing the efficiency of ET opening during swallowing showed moderately accurate assignments of ears to their respective groups. Three factors captured approximately 98% of the variance among parameters, the first had negative loadings of the ETF structural parameters, the second had positive loadings of the muscle-assisted ET opening parameters and the third had negative loadings of the muscle-assisted ET opening parameters and positive loadings of the structural parameters. Discussion These results show that ETF tests can correctly assign individual ears to physician-diagnosed ETD with high sensitivity and specificity and that ETF test parameters can be grouped into structural-functional categories. PMID:23868429

Doyle, William J.; Swarts, J. Douglas; Banks, Julianne; Casselbrant, Margaretha L; Mandel, Ellen M; Alper, Cuneyt M.

2013-01-01

92

Neuropsychological function in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.  

PubMed

This article reviews the current state of the literature pertaining to the neuropsychological dysfunctions that are found in children and adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Be-cause considerable controversy has existed about the nature and validity of adult ADHD, this article will aid clinicians in develop-ing a better understanding of the empirical literature on neuropsychological function in ADHD throughout the lifespan. PMID:15063997

Seidman, Larry J; Doyle, Alysa; Fried, Ronna; Valera, Eve; Crum, Katherine; Matthews, Lauren

2004-06-01

93

Schizotypal traits and cognitive function in healthy adults.  

PubMed

Growing evidence has shown that psychometrically identified schizotypes among student populations have subtle cognitive impairments in several domains such as attention, working memory and executive function, but the possible association between psychometric schizotypy in adult populations and cognitive function has not been well documented. Here we examined the association between schizotypal traits as assessed by the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) and cognitive function including memory, attention, executive function, and general intelligence in 124 healthy adults. Cognitive functioning was assessed with the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R), the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R), and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). SPQ scores showed a significant inverse correlation with verbal IQ and the information, comprehension and similarities subtests. No correlation was found between SPQ scores and memory, attention, performance IQ, or executive functioning. These results indicate that schizotypal traits in healthy adults are associated with verbal IQ decrements, suggesting that schizotypal traits themselves, even at a non-clinical level, may play unfavorable roles in cognitive functioning, which is in line with the viewpoint that schizotypy is on a continuum with normality, with its extreme form being clinically expressed as schizophrenia. PMID:18849081

Noguchi, Hiroko; Hori, Hiroaki; Kunugi, Hiroshi

2008-11-30

94

Executive and Visuo-Motor Function in Adolescents and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study broadly examines executive (EF) and visuo-motor function in 30 adolescent and adult individuals with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in comparison to 28 controls matched for age, gender, and IQ. ASD individuals showed impaired spatial working memory, whereas planning, cognitive flexibility, and inhibition were spared.…

Sachse, Michael; Schlitt, Sabine; Hainz, Daniela; Ciaramidaro, Angela; Schirman, Shella; Walter, Henrik; Poustka, Fritz; Bolte, Sven; Freitag, Christine M.

2013-01-01

95

Diminished Time-Based, but Undiminished Event-Based, Prospective Memory Among Intellectually High-Functioning Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorder: Relation to Working Memory Ability  

PubMed Central

Objective: Prospective memory (PM) is the ability to remember to carry out an intended action. Working memory is the ability to store information in mind while processing potentially distracting information. The few previous studies of PM in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have yielded inconsistent findings. Studies of working memory ability in ASD have suggested a selective impairment of “visual working memory.” However, it remains unclear whether any such impairment is the result of diminished (domain-specific; visual/verbal) storage capacity or diminished (domain-general) processing capacity. We aim to clarify these issues and explore the relation between PM and working memory in ASD. Method: Seventeen adults with ASD and 17 age- and IQ-matched comparison participants completed experimental measures of both event-based (perform action x when event y occurs) and time-based (perform action a at time b) PM, plus a self-report measure of PM skills. Participants also completed a working memory test battery. Results: Participants with ASD self-reported diminished PM skill, and showed diminished performance on the time-based, but not event-based, PM task. On the working memory test battery, visual but not verbal storage capacity was diminished among participants with ASD, as was processing ability. Whereas visual storage was associated with event-based PM task performance among comparison participants, verbal storage was associated among ASD participants. Conclusions: ASD appears to involve a selective deficit in time-based PM and a selective difficulty with aspects of working memory that depend on the storage of visual information. However, event-based PM may be achieved through compensatory strategies in ASD. PMID:24128041

2013-01-01

96

Abnormal Pulmonary Function in Adults with Sickle Cell Anemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale: Pulmonary complications of sickle cell anemia (Hb-SS) commonly cause morbidity, yet few large studies of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in this population have been reported. Objectives: PFTs (spirometry, lung volumes, and diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO)) from 310 adults with Hb-SS were ana- lyzed to determine the pattern of pulmonary dysfunction and their association with other systemic complications

Elizabeth S. Klings; Diego F. Wyszynski; Vikki G. Nolan; Martin H. Steinberg

2006-01-01

97

The impact of child sexual abuse on adult interpersonal functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The many studies that have examined the long-term impact of child sexual abuse (CSA) on adult functioning have primarily focused on the personal distress of survivors, largely ignoring the impact of CSA on interpersonal relationships. This article reviews empirical findings concerning the interpersonal distress of survivors as expressed in their intimate and sexual relationships. First, current conceptualizations of the relationship

Joanne L Davis; Patricia A Petretic-Jackson

2000-01-01

98

Executive Function, Working Memory, and Medication Adherence Among Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between cognitive processes and medication adherence among community-dwelling older adults. Ninety-five participants (M = 78 years) completed a battery of cognitive assessments including measures of executive function, working memory, cued recall, and recognition memory. Medication adherence was examined over 8 weeks for one prescribed medicine by use of an electronic

Kathleen Insel; Daniel Morrow; Barbara Brewer; Aurelio Figueredo

2006-01-01

99

Time monitoring and executive functioning in children and adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined time-based prospective memory performance in relation to individual and developmental differences in executive functioning. School-age children and young adults completed six experimental tasks that tapped three basic components of executive functioning: inhibition, updating, and mental shifting. Monitoring performance was examined in a time-based prospective memory task in which participants indicated the passing of time every 5min while

Timo Mäntylä; Maria Grazia Carelli; Helen Forman

2007-01-01

100

Motor function in adults with Asperger's disorder: a comparative study.  

PubMed

In the original description of Asperger's disorder (AD), clumsiness was an associated feature. Several studies of children have shown deficits in motor control, whereas research regarding adults is scarce. The aim of the present study was to compare motor function in adults with AD, with a normal comparison group. Gross and fine motor skills were examined by a standardized, norm referenced test developed for children, but also used in young adults, the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOTMP). In addition, a questionnaire regarding the participants' physical activity during leisure time was administered. We found that adults (age 21-35) with AD (N = 15) performed significantly worse than the normal comparison group (N = 29) in six of eight subtests in the BOTMP. Males with AD were less physically active than males in the comparison group. Among females, physical activity did not differ between the groups. There was a positive association between physical activity and gross motor function in the AD group. Participants with AD were encouraged by the assessments. Physical coaching may be an important future field for improving quality of life in adults with AD. PMID:18432510

Sahlander, Carina; Mattsson, Monica; Bejerot, Susanne

2008-01-01

101

Multi-tasking, Executive Function, and Functional Abilities in Older Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus  

E-print Network

There is growing evidence that older adults with type 2 diabetes exhibit deficits in executive function, the set of processes responsible for planning, organizing, sequencing, and monitoring goal-oriented behavior. However, ...

Rucker, Jason Lee

2014-05-31

102

Basal ganglia function, stuttering, sequencing, and repair in adult songbirds.  

PubMed

A pallial-basal-ganglia-thalamic-pallial loop in songbirds is involved in vocal motor learning. Damage to its basal ganglia part, Area X, in adult zebra finches has been noted to have no strong effects on song and its function is unclear. Here we report that neurotoxic damage to adult Area X induced changes in singing tempo and global syllable sequencing in all animals, and considerably increased syllable repetition in birds whose song motifs ended with minor repetitions before lesioning. This stuttering-like behavior started at one month, and improved over six months. Unexpectedly, the lesioned region showed considerable recovery, including immigration of newly generated or repaired neurons that became active during singing. The timing of the recovery and stuttering suggest that immature recovering activity of the circuit might be associated with stuttering. These findings indicate that even after juvenile learning is complete, the adult striatum plays a role in higher level organization of learned vocalizations. PMID:25307086

Kubikova, Lubica; Bosikova, Eva; Cvikova, Martina; Lukacova, Kristina; Scharff, Constance; Jarvis, Erich D

2014-01-01

103

Basal ganglia function, stuttering, sequencing, and repair in adult songbirds  

PubMed Central

A pallial-basal-ganglia-thalamic-pallial loop in songbirds is involved in vocal motor learning. Damage to its basal ganglia part, Area X, in adult zebra finches has been noted to have no strong effects on song and its function is unclear. Here we report that neurotoxic damage to adult Area X induced changes in singing tempo and global syllable sequencing in all animals, and considerably increased syllable repetition in birds whose song motifs ended with minor repetitions before lesioning. This stuttering-like behavior started at one month, and improved over six months. Unexpectedly, the lesioned region showed considerable recovery, including immigration of newly generated or repaired neurons that became active during singing. The timing of the recovery and stuttering suggest that immature recovering activity of the circuit might be associated with stuttering. These findings indicate that even after juvenile learning is complete, the adult striatum plays a role in higher level organization of learned vocalizations. PMID:25307086

Kubikova, Lubica; Bosikova, Eva; Cvikova, Martina; Lukacova, Kristina; Scharff, Constance; Jarvis, Erich D.

2014-01-01

104

Low level methylmercury exposure affects neuropsychological function in adults  

PubMed Central

Background The neurotoxic effects of methylmercury (MeHg) have been demonstrated in both human and animal studies. Both adult and fetal brains are susceptible to the effects of MeHg toxicity. However, the specific effects of adult exposures have been less well-documented than those of children with prenatal exposures. This is largely because few studies of MeHg exposures in adults have used sensitive neurological endpoints. The present study reports on the results of neuropsychological testing and hair mercury concentrations in adults (>17 yrs) living in fishing communities of Baixada Cuiabana (Mato Grosso) in the Pantanal region of Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in six villages on the Cuiaba River. Participants included 129 men and women older than 17 years of age. They were randomly selected in proportion to the age range and number of inhabitants in each village. Questionnaire information was collected on demographic variables, including education, occupation, and residence history. Mercury exposure was determined by analysis of hair using flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The neurocognitive screening battery included tests from the Wechsler Memory Scale and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Concentrated Attention Test of the Toulouse-Pierron Factorial Battery, the Manual Ability Subtests of the Tests of Mechanical Ability, and the Profile of Mood States. Results Mercury exposures in this population were associated with fish consumption. The hair mercury concentration in the 129 subjects ranged from 0.56 to 13.6 ?g/g; the mean concentration was 4.2 ± 2.4 micrograms/g and the median was 3.7 ?g/g. Hair mercury levels were associated with detectable alterations in performance on tests of fine motor speed and dexterity, and concentration. Some aspects of verbal learning and memory were also disrupted by mercury exposure. The magnitude of the effects increased with hair mercury concentration, consistent with a dose-dependent effect. Conclusions This study suggests that adults exposed to MeHg may be at risk for deficits in neurocognitive function. The functions disrupted in adults, namely attention, fine-motor function and verbal memory, are similar to some of those previously reported in children with prenatal exposures. PMID:12844364

Yokoo, Edna M; Valente, Joaquim G; Grattan, Lynn; Schmidt, Sergio Luis; Platt, Illeane; Silbergeld, Ellen K

2003-01-01

105

Relation of fetal growth to adult lung function in south India  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Follow up studies in Britain have shown that low rates of fetal growth are followed by reduced lung function in adult life, independent of smoking and social class. It is suggested that fetal adaptations to undernutrition in utero result in permanent changes in lung structure, which in turn lead to chronic airflow obstruction. India has high rates of intrauterine

C. E. Stein; K. Kumaran; C. H. Fall; S. O. Shaheen; C. Osmond; D. J. Barker

1997-01-01

106

Daily egg consumption in hyperlipidemic adults - Effects on endothelial function and cardiovascular risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Limiting consumption of eggs, which are high in cholesterol, is generally recommended to reduce risk of cardiovascular disease. However, recent evidence suggests that dietary cholesterol has limited influence on serum cholesterol or cardiac risk. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of egg consumption on endothelial function and serum lipids in hyperlipidemic adults. METHODS: Randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial of 40 hyperlipidemic

Valentine Njike; Zubaida Faridi; Suparna Dutta; Anjelica L Gonzalez-Simon; David L Katz

2010-01-01

107

Cognitive Functioning and Everyday Problem Solving in Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between cognitive functioning and a performance-based measure of everyday problem-solving, the Everyday Problems Test (EPT), thought to index instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), was examined in 291 community-dwelling non-demented older adults. Performance on the EPT was found to vary according to age, cognitive status, and education. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that, after adjusting for demographic and health

Catherine L. Burton; Esther Strauss; David F. Hultsch; Michael A. Hunter

2006-01-01

108

The test of functional health literacy in adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To develop a valid, reliable instrument to measure the functional health literacy of patients.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a DESIGN: The Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (TOFHLA) was developed using actual hospital materials. The TOFHLA consists\\u000a of a 50-item reading comprehension and 17-item numerical ability test, taking up to 22 minutes to administer. The TOFHLA,\\u000a the Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised (WRAT-R), and

Ruth M. Parker; David W. Baker; Mark V. Williams; Joanne R. Nurss

1995-01-01

109

Functioning Assessment Short Test (FAST): validity and reliability in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.  

PubMed

Studies highlight that the functional deficits in different areas of a subject's life are an important characteristic that define adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). On the other hand, in the scientific literature, there are no evaluation instruments with psychometric studies concerning their reliability and validity for this variable in adults with ADHD. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Functioning Assessment Short Test (FAST), regarding its reliability and validity, as a measure of adult ADHD functioning. A case-control study was carried out in a sample of 152 adult subjects (88 with ADHD diagnosis and 64 healthy controls). The psychometric properties of the instrument were analyzed regarding feasibility, internal consistency, concurrent validity, discriminant validity (ADHD vs. controls) and factor analysis. For the total scale, Cronbach's alpha was of 0.83, and strong values in the measures of its discriminant capacity were obtained, AUC ROC = 0.98, IC (0.96-0.99). The test is reliable as the internal consistency was high. Significant differences are observed in the correlation between domains, between healthy subjects and subjects with ADHD. ADHD subjects showed impairments in all areas of their life, especially in the cognitive functioning domain, followed by the autonomy, occupational functioning and interpersonal relationships domains. The FAST is an easily administered short interview and has good psychometric properties, in terms of reliability and validity, as a measure of the functional level in adults with ADHD. The study also showed that subjects with adult ADHD may be functionally impaired. PMID:24710954

Rotger, Sofía; Richarte, Vanesa; Nogueira, Mariana; Corrales, Montse; Bosch, Rosa; Vidal, Raquel; Marfil, Lidia; Valero, Sergi; Vieta, Eduard; Goikolea, José Manuel; Torres, Imma; Rosa, Adriane; Mur, María; Casas, Miguel; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep Antoni

2014-12-01

110

Executive function and bilingualism in young and older adults  

PubMed Central

Research suggests that being bilingual results in advantages on executive control processes and disadvantages on language tasks relative to monolinguals. Furthermore, the executive function advantage is thought to be larger in older than younger adults, suggesting that bilingualism may buffer against age-related changes in executive function. However, there are potential confounds in some of the previous research, as well as inconsistencies in the literature. The goal of the current investigation was to examine the presence of a bilingual advantage in executive control and a bilingual disadvantage on language tasks in the same sample of young and older monolingual anglophones, monolingual francophones, and French/English bilinguals. Participants completed a series of executive function tasks, including a Stroop task, a Simon task, a sustained attention to response task (SART), the Wisconsin Card Sort Test (WCST), and the digit span subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, and language tasks, including the Boston Naming Test (BNT), and category and letter fluency. The results do not demonstrate an unequivocal advantage for bilinguals on executive function tasks and raise questions about the reliability, robustness and/or specificity of previous findings. The results also did not demonstrate a disadvantage for bilinguals on language tasks. Rather, they suggest that there may be an influence of the language environment. It is concluded that additional research is required to fully characterize any language group differences in both executive function and language tasks. PMID:25120442

Kousaie, Shanna; Sheppard, Christine; Lemieux, Maude; Monetta, Laura; Taler, Vanessa

2014-01-01

111

Increased odor detection speed in highly anxious healthy adults.  

PubMed

Anxiety can either impair or enhance performance depending on the context. Increased sensitivity to threat seems to be an important feature of sensory processing in anxiety since anxious individuals tend to be more attentive to threatening visual stimuli. Evidence of anxiety effects in olfaction is rare; though alterations of olfactory performance in psychiatric patients and some effects of trait and state anxiety on olfactory performance have been reported. Our main objective was thus to investigate whether olfactory processing speed varies as a function of trait anxiety levels. We additionally investigated a possible preferential bias for unpleasant odors in highly anxious participants. Thirty-eight healthy adults participated in a simple odor detection task, where response times (RTs) and anxiety levels were measured. We compared RTs to a pleasant and an unpleasant food odor between high- and low-trait anxiety participants. We found that high-trait anxiety participants detected both odors faster than low-trait anxiety participants, independently of odor pleasantness. Moreover, trait anxiety levels significantly correlated with reaction times to both odors, indicating that trait anxiety but not odor pleasantness influences olfactory detection speed. These findings provide new insights into olfactory processing in healthy adults showing how various levels of trait anxiety affect the olfactory modality. PMID:23811013

La Buissonnière-Ariza, Valérie; Lepore, Franco; Kojok, Kevin M; Frasnelli, Johannes

2013-09-01

112

Impaired executive functioning in young adults born very preterm.  

PubMed

Individuals born very preterm (VPT) are at increased risk of perinatal brain injury and long-term cognitive and behavioral problems. Executive functioning, in particular, has been shown to be impaired in VPT children and adolescents. This study prospectively assessed executive function in young adults who were born VPT (<33 weeks of gestation) [n = 61; mean age, 22.25 (+/-1.07) years; range, 20.62-24.78 years] and controls [n = 64; mean age, 23.20 (+/-1.48) years; range, 19.97-25.46 years]. Tests used comprised the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI), the Hayling Sentence Completion Test (HSCT), the Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT), the Animal and Object test, the Trail-Making Test (TMT), and the Test of Attentional Performance (TAP). VPT participants showed specific executive function impairments in tasks involving response inhibition and mental flexibility, even when adjusting for IQ, gender, and age. No significant associations were observed between executive function test scores and perinatal variables or neonatal ultrasound classification. The results suggest that, although free from major physical disability, VPT young adults perform worse than controls on tasks involving selective aspects of executive processing, such as mental flexibility and response inhibition. PMID:17521479

Nosarti, Chiara; Giouroukou, Elena; Micali, Nadia; Rifkin, Larry; Morris, Robin G; Murray, Robin M

2007-07-01

113

Functional Impairment in Adult Sleepwalkers: A Case-Control Study  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To investigate the restorative quality of sleep and daytime functioning in sleepwalking adult patients in comparison with controls. Design: Prospective case-control study. Setting: Data were collected at the Sleep Disorders Center, Hôpital-Gui-de Chauliac, Montpellier, France between June 2007 and January 2011. Participants: There were 140 adult sleepwalkers (100 (median age 30 y, 55% male) in whom primary SW was diagnosed) who underwent 1 night of video polysomnography. All patients participated in a standardized clinical interview and completed a battery of questionnaires to assess clinical characteristics of parasomnia, daytime sleepiness, fatigue, insomnia, depressive and anxiety symptoms, and health-related quality of life. Results were compared with those of 100 sex- and age-matched normal controls. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Of the sleepwalkers, 22.3% presented with daily episodes and 43.5% presented with weekly episodes. Median age at sleepwalking onset was 9 y. Familial history of sleepwalking was reported in 56.6% of sleepwalkers and violent sleep related behaviors in 57.9%, including injuries requiring medical care for at least one episode in 17%. Significant associations were found between sleepwalking and daytime sleepiness, fatigue, insomnia, depressive and anxiety symptoms, and altered quality of life. Early-onset sleepwalkers had higher frequency of violent behaviors and injuries. Sleepwalkers with violent behaviors had higher frequency of sleep terrors and triggering factors, with greater alteration in health-related quality of life. Conclusion: Adult sleepwalking is a potentially serious condition that may induce violent behaviors, self-injury or injury to bed partners, sleep disruption, excessive daytime sleepiness, fatigue, and psychological distress, all of which affect health-related quality of life. Citation: Lopez R; Jaussent I; Scholz S; Bayard S; Montplaisir J; Dauvilliers Y. Functional impairment in adult sleepwalkers: a case-control study. SLEEP 2013;36(3):345-351. PMID:23450499

Lopez, Regis; Jaussent, Isabelle; Scholz, Sabine; Bayard, Sophie; Montplaisir, Jacques; Dauvilliers, Yves

2013-01-01

114

Study of Adult Functional Illiteracy in the Appalachian Region, 1978-1980.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The adult performance level (APL) definition of functional competency was used as the operationalized definition of functional literacy to study the extent of adult functional illiteracy for adults from 25 through 44 years of age in three sites in the App...

M. E. Brady

1980-01-01

115

Cholinergic enhancement of functional networks in older adults with MCI  

PubMed Central

Objective The importance of the cholinergic system for cognitive function has been well-documented in animal and human studies. The objective of this study was to elucidate the cognitive and functional connectivity changes associated with enhanced acetylcholine (ACh) levels. We hypothesized older adults with mild memory deficits would show behavioral and functional network enhancements with an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor treatment (donepezil) when compared to a placebo control group. Methods We conducted a 3-month, double-blind, placebo-controlled study on the effects of donepezil in twenty-seven older adults with mild memory deficits. Participants completed a delayed recognition memory task. FMRI scans were collected at baseline prior to treatment and at 3-month follow-up while on a 10 mg daily dose of donepezil or placebo. Results Donepezil treatment significantly enhanced the response time for face and scene memory probes when compared to the placebo group. A group-by-visit interaction was identified for the functional network connectivity of the left fusiform face area (FFA) with the hippocampus and inferior frontal junction, such that the treatment group showed increased connectivity over time when compared to the placebo group. Additionally, the enhanced functional network connectivity of the FFA and hippocampus significantly predicted memory response time at 3-month follow-up in the treatment group. Interpretation These findings suggest that increased cholinergic transmission improves goal-directed neural processing and cognitive ability and may serve to facilitate communication across functionally-connected attention and memory networks. Longitudinal fMRI is a useful method for elucidating the neural changes associated with pharmacological modulation and is a potential tool for monitoring intervention efficacy in clinical trials. PMID:23447373

Pa, Judy; Berry, Anne S.; Compagnone, Mariana; Boccanfuso, Jacqueline; Greenhouse, Ian; Rubens, Michael T.; Johnson, Julene K.; Gazzaley, Adam

2013-01-01

116

Tooth loss and cognitive functions among older adults.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective. To evaluate the association between the number of teeth and cognitive functions adjusted for age and education level in a cohort of older adults living in Sweden. Materials and methods. The study employed a cross-sectional design in which 1147 individuals between 60-96 years underwent a clinical oral examination. The cognitive functions were assessed using Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Clock-test. The level of education was obtained from a questionnaire. Data were subjected to Chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression analyses were employed, grouping the different variables into pre-determined categories. Results. The co-variables age and education were significantly associated with the number of teeth (p < 0.05). The multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the association between the number of teeth and the cognitive functions persisted even after adjusting for age and level of education. Conclusions. The findings suggest that the presence of teeth may be of importance for cognitive abilities in older adults. PMID:24479559

Nilsson, Helena; Berglund, Johan; Renvert, Stefan

2014-11-01

117

Perseverance Versus Nonperseverance Patterns Among Adult High School Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parsons' instrumental internal-external model for classifying action orientations provided the theoretical base to test the relation between perseverance and nonperseverance patterns among sub samples of 134 adults in an adult high school. Preference for internally or externally oriented goals, as reasons for enrollment, were obtained from a questionnaire and crosstabulated by per severance (persons who enroll and complete the program)

Carroll A. Londoner

1972-01-01

118

Risk of High Dietary Calcium for Arterial Calcification in Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Concern has recently arisen about the potential adverse effects of excessive calcium intakes, i.e., calcium loading from supplements, on arterial calcification and risks of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in older adults. Published reports that high calcium intakes in free-living adults have relatively little or no beneficial impact on bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture rates suggest that current recommendations of calcium for adults may be set too high. Because even healthy kidneys have limited capability of eliminating excessive calcium in the diet, the likelihood of soft-tissue calcification may increase in older adults who take calcium supplements, particularly in those with age or disease-related reduction in renal function. The maintenance of BMD and bone health continues to be an important goal of adequate dietary calcium consumption, but eliminating potential risks of CVDs from excessive calcium intakes needs to be factored into policy recommendations for calcium by adults. PMID:24084054

Anderson, John J. B.; Klemmer, Philip J.

2013-01-01

119

Functional Imaging of Working Memory and Peripheral Endothelial Function in Middle-Aged Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study examined the relationship between a prognostic indicator of vascular health, flow-mediated dilation (FMD), and working memory-related brain activation in healthy middle-aged adults. Forty-two participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while completing a 2-Back working memory task. Brachial artery…

Gonzales, Mitzi M.; Tarumi, Takashi; Tanaka, Hirofumi; Sugawara, Jun; Swann-Sternberg, Tali; Goudarzi, Katayoon; Haley, Andreana P.

2010-01-01

120

Sexual Functioning in Young Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Studies of sexuality or sexual behavior in childhood cancer survivors tend to examine relationships or achievement of developmental milestones but not physiological response to cancer or treatment. The purpose of this study is to (1) identify prevalence and risk factors for sexual dysfunction in childhood cancer survivors, and (2) examine the extent to which sexual dysfunction may be associated with health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and psychosocial outcomes. Methods Five hundred ninety-nine survivors age 18-39 years completed standardized measures of sexual functioning, HRQOL, psychological distress and life satisfaction. Descriptive statistics assessed prevalence of sexual symptoms. Bivariate analyses identified correlates of sexual symptoms and examined associations between symptoms and HRQOL/psychosocial outcomes. Results Most survivors appear to be doing well, although 52% of female survivors and 32% of male survivors reported at least “a little of a problem” in one or more areas of sexual functioning. Mean symptom score for females was more than twice that of males. Sexual symptoms were associated with reporting health problems. Significant associations between sexual functioning and HRQOL outcomes were observed, with gender differences in strengths of association suggesting that males find sexual symptoms more distressing than do females. Conclusions While most survivors appear to be doing well in this important life domain, some young adult survivors report sexual concerns. While female survivors may report more sexual symptoms than male survivors, males may experience more distress associated with sexual difficulties. Better specified measures of sexual function, behavior and outcomes are needed for this young adult population. PMID:19862693

Zebrack, Brad J.; Foley, Sallie; Wittmann, Daniela; Leonard, Marcia

2009-01-01

121

Linguistic Skills of Adult Native Speakers, as a Function of Age and Level of Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assessed, in a sample of 98 adult native speakers of Dutch, how their lexical skills and their speaking proficiency varied as a function of their age and level of education and profession (EP). Participants, categorized in terms of their age (18-35, 36-50, and 51-76 years old) and the level of their EP (low versus high), were tested on…

Mulder, Kimberley; Hulstijn, Jan H.

2011-01-01

122

Severe Obesity Is Associated With Impaired Arterial Smooth Muscle Function in Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degree of arterial dilatation induced by exogenous nitrates (nitrate-mediated dilatation, NMD) has been similar in obese and normal-weight adults after single high-dose glyceryl trinitrate (GTN). We examined whether NMD is impaired in obesity by performing a GTN dose–response study, as this is a potentially more sensitive measure of arterial smooth muscle function. In this cross-sectional study, subjects were 19

Julian G. Ayer; Jason A. Harmer; Clementine David; Katherine S. Steinbeck; J. Paul Seale; David S. Celermajer

2011-01-01

123

White matter predictors of cognitive functioning in older adults  

PubMed Central

Background Few studies have applied multiple imaging modalities to examine cognitive correlates of white matter. We examined the utility of T2-weighted MRI-derived white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and diffusion tensor imaging-derived fractional anisotropy (FA) to predict cognitive functioning among older adults. Methods Quantitative MRI and neuropsychological evaluations were performed in 112 older participants from an ongoing study of the genetics of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in African Americans. Regional WMH volumes and FA were measured in multiple regions of interest. We examined the association of regional WMH and an FA summary score with cognitive test performance. Differences in WMH and FA were compared across diagnostic groups (i.e., normal controls, mild cognitive impairment, and probable AD). Results Increased WMH volume in frontal lobes was associated with poorer delayed memory performance. FA did not emerge as a significant predictor of cognition. White matter hyperintensity volume in the frontal and parietal lobes was increased in MCI participants and more so in AD patients relative to controls. Discussion These results highlight the importance of regionally-distributed small vessel cerebrovascular disease in memory performance and AD among African American older adults. White matter microstructural changes, quantified with DTI, appear to play a lesser role in our sample. PMID:22390883

Meier, Irene B.; Manly, Jennifer J.; Provenzano, Frank A.; Louie, Karmen S.; Wasserman, Ben T.; Griffith, Erica Y.; Hector, Josina T.; Allocco, Elizabeth; Brickman, Adam M.

2013-01-01

124

Perinatal undernutrition programmes thyroid function in the adult rat offspring.  

PubMed

Increasing evidence suggests that alterations in early nutrition programme physiological changes in adulthood. In the present study, we determined the effects of undernutrition during gestation and lactation on the programming of thyroid function in adult rat offspring. Perinatal undernutrition was achieved by a 40% food restriction in female Wistar rats from the mating day to weaning. On postpartum day 21, the offspring of the control and food-restricted dams were weaned and given free access to a commercial diet until adulthood. The results showed that undernourished rats exhibited decreased 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) levels but had normal thyroxine (T4) and thyrotropin (TSH) levels at weaning; on day 90, these rats displayed a significant flip, exhibiting normalised T3 (total and free) and total T4 levels, but low free T4 and persistently higher TSH levels, which were maintained even on postnatal day 140. This profile was accompanied by a scarce fat depot, a lower RMR and an exacerbated sympathetic brown adipose tissue (BAT) tone (deiodinase type 2 expression) in basal conditions. Moreover, when a functional challenge (cold exposure) was applied, the restricted group exhibited partial changes in TSH (29 v. 100%) and T4 (non-response v. 17%) levels, a significant decrease in leptin levels (75 v. 32%) and the maintenance of a sympathetic BAT over-response (higher noradrenaline levels) in comparison with the control group. The findings of the present study suggest that undernutrition during the perinatal period produces permanent changes in the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis with consequent low body weight and decreased RMR and facultative thermogenesis. We hypothesise that these changes predispose individuals to exhibiting adult subclinical hypothyroidism. PMID:23800456

Ayala-Moreno, Rosario; Racotta, Radu; Anguiano, Brenda; Aceves, Carmen; Quevedo, Lucía

2013-12-01

125

The function of BDNF in the adult auditory system.  

PubMed

The inner ear of vertebrates is specialized to perceive sound, gravity and movements. Each of the specialized sensory organs within the cochlea (sound) and vestibular system (gravity, head movements) transmits information to specific areas of the brain. During development, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) orchestrates the survival and outgrowth of afferent fibers connecting the vestibular organ and those regions in the cochlea that map information for low frequency sound to central auditory nuclei and higher-auditory centers. The role of BDNF in the mature inner ear is less understood. This is mainly due to the fact that constitutive BDNF mutant mice are postnatally lethal. Only in the last few years has the improved technology of performing conditional cell specific deletion of BDNF in vivo allowed the study of the function of BDNF in the mature developed organ. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of the expression pattern and function of BDNF in the peripheral and central auditory system from just prior to the first auditory experience onwards. A special focus will be put on the differential mechanisms in which BDNF drives refinement of auditory circuitries during the onset of sensory experience and in the adult brain. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'BDNF Regulation of Synaptic Structure, Function, and Plasticity'. PMID:23688926

Singer, Wibke; Panford-Walsh, Rama; Knipper, Marlies

2014-01-01

126

The Effect of Exercise Intensity on Endothelial Function in Physically Inactive Lean and Obese Adults  

PubMed Central

Purpose To examine the effects of exercise intensity on acute changes in endothelial function in lean and obese adults. Methods Sixteen lean (BMI <25, age 23±3 yr) and 10 obese (BMI >30, age 26±6 yr) physically inactive adults were studied during 3 randomized admissions [control (C, no exercise), moderate-intensity exercise (M, @ lactate threshold (LT)) and high-intensity exercise (H, midway between LT and VO2peak) (30 min)]. Endothelial function was assessed by flow-mediated dilation (FMD) at baseline and 1, 2, and 4 h post-exercise. Results RM ANCOVA revealed significant main effects for group, time, and group x condition interaction (p<0.05). A diurnal increase in FMD was observed in lean but not obese subjects. Lean subjects exhibited greater increases in FMD than obese subjects (p?=?0.0005). In the obese group a trend was observed for increases in FMD at 2- and 4-hr after M (p?=?0.08). For lean subjects, FMD was significantly elevated at all time points after H. The increase in FMD after H in lean subjects (3.2±0.5%) was greater than after both C (1.7±0.4%, p?=?0.015) and M (1.4±0.4%, p?=?0.002). FMD responses of lean and obese subjects significantly differed after C and H, but not after M. Conclusion In lean young adults, high-intensity exercise acutely enhances endothelial function, while moderate-intensity exercise has no significant effect above that seen in the absence of exercise. The FMD response of obese adults is blunted compared to lean adults. Diurnal variation should be considered when examining the effects of acute exercise on FMD. PMID:24465565

Hallmark, Rachel; Patrie, James T.; Liu, Zhenqi; Gaesser, Glenn A.; Barrett, Eugene J.; Weltman, Arthur

2014-01-01

127

High Glucose Accelerates Autophagy in Adult Rat Intervertebral Disc Cells  

PubMed Central

Study Design In vitro cell culture. Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of high glucose on autophagy in adult rat intervertebral disc cells. Overview of Literature Diabetes mellitus is considered to be an important etiologic factor for intervertebral disc degeneration, resulting in degenerative disc diseases. A glucose-mediated increase of autophagy is a major causative factor for the development of diseases associated with diabetes mellitus. However, no information is available for the effect of high glucose on autophagy in adult intervertebral disc cells. Methods Nucleus pulposus and annulus fibrosus cells were isolated from 24-week-old adult rats, cultured and placed in either 10% fetal bovine serum (normal control) or 10% fetal bovine serum plus two different high glucose concentrations (0.1 M and 0.2 M) (experimental conditions) for one and three days, respectively. The expressions of autophagy markers, such as beclin-1, light chain 3-I (LC3-I) and LC3-II, autophagy-related gene (Atg) 3, 5, 7 and 12, were identified and quantified. Results Two high glucoses significantly increased the expressions of beclin-1, LC3-II, Atg3, 5, 7, and 12 in adult rat nucleus pulposus and annulus fibrosus cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The ratio of LC3-II/LC3-I expression was also increased in a dose-respectively time-dependent manner. Conclusions The results suggest that autophagy of adult nucleus pulposus and annulus fibrosus cells might be a potential mechanism for the intervertebral disc degeneration in adult patients with diabetes mellitus. Thus, the prevention of autophagy in adult intervertebral disc cells might be considered as a novel therapeutic target to prevent or to delay the intervertebral disc degeneration in adult patients with diabetes mellitus.

Kong, Chae-Gwan; Kim, Man Soo; Park, Eun-Young

2014-01-01

128

Near-infrared spectroscopy: does it function in functional activation studies of the adult brain?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in optical properties of biological tissue can be examined by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). The relative transparency of tissues including the skull to near-infrared light is the prerequisite to apply the method to brain research. We describe the methodology with respect to its applicability in non-invasive functional research of the adult cortex. A summary of studies establishing the ‘typical’ response

Hellmuth Obrig; Rüdiger Wenzel; Matthias Kohl; Susanne Horst; Petra Wobst; Jens Steinbrink; Florian Thomas; Arno Villringer

2000-01-01

129

Mother's exercise during pregnancy programmes vasomotor function in adult offspring.  

PubMed

The intrauterine environment is influenced by maternal behaviour and programmes atherosclerotic disease susceptibility in offspring. The aim of this investigation was to test the hypothesis that mothers' exercise during pregnancy improves endothelial function in 3-, 5- and 9-month-old porcine offspring. The pregnant sows in the exercise group ran for an average of 39.35 ± 0.75 min at 4.81 ± 0.35 km h(-1) each day for 5 days per week for all but the last week of gestation. This induced a significant reduction in resting heart rate (exercised group, 89.3 ± 3.5 beats min(-1); sedentary group, 102.1 ± 3.1 beats min(-1); P < 0.05) but no significant differences in gestational weight gain (65.8 ± 2.1 versus 63.3 ± 1.9%). No significant effect on bradykinin-induced vasorelaxation with and without l-NAME was observed. A significant main effect was identified on sodium nitroprusside-induced vasorelaxation (P = 0.01), manifested by a reduced response in femoral arteries of all age groups from exercised-trained swine. Nitric oxide signalling was not affected by maternal exercise. Protein expression of MYPT1 was reduced in femoral arteries from 3-month-old offspring of exercised animals. A significant interaction was observed for PPP1R14A (P < 0.05) transcript abundance and its protein product CPI-17. In conclusion, pregnant swine are able to complete an exercise-training protocol that matches the current recommendations for pregnant women. Gestational exercise is a potent stimulus for programming vascular smooth muscle relaxation in adult offspring. Specifically, exercise training for the finite duration of pregnancy decreases vascular smooth muscle responsiveness in adult offspring to an exogenous nitric oxide donor. PMID:24163423

Bahls, Martin; Sheldon, Ryan D; Taheripour, Pardis; Clifford, Kerry A; Foust, Kallie B; Breslin, Emily D; Marchant-Forde, Jeremy N; Cabot, Ryan A; Harold Laughlin, M; Bidwell, Christopher A; Newcomer, Sean C

2014-01-01

130

Roles of continuous neurogenesis in the structural and functional integrity of the adult forebrain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurogenesis occurs continuously in the forebrain of adult mammals, but the functional importance of adult neurogenesis is still unclear. Here, using a genetic labeling method in adult mice, we found that continuous neurogenesis results in the replacement of the majority of granule neurons in the olfactory bulb and a substantial addition of granule neurons to the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Genetic

Itaru Imayoshi; Masayuki Sakamoto; Toshiyuki Ohtsuka; Keizo Takao; Tsuyoshi Miyakawa; Masahiro Yamaguchi; Kensaku Mori; Toshio Ikeda; Shigeyoshi Itohara; Ryoichiro Kageyama

2008-01-01

131

Examining the dynamic, bidirectional associations between cognitive and physical functioning in older adults.  

PubMed

The delineation of the interrelationships between cognitive and physical functioning in older adults is critical to determining pathways to disability. By using longitudinal data from 395 initially high-functioning, community-dwelling older women in Baltimore, Maryland, from the Women's Health and Aging Study II (from 1994 to 2006), we simultaneously assessed associations of cognition with later physical functioning and associations of physical functioning with later cognition. The analysis included measures of global cognition and 2 cognitive domains (executive functioning and memory), as well as 2 measures of physical functioning (a Short Physical Performance Battery and a 4-meter test of usual walking speed). We found the strongest bidirectional associations of memory with physical functioning and less evidence of associations of physical functioning with executive functioning and global cognition. For a 1-standard deviation increase in walking speed, subsequent memory increased by 0.08 standard deviations (95% confidence interval: (0.03, 0.13)). For a 1-standard deviation increase in memory, subsequent walking speed increased by 0.07 standard deviations (95% confidence interval: 0.03, 0.10). Associations were similar in magnitude for models using a Short Physical Performance Battery. We did not find evidence that associations between cognitive and physical functioning varied over time. Our results suggest that cognition, and particularly memory, is associated with subsequent physical functioning and vice versa. PMID:25205829

Krall, Jenna R; Carlson, Michelle C; Fried, Linda P; Xue, Qian-Li

2014-10-15

132

Low level methylmercury exposure affects neuropsychological function in adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The neurotoxic effects of methylmercury (MeHg) have been demonstrated in both human and animal studies. Both adult and fetal brains are susceptible to the effects of MeHg toxicity. However, the specific effects of adult exposures have been less well-documented than those of children with prenatal exposures. This is largely because few studies of MeHg exposures in adults have used

Edna M. Yokoo; Joaquim G Valente; Lynn Grattan; Sérgio Luís Schmidt; Illeane Platt; Ellen K Silbergeld

2003-01-01

133

Personality and Physical Functioning Among Older Adults: The Moderating Role of Education  

PubMed Central

Objectives. Drawing upon a vulnerability model, this study tested whether low educational level would amplify the negative contribution of risky personality traits, such as high neuroticism and low conscientiousness, on older adults physical functioning. Method. Five hundred and thirteen French-speaking community-dwelling older adults aged 60–91 years (mean age = 66.37, SD = 5.32) completed measures of physical functioning, education, personality traits, chronic conditions, and demographic variables. Results. Results revealed that extraversion and conscientiousness were positively associated with physical functioning, whereas neuroticism was a negative predictor, beyond demographics, chronic conditions, and education. The negative relationship between neuroticism and physical functioning was stronger among individuals with low educational level and was nonsignificant among older people with higher level of education. Discussion. This study is the first to support a vulnerability model, which entails an amplification of neuroticism risk at low education, but a diminishment of neuroticism risk for activity limitations at high education. As a whole, it appears that a focus on either personality or education without taking into account each other provides only a partial account of the predictors of basic daily physical activities in old age. PMID:23070900

2013-01-01

134

Adult neurogenesis and functional plasticity in neuronal circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adult brain is a plastic place. To ensure that the mature nervous system's control of behaviour is flexible in the face of a varying environment, morphological and physiological changes are possible at many levels, including that of the entire cell. In two areas of the adult brain — the olfactory bulb and the dentate gyrus — new neurons are

Mariana Alonso; Matthew S. Grubb; Pierre-Marie Lledo

2006-01-01

135

Examining functional and social determinants of depression in community-dwelling older adults: implications for practice.  

PubMed

Coping with declining health, physical illnesses and complex medical regimens, which are all too common among many older adults, requires significant lifestyle changes and causes increasing self-management demands. Depression occurs in community-dwelling older adults as both demands and losses increase, but this problem is drastically underestimated and under-recognized. Depressive symptoms are often attributed to physical illnesses and thus overlooked, resulting in lack of appropriate treatment and diminished quality of life. The purpose of this study is to assess prevalence of depressive symptoms in community-dwelling older adults with high levels of co-morbidity and to identify correlates of depression. In this sample of 533 homebound older adults screened (76.1% female, 71.8% white, mean age 78.5 years) who were screened using the Geriatric Depression Scale (SF), 35.9% scored greater than 5. Decreased satisfaction with family support (p < 0.001) and functional status (p ? 0.001) and increased loneliness (p < 0.001) were significant independent predictors of depression status in this sample; thus, these factors should be considered when planning care. PMID:24942525

Tanner, Elizabeth K; Martinez, Iveris L; Harris, Melodee

2014-01-01

136

Lifestyle engagement affects cognitive status differences and trajectories on executive functions in older adults.  

PubMed

The authors first examined the concurrent moderating role of lifestyle engagement on the relation between cognitive status (cognitively elite, cognitively normal [CN], and cognitively impaired [CI]) and executive functioning (EF) in older adults. Second, the authors examined whether baseline participation in lifestyle activities predicted differential 4.5-year stabilities and transitions in cognitive status. Participants (initial N = 501; 53-90 years) were from the Victoria Longitudinal Study. EF was represented by a 1-factor structure. Lifestyle activities were measured in multiple domains of engagement (e.g., cognitive, physical, and social). Two-wave status stability groups included sustained normal aging, transitional early impairment, and chronic impairment. Hierarchical regressions showed that baseline participation in social activities moderated cognitive status differences in EF. CI adults with high (but not low) social engagement performed equivalently to CN adults on EF. Longitudinally, logistic regressions showed that engagement in physical activities was a significant predictor of stability of cognitive status. CI adults who were more engaged in physical activities were more likely to improve in their cognitive status over time than their more sedentary peers. Participation in cognitive activities was a significant predictor of maintenance in a higher cognitive status group. Given that lifestyle engagement plays a detectable role in healthy, normal, and impaired neuropsychological aging, further research in activity-related associations and interventions is recommended. PMID:24323561

de Frias, Cindy M; Dixon, Roger A

2014-02-01

137

Discrete-Trial Functional Analysis and Functional Communication Training with Three Adults with Intellectual Disabilities and Problem Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We conducted a sequence of two studies on the use of discrete-trial functional analysis and functional communication training. First, we used discrete-trial functional analysis (DTFA) to identify the function of problem behavior in three adults with intellectual disabilities and problem behavior. Results indicated clear patterns of problem…

Chezan, Laura C.; Drasgow, Erik; Martin, Christian A.

2014-01-01

138

Parental Divorce and Family Functioning: Effects on Differentiation Levels of Young Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Study examines the effect of parental divorce and various dimensions of functioning in the family of origin on young adult development. Results indicate that parental divorce and family functioning significantly affect differentiation levels of young adults. Implications of the results for counselors and future researchers are provided. (Contains…

Johnson, Patrick; Throngren, Jill M.; Smith, Adina J.

2001-01-01

139

Older Adults in Cardiac Rehabilitation: A New Strategy for Enhancing Physical Function.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contrasted the effect of a group-mediated cognitive- behavioral intervention (GMCB) versus traditional cardiac rehabilitation (CRP) upon changes in objective and self-reported physical function of older adults after 3 months of exercise therapy. Both groups improved significantly. Adults with lower function at the outset of the intervention…

Rejeski, W. Jack; Foy, Capri Gabrielle; Brawley, Lawrence R.; Brubaker, Peter H.; Focht, Brian C.; Norris, James L., III; Smith, Marci L.

2002-01-01

140

ORIGINAL RESEARCH--PSYCHOLOGY Sexual Function and Satisfaction in Adults Based on the  

E-print Network

of Child Sexual Abuse Alessandra Rellini, MA,* and Cindy Meston, PhD *Department of Psychology, University in the association between child sexual abuse (CSA) and adult sexual function. One of the proposed explanationsORIGINAL RESEARCH--PSYCHOLOGY Sexual Function and Satisfaction in Adults Based on the Definition

Meston, Cindy

141

THE FUNCTIONS AND TRAINING NEEDS OF ADULT EDUCATION DIRECTORS IN PUBLIC SCHOOL SYSTEMS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A QUESTIONNAIRE WAS SENT TO 200 DIRECTORS OF PUBLIC SCHOOL ADULT EDUCATION IN ORDER TO IDENTIFY FUNCTIONS, ROLE, AND SKILLS AND ABILITIES OF ADMINISTRATORS OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY ADULT EDUCATION. RESPONDENTS RATED EACH FUNCTION ON A SCALE FROM ESSENTIAL TO INAPPLICABLE AND COMPETENCIES ON A SIMILAR SCALE. CHIEF PROBLEM AREAS INCLUDED…

MADRY, ARTHUR CHESTER

142

Functional Limitations and Religious Service Attendance among African American and White Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Church attendance is associated with improved health and well-being among older adults, but older adults with functional limitations may have difficulty attending church services. This article examines differences in the association between functional limitations and church attendance in a sample of 987 elderly African American and white…

Roff, Lucinda Lee; Klemmack, David L.; Simon, Cassandra; Cho, Gi Won; Parker, Michael W.; Koenig, Harold G.; Sawyer-Baker, Patricia; Allman, Richard M.

2006-01-01

143

A Comparative Survey of Seven Adult Functional Literacy Programs in Sub-Saharan Africa.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study compares the adult functional literacy campaigns and programs developed in seven African nations: the Gambia, Liberia, Mali, Burundi, Rwanda, Kenya, and Seychelles. After an introductory chapter outlining the background of African adult functional literacy efforts and some of the constraints on them, the second chapter gives an overview of…

Richmond, Edmun B.

144

Natural History of Thyroid Function in Adults with Down Syndrome--10-Year Follow-Up Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The natural history of thyroid function in adults with Down syndrome (DS) is unknown. Method: This study investigated annual thyroid function tests in 200 adults with DS over a 10-year period. Results: Transient and persistent thyroid dysfunction was common. The 5- and 10-year incidence of definite hypothyroidism was 0.9%-1.64% and…

Prasher, V.; Gomez, G.

2007-01-01

145

Two out of three adults have high cholesterol, and most  

E-print Network

Two out of three adults have high cholesterol, and most do not have it under control, so here's what you need to know about cholesterol and how to keep your cholesterol levels in check. What is cholesterol? Cholesterol is a waxy, fat- like substance that is neces- sary for your body. There are two kinds

Howitt, Ivan

146

Executive Functioning as a Potential Mediator of Age-Related Cognitive Decline in Normal Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Critical requirements for the hypothesis that executive functioning is a potential mediator of age-related effects on cognitive functioning are that variables assumed to reflect executive functioning represent a distinct construct and that age-related effects on other types of cognitive functioning are reduced when measures of executive functioning are statistically controlled. These issues were investigated in a study involving 261 adults

Timothy A. Salthouse; Thomas M. Atkinson; Diane E. Berish

2003-01-01

147

Stronger vection in junior high school children than in adults  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have shown that even elementary school-aged children (7 and 11 years old) experience visually induced perception of illusory self-motion (vection) (Lepecq et al., 1995, Perception, 24, 435–449) and that children of a similar age (mean age = 9.2 years) experience more rapid and stronger vection than do adults (Shirai et al., 2012, Perception, 41, 1399–1402). These findings imply that although elementary school-aged children experience vection, this ability is subject to further development. To examine the subsequent development of vection, we compared junior high school students' (N = 11, mean age = 14.4 years) and adults' (N = 10, mean age = 22.2 years) experiences of vection. Junior high school students reported significantly stronger vection than did adults, suggesting that the perceptual experience of junior high school students differs from that of adults with regard to vection and that this ability undergoes gradual changes over a relatively long period of development. PMID:24971067

Shirai, Nobu; Imura, Tomoko; Tamura, Rio; Seno, Takeharu

2014-01-01

148

Pulse wave velocity and cognitive function in older adults.  

PubMed

Arterial stiffness may be associated with cognitive function. In this study, pulse wave velocity (PWV) was measured from the carotid to femoral (CF-PWV) and from the carotid to radial (CR-PWV) with the Complior SP System. Cognitive function was measured by 6 tests of executive function, psychomotor speed, memory, and language fluency. A total of 1433 participants were included (mean age 75 y, 43% men). Adjusting for age, sex, education, pulse rate, hemoglobin A1C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hypertension, cardiovascular disease history, smoking, drinking, and depression symptoms, a CF-PWV>12 m/s was associated with a lower Mini-Mental State Examination score (coefficient: -0.31, SE: 0.11, P=0.005), fewer words recalled on Auditory Verbal Learning Test (coefficient: -1.10, SE: 0.43, P=0.01), and lower score on the composite cognition score (coefficient: -0.10, SE: 0.05, P=0.04) and marginally significantly associated with longer time to complete Trail Making Test-part B (coefficient: 6.30, SE: 3.41, P=0.06), CF-PWV was not associated with Trail Making Test-part A, Digit Symbol Substation Test, or Verbal Fluency Test. No associations were found between CR-PWV and cognitive performance measures. Higher large artery stiffness was associated with worse cognitive function, and longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these associations. PMID:23632267

Zhong, Wenjun; Cruickshanks, Karen J; Schubert, Carla R; Carlsson, Cynthia M; Chappell, Richard J; Klein, Barbara E K; Klein, Ronald; Acher, Charles W

2014-01-01

149

Infant motor development and adult cognitive functions in schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundChildhood neuromotor dysfunction is a risk factor for schizophrenia, a disorder in which cognitive deficits are prominent. The relationship between early neurodevelopment and adult cognition in schizophrenia remains unclear.

G. K. Murray; P. B. Jones; K. Moilanen; J. Veijola; J. Miettunen; T. D. Cannon; M. Isohanni

2006-01-01

150

The Developmental Significance of Late Adolescent Substance Use for Early Adult Functioning  

PubMed Central

This study examines the predictive significance of late adolescent substance use groups (i.e., abstainers, experimental users, at-risk users, and abusers) for early adult adaptation. Participants (N = 159) were drawn from a prospective longitudinal study of first-born children of low-income mothers. At 17.5 years of age participants were assigned to substance use groups based on their level of substance use involvement. At 26 years, early adult competence was assessed in the areas of education, work, romantic relationships, and global adaptation. Results indicate that 17.5 year substance use group membership significantly predicted high school completion, regular involvement in a long-term romantic relationship, good or better work ethic, and good or better global adjustment at 26 years when controlling for gender; IQ; 16 year internalizing and externalizing behavior problems, parental monitoring, and peer competence; and current substance use at 26 years. Group comparisons indicate that late adolescent substance use experimenters were significantly more likely in early adulthood to have (a) a high school diploma or higher level of education compared to abstainers (OR = 8.83); (b) regular involvement in long-term romantic relationships (OR = 3.23), and good or better global adaptation (OR = 4.08) compared to at-risk users; and (c) good or better work ethic (OR = 4.04) compared to abusers. This research indicates that patterns of late adolescent substance use has implications for early adult functioning in salient developmental domains. PMID:23025264

Englund, Michelle M.; Siebenbruner, Jessica; Oliva, Elizabeth M.; Egeland, Byron; Chung, Chu-Ting; Long, Jeffrey D.

2012-01-01

151

Abnormalities in circadian blood pressure variability and endothelial function: pragmatic markers for adverse cardiometabolic profiles in asymptomatic obese adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, although perceived to be high, is often difficult to demonstrate in disease free (healthy) obese adults. HYPOTHESIS: Changes in circadian blood pressure variability (CBPV) and endothelial function (EF) may be early correlates of cardiometabolic disorders. METHODS: Asymptomatic men and women in 3 groups: normal weight (n = 10), overweight (n = 10) and obese (n

Alok K Gupta; Germaine Cornelissen; Frank L Greenway; Vijay Dhoopati; Franz Halberg; William D Johnson

2010-01-01

152

Automated cellular annotation for high-resolution images of adult Caenorhabditis elegans  

PubMed Central

Motivation: Advances in high-resolution microscopy have recently made possible the analysis of gene expression at the level of individual cells. The fixed lineage of cells in the adult worm Caenorhabditis elegans makes this organism an ideal model for studying complex biological processes like development and aging. However, annotating individual cells in images of adult C.elegans typically requires expertise and significant manual effort. Automation of this task is therefore critical to enabling high-resolution studies of a large number of genes. Results: In this article, we describe an automated method for annotating a subset of 154 cells (including various muscle, intestinal and hypodermal cells) in high-resolution images of adult C.elegans. We formulate the task of labeling cells within an image as a combinatorial optimization problem, where the goal is to minimize a scoring function that compares cells in a test input image with cells from a training atlas of manually annotated worms according to various spatial and morphological characteristics. We propose an approach for solving this problem based on reduction to minimum-cost maximum-flow and apply a cross-entropy–based learning algorithm to tune the weights of our scoring function. We achieve 84% median accuracy across a set of 154 cell labels in this highly variable system. These results demonstrate the feasibility of the automatic annotation of microscopy-based images in adult C.elegans. Contact: saerni@cs.stanford.edu PMID:23812982

Batzoglou, Serafim

2013-01-01

153

A Reevaluation of the Common Factor Theory of Shared Variance Among Age, Sensory Function, and Cognitive Function in Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The common cause hypothesis of the relationship among age, sensory measures, and cognitive measures in very old adults was reevaluated. Both sensory function and processing speed were evaluated as mediators of the rela- tionship between age and cognitive function. Cognitive function was a latent variable that comprised 3 factors in- cluding memory, speed, and verbal ability. The sample was population

Kaarin J. Anstey; Mary A. Luszcz; Linnett Sanchez

2001-01-01

154

Developmental integration in a functional unit: deciphering processes from adult dental morphology.  

PubMed

The evolution of mammalian dentition is constrained by functional necessity and by the non-independence of morphological structures. Efficient chewing implies coherent tooth coordination from development to motion, involving covariation patterns (integration) within dental parts. Using geometric morphometrics, we investigate the modular organization of the highly derived vole dentition. Integration patterns between and within the upper and lower molar rows are analyzed to identify potential modules and their origins (functional and developmental). Results support an integrated adult dentition pattern for both developmental and functional aspects. The integration patterns between opposing molar pairs suggest a transient role for the second upper and lower molars during the chewing motion. Upper and lower molar rows form coherent units but the relative integration of molar pairs is in contradiction with existing developmental models. Emphasis on the first three cusps to grow leads to a very different integration pattern, which would be congruent with developmental models. The early developmental architecture of traits is masked by later stages of growth, but may still be deciphered from the adult phenotype, if careful attention is paid to relevant features. PMID:25040671

Labonne, Gaëlle; Navarro, Nicolas; Laffont, Rémi; Chateau-Smith, Carmela; Montuire, Sophie

2014-01-01

155

An old test for new neurons: refining the Morris water maze to study the functional relevance of adult hippocampal neurogenesis.  

PubMed

The Morris water maze represents the de-facto standard for testing hippocampal function in laboratory rodents. In the field of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, however, using this paradigm to assess the functional relevance of the new neurons yielded surprisingly inconsistent results. While some authors found aspects of water maze performance to be linked to adult neurogenesis, others obtained different results or could not demonstrate any effect of manipulating adult neurogenesis. In this review we discuss evidence that the large diversity of protocols and setups used is an important aspect in interpreting the differences in the results that have been obtained. Even simple parameters such as pool size, number, and configuration of visual landmarks, or number of trials can become highly relevant for getting the new neurons involved at all. Sets of parameters are often chosen with implicit or explicit concepts in mind and these might lead to different views on the function of adult-generated neurons. We propose that the classical parameters usually used to measure spatial learning performance in the water maze might not be particularly well-suited to sensitively and specifically detect the supposedly highly specific functional changes elicited by the experimental modulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. As adult neurogenesis is supposed to affect specific aspects of information processing only in the hippocampus, any claim for a functional relevance of the new neurons has to be based on hippocampus-specific parameters. We also placed a special emphasis on the fact that the dentate gyrus (DG) facilitates the differentiation between contexts as opposed to just differentiating places. In conclusion, while the Morris water maze has proven to be one of the most effective testing paradigms to assess hippocampus-dependent spatial learning, new and more specific questions ask for new parameters. Therefore, the full potential of the water maze task remains to be tapped. PMID:23653589

Garthe, Alexander; Kempermann, Gerd

2013-01-01

156

Efficiency of Route Selection as a Function of Adult Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two tasks hypothesized to assess the efficiency of route selection were administered to 328 adults ranging from 18 to 93 years of age. Increased age was associated with slower completion of mazes, even after adjusting for differences in perceptual-motor speed, and with longer and less accurate routes in a task in which participants were asked to…

Salthouse, Timothy A.; Siedlecki, Karen L.

2007-01-01

157

Characterization of Lung Function Impairment in Adults with Bronchiectasis  

PubMed Central

Background Characteristics of lung function impairment in bronchiectasis is not fully understood. Objectives To determine the factors associated with lung function impairment and to compare changes in spirometry during bronchiectasis exacerbation and convalescence (1 week following 14-day antibiotic therapy). Methods We recruited 142 patients with steady-state bronchiectasis, of whom 44 with acute exacerbations in the follow-up were included in subgroup analyses. Baseline measurements consisted of chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT), sputum volume, purulence and bacteriology, spirometry and diffusing capacity. Spirometry, but not diffusing capacity, was examined during acute exacerbations and convalescence. Results In the final multivariate models, having bronchiectasis symptoms for 10 years or greater (OR?=?4.75, 95%CI: 1.46–15.43, P?=?0.01), sputum culture positive for Pseudomonas aeruginosa (OR?=?4.93, 95%CI: 1.52–15.94, P<0.01) and HRCT total score being 12 or greater (OR?=?7.77, 95%CI: 3.21–18.79, P<0.01) were the major variables associated with FEV1 being 50%pred or less; and the only variable associated with reduced DLCO was 4 or more bronchiectatic lobes (OR?=?5.91, 95%CI: 2.20–17.23, P<0.01). Overall differences in FVC and FEV1 during exacerbations and convalescence were significant (P<0.05), whereas changes in other spirometric parameters were less notable. This applied even when stratified by the magnitude of FEV1 and DLCO reduction at baseline. Conclusion Significant lung function impairment should raise alert of chest HRCT abnormality and sputum culture positive for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, in patients with predominantly mild to moderate steady-state bronchiectasis. Acute exacerbations elicited reductions in FVC and FEV1. Changes of other spirometric parameters were less significant during exacerbations. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01761214 PMID:25405614

Lin, Zhi-ya; Tang, Yan; Li, Hui-min; Lin, Zhi-min; Zheng, Jin-ping; Chen, Rong-chang; Zhong, Nan-shan

2014-01-01

158

Effect of Nutritional Supplements on Immune Function and Body Weight in Malnourished Adults  

PubMed Central

In the United States, approximately 5% of the population is malnourished or has low body weight, which can adversely affect immune function. Malnutrition is more prevalent in older adults and is often a result of energy imbalance from various causes. Dietary supplementation to promote positive energy balance can reverse malnutrition, but has not been assessed for its effect on immune parameters. This 8-week clinical feeding trial evaluated the effect of a commercially available, high-protein, high-energy formula on body weight and immune parameters in 30 adult volunteers with body-mass indices (BMI) <21 kg/m2. After the intervention, participants gained a mean of 3.74 lbs and increased BMI by 0.58 kg/m2. The intervention improved lean body mass and limited body fat accumulation. However, no clinically significant improvements in immune measures were observed. These results support the use of high-protein, high-energy supplements in the treatment of underweight/malnutrition. Further investigation utilizing feeding studies of longer duration, and/or studying severely malnourished individuals may be needed to detect an effect on immune parameters of weight gain promoted by nutritional supplements. PMID:23966789

Cheskin, Lawrence J.; Margolick, Joseph; Kahan, Scott; Mitola, Andrea H.; Poddar, Kavita H.; Nilles, Tricia; Kolge, Sanjivani; Menendez, Frederick; Ridore, Michelande; Wang, Shing-Jung; Chou, Jacob; Carlson, Eve

2010-01-01

159

Effect of nutritional supplements on immune function and body weight in malnourished adults.  

PubMed

In the United States, approximately 5% of the population is malnourished or has low body weight, which can adversely affect immune function. Malnutrition is more prevalent in older adults and is often a result of energy imbalance from various causes. Dietary supplementation to promote positive energy balance can reverse malnutrition, but has not been assessed for its effect on immune parameters. This 8-week clinical feeding trial evaluated the effect of a commercially available, high-protein, high-energy formula on body weight and immune parameters in 30 adult volunteers with body-mass indices (BMI) <21 kg/m(2). After the intervention, participants gained a mean of 3.74 lbs and increased BMI by 0.58 kg/m(2). The intervention improved lean body mass and limited body fat accumulation. However, no clinically significant improvements in immune measures were observed. These results support the use of high-protein, high-energy supplements in the treatment of underweight/malnutrition. Further investigation utilizing feeding studies of longer duration, and/or studying severely malnourished individuals may be needed to detect an effect on immune parameters of weight gain promoted by nutritional supplements. PMID:23966789

Cheskin, Lawrence J; Margolick, Joseph; Kahan, Scott; Mitola, Andrea H; Poddar, Kavita H; Nilles, Tricia; Kolge, Sanjivani; Menendez, Frederick; Ridoré, Michelande; Wang, Shing-Jung; Chou, Jacob; Carlson, Eve

2010-01-01

160

Shared and Distinctive Origins and Correlates of Adult Attachment Representations: The Developmental Organization of Romantic Functioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To test proposals regarding the hierarchical organization of adult attachment, this study examined developmental origins of generalized and romantic attachment representations and their concurrent associations with romantic functioning. Participants (N = 112) in a 35-year prospective study completed the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) and Current…

Haydon, Katherine C.; Collins, W. A.; Salvatore, Jessica E.; Simpson, Jeffry A.; Roisman, Glenn I.

2012-01-01

161

Effect of Atomoxetine on Executive Function Impairments in Adults with ADHD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To assess the effect of atomoxetine on ADHD-related executive functions over a 6-month period using the Brown Attention-Deficit Disorder Scale (BADDS) for Adults, a normed, 40-item, self-report scale in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Method: In a randomized, double-blind clinical trial, adults with ADHD…

Brown, Thomas E.; Holdnack, James; Saylor, Keith; Adler, Lenard; Spencer, Thomas; Williams, David W.; Padival, Anoop K.; Schuh, Kory; Trzepacz, Paula T.; Kelsey, Douglas

2011-01-01

162

The impact of family functioning on anxiety symptoms in African American and European American young adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study aimed to investigate reported family functioning and its impact on anxiety symptoms in a sample of African American and European American young adults. One hundred African American and one hundred twenty one European American young adults completed the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and a retrospective version of the McMaster Family Assessment

L. Kevin Chapman; Janet Woodruff-Borden

2009-01-01

163

An Exploratory Study of Resistance Training and Functional Ability in Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

This pilot study examined the effects of resistance training on functional task performance by older adults. Two groups of elderly adults participated in two 8-week resistance training programs, one using weight machines (n = 8) and the other calisthenics (n= 9). Paired t tests revealed the subjects in both groups significantly improved in their ability to perform six tasks: lifting

Gayle Appel Doll

2009-01-01

164

Ontogenetic change in novel functions: waterfall climbing in adult Hawaiian gobiid fishes  

E-print Network

Ontogenetic change in novel functions: waterfall climbing in adult Hawaiian gobiid fishes R. W fishes climb waterfalls as part of an amphidromous life cycle, allowing them to re-penetrate adult. To evaluate changes in waterfall-climbing ability with body size in Hawaiian stream gobies, we compared

Blob, Richard W.

165

The Relationship of Plantar Flexor Strength to Functional Balance in Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence of falls in older adults increases with a decline in lower extremity strength, functional balance, and multi-tasking while walking. This study examined the relationship between plantar flexor muscle strength and balance as it is used in everyday tasks. The participants were thirty-eight adults age 65 or older residing in an independent living community. Participants' plantar flexor strength was

Amber N. Droegemeier; Kirsten A. Ensz; Danielle M. Hildebrand; Kelly S. Moore

166

Human-figure drawing and memory functioning across the adult life span  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective was to evaluate changes in the ability to draw the human figure (HFD) across adult life span and to relate these changes to those known to exist in memory function. Healthy adults (1000) from each of 10 five-year cohorts between 35 and 80 years were recruited randomly from a population in northern Sweden. Each participant was administered

Kjerstin Ericsson; Bengt Winblad; Lars-Göran Nilsson

2001-01-01

167

The Sexual Functioning of Adult Women Molested as Children: A Review of Empirical Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews the research literature from 1978 to 1991 that addresses long-term effects of childhood sexual abuse on adult women's sexual functioning. Frequently reported long-term effects of childhood sexual abuse are noted, including both sexual dissatisfaction and sexual dysfunction. In terms of sexual dysfunction, it is noted that adult

Clarke, Julie Lynn

168

Functional Literacy in Older Adults: Proactive Approaches to Research and Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two separate research projects were undertaken in Georgia and Texas to examine the current and future needs of older adults for functional literacy and to analyze the involvement of adult basic education (ABE) programs to better serve those needs. The projects involved literature reviews; mail-out surveys; and one-on-one interviews with senior…

Kasworm, Carol; Courtenay, Bradley C.

169

Comparison of functional activation foci in children and adults using a common stereotactic space  

E-print Network

Comparison of functional activation foci in children and adults using a common stereotactic space results suggest that, after transformation into a common stereotactic space, anatomical differences between children (ages 7 and 8) and adults are small relative to the resolution of fMRI data. Here, we

Burgund, E. Darcy

170

Assessing Function and Endurance in Adults with Spinal and Bulbar Muscular Atrophy: Validity of the Adult Myopathy Assessment Tool  

PubMed Central

Purpose. The adult myopathy assessment tool (AMAT) is a performance-based battery comprised of functional and endurance subscales that can be completed in approximately 30 minutes without the use of specialized equipment. The purpose of this study was to determine the construct validity and internal consistency of the AMAT with a sample of adults with spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA). Methods. AMAT validity was assessed in 56-male participants with genetically confirmed SBMA (mean age, 53?±?10 years). The participants completed the AMAT and assessments for disease status, strength, and functional status. Results. Lower AMAT scores were associated with longer disease duration (r = ?0.29; P < 0.03) and lower serum androgen levels (r = 0.49–0.59; P < 0.001). The AMAT was significantly correlated with strength and functional status (r = 0.82–0.88; P < 0.001). The domains of the AMAT exhibited good internal consistency (Cronbach's ??=?0.77–0.89; P < 0.001). Conclusions. The AMAT is a standardized, performance-based tool that may be used to assess functional limitations and muscle endurance. The AMAT has good internal consistency, and the construct validity of the AMAT is supported by its significant associations with hormonal, strength, and functional characteristics of adults with SBMA. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT00303446. PMID:24876969

Harris-Love, Michael O.; Fernandez-Rhodes, Lindsay; Joe, Galen; Shrader, Joseph A.; Kokkinis, Angela; La Pean Kirschner, Alison; Auh, Sungyoung; Chen, Cheunju; Li, Li; Levy, Ellen; Davenport, Todd E.; Di Prospero, Nicholas A.; Fischbeck, Kenneth H.

2014-01-01

171

Adults with congenital or acquired facial disfigurement: impact of appearance on social functioning.  

PubMed

This study evaluates the impact of congenital and acquired facial disfigurement on social functioning in adults and whether this differs from adults without facial disfigurement. Moreover, the predictive value of objective and subjective appearance on social functioning is explored. Fifty-nine adults with severe congenital facial disfigurement, 59 adults with traumatically acquired facial deformities in adulthood, and 120 adults without facial disfigurement, completed the Scale for Interpersonal Behaviour, Social Avoidance and Distress Scale, and Visual Analogue Scale for facial appearance satisfaction. The impact of congenital and acquired facial disfigurement on social functioning in adults is similar and significantly differed from the reference group. The level of stress evoked by interpersonal behaviour, and social anxiety and distress were not significantly different between the groups. Only the patient's subjective appearance was a predictor of social functioning. Avoiding stress caused by stigmatization and uncertainty about reactions of others, leads to less frequent interpersonal behaviour in adults with facial disfigurement. The fact whether the deformity is congenital or acquired in adulthood has no influence on social functioning. Patient's satisfaction with facial appearance is more important than the objective severity of the deformity; in this context realistic expectations of the patient considering additional surgery are important. PMID:22459493

van den Elzen, Marijke E P; Versnel, Sarah L; Hovius, Steven E R; Passchier, Jan; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J; Mathijssen, Irene M J

2012-12-01

172

Conditions affecting primary cell cultures of functional adult rat hepatocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Primary monolayer cell cultures of adult rat hepatocytes underwent change in morphology and substantial cell loss between\\u000a 1 and 3 days postinoculation. Dexamethasone-supplementation (1µM) of the culture medium maintained the polygonal epithelial morphology of the hepatocytes and increased longevity such that\\u000a over 80% of the cells survived for 3 days and at least 30% for 8 or 9 days. This

Brian A. Laishes; Gary M. Williams

1976-01-01

173

Brief Report: Biochemical Correlates of Clinical Impairment in High Functioning Autism and Asperger's Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Amygdala dysfunction has been proposed as a critical contributor to social impairment in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The current study investigated biochemical abnormalities in the amygdala in 20 high functioning adults with autistic disorder or Asperger's disorder and 19 typically developing adults matched on age and IQ. Magnetic resonance…

Kleinhans, Natalia M.; Richards, Todd; Weaver, Kurt E.; Liang, Olivia; Dawson, Geraldine; Aylward, Elizabeth

2009-01-01

174

CARDIORESPIRATORY FITNESS IS ASSOCIATED WITH INDICES OF NEUROCOGNITIVE FUNCTION IN ADULTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Koehler RJ, Martens DM, Henderson JK. Cardiorespiratory Fitness is Associated With Indices of Neurocognitive Function in Adults. Journal of Undergraduate Kinesiology Research 2007;3(1):62-71. Purpose: Much is known of the relationship between physical fitness and health in aging adults. However, less is known about the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and cognitive functioning as the human body ages. The purpose of our

RYAN KOEHLER; DAVID MARTENS; JUSTIN HENDERSON

175

Deficient cardiovascular stress reactivity predicts poor executive functions in adults with attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Associations between cardiovascular stress markers, subjective stress reactivity, and executive functions were studied in 60 adults (30 with attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder, ADHD, and 30 controls) using the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT, a test of executive functions) as a cognitive stressor. Despite higher self-perceived stress, the adults with ADHD showed lower or atypical cardiovascular stress reactivity, which was associated with

Tatja Hirvikoski; Erik M. G. Olsson; Anna Nordenström; Torun Lindholm; Anna-Lena Nordström; Svetlana Lajic

2011-01-01

176

Effect of age on functional anthropometry of older Mexican American adults: a cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overall goal of the research reported in this paper was to determine if, and to what extent, age affects functional anthropometry of older Mexican American adults. Primary objectives were: (1) to determine if age affects limiting functional outer fingertip and grip reaches, for women and men separately; and (2) to determine, through a cross-sectional comparison, if functional anthropometric measures of

Arunkumar Pennathur; Winifred Dowling

2003-01-01

177

Acute effects of whole-body vibration on trunk muscle functioning in young healthy adults.  

PubMed

Ye, J, Ng, G, and Yuen, K. Acute effects of whole-body vibration on trunk muscle functioning in young healthy adults. J Strength Cond Res 28(10): 2872-2879, 2014-The purpose of this study was to explore the immediate effects of different frequencies of whole-body vibration (WBV) on the performance of trunk muscles of healthy young adults. A group of 30 healthy subjects (15 men; 15 women; age, 26.8 ± 3.74 years; body mass index, 21.9 ± 1.802) participated in the study. Each subject received 3 sessions of vibration exercise with different exercise parameters with frequencies of 25 Hz and 40 Hz and sham stimulation in a random order on different days. Before and after each WBV exercise session, subjects were assessed for trunk muscle strength/endurance tests and trunk proprioception tests. There was a significant increase in trunk extensor strength (p ? 0.05) after low-frequency (25 Hz) WBV exercise, but high-frequency (40 Hz) vibration exercise had resulted in a significant decrease in trunk extensor endurance (p ? 0.05). Statistical gender difference (p = 0.04) was found for trunk extensor endurance with lower WBV training. No change was noted in the trunk proprioception with different frequencies of WBV. In conclusions, the immediate response of the body to WBV was different for low and high frequencies. Low-frequency vibration enhanced trunk extensor strength, but high-frequency vibration would decrease endurance of the trunk extensor muscles. Males are more sensitive than females in trunk extensor endurance for lower frequency WBV exposure. These results indicated that short-term WBV with low frequency was effective to improve trunk extensor strength in healthy adults, and that could be helpful for relevant activities of trunk extensor performing and preventing sport injury. PMID:24714536

Ye, Jiajia; Ng, Gabriel; Yuen, Kenneth

2014-10-01

178

Reminiscence, Personality, and Psychological Functioning in Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The present study examined the relationships be- tween the frequency and functions of reminiscence, personal- ity styles, and psychological functioning. There is little research on the psychological factors that correlate with remi- niscence, especially in relationship to clinical constructs such as depression and anxiety. Research in the area of reminis- cence functions may facilitate a better understanding of the

Jeffrey A. Cully; Donna LaVoie; Jeffrey D. Gfeller

2001-01-01

179

Gender Differences in Functional Limitations in Adults Living with Type 2 Diabetes: Biobehavioral and Psychosocial Mediators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Differences in functional limitations between adults with and without diabetes are more evident in women than they are in\\u000a men.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Purpose  This study aims to investigate if there are gender differences in biological, behavioral, and psychosocial variables, and\\u000a how these gender-related variables explain the gender–functional limitations relationship in adults with type 2 diabetes.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We drew data on 1,619 adults with type

Ching-Ju Chiu; Linda A. Wray

2011-01-01

180

Stability and Change in Health, Functional Abilities, and Behavior Problems Among Adults With and Without Down Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in health, functional abilities, and behavior problems among 150 adults with Down syndrome and 240 adults with mental retardation due to other causes were examined with seven assessments over a 9-year period. Adults were primarily younger than 40, the age at which declines begin to be evident in individuals with Down syndrome. Adults with Down syndrome were advantaged in

Anna J. Esbensen; Marsha Mailick Seltzer; Marty Wyngaarden Krauss

2008-01-01

181

Adult Male Circumcision: Effects on Sexual Function and Sexual Satisfaction in Kisumu, Kenya  

PubMed Central

Introduction Male circumcision is being promoted for HIV prevention in high-risk heterosexual populations. However, there is a concern that circumcision may impair sexual function. Aim To assess adult male circumcision’s effect on men’s sexual function and pleasure. Methods Participants in a controlled trial of circumcision to reduce HIV incidence in Kisumu, Kenya were uncircumcised, HIV negative, sexually active men, aged 18–24 years, with a hemoglobin ?9.0 mmol/L. Exclusion criteria included foreskin covering less than half the glans, a condition that might unduly increase surgical risks, or a medical indication for circumcision. Participants were randomized 1:1 to either immediate circumcision or delayed circumcision after 2 years (control group). Detailed evaluations occurred at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Main Outcome Measures (i) Sexual function between circumcised and uncircumcised men; and (ii) sexual satisfaction and pleasure over time following circumcision. Results Between February 2002 and September 2005, 2,784 participants were randomized, including the 100 excluded from this analysis because they crossed over, were not circumcised within 30 days of randomization, did not complete baseline interviews, or were outside the age range. For the circumcision and control groups, respectively, rates of any reported sexual dysfunction decreased from 23.6% and 25.9% at baseline to 6.2% and 5.8% at month 24. Changes over time were not associated with circumcision status. Compared to before they were circumcised, 64.0% of circumcised men reported their penis was “much more sensitive,” and 54.5% rated their ease of reaching orgasm as “much more” at month 24. Conclusions Adult male circumcision was not associated with sexual dysfunction. Circumcised men reported increased penile sensitivity and enhanced ease of reaching orgasm. These data indicate that integration of male circumcision into programs to reduce HIV risk is unlikely to adversely effect male sexual function. PMID:18761593

Krieger, John N.; Mehta, Supriya D.; Bailey, Robert C.; Agot, Kawango; Ndinya-Achola, Jeckoniah O.; Parker, Corette; Moses, Stephen

2010-01-01

182

Esophageal peristaltic defects in adults with functional dysphagia.  

PubMed

Functional dysphagia (FD) is characterized by the presence of dysphagia without evidence of mechanical esophageal obstruction, GERD, and histopathology-based esophageal motor disorders. Dysphagia is common in older patients; however, there is a paucity of information regarding the type and frequency of peristaltic abnormalities compared to younger patients. Based on recently validated criteria for classification of weak peristalsis using high-resolution manometry (HRM), we hypothesized that older patients with FD would have more peristaltic defects detected by HRM compared to younger FD patients. A retrospective review of our motility database yielded 65 patients that met inclusion criteria. Patients were divided into two groups based on age (younger: <70 years; older: ?70 years). Patients were interviewed, completed a quality-of-life questionnaire, and underwent solid-state HRM. The two groups differed in age but in no other demographic characteristics, severity of dysphagia, or quality of life. Dyspeptic symptoms, including nausea (p < 0.001), early satiety (p = 0.01), bloating (p = 0.02), and belching (p = 0.01), were also more prevalent in younger FD patients. Older age was associated with weak peristalsis involving frequent failed peristalsis, small proximal peristaltic defects (2-5 cm), and large proximal peristaltic defects (>5 cm) (p < 0.001). The mean contraction amplitude was also lower in the older group (p < 0.05). These data support the hypothesis that older patients with FD have a higher frequency of peristaltic abnormalities on HRM compared to younger patients. Older age was associated with increased frequency of weak peristalsis with small and large peristaltic defects. PMID:24894375

Ratuapli, Shiva K; Hansel, Stephanie L; Umar, Sarah B; Burdick, George E; Ramirez, Francisco C; Fleischer, David E; Harris, Lucinda A; Lacy, Brian E; DiBaise, John K; Crowell, Michael D

2014-08-01

183

The amount of thiolic antioxidant ingestion needed to improve several immune functions is higher in aged than in adult mice.  

PubMed

With aging there is an increase of oxidative stress due to an imbalance between the oxidant production and the antioxidant levels in favor of the former. Since immune cell functions are specially linked to reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, the oxidant/antioxidant balance is essential for these cells. Although low levels of antioxidants cause a decrease in immune function, very high levels of antioxidant compounds could show prooxidant effects. In the present work, we have studied the effect of diet supplementation, for 4 weeks, with two different doses of two thiolic antioxidants, namely thioproline (TP) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC), at 0.1% (w/w) and 0.3% (w/w, of each antioxidant) on the main immune system cells, i.e.: macrophages, lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cells of adult (33+/-1 week old) and aged (75+/-1 week old) female Swiss mice. Two groups of animals, adult and aged mice, fed standard diet were used as controls. The results show that the ingestion of 0.1% doses of thiols improves, in the adult mice, several immune functions such as the chemotaxis capacity of both macrophages and lymphocytes, the phagocytosis of macrophages, the lymphoproliferative response to the mitogen Con A and the NK activity. Moreover, no change was observed in adherence capacity of immune cells, and superoxide production was decreased. By contrast, in aged mice the ingestion of these amounts of antioxidants did not change the immune functions studied with the exception of NK activity, which was stimulated. The ingestion of 0.3% of antioxidants by adult mice only increased some immune functions such as adherence and superoxide production, which are markers of oxidative stress. Other functions such as chemotaxis or lymphoproliferative response decreased. However, the ingestion of these very high amounts of thiols by aged animals increased the phagocytosis, the NK activity and specially the lymphoproliferative response to the mitogen, a function that is very depressed with aging. PMID:11999379

De La Fuente, M; Miquel, J; Catalán, M P; Víctor, V M; Guayerbas, N

2002-02-01

184

Behavior Modification of Adult Illiterates and Functional Illiterates Who Learned To Read.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined some effects of literacy achievement on the lives of 184 of the 215 adults who had successfully completed literacy training between 1962 and 1966 in the Flint, Michigan, Adult High School. Interviews and public records were used to gather data on student background, experiences during literary training, participants'…

Warsh, Herman Enoch

185

Use of neuropsychological tests to predict adult patients' everyday functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discusses the role of testing in (a) delineating the behavioral consequences of brain lesions and (b) predicting the likely impact of such ability deficits on everyday functioning. The available studies that relate neuropsychological test scores to aspects of self-care and independent living, academic achievement, and vocational functioning are reviewed. Results are generally positive, but the clinical value of these studies

Robert K. Heaton; Mark G. Pendleton

1981-01-01

186

Retinotopic mapping of adult human visual cortex with high-density diffuse optical tomography  

PubMed Central

Functional neuroimaging is a vital element of neuroscience and cognitive research and, increasingly, is an important clinical tool. Diffuse optical imaging is an emerging, noninvasive technique with unique portability and hemodynamic contrast capabilities for mapping brain function in young subjects and subjects in enriched or clinical environments. We have developed a high-performance, high-density diffuse optical tomography (DOT) system that overcomes previous limitations and enables superior image quality. We show herein the utility of the DOT system by presenting functional hemodynamic maps of the adult human visual cortex. The functional brain images have a high contrast-to-noise ratio, allowing visualization of individual activations and highly repeatable mapping within and across subjects. With the improved spatial resolution and localization, we were able to image functional responses of 1.7 cm in extent and shifts of <1 cm. Cortical maps of angle and eccentricity in the visual field are consistent with retinotopic studies using functional MRI and positron-emission tomography. These results demonstrate that high-density DOT is a practical and powerful tool for mapping function in the human cortex. PMID:17616584

Zeff, Benjamin W.; White, Brian R.; Dehghani, Hamid; Schlaggar, Bradley L.; Culver, Joseph P.

2007-01-01

187

The Effects of Perceived Parenting and Family Functioning on Adult Attachment: A Sample of Japanese University Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parenting styles and family functioning have been proved individually to make an important contribution to the development of adult attachment styles. However, few studies have attempted to clarify how these two factors influence adult attachment styles when taken into account simultaneously. In order to examine the relationship between adult at- tachment, perceived parenting, and family functioning, data derived from 1,141

Qingbo Liu; Masahiro Shono; Toshinori Kitamura

2008-01-01

188

Long-chain omega-3 Fatty acids improve brain function and structure in older adults.  

PubMed

Higher intake of seafish or oil rich in long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-n3-FA) may be beneficial for the aging brain. We tested in a prospective interventional design whether high levels of supplementary LC-n3-FA would improve cognition, and addressed potential mechanisms underlying the effects. Sixty-five healthy subjects (50-75 years, 30 females) successfully completed 26 weeks of either fish oil (2.2 g/day LC-n3-FA) or placebo intake. Before and after the intervention period, cognitive performance, structural neuroimaging, vascular markers, and blood parameters were assayed. We found a significant increase in executive functions after LC-n3-FA compared with placebo (P = 0.023). In parallel, LC-n3-FA exerted beneficial effects on white matter microstructural integrity and gray matter volume in frontal, temporal, parietal, and limbic areas primarily of the left hemisphere, and on carotid intima media thickness and diastolic blood pressure. Improvements in executive functions correlated positively with changes in omega-3-index and peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and negatively with changes in peripheral fasting insulin. This double-blind randomized interventional study provides first-time evidence that LC-n3-FA exert positive effects on brain functions in healthy older adults, and elucidates underlying mechanisms. Our findings suggest novel strategies to maintain cognitive functions into old age. PMID:23796946

Witte, A Veronica; Kerti, Lucia; Hermannstädter, Henrike M; Fiebach, Jochen B; Schreiber, Stephan J; Schuchardt, Jan Philipp; Hahn, Andreas; Flöel, Agnes

2014-11-01

189

Upset Stomach (Functional Dyspepsia) in Adults (Beyond the Basics)  

MedlinePLUS

... Zantac), famotidine (Pepcid), cimetidine (Tagamet), and nizatidine (Axid). Antacids are not usually helpful for people with functional dyspepsia. Examples of antacids include Tums, Maalox, and Mylanta. H. pylori treatment — ...

190

Influence of hyperoxia and mechanical ventilation in lung inflammation and diaphragm function in aged versus adult rats.  

PubMed

Although assist ventilation with FIO2 0.21 is the preferable mode of ventilation in the intensive care unit, sometimes controlled ventilation with hyperoxia is needed. But the impact of this setting has not been extensively studied in elderly subjects. We hypothesized that a high fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO(2)) and controlled mechanical ventilation (CMV) is associated with greater deleterious effects in old compared to adult subjects. Adult and old rats were submitted to CMV with low tidal volume (6 ml/kg) and FiO(2) 1 during 3 or 6 h. Arterial blood gas samples were measured at 0, 60 and 180 min (four groups: old and adult rats, 3 or 6 h of CMV), and additionally at 360 min (two groups: old and adult rats, 6 h of CMV). Furthermore, total protein content (TPC) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) in bronchoalveolar lavage were assessed; lung tissue was used for malondialdehyde and histological analyses, and the diaphragm for measurement of contractile function. Arterial blood gas analysis showed an initial (60 min) greater PaO(2) in elderly versus adult animals; after that time, elderly animals had lowers pH and PaO(2), and greater PaCO(2). After 3 h of CMV, TPC and TNF-? levels were higher in the old compared with the adult group (P?adult animals (P?function and increasing lung inflammation. PMID:24158570

Andrade, P V; dos Santos, J M; Silva, H C A; Wilbert, D D; Cavassani, S S; Oliveira-Júnior, I S

2014-04-01

191

Parenting Style, Perfectionism, and Creativity in High-Ability and High-Achieving Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study explores the potential relationships among perceived parenting style, perfectionism, and creativity in a high-ability and high-achieving young adult population. Using data from 323 honors college students at a Midwestern university, bivariate correlations suggested positive relationships between (a) permissive parenting style and…

Miller, Angie L.; Lambert, Amber D.; Speirs Neumeister, Kristie L.

2012-01-01

192

Alteration of mitochondrial function in adult rat offspring of malnourished dams  

PubMed Central

Under-nutrition as well as over-nutrition during pregnancy has been associated with the development of adult diseases such as diabetes and obesity. Both epigenetic modifications and programming of the mitochondrial function have been recently proposed to explain how altered intrauterine metabolic environment may produce such a phenotype. This review aims to report data reported in several animal models of fetal malnutrition due to maternal low protein or low calorie diet, high fat diet as well as reduction in placental blood flow. We focus our overview on the ? cell. We highlight that, notwithstanding early nutritional events, mitochondrial dysfunctions resulting from different alteration by diet or gender are programmed. This may explain the higher propensity to develop obesity and diabetes in later life. PMID:21954419

Reusens, Brigitte; Theys, Nicolas; Remacle, Claude

2011-01-01

193

Shared and Distinctive Origins and Correlates of Adult Attachment Representations: The Developmental Organization of Romantic Functioning  

PubMed Central

To test proposals regarding the hierarchical organization of adult attachment, this study examined developmental origins of generalized and romantic attachment representations and their concurrent associations with romantic functioning. Participants (N = 112) in a 35-year prospective study completed the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) and Current Relationship Interview (CRI). Two-way ANOVAs tested interactive associations of AAI and CRI security with infant attachment, early parenting quality, preschool ego resiliency, adolescent friendship quality, and adult romantic functioning. Both representations were associated with earlier parenting and core attachment-related romantic behavior, but romantic representations had distinctive links to ego resiliency and relationship-specific romantic behaviors. Attachment representations were independent and did not interactively predict romantic functioning, suggesting that they confer somewhat distinctive benefits for romantic functioning. PMID:22694197

Haydon, Katherine C.; Collins, W. Andrew; Salvatore, Jessica E.; Simpson, Jeffry A.; Roisman, Glenn I.

2012-01-01

194

Oral Narrative Skills in French Adults Who Are Functionally Illiterate: Linguistic Features and Discourse Organization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To investigate the nature and extent of oral language difficulties encountered by adults who are functionally illiterate. Method: Fifty-two men and women identified as functionally illiterate, together with a group of control individuals of comparable age, sex, and socioprofessional background, produced a narrative intended for an absent…

Eme, Elsa; Lacroix, Agnes; Almecija, Yves

2010-01-01

195

Skeletal Muscle Power: A Critical Determinant of Physical Functioning In Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Muscle power declines earlier and more precipitously with advancing age compared to muscle strength. Peak muscle power has also emerged as an important predictor of functional limitations in older adults. Our current working hypothesis is focused on examining lower extremity muscle power as a more discriminant variable for understanding the relationships between impairments, functional limitations and resultant disability with aging. PMID:22016147

Reid, Kieran F.; Fielding, Roger A.

2011-01-01

196

Functional Changes in Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults with Cerebral Palsy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with multiple handicaps, including cerebral palsy (CP), often lose or regress in their functional ability through adolescence and young adulthood. The purpose of this study was to examine functional and psychosocial changes in children, adolescents, and young adults with CP. A retrospective chart review and a prospective telephone…

Krakovsky, Gina; Huth, Myra Martz; Lin, Li; Levin, Ron S.

2007-01-01

197

Psychosocial Functioning of Young Adults Who Have Experienced and Recovered From Major Depressive Disorder During Adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examined whether adolescent major depressive disorder (MDD) was associated with difficulties in young adult functioning and whether differences would remain significant after accounting for nonmood disorder, MDD recurrence, functioning in adolescence, or current mood state. A total of 941 participants were assessed twice during adolescence and at age 24. In unadjusted analyses, adolescent MDD was associated with most

Peter M. Lewinsohn; Paul Rohde; John R. Seeley; Daniel N. Klein; Ian H. Gotlib

2003-01-01

198

Muscle Strength and Mass of Lower Extremities in Relation to Functional Abilities in Elderly Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Functional and physiological declines in advancing age may be significant limiting factors in reduced physical activity. Sarcopenia of aging, as a normative process or disease, cannot entirely explain reduced physical activity in the elderly. Objective: The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between muscle loss and reduction in functional abilities in elderly adults and also to

Eli Carmeli; Abraham Z. Reznick; Raymond Coleman; Varda Carmeli

2000-01-01

199

Featured Article Temporal lobe functional activity and connectivity in young adult  

E-print Network

Featured Article Temporal lobe functional activity and connectivity in young adult APOE 34 carriers if the APOE 34 allele influences both the functional activation and connectivity of the medial temporal lobes.e., 12 carriers and 12 noncarriers of the APOE 34 allele, were scanned in a subsequent-memory paradigm

Dennis, Nancy

200

Featured Articles Temporal lobe functional activity and connectivity in young adult  

E-print Network

Featured Articles Temporal lobe functional activity and connectivity in young adult APOE 34 if the APOE 34 allele influences both the functional activation and connectivity of the medial temporal lobes.e., 12 carriers and 12 noncarriers of the APOE 34 allele, were scanned in a subsequent-memory paradigm

Dennis, Nancy

201

Right ventricular function declines after cardiac surgery in adult patients with congenital heart disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Right ventricular function (RVF) is often selectively declined after coronary artery bypass graft surgery. In adult patients\\u000a with congenital heart disease (CHD) the incidence and persistence of declined RVF after cardiac surgery is unknown. The current\\u000a study aimed to describe RVF after cardiac surgery in these patients. Adult CHD patients operated between January 2008 and\\u000a December 2009 in the Academic

Mark J. Schuuring; Pauline P. M. Bolmers; Barbara J. M. Mulder; Rianne A. C. M. de Bruin-Bon; Dave R. Koolbergen; Mark G. Hazekamp; Wim K. Lagrand; Stefan G. De Hert; E. M. F. H. de Beaumont; Berto J. Bouma

202

Individualized Piano Instruction enhances executive functioning and working memory in older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluates transfer from domain-specific, sensorimotor training to cognitive abilities associated with executive function. We examined Individualized Piano Instruction (IPI) as a potential cognitive intervention to mitigate normal age-related cognitive decline in older adults. Thirty-one musically naïve community-dwelling older adults (ages 60–85) were randomly assigned to either the experimental group (n?=?16) or control group (n?=?15). Neuropsychological assessments were administered

J. A. Bugos; W. M. Perlstein; C. S. McCrae; T. S. Brophy; P. H. Bedenbaugh

2007-01-01

203

Coping with incest: the relationship between recollections of childhood coping and adult functioning in female survivors of incest.  

PubMed

One hundred and one adult female survivors' recollections of coping with childhood incest, abuse characteristics, and current functioning in adulthood were studied. Analyses controlling for characteristics of the trauma indicated that recollections of using avoidance coping and seeking social support were related to poor adult functioning whereas recollections of using distancing coping were related to better functioning. As a set of variables, abuse characteristics also predicted a significant amount of variance in adult functioning. Implications for future research were discussed. PMID:12816342

Brand, Bethany L; Alexander, Pamela C

2003-06-01

204

Fine particulate matter air pollution and cognitive function among older US adults.  

PubMed

Existing research on the adverse health effects of exposure to pollution has devoted relatively little attention to the potential impact of ambient air pollution on cognitive function in older adults. We examined the cross-sectional association between residential concentrations of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 ?m or less (PM2.5) and cognitive function in older adults. Using hierarchical linear modeling, we analyzed data from the 2004 Health and Retirement Study, a large, nationally representative sample of US adults aged 50 years or older. We linked participant data with 2000 US Census tract data and 2004 census tract-level annual average PM2.5 concentrations. Older adults living in areas with higher PM2.5 concentrations had worse cognitive function (? = -0.26, 95% confidence interval: -0.47, -0.05) even after adjustment for community- and individual-level social and economic characteristics. Results suggest that the association is strongest for the episodic memory component of cognitive function. This study adds to a growing body of research highlighting the importance of air pollution to cognitive function in older adults. Improving air quality in large metropolitan areas, where much of the aging US population resides, may be an important mechanism for reducing age-related cognitive decline. PMID:24966214

Ailshire, Jennifer A; Crimmins, Eileen M

2014-08-15

205

Self-renewal pattern-associated genes and their role in adult stem cell functions  

E-print Network

Molecular markers for adult stem cells (ASCs) are highly demanded for research and clinical applications. The development of specific molecular markers for ASCs has been difficult mainly due to the technical barriers in ...

Noh, Minsoo

2006-01-01

206

Sustained expression of the transcription factor GLIS3 is required for normal beta cell function in adults  

PubMed Central

Genome-wide association studies identified GLIS3 as a susceptibility locus for type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Global Glis3 deficiency in mice leads to congenital diabetes and neonatal lethality. In this study, we explore the role of Glis3 in adulthood using Glis3+/? and conditional knockout animals. We challenged Glis3+/? mice with high fat diet for 20 weeks and found that they developed diabetes because of impaired beta cell mass expansion. GLIS3 controls beta cell proliferation in response to high-fat feeding at least partly by regulating Ccnd2 transcription. To determine if sustained Glis3 expression is essential to normal beta cell function, we generated Glis3fl/fl/Pdx1CreERT+ animal by intercrossing Glis3fl/fl mice with Pdx1CreERT+ mice and used tamoxifen (TAM) to induce Glis3 deletion in adults. Adult Glis3fl/fl/Pdx1CreERT+ mice are euglycaemic. TAM-mediated beta cell-specific inactivation of Glis3 in adult mice downregulates insulin expression, leading to hyperglycaemia and subsequently enhanced beta cell apoptosis. We conclude that normal Glis3 expression is required for pancreatic beta cell function and mass maintenance during adulthood, which impairment leads to diabetes in adults. PMID:23197416

Yang, Yisheng; Chang, Benny Hung-Junn; Chan, Lawrence

2013-01-01

207

Renal Function in Adult Beta-Thalassemia\\/Hb E Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

?-Thalassemia hemoglobin E (?-thal\\/Hb E) is the commonest form of hemoglobinopathy in Thailand. Shortened red cell life span, rapid iron turnover and tissue deposition of excess iron are major factors responsible for functional and physiological abnormalities found in various forms of thalassemia. Increased deposition of iron had been found in renal parenchyma of thalassemic patients, but no systematic study of

Leena Ong-ajyooth; Prida Malasit; Sompong Ong-ajyooth; Suthat Fucharoen; Pensri Pootrakul; Somkiat Vasuvattakul; Nopadol Siritanaratkul; Sanga Nilwarangkur

1998-01-01

208

Acute effect of a high nitrate diet on brain perfusion in older adults  

PubMed Central

Aims Poor blood flow and hypoxia/ischemia contribute to many disease states and may also be a factor in the decline of physical and cognitive function in aging. Nitrite has been discovered to be a vasodilator that is preferentially harnessed in hypoxia. Thus, both infused and inhaled nitrite are being studied as therapeutic agents for a variety of diseases. In addition, nitrite derived from nitrate in the diet has been shown to decrease blood pressure and improve exercise performance. Thus, dietary nitrate may also be important when increased blood flow in hypoxic or ischemic areas is indicated. These conditions could include age-associated dementia and cognitive decline. The goal of this study was to determine if dietary nitrate would increase cerebral blood flow in older adults. Methods and Results In this investigation we administered a high vs. low nitrate diet to older adults (74.7 ± 6.9 years) and measured cerebral perfusion using arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging. We found that the high nitrate diet did not alter global cerebral perfusion, but did lead to increased regional cerebral perfusion in frontal lobe white matter, especially between the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex. Conclusion These results suggest that dietary nitrate may be useful in improving regional brain perfusion in older adults in critical brain areas known to be involved in executive functioning. PMID:20951824

Presley, Tennille D.; Morgan, Ashley R.; Bechtold, Erika; Clodfelter, William; Dove, Robin W.; Jennings, Janine M.; Kraft, Robert A.; King, S. Bruce; Laurienti, Paul J.; Rejeski, W. Jack; Burdette, Jonathan H.; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B.; Miller, Gary D.

2010-01-01

209

Morphological and functional alterations in adult boar epididymis: Effects of prenatal and postnatal administration of flutamide  

PubMed Central

Background The dynamic cross-talk between epididymal cells is hormonally regulated and, in part, through direct cell-to-cell interactions. To date, no information is available regarding possible impact of anti-androgens on the proteins involved in the gap junctional communication within the boar epididymis. Thus, a question arised whether prenatal or postnatal exposure to an anti-androgen flutamide alters the expression of gap junction protein - connexin43 (Cx43) and androgen receptor (AR) expression in the caput, corpus and cauda epididymis and leads to delayed effects on morphology and function of adult pig epididymis. Methods First two experimental groups received flutamide prenatally on gestational days 20-28 and 80-88 (GD20 and GD80) and further two groups were exposed to flutamide postanatally on days 2-10 and 90-98 after birth (PD2 and PD90). Epididymides were collected from adult boars. Routine histology was performed using hematoxylin-eosin staining. The expression of Cx43 and AR were analyzed using immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Both analyses were supported by quantitative approaches to demonstrate the variations of the expression levels following the treatment. Apoptotic cells were identified using TUNEL assay. Results Histological examination revealed differences in epididymal morphology of flutamide-exposed boars when compared to controls. Scarce spermatic content were seen within the corpus and cauda lumina of GD20, PD2 and PD90 groups. Concomitantly, frequency of epididymal cell apoptosis was significantly higher (p < 0.05) after exposure to flutamide at GD20. Moreover, in GD20, PD2, and PD90 groups, significantly lower AR expression (p < 0.05) was found in the principal and basal cells of the corpus and cauda regions, while in the stromal cells AR expression was significantly reduced (p < 0.05) along the epididymal duct. Concomitantly, a decrease in Cx43 expression (p < 0.05) was noticed in the stromal cells of the cauda region of GD20 and PD2 groups. This indicates high sensitivity of the stromal cells to androgen withdrawal. Conclusions The region-specific alterations in the epididymis morphology and scarce spermatic content within the lumina of the corpus and cauda indicate that flutamide can induce delayed effects on the epididymal function of the adult boar by decrease in AR protein levels that results in altered androgen signaling. This may cause disturbances in androgen-dependent processes including Cx43 (de)regulation, however, we can not exclude the possibility that in response to flutamide decreased Cx43 expression may represent one mechanism responsible for functional disturbance of the boar epididymis. PMID:21342526

2011-01-01

210

Mild cognitive impairment and everyday functioning in older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relations between mild cognitive impairment without dementia (MCI\\/CIND) and everyday functional abilities were examined using data from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA). Individuals were identified with MCI\\/CIND if both caregiver report and clinician judgment agreed on the presence of cognitive impairment in the absence of dementia. Cross-sectional and longitudinal comparisons indicated that individuals with MCI\\/CIND demonstrated

Holly Tuokko; Carolyn Morris; Patricia Ebert

2005-01-01

211

Novel functions of GABA signaling in adult neurogenesis  

PubMed Central

Neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutiric acid (GABA) through ionotropic GABAA and metabotropic GABAB receptors plays key roles in modulating the development, plasticity and function of neuronal networks. GABA is inhibitory in mature neurons but excitatory in immature neurons, neuroblasts and neural stem/progenitor cells (NSCs/NPCs). The switch from excitatory to inhibitory occurs following the development of glutamatergic synaptic input and results from the dynamic changes in the expression of Na+/K+/2Cl? co-transporter NKCC1 driving Cl? influx and neuron-specific K+/Cl? co-transporter KCC2 driving Cl? efflux. The developmental transition of KCC2 expression is regulated by Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling. The excitatory GABA signaling during early neurogenesis is important to the activity/experience-induced regulation of NSC quiescence, NPC proliferation, neuroblast migration and newborn neuronal maturation/functional integration. The inhibitory GABA signaling allows for the sparse and static functional networking essential for learning/memory development and maintenance. PMID:24285940

PONTES, Adalto; ZHANG, Yonggang; HU, Wenhui

2013-01-01

212

Executive Functions and ADHD in Adults: Evidence for Selective Effects on ADHD Symptom Domains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dual-process models of attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suggest that both executive functioning and regulatory functions (e.g., processing speed) are involved and that executive function weaknesses may be associated specifically with symptoms of inattention-disorganization but not hyperactivity-impulsivity. Adults aged 18–37 (105 with ADHD, 90 controls) completed a neuropsychological battery. The ADHD group had weaker performance than did the control group (p <

Joel T. Nigg; Gillian Stavro; Mark Ettenhofer; David Z. Hambrick; Torri Miller; John M. Henderson

2005-01-01

213

Prefrontal Response and Frontostriatal Functional Connectivity to Monetary Reward in Abstinent Alcohol-Dependent Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Although altered function in neural reward circuitry is widely proposed in models of addiction, more recent conceptual views have emphasized the role of disrupted response in prefrontal regions. Changes in regions such as the orbitofrontal cortex, medial prefrontal cortex, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex are postulated to contribute to the compulsivity, impulsivity, and altered executive function that are central to addiction. In addition, few studies have examined function in these regions during young adulthood, when exposure is less chronic than in typical samples of alcohol-dependent adults. To address these issues, we examined neural response and functional connectivity during monetary reward in 24 adults with alcohol dependence and 24 psychiatrically healthy adults. Adults with alcohol dependence exhibited less response to the receipt of monetary reward in a set of prefrontal regions including the medial prefrontal cortex, lateral orbitofrontal cortex, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Adults with alcohol dependence also exhibited greater negative correlation between function in each of these regions and that in the nucleus accumbens. Within the alcohol-dependent group, those with family history of alcohol dependence exhibited lower mPFC response, and those with more frequent drinking exhibited greater negative functional connectivity between the mPFC and the nucleus accumbens. These findings indicate that alcohol dependence is associated with less engagement of prefrontal cortical regions, suggesting weak or disrupted regulation of ventral striatal response. This pattern of prefrontal response and frontostriatal connectivity has consequences for the behavior patterns typical of addiction. Furthermore, brain-behavior findings indicate that the potential mechanisms of disruption in frontostriatal circuitry in alcohol dependence include family liability to alcohol use problems and more frequent use of alcohol. In all, these findings build on the extant literature on reward-circuit function in addiction and suggest mechanisms for disrupted function in alcohol dependence. PMID:24804780

Forbes, Erika E.; Rodriguez, Eric E.; Musselman, Samuel; Narendran, Rajesh

2014-01-01

214

Fundamental Differences in Callosal Structure, Neurophysiologic Function, and Bimanual Control in Young and Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Bimanual actions involve coordinated motion but often rely on the movements performed with each hand to be different. Older adults exhibit differentially greater variability for bimanual actions in which each hand has an independent movement goal. Such actions rely on interhemispheric communication via the corpus callosum, including both facilitatory and inhibitory interactions. Here, we investigated whether age differences in callosal structure and interhemispheric function contribute to this selective movement difficulty. Participants performed 3 force production tasks: 1) unimanual, 2) bimanual simultaneous, and 3) bimanual independent. Older adults had significantly greater interhemispheric facilitation during voluntary muscle activation. We also report a fundamental shift with age in the relationship between callosal tract microstructural integrity and interhemispheric inhibition (IHI). Specifically, older adults with relatively greater callosal tract microstructural integrity have less IHI. Furthermore, greater IHI was related to poorer bimanual performance (assessed by dominant hand force variability) in older adults on all tasks, whereas this relationship was only observed in young adults for the bimanual independent condition. These findings indicate changes in interhemispheric communication with advancing age such that older adults may rely on bilateral cortical cooperation to a greater extent than young adults for manual actions. PMID:22166764

Seidler, R. D.

2012-01-01

215

Measurement of Spontaneous Signal Fluctuations in fMRI: Adult Age Differences in Intrinsic Functional Connectivity  

PubMed Central

Functional connectivity (FC) reflects the coherence of spontaneous, low-frequency fluctuations in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. We report a behavior-based connectivity analysis (BBCA) method, in which whole-brain data are used to identify behaviorally-relevant, intrinsic FC networks. Nineteen younger adults (20-28 years) and 19 healthy, older adults (63-78 years) were assessed with fMRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Results indicated that FC involving a distributed network of brain regions, particularly the inferior frontal gyri, exhibited age-related change in the correlation with perceptual-motor speed (choice reaction time; RT). No relation between FC and RT was evident for younger adults, whereas older adults exhibited a significant age-related slowing of perceptual-motor speed, which was mediated by decreasing FC. Older adults' FC values were in turn associated positively with white matter integrity (from DTI) within the genu of the corpus callosum. The developed FC analysis illustrates the value of identifying connectivity by combining structural, functional, and behavioral data. PMID:19727810

Chen, Nan-kuei; Chou, Ying-hui; Song, Allen W.; Madden, David J.

2009-01-01

216

Functional Convergence of Neurons Generated in the Developing and Adult Hippocampus  

PubMed Central

The dentate gyrus of the hippocampus contains neural progenitor cells (NPCs) that generate neurons throughout life. Developing neurons of the adult hippocampus have been described in depth. However, little is known about their functional properties as they become fully mature dentate granule cells (DGCs). To compare mature DGCs generated during development and adulthood, NPCs were labeled at both time points using retroviruses expressing different fluorescent proteins. Sequential electrophysiological recordings from neighboring neurons of different ages were carried out to quantitatively study their major synaptic inputs: excitatory projections from the entorhinal cortex and inhibitory afferents from local interneurons. Our results show that DGCs generated in the developing and adult hippocampus display a remarkably similar afferent connectivity with regard to both glutamate and GABA, the major neurotransmitters. We also demonstrate that adult-born neurons can fire action potentials in response to an excitatory drive, exhibiting a firing behavior comparable to that of neurons generated during development. We propose that neurons born in the developing and adult hippocampus constitute a functionally homogeneous neuronal population. These observations are critical to understanding the role of adult neurogenesis in hippocampal function. PMID:17121455

Piatti, Veronica C; Morgenstern, Nicolas A; Zhao, Chunmei; van Praag, Henriette; Gage, Fred H; Schinder, Alejandro F

2006-01-01

217

Cognitive functioning in relation to brain amyloid-? in healthy adults with Down syndrome.  

PubMed

Nearly all adults with Down syndrome show neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease, including amyloid-? deposition, by their fifth decade of life. In the current study, we examined the association between brain amyloid-? deposition, assessed via in vivo assessments of neocortical Pittsburgh compound B, and scores on an extensive neuropsychological battery of measures of cognitive functioning in 63 adults (31 male, 32 female) with Down syndrome aged 30-53 years who did not exhibit symptoms of dementia. Twenty-two of the adults with Down syndrome were identified as having elevated neocortical Pittsburgh compound B retention levels. There was a significant positive correlation (r = 0.62, P < 0.0001) between age and neocortical Pittsburgh compound B retention. This robust association makes it difficult to discriminate normative age-related decline in cognitive functioning from any potential effects of amyloid-? deposition. When controlling for chronological age in addition to mental age, there were no significant differences between the adults with Down syndrome who had elevated neocortical Pittsburgh compound B retention levels and those who did not on any of the neuropsychological measures. Similarly, when examining Pittsburgh compound B as a continuous variable, after controlling for mental age and chronological age, only the Rivermead Picture Recognition score was significantly negatively associated with neocortical Pittsburgh compound B retention. Our findings indicate that many adults with Down syndrome can tolerate amyloid-? deposition without deleterious effects on cognitive functioning. However, we may have obscured true effects of amyloid-? deposition by controlling for chronological age in our analyses. Moreover, our sample included adults with Down syndrome who were most 'resistant' to the effects of amyloid-? deposition, as adults already exhibiting clinical symptoms of dementia symptoms were excluded from the study. PMID:24993958

Hartley, Sigan L; Handen, Benjamin L; Devenny, Darlynne A; Hardison, Regina; Mihaila, Iulia; Price, Julie C; Cohen, Annie D; Klunk, William E; Mailick, Marsha R; Johnson, Sterling C; Christian, Bradley T

2014-09-01

218

Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Pulmonary Function among Adults in NHANES III: Impact on the General Population and Adults with Current Asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure on adult pulmonary function has not been clearly determined. Because adults with asthma have chronic airway inflammation, they may be a particularly susceptible group. Using data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), I examined the cross-sectional relationship between serum cotinine, a biomarker of ETS exposure, and pulmonary

Mark D. Eisner

219

High altitude hypoxia environment changes of the content of RAAS and right ventricular ACE2 activity in adult SD rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To study the function of the rennin- angiotensin-aldoterone system(RAAS) under high altitude hypoxia environment and objective to investigate the effects of high altitude hypoxia on the angiotensin conversion enzyme 2(ACE2) mRNA and protein expressions in SD rat right ventricle. Methods Forty male adult Sprague Dawley( SD) rats, under high altitude hypoxia environment were divided randomly into 4 groups: the

Wenhua Li; Zhong Liu

2011-01-01

220

Training social problem solving skills in adolescents with high-functioning autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adolescents and young adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASD) have very different needs and abilities. Deficits in social skills and executive function, however, are generally considered defining characteristics of HFASD. Deficits in socialization often interfere with these individual's educational experience and quality of life, and explicit instruction is required to help them acquire age-appropriate social skills. We describe an

Fatima A. Boujarwah; Hwajung Hong; Rosa I. Arriaga; Gregory D. Abowd; Jackie Isbell

2010-01-01

221

Five-year changes in middle ear function for older adults.  

PubMed

Longitudinal changes in tympanometric measures of middle ear function over five years were reported for a large population of older adults. Findings were similar for men and women, for right and left ears, and across age groups from 48 to 92 years. Although some of the mean changes reached statistical significance, the vast majority of observed changes were small in magnitude relative to the observed variability and the tolerances of the measuring instrument. Observed mean changes in Peak Ytm for older adults were quite small and were in the positive direction. This is counter to changes that would be predicted on the basis of increases in the stiffness of the middle ear transmission system with advancing age suggested in earlier reports. Overall, the findings suggest little in the way of functional change in middle ear mechanics over a span of five years in older adults. PMID:15844739

Wiley, Terry L; Nondahl, David M; Cruickshanks, Karen J; Tweed, Ted S

2005-03-01

222

Using function-focused care to increase physical activity among older adults.  

PubMed

Despite the known benefits of physical activity for older adults, adherence to regular physical activity recommendations is poor. Less than half of adults in this country meet physical activity recommendations with reasons for lack of adherence including such things as access, motivation, pain, fear, comorbidities, among others. To overcome these challenges, function-focused care was developed. Function-focused care is a philosophy of care that focuses on evaluating the older adult's underlying capability with regard to function and physical activity and helping him or her optimize and maintain physical function and ability and continually increase time spent in physical activity. Examples of function-focused care include such things as using verbal cues during bathing, so the older individual performs the tasks rather than the caregiver bathing the individual; walking a resident or patient to the bathroom rather than using a urinal, or taking a resident to an exercise class. There are now over 20 studies supporting the benefits of function-focused care approaches across all settings and different types of patient groups (i.e, those with mild versus moderate-to-severe cognitive impairment). The approaches for implementation of function-focused care have also been well supported and have moved beyond establishing effectiveness to considering dissemination and implementation of this approach into real world clinical settings. The process of dissemination and implementation has likewise been articulated and supported, and ongoing work needs to continue in this venue across all care settings. PMID:24894140

Resnick, Barbara; Galik, Elizabeth

2013-01-01

223

Effects of a DVD-Delivered Exercise Intervention on Physical Function in Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Background. Given the rapidly increasing demographic of older adults, it is vital to implement effective behavioral strategies to improve physical function to maintain activities of daily living. However, changing physical activity in older adults remains extremely difficult. The current trial tested the efficacy of a novel, 6-month, home-based, DVD-delivered exercise program focusing on flexibility, balance, and toning on the physical function of older adults. Methods. Older adults (N = 307) were recruited from 83 towns and cities throughout central Illinois. The trial consisted of 4 waves of recruitment and randomization from May 2010 through January 2012. Inclusion criteria included being inactive, at least 65 years of age, English speaking, providing physician’s consent, and willingness to be randomized. Eligible participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment conditions: the exercise intervention or a healthy aging, attentional control. Functional assessments were completed at baseline and following the 6-month DVD intervention. Measures included the Short Physical Performance Battery, assessments of flexibility and strength, and self-reported functional limitations. Results. Participants in the DVD intervention condition demonstrated significant improvements in the Short Physical Performance Battery (p = .005), lower extremity flexibility (p = .04), and upper body strength (p = .003). There were no effects of the intervention on self-reported functional limitations. Conclusions. The exercise intervention produced a clinically significant improvement in the Short Physical Performance Battery and improvements in flexibility and strength, demonstrating the effectiveness of a low-cost DVD exercise program in improving physical function in older adults. PMID:23401566

2013-01-01

224

Handwriting measures as reflectors of executive functions among adults with Developmental Coordination Disorders (DCD)  

PubMed Central

Planning ahead and organizational abilities in time and space are ingredients of high-level cognitive functions labeled as ‘Executive Functions’ (EF) required for daily activities such as writing or home management. EF deficits are considered a possible underlying brain mechanism involved in Developmental Coordination Disorders (DCD). The aim: of the study was to compare the handwriting process measures and the planning and organizational abilities in space and time of students with DCD with those of matched controls and to find whether handwriting measures can predict daily planning and organizational abilities among students with DCD. Method: 30 students diagnosed with DCD, between the ages of 24–41, and 30 age- and gender-matched controls participated in the study. They filled out the Handwriting Proficiency Screening Questionnaire (HPSQ) and the Adult Developmental Co-ordination Disorders Checklist (ADC). Furthermore, they copied a paragraph on a digitizer that is part of a computerized system Computerised Penmanship Evaluation Toll (ComPET). Results: Significant group differences were found for the HPSQ subscales scores as well as for the temporal and spatial measures of the paragraph copy task. Significant group differences were also found for the planning and organizational abilities in space and time as reflected through the ADC subscales. Significant medium correlations were found in both groups between the mean HPSQ time subscale and the ADC-B subscale mean score (r = 0.50/0.58, p < 0.05). Series of regression analyses indicated that two handwriting performance measures (mean HPSQ time subscale and mean stroke duration) predicted 19% of planning and organizational abilities as reflected through daily functions (ADC-B) [F(3, 54) = 38.37, ? = 0.40, p < 0.0001]. Conclusion: The results support previous evidence about EF deficits as an underlying brain mechanism involved in motor coordination disorders, their significance as related to theoretical models of handwriting and daily function among DCD will be examined. PMID:23805113

Rosenblum, Sara

2013-01-01

225

Personality as a moderator of cognitive stimulation in older adults at high risk for cognitive decline.  

PubMed

This exploratory study examined the moderating effects of personality traits on cognitive function following a cognitively stimulating individualized activity intervention delivered to individuals at high risk for cognitive decline: those with delirium superimposed on dementia. Data were taken from an ongoing randomized clinical trial with the addition of a personality measure. The results for 71 participants randomized to intervention or control groups are reported. Significant moderating effects of personality traits were found such that participants with higher agreeableness were more likely to have improved delayed recall and those with lower extraversion were more likely to have improved executive function, as a result of the intervention. Lower openness, higher agreeableness, and lower conscientiousness were associated with greater engagement in the intervention. A cognitive stimulation intervention for older adults at high risk for further cognitive decline may be differentially effective based on certain personality traits. PMID:24635006

Hill, Nikki L; Kolanowski, Ann M; Fick, Donna; Chinchilli, Vernon M; Jablonski, Rita A

2014-01-01

226

Acquisition of high-quality digital video of Drosophila larval and adult behaviors from a lateral perspective.  

PubMed

Drosophila melanogaster is a powerful experimental model system for studying the function of the nervous system. Gene mutations that cause dysfunction of the nervous system often produce viable larvae and adults that have locomotion defective phenotypes that are difficult to adequately describe with text or completely represent with a single photographic image. Current modes of scientific publishing, however, support the submission of digital video media as supplemental material to accompany a manuscript. Here we describe a simple and widely accessible microscopy technique for acquiring high-quality digital video of both Drosophila larval and adult phenotypes from a lateral perspective. Video of larval and adult locomotion from a side-view is advantageous because it allows the observation and analysis of subtle distinctions and variations in aberrant locomotive behaviors. We have successfully used the technique to visualize and quantify aberrant crawling behaviors in third instar larvae, in addition to adult mutant phenotypes and behaviors including grooming. PMID:25350294

Zenger, Beatrix; Wetzel, Sabine; Duncan, Jason

2014-01-01

227

Functional Convergence of Neurons Generated in the Developing and Adult Hippocampus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dentate gyrus of the hippocampus contains neural progenitor cells (NPCs) that generate neurons throughout life. Developing neurons of the adult hippocampus have been described in depth. However, little is known about their functional properties as they become fully mature dentate granule cells (DGCs). To compare mature DGCs generated during development and adulthood, NPCs were labeled at both time points

Diego A Laplagne; M. Soledad Espósito; Verónica C Piatti; Nicolás A Morgenstern; Chunmei Zhao; Henriette van Praag; Fred H Gage; Alejandro F Schinder

2006-01-01

228

Childhood Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Substance Use, and Adult Functioning among Incarcerated Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To estimate prevalence of childhood ADHD among incarcerated women and determine its association with substance use and adult functioning. Method: 192 female participants are recruited from the Department of Corrections in Rhode Island. Childhood ADHD is defined as scoring >46 on the Wender Utah Rating Scale. Results: The findings…

Hennessey, Kathleen A.; Stein, Michael D.; Rosengard, Cynthia; Rose, Jennifer S.; Clarke, Jennifer G.

2010-01-01

229

The Association between Cardiovascular Disease and Cochlear Function in Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this research was to evaluate the relation between self-reported cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cochlear function in older adults. The Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study (EHLS) is an ongoing population-based study of hearing loss and its risk factors in Beaver Dam, Wisconsin. As part of the EHLS questionnaire, participants were…

Torre, Peter, III; Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Klein, Barbara E.K.; Klein, Ronald; Nondahl, David M.

2005-01-01

230

Adult Learning Theories and their Application in Selecting the Functionality of Synchronous Learning Tools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study discusses some major adult learning theories and practices and their application to the functionality of synchronous learning tools in order to better support the needs and satisfaction of stakeholders while interacting in a web-based environment. It examines how best to provide guidelines for them in choosing the synchronous learning…

Murugiah, Santhiru S.

2005-01-01

231

Nomogram for Predicting the Likelihood of Delayed Graft Function in Adult Cadaveric Renal Transplant Recipients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delayed graft function (DGF) is the need for dialysis in the first week after transplantation. Studied were risk factors for DGF in adult (age 16 yr) cadaveric renal transplant recipients by means of a multivariable modeling procedure. Only donor and recipient factors known before transplantation were chosen so that the probabilities of DGF could be calcu- lated before transplantation and

WILLIAM D. IRISH; DAVID A. MCCOLLUM; RAYMOND J. TESI; ART B. OWEN; DANIEL C. BRENNAN; JANE E. BAILLY; MARK A. SCHNITZLER

2003-01-01

232

Analysis of Narrative Discourse Structure as an Ecologically Relevant Measure of Executive Function in Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the narrative discourse production and executive function (EF) abilities of 46 neuro-typical adults (18-98 years old). Two questions were addressed: Is the analysis of narrative structure sensitive to changes associated with aging? & What is the relationship between measures of narrative structure and EF? Narratives were…

Cannizzaro, Michael S.; Coelho, Carl A.

2013-01-01

233

Associations among Childhood Sexual Abuse, Language Use, and Adult Sexual Functioning and Satisfaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: To better understand the link between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adult sexual functioning and satisfaction, we examined cognitive differences between women with (N = 128) and without (NSA, N = 99) CSA histories. Methods: We used the Linguistic Inquiry Word Count, a computerized text analysis program, to investigate language…

Lorenz, Tierney Ahrold; Meston, Cindy May

2012-01-01

234

Age of Acquisition Effects on the Functional Organization of Language in the Adult Brain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we neuroimaged deaf adults as they performed two linguistic tasks with sentences in American Sign Language, grammatical judgment and phonemic-hand judgment. Participants' age-onset of sign language acquisition ranged from birth to 14 years; length of sign language experience was substantial and…

Mayberry, Rachel I.; Chen, Jen-Kai; Witcher, Pamela; Klein, Denise

2011-01-01

235

Cardiac Autonomic Function during Submaximal Treadmill Exercise in Adults with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study determined whether the cardiac autonomic function of adults with Down syndrome (DS) differs from that of nondisabled persons during submaximal dynamic exercise. Thirteen participants with DS and 12 nondisabled individuals performed maximal and submaximal treadmill tests with metabolic and heart rate (HR) measurements. Spectral analysis…

Mendonca, Goncalo V.; Pereira, Fernando D.; Fernhall, Bo

2011-01-01

236

Manual Signing in Adults with Intellectual Disability: Influence of Sign Characteristics on Functional Sign Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of sign characteristics in a key word signing (KWS) system on the functional use of those signs by adults with intellectual disability (ID). Method: All 507 signs from a Flemish KWS system were characterized in terms of phonological, iconic, and referential characteristics.…

Meuris, Kristien; Maes, Bea; De Meyer, Anne-Marie; Zink, Inge

2014-01-01

237

Functional Brain Connectivity and Cognition: Effects of Adult Age and Task Demands  

PubMed Central

Previous neuroimaging research has documented that patterns of intrinsic (resting-state) functional connectivity (FC) among brain regions covary with individual measures of cognitive performance. Here, we examined the relation between intrinsic FC and a reaction time (RT) measure of performance, as a function of both age group and task demands. We obtained filtered, event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data, and RT measures of visual search performance, from 21 younger adults (19–29 years) and 21 healthy, older adults (60–87 years). Age-related decline occurred in the connectivity strength in multiple brain regions, consistent with previous findings. Among eight pairs of regions, across somatomotor, orbitofrontal, and subcortical networks, increasing FC was associated with faster responding (lower RT). Relative to younger adults, older adults exhibited a lower strength of this RT-connectivity relation and greater disruption of this relation by a salient but irrelevant display item (color singleton distractor). Age-related differences in the covariation of intrinsic FC and cognitive performance vary as a function of task demands. PMID:23523269

Chou, Ying-hui; Chen, Nan-kuei; Madden, David J.

2013-01-01

238

Ego-Centricism and Cognitive Functioning in Iranian Young Adults' Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This introspective paper proves Iranian young adults' ego-centricism and its cognitive functioning an encumbrance in English language learning. Thru a brief look at the initiation of language acquisition in children and the generalizibility to language teaching and learning programs, it is realized that the ego of every learner is the main axis of…

Ebrahimi, Pouria

2008-01-01

239

Young adults' evaluations of themselves and their parents as a function of family structure and disposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young adults (N=349) were asked to evaluate, in a counterbalanced fashion, their mothers, fathers, and themselves. They also evaluated their families. Individuals from “happy” families were found to rate themselves significantly higher and their mothers somewhat higher than did their counterparts from “unhappy” families. Evaluations of fathers were not found to vary as a function of family happiness. Evaluations of

Thomas S. Parish

1981-01-01

240

Cerebral dominance for language function in adults with specific language impairment or autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

A link between developmental language disorders and atypical cerebral lateralization has been postulated since the 1920s, but evidence has been indirect and inconsistent. The current study investigated this proposal using functional transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (fTCD), which assesses blood flow through the middle cerebral arteries serving the left and right cerebral hemispheres. A group of young adults with specific lan- guage

Andrew J. O. Whitehouse; Dorothy V. M. Bishop

2008-01-01

241

Students' Perceptions of Long-Functioning Cooperative Teams in Accelerated Adult Degree Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined 718 adult students' perceptions of long-functioning cooperative study teams in accelerated associate's, bachelor's, and master's business degree programs. Six factors were examined: attraction toward team, alignment of performance expectations, intrateam conflict, workload sharing, preference for teamwork, and impact on…

Favor, Judy

2012-01-01

242

Daily ingestion of a nutritional probiotic supplement enhances innate immune function in healthy adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this pilot study (n = 10), we investigated whether daily ingestion of a delayed release 4-species probiotic supplement over an 8-week period would enhance innate immune function in a nonelderly adult population. The parameters of innate immunity assessed were natural killer cell activity, phagocytic activity, and salivary secretory immunoglobulin A. A 1-arm intervention trial was performed in which 10

Sheryl H. Berman; Petra Eichelsdoerfer; Daesong Yim; Gary W. Elmer; Cynthia A. Wenner

2006-01-01

243

Attributional Styles and Psychosocial Functioning of Adults with ADHD: Practice Issues and Gender Differences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study investigates attributional styles and psychosocial functioning of men and women with ADHD identified in adulthood to inform practice issues. Method: One hundred and eighty adults participate: 52 females with ADHD, 37 males with ADHD, 51 female controls, and 40 male controls are administered questionnaires broadly assessing…

Rucklidge, Julia; Brown, Deborah; Crawford, Susan; Kaplan, Bonnie

2007-01-01

244

Functional Fitness Assessment for Adults Over 60 Years (A Field Based Assessment).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This field test to assess the functional fitness of adults over 60 covers of the following areas: (1) body composition; (2) body weight; (3) standing height measurement; (4) flexibility; (5) agility/dynamic balance; (6) coordination; (7) strength; and (8) endurance. Posttest activities are suggested, and a data sheet and exercise consent form are…

Osness, Wayne H.; And Others

245

Validating the measurement of executive functions in an occupational context for adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE. The objectives of this study were to better understand the cognitive profile of adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), their occupational performance, and their quality of life (QoL) and to examine the validity of a cognitive-functional evaluation (CFE) battery for these adults. METHOD. Eighty-one adults with ADHD and 58 without ADHD completed ADHD symptom ratings, the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version, and the Adult ADHD Quality-of-Life Scale. An occupational performance interview was administered to the ADHD group. RESULTS. A broad range of occupational concerns were reported. We found significant differences between groups on all measures. In the ADHD group, we found medium significant correlations among the measures. CONCLUSION. Adults with ADHD experience cognitive and functional difficulties in their daily lives associated with QoL. The results support the use of a CFE battery that has been shown to be sensitive and specific for these adults. PMID:25397767

Stern, Adi; Maeir, Adina

2014-01-01

246

Effect of a high intensity quadriceps fatigue protocol on knee joint mechanics and muscle activation during gait in young adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of impaired quadriceps function on knee joint biomechanics and neuromuscular\\u000a function during gait. Surface electromyograms, three-dimensional motion and ground reaction forces were collected during gait\\u000a before and after 20 healthy adults completed a high intensity quadriceps fatigue protocol. Pattern recognition techniques\\u000a were utilized to examine changes in amplitude and temporal

Gillian Hatfield Murdock; Cheryl L. Hubley-Kozey

247

Do new neurons have a functional role in the adult hippocampus?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the existence of adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus is now almost universally accepted, it is not widely established\\u000a that the new neurons perform any necessary function. However, evidence indicates that the number of new neurons that are generated\\u000a and form functional synapses is clearly large enough to impact the circuitry of the hippocampus. Additionally, several treatments\\u000a show parallel

Heather A. Cameron; Brian R. Christie

2007-01-01

248

Effects of age, genes, and pulse pressure on executive functions in healthy adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Executive functions (EF) evidence significant age-related declines, but the mechanisms underpinning those changes are unclear. In this study, we focus on two potential sources of variation: a physiological indicator of vascular health, and genetic variants related to vascular functions. In a sample of healthy adults (n=158, ages 18–81), we examine the effects of age, pulse pressure, and two polymorphisms (comt

Naftali Raz; Cheryl L. Dahle; Karen M. Rodrigue; Kristen M. Kennedy; Susan Land

2011-01-01

249

The relationship between cognitive function and non-prescribed therapy use in older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To examine the association of cognitive function with use of non-prescribed therapies for managing acute and chronic conditions, and to determine whether use of non-prescribed therapies changes over time in relation to baseline cognitive function.Methods: 200 community-dwelling adults aged 65 and older were recruited from three counties in south central North Carolina. Repeated measures of daily symptoms and treatment

Ha T. Nguyen; Joseph G. Grzywacz; Sara A. Quandt; Rebecca H. Neiberg; Wei Lang; Kathryn Altizer; Eleanor P. Stoller; Ronny A. Bell; Thomas A. Arcury

2012-01-01

250

Vitamin D status and measures of cognitive function in healthy older European adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Objectives:Data from human studies that have investigated the association between vitamin D status and cognitive function in elderly adults are conflicting. The objective of this study was to assess vitamin D status (reflected by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D)) in older European subjects (n=387; aged 55–87 years) and examine its association with measures of cognitive function.Subjects\\/Methods:Serum 25(OH)D was assessed using enzyme-linked

K M Seamans; T R Hill; L Scully; N Meunier; M Andrillo-Sanchez; A Polito; I Hininger-Favier; D Ciarapica; E E A Simpson; B J Stewart-Knox; J M O'Connor; C Coudray; K D Cashman

2010-01-01

251

Mortality Salience Effects on the Life Expectancy Estimates of Older Adults as a Function of Neuroticism  

PubMed Central

Research has shown that reminders of mortality lead people to engage in defenses to minimize the anxiety such thoughts could arouse. In accord with this notion, younger adults reminded of mortality engage in behaviors aimed at denying vulnerability to death. However, little is known about the effects of mortality reminders on older adults. The present study examined the effect of reminders of death on older adults' subjective life expectancy. Mortality reminders did not significantly impact the life expectancy estimates of old-old adults. Reminders of death did however lead to shorter life expectancy estimates among young-old participants low in neuroticism but longer life expectancy estimates among young-old participants high in neuroticism, suggesting that this group was most defensive in response to reminders of death. PMID:21151516

Maxfield, Molly; Solomon, Sheldon; Pyszczynski, Tom; Greenberg, Jeff

2010-01-01

252

Systemic Vascular Function Is Associated with Muscular Power in Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Age-associated loss of muscular strength and muscular power is a critical determinant of loss of physical function and progression to disability in older adults. In this study, we examined the association of systemic vascular function and measures of muscle strength and power in older adults. Measures of vascular endothelial function included brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and the pulse wave amplitude reactive hyperemia index (PWA-RHI). Augmentation index (AIx) was taken as a measure of systemic vascular function related to arterial stiffness and wave reflection. Measures of muscular strength included one repetition maximum (1RM) for a bilateral leg press. Peak muscular power was measured during 5 repetitions performed as fast as possible for bilateral leg press at 40% 1RM. Muscular power was associated with brachial FMD (r = 0.43, P < 0.05), PWA-RHI (r = 0.42, P < 0.05), and AIx (r = ?0.54, P < 0.05). Muscular strength was not associated with any measure of vascular function. In conclusion, systemic vascular function is associated with lower-limb muscular power but not muscular strength in older adults. Whether loss of muscular power with aging contributes to systemic vascular deconditioning or vascular dysfunction contributes to decrements in muscular power remains to be determined. PMID:22966457

Heffernan, Kevin S.; Chale, Angela; Hau, Cynthia; Cloutier, Gregory J.; Phillips, Edward M.; Warner, Patrick; Nickerson, Heather; Reid, Kieran F.; Kuvin, Jeffrey T.; Fielding, Roger A.

2012-01-01

253

Prospective identification of functionally distinct stem cells and neurosphere-initiating cells in adult mouse forebrain  

PubMed Central

Neurosphere formation is commonly used as a surrogate for neural stem cell (NSC) function but the relationship between neurosphere-initiating cells (NICs) and NSCs remains unclear. We prospectively identified, and isolated by flow cytometry, adult mouse lateral ventricle subventricular zone (SVZ) NICs as GlastmidEGFRhighPlexinB2highCD24?/lowO4/PSA-NCAM?/lowTer119/CD45? (GEPCOT) cells. They were highly mitotic and short-lived in vivo based on fate-mapping with Ascl1CreERT2 and Dlx1CreERT2. In contrast, pre-GEPCOT cells were quiescent, expressed higher Glast, and lower EGFR and PlexinB2. Pre-GEPCOT cells could not form neurospheres but expressed the stem cell markers Slc1a3-CreERT, GFAP-CreERT2, Sox2CreERT2, and Gli1CreERT2 and were long-lived in vivo. While GEPCOT NICs were ablated by temozolomide, pre-GEPCOT cells survived and repopulated the SVZ. Conditional deletion of the Bmi-1 polycomb protein depleted pre-GEPCOT and GEPCOT cells, though pre-GEPCOT cells were more dependent upon Bmi-1 for Cdkn2a (p16Ink4a) repression. Our data distinguish quiescent NSCs from NICs and make it possible to study their properties in vivo. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02669.001 PMID:24843006

Mich, John K; Signer, Robert AJ; Nakada, Daisuke; Pineda, André; Burgess, Rebecca J; Vue, Tou Yia; Johnson, Jane E; Morrison, Sean J

2014-01-01

254

Speed of processing and depression affect function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment  

PubMed Central

Objectives To evaluate the effect of depression and cognition on function in older adults with amnestic and nonamnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI; nonaMCI). Design The study uses baseline data from the National Alzheimer’s Coordinating Center. Setting Data was collected at multiple Alzheimer’s Disease Centers in the United States. Participants The sample included a total of 3117 individuals with MCI, mean age = 74.37 years, SD = 9.37 (aMCI n =2488; nonaMCI n = 629). Measurements The 10-item Pfeffer Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ) assessed function. Results Depressive symptoms (Geriatric Depression Scale), memory impairment (Logical Memory II), and processing speed decrements (Digit Symbol Substitution Test) were significantly associated with functional impairment (p < .001). Processing speed partially mediated the effect of depression on function and fully mediated the effect of executive dysfunction on function (p < .001) in the total MCI and aMCI subsample, while in the nonaMCI subsample processing speed mediated the effect of executive function but not the effect of depression (p = .20) on function. Conclusions The findings show that processing speed is central to the effect that depression and executive dysfunction have on functional impairment in cognitively impaired older adults. Future studies are needed to better understand the physiological underpinnings in age-related and disease-specific decrements in processing speed, and to address the problems in the assessment of processing speed in clinical samples. PMID:23567401

Brown, Patrick J.; Liu, Xinhua; Sneed, Joel R.; Pimontel, Monique A.; Devanand, D.P.; Roose, Steven P.

2012-01-01

255

Cognitive function is preserved in older adults with a reported history of childhood sexual abuse.  

PubMed

Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with mood and cognitive deficits in children and young adults. Evidence suggests that the effects of early-life adversity persist throughout adulthood; however, the impact of CSA on cognition in older adults is largely unknown. This study investigated cognitive function in older adults with a reported history of CSA. Data are from a population-based study (The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing) of 6,912 adults aged 50 years and older. Participants answered questions about CSA as part of a stressful life events questionnaire. Global cognition, executive function, memory (both objective and self-rated), attention, and processing speed were measured via a comprehensive battery of tests. Anxiety and depression, other childhood adversity, health behaviours, chronic disease, and medication use were also assessed. Of the total sample, 6.5% reported CSA. These individuals were more likely to have experienced other forms of childhood adversity and to exhibit poor mental health compared to those who reported no history of CSA. Multivariate regression analyses revealed, however, that CSA was associated with better global cognition, memory, executive function, and processing speed, despite poorer psychological health in this group. Future studies should aim to investigate possible reasons for this finding. PMID:24265204

Feeney, Joanne; Kamiya, Yumiko; Robertson, Ian H; Kenny, Rose Anne

2013-12-01

256

Upper limb motor function in young adults with spina bifida and hydrocephalus  

PubMed Central

Objective The objective of the study was to measure upper limb motor function in young adults with spina bifida meningomyelocele (SBM) and typically developing age peers. Method Participants were 26 young adults with SBM, with a Verbal or Performance IQ score of at least 70 on the Wechsler scales, and 27 age- and gender-matched controls. Four upper limb motor function tasks were performed under four different visual and cognitive challenge conditions. Motor independence was assessed by questionnaire. Results Fewer SBM than control participants obtained perfect posture and rebound scores. The SBM group performed less accurately and was more disrupted by cognitive challenge than controls on limb dysmetria tasks. The SBM group was slower than controls on the diadochokinesis task. Adaptive motor independence was related to one upper limb motor task, arm posture, and upper rather than lower spinal lesions were associated with less motor independence. Conclusions Young adults with SBM have significant limitations in upper limb function and are more disrupted by some challenges while performing upper limb motor tasks. Within the group of young adults with SBM, upper spinal lesions compromise motor independence more than lower spinal lesions. PMID:19672605

Salman, M. S.; Jewell, D.; Hetherington, R.; Spiegler, B. J.; MacGregor, D. L.; Drake, J. M.; Humphreys, R. P.; Gentili, F.

2011-01-01

257

The Effects on the Pulmonary Function of Normal Adults Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Respiration Pattern Exercise  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine whether proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) respiration exercise increases the pulmonary function of normal adults. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight normal adults in their 20s were randomly assigned to an experimental group (n=14) or control group (n=14). Over the course of four weeks, the experimental group participated in PNF respiration pattern exercises for 30 minutes three times per week. Subjects were assessed pre-test and post-test by measurement of pulmonary function (tidal volume, inspiratory reserve volume, expiratory reserve volume, inspiratory capacity, and vital capacity). [Results] Our findings show that the experimental group had significant improvements in expiratory reserve volume and vital capacity. In the comparison of the two groups, the experimental group had higher pulmonary function than the control group. [Conclusion] In this study, the experimental group showed greater improvement in pulmonary function than the control group, which indicates that the PNF respiration exercise is effective at increasing the pulmonary function of normal adults. PMID:25364117

Seo, KyoChul; Cho, MiSuk

2014-01-01

258

Neuropsychological functioning in posttraumatic stress disorder following forced displacement in older adults and their offspring.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to investigate neuropsychological performance in an untried trauma sample of older adults displaced during childhood at the end of World War II (WWII) with and without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as well as transgenerational effects of trauma and PTSD on their offspring. Displaced older adults with (n=20) and without PTSD (n=24) and nondisplaced healthy individuals (n=11) as well as one of their respective offspring were assessed with a large battery of cognitive tests (primarily targeting memory functioning). No evidence for deficits in neuropsychological performance was found in the aging group of displaced people with PTSD. Moreover, no group difference emerged in the offspring groups. Findings may be interpreted as first evidence for a rather resilient PTSD group of older adults that is available for assessment 60 years after displacement. PMID:23896354

Jelinek, Lena; Wittekind, Charlotte E; Moritz, Steffen; Kellner, Michael; Muhtz, Christoph

2013-12-15

259

Nuclear diffractive structure functions at high energies  

SciTech Connect

A future high-energy electron-ion collider would explore the non-linear weakly-coupled regime of QCD, and test the Color Glass Condensate (CGC) approach to high-energy scattering. Hard diffraction in deep inelastic scattering off nuclei will provide many fundamental measurements. In this work, the nuclear diffractive structure function F{sub 2,A}{sup D} is predicted in the CGC framework, and the features of nuclear enhancement and suppression are discussed.

Marquet,C.; Kowalski, H.; Lappi, T.; Venugopalan, R.

2008-08-08

260

Nuclear diffractive structure functions at high energies  

E-print Network

A future high-energy electron-ion collider would explore the non-linear weakly-coupled regime of QCD, and test the Color Glass Condensate (CGC) approach to high-energy scattering. Hard diffraction in deep inelastic scattering off nuclei will provide many fundamental measurements. In this work, the nuclear diffractive structure function F_{2,A}^D is predicted in the CGC framework, and the features of nuclear enhancement and suppression are discussed.

C. Marquet; H. Kowalski; T. Lappi; R. Venugopalan

2008-05-30

261

Functional polymorphisms in the gene encoding macrophage migration inhibitory factor are associated with Gram-negative bacteremia in older adults.  

PubMed

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is an immune mediator encoded in a functionally polymorphic locus. We found the genotype conferring low expression of MIF to be enriched in a cohort of 180 patients with gram-negative bacteremia, compared with 229 healthy controls (odds ratio [OR], 2.4; P = .04), an association that was more pronounced in older adults (OR, 4.6; P = .01). Among older subjects, those with low expression of MIF demonstrated 20% reduced MIF production from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated peripheral blood monocytes and 30% lower monocyte surface Toll-like receptor 4, compared with those with high expression. Our work suggests that older adults with low expression of MIF may be predisposed to hyporesponsiveness to lipopolysaccharide and gram-negative bacterial infection. PMID:24158957

Das, Rituparna; Subrahmanyan, Lakshman; Yang, Ivana V; van Duin, David; Levy, Rebecca; Piecychna, Marta; Leng, Lin; Montgomery, Ruth R; Shaw, Albert; Schwartz, David A; Bucala, Richard

2014-03-01

262

Age-related Differences in Lower Extremity Tissue Compartments and Associations with Physical Function in Older Adults  

PubMed Central

The lower extremities are important to performing physical activities of daily life. This study investigated lower extremity tissue composition, i.e. muscle and fat volumes, in young and older adults and the relative importance of individual tissue compartments to the physical function of older adults. A total of 43 older (age 78.3 ± 5.6 yr) and 20 younger (age 23.8 ± 3.9 yr) healthy men and women participated in the study. Older participants were further classified as either high- (HF) or low-functioning (LF) according to the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). Magnetic resonance images were used to determine the volumes of skeletal muscle, subcutaneous fat (SAT), and intermuscular fat (IMAT) in the thigh (femoral) and calf (tibiofibular) regions. After adjusting for the sex of participants, younger participants had more femoral muscle mass than older adults (p < 0.001 for between group differences) as well as less femoral IMAT (p = 0.008) and tibiofibular IMAT (p < 0.001). Femoral muscle was the only tissue compartment demonstrating a significant difference between the two older groups, with HF participants having 31% more femoral muscle mass than LF participants (mean difference = 103.0 ± 34.0 cm3; p = 0.011). In subsequent multiple regression models including tissue compartments and demographic confounders, femoral muscle was the primary compartment associated with both SPPB score (r2 = 0.264, p= 0.001) and 4-meter gait speed (r2 = 0.187, p= 0.007). These data suggest that aging affects all lower extremity compartments, but femoral muscle mass is the major compartment associated with physical function in older adults. PMID:22015325

Buford, Thomas W.; Lott, Donovan J.; Marzetti, Emanuele; Wohlgemuth, Stephanie E.; Vandenborne, Krista; Pahor, Marco; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Manini, Todd M.

2011-01-01

263

Role of sleep continuity and total sleep time in executive function across the adult lifespan.  

PubMed

The importance of sleep for cognition in young adults is well established, but the role of habitual sleep behavior in cognition across the adult life span remains unknown. We examined the relationship between sleep continuity and total sleep time as assessed with a sleep-detection device, and cognitive performance using a battery of tasks in young (n = 59, mean age = 23.05) and older (n = 53, mean age = 62.68) adults. Across age groups, higher sleep continuity was associated with better cognitive performance. In the younger group, higher sleep continuity was associated with better working memory and inhibitory control. In the older group, higher sleep continuity was associated with better inhibitory control, memory recall, and verbal fluency. Very short and very long total sleep time was associated with poorer working memory and verbal fluency, specifically in the younger group. Total sleep time was not associated with cognitive performance in any domains for the older group. These findings reveal that sleep continuity is important for executive function in both young and older adults, but total sleep time may be more important for cognition in young adults. PMID:25244484

Wilckens, Kristine A; Woo, Sarah G; Kirk, Afton R; Erickson, Kirk I; Wheeler, Mark E

2014-09-01

264

Exercise, Fitness, and Neurocognitive Function in Older Adults: The “Selective Improvement” and “Cardiovascular Fitness” Hypotheses  

PubMed Central

Background Although basic research has uncovered biological mechanisms by which exercise could maintain and enhance adult brain health, experimental human studies with older adults have produced equivocal results. Purpose This randomized clinical trial aimed to investigate the hypotheses that (a) the effects of exercise training on the performance of neurocognitive tasks in older adults is selective, influencing mainly tasks with a substantial executive control component and (b) performance in neurocognitive tasks is related to cardiorespiratory fitness. Methods Fifty-seven older adults (65?79 years) participated in aerobic or strength-and-flexibility exercise training for 10 months. Neurocognitive tasks were selected to reflect a range from little (e.g., simple reaction time) to substantial (i.e., Stroop Word–Color conflict) executive control. Results Performance in tasks requiring little executive control was unaffected by participating in aerobic exercise. Improvements in Stroop Word–Color task performance were found only for the aerobic exercise group. Changes in aerobic fitness were unrelated to changes in neurocognitive function. Conclusions Aerobic exercise in older adults can have a beneficial effect on the performance of speeded tasks that rely heavily on executive control. Improvements in aerobic fitness do not appear to be a prerequisite for this beneficial effect. PMID:18825471

Lowry, Kristin A.; Francois, Sara J.; Kohut, Marian L.; Ekkekakis, Panteleimon

2009-01-01

265

Functional Expression of T-Type Ca2+ Channels in Spinal Motoneurons of the Adult Turtle  

PubMed Central

Voltage-gated Ca2+ (CaV) channels are transmembrane proteins comprising three subfamilies named CaV1, CaV2 and CaV3. The CaV3 channel subfamily groups the low-voltage activated Ca2+ channels (LVA or T-type) a significant role in regulating neuronal excitability. CaV3 channel activity may lead to the generation of complex patterns of action potential firing such as the postinhibitory rebound (PIR). In the adult spinal cord, these channels have been found in dorsal horn interneurons where they control physiological events near the resting potential and participate in determining excitability. In motoneurons, CaV3 channels have been found during development, but their functional expression has not yet been reported in adult animals. Here, we show evidence for the presence of CaV3 channel-mediated PIR in motoneurons of the adult turtle spinal cord. Our results indicate that Ni2+ and NNC55-0396, two antagonists of CaV3 channel activity, inhibited PIR in the adult turtle spinal cord. Molecular biology and biochemical assays revealed the expression of the CaV3.1 channel isotype and its localization in motoneurons. Together, these results provide evidence for the expression of CaV3.1 channels in the spinal cord of adult animals and show also that these channels may contribute to determine the excitability of motoneurons. PMID:25255145

Canto-Bustos, Martha; Loeza-Alcocer, Emanuel; Gonzalez-Ramirez, Ricardo; Gandini, Maria A.; Delgado-Lezama, Rodolfo; Felix, Ricardo

2014-01-01

266

Postsecondary Education Enrollment Responses by Recent High School Graduates and Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most studies of the demand for postsecondary education focus on college enrollment decisions of recent high school graduates. This study expands the typical analysis in two ways. First, the demand for postsecondary education is tested for two age cohorts, recent high school graduates and older adults, using one data set-the Department of Education's Survey on Adult Education. Second, two postsecondary

Hope Corman

1983-01-01

267

Acute Hypoglycemia Impairs Executive Cognitive Function in Adults With and Without Type 1 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Acute hypoglycemia impairs cognitive function in several domains. Executive cognitive function governs organization of thoughts, prioritization of tasks, and time management. This study examined the effect of acute hypoglycemia on executive function in adults with and without diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Thirty-two adults with and without type 1 diabetes with no vascular complications or impaired awareness of hypoglycemia were studied. Two hyperinsulinemic glucose clamps were performed at least 2 weeks apart in a single-blind, counterbalanced order, maintaining blood glucose at 4.5 mmol/L (euglycemia) or 2.5 mmol/L (hypoglycemia). Executive functions were assessed with a validated test suite (Delis-Kaplan Executive Function). A general linear model (repeated-measures ANOVA) was used. Glycemic condition (euglycemia or hypoglycemia) was the within-participant factor. Between-participant factors were order of session (euglycemia-hypoglycemia or hypoglycemia-euglycemia), test battery used, and diabetes status (with or without diabetes). RESULTS Compared with euglycemia, executive functions (with one exception) were significantly impaired during hypoglycemia; lower test scores were recorded with more time required for completion. Large Cohen d values (>0.8) suggest that hypoglycemia induces decrements in aspects of executive function with large effect sizes. In some tests, the performance of participants with diabetes was more impaired than those without diabetes. CONCLUSIONS Executive cognitive function, which is necessary to carry out many everyday activities, is impaired during hypoglycemia in adults with and without type 1 diabetes. This important aspect of cognition has not received previous systematic study with respect to hypoglycemia. The effect size is large in terms of both accuracy and speed. PMID:23780950

Graveling, Alex J.; Deary, Ian J.; Frier, Brian M.

2013-01-01

268

Exogenous spatial attention: evidence for intact functioning in adults with autism spectrum disorder.  

PubMed

Deficits or atypicalities in attention have been reported in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), yet no consensus on the nature of these deficits has emerged. We conducted three experiments that paired a peripheral precue with a covert discrimination task, using protocols for which the effects of covert exogenous spatial attention on early vision have been well established in typically developing populations. Experiment 1 assessed changes in contrast sensitivity, using orientation discrimination of a contrast-defined grating; Experiment 2 evaluated the reduction of crowding in the visual periphery, using discrimination of a letter-like figure with flanking stimuli at variable distances; and Experiment 3 assessed improvements in visual search, using discrimination of the same letter-like figure with a variable number of distractor elements. In all three experiments, we found that exogenous attention modulated visual discriminability in a group of high-functioning adults with ASD and that it did so in the same way and to the same extent as in a matched control group. We found no evidence to support the hypothesis that deficits in exogenous spatial attention underlie the emergence of core ASD symptomatology. PMID:24326863

Grubb, Michael A; Behrmann, Marlene; Egan, Ryan; Minshew, Nancy J; Heeger, David J; Carrasco, Marisa

2013-01-01

269

Exogenous spatial attention: Evidence for intact functioning in adults with autism spectrum disorder  

PubMed Central

Deficits or atypicalities in attention have been reported in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), yet no consensus on the nature of these deficits has emerged. We conducted three experiments that paired a peripheral precue with a covert discrimination task, using protocols for which the effects of covert exogenous spatial attention on early vision have been well established in typically developing populations. Experiment 1 assessed changes in contrast sensitivity, using orientation discrimination of a contrast-defined grating; Experiment 2 evaluated the reduction of crowding in the visual periphery, using discrimination of a letter-like figure with flanking stimuli at variable distances; and Experiment 3 assessed improvements in visual search, using discrimination of the same letter-like figure with a variable number of distractor elements. In all three experiments, we found that exogenous attention modulated visual discriminability in a group of high-functioning adults with ASD and that it did so in the same way and to the same extent as in a matched control group. We found no evidence to support the hypothesis that deficits in exogenous spatial attention underlie the emergence of core ASD symptomatology. PMID:24326863

Grubb, Michael A.; Behrmann, Marlene; Egan, Ryan; Minshew, Nancy J.; Heeger, David J.; Carrasco, Marisa

2013-01-01

270

Poor sleep quality diminishes cognitive functioning independent of depression and anxiety in healthy young adults.  

PubMed

Sufficient sleep is essential for optimum cognitive and psychological functioning. Diminished sleep quality is associated with depression and anxiety, but the extent to which poor sleep quality uniquely impacts attention and executive functions independent of the effects of the common underlying features of depression and anxiety requires further exploration. Here 67 healthy young adults were given the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, second edition (MMPI-2), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and tests of attention and executive functions. Similar to findings from a previous study with healthy community-based older adults (Nebes, Buysse, Halligan, Houck, & Monk, 2009), participants who reported poor sleep quality on the PSQI endorsed significantly greater scores on MMPI-2 Restructured Clinical scales related to depression and anxiety (Cohen's d?=?0.77-1.05). In addition, PSQI component scores indexing poor sleep quality, duration, and medication use were associated with diminished attention and executive functions, even after controlling for emotional reactivity or demoralization (rs?=?0.21-0.27). These results add to the concurrent validity of the PSQI, and provide further evidence for subtle cognitive decrements related to insufficient sleep even in healthy young adults. Future extension of these findings is necessary with larger samples and clinical comparison groups, and using objective indices of sleep dysfunction such as polysomnography. PMID:22335237

Benitez, Andreana; Gunstad, John

2012-01-01

271

Improved cognitive-cerebral function in older adults with chromium supplementation.  

PubMed

Insulin resistance is implicated in the pathophysiological changes associated with Alzheimer's disease, and pharmaceutical treatments that overcome insulin resistance improve memory function in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early Alzheimer's disease. Chromium (Cr) supplementation improves glucose disposal in patients with insulin resistance and diabetes. We sought to assess whether supplementation with Cr might improve memory and neural function in older adults with cognitive decline. In a placebo-controlled, double-blind trial, we randomly assigned 26 older adults to receive either chromium picolinate (CrPic) or placebo for 12 weeks. Memory and depression were assessed prior to treatment initiation and during the final week of treatment. We also performed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans on a subset of subjects. Although learning rate and retention were not enhanced by CrPic supplementation, we observed reduced semantic interference on learning, recall, and recognition memory tasks. In addition, fMRI indicated comparatively increased activation for the CrPic subjects in right thalamic, right temporal, right posterior parietal, and bifrontal regions. These findings suggest that supplementation with CrPic can enhance cognitive inhibitory control and cerebral function in older adults at risk for neurodegeneration. PMID:20423560

Krikorian, Robert; Eliassen, James C; Boespflug, Erin L; Nash, Tiffany A; Shidler, Marcelle D

2010-06-01

272

Social network types and functional dependency in older adults in Mexico  

PubMed Central

Background Social networks play a key role in caring for older adults. A better understanding of the characteristics of different social networks types (TSNs) in a given community provides useful information for designing policies to care for this age group. Therefore this study has three objectives: 1) To derive the TSNs among older adults affiliated with the Mexican Institute of Social Security; 2) To describe the main characteristics of the older adults in each TSN, including the instrumental and economic support they receive and their satisfaction with the network; 3) To determine the association between functional dependency and the type of social network. Methods Secondary data analysis of the 2006 Survey of Autonomy and Dependency (N = 3,348). The TSNs were identified using the structural approach and cluster analysis. The association between functional dependency and the TSNs was evaluated with Poisson regression with robust variance analysis in which socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle and medical history covariates were included. Results We identified five TSNs: diverse with community participation (12.1%), diverse without community participation (44.3%); widowed (32.0%); nonfriends-restricted (7.6%); nonfamily-restricted (4.0%). Older adults belonging to widowed and restricted networks showed a higher proportion of dependency, negative self-rated health and depression. Older adults with functional dependency more likely belonged to a widowed network (adjusted prevalence ratio 1.5; 95%CI: 1.1-2.1). Conclusion The derived TSNs were similar to those described in developed countries. However, we identified the existence of a diverse network without community participation and a widowed network that have not been previously described. These TSNs and restricted networks represent a potential unmet need of social security affiliates. PMID:20187973

2010-01-01

273

Personality Traits, Education, Physical Exercise, and Childhood Neurological Function as Independent Predictors of Adult Obesity  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate whether personality traits, education, physical exercise, parental socio-economic conditions, and childhood neurological function are independently associated with obesity in 50 year old adults in a longitudinal birth cohort study. Method The sample consisted of 5,921 participants born in Great Britain in 1958 and followed up at 7, 11, 33, 42, and 50 years with data on body mass index measured at 42 and 50 years. Results There was an increase of adult obesity from 14.2% at age 42 to 23.6% at 50 years. Cohort members who were reported by teachers on overall clumsiness as “certainly applied” at age 7 were more likely to become obese at age 50. In addition, educational qualifications, traits Conscientiousness and Extraversion, psychological distress, and physical exercise were all significantly associated with adult obesity. The associations remained to be significant after controlling for birth weight and gestation, maternal and paternal BMI, childhood BMI, childhood intelligence and behavioural adjustment, as well as diet. Conclusion Neurological function in childhood, education, trait Conscientiousness, and exercise were all significantly and independently associated with adult obesity, each explained unique individual variability. PMID:24250828

Cheng, Helen; Furnham, Adrian

2013-01-01

274

Grammar learning in older adults is linked to white matter microstructure and functional connectivity.  

PubMed

Age-related decline in cognitive function has been linked to alterations of white matter and functional brain connectivity. With regard to language, aging has been shown to be associated with impaired syntax processing, but the underlying structural and functional correlates are poorly understood. In the present study, we used an artificial grammar learning (AGL) task to determine the ability to extract grammatical rules from new material in healthy older adults. White matter microstructure and resting-state functional connectivity (FC) of task-relevant brain regions were assessed using multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). AGL performance correlated positively with fractional anisotropy (FA) underlying left and right Brodmann areas (BA) 44/45 and in tracts originating from left BA 44/45. An inverse relationship was found between task performance and FC of left and right BA 44/45, linking lower performance to stronger inter-hemispheric functional coupling. Our results suggest that white matter microstructure underlying specific prefrontal regions and their functional coupling affect acquisition of syntactic knowledge in the aging brain, offering further insight into mechanisms of functional decline in older adults. PMID:22659480

Antonenko, Daria; Meinzer, Marcus; Lindenberg, Robert; Witte, A Veronica; Flöel, Agnes

2012-09-01

275

Executive Functioning in Highly Talented Soccer Players  

PubMed Central

Executive functions might be important for successful performance in sports, particularly in team sports requiring quick anticipation and adaptation to continuously changing situations in the field. The executive functions motor inhibition, attention and visuospatial working memory were examined in highly talented soccer players. Eighty-four highly talented youth soccer players (mean age 11.9), and forty-two age-matched amateur soccer players (mean age 11.8) in the age range 8 to 16 years performed a Stop Signal task (motor inhibition), the Attention Network Test (alerting, orienting, and executive attention) and a visuospatial working memory task. The highly talented soccer players followed the talent development program of the youth academy of a professional soccer club and played at the highest national soccer competition for their age. The amateur soccer players played at a regular soccer club in the same geographical region as the highly talented soccer players and play in a regular regional soccer competition. Group differences were tested using analyses of variance. The highly talented group showed superior motor inhibition as measured by stop signal reaction time (SSRT) on the Stop Signal task and a larger alerting effect on the Attention Network Test, indicating an enhanced ability to attain and maintain an alert state. No group differences were found for orienting and executive attention and visuospatial working memory. A logistic regression model with group (highly talented or amateur) as dependent variable and executive function measures that significantly distinguished between groups as predictors showed that these measures differentiated highly talented soccer players from amateur soccer players with 89% accuracy. Highly talented youth soccer players outperform youth amateur players on suppressing ongoing motor responses and on the ability to attain and maintain an alert state; both may be essential for success in soccer. PMID:24632735

Verburgh, Lot; Scherder, Erik J. A.; van Lange, Paul A.M.; Oosterlaan, Jaap

2014-01-01

276

Executive functioning in highly talented soccer players.  

PubMed

Executive functions might be important for successful performance in sports, particularly in team sports requiring quick anticipation and adaptation to continuously changing situations in the field. The executive functions motor inhibition, attention and visuospatial working memory were examined in highly talented soccer players. Eighty-four highly talented youth soccer players (mean age 11.9), and forty-two age-matched amateur soccer players (mean age 11.8) in the age range 8 to 16 years performed a Stop Signal task (motor inhibition), the Attention Network Test (alerting, orienting, and executive attention) and a visuospatial working memory task. The highly talented soccer players followed the talent development program of the youth academy of a professional soccer club and played at the highest national soccer competition for their age. The amateur soccer players played at a regular soccer club in the same geographical region as the highly talented soccer players and play in a regular regional soccer competition. Group differences were tested using analyses of variance. The highly talented group showed superior motor inhibition as measured by stop signal reaction time (SSRT) on the Stop Signal task and a larger alerting effect on the Attention Network Test, indicating an enhanced ability to attain and maintain an alert state. No group differences were found for orienting and executive attention and visuospatial working memory. A logistic regression model with group (highly talented or amateur) as dependent variable and executive function measures that significantly distinguished between groups as predictors showed that these measures differentiated highly talented soccer players from amateur soccer players with 89% accuracy. Highly talented youth soccer players outperform youth amateur players on suppressing ongoing motor responses and on the ability to attain and maintain an alert state; both may be essential for success in soccer. PMID:24632735

Verburgh, Lot; Scherder, Erik J A; van Lange, Paul A M; Oosterlaan, Jaap

2014-01-01

277

Many Docs Fail to Counsel Young Adults with High Blood Pressure  

MedlinePLUS

... Many Docs Fail to Counsel Young Adults With High Blood Pressure Too few physicians urge lifestyle changes, study finds (* ... November 10, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Healthy Living High Blood Pressure Talking With Your Doctor MONDAY, Nov. 10, 2014 ( ...

278

Testis Structure and Function in a Nongenetic Hyperadipose Rat Model at Prepubertal and Adult Ages  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are few data for hormonal levels and testis structure and function during postnatal development in rats neonatally treated with monosodium L-glutamate (MSG). In our study, newborn male pups were ip injected with MSG (4 mg\\/g body weight) ever y2du p to 10 do f age andinvestigated at pre- pubertal and adult ages. Plasma levels of leptin, LH, FSH, prolactin,

L. R. Franca; M. O. Suescun; J. R. Miranda; A. Giovambattista; M. Perello; E. Spinedi; R. S. Calandra

2005-01-01

279

The relationship between P3 and neuropsychological function in an adult life span sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship of P3 to age and neuropsychological performance was investigated in a sample of 71 well-functioning adults ranging in age from 21.8 to 94.7 years. ERPs were recorded while the participants performed an auditory two-stimuli oddball task in which the rare tones were to be counted. The Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI) and the digit span subtest from

Kristine B Walhovd; Anders M Fjell

2003-01-01

280

The effects of strength and power training on functional abilities in older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of strength and power training on the functional abilities of older adult subjects. Thirty-two male (n=7) and female (n=25) volunteers (74±6.2 yrs) participated in this randomized controlled trial of 12-wks duration. All groups performed 3 sets of 10 repetitions on 6 pneumatic resistance machines 3 days per week for

Cody L Sipe

2008-01-01

281

Obese adults have visual attention bias for food cue images: evidence for altered reward system function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:The major aim of this study was to investigate whether the motivational salience of food cues (as reflected by their attention-grabbing properties) differs between obese and normal-weight subjects in a manner consistent with altered reward system function in obesity.Methodology\\/Principal Findings:A total of 18 obese and 18 normal-weight, otherwise healthy, adult women between the ages of 18 and 35 participated in

E H Castellanos; E Charboneau; M S Dietrich; B P Bradley; K Mogg; R L Cowan

2009-01-01

282

Trk Receptors Function As Rapid Retrograde Signal Carriers in the Adult Nervous System  

Microsoft Academic Search

During development target-derived neurotrophins promote the survival of neurons. However, mature neurons no longer de- pend on the target for survival. Do target-derived neurotrophins retain retrograde signaling functions in mature neurons, and, if so, how are they executed? We addressed this question by using a phosphotyrosine-directed antibody to locate activated Trk receptors in adult rat sciatic nerve. We show that

Anita Bhattacharyya; Fiona L. Watson; Tatum A. Bradlee; Scott L. Pomeroy; Charles D. Stiles; Rosalind A. Segal

2003-01-01

283

Effect of methamphetamine exposure and cross-fostering on cognitive function in adult male rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of our study was to examine the effect of prenatal methamphetamine (MA) exposure and cross-fostering on cognitive functions of adult male rats tested in Morris water maze (MWM). Rat mothers were exposed daily to injection of MA (5mg\\/kg) or saline for 9 weeks: prior to impregnation, throughout gestation and lactation periods. Females without any injections were used as

Lenka Hrubá; Barbora Schutová; Marie Pometlová; Richard Rokyta; Romana Šlamberová

2010-01-01

284

Adult-Child Interactions: Forming Partnerships with Children. High/Scope Preschool Curriculum Adult-Child Interaction Series. [Guide and Videotape].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Supportive relationships between adults and young children are at the heart of the High/Scope educational approach. This guide assists viewers in using the videotape "Adult-Child Interactions: Forming Partnerships with Children" as a professional development tool. The guide describes Part I of the videotape, which introduces adult-child…

High/Scope Educational Research Foundation, Ypsilanti, MI.

285

Impact of Antiretroviral Therapy on Renal Function among HIV-Infected Tanzanian Adults: A Retrospective Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background Data regarding the outcomes of HIV-infected adults with baseline renal dysfunction who start antiretroviral therapy are conflicting. Methods We followed up a previously-published cohort of HIV-infected adult outpatients in northwest Tanzania who had high prevalence of renal dysfunction at the time of starting antiretroviral therapy (between November 2009 and February 2010). Patients had serum creatinine, proteinuria, microalbuminuria, and CD4+ T-cell count measured at the time of antiretroviral therapy initiation and at follow-up. We used the adjusted Cockroft-Gault equation to calculate estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs). Results In this cohort of 171 adults who had taken antiretroviral therapy for a median of two years, the prevalence of renal dysfunction (eGFR <90 mL/min/1.73 m2) decreased from 131/171 (76.6%) at the time of ART initiation to 50/171 (29.2%) at the time of follow-up (p<0.001). Moderate dysfunction (eGFR<60 mL/min/1.73 m2) decreased from 21.1% at antiretroviral therapy initiation to 1.1% at follow-up (p<0.001), as did the prevalence of microalbuminuria (72% to 44%, p<0.001). Use of tenofovir was not associated with renal dysfunction at follow-up. Conclusion Mild and moderate renal dysfunction were common in this cohort of HIV-infected adults initiating antiretroviral therapy, and both significantly improved after a median follow-up time of 2 years. Our work supports the renal safety of antiretroviral therapy in African adults with mild-moderate renal dysfunction, suggesting that these regimens do not lead to renal damage in the majority of patients and that they may even improve renal function in patients with mild to moderate renal dysfunction. PMID:24586882

Mpondo, Bonaventura C. T.; Kalluvya, Samuel E.; Peck, Robert N.; Kabangila, Rodrick; Kidenya, Benson R.; Ephraim, Lucheri; Fitzgerald, Daniel W.; Downs, Jennifer A.

2014-01-01

286

Dose-response effect of Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 on whole gut transit time and functional gastrointestinal symptoms in adults  

PubMed Central

Objective. To assess the impact of Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 supplementation on whole gut transit time (WGTT) and frequency of functional gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in adults. Material and methods. We randomized 100 subjects (mean age: 44 years; 64% female) with functional GI symptoms to consume a proprietary probiotic strain, B. lactis HN019 (Fonterra Research Centre, Palmerston North, New Zealand), at daily doses of 17.2 billion colony forming units (CFU) (high dose; n = 33), 1.8 billion CFU (low dose; n = 33), or placebo (n = 34) for 14 days. The primary endpoint of WGTT was assessed by X-ray on days 0 and 14 and was preceded by consumption of radiopaque markers once a day for 6 days. The secondary endpoint of functional GI symptom frequency was recorded with a subject-reported numeric (1–100) scale before and after supplementation. Results. Decreases in mean WGTT over the 14-day study period were statistically significant in the high dose group (49 ± 30 to 21 ± 32 h, p < 0.001) and the low dose group (60 ± 33 to 41 ± 39 h, p = 0.01), but not in the placebo group (43 ± 31 to 44 ± 33 h). Time to excretion of all ingested markers was significantly shorter in the treatment groups versus placebo. Of the nine functional GI symptoms investigated, eight significantly decreased in frequency in the high dose group and seven decreased with low dose, while two decreased in the placebo group. No adverse events were reported in any group. Conclusions. Daily B. lactis HN019 supplementation is well tolerated, decreases WGTT in a dose-dependent manner, and reduces the frequency of functional GI symptoms in adults. PMID:21663486

Waller, Philip A; Gopal, Pramod K; Leyer, Gregory J; Ouwehand, Arthur C; Reifer, Cheryl; Stewart, Morgan E; Miller, Larry E

2011-01-01

287

Using Question Words or Asking Yes/No Questions: Failure and Success in Clarifying the Intentions of a Boy with High-Functioning Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examined the processes that resulted in an adult failing to comprehend the intentions of a boy with high-functioning autism. In a dyadic conversation between an adult and a young boy, the adult used questions to elicit clarification of intentions. The boy's responses were examined frame-by-frame using videotape microanalysis. Two causes…

Oi, Manabu

2008-01-01

288

Adult Literacy in the Commonwealth Caribbean with Special Reference to a Study of the Functional Literacy of Young Guyanese Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A test measuring document, prose, and quantitative literacy of out-of-school youth in Guyana found that only 11% had high levels of functional literacy, a literacy rate much lower than usually reported. Failure to represent the situation accurately prolongs the lack of political will to deal with the issue. (SK)

Jennings, Zellynne

2000-01-01

289

Generation of Functional Blood Vessels from a Single c-kit+ Adult Vascular Endothelial Stem Cell  

PubMed Central

In adults, the growth of blood vessels, a process known as angiogenesis, is essential for organ growth and repair. In many disorders including cancer, angiogenesis becomes excessive. The cellular origin of new vascular endothelial cells (ECs) during blood vessel growth in angiogenic situations has remained unknown. Here, we provide evidence for adult vascular endothelial stem cells (VESCs) that reside in the blood vessel wall endothelium. VESCs constitute a small subpopulation within CD117+ (c-kit+) ECs capable of undergoing clonal expansion while other ECs have a very limited proliferative capacity. Isolated VESCs can produce tens of millions of endothelial daughter cells in vitro. A single transplanted c-kit-expressing VESC by the phenotype lin?CD31+CD105+Sca1+CD117+ can generate in vivo functional blood vessels that connect to host circulation. VESCs also have long-term self-renewal capacity, a defining functional property of adult stem cells. To provide functional verification on the role of c-kit in VESCs, we show that a genetic deficit in endothelial c-kit expression markedly decreases total colony-forming VESCs. In vivo, c-kit expression deficit resulted in impaired EC proliferation and angiogenesis and retardation of tumor growth. Isolated VESCs could be used in cell-based therapies for cardiovascular repair to restore tissue vascularization after ischemic events. VESCs also provide a novel cellular target to block pathological angiogenesis and cancer growth. PMID:23091420

Fang, Shentong; Wei, Jing; Pentinmikko, Nalle; Leinonen, Hannele; Salven, Petri

2012-01-01

290

Systematic Review of Structural and Functional Neuroimaging Findings in Children and Adults with CKD  

PubMed Central

Summary CKD has been linked with cognitive deficits and affective disorders in multiple studies. Analysis of structural and functional neuroimaging in adults and children with kidney disease may provide additional important insights into the pathobiology of this relationship. This paper comprehensively reviews neuroimaging studies in both children and adults. Major databases (PsychLit, MEDLINE, WorldCat, ArticleFirst, PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE) were searched using consistent search terms, and studies published between 1975 and 2012 were included if their samples focused on CKD as the primary disease process. Exclusion criteria included case reports, chapters, and review articles. This systematic process yielded 43 studies for inclusion (30 in adults, 13 in children). Findings from this review identified several clear trends: (1) presence of cerebral atrophy and cerebral density changes in patients with CKD; (2) cerebral vascular disease, including deep white matter hyperintensities, white matter lesions, cerebral microbleeds, silent cerebral infarction, and cortical infarction, in patients with CKD; and (3) similarities in regional cerebral blood flow between patients with CKD and those with affective disorders. These findings document the importance of neuroimaging procedures in understanding the effect of CKD on brain structure, function, and associated behaviors. Results provide a developmental linkage between childhood and adulthood, with respect to the effect of CKD on brain functioning across the lifespan, with strong implications for a cerebrovascular mechanism contributing to this developmental linkage. Use of neuroimaging methods to corroborate manifest neuropsychological deficits or perhaps to indicate preventive actions may prove useful to individuals with CKD. PMID:23723341

Reiser, Kathryn A.; Detre, John A.; Schultz, Robert T.; Herrington, John D.; Davatzikos, Christos; Doshi, Jimit J.; Erus, Guray; Liu, Hua-Shan; Radcliffe, Jerilynn; Furth, Susan L.; Hooper, Stephen R.

2013-01-01

291

Relationships between regional cerebellar volume and sensorimotor and cognitive function in young and older adults  

PubMed Central

The cerebellum has been implicated in both sensorimotor and cognitive function, but is known to undergo volumetric declines with advanced age. Individual differences in regional cerebellar volume may therefore provide insight into performance variability across the lifespan, as has been shown with other brain structures and behaviors. Here, we investigated whether there are regional age differences in cerebellar volume in young and older adults, and whether these volumes explain, in part, individual differences in sensorimotor and cognitive task performance. We found that older adults had smaller cerebellar volume than young adults; specifically, lobules in the anterior cerebellum were more impacted by age. Multiple regression analyses for both age groups revealed associations between sensorimotor task performance in several domains (balance, choice reaction time, and timing) and regional cerebellar volume. There were also relationships with working memory, but none with measures of general cognitive or executive function. Follow-up analyses revealed several differential relationships with age between regional volume and sensorimotor performance. These relationships were predominantly selective to cerebellar regions that have been implicated in cognitive functions. Therefore, it may be the cognitive aspects of sensorimotor task performance that are best explained by individual differences in regional cerebellar volumes. In sum, our results demonstrate the importance of regional cerebellar volume with respect to both sensorimotor and cognitive performance, and we provide additional insight into the role of the cerebellum in age-related performance declines. PMID:23625382

Bernard, Jessica A.; Seidler, Rachael D.

2013-01-01

292

Adaptive modulation of adult brain gray and white matter to high altitude: structural MRI studies.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate brain structural alterations in adult immigrants who adapted to high altitude (HA). Voxel-based morphometry analysis of gray matter (GM) volumes, surface-based analysis of cortical thickness, and Tract-Based Spatial Statistics analysis of white matter fractional anisotropy (FA) based on MRI images were conducted on 16 adults (20-22 years) who immigrated to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (2300-4400 m) for 2 years. They had no chronic mountain sickness. Control group consisted of 16 matched sea level subjects. A battery of neuropsychological tests was also conducted. HA immigrants showed significantly decreased GM volumes in the right postcentral gyrus and right superior frontal gyrus, and increased GM volumes in the right middle frontal gyrus, right parahippocampal gyrus, right inferior and middle temporal gyri, bilateral inferior ventral pons, and right cerebellum crus1. While there was some divergence in the left hemisphere, surface-based patterns of GM changes in the right hemisphere resembled those seen for VBM analysis. FA changes were observed in multiple WM tracts. HA immigrants showed significant impairment in pulmonary function, increase in reaction time, and deficit in mental rotation. Parahippocampal and middle frontal GM volumes correlated with vital capacity. Superior frontal GM volume correlated with mental rotation and postcentral GM correlated with reaction time. Paracentral lobule and frontal FA correlated with mental rotation reaction time. There might be structural modifications occurred in the adult immigrants during adaptation to HA. The changes in GM may be related to impaired respiratory function and psychological deficits. PMID:23874692

Zhang, Jiaxing; Zhang, Haiyan; Li, Jinqiang; Chen, Ji; Han, Qiaoqing; Lin, Jianzhong; Yang, Tianhe; Fan, Ming

2013-01-01

293

Adaptive Modulation of Adult Brain Gray and White Matter to High Altitude: Structural MRI Studies  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate brain structural alterations in adult immigrants who adapted to high altitude (HA). Voxel-based morphometry analysis of gray matter (GM) volumes, surface-based analysis of cortical thickness, and Tract-Based Spatial Statistics analysis of white matter fractional anisotropy (FA) based on MRI images were conducted on 16 adults (20–22 years) who immigrated to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (2300–4400 m) for 2 years. They had no chronic mountain sickness. Control group consisted of 16 matched sea level subjects. A battery of neuropsychological tests was also conducted. HA immigrants showed significantly decreased GM volumes in the right postcentral gyrus and right superior frontal gyrus, and increased GM volumes in the right middle frontal gyrus, right parahippocampal gyrus, right inferior and middle temporal gyri, bilateral inferior ventral pons, and right cerebellum crus1. While there was some divergence in the left hemisphere, surface-based patterns of GM changes in the right hemisphere resembled those seen for VBM analysis. FA changes were observed in multiple WM tracts. HA immigrants showed significant impairment in pulmonary function, increase in reaction time, and deficit in mental rotation. Parahippocampal and middle frontal GM volumes correlated with vital capacity. Superior frontal GM volume correlated with mental rotation and postcentral GM correlated with reaction time. Paracentral lobule and frontal FA correlated with mental rotation reaction time. There might be structural modifications occurred in the adult immigrants during adaptation to HA. The changes in GM may be related to impaired respiratory function and psychological deficits. PMID:23874692

Zhang, Jiaxing; Zhang, Haiyan; Li, Jinqiang; Chen, Ji; Han, Qiaoqing; Lin, Jianzhong; Yang, Tianhe; Fan, Ming

2013-01-01

294

The functional profile of young adults with suspected Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD).  

PubMed

We assessed the non-academic and academic functioning of young adults with DCD, and investigated the emotional influences and the role of strategy use within this population. A random sample of 2379 adolescents and young adults aged 19-25 (1081 males [45.4%]; mean age=20.68, SD=3.42) was used to develop the instruments. From this sample, three study groups were identified (n=429) based on the Adolescents & Adults Coordination Questionnaire: probable DCD (n=135; 67.2% males), suspected borderline DCD (n=149; 51.4% males) and control (145; 70.5% males). Participants completed the Daily Life Functions Questionnaire (assessing non-academic and academic functioning), the Recent Emotional State Test (assessing feelings resulting from task performance), the Internal Factors Attributed to Success Questionnaire and the Problem Solving Questionnaire to assess strategy and executive strategy use. A MANOVA revealed statistically significant differences between-groups (F[7,422]=16.19; p<.001; ?=.197); post hoc analyses revealed differences for all measures (except the Problem Solving Questionnaire), with the probable DCD and suspected borderline DCD groups performing worse than controls. Severity of motor deficits was correlated with all outcomes except strategy use. Logistic regression revealed that non-academic functioning was the most significant predictor of group placement (B=-1.32; p<.001); academic functioning/handwriting was the second most significant predictor (B=0.44; p=.047). Deficits in motor coordination continue into adulthood and have an effect on academic and non-academic function, as well as on the emotional state of the individual. PMID:22789703

Tal-Saban, Miri; Zarka, Salman; Grotto, Itamar; Ornoy, Asher; Parush, Shula

2012-01-01

295

High Cost Residential Placements for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Concern has been expressed repeatedly about the cost and quality of residential placements for adults with learning disabilities and additional needs. This study sought to identify characteristics of the highest cost placements in the South-East of England. Method: Lead learning disability commissioners in the South-East of England…

McGill, Peter; Poynter, Jo

2012-01-01

296

Best Adult Books for High School Students 2009  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the past year, more than three dozen librarians working with teens in public, school, and college libraries have evaluated books published for the adult market with an eye toward identifying those that are worthy of teen reading as well. By examining more than 600 titles, this journal was able to select about 250 for review across the year.…

Goldsmith, Francisca

2009-01-01

297

High rates of nonbreeding adult bald eagles in southeastern Alaska  

SciTech Connect

Present knowledge of bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) demography is derived primarily from populations in environments that have been drastically altered by man. Most reproductive studies were done in the 1960's and 1970's when chemical toxins were inhibiting bald eagle productivity. Earlier, the removal of old-growth forests and decimation of anadromous fish runs by Euro-Americans may have greatly reduced bald eagle abundance from presettlement levels. Historical trends in this species are of interest because fundamental differences may exist between populations in pristine and man-altered environments. One difference may be breeding rate. Surpluses of nonbreeding adult bald eagles during the nesting season are rarely mentioned in the literature. Most surveys of reproductive success focus exclusively on eagles at nest sites, which assumes nearly all adults attempt to breed each year. The authors report that a majority of adults in the relatively pristine habitats of southeastern Alaska do not breed annually. This finding is important because if surpluses of non-breeding adults are a natural feature of the population, then hypotheses on density dependent population regulation and the evolution of delayed maturation are suggested. If, on the other hand, the abundance of nonbreeders is an artifact of recent environmental perturbations, serious population declines may occur in southeastern Alaska.

Hansen, A.J.; Hodges, J.I. Jr.

1985-01-01

298

Increased Marijuana Use and Gender Predict Poorer Cognitive Functioning in Adolescents and Emerging Adults  

PubMed Central

This study sought to characterize neuropsychological functioning in MJ-using adolescents and emerging adults (ages 18–26) and to investigate whether gender moderated these effects. Data were collected from 59 teens and emerging adults including MJ users (n = 23, 56% female) and controls (n = 35, 50% female) aged 18–26 (M = 21 years). Exclusionary criteria included independent Axis I disorders (besides SUD), and medical and neurologic disorders. After controlling for reading ability, gender, subclinical depressive symptoms, body mass index, and alcohol and other drug use, increased MJ use was associated with slower psychomotor speed/sequencing ability (p< .01), less efficient sustained attention (p< .05), and increased cognitive inhibition errors (p< .03). Gender significantly moderated the effects of MJ on psychomotor speed/sequencing ability (p< .003) in that males had a more robust negative relationship. The current study demonstrated that MJ exposure was associated with poorer psychomotor speed, sustained attention and cognitive inhibition in a dose-dependent manner in young adults, findings that are consistent with other samples of adolescent MJ users. Male MJ users demonstrated greater cognitive slowing than females. Future studies need to examine the neural substrates underlying with these cognitive deficits and whether cognitive rehabilitation or exercise interventions may serve as a viable treatments of cognitive deficits in emerging adult MJ users. PMID:22613255

Lisdahl, Krista M.; Price, Jenessa S.

2014-01-01

299

Functional compensation in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex improves memory-dependent decisions in older adults.  

PubMed

Everyday consumer choices frequently involve memory, as when we retrieve information about consumer products when making purchasing decisions. In this context, poor memory may affect decision quality, particularly in individuals with memory decline, such as older adults. However, age differences in choice behavior may be reduced if older adults can recruit additional neural resources that support task performance. Although such functional compensation is well documented in other cognitive domains, it is presently unclear whether it can support memory-guided decision making and, if so, which brain regions play a role in compensation. The current study engaged younger and older humans in a memory-dependent choice task in which pairs of consumer products from a popular online-shopping site were evaluated with different delays between the first and second product. Using functional imaging (fMRI), we found that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) supports compensation as defined by three a priori criteria: (1) increased vmPFC activation was observed in older versus younger adults; (2) age-related increases in vmPFC activity were associated with increased retrieval demands; and (3) increased vmPFC activity was positively associated with performance in older adults-evidence of successful compensation. Extending these results, we observed evidence for compensation in connectivity between vmPFC and the dorsolateral PFC during memory-dependent choice. In contrast, we found no evidence for age differences in value-related processing or age-related compensation for choices without delayed retrieval. Together, these results converge on the conclusion that age-related decline in memory-dependent choice performance can be minimized via functional compensation in vmPFC. PMID:25411493

Lighthall, Nichole R; Huettel, Scott A; Cabeza, Roberto

2014-11-19

300

Resting-State Functional Connectivity Indexes Reading Competence in Children and Adults  

PubMed Central

Task-based neuroimaging studies face the challenge of developing tasks capable of equivalently probing reading networks across different age groups. Resting-state fMRI, which requires no specific task, circumvents these difficulties. Here, in 25 children (8–14 years) and 25 adults (21–46 years), we examined the extent to which individual differences in reading competence can be related to resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) of regions implicated in reading. In both age groups, reading standard scores correlated positively with RSFC between the left precentral gyrus and other motor regions, and between Broca's and Wernicke's areas. This suggests that, regardless of age group, stronger coupling among motor regions, as well as between language/speech regions, subserves better reading, presumably reflecting automatized articulation. We also observed divergent RSFC–behavior relationships in children and adults, particularly those anchored in the left fusiform gyrus (FFG) (the visual word form area). In adults, but not children, better reading performance was associated with stronger positive correlations between FFG and phonology-related regions (Broca's area and the left inferior parietal lobule), and with stronger negative relationships between FFG and regions of the “task-negative” default network. These results suggest that both positive RSFC (functional coupling) between reading regions and negative RSFC (functional segregation) between a reading region and default network regions are important for automatized reading, characteristic of adult readers. Together, our task-independent RSFC findings highlight the importance of appreciating developmental changes in the neural correlates of reading competence, and suggest that RSFC may serve to facilitate the identification of reading disorders in different age groups. PMID:21653865

Di Martino, Adriana; Zuo, Xi-Nian; Kelly, Clare; Mennes, Maarten; Jutagir, Devika R.; Castellanos, F. Xavier

2011-01-01

301

Characteristics of Adult to Student Structured Mentoring Programs Occurring in Christian High Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research was designed to answer the question, "What are the characteristics of adult to student structured mentoring programs occurring in Christian high schools?" In the process of answering this question, the following two sub-questions were also answered: "What role does the mentor and mentee play in an adult to student structured…

Winn, Brant D.

2010-01-01

302

Early mastery motivation as a predictor of executive function in young adults with developmental disabilities.  

PubMed

The role of early childhood mastery motivation as a predictor of executive function 20 years later was examined in a sample of 39 individuals who had early diagnosed developmental disabilities. Multilevel modeling was used to analyze predictors of accuracy and response time on a Flanker task measuring executive function. As predicted, participants had relatively poorer performance on trials requiring inhibition and rule switches. Individuals with Down syndrome, in comparison to other participants, demonstrated longer response times. Young adults who had higher levels of persistence on mastery motivation tasks during early childhood displayed higher levels of accuracy and shorter response times on the executive function task. Possible mechanisms by which early mastery motivation relates to later executive function are discussed. PMID:25354123

Hauser-Cram, Penny; Woodman, Ashley Cynthia; Heyman, Miriam

2014-11-01

303

Physical activity, quality of life, and functional autonomy of adults with spinal cord injuries.  

PubMed

This study aimed to perform a systematic review of studies that address the influence of physical activity on the quality of life and functional independence of adult individuals with spinal cord injury. The review was performed using data obtained from the MEDLINE, CINAHL, SciELO, LILACS, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, Academic Search Premier, and PEDro databases using the following keywords: quality of life; functional independence; autonomy; independence; physical activity; activities of daily living; physical exercise; tetraplegia; paraplegia; spinal cord injury; physical disabilities; and wheelchair. Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria. Although there was a lack of consensus among the selected studies, the majority of them presented a strong correlation between physical activity and variables of quality of life and/or functional independence. Thus, physical activity appears to have an important influence on social relationships, functional independence, psychological factors, and physical aspects, which can enhance quality of life and independence in the performance of daily activities. PMID:24197622

Kawanishi, Camilla Yuri; Greguol, Márcia

2013-10-01

304

The Role of Causal and Intentional Judgments in Moral Reasoning in Individuals with High Functioning Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the present study, we investigated the ability to assign moral responsibility and punishment in adults with high functioning autism or Asperger Syndrome (HFA/AS), using non-verbal cartoons depicting an aggression, an accidental harm or a mere coincidence. Participants were asked to evaluate the agent's causal and intentional roles, his…

Buon, Marine; Dupoux, Emmanuel; Jacob, Pierre; Chaste, Pauline; Leboyer, Marion; Zalla, Tiziana

2013-01-01

305

High-Throughput Screening of Gene Function in Stem Cells Using Clonal Microarrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a microarray-based approach for the high- throughput screening of gene function in stem cells and dem- onstrate the potential of this method by growing and isolating clonal populations of both adult and embryonic neural stem cells. Clonal microarrays are constructed by seeding a popu- lation of cells at clonal density on micropatterned surfaces generated using soft lithographic microfabrication

Randolph S. Ashton; Joseph Peltier; Christopher A. Fasano; Analeah O'Neill; Joshua Leonard; Sally Temple; David V. Schaffer; Ravi S. Kane

2007-01-01

306

Different profiles of immune reconstitution in children and adults with HIV-infection after highly active antiretroviral therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Recent advances in characterizing the immune recovery of HIV-1-infected people have highlighted the importance of the thymus for peripheral T-cell diversity and function. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in immune reconstitution profiles after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) between HIV-children and adults. METHODS: HIV patients were grouped according to their previous clinical and immunological status:

Salvador Resino; Elena Seoane; Alicia Pérez; Ezequiel Ruiz-Mateos; Manuel Leal; Maria Á Muñoz-Fernández

2006-01-01

307

Validity and reliability of the behavior rating inventory of executive function - adult version in a clinical sample with eating disorders.  

PubMed

This study is a preliminary investigation of the reliability and validity of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function - Adult Version (BRIEF-A) in a clinical sample of patients with eating disorders (ED). Participants were 252 adult females who were referred to a centre for the treatment of EDs, as well as 31 individuals who completed the informant version of the BRIEF-A. Patients completed the BRIEF-A and other psychological measures on one occasion during their initial clinic visit, and informants nominated by patients completed the informant version at home. Reliability analyses revealed high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) of the two indices (Metacognition Index and Behavioral Regulation Index), and for the Global Executive Composite (GEC) of the BRIEF-A (? = .96). Convergent validity was shown by a high positive relationship between the self-report and informant-report versions of the BRIEF-A, and between the GEC and the Anxiety and Depression scales. Construct validity was assessed by an exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. The BRIEF-A may be a reliable and valid tool for measuring executive functioning (EF) in an ED population, and may serve as an initial screening tool of EF for clinicians and researchers. PMID:24854800

Ciszewski, Stefanie; Francis, Kylie; Mendella, Paul; Bissada, Hany; Tasca, Giorgio A

2014-04-01

308

Visual function and color vision in adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder  

PubMed Central

Purpose Color vision and self-reported visual function in everyday life in young adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) were investigated. Method Participants were 30 young adults with ADHD and 30 controls matched for age and gender. They were tested individually and completed the Visual Activities Questionnaire (VAQ), Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue Test (FMT) and A Quick Test of Cognitive Speed (AQT). Results The ADHD group reported significantly more problems in 4 of 8 areas on the VAQ: depth perception, peripheral vision, visual search and visual processing speed. Further analyses of VAQ items revealed that the ADHD group endorsed more visual problems associated with driving than controls. Color perception difficulties on the FMT were restricted to the blue spectrum in the ADHD group. FMT and AQT results revealed slower processing of visual stimuli in the ADHD group. Conclusion A comprehensive investigation of mechanisms underlying visual function and color vision in adults with ADHD is warranted, along with the potential impact of these visual problems on driving performance. PMID:24646898

Kim, Soyeon; Chen, Samantha; Tannock, Rosemary

2013-01-01

309

Mild functional effects of a novel GFAP mutant allele identified in a familial case of adult-onset Alexander disease.  

PubMed

Alexander disease is a neurological genetic disorder characterized by progressive white-matter degeneration, with astrocytes containing cytoplasmic aggregates, called Rosenthal fibers, including the intermediate filament glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). The age of onset of the disease defines three different forms, infantile, juvenile and adult, all due to heterozygous GFAP mutations and characterized by a progressive less severe phenotype from infantile to adult forms. In an Italian family with a recurrent mild adult onset of Alexander disease, we have identified two GFAP mutations, coupled on a same allele, leading to p.[R330G; E332K]. Functional studies on this complex allele revealed less severe aggregation patterns compared to those observed with p.R239C GFAP mutant, associated with a severe Alexander disease phenotype. Moreover, in addition to confirming the involvement of the ubiquitin-proteasome system in cleaning cells from aggregates and a dominant effect of the novel mutant protein, in cells expressing the mild p.[R330G; E332K] mutant we have observed that indirect alphaB-crystallin overexpression, induced by high extracellular potassium concentration, could completely rescue the correct filament organization while, under the same experimental conditions, in cells expressing the severe p.R239C mutant only a partial rescue effect could be achieved. PMID:18197187

Bachetti, Tiziana; Caroli, Francesco; Bocca, Paola; Prigione, Ignazia; Balbi, Pietro; Biancheri, Roberta; Filocamo, Mirella; Mariotti, Caterina; Pareyson, Davide; Ravazzolo, Roberto; Ceccherini, Isabella

2008-04-01

310

Using Canonical Commonality Analysis to Examine the Predictive Quality of Aging and Falls Efficacy on Balance Functioning in Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The effects of important variables measuring the psychobiological aspects of falls among older adults were considered to determine their utility in predicting balance functioning among older adults. To partition the effects of aging and falls efficacy on balance and leg strength simultaneously, canonical commonality analysis (CCA) was used. Methods: CCA is a multivariate technique which decomposes squared semipartial correlation

Michael Stellefson; John F. Yannessa; Gregory F. Martel

2012-01-01

311

Is there an association between postural balance and pulmonary function in adults with asthma?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Asthma may cause systemic repercussions due to its severity and the effects of treatment. Our objective was to compare posture, balance, functional capacity, and quality of life (QOL) according to the severity of disease, as assessed by pulmonary function levels. METHOD: This cross-sectional study evaluated fifty individuals with asthma. We compared two groups of adult individuals who were divided according to the median of the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) as follows: group A ?=? FEV1>74% predicted; group B ?=? FEV1<74% predicted. All patients underwent the following tests: spirometry, whole-body plethysmography, diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLco), respiratory muscle strength, posture assessment, stabilometry, six-minute walking distance (6MWD), and QOL. RESULTS: All pulmonary function variables exhibited statistically significant differences between the two groups, except for the DLco. The maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP), maximal expiratory pressure (MEP), and 6MWD were lower in group B. The maximal mediolateral velocity and the mediolateral displacement were significantly different, while the postural changes and QOL were similar between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: In adult individuals with asthma, the pulmonary function is associated with balance control in the mediolateral direction but does not influence the postural changes or QOL. PMID:24270954

de Almeida, Vivian Pinto; Guimaraes, Fernando Silva; Moco, Vanessa Joaquim Ribeiro; de Sa Ferreira, Arthur; de Menezes, Sara Lucia Silveira; Lopes, Agnaldo Jose

2013-01-01

312

Individualized piano instruction enhances executive functioning and working memory in older adults.  

PubMed

This study evaluates transfer from domain-specific, sensorimotor training to cognitive abilities associated with executive function. We examined Individualized Piano Instruction (IPI) as a potential cognitive intervention to mitigate normal age-related cognitive decline in older adults. Thirty-one musically naïve community-dwelling older adults (ages 60-85) were randomly assigned to either the experimental group (n = 16) or control group (n = 15). Neuropsychological assessments were administered at three time points: pre-training, following six months of intervention, and following a three-month delay. The experimental group significantly improved performance on the Trail Making Test and Digit Symbol measures as compared to healthy controls. Results of this study suggest that IPI may serve as an effective cognitive intervention for age-related cognitive decline. PMID:17612811

Bugos, J A; Perlstein, W M; McCrae, C S; Brophy, T S; Bedenbaugh, P H

2007-07-01

313

From Drosophila development to adult: clues to Notch function in long-term memory  

PubMed Central

Notch is a cell surface receptor that is well known to mediate inter-cellular communication during animal development. Data in the field indicate that it is also involved in the formation of long-term memory (LTM) in the fully developed adults and in memory loss upon neurodegeneration. Our studies in the model organism Drosophila reveal that a non-canonical Notch-protein kinase C activity that plays critical roles in embryonic development also regulates cyclic-AMP response element binding protein during LTM formation in adults. Here we present a perspective on how the various known features of Notch function relate to LTM formation and how they might interface with elements of Wingless/Wnt signaling in this process. PMID:24312012

Zhang, Jiabin; Yin, Jerry C. P.; Wesley, Cedric S.

2013-01-01

314

Effects of dark chocolate and cocoa consumption on endothelial function and arterial stiffness in overweight adults.  

PubMed

The consumption of cocoa and dark chocolate is associated with a lower risk of CVD, and improvements in endothelial function may mediate this relationship. Less is known about the effects of cocoa/chocolate on the augmentation index (AI), a measure of vascular stiffness and vascular tone in the peripheral arterioles. We enrolled thirty middle-aged, overweight adults in a randomised, placebo-controlled, 4-week, cross-over study. During the active treatment (cocoa) period, the participants consumed 37 g/d of dark chocolate and a sugar-free cocoa beverage (total cocoa = 22 g/d, total flavanols (TF) = 814 mg/d). Colour-matched controls included a low-flavanol chocolate bar and a cocoa-free beverage with no added sugar (TF = 3 mg/d). Treatments were matched for total fat, saturated fat, carbohydrates and protein. The cocoa treatment significantly increased the basal diameter and peak diameter of the brachial artery by 6% (+2 mm) and basal blood flow volume by 22%. Substantial decreases in the AI, a measure of arterial stiffness, were observed in only women. Flow-mediated dilation and the reactive hyperaemia index remained unchanged. The consumption of cocoa had no effect on fasting blood measures, while the control treatment increased fasting insulin concentration and insulin resistance (P= 0·01). Fasting blood pressure (BP) remained unchanged, although the acute consumption of cocoa increased resting BP by 4 mmHg. In summary, the high-flavanol cocoa and dark chocolate treatment was associated with enhanced vasodilation in both conduit and resistance arteries and was accompanied by significant reductions in arterial stiffness in women. PMID:24274771

West, Sheila G; McIntyre, Molly D; Piotrowski, Matthew J; Poupin, Nathalie; Miller, Debra L; Preston, Amy G; Wagner, Paul; Groves, Lisa F; Skulas-Ray, Ann C

2014-02-01

315

The asparaginyl endopeptidase legumain is essential for functional recovery after spinal cord injury in adult zebrafish.  

PubMed

Unlike mammals, adult zebrafish are capable of regenerating severed axons and regaining locomotor function after spinal cord injury. A key factor for this regenerative capacity is the innate ability of neurons to re-express growth-associated genes and regrow their axons after injury in a permissive environment. By microarray analysis, we have previously shown that the expression of legumain (also known as asparaginyl endopeptidase) is upregulated after complete transection of the spinal cord. In situ hybridization showed upregulation of legumain expression in neurons of regenerative nuclei during the phase of axon regrowth/sprouting after spinal cord injury. Upregulation of Legumain protein expression was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Interestingly, upregulation of legumain expression was also observed in macrophages/microglia and neurons in the spinal cord caudal to the lesion site after injury. The role of legumain in locomotor function after spinal cord injury was tested by reducing Legumain expression by application of anti-sense morpholino oligonucleotides. Using two independent anti-sense morpholinos, locomotor recovery and axonal regrowth were impaired when compared with a standard control morpholino. We conclude that upregulation of legumain expression after spinal cord injury in the adult zebrafish is an essential component of the capacity of injured neurons to regrow their axons. Another feature contributing to functional recovery implicates upregulation of legumain expression in the spinal cord caudal to the injury site. In conclusion, we established for the first time a function for an unusual protease, the asparaginyl endopeptidase, in the nervous system. This study is also the first to demonstrate the importance of legumain for repair of an injured adult central nervous system of a spontaneously regenerating vertebrate and is expected to yield insights into its potential in nervous system regeneration in mammals. PMID:24747977

Ma, Liping; Shen, Yan-Qin; Khatri, Harsh P; Schachner, Melitta

2014-01-01

316

Association between Physical Functionality and Falls Risk in Community-Living Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Ageing-related declines in physiological attributes, such as muscle strength, can bring with them an increased risk of falls and subsequently greater risk of losing independence. These declines have substantial impact on an individual's functional ability. However, the precise relationship between falls risk and physical functionality has not been evaluated. The aims of this study were to determine the association between falls risk and physical functionality using objective measures and to create an appropriate model to explain variance in falls risk. Thirty-two independently living adults aged 65–92 years completed the FallScreen, the Continuous-Scale Physical Functional Performance 10 (CS-PFP10) tests, and the 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12). The relationships between falls risk, physical functionality, and age were investigated using correlational and multiple hierarchical regression analyses. Overall, total physical functionality accounted for 24% of variance in an individual's falls risk while age explained a further 13%. The oldest-old age group had significantly greater falls risk and significantly lower physical functional performance. Mean scores for all measures showed that there were substantial (but not significant) differences between males and females. While increasing age is the strongest single predictor of increasing falls risk, poorer physical functionality was strongly, independently related to greater falls risk. PMID:23304137

Smee, Disa J.; Anson, Judith M.; Waddington, Gordon S.; Berry, Helen L.

2012-01-01

317

Estrogen-induced disruption of neonatal porcine uterine development alters adult uterine function.  

PubMed

In the pig, estradiol-17beta valerate (EV) exposure from birth (Postnatal Day [PND] 0) disrupts estrogen receptor-alpha (ER)-dependent uterine development and increases embryo mortality in adults. To determine effects of neonatal EV exposure on adult uterine morphology and function, 36 gilts received corn oil (CO) or EV from PND 0 to PND 13. Cyclic and pregnant (PX) adults from each treatment group were hysterectomized on Day 12 after estrus/mating. Treatment and pregnancy effects were determined for uterine weight and horn volume, uterine luminal fluid (ULF) protein and estradiol content, endometrial incorporation of 3H-leucine (3H-Leu) into nondialyzable product, and endometrial mRNA levels for ER, progesterone receptor (PR), uteroferrin (UF), retinol-binding protein (RBP), and keratinocyte growth factor (KGF). Adults cycled normally and had similar numbers of corpora lutea. Uteri of PX gilts contained tubular/filamentous conceptuses, and ULF estradiol content was unaffected by treatment. However, pregnancy increased uterine weight and size only in CO gilts (Treatment x Status, P < 0.01). Treatment reduced ULF protein content (P < 0.01), endometrial 3H-Leu incorporation (P < 0.05), and the pregnancy-associated increase in ULF protein (Treatment x Status, P < 0.01). Treatment did not affect endometrial ER or PR mRNA levels but attenuated the pregnancy-associated increase in UF mRNA (Treatment x Status; P < 0.01), increased RBP (P < 0.10), and decreased KGF mRNA levels (P < 0.05). These results establish that transient postnatal estrogen exposure affects porcine uterine responsiveness to potentially embryotrophic signals and that estrogen-sensitive postnatal uterine organizational events are determinants of uterine size and functionality. PMID:12606348

Tarleton, Becky J; Braden, Tim D; Wiley, Anne A; Bartol, Frank F

2003-04-01

318

Relationship of cognitive and perceptual abilities to functional independence in adults who have had a stroke.  

PubMed

Most individuals who have had a stroke present with some degree of residual cognitive and/or perceptual impairment. Occupational therapists often utilize standardized cognitive and perceptual assessments with clients to establish a baseline of skill performance as well as to inform goal setting and intervention planning. Being able to predict the functional independence of individuals who have had a stroke based on cognitive and perceptual impairments would assist with appropriate discharge planning and follow-up resource allocation. The study objective was to investigate the ability of the Developmental Test of Visual Perception - Adolescents and Adults (DTVP-A) and the Neurobehavioural Cognitive Status Exam (Cognistat) to predict the functional performance as measured by the Barthel Index of individuals who have had a stroke. Data was collected using the DTVP-A, Cognistat and the Barthal Index from 32 adults recovering from stroke. Two standard multiple regression models were used to determine predictive variables of the functional independence dependent variable. Both the Cognistat and DTVP-A had a statistically significant ability to predict functional performance (as measured by the Barthel Index) accounting for 64.4% and 27.9% of each regression model, respectively. Two Cognistat subscales (Comprehension [beta = 0.48; p < 0.001)] and Repetition [beta = 0.45; p < 0.004]) and one DTVP-A subscale (Copying [beta = 0.46; p < 0.014]) made statistically significant contributions to the regression models as independent variables. On the basis of the regression model findings, it appears that DTVP-A's Copying and the Cognistat's Comprehension and Repetition subscales are useful in predicting the functional independence (as measured by the Barthel Index) in those individuals who have had a stroke. Given the fundamental importance that cognition and perception has for one's ability to function independently, further investigation is warranted to determine other predictors of functional performance of individuals with a stroke. PMID:22711647

Brown, Ted; Mapleston, Jennifer; Nairn, Allison; Molloy, Andrew

2013-03-01

319

Left ventricular function in adults with mild pulmonary insufficiency late after Fallot repair  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To assess left ventricular function in adult Fallot patients with residual pulmonary regurgitation.?SETTING—The radiology department of a tertiary referral centre.?PATIENTS—14 patients with chronic pulmonary regurgitation and right ventricular volume overload after repair of tetralogy of Fallot and 10 healthy subjects were studied using magnetic resonance imaging.?MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Biventricular volumes, global biventricular function, and regional left ventricular function were assessed in all subjects.?RESULTS—The amount of pulmonary regurgitation in patients (mean (SD)) was 25 (18)% of forward flow and correlated significantly with right ventricular enlargement (p < 0.05). Left ventricular end diastolic volume was decreased in patients (78 (11) v 88 (10) ml/m2; p < 0.05), ejection fraction was not significantly altered (59 (5)% v 55 (7)%; NS). No significant correlation was found between pulmonary regurgitation and left ventricular function. Overall left ventricular end diastolic wall thickness was significantly lower in patients (5.06 (0.72) v 6.06 (1.06) mm; p < 0.05), predominantly in the free wall. At the apical level, left ventricular systolic wall thickening was 20% higher in Fallot patients (p < 0.05). Left ventricular shape was normal.?CONCLUSIONS—Adult Fallot patients with mild chronic pulmonary regurgitation and subsequent right ventricular enlargement showed a normal left ventricular shape and global function. Although the left ventricular free wall had reduced wall thickness, compensatory hypercontractility of the apex may contribute to preserved global function.???Keywords: left ventricular function; pulmonary insufficiency; tetralogy of Fallot; magnetic resonance imaging PMID:10573497

Niezen, R; Helbing, W; van der Wall, E E; van der Geest, R J; Vliegen, H; de Roos, A

1999-01-01

320

Neurocognitive and Family Functioning and Quality of Life Among Young Adult Survivors of Childhood Brain Tumors  

PubMed Central

Many childhood brain tumor survivors experience significant neurocognitive late effects across multiple domains that negatively affect quality of life. A theoretical model of survivorship suggests that family functioning and survivor neurocognitive functioning interact to affect survivor and family outcomes. This paper reviews the types of neurocognitive late effects experienced by survivors of pediatric brain tumors. Quantitative and qualitative data from three case reports of young adult survivors and their mothers are analyzed according to the theoretical model and presented in this paper to illustrate the importance of key factors presented in the model. The influence of age at brain tumor diagnosis, family functioning, and family adaptation to illness on survivor quality of life and family outcomes are highlighted. Future directions for research and clinical care for this vulnerable group of survivors are discussed. PMID:21722062

Hocking, Matthew C.; Hobbie, Wendy L.; Deatrick, Janet A.; Lucas, Matthew S.; Szabo, Margo M.; Volpe, Ellen M.; Barakat, Lamia P.

2012-01-01

321

Temporal context memory in high-functioning autism.  

PubMed

Episodic memory, i.e. memory for specific episodes situated in space and time, seems impaired in individuals with autism. According to weak central coherence theory, individuals with autism have general difficulty connecting contextual and item information which then impairs their capacity to memorize information in context. This study investigated temporal context memory for visual information in individuals with autism. Eighteen adolescents and adults with high-functioning autism (HFA) or Asperger syndrome (AS) and age- and IQ-matched typically developing participants were tested using a recency judgement task. The performance of the autistic group did not differ from that of the control group, nor did the performance between the AS and HFA groups. We conclude that autism in high-functioning individuals does not impair temporal context memory as assessed on this task. We suggest that individuals with autism are as efficient on this task as typically developing subjects because contextual memory performance here involves more automatic than organizational processing. PMID:17947288

Gras-Vincendon, Agnès; Mottron, Laurent; Salamé, Pierre; Bursztejn, Claude; Danion, Jean-Marie

2007-11-01

322

Frictional properties of high functional gel materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The frictional behavior of the four kinds of high functional gels, which are double network (DN) gels, particle-double network gels (P-DN), shape memory gels (SMG), LA-shape memory gels (LA-SMG) and was studied. The velocity dependence looks similar for both the DN gels and the SMG, however the details of the dependence are different. The coefficient of the DN gels is smaller than that of the SMGs. The coefficient decreases as the normal force increases. This normal force dependence was observed for the DN gels previously, however for the first time for the SMGs. The velocity dependence looks similar for both the DN gels and the SMG, however the details of the dependence are different. The coefficient of the DN gels is smaller than that of the SMGs. The difference of the dependences is possibly related to the different softness by the temperature change of the gels. The temperature dependence of the coefficient of friction in LA-SMG was observed. Increase of the perpendicular load and the surface softness were influenced by coefficient of friction increase. In addition, the frictional coefficient of P-DN that different particle size was measured for the first time. The difference of the friction behavior of LA-SMG by the particle size was clear. Therefore, we show frictional coefficient of various high functional gels.

Wada, Masato; Yamada, Kohei; Yamada, Naoya; Makino, Masato; Gong, Jin; Furukawa, Hidemitsu

2014-03-01

323

Physical Function Limitations Among Middle-Aged and Older Adults With Prediabetes  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence of physical function limitations among a nationally representative sample of adults with prediabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 5,991 respondents ?53 years of age from the 2006 wave of the Health and Retirement Study. All respondents self-reported physical function limitations and comorbidities (chronic diseases and geriatric conditions). Respondents with prediabetes reported no diabetes and had a measured glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) of 5.7–6.4%. Descriptive analyses and logistic regressions were used to compare respondents with prediabetes versus diabetes (diabetes history or HbA1c ?6.5%) or normoglycemia (no diabetes history and HbA1c <5.7%). RESULTS Twenty-eight percent of respondents ?53 years of age had prediabetes; 32% had mobility limitations (walking several blocks and/or climbing a flight of stairs); 56% had lower-extremity limitations (getting up from a chair and/or stooping, kneeling, or crouching); and 33% had upper-extremity limitations (pushing or pulling heavy objects and/or lifting >10 lb). Respondents with diabetes had the highest prevalence of comorbidities and physical function limitations, followed by those with prediabetes, and then normoglycemia (P < 0.05). Compared with respondents with normoglycemia, respondents with prediabetes had a higher odds of having functional limitations that affected mobility (odds ratio [OR] 1.48), the lower extremities (OR 1.35), and the upper extremities (OR 1.37) (all P < 0.01). The higher odds of having lower-extremity limitations remained after adjusting for age, sex, and body mass index (OR 1.21, P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS Comorbidities and physical function limitations are prevalent among middle-aged and older adults with prediabetes. Effective lifestyle interventions to prevent diabetes must accommodate physical function limitations. PMID:23757432

Lee, Pearl G.; Cigolle, Christine T.; Ha, Jinkyung; Min, Lillian; Murphy, Susan L.; Blaum, Caroline S.; Herman, William H.

2013-01-01

324

Weight Change, Weight Change Intention, and the Incidence of Mobility Limitation in Well-Functioning Community-Dwelling Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Obesity increases the risk for functional decline in later years, but the functional consequences of weight change in older adults are currently unclear. The aim of this study was to determine whether weight, weight change, and weight change intention are associated with risk for mobility limitation in elderly persons. Methods. This study included 2932 well-functioning black and white men

Jung Sun Lee; Stephen B. Kritchevsky; Frances Tylavsky; Tamara Harris

2005-01-01

325

Adult height and lung function as markers of life course exposures: Associations with risk factors and cause-specific mortality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and objective:  Pulmonary function and height may be regarded as adult indices of exposures accumulated across the entire life course and in early life, respectively. As such, we hypothesised that pulmonary function would be more strongly related to mortality than height. Studies of the association of height and lung function with mortality – which are currently modest in number –

G. David Batty; David Gunnell; Claudia Langenberg; George Davey Smith; Michael G. Marmot; Martin J. Shipley

2006-01-01

326

Pathogenicity of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1) in Adult Mute Swans  

PubMed Central

Adult, healthy mute swans were experimentally infected with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus A/Cygnus cygnus/Germany/R65/2006 subtype H5N1. Immunologically naive birds died, whereas animals with preexisting, naturally acquired avian influenza virus–specific antibodies became infected asymptomatically and shed virus. Adult mute swans are highly susceptible, excrete virus, and can be clinically protected by preexposure immunity. PMID:18680652

Kalthoff, Donata; Breithaupt, Angele; Teifke, Jens P.; Globig, Anja; Harder, Timm; Mettenleiter, Thomas C.

2008-01-01

327

Reduced bone mineral density in adults treated with high-dose corticosteroids for childhood nephrotic syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reduced bone mineral density in adults treated with high-dose corticosteroids for childhood nephrotic syndrome.BackgroundChildren with minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS) receive repeated courses of high dose oral prednisolone. No previous study has investigated the impact of this on final bone mineral density (BMD). Young adults previously reported in a large follow-up study of children with MCNS were invited to participate

JANET HEGARTY; M ZULF MUGHAL; JUDITH ADAMS; NICHOLAS J A WEBB

2005-01-01

328

Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) in experimentally infected adult mute swans.  

PubMed

Adult, healthy mute swans were experimentally infected with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus A/Cygnus cygnus/Germany/R65/2006 subtype H5N1. Immunologically naive birds died, whereas animals with preexisting, naturally acquired avian influenza virus-specific antibodies became infected asymptomatically and shed virus. Adult mute swans are highly susceptible, excrete virus, and can be clinically protected by preexposure immunity. PMID:18680652

Kalthoff, Donata; Breithaupt, Angele; Teifke, Jens P; Globig, Anja; Harder, Timm; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Beer, Martin

2008-08-01

329

The relationship between P3 and neuropsychological function in an adult life span sample.  

PubMed

The relationship of P3 to age and neuropsychological performance was investigated in a sample of 71 well-functioning adults ranging in age from 21.8 to 94.7 years. ERPs were recorded while the participants performed an auditory two-stimuli oddball task in which the rare tones were to be counted. The Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI) and the digit span subtest from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-R (WAIS-R) were administered. Regression analyses showed significant, linear effects of age on P3 latency and amplitude. Significant relationships between P3 and neuropsychological measures were found, in that P3 latency correlated moderately in predictable ways with scores on matrices, block design, and digit span. Overall, these relationships are best characterized by a linear function, but a non-linear component is involved in the relationship between P3 latency and fluid tests. Finally, a linear relationship between ERP components and age was found, while a curvilinear relationship was found between age and block design and matrices, respectively. There appears to be either partially different functions or structures underlying performance on these tests, the P3 component and performance on neuropsychological tests, or one must assume some variant of a multiplicative, as opposed to an additive, model of cognition. PMID:12505768

Walhovd, Kristine B; Fjell, Anders M

2003-01-01

330

Antenatal Maternal Stress Alters Functional Brain Responses In Adult Offspring During Conditioned Fear  

PubMed Central

Antenatal maternal stress has been shown in rodent models and in humans to result in altered behavioral and neuroendocrine responses, yet little is known about its effects on functional brain activation. Pregnant female rats received a daily foot-shock stress or sham-stress two days after testing plug-positive and continuing for the duration of their pregnancy. Adult male offspring (age 14 weeks) with and without prior maternal stress (MS) were exposed to an auditory fear conditioning (CF) paradigm. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was assessed during recall of the tone cue in the nonsedated, nontethered animal using the 14C-iodoantipyrine method, in which the tracer was administered intravenously by remote activation of an implantable minipump. Regional CBF distribution was examined by autoradiography and analyzed by statistical parametric mapping in the three-dimensionally reconstructed brains. Presence of fear memory was confirmed by behavioral immobility (‘freezing’). Corticosterone plasma levels during the CF paradigm were measured by ELISA in a separate group of rats. Antenatal MS exposure altered functional brain responses to the fear conditioned cue in adult offspring. Rats with prior MS exposure compared to those without demonstrated heightened fear responsivity, exaggerated and prolonged corticosterone release, increased functional cerebral activation of limbic/paralimbic regions (amygdala, ventral hippocampus, insula, ventral striatum, nucleus acumbens), the locus coeruleus, and white matter, and deactivation of medial prefrontal cortical regions. Dysregulation of corticolimbic circuits may represent risk factors in the future development of anxiety disorders and associated alterations in emotional regulation. PMID:21300034

Sadler, Theodore R.; Nguyen, Peter T.; Yang, Jun; Givrad, Tina K.; Mayer, Emeran A.; Maarek, Jean-Michel I.; Hinton, David R.; Holschneider, Daniel P.

2011-01-01

331

Do Clinical Symptoms and Signs Predict Reduced Renal Function Among Hospitalized Adults?  

PubMed Central

Background: Reduced renal function manifests as reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR), which is estimated using the serum creatinine levels. This condition is frequently encountered among hospitalized adults. Renal dysfunction remains clinically asymptomatic, until late in the course of disease, and its symptoms and screening strategies are poorly defined. Aim: We conducted this study to understand if the presence of renal dysfunction related clinical symptom and signs (either alone or in combination) can predict reduced GFR. Further, we aimed to determine if the combination of symptoms and signs are useful for prediction of different levels of reduced GFR. Subjects and Methods: We performed a cross-sectional clinical prediction study and included all consecutive patients admitted to the medical wards of the hospital. We used a renal dysfunction related clinical predictors as index tests and low estimated GFR ([eGFR] < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2) as a reference standard. We identified symptoms with a high likelihood ratio (LR) for prediction of low eGFR and constructed different risk score models. We plotted receiver operating curves for each score and used area under the curve (AUC) for comparison. The score with the highest AUC was considered as most discriminant. All statistical analysis was performed using the statistical software STATA (version 11.0, lake drive, Texas, USA). Results: A total of 341 patients participated in the study. None of the predictor variables had statistically significant LRs for eGFR less than 60 ml/min or eGFR less than 30 ml/min. Positive LRs were significant for prediction of eGFR < 15 ml/min for the presence of hypertension, vomiting pruritis, peripheral edema, hyperpigmentation, peripheral neuropathy and severe anemia. The best predictive model for eGFR less than 15 ml/min/1.73 m2, included Age > 45 years, the presence of hypertension, vomiting, peripheral edema, hyperpigmentation, and severe anemia and had AUC of 0.82. Conclusion: Clinical symptoms and signs are poorly predictive of reduced renal function, except for very low eGFR of less than 15 ml/min/1.73 m2. PMID:24379997

Kumar, S; Joshi, R; Joge, V

2013-01-01

332

Analysis of measurement tools of fear of falling for high-risk, community-dwelling older adults.  

PubMed

Fear of falling has many health consequences among older adults and may lead to curtailment of activities, immobility, functional dependence, falls, and serious injury. The lack of clarity as to how to best measure fear of falling among high-risk, community-dwelling older adults defined as those who are nursing home eligible, functionally dependent, and vulnerable is further complicated by the multiple definitions used throughout the science. Fear of falling is important to measure effectively if we are to develop and test interventions to promote safe aging in place and prevent injury and institutionalization. This integrative review, 1982 to the present, leads to the conclusion that the Falls Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I) long form stands out as the most appropriate measurement tool to best assess fear of falling in this unique, understudied, and underserved population. PMID:22373731

Greenberg, Sherry A

2012-02-01

333

High sugar intake exacerbates cardiac reperfusion injury in perinatal taurine depleted adult rats.  

PubMed

Perinatal taurine depletion and high sugar diets blunted baroreflex function and heightens sympathetic nerve activity in adult rats. Cardiac ischemia/reperfusion also produces these disorders and taurine treatment appears to improve these effects. This study tests the hypothesis that perinatal taurine exposure predisposes recovery from reperfusion injury in rats on either a basal or high sugar diet. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed normal rat chow with 3% beta-alanine (taurine depletion, TD), 3% taurine (taurine supplementation, TS) or water alone (control, C) from conception to weaning. Male offspring were fed normal rat chow and water containing 5% glucose (G) or water alone (W) throughout the experiment. At 7-8 weeks of age, all rats were anesthetized and their trachea clamped until cardiac arrest occurred and mean arterial pressure fell below 60 mm Hg. The clamp was immediately released and cardiopulmonary resuscitation was performed with cardiac function returning within 4 min. Twenty-four hours later, arterial pressure, heart rate, and baroreflex function were measured in conscious and one day later in anesthetized conditions. Basic blood chemistry and circulating markers of cardiac injury were also measured. Baroreflex sensitivity was depressed moderately in CG and TDW, and severely in TDG. TSW displayed increased baroreflex and high sugar intake returned it to CW. Sympathetic nerve activity increased and parasympathetic decreased in TDW but not TSW and these effects were exacerbated sharply in TDG and slightly in TSG. Arterial pressure and heart rate increased in all groups but to a lesser degree in TDG. Plasma aspartate aminotransferase increased in all groups except TSW, but the increase was nearly 3X greater in TDG vs. any other group. Creatine kinase-MB increased in all groups except TSG and was far greater in TD than other groups. Troponin-T and brain natriuretic peptide were greatly increased in TDG compared to all other groups. Thus, perinatal taurine depletion increases injury from cardiac ischemia/reperfusion, and in adult rats on a high sugar diet, these effects are greatly exacerbated. PMID:20804597

Kulthinee, Supaporn; Wyss, J Michael; Jirakulsomchok, Dusit; Roysommuti, Sanya

2010-01-01

334

Why Adult Stem Cell Functionality Declines with Age? Studies from the Fruit Fly Drosophila Melanogaster Model Organism  

PubMed Central

Highly regenerative adult tissues are supported by rare populations of stem cells that continuously divide to self-renew and generate differentiated progeny. This process is tightly regulated by signals emanating from surrounding cells to fulfill the dynamic demands of the tissue. One of the hallmarks of aging is slow and aberrant tissue regeneration due to deteriorated function of stem and supporting cells. Several Drosophila regenerative tissues are unique in that they provide exact identification of stem and neighboring cells in whole-tissue anatomy. This allows for precise tracking of age-related changes as well as their targeted manipulation within the tissue. In this review we present the stem cell niche of Drosophila testis, ovary and intestine and describe the major changes and phenotypes that occur in the course of aging. Specifically we discuss changes in both intrinsic properties of stem cells and their microenvironment that contribute to the decline in tissue functionality. Understanding these mechanisms in adult Drosophila tissues will likely provide new paradigms in the field of aging. PMID:24955030

Gonen, Oren; Toledano, Hila

2014-01-01

335

Visual Exploration of High Dimensional Scalar Functions  

PubMed Central

An important goal of scientific data analysis is to understand the behavior of a system or process based on a sample of the system. In many instances it is possible to observe both input parameters and system outputs, and characterize the system as a high-dimensional function. Such data sets arise, for instance, in large numerical simulations, as energy landscapes in optimization problems, or in the analysis of image data relating to biological or medical parameters. This paper proposes an approach to analyze and visualizing such data sets. The proposed method combines topological and geometric techniques to provide interactive visualizations of discretely sampled high-dimensional scalar fields. The method relies on a segmentation of the parameter space using an approximate Morse-Smale complex on the cloud of point samples. For each crystal of the Morse-Smale complex, a regression of the system parameters with respect to the output yields a curve in the parameter space. The result is a simplified geometric representation of the Morse-Smale complex in the high dimensional input domain. Finally, the geometric representation is embedded in 2D, using dimension reduction, to provide a visualization platform. The geometric properties of the regression curves enable the visualization of additional information about each crystal such as local and global shape, width, length, and sampling densities. The method is illustrated on several synthetic examples of two dimensional functions. Two use cases, using data sets from the UCI machine learning repository, demonstrate the utility of the proposed approach on real data. Finally, in collaboration with domain experts the proposed method is applied to two scientific challenges. The analysis of parameters of climate simulations and their relationship to predicted global energy flux and the concentrations of chemical species in a combustion simulation and their integration with temperature. PMID:20975167

Gerber, Samuel; Bremer, Peer-Timo; Pascucci, Valerio; Whitaker, Ross

2011-01-01

336

Functional MRI of cerebellar activity during eyeblink classical conditioning in children and adults.  

PubMed

This study characterized human cerebellar activity during eyeblink classical conditioning (EBC) in children and adults using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). During fMRI, participants were administered delay conditioning trials, in which the conditioned stimulus (a tone) precedes, overlaps, and coterminates with the unconditioned stimulus (a corneal airpuff). Behavioral eyeblink responses and brain activation were measured concurrently during two phases: pseudoconditioning, involving presentations of tone alone and airpuff alone, and conditioning, during which the tone and airpuff were paired. Although all participants demonstrated significant conditioning, the adults produced more conditioned responses (CRs) than the children. When brain activations during pseudoconditioning were subtracted from those elicited during conditioning, significant activity was distributed throughout the cerebellar cortex (Crus I-II, lateral lobules IV-IX, and vermis IV-VI) in all participants, suggesting multiple sites of associative learning-related plasticity. Despite their less optimal behavioral performance, the children showed greater responding in the pons, lateral lobules VIII, IX, and Crus I, and vermis VI, suggesting that they may require greater activation and/or the recruitment of supplementary structures to achieve successful conditioning. Correlation analyses relating brain activations to behavioral CRs showed a positive association of activity in cerebellar deep nuclei (including dentate, fastigial, and interposed nuclei) and vermis VI with CRs in the children. This is the first study to compare cerebellar cortical and deep nuclei activations in children versus adults during EBC. PMID:23674498

Cheng, Dominic T; Meintjes, Ernesta M; Stanton, Mark E; Desmond, John E; Pienaar, Mariska; Dodge, Neil C; Power, John M; Molteno, Christopher D; Disterhoft, John F; Jacobson, Joseph L; Jacobson, Sandra W

2014-04-01

337

Physical capacity and functional abilities improve in young adults with intellectual disabilities after functional training.  

PubMed

Individuals with an intellectual disability (ID) have higher rates of obesity, lower rates of physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and muscular endurance than do typically developed individuals (TDI) and are twice as likely to develop chronic disease, living half as long as TDIs do. The purpose of this study was to examine the improvements in physical capacity and functional ability in Special Olympic Athletes (SOAs) aged 19-22 years after participating in a functional training (FT) program and compare these scores with those of the SOAs in a resistance weight training (WT) program. Twenty SOAs (13 men, 7 women with mild to moderate ID) participated in a 1-hour FT program, twice a week, for 10 weeks, compared with 22 same-aged SOAs (14 men, 8 women) participating in a 1-hour WT program (2× week for 8 weeks). Prefitness and postfitness tests consisting of heart rate (HR) for the 3-minute step test, static plank, body weight squats, static bar hang, and knee push-ups were conducted. Two-tailed, paired sample t-tests (p < 0.05) were used to evaluate the differences in the FT group. Change scores were used to compare FTG with the WT group. The HR decreased by 31.8 b·min?¹ pre-post in the FTG (p < 0.001). Static plank duration improved by 22.4 seconds in the FTG (p = 0.016); static plank change scores improved (p = 0.037) for the FTG (26.5 ± 32.1 seconds compared with that for the WT group (4.6 ± 22 seconds). Height and weight values were unchanged in both the groups. The results of this study demonstrate the value of FT programs for this population, because weight equipment is not always available in many settings. PMID:21912297

Barwick, Ryan B; Tillman, Mark D; Stopka, Christine B; Dipnarine, Krishna; Delisle, Anthony; Sayedul Huq, Mona

2012-06-01

338

Functional Mapping of Protein Kinase A Reveals Its Importance in Adult Schistosoma mansoni Motor Activity  

PubMed Central

Cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase/protein kinase A (PKA) is the major transducer of cAMP signalling in eukaryotic cells. Here, using laser scanning confocal microscopy and ‘smart’ anti-phospho PKA antibodies that exclusively detect activated PKA, we provide a detailed in situ analysis of PKA signalling in intact adult Schistosoma mansoni, a causative agent of debilitating human intestinal schistosomiasis. In both adult male and female worms, activated PKA was consistently found associated with the tegument, oral and ventral suckers, oesophagus and somatic musculature. In addition, the seminal vesicle and gynaecophoric canal muscles of the male displayed activated PKA whereas in female worms activated PKA localized to the ootype wall, the ovary, and the uterus particularly around eggs during expulsion. Exposure of live worms to the PKA activator forskolin (50 µM) resulted in striking PKA activation in the central and peripheral nervous system including at nerve endings at/near the tegument surface. Such neuronal PKA activation was also observed without forskolin treatment, but only in a single batch of worms. In addition, PKA activation within the central and peripheral nervous systems visibly increased within 15 min of worm-pair separation when compared to that observed in closely coupled worm pairs. Finally, exposure of adult worms to forskolin induced hyperkinesias in a time and dose dependent manner with 100 µM forskolin significantly increasing the frequency of gross worm movements to 5.3 times that of control worms (P?0.001). Collectively these data are consistent with PKA playing a central part in motor activity and neuronal communication, and possibly interplay between these two systems in S. mansoni. This study, the first to localize a protein kinase when exclusively in an activated state in adult S. mansoni, provides valuable insight into the intricacies of functional protein kinase signalling in the context of whole schistosome physiology. PMID:23326613

de Saram, Paulu S. R.; Ressurreição, Margarida; Davies, Angela J.; Rollinson, David; Emery, Aidan M.; Walker, Anthony J.

2013-01-01

339

Genome-wide association study of lung function decline in adults with and without asthma  

PubMed Central

Background Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified determinants of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma and lung function level, however none addressed decline in lung function. Aim We conducted the first GWAS on age-related decline in forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) and in its ratio to forced vital capacity (FVC) stratified a priori by asthma status. Methods Discovery cohorts included adults of European ancestry (1441 asthmatics, 2677 non-asthmatics; Epidemiological Study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma (EGEA); Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution And Lung And Heart Disease In Adults (SAPALDIA); European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS)). The associations of FEV1 and FEV1/FVC decline with 2.5 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were estimated. Thirty loci were followed-up by in silico replication (1160 asthmatics, 10858 non-asthmatics: Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC); Framingham Heart Study (FHS); British 1958 Birth Cohort (B58C); Dutch asthma study). Results Main signals identified differed between asthmatics and non-asthmatics. None of the SNPs reached genome-wide significance. The association between the height related gene DLEU7 and FEV1 decline suggested for non-asthmatics in the discovery phase was replicated (discovery P=4.8×10?6; replication P=0.03) and additional sensitivity analyses point to a relation to growth. The top ranking signal, TUSC3, associated with FEV1/FVC decline in asthmatics (P=5.3×10?8) did not replicate. SNPs previously associated with cross-sectional lung function were not prominently associated with decline. Conclusions Genetic heterogeneity of lung function may be extensive. Our results suggest that genetic determinants of longitudinal and cross-sectional lung function differ and vary by asthma status. PMID:22424883

Imboden, Medea; Bouzigon, Emmanuelle; Curjuric, Ivan; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Kumar, Ashish; Hancock, Dana B; Wilk, Jemma B; Vonk, Judith M; Thun, Gian A; Siroux, Valerie; Nadif, Rachel; Monier, Florent; Gonzalez, Juan R; Wjst, Matthias; Heinrich, Joachim; Loehr, Laura R; Franceschini, Nora; North, Kari E; Altmüller, Janine; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Guerra, Stefano; Kronenberg, Florian; Lathrop, Mark; Moffatt, Miriam F; O’Connor, George T; Strachan, David P; Postma, Dirkje S; London, Stephanie J; Schindler, Christian; Kogevinas, Manolis; Kauffmann, Francine; Jarvis, Debbie L; Demenais, Florence; Probst-Hensch, Nicole M

2012-01-01

340

Association of childhood trauma with cognitive function in healthy adults: a pilot study  

PubMed Central

Background Animal and human studies suggest that stress experienced early in life has detrimental consequences on brain development, including brain regions involved in cognitive function. Cognitive changes are cardinal features of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder. Early-life trauma is a major risk factor for these disorders. Only few studies have measured the long-term consequences of childhood trauma on cognitive function in healthy adults. Methods In this pilot study, we investigated the relationship between childhood trauma exposure and cognitive function in 47 healthy adults, who were identified as part of a larger study from the general population in Wichita, KS. We used the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) and the Wide-Range-Achievement-Test (WRAT-3) to examine cognitive function and individual achievement. Type and severity of childhood trauma was assessed by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression on CANTAB measures with primary predictors (CTQ scales) and potential confounders (age, sex, education, income). Results Specific CTQ scales were significantly associated with measures of cognitive function. Emotional abuse was associated with impaired spatial working memory performance. Physical neglect correlated with impaired spatial working memory and pattern recognition memory. Sexual abuse and physical neglect were negatively associated with WRAT-3 scores. However, the association did not reach the significance level of p < 0.01. Conclusions Our results suggest that physical neglect and emotional abuse might be associated with memory deficits in adulthood, which in turn might pose a risk factor for the development of psychopathology. PMID:20630071

2010-01-01

341

Past or present? Relative contributions of developmental and adult conditions to adult immune function and coloration in mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos).  

PubMed

Developmental conditions affect adult physiological processes and phenotypic traits, including those associated with both survival and reproduction. Carotenoids are molecules that generate sexually attractive coloration, and these pigments are acquired throughout life and can affect antioxidant capacity and immunocompetence of young and old animals. However, few studies have tracked carotenoid status and condition during development and into adulthood to understand how ontogeny affects later-life health and coloration of both males and females. We reared male and female mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) from hatch to adulthood, measured circulating carotenoid titers and body condition (i.e., size-adjusted body mass) throughout development, and assessed adult immune function and integumentary carotenoid-based beak and foot coloration. We found that adult immune function (wing web swelling response to phytohemagglutinin; PHA) in males was positively correlated with body condition during the growth period of development, rather than adult condition, and similarly that both male and female beak coloration was associated with developmental, rather than adult, body condition. We also found associations between coloration and health during adulthood; males with more carotenoid-rich beaks (a sexually attractive feature) tended to have a more robust adult PHA response and a greater antibody response to a novel antigen, while females with less carotenoid-rich beaks had greater antibody responsiveness at adulthood. In addition, male beak color changed over the course of the 24-h PHA test in proportion to the degree of PHA swelling. However, intensity of foot coloration (a trait of unknown sexual significance) was not associated with any condition, carotenoid, or immune metric for males or females. Taken together, our findings implicate key developmental components to the expression of both survival- and reproduction-related traits at adulthood, but that for a dynamic trait like beak color, there are also important adult conditions that can alter signal expression. PMID:21140156

Butler, Michael W; McGraw, Kevin J

2011-05-01

342

Adults with Autism  

MedlinePLUS

... 950-NAMI; info@nami.org ©2014 Adults With Autism Individuals with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) exhibit common problems with communication ... with an ASD (especially those with high-functioning autism or Asperger syndrome) are able to work successfully ...

343

Functional Lateralization of Speech Processing in Adults and Children Who Stutter  

PubMed Central

Developmental stuttering is a speech disorder in fluency characterized by repetitions, prolongations, and silent blocks, especially in the initial parts of utterances. Although their symptoms are motor related, people who stutter show abnormal patterns of cerebral hemispheric dominance in both anterior and posterior language areas. It is unknown whether the abnormal functional lateralization in the posterior language area starts during childhood or emerges as a consequence of many years of stuttering. In order to address this issue, we measured the lateralization of hemodynamic responses in the auditory cortex during auditory speech processing in adults and children who stutter, including preschoolers, with near-infrared spectroscopy. We used the analysis–resynthesis technique to prepare two types of stimuli: (i) a phonemic contrast embedded in Japanese spoken words (/itta/ vs. /itte/) and (ii) a prosodic contrast (/itta/ vs. /itta?/). In the baseline blocks, only /itta/ tokens were presented. In phonemic contrast blocks, /itta/ and /itte/ tokens were presented pseudo-randomly, and /itta/ and /itta?/ tokens in prosodic contrast blocks. In adults and children who do not stutter, there was a clear left-hemispheric advantage for the phonemic contrast compared to the prosodic contrast. Adults and children who stutter, however, showed no significant difference between the two stimulus conditions. A subject-by-subject analysis revealed that not a single subject who stutters showed a left advantage in the phonemic contrast over the prosodic contrast condition. These results indicate that the functional lateralization for auditory speech processing is in disarray among those who stutter, even at preschool age. These results shed light on the neural pathophysiology of developmental stuttering. PMID:21687442

Sato, Yutaka; Mori, Koichi; Koizumi, Toshizo; Minagawa-Kawai, Yasuyo; Tanaka, Akihiro; Ozawa, Emi; Wakaba, Yoko; Mazuka, Reiko

2011-01-01

344

Functional vascular smooth muscle-like cells derived from adult mouse uterine mesothelial cells.  

PubMed

In mammalian visceral organs, vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) originate from an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of embryonic mesothelial cells (MCs). The ability of adult MCs to recapitulate EMT and to acquire smooth muscle (SM) markers upon provasculogenic culture suggested they might retain embryonic vasculogenic differentiation potential. However, it remains unknown whether adult MCs-derived SM-like cells may acquire specific vascular SM lineage markers and the functionality of differentiated contractile VSMCs. Here, we describe how a gentle trypsinization of adult mouse uterine cords could selectively detach their outermost uterine mesothelial layer cells. As other MCs; uterine MCs (UtMCs) uniformly expressed the epithelial markers ?-catenin, ZO-1, E-cadherin, CD54, CD29, and CK18. When cultured in a modified SM differentiation media (SMDM) UtMCs initiated a loss of epithelial characteristics and gained markers expression of EMT (Twist, Snail, and Slug), stem and progenitor (Nanog, Sox2, C-kit, Gata-4, Isl-1, and nestin), SM (?-SMA, calponin, caldesmon, SM22?, desmin, SM-MHC, and smoothelin-B) and cardiac (BMP2, BMP4, ACTC1, sACTN, cTnI, cTnT, ANF, Cx43, and MLC2a). UtMCs repeatedly subcultured in SMDM acquired differentiated VSM-like characteristics and expressed smoothelin-B in the typical stress-fiber pattern expression of contractile VSMCs. Relevantly, UtMCs-derived VSM-like cells could generate "mechanical force" to compact collagen lattices and displayed in diverse degree voltage (K(+)) and receptor (endothelin-1, oxytocin, norepinephrine, carbachol and vasopressin)-induced [Ca(2+)](i) rises and contraction. Thus, we show for the first time that UtMCs could recapitulate in vitro differentiative events of early cardiovascular differentiation and transdifferentiate in cells exhibiting molecular and functional characteristics of VSMCs. PMID:23405120

Lachaud, Christian Claude; Pezzolla, Daniela; Domínguez-Rodríguez, Alejandro; Smani, Tarik; Soria, Bernat; Hmadcha, Abdelkrim

2013-01-01

345

Association between Cytomegalovirus Antibody Levels and Cognitive Functioning in Non-Elderly Adults  

PubMed Central

Background Elevated levels of antibodies to Cytomegalovirus (CMV) have been associated with cognitive impairment, but the quantitative relationship between CMV antibody levels and domains of cognitive functioning in younger adults has not been established. Methods We measured IgG class antibodies to Cytomegalovirus in 521 individuals, mean age 32.8 years. Participants were selected for the absence of psychiatric disorder and of a serious medical condition that could affect brain functioning. Cognitive functioning was measured with the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS), the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Trail Making Test part A, and the WAIS III Letter Number Sequencing subtest. Linear regression analyses were used to measure the quantitative association between cognitive scores and Cytomegalovirus IgG antibody level. Logistic regression analyses were used to measure the odds of low cognitive scores and elevated antibody levels defined as an antibody level >?=?50th, 75th, and 90th percentile of the group. Results Higher levels of CMV antibodies were associated with lower performance on RBANS Total (coefficient ?1.03, p<.0002), Delayed Memory (coefficient ?0.94, p<.001), Visuospatial/Constructional (coefficient ?1.77, p<5×10?7), and Letter Number Sequencing (coefficient ?0.15, p<.03). There was an incremental relationship between the level of CMV antibody elevation and the odds of a low RBANS Total score. The odds of a low total cognitive score were 1.63 (95th % CI 1.01, 2.64; p<.045), 2.22 (95th % CI 1.33, 3.70; p<.002), and 2.46 (95th % CI 1.24, 4.86; p<.010) with a CMV antibody level greater than or equal to the 50th, 75th, and 90th percentile respectively. Conclusions Higher levels of Cytomegalovirus antibodies are associated with lower levels of cognitive functioning in non-elderly adults. Methods for the prevention and treatment of CMV infection should be evaluated to determine if they result in an improvement in cognitive functioning in otherwise healthy adults. PMID:24846058

Dickerson, Faith; Stallings, Cassie; Origoni, Andrea; Katsafanas, Emily; Schweinfurth, Lucy A. B.; Savage, Christina L. G.; Yolken, Robert

2014-01-01

346

Nursing Strategies for Promoting and Maintaining Function among Community-Living Older Adults: The CAPABLE Intervention  

PubMed Central

Although many programs aim to help older adults age in place, few target both the home environment and individual physical function. We present an inter-professional intervention called CAPABLE, Community Aging in Place: Advancing Better Living for Elders. CAPABLE’s innovative approach incorporates a nurse, occupational therapist (OT) and handyman to address both individual and environmental factors that contribute to disability. The nurse component of CAPABLE addresses key barriers to functional independence such as pain, depression, strength and balance, medication management and poor communication with the primary care provider. This article focuses primarily on the nursing aspect of the intervention and how it inter-relates with the content and processes of the OT and handyman. PMID:22651978

Pho, Anthony T.; Tanner, Elizabeth K.; Roth, Jill; Greeley, Meghan E.; Dorsey, Carmalyn D.; Szanton, Sarah L.

2012-01-01

347

Feeding Mechanisms of Adult Lepidoptera: Structure, Function, and Evolution of the Mouthparts  

PubMed Central

The form and function of the mouthparts in adult Lepidoptera and their feeding behavior are reviewed from evolutionary and ecological points of view. The formation of the suctorial proboscis encompasses a fluid-tight food tube, special linking structures, modified sensory equipment, and novel intrinsic musculature. The evolution of these functionally important traits can be reconstructed within the Lepidoptera. The proboscis movements are explained by a hydraulic mechanism for uncoiling, whereas recoiling is governed by the intrinsic proboscis musculature and the cuticular elasticity. Fluid uptake is accomplished by the action of the cranial sucking pump, which enables uptake of a wide range of fluid quantities from different food sources. Nectar-feeding species exhibit stereotypical proboscis movements during flower handling. Behavioral modifications and derived proboscis morphology are often associated with specialized feeding preferences or an obligatory switch to alternative food sources. PMID:19961330

Krenn, Harald W.

2014-01-01

348

Multipotent adult progenitor cells sustain function of ischemic limbs in mice  

PubMed Central

Despite progress in cardiovascular research, a cure for peripheral vascular disease has not been found. We compared the vascularization and tissue regeneration potential of murine and human undifferentiated multipotent adult progenitor cells (mMAPC-U and hMAPC-U), murine MAPC-derived vascular progenitors (mMAPC-VP), and unselected murine BM cells (mBMCs) in mice with moderate limb ischemia, reminiscent of intermittent claudication in human patients. mMAPC-U durably restored blood flow and muscle function and stimulated muscle regeneration, by direct and trophic contribution to vascular and skeletal muscle growth. This was in contrast to mBMCs and mMAPC-VP, which did not affect muscle regeneration and provided only limited and transient improvement. Moreover, mBMCs participated in a sustained inflammatory response in the lower limb, associated with progressive deterioration in muscle function. Importantly, mMAPC-U and hMAPC-U also remedied vascular and muscular deficiency in severe limb ischemia, representative of critical limb ischemia in humans. Thus, unlike BMCs or vascular-committed progenitors, undifferentiated multipotent adult progenitor cells offer the potential to durably repair ischemic damage in peripheral vascular disease patients. PMID:18172550

Aranguren, Xabier L.; McCue, Jonathan D.; Hendrickx, Benoit; Zhu, Xiao-Hong; Du, Fei; Chen, Eleanor; Pelacho, Beatriz; Penuelas, Ivan; Abizanda, Gloria; Uriz, Maialen; Frommer, Sarah A.; Ross, Jeffrey J.; Schroeder, Betsy A.; Seaborn, Meredith S.; Adney, Joshua R.; Hagenbrock, Julianna; Harris, Nathan H.; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Xiaoliang; Nelson-Holte, Molly H.; Jiang, Yuehua; Billiau, An D.; Chen, Wei; Prosper, Felipe; Verfaillie, Catherine M.; Luttun, Aernout

2008-01-01

349

An active lifestyle is associated with better neurocognitive functioning in adults living with HIV infection.  

PubMed

Studies of healthy adults show that engagement in physical, social, and mental activities is associated with better cognitive outcomes, suggesting that these activities may increase cognitive reserve. Given the prevalence and real-world impact of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), the present study examined the association between neurocognitive outcomes and self-reported proxies for physical exercise, social activity, and mental activity (employment was used as a proxy for mental activity) among 139 HIV-infected adults (M age = 48.7; 48 % age 50+). Participants completed a neuromedical and neuropsychological battery and were classified based on the number of self-reported active lifestyle factors (ALFs; 0 to 3), including physical exercise, social activity, and current employment. The association between ALFs and both demographically adjusted average neuropsychological T-scores and HAND diagnoses was examined. Results revealed that an increased number of ALFs were associated with better global neurocognitive performance as well as a lower prevalence of HAND. These cross-sectional findings suggest that an active engagement in life may bolster neurocognitive functioning, perhaps by enhancing cognitive and/or brain reserve. However, an alternative explanation might be that persons with better neurocognitive functioning are more inclined and able to engage in these life activities. Future studies should utilize neuroimaging methodology, longitudinal data, and interventional approaches to establish cause-effect relationships and uncover the neural mechanisms whereby physical, social, and mental stimulation may protect neurocognition via cognitive reserve among those living with HIV. PMID:24554483

Fazeli, Pariya L; Woods, Steven Paul; Heaton, Robert K; Umlauf, Anya; Gouaux, Ben; Rosario, Debra; Moore, Raeanne C; Grant, Igor; Moore, David J

2014-06-01

350

Dysbindin-1 gene contributes differentially to early- and adult-onset forms of functional psychosis.  

PubMed

Dysbindin-1 is a relatively ubiquitous protein in the brain which is involved in the modulation of synaptic homeostasis. The dysbindin-1 gene (DTNBP1) has been associated with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder diagnoses. However, its contribution to the severity of the clinical and neurocognitive expression of these disorders remains controversial. We aimed to explore the association between DTNBP1 and the phenotypes which are more directly linked with the underlying biology, such as age at onset and neurocognitive impairment. The present family sample comprised 894 Caucasian individuals: 268 patients affected by functional psychosis [58% with illness onset before 18 years, mean age at onset (SD): 14.71 (2.10)], 483 parents and 143 siblings. Ten DTNBP1 single nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped in all individuals and their transmission disequilibrium was tested in relation to: (i) the risk for psychosis; (ii) patients' age at onset; and (iii) familial neurocognitive performance (including IQ estimation and executive functioning). In early-onset families a 5-marker haplotype encompassing exons 2-4 and the surrounding introns was significantly over-transmitted to cases, while in adult-onset families two haplotypes corresponding to the region between introns 4 and 7 were over-transmitted to cases. Estimated IQ was associated with the rs760666 marker in the whole sample, whereas a significant association between executive functioning and the rs2619522 marker appeared in early-onset families. Our findings confirm the role of the dysbindin-1 gene in the risk for functional psychosis and show a differential haplotypic risk pattern in families with early as opposed to adult onset in the affected offspring. PMID:21305691

Fatjó-Vilas, Mar; Papiol, Sergi; Estrada, Gemma; Bombín, Igor; Peralta, Victor; Rosa, Araceli; Parellada, Mara; Miret, Salvador; Martín, María; Lázaro, Luisa; Campanera, Sílvia; Muñoz, Ma José; Lera-Miguel, Sara; Arias, Bárbara; Navarro, Ma Eulalia; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; Cuesta, Manuel J; Arango, Celso; Fañanás, Lourdes

2011-04-01

351

PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND RAPID DECLINE IN KIDNEY FUNCTION AMONG OLDER ADULTS  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Physical activity promotes diverse metabolic benefits that may moderate the long-term risk of progressive kidney dysfunction. OBJECTIVE To test the hypothesis that greater physical activity is associated with a lower risk of rapid kidney function decline among a general population of older adults. DESIGN Prospective cohort study of community-dwelling older men and women. SETTING Community-based sample in 4 U.S. sites recruited from Medicare eligibility files. PARTICIPANTS A total of 5888 men and women aged 65 years or older participating in the Cardiovascular Health Study. Participants who did not complete at least two measurements of kidney function, those who were unable to complete basic household chores, and those with missing physical activity data were excluded, leaving 4011 participants for analysis. MAIN EXPOSURE MEASURE Physical activity score calculated by summation of leisure-time activity (ordinal score of 1–5 for quintiles of 105, 480, 1012.5, and 2089 kilocalories per week) and walking pace (ordinal score of 1–3 for categories of less than 2, 2–3, and greater than 3 miles per hour). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE Rapid kidney function decline, defined by the loss of >3.0 mL/min per 1.73 m2 per year in the estimated glomerular filtration rate, calculated using longitudinal serum measurements of cystatin C. RESULTS There were 958 participants (23.9%) with a rapid decline in kidney function, (4.1 events per 100 person-years). The estimated risk of rapid kidney function decline was 16% in the highest physical activity group and 30% in the lowest physical activity group. After full adjustment for demographics, clinical, and subclinical disease characteristics, the two highest physical activity groups were associated with a 28% lower (95% CI: 21% to 41% lower) risk of rapid kidney function decline, compared to the two lowest physical activity groups. Greater kilocalories of leisure time physical activity, walking pace, and exercise intensity were each also associated with a lower incidence of rapid kidney function decline. CONCLUSION Greater physical activity is associated with a lower risk of rapid kidney function decline among older adults. PMID:20008696

Robinson-Cohen, Cassianne; Katz, Ronit; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Dalrymple, Lorien S; de Boer, Ian; Sarnak, Mark; Shlipak, Mike; Siscovick, David; Kestenbaum, Bryan

2010-01-01

352

Physical Activity and Brain Function in Older Adults at Increased Risk for Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

Leisure-time physical activity (PA) and exercise training are known to help maintain cognitive function in healthy older adults. However, relatively little is known about the effects of PA on cognitive function or brain function in those at increased risk for Alzheimer’s disease through the presence of the apolipoproteinE epsilon4 (APOE-?4) allele, diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), or the presence of metabolic disease. Here, we examine the question of whether PA and exercise interventions may differentially impact cognitive trajectory, clinical outcomes, and brain structure and function among individuals at the greatest risk for AD. The literature suggests that the protective effects of PA on risk for future dementia appear to be larger in those at increased genetic risk for AD. Exercise training is also effective at helping to promote stable cognitive function in MCI patients, and greater cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with greater brain volume in early-stage AD patients. In APOE-?4 allele carriers compared to non-carriers, greater levels of PA may be more effective in reducing amyloid burden and are associated with greater activation of semantic memory-related neural circuits. A greater research emphasis should be placed on randomized clinical trials for exercise, with clinical, behavioral, and neuroimaging outcomes in people at increased risk for AD. PMID:24961307

Smith, J. Carson; Nielson, Kristy A.; Woodard, John L.; Seidenberg, Michael; Rao, Stephen M.

2013-01-01

353

Physical activity and brain function in older adults at increased risk for Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Leisure-time physical activity (PA) and exercise training are known to help maintain cognitive function in healthy older adults. However, relatively little is known about the effects of PA on cognitive function or brain function in those at increased risk for Alzheimer's disease through the presence of the apolipoproteinE epsilon4 (APOE-?4) allele, diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), or the presence of metabolic disease. Here, we examine the question of whether PA and exercise interventions may differentially impact cognitive trajectory, clinical outcomes, and brain structure and function among individuals at the greatest risk for AD. The literature suggests that the protective effects of PA on risk for future dementia appear to be larger in those at increased genetic risk for AD. Exercise training is also effective at helping to promote stable cognitive function in MCI patients, and greater cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with greater brain volume in early-stage AD patients. In APOE-?4 allele carriers compared to non-carriers, greater levels of PA may be more effective in reducing amyloid burden and are associated with greater activation of semantic memory-related neural circuits. A greater research emphasis should be placed on randomized clinical trials for exercise, with clinical, behavioral, and neuroimaging outcomes in people at increased risk for AD. PMID:24961307

Smith, J Carson; Nielson, Kristy A; Woodard, John L; Seidenberg, Michael; Rao, Stephen M

2013-01-01

354

Functional network connectivity underlying food processing: disturbed salience and visual processing in overweight and obese adults.  

PubMed

In order to adequately explore the neurobiological basis of eating behavior of humans and their changes with body weight, interactions between brain areas or networks need to be investigated. In the current functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we examined the modulating effects of stimulus category (food vs. nonfood), caloric content of food, and body weight on the time course and functional connectivity of 5 brain networks by means of independent component analysis in healthy lean and overweight/obese adults. These functional networks included motor sensory, default-mode, extrastriate visual, temporal visual association, and salience networks. We found an extensive modulation elicited by food stimuli in the 2 visual and salience networks, with a dissociable pattern in the time course and functional connectivity between lean and overweight/obese subjects. Specifically, only in lean subjects, the temporal visual association network was modulated by the stimulus category and the salience network by caloric content, whereas overweight and obese subjects showed a generalized augmented response in the salience network. Furthermore, overweight/obese subjects showed changes in functional connectivity in networks important for object recognition, motivational salience, and executive control. These alterations could potentially lead to top-down deficiencies driving the overconsumption of food in the obese population. PMID:22586138

Kullmann, Stephanie; Pape, Anna-Antonia; Heni, Martin; Ketterer, Caroline; Schick, Fritz; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Fritsche, Andreas; Preissl, Hubert; Veit, Ralf

2013-05-01

355

A Controlled Study of Autonomic Nervous System Function in Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Treated with Stimulant Medications: Results of a Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Despite the fact that autonomic nervous system (ANS) abnormalities are commonly found in adults and predict increased cardiovascular mortality, no studies have assessed ANS function in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) taking stimulants. Method: This pilot study evaluated ANS function in adults with ADHD in…

Schubiner, Howard; Hassunizadeh, Bischan; Kaczynski, Richard

2006-01-01

356

Age-related changes in functional network connectivity associated with high levels of verbal fluency performance.  

PubMed

The relative preservation of receptive language abilities in older adults has been associated with adaptive changes in cerebral activation patterns, which have been suggested to be task-load dependent. However, the effects of aging and task demands on the functional integration of neural networks contributing to speech production abilities remain largely unexplored. In the present functional neuroimaging study, data-driven spatial independent component analysis and hierarchical measures of integration were used to explore age-related changes in functional connectivity among cortical areas contributing to semantic, orthographic, and automated word fluency tasks in healthy young and older adults, as well as to assess the effect of age and task demands on the functional integration of a verbal fluency network. The results showed that the functional integration of speech production networks decreases with age, while at the same time this has a marginal effect on behavioral outcomes in high-performing older adults. Moreover, a significant task demand/age interaction was found in functional connectivity within the anterior and posterior subnetworks of the verbal fluency network. These results suggest that local changes in functional integration among cortical areas supporting lexical speech production are modulated by age and task demands. PMID:25014614

Marsolais, Yannick; Perlbarg, Vincent; Benali, Habib; Joanette, Yves

2014-09-01

357

Functions of Reminiscence in Later Life as Viewed by Young and Old Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The views of 76 young adults on their own reminiscences and those of older persons were compared with the self-reports of 83 older adults. Older adults used reminiscence to transmit life experiences. The beliefs of younger adults about elders' use of reminiscence reflect the prevalence of ageist stereotypes. (Contains 22 references.) (JOW)

Cappeliez, Philippe; Lavallee, Rosanne

2001-01-01

358

Assessment of testicular function after acute and chronic irradiation: Further evidence for an influence of late spermatids on Sertoli cell function in the adult rat  

SciTech Connect

To study cell to cell communications within the testis of adult Sprague-Dawley rats, we used acute whole body neutron plus gamma-irradiation over 7-121 days postirradiation and chronic whole body gamma-irradiation over 14-84 days of irradiation and 7-86 days postirradiation. Neither irradiation protocol had an effect on the body weight of the animals. Neutron plus gamma-rays induced dramatic damages to spermatogonia, preleptotene spermatocytes, spermatozoa, and, to a lesser extent, pachytene spermatocytes. In contrast, gamma-rays induced a selective destruction of spermatogonia. Subsequently, in both experiments a maturation-depletion process led to a marked decrease in all germ cell types. A complete or near complete recovery of the different germ cell types and spermatozoa took place during the two postirradiation periods. Under both irradiation protocols Sertoli cells number was unchanged. Androgen-binding protein and FSH levels were normal in spite of the disappearance of most germ cells from spermatogonia to early spermatids. However, the decline of androgen-binding protein as well as the rise of FSH and their subsequent recovery were highly correlated to the number of late spermatids and spermatozoa. Moreover, it appeared that spermatocytes may also interfere with the production of inhibin (Exp B). With neither irradiation was Leydig cell function altered, except in Exp B in which elevated LH levels were temporarily observed. Correlation analysis suggested a relationship between preleptotene spermatocytes and Leydig cell function. In conclusion, this study establishes that chronic gamma-irradiation is particularly useful in the study of intratesticular paracrine regulation in vivo and provides further support to the concept that late spermatids play a major role in controlling some aspects of Sertoli cell function in the adult rat.

Pineau, C.; Velez de la Calle, J.F.; Pinon-Lataillade, G.; Jegou, B.

1989-06-01

359

Use of the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) for Children with High Functioning Autism or Asperger Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors of the "Childhood Autism Rating Scale" (CARS) state in the manual that the best cutoff score for distinguishing low functioning autism (LFA) from intellectual disability is 30 for children and 28 for adolescents and adults. This study determined that a cutoff score of 25.5 was most accurate in differentiating between high functioning

Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Murray, Michael J.; Morrow, Jill D.; Yurich, Kirsten K. L.; Cothren, Shiyoko; Purichia, Heather; Mahr, Fauzia; Bouder, James N.; Petersen, Christopher

2012-01-01

360

Functional impairment in adolescents and young adults with emerging mood disorders.  

PubMed

Background Between 30 and 60% of adults with unipolar or bipolar disorders exhibit impairments across multiple domains. However, little is known about impaired functioning in youth with mood disorders. Aims To examine the prevalence of objective, subjective and observer-rated disability in a large, representative sample of young people with a primary mood disorder. Method Individuals aged 16-25 years presenting to youth mental health services for the first time with a primary mood disorder participated in a systematic diagnostic and clinical assessment. Impairment was assessed using objective (unemployment or disability payments), observer- (Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale; SOFAS) and self-rated measures (role functioning according to the Brief Disability Questionnaire). Results Of 1241 participants (83% unipolar; 56% female), at least 30% were functionally impaired on the objective, self-rated and/or observer-rated measures, with 16% impaired according to all three criteria. Even when current distress levels were taken into account, daily use of cannabis and/or nicotine were significantly associated with impairment, with odds ratios (OR) ranging from about 1.5 to 3.0. Comorbid anxiety disorders were related to lower SOFAS scores (OR = 2-5). Conclusions Levels of disability were significant, even in those presenting for mental healthcare for the first time. Functional impairment did not differ between unipolar and bipolar cases, but some evidence suggested that females with bipolar disorder were particularly disabled. The prevalence of comorbid disorders (50%) and polysubstance use (28%) and their association with disability indicate that more meaningful indicators of mood episode outcomes should focus on functional rather than symptom-specific measures. The association between functioning and nicotine use requires further exploration. PMID:25213156

Scott, Jan; Scott, Elizabeth M; Hermens, Daniel F; Naismith, Sharon L; Guastella, Adam J; White, Django; Whitwell, Bradley; Lagopoulos, Jim; Hickie, Ian B

2014-11-01

361

Serotonergic, noradrenergic and dopaminergic markers are related to cognitive function in adults with 22q11 deletion syndrome.  

PubMed

Patients with 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) have a high prevalence of psychiatric disorders and intellectual disability. At present the neurobiology underlying psychopathology in 22q11DS is still not understood. In the present study, we analyzed urinary serotonergic, dopaminergic and noradrenergic markers in 67 adults with 22q11DS. Levels of serotonin and the catecholamine metabolite homovanillic acid were significantly lower in the 22q11DS subjects compared to healthy controls. Within the 22q11DS group, levels of dopamine, homovanillic acid, norepinephrine, vanillyl mandelic acid and serotonin positively correlated with Full Scale Intelligence Quotient scores. Our results suggest that cognitive deficits in 22q11DS are associated with abnormal function of several neurotransmitters. PMID:24713114

Evers, Laurens J M; Curfs, Leopold M G; Bakker, Jaap A; Boot, Erik; da Silva Alves, Fabiana; Abeling, Nico; Bierau, Jörgen; Drukker, Marjan; van Amelsvoort, Therese A M J

2014-08-01

362

Relationship Between Stroop Performance and Resting State Functional Connectivity in Cognitively Normal Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Objective Early biomarkers of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are needed for developing therapeutic interventions. Measures of attentional control in Stroop-type tasks discriminate healthy aging from early stage AD (Hutchison et al., 2010) and predict future development of AD (Balota et al., 2010) in cognitively normal individuals. Disruption in resting state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fcMRI) has been reported in AD (Greicius et al., 2004), and in healthy controls at risk for AD (Sheline et al, 2010a). We explored the relationship among Stroop performance, rs-fcMRI, and CSF A?42 levels in cognitively normal older adults. Methods A computerized Stroop task (along with standard neuropsychological measures), rs-fcMRI, and CSF were obtained in 237 cognitively normal older adults. We compared the relationship between Stroop performance, including measures from reaction distributional analyses, and composite scores from four resting state networks (RSNs) [default mode (DMN), salience (SAL), dorsal attention (DAN), and sensory motor (SMN)], and the modulatory influence of CSF A?42 levels. Results A larger Stroop effect in errors was associated with reduced rs-fcMRI within the DMN and SAL. Reaction time distributional analyses indicated the slow tail of the reaction time distribution was related to reduced rs-fcMRI functional connectivity within the SAL. Standard psychometric measures were not related to RSN composite scores. A relationship between Stroop performance and DMN (but not SAL) functional connectivity was stronger in CSF A?42 positive individuals. Conclusions A link exists between RSN composite scores and specific attentional performance measures. Both measures may be sensitive biomarkers for AD. PMID:24040929

Snyder, Abraham Z.; Rich, Patrick; Benzinger, Tammie L.; Fagan, Anne M.; Holtzman, David M.; Morris, John C.; Ances, Beau M.

2013-01-01

363

Decreased Functional Status as a Risk Factor for Severe Clostridium difficile Infection among Hospitalized Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Background Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized older adults, who are among the patients at highest risk of severe infection. The role of impaired functional status as a risk factor for severe CDI remains poorly understood. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting The University of Michigan Health System, a 930-bed tertiary care hospital. Participants Hospitalized patients with CDI, age ?50 years. Measurements Included demographics; clinical characteristics; and a composite outcome, the CDI severity score: fever [T >38°C]; acute organ dysfunction; white blood cell count >15 000/mm3; lack of response to therapy; intensive care unit admission, need for colectomy, or death due to CDI. Pre-admission functional status was assessed by ability to perform activities of daily living (ADLs); patients were assigned to an ADL Class (independent, some assistance, or full assistance). Secondary outcomes included length of stay; 90-day mortality and readmission; and CDI recurrence. Results We identified 90 hospitalized patients with CDI (mean age 66.6 [± SD 10.2]). Fifty-eight patients (64.4%) had severe CDI as measured by a positive severity score. At baseline, 25 (27.8%) required assistance with ADLs. On univariate analysis, an ADL Class of “full assistance” was associated with severity score (OR 7, CI 95 1.83–26.79, P = .004). In a multivariable model which included age, ADL Class, congestive heart failure, diabetes mellitus, depression, weighted Charlson-Deyo comorbidity score, immunosuppression, prior CDI, and PPI use, an ADL Class of “full assistance” retained its association with severity score (OR 8.1, CI 95 1.24–52.95, P = .029). ADL Class was not associated with secondary outcomes. Conclusion Among this cohort of hospitalized older adults, impaired functional status was an independent risk factor for severe CDI. PMID:24083842

Rao, Krishna; Micic, Dejan; Chenoweth, Elizabeth; Deng, Lili; Galecki, Andrzej T.; Ring, Cathrin; Young, Vincent B.; Aronoff, David M.; Malani, Preeti N.

2013-01-01

364

Education and physical activity mediate the relationship between ethnicity and cognitive function in late middle-aged adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Minority status has been implicated as a risk factor for disparate scores on cognitive function tests in older adults. Research on ethnicity and cognitive function has yielded socioeconomic status, particularly education, as a primary reason for the discrepancy. Other factors, such as physical activity may provide insight into the relationship. Despite this knowledge, few studies have thoroughly examined the

Meredith C. Masel; Mukaila Raji; M. Kristen Peek

2010-01-01

365

Published models and local data can bridge the gap between reference values of lung function for children and adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Published models and local data can bridge the gap between reference values of lung function for children and adults. K. Nysom, C.S. Ulrik, B. Hesse, A. Dirksen. ?ERS Journals Ltd 1997. ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to create reference equations for pul- monary function tests (PFTs) that span the age range from childhood to young adulthood. PFT results

K. Nysom; C. S. Ulrik; B. Hesse; A. Dirksen

1997-01-01

366

Exercise mode and executive function in older adults: an ERP study of task-switching.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between exercise mode and executive function and its effect on behavior and neuroelectric activity. Forty-eight older adults were classified into open-skill, closed-skill, and irregular exercise groups based on their experience of exercise participation. Executive function was measured via a task-switching paradigm, in which the behavioral indices and event-related potentials elicited by task-switching were assessed. The results revealed that the exercise groups, regardless of the exercise mode, exhibited faster reaction times in both global and local switches than the irregular exercise group, regardless of the within-task conditions. Similarly, larger P3 amplitudes were observed in both exercise groups compared to the irregular exercise group. Moreover, additional facilitation effects of open-skill exercises on global switch costs were observed, whereas no differences in local switch costs were found among the three groups. The results replicate previous studies that have reported generally improved executive function after participation in exercises; additionally, they extend the current knowledge by indicating that these cognitive improvements in specific aspects of executive function could also be obtained from open-skill exercises. PMID:23994460

Dai, Chih-Ta; Chang, Yu-Kai; Huang, Chung-Ju; Hung, Tsung-Min

2013-11-01

367

Association of the ACTN3 Genotype and Physical Functioning With Age in Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the association of the alpha-actinin-3 (ACTN3) R577X polymorphism on muscle function and physical performance in older adults. Methods We measured knee extensor torque, midthigh muscle cross-sectional area, muscle quality, short physical performance battery score, and 400-meter walk time at baseline and after 5 years in white older adults aged 70–79 years in the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study cohort (n = 1367). Incident persistent lower extremity limitation (PLL) over 5 years was additionally assessed. We also examined white men in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study, a longitudinal, observational cohort (n = 1152) of men 65 years old or older as a validation cohort for certain phenotypes. Results There were no significant differences between genotype groups in men or women for adjusted baseline phenotypes. Male X-homozygotes had a significantly greater adjusted 5-year increase in their 400-meter walk time compared to R-homozygotes and heterozygotes (p = .03). In women, X-homozygotes had a ~35% greater risk of incident PLL compared to R-homozygotes (hazard ratio = 0.65, 95% confidence interval = 0.44–0.94). There were no other significant associations between any of the phenotypes and ACTN3 genotype with aging in either cohort. Conclusions The ACTN3 polymorphism may influence declines in certain measures of physical performance with aging in older white adults, based on longitudinal assessments. However, the influence of the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism does not appear to have a strong effect on skeletal muscle–related phenotypes based on the strength and consistency of the associations and lack of replication with regard to specific phenotypes. PMID:19038838

Delmonico, Matthew J.; Zmuda, Joseph M.; Taylor, Brent C.; Cauley, Jane A.; Harris, Tamara B.; Manini, Todd M.; Schwartz, Ann; Li, Rongling; Roth, Stephen M.; Hurley, Ben F.; Bauer, Douglas C.; Ferrell, Robert E.; Newman, Anne B.

2009-01-01

368

Neurocognitive functioning in a Romanian cohort of young adults with parenterally-acquired HIV-infection during childhood.  

PubMed

The Romanian cohort can provide valuable information about the effect of chronic HIV-infection and exposure to combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) on the developing brain, based on its unique characteristics: young adults infected parenterally with HIV clade F in the late 1980s and exposed to cART for a decade. We conducted a prospective study using a neuropsychological test battery validated in other international HIV cohorts, in order to evaluate the rate and severity of neurocognitive impairment in a group of young Romanian adults. The 49 HIV-infected (HIV+) participants and the 20 HIV negative (HIV-) controls were similar for age and gender, although the HIV- group tended to be more educated. We found higher cognitive impairment prevalence in the HIV+ group (59.1 %) versus the HIV- group (10 %), and the impairment rate remained significantly higher even when the groups were matched based on the educational level (38.7 % for the HIV+ group vs. 10.0 % for the HIV- controls; p?=?0.025). The nadir CD4 count was <200 in 71.4 % of patients, but at the time of neurocognitive assessment, 89.5 % of patients had normal immunological status and 81.8 % undetectable HIV load. Among the HIV-impaired group, 26 % of the participants had syndromic impairment while the other 74 % had asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment. We found a high prevalence of neurocognitive dysfunction in the Romanian young adults growing-up with HIV. The greatest HIV-related cognitive deficits were in the domains of executive and motor functioning, consistent with a frontosubcortical pattern. PMID:25185868

Ene, Luminita; Franklin, Donald R; Burlacu, Ruxandra; Luca, Anca E; Blaglosov, Andreea G; Ellis, Ronald J; Alexander, Terry J; Umlauf, Anya; Grant, Igor; Duiculescu, Dan C; Achim, Cristian L; Marcotte, Thomas D

2014-10-01

369

Long-term follow-up of 246 adults with juvenile idiopathic arthritis: social function, relationships and sexual activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To examine social function, relationships and sexual activity in adults with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Patients and methods. Two hundred and forty-six adults identified with long-standing JIA had an average disease duration of 28.3 yr. Specific information was sought on marital status, offspring, age at first sexual encounter, and problems related to disease in sexual activity and pregnancy. Results.

J. C. Packham; M. A. Hall

2002-01-01

370

FUNCTIONAL VS. STRENGTH TRAINING IN ADULTS: SPECIFIC NEEDS DEFINE THE BEST INTERVENTION  

PubMed Central

Background/Purpose: Studies that have aimed to compare different strategies to improve functional capacity have produced controversial results. Furthermore, such studies have focused solely on dependent individuals. In contrast, the present study aimed to compare traditional training to functional training for independent individuals. The purpose of this study was to compare traditional training to functional training in healthy and independent middle?aged adults (40?60 years old) and elderly subjects (older than 60 years old). Methods: One hundred and one subjects (54.75 ± 8.84 years) were divided into two groups that each performed 24 sessions of a training protocol twice per week. The subjects were assessed using quantitative (Y?Balance Test) and qualitative methods (Functional Movement Screen™). The individuals were compared by observing changes between pretest and posttest according to their intervention group, sex and age. Results: When the entire sample was considered, the results showed that there were no differences in improvement between the training protocols. However, when specific groups were analyzed, functional training was less effective for women compared to men in the same group (Z=–2.598; p=0.009; effect size=0.43) and compared to women in the conventional group (Z=–2.704; p=0.007; effect size=0.41). Conclusions: There were no differences between the two protocols in their ability to improve functional capacity as measured by the two chosen outcome measures. However, each subject's condition before the intervention must be considered. Some individuals may require additional basic training or specific training. In the current study, the women may have needed to improve their basic capabilities before practicing more specific training protocols. Level of evidence: 2b. This is a pre? and post?intervention analysis using within?group and between?groups comparisons. PMID:23439782

Teixeira, Luis Antonio Cespedes; Franchini, Emerson; Takito, Monica Yuri

2013-01-01

371

Prolactin inhibition at mid-lactation influences adiposity and thyroid function in adult rats.  

PubMed

Maternal hypoprolactinemia at the end of lactation (a precocious weaning model) increases milk leptin transfer and results in overweight, leptin resistance, and secondary hypothyroidism at adulthood. We studied the effects of prolactin (PRL) inhibition during mid-lactation (a partial malnutrition model) on milk leptin transfer, leptinemia, body composition, and thyroid function. Lactating rats were treated with bromocryptine (BRO, 1 mg/twice daily) or saline on days 7, 8, and 9 of lactation. Offspring were sacrificed 10, 21, and 90 days after birth. After treatment, BRO-treated dams showed hypoprolactinemia and hyperleptinemia, and produced less milk with lower levels of lactose and higher milk triglycerides. Milk leptin levels were lower at weaning. Offspring of BRO-treated dams had lower body weight and length as well as less visceral fat during lactation and adulthood. Total fat was also lower at weaning and adult life, whereas total protein was higher at 90 days-old. BRO offspring presented lower serum T4 and TSH at 10 days-old and weaning, respectively. When adults, these rats exhibited hypoleptinemia, lower levels of thyroid hormones, and higher TSH. Early inhibition of PRL therefore leads to offspring malnutrition and affects subsequent growth. Also, inhibition of PRL during lactation predisposes offspring to hypothyroidism; however, when the inhibition occurs during late lactation, the hypothyroidism is secondary, whereas when it is restricted to mid-lactation, the thyroid hypofunction is primary. The programming effect of milk suppression thus depends on the developmental stage of offspring. PMID:20449792

Lisboa, P C; Pires, L; de Oliveira, E; Lima, N S; Bonomo, I T; Reis, A M; Passos, M C F; Moura, E G

2010-07-01

372

Fibronectin functional domains coupled to hyaluronan stimulate adult human dermal fibroblast responses critical for wound healing.  

PubMed

Fibronectin (FN) facilitates dermal fibroblast migration during normal wound healing. Proteolytic degradation of FN in chronic wounds hampers healing. Previously, three FN functional domains (FNfd) have been shown to be sufficient for optimal adult human dermal fibroblast migration. Here we report the development of an acellular hydrogel matrix comprised of the FNfds coupled to a hyaluronan (HA) backbone to stimulate wound repair. Employing Michael-type addition, the cysteine- tagged FNfds were first coupled to a homobifunctional PEG derivative. Thereafter, these PEG derivative FNfd solutions, containing bifunctional PEG-derivative crosslinker were coupled to thiol-modified HA (HA-DTPH) to obtain a crosslinked hydrogel matrix. When evaluated in vitro, these acellular hydrogels were completely cytocompatible. While spreading and proliferation of adult human dermal fibroblasts plateaued at higher FNfd bulk densities, their rapid and robust migration followed a typical bell-shaped response. When implanted in porcine cutaneous wounds, these acellular matrices, besides being completely biocompatible, induced rapid and en masse recruitment of stromal fibroblasts that was not observed with RGD-tethered or unmodified hydrogels. Such constructs might be of great benefit in clinical settings where rapid formation of new tissue is needed. PMID:16579693

Ghosh, Kaustabh; Ren, Xiang-Dong; Shu, Xiao Zheng; Prestwich, Glenn D; Clark, Richard A F

2006-03-01

373

Effects of rolipram on adult rat oligodendrocytes and functional recovery after contusive cervical spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

Traumatic human spinal cord injury (SCI) causes devastating and long-term hardships. These are due to the irreparable primary mechanical injury and secondary injury cascade. In particular, oligodendrocyte cell death, white matter axon damage, spared axon demyelination, and the ensuing dysfunction in action potential conduction lead to the initial deficits and impair functional recovery. For these reasons, and that oligodendrocyte and axon survival may be related, various neuroprotective strategies after spinal cord injury are being investigated. We previously demonstrated that oligodendrocytes in the adult rat epicenter ventrolateral funiculus (VLF) express 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) subtypes and that their death was attenuated up to 3 days after contusive cervical SCI when rolipram, a specific inhibitor of PDE4, was administered. Here, we report that (1) there are more oligodendrocyte somata in the adult rat epicenter VLF, (2) descending and ascending axonal conductivity in the VLF improves, and that (3) there are fewer hindlimb footfall errors during grid-walking at 5 weeks after contusive cervical SCI when rolipram is delivered for 2 weeks. This is the first demonstration of improved descending and ascending long-tract axonal conductivity across a SCI with this pharmacological approach. Since descending long-tract axonal conductivity did not return to normal, further evaluations of the pharmacokinetics and therapeutic window of rolipram as well as optimal combinations are necessary before consideration for neuroprotection in humans with SCI. PMID:19635528

Beaumont, E; Whitaker, C M; Burke, D A; Hetman, M; Onifer, S M

2009-11-10

374

Mental Health Services for Individuals with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder  

PubMed Central

Adolescents and adults with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who do not have an intellectual impairment or disability (ID), described here as individuals with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD), represent a complex and underserved psychiatric population. While there is an emerging literature on the mental health needs of children with ASD with normal intelligence, we know less about these issues in adults. Of the few studies of adolescents and adults with HFASD completed to date, findings suggest that they face a multitude of cooccurring psychiatric (e.g., anxiety, depression), psychosocial, and functional issues, all of which occur in addition to their ASD symptomatology. Despite this, traditional mental health services and supports are falling short of meeting the needs of these adults. This review highlights the service needs and the corresponding gaps in care for this population. It also provides an overview of the literature on psychiatric risk factors, identifies areas requiring further study, and makes recommendations for how existing mental health services could include adults with HFASD. PMID:25276425

Lake, Johanna K.

2014-01-01

375

Total and High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Adults with Mental Retardation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study evaluated the total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein cholesterol of 40 adults (mean age 37.5 years) with mental retardation residing at an intermediate care facility. Results indicated that 59 percent of the males and 68 percent of the females were at moderate to high risk for coronary heart disease. (DB)

Rimmer, James H.; Kelly, Luke E.

1990-01-01

376

A structural equation model relating physical function, pain, impaired mobility (IM), and falls in older adults.  

PubMed

The current study used a structural equation model to investigate the interrelationships among physical function, pain, IM, and falls in 511 American older adults. The model included 11 measurement variables (tandem stance, single leg stance, 360° turn, chair stand, arm curl, sit and reach, back scratch, normative score of 6-min walk or 2-min step, timed up and go, pain, and fall) and four latent variables (balance, strength, flexibility, and IM). The final model with the combined sample demonstrated good fit with the participant data (?(2)(31)=30.0, N=499, p=0.52; Goodness of Fit Index (GFI)=0.99). Balance had a significant and the largest effect on IM (standardized regression weights=-1.05, p<0.001). Strength, endurance, flexibility, and pain had small effects on IM (standardized regression weights<0.2). The findings suggest that balance and mobility testing should be a priority in fall screening and prevention programs. PMID:22766209

Dai, Boyi; Ware, William B; Giuliani, Carol A

2012-01-01

377

Columbus Unified High School: Every Adult Advocates, Every Student Graduates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article features Columbus Unified High School, a school that takes pride in knowing that each student will graduate prepared for his or her future. Although poverty (45%) and unemployment (25%) are widespread in this rural Kansas community, the community members are fierce in their loyalty to the school. Last year, 97.8% of the four-year…

Principal Leadership, 2011

2011-01-01

378

Living longer with adult high-grade glioma:setting a research agenda for patients and their caregivers.  

PubMed

The long-term survival of patients with adult high-grade glioma (HGG) remains poor, but for those who do live longer functional status and neurocognitive ability may be influenced by residual or recurrent tumour, or treatment-related complications. The aim of this review was to examine the current literature regarding the quality of life and experience of patients living longer with adult HGG and their caregivers, with a view to understanding the burden of treatment on patient abilities and deficits over time. Medline, PsychINFO and CINAHL databases were searched for the core concept of HGG in combination with an aspect of quality of long-term survival. Key findings of the 12 included studies were identified and synthesised thematically. There is a paucity of dedicated studies which have investigated the experiences of this cohort. The strength of existing literature is limited by the systematic exclusion of the poorest functioning patients and the under-representation of caregiver perspectives. Discrepancies in how patients view their quality of life were highlighted, despite consistent findings of significant physical and functional impairment. This review confirmed the presence of important differences between patient and caregiver views regarding patient abilities following treatment. Caregiver burden was found to be high, due to multiple dynamic and relentless stressors. The true experience of patients living longer with adult HGG and their caregivers remains unclear, particularly for patients with poorer neurocognitive and functional outcomes. Further research is required to clarify and replicate findings, explore discrepancies between patient and caregiver views, and to specifically investigate how caregiver needs and experiences may evolve over time. PMID:24980038

Russell, Bethany; Collins, Anna; Dally, Michael; Dowling, Anthony; Gold, Michelle; Murphy, Michael; Philip, Jennifer

2014-10-01

379

Evaluation of left ventricular systolic function in young adults with mitral valve prolapse  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate left ventricular function in young adults with mitral valve prolapse (MVP) without significant mitral regurgitation using two-dimensional strain imaging. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 58 asymptomatic young subjects (mean [± SD] age 19.7±1.6 years; 72% male) with MVP were compared with 60 sex- and age-matched healthy subjects. MVP was diagnosed by billowing one or both mitral leaflets >2 mm above the mitral annulus in the long-axis parasternal view. Longitudinal, radial and circumferential strain and strain rate were determined using speckle tracking with a grey-scale frame rate of 50 fps to 85 fps. There were no significant differences in the global systolic left ventricular function of the subjects with MVP compared with the control group. In the MVP group, most of the global myocardial systolic deformation indexes were not reduced. Only the global circumferential strain showed a decrease in the prolapse subjects. Regional, longitudinal, circumferential and radial strain and strain rate were decreased only in septal segments. A decrease in the rotation of the same septal segments at the basal level was also observed. CONCLUSION: Regional septal myocardial deformation indexes decrease in subjects with MVP. These changes may be the first sign indicating the deterioration of left ventricular systolic function as well as the existence of primary cardiomyopathy in asymptomatic young subjects with MVP. PMID:23592928

Malev, Eduard; Zemtsovsky, Eduard; Pshepiy, Asiyet; Timofeev, Eugeny; Reeva, Svetlana; Prokudina, Maria

2012-01-01

380

Human Adult Dental Pulp Stem Cells Enhance Poststroke Functional Recovery Through Non-Neural Replacement Mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Human adult dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), derived from third molar teeth, are multipotent and have the capacity to differentiate into neurons under inductive conditions both in vitro and following transplantation into the avian embryo. In this study, we demonstrate that the intracerebral transplantation of human DPSCs 24 hours following focal cerebral ischemia in a rodent model resulted in significant improvement in forelimb sensorimotor function at 4 weeks post-treatment. At this time, 2.3 ± 0.7% of engrafted cells had survived in the poststroke brain and demonstrated targeted migration toward the stroke lesion. In the peri-infarct striatum, transplanted DPSCs differentiated into astrocytes in preference to neurons. Our data suggest that the dominant mechanism of action underlying DPSC treatment that resulted in enhanced functional recovery is unlikely to be due to neural replacement. Functional improvement is more likely to be mediated through DPSC-dependent paracrine effects. This study provides preclinical evidence for the future use of human DPSCs in cell therapy to improve outcome in stroke patients. PMID:23197777

Leong, Wai Khay; Henshall, Tanya L.; Arthur, Agnes; Kremer, Karlea L.; Lewis, Martin D.; Helps, Stephen C.; Field, John; Hamilton-Bruce, Monica A.; Warming, Scott; Manavis, Jim; Vink, Robert; Gronthos, Stan

2012-01-01

381

Functional characterization of Friedreich ataxia iPS-derived neuronal progenitors and their integration in the adult brain.  

PubMed

Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is an autosomal recessive disease characterised by neurodegeneration and cardiomyopathy that is caused by an insufficiency of the mitochondrial protein, frataxin. Our previous studies described the generation of FRDA induced pluripotent stem cell lines (FA3 and FA4 iPS) that retained genetic characteristics of this disease. Here we extend these studies, showing that neural derivatives of FA iPS cells are able to differentiate into functional neurons, which don't show altered susceptibility to cell death, and have normal mitochondrial function. Furthermore, FA iPS-derived neural progenitors are able to differentiate into functional neurons and integrate in the nervous system when transplanted into the cerebellar regions of host adult rodent brain. These are the first studies to describe both in vitro and in vivo characterization of FA iPS-derived neurons and demonstrate their capacity to survive long term. These findings are highly significant for developing FRDA therapies using patient-derived stem cells. PMID:25000412

Bird, Matthew J; Needham, Karina; Frazier, Ann E; van Rooijen, Jorien; Leung, Jessie; Hough, Shelley; Denham, Mark; Thornton, Matthew E; Parish, Clare L; Nayagam, Bryony A; Pera, Martin; Thorburn, David R; Thompson, Lachlan H; Dottori, Mirella

2014-01-01

382

Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and Physical Function in Adults of Advanced Age: The CHS All Stars  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine the association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) and physical function in adults of advanced age. Design Cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis of physical function over 3 years of follow-up in the Cardiovascular Health Study All Stars. Setting Forsyth County, NC; Sacramento County, CA; Washington County, MD; and Allegheny County, PA. Participants Community-dwelling adults aged 77–100 years (n=988). Measurements Serum 25(OH)D, short physical performance battery (SPPB) and grip and knee extensor strength assessed at baseline. Mobility disability (difficulty walking half a mile or up 10 steps) and activities of daily living (ADL) disability were assessed at baseline and every 6 months over 3 years of follow-up. Results 30.8% of participants had deficient 25(OH)D (<20 ng/mL). SPPB scores were lower among those with deficient 25(OH)D compared to those with sufficient 25(OH)D (?30 ng/mL) after adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, season, health behaviors and chronic conditions (mean±SE: 6.53±0.24 vs. 7.15±0.25, p <0.01). Grip strength adjusted for body size was also lower among those with deficient versus sufficient 25(OH)D (mean±SE: 24.7±0.6 vs. 26.0±0.6 kg, p <0.05). Participants with deficient 25(OH)D were more likely to have prevalent mobility and ADL disability at baseline (OR (95% CI): 1.44 (0.96–2.14) and 1.51 (1.01–2.25), respectively) compared to those with sufficient 25(OH)D. Furthermore, participants with deficient 25(OH)D were at increased risk of incident mobility disability over 3 years of follow-up (HR (95% CI): 1.56 (1.06–2.30)). Conclusion Vitamin D deficiency was common and was associated with poorer physical performance, lower muscle strength, and prevalent mobility and ADL disability among community-dwelling adults of advanced age. Moreover, vitamin D deficiency predicted incident mobility disability. PMID:22091492

Houston, Denise K.; Tooze, Janet A.; Davis, Cralen C.; Chaves, Paulo H. M.; Hirsch, Calvin H.; Robbins, John A.; Arnold, Alice M.; Newman, Anne B.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.

2011-01-01

383

Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version in Healthy Adults and Application to Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder  

PubMed Central

The Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version (BRIEF-A) is a questionnaire measure designed to assess executive functioning in everyday life. Analysis of data from the BRIEF-A standardization sample yielded a two-factor solution (labeled Behavioral Regulation and Metacognition). The present investigation employed confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to evaluate four alternative models of the factor structure of the BRIEF-A self-report form in a sample of 524 healthy young adults. Results indicated that a three-factor model best fits the data: a Metacognition factor, a Behavioral Regulation factor consisting of the Inhibit and Self-Monitor scales, and an Emotional Regulation factor composed of the Emotional Control and Shift scales. The three factors contributed 14%, 19%, and 24% of unique variance to the model, respectively, and a second-order general factor accounted for 41% of variance overall. This three-factor solution is consistent with recent CFAs of the Parent report form of the BRIEF. Furthermore, although the Behavioral Regulation factor score in the two-factor model did not differ between adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and a matched healthy comparison group, greater impairment on the Behavioral Regulation factor but not the Emotional Regulation factor was found using the three-factor model. Together, these findings support the multidimensional nature of executive function and the clinical relevance of a three-factor model of the BRIEF-A. PMID:23676185

Roth, Robert M.; Lance, Charles E.; Isquith, Peter K.; Fischer, Adina S.; Giancola, Peter R.

2013-01-01

384

Cognitive abilities and functional capacity in older adults: results from the modified Scales of Independent Behavior–Revised  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between cognitive and functional abilities was examined in a sample of community-dwelling older adults. Self and informant (e.g., spouse) reports of participants’ functional status were obtained on the modified Scales of Independent Behavior–Revised (mSIB-R). Participants also completed measures of processing speed, episodic memory, executive functioning, and verbal ability. Results showed that the mSIB-R correlated positively with cognitive variables.

Jing Ee Tan; David F. Hultsch; Esther Strauss

2009-01-01

385

Manipulation of length and lexicality localizes the functional neuroanatomy of phonological processing in adult readers.  

PubMed

In a previous study of single word reading, regions in the left supramarginal gyrus and left angular gyrus showed positive BOLD activity in children but significantly less activity in adults for high-frequency words [Church, J. A., Coalson, R. S., Lugar, H. M., Petersen, S. E., & Schlaggar, B. L. A developmental fMRI study of reading and repetition reveals changes in phonological and visual mechanisms over age. Cerebral Cortex, 18, 2054-2065, 2008]. This developmental decrease may reflect decreased reliance on phonological processing for familiar stimuli in adults. Therefore, in the present study, variables thought to influence phonological demand (string length and lexicality) were manipulated. Length and lexicality effects in the brain were explored using both ROI and whole-brain approaches. In the ROI analysis, the supramarginal and angular regions from the previous study were applied to this study. The supramarginal region showed a significant positive effect of length, consistent with a role in phonological processing, whereas the angular region showed only negative deflections from baseline with a strong effect of lexicality and other weaker effects. At the whole-brain level, varying effects of length and lexicality and their interactions were observed in 85 regions throughout the brain. The application of hierarchical clustering analysis to the BOLD time course data derived from these regions revealed seven clusters, with potentially revealing anatomical locations. Of note, a left angular gyrus region was the sole constituent of one cluster. Taken together, these findings in adult readers (1) provide support for a widespread set of brain regions affected by lexical variables, (2) corroborate a role for phonological processing in the left supramarginal gyrus, and (3) do not support a strong role for phonological processing in the left angular gyrus. PMID:20433237

Church, Jessica A; Balota, David A; Petersen, Steven E; Schlaggar, Bradley L

2011-06-01

386

High tibial osteotomy in young adults with constitutional tibia vara  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frontal plane malalignment of the lower extremity results in abnormal load distribution across the knee joint. Consequences\\u000a of this increased stress may lead to compartmental osteoarthritis. High tibial osteotomy is well established for early osteoarthritis\\u000a of the knee joint in middle-aged patients. We hypothesize that earlier realignment of the varus knee can be performed without\\u000a undue risks and debilitation toward

Karim Z. Masrouha; Shafic Sraj; Suhail Lakkis; Said Saghieh

2011-01-01

387

The role of causal and intentional judgments in moral reasoning in individuals with high functioning autism.  

PubMed

In the present study, we investigated the ability to assign moral responsibility and punishment in adults with high functioning autism or Asperger Syndrome (HFA/AS), using non-verbal cartoons depicting an aggression, an accidental harm or a mere coincidence. Participants were asked to evaluate the agent's causal and intentional roles, his responsibility and the punishment he deserves for his action. Adults with HFA/AS did not differ in judgments of suffering and causality from adults with typical development. However, subtle difficulties with judgments of intentional action and moral judgments were observed in participants with HFA/AS. These results are discussed in the light of emerging studies that deal with integrity of moral reasoning in individuals with autism spectrum disorders. PMID:22760338

Buon, Marine; Dupoux, Emmanuel; Jacob, Pierre; Chaste, Pauline; Leboyer, Marion; Zalla, Tiziana

2013-02-01

388

Functional Properties of Rare Missense Variants of Human CDH13 Found in Adult Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Patients  

PubMed Central

The CDH13 gene codes for T-cadherin, a GPI-anchored protein with cell adhesion properties that is highly expressed in the brain and cardiovascular system. Previous studies have suggested that CDH13 may be a promising candidate gene for Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The aims of this study were to identify, functionally characterize, and estimate the frequency of coding CDH13 variants in adult ADHD patients and controls. We performed sequencing of the CDH13 gene in 169 Norwegian adult ADHD patients and 63 controls and genotyping of the identified variants in 641 patients and 668 controls. Native and green fluorescent protein tagged wild type and variant CDH13 proteins were expressed and studied in CHO and HEK293 cells, respectively. Sequencing identified seven rare missense CDH13 variants, one of which was novel. By genotyping, we found a cumulative frequency of these rare variants of 2.9% in controls and 3.2% in ADHD patients, implying that much larger samples are needed to obtain adequate power to study the genetic association between ADHD and rare CDH13 variants. Protein expression and localization studies in CHO cells and HEK293 cells showed that the wild type and mutant proteins were processed according to the canonical processing of GPI-anchored proteins. Although some of the mutations were predicted to severely affect protein secondary structure and stability, no significant differences were observed between the expression levels and distribution of the wild type and mutant proteins in either HEK293 or CHO cells. This is the first study where the frequency of coding CDH13 variants in patients and controls is reported and also where the functional properties of these variants are examined. Further investigations are needed to conclude whether CDH13 is involved in the pathogenesis of ADHD or other conditions. PMID:23936508

Mavroconstanti, Thegna; Johansson, Stefan; Winge, Ingeborg; Knappskog, Per M.; Haavik, Jan

2013-01-01

389

Mediterranean diet, healthy eating index 2005, and cognitive function in middle-aged and older Puerto Rican adults.  

PubMed

Adherence to a Mediterranean diet has recently been shown to protect against cognitive decline and dementia. It remains unclear, however, whether such protection extends to different ethnic groups and middle-aged individuals and how it might compare with adherence to the US Department of Agriculture's 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (measured with Healthy Eating Index 2005 [HEI 2005]). This study examined associations between diet quality, as assessed by the Mediterranean diet and HEI 2005, and cognitive performance in a sample of 1,269 Puerto Rican adults aged 45 to 75 years and living in the Greater Boston area of Massachusetts. Dietary intake was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire specifically designed for and validated with this population. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was assessed with a 0- to 9-point scale, and the HEI 2005 score was calculated with a maximum score of 100. Cognitive performance was measured with a battery of seven tests and the Mini Mental State Examination was used for global cognitive function. Greater adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with higher Mini Mental State Examination score (P trend=0.012) and lower likelihood (odds ratio=0.87 for each additional point; 95% CI 0.80 to 0.94; P<0.001) of cognitive impairment, after adjustment for confounders. Similarly, individuals with higher HEI 2005 score had higher Mini Mental State Examination score (P trend=0.011) and lower odds of cognitive impairment (odds ratio=0.86 for each 10 points; 95% CI 0.74 to 0.99; P=0.033). In conclusion, high adherence to either the Mediterranean diet or the diet recommended by the US Department of Agriculture 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans can protect cognitive function in middle-aged and older adults. PMID:23351632

Ye, Xingwang; Scott, Tammy; Gao, Xiang; Maras, Janice E; Bakun, Peter J; Tucker, Katherine L

2013-02-01

390

Fatigability of the dorsiflexors and associations among multiple domains of motor function in young and old adults.  

PubMed

Declines in neuromuscular function, including measures of mobility, muscle strength, steadiness, and patterns of muscle activation, accompany advancing age and are often associated with reduced quality of life and mortality. Paradoxically, older adults are less fatigable than young adults in some tasks. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of age on fatigability of the dorsiflexors and to evaluate the ecological validity of this test by comparing it to motor function subdomains known to decline with advancing age. The community-dwelling older adults (n=52, 75.2±6.0years) were more fatigable than young adults (n=26, 22.2±3.7years), as assessed by endurance time for supporting a submaximal load (20% of one-repetition maximum; 1-RM) with an isometric contraction of the dorsiflexor muscles (8.9±0.6min and 15.5±0.9min, p<0.001), including participants matched for 1-RM load and sex (Y: 13.3±4.0min, O: 8.5±6.1min, n=11 pairs, 6 women, p<0.05). When the older adults were separated into two groups (65-75 and 76-90years), however, only endurance time for the oldest group was less than that for the other two groups (p<0.01). All measures of motor function were significantly correlated (all p<0.05) with dorsiflexor endurance time for the older adults, and multiple regression analysis revealed that the variance in endurance time was most closely associated with age, steadiness, and knee flexor strength (R(2)=0.50, p<0.001). These findings indicate that dorsiflexor fatigability provides a valid biomarker of motor function in older adults. PMID:24703888

Justice, Jamie N; Mani, Diba; Pierpoint, Lauren A; Enoka, Roger M

2014-07-01

391

India: Delhi high court annuls law criminalizing adult homosexual relations.  

PubMed

In what is considered by many to be a landmark decision on equality and non-discrimination in India, the Delhi High Court declared in July 2009 that Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code, which criminalizes people who engage in "unnatural offences", violates the rights to equality, freedom from discrimination, and life and personal liberty, pursuant to the India Constitution (Constitution). The court also agreed with the petitioner in the case that the law severely impairs HIV/AIDS prevention efforts by discouraging men who have sex with men (MSM) from participating for fear of stigma, discrimination and police abuse under the guise of enforcing the Section. PMID:20225520

Skanland, Celeste A

2009-12-01

392

The Association between Sensory Impairment and Functional Limitations in Balance in Community-Dwelling Older Adults  

E-print Network

dimensions of balance in both static and dynamic environments and is intended to identify older adults who-Dwelling Older Adults Kimary L.Farrar,M.S.1 and Debra J.Rose,PhD.2 · Southern California University of Health years.¹ Falls are the number one cause of injury-related deaths among older adults and result in medical

de Lijser, Peter

393

A 10 year follow up of 180 adults with bronchial asthma: factors important for the decline in lung function.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the factors that determine outcome in asthma. The purpose of this study was to describe the relation of various factors of potential importance to the rate of decline in lung function in adults with intrinsic and extrinsic asthma. METHODS: Of 180 asthmatic patients, 143 (79%) participated in a 10 year follow up examination. At the time of enrollment all patients underwent certain tests for asthma (case history, total IgE, skinprick tests, the radioallergosorbent test (RAST), histamine release from basophil leucocytes, and specific bronchial provocations). On the basis of these tests 94 patients had intrinsic asthma and 49 extrinsic asthma. RESULTS: Patients with intrinsic asthma had an annual decline in FEV1 of 50 ml, whereas those with extrinsic asthma had a decline of 22.5 ml; the rate of decline of lung function increased with increasing age in both groups. An inverse relation between initial FEV1 and decline in FEV1 (the "horse racing effect") was found for the patients with extrinsic asthma but not for the patients with intrinsic asthma. There was no relation between rate of decline in lung function and number of cigarettes smoked. A high degree of airway variability--that is, reversibility in FEV1--at the time of enrollment was found to be associated with a steeper decline in lung function in patients with intrinsic asthma, whereas increasing degrees of obstruction (decreasing FEV1/VC ratio at enrollment) and need for treatment with corticosteroids were associated with a more pronounced decline in FEV1 in patients with extrinsic asthma. CONCLUSIONS: The rate of decline in lung function is greater in patients with intrinsic asthma than in patients with extrinsic asthma; the prognosis for intrinsic and extrinsic asthma is to some extent influenced by different factors, which suggests that the pathogenetic mechanisms underlying intrinsic and extrinsic asthma may differ. PMID:1539138

Ulrik, C S; Backer, V; Dirksen, A

1992-01-01

394

Functional connectivity changes in adults with developmental stuttering: a preliminary study using quantitative electro-encephalography  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Stuttering is defined as speech characterized by verbal dysfluencies, but should not be seen as an isolated speech disorder, but as a generalized sensorimotor timing deficit due to impaired communication between speech related brain areas. Therefore we focused on resting state brain activity and functional connectivity. Method: We included 11 patients with developmental stuttering and 11 age matched controls. To objectify stuttering severity and the impact on quality of life (QoL), we used the Dutch validated Test for Stuttering Severity-Readers (TSS-R) and the Overall Assessment of the Speaker’s Experience of Stuttering (OASES), respectively. Furthermore, we used standardized low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) analyses to look at resting state activity and functional connectivity differences and their correlations with the TSS-R and OASES. Results: No significant results could be obtained when looking at neural activity, however significant alterations in resting state functional connectivity could be demonstrated between persons who stutter (PWS) and fluently speaking controls, predominantly interhemispheric, i.e., a decreased functional connectivity for high frequency oscillations (beta and gamma) between motor speech areas (BA44 and 45) and the contralateral premotor (BA6) and motor (BA4) areas. Moreover, a positive correlation was found between functional connectivity at low frequency oscillations (theta and alpha) and stuttering severity, while a mixed increased and decreased functional connectivity at low and high frequency oscillations correlated with QoL. Discussion: PWS are characterized by decreased high frequency interhemispheric functional connectivity between motor speech, premotor and motor areas in the resting state, while higher functional connectivity in the low frequency bands indicates more severe speech disturbances, suggesting that increased interhemispheric and right sided functional connectivity is maladaptive.

Joos, Kathleen; De Ridder, Dirk; Boey, Ronny A.; Vanneste, Sven

2014-01-01

395

Peripheral Nerve Damage Facilitates Functional Innervation of Brain Grafts in Adult Sensory Cortex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The neuralb pathways that relay information from cutaneous receptors to the cortex provide the somatic sensory information needed for cortical function. The last sensory relay neurons in this pathway have cell bodies in the thalamus and axons that synapse on neurons in the somatosensory cortex. After cortical lesions that damage mature thalamocortical fibers in the somatosensory cortex, we have attempted to reestablish somatosensory cortical function by grafting embryonic neocortical cells into the lesioned area. Such grafts survive in adult host animals but are not innervated by thalamic neurons, and consequently the grafted neurons show little if any spontaneous activity and no responses to cutaneous stimuli. We have reported that transection of peripheral sensory nerves prior to grafting ``conditions'' or ``primes'' the thalamic neurons in the ventrobasal complex so that they extend axons into grafts subsequently placed in the cortical domain of the cut nerve. In this report we present evidence that the ingrowth of ventrobasal fibers leads to graft neurons that become functionally integrated into the sensory circuitry of the host brain. Specifically, the conditioning lesions made prior to grafting produce graft neurons that are spontaneously active and can be driven by natural activation of cutaneous receptors or electrical stimulation of the transected nerve after it regenerates. Furthermore, oxidative metabolism in these grafts reaches levels that are comparable to normal cortex, whereas without prior nerve cut, oxidative metabolism is abnormally low in neocortical grafts. We conclude that damage to the sensory periphery transsynaptically stimulates reorganization of sensory pathways through mechanisms that include axonal elongation and functional synaptogenesis.

Ebner, Ford F.; Erzurumlu, Reha S.; Lee, Stefan M.

1989-01-01

396

Air pollution and lung function among susceptible adult subjects: a panel study  

PubMed Central

Background Adverse health effects at relatively low levels of ambient air pollution have consistently been reported in the last years. We conducted a time-series panel study of subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and ischemic heart disease (IHD) to evaluate whether daily levels of air pollutants have a measurable impact on the lung function of adult subjects with pre-existing lung or heart diseases. Methods Twenty-nine patients with COPD, asthma, or IHD underwent repeated lung function tests by supervised spirometry in two one-month surveys. Daily samples of coarse (PM10–2.5) and fine (PM2.5) particulate matter were collected by means of dichotomous samplers, and the dust was gravimetrically analyzed. The particulate content of selected metals (cadmium, chrome, iron, nickel, lead, platinum, vanadium, and zinc) was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Ambient concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), and sulphur dioxide (SO2) were obtained from the regional air-quality monitoring network. The relationships between concentrations of air pollutants and lung function parameters were analyzed by generalized estimating equations (GEE) for panel data. Results Decrements in lung function indices (FVC and/or FEV1) associated with increasing concentrations of PM2.5, NO2 and some metals (especially zinc and iron) were observed in COPD cases. Among the asthmatics, NO2 was associated with a decrease in FEV1. No association between average ambient concentrations of any air pollutant and lung function was observed among IHD cases. Conclusion This study suggests that the short-term negative impact of exposure to air pollutants on respiratory volume and flow is limited to individuals with already impaired respiratory function. The fine fraction of ambient PM seems responsible for the observed effects among COPD cases, with zinc and iron having a potential role via oxidative stress. The respiratory function of the relatively young and mild asthmatics included in this study seems to worsen when ambient levels of NO2 increase. PMID:16674831

Lagorio, Susanna; Forastiere, Francesco; Pistelli, Riccardo; Iavarone, Ivano; Michelozzi, Paola; Fano, Valeria; Marconi, Achille; Ziemacki, Giovanni; Ostro, Bart D

2006-01-01

397

High prevalence of chronic non-communicable conditions among adult refugees: implications for practice and policy.  

PubMed

The global rise in non-communicable disease (NCD) suggests that US-based refugees are increasingly affected by chronic conditions. However, health services have focused on the detection of infectious disease, with relatively limited data on chronic NCDs. Using data from a retrospective medical record review of a refugee health program in the urban Northeast (n = 180), we examined the prevalence of chronic NCDs and NCD risk factors among adult refugees who had recently arrived in the US, with attention to region of origin and family composition. Family composition was included because low-income adults without dependent children are at high risk of becoming uninsured. We found that half of the adult refugees in this sample had at least one chronic NCD (51.1%), and 9.5% had three or more NCDs. Behavioral health diagnoses were most common (15.0%), followed by hypertension (13.3%). Half of adults were overweight or obese (54.6%). Chronic NCDs were somewhat more common among adults from Iraq, but this difference was not significant (56.8 vs. 44.6%). Chronic NCDs were common among adults with and without dependent children (61.4 vs. 44.6%, respectively), and these two groups did not significantly differ in their likelihood of having a chronic NCD after adjustment for age and gender (AOR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.39, 1.55). This study suggests that chronic NCDs are common among adult refugees in the US, including refugees at high risk for uninsurance. We propose that refugee health services accommodate screening and treatment for chronic NCDs and NCD risk factors, and that insurance outreach and enrollment programs target recently arrived refugees. PMID:22382428

Yun, Katherine; Hebrank, Kelly; Graber, Lauren K; Sullivan, Mary-Christine; Chen, Isabel; Gupta, Jhumka

2012-10-01

398

High Prevalence of Chronic Non-Communicable Conditions Among Adult Refugees: Implications for Practice and Policy  

PubMed Central

The global rise in non-communicable disease (NCD) suggests that US-based refugees are increasingly affected by chronic conditions. However, health services have focused on the detection of infectious disease, with relatively limited data on chronic NCDs. Using data from a retrospective medical record review of a refugee health program in the urban Northeast (n = 180), we examined the prevalence of chronic NCDs and NCD risk factors among adult refugees who had recently arrived in the US, with attention to region of origin and family composition. Family composition was included because low-income adults without dependent children are at high risk of becoming uninsured. We found that half of the adult refugees in this sample had at least one chronic NCD (51.1%), and 9.5% had three or more NCDs. Behavioral health diagnoses were most common (15.0%), followed by hypertension (13.3%). Half of adults were overweight or obese (54.6%). Chronic NCDs were somewhat more common among adults from Iraq, but this difference was not significant (56.8 vs. 44.6%). Chronic NCDs were common among adults with and without dependent children (61.4 vs. 44.6%, respectively), and these two groups did not significantly differ in their likelihood of having a chronic NCD after adjustment for age and gender (AOR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.39, 1.55). This study suggests that chronic NCDs are common among adult refugees in the US, including refugees at high risk for uninsurance. We propose that refugee health services accommodate screening and treatment for chronic NCDs and NCD risk factors, and that insurance outreach and enrollment programs target recently arrived refugees. PMID:22382428

Yun, Katherine; Hebrank, Kelly; Graber, Lauren K.; Sullivan, Mary-Christine; Chen, Isabel; Gupta, Jhumka

2013-01-01

399

Functional health literacy and glycaemic control in older adults with type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate the relationship between functional health literacy and glycaemic control in a sample of older patients with type 2 diabetes. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting A government-financed outpatient geriatric clinic in São Paulo, Brazil. Participants 129 older patients with type 2 diabetes, a mean (SD) age of 75.9 (6.2) years, a mean glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) of 7.2% (1.4), of which 14.7% had no formal education and 82.9% had less than a high-school diploma. Measures HbA1c was used as a measure of glycaemic control. Functional health literacy was assessed with the 18-item Short Assessment of Health Literacy for Portuguese-speaking Adults (SAHLPA-18), a validated instrument to evaluate pronunciation and comprehension of commonly used medical terms. Regression models were controlled for demographic data, depressive symptoms, diabetes duration, treatment regimen, diabetes knowledge and assistance for taking medications. Results Functional health literacy below adequate was encountered in 56.6% of the sample. After controlling for potential confounding factors, patients with inadequate functional health literacy were more likely than patients with adequate functional health literacy to present poor glycaemic control (OR=4.76; 95% CI 1.36 to 16.63). In a fully adjusted linear regression model, lower functional health literacy (?=?0.42; p<0.001), longer diabetes duration (?=0.24; p=0.012) and lack of assistance for taking medications (?=0.23; p=0.014) were associated with higher levels of HbA1c. Contrary to our expectations, illiterate patients did not have poorer outcomes when compared with patients with adequate functional health literacy, raising the hypothesis that illiterate individuals are more likely to have their difficulties recognised and compensated. However, the small subsample of illiterate patients provided limited power to reject differences with small magnitude. Conclusions Patients with inadequate functional health literacy presented with higher odds of poor glycaemic control. These findings reinforce the importance of addressing limited functional health literacy in clinical practice. PMID:24525392

Souza, Jonas Gordilho; Apolinario, Daniel; Magaldi, Regina Miksian; Busse, Alexandre Leopold; Campora, Flavia; Jacob-Filho, Wilson

2014-01-01

400

Exploring Cognitive Functions in Babies, Children & Adults with Near Infrared Spectroscopy.  

PubMed

An explosion of functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) studies investigating cortical activation in relation to higher cognitive processes, such as language, memory, and attention is underway worldwide involving adults, children and infants with typical and atypical cognition. The contemporary challenge of using fNIRS for cognitive neuroscience is to achieve systematic analyses of data such that they are universally interpretable, and thus may advance important scientific questions about the functional organization and neural systems underlying human higher cognition. Existing neuroimaging technologies have either less robust temporal or spatial resolution. Event Related Potentials and Magneto Encephalography (ERP and MEG) have excellent temporal resolution, whereas Positron Emission Tomography and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (PET and fMRI) have better spatial resolution. Using non-ionizing wavelengths of light in the near-infrared range (700-1000 nm), where oxy-hemoglobin is preferentially absorbed by 680 nm and deoxy-hemoglobin is preferentially absorbed by 830 nm (e.g., indeed, the very wavelengths hardwired into the fNIRS Hitachi ETG-400 system illustrated here), fNIRS is well suited for studies of higher cognition because it has both good temporal resolution (approximately 5s) without the use of radiation and good spatial resolution (approximately 4 cm depth), and does not require participants to be in an enclosed structure. Participants cortical activity can be assessed while comfortably seated in an ordinary chair (adults, children) or even seated in mom s lap (infants). Notably, NIRS is uniquely portable (the size of a desktop computer), virtually silent, and can tolerate a participants subtle movement. This is particularly outstanding for the neural study of human language, which necessarily has as one of its key components the movement of the mouth in speech production or the hands in sign language. The way in which the hemodynamic response is localized is by an array of laser emitters and detectors. Emitters emit a known intensity of non-ionizing light while detectors detect the amount reflected back from the cortical surface. The closer together the optodes, the greater the spatial resolution, whereas the further apart the optodes, the greater depth of penetration. For the fNIRS Hitachi ETG-4000 system optimal penetration / resolution the optode array is set to 2cm. Our goal is to demonstrate our method of acquiring and analyzing fNIRS data to help standardize the field and enable different fNIRS labs worldwide to have a common background. PMID:19638948

Shalinsky, Mark H; Kovelman, Iouila; Berens, Melody S; Petitto, Laura-Ann

2009-01-01

401

Coffee polyphenols improve peripheral endothelial function after glucose loading in healthy male adults.  

PubMed

Brewed coffee is a widely consumed beverage, and many studies have examined its effects on human health. We investigated the vascular effects of coffee polyphenols (CPPs), hypothesizing that a single ingestion of CPP during glucose loading would improve endothelial function. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a randomized acute clinical intervention study with crossover design and measured reactive hyperemia index (RHI) to assess the acute effects of a 75-g glucose load with CPP in healthy, nondiabetic adult men. Blood glucose and insulin levels were elevated after glucose loading with and without CPP, with no significant differences between treatments. The RHI did not significantly decrease after glucose loading without CPP. With CPP, however, RHI significantly (P < .05) increased over baseline after glucose loading. The difference between treatments was statistically significant (P < .05). No significant changes were observed in an oxidative stress marker after glucose loading with or without CPP. These findings suggest that a single ingestion of CPP improves peripheral endothelial function after glucose loading in healthy subjects. PMID:24461317

Ochiai, Ryuji; Sugiura, Yoko; Shioya, Yasushi; Otsuka, Kazuhiro; Katsuragi, Yoshihisa; Hashiguchi, Teruto

2014-02-01

402

Targeting pleiotropic signaling pathways to control adult cardiac stem cell fate and function  

PubMed Central

The identification of different pools of cardiac progenitor cells resident in the adult mammalian heart opened a new era in heart regeneration as a means to restore the loss of functional cardiac tissue and overcome the limited availability of donor organs. Indeed, resident stem cells are believed to participate to tissue homeostasis and renewal in healthy and damaged myocardium although their actual contribution to these processes remain unclear. The poor outcome in terms of cardiac regeneration following tissue damage point out at the need for a deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling CPC behavior and fate determination before new therapeutic strategies can be developed. The regulation of cardiac resident stem cell fate and function is likely to result from the interplay between pleiotropic signaling pathways as well as tissue- and cell-specific regulators. Such a modular interaction—which has already been described in the nucleus of a number of different cells where transcriptional complexes form to activate specific gene programs—would account for the unique responses of cardiac progenitors to general and tissue-specific stimuli. The study of the molecular determinants involved in cardiac stem/progenitor cell regulatory mechanisms may shed light on the processes of cardiac homeostasis in health and disease and thus provide clues on the actual feasibility of cardiac cell therapy through tissue-specific progenitors. PMID:25071583

Pagliari, Stefania; Jelinek, Jakub; Grassi, Gabriele; Forte, Giancarlo

2014-01-01

403

Lip-closing function of elderly people during ingestion: comparison with young adults.  

PubMed

In this study the relationship between the functional vertical labial pressure and aging during ingestion in the elderly is examined. The subjects were 84 community-dwelling elderly (mean: 79.4 years old), 109 elderly needing long term care (mean: 81.3 years old), and 59 healthy young adults (mean: 32.0 years old) as control. Labial pressure was measured with a pressure sensor embedded in acrylic plate. There was no correlation between age and labial pressure or the coefficient of variation of labial pressure during ingestion. In people with a history of "choking on food", labial pressure was, however, significantly lower (p < 0.01) than people without a history of "choking on food", while the coefficient of variation of labial pressure was significantly higher (p < 0.05). Poor labial pressure and movement were noted in subjects who experienced "choking on food", suggesting that lip-closing function also plays an important role in the pharyngeal stage of feeding/swallowing. On the other hand, the coefficient of variation of labial pressure during ingestion was not changed in the elderly group in comparison to the control group. These results showed that skilled movement of lip-closing might be compensated by labial pressure. Labial pressure and skilled movement were, however, decreased in the elderly needing care because of "choking on food". PMID:20572436

Tamura, Fumiyo; Fukui, Tomoko; Kikutani, Takeshi; Machida, Reiko; Yoshida, Mitsuyoshi; Yoneyama, Takeyoshi; Hamura, Akira

2009-11-01

404

Cognitive functioning and driving simulator performance in middle-aged and older adults with HIV.  

PubMed

Nearly half of people living with HIV experience cognitive deficits that may impact instrumental activities of daily living. As the number of people aging with HIV increases, concerns mount that disease-related cognitive deficits may be compounded by age-related deficits, which may further compromise everyday functions such as driving. In this cross-sectional pilot study, during a 2.5-hour visit, 26 middle-aged and older adults (40 + years) were administered demographic, health, psychosocial, and driving habits questionnaires; cognitive assessments; and driving simulator tests. Although CD4+ T lymphocyte count and viral load were unrelated to driving performance, older age was related to poorer driving. Furthermore, poorer visual speed of processing performance (i.e., useful field of view) was related to poorer driving performance (e.g., average gross reaction time). Mixed findings were observed between driving performance and cognitive function on self-reported driving habits of participants. Implications for these findings on nursing practice and research are posited. PMID:24513104

Vance, David E; Fazeli, Pariya L; Ball, David A; Slater, Larry Z; Ross, Lesley A

2014-01-01

405

Review: molecular pathology in adult high-grade gliomas: from molecular diagnostics to target therapies.  

PubMed

The classification of malignant gliomas is moving from a morphology-based guide to a system built on molecular criteria. The development of a genomic landscape for gliomas and a better understanding of its functional consequences have led to the development of internally consistent molecular classifiers. However, development of a biologically insightful classification to guide therapy is still a work in progress. Response to targeted treatments is based not only on the presence of drugable targets, but rather on the molecular circuitry of the cells. Further, tumours are heterogeneous and change and adapt in response to drugs. Therefore, the challenge of developing molecular classifiers that provide meaningful ways to stratify patients for therapy remains a major challenge for the field. In this review, we examine the potential role of MGMT methylation, IDH1/2 mutations, 1p/19q deletions, aberrant epidermal growth factor receptor and PI3K pathways, abnormal p53/Rb pathways, cancer stem-cell markers and microRNAs as prognostic and predictive molecular markers in the setting of adult high-grade gliomas and we outline the clinically relevant subtypes of glioblastoma with genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic integrated analyses. Furthermore, we describe how these advances, especially in epidermal growth factor receptor/PI3K/mTOR signalling pathway, affect our approaches towards targeted therapy, raising new challenges and identifying new leads. PMID:22098029

Masui, K; Cloughesy, T F; Mischel, P S

2012-06-01

406

Functional results after cholesteatoma surgery in an adult population using the retrograde mastoidectomy technique.  

PubMed

In this retrospective study, we analyzed the functional results after using the retrograde mastoidectomy technique for cholesteatoma removal in an adult patient population. The described technique was used at a tertiary referral center for cholesteatoma removal in 218 adult patients, representing 242 operated ears, with an average follow-up time of 20.3 months. With the retrograde mastoidectomy technique, the cholesteatoma is removed posteriorly through the canal wall, from the epitympanic region toward the mastoid, with the option to reconstruct the posterior bony canal wall or create an open mastoid cavity, depending on the size of the defect. Primary surgery was carried out in 58.7 % ears, with the remaining 41.3 % representing revision surgery. In 151 cases, the posterior canal wall was reconstructed, and in 91 cases a classical CWD with an open mastoid cavity was created. In the majority of the cases (n = 213, 88.0 %), a primary hearing restoration was performed. There were 18 recurrences (12.7 %) in primary cases and 22 recurrences (22 %) in revision surgeries. Ninety percent of the recurrences (36 of 40 cases) occurred within 5 years. A postoperative air-bone gap of less than 20 dB was achieved in 61.6 % of the operated ears. Ears with a reconstructed posterior canal wall had significantly better hearing results than those cases in which a CWD procedure was used (air-bone gap of 17.6 versus 22.5 dB, p < 0.05). The retrograde mastoidectomy technique for cholesteatoma removal resulted in satisfying hearing results in the majority of the cases, with a recurrence rate comparable to the current literature. PMID:23529744

Minovi, Amir; Venjacob, Johanna; Volkenstein, Stefan; Dornhoffer, John; Dazert, Stefan

2014-03-01

407

Differential regulation of two histidine ammonia-lyase genes during Xenopus development implicates distinct functions during thyroid hormone-induced formation of adult stem cells  

PubMed Central

Background Organ-specific, adult stem cells are essential for organ-homeostasis and tissue repair and regeneration. The formation of such stem cells during vertebrate development remains to be investigated. Frog metamorphosis offers an excellent opportunity to study the formation of adult stem cells as this process involves essentially the transformations of all larval tissues/organs into the adult form. Of particular interest is the remodeling of the intestine. Early studies in Xenopus laevis have shown that this process involves complete degeneration of the larval epithelium and de novo formation of adult stem cells through dedifferentiation of some larval epithelial cells. A major advantage of this metamorphosis model is its total dependence on thyroid hormone (T3). In an effort to identify genes that are important for stem cell development, we have previously carried out tissue-specific microarray analysis of intestinal gene expression during Xenopus laevis metamorphosis. Results We report the detailed characterization of one of the genes thus identified, the histidine ammonia-lyase (HAL) gene, which encodes an enzyme known as histidase or histidinase. We show that there are two duplicated HAL genes, HAL1 and HAL2, in both Xenopus laevis and Xenopus tropicalis, a highly related but diploid species. Interestingly, only HAL2 is highly upregulated by T3 and appears to be specifically expressed in the adult intestinal progenitor/stem cells while HAL1 is not expressed in the intestine during metamorphosis. Furthermore, when analyzed in who