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1

The GRAVITY instrument software / High-level software  

E-print Network

GRAVITY is the four-beam, near- infrared, AO-assisted, fringe tracking, astrometric and imaging instrument for the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI). It is requiring the development of one of the most complex instrument software systems ever built for an ESO instrument. Apart from its many interfaces and interdependencies, one of the most challenging aspects is the overall performance and stability of this complex system. The three infrared detectors and the fast reflective memory network (RMN) recorder contribute a total data rate of up to 20 MiB/s accumulating to a maximum of 250 GiB of data per night. The detectors, the two instrument Local Control Units (LCUs) as well as the five LCUs running applications under TAC (Tools for Advanced Control) architecture, are interconnected with fast Ethernet, RMN fibers and dedicated fiber connections as well as signals for the time synchronization. Here we give a simplified overview of all subsystems of GRAVITY and their interfaces and discuss two examples of...

Burtscher, Leonard; Ott, Thomas; Kok, Yitping; Yazici, Senol; Anugu, Narsireddy; Dembet, Roderick; Fedou, Pierre; Lacour, Sylvestre; Ott, Juergen; Paumard, Thibaut; Lapeyrere, Vincent; Kervella, Pierre; Abuter, Roberto; Pozna, Eszter; Eisenhauer, Frank; Blind, Nicolas; Genzel, Reinhard; Gillessen, Stefan; Hans, Oliver; Haug, Marcus; Haussmann, Frank; Kellner, Stefan; Lippa, Magdalena; Pfuhl, Oliver; Sturm, Eckhard; Weber, Johannes; Amorim, Antonio; Brandner, Wolfgang; Rousselet-Perraut, Karine; Perrin, Guy S; Straubmeier, Christian; Schoeller, Markus

2015-01-01

2

Effect of gravity level fluctuations for rotating fluids in high and low rotating speeds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Time-dependent evolutions of the profile of the free surface (bubble shapes) for a cylindrical container partially filled with a Newtonian fluid of constant density, rotating about its axis of symmetry, have been studied. Numerical computations of the dynamics of bubble shapes have been carried out with sinusoidal-function vibration of the gravity environment at high and low cylinder speeds.

Hung, R. J.; Tsao, Y. D.; Hong, B. B.; Leslie, F. W.

1989-01-01

3

Preprocessing of gravity gradients at the GOCE high-level processing facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the products derived from the gravity field and steady-state ocean circulation explorer (GOCE) observations are the\\u000a gravity gradients. These gravity gradients are provided in the gradiometer reference frame (GRF) and are calibrated in-flight\\u000a using satellite shaking and star sensor data. To use these gravity gradients for application in Earth scienes and gravity\\u000a field analysis, additional preprocessing needs to

Johannes Bouman; Sietse Rispens; Thomas Gruber; Radboud Koop; Ernst Schrama; Pieter Visser; Carl Christian Tscherning; Martin Veicherts

2009-01-01

4

High-precision gravity network to monitor temporal variations in gravity across Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

Repeatable high-precision gravity surveys provide a method of monitoring temporal variations in the gravity field. Fluctuations in the gravity field may indicate water table changes, crustal deformation, or precursors to volcanism and earthquakes. This report describes a high-precision gravity loop which has been established across Yucca Mountain, Nevada in support of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) program. The purpose of this gravity loop is to monitor temporal variations in gravity across Yucca Mountain in an effort to interpret and predict the stability of the tectonic framework and changes in the subsurface density field. Studies of the tectonic framework which include volcanic hazard seismicity, and faulting studies are in progress. Repeat high-precision gravity surveys are less expensive and can be made more rapidly than a corresponding leveling survey. High-precision gravity surveys are capable of detecting elevation changes of 3 to 5 cm, and thus can be employed as an efficient tool for monitoring vertical crustal movements while supplementing or partially replacing leveling data. The Yucca Mountain gravity network has been tied to absolute gravity measurements established in southern Nevada. These ties provide an absolute datum for comparing repeat occupations of the gravity network, and provide a method of monitoring broad-scale changes in gravity. Absolute gravity measurements were also made at the bottom and top of the Charleston Peak calibration loop in southern Nevada. These absolute gravity measurements provide local control of calibrating gravity meters over the gravity ranges observed at Yucca Mountain. 13 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

Harris, R.N.; Ponce, D.A.

1988-12-31

5

High-gravity central stars  

E-print Network

NLTE spectral analyses of high-gravity central stars by means of state-of-the-art model atmosphere techniques provide information about the precursor AGB stars. The hydrogen-deficient post-AGB stars allow investigations on the intershell matter which is apparently exhibited at the stellar surface. We summarize recent results from imaging, spectroscopy, and spectropolarimetry.

Thomas Rauch

2006-07-11

6

Low gravity liquid level sensor rake  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The low gravity liquid level sensor rake measures the liquid surface height of propellant in a propellant tank used in launch and spacecraft vehicles. The device reduces the tendency of the liquid propellant to adhere to the sensor elements after the bulk liquid level has dropped below a given sensor element thereby reducing the probability of a false liquid level measurement. The liquid level sensor rake has a mast attached internal to a propellant tank with an end attached adjacent the tank outlet. Multiple sensor elements that have an arm and a sensor attached at a free end thereof are attached to the mast at locations selected for sensing the presence or absence of the liquid. The sensor elements when attached to the mast have a generally horizontal arm and a generally vertical sensor.

Grayson, Gary D. (Inventor); Craddock, Jeffrey C. (Inventor)

2003-01-01

7

The Constant Levelers: Water, Ice, and Gravity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site has information about the work of three of the agents of erosion in the Northern Cascade Range. Since much of the range is made up of exotic terrains that probably did not evolve on the same spot on the Earth as the present North Cascades, the geologists confine their view to some time since the earliest Tertiary. Within that time frame, they can speculatively recreate the North Cascade scene and ponder its erosional history. The erosional work of rivers has constantly been altered by volcanic activity and whatever drainage pattern was established. It was profoundly altered about 35 million years ago by the renewed volcanic activity of the Cascade Volcanic Arc. A section about how rivers erode describes differential erosion, stream capture, and base level. The section about glaciers explains how they are formed, how they do their work, and what is left behind. The section about the work of gravity focuses on creep and landslides.

8

High-resolution gravity model of Venus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The anomalous gravity field of Venus shows high correlation with surface features revealed by radar. We extract gravity models from the Doppler tracking data from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter by means of a two-step process. In the first step, we solve the nonlinear spacecraft state estimation problem using a Kalman filter-smoother. The Kalman filter has been evaluated through simulations. This evaluation and some unusual features of the filter are discussed. In the second step, we perform a geophysical inversion using a linear Bayesian estimator. To allow an unbiased comparison between gravity and topography, we use a simulation technique to smooth and distort the radar topographic data so as to yield maps having the same characteristics as our gravity maps. The maps presented cover 2/3 of the surface of Venus and display the strong topography-gravity correlation previously reported. The topography-gravity scatter plots show two distinct trends.

Reasenberg, R. D.; Goldberg, Z. M.

1992-01-01

9

Somigliana-Pizzetti gravity: the international gravity formula accurate to the sub-nanoGal level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Somigliana-Pizzetti gravity field (the International gravity formula), namely the gravity field of the level ellipsoid (the International Reference Ellipsoid), is derived to the sub-nanoGal accuracy level in order to fulfil the demands of modern gravimetry (absolute gravimeters, super conducting gravimeters, atomic gravimeters). Equations (53), (54) and (59) summarise Somigliana-Pizzetti gravity o({,u) as a function of Jacobi spheroidal latitude { and height u to the order ™(10m10 Gal), and o(B,H) as a function of Gauss (surface normal) ellipsoidal latitude B and height H to the order ™(10m10 Gal) as determined by GPS (`global problem solver'). Within the test area of the state of Baden-Württemberg, Somigliana-Pizzetti gravity disturbances of an average of 25.452 mGal were produced. Computer programs for an operational application of the new international gravity formula with (L,B,H) or (u,{,u) coordinate inputs to a sub-nanoGal level of accuracy are available on the Internet.

Ardalan, A. A.; Grafarend, E. W.

2001-09-01

10

The Gravity Model for High School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors suggest ways in which the gravity model can be used in high school geography classes. Based on Newton's Law of Molecular Gravitation, the law states that gravitation is in direct ratio to mass and inverse ratio to distance. One activity for students involves determination of zones of influence of cities of various sizes. (Author/AV)

Tribble, Paul; Mitchell, William A.

1977-01-01

11

High potassium level  

MedlinePLUS

High potassium level is a problem in which the amount of potassium in the blood is higher than normal. The medical ... There are often no symptoms with a high level of potassium. When symptoms do occur, they may ...

12

Gravity Surface Wave Bifurcation in a Highly Turbulent Swirling Flow  

E-print Network

Gravity Surface Wave Bifurcation in a Highly Turbulent Swirling Flow Michael Baumer University Gravity Wave 2 3 Measurements 3 4 Mechanical Hardware: Problems and Solutions 5 5 Results 7 6 Conclusions investigated a free-surface gravity wave bifurcation in the large-separation regime, that is, where

Witten, Thomas A.

13

The utility of gravity and water-level monitoring at alluvial aquifer wells in southern Arizona  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coincident monitoring of gravity and water levels at 39 wells insouthernArizonaindicatethatwater-levelchangemightnotbe a reliable indicator of aquifer-storage change for alluvial aquifer systems.Onereasonisthatwaterlevelsinwellsthatarescreened acrosssingleormultipleaquifersmightnotrepresentthehydrau- licheadandstoragechangeinalocalunconfinedaquifer.Gravity estimates of aquifer-storage change can be approximated as a one-dimensional feature except near some withdrawal wells and recharge sources. The aquifer storage coefficient is estimated by the linear regression slope of storage change estimated using gravity methods

D. R. Pool

2008-01-01

14

A high frequency resonance gravity gradiometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new setup OGRAN—the large scale opto-acoustical gravitational detector is described. As distinguished from known gravitational bar detectors it uses the optical interferometrical readout for registering weak variations of gravity gradient at the kilohetz frequency region. At room temperature, its sensitivity is limited only by the bar Brownian noise at the bandwidth close to 100 Hz. It is destined for a search for rare events—gravitational pulses coincident with signals of neutrino scintillator (BUST) in the deep underground of Baksan Neutrino Observatory of INR RAS.

Bagaev, S. N.; Bezrukov, L. B.; Kvashnin, N. L.; Krysanov, V. A.; Oreshkin, S. I.; Motylev, A. M.; Popov, S. M.; Rudenko, V. N.; Samoilenko, A. A.; Skvortsov, M. N.; Yudin, I. S.

2014-06-01

15

A high frequency resonance gravity gradiometer.  

PubMed

A new setup OGRAN--the large scale opto-acoustical gravitational detector is described. As distinguished from known gravitational bar detectors it uses the optical interferometrical readout for registering weak variations of gravity gradient at the kilohetz frequency region. At room temperature, its sensitivity is limited only by the bar Brownian noise at the bandwidth close to 100 Hz. It is destined for a search for rare events--gravitational pulses coincident with signals of neutrino scintillator (BUST) in the deep underground of Baksan Neutrino Observatory of INR RAS. PMID:24985859

Bagaev, S N; Bezrukov, L B; Kvashnin, N L; Krysanov, V A; Oreshkin, S I; Motylev, A M; Popov, S M; Rudenko, V N; Samoilenko, A A; Skvortsov, M N; Yudin, I S

2014-06-01

16

Response of gravity level fluctuations on the Gravity Probe-B spacecraft propellant system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Time-dependent computations have been performed to investigate the dynamical behaviors of fluid under a microgravity environment. A computer algorithm is introduced which can be used to simulate the fluid behavior in that environment, in particular the excitation of sloshing waves due to different gravity environments and rotation speeds. A suggestion on the proper handling and managing of cryogenic fluid propellant to be used in the Gravity Probe-B spacecraft propulsion is made.

Hung, R. J.; Tsao, Y. D.; Leslie, F. W.

1989-01-01

17

The University of Maryland Space Systems Laboratory is developing the capability to simulate partial gravity levels  

E-print Network

to simulate partial gravity levels for human operational activities through the use of ballast on body the force of gravity. The human body is close to neutrally buoyant underwater, so adding ballast canABSTRACT The University of Maryland Space Systems Laboratory is developing the capability

Akin, David

18

Gravity Waves Appearing in a High-Resolution GCM Simulation.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global characteristics of gravity waves in the lower stratosphere are examined using a GCM with high resolution in both the horizontal (T106, corresponding to about 120 km) and the vertical (600 m). The bottom boundary condition of the model is that of an aquaplanet with perpetual February sea surface temperature. The simulated gravity waves are in good agreement with mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radar observations at a middle latitude on the gravity wave structure and on the frequency spectra as a function of height. The frequency spectra of simulated wind and temperature fluctuations are also examined as a function of latitude. Large values of spectral density are observed at frequencies higher than the inertial frequency (f) in a weak wind region around 20 km, which is consistent with the characteristics of internal gravity waves. An isolated peak is observed near f for horizontal wind spectra at latitudes higher than 10°, while the energy is distributed in a wide range of frequency at lower latitudes where f approaches zero.Further analysis is performed of those fluctuations having periods shorter than 24 h and those having vertical wavelengths smaller than 5 km. These are frequently analyzed as gravity waves using observation data. The distribution of energy and momentum fluxes in the latitude-height section is examined. The result indicates that short-period waves mostly propagate upward and poleward from the equatorial region. The wave energy reaches about 50° lat at the 27-km altitude. A negative (positive) maximum of vertical flux of meridional momentum () is seen above the subtropical jet in the Northern (Southern) Hemisphere for small vertical-scale gravity waves. This is consistent with the preferred equatorward propagation of the wave indicated by a statistical analysis based on MST radar observations. The ratio of potential to kinetic energy maximizes over the equator and decreases poleward. The Eliassen-Palm flux divergence associated with gravity waves is decelerative above the subtropical jet, albeit small.

Sato, Kaoru; Kumakura, Toshiro; Takahashi, Masaaki

1999-04-01

19

Nucleate pool boiling: High gravity to reduced gravity; liquid metals to cryogens  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Requirements for the proper functioning of equipment and personnel in reduced gravity associated with space platforms and future space station modules introduce unique problems in temperature control; power generation; energy dissipation; the storage, transfer, control and conditioning of fluids; and liquid-vapor separation. The phase change of boiling is significant in all of these. Although both pool and flow boiling would be involved, research results to date include only pool boiling because buoyancy effects are maximized for this case. The effective application of forced convection boiling heat transfer in the microgravity of space will require a well grounded and cogent understanding of the mechanisms involved. Experimental results are presented for pool boiling from a single geometrical configuration, a flat surface, covering a wide range of body forces from a/g = 20 to 1 to a/g = 0 to -1 for a cryogenic liquid, and from a/g = 20 to 1 for water and a liquid metal. Similarities in behavior are noted for these three fluids at the higher gravity levels, and may reasonably be expected to continue at reduced gravity levels.

Merte, Herman, Jr.

1988-01-01

20

Sensitivity study of high eccentricity orbits for Mars gravity recovery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By linear perturbation theory, a sensitivity study is presented to calculate the contribution of the Mars gravity field to the orbital perturbations in velocity for spacecrafts in both low eccentricity Mars orbits and high eccentricity orbits (HEOs). In order to improve the solution of some low degree/order gravity coefficients, a method of choosing an appropriate semimajor axis is often used to calculate an expected orbital resonance, which will significantly amplify the magnitude of the position and velocity perturbations produced by certain gravity coefficients. We can then assess to what degree/order gravity coefficients can be recovered from the tracking data of the spacecraft. However, this existing method can only be applied to a low eccentricity orbit, and is not valid for an HEO. A new approach to choosing an appropriate semimajor axis is proposed here to analyze an orbital resonance. This approach can be applied to both low eccentricity orbits and HEOs. This small adjustment in the semimajor axis can improve the precision of gravity field coefficients and does not affect other scientific objectives.

He, Zhi-Zhou; Huang, Cheng-Li

2015-01-01

21

A Model for High Energy Scattering in Quantum Gravity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a model for high energy two body scattering in a quantum theory of gravity. The model is applicable for center of mass energies higher than the relevant Planck scale. At impact parameters smaller than the Schwarzchild radius appropriate to the center of mass energy and total charge of the initial state, the cross section is dominated by an

Tom Banks; Willy Fischler

1999-01-01

22

Visual analysis of flow boiling at different gravity levels in 4.0 mm tube  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the present paper is to describe the results of flow boiling heat transfer at low gravity and compare them with those obtained at earth gravity, evaluating possible differences. The experimental campaigns at low gravity have been performed during the parabolic flight campaign of October-November 2013. The paper will show the analysis of differences between the heat transfer coefficients and vapour bubble parameters at normal and at zero gravity. The results of 4.0 mm tube are presented and discussed. With respect to terrestrial gravity, heat transfer is systematically lower at microgravity in the range of the experimental conditions. Heat transfer differences for the two gravity conditions are related to the different bubble size in each of them. The size of a bubble in flow boiling is affected by the gravity level, being larger at low gravity, unless inertial forces are largely predominant over buoyancy and other forces acting on the bubble itself when detaching from a heated wall. Vapour bubble parameters (bubble diameter, bubble length, width, and nose velocity) have been measured.

Valencia-Castillo, C. M.; Celata, G. P.; Saraceno, L.; Zummo, G.

2014-11-01

23

Cognitive high level information fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusion of sensor and communication data currently can only be performed at a late processing stage after sensor and textual information are formulated as logical statements at appropriately high level of abstraction. Contrary to this it seems, the human mind integrates sensor and language signals seamlessly, before signals are understood, at pre-conceptual level. Learning of conceptual contents of the surrounding

Leonid I. Perlovsky

2007-01-01

24

High-resolution gravity survey: Investigation of subsurface structures at Poas volcano, Costa Rica  

E-print Network

High-resolution gravity survey: Investigation of subsurface structures at Poa´s volcano, Costa Rica correction. Here we describe a high- resolution gravity survey at Poa´s volcano, Costa Rica. Our gravity structures at Poa´s volcano, Costa Rica, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L15602, doi:10.1029/2004GL020563. 1

Williams-Jones, Glyn

25

High pressure liquid level monitor  

DOEpatents

A liquid level monitor for tracking the level of a coal slurry in a high-pressure vessel including a toroidal-shaped float with magnetically permeable bands thereon disposed within the vessel, two pairs of magnetic field generators and detectors disposed outside the vessel adjacent the top and bottom thereof and magnetically coupled to the magnetically permeable bands on the float, and signal processing circuitry for combining signals from the top and bottom detectors for generating a monotonically increasing analog control signal which is a function of liquid level. The control signal may be utilized to operate high-pressure control valves associated with processes in which the high-pressure vessel is used.

Bean, Vern E. (Frederick, MD); Long, Frederick G. (Ijamsville, MD)

1984-01-01

26

Gravity Waves in Hot Planet Atmospheres with High Speed Flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many global hydrodynamics models have been used to study the large-scale flows of close-in extrasolar planet atmospheres. None of these models, however, resolve gravity waves which can significantly affect the large-scale flow and its associated variability in the atmosphere. Such waves are generated by a variety of mechanisms - including, inter alia, spatially or temporally varying diabatic heating, convective overshoots, hydrodynamic instabilities and adjustment processes. Previously, we have examined mesoscale gravity waves in an inviscid atmosphere with moderately fast background flows [1]. In this work, we study large-scale, as well as mesoscale, waves in atmospheres containing high-speed flows and regions of strong dissipation. The primary focus is on the waves' propagation characteristics and interaction with the mean-flow.

Cho, J. Y.-K.; Watkins, C. L.

2013-09-01

27

High level controls at RHIC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the software tools and techniques in development to ensure that the commissioning and operations teams for RHIC have access to high level analysis, diagnosis, modelling and control functions early in the start up of the machine. The first tests will be for the sextant test in mid-1995.

Peggs, S.; Saltmarsh, C.; Satogata, T.; Fryer, M.

1994-12-01

28

High-Level Radioactive Waste.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a method to calculate the amount of high-level radioactive waste by taking into consideration the following factors: the fission process that yields the waste, identification of the waste, the energy required to run a 1-GWe plant for one year, and the uranium mass required to produce that energy. Briefly discusses waste disposal and…

Hayden, Howard C.

1995-01-01

29

High-Resolution Infra-Red Imaging Studies of Mesospheric Gravity Waves (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation highlights new research capabilities and recent results focusing on polar latitudes using two new infra-red imaging systems operating at the ALOMAR Arctic Observatory, Norway and at the Amundsen-Scott Base, South Pole, Antarctica. The Advanced Mesospheric Temperature Mapper (AMTM) is a novel infrared digital imaging system that measures selected emission lines in the mesospheric OH (3,1) band (at ~1.5?m) to create high-quality intensity and temperature maps of a broad spectrum of mesospheric gravity waves (with periods ranging from several minutes to many hours). The data are obtained with an unprecedented spatial (~0.5 km) and temporal (typically 30 sec) resolution over a large 120° field of view enabling detailed measurements of wave propagation and dissipation at the ~87 km level, even in the presence of strong aurora. Several new results will be presented and discussed, including high-resolution imaging studies of gravity wave breaking, first evidence of gravity wave 'self-acceleration' and new coordinated lidar, radar and AMTM measurements of gravity wave propagation and ducting at mid-latitudes.

Taylor, M. J.; Pautet, P.; Zhao, Y.; Pendleton, W. R.; Yuan, T.; Esplin, R.; McLain, D.; Fritts, D. C.; Stober, G.

2013-12-01

30

High resolution gravity models combining terrestrial and satellite data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spherical harmonic expansions to degree 360 have been developed that combine satellite potential coefficient information, terrestrial gravity data, satellite altimeter information as a direct tracking data type and topographic information. These models define improved representations of the Earth's gravitational potential beyond that available from just satellite or terrestrial data. The development of the degree 360 models, however, does not imply a uniform accuracy in the determination of the gravity field as numerous geographic areas are devoid of terrestrial data or the resolution of such data is limited to, for example, 100 km. This paper will consider theoretical and numerical questions related to the combination of the various data types. Various models of the combination process are discussed with a discussion of various correction terms for the different models. Various sources of gravity data will be described. The new OSU91 360 model will be discussed with comparisons made to previous 360 models and to other potential coefficient models that are complete to degree 50. Future directions in high degree potential coefficient models will be discussed.

Rapp, Richard H.; Pavlis, Nikolaos K.; Wang, Yan M.

1992-01-01

31

Global estimates of gravity wave momentum flux from High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder observations  

E-print Network

Global estimates of gravity wave momentum flux from High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder are analyzed to derive global properties of gravity waves. We describe a wavelet analysis technique. The analysis allows a local estimate of the magnitude of gravity wave momentum flux as a function of geographic

Alexander, M. Joan

32

Orthometric corrections from leveling, gravity, density and elevation data: a case study in Taiwan  

E-print Network

produce different results and yield OCs that are greater than 10 cm between adjacent benchmarks (separated leveling must be corrected for non-parallel equipotential surfaces using the orthometric correction (OC applications. Rigorous OC computation is expensive because it requires observed gravity values at benchmarks

Hwang, Cheinway

33

Bed topography of Store Glacier, Greenland from high-resolution airborne gravity data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Store Glacier is a major west Greenland outlet tidewater glacier draining an area of 30,000 square km into Uummannaq Fjord, flowing at a speed of 4.8 km per year at the terminus. The bed topography of the glacier is poorly known and the fjord bathymetry has only been partially surveyed for the first time in 2012. In this study, we present a new approach on the modeling of glacier thickness and sea floor bathymetry based on high resolution gravity constrained with other observations. In August 2012, we acquired a 250m spacing grid of free-air gravity data at a speed of 50 knots with accuracy at sub-milligal level. We constrain the 3D inversion of these gravity data with ship-borne bathymetry near the glacier front and radar-derived ice thickness on grounded ice to derive a seamless map of bed topography of grounded ice and sea floor. Comparison of the new topography with prior maps reveals vast differences. Prior bathymetry (IBCAO3) has an ice front grounded at sea level whereas observations show a depth of 550m. On grounded ice, the data reveal the subglacial topography at an unprecedented level of spatial details. We discuss the impact of the results on the modeling of the glacier flow and the understanding of its interaction with ocean thermal forcing and surface mass balance.

An, L.; Rignot, E. J.

2013-12-01

34

Testing gravity at the second post-Newtonian level through gravitational deflection of massive particles  

SciTech Connect

Expression for second post-Newtonian level gravitational deflection angle of massive particles is obtained in a model independent framework. Comparison of theoretical values with the observationally constructed values of post-Newtonian parameters for massive particles offers the future possibility of testing at that level competing gravitational theories as well as the equivalence principle. Advantage of studying gravitational deflection of massive particles over that of massless particles in testing gravity is discussed.

Bhadra, A.; Sarkar, K.; Nandi, K. K. [High Energy and Cosmic Ray Research Centre, University of North Bengal, Siliguri, WB 734013 (India); Department of Mathematics, University of North Bengal, Siliguri, WB 734013 (India)

2007-06-15

35

High energy scattering in QCD and in quantum gravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The theory of the high energy scattering in QCD is based on the BFKL equation for the Pomeron wave function and on its generalization for composite multi-gluon states in the crossing channel. At a large number of colors the equations for the gluon composite states have remarkable mathematical properties including their Möbius invariance, holomorphic separability, duality symmetry and integrability. High energy QCD interactions local in the particle rapidities are formulated in the form of the gauge invariant effective action. In the maximally extended N = 4 super-symmetry the Pomeron turns out to be dual to the reggeized graviton in the 10-dimensional anti-de-Sitter space. As a result, the Gribov calculus for the Pomeron interactions should be reformulated here as a generally covariant effective field theory for the reggeized gravitons. We construct the corresponding effective action, which gives a possibility to calculate their trajectory and couplings. The graviton trajectory in the leading order contains an ultraviolet divergency meaning the presence of the double-logarithmic (DL) terms. We sum the DL contributions in all orders of the perturbation theory in the Einstein-Hilbert gravity and in its super-symmetric generalizations. In the N = 8 super gravity the ratio of the scattering amplitude in the DL approximation to the Born expression tends to zero at large energies.

Lipatov, L. N.

2014-06-01

36

High pressure droplet burning experiments in reduced gravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A parametric investigation of single droplet gasification regimes is helpful in providing the necessary physical ideas for sub-grid models used in spray combustion numerical prediction codes. A research program has been initiated at the LCSR to explore the vaporization regimes of single and interacting hydrocarbon and liquid oxygen droplets under high pressure conditions. This paper summarizes the status of the LCSR program on the high pressure burning of single fuel droplets; recent results obtained under normal and reduced gravity conditions with suspended droplets are presented. In the work described here, parabolic flights of the CNES Caravelle is used to create a reduced gravity environment of the order of 10(exp -2) g(sub O). For all the droplet burning experiments reported here, the suspended droplet initial diameters are scattered around 1.5 mm; and the ambient air temperature is 300 K. The ambient pressure is varied between 0.1 MPa and 12 MPa. Four fuels are investigated: methanol (Pc = 7.9 MPa), n-heptane (Pc = 2.74 MPa), n-hexane (Pc = 3.01 MPa) and n-octane (Pc = 2.48 MPa).

Chauveau, Christian; Goekalp, Iskender

1995-01-01

37

Slosh wave excitation associated with high frequency impulsive reverse gravity acceleration of geyser initiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of the cryogenic fluid management of the spacecraft propulsion system is to develop the technology necessary for acquisition or positioning of liquid and vapor within a tank in reduced gravity to enable liquid outflow or vapor venting. The requirement to settle or to position liquid fuel over the outlet end of spacecraft propellant tank prior to main engine restart poses a microgravity fluid behavior problem. The purpose of this study is to investigate the stability of the most efficient technique for propellant resettling through the minimization of propellant usage and weight penalties. In this study slosh wave excitation induced by the resettling flowfield activated by 10-Hz high-frequency impulsive reverse gravity acceleration during the course of liquid fluid reorientation with the initiation of geyser for liquid filled levels of 30, 50, 65, 70 and 80 percent have been studied. Characteristics of slosh waves with various frequencies excited are discussed.

Hung, R. J.; Shyu, K. L.; Lee, C. C.

38

Regulation by gravity of the transcript levels of MAP65 in azuki bean epicotyls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development of a short and thick body by reorientation of cortical microtubules is required for the resistance of plants to the gravitational force. The 65 kDa microtubule-associated protein (MAP65) has microtubule bundling activity and is involved in the reorientation of cortical microtubules. Here, we investigated the relation between the orientation of cortical microtubules and the transcript levels of VaMAP65-1 under centrifugal hypergravity conditions in azuki bean epicotyls. The percentage of cells with transverse microtubules was decreased, while that with longitudinal microtubules was increased, in proportion to the logarithm of the magnitude of gravity. The orientation of microtubules was restored to the original direction after removal of the hypergravity stimulus. The transcript level of VaMAP65-1 was down-regulated in proportion to the logarithm of the magnitude of gravity (R=-0.99). By removal of hypergravity stimulus, expression of VaMAP65-1 was increased to control levels. Strong correlations were observed between the percentage of cells with longitudinal or transverse microtubules and the transcript levels of VaMAP65-1 (R=-0.93, 0.91). These results suggest that down-regulation of VaMAP65-1 expression is involved in the regulation by gravity of the orientation of cortical microtubules in azuki bean epicotyls. Lanthanum and gadolinium ions, potential blockers of mechanosensitive calcium ion-permeable channels (mechanoreceptors), nullified the down-regulation of expression of VaMAP65-1 gene, suggesting that mechanoreceptors are responsible for regulation by gravity of VaMAP65-1 expression.

Soga, Kouichi; Hoson, Takayuki; Wakabayashi, Kazuyuki; Kotake, Toshihisa

2012-07-01

39

Degraded EEG response of the human brain in function of gravity levels by the method of chaotic attractor.  

PubMed

The measurement of the influence of different gravity levels on the brain allows to explain how humans react to microgravity in space and to predict the adaptation capability of astronauts. Human electroencephalographic (EEG) signals were recorded during low and high gravity phases of three consecutive days of parabolic flights on the Caravelle aircraft in 1991. EEG signals were processed, using the method of correlation dimensions d of chaotic strange attractors. Results show clear differences between the three flights, with a general decrease over time in the attractor dimensions, a measure of the brain response to changing g levels. However, the dimension is not a one-to-one relation with g levels, as additional variations are observed. Two hypotheses are introduced, the "fatigue/stress" and the "g stress" hypotheses corresponding, respectively, to long-term fatigue accumulated over the three flights, and to short-term fatigue in response to change in g levels. The former explains the overall decrease of dimensions, the latter yields additional variations on shorter time scales. As the brain response degrades with time, at least six degraded modes were observed, explained by both short- and long-term fatigue. PMID:12575723

Pletser, Vladimir; Quadens, Olga

2003-04-01

40

Degraded EEG response of the human brain in function of gravity levels by the method of chaotic attractor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The measurement of the influence of different gravity levels on the brain allows to explain how humans react to microgravity in space and to predict the adaptation capability of astronauts. Human electroencephalographic (EEG) signals were recorded during low and high gravity phases of three consecutive days of parabolic flights on the Caravelle aircraft in 1991. EEG signals were processed, using the method of correlation dimensions d of chaotic strange attractors. Results show clear differences between the three flights, with a general decrease over time in the attractor dimensions, a measure of the brain response to changing g levels. However, the dimension is not a one-to-one relation with g levels, as additional variations are observed. Two hypotheses are introduced, the "fatigue/stress" and the " g stress" hypotheses corresponding, respectively, to long-term fatigue accumulated over the three flights, and to short-term fatigue in response to change in g levels. The former explains the overall decrease of dimensions, the latter yields additional variations on shorter time scales. As the brain response degrades with time, at least six degraded modes were observed, explained by both short- and long-term fatigue.

Pletser, Vladimir; Quadens, Olga

41

High resolution geodetic techniques for monitoring fluid levels over time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the first study, a novel surveillance technique is developed in which surface gravity observations are used to monitor the progress of a gas cap waterflood in the 8200 ft (2500 m) deep Prudhoe Bay reservoir, Alaska. This cost-effective method requires that high-precision gravity surveys be repeated every 3 to 5 years. Differences in the gravity field with time reflect changes in the reservoir fluid density distribution. A preliminary field test at Prudhoe Bay indicates survey accuracy of 5 to 10 mu Gal can be achieved for gravity data using a modified Lacoste & Romberg "G" type meter or Scintrex CG-3M combined with Global Positioning System (GPS) positioning. Forward gravity modeling of a suite of reservoir simulations of the proposed waterflood predicts variation in surface measurements of 100 mu Gal after 5 years of injection, and 180 to 250 mu Gal after 15 years. A constrained, least-squares method is used to invert synthetic gravity data for subsurface density distributions. The modeling procedure has been formulated to allow testing of the models for sensitivity to gravity sampling patterns, noise characteristics, and various constraints on model parameters such as density range, total mass, and model moment of inertia. Horizontal feature resolution of the waterflood is about 5000 ft (1520 m) for constrained inverse models from synthetic gravity with 5 mu Gal standard deviation noise. Results of the modeling indicate that inversion of time-lapse gravity data is a viable and promising technique for monitoring reservoir gas cap waterfloods. In the second study, the problem of how to estimate ancient lake levels from the geomorphology of remnant shoreline terraces is investigated. High resolution, GPS controlled, topographic data from around the highstand shoreline of Pleistocene Lake Lahontan in western Nevada provide the means for isolating coherent terrace features which are related to the paleoshoreline level. Determination of an unambiguous point or lineation for elevation measurement is complicated by erosional degradation, and the fact that the terraces were irregular at the time of formation. In order to address this problem, local high resolution Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) are generated at six sample terrace sites using a variety of survey techniques, including conventional total station, rapid static GPS, and new real-time kinematic GPS methods. The data are tied to a regional framework of absolute geodetic control. A signal processing method is developed that uses derivative filters for geomorphic feature recognition and averaging for noise reduction. Propagation of errors related to surveying, geoid estimation, and terrace feature estimation indicates that tectonic displacements on the order of one-half meter should be resolvable. This work establishes the foundation for analysis of the terraces on a regional scale by using a high resolution DEM of the entire shoreline trace around the perimeter of Lake Lahontan. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Hare, Jennifer Thompson

1998-11-01

42

Effects of Varying Gravity Levels in Parabolic Flight on the Size-Mass Illusion  

PubMed Central

When an observer lifts two objects with the same weight but different sizes, the smaller object is consistently reported to feel heavier than the larger object even after repeated trials. Here we explored the effect of reduced and increased gravity on this perceptual size-mass illusion. Experiments were performed on board the CNES Airbus A300 Zero-G during parabolic flights eliciting repeated exposures to short periods of zero g, 0.16 g, 0.38 g, one g, and 1.8 g. Subjects were asked to assess perceived heaviness by actively oscillating objects with various sizes and masses. The results showed that a perceptual size-mass illusion was clearly present at all gravity levels. During the oscillations, the peak arm acceleration varied as a function of the gravity level, irrespective of the mass and size of the objects. In other words we did not observe a sensorimotor size-mass illusion. These findings confirm dissociation between the sensorimotor and perceptual systems for determining object mass. In addition, they suggest that astronauts on the Moon or Mars with the eyes closed will be able to accurately determine the relative difference in mass between objects. PMID:24901519

Clément, Gilles

2014-01-01

43

Tethered gravity laboratories study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use is studied of tether systems to improve the lowest possible steady gravity level on the Space Station. Particular emphasis is placed by the microgravity community on the achievement of high quality microgravity conditions. The tether capability is explored for active control of the center of gravity and the analysis of possible tethered configurations.

Lucchetti, F.

1989-01-01

44

Probing Gravity in the High-Redshift Universe with HETDEX  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The addition of dark matter and dark energy to general relativity is degenerate with a modification of the dependence of curvature on the stress-energy tensor in the absence of exotic sources of matter and energy; it is thus valuable to explore the latter as a potential improvement over the former. Though it is inherently difficult to distinguish existing evidence for the general relativity paradigm from that of its more promising alternatives, such theories are associated with different histories for the largely unexplored growth of structure. Zhang, et al. (2007) have enabled discrimination of these possibilities via a new observable parameter EG and have predicted the efficacy of several future astronomical surveys to determine its value. In this work, we examine the ability of the Hobby Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX) to contribute to calculations of this indicator of gravity at the highest redshifts (1.9 < z < 3.5). We show that a prerequisite of such a measurement is a deeper understanding of the nature of Lyman-? emitting galaxies (LAEs). If HETDEX can constrain the statistical properties of the typical LAE velocity dispersion, then it will not be necessary to wait for the (as yet unplanned) next generation of high-resolution spectrographs to obtain a test of general relativity in the high-redshift universe.

Malz, A. I.; Shandera, S.

2014-01-01

45

Nucleate boiling with high gravity and large subcooling  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of the heater surface temperature are presented for pool boiling of distilled water in an accelerating system with various subcoolings and levels of heat flux. The ranges of the experimental variables are: heat flux between 0.19 MW/m{sup 2} and 1.5 MW/m{sup 2}, accelerations normal to the flat heating surface from 1 to 100 times earth gravity, and liquid subcoolings between 0 and K and 89 K. Increasing subcooling first produces an increase and then a decrease in wall superheat, with the eventual cessation of nucleate boiling for certain combinations of conditions. The increase in wall superheat is particularly enhanced at 10g, reaching a maximum value of 9 K at 1.05 MW/m{sup 2} with 60 K subcooling. This type of behavior is attributed to the interactions between the fluid temperature distribution in the immediate vicinity of the heater surface as it is influenced by natural convection, the activation of nucleation sites, and the influence of increased buoyancy on the heat transfer associated with each departing bubble.

Ulucakli, M.E. (Lafayette Coll., Easton, PA (United States)); Merte, H. Jr. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor (United States))

1990-05-01

46

Utilization of high resolution satellite gravity over the Carlsberg Ridge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Carlsberg Ridge lies between the equator and the Owen fracture zone. It is the most prominent mid-ocean ridge segment\\u000a of the western Indian Ocean, which contains a number of earthquake epicenters. Satellite altimetry can be used to infer subsurface\\u000a geological structures analogous to gravity anomaly maps generated through ship-borne survey. In this study, free-air gravity\\u000a and its 3D image

S. Chatterjee; R. Bhattacharyya; T. J. Majumdar

2007-01-01

47

High temperature liquid level sensor  

DOEpatents

A length of metal sheathed metal oxide cable is perforated to permit liquid access to the insulation about a pair of conductors spaced close to one another. Changes in resistance across the conductors will be a function of liquid level, since the wetted insulation will have greater electrical conductivity than that of the dry insulation above the liquid elevation.

Tokarz, Richard D. (West Richland, WA)

1983-01-01

48

High-Level Data Races  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data races are a common problem in concurrent and multi-threaded programming. They are hard to detect without proper tool support. Despite the successful application of these tools, experience shows that the notion of data race is not powerful enough to capture certain types of inconsistencies occurring in practice. In this paper we investigate data races on a higher abstraction layer. This enables us to detect inconsistent uses of shared variables, even if no classical race condition occurs. For example, a data structure representing a coordinate pair may have to be treated atomically. By lifting the meaning of a data race to a higher level, such problems can now be covered. The paper defines the concepts view and view consistency to give a notation for this novel kind of property. It describes what kinds of errors can be detected with this new definition, and where its limitations are. It also gives a formal guideline for using data structures in a multi-threading environment.

Artho, Cyrille; Havelund, Klaus; Biere, Armin; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

2003-01-01

49

Facile Preparation of Danazol Nanoparticles by High-Gravity Antisolvent Precipitation (HGAP) Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nanoparticles of the hydrophobic drug of danazol with narrow size distribution are facilely prepared by controlled high-gravity anti-solvent precipitation (HGAP) process. Intensified micromixing and uniform nucleation environment are created by the high-gravity equipment (rotating packed bed) in carrying out the anti-solvent precipitation process to produce nanoparticles. The average particle size decreases from 55 ?m of the raw danazol to

Hong ZHAO; Jiexin WANG; Haixia ZHANG; Zhigang SHEN; Jimmy Yun; Jianfeng CHEN

2009-01-01

50

High gravity batch and continuous processes for beer production: Evaluation of fermentation performance and beer quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study deals with two innovative brewing processes, high gravity batch and complete continuous beer fermentation systems.\\u000a The results show a significant influence of the variables such as concentration and temperature on the yield factor of the\\u000a substrate into ethanol and consequently on the productivity of the high gravity batch process. The technological feasibility\\u000a of continuous production of beer based

Daniel P. Silva; Tomáš Brányik; Giuliano Dragone; António A. Vicente; José A. Teixeira; João B. Almeida e Silva

2008-01-01

51

Ocean contribution to seismic gravity changes: the sea level equation for seismic perturbations revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During megathrust earthquakes, great ruptures are accompanied by large scale mass redistribution inside the solid Earth and by ocean mass redistribution due to bathymetry changes. These large scale mass displacements can be detected using the monthly gravity maps of the GRACE satellite mission. In recent years it has become increasingly common to use the long wavelength changes in the Earth's gravity field observed by GRACE to infer seismic source properties for large megathrust earthquakes. An important advantage of space gravimetry is that it is independent from the availability of land for its measurements. This is relevant for observation of megathrust earthquakes, which occur mostly offshore, such as the M_{text{w}} ˜ 9 2004 Sumatra-Andaman, 2010 Maule (Chile) and 2011 Tohoku-Oki (Japan) events. In Broerse et al., we examined the effect of the presence of an ocean above the rupture on long wavelength gravity changes and showed it to be of the first order. Here we revisit the implementation of an ocean layer through the sea level equation and compare the results with approximated methods that have been used in the literature. One of the simplifications usually lies in the assumption of a globally uniform ocean layer. We show that especially in the case of the 2010 Maule earthquake, due to the closeness of the South American continent, the uniform ocean assumption is not valid and causes errors up to 57 per cent for modelled peak geoid height changes (expressed at a spherical harmonic truncation degree of 40). In addition, we show that when a large amount of slip occurs close to the trench, horizontal motions of the ocean floor play a mayor role in the ocean contribution to gravity changes. Using a slip model of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake that places the majority of slip close to the surface, the peak value in geoid height change increases by 50 per cent due to horizontal ocean floor motion. Furthermore, we test the influence of the maximum spherical harmonic degree at which the sea level equation is performed for sea level changes occurring along coastlines, which shows to be important for relative sea level changes occurring along the shore. Finally, we demonstrate that ocean floor loading, self-gravitation of water and conservation of water mass are of second order importance for coseismic gravity changes. When GRACE observations are used to determine earthquake parameters such as seismic moment or source depth, the uniform ocean layer method introduces large biases, depending on the location of the rupture with respect to the continent. The same holds for interpreting shallow slip when horizontal motions are not properly accounted for in the ocean contribution. In both cases the depth at which slip occurs will be underestimated.

Broerse, Taco; Riva, Riccardo; Vermeersen, Bert

2014-11-01

52

Application of Fiber Bragg Grating Level Sensor and Fabry-Pérot Pressure Sensor to Simultaneous Measurement of Liquid Level and Specific Gravity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is proposed for obtaining simultaneous measurements of the level and specific gravity of a liquid using a dual-optical-fiber-sensor system comprising a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) level sensor and a Fabry-Pérot (FP) pressure sensor. In the FBG level sensor, the liquid level is derived from the FBG wavelength shift induced when the buoyancy is applied on a cantilever beam.

Chih-Wei Lai; Yu-Lung Lo; Jiahn-Piring Yur; Chin-Ho Chuang

2012-01-01

53

High Resolution Measurement of Gravity Deflections from the Vertical over Long Baselines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sander Geophysics has operated its AIRGrav system for over ten years and has worked to continually improve the accuracy and resolution of the entire system. New data processing techniques have allowed the extraction of the gravity deflections from the vertical (horizontal components of the airborne gravity data) in addition to the traditionally used scalar gravity measurement, and operations have expanded to acquisition speeds ranging from 15 km/hr to over 1000 km/hr. The gravimeter is based on an assembly of gyroscopes and accelerometers held in a stable spatial orientation, and has horizontal accelerometers of sufficient accuracy that it is possible to estimate the horizontal components of the gravity vector. "Geodetic quality" GPS receivers are used to collect data at a high rate, and these data are post-processed with the recorded gravimeter data to produce estimates of the three gravity vector components. The estimates of the gravity deflections from the vertical are very sensitive to initial settings of sensor parameters, unmodelled gyro and other sensor errors, as well as unpredictable changes in the sensor errors. As a consequence, it is necessary to constrain the long-wavelength errors using some external source of data. All three components of gravity can be measured to sub-mGal resolution, providing the horizontal components can be constrained in a long-wavelength sense. Data recorded during several flights each consisting of a single long line will be presented, showing the estimates of the gravity deflections from the vertical and comparing them with the best available reference data. Figure 1 illustrates the extent of the long lines. The examples will demonstrate that the horizontal gravity components can be measured with high repeatability, and agree with geoid models of the highest order available. Results from airborne and marine surveys acquired at a wide range of speeds will also be presented to illustrate the resolution attained using these varied platforms.

Sander, S.; Ferguson, S.; Sander, L.; Elieff, S. H.

2011-12-01

54

A high resolution gravity model for Venus - GVM-1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A spherical harmonic model of the gravitational field of Venus complete to degree and order 50 has been developed using the S-band Doppler tracking data of the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) collected between 1979 and 1982. The short wavelengths of this model could only be resolved near the PVO periapse location (about 14 deg N latitude), therefore a priori constraints were applied to the model to bias poorly observed coefficients towards zero. The resulting model has a half-wavelength resolution of 400 km near the PVO periapse location, but the resolution degrades to greater than 1000 km near the poles. This gravity model correlates well with a degree 50 spherical harmonic expansion of the Venus topography derived from a combination of Magellan and PVO data. New tracking data from Magellan's gravity mission should provide some improvement to this model, although a complete model of the Venusian gravity field will depend on tracking of Magellan after the circularization of its orbit using aerobraking.

Nerem, R. S.; Bills, B. G.; Mcnamee, J. B.

1993-01-01

55

Monitoring Earthquake Fault Slip from Space: Model Implications for a High Precision, High Resolution Dedicated Gravity Mission (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitoring deformation produced by slip on earthquake faults can be carried out via GPS or InSAR measurements. Both of these types of observations have their advantages and disadvantages, in terms of cost, availability, and technical difficulty. It has been suggested that another method to accomplish many of the same objectives would be via a dedicated gravity mission. The GRACE mission has shown that it is possible to make detailed gravity measurements from space for climate dynamics and other purposes. An important question is what level of accuracy will be needed for precise estimation of fault slip in earthquakes of interest to researchers. To answer this question, we turn to numerical simulations of earthquake fault systems and use these to estimate gravity changes. Rundle (1978) considered the question of gravity changes from dilation sources and thrust faults, and found that gravity changes in these cases were free air anomaly (dilation) and Bouguer anomaly (thrust fault). Walsh and Rice (1978) computed these by a different method and found the same result. Okada (1991) listed gravity and potential Green functions for all possible sources for the general case. Hayes et al (2006) then took the Okada Greens functions and applied them computed from an earlier version of Virtual California earthquake fault system simulations. Those simulations only involved vertical strike slip faults. The current far more advanced generation of Virtual California simulations involves faults of any orientation, dip, and rake. In this talk, we discuss these computations and the implications they have for accuracies needed for a dedicated gravity monitoring mission. Preliminary results are in agreement with previous results from Hayes et al (2006). Computed gravity changes are in the range of tens to hundreds of microgals over distances of few to many tens of kilometers. These values are presumably well within the range of measurement for a modern gravity mission flown either at low altitudes, or via UAVs.

Rundle, J. B.; Sachs, M. K.; Tiampo, K. F.; Fernandez, J.; Turcotte, D. L.; Donnellan, A.; Heien, E. M.; Kellogg, L. H.

2013-12-01

56

Parallel Processing at the High School Level.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the ability of high school students to cognitively understand and implement parallel processing. Data indicates that most parallel processing is being taught at the university level. Instructional modules on C, Linux, and the parallel processing language, P4, were designed to show that high school students are highly

Sheary, Kathryn Anne

57

Virtuous trees at five- and six-point levels for Yang-Mills theory and gravity  

SciTech Connect

We present a particularly nice D-dimensional graph-based representation of the full color-dressed five-point tree-level gluon amplitude. It possesses the following virtues: (1) it satisfies the color-kinematic correspondence, and thus trivially generates the associated five-point graviton amplitude, (2) all external-state information is encoded in color-ordered partial amplitudes, and (3) one function determines the kinematic contribution of all graphs in the Yang-Mills amplitude, so the associated gravity amplitude is manifestly permutation symmetric. The third virtue, while shared among all known loop-level correspondence-satisfying representations, is novel for tree-level representations sharing the first two virtues. This new D-dimensional representation makes contact with the recently found multiloop five-point representations, suggesting all-loop, all-multiplicity ramifications through unitarity. Additionally we present a slightly less virtuous representation of the six-point maximally helicity-violating (MHV) and MHV amplitudes that holds only in four dimensions.

Broedel, Johannes; Carrasco, John Joseph M. [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305-4060 (United States); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

2011-10-15

58

High Degree and Order Gravity Fields of the Moon Derived from GRAIL Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) spacecraft conducted the mapping of the gravity field of the Moon from March 1, 2012 to May 29, 2012. The twin spacecraft acquired highly precise K Band range-rate (KBRR) intersatellite ranging data and Deep Space Network (DSN) data during this prime mission phase from altitudes of 15 to 75 km above the lunar surface over three lunar months. We have processed these data using the NASA GSFC GEODYN orbit determination and geodetic parameter estimation program, and we have determined gravity fields up to degree and order 420 in spherical harmonics. The new gravity solutions show improved correlations with LOLA-derived topography to high degree and order and resolve many lunar features in the geopotential with a resolution of less than 30 km, including for example the central peak of the crater Tycho. We discuss the methodology used for the processing of the GRAIL data, the quality of the orbit determination on the GRAIL satellites and the derivation of the solutions, and their evaluation with independent data, including Lunar Prospector. We show that with these new GRAIL gravity solutions, we can now fit the low altitude, extended mission Lunar Prospector tracking data better than with any previous gravity model that included the LP data.

Lemoine, F. G.; Goossens, S. J.; Sabaka, T. J.; Nicholas, J. B.; Mazarico, E.; Rowlands, D. D.; Loomis, B. D.; Chinn, D. S.; Caprette, D. S.; McCarthy, J. J.; Neumann, G. A.; Zuber, M. T.; Smith, D. E.

2012-01-01

59

The High Road to Formal Validation: Model Checking High-Level versus Low-Level Specifications  

E-print Network

The High Road to Formal Validation: Model Checking High-Level versus Low-Level Specifications). It is relatively clear that a higher level specification formalism enables a more convenient modelling-level specifications with ProB. We investigate the reasons for this behaviour, examining expressivity, granularity

Southampton, University of

60

Pore-Level Modeling of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Geologic Media: Gravity-Driven Escape  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon capture with storage in geologic media has the potential to sequester a significant amount of anthropogenically-produced carbon dioxide in the upcoming decades. Underground injection of gas is already a common practice in the oil and gas industry, and injection into deep brine-saturated formations is a commercially proven method of sequestering CO2. However, before these become viable means of sequestration on a large scale, a number of questions must be answered about the ability of brine and oil fields to retain the CO2 that has been stored there. The primary methods of release of carbon dioxide from many geologic formations likely will be gravity-driven percolation. We have developed a pore-level numerical model that can be used to study the invasion of a non-wetting fluid (CO2) into a porous medium filled with wetting fluid (brine). The model incorporates a distribution of "pore-throat" radii, the formation wettability (i.e., the gas-liquid-solid contact angle), the interfacial tension between the fluids, the fluid viscosities and densities, and all other parameters that appear in the capillary pressure or the capillary, Bond, or fluid-trapping numbers. For this work, the model has been used to study gravity-driven flow upward out of brine-saturated formations (which is very similar to the downward infiltration of DNAPLs into water-saturated porous media). Results are presented which show how leakage rates depend on the amount of carbon dioxide sequestered and the average pore size of the overlying formations, as well as the density of CO2 (which will change with the depth of the formation).

Bromhal, G. S.; Smith, D. H.; Ferer, M.

2002-05-01

61

Equilibrium Tides Along with surface gravity waves, the predictable rise and fall of sea level at the coast are  

E-print Network

Equilibrium Tides Along with surface gravity waves, the predictable rise and fall of sea level at the coast are our most familiar periodic motions. These tides do not represent a new class of waves, but rather are the manifestation of strong forcing at precisely repeating periods. Gravitational tide

Thompson, LuAnne

62

Assimilation of TOPEX sea level measurements with a reduced-gravity, shallow water model of the tropical Pacific Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sea surface height variability measured by TOPEX is analyzed in the tropical Pacific Ocean by way of assimilation into a wind-driven, reduced-gravity, shallow water model using an approximate Kalman filter and smoother. The analysis results in an optimal fit of the dynamic model to the observations, providing a dynamically consistent interpolation of sea level and estimation of the circulation. Nearly

Ichiro Fukumori

1995-01-01

63

Lunar Prospector Orbit Determination Uncertainties Using the High Resolution Lunar Gravity Models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Lunar Prospector (LP) mission began on January 6, 1998, when the LP spacecraft was launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida. The objectives of the mission were to determine whether water ice exists at the lunar poles, generate a global compositional map of the lunar surface, detect lunar outgassing, and improve knowledge of the lunar magnetic and gravity fields. Orbit determination of LP performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is conducted as part of the principal science investigation of the lunar gravity field. This paper will describe the JPL effort in support of the LP Gravity Investigation. This support includes high precision orbit determination, gravity model validation, and data editing. A description of the mission and its trajectory will be provided first, followed by a discussion of the orbit determination estimation procedure and models. Accuracies will be examined in terms of orbit-to-orbit solution differences, as a function of oblateness model truncation, and inclination in the plane-of-sky. Long term predictions for several gravity fields will be compared to the reconstructed orbits to demonstrate the accuracy of the orbit determination and oblateness fields developed by the Principal Gravity Investigator.

Carranza, Eric; Konopliv, Alex; Ryne, Mark

1999-01-01

64

A Fast Full Tensor Gravity computation algorithm for High Resolution 3D Geologic Interpretations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an algorithm to rapidly calculate the vertical gravity and full tensor gravity (FTG) values due to a 3-D geologic model. This algorithm can be implemented on single, multi-core CPU and graphical processing units (GPU) architectures. Our technique is based on the line element approximation with a constant density within each grid cell. This type of parameterization is well suited for high-resolution elevation datasets with grid size typically in the range of 1m to 30m. The large high-resolution data grids in our studies employ a pre-filtered mipmap pyramid type representation for the grid data known as the Geometry clipmap. The clipmap was first introduced by Microsoft Research in 2004 to do fly-through terrain visualization. This method caches nested rectangular extents of down-sampled data layers in the pyramid to create view-dependent calculation scheme. Together with the simple grid structure, this allows the gravity to be computed conveniently on-the-fly, or stored in a highly compressed format. Neither of these capabilities has previously been available. Our approach can perform rapid calculations on large topographies including crustal-scale models derived from complex geologic interpretations. For example, we used a 1KM Sphere model consisting of 105000 cells at 10m resolution with 100000 gravity stations. The line element approach took less than 90 seconds to compute the FTG and vertical gravity on an Intel Core i7 CPU at 3.07 GHz utilizing just its single core. Also, unlike traditional gravity computational algorithms, the line-element approach can calculate gravity effects at locations interior or exterior to the model. The only condition that must be met is the observation point cannot be located directly above the line element. Therefore, we perform a location test and then apply appropriate formulation to those data points. We will present and compare the computational performance of the traditional prism method versus the line element approach on different CPU-GPU system configurations. The algorithm calculates the expected gravity at station locations where the observed gravity and FTG data were acquired. This algorithm can be used for all fast forward model calculations of 3D geologic interpretations for data from airborne, space and submarine gravity, and FTG instrumentation.

Jayaram, V.; Crain, K.; Keller, G. R.

2011-12-01

65

High gravity and high cell density mitigate some of the fermentation inhibitory effects of softwood hydrolysates  

PubMed Central

After steam pretreatment of lignocellulosic substrates the fermentation of the biomass derived sugars to ethanol is typically problematic because of both the generally low sugar concentrations that can be supplied and the presence of naturally occurring and process derived inhibitors. As the majority of the inhibitory materials are usually associated with the hemicellulose rich, water soluble component, this fraction was supplemented with glucose to simulate high solids, un-detoxified substrate to see if a high gravity/high cell consistency approach might better cope with inhibition. Several yeast strains were assessed, with the Tembec T1, T2 and Lallemand LYCC 6469 strains showing the greatest ethanol productivity and yield. The addition of supplemental glucose enabled the faster and quantitatively higher removal of hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). High cell density could provide effective fermentation at high sugar concentrations while enhancing inhibitor reduction. A 77% ethanol yield could be achieved using strain LYCC 6469 after 48 h at high cell density. It was apparent that a high cell density approach improved ethanol production by all of the evaluated yeast strains. PMID:23410516

2013-01-01

66

Testing Plate Reconstructions For The High Arctic Using Crustal Thickness Mapping From Gravity Inversion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The plate tectonic history of the Amerasia Basin (High Arctic) and its distribution of oceanic and continental lithosphere is poorly known. A new method of gravity inversion with an embedded lithosphere thermal gravity anomaly correction has been applied to the NGA (U) Arctic Gravity Project data to predict crustal thickness and to test different plate reconstructions within the Arctic region. Two end member plate reconstruction models have been tested: in one model the Mendeleev Ridge is rifted from the Canadian margin while in the other it is rifted from the Lomonosov Ridge. The inversion of gravity data to map crustal thickness variation within oceanic and rifted continental margin lithosphere requires the incorporation of a lithosphere thermal gravity anomaly correction for both oceanic and continental lithosphere. Oceanic lithosphere and stretched continental margin lithosphere produce a large negative residual thermal gravity anomaly (up to -380 mGal), for which a correction must be made in order to determine realistic Moho depth by gravity anomaly inversion. The lithosphere thermal model used to predict the lithosphere thermal gravity anomaly correction may be conditioned using plate reconstruction models to provide the age and location of oceanic lithosphere. Two end- member plate reconstruction models have been constructed for the opening of the Amerasia Basin and used to determine lithosphere thermal gravity anomaly corrections: in one model the (presumably) continental Mendeleev Ridge is rifted from the Canadian margin in the Jurassic while in the other it is rifted off the Lomonosov Ridge (Eurasia Basin) in the Late-Cretaceous. Crustal thickness predicted by gravity anomaly inversion for the two plate reconstructions is significantly different in the Makarov Basin because of their different lithosphere thermal gravity corrections. The plate reconstruction with younger Makarov Basin ages gives a crustal thickness of the order 6-8 km thinner than the older Makarov Basin model. A crustal thickness of approximately 20 km has been obtained from seismic refraction data (Lebedeva-Ivanova et al., 2006) which would imply a Late Mid-Cretaceous age for the Makarov Basin. In this case plume-related forces may have contributed to the opening of this basin, as regional plate tectonics predict compression and not extension in the Makarov Basin area at this time.

Alvey, A. D.; Gaina, C.; Kusznir, N. J.; Torsvik, T. H.

2006-12-01

67

Glacier mass balance in high-arctic areas with anomalous gravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All known glaciological models describing the evolution of Arctic land- and sea-ice masses in changing climate treat the Earth's gravity as horizontally constant, but it isn't. In the High Arctic, the strength of the gravitational field varies considerably across even short distances under the influence of a density gradient, and the magnitude of free air gravity anomalies attains 100 mGal and more. On long-term base, instantaneous deviations of gravity can have a noticeable effect on the regime and mass budget of glaciological objects. At best, the gravity-induced component of ice mass variations can be determined on topographically smooth, open and steady surfaces, like those of arctic planes, regular ice caps and landfast sea ice. The present research is devoted to studying gravity-driven impacts on glacier mass balance in the outer periphery of four Eurasian shelf seas with a very cold, dry climate and rather episodic character of winter precipitation. As main study objects we had chosen a dozen Russia's northernmost insular ice caps, tens to hundreds of square kilometres in extent, situated in a close vicinity of strong gravity anomalies and surrounded with extensive fields of fast and/or drift ice for most of the year. The supposition about gravitational forcing on glacioclimatic settings in the study region is based on the results of quantitative comparison and joint interpretation of existing glacier change maps and available data on the Arctic gravity field and solid precipitation. The overall mapping of medium-term (from decadal to half-centennial) changes in glacier volumes and quantification of mass balance characteristics in the study region was performed by comparing reference elevation models of study glaciers derived from Russian topographic maps 1:200,000 (CI = 20 or 40 m) representing the glacier state as in the 1950s-1980s with modern elevation data obtained from satellite radar interferometry and lidar altimetry. Free-air gravity anomalies were graphically represented in the reference model geometry using Russian gravimetric maps 1:1000000 (1980s), ArcGP grid (2008) and GOCE gravity field data (Release 3, 2009-2011). 25-year long records of daily precipitation obtained from 38 coastal stations were involved in the causality analysis. Strong positive distance-weighted correlation was discovered between the magnitude of geopotential and gravity gradient on one hand and the precipitation amount, annual number of precipitation "events" and glacier elevation changes on the other, while it was noted that the correlation decreases in humid and mountainous areas. Relevant analytical and geophysical explanations were provided and tested using the basic concepts of hydrostatic stress, lapse rate and non-orographic gradient precipitation. It was concluded that the gravitational impact on the mass balance of arctic maritime ice caps is threefold. 1) Lateral variations of gravity influence directly the ambient lapse rate thereby modulating the atmospheric stability and leading to the increased intensity and frequency of heavy snowfalls over the areas with positive gravity anomalies. 2) Glacier ice deformation, flow, calving and meltwater runoff are gravity-driven phenomena, and the removal of glacier ice is closely interrelated with geopotential variations nearby. 3) Gravity anomalies affect processes of sea ice grow, drift and consolidation resulting in generally lower concentration and lesser thickness of the sea ice found in the aquatories with positive gravity. The advection of moist air to insular ice caps facilitates sea-effect snow events and makes glacier mass balance more positive. The effect is enhanced when the air mass advects toward the centre of positive anomaly. The idea about gradient (deviatoric) precipitation and related cryogravic processes does not contradict to the concept of gravity waves and has some analogy with the hypothesis on "ice lichens" devised by E.Gernet 80 years ago. Further analogies can be learned from another industry, e.g. technical chemistry. Several quest

Sharov, A.; Rieser, D.; Nikolskiy, D.

2012-04-01

68

High-Level Application Framework for LCLS  

SciTech Connect

A framework for high level accelerator application software is being developed for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). The framework is based on plug-in technology developed by an open source project, Eclipse. Many existing functionalities provided by Eclipse are available to high-level applications written within this framework. The framework also contains static data storage configuration and dynamic data connectivity. Because the framework is Eclipse-based, it is highly compatible with any other Eclipse plug-ins. The entire infrastructure of the software framework will be presented. Planned applications and plug-ins based on the framework are also presented.

Chu, P; Chevtsov, S.; Fairley, D.; Larrieu, C.; Rock, J.; Rogind, D.; White, G.; Zalazny, M.; /SLAC

2008-04-22

69

Measured and predicted effects of gravity level on directional dendritic solidification of NH4Cl-H2O  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dendritic growth front rates during vertical directional solidification are predicted for gravity levels of 10 exp 0 g sub e (where e is earth gravity), 10 exp -1 g sub e, 10 exp -2 g sub e, 10 exp -3 g sub e, 10 exp -4 g sub e, and 10 exp -5 g sub e (microgravity) for the physical conditions used for a recent ammonium chloride-water solidification experiment on the International Microgravity Laboratory I (IMLI). The growth front rates at 10 exp 0 g sub e and 10 exp -5 g sub e are validated using ground based laboratory and IMLI experimental data. As the gravity decreases, the growth rates increase until they approach a maximum at approximately 10 exp -4 g sub e. The 10 exp -4 and 10 exp -5 levels are equivalent. Liquid concentration and volume fraction, temperature profiles and fluid flow velocities are also calculated. Kinetic energy calculations for each of the six gravity levels indicate that the threshold for fluid flow to affect the growth front rate is in the range of 10 exp -8 ergs.

Mccay, T. D.; Mccay, Mary H.

1993-01-01

70

Evaluation of EGM2008 Earth Gravitational Model in Algeria using gravity and GPS/levelling data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work focuses on the evaluation of the EGM2008 geopotential model that was recently released by the NGA (National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, U.S)/EGM-development team, in Algeria using the free air gravity anomalies supplied by BGI and GETECH, some of the precise GPS data collected from the international TYRGEONET (TYRhenian GEOdynamical NETwork) and ALGEONET (ALGerian GEOdynamical NETwork) projects and the last Algerian local gravimetric geoid model. Additional comparisons of the terrestrial point data with the corresponding values obtained from other geopotential models were made. Five global geopotential models were used in this comparison: the Preliminary Earth Gravitational Model PGM2007A, the combined CHAMP and GRACE model EIGEN-CG01C, the combined GRACE and LAGEOS model EIGEN-GL04C, OSU91A and EGM96. The study shows that all tested models are an improvement over OSU91A geopotential model used in all previous Algerian geoid computations and that new released combined model (EGM2008) is relatively superior to other tested models in the Algerian region. According to our numerical results, the new EGM2008 model fits better the observed values used in this investigation. Its standard deviations fit with GPS/levelling data are 21.4cm and 18.7cm before and after fitting using four-parameters transformation model. We strongly recommend the use of this new model in the remove-restore technique for the computation of the improved geoid for Algeria. In addition to these more general investigations, special GPS campaign has been performed for altimetric auscultation of a storage tank in which we wanted to test the possibilities to replace levelling by GPS measurements. The evaluation revealed promising results but also that much attention has to be paid on the GPS evaluation method. Key words: Geopotential model, TYRGEONET and ALGEONET projects, GPS/levelling data.

Benahmed Daho, S. A.

2009-04-01

71

Very high gravity (VHG) ethanolic brewing and fermentation: a research update.  

PubMed

There have been numerous developments in ethanol fermentation technology since the beginning of the new millennium as ethanol has become an immediate viable alternative to fast-depleting crude reserves as well as increasing concerns over environmental pollution. Nowadays, although most research efforts are focused on the conversion of cheap cellulosic substrates to ethanol, methods that are cost-competitive with gasoline production are still lacking. At the same time, the ethanol industry has engaged in implementing potential energy-saving, productivity and efficiency-maximizing technologies in existing production methods to become more viable. Very high gravity (VHG) fermentation is an emerging, versatile one among such technologies offering great savings in process water and energy requirements through fermentation of higher concentrations of sugar substrate and, therefore, increased final ethanol concentration in the medium. The technology also allows increased fermentation efficiency, without major alterations to existing facilities, by efficient utilization of fermentor space and elimination of known losses. This comprehensive research update on VHG technology is presented in two main sections, namely VHG brewing, wherein the effects of nutrients supplementation, yeast pitching rate, flavour compound synthesis and foam stability under increased wort gravities are discussed; and VHG bioethanol fermentation studies. In the latter section, aspects related to the role of osmoprotectants and nutrients in yeast stress reduction, substrates utilized/tested so far, including saccharide (glucose, sucrose, molasses, etc.) and starchy materials (wheat, corn, barley, oats, etc.), and mash viscosity issues in VHG bioethanol production are detailed. Thereafter, topics common to both areas such as process optimization studies, mutants and gene level studies, immobilized yeast applications, temperature effect, reserve carbohydrates profile in yeast, and economic aspects are discussed and future prospects are summarized. PMID:21695540

Puligundla, Pradeep; Smogrovicova, Daniela; Obulam, Vijaya Sarathi Reddy; Ko, Sanghoon

2011-09-01

72

Future high sea levels in south Sweden  

SciTech Connect

An estimation of future mean high water levels in Oeresund and the southwest Baltic Sea is presented together with a discussion of probable consequences for Falsterbo Peninsula, a trumpet-shaped sandy formation of some 25 km{sup 2} size situated in the very southwest corner of Sweden. A literature review coupled with sea-level measurements and observations made in the area every four hours since October 1945 are given and comprise the base for the present analysis.

Blomgren, S.H.; Hanson, H. [Lund Institute of Technology (Sweden)

1997-12-31

73

A Software Architecture for High Level Applications  

SciTech Connect

A modular software platform for high level applications is under development at the National Synchrotron Light Source II project. This platform is based on client-server architecture, and the components of high level applications on this platform will be modular and distributed, and therefore reusable. An online model server is indispensable for model based control. Different accelerator facilities have different requirements for the online simulation. To supply various accelerator simulators, a set of narrow and general application programming interfaces is developed based on Tracy-3 and Elegant. This paper describes the system architecture for the modular high level applications, the design of narrow and general application programming interface for an online model server, and the prototype of online model server.

Shen,G.

2009-05-04

74

Bathymetry of Patagonia glacier fjords and glacier ice thickness from high-resolution airborne gravity combined with other data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The North and South Patagonia Ice fields are the largest ice masses outside Antarctica in the Southern Hemisphere. During the period 1995-2000, these glaciers lost ice at a rate equivalent to a sea level rise of 0.105 ± 0.001 mm/yr. In more recent years, the glaciers have been thinning more quickly than can be explained by warmer air temperatures and decreased precipitation. A possible cause is an increase in flow speed due to enhanced ablation of the submerged glacier fronts. To understand the dynamics of these glaciers and how they change with time, it is critical to have a detailed view of their ice thickness, the depth of the glacier bed below sea or lake level, how far inland these glaciers remain below sea or lake level, and whether bumps or hollows in the bed may slow down or accelerate their retreat. A grid of free-air gravity data over the Patagonia Glaciers was collected in May 2012 and October 2012, funded by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation (GBMF) to measure ice thickness and sea floor bathymetry. This survey combines the Sander Geophysics Limited (SGL) AIRGrav system, SGL laser altimetry and Chilean CECS/UCI ANDREA-2 radar. To obtain high-resolution and high-precision gravity data, the helicopter operates at 50 knots (25.7 m/s) with a grid spacing of 400m and collects gravity data at sub mGal level (1 Gal =1 Galileo = 1 cm/s2) near glacier fronts. We use data from the May 2012 survey to derive preliminarily high-resolution, high-precision thickness estimates and bathymetry maps of Jorge Montt Glacier and San Rafael Glacier. Boat bathymetry data is used to optimize the inversion of gravity over water and radar-derived thickness over glacier ice. The bathymetry maps will provide a breakthrough in our knowledge of the ice fields and enable a new era of glacier modeling and understanding that is not possible at present because ice thickness is not known.

An, L.; Rignot, E.; Rivera, A.; Bunetta, M.

2012-12-01

75

High Reynolds number gravity currents along V-shaped valleys J.J. Monaghan a  

E-print Network

High Reynolds number gravity currents along V-shaped valleys J.J. Monaghan a , C.A. Me´riaux a,*,1 , H.E. Huppert b , J.M. Monaghan a a School of Mathematical Sciences, Monash University, Victoria 3800 depend on the relative density of the current and the layers and depth of the layers (Monaghan et al. [7

Huppert, Herbert

76

Gravity Fountains  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (located on page 3 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into the forces of gravity and air pressure. Groups of learners will construct a simple gravity fountain by making a hole near the bottom of a 2-liter bottle, filling it with water, then as the bottle empties, collecting measurements of the water levels and length of the stream, to make a graph for analysis. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV GPS: Gravity Fountain.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2007-01-01

77

High-level radioactive wastes. Supplement 1  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains information on high-level radioactive wastes included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from August 1982 through December 1983. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number. 1452 citations.

McLaren, L.H. (ed.)

1984-09-01

78

PAIRWISE BLENDING OF HIGH LEVEL WASTE (HLW)  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this study is to demonstrate a mission scenario that uses pairwise and incidental blending of high level waste (HLW) to reduce the total mass of HLW glass. Secondary objectives include understanding how recent refinements to the tank waste inventory and solubility assumptions affect the mass of HLW glass and how logistical constraints may affect the efficacy of HLW blending.

CERTA, P.J.

2006-02-22

79

HIGH LEVEL LIQUID WASTE SOLIDIFICATION USING A \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the present time the primary problem in a closed nuclear fuel cycle is the management of high level liquid waste (HLLW) generated by the recovery of uranium and plutonium from the spent nuclear fuel. Long-term storage of the HLLW, even in special storage facilities, poses a real threat of ecological accidents. This problem can be solved by incorporating the

Tatyana V. Smelova; Nina V. Krylova; Igor N. Shestoperov; Andrei V. Demine

2000-01-01

80

Application of Fabry–Pérot and fiber Bragg grating pressure sensors to simultaneous measurement of liquid level and specific gravity  

Microsoft Academic Search

An approach is proposed for obtaining simultaneous measurements of the level and specific gravity of a liquid using a dual-pressure-sensor system comprising a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) pressure sensor and a Fabry–Pérot (FP) pressure sensor. In the FBG sensor, the pressure is derived from the FBG wavelength shift induced when the sensor is immersed in the liquid. Meanwhile, in the

Chih-Wei Lai; Yu-Lung Lo; Jiahn-Piring Yur; Wen-Fung Liu; Chin-Ho Chuang

81

View of gravity health science from molecular and cellular level focusing complimentary and alternative medical sciences: Proteins dynamics to make shape and their molecular chaperones in cultured myocyte  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gravity is one of factors to maintain our living system to be active and healthy, because our biological system is constructed based on at least three important conditions under gravity on the earth as follows: 1) activity-dependent system at both levels of the cell and body, 2) morpho-dynamic system constituted of the cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix as, and 3) self

Yoriko Atomi; Eri Fujita; Tomohiro Ohsawa; Takashi Sakurai; Muneo Takaoki; Masamichi Yamashita; Takahiro Harada; Kazuhiko Ishihara; Takayoshi Suzuki; Toshiyuki Watanabe; Iichiro Harada

82

High-Level Waste Melter Review  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is faced with a massive cleanup task in resolving the legacy of environmental problems from years of manufacturing nuclear weapons. One of the major activities within this task is the treatment and disposal of the extremely large amount of high-level radioactive (HLW) waste stored at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The current planning for the method of choice for accomplishing this task is to vitrify (glassify) this waste for disposal in a geologic repository. This paper describes the results of the DOE-chartered independent review of alternatives for solidification of Hanford HLW that could achieve major cost reductions with reasonable long-term risks, including recommendations on a path forward for advanced melter and waste form material research and development. The potential for improved cost performance was considered to depend largely on increased waste loading (fewer high-level waste canisters for disposal), higher throughput, or decreased vitrification facility size.

Ahearne, J.; Gentilucci, J.; Pye, L. D.; Weber, T.; Woolley, F.; Machara, N. P.; Gerdes, K.; Cooley, C.

2002-02-26

83

High-Level Integration of Data Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the key capabilities required for data systems of the future is the integration of high-level systems and services into their design. Future systems need to provide users with integrated access to distributed and diverse scientific data holdings, models, services, and tools in order to increase the science and educational return from the data. These new capabilities go well beyond the garden variety "get me data" types of services and should be accomplished as part of a broader structure which ties together existing systems at the same time as introducing new capabilities. Here, we present the high-level integration of systems and services as the necessary pieces to accomplish this as well as some lessons learned. and http://sd-www.jhuapl.edu/SPDML/index.php

Weiss, M.; Morrison, D.; Daley, R.; Immer, E.; Hashemian, M.; Fortner, B.; Jen, J.; Holder, R.

2005-12-01

84

High-Level Waste Melter Study Report  

SciTech Connect

At the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, the path to site cleanup involves vitrification of the majority of the wastes that currently reside in large underground tanks. A Joule-heated glass melter is the equipment of choice for vitrifying the high-level fraction of these wastes. Even though this technology has general national and international acceptance, opportunities may exist to improve or change the technology to reduce the enormous cost of accomplishing the mission of site cleanup. Consequently, the U.S. Department of Energy requested the staff of the Tanks Focus Area to review immobilization technologies, waste forms, and modifications to requirements for solidification of the high-level waste fraction at Hanford to determine what aspects could affect cost reductions with reasonable long-term risk. The results of this study are summarized in this report.

Perez, Joseph M.; Bickford, Dennis F.; Day, Delbert E.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Lambert, Steven L.; Marra, Sharon L.; Peeler, David K.; Strachan, Denis M.; Triplett, Mark B.; Vienna, John D.; Wittman, Richard S.

2001-07-13

85

Commissioning of the CMS High Level Trigger  

SciTech Connect

The CMS experiment will collect data from the proton-proton collisions delivered by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at a centre-of-mass energy up to 14 TeV. The CMS trigger system is designed to cope with unprecedented luminosities and LHC bunch-crossing rates up to 40 MHz. The unique CMS trigger architecture only employs two trigger levels. The Level-1 trigger is implemented using custom electronics, while the High Level Trigger (HLT) is based on software algorithms running on a large cluster of commercial processors, the Event Filter Farm. We present the major functionalities of the CMS High Level Trigger system as of the starting of LHC beams operations in September 2008. The validation of the HLT system in the online environment with Monte Carlo simulated data and its commissioning during cosmic rays data taking campaigns are discussed in detail. We conclude with the description of the HLT operations with the first circulating LHC beams before the incident occurred the 19th September 2008.

Agostino, Lorenzo; et al.

2009-08-01

86

Influence of high gravity process conditions on the environmental impact of ethanol production from wheat straw.  

PubMed

Biofuel production processes at high gravity are currently under development. Most of these processes however use sugars or first generation feedstocks as substrate. This paper presents the results of a life cycle assessment (LCA) of the production of bio-ethanol at high gravity conditions from a second generation feedstock, namely, wheat straw. The LCA used lab results of a set of 36 process configurations in which dry matter content, enzyme preparation and loading, and process strategy were varied. The LCA results show that higher dry matter content leads to a higher environmental impact of the ethanol production, but this can be compensated by reducing the impact of enzyme production and use, and by polyethylene glycol addition at high dry matter content. The results also show that the renewable and non-renewable energy use resulting from the different process configurations ultimately determine their environmental impact. PMID:25299491

Janssen, Matty; Tillman, Anne-Marie; Cannella, David; Jørgensen, Henning

2014-12-01

87

Development of high accuracy and resolution geoid and gravity maps  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Precision satellite to satellite tracking can be used to obtain high precision and resolution maps of the geoid. A method is demonstrated to use data in a limited region to map the geopotential at the satellite altitude. An inverse method is used to downward continue the potential to the Earth surface. The method is designed for both satellites in the same low orbit.

Gaposchkin, E. M.

1986-01-01

88

Curvature Oscillations in Modified Gravity and High Energy Cosmic Rays  

E-print Network

It is shown that F(R)-modified gravitational theories lead to curvature oscillations in astrophysical systems with rising energy density. The frequency and the amplitude of such oscillations could be very high and would lead to noticeable production of energetic cosmic ray particles.

E. V. Arbuzova; A. D. Dolgov; L. Reverberi

2012-11-21

89

High-resolution numerical modeling of wave-supported gravity-driven mudflows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wave-supported gravity-driven mudflow has been identified as a major offshore fine sediment transport mechanism of terrestrial sediment into the coastal ocean. This transport process essentially occurs within the wave boundary layer. In this study, wave-supported gravity-driven mudflow is investigated via a wave-phase-resolving high-resolution numerical model for fluid mud transport. The model results are verified with field observation of sediment concentration and near-bed flow velocities at Po prodelta. The characteristics of wave-supported gravity-driven mudflows are diagnosed by varying the bed erodibility, floc properties (fractal dimension), and rheological stresses in the numerical simulations. Model results for moderate concentration suggest that using an appropriately specified fractal dimension, the dynamics of wave-supported gravity-driven mudflow can be predicted without explicitly incorporating rheological stress. However, incorporating rheological stress makes the results less sensitive to prescribed fractal dimension. For high-concentration conditions, it is necessary to incorporate rheological stress in order to match observed intensity of downslope gravity-driven current. Model results are further analyzed to evaluate and calibrate simple parameterizations. Analysis suggests that when neglecting rheological stress, the drag coefficient decreases with increasing wave intensity and seems to follow a power law. However, when rheological stress is incorporated, the resulting drag coefficient is more or less constant (around 0.0013) for different wave intensities. Model results further suggest the bulk Richardson number has a magnitude smaller than 0.25 and is essentially determined by the amount of available soft mud (i.e., the erodibility), suggesting a supply limited condition for unconsolidated mud.

Hsu, Tian-Jian; Ozdemir, Celalettin E.; Traykovski, Peter A.

2009-05-01

90

Improving GOMOS High Resolution Temperature validation by discriminating atmospheric gravity waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric gravity waves play an important role in the thermodynamic processes of the atmosphere. The gravity waves, once generated in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, propagate upward and deposit their energy and momentum when dissipating. These atmospheric waves can cause strong fluctuations in the thermal structure of the middle and upper atmosphere. The satellite temperature retrievals, together with innovative analysis methods, are often used to provide constraints for model parameterization, which can improve the treatment of these phenomena in climate-prediction models, as the temperature profiles are expected to present wave-like structures due to the global distribution of the gravity-wave momentum flux. The analysis of temperature variability as a function of spatial and temporal separation indicates that gravity wave activity has impacts also on validation study site selection. The aim of this study is to analyse the characteristics of the atmospheric gravity waves detectable in the GOMOS (Global Ozone Monitoring by Occultation of Stars) High Resolution Temperature Profiles (HRTP). These are collected over altitudes ranging from 18 to 35 km, in the 2002 to 2012 time period. The GOMOS instrument is a medium-resolution star-occultation spectrometer operating in the ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared (UV-VIS-NIR) spectral range, onboard of the ESA/ENVISAT platform. The HRTP products are the result of the analysis of the two fast photometer measurements, and the retrieval is based on a GPS-like inversion scheme (Kyrola et al., 2010). Following our new approach, based on the use of the "Morlet" wavelet transform (Torrence and Compo, 1998), it is possible to capture the vertical amplitude and phase of waves of very different size along the temperature profile. The wavy signal is estimated and subtracted to the original profile, thus providing a "wave-free" profile. Comparison of wave-free temperature profiles and gravity wave structures with those estimated from collocated ozonesonde data (SHADOZ, http://croc.gsfc.nasa.gov/shadoz) in the 40S to 40N latitude range will be discussed in detail. Preliminary results demonstrate that the proposed approach is very effective, particularly for the study of gravity waves, which are by nature non stationary and highly localised in space and time. References -E. Kyrölä, J. Tamminen, V. Sofieva, J. L. Bertaux, A. Hauchecorne, F. Dalaudier, D. Fussen, F. Vanhellemont, O. Fanton d'Andon, G. Barrot, M. Guirlet, A. Mangin, L. Blanot, T. Fehr, L. Saavedra de Miguel, and R. Fraisse, 2010: "Retrieval of atmospheric parameters from GOMOS data" Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 11881-11903, 2010 -Torrence, C. and G. P. Compo, 1998: "A Practical Guide to Wavelet Analysis". Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 79, 61-78

Quirino Iannone, Rosario; Casadio, Stefano; Saavedra de Miguel, Lidia; De Laurentis, Marta; Brizzi, Gabriele; Dehn, Angelika

2013-04-01

91

Venus gravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The anomalous gravity field of Venus shows high correlation with surface features revealed by radar. We extract gravity models from the Doppler tracking data from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) by means of a two-step process. In the first step, we solve the nonlinear spacecraft state estimation problem using a Kalman filter-smoother. The Kalman filter was evaluated through simulations. This evaluation and some unusual features of the filter are discussed. In the second step, we perform a geophysical inversion using a linear Bayesian estimator. To allow an unbiased comparison between gravity and topography, we use a simulation technique to smooth and distort the radar topographic data so as to yield maps having the same characteristics as our gravity maps. The maps presented cover 2/3 of the surface of Venus and display the strong topography-gravity correlation previously reported. The topography-gravity scatter plots show two distinct trends.

Reasenberg, Robert D.

1993-01-01

92

40 CFR 227.30 - High-level radioactive waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false High-level radioactive waste. 227.30 Section 227.30 Protection... Definitions § 227.30 High-level radioactive waste. High-level radioactive waste means the aqueous waste resulting...

2010-07-01

93

40 CFR 227.30 - High-level radioactive waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false High-level radioactive waste. 227.30 Section 227.30 Protection... Definitions § 227.30 High-level radioactive waste. High-level radioactive waste means the aqueous waste resulting...

2011-07-01

94

40 CFR 227.30 - High-level radioactive waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false High-level radioactive waste. 227.30 Section 227.30 Protection... Definitions § 227.30 High-level radioactive waste. High-level radioactive waste means the aqueous waste resulting...

2013-07-01

95

40 CFR 227.30 - High-level radioactive waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-07-01 false High-level radioactive waste. 227.30 Section 227.30 Protection... Definitions § 227.30 High-level radioactive waste. High-level radioactive waste means the aqueous waste resulting...

2014-07-01

96

High-level waste qualification: Managing uncertainty  

SciTech Connect

A vitrification facility is being developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) at the West Valley Demonstration Plant (WVDP) near Buffalo, New York, where approximately 300 canisters of high-level nuclear waste glass will be produced. To assure that the produced waste form is acceptable, uncertainty must be managed. Statistical issues arise due to sampling, waste variations, processing uncertainties, and analytical variations. This paper presents elements of a strategy to characterize and manage the uncertainties associated with demonstrating that an acceptable waste form product is achieved. Specific examples are provided within the context of statistical work performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL).

Pulsipher, B.A.

1993-09-01

97

The effects of high level infrasound  

SciTech Connect

This paper will attempt to survey the current knowledge on the effects of relative high levels of infrasound on humans. While this conference is concerned mainly about hearing, some discussion of other physiological effects is appropriate. Such discussion also serves to highlight a basic question, 'Is hearing the main concern of infrasound and low frequency exposure, or is there a more sensitive mechanism'. It would be comforting to know that the focal point of this conference is indeed the most important concern. Therefore, besides hearing loss and auditory threshold of infrasonic and low frequency exposure, four other effects will be provided. These are performance, respiration, annoyance, and vibration.

Johnson, D.L.

1980-02-01

98

Service Oriented Architecture for High Level Applications  

SciTech Connect

Standalone high level applications often suffer from poor performance and reliability due to lengthy initialization, heavy computation and rapid graphical update. Service-oriented architecture (SOA) is trying to separate the initialization and computation from applications and to distribute such work to various service providers. Heavy computation such as beam tracking will be done periodically on a dedicated server and data will be available to client applications at all time. Industrial standard service architecture can help to improve the performance, reliability and maintainability of the service. Robustness will also be improved by reducing the complexity of individual client applications.

Chu, Chungming; Chevtsov, Sergei; Wu, Juhao; /SLAC; Shen, Guobao; /Brookhaven

2012-06-28

99

Gravity waves in the middle atmosphere during the MaCWAVE winter campaign: evidence of mountain wave critical level encounters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Falling sphere and balloon wind and temperature data from the MaCWAVE winter campaign, which was conducted in northern Scandinavia during January 2003, are analyzed to investigate gravity wave characteristics in the stratosphere and mesosphere. There were two stratospheric warming events occurring during the campaign, one having a maximum temperature perturbation at ~45 km during 17-19 January, and the other having a maximum perturbation at ~30 km during 24-27 January. The former was a major event, whereas the latter was a minor one. Both warmings were accompanied by upper mesospheric coolings, and during the second warming, the upper mesospheric cooling propagated downward. Falling sphere data from the two salvos on 24-25 January and 28 January were analyzed for gravity wave characteristics. Gravity wave perturbations maximized at ~45-50 km, with a secondary maximum at ~60 km during Salvo 1; for Salvo 2, wave activity was most pronounced at ~60 km and above.

Gravity wave horizontal propagation directions are estimated using the conventional hodographic analysis combined with the S-transform (a Gaussian wavelet analysis method). The results are compared with those from a Stokes analysis. They agree in general, though the former appears to provide better estimates for some cases, likely due to the capability of the S-transform to obtain robust estimates of wave amplitudes and phase differences between different fields.

For Salvo 1 at ~60 km and above, gravity waves propagated towards the southeast, whereas for Salvo 2 at similar altitudes, waves propagated predominantly towards the northwest or west. These waves were found not to be topographic waves. Gravity wave motions at ~45-50 km in Salvo 1 were more complicated, but they generally had large amplitudes, short vertical scales, and their hodographs revealed a northwest-southeast orientation. In addition, the ratios between wave amplitudes and intrinsic phase speeds generally displayed a marked peak at ~45-50 km and decreased sharply at ~50 km, where the background winds were very weak. These results suggest that these wave motions were most likely topographic waves approaching their critical levels. Waves were more nearly isotropic in the lower stratosphere.

Wang, L.; Fritts, D. C.; Williams, B. P.; Goldberg, R. A.; Schmidlin, F. J.; Blum, U.

2006-07-01

100

High accuracy electronic material level sensor  

DOEpatents

The High Accuracy Electronic Material Level Sensor (electronic dipstick) is a sensor based on time domain reflectometry (TDR) of very short electrical pulses. Pulses are propagated along a transmission line or guide wire that is partially immersed in the material being measured; a launcher plate is positioned at the beginning of the guide wire. Reflected pulses are produced at the material interface due to the change in dielectric constant. The time difference of the reflections at the launcher plate and at the material interface are used to determine the material level. Improved performance is obtained by the incorporation of: 1) a high accuracy time base that is referenced to a quartz crystal, 2) an ultrawideband directional sampler to allow operation without an interconnect cable between the electronics module and the guide wire, 3) constant fraction discriminators (CFDs) that allow accurate measurements regardless of material dielectric constants, and reduce or eliminate errors induced by triple-transit or "ghost" reflections on the interconnect cable. These improvements make the dipstick accurate to better than 0.1%.

McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

1997-01-01

101

High accuracy electronic material level sensor  

DOEpatents

The High Accuracy Electronic Material Level Sensor (electronic dipstick) is a sensor based on time domain reflectometry (TDR) of very short electrical pulses. Pulses are propagated along a transmission line or guide wire that is partially immersed in the material being measured; a launcher plate is positioned at the beginning of the guide wire. Reflected pulses are produced at the material interface due to the change in dielectric constant. The time difference of the reflections at the launcher plate and at the material interface are used to determine the material level. Improved performance is obtained by the incorporation of: (1) a high accuracy time base that is referenced to a quartz crystal, (2) an ultrawideband directional sampler to allow operation without an interconnect cable between the electronics module and the guide wire, (3) constant fraction discriminators (CFDs) that allow accurate measurements regardless of material dielectric constants, and reduce or eliminate errors induced by triple-transit or ``ghost`` reflections on the interconnect cable. These improvements make the dipstick accurate to better than 0.1%. 4 figs.

McEwan, T.E.

1997-03-11

102

Probing low-scale quantum gravity with high-energy neutrinos  

SciTech Connect

Motivated by the quantum structure of space-time at high scales M{sub QG}, we study the propagation behavior of the high-energy neutrino within the quantum gravity effect. We consider the possible induced dispersive effect and derive the resulting vacuum refraction index {eta}{sub vac}(E{sub {nu}}) Asymptotically-Equal-To 1 + E{sub {nu}}{sup 2}/M{sub QG}{sup 2}. Then, by referring to the SN1987A and basing on the recorded neutrino data we approach the corresponding scale M{sub QG} Asymptotically-Equal-To 10{sup 4} GeV.

Ennadifi, Salah Eddine, E-mail: ennadifis@gmail.com [University Mohammed V-Agdal, Laboratory of High Energy Physics, Modeling and Simulation, Faculty of Science (Morocco)

2013-05-15

103

Estimating aquifer properties using time-lapse, high precision gravity surveys and groundwater modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past, gravity methods have had limited application for monitoring aquifers, primarily due to the poor drift characteristics of relative gravimeters, which made long-term gravity studies of aquifers prohibitively expensive. Recent developments in portable, very accurate, absolute gravity instruments having essentially zero long-term drift have reawakened interest in using gravity methods for hydrologic monitoring. Such instruments have accuracies of

E. Keating; A. H. Cogbill; J. F. Ferguson

2003-01-01

104

Revealing the beneficial effect of protease supplementation to high gravity beer fermentations using "-omics" techniques  

PubMed Central

Background Addition of sugar syrups to the basic wort is a popular technique to achieve higher gravity in beer fermentations, but it results in dilution of the free amino nitrogen (FAN) content in the medium. The multicomponent protease enzyme Flavourzyme has beneficial effect on the brewer's yeast fermentation performance during high gravity fermentations as it increases the initial FAN value and results in higher FAN uptake, higher specific growth rate, higher ethanol yield and improved flavour profile. Results In the present study, transcriptome and metabolome analysis were used to elucidate the effect on the addition of the multicomponent protease enzyme Flavourzyme and its influence on the metabolism of the brewer's yeast strain Weihenstephan 34/70. The study underlines the importance of sufficient nitrogen availability during the course of beer fermentation. The applied metabolome and transcriptome analysis allowed mapping the effect of the wort sugar composition on the nitrogen uptake. Conclusion Both the transcriptome and the metabolome analysis revealed that there is a significantly higher impact of protease addition for maltose syrup supplemented fermentations, while addition of glucose syrup to increase the gravity in the wort resulted in increased glucose repression that lead to inhibition of amino acid uptake and hereby inhibited the effect of the protease addition. PMID:21513553

2011-01-01

105

Application of precise altimetry to the study of precise leveling of the sea surface, the Earth's gravity field, and the rotation of the Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Our program includes five research items: (1) determination of a precision geoid and gravity anomaly field; (2) precise leveling and detection of tidal changes of the sea surface and study of the role of the tide in the global energy exchange; (3) oceanic effect on the Earth's rotation and polar motion; (4) geological and geophysical interpretation of the altimetry gravity field; and (5) evaluation of the effectiveness of local tracking of TOPEX/POSEIDON by use of a laser tracker.

Segawa, J.; Ganeko, Y.; Sasaki, M.; Mori, T.; Ooe, M.; Nakagawa, I.; Ishii, H.; Hagiwara, Y.

1991-01-01

106

Viscosity Measurement of Highly Viscous Liquids Using Drop Coalescence in Low Gravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The method of drop coalescence is being investigated for use as a method for determining the viscosity of highly viscous undercooled liquids. Low gravity environment is necessary in this case to minimize the undesirable effects of body forces and liquid motion in levitated drops. Also, the low gravity environment will allow for investigating large liquid volumes which can lead to much higher accuracy for the viscosity calculations than possible under 1 - g conditions. The drop coalescence method is preferred over the drop oscillation technique since the latter method can only be applied for liquids with vanishingly small viscosities. The technique developed relies on both the highly accurate solution of the Navier-Stokes equations as well as on data from experiments conducted in near zero gravity environment. In the analytical aspect of the method two liquid volumes are brought into contact which will coalesce under the action of surface tension alone. The free surface geometry development as well as its velocity during coalescence which are obtained from numerical computations are compared with an analogous experimental model. The viscosity in the numerical computations is then adjusted to bring into agreement of the experimental results with the calculations. The true liquid viscosity is the one which brings the experiment closest to the calculations. Results are presented for method validation experiments performed recently on board the NASA/KC-135 aircraft. The numerical solution for this validation case was produced using the Boundary Element Method. In these tests the viscosity of a highly viscous liquid, in this case glycerine at room temperature, was determined to high degree of accuracy using the liquid coalescence method. These experiments gave very encouraging results which will be discussed together with plans for implementing the method in a shuttle flight experiment.

Antar, Basil N.; Ethridge, Edwin; Maxwell, Daniel

1999-01-01

107

Brane-world gravity  

E-print Network

The observable universe could be a 1+3-surface (the "brane") embedded in a 1+3+d-dimensional spacetime (the "bulk"), with standard-model particles and fields trapped on the brane while gravity is free to access the bulk. At least one of the d extra spatial dimensions could be very large relative to the Planck scale, which lowers the fundamental gravity scale, possibly even down to the electroweak (~ TeV) level. This revolutionary picture arises in the framework of recent developments in M theory. The 1+10-dimensional M theory encompasses the known 1+9-dimensional superstring theories, and is widely considered to be a promising potential route to quantum gravity. General relativity cannot describe gravity at high enough energies and must be replaced by a quantum gravity theory, picking up significant corrections as the fundamental energy scale is approached. At low energies, gravity is localized at the brane and general relativity is recovered, but at high energies gravity "leaks" into the bulk, behaving in a truly 1+3+d-dimensional way. This introduces significant changes to gravitational dynamics and perturbations, with interesting testable implications for high-energy astrophysics, black holes and cosmology. Brane-world models offer a phenomenological way to test some of the novel predictions and corrections to general relativity that are implied by M theory. This review discusses the geometry, dynamics and perturbations of simple brane-world models for cosmology and astrophysics, mainly focusing on warped 5-dimensional brane-worlds based on the Randall-Sundrum models.

Roy Maartens

2003-12-10

108

A simulation for gravity fine structure recovery from high-low GRAVSAT SST data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Covariance error analysis techniques were applied to investigate estimation strategies for the high-low SST mission for accurate local recovery of gravitational fine structure, considering the aliasing effects of unsolved for parameters. Surface density blocks of 5 deg x 5 deg and 2 1/2 deg x 2 1/2 deg resolution were utilized to represent the high order geopotential with the drag-free GRAVSAT configured in a nearly circular polar orbit at 250 km. altitude. GEOPAUSE and geosynchronous satellites were considered as high relay spacecraft. It is demonstrated that knowledge of gravitational fine structure can be significantly improved at 5 deg x 5 deg resolution using SST data from a high-low configuration with reasonably accurate orbits for the low GRAVSAT. The gravity fine structure recoverability of the high-low SST mission is compared with the low-low configuration and shown to be superior.

Estes, R. H.; Lancaster, E. R.

1976-01-01

109

Decontamination of high-level waste canisters  

SciTech Connect

This report presents evaluations of several methods for the in-process decontamination of metallic canisters containing any one of a number of solidified high-level waste (HLW) forms. The use of steam-water, steam, abrasive blasting, electropolishing, liquid honing, vibratory finishing and soaking have been tested or evaluated as potential techniques to decontaminate the outer surfaces of HLW canisters. Either these techniques have been tested or available literature has been examined to assess their applicability to the decontamination of HLW canisters. Electropolishing has been found to be the most thorough method to remove radionuclides and other foreign material that may be deposited on or in the outer surface of a canister during any of the HLW processes. Steam or steam-water spraying techniques may be adequate for some applications but fail to remove all contaminated forms that could be present in some of the HLW processes. Liquid honing and abrasive blasting remove contamination and foreign material very quickly and effectively from small areas and components although these blasting techniques tend to disperse the material removed from the cleaned surfaces. Vibratory finishing is very capable of removing the bulk of contamination and foreign matter from a variety of materials. However, special vibratory finishing equipment would have to be designed and adapted for a remote process. Soaking techniques take long periods of time and may not remove all of the smearable contamination. If soaking involves pickling baths that use corrosive agents, these agents may cause erosion of grain boundaries that results in rough surfaces.

Nesbitt, J.F.; Slate, S.C.; Fetrow, L.K.

1980-12-01

110

Coordinated Parallelizing Compiler Optimizations and High-Level Synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a framework for high-level synthesis that enables the designer to explore the best choice of source level and low level parallelizing transformations for improved synthesis. Within this framework, we implemented a methodology that applies a set of parallelizing code transfor- mations, both at the source level and during scheduling. A designer can use these transformations to optimize high-level

SUMIT GUPTA; Alex Nicolau; Rajesh Gupta

2002-01-01

111

Proof of concept and performance optimization of high gravity batch type centrifuge for dewatering fine coal  

SciTech Connect

Coal Technology Corporation (CTC) believes that the new CTC high gravity, high production, batch type centrifugal dryer technology can play a significant role in improving the product quality as well as costs of operation in coal processing plants. It is further believed that the new centrifugal dryer technology can form an important part in systems used to clean up the millions of tons of coal fines in refuse piles and ponds. It is anticipated that the new centrifuge can become an important ancillary to the advanced deep cleaning processes for coal. Because of these convictions, CTC has been engaged in a pioneering research effort into the new art of drying fine clean coal in high gravity, high production, batch type centrifuges, since 1981. This work has progressed to the point where the new centrifugal dryer technology is nearly ready for commercialization. It promises to provide needed fine coal drying capability at somewhat lower capital costs and at substantially lower operating costs than competitive systems. It also promises to do so with no detrimental effects on either the coal quality or the evironment. The primary objective of this project is to prove the concept in a commercial coal processing plant environment. The proof of concept tests will also include testing with a variety of coals from different regions. A further objective will be to optimize the efficiency and the cost effectiveness of the new centrifugal dryer technology.

Smith, L.B.; Durney, T.E. Jr.

1990-07-24

112

Dynamic equilibrium under vibrations of H2 liquid-vapor interface at various gravity levels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Horizontal vibration applied to the support of a simple pendulum can deviate from the equilibrium position of the pendulum to a nonvertical position. A similar phenomenon is expected when a liquid-vapor interface is subjected to strong horizontal vibration. Beyond a threshold value of vibrational velocity the interface should attain an equilibrium position at an angle to the initial horizontal position. In the present paper experimental investigation of this phenomenon is carried out in a magnetic levitation device to study the effect of the vibration parameters, gravity acceleration, and the liquid-vapor density on the interface position. The results compare well with the theoretical expression derived by Wolf [G. H. Wolf, Z. Phys. B 227, 291 (1969), 10.1007/BF01397662].

Gandikota, G.; Chatain, D.; Lyubimova, T.; Beysens, D.

2014-06-01

113

Gravitational waves from the R^-1 high order theory of gravity  

E-print Network

This paper is a review of a previous research on gravitational waves from the R^-1 high order theory of gravity. It is shown that a massive scalar mode of gravitational waves from the R^-1 theory generates a longitudinal force in addition of the transverse one which is proper of the massless gravitational waves and the response of an arm of an interferometer to this longitudinal effect in the frame of a local observer is computed. Important conseguences from a theoretical point of view could arise from this approach, because it opens to the possibility of using the signals seen from interferometers to understand which is the correct theory of gravitation.

Christian Corda; Maria Felicia De Laurentis

2007-10-13

114

Testing gravity at the Second post-Newtonian level through gravitational deflection of massive particles  

E-print Network

Expression for second post-Newtonian level gravitational deflection angle of massive particles is obtained in a model independent framework. Several of its important implications including the possibility of testing gravitational theories at that level are discussed.

A. Bhadra; K. Sarkar; K. K. Nandi

2006-10-18

115

High-resolution Local Gravity Model of the South Pole of the Moon from GRAIL Extended Mission Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We estimated a high-resolution local gravity field model over the south pole of the Moon using data from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory's extended mission. Our solution consists of adjustments with respect to a global model expressed in spherical harmonics. The adjustments are expressed as gridded gravity anomalies with a resolution of 1/6deg by 1/6deg (equivalent to that of a degree and order 1080 model in spherical harmonics), covering a cap over the south pole with a radius of 40deg. The gravity anomalies have been estimated from a short-arc analysis using only Ka-band range-rate (KBRR) data over the area of interest. We apply a neighbor-smoothing constraint to our solution. Our local model removes striping present in the global model; it reduces the misfit to the KBRR data and improves correlations with topography to higher degrees than current global models.

Goossens, Sander Johannes; Sabaka, Terence J.; Nicholas, Joseph B.; Lemoine, Frank G.; Rowlands, David D.; Mazarico, Erwan; Neumann, Gregory A.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.

2014-01-01

116

Ethanol Production from Extruded Thermoplastic Maize Meal by High Gravity Fermentation with Zymomonas mobilis  

PubMed Central

A comparative study of extruded and ground maize meals as raw materials for the production of regular (12°P) and high gravity (20°P) worts was devised. Extruded water solubility index (WSI) was higher (9.8 percentage units) and crude fat was lower (2.64 percentage units) compared to ground maize. Free-amino nitrogen compounds (FAN), pH, and glucose were evaluated in regular and high gravity worts produced from ground or extruded maize. Extrusion improved glucose content and ethanol yield. In 20°P mashes, extrusion is enhanced by 2.14% initial glucose compared with regular ground mashes. The 12°P and 20°P extruded treatments averaged 12.2% and 8.4% higher ethanol, respectively, compared to the uncooked counterpart. The 20°P worts fermented with Zymomonas mobilis produced 9.56% more ethanol than the 12°P counterpart. The results show that the combination of extrusion and fermentation of 20°P worts improved ethanol yield per kg flour until 20.93%. This pretreatment stimulates Z. mobilis fermentation efficiency. PMID:25530885

Peralta-Contreras, Mayeli; Aguilar-Zamarripa, Edna; Pérez-Carrillo, Esther; Escamilla-García, Erandi; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio Othon

2014-01-01

117

Gravity models of two-level collision of lithospheric plates in northeastern Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Structural forms of emplacement of crustal and mantle rigid sheets in collision zones of lithospheric plates in northeastern Asia are analyzed using formalized gravity models reflecting the rheological properties of geological media. Splitting of the lithosphere of moving plates into crustal and mantle constituents is the main feature of collision zones, which is repeated in the structural units irrespective of their location, rank, and age. Formal signs of crustal sheet thrusting over convergent plate boundaries and subduction of the lithospheric mantle beneath these boundaries have been revealed. The deep boundaries and thickness of lithospheric plates and asthenospheric lenses have been traced. A similarity in the deep structure of collision zones of second-order marginal-sea buffer plates differing in age is displayed at the boundaries with the Eurasian, North American, and Pacific plates of the first order. Collision of oceanic crustal segments with the Mesozoic continental margin in the Sikhote-Alin is characterized, as well as collision of the oceanic lithosphere with the Kamchatka composite island arc. A spatiotemporal series of deep-seated Middle Mesozoic, Late Mesosoic, and Cenozoic collision tectonic units having similar structure is displayed in the transitional zone from the Asian continent to the Pacific plate.

Petrishchevsky, A. M.

2013-11-01

118

Leveraging High-level and Low-level Features for Multimedia Event Detection  

E-print Network

: · A collection of Interest points High-level features: · Outdoor, Person, Bike #12;Classical Fusion · Early;Our Fusion · Train a local classifier with low-level features to capture the general idea of a videoLeveraging High-level and Low-level Features for Multimedia Event Detection Lu Jiang, Alexander G

Shamos, Michael I.

119

Evaluation of an enhanced gravity-based fine-coal circuit for high-sulfur coal  

SciTech Connect

One of the main objectives of this study was to evaluate a fine-coal cleaning circuit using an enhanced gravity separator specifically for a high sulfur coal application. The evaluation not only included testing of individual unit operations used for fine-coal classification, cleaning and dewatering, but also included testing of the complete circuit simultaneously. At a scale of nearly 2 t/h, two alternative circuits were evaluated to clean a minus 0.6-mm coal stream utilizing a 150-mm-diameter classifying cyclone, a linear screen having a projected surface area of 0.5 m{sup 2}, an enhanced gravity separator having a bowl diameter of 250 mm and a screen-bowl centrifuge having a bowl diameter of 500 mm. The cleaning and dewatering components of both circuits were the same; however, one circuit used a classifying cyclone whereas the other used a linear screen as the classification device. An industrial size coal spiral was used to clean the 2- x 0.6-mm coal size fraction for each circuit to estimate the performance of a complete fine-coal circuit cleaning a minus 2-mm particle size coal stream. The 'linear screen + enhanced gravity separator + screen-bowl circuit' provided superior sulfur and ash-cleaning performance to the alternative circuit that used a classifying cyclone in place of the linear screen. Based on these test data, it was estimated that the use of the recommended circuit to treat 50 t/h of minus 2-mm size coal having feed ash and sulfur contents of 33.9% and 3.28%, respectively, may produce nearly 28.3 t/h of clean coal with product ash and sulfur contents of 9.15% and 1.61 %, respectively.

Mohanty, M.K.; Samal, A.R.; Palit, A. [South Illinois University, Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Mining & Mineral Resources Engineering

2008-02-15

120

The effects of shrinkage flow and gravity level on the onset of convection during vertical directional dendritic solidification of NH4Cl-H2O  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A numerical investigation of the conditions influencing the onset of convection during Bridgman vertical directional solidification of NH4Cl- 72 wt percent H2O has been made using a linear stability model. The effects of shrinkage flow and gravity level on the transition from diffusion-dominated to convection-dominated solidification are shown to be significant. Both shrinkage flow opposite the direction of growth and increased gravity levels tend to decrease the stability limits defining the onset of convection for the solidifying NH4Cl-H2O system.

Hopkins, J. A.; Mccay, T. D.; Mccay, M. H.

1993-01-01

121

40 CFR 227.30 - High-level radioactive waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true High-level radioactive waste. 227.30 Section 227.30 Protection... Definitions § 227.30 High-level radioactive waste. High-level radioactive waste means the aqueous waste resulting...

2012-07-01

122

Statistics of high-level scene context  

PubMed Central

Context is critical for recognizing environments and for searching for objects within them: contextual associations have been shown to modulate reaction time and object recognition accuracy, as well as influence the distribution of eye movements and patterns of brain activations. However, we have not yet systematically quantified the relationships between objects and their scene environments. Here I seek to fill this gap by providing descriptive statistics of object-scene relationships. A total of 48, 167 objects were hand-labeled in 3499 scenes using the LabelMe tool (Russell et al., 2008). From these data, I computed a variety of descriptive statistics at three different levels of analysis: the ensemble statistics that describe the density and spatial distribution of unnamed “things” in the scene; the bag of words level where scenes are described by the list of objects contained within them; and the structural level where the spatial distribution and relationships between the objects are measured. The utility of each level of description for scene categorization was assessed through the use of linear classifiers, and the plausibility of each level for modeling human scene categorization is discussed. Of the three levels, ensemble statistics were found to be the most informative (per feature), and also best explained human patterns of categorization errors. Although a bag of words classifier had similar performance to human observers, it had a markedly different pattern of errors. However, certain objects are more useful than others, and ceiling classification performance could be achieved using only the 64 most informative objects. As object location tends not to vary as a function of category, structural information provided little additional information. Additionally, these data provide valuable information on natural scene redundancy that can be exploited for machine vision, and can help the visual cognition community to design experiments guided by statistics rather than intuition. PMID:24194723

Greene, Michelle R.

2013-01-01

123

The foreland basin geometry along Longmen Range from high resolution Gravity data and its tectonic implication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New gravity and new topographic survey from Sichuan Basin to the eastern Tibetan plateau across the Longmen Range was conducted at 231 stations along two transects to infill the original sparse measurements. The higher resolution gravity helps to constrain the geometry of the foreland basin along the eastern margin of the Tibetan plateau and promotes the further understanding of the dynamic interaction between Sichuan Basin and the eastern margin of the Tibetan plateau. The foredeep geometry and the upper crust structure are modeled by integrating the crustal flexure and basin density profile in order to interpret the observation Bouguer gravity data. The sediment thickness in the modeling is extrapolated 12km in the southern profile and ~10km in the northern profile in conjunction with the seismic constrained basement depth. In contrast with the geometry of the homogeneous thickness of the strata in the northern part of the foredeep basin from the seismic structural interpretation, the southern part shows clear thickening of Cretaceous and Paleogene. The thickening towards the foredeep indicates that the more active tectonics has been happening in the southwest part of the basin than in the northeast since Cretaceous. The reflection seismic data reveal multiple thrusts and fault-bend folds soled into detachments which are up-dipping basin-wards. The stacked thrust imbricates consist predominantly of Mesozoic strata that over-thrust the younger, undeformed Paleogene sediments to the east. The Cenozoic sediment package is about 2km thick, consistent with the recent regional survey of Sichuan Basin ~4km at southwestern basin. Even though the crustal flow model could explain the east-ward propagation of the high plateau, in order to make the theory work, the crust first needs to reach a critical thickness of about 60 km that is the middle-lower crustal thickness is close to 25 km. This zone of dominantly brittle deformation as we documented above tends to end at the western boundary of the Longmenshan Range, where the crustal thickness reaches 60-65 km to permit the decoupling between the stronger upper crust and the strong mantle lithosphere by a week, viscous, middle-lower crust. Flexure modeling and reflection seismic data analysis help us to exclude the necessity of the lower-crustal flow along the Longmenshan portion of the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau. Instead, the topographic relief was likely caused entirely by the brittle imbrication in the upper crust. Gravity flexural modeling and basin sediment correction for a transect across the Longmen Range.

Jiang, X.; Jin, Y.

2012-12-01

124

High frequency atmospheric gravity-wave properties using Fe-lidar and OH-imager observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simultaneous iron resonance lidar density profiles, OH intensity images and MF-radar wind measurements have been used to determine the horizontal and vertical components of high-frequency (<=~1 hour) atmospheric gravity waves (AGW). Previous investigations predicted that AGW information from lidars and imagers could only be combined over a limited range. Here, a novel approach to increasing the utility of the simultaneous lidar and OH imager measurement are presented. By temporally high-pass filtering each altitude-bin of the lidar profiles, the vertical wavelengths of AGW typically observed with the OH imager become apparent. Measured OH imager horizontal wavelengths were converted into vertical wavelengths using the dispersion relationship and background winds, showing that the instruments were able to observe the same waves. Hence, the lidar-imager combination is able to access the intrinsic wave components to allow investigation of AGW propagation and an assessment of the chemical waves effects on minor species chemistry.

Diettrich, J. C.; Nott, G. J.; Espy, P. J.; Swenson, G. R.; Chu, X.; Taylor, M. J.; Riggin, D. M.; Fritts, D. C.

2005-05-01

125

A low-cost intracellular delivery system based on microbubble and high gravity field.  

PubMed

In this paper, we developed a low-cost intracellular delivery system based on microbubble and high gravity field. We successfully delivered FITC-Dextran (40kD) into hard-to-deliver THP-1 cells. The results showed that our method achieved high delivery efficiency up to 80%. It was found that the delivery efficiency and cell viability were closely related to the centrifuge speed. We speculated that the burst of microbubbles causes transient pore opening thus increasing the chance of biomolecules entering cells. This fast, low-cost and easy-to-operate protocol is very promising for delivering therapeutic genes and drugs into any cells which do not actively take up extracellular materials. This method is most effective for in-vitro delivery, but after delivery, treated cells might be injected back to human for in-vivo imaging. PMID:23366414

He, Chuan; Gu, Quanrong; Huang, Min; Yang, Xiaoyan; Xing, James; Chen, Jie

2012-01-01

126

Exploring Quantum Gravity with Very-High-Energy Gamma-Ray Instruments - Prospects and Limitations  

SciTech Connect

Some models for quantum gravity (QG) violate Lorentz invariance and predict an energy dependence of the speed of light, leading to a dispersion of high-energy gamma-ray signals that travel over cosmological distances. Limits on the dispersion from short-duration substructures observed in gamma-rays emitted by gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) at cosmological distances have provided interesting bounds on Lorentz invariance violation (LIV). Recent observations of unprecedentedly fast flares in the very-high energy gamma-ray emission of the active galactic nuclei (AGNs) Mkn 501 in 2005 and PKS 2155-304 in 2006 resulted in the most constraining limits on LIV from light-travel observations, approaching the Planck mass scale, at which QG effects are assumed to become important. I review the current status of LIV searches using GRBs and AGN flare events, and discuss limitations of light-travel time analyses and prospects for future instruments in the gamma-ray domain.

Wagner, Robert [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, D-80805 Muenchen (Germany)

2009-04-08

127

Acceleration levels on board the Space Station and a tethered elevator for micro and variable-gravity applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper investigates the dynamics and acceleration levels of a new tethered system for micro and variable-gravity applications. The system consists of two platforms tethered on opposite sides to the Space Station. A fourth platform, the elevator, is placed in between the Space Station and the upper platform. Variable-g levels on board the elevator are obtained by moving this facility along the upper tether, while micro-g experiments are carried out on board the Space Station. By controlling the length of the lower tether the position of the system CM can be maintained on board the Space Station despite variations of the station's distribution of mass. The paper illustrates the mathematical model, the environmental perturbations and the control techniques which have been adopted for the simulation and control of the system dynamics. Two sets of results from two different simulation runs are shown. The first set shows the system dynamics and the acceleration spectra on board the Space Station and the elevator during station-keeping. The second set of results demonstrates the capability of the elevator to attain a preselected g-level.

Lorenzini, E. C.; Cosmo, M.; Vetrella, S.; Moccia, A.

1988-01-01

128

Complete Bouguer gravity map of the Nevada Test Site and vicinity, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

About 15,000 gravity stations were used to create the gravity map. Gravity studies at the Nevada Test Site were undertaken to help locate geologically favorable areas for underground nuclear tests and to help characterize potential high-level nuclear waste storage sites. 48 refs. (TEM)

Healey, D.L.; Harris, R.N.; Ponce, D.A.; Oliver, H.W.

1987-12-31

129

Physics of Artificial Gravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This chapter discusses potential technologies for achieving artificial gravity in a space vehicle. We begin with a series of definitions and a general description of the rotational dynamics behind the forces ultimately exerted on the human body during centrifugation, such as gravity level, gravity gradient, and Coriolis force. Human factors considerations and comfort limits associated with a rotating environment are then discussed. Finally, engineering options for designing space vehicles with artificial gravity are presented.

Bukley, Angie; Paloski, William; Clement, Gilles

2006-01-01

130

Simultaneous dewatering and reconstitution in a high-gravity solid-bowl centrifuge  

SciTech Connect

The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center has developed a dewatering and reconstitution process in which bitumen emulsion is added to a fine clean coal slurry ahead of the dewatering device. The process simultaneously improves dewatering efficiency and reduces dustiness of the fine coal product during subsequent handling. This paper describes the test results from dewatering and reconstitution of fine coal in a 500 lb. per hour continuous bench scale high-gravity solid-bowl centrifuge in PETC`s Coal Preparation Process Research Facility. Test results will be evaluated in terms of type and dosage of emulsion, product moisture and strength, and product handling and dust reduction efficiency. A preliminary cost analysis will also be included.

Wen, W.W.; Gray, M.L.; Killmeyer, R.P.; Finseth, D.H. [USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)

1994-12-31

131

High Energy Astrophysics Tests of Lorentz Invariance and Quantum Gravity Models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High-energy astrophysics observations provide the best possibilities to detect a very small violation of Lorentz invariance such as may be related to the structure of space-time near the Planck scale of approximately 10-35 m. I will discuss here the possible signatures of Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) from observations of the spectra, polarization, and timing of gamma-rays from active galactic nuclei and gamma-ray bursts. Other sensitive tests are provided by observations ofthe spectra of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays and neutrinos. Using the latest data from the Pierre Auger Observatory one can already derive an upper limit of 4.5 x 10(exp -23) to the amount of LIV at a proton Lorentz factor of -2 x 10(exp 11). This result has fundamental implications for quantum gravity models. I will also discuss the possibilities of using more sensitive space based detection techniques to improve searches for LIV in the future.

Stecker, Floyd W.

2011-01-01

132

Validation of GOCE gravity field models using GPS-leveling data and EGM08: a case study in Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Validation of geopotential models derived from Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) observations is a challenging task in regions with less advanced geodetic infrastructure such as Brazil. In order to assess the current performance of these models, 262 GPS-leveling sites, Earth Gravitational Model 2008 (EGM08) and Residual Terrain Model (RTM) are employed. The validation is based on the differences between GPS-leveling and GOCE-derived models. For the former, the spectral content beyond the GOCE-derived models' maximum degree is removed by using EGM08 and RTM. The results indicate that the GOCE-based models: DGM-1S, SPW (Releases 1 and 2), TIM (Releases 1, 2, 3 and 4), and DIR (Releases 2, 3 and 4), at their maximum degrees have a worse performance than EGM08 while DIR-R1 shows an improvement of 11%. Furthermore, from the steepness of the slopes of the root mean square error (RMSE), it is observed that the optimal combination between DIR-R1 and EGM08 occurs at degree 230 (RMSE of 0.201 m). For the satellite-only models, DIR-R3 reduces the RMSE by ~1.4% compared to TIM-R4 at degree 190. These results are important for Brazil where the accuracy of the current geoid model is approximately 0.28 m.

Ferreira, V. G.; Zhang, Y.; de Freitas, S. R. C.

2013-09-01

133

Propagation and Breaking at High Altitudes of Gravity Waves Excited by Tropospheric Forcing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An anelastic approximation is used with a time-variable coordinate transformation to formulate a two-dimensional numerical model that describes the evolution of gravity waves. The model is solved using a semi-Lagrangian method with monotone (nonoscillatory) interpolation of all advected fields. The time-variable transformation is used to generate disturbances at the lower boundary that approximate the effect of a traveling line of thunderstorms (a squall line) or of flow over a broad topographic obstacle. The vertical propagation and breaking of the gravity wave field (under conditions typical of summer solstice) is illustrated for each of these cases. It is shown that the wave field at high altitudes is dominated by a single horizontal wavelength; which is not always related simply to the horizontal dimension of the source. The morphology of wave breaking depends on the horizontal wavelength; for sufficiently short waves, breaking involves roughly one half of the wavelength. In common with other studies, it is found that the breaking waves undergo "self-acceleration," such that the zonal-mean intrinsic frequency remains approximately constant in spite of large changes in the background wind. It is also shown that many of the features obtained in the calculations can be understood in terms of linear wave theory. In particular, linear theory provides insights into the wavelength of the waves that break at high altitudes, the onset and evolution of breaking. the horizontal extent of the breaking region and its position relative to the forcing, and the minimum and maximum altitudes where breaking occurs. Wave breaking ceases at the altitude where the background dissipation rate (which in our model is a proxy for molecular diffusion) becomes greater than the rate of dissipation due to wave breaking, This altitude, in effect, the model turbopause, is shown to depend on a relatively small number of parameters that characterize the waves and the background state.

Prusa, Joseph M.; Smolarkiewicz, Piotr K.; Garcia, Rolando R.

1996-01-01

134

Optical Mass Gauging System for Measuring Liquid Levels in a Reduced Gravity Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A compact and rugged fiber-coupled liquid volume sensor designed for flight on a sounding rocket platform is presented. The sensor consists of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer capable of measuring the amount of liquid contained in a tank under any gravitational conditions, including a microgravity environment, by detecting small changes in the index of refraction of the gas contained within a sensing region. By monitoring changes in the interference fringe pattern as the system undergoes a small compression provided by a piston, the ullage volume of a tank can be directly measured allowing for a determination of the liquid volume. To demonstrate the technique, data are acquired using two tanks containing different volumes of liquid, which are representative of the levels of liquid in a tank at different time periods during a mission. The two tanks are independently exposed to the measurement apparatus, allowing for a determination of the liquid level in each. In a controlled, laboratory test of the unit, the system demonstrated a capability of measuring a liquid level in an individual tank of 10.53 mL with a 2% error. The overall random uncertainty for the flight system is higher than that one test, at +/- 1.5 mL.

Sullenberger, Ryan M.; Munoz, Wesley M.; Lyon, Matt P.; Vogel, Kenny; Yalin, Azer P.; Korman, Valentin; Polzin, Kurt A.

2010-01-01

135

A reconfigurable high level FPGA-based coprocessor  

Microsoft Academic Search

FPGA technology enjoys both the high performance of a dedicated hardware solution and the flexibility of software that is offered by its inherent reprogrammability feature. Image processing is one application area that can benefit greatly from FPGAs performance and flexibility. This paper presents the design and implementation of a high-level reconfigurable image coprocessor on FPGAs. The image coprocessor high level

S. Sukhsawas; K. Benkrid; D. Crookes

2003-01-01

136

Optimization of low-cost medium for very high gravity ethanol fermentations by Saccharomyces cerevisiae using statistical experimental designs.  

PubMed

Statistical experimental designs were used to develop a medium based on corn steep liquor (CSL) and other low-cost nutrient sources for high-performance very high gravity (VHG) ethanol fermentations by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The critical nutrients were initially selected according to a Plackett-Burman design and the optimized medium composition (44.3 g/L CSL; 2.3 g/L urea; 3.8 g/L MgSO?·7H?O; 0.03 g/L CuSO?·5H?O) for maximum ethanol production by the laboratory strain CEN.PK 113-7D was obtained by response surface methodology, based on a three-level four-factor Box-Behnken design. The optimization process resulted in significantly enhanced final ethanol titre, productivity and yeast viability in batch VHG fermentations (up to 330 g/L glucose) with CEN.PK113-7D and with industrial strain PE-2, which is used for bio-ethanol production in Brazil. Strain PE-2 was able to produce 18.6±0.5% (v/v) ethanol with a corresponding productivity of 2.4±0.1g/L/h. This study provides valuable insights into cost-effective nutritional supplementation of industrial fuel ethanol VHG fermentations. PMID:20627715

Pereira, Francisco B; Guimarães, Pedro M R; Teixeira, José A; Domingues, Lucília

2010-10-01

137

The energetics and mechanics of level and gradient skipping: Preliminary results for a potential gait of choice in low gravity environments.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Walking and running in low gravity cannot be used at useful speeds, while 'skipping', a gait displayed by kids and spontaneously adopted by astronauts of Apollo missions, proved to have the potential to become the gait of choice in that condition. In this paper the previous biomechanical and metabolic analysis of level skipping is extended to positive and negative gradients, in normal gravity. The results confirm at all gradients the higher (average) ground reaction force during the contact phase, with respect to running at the same speed, which would allow confidently facing the Lunar surface where the dust and regoliths affect, in addition to a lower gravity, the locomotion dynamics. Metabolic data, other gait variables related to the mechanical work done and the locomotor/respiratory coupling have also been investigated.

Minetti, Alberto E.; Pavei, Gaspare; Biancardi, Carlo M.

2012-12-01

138

High degree gravitational sensitivity from Mars orbiters for the GMM-1 gravity model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Orbital sensitivity of the gravity field for high degree terms (greater than 30) is analyzed on satellites employed in a Goddard Mars Model GMM-1, complete in spherical harmonics through degree and order 50. The model is obtained from S-band Doppler data on Mariner 9 (M9), Viking Orbiter 1 (VO1), and Viking Orbiter 2 (VO2) spacecraft, which were tracked by the NASA Deep Space Network on seven different highly eccentric orbits. The main sensitivity of the high degree terms is obtained from the VO1 and VO2 low orbits (300 km periapsis altitude), where significant spectral sensitivity is seen for all degrees out through degree 50. The velocity perturbations show a dominant effect at periapsis and significant effects out beyond the semi-latus rectum covering over 180 degrees of the orbital groundtrack for the low altitude orbits. Because of the wideband of periapsis motion covering nearly 180 degrees in w and +39 degrees in latitude coverage, the VO1 300 km periapsis altitude orbit with inclination of 39 degrees gave the dominant sensitivity in the GMM-1 solution for the high degree terms. Although the VO2 low periapsis orbit has a smaller band of periapsis mapping coverage, it strongly complements the VO1 orbit sensitivity for the GMM-1 solution with Doppler tracking coverage over a different inclination of 80 degrees.

Lerch, F. J.; Smith, D. E.; Chan, J. C.; Patel, G. B.; Chinn, D. S.

1994-01-01

139

Axisymmetric gravity currents at high Reynolds number: On the quality of shallow-water modeling of experimental observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The motion of an axisymmetric gravity current that is released from a lock and then propagates over a horizontal boundary is considered. Attention is focused on the interpretation of the experimentally observed propagation (for Boussinesq systems at high Reynolds number) by means of the shallow-water inviscid model. Comparisons of the theoretical one-layer model results with previously published measurements of M.

Marius Ungarish

2007-01-01

140

Start-Up Characteristics and Gravity Effects on a Medium\\/High-Lift Heat Pump using Advanced Hybrid Loop Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal characterization was performed on a vapor compression heat pump using a novel, hybrid two phase loop design. Previous work on this technology has demonstrated its ability to provide passive phase separation and flow control based on capillary action. This provides high quality vapor to the compressor without relying on gravity-based phase separation or other active devices. This paper describes

Eric Sunada; Jennifer Miller; Gani B. Ganapathi; Gajanana Birur; Chanwoo Park

141

Toward the AdS\\/CFT gravity dual for high energy collisions. I. Falling into the AdS space  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the context of the AdS\\/CFT correspondence we discuss the gravity dual of a high energy collision in a strongly coupled N=4 SYM gauge theory. We suggest a setting in which two colliding objects are made of nondynamical heavy quarks and antiquarks, which allows one to treat the process in classical string approximation. Collision ``debris'' consist of closed as well

Shu Lin; Edward Shuryak

2008-01-01

142

Gravity waves simulated by high-resolution Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the first time a mesoscale-resolving whole atmosphere general circulation model has been developed, using the National Center for Atmospheric Research Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model with ˜0.25° horizontal resolution and 0.1 scale height vertical resolution above the middle stratosphere (higher resolution below). This is made possible by the high accuracy and high scalability of the spectral element dynamical core from the High-Order Method Modeling Environment. For the simulated January-February period, the latitude-height structure and the magnitudes of the temperature variance compare well with those deduced from the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) observations. The simulation reveals the increasing dominance of gravity waves (GWs) at higher altitudes through both the height dependence of the kinetic energy spectra, which display a steeper slope (˜-3) in the stratosphere and an increasingly shallower slope above, and the increasing spatial extent of GWs (including a planetary-scale extent of a concentric GW excited by a tropical cyclone) at higher altitudes. GW impacts on the large-scale flow are evaluated in terms of zonal mean zonal wind and tides: with no GW drag parameterized in the simulations, forcing by resolved GWs does reverse the summer mesospheric wind, albeit at an altitude higher than climatology, and only slows down the winter mesospheric wind without closing it. The hemispheric structures and magnitudes of diurnal and semidiurnal migrating tides compare favorably with observations.

Liu, H.-L.; McInerney, J. M.; Santos, S.; Lauritzen, P. H.; Taylor, M. A.; Pedatella, N. M.

2014-12-01

143

Assimilation of TOPEX Sea Level Measurements with a Reduced-Gravity, Shallow Water Model of the Tropical Pacific Ocean  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sea surface height variability measured by TOPEX is analyzed in the tropical Pacific Ocean by way of assimilation into a wind-driven, reduced-gravity, shallow water model using an approximate Kalman filter and smoother. The analysis results in an optimal fit of the dynamic model to the observations, providing it dynamically consistent interpolation of sea level and estimation of the circulation. Nearly 80% of the expected signal variance is accounted for by the model within 20 deg of the equator, and estimation uncertainty is substantially reduced by the voluminous observation. Notable features resolved by the analysis include seasonal changes associated with the North Equatorial Countercurrent and equatorial Kelvin and Rossby waves. Significant discrepancies are also found between the estimate and TOPEX measurements, especially near the eastern boundary. Improvements in the estimate made by the assimilation are validated by comparisons with independent tide gauge and current meter observations. The employed filter and smoother are based on approximately computed estimation error covariance matrices, utilizing a spatial transformation and an symptotic approximation. The analysis demonstrates the practical utility of a quasi-optimal filter and smoother.

Fukumori, Ichiro

1995-01-01

144

Studies of ATM for ATLAS high level triggers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents some of the conclusions of our studies on ATM and Fast Ethernet in the ATLAS level-2 trigger pilot project. We describe the general concept and principles of our data collection and event building scheme that could be transposed to various experiments in high energy and nuclear physics. To validate the approach in view of ATLAS High Level

J. Bystricky; D. Calvet; M. Huet; P. Le Du; I. Mandjavidze

2000-01-01

145

Physical Activity Levels in Portuguese High School Physical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main aim of this study was to evaluate the physical activity (PA) levels of high school Portuguese students during physical education (PE) and investigate the association of PA levels with students' goal orientation and intrinsic motivation. Forty-six students from three high schools participated. Heart rate telemetry and pedometry were used…

Marmeleira, Jose Francisco Filipe; Aldeias, Nuno Micael Carrasqueira; da Graca, Pedro Miguel dos Santos Medeira

2012-01-01

146

MEMORY AWARE HIGH-LEVEL SYNTHESIS FOR EMBEDDED SYSTEMS  

E-print Network

MEMORY AWARE HIGH-LEVEL SYNTHESIS FOR EMBEDDED SYSTEMS Gwenole Corre, Eric Senn, Nathalie Julien to take into account the memory architecture and the memory mapping in the High- Level Synthesis of Real-Time embedded systems. We formalize the memory mapping as a set of constraints for the synthesis, and defined

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

147

VHDL High Level Modelling and Implementation of Fuzzy Systems 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we illustrate a fuzzy logic system design strategy based on a high level description. Employing this high level description, the knowledge base is described in a language in appearance close to the natural language with the particularity that it uses a hardware description language (VHDL) directly syn- thesizable on an FPGA circuit. In addition, we anal yze

Barriga A; Cabrera A; Baturone I

148

Sound Transformations Based on the SMS High Level Attributes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basic Spectral Modeling Synthesis (SMS) technique models sounds as the sum of sinusoids plus a residual. Though this analysis\\/synthesis system has proved to be successful in transforming sounds, more powerful and intuitive musical transformations can be achieved by moving into the SMS high-level attribute plane. In this paper we describe how to extract high level sound attributes from the

Xavier Serra; Jordi Bonada

1998-01-01

149

Predictors of Placement in Lower Level versus Higher Level High School Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educators and researchers have long been interested in determinants of access to honors level and college prep courses in high school. Factors influencing access to upper level mathematics courses are particularly important because of the hierarchical and sequential nature of this subject and because students who finish high school with only lower…

Archbald, Doug; Farley-Ripple, Elizabeth N.

2012-01-01

150

Changes in water levels and storage in the High Plains Aquifer, predevelopment to 2009  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The High Plains aquifer underlies 111.8 million acres (175,000 square miles) in parts of eight States - Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The area overlying the High Plains aquifer is one of the primary agricultural regions in the Nation. Water-level declines began in parts of the High Plains aquifer soon after the onset of substantial irrigation with groundwater from the aquifer (about 1950 and termed "predevelopment" in this fact sheet). By 1980, water levels in the High Plains aquifer in parts of Texas, Oklahoma, and southwestern Kansas had declined more than 100 feet (ft) (Luckey and others, 1981). In 1987, in response to declining water levels, Congress directed the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with numerous Federal, State, and local water-resources entities, to assess and track water-level changes in the aquifer. This fact sheet summarizes changes in water levels and drainable water in storage in the High Plains aquifer from predevelopment to 2009. Drainable water in storage is the fraction of water in the aquifer that will drain by gravity and can be withdrawn by wells. The remaining water in the aquifer is held to the aquifer material by capillary forces and generally cannot be withdrawn by wells. Drainable water in storage is termed "water in storage" in this report. A companion USGS report presents more detailed and technical information about water-level and storage changes in the High Plains aquifer during this period (McGuire, 2011).

McGuire, V.L.

2011-01-01

151

Stable superconducting magnet. [high current levels below critical temperature  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Operation of a superconducting magnet is considered. A method is described for; (1) obtaining a relatively high current in a superconducting magnet positioned in a bath of a gas refrigerant; (2) operating a superconducting magnet at a relatively high current level without training; and (3) operating a superconducting magnet containing a plurality of turns of a niobium zirconium wire at a relatively high current level without training.

Boom, R. W. (inventor)

1967-01-01

152

Estimation of Systematic Errors in the Canadian Terrestrial Gravity Data From GRACE Gravity Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Systematic errors in terrestrial gravity data arise from datum errors at the control stations and from elevation and instrumental errors at spot measurements. It is extremely difficult, if at all possible, to estimate and correct these errors through the analysis of the historical records of the gravity projects. The GRACE gravity mission is currently mapping the Earth's gravity field with a homogeneous accuracy better than 1 mGal in gravity, corresponding to a few centimeters in geoid height, for wavelength greater than 300 km. It provides an accurate reference for determining the long-wavelength systematic errors in the terrestrial gravity data. However, the challenge is to remove the short-wavelength components from the terrestrial data in order to eliminate the aliasing errors when estimating systematic errors. In other words, we need an effective low-pass averaging/filtering technique. Several former discussions contribute important insights on characteristics of commonly used methods: Pellinen 1966; Rapp 1977; Gaposchkin 1980; Colombo 1981; Jekeli 1981. In this study, we investigate methods of determining systematic errors in terrestrial gravity through a synthetic gravity field, and apply them to the actual terrestrial gravity data in Canada. EGM96, up to degree and order 360, is used for the synthetic gravity field. First, we test four methods (blockwise, Pellinen's, Gaussian and ideal averaging) to perform low-pass filtering of the EGM96 high frequency gravity field. Second, we derive harmonic gravity models to degree and order 70 from the filtered synthetic field. Third, the new harmonic models are compared to EGM96 (degree and order 70). The best filtering method is expected to give residuals converging towards zero. For the actual gravity field, a harmonic gravity model (degree and order 70) is derived from the filtered Canadian terrestrial gravity data, which are expanded to the entire Earth surface by a GRACE gravity model. This harmonic model is compared to the GRACE gravity model (for the same degree and order) to estimate the systematic errors. Finally, the estimated biases are applied to the terrestrial gravity data for determining a geoid model for Canada, which is validated against GPS/leveling data.

Huang, J.; Véronneau, M.; Mainville, A.

2004-05-01

153

Pt-catalyzed ozonation of aqueous phenol solution using high-gravity rotating packed bed.  

PubMed

In this study, a high-gravity rotating packed bed (HGRPB or HG) was used as a catalytic ozonation (Cat-OZ) reactor to decompose phenol. The operation of HGRPB system was carried out in a semi-batch apparatus which combines two major parts, namely the rotating packed bed (RPB) and photo-reactor (PR). The high rotating speed of RPB can give a high volumetric gas-liquid mass transfer coefficient with one or two orders of magnitude higher than those in the conventional packed beds. The platinum-containing catalyst (Dash 220N, Pt/gamma-Al(2)O(3)) and activated alumina (gamma-Al(2)O(3)) were packed in the RPB respectively to adsorb molecular ozone and the target pollutant of phenol on the surface to catalyze the oxidation of phenol. An ultra violet (UV) lamp (applicable wavelength lambda=200-280 nm) was installed in the PR to enhance the self-decomposition of molecular ozone in water to form high reactive radical species. Different combinations of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) with the HGRPB for the degradation of phenol were tested. These included high-gravity OZ (HG-OZ), HG catalytic OZ (HG-Cat-OZ), HG photolysis OZ (HG-UV-OZ) and HG-Cat-OZ with UV (HG-Cat-UV-OZ). The decomposition efficiency of total organic compound (eta(TOC)) of HG-UV-OZ with power of UV (P(UV)) of 16W is 54% at applied dosage of ozone per volume sample m(A,in)=1200 mg L(-1) (reaction time t=20 min), while that of HG-OZ without the UV irradiation is 24%. After 80 min oxidation (m(A,in)=4800 mg L(-1)), the eta(TOC) of HG-UV-OZ is as high as 94% compared to 82% of HG-OZ process. The values of eta(TOC) for HG-Cat-OZ process with m(S)=42 g are 56% and 87% at m(A,in)=1200 and 4800 mg L(-1), respectively. By increasing the catalyst mass to 77 g, the eta(TOC) for the HG-Cat-OZ process reaches 71% and 90% at m(A,in)=1200 and 4800 mg L(-1), respectively. The introduction of Pt/gamma-Al(2)O(3) as well as UV irradiation in the HG-OZ process can enhance the eta(TOC) of phenol significantly, while gamma-Al(2)O(3) exhibits no significant effect on eta(TOC). For the HG-Cat-UV-OZ process with m(S)=42 g, the values of eta(TOC) are 60% and 94% at m(A,in)=1200 and 4800 mg L(-1), respectively. Note that the decomposition of TOC via HG-UV-OZ is already vigorous. Thus, the enhancing effect of catalyst on eta(TOC) is minor. PMID:19395157

Chang, Chia-Chi; Chiu, Chun-Yu; Chang, Ching-Yuan; Chang, Chiung-Fen; Chen, Yi-Hung; Ji, Dar-Ren; Tseng, Jyi-Yeong; Yu, Yue-Hwa

2009-09-15

154

Preparation and characterization of zinc sulfide nanoparticles under high-gravity environment  

SciTech Connect

Nanosized ZnS particles were prepared under high-gravity environment generated by the rotating packed bed reactor (RPBR) using zinc nitrate solution and hydrogen sulfide gas as raw materials. The effects of experimental conditions such as reactant concentration, reaction temperature, rotating speed of the RPBR and aging time, on the preparation of nanosized ZnS particles were investigated. A set of suitable operating parameters (the aging time of 48 h, concentration of zinc nitrate of 0.1 mol/l, reaction temperature of 45 deg. C and rotating speed of the RPBR of 1500-1800 rotation/min) for the preparation of nanosized ZnS were recommended. Under these optimum conditions, well-dispersed ZnS nanoparticles was obtained. The crystal structure, optical properties, size and morphology of the product were also characterized by XRD, UV-Vis spectrophotometer, and TEM, respectively. Results indicate that the prepared ZnS has a good absorption for light in the wavelength range of 200-330 nm. XRD analysis also shows the prepared ZnS is in a sphalerite crystal phase. The process has great potential of commercialization.

Chen Jianfeng; Li Yaling; Wang Yuhong; Yun, Jimmy; Cao Dapeng

2004-02-02

155

High Energy Astrophysics Tests of Lorentz Invariance and Quantum Gravity Models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High energy astrophysics observations provide the best possibilities to detect a very small violation of Lorentz invariance such as may be related to the structure of space-time near the Planck scale of approximately 10(exp -35)m. I will discuss the possible signatures of Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) that can be manifested by observing of the spectra, polarization, and timing of gamma-rays from active galactic nuclei and y-ray bursts. Other sensitive tests are provided by observations of the spectra of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays and neutrinos. Using the latest data from the Pierre Auger Observatory one can already derive an upper limit of 4.5 x 10(exp -23) on the fraction of LIV at a Lorentz factor of approximately 2 x 10(exp 11). This result has fundamental implications for quantum gravity models. I will also discuss the possibilities of using more sensitive space-based detection techniques to improve searches for LIV in the future.

Stecker, F. W.

2011-01-01

156

High Energy Astrophysics Tests of Lorentz Invariance and Quantum Gravity Models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High energy astrophysics observations provide the best possibilities to detect a very small violation of Lorentz invariance such as may be related to the structure of space-time near the Planck scale of approx.10(exp -35) m. I will discuss the possible signatures of Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) that can be manifested by observing of the spectra, polarization, and timing of gamma-rays from active galactic nuclei and gamma-ray bursts. Other sensitive tests are provided by observations of the spectra of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays and neutrinos. Using the latest data from the Pierre Auger Observatory one can already derive an upper limit of 4.5 x 10(exp -23) on the fraction of LIV at a Lorentz factor of approx. 2 x 10(exp 11). This result has fundamental implications for quantum gravity models. I will also discuss the possibilities of using more sensitive space-based detection techniques to improve searches for LIV in the future. I will also discuss how the LIV formalism casts doubt on the OPERA superluminal neutrino claim.

Stecker, Floyd W.

2012-01-01

157

Climate scenarios of sea level rise for the northeast Atlantic Ocean: a study including the effects of ocean dynamics and gravity changes induced by ice melt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we present a set of regional climate scenarios of sea level rise for the northeast Atlantic Ocean. In this study, the\\u000a latest observations and results obtained with state-of-the-art climate models are combined. In addition, regional effects\\u000a due to ocean dynamics and changes in the Earth’s gravity field induced by melting of land-based ice masses have been taken\\u000a into account.

Caroline A. Katsman; Wilco Hazeleger; Sybren S. Drijfhout; Geert Jan van Oldenborgh; Gerrit J. H. Burgers

2008-01-01

158

Observing ocean heat content using satellite gravity and altimetry  

E-print Network

: Physical: Sea level variations; 1223 Geodesy and Gravity: Ocean/Earth/atmosphere interactions (3339); 1227 Geodesy and Gravity: Planetary geodesy and gravity (5420, 5714, 6019); 1243 Geodesy and Gravity: Space

Jayne, Steven

159

Detection Method and Observed Data of High-energy Gamma Rays under the Influence of Quantum Gravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interaction of high-energy particles affected by quantum gravity is argued from the experimental viewpoint of raising a question, ``our detection method for high-energy ?-rays supplies trustworthy observation data and we are now seeing the true image of the universe through high-energy ?-rays?" The modified dispersion relation (MDR) for particles' energy and momentum is applied to the equation of energy-momentum conservation in particle reactions, to study the restriction imposed on the kinematic state of high-energy particles by the Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) due to quantum gravity, as a function of the incident particle energy of the reaction. The result suggests that the interaction utilized for ?-ray detection is not free from the effect of quantum gravity when ?-ray energy is higher than 1013 ~ 1017 eV depending on models of MDR. Discussion is presented on the prospect of finding clear evidence of the LIV effect from ?-ray observations, as well as on the radiation and propagation mechanism of ?-rays under the influence of the LIV effect.

Kifune, T.

2014-05-01

160

Impact of time variable Earth global gravity field models on precise orbits of altimetry satellites, global and regional mean sea level trends  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Significant progress has been reached in the last decade in the investigation of the global gravity field of the Earth. Besides static, also time variable gravity field models have been recently developed. In this paper we study the influence of the recently developed time variable Earth global gravity field models on altimetry satellite orbits as well as on global and regional mean sea level trends computed using these orbits. We included in our analysis six gravity field models jointly developed by GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences and Space Geodesy Research Group (CNES/GRGS) Toulouse: the stationary model EIGEN-GL04S, a stationary version of EIGEN-6S (EIGEN-6S_stat), a corrected version of EIGEN-6S and three enhanced versions of EIGEN-6S called EIGEN-6S2, EIGEN-6S2A and EIGEN-6S2B. Based on the analysis of precise orbits of the radar altimetry satellites ERS-1 (1991-1996), TOPEX/Poseidon (1992-2005), ERS-2 (1995-2006) and Envisat (2002-2011) computed by us totally over 20 years at the time periods shown for each satellite, the single-mission and multi-mission altimetry crossover analysis we found that the time variable models EIGEN-6S_corrected, EIGEN-6S2 and its two precursors EIGEN-6S2A/B perform notably better than the stationary models for the GRACE period from 2003 onwards. Thus, the use of the EIGEN-6S2 and EIGEN-6S2A/B models reduces the root-mean-square fits of satellite laser ranging observations for Envisat by 3.6%, as compared to the use of the EIGEN-GL04S model. However, for the pre-GRACE period (1991 - 2003) the stationary gravity field models EIGEN-GL04S and EIGEN-6S_stat and the EIGEN-6S2 model containing no drift terms for the degree 3-50 terms at this time interval perform superior to the ones containing drift terms for this period (EIGEN-6S_correct and EIGEN-6S2A/B). We also found, that the time variable gravity field models have low (0.1-0.2 mm/yr) impact on the global mean sea level trend. However, strong East/West differences up to 3 mm/yr were found in the regional mean sea level trends, while using orbits of all four satellites based on time variable and stationary gravity field models. We show a relation of these differences to the relative drifts of the centers-of-origin between the orbit solutions based on the time variable and stationary gravity field models. From the results of our detailed study, we conclude that the final version of the time variable gravity field model EIGEN-6S2 performs best for the four satellites tested. This model provides the most reliable and consistent sea level estimates for the whole time period from 1992 to 2011. This model is of the maximum spherical harmonic degree and order 260 and contains time series for drifts as well as annual and semiannual variations of the spherical harmonic coefficients up to degree 50.

Rudenko, Sergei; Dettmering, Denise; Esselborn, Saskia; Schöne, Tilo; Förste, Christoph; Lemoine, Jean-Michel; Neumayer, Karl-Hans

2014-05-01

161

The effects of gravity level during directional solidification on the microstructure of hypermonotectic Al-In-Sn alloys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Five hypermonotectic Al-In-Sn compositions were directionally solidified in a Bridgman-type furnace at normal gravity and during aircraft low-gravity maneuvers. The tendency of the Al-30In alloy to form an indium-rich band at the start of unidirectional growth (SUG) made it difficult to study the integration of L sub 2 into the solidification interface. Hypermonotectic compositions closer to monotectic slightly hypermonotectic caused only a partial band on L sub 2 to form at SUG and allowed the study of such variables as gravity, composition, and monotectic dome height on integration of excess L sub 2 into the solid plus L sub 2 interface. It was found that formation of aligned composite structures for the Al-In-Sn system is not only a function of G and R but also of the degree to which the composition varies from monotectic. Most of the aligned fibrous structures formed from hypermonotectic Al-In-Sn had spacings that were of the order of irregular fibrous structures reported for on monotectic Al-In-Sn. The spacings for the large fibers and aligned globules found for ground and low-gravity processed Al-In-18-Sn-22, respectively, were significantly larger than the others measured and were of the order expected for cell spacings under the growth conditions utilized. It was found that the integration into the solidification front of excess L sub 2 in low gravity was a function of the Sn composition of the alloy.

Curreri, P. A.; Kaukler, W. F.

1986-01-01

162

Introduction to Measurement (advanced high school/intro college level)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

30-page illustrated guide to fundamentals of measurement. This is intended to be a clear, comprehensive overview of effective measurement technique. Intended for advanced high school or introductory college level students. Includes worked examples and problems.

Bohacek, Peter

163

Holism and High Level Wellness in the Treatment of Alcoholism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how a holistic and wellness philosophy is a viable alternative in the treatment of alcoholism. Describes five major dimensions of high-level wellness: nutritional awareness, physical fitness, stress management, environmental sensitivity, and self-responsibility. (RC)

Bartha, Robert; Davis, Tom

1982-01-01

164

High Epitope Expression Levels Increase Competition between T Cells  

E-print Network

High Epitope Expression Levels Increase Competition between T Cells Almut Scherer, Marcel Salathe epitope ligand. We have developed an individual- based computer simulation model to study T cell competition. Our model shows that the expression level of foreign epitopes per APC determines whether T cell

Bonhoeffer, Sebastian

165

MUTATION-BASED VALIDATION OF HIGH-LEVEL MICROPROCESSOR IMPLEMENTATIONS  

E-print Network

MUTATION-BASED VALIDATION OF HIGH-LEVEL MICROPROCESSOR IMPLEMENTATIONS Jorge Campos and Hussain Al-level microprocessor implementation by generating a test sequence for a collection of ab- stract design error models of microprocessors, engineers are forced to validate a larger design space in a shorter time frame. This task becomes

Al-Asaad, Hussain

166

EMPLOYABILITY AND HIGH-LEVEL SKILLS EQUIPPING STUDENTS FOR SUCCESS  

E-print Network

in an increasingly competitive world. This strategy focuses on the soft and hard skills required by a successfulEMPLOYABILITY AND HIGH-LEVEL SKILLS EQUIPPING STUDENTS FOR SUCCESS Swansea University Singleton The importance of higher-level skills to the knowledge-based economy 08 Aerospace engineering 10 Skills

Martin, Ralph R.

167

High-Level Waste System Process Interface Description  

SciTech Connect

The High-Level Waste System is a set of six different processes interconnected by pipelines. These processes function as one large treatment plant that receives, stores, and treats high-level wastes from various generators at SRS and converts them into forms suitable for final disposal. The three major forms are borosilicate glass, which will be eventually disposed of in a Federal Repository, Saltstone to be buried on site, and treated water effluent that is released to the environment.

d'Entremont, P.D.

1999-01-14

168

Studies of ATM for ATLAS high-level triggers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents some of the conclusions of our studies on asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) and fast Ethernet in the ATLAS level-2 trigger pilot project. We describe the general concept and principles of our data-collection and event-building scheme that could be transposed to various experiments in high-energy and nuclear physics. To validate the approach in view of ATLAS high-level triggers,

J. Bystricky; D. Calvet; M. Huet; P. Le Du; I. Mandjavidze

2001-01-01

169

Dynamic Communicating Automata and Branching High-Level MSCs  

E-print Network

Communicating Automata · Branching High-Level MSCs ... x := new(s,x) x ? comx ! req(y) #12;Outline · Dynamic Communicating Automata · Branching High-Level MSCs ... x y x y req(y) x y com com x := new(s,x) x ? comx ! req com x := new(s,x) x ? comx ! req(y) implementable? #12;Outline · Dynamic Communicating Automata

Bollig, Benedikt

170

THE ENHANCEMENT OF LOW-LEVEL CLASSIFICATIONS IN SEQUENTIAL SYNTACTIC HIGH-LEVEL CLASSIFIERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper surveys a new research field of object behavior classification using sequential syntactic pattern recognition, which recognizes high-level object behaviors while in paral- lel recovering from low-level object recognition classification errors. A new approach of syntactical object behavior clas- sification with a robust implementation is introduced. It is an innovative approach that requires no training, only a pri- ori

Deborah E. Goshorn

171

Embedding High-Level Information into Low Level Vision: Efficient Object Search in Clutter  

E-print Network

Embedding High-Level Information into Low Level Vision: Efficient Object Search in Clutter Ching L for objects of interest in cluttered environments is crucial for robots performing tasks in a multitude descriptors of Bo et al. [2], over two large datasets of objects in clutter collected using an RGB

Aloimonos, Yiannis

172

The Current Status of the Space Station Biological Research Project: a Core Facility Enabling Multi-Generational Studies under Slectable Gravity Levels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) has developed a new plan which greatly reduces the development costs required to complete the facility. This new plan retains core capabilities while allowing for future growth. The most important piece of equipment required for quality biological research, the 2.5 meter diameter centrifuge capable of accommodating research specimen habitats at simulated gravity levels ranging from microgravity to 2.0 g, is being developed by NASDA, the Japanese space agency, for the SSBRP. This is scheduled for flight to the ISS in 2007. The project is also developing a multi-purpose incubator, an automated cell culture unit, and two microgravity habitat holding racks, currently scheduled for launch in 2005. In addition the Canadian Space Agency is developing for the project an insect habitat, which houses Drosophila melanogaster, and provides an internal centrifuge for 1 g controls. NASDA is also developing for the project a glovebox for the contained manipulation and analysis of biological specimens, scheduled for launch in 2006. This core facility will allow for experimentation on small plants (Arabidopsis species), nematode worms (C. elegans), fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster), and a variety of microorganisms, bacteria, yeast, and mammalian cells. We propose a plan for early utilization which focuses on surveys of changes in gene expression and protein structure due to the space flight environment. In the future, the project is looking to continue development of a rodent habitat and a plant habitat that can be accommodated on the 2.5 meter centrifuge. By utilizing the early phases of the ISS to broadly answer what changes occur at the genetic and protein level of cells and organisms exposed to the ISS low earth orbit environment, we can generate interest for future experiments when the ISS capabilities allow for direct manipulation and intervention of experiments. The ISS continues to hold promise for high quality, long term, multi-generational biological studies with large sample sizes and appropriate controls.

Santos, O.

2002-01-01

173

High-Level Synthesis of Software Function Calls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This letter presents a novel framework in high-level synthesis where hardware modules synthesized from functions in a given ANSI-C program can call the other software functions in the program. This enables high-level synthesis from C programs that contains calls to hard-to-synthesize functions, such as dynamic memory management, I/O request, or very large and complex functions. A single-thread implementation scheme is shown, whose correctness has been verified through register transfer level simulation.

Nishimura, Masanari; Ishiura, Nagisa; Ishimori, Yoshiyuki; Kanbara, Hiroyuki; Tomiyama, Hiroyuki

174

High-Temperature Superconducting Level Meter for Liquid Argon Detectors  

E-print Network

Capacitive devices are customarily used as probes to measure the level of noble liquids in detectors operated for neutrino studies and dark matter searches. In this work we describe the use of a high-temperature superconducting material as an alternative to control the level of a cryogenic noble liquid. Lab measurements indicate that the superconductor shows a linear behaviour, a high degree of stability and offers a very accurate determination of the liquid volume. This device is therefore a competitive instrument and shows several advantages over conventional level meters.

Bueno, A; Navarro, J L; Navas, S; Ruiz, A G

2008-01-01

175

Water borne transport of high level nuclear waste in very deep borehole disposal of high level nuclear waste  

E-print Network

The purpose of this report is to examine the feasibility of the very deep borehole experiment and to determine if it is a reasonable method of storing high level nuclear waste for an extended period of time. The objective ...

Cabeche, Dion Tunick

2011-01-01

176

An overview of very high level software design methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Very High Level design methods emphasize automatic transfer of requirements to formal design specifications, and/or may concentrate on automatic transformation of formal design specifications that include some semantic information of the system into machine executable form. Very high level design methods range from general domain independent methods to approaches implementable for specific applications or domains. Applying AI techniques, abstract programming methods, domain heuristics, software engineering tools, library-based programming and other methods different approaches for higher level software design are being developed. Though one finds that a given approach does not always fall exactly in any specific class, this paper provides a classification for very high level design methods including examples for each class. These methods are analyzed and compared based on their basic approaches, strengths and feasibility for future expansion toward automatic development of software systems.

Asdjodi, Maryam; Hooper, James W.

1988-01-01

177

Coulomb drag in high Landau levels I. V. Gornyi,1,  

E-print Network

Coulomb drag in high Landau levels I. V. Gornyi,1, * A. D. Mirlin,1,2, and F. von Oppen3,4 1 December 2004) Recent experiments on Coulomb drag in the quantum Hall regime have yielded a number of surprises. The most striking observations are that the Coulomb drag can become negative in high Landau

von Oppen, Felix

178

PICQUERY: A High Level Query Language for Pictorial Database Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reasonably comprehensive set of data accessing and manipulation operations that should be supported by a generalized pictorial database management system (PDBMS) is proposed. A corresponding high-level query language, PICQUERY, is presented and illustrated through examples. PICQUERY has been designed with a flavor similar to QBE as the highly nonprocedural and conservational language for the pictorial database management system PICDMS.

Thomas Joseph; Alfonso F. Cardenas

1988-01-01

179

A Testing Instrument for High School Arabic, Level III.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Arabic language examination was designed for Jewish immigrants from Syria wishing to satisfy New York State language requirements for high school graduation by indicating their proficiency in Arabic. The test is essentially a translation of a state test of Hebrew, and is intended to test Arabic at the third-year high school level. The…

Wolowelsky, Joel B.

180

Neuropsychological divergence of high-level autism and severe dyslexia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between cognitive deficits in high-level autism and those in learning disabilities has received little attention. To determine whether high-functioning autistic patients and individuals with severe dyslexia display different cognitive characteristics, 10 nonretarded men (mean age 26 years) with infantile autism, residual state, were compared with 15 severely dyslexic men (mean age 22 years) and 25 matched controls on

Judith M. Rumsey; Susan D. Hamburger

1990-01-01

181

Protein levels for Chios lambs given high concentrate diets  

E-print Network

Protein levels for Chios lambs given high concentrate diets M. HADJIPANAYIOTOU Agricultural and the digestibility of the diets. Male lambs grew faster, consumed more feed and utilized feed more efficiently than female lambs. The final weight and weight gain of male lambs on the high CP diet were higher than those

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

182

The effects of high presentation levels on consonant feature transmission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of high speech presentation levels on consonant recognition and feature transmission was assessed in eight participants with normal hearing. Consonant recognition in noise (0 dB signal-to-noise ratio) was measured at five overall speech levels ranging from 65 to 100 dB SPL. Consistent with the work of others, overall percent correct performance decreased as the presentation level of speech increased [e.g., G. A. Studebaker, R. L. Sherbecoe, D. M. McDaniel, and C. A. Gwaltney, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 105(4), 2431-2444 (1999)]. Confusion matrices were analyzed in terms of relative percent information transmitted at each speech presentation level, as a function of feature. Six feature sets (voicing, place, nasality, duration, frication, and sonorance) were analyzed. Results showed the feature duration (long consonant duration fricatives) to be most affected by increases in level, while the voicing feature was relatively unaffected by increases in level. In addition, alveolar consonants were substantially affected by level, while palatal consonants were not. While the underlying mechanisms responsible for decreases in performance with level increases are unclear, an analysis of common error patterns at high levels suggests that saturation of the neural response and/or a loss of neural synchrony may play a role.

Hornsby, Benjamin W. Y.; Trine, Timothy D.; Ohde, Ralph N.

2005-09-01

183

Gravity wave characteristics observed over a tropical station using high-resolution GPS radiosonde soundings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several investigations of the dominant period gravity waves (GWs) were conducted earlier using Indian mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radar located at Gadanki (13.5°N, 79.2°E). However, these works had their own limitations of unavailability of continuous data, low SNR, and lack of reliable data at the stratospheric heights (in the case of MST radar) and low spatial resolution (for routine balloon data). For the present study, high-resolution GPS radiosonde data for more than 2 years (2006-2008) has been used for the first time to characterize the dominant GWs and their associated source mechanisms. Particular attention is paid (1) to check the consistency in GW characteristics observed with MST radar, (2) to estimate potential energy, kinetic energy, and hence total energy, (3) to extend the analysis up to 25 km and check whether vertical wavelength is the same as that observed by MST radar in the lower stratosphere, and finally (4) to estimate the exact direction of propagation in horizontal, which was not possible from MST radar alone. Clear semiannual variation in GW energy, with maximum during monsoon and winter and minimum during premonsoon and postmonsoon in the troposphere, is noticed during 2006 but not clear in 2007. Annual variation is observed in the lower stratosphere with maximum during monsoon (winter enhancement is not significant) season. Strong eastward shear due to tropical easterly jet and orography is found to be responsible for generating the GWs during the monsoon and winter, respectively. Although several features are consistent with that observed earlier, a few new features have been observed by GPS radiosonde and are reported in the present study.

Nath, Debashis; Venkat Ratnam, M.; Jagannadha Rao, V. V. M.; Krishna Murthy, B. V.; Vijaya Bhaskara Rao, S.

2009-03-01

184

Evaluation of the fermentation of high gravity thick sugar beet juice worts for efficient bioethanol production  

PubMed Central

Background Sugar beet and intermediates of sugar beet processing are considered to be very attractive feedstock for ethanol production due to their content of fermentable sugars. In particular, the processing of the intermediates into ethanol is considerably facilitated because it does not require pretreatment or enzymatic treatment in contrast to production from starch raw materials. Moreover, the advantage of thick juice is high solid substance and saccharose content which eliminates problems with the storability of this feedstock. Results The objective of this study were to investigate bioethanol production from thick juice worts and the effects of their concentration, the type of mineral supplement, as well as the dose of yeast inoculum on fermentation dynamics and ethanol yield. The obtained results show that to ensure efficient ethanolic fermentation of high gravity thick juice worts, one needs to use a yeast strain with high ethanol tolerance and a large amount of inoculum. The highest ethanol yield (94.9?±?2.8% of the theoretical yield) and sugars intake of 96.5?±?2.9% were obtained after the fermentation of wort with an extract content of 250 g/kg supplemented with diammonium hydrogen phosphate (0.3 g/L of wort) and inoculated with 2 g of Ethanol Red dry yeast per L of wort. An increase in extract content in the fermentation medium from 250 g/L to 280 g/kg resulted in decreased efficiency of the process. Also the distillates originating from worts with an extract content of 250 g/kg were characterized by lower acetaldehyde concentration than those obtained from worts with an extract content of 280 g/kg. Conclusions Under the favorable conditions determined in our experiments, 38.9?±?1.2 L of 100% (v/v) ethyl alcohol can be produced from 100 kg of thick juice. The obtained results show that the selection of process conditions and the yeast for the fermentation of worts with a higher sugar content can improve the economic performance of the alcohol-distilling industry due to more efficient ethanol production, reduced consumption of cooling water, and energy for ethanol distillation, as well as a decreased volume of fermentation stillage. PMID:24206573

2013-01-01

185

Lithospheric Thickness Variations from Gravity and Topography in Areas of High Crustal Remanent Magnetization on Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Large regions of intense crustal re- manent magnetization were fortuitously discovered on Mars by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft. Gravity and topography admittance studies are used to examine lithospheric structure in the areas of intense magnetization. Areas with positively magnetized crust appear to have thinner crust and elastic lithosphere than negatively magnetized crust. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Smrekar, S. E.; Raymond, C. A.

2001-01-01

186

Integration of P- and SH-wave high-resolution seismic reflection and micro-gravity techniques to improve interpretation of shallow subsurface structure: New Madrid seismic zone  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Shallow high-resolution seismic reflection surveys have traditionally been restricted to either compressional (P) or horizontally polarized shear (SH) waves in order to produce 2-D images of subsurface structure. The northernmost Mississippi embayment and coincident New Madrid seismic zone (NMSZ) provide an ideal laboratory to study the experimental use of integrating P- and SH-wave seismic profiles, integrated, where practicable, with micro-gravity data. In this area, the relation between "deeper" deformation of Paleozoic bedrock associated with the formation of the Reelfoot rift and NMSZ seismicity and "shallower" deformation of overlying sediments has remained elusive, but could be revealed using integrated P- and SH-wave reflection. Surface expressions of deformation are almost non-existent in this region, which makes seismic reflection surveying the only means of detecting structures that are possibly pertinent to seismic hazard assessment. Since P- and SH-waves respond differently to the rock and fluid properties and travel at dissimilar speeds, the resulting seismic profiles provide complementary views of the subsurface based on different levels of resolution and imaging capability. P-wave profiles acquired in southwestern Illinois and western Kentucky (USA) detect faulting of deep, Paleozoic bedrock and Cretaceous reflectors while coincident SH-wave surveys show that this deformation propagates higher into overlying Tertiary and Quaternary strata. Forward modeling of micro-gravity data acquired along one of the seismic profiles further supports an interpretation of faulting of bedrock and Cretaceous strata. The integration of the two seismic and the micro-gravity methods therefore increases the scope for investigating the relation between the older and younger deformation in an area of critical seismic hazard. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Bexfield, C.E.; McBride, J.H.; Pugin, A.J.M.; Ravat, D.; Biswas, S.; Nelson, W.J.; Larson, T.H.; Sargent, S.L.; Fillerup, M.A.; Tingey, B.E.; Wald, L.; Northcott, M.L.; South, J.V.; Okure, M.S.; Chandler, M.R.

2006-01-01

187

Comparative study and categorization of high-level petri nets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The graphical formalism of Petri Nets (PNs) is established on a strong mathematical foundation that can be applied in systems specification, analysis and verification. However, classical (low-level) models suÄer from the state explosion problem as resulting PNs become larger. Thus, their ability to represent and analyze realistic large scale systems is reduced. High-level PNs have been introduced in order to

Vasilis C. Gerogiannis; Achilles D Kameas; Panayiotis E. Pintelas

1998-01-01

188

High-accurate optical fiber liquid-level sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A highly accurate optical fiber liquid level sensor is presented. The single-chip microcomputer is used to process and control the signal. This kind of sensor is characterized by self-security and is explosion-proof, so it can be applied in any liquid level detecting areas, especially in the oil and chemical industries. The theories and experiments about how to improve the measurement

Dexing Sun; Shouliu Chen; Chao Pan; Henghuan Jin

1991-01-01

189

Massive Gravity  

E-print Network

We review recent progress in massive gravity. We start by showing how different theories of massive gravity emerge from a higher-dimensional theory of general relativity, leading to the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati model, cascading gravity and ghost-free massive gravity. We then explore their theoretical and phenomenological consistency, proving the absence of Boulware-Deser ghosts and reviewing the Vainshtein mechanism and the cosmological solutions in these models. Finally we present alternative and related models of massive gravity such as new massive gravity, Lorentz-violating massive gravity and non-local massive gravity.

Claudia de Rham

2014-01-16

190

Solidification of Savannah River plant high level waste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Authorization for construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is expected in FY-83. The optimum time for stage 2 authorization is about three years later. Detailed design and construction will require approximately five years for stage 1, with stage 2 construction completed about two to three years later. Production of canisters of waste glass would begin in 1988, and the existing backlog of high level waste sludge stored at SRP would be worked off by about the year 2000. Stage 2 operation could begin in 1990. The technology and engineering are ready for construction and eventual operation of the DWPF for immobilizing high level radioactive waste at Savannah River Plant (SRP). Proceeding with this project will provide the public, and the leadership of this country, with a crucial demonstration that a major quanitity of existing high level nuclear wastes can be safely and permanently immobilized.

Maher, R.; Shafranek, L. F.; Kelley, J. A.; Zeyfang, R. W.

1981-11-01

191

Unifying Low-Level and High-Level Music Similarity Measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measuring music similarity is essential for multi- media retrieval. For music items, this task can be regarded as obtaining a suitable distance measurement between songs de- fined on a certain feature space. In this paper, we propose three of such distance measures based on the audio content: first, a low-level measure based on tempo-related description; second, a high-level semantic measure

Dmitry Bogdanov; Joan Serra; Nicolas Wack; Perfecto Herrera; Xavier Serra

2011-01-01

192

Radon action level for high-rise buildings.  

PubMed

Radon and its progeny are the major contributors to the natural radiation dose received by human beings. Many countries and radiological authorities have recommended radon action levels to limit the indoor radon concentrations and, hence, the annual doses to the general public. Since the sources of indoor radon and the methods for reducing its concentration are different for different types of buildings, social and economic factors have to be considered when setting the action level. But so far no action levels are specifically recommended for cities that have dwellings and offices all housed in high-rise buildings. In this study, an optimization approach was used to determine an action level for high-rise buildings based on data obtained through previous territory-wide radon surveys. A protection cost of HK$0.044 per unit fresh air change rate per unit volume and a detriment cost of HK$120,000 per person-Sv were used, which gave a minimum total cost at an action level of 200 Bq m(-3). The optimization analyses were repeated for different simulated radon distributions and living environment, which resulted in quite significantly different action levels. Finally, an action level of 200 Bq m(-3) was recommended for existing buildings and 150 Bq m(-3) for newly built buildings. PMID:10201568

Leung, J K; Tso, M Y; Ho, C W

1999-05-01

193

High Level Waste (HLW) Feed Process Control Strategy  

SciTech Connect

The primary purpose of this document is to describe the overall process control strategy for monitoring and controlling the functions associated with the Phase 1B high-level waste feed delivery. This document provides the basis for process monitoring and control functions and requirements needed throughput the double-shell tank system during Phase 1 high-level waste feed delivery. This document is intended to be used by (1) the developers of the future Process Control Plan and (2) the developers of the monitoring and control system.

STAEHR, T.W.

2000-06-14

194

High level radioactive waste management facility design criteria  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the engineering systems for the structural design of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). At the DWPF, high level radioactive liquids will be mixed with glass particles and heated in a melter. This molten glass will then be poured into stainless steel canisters where it will harden. This process will transform the high level waste into a more stable, manageable substance. This paper discuss the structural design requirements for this unique one of a kind facility. A special emphasis will be concentrated on the design criteria pertaining to earthquake, wind and tornado, and flooding.

Sheikh, N.A.; Salaymeh, S.R.

1993-10-01

195

Final report on cermet high-level waste forms  

SciTech Connect

Cermets are being developed as an alternate method for the fixation of defense and commercial high level radioactive waste in a terminal disposal form. Following initial feasibility assessments of this waste form, consisting of ceramic particles dispersed in an iron-nickel base alloy, significantly improved processing methods were developed. The characterization of cermets has continued through property determinations on samples prepared by various methods from a variety of simulated and actual high-level wastes. This report describes the status of development of the cermet waste form as it has evolved since 1977. 6 tables, 18 figures.

Kobisk, E.H.; Quinby, T.C.; Aaron, W.S.

1981-08-01

196

Low-Level Information and High-Level Perception: The Case of Speech in Noise  

PubMed Central

Auditory information is processed in a fine-to-crude hierarchical scheme, from low-level acoustic information to high-level abstract representations, such as phonological labels. We now ask whether fine acoustic information, which is not retained at high levels, can still be used to extract speech from noise. Previous theories suggested either full availability of low-level information or availability that is limited by task difficulty. We propose a third alternative, based on the Reverse Hierarchy Theory (RHT), originally derived to describe the relations between the processing hierarchy and visual perception. RHT asserts that only the higher levels of the hierarchy are immediately available for perception. Direct access to low-level information requires specific conditions, and can be achieved only at the cost of concurrent comprehension. We tested the predictions of these three views in a series of experiments in which we measured the benefits from utilizing low-level binaural information for speech perception, and compared it to that predicted from a model of the early auditory system. Only auditory RHT could account for the full pattern of the results, suggesting that similar defaults and tradeoffs underlie the relations between hierarchical processing and perception in the visual and auditory modalities. PMID:18494561

Nahum, Mor; Nelken, Israel; Ahissar, Merav

2008-01-01

197

Low-level information and high-level perception: the case of speech in noise.  

PubMed

Auditory information is processed in a fine-to-crude hierarchical scheme, from low-level acoustic information to high-level abstract representations, such as phonological labels. We now ask whether fine acoustic information, which is not retained at high levels, can still be used to extract speech from noise. Previous theories suggested either full availability of low-level information or availability that is limited by task difficulty. We propose a third alternative, based on the Reverse Hierarchy Theory (RHT), originally derived to describe the relations between the processing hierarchy and visual perception. RHT asserts that only the higher levels of the hierarchy are immediately available for perception. Direct access to low-level information requires specific conditions, and can be achieved only at the cost of concurrent comprehension. We tested the predictions of these three views in a series of experiments in which we measured the benefits from utilizing low-level binaural information for speech perception, and compared it to that predicted from a model of the early auditory system. Only auditory RHT could account for the full pattern of the results, suggesting that similar defaults and tradeoffs underlie the relations between hierarchical processing and perception in the visual and auditory modalities. PMID:18494561

Nahum, Mor; Nelken, Israel; Ahissar, Merav

2008-05-20

198

Feeling Gravity's Pull: Gravity Modeling. The Gravity Field of Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most people take the constant presence of gravitys pull for granted. However, the Earth's gravitational strength actually varies from location to location. This variation occurs because mass, which influences an object's gravitational pull, is not evenly distributed within the planet. Changes in topography, such as glacial movement, an earthquake, or a rise in the ocean level, can subtly affect the gravity field. An accurate measurement of the Earth's gravity field helps us understand the distribution of mass beneath the surface. This insight can assist us in locating petroleum, mineral deposits, ground water, and other valuable substances. Gravity mapping can also help notice or verify changes in sea surface height and other ocean characteristics. Such changes may indicate climate change from polar ice melting and other phenomena. In addition, gravity mapping can indicate how land moves under the surface after earthquakes and other plate tectonic processes. Finally, changes in the Earth's gravity field might indicate a shift in water distribution that could affect agriculture, water supplies for population centers, and long-term weather prediction. Scientists can map out the Earth's gravity field by watching satellite orbits. When a satellite shifts in vertical position, it might be passing over an area where gravity changes in strength. Gravity is only one factor that may shape a satellite's orbital path. To derive a gravity measurement from satellite movement, scientists must remove other factors that might affect a satellite's position: 1. Drag from atmospheric friction. 2. Pressure from solar radiation as it heads toward Earth and. as it is reflected off the surface of the Earth 3. Gravitational pull from the Sun, the Moon, and other planets in the Solar System. 4. The effect of tides. 5. Relativistic effects. Scientists must also correct for the satellite tracking process. For example, the tracking signal must be corrected for refraction through the atmosphere of the Earth. Supercomputers can calculate the effect of gravity for specific locations in space following a mathematical process known as spherical harmonics, which quantifies the gravity field of a planetary body. The process is based on Laplace's fundamental differential equation of gravity. The accuracy of a spherical harmonic solution is rated by its degree and order. Minute variations in gravity are measured against the geoid, a surface of constant gravity acceleration at mean sea level. The geoid reference gravity model strength includes the central body gravitational attraction (9.8 m/sq s) and a geopotential variation in latitude partially caused by the rotation of the Earth. The rotational effect modifies the shape of the geoid to be more like an ellipsoid, rather than a perfect, circle. Variations of gravity strength from the ellipsoidal reference model are measured in units called milli-Galileos (mGals). One mGal equals 10(exp -5) m/sq s. Research projects have also measured the gravity fields of other planetary bodies, as noted in the user profile that follows. From this information, we may make inferences about our own planet's internal structure and evolution. Moreover, mapping the gravity fields of other planets can help scientists plot the most fuel-efficient course for spacecraft expeditions to those planets.

Lemoine, Frank; Smith, David; Rowlands, David; Zuber, Maria; Neumann, G.; Chinn, Douglas; Pavlis, D.

2000-01-01

199

Low voltage to high voltage level shifter and related methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A shifter circuit comprises a high and low voltage buffer stages and an output buffer stage. The high voltage buffer stage comprises multiple transistors arranged in a transistor stack having a plurality of intermediate nodes connecting individual transistors along the stack. The transistor stack is connected between a voltage level being shifted to and an input voltage. An inverter of this stage comprises multiple inputs and an output. Inverter inputs are connected to a respective intermediate node of the transistor stack. The low voltage buffer stage has an input connected to the input voltage and an output, and is operably connected to the high voltage buffer stage. The low voltage buffer stage is connected between a voltage level being shifted away from and a lower voltage. The output buffer stage is driven by the outputs of the high voltage buffer stage inverter and the low voltage buffer stage.

Mentze, Erik J. (Inventor); Hess, Herbert L. (Inventor); Buck, Kevin M. (Inventor); Cox, David F. (Inventor)

2006-01-01

200

High levels of fluctuating asymmetry in isolated stickleback populations  

PubMed Central

Background Fluctuating asymmetry (FA), defined as small random deviations from the ideal bilateral symmetry, has been hypothesized to increase in response to both genetic and environmental stress experienced by a population. We compared levels of FA in 12 bilateral meristic traits (viz. lateral-line system neuromasts and lateral plates), and heterozygosity in 23 microsatellite loci, among four marine (high piscine predation risk) and four pond (zero piscine predation risk) populations of nine-spined sticklebacks (Pungitius pungitius). Results Pond sticklebacks had on average three times higher levels of FA than marine fish and this difference was highly significant. Heterozygosity in microsatellite markers was on average two times lower in pond (HE ? 0.3) than in marine (HE ? 0.6) populations, and levels of FA and heterozygosity were negatively correlated across populations. However, after controlling for habitat effect on heterozygosity, levels of FA and heterozygosity were uncorrelated. Conclusions The fact that levels of FA in traits likely to be important in the context of predator evasion were elevated in ponds compared to marine populations suggests that relaxed selection for homeostasis in ponds lacking predatory fish may be responsible for the observed habitat difference in levels of FA. This inference also aligns with the observation that the levels of genetic variability across the populations did not explain population differences in levels of FA after correcting for habitat effect. Hence, while differences in strength of selection, rather than in the degree of genetic stress could be argued to explain habitat differences in levels of FA, the hypothesis that increased FA in ponds is caused by genetic stress cannot be rejected. PMID:22788717

2012-01-01

201

High-level visual object representations are constrained by position.  

PubMed

It is widely assumed that high-level visual object representations are position-independent (or invariant). While there is sensitivity to position in high-level object-selective cortex, position and object identity are thought to be encoded independently in the population response such that position information is available across objects and object information is available across positions. Contrary to this view, we show, with both behavior and neuroimaging, that visual object representations are position-dependent (tied to limited portions of the visual field). Behaviorally, we show that the effect of priming an object was greatly reduced with any change in position (within- or between-hemifields), indicating nonoverlapping representations of the same object across different positions. Furthermore, using neuroimaging, we show that object-selective cortex is not only highly sensitive to object position but also the ability to differentiate objects based on its response is greatly reduced across different positions, consistent with the observed behavior and the receptive field properties observed in macaque object-selective neurons. Thus, even at the population level, the object information available in response of object-selective cortex is constrained by position. We conclude that even high-level visual object representations are position-dependent. PMID:20351021

Kravitz, Dwight J; Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus; Baker, Chris I

2010-12-01

202

Typewriter Modifications for Persons Who Are High-Level Quadriplegics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Standard, common electric typewriters are not completely suited to the needs of a high-level quadriplegic typing with a mouthstick. Experiences show that for complete control of a typewriter a mouthstick user needs the combined features of one-button correction, electric forward and reverse indexing, and easy character viewing. To modify a…

O'Reagan, James R.; And Others

203

Long-term high-level waste technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Work performed at participating sites to immobilize high-level wastes from the chemical reprocessing of nuclear reactor fuels is summarized. The following aspects are considered: program management and support, waste preparation (retrieval, separation and concentration), waste fixation (in glass, concrete, cermet, tailored ceramics, pellets, metal), process and equipment development, and final handling.

Cornman, W. R.

1980-10-01

204

High level software synthesis for signal processing systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the design of complex digital signal processing systems, block diagram oriented simulation has become a widely accepted standard. Current research is concerned with the coupling of heterogenous simulation engines and the transition from simulation to the implementation of digital signal processing systems. Due to the difficulty in mastering complex design spaces high level hardware and software synthesis is becoming

Sebastian Ritz; M. Pankert; Heinrich Meyr

1992-01-01

205

High levels of genetic variability in west African Dwarf Crocodiles  

E-print Network

High levels of genetic variability in west African Dwarf Crocodiles Osteolaemus tetraspis getraspis Crocodile (Osteolaemus) has been a long-standing problem for crocodilian systematists. Previously divided, to which the dwarf African crocodile belongs, is generally considered the sister taxon to the genus

Ray, David

206

High Performance User Level Sockets over Gigabit Ethernet Pavan Balaji*  

E-print Network

and Fast Ethernet, GM [5] for Myrinet, and others. In the past few years, several industries have taken upHigh Performance User Level Sockets over Gigabit Ethernet Pavan Balaji* Piyush Shivam* Pete of our knowledge, this is the first such design and implementation for Gigabit Ethernet. Keywords

Balaji, Pavan

207

Radionuclide release from high-level nuclear-waste packages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The engineered barrier subsystem (EBS) in an important component in limiting the release of radionuclides from a geologic repository for disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The purpose of this paper is to identify and discuss the key processes that affect the release of radionuclides from nuclear waste forms and migration of these radionuclides through the nuclear-waste packages of the EBS

M. J. Apted

1990-01-01

208

Interpreting a Dynamic and Uncertain World: High-Level Vision  

Microsoft Academic Search

When interpreting a dynamic and uncertain world it is important to have a high-level vision component that can guide the reasoning of the whole vision system. This guidance is provided by an attentional mechanism that exploits knowledge of the specific problem being solved. Here we survey work relevant to the development of such an attentional mechanism, using surveillance as an

Richard J. Howarth

1995-01-01

209

High-Level Synthesis of Digital Microfluidic Biochips  

E-print Network

16 High-Level Synthesis of Digital Microfluidic Biochips FEI SU Intel Corporation and KRISHNENDU CHAKRABARTY Duke University Microfluidic biochips offer a promising platform for massively parallel DNA-custom design of droplet-based "digital" biochips do not scale well for concurrent assays and for next

Chakrabarty, Krishnendu

210

High level cognitive information processing in neural networks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two related research efforts were addressed: (1) high-level connectionist cognitive modeling; and (2) local neural circuit modeling. The goals of the first effort were to develop connectionist models of high-level cognitive processes such as problem solving or natural language understanding, and to understand the computational requirements of such models. The goals of the second effort were to develop biologically-realistic model of local neural circuits, and to understand the computational behavior of such models. In keeping with the nature of NASA's Innovative Research Program, all the work conducted under the grant was highly innovative. For instance, the following ideas, all summarized, are contributions to the study of connectionist/neural networks: (1) the temporal-winner-take-all, relative-position encoding, and pattern-similarity association techniques; (2) the importation of logical combinators into connection; (3) the use of analogy-based reasoning as a bridge across the gap between the traditional symbolic paradigm and the connectionist paradigm; and (4) the application of connectionism to the domain of belief representation/reasoning. The work on local neural circuit modeling also departs significantly from the work of related researchers. In particular, its concentration on low-level neural phenomena that could support high-level cognitive processing is unusual within the area of biological local circuit modeling, and also serves to expand the horizons of the artificial neural net field.

Barnden, John A.; Fields, Christopher A.

1992-01-01

211

High level radioactive waste management facility design criteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the engineering systems for the structural design of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). At the DWPF, high level radioactive liquids will be mixed with glass particles and heated in a melter. This molten glass will then be poured into stainless steel canisters where it will harden. This process will transform

N. A. Sheikh; S. R. Salaymeh

1993-01-01

212

High-level language support for programming distributed systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A strategy for simplifying the programming of heterogeneous distributed systems is presented. The approach used is based on integrating a high-level distributed programming model, the process model, directly into programming languages. Distributed applications written in such languages are portable across different environments, are shorter, and are simpler to develop than similar applications developed using conventional approaches. The process model is

Joshua S. Auerbach; David F. Bacon; Arthur P. Goldberg; Germán S. Goldszmidt; Ajei S. Gopal; Mark T. Kennedy; Andy Lowry; James R. Russell; William Silverman; Robert E. Strom; Daniel M. Yellin; Shaula Yemini

1992-01-01

213

THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE HIGH LEVEL ARCHITECTURE Judith S. Dahmann  

E-print Network

THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE HIGH LEVEL ARCHITECTURE Judith S. Dahmann Defense Modeling and Simulation of a common technical architecture for use across all classes of simulations in the US Department of Defense) for distributed simulations are described. 1. INTRODUCTION The Defense Modeling and Simulation Office (DMSO

214

Level 1 Tornado PRA for the High Flux Beam Reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes a risk analysis primarily directed at providing an estimate for the frequency of tornado induced damage to the core of the High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR), and thus it constitutes a Level 1 Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) covering tornado induced accident sequences. The basic methodology of the risk analysis was to develop a ``tornado specific`` plant logic

G. E. Bozoki; C. S. Conrad

1994-01-01

215

THE XAL INFRASTRUCTURE FOR HIGH LEVEL CONTROL ROOM APPLICATIONS  

SciTech Connect

XAL is a Java programming framework for building high-level control applications related to accelerator physics. The structure, details of implementation, and interaction between components, auxiliary XAL packages, and the latest modifications are discussed. A general overview of XAL applications created for the SNS project is presented.

Shishlo, Andrei P [ORNL] [ORNL; Allen, Christopher K [ORNL] [ORNL; Chu, Paul [Stanford University] [Stanford University; Galambos, John D [ORNL] [ORNL; Pelaia II, Tom [ORNL] [ORNL

2009-01-01

216

The Estuary Guide. Level 3: High School. Draft.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Estuaries are marine systems that serve as nurseries for animals, links in the migratory pathways, and habitat for a complex community of organisms. This curriculum guide intended for use at the high school level seeks to teach what estuaries are; provide opportunities to practice decision-making that affects estuaries; and encourage students to…

Alexander, Glen; And Others

217

Some high level language constructs for data of type relation  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the extension of high level languages by data types of mode relation, three language constructs are proposed and discussed: a repetition statement controlled by relations, predicates as a generalization of Boolean expressions, and a constructor for relations using predicates. The language constructs are developed step by step starting with a set of elementary operations on relations. They are designed

Joachim W. Schmidt; Universitiit Hamburg

1977-01-01

218

On the facet-skeletal transition of snow crystals - Experiments in high and low gravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A laboratory investigation of the influence of air velocity on the growth of columnar ice crystals from the vapor over the range -3 to -5 C shows that the linear growth velocity increases and that columns transform to sheath crystals or needles as air velocity increases from a few cm/s to 40 cm/s. Comparison with a similar transition of plates to dendrites shows that, macroscopically, in both cases the facets sprout rounded tips at a critical velocity which is lower for higher ambient supersaturation. Studies in low gravity show that chamber scale convection under normal gravity may have significant influence on growth even in the absence of an imposed air velocity. Falling snow crystals become more skeletal in shape as they grow and fall with increasing velocity. This development depends critically on temperature (+ or - 0.5 C) and demonstrates that the snow crystal shape is even more dependent on environmental growth conditions that previously thought.

Alena, T.; Hallett, J.; Saunders, C. P. R.

1990-01-01

219

VLBI, Ring Laser and Gravity Observations for High-Frequency Polar Motion and Universal Time Variations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) is exclusively sensitive to the complete rotation matrix from the terrestrial to the quasi-inertial frame, while ring lasers being sensitive to the instantaneous Earth rotation vector in an Earth- fixed frame, i.e., to polar motion and length of day variations. Additionally, assuming a perfect knowledge of mass attraction variations, superconducting gravimeters (SG) permit to detect Earth rotation variations from the magnitude of the local gravity. The formula of the Sagnac frequency and gravity variation caused by the motion of the Earth's body w.r.t. the instantaneous Earth rotation vector will be presented and compared to VLBI parameterization. The potential of a combination of the three independent types of observables will be examined for sub-diurnal polar motion and universal time variations.

Mendes Cerveira, P. J.; Kluegel, T.; Schreiber, U.; Velikoseltsev, A.; Meurers, B.; Schuh, H.

2007-05-01

220

Symmetries In Evolving Space-time and Their Connection To High-frequency Gravity Wave Production  

E-print Network

We present how a worm hole bridge from a prior to the present universe allows us to use symmetry arguments which allow us to generate relic gravity waves, and also non massless gravitons. The relic gravitons are produced due to thermal / vacuum energy transferral from a prior universe using a pseudo time dependent version of the Wheeler De Witt equation as presented by Crowell (2005)

A. W. Beckwith

2008-04-01

221

Generation of Acoustic Gravity Waves by Periodic Radio Transmissions from a High-Power Ionospheric Heater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Radiophysical Research Institute (Nizhny Novgorod, Russia) and Kharkiv V. N. Karazin National University (Kharkiv, Ukraine) have studied opportunities for the effective generation of acoustic gravity waves (AGWs) in 3 - 180-min period range. The excitation of such waves was conducted for the last several years using the SURA heating facility (Nizhny Novgorod). The detection of the HF-induced AGWs was carried out in the Radiophysical Observatory located near Kharkiv City at a distance of about 960 km from the SURA. A coherent radar for vertical sounding, an ionosonde, and magnetometer chains were used in our measurements. The main results are the following (see [1-5]): 1. Infrasound oscillation trains with a period of 6 min are detected during periodic SURA heater turn-on and -off. Similar oscillation trains are detected after long time pumping, during periodic transmissions with a period of 20 s, as well as after pumping turn-off. The train recordings begin 28 - 54 min after the heater turn-on or -off, and the train propagation speeds are about 300 - 570 m/s, the value of which is close to the sound speed at upper atmospheric altitudes. The amplitude of the Doppler shift frequency is of 10 - 40 mHz, which fits to the 0.1 - 0.3% electron density disturbances at ionospheric altitudes. The amplitude of the infrasound oscillations depends on the SURA mode of operation and the state of the upper atmosphere and ionosphere. 2. High-power radio transmissions stimulate the generation (or enhancement) of waves at ionospheric altitudes in the range of internal gravity wave periods. The HF-induced waves propagate with speeds of 360 - 460 m/s and produce changes in electron density with amplitudes of 2 - 3%. The generation of such periodic perturbations is more preferable with periods of 10 - 60 minutes. Their features depend significantly on the heater mode of operation. It should be stressed that perturbation intensity increases when a pumping wave frequency approaches the F _{_2} layer critical frequency. High-power periodic radio transmissions are capable of enhancing/damping natural wave perturbations generated by the solar terminator. 3. The study has demonstrated that the generation and propagation of AGWs with periods close to the natural oscillation periods of the atmosphere is possible. The duration of AGW oscillation trains does not dependent on the duration of turn-on/-off trains, but it is determined by changes in the current state of the atmosphere-ionosphere-magnetosphere system in general. The period of the AGW oscillation trains is determined by the period or semi-period of the pumping. It means that the mechanism of AGW generation in this case is distinct from the agreed-upon mechanism developed earlier. The AGWs, whose periods are 5 - 10% greater than the Brunt-Vaisala period, exhibit group velocities less than the speed of sound that is of about 80 - 160 m/s. They induce electron density perturbations of about 1.1 - 1.5%. The AGW generation has the following features. When the effective radiated power (ERP) is 50 MW or less, AGWs are not detected; they are reliably observed when the ERP is equal or larger than about 100 MW. Geomagnetic storms play a dual role in the AGW generation because they: (i) increase amplitudes of AGWs with 4 - 6-min and 8 - 12-min periods and (ii) yet enhance background oscillations. The latter hampers the identification of the HF-induced oscillations. Moderate magnetic storms do not markedly exert an influence on the amplitudes of oscillations with 13 - 17-min periods. 4. The quasi-periodic variations in the horizontal components of the geomagnetic field with 8 - 12-min periods become observable near Kharkiv 35 - 45 min after the beginning of pumping. Their speeds are 355 - 460 m/s, and they form trains 40 - 90 min in duration when the [5-min on, 5-min off] or [10-min on, 10-min off] heater timing is used. The 12 - 18-min period variations become observable 35 - 45 min after the beginning of pumping. Their speeds are 355 - 460 m/s, and they form trains 55 - 90 min in duration when the

Frolov, Vladimir; Chernogor, Leonid; Rozumenko, Victor

222

Extremely high urine arsenic level after remote seafood ingestion.  

PubMed

Urine testing for heavy metal concentrations is increasingly performed in the outpatient setting as a part of laboratory evaluation for neuropathy. Abnormal urine arsenic levels due to dietary intake of organic arsenic can lead to unnecessary chelation therapy. A 54-year-old man underwent a 24-hour urine collection for heavy metal concentrations in evaluation of paresthesia of the right foot. The total arsenic level was 8880 ?g/d with concentrations of 4749 ?g/L and 3769 ?g/g creatinine. He was urgently referred to the toxicology clinic for consideration of chelation therapy. History revealed consumption of 2 lobster tails 5 days before the testing. Speciation was then performed on the original urine specimen and revealed an organic arsenic concentration of 4332 ?g/L. No inorganic or methylated arsenic was detected. Repeat testing after abstaining from seafood demonstrated a total arsenic level of 50 ?g/d with concentrations of 30 ?g/L and 21 ?g/g creatinine. Our patient demonstrates the highest level of arsenobetaine reported in the literature, and this level is higher than expected for a person who had not consumed seafood for 5 days before testing. The high levels may be due to consumption of food that he did not recognize as containing arsenobetaine or that his clearance of arsenobetaine from the ingested lobster is slower than published ranges. This case demonstrates the importance of speciation when measuring urine arsenic levels to avoid unnecessary chelation therapy. PMID:22407195

Nañagas, Kristine A; Tormoehlen, Laura M

2014-01-01

223

Proof of concept and performance optimization of high gravity batch-type centrifugal dryer for dewatering fine coal  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of the project was to assemble, analyze and make use of those data that could help to clearly identify, optimize and confirm the technical and economic advantages that the new high gravity centrifugal dryer technology can provide to the coal industry and to end users. Other objectives were: to confirm the feasibility of the dryer for drying coals from a number of different seams; to use the data base for optimizing the dryer's systems, and: to produce projected technical and economic comparisons with thermal dryers as applied to an existing coal processing plant flow sheet. (JL)

Smith, L.B.; Durney, T.

1991-01-01

224

Optogalvanic detection of barium high-lying levels with a two-step pulsed laser excitation  

E-print Network

L-513 Optogalvanic detection of barium high-lying levels with a two-step pulsed laser excitation P barium have been investigated by using a two-step pulsed laser excitation combined with an optogalvanic number for the ground state. In barium the ground level has a J = 0 value, so with a two- photon process

Boyer, Edmond

225

On the use of high-level taxonomic names  

E-print Network

Asher & Helgen (2010) recently proposed some rules for naming animal taxa above the family level—names that are currently unregulated. They suggested that strict priority be used as a criterion for high-level names and that such priority be based on group content rather than the procedure used for low-level taxa, anchored to constituent taxa. Authorship of a high-level name thus may vary in a complex way depending on content. While it is true that taxonomic codes are always in need of improvement, the lack of regulation of high-level names has not caused major problems. Originality, priority, stability, and other common sense considerations usually come to play in a process that can be described as community consensus. Their proposed system would lead to less stability because names would lack both permanent anchors (e.g., types) and permanent authors, and would be based on something (group content) susceptible to change with time. Furthermore, name selection may frequently conflict with common usage, leading to confusion and instability. An example of the problems with these rules is their preferred name for the order containing tenrecs and golden moles, Tenrecoidea, which has a long history of different meanings (content). Instead, the most commonly used name, Afrosoricida, is also preferred because it does not have that confusing history and has a more typical suffix (-a) for a mammalian order. It is often not appreciated that much of taxonomy, across all levels, is determined by community consensus rather than strict rules. For example, the decision to recognize a collection of individuals or populations as a species is

S. Blair Hedges

226

The SuperSID project: exploiting high-level information for high-accuracy speaker recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The area of automatic speaker recognition has been dominated by systems using only short-term, low-level acoustic information, such as cepstral features. While these systems have indeed produced very low error rates, they ignore other levels of information beyond low-level acoustics that convey speaker information. Recently published work has shown examples that such high-level information can be used successfully in automatic

Douglas Reynolds; Walter Andrews; Joseph Campbell; Jiri Navratil; Barbara Peskin; Andre Adami; Qin Jin; David Klusacek; Joy Abramson; Radu Mihaescu; Jack Godfrey; Doug Jones; Bing Xiang

2003-01-01

227

Tethered gravity laboratories study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Variable Gravity Laboratory studies are discussed. The following subject areas are covered: (1) conceptual design and engineering analysis; (2) control strategies (fast crawling maneuvers, main perturbations and their effect upon the acceleration level); and (3) technology requirements.

Lucchetti, F.

1989-01-01

228

High-level waste management technology program plan  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this plan is to document the integrated technology program plan for the Savannah River Site (SRS) High-Level Waste (HLW) Management System. The mission of the SRS HLW System is to receive and store SRS high-level wastes in a see and environmentally sound, and to convert these wastes into forms suitable for final disposal. These final disposal forms are borosilicate glass to be sent to the Federal Repository, Saltstone grout to be disposed of on site, and treated waste water to be released to the environment via a permitted outfall. Thus, the technology development activities described herein are those activities required to enable successful accomplishment of this mission. The technology program is based on specific needs of the SRS HLW System and organized following the systems engineering level 3 functions. Technology needs for each level 3 function are listed as reference, enhancements, and alternatives. Finally, FY-95 funding, deliverables, and schedules are s in Chapter IV with details on the specific tasks that are funded in FY-95 provided in Appendix A. The information in this report represents the vision of activities as defined at the beginning of the fiscal year. Depending on emergent issues, funding changes, and other factors, programs and milestones may be adjusted during the fiscal year. The FY-95 SRS HLW technology program strongly emphasizes startup support for the Defense Waste Processing Facility and In-Tank Precipitation. Closure of technical issues associated with these operations has been given highest priority. Consequently, efforts on longer term enhancements and alternatives are receiving minimal funding. However, High-Level Waste Management is committed to participation in the national Radioactive Waste Tank Remediation Technology Focus Area. 4 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs.

Harmon, H.D.

1995-01-01

229

Review of High Level Waste Tanks Ultrasonic Inspection Data  

SciTech Connect

A review of the data collected during ultrasonic inspection of the Type I high level waste tanks has been completed. The data was analyzed for relevance to the possibility of vapor space corrosion and liquid/air interface corrosion. The review of the Type I tank UT inspection data has confirmed that the vapor space general corrosion is not an unusually aggressive phenomena and correlates well with predicted corrosion rates for steel exposed to bulk solution. The corrosion rates are seen to decrease with time as expected. The review of the temperature data did not reveal any obvious correlations between high temperatures and the occurrences of leaks. The complex nature of temperature-humidity interaction, particularly with respect to vapor corrosion requires further understanding to infer any correlation. The review of the waste level data also did not reveal any obvious correlations.

Wiersma, B

2006-03-09

230

Management of data quality of high level waste characterization  

SciTech Connect

Over the past 10 years, the Hanford Site has been transitioning from nuclear materials production to Site cleanup operations. High-level waste characterization at the Hanford Site provides data to support present waste processing operations, tank safety programs, and future waste disposal programs. Quality elements in the high-level waste characterization program will be presented by following a sample through the data quality objective, sampling, laboratory analysis and data review process. Transition from production to cleanup has resulted in changes in quality systems and program; the changes, as well as other issues in these quality programs, will be described. Laboratory assessment through quality control and performance evaluation programs will be described, and data assessments in the laboratory and final reporting in the tank characterization reports will be discussed.

Winters, W.I., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-06-12

231

RETENTION OF SULFATE IN HIGH LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE GLASS  

SciTech Connect

High level radioactive wastes are being vitrified at the Savannah River Site for long term disposal. Many of the wastes contain sulfate at concentrations that can be difficult to retain in borosilicate glass. This study involves efforts to optimize the composition of a glass frit for combination with the waste to improve sulfate retention while meeting other process and product performance constraints. The fabrication and characterization of several series of simulated waste glasses are described. The experiments are detailed chronologically, to provide insight into part of the engineering studies used in developing frit compositions for an operating high level waste vitrification facility. The results lead to the recommendation of a specific frit composition and a concentration limit for sulfate in the glass for the next batch of sludge to be processed at Savannah River.

Fox, K.

2010-09-07

232

Life Extension of Aging High-Level Waste Tanks  

SciTech Connect

The Double Shell Tanks (DSTs) play a critical role in the Hanford High-Level Waste Treatment Complex, and therefore activities are underway to protect and better understand these tanks. The DST Life Extension Program is focused on both tank life extension and on evaluation of tank integrity. Tank life extension activities focus on understanding tank failure modes and have produced key chemistry and operations controls to minimize tank corrosion and extend useful tank life. Tank integrity program activities have developed and applied key technologies to evaluate the condition of the tank structure and predict useful tank life. Program results to date indicate that DST useful life can be extended well beyond the original design life and allow the existing tanks to fill a critical function within the Hanford High-Level Waste Treatment Complex. In addition the tank life may now be more reliably predicted, facilitating improved planning for the use and possible future replacement of these tanks.

Bryson, D.; Callahan, V.; Ostrom, M.; Bryan, W.; Berman, H.

2002-02-26

233

High Level Information Fusion (HLIF) with nested fusion loops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Situation modeling and threat prediction require higher levels of data fusion in order to provide actionable information. Beyond the sensor data and sources the analyst has access to, the use of out-sourced and re-sourced data is becoming common. Through the years, some common frameworks have emerged for dealing with information fusion—perhaps the most ubiquitous being the JDL Data Fusion Group and their initial 4-level data fusion model. Since these initial developments, numerous models of information fusion have emerged, hoping to better capture the human-centric process of data analyses within a machine-centric framework. 21st Century Systems, Inc. has developed Fusion with Uncertainty Reasoning using Nested Assessment Characterizer Elements (FURNACE) to address challenges of high level information fusion and handle bias, ambiguity, and uncertainty (BAU) for Situation Modeling, Threat Modeling, and Threat Prediction. It combines JDL fusion levels with nested fusion loops and state-of-the-art data reasoning. Initial research has shown that FURNACE is able to reduce BAU and improve the fusion process by allowing high level information fusion (HLIF) to affect lower levels without the double counting of information or other biasing issues. The initial FURNACE project was focused on the underlying algorithms to produce a fusion system able to handle BAU and repurposed data in a cohesive manner. FURNACE supports analyst's efforts to develop situation models, threat models, and threat predictions to increase situational awareness of the battlespace. FURNACE will not only revolutionize the military intelligence realm, but also benefit the larger homeland defense, law enforcement, and business intelligence markets.

Woodley, Robert; Gosnell, Michael; Fischer, Amber

2013-05-01

234

High Resolution Magnetic and Gravity Surveys to Constrain Maar Geometry and Eruption Mechanisms, Rattlesnake Crater, Arizona  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Located 25 kilometers east of Flagstaff, Arizona, Rattlesnake Crater is an oblong phreatomagmatic feature in the San Francisco Volcanic Field. The shallow crater is approximately 1.4 kilometers at its widest point, and surrounded by an uneven tuff ring which is overlapped by a scoria cone volcano on the southeastern side. Improved understanding of its formation and evolution requires geophysical study because there are very few outcrops, and no digging is permitted on site. Geologic features related to the crater are further obscured by deposits from the overlapping scoria cone, as well as tephra from eruptions at nearby Sunset Crater. We present the results of a detailed magnetic and gravity survey in and around Rattlesnake Crater. A substantial NW-SE trending elongate magnetic anomaly (1400 nT) and a smaller similarly trending anomaly are observed inside the crater, as well as a longer wavelength positive gravitational anomaly (+1.0-1.5 mGal) across the crater. The magnetic survey was completed on foot with a 50 meter line spacing inside the crater, and 100 meter line spacing across a portion of the surrounding area outside the crater. The gravity survey was done on two intersecting survey lines - one running west to east, and another roughly north to south, with recordings every 100 meters extending at least 1000 meters outside the crater in all four directions. 2D models of the magnetic and gravity data are presented illustrating the possible geometry of the diatreme, and the approximate size and shape of the major intrusive features. Eruption estimates based on the models are calculated, and the models are favorably compared to the size and depth estimates given in a recent publication (Valentine 2012) that used xenolith content to estimate the size and depth of the diatreme.

Marshall, A. M.; Kruse, S. E.; Connor, C.; Connor, L.; Abdollahzadeh, M.; Harburger, A.; Richardson, J. A.; Courtland, L. M.; Farrell, A. K.; Kiflu, H. G.; Malservisi, R.; McNiff, C. M.; Njoroge, M.; Nushart, N.; Rookey, K.

2013-12-01

235

Stimulus timing-dependent plasticity in high-level vision.  

PubMed

Humans are able to efficiently learn and remember complex visual patterns after only a few seconds of exposure [1]. At a cellular level, such learning is thought to involve changes in synaptic efficacy, which have been linked to the precise timing of action potentials relative to synaptic inputs [2-4]. Previous experiments have tapped into the timing of neural spiking events by using repeated asynchronous presentation of visual stimuli to induce changes in both the tuning properties of visual neurons and the perception of simple stimulus attributes [5, 6]. Here we used a similar approach to investigate potential mechanisms underlying the perceptual learning of face identity, a high-level stimulus property based on the spatial configuration of local features. Periods of stimulus pairing induced a systematic bias in face-identity perception in a manner consistent with the predictions of spike timing-dependent plasticity. The perceptual shifts induced for face identity were tolerant to a 2-fold change in stimulus size, suggesting that they reflected neuronal changes in nonretinotopic areas, and were more than twice as strong as the perceptual shifts induced for low-level visual features. These results support the idea that spike timing-dependent plasticity can rapidly adjust the neural encoding of high-level stimulus attributes [7-11]. PMID:22305750

McMahon, David B T; Leopold, David A

2012-02-21

236

High-level feature extraction in JPEG compressed domain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditional feature extraction techniques like the KLT, Harris and Wavelet work only in the uncompressed domain. Hence an additional step of decompression is required before any of them could be applied. We propose a two-level technique for extracting high-level feature points directly from JPEG compressed images. At the first level, the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) blocks having high activity content are filtered using a variance measure. At the next level, a DCT block centered at every pixel present in the filtered block is constructed from the neighboring DCT blocks. Feature points are then selected by analyzing the AC coefficients of the DCT block centered about it. The proposed method is simple and efficient. The extracted feature points were found to be rich in information content, which could be used for image registration. The results of this technique showed almost the same amount of repeatability between two images with 60% to 70% overlap, when compared with techniques available in the uncompressed domain. The features thus extracted can directly be used to calculate the motion parameters between two images in the compressed domain.

Narayanan, C. K.; Prakash, M. C.; Prabhakara Rao, G. V.

2004-11-01

237

Security Mechanisms in High-Level Network Protocols  

Microsoft Academic Search

The implications of adding security mechanisms to high-level network protocols operating in an open-system environment are analyzed. First the threats to security that may arise in such an environment are described, and then a set of goals for communications security measures is established. This is followed by a brief description of the two basic approaches to communications security, link-oriented measures

Victor L. Voydock; Stephen T. Kent

1983-01-01

238

Unexpectedly high mercury level in pelleted commercial fish feed  

Microsoft Academic Search

An unexpectedly high mercury (Hg) level was found in a pelleted commercial fish feed used to feed fish in laboratory and fish farm settings. Mean total Hg (T-Hg) concentration in the commercial fish pellets was 66 ppb. Mean total selenium (T-Se) concentration in the pellets was 1,120 ppb (ranging from 790 to 1,360 ppb). Total Hg and Se in the

Monica Heekyoung Choi; Joseph J. Cech

1998-01-01

239

Case for retrievable high-level nuclear waste disposal  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Plans for the nation's first high-level nuclear waste repository have called for permanently closing and sealing the repository soon after it is filled. However, the hydrologic environment of the proposed site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, should allow the repository to be kept open and the waste retrievable indefinitely. This would allow direct monitoring of the repository and maintain the options for future generations to improve upon the disposal methods or use the uranium in the spent fuel as an energy resource.

Roseboom, Eugene H., Jr.

1994-01-01

240

Automatic rule generation for high-level vision  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many high-level vision systems use rule-based approaches to solving problems such as autonomous navigation and image understanding. The rules are usually elaborated by experts. However, this procedure may be rather tedious. In this paper, we propose a method to generate such rules automatically from training data. The proposed method is also capable of filtering out irrelevant features and criteria from the rules.

Rhee, Frank Chung-Hoon; Krishnapuram, Raghu

1992-01-01

241

Mixing Processes in High-Level Waste Tanks - Final Report  

SciTech Connect

The mixing processes in large, complex enclosures using one-dimensional differential equations, with transport in free and wall jets is modeled using standard integral techniques. With this goal in mind, we have constructed a simple, computationally efficient numerical tool, the Berkeley Mechanistic Mixing Model, which can be used to predict the transient evolution of fuel and oxygen concentrations in DOE high-level waste tanks following loss of ventilation, and validate the model against a series of experiments.

Peterson, P.F.

1999-05-24

242

High levels of IL-7 cause dysregulation of thymocyte development  

PubMed Central

IL-7 signaling is required for thymocyte development and its loss has a severe deleterious effect on thymus function. Thymocyte–stromal cell interactions and other mechanisms tightly regulate IL-7 expression. We show that disruption of that regulation by over-expression of IL-7 inhibits T-cell development and promotes extensive B-cell lymphopoiesis in the thymus. Our data reveal that high levels of IL-7 negate Notch-1 function in thymocytes found in IL-7 transgenic mice and in co-culture with OP9-DL1 cells. While high levels of IL-7R are present on thymocytes, increased suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 expression blunts IL-7 downstream signaling, resulting in hypo-phosphorylation of proteins in the PI3K-Akt pathway. Consequently, GSK3? remains active and inhibits Notch-1 signaling as observed by decreased Hes-1 and Deltex expression in thymic progenitors. This is the first demonstration that high levels of IL-7 antagonize Notch-1 signaling and suggest that IL-7 may affect T- versus B-lineage choice in the thymus. PMID:22899673

El-Kassar, Nahed; Flomerfelt, Francis A.

2012-01-01

243

Clear and Measurable Signature of Modified Gravity in the Galaxy Velocity Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The velocity field of dark matter and galaxies reflects the continued action of gravity throughout cosmic history. We show that the low-order moments of the pairwise velocity distribution v12 are a powerful diagnostic of the laws of gravity on cosmological scales. In particular, the projected line-of-sight galaxy pairwise velocity dispersion ?12(r) is very sensitive to the presence of modified gravity. Using a set of high-resolution N-body simulations, we compute the pairwise velocity distribution and its projected line-of-sight dispersion for a class of modified gravity theories: the chameleon f(R) gravity and Galileon gravity (cubic and quartic). The velocities of dark matter halos with a wide range of masses would exhibit deviations from general relativity at the (5-10)? level. We examine strategies for detecting these deviations in galaxy redshift and peculiar velocity surveys. If detected, this signature would be a "smoking gun" for modified gravity.

Hellwing, Wojciech A.; Barreira, Alexandre; Frenk, Carlos S.; Li, Baojiu; Cole, Shaun

2014-06-01

244

Clear and measurable signature of modified gravity in the galaxy velocity field.  

PubMed

The velocity field of dark matter and galaxies reflects the continued action of gravity throughout cosmic history. We show that the low-order moments of the pairwise velocity distribution v_{12} are a powerful diagnostic of the laws of gravity on cosmological scales. In particular, the projected line-of-sight galaxy pairwise velocity dispersion ?_{12}(r) is very sensitive to the presence of modified gravity. Using a set of high-resolution N-body simulations, we compute the pairwise velocity distribution and its projected line-of-sight dispersion for a class of modified gravity theories: the chameleon f(R) gravity and Galileon gravity (cubic and quartic). The velocities of dark matter halos with a wide range of masses would exhibit deviations from general relativity at the (5-10)? level. We examine strategies for detecting these deviations in galaxy redshift and peculiar velocity surveys. If detected, this signature would be a "smoking gun" for modified gravity. PMID:24949751

Hellwing, Wojciech A; Barreira, Alexandre; Frenk, Carlos S; Li, Baojiu; Cole, Shaun

2014-06-01

245

Hot water and dilute acid pretreatment of high and low specific gravity Populus deltoides clones.  

PubMed

Populus sp. are hardwood feedstocks that grow in forest management areas that are logged for softwoods; however, they are also being considered as an energy-destined feedstock. The objective of this work was to determine the effect of xylose yield from dilute acid and hot water pretreatments performed in unstirred batch stainless steel reactors at temperatures ranging from 140 to 200°C. Populus deltoides clones S13C20 and S7C15 used in this study originated from Eastern Texas and were cultivated for 14 years in Pine Tree, AR. P. deltoides clones S13C20 and S7C15 had specific gravities of 0.48 and 0.40, respectively. Bark and wood were examined separately. As expected, hot water pretreatments, in the tested temperature range, resulted in very little direct xylose recovery. However, the 140°C dilute acid pretreatment of the lower specific gravity clone, S7C15, wood yielded the highest average xylose recovery of 56%. This condition also yielded the highest concentration of furfural, 9 mg/g sample, which can be inhibitory to the fermentation step. The highest xylose recovery from bark samples, 31%, was obtained with clone S7C15, using the 160°C dilute acid pretreatment for 60 min. PMID:20652357

Martin, Elizabeth M; Bunnell, Kris A; Lau, Ching-Shuan; Pelkki, Matthew H; Patterson, David W; Clausen, Edgar C; Smith, James A; Carrier, Danielle Julie

2011-02-01

246

ALICE: Project Overview and High Level Science Products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the status of the ALICE project (Archival Legacy Investigation of Circumstellar Environments), which consists in a consistent reanalysis of the entire HST-NICMOS coronagraphic archive. Over the last two years, we have developed a sophisticated pipeline able to handle the data of the 400 stars of the archive. This pipeline builds on the Karhunen-Loeve Image Projection (KLIP) algorithm, and was completed in the fall of 2014. We discuss the first processing and analysis results of the overall reduction campaign. As we will deliver high-level science products to the STScI MAST archive, we are defining a new standard format for high-contrast science products, which will be compatible with every new high-contrast imaging instrument (GPI, SPHERE, P1640, CHARIS, etc.) and used by the JWST coronagraphs. We present here the specifications of this standard.

Soummer, Remi; Choquet, Elodie; Pueyo, Laurent; Brendan Hagan, J.; Gofas-Salas, Elena; Rajan, Abhijith; Perrin, Marshall D.; Chen, Christine; Debes, John H.; Golimowski, David A.; Hines, Dean C.; Schneider, Glenn; N'Diaye, Mamadou; Mawet, Dimitri; Marois, Christian; Barman, Travis

2015-01-01

247

Exceptionally high levels of multiple mating in an army ant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most species of social insects have singly mated queens, although there are notable exceptions. Competing hypotheses have been proposed to explain the evolution of high levels of multiple mating, but this issue is far from resolved. Here we use microsatellites to investigate mating frequency in the army ant Eciton burchellii and show that queens mate with an exceptionally large number of males, eclipsing all but one other social insect species for which data are available. In addition we present evidence that suggests that mating is serial, continuing throughout the lifetime of the queen. This is the first demonstration of serial mating among social hymenoptera. We propose that high paternity within colonies is most likely to have evolved to increase genetic diversity and to counter high pathogen and parasite loads.

Denny, A. Jay; Franks, Nigel R.; Powell, Scott; Edwards, Keith J.

248

Space augmentation of military high-level waste disposal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space disposal of selected components of military high-level waste (HLW) is considered. This disposal option offers the promise of eliminating the long-lived radionuclides in military HLW from the earth. A space mission which meets the dual requirements of long-term orbital stability and a maximum of one space shuttle launch per week over a period of 20-40 years, is a heliocentric orbit about halfway between the orbits of earth and Venus. Space disposal of high-level radioactive waste is characterized by long-term predictability and short-term uncertainties which must be reduced to acceptably low levels. For example, failure of either the Orbit Transfer Vehicle after leaving low earth orbit, or the storable propellant stage failure at perihelion would leave the nuclear waste package in an unplanned and potentially unstable orbit. Since potential earth reencounter and subsequent burn-up in the earth's atmosphere is unacceptable, a deep space rendezvous, docking, and retrieval capability must be developed.

English, T.; Lees, L.; Divita, E.

1979-01-01

249

High level language-based robotic control system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This invention is a robot control system based on a high level language implementing a spatial operator algebra. There are two high level languages included within the system. At the highest level, applications programs can be written in a robot-oriented applications language including broad operators such as MOVE and GRASP. The robot-oriented applications language statements are translated into statements in the spatial operator algebra language. Programming can also take place using the spatial operator algebra language. The statements in the spatial operator algebra language from either source are then translated into machine language statements for execution by a digital control computer. The system also includes the capability of executing the control code sequences in a simulation mode before actual execution to assure proper action at execution time. The robot's environment is checked as part of the process and dynamic reconfiguration is also possible. The languages and system allow the programming and control of multiple arms and the use of inward/outward spatial recursions in which every computational step can be related to a transformation from one point in the mechanical robot to another point to name two major advantages.

Rodriguez, Guillermo (inventor); Kruetz, Kenneth K. (inventor); Jain, Abhinandan (inventor)

1994-01-01

250

High-level power estimation for digital system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present a high-level power macromodeling technique at register transfer level (RTL). The proposed methodology allows to estimate the power dissipation on digital systems composed of intellectual property (IP) macro-blocks by using the statistical knowledge of their primary inputs. During the power estimation procedure, the sequence of an input stream is generated by using input metrics. Then, a Monte Carlo zero delay simulation is performed and a power dissipation macromodel function is built from power dissipation results. From then on, this macromodel function can be used to estimate power dissipation of the system just by using the statistics of the IPs primary inputs. In our experiments with the test IP system, the average error is 29.63%.

Durrani, Yaseer A.; Abril, Ana; Riesgo, Teresa

2007-05-01

251

University-Level Research Projects for High School Students  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of this project was to provide an opportunity for high school students to participate in university-level research projects. In this case, students from Pinkerton Academy (Derry, New Hampshire) were invited to participate in efforts to catalog data from the COMPTEL experiment on NASA's Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO). These activities were part of a senior level honors course at Pinkerton. Although the success of this particular program was rather limited, we feel that the general concept is a sound one. In principle, the concept of partnerships between local schools and university researchers is one that could be especially attractive to soft money researchers. Programs can be carefully designed to benefit both the students and the research program.

McConnell, Mark L.

2000-01-01

252

21 CFR 880.6885 - Liquid chemical sterilants/high level disinfectants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...chemical sterilants/high level disinfectants. 880.6885 Section 880...chemical sterilants/high level disinfectants. (a) Identification. ...chemical sterilant/high level disinfectant is a germicide that...

2010-04-01

253

21 CFR 880.6885 - Liquid chemical sterilants/high level disinfectants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...chemical sterilants/high level disinfectants. 880.6885 Section 880...chemical sterilants/high level disinfectants. (a) Identification. ...chemical sterilant/high level disinfectant is a germicide that...

2011-04-01

254

21 CFR 880.6885 - Liquid chemical sterilants/high level disinfectants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...chemical sterilants/high level disinfectants. 880.6885 Section 880...chemical sterilants/high level disinfectants. (a) Identification. ...chemical sterilant/high level disinfectant is a germicide that...

2013-04-01

255

21 CFR 880.6885 - Liquid chemical sterilants/high level disinfectants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...chemical sterilants/high level disinfectants. 880.6885 Section 880...chemical sterilants/high level disinfectants. (a) Identification. ...chemical sterilant/high level disinfectant is a germicide that...

2012-04-01

256

Numerical Simulations of Bubble Dynamics and Heat Transfer in Pool Boiling---Including the Effects of Conjugate Conduction, Level of Gravity, and Noncondensable Gas Dissolved in the Liquid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the complex nature of the subprocesses involved in nucleate boiling, it has not been possible to develop comprehensive models or correlations despite decades of accumulated data and analysis. Complications such as the presence of dissolved gas in the liquid further confound attempts at modeling nucleate boiling. Moreover, existing empirical correlations may not be suitable for new applications, especially with regards to varying gravity level. More recently, numerical simulations of the boiling process have proven to be capable of reliably predicting bubble dynamics and associated heat transfer by showing excellent agreement with experimental data. However, most simulations decouple the solid substrate by assuming constant wall temperature. In the present study complete numerical simulations of the boiling process are performed---including conjugate transient conduction in the solid substrate and the effects of dissolved gas in the liquid at different levels of gravity. Finite difference schemes are used to discretize the governing equations in the liquid, vapor, and solid phases. The interface between liquid and vapor phases is tracked by a level set method. An iterative procedure is used at the interface between the solid and fluid phases. Near the three-phase contact line, temperatures in the solid are observed to fluctuate significantly over short periods. The results show good agreement with the data available in the literature. The results also show that waiting and growth periods can be related directly to wall superheat. The functional relationship between waiting period and wall superheat is found to agree well with empirical correlations reported in the literature. For the case of a single bubble in subcooled nucleate boiling, the presence of dissolved gas in the liquid is found to cause noncondensables to accumulate at the top of the bubble where most condensation occurs. This results in reduced local saturation temperature and condensation rates. The numerical predictions show reasonable agreement with the results from experiments performed at microgravity. For nucleate boiling at microgravity the simulations predict a drastic change in vapor removal pattern when compared to Earth normal gravity. The predictions match well with experimental results. However, simulated heat transfer rates were significantly under-predicted.

Aktinol, Eduardo

257

Analytical predictions of shapes of laminar diffusion flames in microgravity and earth gravity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flame shape is an important observed characteristic of flames that can be used to scale flame properties such as heat release rates and radiation. Flame shape is affected by fuel type, oxygen levels in the oxidiser, inverse burning and gravity. The objective of this study is to understand the effect of high oxygen concentrations, inverse burning, and gravity on the

S. S. Krishnan; J. M. Abshire; P. B. Sunderland; Z.-G. Yuan; J. P. Gore

2008-01-01

258

High level secretion of cellobiohydrolases by Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

Background The main technological impediment to widespread utilization of lignocellulose for the production of fuels and chemicals is the lack of low-cost technologies to overcome its recalcitrance. Organisms that hydrolyze lignocellulose and produce a valuable product such as ethanol at a high rate and titer could significantly reduce the costs of biomass conversion technologies, and will allow separate conversion steps to be combined in a consolidated bioprocess (CBP). Development of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for CBP requires the high level secretion of cellulases, particularly cellobiohydrolases. Results We expressed various cellobiohydrolases to identify enzymes that were efficiently secreted by S. cerevisiae. For enhanced cellulose hydrolysis, we engineered bimodular derivatives of a well secreted enzyme that naturally lacks the carbohydrate-binding module, and constructed strains expressing combinations of cbh1 and cbh2 genes. Though there was significant variability in the enzyme levels produced, up to approximately 0.3 g/L CBH1 and approximately 1 g/L CBH2 could be produced in high cell density fermentations. Furthermore, we could show activation of the unfolded protein response as a result of cellobiohydrolase production. Finally, we report fermentation of microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel™) to ethanol by CBH-producing S. cerevisiae strains with the addition of beta-glucosidase. Conclusions Gene or protein specific features and compatibility with the host are important for efficient cellobiohydrolase secretion in yeast. The present work demonstrated that production of both CBH1 and CBH2 could be improved to levels where the barrier to CBH sufficiency in the hydrolysis of cellulose was overcome. PMID:21910902

2011-01-01

259

HIGH LEVELS OF URANIUM IN GROUNDWATER OF ULAANBAATAR, MONGOLIA  

PubMed Central

Water samples collected from 129 wells in seven of the nine sub-divisions of Ulaanbaatar were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) using Clean Lab methods. The levels of many trace elements were found to be very low with the average concentrations (ranges in brackets) being 0.9 (<0.1-7.9) ?g/L for As; 7.7 (0.12-177) ?g/L for Mn; 0.2 (<0.05-1.9) ?g/L for Co; 16 (<0.1-686) ?g/L for Zn; 0.7 (<0.1-1.8) ?g/L for Se; <0.1 (<0.02-0.69) ?g/L for Cd; and 1.3 (<0.02-32) ?g/L for Pb. The levels of uranium were surprisingly elevated (mean, 4.6 ?g/L; range <0.01-57 ?g/L, with the values for many samples exceeding the World Health Organization's guideline of 15 ?g/L for uranium in drinking water. Local rocks and soils appear to be the natural source of the uranium. The levels of uranium in Ulaanbaatar's groundwater are in the range that has been associated with nephrotoxicity, high blood pressure, bone dysfunction and likely reproductive impairment in human populations. We consider the risk associated with drinking the groundwater with elevated levels of uranium in Ulaanbaatar to be a matter for some public health concern and conclude that the paucity of data on chronic effects of low level exposure is a risk factor for continuing the injury to many people in this city. PMID:22142646

Nriagu, Jerome; Nam, Dong-Ha; Ayanwola, Titilayo A.; Dinh, Hau; Erdenechimeg, Erdenebayar; Ochir, Chimedsuren; Bolormaa, Tsend-Ayush

2011-01-01

260

High-level neutron coincidence counter maintenance manual  

SciTech Connect

High-level neutron coincidence counter operational (field) calibration and usage is well known. This manual makes explicit basic (shop) check-out, calibration, and testing of new units and is a guide for repair of failed in-service units. Operational criteria for the major electronic functions are detailed, as are adjustments and calibration procedures, and recurrent mechanical/electromechanical problems are addressed. Some system tests are included for quality assurance. Data on nonstandard large-scale integrated (circuit) components and a schematic set are also included.

Swansen, J.; Collinsworth, P.

1983-05-01

261

[The female urogenital system and high level sports].  

PubMed

High-level competition sports can have a variety of negative effects on the female urogenital apparatus. Perineal trauma is rare and is usually associated with certain sports (impalement or hydrotubation during water-skiing, indurated perineal nodules in racing cyclists, and horse-riders' perineum). Effort incontinence is seen in all sports involving abrupt repeated increases in intra-abdominal pressure that may exceed perineal floor resistance. Sportswomen should be questioned about possible incontinence and be informed of preventive and therapeutic measures. PMID:17450681

Crepin, Gilles; Biserte, Jacques; Cosson, Michel; Duchene, Franck

2006-10-01

262

Market Designs for High Levels of Variable Generation: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

Variable renewable generation is increasing in penetration in modern power systems, leading to higher variability in the supply and price of electricity as well as lower average spot prices. This raises new challenges, particularly in ensuring sufficient capacity and flexibility from conventional technologies. Because the fixed costs and lifetimes of electricity generation investments are significant, designing markets and regulations that ensure the efficient integration of renewable generation is a significant challenge. This papers reviews the state of play of market designs for high levels of variable generation in the United States and Europe and considers new developments in both regions.

Milligan, M.; Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Orths, A.; Lynch, M.; Soder, L.

2014-10-01

263

Corrosion and failure processes in high-level waste tanks  

SciTech Connect

A large amount of radioactive waste has been stored safely at the Savannah River and Hanford sites over the past 46 years. The aim of this report is to review the experimental corrosion studies at Savannah River and Hanford with the intention of identifying the types and rates of corrosion encountered and indicate how these data contribute to tank failure predictions. The compositions of the High-Level Wastes, mild steels used in the construction of the waste tanks and degradation-modes particularly stress corrosion cracking and pitting are discussed. Current concerns at the Hanford Site are highlighted.

Mahidhara, R.K.; Elleman, T.S.; Murty, K.L. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

1992-11-01

264

Gravity Waves  

Atmospheric Science Data Center

article title:  Gravity Waves Ripple over Marine Stratocumulus Clouds   ... when a pebble is thrown into a still pond, such "gravity waves" sometimes appear when the relatively stable and stratified air masses ... Oct 29, 2003 Images:  Gravity Waves location:  Indian Ocean thumbnail:  ...

2013-04-19

265

Identification of sources of high radon levels in Slovenian schools.  

PubMed

The sources of radon were investigated in twenty selected schools with high room levels of radiation. A combination of radon measuring techniques was applied: etched track and electret detectors to obtain average indoor air radon concentration. devices to record radon concentration continuously and thus characterise its diurnal variation, and alpha scintillation cells to analyse air from potential sources of radon entry. In some cases, a single strong source was identified (e.g. sinks, sub-floor channels), while in others the poor quality of the basic concrete slab was responsible for high indoor radon concentrations. The combination of etched track and electret detectors and alpha scintillation cells was essential for locating these sources. PMID:12212906

Vaupotic, J

2002-01-01

266

Remote ignitability analysis of high-level radioactive waste  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP), was used to reprocess nuclear fuel from government owned reactors to recover the unused uranium-235. These processes generated highly radioactive liquid wastes which are stored in large underground tanks prior to being calcined into a granular solid. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and state/federal clean air statutes require waste characterization of these high level radioactive wastes for regulatory permitting and waste treatment purposes. The determination of the characteristic of ignitability is part of the required analyses prior to calcination and waste treatment. To perform this analysis in a radiologically safe manner, a remoted instrument was needed. The remote ignitability Method and Instrument will meet the 60 deg. C. requirement as prescribed for the ignitability in method 1020 of SW-846. The method for remote use will be equivalent to method 1020 of SW-846.

Lundholm, C.W.; Morgan, J.M.; Shurtliff, R.M.; Trejo, L.E.

1992-09-01

267

Liquidsoap: A High-Level Programming Language for Multimedia Streaming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Generating multimedia streams, such as in a netradio, is a task which is complex and difficult to adapt to every users' needs. We introduce a novel approach in order to achieve it, based on a dedicated high-level functional programming language, called Liquidsoap, for generating, manipulating and broadcasting multimedia streams. Unlike traditional approaches, which are based on configuration files or static graphical interfaces, it also allows the user to build complex and highly customized systems. This language is based on a model for streams and contains operators and constructions, which make it adapted to the generation of streams. The interpreter of the language also ensures many properties concerning the good execution of the stream generation.

Baelde, David; Beauxis, Romain; Mimram, Samuel

268

Feeling Gravity's Pull: Gravity Modeling. The Gravity Field of Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most people take the constant presence of gravitys pull for granted. However, the Earth's gravitational strength actually varies from location to location. This variation occurs because mass, which influences an object's gravitational pull, is not evenly distributed within the planet. Changes in topography, such as glacial movement, an earthquake, or a rise in the ocean level, can subtly affect the

Frank Lemoine; David Smith; David Rowlands; Maria Zuber; G. Neumann; Douglas Chinn; D. Pavlis

2000-01-01

269

Activity profile of high-level Australian lacrosse players.  

PubMed

Polley, CS, Cormack, SJ, Gabbett, TJ, and Polglaze, T. Activity profile of high-level Australian lacrosse players. J Strength Cond Res 29(1): 126-136, 2015-Despite lacrosse being one of the fastest growing team sports in the world, there is a paucity of information detailing the activity profile of high-level players. Microtechnology systems (global positioning systems and accelerometers) provide the opportunity to obtain detailed information on the activity profile in lacrosse. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the activity profile of lacrosse match-play using microtechnology. Activity profile variables assessed relative to minutes of playing time included relative distance (meter per minute), distance spent standing (0-0.1 m·min), walking (0.2-1.7 m·min), jogging (1.8-3.2 m·min), running (3.3-5.6 m·min), sprinting (?5.7 m·min), number of high, moderate, low accelerations and decelerations, and player load (PL per minute), calculated as the square root of the sum of the squared instantaneous rate of change in acceleration in 3 vectors (medio-lateral, anterior-posterior, and vertical). Activity was recorded from 14 lacrosse players over 4 matches during a national tournament. Players were separated into positions of attack, midfield, or defense. Differences (effect size [ES] ± 90% confidence interval) between positions and periods of play were considered likely positive when there was ?75% likelihood of the difference exceeding an ES threshold of 0.2. Midfielders had likely covered higher (mean ± SD) meters per minute (100 ± 11) compared with attackers (87 ± 14; ES = 0.89 ± 1.04) and defenders (79 ± 14; ES = 1.54 ± 0.94) and more moderate and high accelerations and decelerations. Almost all variables across positions were reduced in quarter 4 compared with quarter 1. Coaches should accommodate for positional differences when preparing lacrosse players for competition. PMID:25264672

Polley, Chris S; Cormack, Stuart J; Gabbett, Tim J; Polglaze, Ted

2015-01-01

270

High-level waste melter alternatives assessment report  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) High-Level Waste (HLW) Program`s (hereafter referred to as HLW Program) Melter Candidate Assessment Activity performed in fiscal year (FY) 1994. The mission of the TWRS Program is to store, treat, and immobilize highly radioactive Hanford Site waste (current and future tank waste and encapsulated strontium and cesium isotopic sources) in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner. The goal of the HLW Program is to immobilize the HLW fraction of pretreated tank waste into a vitrified product suitable for interim onsite storage and eventual offsite disposal at a geologic repository. Preparation of the encapsulated strontium and cesium isotopic sources for final disposal is also included in the HLW Program. As a result of trade studies performed in 1992 and 1993, processes planned for pretreatment of tank wastes were modified substantially because of increasing estimates of the quantity of high-level and transuranic tank waste remaining after pretreatment. This resulted in substantial increases in needed vitrification plant capacity compared to the capacity of original Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP). The required capacity has not been finalized, but is expected to be four to eight times that of the HWVP design. The increased capacity requirements for the HLW vitrification plant`s melter prompted the assessment of candidate high-capacity HLW melter technologies to determine the most viable candidates and the required development and testing (D and T) focus required to select the Hanford Site HLW vitrification plant melter system. An assessment process was developed in early 1994. This document describes the assessment team, roles of team members, the phased assessment process and results, resulting recommendations, and the implementation strategy.

Calmus, R.B.

1995-02-01

271

The CMS High Level Trigger System: Experience and Future Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CMS experiment at the LHC features a two-level trigger system. Events accepted by the first level trigger, at a maximum rate of 100 kHz, are read out by the Data Acquisition system (DAQ), and subsequently assembled in memory in a farm of computers running a software high-level trigger (HLT), which selects interesting events for offline storage and analysis at a rate of order few hundred Hz. The HLT algorithms consist of sequences of offline-style reconstruction and filtering modules, executed on a farm of 0(10000) CPU cores built from commodity hardware. Experience from the operation of the HLT system in the collider run 2010/2011 is reported. The current architecture of the CMS HLT, its integration with the CMS reconstruction framework and the CMS DAQ, are discussed in the light of future development. The possible short- and medium-term evolution of the HLT software infrastructure to support extensions of the HLT computing power, and to address remaining performance and maintenance issues, are discussed.

Bauer, G.; Behrens, U.; Bowen, M.; Branson, J.; Bukowiec, S.; Cittolin, S.; Coarasa, J. A.; Deldicque, C.; Dobson, M.; Dupont, A.; Erhan, S.; Flossdorf, A.; Gigi, D.; Glege, F.; Gomez-Reino, R.; Hartl, C.; Hegeman, J.; Holzner, A.; Hwong, Y. L.; Masetti, L.; Meijers, F.; Meschi, E.; Mommsen, R. K.; O'Dell, V.; Orsini, L.; Paus, C.; Petrucci, A.; Pieri, M.; Polese, G.; Racz, A.; Raginel, O.; Sakulin, H.; Sani, M.; Schwick, C.; Shpakov, D.; Simon, S.; Spataru, A. C.; Sumorok, K.

2012-12-01

272

The direction of gravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gravity directs the paths of light rays and the growth of structure. Moreover, gravity on cosmological scales does not simply point down: It accelerates the universal expansion by pulling outward, either due to a highly negative pressure dark energy or an extension of general relativity. We have examined methods to test the properties of gravity through cosmological measurements. We have then considered specific possibilities for a sound gravitational theory based on the Galilean shift symmetry. The evolution of the laws of gravity from the early universe to the present acceleration to the future fate - the paths of gravity - carries rich information on this fundamental force of physics, and on the mystery of dark energy.

Linder, E. V.

2014-03-01

273

Spent Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Report  

SciTech Connect

This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by SSEB in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ``comprehensive overview of the issues.`` This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste Issues. In addition. this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages will be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list.

Not Available

1992-03-01

274

High level radioactive waste glass production and product description  

SciTech Connect

This report examines borosilicate glass as a means of immobilizing high-level radioactive wastes. Borosilicate glass will encapsulate most of the defense and some of the commercial HLW in the US. The resulting waste forms must meet the requirements of the WA-SRD and the WAPS, which include a short term PCT durability test. The waste form producer must report the composition(s) of the borosilicate waste glass(es) produced but can choose the composition(s) to meet site-specific requirements. Although the waste form composition is the primary determinant of durability, the redox state of the glass; the existence, content, and composition of crystals; and the presence of glass-in-glass phase separation can affect durability. The waste glass should be formulated to avoid phase separation regions. The ultimate result of this effort will be a waste form which is much more stable and potentially less mobile than the liquid high level radioactive waste is currently.

Sproull, J.F.; Marra, S.L.; Jantzen, C.M.

1993-12-01

275

Spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste transportation report  

SciTech Connect

This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ``comprehensive overview of the issues.`` This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste issues. In addition, this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages sew be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list.

Not Available

1989-11-01

276

Fixed Point Data Type Modeling for High Level Synthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A methodology to automatically convert fixed point data type representations into integer data types for high level synthesis is presented in this work. Our method converts all major C operations using fixed point data types into integer data types, models quantization and overflow modes, type conversion and casting. The conversion rule for each operation is described in detail as well as a regression test environment with 600 test cases to validate the method and to verify the correctness of each conversion compared to the same cases written in SystemC. The test environment converts each test case with fixed point data types into integer data types and synthesizes them with a high level synthesis tool to generate RTL. An RTL simulation is ran and the results in turn compared to the SystemC's OSCI simulation. For all of the 600 test cases the RTL simulation results matched the SystemC results proving that each conversion is accurately modeled. A larger real test case is also presented to validate the conversion method in a complex case.

Carrion Schafer, Benjamin; Iguchi, Yusuke; Takahashi, Wataru; Nagatani, Shingo; Wakabayashi, Kazutoshi

277

How to achieve high-level expression of microbial enzymes  

PubMed Central

Microbial enzymes have been used in a large number of fields, such as chemical, agricultural and biopharmaceutical industries. The enzyme production rate and yield are the main factors to consider when choosing the appropriate expression system for the production of recombinant proteins. Recombinant enzymes have been expressed in bacteria (e.g., Escherichia coli, Bacillus and lactic acid bacteria), filamentous fungi (e.g., Aspergillus) and yeasts (e.g., Pichia pastoris). The favorable and very advantageous characteristics of these species have resulted in an increasing number of biotechnological applications. Bacterial hosts (e.g., E. coli) can be used to quickly and easily overexpress recombinant enzymes; however, bacterial systems cannot express very large proteins and proteins that require post-translational modifications. The main bacterial expression hosts, with the exception of lactic acid bacteria and filamentous fungi, can produce several toxins which are not compatible with the expression of recombinant enzymes in food and drugs. However, due to the multiplicity of the physiological impacts arising from high-level expression of genes encoding the enzymes and expression hosts, the goal of overproduction can hardly be achieved, and therefore, the yield of recombinant enzymes is limited. In this review, the recent strategies used for the high-level expression of microbial enzymes in the hosts mentioned above are summarized and the prospects are also discussed. We hope this review will contribute to the development of the enzyme-related research field. PMID:23686280

Liu, Long; Yang, Haiquan; Shin, Hyun-dong; Chen, Rachel R.; Li, Jianghua; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

2013-01-01

278

ATW system impact on high-level waste  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) concept which aims at destruction of key long-lived radionuclides in high-level nuclear waste (HLW), both fission products and actinides. This focus makes it different from most other transmutation concepts which concentrate primarily on actinide burning. The ATW system uses an accelerator-driven, sub-critical assembly to create an intense thermal neutron environment for radionuclide transmutation. This feature allows rapid transmutation under low-inventory system conditions, which in turn, has a direct impact on the size of chemical separations and materials handling components of the system. Inventories in ATW are factors of eight to thirty times smaller than reactor systems of equivalent thermal power. Chemical separations systems are relatively small in scale and can be optimized to achieve high decontamination factors and minimized waste streams. The low-inventory feature also directly impacts material amounts remaining in the system at its end of life. In addition to its low-inventory operation, the accelerator-driven neutron source features of ATW are key to providing a sufficient level of neutrons to allow transmutation of long-lived fission products.

Arthur, E.D.

1992-01-01

279

ATW system impact on high-level waste  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) concept which aims at destruction of key long-lived radionuclides in high-level nuclear waste (HLW), both fission products and actinides. This focus makes it different from most other transmutation concepts which concentrate primarily on actinide burning. The ATW system uses an accelerator-driven, sub-critical assembly to create an intense thermal neutron environment for radionuclide transmutation. This feature allows rapid transmutation under low-inventory system conditions, which in turn, has a direct impact on the size of chemical separations and materials handling components of the system. Inventories in ATW are factors of eight to thirty times smaller than reactor systems of equivalent thermal power. Chemical separations systems are relatively small in scale and can be optimized to achieve high decontamination factors and minimized waste streams. The low-inventory feature also directly impacts material amounts remaining in the system at its end of life. In addition to its low-inventory operation, the accelerator-driven neutron source features of ATW are key to providing a sufficient level of neutrons to allow transmutation of long-lived fission products.

Arthur, E.D.

1992-12-01

280

High-Level Information Fusion and Mission Planning in Highly Anisotropic Threat Spaces  

E-print Network

High-Level Information Fusion and Mission Planning in Highly Anisotropic Threat Spaces Mark spaces, and associated route planning for a variety of effects based tasks taking into account commander preferences in effects routing, facilitates cooperative command planning, and analysis of opponent

Witkowski, Mark

281

High-level information fusion and mission planning in highly anisotropic threat spaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a command and control (C2) agents approach to supporting tactical decision making by operational commanders. The work addresses two C2 issues: the use of networked information sharing and high-level information fusion to allow for the visualisation of highly anisotropic threat spaces, and associated route planning for a variety of effects based tasks taking into account a commanderpsilas

Mark Witkowski; Gareth White; Panos Louvieris; Gökçe Görbil; Erol Gelenbe; Lorraine Dodd

2008-01-01

282

LIQUIDUS TEMPERATURE AND PRIMARY CRYSTALLIZATION PHASES IN HIGH-ZIRCONIA HIGH-LEVEL WASTE BOROSILICATE GLASSES  

EPA Science Inventory

Liquidus temperature (TL) studies of high-Zr high-level waste (HLW) borosilicate glasses have identified three primary phases: baddelyite (ZrO2), zircon (ZrSiO4), and alkali-zirconium silicates, such as parakeldyshite (Na2ZrSi2O7). Using published TL data for HLW glasses with the...

283

Do Highly Effective Principals Also Have High Levels of Cultural Intelligence?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine if elementary school principals who exhibit characteristics of highly effective principals also possess high levels of cultural intelligence. Methodology: Three instruments were used in this study, combining both qualitative and quantitative approaches to the collection of data. The first…

Naughton, Whitney Michelle

2010-01-01

284

Using continuous GPS and absolute gravity to separate vertical land movements and changes in sea-level at tide-gauges in the UK.  

PubMed

Researchers investigating climate change have used historical tide-gauge measurements from all over the world to investigate the changes in sea-level that have occurred over the last century or so. However, such estimates are a combination of any true sea-level variations and any vertical movements of the land at the specific tide-gauge. For a tide- gauge record to be used to determine the climate related component of changes in sea-level, it is therefore necessary to correct for the vertical land movement component of the observed change in sea-level.In 1990, the Institute of Engineering Surveying and Space Geodesy and Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory started developing techniques based on the Global Positioning System (GPS) for measuring vertical land movements (VLM) at tide-gauges in the UK. This paper provides brief details of these early developments and shows how they led to the establishment of continuous GPS (CGPS) stations at a number of tide-gauges. The paper then goes on to discuss the use of absolute gravity (AG), as an independent technique for measuring VLM at tide-gauges. The most recent results, from CGPS time-series dating back to 1997 and AG time-series dating back to 1995/1996, are then used to demonstrate the complementarity of these two techniques and their potential for providing site-specific estimates of VLM at tide-gauges in the UK. PMID:16537148

Teferle, F N; Bingley, R M; Williams, S D P; Baker, T F; Dodson, A H

2006-04-15

285

Department of Energy pretreatment of high-level and low-level wastes  

SciTech Connect

The remediation of the 1 {times} 10{sup 8} gal of highly radioactive waste in the underground storage tanks (USTs) at five US Department of Energy (DOE) sites is one of DOE`s greatest challenges. Therefore, the DOE Office of Environmental Management has created the Tank Focus Area (TFA) to manage an integrated technology development program that results in the safe and efficient remediation of UST waste. The TFA has divided its efforts into five areas, which are safety, characterization, retrieval/closure, pretreatment, and immobilization. All DOE pretreatment activities are integrated by the Pretreatment Technical Integration Manager of the TFA. For FY 1996, the 14 pretreatment tasks are divided into 3 systems: supernate separations, sludge treatment, and solid/liquid separation. The plans and recent results of these TFA tasks, which include two 25,000-gal demonstrations and two former TFA tasks on Cs removal, are presented. The pretreatment goals are to minimize the volume of high-level waste and the radioactivity in low-level waste.

McGinnis, C.P.; Hunt, R.D.

1995-12-31

286

Confidence Level and Sensitivity Limits in High Contrast Imaging  

SciTech Connect

In long adaptive optics corrected exposures, exoplanet detections are currently limited by speckle noise originating from the telescope and instrument optics, and it is expected that such noise will also limit future high-contrast imaging instruments for both ground and space-based telescopes. Previous theoretical analysis have shown that the time intensity variations of a single speckle follows a modified Rician. It is first demonstrated here that for a circular pupil this temporal intensity distribution also represents the speckle spatial intensity distribution at a fix separation from the point spread function center; this fact is demonstrated using numerical simulations for coronagraphic and non-coronagraphic data. The real statistical distribution of the noise needs to be taken into account explicitly when selecting a detection threshold appropriate for some desired confidence level. In this paper, a technique is described to obtain the pixel intensity distribution of an image and its corresponding confidence level as a function of the detection threshold. Using numerical simulations, it is shown that in the presence of speckles noise, a detection threshold up to three times higher is required to obtain a confidence level equivalent to that at 5{sigma} for Gaussian noise. The technique is then tested using TRIDENT CFHT and angular differential imaging NIRI Gemini adaptive optics data. It is found that the angular differential imaging technique produces quasi-Gaussian residuals, a remarkable result compared to classical adaptive optic imaging. A power-law is finally derived to predict the 1-3 x 10{sup -7} confidence level detection threshold when averaging a partially correlated non-Gaussian noise.

Marois, C

2007-11-07

287

Confidence Level and Sensitivity Limits in High Contrast Imaging  

SciTech Connect

In long adaptive optics corrected exposures, exoplanet detections are currently limited by speckle noise originating from the telescope and instrument optics, and it is expected that such noise will also limit future high-contrast imaging instruments for both ground and space-based telescopes. Previous theoretical analysis have shown that the time intensity variations of a single speckle follows a modified Rician. It is first demonstrated here that for a circular pupil this temporal intensity distribution also represents the speckle spatial intensity distribution at a fix separation from the point spread function center; this fact is demonstrated using numerical simulations for coronagraphic and non-coronagraphic data. The real statistical distribution of the noise needs to be taken into account explicitly when selecting a detection threshold appropriate for some desired confidence level. In this paper, a technique is described to obtain the pixel intensity distribution of an image and its corresponding confidence level as a function of the detection threshold. Using numerical simulations, it is shown that in the presence of speckles noise, a detection threshold up to three times higher is required to obtain a confidence level equivalent to that at 5{sigma} for Gaussian noise. The technique is then tested using TRIDENT CFHT and angular differential imaging NIRI Gemini adaptive optics data. It is found that the angular differential imaging technique produces quasi-Gaussian residuals, a remarkable result compared to classical adaptive optic imaging. A power-law is finally derived to predict the 1-3 x 10{sup -7} confidence level detection threshold when averaging a partially correlated non-Gaussian noise.

Marois, C; LaFreniere, D; Macintosh, B; Doyon, R

2008-06-02

288

Myocytes Oxygenation and High Energy Phosphate Levels during Hypoxia  

PubMed Central

Decrease of ambient oxygen level has been used in myocytes culture experiments in examining the responsiveness to stress secondary to hypoxia. However, none of these studies measure the myocytes oxygenation levels resulting in ambiguity as to whether there is insufficient oxygen delivery. This study examined the hypothesis that at a basal myocardial work state, adequate myocyte oxygenation would be maintained until extremely low arterial pO2 levels were reached. Myocyte pO2 values in normal dogs were calculated from the myocardial deoxymyoglobin (Mb- ?) levels using 1H-spectroscopy (MRS) and were normalized to Mb-? obtained after complete LAD occlusion. During Protocol 1 (n?=?6), Mb-? was measured during sequential reductions of the oxygen fraction of inspired gas (FIO2) from 40, 21, 15, 10, and 5%, while in protocol 2 (n?=?10) Mb-? was measured at FIO2 of 3%. Protocol 3 (n?=?9) evaluated time course of Mb-? during prolonged exposure to FIO2 of 5%. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was measured with microspheres and high energy phosphate (HEP) levels were determined with 31P-MRS. MVO2 progressively increased in response to the progressive reduction of FIO2 that is accompanied by increased LV pressure, heart rate, and MBF. Mb-? was undetectable during FIO2 values of 21, 15, 10, and 5%. However, FIO2 of 3% or prolonged exposure to FIO2 of 5% caused progressive increases of Mb-? which were associated with decreases of PCr, ATP and the PCr/ATP ratio, as well as increases of inorganic phosphate. The intracellular PO2 values for 20% reductions of PCr and ATP were approximately 7.4 and 1.9 mmHg, respectively. These data demonstrate that in the in vivo system over a wide range of FIO2 and arterial pO2 levels, the myocyte pO2 values remain well above the Km value with respect to cytochrome oxidase, and oxygen availability does not limit mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation at 5% FIO2. PMID:25268711

Jameel, Mohammad Nurulqadr; Hu, Qingsong; Zhang, Jianyi

2014-01-01

289

Mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere radar observations of characteristics of lower atmospheric high-frequency gravity waves passing through the tropical easterly jet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we have examined the characteristics of high-frequency gravity waves (5-50 min periodicity) over a tropical region using the mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radar installed at Gadanki (13.5°N, 79.2°E), India. The MST radar (53 MHz) was operated continuously for ˜15.5 h during 1700-0840 LT on 2-3 June 2005. During this period, a strong unstable wind shear region existed above the tropical easterly jet at the height of tropopause. This has provided an excellent opportunity to study the characteristics of internal atmospheric high-frequency (˜15-40 min periodicity) gravity waves, generated in the boundary layer and passing through the shear layer. The study reveals the generation of higher-frequency (5-15 min periodicity) gravity waves from this strong shear region and their vertical propagation both below up to a few kilometers and above the shear layer (˜0.5 km thick). These waves showed upward propagation even above 20 km in the lower stratosphere, indicating that unstable shear layers are the important source of momentum and energy fluxes that contribute significantly to the middle atmospheric dynamics in terms of gravity waves. Further, a close association was also observed between the dissipating gravity waves and the distinctly enhanced signal-to-noise ratio and Doppler spectral width of the MST radar echoes. The present observation of radiation of high-frequency gravity waves that propagate vertically upward from a strong wind shear region located immediately below a highly stratified layer is in accordance with the "direct mechanism" explained by nonlinear numerical simulation studies. For the first time, the present study illustrates the existence of layers of polarized refractive index structures in the heights of 10-15 km.

Ramkumar, T. K.; Niranjan Kumar, K.; Mehta, Sanjay K.

2010-12-01

290

Analysis of Metagenomic Data Containing High Biodiversity Levels  

PubMed Central

In this paper we have addressed the problem of analysing Next Generation Sequencing samples with an expected large biodiversity content. We analysed several well-known 16S rRNA datasets from experimental samples, including both large and short sequences, in numbers of tens of thousands, in addition to carefully crafted synthetic datasets containing more than 7000 OTUs. From this data analysis several patterns were identified and used to develop new guidelines for experimentation in conditions of high biodiversity. We analysed the suitability of different clustering packages for these type of situations, the problem of even sampling, the relative effectiveness of Chao1 and ACE estimators as well as their effect on sampling size for a variety of population distributions. As regards practical analysis procedures, we advocated an approach that retains as much high-quality experimental data as possible. By carefully applying selection rules combining the taxonomic assignment with clustering strategies, we derived a set of recommendations for ultra-sequencing data analysis at high biodiversity levels. PMID:23505458

Valverde, José R.; Mellado, Rafael P.

2013-01-01

291

Gravity model studies of Newberry Volcano, Oregon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Newberry Volcano, a large Quaternary volcano located about 60 km east of the axis of the High Cascades volcanoes in central Oregon, has a coincident positive residual gravity anomaly of about 12 mGals. Model calculations of the gravity anomaly field suggest that the volcano is underlain by an intrusive complex of mafic composition of about 20-km diameter and 2-km thickness, at depths above 4 km below sea level. However, uplifted basement in a northwest trending ridge may form part of the underlying excess mass, thus reducing the volume of the subvolcanic intrusive. A ring dike of mafic composition is inferred to intrude to near-surface levels along the caldera ring fractures, and low-density fill of the caldera floor probably has a thickness of 0.7-0.9 km. The gravity anomaly attributable to the volcano is reduced to the east across a north-northwest trending gravity anomaly gradient through Newberry caldera and suggests that normal, perhaps extensional, faulting has occurred subsequent to caldera formation and may have controlled the location of some late-stage basaltic and rhyolitic eruptions. Significant amounts of felsic intrusive material may exist above the mafic intrusive zone but cannot be resolved by the gravity data. -Authors

Gettings, M.E.; Griscom, A.

1988-01-01

292

Interactions between Artificial Gravity, the Affected Physiological Systems, and Nutrition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Malnutrition, either by insufficient supply of some nutrients or by overfeeding, has a profound effect on the health of an organism. Therefore, optimal nutrition is a necessity in normal gravity on Earth, in microgravity, and when applying artificial gravity to the human system. Reduced physical activity, such as observed in microgravity or bed rest, has an effect on many physiological systems, such as the cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, immune, and body fluids regulation systems. There is currently no countermeasure that is effective to counteract both the cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning when applied for a short duration (see Chapter 1). Artificial gravity therefore seems the simplest physiological approach to keep these systems intact. The application of intermittent daily dose of artificial gravity by means of centrifugation has often been proposed as a potential countermeasure against the physiological deconditioning induced by spaceflight. However, neither the optimal gravity level, nor its optimal duration of exposure have been enough studied to recommend a validated, effective, and efficient artificial gravity application. As discussed in previous chapters, artificial gravity has a very high potential to counteract any changes caused by reduced physical activity. The nutrient supply, which ideally should match the actual needs, will interact with these changes and therefore has also to be taken into account. This chapter reviews the potential interactions between these nutrients (energy intake, vitamins, minerals) and the other physiological systems affected by artificial gravity generated by an on-board short-radius centrifuge.

Heer, Martina; Baecker, Nathalie; Zwart, Sara; Smith, Scott

2006-01-01

293

Transmutation of high-level radioactive waste - Perspectives  

E-print Network

In a fast neutron spectrum essentially all long-lived actinides (e.g. Plutonium) undergo fission and thus can be transmuted into generally short lived fission products. Innovative nuclear reactor concepts e.g. accelerator driven systems (ADS) are currently in development that foresee a closed fuel cycle. The majority of the fissile nuclides (uranium, plutonium) shall be used for power generation and only fission products will be put into final disposal that needs to last for a historical time scale of only 1000 years. For the transmutation of high-level radioactive waste a lot of research and development is still required. One aspect is the precise knowledge of nuclear data for reactions with fast neutrons. Nuclear reactions relevant for transmutation are being investigated in the framework of the european project ERINDA. First results from the new neutron time-of-flight facility nELBE at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf will be presented.

Junghans, Arnd; Grosse, Eckart; Hannaske, Roland; Kögler, Toni; Massarczyk, Ralf; Schwengner, Ronald; Wagner, Andreas

2014-01-01

294

Core level XAS study on high pressure solids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the K and L-edge core level X-ray absorption spectra of solid CO2 and Silica (SiO2) under high pressure, using methods based on pseudopotentials and all-electron Bethe-Salpeter Equation. A comparison of the calculated spectra with both methods is present. We found that the calculated Si K and L-edge spectra of quartz and stishovite are in good agreement with experiment. Particularly, the origin of the second peak in the O K-XAS observed in compressed silica which is often used as an indication of six-fold coordinate is explained. Preliminary calculations show both the full core hole and no core hole approximations failed to reproduce quantitatively the observed C and O K-edge XAS.

Wu, Min; Jiang, Jianzhong; Tse, John

2011-03-01

295

High Level Waste System Impacts from Acid Dissolution of Sludge  

SciTech Connect

This research evaluates the ability of OLI{copyright} equilibrium based software to forecast Savannah River Site High Level Waste system impacts from oxalic acid dissolution of Tank 1-15 sludge heels. Without further laboratory and field testing, only the use of oxalic acid can be considered plausible to support sludge heel dissolution on multiple tanks. Using OLI{copyright} and available test results, a dissolution model is constructed and validated. Material and energy balances, coupled with the model, identify potential safety concerns. Overpressurization and overheating are shown to be unlikely. Corrosion induced hydrogen could, however, overwhelm the tank ventilation. While pH adjustment can restore the minimal hydrogen generation, resultant precipitates will notably increase the sludge volume. OLI{copyright} is used to develop a flowsheet such that additional sludge vitrification canisters and other negative system impacts are minimized. Sensitivity analyses are used to assess the processability impacts from variations in the sludge/quantities of acids.

KETUSKY, EDWARD

2006-04-20

296

Remote ignitability analysis of high level radioactive wastes  

SciTech Connect

The Remote Analytical Laboratory (RAL) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is involved in selected regulatory RCRA analyses of high level radioactive wastes. The requirement for characterization of the wastes at the INEL dictated the need for a remote ignitability determination. An ERDCO Model RT-1 Ignitability Tester was extensively modified for remote analysis in the RAL Hot Cell which uses Master Slave manipulators for sample handling and instrument operation. The modifications to the ERDCO instrument were required because of observation problems and remote sample/instrument handling in the hot cell. Highlights of the modifications for remote operation are as follows: a piezo film sensor was added for flash/nonflash detection, a mass flow controller and a thermocouple flame detector were added to ensure flame consistency and ignition, and a small stepper motor was used to activate the shutter. Design features of the remote ignitability instrument and remote sampling techniques are discussed.

Lundholm, C.W.; Morgan, J.M.; Shurtliff, R.M.; Trejo, L.E.

1992-10-01

297

Remote ignitability analysis of high level radioactive wastes  

SciTech Connect

The Remote Analytical Laboratory (RAL) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is involved in selected regulatory RCRA analyses of high level radioactive wastes. The requirement for characterization of the wastes at the INEL dictated the need for a remote ignitability determination. An ERDCO Model RT-1 Ignitability Tester was extensively modified for remote analysis in the RAL Hot Cell which uses Master Slave manipulators for sample handling and instrument operation. The modifications to the ERDCO instrument were required because of observation problems and remote sample/instrument handling in the hot cell. Highlights of the modifications for remote operation are as follows: a piezo film sensor was added for flash/nonflash detection, a mass flow controller and a thermocouple flame detector were added to ensure flame consistency and ignition, and a small stepper motor was used to activate the shutter. Design features of the remote ignitability instrument and remote sampling techniques are discussed.

Lundholm, C.W.; Morgan, J.M.; Shurtliff, R.M.; Trejo, L.E.

1992-01-01

298

Compressor offers high overall efficiency at all load levels  

SciTech Connect

A rotary screw compressor is described that operates efficiently at all load levels. The new compressor package offers such energy saving features as: full modulation control matches air supply to system requirements; a low starting system prevents start-up under high torque; and a low unloaded horsepower system reduces the work load to 25% when unloaded. An optimal control system reduces energy use at less than full load. Conditions in a typical plant will vary enough that even a properly sized unit will average only 65% of full load. Use of a bypass control system (as shown in diagram) that returns unneeded air to suction is a means of providing for over capacity. A control schematic is presented featuring the poppet valves which shorten rotor length, thereby reducing displacement and capacity.

Egan, D.

1982-12-01

299

National high-level waste systems analysis plan  

SciTech Connect

This document details the development of modeling capabilities that can provide a system-wide view of all US Department of Energy (DOE) high-level waste (HLW) treatment and storage systems. This model can assess the impact of budget constraints on storage and treatment system schedules and throughput. These impacts can then be assessed against existing and pending milestones to determine the impact to the overall HLW system. A nation-wide view of waste treatment availability will help project the time required to prepare HLW for disposal. The impacts of the availability of various treatment systems and throughput can be compared to repository readiness to determine the prudent application of resources or the need to renegotiate milestones.

Kristofferson, K.; Oholleran, T.P.; Powell, R.H.; Thiel, E.C.

1995-05-01

300

Socioeconomic studies of high-level nuclear waste disposal  

SciTech Connect

The socioeconomic investigations of possible impacts of the proposed repository for high-level nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, have been unprecedented in several respects. They bear on the public decision that sooner or later will be made as to where and how to dispose permanently of the waste presently at military weapons installations and that continues to accumulate at nuclear power stations. No final decision has yet been made. There is no clear precedent from other countries. The organization of state and federal studies is unique. The state studies involve more disciplines than any previous efforts. They have been carried out in parallel to federal studies and have pioneered in defining some problems and appropriate research methods. A recent annotated bibliography provides interested scientists with a compact guide to the 178 published reports, as well as to relevant journal articles and related documents.

White, G.F. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Bronzini, M.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Colglazier, E.W. [National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC (United States); Dohrenwend, B. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Erikson, K. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Hansen, R. [Hansen Research, Winslow, WA (United States); Kneese, A.V. [Resources for the Future, Washington, DC (United States); Moore, R. [Richard Moore, Cheyenne, WY (United States); Page, E.B. [Bechtel, Inc., Washington, DC (United States); Rappaport, R.A. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

1994-11-08

301

High level radioactive waste vitrification process equipment component testing  

SciTech Connect

Remote operability and maintainability of vitrification equipment were assessed under shielded-cell conditions. The equipment tested will be applied to immobilize high-level and transuranic liquid waste slurries that resulted from plutonium production for defense weapons. Equipment tested included: a turntable for handling waste canisters under the melter; a removable discharge cone in the melter overflow section; a thermocouple jumper that extends into a shielded cell; remote instrument and electrical connectors; remote, mechanical, and heat transfer aspects of the melter glass overflow section; a reamer to clean out plugged nozzles in the melter top; a closed circuit camera to view the melter interior; and a device to retrieve samples of the glass product. A test was also conducted to evaluate liquid metals for use in a liquid metal sealing system.

Siemens, D.H.; Heath, W.O.; Larson, D.E.; Craig, S.N.; Berger, D.N.; Goles, R.W.

1985-04-01

302

Using the CMS High Level Trigger as a Cloud Resource  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CMS High Level Trigger is a compute farm of more than 10,000 cores. During data taking this resource is heavily used and is an integral part of the experiment's triggering system. However, outside of data taking periods this resource is largely unused. We describe why CMS wants to use the HLT as a cloud resource (outside of data taking periods) and how this has been achieved. In doing this we have turned a single-use cluster into an agile resource for CMS production computing. While we are able to use the HLT as a production cloud resource, there is still considerable further work that CMS needs to carry out before this resource can be used with the desired agility. This report, therefore, represents a snapshot of this activity at the time of CHEP 2013.

Colling, David; Huffman, Adam; McCrae, Alison; Lahiff, Andrew; Grandi, Claudio; Cinquilli, Mattia; Gowdy, Stephen; Coarasa, Jose Antonio; Tiradani, Anthony; Ozga, Wojciech; Chaze, Olivier; Sgaravatto, Massimo; Bauer, Daniela

2014-06-01

303

Socioeconomic studies of high-level nuclear waste disposal.  

PubMed Central

The socioeconomic investigations of possible impacts of the proposed repository for high-level nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, have been unprecedented in several respects. They bear on the public decision that sooner or later will be made as to where and how to dispose permanently of the waste presently at military weapons installations and that continues to accumulate at nuclear power stations. No final decision has yet been made. There is no clear precedent from other countries. The organization of state and federal studies is unique. The state studies involve more disciplines than any previous efforts. They have been carried out in parallel to federal studies and have pioneered in defining some problems and appropriate research methods. A recent annotated bibliography provides interested scientists with a compact guide to the 178 published reports, as well as to relevant journal articles and related documents. PMID:7971963

White, G F; Bronzini, M S; Colglazier, E W; Dohrenwend, B; Erikson, K; Hansen, R; Kneese, A V; Moore, R; Page, E B; Rappaport, R A

1994-01-01

304

PID Performance in the LHCb High Level Trigger  

E-print Network

The LHCb High Level Trigger (HLT) incorporates RICH particle identification (PID) calculations that are designed to be faster than those used for the offline reconstruction, which is necessary due to the timing constraints imposed on the HLT. The performance of this faster calculation has been evaluated using $B^+ \\to \\overline{D}^0\\pi^+$ events recorded during 2011 data taking and compared against the performance of the offline calculation. The time taken to calculate PID information in the HLT has been measured both for the configuration used in Run 1, and for configurations approaching that used offline. Similar overall efficiency and misidentification performance is seen in the configurations used offline and in the HLT, though the raw values of PID variables can differ substantially for a given candidate.

Benson, S

2014-01-01

305

Control of high level radioactive waste-glass melters  

SciTech Connect

A necessary step in Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter feed preparation for the immobilization of High Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) is reduction of Hg(II) to Hg(0), permitting steam stripping of the Hg. Denitrition and associated NOx evolution is a secondary effect of the use of formic acid as the mercury-reducing agent. Under certain conditions the presence of transition or noble metals can result in significant formic acid decomposition, with associated CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} evolution. These processes can result in varying redox properties of melter feed, and varying sequential gaseous evolution of oxidants and hydrogen. Electrochemical methods for monitoring the competing processes are discussed. Laboratory scale techniques have been developed for simulating the large-scale reactions, investigating the relative effectiveness of the catalysts, and the effectiveness of catalytic poisons. The reversible nitrite poisoning of formic acid catalysts is discussed.

Bickford, D.F.; Coleman, C.J.; Hsu, C.L.W.; Eibling, R.E.

1990-01-01

306

High-level waste tank farm set point document  

SciTech Connect

Setpoints for nuclear safety-related instrumentation are required for actions determined by the design authorization basis. Minimum requirements need to be established for assuring that setpoints are established and held within specified limits. This document establishes the controlling methodology for changing setpoints of all classifications. The instrumentation under consideration involve the transfer, storage, and volume reduction of radioactive liquid waste in the F- and H-Area High-Level Radioactive Waste Tank Farms. The setpoint document will encompass the PROCESS AREA listed in the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) (DPSTSA-200-10 Sup 18) which includes the diversion box HDB-8 facility. In addition to the PROCESS AREAS listed in the SAR, Building 299-H and the Effluent Transfer Facility (ETF) are also included in the scope.

Anthony, J.A. III

1995-01-15

307

High temperature testing of the EDCON borehole gravity housing system conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratories, January 12-18, 1986  

SciTech Connect

A series of tests were conducted on the EDCON borehole gravity meter (BHGM) high temperature sonde. The tests were conducted to determine the suitability of this sonde for logging operations in the Department of Energy Salton Trough test well. 1 ref., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

Not Available

1986-01-01

308

Enclosure 3 DOE Response to EPA Question Regarding "High-Level Liquid Radioactive Waste"  

E-print Network

Enclosure 3 DOE Response to EPA Question Regarding "High-Level Liquid Radioactive Waste" Subsequent regarding "high-level liquid radioactive waste". As stated in the body of the letter the solid wastes defining High Level Waste: For the purpose of this statement of policy, "high-level liquid radioactive

309

Control of high level radioactive waste-glass melters  

SciTech Connect

Slurry Fed Melters (SFM) are being developed in the United States, Europe and Japan for the conversion of high-level radioactive waste to borosilicate glass for permanent disposal. The high transition metal, noble metal, nitrate, organic, and sulfate contents of these wastes lead to unique melter redox control requirements. Pilot waste-glass melter operations have indicated the possibility of nickel sulfide or noble-metal fission-product accumulation on melter floors, which can lead to distortion of electric heating patterns, and decrease melter life. Sulfide formation is prevented by control of the redox chemistry of the melter feed. The redox state of waste-glass melters is determined by balance between the reducing potential of organic compounds in the feed, and the oxidizing potential of gases above the melt, and nitrates and polyvalent elements in the waste. Semiquantitative models predicting limitations of organic content have been developed based on crucible testing. Computerized thermodynamic computations are being developed to predict the sequence and products of redox reactions and is assessing process variations. Continuous melter test results have been compared to improved computer staged-thermodynamic-models of redox behavior. Feed chemistry control to prevent sulfide and moderate noble metal accumulations are discussed. 17 refs., 3 figs.

Bickford, D.F.; Choi, A.S.

1991-01-01

310

Regeneration of eye tissues is modulated by altered levels of gravity at 1g, 2g, and in microgravity during spaceflight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pursuit of human space exploration requires detailed knowledge of microgravity-related changes in fundamental biological processes, and their effects on health. Normal regeneration of organs and tissues is one such fundamental process that allows maintenance of vitality and function of living organisms. Animal models of tissue regeneration include the newt (Pleurodeles waltl, Urodela) eye, which has been extensively used by our team in Russian Bion and Foton microgravity experiments since 1985, and in recent NASA 2.5 meter diameter centrifuge hypergravity experiments. In total, these experiments allow us to draw several broad conclusions: Newt lens regeneration is significantly altered in microgravity and hypergravity relative to 1g controls. Lenses formed in microgravity are larger and more developed than those regenerated in 1g controls; Microgravity alterations of lens regeneration can persist after spaceflight, and continue to affect repeated removal and regeneration of the lens after return to 1g; Microgravity increases the numbers of early stage regenerative proliferating BrdU-labeled cells in dorsal iris progenitors and in the lens regenerate. Regeneration under hypergravity conditions at 2g inhibits lens regeneration, and often causes retinal detachment. Molecular mechanisms regulating lens regeneration rate include FGF2 signaling, (a key pathway for eye tissue development and regeneration), and an expression of stress-related proteins - HSPs. In conclusion, regeneration of lens and other eye tissues in the newt is sensitive to, and regulated by the level of gravity mechanotransduction and developmental signaling pathways, with microgravity favoring stem cell progenitor proliferation, and gravity at 1g promoting terminal differentiation, while hypergravity at 2g often causes damage of delicate regenerating tissues.

Grigoryan, Eleonora; Almeida, Eduardo; Mitashov, Victor

311

Review of high-level waste form properties. [146 bibliographies  

SciTech Connect

This report is a review of waste form options for the immobilization of high-level-liquid wastes from the nuclear fuel cycle. This review covers the status of international research and development on waste forms as of May 1979. Although the emphasis in this report is on waste form properties, process parameters are discussed where they may affect final waste form properties. A summary table is provided listing properties of various nuclear waste form options. It is concluded that proposed waste forms have properties falling within a relatively narrow range. In regard to crystalline versus glass waste forms, the conclusion is that either glass of crystalline materials can be shown to have some advantage when a single property is considered; however, at this date no single waste form offers optimum properties over the entire range of characteristics investigated. A long-term effort has been applied to the development of glass and calcine waste forms. Several additional waste forms have enough promise to warrant continued research and development to bring their state of development up to that of glass and calcine. Synthetic minerals, the multibarrier approach with coated particles in a metal matrix, and high pressure-high temperature ceramics offer potential advantages and need further study. Although this report discusses waste form properties, the total waste management system should be considered in the final selection of a waste form option. Canister design, canister materials, overpacks, engineered barriers, and repository characteristics, as well as the waste form, affect the overall performance of a waste management system. These parameters were not considered in this comparison.

Rusin, J.M.

1980-12-01

312

Selection of artificial gravity by animals during suborbital rocket flights.  

PubMed

White rats selected preferred artificial gravity levels by locomotion in centrifuges consisting of two runways mounted in the nose of sounding rockets. Roll rate of the Aerobee 150A rocket was designed to produce an angular velocity of 45 r.p.m. during 5 min of free-fall, providing a gravity range range from 0.3 to 1.5 G depending on a subject's runway position. One animal was released at the high and one at the low gravity position in each flight. Animal positions were continuously recorded. Flight subjects were selected from about 100 trained animals adapted to the simulated launch environment for several months. In two flights excessive rollrates produced gravity ranges above the designed limits. In two other flights the desired range was produced. Locomotion patterns during these flights were similar. All four animals explored the entire available G-range. One rat settled at 0.4 G after 2 min; the others crossed the 1-G location in progressively narrower excursions and were near earth gravity at the end of the test period. Data were more varible than in laboratory tests above 1 G and the observation periods were necessarily few and short. Tentatively, however, the data suggest that normal earth-reared rats select earth gravity when available magnitudes include values above and below 1 B. Modification of gravity preference by prolonged exposure to higher or lower levels remains a possibility. PMID:1156288

Lange, K O; Belleville, R E; Clark, F C

1975-06-01

313

Acceleration of Gravity 2  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lab is between a Level 2 and Level 3 inquiry activity in that it should be assigned after students understand acceleration but before they learn about the acceleration gravity. Because there are many sources of error when using a pendulum, students c

Michael Horton

2009-05-30

314

UV structure of quantum unimodular gravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is a well-known result that any formulation of unimodular gravity is classically equivalent to general relativity (GR); however, a debate exists in the literature about this equivalence at the quantum level. In this work, we investigate the UV quantum structure of a diffeomorphism-invariant formulation of unimodular gravity using functional renormalization group methods in a Wilsonian context. We show that the effective action of the unimodular theory acquires essentially the same form as that of GR in the UV, and that both theories share similar UV completions within the framework of the asymptotic safety scenario for quantum gravity. Furthermore, we find that in this context the unimodular theory can appear to be nonpredictive due to an increasing number of relevant couplings at high energies, and we explain how this unwanted feature is in the end avoided.

Saltas, Ippocratis D.

2014-12-01

315

Spectral analysis of highly aliased sea-level signals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observing high-wavenumber ocean phenomena with a satellite altimeter generally calls for "along-track" analyses of the data: measurements along a repeating satellite ground track are analyzed in a point-by-point fashion, as opposed to spatially averaging data over multiple tracks. The sea-level aliasing problems encountered in such analyses can be especially challenging. For TOPEX/POSEIDON, all signals with frequency greater than 18 cycles per year (cpy), including both tidal and subdiurnal signals, are folded into the 0-18 cpy band. Because the tidal bands are wider than 18 cpy, residual tidal cusp energy, plus any subdiurnal energy, is capable of corrupting any low-frequency signal of interest. The practical consequences of this are explored here by using real sea-level measurements from conventional tide gauges, for which the true oceanographic spectrum is known and to which a simulated "satellite-measured" spectrum, based on coarsely subsampled data, may be compared. At many locations the spectrum is sufficently red that interannual frequencies remain unaffected. Intra-annual frequencies, however, must be interpreted with greater caution, and even interannual frequencies can be corrupted if the spectrum is flat. The results also suggest that whenever tides must be estimated directly from the altimetry, response methods of analysis are preferable to harmonic methods, even in nonlinear regimes; this will remain so for the foreseeable future. We concentrate on three example tide gauges: two coastal stations on the Malay Peninsula where the closely aliased K1 and Ssa tides are strong and at Canton Island where trapped equatorial waves are aliased.

Ray, Richard D.

1998-10-01

316

Cementitious Grout for Closing SRS High Level Waste Tanks - 12315  

SciTech Connect

In 1997, the first two United States Department of Energy (US DOE) high level waste tanks (Tanks 17-F and 20-F: Type IV, single shell tanks) were taken out of service (permanently closed) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). In 2012, the DOE plans to remove from service two additional Savannah River Site (SRS) Type IV high-level waste tanks, Tanks 18-F and 19-F. These tanks were constructed in the late 1950's and received low-heat waste and do not contain cooling coils. Operational closure of Tanks 18-F and 19-F is intended to be consistent with the applicable requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and will be performed in accordance with South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC). The closure will physically stabilize two 4.92E+04 cubic meter (1.3 E+06 gallon) carbon steel tanks and isolate and stabilize any residual contaminants left in the tanks. Ancillary equipment abandoned in the tanks will also be filled to the extent practical. A Performance Assessment (PA) has been developed to assess the long-term fate and transport of residual contamination in the environment resulting from the operational closure of the F-Area Tank Farm (FTF) waste tanks. Next generation flowable, zero-bleed cementitious grouts were designed, tested, and specified for closing Tanks 18-F and 19-F and for filling the abandoned equipment. Fill requirements were developed for both the tank and equipment grouts. All grout formulations were required to be alkaline with a pH of 12.4 and to be chemically reducing with a reduction potential (Eh) of -200 to -400. Grouts with this chemistry stabilize potential contaminants of concern. This was achieved by including Portland cement and Grade 100 slag in the mixes, respectively. Ingredients and proportions of cementitious reagents were selected and adjusted to support the mass placement strategy developed by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Closure Operations. Subsequent down selection was based on compressive strength and saturated hydraulic conductivity results. Fresh slurry property results were used as the first level of screening. A high range water reducing admixture and a viscosity modifying admixture were used to adjust slurry properties to achieve flowable grouts. Adiabatic calorimeter results were used as the second level screening. The third level of screening was used to design mixes that were consistent with the fill material parameters used in the F-Tank Farm Performance Assessment which was developed to assess the long-term fate and transport of residual contamination in the environment resulting from the operational closures. The cement and slag contents of a mix selected for filling Tanks 18-F and 19-F should be limited to no more than 125 and 210 lbs/cyd, respectively, to limit the heat generated as the result of hydration reaction during curing and thereby enable mass pour placement. Trial mixes with water to total cementitious materials ratios of 0.550 to 0.580 and 125 lbs/cyd of cement and 210 lbs/cyd of slag met the strength and permeability requirements. Mix LP no.8-16 was selected for closing SRS Tanks 18-F and 19-F because it meets or exceeds the design requirements with the least amount of Portland cement and blast furnace slag. This grout is expected to flow at least 45 feet. A single point of discharge should be sufficient for unrestricted flow conditions. However, additional entry points should be identified as back-up in case restrictions in the tank impede flow. The LP no.8 series of trial mixes had surprisingly high design compressive strengths (2000 to 4000/5000 psi) which were achieved at extended curing times (28 to 90 days, respectively) given the small amount of Portland cement in the mixes (100 to 185 lbs/cyd). The grouts were flowable structural fills containing 3/8 inch gravel and concrete sand aggregate. These grouts did not segregate and require no compaction. They have low permeabilities (? 10{sup -9} cm/s) and are consequen

Langton, C.A.; Stefanko, D.B.; Burns, H.H. [Savannah River National Laboratory (United States); Waymer, J.; Mhyre, W.B. [URS Quality and Testing (United States); Herbert, J.E.; Jolly, J.C. Jr. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

2012-07-01

317

Spent nuclear fuel project high-level information management plan  

SciTech Connect

This document presents the results of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNFP) Information Management Planning Project (IMPP), a short-term project that identified information management (IM) issues and opportunities within the SNFP and outlined a high-level plan to address them. This high-level plan for the SNMFP IM focuses on specific examples from within the SNFP. The plan`s recommendations can be characterized in several ways. Some recommendations address specific challenges that the SNFP faces. Others form the basis for making smooth transitions in several important IM areas. Still others identify areas where further study and planning are indicated. The team`s knowledge of developments in the IM industry and at the Hanford Site were crucial in deciding where to recommend that the SNFP act and where they should wait for Site plans to be made. Because of the fast pace of the SNFP and demands on SNFP staff, input and interaction were primarily between the IMPP team and members of the SNFP Information Management Steering Committee (IMSC). Key input to the IMPP came from a workshop where IMSC members and their delegates developed a set of draft IM principles. These principles, described in Section 2, became the foundation for the recommendations found in the transition plan outlined in Section 5. Availability of SNFP staff was limited, so project documents were used as a basis for much of the work. The team, realizing that the status of the project and the environment are continually changing, tried to keep abreast of major developments since those documents were generated. To the extent possible, the information contained in this document is current as of the end of fiscal year (FY) 1995. Programs and organizations on the Hanford Site as a whole are trying to maximize their return on IM investments. They are coordinating IM activities and trying to leverage existing capabilities. However, the SNFP cannot just rely on Sitewide activities to meet its IM requirements. While the SNFP can use some work done Sitewide and by projects such as the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS), they will still need to make some IM investments of their own.

Main, G.C.

1996-09-13

318

Deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste.  

SciTech Connect

Preliminary evaluation of deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel indicates the potential for excellent long-term safety performance at costs competitive with mined repositories. Significant fluid flow through basement rock is prevented, in part, by low permeabilities, poorly connected transport pathways, and overburden self-sealing. Deep fluids also resist vertical movement because they are density stratified. Thermal hydrologic calculations estimate the thermal pulse from emplaced waste to be small (less than 20 C at 10 meters from the borehole, for less than a few hundred years), and to result in maximum total vertical fluid movement of {approx}100 m. Reducing conditions will sharply limit solubilities of most dose-critical radionuclides at depth, and high ionic strengths of deep fluids will prevent colloidal transport. For the bounding analysis of this report, waste is envisioned to be emplaced as fuel assemblies stacked inside drill casing that are lowered, and emplaced using off-the-shelf oilfield and geothermal drilling techniques, into the lower 1-2 km portion of a vertical borehole {approx}45 cm in diameter and 3-5 km deep, followed by borehole sealing. Deep borehole disposal of radioactive waste in the United States would require modifications to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act and to applicable regulatory standards for long-term performance set by the US Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR part 191) and US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (10 CFR part 60). The performance analysis described here is based on the assumption that long-term standards for deep borehole disposal would be identical in the key regards to those prescribed for existing repositories (40 CFR part 197 and 10 CFR part 63).

Stein, Joshua S.; Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Brady, Patrick Vane; Swift, Peter N.; Rechard, Robert Paul; Arnold, Bill Walter; Kanney, Joseph F.; Bauer, Stephen J.

2009-07-01

319

High-level disinfection of gastrointestinal endoscope reprocessing  

PubMed Central

High level disinfection (HLD) of the gastrointestinal (GI) endoscope is not simply a slogan, but rather is a form of experimental monitoring-based medicine. By definition, GI endoscopy is a semicritical medical device. Hence, such medical devices require major quality assurance for disinfection. And because many of these items are temperature sensitive, low-temperature chemical methods, such as liquid chemical germicide, must be used rather than steam sterilization. In summarizing guidelines for infection prevention and control for GI endoscopy, there are three important steps that must be highlighted: manual washing, HLD with automated endoscope reprocessor, and drying. Strict adherence to current guidelines is required because compared to any other medical device, the GI endoscope is associated with more outbreaks linked to inadequate cleaning or disinfecting during HLD. Both experimental evaluation on the surveillance bacterial cultures and in-use clinical results have shown that, the monitoring of the stringent processes to prevent and control infection is an essential component of the broader strategy to ensure the delivery of safe endoscopy services, because endoscope reprocessing is a multistep procedure involving numerous factors that can interfere with its efficacy. Based on our years of experience in the surveillance of culture monitoring of endoscopic reprocessing, we aim in this study to carefully describe what details require attention in the GI endoscopy disinfection and to share our experience so that patients can be provided with high quality and safe medical practices. Quality management encompasses all aspects of pre- and post-procedural care including the efficiency of the endoscopy unit and reprocessing area, as well as the endoscopic procedure itself.

Chiu, King-Wah; Lu, Lung-Sheng; Chiou, Shue-Shian

2015-01-01

320

Improved Alumina Loading in High-Level Waste Glasses  

SciTech Connect

Recent tank retrieval and blending strategies at both the Savannah River Site (SRS) and Hanford have identified increased amounts of high-Al2O3 waste streams that are scheduled to be processed through their respective high-level waste (HLW) vitrification facilities. It is well known that the addition of small amounts of Al2O3 to borosilicate glasses generally enhances the durability of the waste glasses. However, at higher Al2O3 concentrations nepheline (NaAlSiO4) formation can result in a severe deterioration of the chemical durability of the slowly cooled glass near the center of the canister. Additionally, higher concentrations of Al2O3 generally increase the liquidus temperature of the melt and decrease the processing rate and thus result in a decreased waste loading in glass. Because of these effects, the maximum concentrations of Al2O3 in glasses have been restricted to the range of 17 wt% or lower. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and Khlopin Radium Institute (KRI) are jointly performing laboratory and scaled melter tests, through US Department of Energy, EM-21 Office of Waste Processing program, to develop glass formulations with increased Al2O3 concentrations. These glasses are formulated for specific DOE waste compositions at Hanford and SRS. The objectives are to avoid nepheline formation while maintaining or meeting waste loading and/or waste throughput expectations as well as satisfying critical process and product performance related constraints. This paper reports the results of recent tests of simulated Hanford HLW glasses containing up to 26 wt% Al2O3 in glass.

Kim, Dong-Sang; Vienna, John D.; Peeler, David K.; Fox, Kevin M.; Aloy, A. S.; Trofimenko, A. V.; Gerdes, Kurt D.

2008-02-28

321

Removal of cesium from a high-level calcined waste by high temperature volatilization  

SciTech Connect

Pyrochemical methods are being evaluated for the separation of actinides and fission products from inert material in high-level waste calcine. Separation processes have the potential of reducing waste disposal costs by reducing the volume of high-level waste requiring final disposal in a repository. Tests were conducted to evaluate high temperature volatilization for removing {sup 137}Cs from four types of calcines. The results for pilot plant calcines indicate greater than 99% cesium removal for alumina and fluorinel/sodium calcines heated at 1000{degree}C and 99% removal for zirconia calcine heated at 1100{degree}C. Tests with actual calcine generated at the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) from a blend of aluminium, sodium and zirconium/fluorinel wastes resulted in 96% cesium removal at 1000{degree}C and greater than 99% removal at 1170{degree}C.

Del Debbio, J.A.

1994-11-01

322

Defense High-Level Waste Leaching Mechanisms Program. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Defense High-Level Waste Leaching Mechanisms Program brought six major US laboratories together for three years of cooperative research. The participants reached a consensus that solubility of the leached glass species, particularly solubility in the altered surface layer, is the dominant factor controlling the leaching behavior of defense waste glass in a system in which the flow of leachant is constrained, as it will be in a deep geologic repository. Also, once the surface of waste glass is contacted by ground water, the kinetics of establishing solubility control are relatively rapid. The concentrations of leached species reach saturation, or steady-state concentrations, within a few months to a year at 70 to 90/sup 0/C. Thus, reaction kinetics, which were the main subject of earlier leaching mechanisms studies, are now shown to assume much less importance. The dominance of solubility means that the leach rate is, in fact, directly proportional to ground water flow rate. Doubling the flow rate doubles the effective leach rate. This relationship is expected to obtain in most, if not all, repository situations.

Mendel, J.E. (compiler)

1984-08-01

323

High-Level Performance Modeling of SAR Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

SAUSAGE (Still Another Utility for SAR Analysis that s General and Extensible) is a computer program for modeling (see figure) the performance of synthetic- aperture radar (SAR) or interferometric synthetic-aperture radar (InSAR or IFSAR) systems. The user is assumed to be familiar with the basic principles of SAR imaging and interferometry. Given design parameters (e.g., altitude, power, and bandwidth) that characterize a radar system, the software predicts various performance metrics (e.g., signal-to-noise ratio and resolution). SAUSAGE is intended to be a general software tool for quick, high-level evaluation of radar designs; it is not meant to capture all the subtleties, nuances, and particulars of specific systems. SAUSAGE was written to facilitate the exploration of engineering tradeoffs within the multidimensional space of design parameters. Typically, this space is examined through an iterative process of adjusting the values of the design parameters and examining the effects of the adjustments on the overall performance of the system at each iteration. The software is designed to be modular and extensible to enable consideration of a variety of operating modes and antenna beam patterns, including, for example, strip-map and spotlight SAR acquisitions, polarimetry, burst modes, and squinted geometries.

Chen, Curtis

2006-01-01

324

Process Design Concepts for Stabilization of High Level Waste Calcine  

SciTech Connect

The current baseline assumption is that packaging ¡§as is¡¨ and direct disposal of high level waste (HLW) calcine in a Monitored Geologic Repository will be allowed. The fall back position is to develop a stabilized waste form for the HLW calcine, that will meet repository waste acceptance criteria currently in place, in case regulatory initiatives are unsuccessful. A decision between direct disposal or a stabilization alternative is anticipated by June 2006. The purposes of this Engineering Design File (EDF) are to provide a pre-conceptual design on three low temperature processes under development for stabilization of high level waste calcine (i.e., the grout, hydroceramic grout, and iron phosphate ceramic processes) and to support a down selection among the three candidates. The key assumptions for the pre-conceptual design assessment are that a) a waste treatment plant would operate over eight years for 200 days a year, b) a design processing rate of 3.67 m3/day or 4670 kg/day of HLW calcine would be needed, and c) the performance of waste form would remove the HLW calcine from the hazardous waste category, and d) the waste form loadings would range from about 21-25 wt% calcine. The conclusions of this EDF study are that: (a) To date, the grout formulation appears to be the best candidate stabilizer among the three being tested for HLW calcine and appears to be the easiest to mix, pour, and cure. (b) Only minor differences would exist between the process steps of the grout and hydroceramic grout stabilization processes. If temperature control of the mixer at about 80„aC is required, it would add a major level of complexity to the iron phosphate stabilization process. (c) It is too early in the development program to determine which stabilizer will produce the minimum amount of stabilized waste form for the entire HLW inventory, but the volume is assumed to be within the range of 12,250 to 14,470 m3. (d) The stacked vessel height of the hot process vessels in the hydroceramic grout process (i.e., 21 m) appears to be about the same as that estimated by the Direct Cementitious Waste Process in 1998, for which a conceptual design was developed. Some of the conceptual design efforts in the 1998 study may be applicable to the stabilizer processes addressed in this EDF. (e) The gamma radiation fields near the process vessels handling HLW calcine would vary from a range of about 300-350 R/hr at a distance of 2.5 cm from the side of the vessels to a range of about 50-170 R/hr at a distance of 100 cm from the side of the vessels. The calculations were made for combined calcine, which was defined as the total HLW calcine inventory uniformly mixed. (f) The gamma radiation fields near the stabilized waste in canisters would range from about 25-170 R/hr at 2.5 cm from the side of the canister and 5-35 R/hr at 100 cm from the side of the canister, depending on the which bin set was the source of calcine.

T. R. Thomas; A. K. Herbst

2005-06-01

325

Retrieving mesospheric winds and gravity waves using high resolution radar measurements of polar mesospheric summer echoes with MAARSY  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Middle Atmosphere Alomar Radar System (MAARSY) located at the northern Norwegian island of Andøya (69.3 ° N, 16° E) observes polar mesosphere summer echoes (PMSE) on a regular basis. This backscatter turned out to be an ideal tracer of atmospheric dynamics and to investigate the wind field at the mesosphere/lower thermosphere (MLT) at high spatial and temporal scales. MAARSY is dedicated to explore the polar mesosphere at such high resolution and employs an active phased array antenna with the capability to steer the beam on a pulse-to-pulse basis, which permits to perform systematic scanning of PMSE and to investigate the horizontal structure of the backscatter. The radar also uses a 16 channel receiver system for interferometric applications e.g. mean angle of arrival analysis or coherent radar imaging. Here we present measurements using these features of MAARSY to study the wind field at the MLT applying sophisticated wind analysis algorithms such as velocity azimuth display or volume velocity processing to derive gravity wave parameters such as horizontal wave length, phase speed and propagation direction. Further, we compare the interferometrically corrected and uncorrected wind measurements to emphasize the importance to account for likely edge effects using PMSE as tracer of the dynamics. The observations indicate huge deviations from the nominal beam pointing direction at the upper and lower edges of the PMSE altering the wind analysis.

Stober, G.; Sommer, S.; Schult, C.; Chau, J. L.; Latteck, R.

2013-12-01

326

High-Level Fusion of Depth and Intensity for Pedestrian Classification  

E-print Network

detection rates). Moreover, high-level fusion outperforms low-level fusion using a joint feature spaceHigh-Level Fusion of Depth and Intensity for Pedestrian Classification Marcus Rohrbach1,3, , Markus. This paper presents a novel approach to pedestrian classi- fication which involves a high-level fusion

327

High-Level Fusion of Depth and Intensity for Pedestrian Classification  

E-print Network

detection rates). Moreover, high-level fusion outperforms low-level fusion using a joint feature spaceHigh-Level Fusion of Depth and Intensity for Pedestrian Classification Marcus Rohrbach1,3 , Markus. This paper presents a novel approach to pedestrian classi- fication which involves a high-level fusion

Gavrila, Dariu M.

328

Engineering ?-amylase levels in wheat grain suggests a highly sophisticated level of carbohydrate regulation during development.  

PubMed

Wheat starch degradation requires the synergistic action of different amylolytic enzymes. Our spatio-temporal study of wheat ?-amylases throughout grain development shows that AMY3 is the most abundant isoform compared with the other known ?-amylases. Endosperm-specific over-expression of AMY3 resulted in an increase of total ?-amylase activity in harvested grains. Unexpectedly, increased activity did not have a significant impact on starch content or composition but led to an increase of soluble carbohydrate (mainly sucrose) in dry grain. In AMY3 overexpression lines (A3OE), germination was slightly delayed and triacylglycerol (TAG) content was increased in the endosperm of mature grain. Despite increased AMY3 transcript and protein content throughout grain development, alterations of ?-amylase activity and starch granule degradation were not detected until grain maturation, suggesting a post-translational inhibition of ?-amylase activity in the endosperm during the starch filling period. These findings show unexpected effects of a high level of ?-amylase on grain development and composition, notably in carbon partitioning and TAG accumulation, and suggest the presence of a hitherto unknown regulatory pathway during grain filling. PMID:25053646

Whan, Alex; Dielen, Anne-Sophie; Mieog, Jos; Bowerman, Andrew F; Robinson, Hannah M; Byrne, Keren; Colgrave, Michelle; Larkin, Philip J; Howitt, Crispin A; Morell, Matthew K; Ral, Jean-Philippe

2014-10-01

329

Engineering ?-amylase levels in wheat grain suggests a highly sophisticated level of carbohydrate regulation during development  

PubMed Central

Wheat starch degradation requires the synergistic action of different amylolytic enzymes. Our spatio-temporal study of wheat ?-amylases throughout grain development shows that AMY3 is the most abundant isoform compared with the other known ?-amylases. Endosperm-specific over-expression of AMY3 resulted in an increase of total ?-amylase activity in harvested grains. Unexpectedly, increased activity did not have a significant impact on starch content or composition but led to an increase of soluble carbohydrate (mainly sucrose) in dry grain. In AMY3 overexpression lines (A3OE), germination was slightly delayed and triacylglycerol (TAG) content was increased in the endosperm of mature grain. Despite increased AMY3 transcript and protein content throughout grain development, alterations of ?-amylase activity and starch granule degradation were not detected until grain maturation, suggesting a post-translational inhibition of ?-amylase activity in the endosperm during the starch filling period. These findings show unexpected effects of a high level of ?-amylase on grain development and composition, notably in carbon partitioning and TAG accumulation, and suggest the presence of a hitherto unknown regulatory pathway during grain filling. PMID:25053646

Whan, Alex; Dielen, Anne-Sophie; Mieog, Jos; Bowerman, Andrew F.; Robinson, Hannah M.; Byrne, Keren; Colgrave, Michelle; Larkin, Philip J.; Howitt, Crispin A.; Morell, Matthew K.; Ral, Jean-Philippe

2014-01-01

330

Burning experiments and late Paleozoic high O2 levels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Paleozoic rise of land plants brought about increased burial of organic matter and a resulting increase in atmospheric oxygen concentrations. Levels as high as 30-35% O2 may have been reached during the Permo-Carboniferous (Berner and Canfield, 1989; Berner, 2001). However, burning experiments based solely on paper (Watson, 1978) have challenged these results, the claim being that if the oxygen made up more than 25% of the atmosphere, the frequency and intensity of forest fires would increase sufficiently to prevent the continued existence of plant life. Thus, since plants have persisted, it is possible that fires served as a negative feedback against excessive oxygen levels. An initial study of Paleozoic wildfire behavior via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was conducted under ambient and enriched oxygen conditions to simulate present and ancient atmospheres. The tests focused on natural fuels, specifically tree leaves and wood, tree fern fibers, and sphagnum peat-moss, simulating Permo-Carboniferous upland and swampland ecosystems, respectively. Three conclusions are: (1) enriched oxygen increases the rate of mass loss during burning; (2) fuel chemistry (cellulose vs. lignin) influences burning patterns; and (3) in geometrically heterogeneous fuels, geometry affects burning rate significantly. Both geometrically and chemically, paper resists fire poorly; thus, we found that it loses its mass at lower temperatures than forest materials and is therefore a poor proxy for Paleozoic ecosystems. Further study of Paleozoic wildfire spread behavior is currently being conducted. Fires are lit using pine dowels, which allow for reproducible fuel density. Steady-state, one-dimensional flame-spread is measured with thermocouples anchored two inches above the fuel bed. Both oxygen concentration of the air supply to the fire and moisture content of the fuels are varied, as we suspect that these are two main controls of wildfire spread. Burning fuels of varying moisture contents is central to this study, for fuel moisture is a fire retardant that may offset the fire-enhancing effects of high oxygen conditions. Earliest preliminary results at low moisture show that, as expected, increasing oxygen concentration significantly increases the rate of fuel consumption. This is expressed as both an increase in the speed of the flame spread and the temperature of the flames. It was found that a 35% oxygen (balance nitrogen) gas mixture caused fire to spread at about five times the rate of a fire in ambient air. The fire in the high-oxygen gas mixture was roughly 1.3 times the temperature of the fire in ambient air. The current work is not intended to exactly represent forest ecosystems; rather, it is intended to establish an understanding of flame-spread behavior in natural fuels and future work will include fuels that better represent natural ecosystems such as those used in the TGA experimentation.

Wildman, R.; Essenhigh, R.; Berner, R.; Hickey, L.; Wildman, C.

2003-04-01

331

A study of the effects of heater size, subcooling, and gravity level on pool boiling heat transfer  

E-print Network

heater sizes were obtained in low-g (0.01 ± 0.025 g) and high-g (1.7 ± 0.5 g) aboard the KC-135 aircraft transfer remained unaffected. � 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Keywords: Microgravity; Boiling

Kim, Jungho

332

JET MIXING ANALYSIS FOR SRS HIGH-LEVEL WASTE RECOVERY  

SciTech Connect

The process of recovering the waste in storage tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) typically requires mixing the contents of the tank to ensure uniformity of the discharge stream. Mixing is accomplished with one to four slurry pumps located within the tank liquid. The slurry pump may be fixed in position or they may rotate depending on the specific mixing requirements. The high-level waste in Tank 48 contains insoluble solids in the form of potassium tetraphenyl borate compounds (KTPB), monosodium titanate (MST), and sludge. Tank 48 is equipped with 4 slurry pumps, which are intended to suspend the insoluble solids prior to transfer of the waste to the Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer (FBSR) process. The FBSR process is being designed for a normal feed of 3.05 wt% insoluble solids. A chemical characterization study has shown the insoluble solids concentration is approximately 3.05 wt% when well-mixed. The project is requesting a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) mixing study from SRNL to determine the solids behavior with 2, 3, and 4 slurry pumps in operation and an estimate of the insoluble solids concentration at the suction of the transfer pump to the FBSR process. The impact of cooling coils is not considered in the current work. The work consists of two principal objectives by taking a CFD approach: (1) To estimate insoluble solids concentration transferred from Tank 48 to the Waste Feed Tank in the FBSR process and (2) To assess the impact of different combinations of four slurry pumps on insoluble solids suspension and mixing in Tank 48. For this work, several different combinations of a maximum of four pumps are considered to determine the resulting flow patterns and local flow velocities which are thought to be associated with sludge particle mixing. Two different elevations of pump nozzles are used for an assessment of the flow patterns on the tank mixing. Pump design and operating parameters used for the analysis are summarized in Table 1. The baseline pump orientations are chosen by the previous work [Lee et. al, 2008] and the initial engineering judgement for the conservative flow estimate since the modeling results for the other pump orientations are compared with the baseline results. As shown in Table 1, the present study assumes that each slurry pump has 900 gpm flowrate for the tank mixing analysis, although the Standard Operating Procedure for Tank 48 currently limits the actual pump speed and flowrate to a value less than 900 gpm for a 29 inch liquid level. Table 2 shows material properties and weight distributions for the solids to be modeled for the mixing analysis in Tank 48.

Lee, S.

2011-07-05

333

Quench cooling under reduced gravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report quench cooling experiments performed with liquid O2 under different levels of gravity, simulated with magnetic gravity compensation. A copper disk is quenched from 300 to 90 K. It is found that the cooling time in microgravity is very long in comparison with any other gravity level. This phenomenon is explained by the insulating effect of the gas surrounding the disk. A weak gas pressurization (which results in subcooling of the liquid with respect to the saturation temperature) is shown to drastically improve the heat exchange, thus reducing the cooling time (about 20 times). The effect of subcooling on the heat transfer is analyzed at different gravity levels. It is shown that this type of experiment cannot be used for the analysis of the critical heat flux of the boiling crisis. The film boiling heat transfer and the minimum heat flux of boiling are analyzed as functions of gravity and subcooling.

Chatain, D.; Mariette, C.; Nikolayev, V. S.; Beysens, D.

2013-07-01

334

Qualification of Innovative High Level Waste Pipeline Unplugging Technologies  

SciTech Connect

In the past, some of the pipelines have plugged during high level waste (HLW) transfers resulting in schedule delays and increased costs. Furthermore, pipeline plugging has been cited by the 'best and brightest' technical review as one of the major issues that can result in unplanned outages at the Waste Treatment Plant causing inconsistent operation. As the DOE moves toward a more active high level waste retrieval, the site engineers will be faced with increasing cross-site pipeline waste slurry transfers that will result in increased probability of a pipeline getting plugged. Hence, availability of a pipeline unplugging tool/technology is crucial to ensure smooth operation of the waste transfers and in ensuring tank farm cleanup milestones are met. FIU had earlier tested and evaluated various unplugging technologies through an industry call. Based on mockup testing, two technologies were identified that could withstand the rigors of operation in a radioactive environment and with the ability to handle sharp 90 elbows. We present results of the second phase of detailed testing and evaluation of pipeline unplugging technologies and the objective is to qualify these pipeline unplugging technologies for subsequent deployment at a DOE facility. The current phase of testing and qualification comprises of a heavily instrumented 3-inch diameter (full-scale) pipeline facilitating extensive data acquisition for design optimization and performance evaluation, as it applies to three types of plugs atypical of the DOE HLW waste. Furthermore, the data from testing at three different lengths of pipe in conjunction with the physics of the process will assist in modeling the unplugging phenomenon that will then be used to scale-up process parameters and system variables for longer and site typical pipe lengths, which can extend as much as up to 19,000 ft. Detailed information resulting from the testing will provide the DOE end-user with sufficient data and understanding of the technology, and its limitations to aid in the benefit-cost analysis for management decision whether to deploy the technology or to abandon the pipeline as has been done in the past. In conclusion: The ultimate objective of this study is to qualify NuVision's unplugging technology for use at Hanford. Experimental testing has been conducted using three pipeline lengths and three types of blockages. Erosion rates have been obtained and pressure data is being analyzed. An amplification of the inlet pressure has been observed along the pipeline and is the key to determining up to what pipe lengths the technology can be used without surpassing the site pressure limit. In addition, we will attempt to establish what the expected unplugging rates will be at the longer pipe lengths for each of the three blockages tested. Detailed information resulting from the testing will provide the DOE end-user with sufficient data and understanding of the technology, and its limitations so that management decisions can be made whether the technology has a reasonable chance to successfully unplug a pipeline, such as a cross site transfer line or process transfer pipeline at the Waste Treatment Plant. (authors)

McDaniel, D.; Gokaltun, S.; Varona, J.; Awwad, A.; Roelant, D.; Srivastava, R. [Applied Research Center, Florida International University, Miami, FL (United States)

2008-07-01

335

High-Level Waste Systems Plan. Revision 7  

SciTech Connect

This revision of the High-Level Waste (HLW) System Plan aligns SRS HLW program planning with the DOE Savannah River (DOE-SR) Ten Year Plan (QC-96-0005, Draft 8/6), which was issued in July 1996. The objective of the Ten Year Plan is to complete cleanup at most nuclear sites within the next ten years. The two key principles of the Ten Year Plan are to accelerate the reduction of the most urgent risks to human health and the environment and to reduce mortgage costs. Accordingly, this System Plan describes the HLW program that will remove HLW from all 24 old-style tanks, and close 20 of those tanks, by 2006 with vitrification of all HLW by 2018. To achieve these goals, the DWPF canister production rate is projected to climb to 300 canisters per year starting in FY06, and remain at that rate through the end of the program in FY18, (Compare that to past System Plans, in which DWPF production peaked at 200 canisters per year, and the program did not complete until 2026.) An additional $247M (FY98 dollars) must be made available as requested over the ten year planning period, including a one-time $10M to enhance Late Wash attainment. If appropriate resources are made available, facility attainment issues are resolved and regulatory support is sufficient, then completion of the HLW program in 2018 would achieve a $3.3 billion cost savings to DOE, versus the cost of completing the program in 2026. Facility status information is current as of October 31, 1996.

Brooke, J.N.; Gregory, M.V.; Paul, P.; Taylor, G.; Wise, F.E.; Davis, N.R.; Wells, M.N.

1996-10-01

336

PLUTONIUM/HIGH-LEVEL VITRIFIED WASTE BDBE DOSE CALCULATION  

SciTech Connect

In accordance with the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, Yucca Mountain was designated as the site to be investigated as a potential repository for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The Yucca Mountain site is an undeveloped area located on the southwestern edge of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), about 100 miles northwest of Las Vegas. The site currently lacks rail service or an existing right-of-way. If the Yucca Mountain site is found suitable for the repository, rail service is desirable to the Office of Civilian Waste Management (OCRWM) Program because of the potential of rail transportation to reduce costs and to reduce the number of shipments relative to highway transportation. A Preliminary Rail Access Study evaluated 13 potential rail spur options. Alternative routes within the major options were also developed. Each of these options was then evaluated for potential land use conflicts and access to regional rail carriers. Three potential routes having few land use conflicts and having access to regional carriers were recommended for further investigation. Figure 1-1 shows these three routes. The Jean route is estimated to be about 120 miles long, the Carlin route to be about 365 miles long, and Caliente route to be about 365 miles long. The remaining ten routes continue to be monitored and should any of the present conflicts change, a re-evaluation of that route will be made. Complete details of the evaluation of the 13 routes can be found in the previous study. The DOE has not identified any preferred route and recognizes that the transportation issues need a full and open treatment under the National Environmental Policy Act. The issue of transportation will be included in public hearings to support development of the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) proceedings for either the Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility or the Yucca Mountain Project or both.

D.C. Richardson

2003-03-19

337

Level 1 Tornado PRA for the High Flux Beam Reactor  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a risk analysis primarily directed at providing an estimate for the frequency of tornado induced damage to the core of the High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR), and thus it constitutes a Level 1 Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) covering tornado induced accident sequences. The basic methodology of the risk analysis was to develop a ``tornado specific`` plant logic model that integrates the internal random hardware failures with failures caused externally by the tornado strike and includes operator errors worsened by the tornado modified environment. The tornado hazard frequency, as well as earlier prepared structural and equipment fragility data, were used as input data to the model. To keep modeling/calculational complexity as simple as reasonable a ``bounding`` type, slightly conservative, approach was applied. By a thorough screening process a single dominant initiating event was selected as a representative initiator, defined as: ``Tornado Induced Loss of Offsite Power.`` The frequency of this initiator was determined to be 6.37E-5/year. The safety response of the HFBR facility resulted in a total Conditional Core Damage Probability of .621. Thus, the point estimate of the HFBR`s Tornado Induced Core Damage Frequency (CDF) was found to be: (CDF){sub Tornado} = 3.96E-5/year. This value represents only 7.8% of the internal CDF and thus is considered to be a small contribution to the overall facility risk expressed in terms of total Core Damage Frequency. In addition to providing the estimate of (CDF){sub Tornado}, the report documents, the relative importance of various tornado induced system, component, and operator failures that contribute most to (CDF){sub Tornado}.

Bozoki, G.E.; Conrad, C.S.

1994-05-01

338

High Level Multimodal Fusion and Semantics Thanassis Perperis  

E-print Network

of pornography. Keywords: Harmful Content Detection, Semantic Video Analysis, Knowledge Engineering, Ontologies and pornography detection by means of a unified approach exporting various levels of semantic abstractions

Kouroupetroglou, Georgios

339

Analysis of Italian High Quality Wine Exports using the Gravity Model Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Italian wine firms are facing a significant reduction in wine consumption and increasing competition in international markets. In fact, markets are becoming increasingly liberalized and producers of non-EU countries adopt even more aggressive strategies to increase their competitiveness. Nevertheless, demand for high quality wine which includes a large number of Italian wines, is increasing. The aim of this work is

Giuseppe De Blasi; Antonio Seccia; Domenico Carlucci; Fabio G. Santeramo

2007-01-01

340

Concerns--High Sea Levels and Temperatures Seen Next Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A National Research Council committee recently concluded that atmospheric carbon dioxide levels will "most likely" double by late in the next century, causing an increase in the earth's average temperature. Effects of the increase on sea levels, global climate, and other parameters are discussed. (JN)

Ryan, Paul R.

1984-01-01

341

Global gene expression analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown under redox potential-controlled very-high-gravity conditions.  

PubMed

Redox potential (ORP) plays a pivotal role in yeast viability and ethanol production during very-high-gravity (VHG) ethanol fermentation. In order to identify the correlation between redox potential profiles and gene expression patterns, global gene expression of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated. Results indicated that significant changes in gene expression occurred at the periods of 0 - 6 h and 30 - 36 h, respectively. Changes noted in the period of 0 - 6 h were mainly related to carbohydrate metabolism. In contrast, gene expression variation at 30 - 36 h could be attributed primarily to stress response. Although CDC19 was down-regulated, expression of PYK2, PDC6 and ADH2 correlated inversely with ORP. Meanwhile, expression of GPD1 decreased due to the depletion of dissolved oxygen in the fermentation broth, but expression of GPD2 correlated with ORP. Transcription of genes encoding heat shock proteins was characterized by uphill, downhill, valley and plateau expression profiles, accordingly to specific function in stress response. These results highlight the role of ORP in modulating yeast physiology and metabolism under VHG conditions. PMID:23625881

Liu, Chen-Guang; Lin, Yen-Han; Bai, Feng-Wu

2013-11-01

342

Soldering Tested in Reduced Gravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Whether used occasionally for contingency repair or routinely in nominal repair operations, soldering will become increasingly important to the success of future long-duration human space missions. As a result, it will be critical to have a thorough understanding of the service characteristics of solder joints produced in reduced-gravity environments. The National Center for Space Exploration Research (via the Research for Design program), the NASA Glenn Research Center, and the NASA Johnson Space Center are conducting an experimental program to explore the influence of reduced gravity environments on the soldering process. Solder joint characteristics that are being considered include solder fillet geometry, porosity, and microstructural features. Both through-hole (see the drawing and image on the preceding figure) and surface-mounted devices are being investigated. This effort (the low-gravity portion being conducted on NASA s KC-135 research aircraft) uses the soldering hardware currently available on the International Space Station. The experiment involves manual soldering by a contingent of test operators, including both highly skilled technicians and less skilled individuals to provide a skill mix that might be encountered in space mission crews. The experiment uses both flux-cored solder and solid-core solder with an externally applied flux. Other experimental parameters include the type of flux, gravitational level (nominally zero,

Struk, Peter M.; Pettegrew, Richard D.; Watson, J. Kevin; Down, Robert S.; Haylett, Daniel R.

2005-01-01

343

Crustal vertical motion along a profile crossing the Rhine graben from the Vosges to the Black Forest Mountains: Results from absolute gravity, GPS and levelling observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Rhine plain is oriented north-south and limited by the Vosges Mountains (France) to the West and the Black Forest Mountains (Germany) to the East. The present-day tectonic evolution of this system is not well known and many questions are still pending: is the graben subsiding? Are the mountains uplifting? What is the relative behaviour of the three different geological components? In attempting to answer these questions, we compare for the first time in this region time series of absolute gravity (AG) measurements to the available GPS observations at three sites along a profile crossing the Rhine graben. Our reference station is the gravimetric observatory near Strasbourg (J9), located in the Rhine plain where AG measurements are performed regularly since 1997 and where superconducting gravimeter (SG) observations are available almost continuously for 17 years. The secondary sites are the Welschbruch station in the Vosges Mountains where six AG measurements have been conducted since 1997 and the Black Forest Observatory (BFO) where three AG measurements are available. GPS permanent receivers are collocated at the Strasbourg-J9 site since 1999, at the Welschbruch station since 2000, and at BFO since 2002. Levelling data are only available in the BFO region. We compare the long term content of two types of geodetic measurements with special emphasis on the trend despite the limited duration of our data sets. Assuming that the gravity changes are linear in time, we obtain g?=1.9±0.2 ?Gal/yr at Strasbourg-J9, g?=-0.96±0.2 ?Gal/yr at Welschbruch site and g?=2.5±0.5 ?Gal/yr at BFO. The trends according to GPS observations are, respectively: -1.51 ± 0.07 and -0.74 ± 0.10 mm/yr at Strasbourg-J9 and Welschbruch site, respectively; there is no GPS result available at BFO. The AG results for BFO are very questionable, as well as the GPS observations at the Welschbruch station. Nonetheless, Strasbourg-J9 and Welschbruch AG measurements lead to subsidence and uplift, respectively, which are expected results in agreement with GPS at Strasbourg-J9.

Amalvict, M.; Hinderer, J.; Rózsa, S.

2006-01-01

344

High level production of tyrosinase in recombinant Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Background Tyrosinase is a bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes both the hydroxylation of monophenols to o-diphenols (monophenolase activity) and the subsequent oxidation of the diphenols to o-quinones (diphenolase activity). Due to the potential applications of tyrosinase in biotechnology, in particular in biocatalysis and for biosensors, it is desirable to develop a suitable low-cost process for efficient production of this enzyme. So far, the best production yield reported for tyrosinase was about 1?g?L-1, which was achieved by cultivating the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei for 6?days. Results In this work, tyrosinase from Verrucomicrobium spinosum was expressed in Escherichia coli and its production was studied in both batch and fed-batch cultivations. Effects of various key cultivation parameters on tyrosinase production were first examined in batch cultures to identify optimal conditions. It was found that a culture temperature of 32?°C and induction at the late growth stage were favorable, leading to a highest tyrosinase activity of 0.76 U mL-1. The fed-batch process was performed by using an exponential feeding strategy to achieve high cell density. With the fed-batch process, a final biomass concentration of 37?g?L-1 (based on optical density) and a tyrosinase activity of 13 U mL-1 were obtained in 28?hours, leading to a yield of active tyrosinase of about 3?g?L-1. The highest overall volumetric productivity of 103?mg of active tyrosinase per liter and hour (corresponding to 464?mU?L-1?h-1) was determined, which is approximately 15 times higher than that obtained in batch cultures. Conclusions We have successfully expressed and produced gram quantities per liter of active tyrosinase in recombinant E. coli by optimizing the expression conditions and fed-batch cultivation strategy. Exponential feed of substrate helped to prolong the exponential phase of growth, to reduce the fermentation time and thus the cost. A specific tyrosinase production rate of 103?mg?L?1?h?1 and a maximum volumetric activity of 464?mU?L?1?h-1 were achieved in this study. These levels have not been reported previously. PMID:23442796

2013-01-01

345

High Power MPD Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) for Artificial Gravity HOPE Missions to Callisto  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This documents the results of a one-year multi-center NASA study on the prospect of sending humans to Jupiter's moon, Callisto, using an all Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) space transportation system architecture with magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters. The fission reactor system utilizes high temperature uranium dioxide (UO2) in tungsten (W) metal matrix cermet fuel and electricity is generated using advanced dynamic Brayton power conversion technology. The mission timeframe assumes on-going human Moon and Mars missions and existing space infrastructure to support launch of cargo and crewed spacecraft to Jupiter in 2041 and 2045, respectively.

McGuire, Melissa L.; Borowski, Stanley K.; Mason, Lee M.; Gilland, James

2003-01-01

346

Tethered gravity laboratories study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The scope of the study is to investigate ways of controlling the microgravity environment of the International Space Station by means of a tethered system. Four main study tasks were performed. First, researchers analyzed the utilization of the tether systems to improve the lowest possible steady gravity level on the Space Station and the tether capability to actively control the center of gravity position in order to compensate for activities that would upset the mass distribution of the Station. The purpose of the second task was to evaluate the whole of the experiments performable in a variable gravity environment and the related beneficial residual accelerations, both for pure and applied research in the fields of fluid, materials, and life science, so as to assess the relevance of a variable g-level laboratory. The third task involves the Tethered Variable Gravity Laboratory. The use of the facility that would crawl along a deployed tether and expose experiments to varying intensities of reduced gravity is discussed. Last, a study performed on the Attitude Tether Stabilizer concept is discussed. The stabilization effect of ballast masses tethered to the Space Station was investigated as a means of assisting the attitude control system of the Station.

Lucchetti, F.

1990-01-01

347

High-level real-time programming in Java  

Microsoft Academic Search

Real-time systems have reached a level of complexity beyond the scaling capability of the low-level or restricted languages traditionally used for real-time programming.While Metronome garbage collection has made it practical to use Java to implement real-time systems, many challenges remain for the construction of complex real-time systems, some specific to the use of Java and others simply due to the

David F. Bacon; Perry Cheng; David Grove; Michael Hind; V. T. Rajan; Eran Yahav; Matthias Hauswirth; Christoph M. Kirsch; Daniel Spoonhower; Martin T. Vechev

2005-01-01

348

Low Copper and High Manganese Levels in Prion Protein Plaques  

PubMed Central

Accumulation of aggregates rich in an abnormally folded form of the prion protein characterize the neurodegeneration caused by transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). The molecular triggers of plaque formation and neurodegeneration remain unknown, but analyses of TSE-infected brain homogenates and preparations enriched for abnormal prion protein suggest that reduced levels of copper and increased levels of manganese are associated with disease. The objectives of this study were to: (1) assess copper and manganese levels in healthy and TSE-infected Syrian hamster brain homogenates; (2) determine if the distribution of these metals can be mapped in TSE-infected brain tissue using X-ray photoelectron emission microscopy (X-PEEM) with synchrotron radiation; and (3) use X-PEEM to assess the relative amounts of copper and manganese in prion plaques in situ. In agreement with studies of other TSEs and species, we found reduced brain levels of copper and increased levels of manganese associated with disease in our hamster model. We also found that the in situ levels of these metals in brainstem were sufficient to image by X-PEEM. Using immunolabeled prion plaques in directly adjacent tissue sections to identify regions to image by X-PEEM, we found a statistically significant relationship of copper-manganese dysregulation in prion plaques: copper was depleted whereas manganese was enriched. These data provide evidence for prion plaques altering local transition metal distribution in the TSE-infected central nervous system. PMID:23435237

Johnson, Christopher J.; Gilbert, P.U.P.A.; Abrecht, Mike; Baldwin, Katherine L.; Russell, Robin E.; Pedersen, Joel A.; Aiken, Judd M.; McKenzie, Debbie

2013-01-01

349

Low copper and high manganese levels in prion protein plaques  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Accumulation of aggregates rich in an abnormally folded form of the prion protein characterize the neurodegeneration caused by transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). The molecular triggers of plaque formation and neurodegeneration remain unknown, but analyses of TSE-infected brain homogenates and preparations enriched for abnormal prion protein suggest that reduced levels of copper and increased levels of manganese are associated with disease. The objectives of this study were to: (1) assess copper and manganese levels in healthy and TSE-infected Syrian hamster brain homogenates; (2) determine if the distribution of these metals can be mapped in TSE-infected brain tissue using X-ray photoelectron emission microscopy (X-PEEM) with synchrotron radiation; and (3) use X-PEEM to assess the relative amounts of copper and manganese in prion plaques in situ. In agreement with studies of other TSEs and species, we found reduced brain levels of copper and increased levels of manganese associated with disease in our hamster model. We also found that the in situ levels of these metals in brainstem were sufficient to image by X-PEEM. Using immunolabeled prion plaques in directly adjacent tissue sections to identify regions to image by X-PEEM, we found a statistically significant relationship of copper-manganese dysregulation in prion plaques: copper was depleted whereas manganese was enriched. These data provide evidence for prion plaques altering local transition metal distribution in the TSE-infected central nervous system.

Johnson, Christopher J.; Gilbert, P.U.P.A.; Abrecth, Mike; Baldwin, Katherine L.; Russell, Robin E.; Pedersen, Joel A.; McKenzie, Debbie

2013-01-01

350

Predicting gravity and sediment thickness in Afghanistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The US Naval Research Laboratory conducted comprehensive high-altitude (7 km above mean sea level) aero-geophysical surveys over Afghanistan in 2006 (Rampant Lion I). The surveys were done in collaboration with the US Geological Survey and upon the request of Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Ministry of Mines. In this study, we show that a best fitting admittance between topography and airborne gravity in western Afghanistan can be used to predict airborne gravity for the no-data area of eastern Afghanistan where the mountains are too high to conduct airborne surveys, due to the threat of ground fire. The differences between the airborne and the predicted gravity along a tie-track through the no-data area were found to be within ±12 mGal range with rms difference 7.3 mGal, while those between the predicted gravity from a simple Airy model (with compensation depth of 32 km and crustal density of 2.67 g cm-3) and the airborne gravity were within ±22 mGal range with rms difference 10.3 mGal. A combined airborne free-air anomaly has been constructed by merging the predicted gravity with the airborne data. We also demonstrate that sediment thickness can be estimated for basin areas where surface topography and airborne free-air anomaly profiles do not show a correlation presumably because of thick sediments. In order to estimate sediment thickness, we first determine a simple linear relationship from a scatter plot of the airborne gravity points and the interpolated Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) topography along the Rampant Lion I tracks, and computed corresponding quasi-topography tracks by multiplying the linear relationship with the airborne free-air anomalies. We then take the differences between the SRTM and quasi-topography as a first-order estimate of sediment thickness. A global gravity model (GOCO02S), upward continued to the same altitude (7 km above mean sea level) as the data collection, was compared with the low-pass filtered (with cutoff wavelength 132 km which is approximately equivalent to the reported safe degree and order 250 of GOCO02S at 34º N) combined airborne free-air anomalies. The rms difference between the two data sets was 12.4 mGal. The observed admittance in the western Afghanistan mountains appears to be best fit to a theoretical elastic plate compensation model (with an effective elastic thickness of 5 km and crustal thickness of 22 km) where the ratio between surface load and subsurface load is equal.

Jung, W.; Brozena, J.; Peters, M.

2013-02-01

351

Extended Theories of Gravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extended Theories of Gravity can be considered as a new paradigm to cure shortcomings of General Relativity at infrared and ultraviolet scales. They are an approach that, by preserving the undoubtedly positive results of Einstein’s theory, is aimed to address conceptual and experimental problems recently emerged in astrophysics, cosmology and High Energy Physics. In particular, the goal is to encompass, in a self-consistent scheme, problems like inflation, dark energy, dark matter, large scale structure and, first of all, to give at least an effective description of Quantum Gravity. We review the basic principles that any gravitational theory has to follow. The geometrical interpretation is discussed in a broad perspective in order to highlight the basic assumptions of General Relativity and its possible extensions in the general framework of gauge theories. Principles of such modifications are presented, focusing on specific classes of theories like f(R)-gravity and scalar-tensor gravity in the metric and Palatini approaches. The special role of torsion is also discussed. The conceptual features of these theories are fully explored and attention is paid to the issues of dynamical and conformal equivalence between them considering also the initial value problem. A number of viability criteria are presented considering the post-Newtonian and the post-Minkowskian limits. In particular, we discuss the problems of neutrino oscillations and gravitational waves in extended gravity. Finally, future perspectives of extended gravity are considered with possibility to go beyond a trial and error approach.

Capozziello, Salvatore; de Laurentis, Mariafelicia

2011-12-01

352

First test of high frequency Gravity Waves from inflation using Advanced LIGO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inflation models ending in a first order phase transition produce gravitational waves (GW) via bubble collisions of the true vacuum phase. We demonstrate that these bubble collisions can leave an observable signature in Advanced LIGO, an upcoming ground-based GW experiment. These GW are dependent on two parameters of the inflationary model: ? represents the energy difference between the false vacuum and the true vacuum of the inflaton potential, and ? measures how fast the phase transition ends (? ~ the number of e-folds during the actual phase transition). Advanced LIGO will be able to test the validity of single-phase transition models within the parameter space 107 GeVlesssim ?1/4 lesssim 1010 GeV and 0.19 lesssim ? lesssim 1. If inflation occurred through a first order phase transition, then Advanced LIGO could be the first to discover high frequency GW from inflation.

Lopez, Alejandro; Freese, Katherine

2015-01-01

353

HighLevel Perception, Representation, and Analogy: A Critique of Artificial Intelligence Methodology  

E-print Network

High­Level Perception, Representation, and Analogy: A Critique of Artificial Intelligence of Experimental and Theoretical Artificial Intelligence. #12; High­Level Perception, Representation, and Analogy: A Critique of Artificial Intelligence Methodology Abstract High­level perception---the process of making

Indiana University

354

The Design of High-Level Features for Photo Quality Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a principled method for designing high level features forphoto quality assessment. Our resulting system can classify between high quality professional pho- tos and low quality snapshots. Instead of using the bag of low-level features approach, we first determine the per- ceptual factors that distinguish between professional photos and snapshots. Then, we design high level semantic features to measure

Yan Ke; Xiaoou Tang; Feng Jing

2006-01-01

355

Development of Crystal-Tolerant High-Level Waste Glasses  

SciTech Connect

Twenty five glasses were formulated. They were batched from HLW AZ-101 simulant or raw chemicals and melted and tested with a series of tests to elucidate the effect of spinel-forming components (Ni, Fe, Cr, Mn, and Zn), Al, and noble metals (Rh2O3 and RuO2) on the accumulation rate of spinel crystals in the glass discharge riser of the high-level waste (HLW) melter. In addition, the processing properties of glasses, such as the viscosity and TL, were measured as a function of temperature and composition. Furthermore, the settling of spinel crystals in transparent low-viscosity fluids was studied at room temperature to access the shape factor and hindered settling coefficient of spinel crystals in the Stokes equation. The experimental results suggest that Ni is the most troublesome component of all the studied spinel-forming components producing settling layers of up to 10.5 mm in just 20 days in Ni-rich glasses if noble metals or a higher concentration of Fe was not introduced in the glass. The layer of this thickness can potentially plug the bottom of the riser, preventing glass from being discharged from the melter. The noble metals, Fe, and Al were the components that significantly slowed down or stopped the accumulation of spinel at the bottom. Particles of Rh2O3 and RuO2, hematite and nepheline, acted as nucleation sites significantly increasing the number of crystals and therefore decreasing the average crystal size. The settling rate of ?10-?m crystal size around the settling velocity of crystals was too low to produce thick layers. The experimental data for the thickness of settled layers in the glasses prepared from AZ-101 simulant were used to build a linear empirical model that can predict crystal accumulation in the riser of the melter as a function of concentration of spinel-forming components in glass. The developed model predicts the thicknesses of accumulated layers quite well, R2 = 0.985, and can be become an efficient tool for the formulation of the crystal-tolerant HLW glasses for higher waste loading. A physical modeling effort revealed that the Stokes and Richardson-Zaki equations can be used to adequately predict the accumulation rate of spinel crystals of different sizes and concentrations in the glass discharge riser of HLW melters. The determined shape factor for the glass beads was only 0.73% lower than the theoretical shape factor for a perfect sphere. The shape factor for the spinel crystals matched the theoretically predicted value to within 10% and was smaller than that of the beads, given the larger drag force caused by the larger surface area-to-volume ratio of the octahedral crystals. In the hindered settling experiments, both the glass bead and spinel suspensions were found to follow the predictions of the Richardson-Zaki equation with the exponent n = 3.6 and 2.9 for glass beads and spinel crystals, respectively.

Matyas, Josef; Vienna, John D.; Schaible, Micah J.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Arrigoni, Alyssa L.; Tate, Rachel M.

2010-12-17

356

Spatial and seasonal variability of medium- and high-frequency gravity waves in the lower atmosphere revealed by US radiosonde data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We extended the broad spectral method proposed by Zhang et al. (2013) for the extraction of medium- and high-frequency gravity waves (MHGWs). This method was applied to 11 years (1998-2008) of radiosonde data from 92 stations in the Northern Hemisphere to investigate latitudinal, continuous vertical and seasonal variability of MHGW parameters in the lower atmosphere (2-25 km). The latitudinal and vertical distributions of the wave energy density and horizontal momentum fluxes as well as their seasonal variations exhibit considerable consistency with those of inertial gravity waves. Despite the consistency, the MHGWs have much larger energy density, horizontal momentum fluxes and wave force, indicating the more important role of MHGWs in energy and momentum transportation and acceleration of the background. For the observed MHGWs, the vertical wavelengths are usually larger than 8 km; the horizontal wavelengths peak in the middle troposphere at middle-high latitudes. These characteristics are obviously different from inertial gravity waves. The energy density and horizontal momentum fluxes have similar latitude-dependent seasonality: both of them are dominated by a semiannual variation at low latitudes and an annual variation at middle latitudes; however at high latitudes, they often exhibit more than two peaks per year in the troposphere. Compared with the inertial GWs, the derived intrinsic frequencies are more sensitive to the spatiotemporal variation of the buoyancy frequency, and at all latitudinal regions they are higher in summer. The wavelengths have a weaker seasonal variation; an evident annual cycle can be observed only at middle latitudes.

Zhang, S. D.; Huang, C. M.; Huang, K. M.; Yi, F.; Zhang, Y. H.; Gong, Y.; Gan, Q.

2014-09-01

357

Massive gravity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modifications of Einstein's theory of gravity which allow for nonvanishing graviton mass are discussed. The theoretical problems involved are subtle and challenging and call for consideration beyond perturbation theory.

A. Vainshtein

2006-01-01

358

Gravity brake  

DOEpatents

A mechanical gravity brake that prevents hoisted loads within a shaft from free-falling when a loss of hoisting force occurs. A loss of hoist lifting force may occur in a number of situations, for example if a hoist cable were to break, the brakes were to fail on a winch, or the hoist mechanism itself were to fail. Under normal hoisting conditions, the gravity brake of the invention is subject to an upward lifting force from the hoist and a downward pulling force from a suspended load. If the lifting force should suddenly cease, the loss of differential forces on the gravity brake in free-fall is translated to extend a set of brakes against the walls of the shaft to stop the free fall descent of the gravity brake and attached load.

Lujan, Richard E. (Santa Fe, NM)

2001-01-01

359

Gravity's overdrive  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mariner 10 traveled to Mercury by using Venus' gravity to bend its course in toward the sun, a correction that would otherwise required vast amounts of rocket fuel. For the first time, an interplanetary spacecraft changed course not with rocket fuel but by using a planet's gravitational field. That maneuver stands, along with the development of the rocket engine, as one of the keys that opened the solar system for exploration. The Pioneer, Voyager, and Galileo missions all used gravity assist, and in fact would not have been possible otherwise. Gravity assist is the most efficient form of space propulsion known. Various aspects of the developmental history of the gravity assist technique and the dispute over who should receive credit for inventing the technique are discussed.

Reichhardt, Tony

1994-03-01

360

Gravity Calculator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The gravity calculator calculates the gravitational force between two masses. Also included is a visualization of the typical measurement of gravitational force (weight) in different environments (stationary and free fall).

Brendan Cannell, Ronnie Johnson, The Shodor Education Foundation, Inc.

361

Hyperfine Structure Constants of Energetically High-lying Levels of Odd Parity of Atomic Vanadium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-resolution Fourier transform spectra of a vanadium-argon plasma have been recorded in the wavelength range of 365-670 nm (15,000-27,400 cm-1). Optical bandpass filters were used in the experimental setup to enhance the sensitivity of the Fourier transform spectrometer. In total, 138 atomic vanadium spectral lines showing resolved or partially resolved hyperfine structure have been analyzed to determine the magnetic dipole hyperfine structure constants A of the involved energy levels. One of the investigated lines has not been previously classified. As a result, the magnetic dipole hyperfine structure constants A for 90 energy levels are presented: 35 of them belong to the configuration 3d 34s4p and 55 to the configuration 3d 44p. Of these 90 constants, 67 have been determined for the first time, with 23 corresponding to the configuration 3d 34s4p and 44 to 3d 44p.

Güzelçimen, F.; Yap?c?, B.; Demir, G.; Er, A.; Öztürk, I. K.; Ba?ar, Gö.; Kröger, S.; Tamanis, M.; Ferber, R.; Docenko, D.; Ba?ar, Gü.

2014-09-01

362

Separation of americium, curium, and rare earths from high-level wastes by oxalate precipitation: experiments with synthetic waste solutions  

SciTech Connect

The separation of trivalent actinides and rare earths from other fission products in high-level nuclear wastes by oxalate precipitation followed by ion exchange (OPIX) was experimentally investigated using synthetic wastes and a small-scale, continuous-flow oxalic acid precipitation and solid-liquid separation system. Trivalent actinide and rare earth oxalates are relatively insoluble in 0.5 to 1.0 M HNO/sub 3/ whereas other fission product oxalates are not. The continuous-flow system consisted of one or two stirred-tank reactors in series for crystal growth. Oxalic acid and waste solutions were mixed in the first tank, with the product solid-liquid slurry leaving the second tank. Solid-liquid separation was tested by filters and by a gravity settler. The experiments determined the fraction of rare earths precipitated and separated from synthetic waste streams as a function of number of reactors, system temperature, oxalic acid concentration, liquid residence time in the process, power input to the stirred-tank reactors, and method of solid-liquid separation. The crystalline precipitate was characterized with respect to form, size, and chemical composition. These experiments are only the first step in converting a proposed chemical flowsheet into a process flowsheet suitable for large-scale remote operations at high activity levels.

Forsberg, C.W.

1980-01-01

363

High level of activation Coupled product is very stable, especially  

E-print Network

for pharmaceutical companies producing therapeutic products, especially those working with synthetic peptides between matrix and activated group is especially suitable for immobilising small proteins and peptides protein and peptide ligands. The advantages of high stability and a spacer arm combined with the high flow

Lebendiker, Mario

364

High Performance User Level Sockets over Gigabit Ethernet  

Microsoft Academic Search

While a number of User-Level Protocols have been devel- oped to reduce the gap between the performance capabil- ities of the physical network and the performance actually available, applications that have already been developed on kernel based protocols such as TCP have largely been ignored. There is a need to make these existing TCP ap- plications take advantage of the

Pavan Balaji; Piyush Shivam; Pete Wyckoff; Dhabaleswar K. Panda

2002-01-01

365

High Smog Levels Seen in Mecca During the Annual Pilgrimage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2012, the Hajj drew 3.5 million Muslims to Mecca for 5 days of prayer and spiritual enlightenment. The annual pilgrimage, one of the largest annual gatherings of people in the world, also brings dangerous levels of air pollution to Islam's holiest city.

Urton, James

2014-12-01

366

New Generation Nuclear Plant -- High Level Functions and Requirements  

SciTech Connect

This functions and requirements (F&R) document was prepared for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The highest-level functions and requirements for the NGNP preconceptual design are identified in this document, which establishes performance definitions for what the NGNP will achieve. NGNP designs will be developed based on these requirements by commercial vendor(s).

J. M. Ryskamp; E. J. Gorski; E. A. Harvego; S. T. Khericha; G. A. Beitel

2003-09-01

367

Environmental Concerns High nutrient, bacterial and salinity levels--along  

E-print Network

opportunities. Potential sources of this pollution include natural sources, feral hogs, wastewater-oxygen levels--in some Texas watersheds have raised concerns among residents and state officials about public, parks and industrial sites. Extension's Response The Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service has partnered

368

A controlled-source seismic and gravity study of the High Lava Plains (HLP) of Eastern Oregon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study employs data collected during the High Lava Plains (HLP) controlled-source seismic experiment conducted in September 2008. In this experiment, 2612 short-period seismic recorders and 120 3-component recorders were deployed across eastern Oregon and adjacent parts of Nevada and Idaho to record 15 seismic sources. Seismic and gravity data were integrated to create 2-D crustal scale P-wave velocity and density models for the ˜400 km long NW-SE and N-S profiles to provide a better understanding of the crustal and upper mantle structure and ultimately the magmatic and tectonic evolution of the region. These models are the first high-resolution images beneath the path of migratory, bi-modal volcanism that dotted the High Lava Plains beginning at 16 Ma. Our models show that the crustal structure across the HLP region is similar to that of the northern Basin and Range which has experienced extension since ˜35 Ma but with moderate magmatic modification of the crust. A thick layer (5-7 km) of sediments and volcanics extends over most of the area and is thickest in the Harney Basin area. We interpret denser/faster material in the lower to middle crust under the southern Harney Basin area to be mafic intraplating. We have also identified a region of denser/faster material in the upper crust in the vicinity of Oregon-Idaho border. The crust thickens from 34 to 37 km, and the lower crust increases in density (2.8-2.85 g/cm3), from west to east across eastern Oregon in close proximity to the interpreted position of the 0.706 Sr isotope line, suggesting a decrease in extension. In the lowermost crust below the southeastern HLP, there is relatively high velocity (7.2-7.4 km/s) and density (2.95 g/cm3) that suggests the presence of underplating. The HLP region has undergone moderate extension, and the average crustal velocity is somewhat higher than in the adjacent Basin and Range, suggesting some magmatic modification in the lower crust, but not as much as might be expected given the voluminous surface volcanism.

Cox, Catherine; Keller, G. Randy; Harder, Steven H.

2013-12-01

369

Numerical simulation of the long-range propagation of gravity wave packets at high latitudes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AbstractWe use a 2-D, nonlinear, time-dependent numerical model to simulate the propagation of wave packets under average <span class="hlt">high</span> latitude, winter conditions. We investigate the ability of waves to propagate large horizontal distances, depending on their direction of propagation relative to the average modeled ambient winds. Wave sources were specified to represent the following: (1) the most common wave parameters inferred from observations of Nielsen et al. (2009) (18 km ?x, 7.5 min period), (2) waves consistent with the average phase speed observed (40 m/s) but outlying horizontal wavelength and period values (40 km ?x, 17 min period), and (3) waves which would be subject to strong ducting as suggested by Snively et al. (2013) (25 km ?x, 6.7 min period). We find that wave energy density was sustained over large horizontal distances for waves ducted in the stratosphere. Waves traveling against winds in the upper stratosphere/lower mesosphere are more likely to be effectively ducted in the stratosphere and travel large horizontal distances, while waves which escape in the form of leakage are more likely to be freely propagating above 80 km altitude. Waves propagating principally in the direction of the stratopause winds are subject to weaker stratospheric ducting and thus increased leakage of wave energy density from the stratosphere. However, these waves are more likely to be subject to reflection and ducting at altitudes above 80 km based upon the average winds chosen. The wave periods that persist at late times in both the stratosphere and the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) range from 6.8 to 8 min for cases (1) and (3). Shorter-period waves tend to become trapped in the stratosphere, while longer-period waves can dissipate in the thermosphere with little reflection or trapping. It is suggested that the most common scenario is of partial ducting, where waves are observed in the airglow after they leak out of the stratosphere, especially at large horizontal distances from the source. Stratospheric ducting and associated leakage can contribute to a periodic and horizontally distributed forcing of the MLT.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Heale, C. J.; Snively, J. B.; Hickey, M. P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">370</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.eecs.umich.edu/~mahlke/papers/1996/schlansker_hpl96.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Achieving <span class="hlt">High</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span> of Instruction-<span class="hlt">Level</span> Parallelism with Reduced Hardware Complexity</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Computer Research Center HPL-96-120 November 1994 {schlansk, rau, mahlke, kathail, rjohnson, anik, abraham, predicated execution, data speculation, HPL PlayDoh Instruction-<span class="hlt">level</span> parallel processing (ILP) has is communicated by the compiler to the hardware via the program. HPL PlayDoh is a research architecture that has</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mahlke, Scott A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">371</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.4894C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Integrating a <span class="hlt">Gravity</span> Simulation and Groundwater Modeling on the Calibration of Specific Yield for Choshui Alluvial Fan</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">For sustainable management, accurate estimation of recharge can provide critical information. The accuracy of estimation is <span class="hlt">highly</span> related to uncertainty of specific yield (Sy). Because Sy value is traditionally obtained by a multi-well pumping test, the available Sy values are usually limited due to <span class="hlt">high</span> installation cost. Therefore, this information insufficiency of Sy may cause <span class="hlt">high</span> uncertainty for recharge estimation. Because <span class="hlt">gravity</span> is a function of a material mass and the inverse square of the distance, <span class="hlt">gravity</span> measurement can assist to obtain the mass variation of a shallow groundwater system. Thus, the groundwater <span class="hlt">level</span> observation data and <span class="hlt">gravity</span> measurements are used for the calibration of Sy for a groundwater model. The calibration procedure includes four steps. First, <span class="hlt">gravity</span> variations of three groundwater-monitoring wells, Si-jhou, Tu-ku and Ke-cuo, are observed in May, August and November 2012. To obtain the <span class="hlt">gravity</span> caused by groundwater variation, this study filters the noises from other sources, such as ocean tide and land subsidence, in the collected data The refined data, which are data without noises, are named <span class="hlt">gravity</span> residual. Second, this study develops a groundwater model using MODFLOW 2005 to simulate the water mass variation of the groundwater system. Third, we use Newton <span class="hlt">gravity</span> integral to simulate the <span class="hlt">gravity</span> variation caused by the simulated water mass variation during each of the observation periods. Fourth, comparing the ratio of the <span class="hlt">gravity</span> variation between the two data sets, which are observed <span class="hlt">gravity</span> residuals and simulated <span class="hlt">gravities</span>. The values of Sy is continuously modified until the <span class="hlt">gravity</span> variation ratios of the two data sets are the same. The Sy value of Si-jhou is 0.216, which is obtained by the multi-well pumping test. This Sy value is assigned to the simulation model. The simulation results show that the simulated <span class="hlt">gravity</span> can well fit the observed <span class="hlt">gravity</span> residual without parameter calibration. This result indicates that the proposed approach is correct and reasonable. In Tu-ku and Ke-cuo, the ratios of the <span class="hlt">gravity</span> variation between observed <span class="hlt">gravity</span> residuals and simulated <span class="hlt">gravities</span> are approximate 1.8 and 50, respectively. The Sy values of these two stations are modified 1.8 and 50 times the original values. These modified Sy values are assigned to the groundwater morel. After the parameter re-assignment, the simulated <span class="hlt">gravities</span> meet the <span class="hlt">gravity</span> residuals in these two stations. In conclusion, the study results show that the proposed approach has the potential to identify Sy without installing wells. Therefore, the proposed approach can be used to increase the spatial density of Sy and can conduct the recharge estimation with low uncertainty.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chang, Liang Cheng; Tsai, Jui pin; Chen, Yu Wen; Way Hwang, Chein; Chung Cheng, Ching; Chiang, Chung Jung</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">372</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/969813"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">HIGH</span> ALUMINUM HLW (<span class="hlt">HIGH</span> <span class="hlt">LEVEL</span> WASTE ) GLASSES FOR HANFORDS WTP (WASTE TREATMENT PROJECT)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper presents the results of glass formulation development and melter testing to identify <span class="hlt">high</span> waste loading glasses to treat <span class="hlt">high</span>-Al <span class="hlt">high</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> waste (HLW) at Hanford. Previous glass formulations developed for this HLW had <span class="hlt">high</span> waste loadings but their processing rates were lower that desired. The present work was aimed at improving the glass processing rate while maintaining <span class="hlt">high</span> waste loadings. Glass formulations were designed, prepared at crucible-scale and characterized to determine their properties relevant to processing and product quality. Glass formulations that met these requirements were screened for melt rates using small-scale tests. The small-scale melt rate screening included vertical gradient furnace (VGF) and direct feed consumption (DFC) melter tests. Based on the results of these tests, modified glass formulations were developed and selected for larger scale melter tests to determine their processing rate. Melter tests were conducted on the DuraMelter 100 (DMIOO) with a melt surface area of 0.11 m{sup 2} and the DuraMelter 1200 (DMI200) HLW Pilot Melter with a melt surface area of 1.2 m{sup 2}. The newly developed glass formulations had waste loadings as <span class="hlt">high</span> as 50 wt%, with corresponding Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration in the glass of 26.63 wt%. The new glass formulations showed glass production rates as <span class="hlt">high</span> as 1900 kg/(m{sup 2}.day) under nominal melter operating conditions. The demonstrated glass production rates are much higher than the current requirement of 800 kg/(m{sup 2}.day) and anticipated future enhanced Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) requirement of 1000 kg/(m{sup 2}.day).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">KRUGER AA; BOWAN BW; JOSEPH I; GAN H; KOT WK; MATLACK KS; PEGG IL</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-04</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">373</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22293726"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mercury Reduction and Removal from <span class="hlt">High</span> <span class="hlt">Level</span> Waste at the Defense Waste Processing Facility - 12511</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Defense Waste Processing Facility processes legacy nuclear waste generated at the Savannah River Site during production of enriched uranium and plutonium required by the Cold War. The nuclear waste is first treated via a complex sequence of controlled chemical reactions and then vitrified into a borosilicate glass form and poured into stainless steel canisters. Converting the nuclear waste into borosilicate glass is a safe, effective way to reduce the volume of the waste and stabilize the radionuclides. One of the constituents in the nuclear waste is mercury, which is present because it served as a catalyst in the dissolution of uranium-aluminum alloy fuel rods. At <span class="hlt">high</span> temperatures mercury is corrosive to off-gas equipment, this poses a major challenge to the overall vitrification process in separating mercury from the waste stream prior to feeding the <span class="hlt">high</span> temperature melter. Mercury is currently removed during the chemical process via formic acid reduction followed by steam stripping, which allows elemental mercury to be evaporated with the water vapor generated during boiling. The vapors are then condensed and sent to a hold tank where mercury coalesces and is recovered in the tank's sump via <span class="hlt">gravity</span> settling. Next, mercury is transferred from the tank sump to a purification cell where it is washed with water and nitric acid and removed from the facility. Throughout the chemical processing cell, compounds of mercury exist in the sludge, condensate, and off-gas; all of which present unique challenges. Mercury removal from sludge waste being fed to the DWPF melter is required to avoid exhausting it to the environment or any negative impacts to the Melter Off-Gas system. The mercury concentration must be reduced to a <span class="hlt">level</span> of 0.8 wt% or less before being introduced to the melter. Even though this is being successfully accomplished, the material balances accounting for incoming and collected mercury are not equal. In addition, mercury has not been effectively purified and collected in the Mercury Purification Cell (MPC) since 2008. A significant cleaning campaign aims to bring the MPC back up to facility housekeeping standards. Two significant investigations are being undertaken to restore mercury collection. The SMECT mercury pump has been removed from the tank and will be functionally tested. Also, research is being conducted by the Savannah River National Laboratory to determine the effects of antifoam addition on the behavior of mercury. These path forward items will help us better understand what is occurring in the mercury collection system and ultimately lead to an improved DWPF production rate and mercury recovery rate. (authors)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Behrouzi, Aria [Savannah River Remediation, LLC (United States); Zamecnik, Jack [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, South Carolina, 29808 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">374</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23782381"> <span id="translatedtitle">Severely <span class="hlt">high</span> serum unbound bilirubin <span class="hlt">level</span> after abdominal surgery in a newborn.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report a newborn with intestinal malrotation who developed a severely <span class="hlt">high</span> serum unbound bilirubin <span class="hlt">level</span> and a low serum albumin <span class="hlt">level</span> without a marked increase in serum total bilirubin <span class="hlt">level</span> after abdominal surgery, which required exchange transfusion and albumin supplementation. The serum unbound bilirubin <span class="hlt">level</span> may be <span class="hlt">highly</span> relative to the serum total bilirubin <span class="hlt">level</span> in newborns who have undergone abdominal surgery soon after birth and are hypoalbuminemic after surgery. PMID:23782381</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Morioka, Ichiro; Miwa, Akihiro; Yokota, Tomoyuki; Huu, Chuong Thieu Do; Nagasaka, Miwako; Koda, Tsubasa; Matsuo, Kiyomi; Morikawa, Satoru; Shibata, Akio; Hisamatsu, Chieko; Nishio, Hisahide; Yamada, Hideto; Nishijima, Eiji; Iijima, Kazumoto</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">375</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1805659"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">High</span> serum nitric oxide <span class="hlt">levels</span> in patients with severe leptospirosis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Leptospirosis is a globally distributed zoonosis of major public health importance and is associated with severe disease manifestations such as acute renal failure and pulmonary haemorrhage syndrome. However, the extent to which the pathogenesis of leptospirosis mimics sepsis caused by Gram-negative bacteria remains unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum <span class="hlt">levels</span> of nitric oxide (NO) in patients diagnosed with severe leptospirosis. Sera from 35 confirmed cases of severe leptospirosis and 13 healthy subjects were analysed. Patients with severe leptospirosis had significantly higher NO <span class="hlt">levels</span> compared to healthy individuals (30.82 ± 10.90 ?M versus 3.86 ± 1.34 ?M, P<0.001), indicating that this immune mediator plays a role in the underlying systemic inflammatory response. PMID:17196920</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Maciel, Elves A. P.; Athanazio, Daniel A.; Reis, Eliana A.G.; Cunha, Fernando Q.; Queiroz, Adriano; Almeida, Deusdelia; McBride, Alan J. A.; Ko, Albert I.; Reis, Mitermayer G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">376</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5434477"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">High</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> of North Sea activity should stay</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper reports that this next year will see development activity in the UK sector of the North Sea remain on a lofty plane. In fact, the value of expenditures could increase significantly above 1991 <span class="hlt">levels</span> and reach {Brit pounds}4.5 billion ($7.83 million). Such massive activity is due to the coincident development of large oil and natural gas fields, among which are Bruce, Miller, Scott, Everest, Lomond and Alba.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kemp, A.G. (Univ. of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, Scotland (GB))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">377</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....4526W"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Gravity</span> changes, soil moisture and data assimilation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Remote sensing holds promise for near-surface soil moisture and snow mapping, but current techniques do not directly resolve the deeper soil moisture or groundwater. The benefits that would arise from improved monitoring of variations in terrestrial water storage are numerous. The year 2002 saw the launch of NASA's <span class="hlt">Gravity</span> Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites, which are mapping the Earth's <span class="hlt">gravity</span> field at such a <span class="hlt">high</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> of precision that we expect to be able to infer changes in terrestrial water storage (soil moisture, groundwater, snow, ice, lake, river and vegetation). The project described here has three distinct yet inter-linked components that all leverage off the same ground-based monitoring and land surface modelling framework. These components are: (i) field validation of a relationship between soil moisture and changes in the Earth's <span class="hlt">gravity</span> field, from ground- and satellite-based measurements of changes in <span class="hlt">gravity</span>; (ii) development of a modelling framework for the assimilation of <span class="hlt">gravity</span> data to constrain land surface model predictions of soil moisture content (such a framework enables the downscaling and disaggregation of low spatial (500 km) and temporal (monthly) resolution measurements of <span class="hlt">gravity</span> change to finer spatial and temporal resolutions); and (iii) further refining the downscaling and disaggregation of space-borne <span class="hlt">gravity</span> measurements by making use of other remotely sensed information, such as the higher spatial (25 km) and temporal (daily) resolution remotely sensed near-surface soil moisture measurements from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR) instruments on Aqua and ADEOS II. The important field work required by this project will be in the Murrumbidgee Catchment, Australia, where an extensive soil moisture monitoring program by the University of Melbourne is already in place. We will further enhance the current monitoring network by the addition of groundwater wells and additional soil moisture sites. Ground-based <span class="hlt">gravity</span> measurements will also be made on a monthly basis at each monitoring site. There will be two <span class="hlt">levels</span> of modelling and monitoring; regional across the entire Murrumbidgee Catchment (100,000 km2), and local across a small sub-catchment (150 km2).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Walker, J.; Grayson, R.; Rodell, M.; Ellet, K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">378</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT.......372A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Corrosion issues in <span class="hlt">high-level</span> nuclear waste containers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this dissertation different aspects of corrosion and electrochemistry of copper, candidate canister material in Scandinavian <span class="hlt">high-level</span> nuclear waste disposal program, including the thermodynamics and kinetics of the reactions that are predicted to occur in the practical system have been studied. A comprehensive thermodynamic study of copper in contact with granitic groundwater of the type and composition that is expected in the Forsmark repository in Sweden has been performed. Our primary objective was to ascertain whether copper would exist in the thermodynamically immune state in the repository, in which case corrosion could not occur and the issue of corrosion in the assessment of the storage technology would be moot. In spite of the fact that metallic copper has been found to exist for geological times in granitic geological formations, copper is well-known to be activated from the immune state to corrode by specific species that may exist in the environment. The principal activator of copper is known to be sulfur in its various forms, including sulfide (H2S, HS-, S2-), polysulfide (H2Sx, HSx -, Sx 2-), poly sulfur thiosulfate ( SxO3 2-), and polythionates (SxO6 2-). A comprehensive study of this aspect of copper chemistry has never been reported, and yet an understanding of this issue is vital for assessing whether copper is a suitable material for fabricating canisters for the disposal of HLNW. Our study identifies and explores those species that activate copper; these species include sulfur-containing entities as well as other, non-sulfur species that may be present in the repository. The effects of temperature, solution pH, and hydrogen pressure on the kinetics of the hydrogen electrode reaction (HER) on copper in borate buffer solution have been studied by means of steady-state polarization measurements, including electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). In order to obtain electrokinetic parameters, such as the exchange current density and the cathodic Tafel slope, two stages of optimization have been performed. From the optimization process, the activation energy (Eac) of the HER on copper was obtained as ?32 kJ mol-1. Moreover, the mechanism of the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) on copper in mildly alkaline media has been studied by means of EIS over the frequency range of 0.01 Hz ? f ? 5 kHz. The impedance spectra were modeled using a mechanism based upon the Volmer-Heyrovsky-Tafel steps for hydrogen evolution and by considering the reactions involved in hydrogen atom and hydroxyl group adsorption on the copper surface. A single set of kinetic parameters, including the rate constants and transfer coefficient, have been derived for each pH by optimization of the mechanistic model on the experimental impedance (EIS) data. It is postulated that the HER proceeds through the Volmer-Heyrovsky-Tafel mechanism with the Volmer reaction being the rate-determining step. The kinetics of growth of the passive sulfide film on copper in deaerated aqueous sodium chloride solution as a function of applied potential, sulfide species concentrations and temperature were explored by means of potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The electronic and compositional properties of the passive layer were investigated with Mott-Schottky analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It is found that metal vacancies are predominant defects in the barrier layer which is in agreement with the p-type character of the film observed experimentally. A point defect model (PDM) for formation and dissolution of the passive sulfide film on copper is proposed. Finally, the behavior of the system interpreted in terms of reaction mechanisms and kinetic parameters extracted from the experimental impedance data by mathematical optimization using a genetic algorithm approach. The diffusion coefficient of cation vacancies is obtained directly from optimization of the proposed model onto the EIS experimental data and was found to be essentially independent from the applied potential within th</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Asl, Samin Sharifi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">379</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060028164&hterms=EGM96&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DEGM96"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Gravity</span> Modeling for Variable Fidelity Environments</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Aerospace simulations can model worlds, such as the Earth, with differing <span class="hlt">levels</span> of fidelity. The simulation may represent the world as a plane, a sphere, an ellipsoid, or a <span class="hlt">high</span>-order closed surface. The world may or may not rotate. The user may select lower fidelity models based on computational limits, a need for simplified analysis, or comparison to other data. However, the user will also wish to retain a close semblance of behavior to the real world. The effects of <span class="hlt">gravity</span> on objects are an important component of modeling real-world behavior. Engineers generally equate the term <span class="hlt">gravity</span> with the observed free-fall acceleration. However, free-fall acceleration is not equal to all observers. To observers on the sur-face of a rotating world, free-fall acceleration is the sum of gravitational attraction and the centrifugal acceleration due to the world's rotation. On the other hand, free-fall acceleration equals gravitational attraction to an observer in inertial space. Surface-observed simulations (e.g. aircraft), which use non-rotating world models, may choose to model observed free fall acceleration as the <span class="hlt">gravity</span> term; such a model actually combines gravitational at-traction with centrifugal acceleration due to the Earth s rotation. However, this modeling choice invites confusion as one evolves the simulation to higher fidelity world models or adds inertial observers. Care must be taken to model <span class="hlt">gravity</span> in concert with the world model to avoid denigrating the fidelity of modeling observed free fall. The paper will go into greater depth on <span class="hlt">gravity</span> modeling and the physical disparities and synergies that arise when coupling specific <span class="hlt">gravity</span> models with world models.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Madden, Michael M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">380</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhRvC..89a4310A"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">High</span>-spin <span class="hlt">level</span> structure of 35S</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The nucleus 35S has been studied by in-beam ?-ray spectroscopy using the 24Mg(14N,3p) fusion-evaporation reaction at Elab=40 MeV. A <span class="hlt">level</span> scheme extended up to J?=17/2+ at 8023 keV and J?=13/2- at 6352 keV has been established. Lifetimes of six excited states have been determined by applying the Doppler shift attenuation method. The experimental data have been compared with the results of large-scale shell model calculations performed using different effective interactions and model spaces allowing particle-hole excitations across the N =Z=20 shell gap.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Aydin, S.; Ionescu-Bujor, M.; Recchia, F.; Lenzi, S. M.; Bouhelal, M.; Bazzacco, D.; Bizzeti, P. G.; Bizzeti-Sona, A. M.; de Angelis, G.; Deloncle, I.; Farnea, E.; Gadea, A.; Gottardo, A.; Haas, F.; Huyuk, T.; Laftchiev, H.; Lunardi, S.; Mengoni, D.; Menegazzo, R.; Michelagnoli, C.; Napoli, D. R.; Poves, A.; Sahin, E.; Singh, P. P.; Tonev, D.; Ur, C. A.; Valiente-Dobón, J. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">381</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6494366"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">High</span>-temperature leaching of an actinide-bearing, simulated <span class="hlt">high-level</span> waste glass</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The chemical durability of a simulated <span class="hlt">high-level</span> waste glass when exposed to <span class="hlt">high</span>-temperature geologic solutions was investigated. In this study, simulated <span class="hlt">high-level</span> waste glass-beads (76 to 68 glass)l doped with technetium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium, curium and americium were leached in deionized water, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant salt brine B, and 0.03M sodium bicarbonate solution at 150 and 250/sup 0/C for 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 days. The resulting solutions were analyzed for several nonradioactive glass components and for the radioactive dopants. The glass exhibited incongruent leaching behavior, i.e., the normalized releases (g-glass/m/sup 2/) based on the different elements spanned four orders of magnitude. Normalized releases based on boron, molybdenum, sodium, cesium, silicon, and technetium were the same within a factor of three. Most of the nonradioactive components of the glass were released more to the salt brine than to the other two solutions. However, silicon, boron, molybdenum, technetium, and the actinides had their lowest releases in the salt brine. Reaction-layer thickness on the glass surface and weight losses of the glass beads were also smallest in the brine solution. Actinide releases were highest in the sodium bicarbonate solution. Calcium, strontium and barium releases decreased with time and temperature; the releases of most other elements increased with time and temperature. Solubility appears to be limiting the release of most elements. The leachate pH is controlled by chemical species within the original leachant and by species released as the glass leached. Carbonate ion complexes with some elements including uranium, effectively increasing their release. The more soluble elements including sodium, boron, molybdenum and technetium provide an indication of the actual rate of reaction between the glass and water.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Westsik, J.H. Jr.; Harvey, C.O.; Kuhn, W.L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">382</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.cs.vu.nl/~rob/papers/toplas-satin.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Satin: A <span class="hlt">high-level</span> and efficient grid programming model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Computational grids have an enormous potential to provide compute power. However, this power remains largely unexploited today for most applications, except trivially parallel programs. De- veloping parallel grid applications simply is too difficult. Grids introduce several problems not encountered before, mainly due to the <span class="hlt">highly</span> heterogeneous and dynamic computing and network- ing environment. Furthermore, failures occur frequently, and resources may</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rob V. Van Nieuwpoort; Gosia Wrzesinska; Ceriel J. H. Jacobs; Henri E. Bal</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">383</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED361170.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Project Water Science. General Science <span class="hlt">High</span> School <span class="hlt">Level</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This teacher's guide presents 12 hands-on laboratory activities for <span class="hlt">high</span> school science classes that cover the environmental issue of water resources in California. The activities are separated into three sections. Five activities in the section on water quality address the topics of groundwater, water hardness, bottled water, water purity, and…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Water Education Foundation, Sacramento, CA.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">384</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60493159"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">High</span>-flux beam reactor PRA: <span class="hlt">Level</span> 1, internal events</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">High</span>-Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR) is used principally for experimental research on the fundamental properties of condensed matter. The reactor began operation in 1965 at 40 MW and was subsequently upgraded to 60-MW operation in 1982. The reactor was not restarted after a scheduled shutdown in March 1989, when it was concluded that the safety analysis report failed to asses</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. A. Azarm; R. A. Bari; T. L. Chu; L. Oliveira</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">385</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED384610.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Designing More Effective Grouping Practices at the <span class="hlt">High</span> School <span class="hlt">Level</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Efforts at one <span class="hlt">high</span> school to reconsider its practices of ability grouping and explore alternative assessment and grouping practices are described. Assessment of the schools' practices found that students in lower ability groups had a less stimulating curriculum, fewer positive role models, lower motivation, lower expectations for themselves, and…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Galloway, Dan; Schwartz, Wendell</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">386</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/443448"> <span id="translatedtitle">Foundation fieldbus forging <span class="hlt">high-level</span> network standard</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An all-digital, serial, two-way communications system that interconnects sensors, actuators, and controllers, Foundation fieldbus serves as a local area network (LAN) for instruments used in process and other manufacturing automation applications. The Fieldbus Foundation`s (FF) technology incorporates function blocks that distribute control across the network. Function blocks automatically support alarms, trends, and multiple failure-report <span class="hlt">levels</span>, without the need for higher-<span class="hlt">level</span> intervention, and also provide a built-in plant-instrumentation database. Foundation fieldbus will connect individual control devices and may link to a 1.0 Mbit/sec or 2.5 Mbit/sec fieldbus serving as a field communication backbone. It is intended for integrated process-control networks that perform closed-loop continuous control, batch sequencing, recipe management, and data-gathering tasks. The 1.0/2.5 Mbit/sec (H2) bus it also suited for complex logic functions in discrete control networks. 4 figs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Glanzer, D. [Fieldbus Foundation, Austin, TX (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">387</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.livia.etsmtl.ca/publications/2006/ALEKOE_IWFHR_2006.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fusing <span class="hlt">High</span> and Low-<span class="hlt">Level</span> Features for Handwritten Word Recognition</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper presents a novel approach that combines <span class="hlt">high</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> and low <span class="hlt">level</span> features for the recognition of handwritten words. Given a word image, <span class="hlt">high</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> fea- tures are extracted from loosely segmented words. Such features are used with an HMM word classifier in a lexicon-driven approach. This classifier produces at the output a ranked list of the N-best recognition</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alessandro L. Koerich; Alceu S. Britto Jr; Robert Sabourin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">388</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ece.eng.wayne.edu/~mhassoun/NNJournal01.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Two-<span class="hlt">Level</span> Hamming Network for <span class="hlt">High</span> Performance Associative Memory</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A Two-<span class="hlt">Level</span> Hamming Network for <span class="hlt">High</span> Performance Associative Memory Nobuhiko Ikeda Department presents an analysis of a two-<span class="hlt">level</span> decoupled Hamming network, which is a <span class="hlt">high</span> performance discrete-time/discrete-state associative memory model. The two-<span class="hlt">level</span> Hamming memory generalizes the Hamming memory by providing for local</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hassoun, Mohamad H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">389</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.mpi-inf.mpg.de/fileadmin/inf/d2/HLCV/cv-ss13-0703-part3-v1.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">High</span> <span class="hlt">Level</span> Computer Vision Part-Based Models for Object Class Recognition</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">High</span> <span class="hlt">Level</span> Computer Vision Part-Based Models for Object Class Recognition Part 3 Bernt Schiele <span class="hlt">Level</span> Computer Vision - July o3, 2o13 · Bag of Words Models (BoW) object model = histogram of local: flexible spatial relationships 2 #12;<span class="hlt">High</span> <span class="hlt">Level</span> Computer Vision - July o3, 2o13 Part-Based Models</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">390</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.mpi-inf.mpg.de/fileadmin/inf/d2/HLCV/project_0.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">High-Level</span> Computer Vision -Final Project 1 Start date: 24.06</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">High-Level</span> Computer Vision - Final Project 1 Logistics · Start date: 24.06 · Proposal: 3 slides member #12;<span class="hlt">High-Level</span> Computer Vision - Final Project 2 Project goal · Choose an existing computer vision-<span class="hlt">Level</span> Computer Vision - Final Project Proposal Slides Structure · Slide 1 ­ Task and motivation Task statement</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">391</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22750345"> <span id="translatedtitle">Variational study on the vibrational <span class="hlt">level</span> structure and vibrational <span class="hlt">level</span> mixing of <span class="hlt">highly</span> vibrationally excited S? D?CO.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We perform converged <span class="hlt">high</span> precision variational calculations to determine the frequencies of a large number of vibrational <span class="hlt">levels</span> in S(0) D(2)CO, extending from low to very <span class="hlt">high</span> excess vibrational energies. For the calculations we use our specific vibrational method (recently employed for studies on H(2)CO), consisting of a combination of a search/selection algorithm and a Lanczos iteration procedure. Using the same method we perform large scale converged calculations on the vibrational <span class="hlt">level</span> spectral structure and fragmentation at selected <span class="hlt">highly</span> excited overtone states, up to excess vibrational energies of ?17,000 cm(-1), in order to study the characteristics of intramolecular vibrational redistribution (IVR), vibrational <span class="hlt">level</span> density and mode selectivity. PMID:22750345</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rashev, Svetoslav; Moule, David C; Rashev, Vladimir</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">392</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EGSGA..27.2651Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">Rock Sample Permeability At <span class="hlt">High</span> Temperature and Pressure: Implication To <span class="hlt">High</span> <span class="hlt">Level</span> Waste Disposal</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The underground disposal of <span class="hlt">high-level</span> radioactive waste (HLW) is adopted by the most of countries with the powerful atomic industry as the preferable way of their isolation. In this case the most hazardous scenario could be HLW leakage from the repository and their convective transport by groundwater to the Earth surface. Since the behavior and velocity of groundwater flow depend significantly on spatial dis- tribution of rock permeability, determination of this parameter is very important for safety assessment of HLW underground disposal. In order to isolate reliable HLW from the biosphere, it is advisable to build a repository at significant depth. Therefore, lythostatic pressure in the disposal zone should be rather <span class="hlt">high</span>. Enclosing rocks tem- perature in the vicinity of underground repository should significantly increase due to HLW heat generation. Hence, rock permeability has to be estimated at <span class="hlt">high</span> pres- sure and temperature. The results of experimental sample permeability determinations for different types of tight rocks at <span class="hlt">high</span> temperature and pressure are presented. The temperature trends obtained are of different types: permeability may decrease or in- crease within the entire temperature range or it may firstly decrease, reaches its min- imum and then decreases. It was found that such permeability behavior depends on rock microstructure transformations caused by competitive effects of temperature and effective pressure. The experimental data obtained allowed to estimate in situ perme- ability for upper part of continental crust. The <span class="hlt">high</span> PT permeability values were also used as input data for convective transport numerical simulation performed in order to determine the safe depth of HLW well repository. The studies were supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Researches (grant # 02-05-64906)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zharikov, A. V.; Malkovsky, V. I.; Shmonov, V. M.; Vitovtova, V. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">393</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19770059160&hterms=ferrari&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dferrari"> <span id="translatedtitle">Lunar <span class="hlt">gravity</span> - A harmonic analysis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A sixteenth-degree and sixteenth-order spherical harmonic lunar <span class="hlt">gravity</span> field has been derived from the long-term Keplerian variations in the orbits of the Apollo subsatellites and Lunar Orbiter 5. This model resolves the major mascon <span class="hlt">gravity</span> anomalies of the lunar near side and is in very good agreement with line-of-sight acceleration results. The far-side map shows the major ringed basins to be strong localized negative anomalies located in broad regions of positive <span class="hlt">gravity</span> which correspond closely to the highlands. The rms pressure <span class="hlt">levels</span> calculated from equivalent-surface height variations show that the moon and earth support nearly equal pressures, whereas Mars is appreciably stronger. The moon appears to support larger loads than earth owing to its weaker central <span class="hlt">gravity</span> field and perhaps a colder upper lithosphere. Significant differences between the low-degree <span class="hlt">gravity</span> and topography spectra indicate that the longer-wavelength topographic features are isostatically compensated.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ferrari, A. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1977-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">394</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23607887"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">High</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> of melatonin generated during the brewing process.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Beer is a beverage consumed worldwide. It is produced from cereals (barley or wheat) and contains a wide array of bioactive phytochemicals and nutraceutical compounds. Specifically, <span class="hlt">high</span> melatonin concentrations have been found in beer. Beers with <span class="hlt">high</span> alcohol content are those that present the greatest concentrations of melatonin and vice versa. In this study, gel filtration chromatography and ELISA were combined for melatonin determination. We brewed beer to determine, for the first time, the beer production steps in which melatonin appears. We conclude that the barley, which is malted and ground in the early process, and the yeast, during the second fermentation, are the largest contributors to the enrichment of the beer with melatonin. PMID:23607887</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Garcia-Moreno, H; Calvo, J R; Maldonado, M D</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">395</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhRvA..90c2110H"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">High</span>-speed driving of a two-<span class="hlt">level</span> system</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A simple result is found for the optimal protocol of drivings for a general two-<span class="hlt">level</span> Hamiltonian, which transports a given initial state to a given final state in minimal time, under additional conditions on the drivings. If one of the three possible drivings is unconstrained in strength the problem is analytically completely solvable. A surprise arises for a class of states when one driving is bounded by a constant c and the other drivings are constant. Then, for large c, the optimal driving is of type bang-off-bang and for increasing c one recovers the unconstrained result. However, for smaller c the optimal driving can suddenly switch to bang-bang type. It is also shown that for general states one may have a multistep protocol. The present paper explicitly proves and considerably extends the author's results contained in Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 260501 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.260501.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hegerfeldt, Gerhard C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">396</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992NASCP3153..215C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Project MAGNET <span class="hlt">high-level</span> vector survey data reduction</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Since 1951, the U.S. Navy, under its Project MAGNET program, has been continuously collecting vector aeromagnetic survey data to support the U.S. Defense Mapping Agency's world magnetic and charting program. During this forty-year period, a variety of survey platforms and instrumentation configurations have been used. The current Project MAGNET survey platform is a Navy Orion RP-3D aircraft which has been specially modified and specially equipped with a redundant suite of navigational positioning, attitude, and magnetic sensors. A review of the survey data collection procedures and calibration and editing techniques applied to the data generated by this suite of instrumentation will be presented. Among the topics covered will be the determination of its parameters from the low-<span class="hlt">level</span> calibration maneuvers flown over geomagnetic observatories.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Coleman, Rachel J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">397</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920019385&hterms=MAGNET&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DMAGNET"> <span id="translatedtitle">Project MAGNET <span class="hlt">High-level</span> Vector Survey Data Reduction</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Since 1951, the U.S. Navy, under its Project MAGNET program, has been continuously collecting vector aeromagnetic survey data to support the U.S. Defense Mapping Agency's world magnetic and charting program. During this forty-year period, a variety of survey platforms and instrumentation configurations have been used. The current Project MAGNET survey platform is a Navy Orion RP-3D aircraft which has been specially modified and specially equipped with a redundant suite of navigational positioning, attitude, and magnetic sensors. A review of the survey data collection procedures and calibration and editing techniques applied to the data generated by this suite of instrumentation will be presented. Among the topics covered will be the determination of its parameters from the low-<span class="hlt">level</span> calibration maneuvers flown over geomagnetic observatories.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Coleman, Rachel J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">398</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3714608"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">High-level</span> Expression of Cecropin X in Escherichia coli</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Cecropin X is a short cationic peptide with a broad antibacterial and antitumor spectrum. Here, we report the production of a tumor necrosis factor (TNF?)-cecropin X fusion protein under the control of a temperature-inducible PR promoter in the bacterial expression vector pRC. During fermentation, we studied and optimized essential parameters including the type of host cells, medium, timing of induction, post-induction time and dissolved oxygen <span class="hlt">level</span>. Using the suitable conditions in the fermentation, up to 20 % ~ 23 % of the total cellular proteins is produced as the fusion protein, mostly in the form of inclusion bodies. After washing, on average about 5.27 g dried inclusion bodies could be collected from 1 L broth and the purity of inclusion bodies reached 80 %. Cecropin X obtained by cleaving the fusion protein with cyanogen bromide showed remarkable tumorcidal activity against mouse Lewis lung carcinoma 3LL in vivo.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shen, Yi; Lao, Xue Gang; Chen, Yuan; Zhang, Hong Zu; Xu, Xian Xiu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">399</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080008147&hterms=high+voltage&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dhigh%2Bvoltage"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">High</span> Voltage Breakdown <span class="hlt">Levels</span> in Various EPC Potting Materials</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This viewgraph presentation reviews exploration activities at JPL into various potting materials. Since <span class="hlt">high</span> power space-borne microwave transmitters invariably use a vacuum tube as a final power amplifier, and this tube requires <span class="hlt">high</span> electrode voltages for operation. The associated <span class="hlt">high</span> voltage insulation typically represents a significant fraction of the mass of the transmitter. Since mass is always a premium resource on board spacecraft, we have been investigating materials with the potential to reduce the mass required for our applications here at JPL. This paper describes electrical breakdown results obtained with various potting materials. Conathane EN-11 (polyurethane) is the traditional HVPS encapsulant at JPL, but due to temperature limitations and durability issues it was deemed inappropriate for the particular application (i.e., CloudSat radar). The choices for the best available materials were epoxies, or silicones. Epoxies are too rigid, and were deemed inadvisable. Two silicones were further investigated (i.e.,ASTM E595- 93e2: GE RTV566(R) and Dow Corning 93-500X(R), another compound was considered (i.e., DC material, Sylgard 184(R)). "Loading" (adding filler materials) the potting compound will frequently alter the final material properties. Powdered alumina and borosilicate glass known as "microballoons" were investigated as possible loading materials. The testing of the materials is described. Each of the two loading materials offers advantages and disadvantages. The advantages and disadvantages are described.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Komm, David S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">400</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10634999"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">High</span> altitude headache. Lessons from headaches at sea <span class="hlt">level</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">There is little known about <span class="hlt">high</span> altitude headache, except that it is an important and serious problem that often heralds the onset of acute mountain sickness. We do know that the brain itself is an insensate organ except for its meninges which contain sensory axons projecting from the trigeminal nerve. These nerve fibers travel in proximity to meningeal blood vessels and constitute an important component of the trigeminovascular system. Signals generated at <span class="hlt">high</span> altitude which may activate the trigeminovascular system can arise from brain, blood or the blood vessel wall, include protons, neurotransmitters and other potential noxious agents which can discharge or sensitize small unmyelinated fibers. Brain edema and raised intracranial pressure may cause headache by compressing brain structures leading to displacement and stretching of the pain-sensitive intracranial structures. Small hemorrhage may irritate and discharge these fibers chemically. Furthermore, <span class="hlt">high</span> altitude seems capable of decreasing the threshold of response to sensory stimulation. Therefore, headache can be attributed to activation of a common pathway, the trigeminovascular system by both chemical or mechanical stimulation. PMID:10634999</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sanchez del Rio, M; Moskowitz, M A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a 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href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">401</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2389220"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Hemodiafiltration with <span class="hlt">high-level</span> ultrafiltration versus hemodialysis. Longitudinal study].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A group of well nourished young patients was examined during 2 longterm consecutive <span class="hlt">high</span> efficiency dialytic schedules to detect possible clinical and biochemical differences. The patients were first studied during hemodialysis with a 1.2 m2 cuprophan membrane and blood flow of 400 ml/min and, then, during hemodiafiltration with an ultrafiltration rate greater than 100 ml/min by using <span class="hlt">high</span> permeability membranes with a surface greater than or equal to 1.4 m2. As expected by the higher clearances obtained on hemodiafiltration, this technique resulted in a significant reduction of dialysis time and of BUN and serum creatinine, associated with a significant increase of hemoglobin, possibly related to a better deintoxication. Furthermore, the dry body weight decreased significantly during hemodialysis, whereas it increased significantly during hemodiafiltration, despite unchanged dietary habits, indicating possible differences in the nutrients utilization during the 2 dialytic schedules. Therefore, in chronically dialyzed patients, <span class="hlt">highly</span> permeable synthetic membranes should be preferred to cuprophan because of a supposed better biocompatibility and should be used with the highest ultrafiltration rate in order to obtain a better dialytic efficiency and to avoid the risk of backfiltration. PMID:2389220</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gonella, M; Calabrese, G; Mazzotta, A; Pratesi, G; Vagelli, G</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">402</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20151149"> <span id="translatedtitle">Metabolic rate and gross efficiency at <span class="hlt">high</span> work rates in world class and national <span class="hlt">level</span> sprint skiers.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The present study investigated metabolic rate (MR) and gross efficiency (GE) at moderate and <span class="hlt">high</span> work rates, and the relationships to gross kinematics and physical characteristics in elite cross-country skiers. Eight world class (WC) and eight national <span class="hlt">level</span> (NL) male sprint cross-country skiers performed three 5-min stages using the skating G3 technique, whilst roller skiing on a treadmill. GE was calculated by dividing work rate by MR. Work rate was calculated as the sum of power against <span class="hlt">gravity</span> and frictional rolling forces. MR was calculated using gas exchange and blood lactate values. Gross kinematics, i.e. cycle length (CL) and cycle rate (CR) were measured by video analysis. Furthermore, the skiers were tested for time to exhaustion (TTE), peak oxygen uptake (VO(2peak)), and maximal speed (V(max)) on the treadmill, and maximal strength in the laboratory. Individual performance <span class="hlt">level</span> in sprint skating was determined by FIS points. WC skiers did not differ in aerobic MR, but showed lower anaerobic MR and higher GE than NL skiers at a given speed (all P < 0.05). Moreover, WC skiers skated with longer CL and had higher V(max) and TTE (all P < 0.05). In conclusion, the present study shows that WC skiers are more efficient than NL skiers, and it is proposed that this might be due to a better technique and to technique-specific power. PMID:20151149</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sandbakk, Øyvind; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Leirdal, Stig; Ettema, Gertjan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">403</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19970037571&hterms=1558-+1603&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3D1558-%2B1603"> <span id="translatedtitle">Venus <span class="hlt">Gravity</span> Handbook</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report documents the Venus <span class="hlt">gravity</span> methods and results to date (model MGNP90LSAAP). It is called a handbook in that it contains many useful plots (such as geometry and orbit behavior) that are useful in evaluating the tracking data. We discuss the models that are used in processing the Doppler data and the estimation method for determining the <span class="hlt">gravity</span> field. With Pioneer Venus Orbiter and Magellan tracking data, the Venus <span class="hlt">gravity</span> field was determined complete to degree and order 90 with the use of the JPL Cray T3D Supercomputer. The <span class="hlt">gravity</span> field shows unprecedented <span class="hlt">high</span> correlation with topography and resolution of features to the 2OOkm resolution. In the procedure for solving the <span class="hlt">gravity</span> field, other information is gained as well, and, for example, we discuss results for the Venus ephemeris, Love number, pole orientation of Venus, and atmospheric densities. Of significance is the Love number solution which indicates a liquid core for Venus. The ephemeris of Venus is determined to an accuracy of 0.02 mm/s (tens of meters in position), and the rotation period to 243.0194 +/- 0.0002 days.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Konopliv, Alexander S.; Sjogren, William L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">404</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030005575&hterms=scholarship&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dscholarship"> <span id="translatedtitle">Bubble Formation and Detachment in Reduced <span class="hlt">Gravity</span> Under the Influence of Electric Fields</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The objective of the study is to investigate the behavior of individual air bubbles injected through an orifice into an electrically insulating liquid under the influence of a static electric field. Both uniform and nonuniform electric field configurations were considered. Bubble formation and detachment were recorded and visualized in reduced <span class="hlt">gravity</span> (corresponding to <span class="hlt">gravity</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> on Mars, on the Moon as well as microgravity) using a <span class="hlt">high</span>-speed video camera. Bubble volume, dimensions and contact angle at detachment were measured. In addition to the experimental studies, a simple model, predicting bubble characteristics at detachment was developed. The model, based on thermodynamic considerations, accounts for the <span class="hlt">level</span> of <span class="hlt">gravity</span> as well as the magnitude of the uniform electric field. Measured data and model predictions show good agreement and indicate that the <span class="hlt">level</span> of <span class="hlt">gravity</span> and the electric field magnitude significantly affect bubble shape, volume and dimensions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Herman, Cila; Iacona, Estelle; Chang, Shinan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">405</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeoRL..41.5919B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Antarctic outlet glacier mass change resolved at basin scale from satellite <span class="hlt">gravity</span> gradiometry</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">orbit and instrumental measurement of the <span class="hlt">Gravity</span> Field and Steady State Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) satellite mission offer the highest ever resolution capabilities for mapping Earth's <span class="hlt">gravity</span> field from space. However, past analysis predicted that GOCE would not detect changes in ice sheet mass. Here we demonstrate that GOCE <span class="hlt">gravity</span> gradiometry observations can be combined with <span class="hlt">Gravity</span> Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) <span class="hlt">gravity</span> data to estimate mass changes in the Amundsen Sea Sector. This refined resolution allows land ice changes within the Pine Island Glacier (PIG), Thwaites Glacier, and Getz Ice Shelf drainage systems to be measured at respectively -67 ± 7, -63 ± 12, and -55 ± 9 Gt/yr over the GOCE observing period of November 2009 to June 2012. This is the most accurate pure satellite gravimetry measurement to date of current mass loss from PIG, known as the "weak underbelly" of West Antarctica because of its retrograde bed slope and <span class="hlt">high</span> potential for raising future sea <span class="hlt">level</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bouman, J.; Fuchs, M.; Ivins, E.; Wal, W.; Schrama, E.; Visser, P.; Horwath, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">406</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.4856R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Geoid for Austria - Regional <span class="hlt">gravity</span> FIELD improved</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The project 'Geoid for Austria - Regional <span class="hlt">gravity</span> FIELD improved' (GARFIELD) is a current initiative for the generation of a new <span class="hlt">high</span>-quality <span class="hlt">gravity</span> field solution for the Austrian region, which overcomes the inconsistencies between previous geoid solutions and geoid heights from GPS/<span class="hlt">leveling</span> campaigns. The optimum combination of the complementary data types of satellite observations and all available terrestrial <span class="hlt">gravity</span> field measurements in Austria and neighbouring countries will be essential. The Least Squares Collocation (LSC) approach will serve as reference method for the <span class="hlt">gravity</span> field computation. In this context, GOCE gradients should be used as in-situ observations. Alternatively to LSC, a Gauss-Markov model with parametrization as Radial Basis Functions will be implemented. For a successful data combination, the Remove-Compute-Restore technique will be revised to avoid a double consideration of the topographic masses when performing long- and short-wavelength signal reductions. This contribution should give an overview about methods, developments and the current status of the project GARFIELD.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rieser, Daniel; Pock, Christian; Mayer-Gürr, Torsten; Kühtreiber, Norbert</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">407</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.apsarchive.org/resource.cfm?submissionID=4301&BEN=1"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">High</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span> of Carbon Dioxide Threaten Oyster Survival</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">It has been widely reported that the build up of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the air, which is caused by human behavior, will likely lead to climate change and have major implications for life on earth. But less focus has been given to global warmingÃÂs evil twin, ocean acidification, which occurs when CO2 lowers the pH of water bodies, thus making them more acidic. This lesser known phenomenon may have catastrophic effects on all sea life. Inna Sokolova, associate professor of biology at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte, studies the affect of <span class="hlt">high</span> carbon dioxide on oyster survival, growth and shell hardness. The results of her research suggest that creatures once thought to be fairly adaptable to changes in the environment, may be in serious trouble.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">APS Communications Office (American Physiological Society Communications Office)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-08-04</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">408</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Litho.190..137C"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">High</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> triggers for explosive mafic volcanism: Albano Maar, Italy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Colli Albani is a quiescent caldera complex located within the Roman Magmatic Province (RMP), Italy. The recent Via dei Laghi phreatomagmatic eruptions led to the formation of nested maars. Albano Maar is the largest and has erupted seven times between ca 69-33 ka. The <span class="hlt">highly</span> explosive nature of the Albano Maar eruptions is at odds with the predominant relatively mafic (SiO2 = 48-52 wt.%) foiditic (K2O = 9 wt.%) composition of the magma. The deposits have been previously interpreted as phreatomagmatic, however they contain large amounts (up to 30%vol) of deep seated xenoliths, skarns and all pre-volcanic subsurface units. All of the xenoliths have been excavated from depths of up to 6 km, rather than being limited to the depth at which magma and water interaction is likely to have occurred, suggesting an alternative trigger for eruption. <span class="hlt">High</span> precision geochemical glass and mineral data of fresh juvenile (magmatic) clasts from the small volume explosive deposits indicate that the magmas have evolved along one of two evolutionary paths towards foidite or phonolite. The foiditic melts record ca. 50% mixing between the most primitive magma and Ca-rich melt, late stage prior to eruption. A major result of our study is finding that the generation of Ca-rich melts via assimilation of limestone, may provide storage for significant amounts of CO2 that can be released during a mixing event with silicate magma. Differences in melt evolution are inferred as having been controlled by variations in storage conditions: residence time and magma volume.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cross, J. K.; Tomlinson, E. L.; Giordano, G.; Smith, V. C.; De Benedetti, A. A.; Roberge, J.; Manning, C. J.; Wulf, S.; Menzies, M. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">409</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6052919"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fracturing of simulated <span class="hlt">high-level</span> waste glass in canisters</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Waste-glass castings generated from engineering-scale developmental processes at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory are generally found to have significant <span class="hlt">levels</span> of cracks. The causes and extent of fracturing in full-scale canisters of waste glass as a result of cooling and accidental impact are discussed. Although the effects of cracking on waste-form performance in a repository are not well understood, cracks in waste forms can potentially increase leaching surface area. If cracks are minimized or absent in the waste-glass canisters, the potential for radionuclide release from the canister package can be reduced. Additional work on the effects of cracks on leaching of glass is needed. In addition to investigating the extent of fracturing of glass in waste-glass canisters, methods to reduce cracking by controlling cooling conditions were explored. Overall, the study shows that the extent of glass cracking in full-scale, passively-cooled, continuous melting-produced canisters is strongly dependent on the cooling rate. This observation agrees with results of previously reported Pacific Northwest Laboratory experiments on bench-scale annealed canisters. Thus, the cause of cracking is principally bulk thermal stresses. Fracture damage resulting from shearing at the glass/metal interface also contributes to cracking, more so in stainless steel canisters than in carbon steel canisters. This effect can be reduced or eliminated with a graphite coating applied to the inside of the canister. Thermal fracturing can be controlled by using a fixed amount of insulation for filling and cooling of canisters. In order to maintain production rates, a small amount of additional facility space is needed to accomodate slow-cooling canisters. Alternatively, faster cooling can be achieved using the multi-staged approach. Additional development is needed before this approach can be used on full-scale (60-cm) canisters.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Peters, R.D.; Slate, S.C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">410</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4190710"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hyperhomocysteinemia, Insulin Resistance and <span class="hlt">High</span> HS- CRP <span class="hlt">Levels</span> in Prehypertension</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background: Pre-hypertension refers to blood pressure in the range of 120 to 139 mm of Hg / 80 to 89 mm of Hg and its prevalence is increasing in India. Previous studies have documented the increase in homocysteine, C-reactive protein and insulin resistance and their role in the development of hypertension. In recent years much attention has been focused on subjects with prehypertension, as the risk for development of cardiovascular disease is higher in these subjects compared to those with normal blood pressure. Objectives: To evaluate the serum homocysteine, hs-CRP <span class="hlt">level</span> and insulin resistance in subjects with prehypertension. Materials and Methods: Sixty prehypertensives and 32 normotensives were recruited according to Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of blood pressure (JNC 7) guidelines. Serum homocysteine, vitamin B12, folate, insulin, hs-CRP and lipid profile were analysed. Independent t-test was carried out to compare two groups and pearson correlation analyses were carried out between various parameters with systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). Results: Cardiovascular risk factors like serum homocysteine, insulin resistance and inflammatory marker hs-CRP were significantly increased in prehypertensives. Total cholesterol, TG, LDL-C and VLDL-C were significantly increased when compared to normotensives. Serum homocysteine correlated positively and vitamin B12 and folate negatively with Systolic Blood Pressure. Conclusion: The present study concludes that the established cardiovascular risk factors, homocysteine, insulin resistance, and hs-CRP which have roles in the etiopathogenesis of hypertension, were elevated in subjects with prehypertension. Thus, early detection and life style modification may reduce the risk or delay the onset of hypertension and other cardiovascular complications. PMID:25302190</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Talikoti, Prashanth; Hamide, Abdoul</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">411</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/1422609"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">High-level</span> synthesis of low-power control-flow intensive circuits</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper, we present a comprehensive <span class="hlt">high-level</span> synthesis system that is geared toward reducing power consumption in control-flow intensive as well as data-dominated circuits. An iterative improvement framework allows the system to search the design space by examining the interaction between the different <span class="hlt">high-level</span> synthesis tasks. In addition to incorporating traditional <span class="hlt">high-level</span> synthesis tasks such as scheduling, module selection</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kamal S. Khouri; Ganesh Lakshminarayana; Niraj K. Jha</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">412</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960001491&hterms=Richard+Lewis&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DRichard%2BO.%2BLewis"> <span id="translatedtitle">Low-<span class="hlt">level</span> interfaces for <span class="hlt">high-level</span> parallel I/O</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">As the I/O needs of parallel scientific applications increase, file systems for multiprocessors are being designed to provide applications with parallel access to multiple disks. Many parallel file systems present applications with a conventional Unix-like interface that allows the application to access multiple disks transparently. By tracing all the activity of a parallel file system in a production, scientific computing environment, we show that many applications exhibit <span class="hlt">highly</span> regular, but nonconsecutive I/O access patterns. Since the conventional interface does not provide an efficient method of describing these patterns, we present three extensions to the interface that support strided, nested-strided, and nested-batched I/O requests. We show how these extensions can be used to express common access patterns.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nieuwejaar, Nils; Kotz, David</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">413</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A21M..01S"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Gravity</span> waves and <span class="hlt">gravity</span> wave "breaking" as contributors to aviation turbulence</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Turbulence is a well-known hazard to aviation that is responsible for numerous injuries each year, with occasional fatalities, and results in millions of dollars of operational costs to airlines each year. It has been widely accepted that aviation-scale turbulence that occurs in clear air (CAT) at upper <span class="hlt">levels</span> (upper troposphere and lower stratosphere) has its origins in Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities induced by enhanced shears and reduced Richardson numbers associated with the jet stream and upper <span class="hlt">level</span> fronts. However, it is becoming increasingly apparent that <span class="hlt">gravity</span> waves and <span class="hlt">gravity</span> wave "breaking" also play a major role in instigating turbulence that affects aviation. <span class="hlt">Gravity</span> waves and inertia-<span class="hlt">gravity</span> waves may be produced by a variety of sources, but one major source that impacts aviation seems to be those produced by convection. Several examples of <span class="hlt">high</span>-resolution numerical simulations that are based on actual encounters with turbulence by commercial aircraft will be presented to demonstrate these situations. Implications for aviation-scale turbulence forecasting will also be discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sharman, R.; Lane, T. P.; Trier, S. B.; Fovell, R. G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">414</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1001774"> <span id="translatedtitle">PLUTONIUM SOLUBILITY IN <span class="hlt">HIGH-LEVEL</span> WASTE ALKALI BOROSILICATE GLASS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The solubility of plutonium in a Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) reference glass and the effect of incorporation of Pu in the glass on specific glass properties were evaluated. A Pu loading of 1 wt % in glass was studied. Prior to actual plutonium glass testing, surrogate testing (using Hf as a surrogate for Pu) was conducted to evaluate the homogeneity of significant quantities of Hf (Pu) in the glass, determine the most appropriate methods to evaluate homogeneity for Pu glass testing, and to evaluate the impact of Hf loading in the glass on select glass properties. Surrogate testing was conducted using Hf to represent between 0 and 1 wt % Pu in glass on an equivalent molar basis. A Pu loading of 1 wt % in glass translated to {approx}18 kg Pu per Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister, or about 10X the current allowed limit per the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (2500 g/m{sup 3} of glass or about 1700 g/canister) and about 30X the current allowable concentration based on the fissile material concentration limit referenced in the Yucca Mountain Project License Application (897 g/m{sup 3}3 of glass or about 600 g Pu/canister). Based on historical process throughput data, this <span class="hlt">level</span> was considered to represent a reasonable upper bound for Pu loading based on the ability to provide Pu containing feed to the DWPF. The task elements included evaluating the distribution of Pu in the glass (e.g. homogeneity), evaluating crystallization within the glass, evaluating select glass properties (with surrogates), and evaluating durability using the Product Consistency Test -- Method A (PCT-A). The behavior of Pu in the melter was evaluated using paper studies and corresponding analyses of DWPF melter pour samples.The results of the testing indicated that at 1 wt % Pu in the glass, the Pu was homogeneously distributed and did not result in any formation of plutonium-containing crystalline phases as long as the glass was prepared under 'well-mixed' conditions. The incorporation of 1 wt % Pu in the glass did not adversely impact glass viscosity (as assessed using Hf surrogate) or glass durability. Finally, evaluation of DWPF glass pour samples that had Pu concentrations below the 897 g/m{sup 3} limit showed that Pu concentrations in the glass pour stream were close to targeted compositions in the melter feed indicating that Pu neither volatilized from the melt nor stratified in the melter when processed in the DWPF melter.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Marra, J.; Crawford, C.; Fox, K.; Bibler, N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-04</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">415</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=particle+AND+physics&pg=3&id=EJ886026"> <span id="translatedtitle">Simulating <span class="hlt">Gravity</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This article describes one classroom activity in which the author simulates the Newtonian <span class="hlt">gravity</span>, and employs the Euclidean Geometry with the use of new technologies (NT). The prerequisites for this activity were some knowledge of the formulae for a particle free fall in Physics and most certainly, a good understanding of the notion of similarity…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pipinos, Savas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">416</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6956143"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Kinetic theory and boundary conditions for flows of <span class="hlt">highly</span> inelastic spheres: Application to <span class="hlt">gravity</span> driven granular flows down bumpy inclines</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this quarter, we extended our study of the effects of isotropic boundary vibrations to steady, <span class="hlt">gravity</span> driven, inclined granular flows. These flows are more complex than those considered last quarter because of the presence of slip and mean velocity gradients at the boundary. Consequently, it was first necessary to modify the boundary conditions derived by Richman (1992) to account for corrections to the flow particle velocity distribution function from velocity gradients. In what follows we only summarize the results obtained.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Richman, M.W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">417</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://taflab.berkeley.edu/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/2013-Gavity-wave-lensing-PRE-AlamElandtShakeri1.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Gravity</span> Wave Lensing Ryan Elandt, Mostafa Shakeri & Reza Alam</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Gravity</span> Wave Lensing Ryan Elandt, Mostafa Shakeri & Reza Alam Department of Mechanical Engineering equivalent of lenses and curved mirrors for surface <span class="hlt">gravity</span> waves. Such <span class="hlt">gravity</span> wave lenses, which are merely a broadband lensing effect. <span class="hlt">Gravity</span> wave lenses can be utilized to create localized <span class="hlt">high</span>-energy wave zones (e</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alam, Mohammad-Reza</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">418</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/992784"> <span id="translatedtitle">3-D MAPPING TECHNOLOGIES FOR <span class="hlt">HIGH</span> <span class="hlt">LEVEL</span> WASTE TANKS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This research investigated four techniques that could be applicable for mapping of solids remaining in radioactive waste tanks at the Savannah River Site: stereo vision, LIDAR, flash LIDAR, and Structure from Motion (SfM). Stereo vision is the least appropriate technique for the solids mapping application. Although the equipment cost is low and repackaging would be fairly simple, the algorithms to create a 3D image from stereo vision would require significant further development and may not even be applicable since stereo vision works by finding disparity in feature point locations from the images taken by the cameras. When minimal variation in visual texture exists for an area of interest, it becomes difficult for the software to detect correspondences for that object. SfM appears to be appropriate for solids mapping in waste tanks. However, equipment development would be required for positioning and movement of the camera in the tank space to enable capturing a sequence of images of the scene. Since SfM requires the identification of distinctive features and associates those features to their corresponding instantiations in the other image frames, mockup testing would be required to determine the applicability of SfM technology for mapping of waste in tanks. There may be too few features to track between image frame sequences to employ the SfM technology since uniform appearance may exist when viewing the remaining solids in the interior of the waste tanks. Although scanning LIDAR appears to be an adequate solution, the expense of the equipment ($80,000-$120,000) and the need for further development to allow tank deployment may prohibit utilizing this technology. The development would include repackaging of equipment to permit deployment through the 4-inch access ports and to keep the equipment relatively uncontaminated to allow use in additional tanks. 3D flash LIDAR has a number of advantages over stereo vision, scanning LIDAR, and SfM, including full frame time-of-flight data (3D image) collected with a single laser pulse, <span class="hlt">high</span> frame rates, direct calculation of range, blur-free images without motion distortion, no need for precision scanning mechanisms, ability to combine 3D flash LIDAR with 2D cameras for 2D texture over 3D depth, and no moving parts. The major disadvantage of the 3D flash LIDAR camera is the cost of approximately $150,000, not including the software development time and repackaging of the camera for deployment in the waste tanks.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Marzolf, A.; Folsom, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-08-31</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">419</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title10-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title10-vol2-sec73-51.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">10 CFR 73.51 - Requirements for the physical protection of stored spent nuclear fuel and <span class="hlt">high-level</span> radioactive...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...nuclear fuel and <span class="hlt">high-level</span> radioactive waste. 73.51 Section 73.51...nuclear fuel and <span class="hlt">high-level</span> radioactive waste. (a) Applicability. ...nuclear fuel and <span class="hlt">high-level</span> radioactive waste pursuant to paragraphs...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">420</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title10-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title10-vol2-sec73-51.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">10 CFR 73.51 - Requirements for the physical protection of stored spent nuclear fuel and <span class="hlt">high-level</span> radioactive...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...nuclear fuel and <span class="hlt">high-level</span> radioactive waste. 73.51 Section 73.51...nuclear fuel and <span class="hlt">high-level</span> radioactive waste. (a) Applicability. ...nuclear fuel and <span class="hlt">high-level</span> radioactive waste pursuant to paragraphs...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' 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id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...nuclear fuel and <span class="hlt">high-level</span> radioactive waste. 73.51 Section 73.51...nuclear fuel and <span class="hlt">high-level</span> radioactive waste. (a) Applicability. ...nuclear fuel and <span class="hlt">high-level</span> radioactive waste pursuant to paragraphs...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">422</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title10-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title10-vol2-sec73-51.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">10 CFR 73.51 - Requirements for the physical protection of stored spent nuclear fuel and <span class="hlt">high-level</span> radioactive...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...nuclear fuel and <span class="hlt">high-level</span> radioactive waste. 73.51 Section 73.51...nuclear fuel and <span class="hlt">high-level</span> radioactive waste. (a) Applicability. ...nuclear fuel and <span class="hlt">high-level</span> radioactive waste pursuant to paragraphs...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">423</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title10-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title10-vol2-sec73-51.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">10 CFR 73.51 - Requirements for the physical protection of stored spent nuclear fuel and <span class="hlt">high-level</span> radioactive...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...nuclear fuel and <span class="hlt">high-level</span> radioactive waste. 73.51 Section 73.51...nuclear fuel and <span class="hlt">high-level</span> radioactive waste. (a) Applicability. ...nuclear fuel and <span class="hlt">high-level</span> radioactive waste pursuant to paragraphs...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">424</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10150192"> <span id="translatedtitle">Proof of concept and performance optimization of <span class="hlt">high</span> <span class="hlt">gravity</span> batch-type centrifugal dryer for dewatering fine coal. Final report, September 20, 1989--September 21, 1991</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The primary objective of the project was to assemble, analyze and make use of those data that could help to clearly identify, optimize and confirm the technical and economic advantages that the new <span class="hlt">high</span> <span class="hlt">gravity</span> centrifugal dryer technology can provide to the coal industry and to end users. Other objectives were: to confirm the feasibility of the dryer for drying coals from a number of different seams; to use the data base for optimizing the dryer`s systems, and: to produce projected technical and economic comparisons with thermal dryers as applied to an existing coal processing plant flow sheet. (JL)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Smith, L.B.; Durney, T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-12-31</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">425</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.1146S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Combined absolute and relative <span class="hlt">gravity</span> measurement for microgravity monitoring in Aso volcanic field</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Absolute measurement with a portable A10-017 absolute gravimeter at some benchmarks in the Aso volcanic field are valuable for reducing uncertainties of regional <span class="hlt">gravity</span> variations and will be useful for delineating the long term trends of <span class="hlt">gravity</span> changes. A10 absolute gravimeter is a new generation of portable absolute instrument and has accuracy 10 microGal. To further the development of a <span class="hlt">high</span> precision <span class="hlt">gravity</span> data, we also conducted measurement using two relative gravimeter (Scintrex CG-5 [549] and LaCoste type G-1016) to be combined with an A10 absolute gravimeter. The using absolute gravimeter along with relative gravimeter can reduce drift correction factor and improve the result of <span class="hlt">gravity</span> change data in microgravity monitoring. Microgravity monitoring is a valued tool for mapping the redistribution of subsurface mass and for assessing changes in the fluid as a dynamic process in volcanic field. <span class="hlt">Gravity</span> changes enable the characterization of subsurface processes: i.e., the mass of the intrusion or hydrothermal flow. A key assumption behind <span class="hlt">gravity</span> monitoring is that changes in earth's <span class="hlt">gravity</span> reflect mass-transport processes at depth [1]. The absolute <span class="hlt">gravity</span> network was installed at seven benchmarks using on May 2010, which re-occupied in October 2010, and June 2011. The relative <span class="hlt">gravity</span> measurements were performed at 28 benchmarks in one month before the eruption on May 2011 and then followed by series of <span class="hlt">gravity</span> monitoring after the eruption in every three to five months. <span class="hlt">Gravity</span> measurements covered the area more than 60 km2 in the west side of Aso caldera. Some <span class="hlt">gravity</span> benchmarks were measured using both absolute and relative gravimeter and is used as the reference benchmarks. In longer time period, the combined <span class="hlt">gravity</span> method will improve the result of <span class="hlt">gravity</span> change data for monitoring in the Aso volcanic field. As a result, the <span class="hlt">gravity</span> changes detected the hydrothermal flow in the subsurface which has a correlation to water <span class="hlt">level</span> fluctuation in the crater. Large residual <span class="hlt">gravity</span> changes between the surveys of absolute and relative gravimeter are found at benchmarks around Nakadake crater. Keywords: Microgravity monitoring, Aso volcanic field References [1] Battaglia, M., J. Gottsmann, D. Carbone, and J. Fernandez, 2008, 4D volcano gravimetry: Geophysics, vol. 73 no.6, p. WA3-WA18.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sofyan, Yayan; Nishijima, Jun; Yoshikawa, Shin; Fujimitsu, Yasuhiro; Kagiyama, Tsuneomi; Fukuda, Yoichi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">426</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=atom&pg=7&id=EJ802501"> <span id="translatedtitle">Energy <span class="hlt">Levels</span> and the de Broglie Relationship for <span class="hlt">High</span> School Students</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this article, four examples of possible lessons on energy <span class="hlt">levels</span> for <span class="hlt">high</span> school are described: a particle in a box, a finite square well, the hydrogen atom and a harmonic oscillator. The energy <span class="hlt">levels</span> are deduced through the use of the steady-state condition and the de Broglie relationship. In particular, the harmonic oscillator energy <span class="hlt">levels</span>…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gianino, Concetto</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">427</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ993567.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Changes in Badminton Game Play across Developmental Skill <span class="hlt">Levels</span> among <span class="hlt">High</span> School Students</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The study examined changes in badminton game play across developmental skill <span class="hlt">levels</span> among <span class="hlt">high</span> school students in a physical education setting. Videotapes of badminton game play of 80 students (40 boys and 40 girls) in the four developmental skill <span class="hlt">levels</span> (each skill <span class="hlt">level</span> had 10 boys and 10 girls) were randomly selected from a database associated…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wang, Jianyu; Liu, Wenhao</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">428</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=demand+AND+products&pg=5&id=ED548622"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comprehension of College-<span class="hlt">Level</span> Text with <span class="hlt">High</span> School Students Underperforming in Literacy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The ability to comprehend sophisticated text is a requisite skill for success at the collegiate <span class="hlt">level</span>. Unfortunately, there is a large disparity between the complexity of texts used in <span class="hlt">high</span> schools and those used at the collegiate <span class="hlt">level</span>. Students may be underprepared if they have never been exposed to texts with the <span class="hlt">level</span> of rigor that college…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Newton, Stephen Vincent</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">429</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=inhibitory+AND+neurotransmitters&id=EJ1042903"> <span id="translatedtitle">Oblique Orientation Discrimination Thresholds Are Superior in Those with a <span class="hlt">High</span> <span class="hlt">Level</span> of Autistic Traits</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Enhanced low-<span class="hlt">level</span> perception, although present in individuals with autism, is not seen in individuals with <span class="hlt">high</span>, but non-clinical, <span class="hlt">levels</span> of autistic traits (Brock et al.in "Percept Lond" 40(6):739. doi:10.1068/p6953, 2011). This is surprising, as many of the higher-<span class="hlt">level</span> visual differences found in autism have been shown to correlate…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dickinson, Abigail; Jones, Myles; Milne, Elizabeth</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">430</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60618476"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cold Crucible Induction Melting Technology for Vitrification of <span class="hlt">High</span> <span class="hlt">Level</span> Waste: Development and Status in India</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Cold crucible induction melting is globally emerging as an alternative technology for the vitrification of <span class="hlt">high</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> radioactive waste. The new technology offers several advantages such as <span class="hlt">high</span> temperature availability with long melter life, <span class="hlt">high</span> waste loading, <span class="hlt">high</span> specific capacity etc. Based on the laboratory and bench scale studies, an engineering scale cold crucible induction melter was locally developed in</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">G. Sugilal; P. B. S. Sengar</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">431</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19800018615&hterms=mathematics+foreign+language&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dmathematics%2Bforeign%2Blanguage"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">High</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> language for measurement complex control based on the computer E-100I</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A <span class="hlt">high</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> language was designed to control the process of conducting an experiment using the computer "Elektrinika-1001". Program examples are given to control the measuring and actuating devices. The procedure of including these programs in the suggested <span class="hlt">high</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> language is described.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zubkov, B. V.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">432</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.cs.sfu.ca/~torsten/Publications/Papers/infovis04.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Rethinking Visualization: A <span class="hlt">High-Level</span> Taxonomy Melanie Tory Torsten Mller</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Rethinking Visualization: A <span class="hlt">High-Level</span> Taxonomy Melanie Tory Torsten Möller Graphics, Usability, and Visualization Lab School of Computing Science, Simon Fraser University ABSTRACT We present a novel <span class="hlt">high-level</span> visualization taxonomy. Our taxon- omy classifies visualization algorithms rather than data. Algo- rithms</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Möller, Torsten</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">433</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60786663"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">High</span> <span class="hlt">Level</span> Waste System Impacts from Small Column Ion Exchange Implementation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The objective of this task is to identify potential waste streams that could be treated with the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) and perform an initial assessment of the impact of doing so on the <span class="hlt">High-Level</span> Waste (HLW) system. Design of the SCIX system has been performed as a backup technology for decontamination of <span class="hlt">High-Level</span> Waste (HLW) at the Savannah</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. J. McCabe; L. L. Hamm; S. E. Aleman; D. K. Peeler; C. C. Herman; T. B. Edwards</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">434</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/docs/00/07/73/77/PDF/correg_memory.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Memory Aware <span class="hlt">High</span> <span class="hlt">Level</span> Synthesis Tool Gwenol Corre, Eric Senn, Nathalie Julien and Eric Martin</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A Memory Aware <span class="hlt">High</span> <span class="hlt">Level</span> Synthesis Tool Gwenolé Corre, Eric Senn, Nathalie Julien and Eric Martin.corre@univ-ubs.fr Abstract We introduce a new approach to take into account the memory architecture and the memory mapping in <span class="hlt">High</span>- <span class="hlt">Level</span> Synthesis for data intensive applications. We formalize the memory mapping as a set</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Paris-Sud XI, Université de</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">435</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://img.cs.uec.ac.jp/e/pub/conf09/091026tou_0.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">UEC at TRECVID 2009 <span class="hlt">High</span> <span class="hlt">Level</span> Feature Task Zhiyuan Tang, Akitsugu Noguchi and Keiji Yanai</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">UEC at TRECVID 2009 <span class="hlt">High</span> <span class="hlt">Level</span> Feature Task Zhiyuan Tang, Akitsugu Noguchi and Keiji Yanai-s,noguchi-a,yanai}@mm.cs.uec.ac.jp Abstract In this paper, we describe our approach and re- sults for <span class="hlt">high-level</span> feature extraction task (HLF) at TRECVID2009. This year, we focus on fusion of a number of features effectively. Color, local pattern</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yanai, Keiji</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">436</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/803938"> <span id="translatedtitle">Alternatives Generation and Analysis for Heat Removal from <span class="hlt">High</span> <span class="hlt">Level</span> Waste Tanks</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This document addresses the preferred combination of design and operational configurations to provide heat removal from <span class="hlt">high-level</span> waste tanks during Phase 1 waste feed delivery to prevent the waste temperature from exceeding tank safety requirement limits. An interim decision for the preferred method to remove the heat from the <span class="hlt">high-level</span> waste tanks during waste feed delivery operations is presented herein.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">WILLIS, W.L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-06-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">437</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ruf.rice.edu/~mobile/publications/pgupta03iccad.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">High-level</span> Interconnect Power Model for Design Space Exploration</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A <span class="hlt">High-level</span> Interconnect Power Model for Design Space Exploration Pallav Gupta, Lin Zhong to quickly explore the design space and weed out architectures whose interconnect power requirements do consumption in interconnects and hence, enable interconnect- aware, <span class="hlt">high-level</span> design space exploration. I</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhong, Lin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">438</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/docs/00/85/60/82/PDF/main.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Enabling <span class="hlt">High-Level</span> Application Development in the Internet of Things</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Enabling <span class="hlt">High-Level</span> Application Development in the Internet of Things Pankesh Patel1 , Animesh into the Internet of Things (IoT), owing in large part to the increased availability of con- sumer sensing devicesT appli- cation development process. Key words: Internet of Things, Sensor networks, <span class="hlt">High-level</span> program</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Paris-Sud XI, Université de</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">439</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42015894"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Gravity</span> wave kinetic, potential, and vertical fluctuation energies as indicators of different frequency <span class="hlt">gravity</span> waves</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">An advantage of examining atmospheric <span class="hlt">gravity</span> waves using <span class="hlt">high</span> vertical-resolution radiosonde data over other measurement techniques is that horizontal wind, temperature, and vertical ascent rate can be measured directly. This allows the kinetic, potential, and vertical velocity fluctuation energies to be derived independently. Each of these <span class="hlt">gravity</span> wave energies is shown to have sensitivity to different <span class="hlt">gravity</span> wave frequencies. Observed</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Marvin A. Geller; Jie Gong</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">440</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.7766O"> <span id="translatedtitle">The use of the WGM2012 <span class="hlt">gravity</span> model to acquire gravimetric data necessary for the reduction of geodetic observations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">World <span class="hlt">Gravity</span> Model WGM2012 is the first release of <span class="hlt">high</span> resolution description inter alia Bouguer and free-air <span class="hlt">gravity</span> anomaly. It has been created by the Bureau Gravimétrique International (BGI) on base of EGM2008 geopotential model and <span class="hlt">high</span> resolution topographic model. The poster provides an assessment of the WGM2012 <span class="hlt">gravity</span> data sources for use in the reduction of geodetic observations. For reductions of geodetic observations onto geoid and ellipsoid (eg. astronomical coordinates, deflections of the vertical, astronomical azimuth and linear measurements) it is necessary a knowledge of the <span class="hlt">gravity</span> field parameters. Also, in the <span class="hlt">leveling</span> network it is necessary to collect such information to calculate the normal (or orthometric) correction. The study compared terrestrial data from the Polish National Geological Institute including anomalies and data from the WGM2012 model in the context of using model <span class="hlt">gravity</span> data to issues related to geodesic reductions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Olszak, Tomasz; Barlik, Marcin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement">