Science.gov

Sample records for high gravity levels

  1. The GRAVITY instrument software/high-level software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burtscher, Leonard; Wieprecht, Ekkehard; Ott, Thomas; Kok, Yitping; Yazici, Senol; Anugu, Narsireddy; Dembet, Roderick; Fedou, Pierre; Lacour, Sylvestre; Ott, Jürgen; Paumard, Thibaut; Lapeyrere, Vincent; Kervella, Pierre; Abuter, Roberto; Pozna, Eszter; Eisenhauer, Frank; Blind, Nicolas; Genzel, Reinhard; Gillessen, Stefan; Hans, Oliver; Haug, Marcus; Haussmann, Frank; Kellner, Stefan; Lippa, Magdalena; Pfuhl, Oliver; Sturm, Eckhard; Weber, Johannes; Amorim, Antonio; Brandner, Wolfgang; Rousselet-Perraut, Karine; Perrin, Guy S.; Straubmeier, Christian; Schöller, Markus

    2014-07-01

    GRAVITY is the four-beam, near-infrared, AO-assisted, fringe tracking, astrometric and imaging instrument for the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI). It is requiring the development of one of the most complex instrument software systems ever built for an ESO instrument. Apart from its many interfaces and interdependencies, one of the most challenging aspects is the overall performance and stability of this complex system. The three infrared detectors and the fast reflective memory network (RMN) recorder contribute a total data rate of up to 20 MiB/s accumulating to a maximum of 250 GiB of data per night. The detectors, the two instrument Local Control Units (LCUs) as well as the five LCUs running applications under TAC (Tools for Advanced Control) architecture, are interconnected with fast Ethernet, RMN fibers and dedicated fiber connections as well as signals for the time synchronization. Here we give a simplified overview of all subsystems of GRAVITY and their interfaces and discuss two examples of high-level applications during observations: the acquisition procedure and the gathering and merging of data to the final FITS file.

  2. High-frequency analysis of Earth gravity field models based on terrestrial gravity and GPS/levelling data: a case study in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papanikolaou, T. D.; Papadopoulos, N.

    2015-06-01

    The present study aims at the validation of global gravity field models through numerical investigation in gravity field functionals based on spherical harmonic synthesis of the geopotential models and the analysis of terrestrial data. We examine gravity models produced according to the latest approaches for gravity field recovery based on the principles of the Gravity field and steadystate Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) and Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite missions. Furthermore, we evaluate the overall spectrum of the ultra-high degree combined gravity models EGM2008 and EIGEN-6C3stat. The terrestrial data consist of gravity and collocated GPS/levelling data in the overall Hellenic region. The software presented here implements the algorithm of spherical harmonic synthesis in a degree-wise cumulative sense. This approach may quantify the bandlimited performance of the individual models by monitoring the degree-wise computed functionals against the terrestrial data. The degree-wise analysis performed yields insight in the short-wavelengths of the Earth gravity field as these are expressed by the high degree harmonics.

  3. Modeling and Scaling of oscillating or pulsating heat transfer devices subjected to earth gravity and to high acceleration levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delil, A. A. M.

    2001-02-01

    The discussions, presented in this article, suppose that the reader is familiar with the contents of the accompanying article ``Thermal-Gravitational Modeling and Scaling of Two-Phase Heat Transport Systems from Micro-Gravity to Super-Gravity Levels.'' The latter article describes the history of this particular research at NLR, the approach (based on dimension analysis and similarity considerations), the derivation of constitutive equations for (annular) two-phase flow and heat transfer, the identification of thermal-gravitational scaling possibilities, condensation length issues, and the impact of the magnitude of super-gravity and its direction relative to the flow direction. But the discussions are restricted to ``classical'' two-phase loops. The most recent part of the research is discussed in this follow-up article. It concerns the extension of the research to the modelling, scaling and testing of the steady and transient performance of various types of oscillating or pulsating single-phase and two-phase heat transfer devices. This extension was opportune, as it turned out to be essential to properly support the research and development of such oscillating or pulsating heat transfer devices. For these devices several very promising applications have been identified, not only to cool commercial electronics, but also for cooling high-power electronics in spinning satellites and in military combat aircraft. In such applications, the electronics can be exposed to steady and transient accelerations up to levels around 120 m/s2. .

  4. Groundwater level monitoring using hybrid gravity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishijima, J.; Fujimitsu, Y.; Oka, D.; Fukuda, Y.; Taniguchi, M.

    2012-12-01

    It is important to monitor the aquifer mass balance between discharge and recharge for the sustainable groundwater usage. The discharge of groundwater causes mass redistributions, which can cause measurable gravity changes. We carried out the repeat hybrid gravity measurements at some fields in order to detect the gravity changes associated with groundwater level changes. We used the instruments for the relative gravity measurement (CG-3M and CG-5 gravimeter: Scintrex Ltd.) and the absolute gravity measurement (A-10 gravimeter: Micro-g LaCoste, Inc.). The A10 absolute gravimeter is a portable absolute gravimeter produced by Micro-g LaCoste Inc. It operates on a 12V DC power supply (i.e. vehicle battery). We can measure the absolute gravity using the vehicle battery at the field. We started repeat gravity measurement at Ito campus, Kyushu university Fukuoka city, Northern part of Kyushu, Japan, where the instrument is usually maintained, since 2008 in order to assess the A10 gravimeter's accuracy and repeatability. We measured 10 sets at each measurement, and 1 set consists of 100 drops. There are 3 groundwater level monitoring wells near the gravity station. It can be seen that there is a good correlation between gravity changes and groundwater level changes. We confirmed that the instrument is maintained good condition in general, although some bad data was included. It seems that the repeatability of A10 gravimeter is better than 10 microgals. The A10 absolute gravimeter (Micro-g LaCoste Inc.) was introduced in order to monitor the gravity changes at base observation points since 2008. We observed seasonal gravity change (Maximum change was 26 micro gal), and we compared with the groundwater level changes. There are good correlation between the gravity changes and the groundwater level changes. We calculated the effect of groundwater level changes using Gwater-1D (Kazama et al., 2010). As a result of the calculation, we can explain the gravity seasonal changes were caused by the groundwater level changes. The gravity changes of the base observation were removed from each observation point. We can see the good correlation between the gravity changes and the groundwater level change in the almost observation point. The effect of the construction of the campus awaits future studies.

  5. High-precision gravity network to monitor temporal variations in gravity across Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, R.N.; Ponce, D.A.

    1988-12-31

    Repeatable high-precision gravity surveys provide a method of monitoring temporal variations in the gravity field. Fluctuations in the gravity field may indicate water table changes, crustal deformation, or precursors to volcanism and earthquakes. This report describes a high-precision gravity loop which has been established across Yucca Mountain, Nevada in support of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) program. The purpose of this gravity loop is to monitor temporal variations in gravity across Yucca Mountain in an effort to interpret and predict the stability of the tectonic framework and changes in the subsurface density field. Studies of the tectonic framework which include volcanic hazard seismicity, and faulting studies are in progress. Repeat high-precision gravity surveys are less expensive and can be made more rapidly than a corresponding leveling survey. High-precision gravity surveys are capable of detecting elevation changes of 3 to 5 cm, and thus can be employed as an efficient tool for monitoring vertical crustal movements while supplementing or partially replacing leveling data. The Yucca Mountain gravity network has been tied to absolute gravity measurements established in southern Nevada. These ties provide an absolute datum for comparing repeat occupations of the gravity network, and provide a method of monitoring broad-scale changes in gravity. Absolute gravity measurements were also made at the bottom and top of the Charleston Peak calibration loop in southern Nevada. These absolute gravity measurements provide local control of calibrating gravity meters over the gravity ranges observed at Yucca Mountain. 13 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. High-gravity central stars

    E-print Network

    Thomas Rauch

    2006-07-11

    NLTE spectral analyses of high-gravity central stars by means of state-of-the-art model atmosphere techniques provide information about the precursor AGB stars. The hydrogen-deficient post-AGB stars allow investigations on the intershell matter which is apparently exhibited at the stellar surface. We summarize recent results from imaging, spectroscopy, and spectropolarimetry.

  7. Low gravity liquid level sensor rake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grayson, Gary D. (Inventor); Craddock, Jeffrey C. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    The low gravity liquid level sensor rake measures the liquid surface height of propellant in a propellant tank used in launch and spacecraft vehicles. The device reduces the tendency of the liquid propellant to adhere to the sensor elements after the bulk liquid level has dropped below a given sensor element thereby reducing the probability of a false liquid level measurement. The liquid level sensor rake has a mast attached internal to a propellant tank with an end attached adjacent the tank outlet. Multiple sensor elements that have an arm and a sensor attached at a free end thereof are attached to the mast at locations selected for sensing the presence or absence of the liquid. The sensor elements when attached to the mast have a generally horizontal arm and a generally vertical sensor.

  8. An Improved Platform Levelling System for Airborne Gravity Meters.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brady, N.

    2014-12-01

    Recent advances in sensor technology have enabled Lacoste and Romberg type relative gravity meters to improve in accuracy to the point where other non-sensor related sources of error serve to limit the overall accuracy of the system. One of these sources of error is derived from the inability of the platform, in which the sensor is mounted, to keep the sensor perfectly level during survey flight. Off level errors occur when the aircraft is unable to maintain straight and level flight along a survey line. The levelling platform of a typical Lacoste and Romberg type dynamic gravity meter utilizes a complex feedback loop involving both accelerometers and gyroscopes with an output connected to torque motors mounted to the platform to sense an off level situation and correct for it. The current system is limited by an inability of the platform to distinguish between an acceleration of the platform due to a change in heading, altitude or speed of the aircraft and a true change in the local gravity vertical. Both of these situations cause the platform to tilt in reponse however the aircraft acceleration creates an error in the gravity measurement. These off level errors can be corrected for to a limited degree depending on the algorithm used and the size and duration of the causal acceleration. High precision GPS now provides accurate real time position information which can be used to determine if an accleration is a real level change or due to an anomalous acceleration. The correct implementation of the GPS position can significantly improve the accuracy of the platform levelling including keeping the platform level during course reversals or drape flying during a survey. This can typically improve the quality of the gravity data before any processing corrections. The enhanced platform also reduces the time taken to stabilize the platform at the beginning of a survey line therefore improving the efficiency of the data collection. This paper discusses the method and results of tests of the new GPS aided platform system developed by Dynamic Gravity Systems

  9. Tether implications on Space Station gravity level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroll, K. R.

    1986-01-01

    The use of a tether on the Space Station is discussed. The effefcts of the tether on the microgravity environment on the Space station are described. A tethered variable gravity laboratory for investigating low gravity processes using gravity magnitude and time as variables is considered.

  10. Synoptic Responses to Mountain Gravity Waves Encountering Directional Critical Levels

    E-print Network

    Lott, Francois

    Synoptic Responses to Mountain Gravity Waves Encountering Directional Critical Levels ARMEL MARTIN the synoptic response to mountain gravity waves (GWs) absorbed at directional critical levels. The model in the midtroposphere. First, the authors consider the case of an idealized mountain range such that the orographic

  11. The Gravity Model for High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tribble, Paul; Mitchell, William A.

    1977-01-01

    The authors suggest ways in which the gravity model can be used in high school geography classes. Based on Newton's Law of Molecular Gravitation, the law states that gravitation is in direct ratio to mass and inverse ratio to distance. One activity for students involves determination of zones of influence of cities of various sizes. (Author/AV)

  12. The influence of gravity levels on soot formation for the combustion of ethylene-air mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Liu, D.; Li, S.; Li, Y.; Lou, C.

    2014-12-01

    The reduced mechanism coupled with 2D flame code using CHEMKIN II to investigate the effect of gravity on flame structure and soot formation in diffusion flames. The results show that the gravity has a rather significant effect on flame structure and soot formation. The visible flame height and peak soot volume fraction in general increases with the gravity from 1 g decreased to 0 g. The peak flame temperature decreases with decreasing gravity level. Comparing the calculated results from 1 g to 0 g, the flame shape becomes wider, the high temperature zone becomes shorter, the mixture velocity has a sharp decrease, the soot volume fraction has a sharp increase and CO and unprovided species distribution becomes wider along radial direction. At normal and half gravity, the flame is buoyancy controlled and the axial velocity is largely independent of the coflow air velocity. At microgravity (0 g), the flame is momentum controlled.

  13. High-Resolution Gravity and Time-Varying Gravity Field Recovery using GRACE and CHAMP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shum, C. K.

    2002-01-01

    This progress report summarizes the research work conducted under NASA's Solid Earth and Natural Hazards Program 1998 (SENH98) entitled High Resolution Gravity and Time Varying Gravity Field Recovery Using GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) and CHAMP (Challenging Mini-satellite Package for Geophysical Research and Applications), which included a no-cost extension time period. The investigation has conducted pilot studies to use the simulated GRACE and CHAMP data and other in situ and space geodetic observable, satellite altimeter data, and ocean mass variation data to study the dynamic processes of the Earth which affect climate change. Results from this investigation include: (1) a new method to use the energy approach for expressing gravity mission data as in situ measurements with the possibility to enhance the spatial resolution of the gravity signal; (2) the method was tested using CHAMP and validated with the development of a mean gravity field model using CHAMP data, (3) elaborate simulation to quantify errors of tides and atmosphere and to recover hydrological and oceanic signals using GRACE, results show that there are significant aliasing effect and errors being amplified in the GRACE resonant geopotential and it is not trivial to remove these errors, and (4) quantification of oceanic and ice sheet mass changes in a geophysical constraint study to assess their contributions to global sea level change, while the results improved significant over the use of previous studies using only the SLR (Satellite Laser Ranging)-determined zonal gravity change data, the constraint could be further improved with additional information on mantle rheology, PGR (Post-Glacial Rebound) and ice loading history. A list of relevant presentations and publications is attached, along with a summary of the SENH investigation generated in 2000.

  14. Antarctic marine gravity field from high-density satellite altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandwell, David T.

    1992-01-01

    High-density (about 2-km profile spacing) Geosat/GM altimetry profiles were obtained for Antarctic waters (6-deg S to 72 deg S) and converted to vertical gravity gradient, using Laplace's equation to directly calculate gravity gradient from vertical deflection grids and Fourier analysis to construct gravity anomalies from two vertical deflection grids. The resultant gravity grids have resolution and accuracy comparable to shipboard gravity profiles. The obtained gravity maps display many interesting and previously uncharted features, such as a propagating rift wake and a large 'leaky transform' along the Pacific-Antarctic Rise.

  15. Gravity Surface Wave Bifurcation in a Highly Turbulent Swirling Flow

    E-print Network

    Witten, Thomas A.

    Gravity Surface Wave Bifurcation in a Highly Turbulent Swirling Flow Michael Baumer University Gravity Wave 2 3 Measurements 3 4 Mechanical Hardware: Problems and Solutions 5 5 Results 7 6 Conclusions investigated a free-surface gravity wave bifurcation in the large-separation regime, that is, where

  16. High potassium level

    MedlinePLUS

    ... symptoms. Tests that may be ordered include: Electrocardiogram (ECG) Potassium level Your doctor will likely check your ... have danger signs, such as changes in an ECG . Emergency treatment may include: Calcium given into your ...

  17. Effects of gravity level on bubble formation and rise in low-viscosity liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suñol, Francesc; González-Cinca, Ricard

    2015-05-01

    We present an experimental analysis of the effects of gravity level on the formation and rise dynamics of bubbles. Experiments were carried out with millimeter-diameter bubbles in the hypergravity environment provided by the large-diameter centrifuge of the European Space Agency. Bubble detachment from a nozzle is determined by buoyancy and surface tension forces regardless of the gravity level. Immediately after detachment, bubble trajectory is deviated by the Coriolis force. Subsequent bubble rise is dominated by inertial forces and follows a zig-zag trajectory with amplitude and frequency dependent on the gravity level. Vorticity production is enhanced as gravity increases, which destabilizes the flow and therefore the bubble path.

  18. A high frequency resonance gravity gradiometer

    SciTech Connect

    Bagaev, S. N.; Kvashnin, N. L.; Skvortsov, M. N.; Bezrukov, L. B.; Krysanov, V. A.; Oreshkin, S. I.; Motylev, A. M.; Popov, S. M.; Samoilenko, A. A.; Yudin, I. S.; Rudenko, V. N.

    2014-06-15

    A new setup OGRAN—the large scale opto-acoustical gravitational detector is described. As distinguished from known gravitational bar detectors it uses the optical interferometrical readout for registering weak variations of gravity gradient at the kilohetz frequency region. At room temperature, its sensitivity is limited only by the bar Brownian noise at the bandwidth close to 100 Hz. It is destined for a search for rare events—gravitational pulses coincident with signals of neutrino scintillator (BUST) in the deep underground of Baksan Neutrino Observatory of INR RAS.

  19. Transformation between gravimetric and GPS/leveling derived geoids using additional gravity information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grebenitcharsky, R.; Rangelova, E.; Sideris, M. G.

    2003-04-01

    The transformation between gravimetric and GPS/leveling derived geoids using additional gravity data for the covariance function of geoid undulation differences has been investigated in a test area in Eastern Canada. A corrector surface model, which accounts for datum inconsistencies, long-wavelength geoid errors and vertical network distortions, has been constructed using least-squares collocation (LSC). The usual procedure assumes that the local covariance function of geoid undulation differences has been determined from the residuals of GPS/leveling geoid heights with respect to the gravimetric geoid, after a preliminary elimination of all systematic effects. If additional gravity data are available, the covariance function of geoid undulation residuals can be separately determined in the following steps: (1) transformation of GPS/leveling derived geoid heights into gravity anomalies; (2) substracting the measured gravity anomalies from the transformed anomalies; (3) determination of the parameters of the local gravity covariance function of the gravity anomaly differences; and (4) constructing a new analytical covariance function for geoid undulation differences from the covariance function of the gravity anomaly differences. using the parameters derived in previous step. The main advantages of the proposed method are the greater number of gravity data available and the fact that gravity data themselves do not contain some systematic effects typical for geoid heights. Analytical covariance models, commonly used in local gravity field modeling, have been used to compare the proposed transformation procedure with the standard method for corrector surface determination using LSC. Furthermore, in view of the small area, the systematic component of the corrector surface has been modeled using linear polynomial regression. GPS/leveling points which are different from the points used for corrector surface determination have been used as external control points. Conclusions regarding the advantages of proposed approach have been drawn.

  20. Sensitivity enhancement of OD- and OD-CNT-based humidity sensors by high gravity thin film deposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimov, Kh. S.; Fatima, Noshin; Sulaiman, Khaulah; Mahroof Tahir, M.; Ahmad, Zubair; Mateen, A.

    2015-03-01

    The humidity sensing properties of the thin films of an organic semiconductor material orange dye (OD) and its composite with CNTs deposited at high gravity conditions have been reported. Impedance, phase angle, capacitance and dissipation of the samples were measured at 1 kHz and room temperature conditions. The impedance decreases and capacitance increases with an increase in the humidity level. It was found that the sensitivity of the OD-based thin film samples deposited at high gravity condition is higher than the samples deposited at low gravity condition. The impedances and capacitance sensitivities of the of the samples deposited under high gravity condition are 6.1 times and 1.6 times higher than the films deposited under low gravity condition.

  1. High pressure liquid level monitor

    DOEpatents

    Bean, Vern E. (Frederick, MD); Long, Frederick G. (Ijamsville, MD)

    1984-01-01

    A liquid level monitor for tracking the level of a coal slurry in a high-pressure vessel including a toroidal-shaped float with magnetically permeable bands thereon disposed within the vessel, two pairs of magnetic field generators and detectors disposed outside the vessel adjacent the top and bottom thereof and magnetically coupled to the magnetically permeable bands on the float, and signal processing circuitry for combining signals from the top and bottom detectors for generating a monotonically increasing analog control signal which is a function of liquid level. The control signal may be utilized to operate high-pressure control valves associated with processes in which the high-pressure vessel is used.

  2. Nucleate pool boiling: High gravity to reduced gravity; liquid metals to cryogens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merte, Herman, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Requirements for the proper functioning of equipment and personnel in reduced gravity associated with space platforms and future space station modules introduce unique problems in temperature control; power generation; energy dissipation; the storage, transfer, control and conditioning of fluids; and liquid-vapor separation. The phase change of boiling is significant in all of these. Although both pool and flow boiling would be involved, research results to date include only pool boiling because buoyancy effects are maximized for this case. The effective application of forced convection boiling heat transfer in the microgravity of space will require a well grounded and cogent understanding of the mechanisms involved. Experimental results are presented for pool boiling from a single geometrical configuration, a flat surface, covering a wide range of body forces from a/g = 20 to 1 to a/g = 0 to -1 for a cryogenic liquid, and from a/g = 20 to 1 for water and a liquid metal. Similarities in behavior are noted for these three fluids at the higher gravity levels, and may reasonably be expected to continue at reduced gravity levels.

  3. Effects of gravity level on bubble formation and rise in low-viscosity liquids.

    PubMed

    Suñol, Francesc; González-Cinca, Ricard

    2015-05-01

    We present an experimental analysis of the effects of gravity level on the formation and rise dynamics of bubbles. Experiments were carried out with millimeter-diameter bubbles in the hypergravity environment provided by the large-diameter centrifuge of the European Space Agency. Bubble detachment from a nozzle is determined by buoyancy and surface tension forces regardless of the gravity level. Immediately after detachment, bubble trajectory is deviated by the Coriolis force. Subsequent bubble rise is dominated by inertial forces and follows a zig-zag trajectory with amplitude and frequency dependent on the gravity level. Vorticity production is enhanced as gravity increases, which destabilizes the flow and therefore the bubble path. PMID:26066251

  4. High-Level Radioactive Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Howard C.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a method to calculate the amount of high-level radioactive waste by taking into consideration the following factors: the fission process that yields the waste, identification of the waste, the energy required to run a 1-GWe plant for one year, and the uranium mass required to produce that energy. Briefly discusses waste disposal and…

  5. The ALICE high level trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alt, T.; Grastveit, G.; Helstrup, H.; Lindenstruth, V.; Loizides, C.; Röhrich, D.; Skaali, B.; Steinbeck, T.; Stock, R.; Tilsner, H.; Ullaland, K.; Vestbø, A.; Vik, T.; Wiebalck, A.; ALICE Collaboration

    2004-08-01

    The ALICE experiment at LHC will implement a high-level trigger system for online event selection and/or data compression. The largest computing challenge is posed by the TPC detector, which requires real-time pattern recognition. The system entails a very large processing farm that is designed for an anticipated input data stream of 25 GB s-1. In this paper, we present the architecture of the system and the current state of the tracking methods and data compression applications.

  6. Gravity and cyclic GMP levels in melanocytic cells.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Krassimira; Zadeh, Nahid Hamidi; Block, Ingrid; Das, Pranab K; Gerzer, Rupert

    2002-07-01

    Guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic GMP) is a major second messenger molecule, that is believed to play a role in various physiological and pathophysiological processes. Here we report that hypergravity induces differential effects on cyclic GMP turnover in melanocytic cells. Nonmetastatic melanoma cells responded to long-time exposure (24 h) of hypergravity (up to 5 x g) with decrease in intracellular cyclic GMP accumulation in the presence of an universal inhibitor of phosphodiesterases (IBMX), whereas the extracellular cyclic GMP increase. In contrast, there were no changes in cyclic GMP turnover in metastatic melanocytes. The expression of the guanylyl cyclases appeared to be not affected. These results suggest that cyclic GMP signaling may be involved in adaptation of human melanocytes to altered gravity conditions. PMID:15002576

  7. Holography as a highly efficient RG flow I : Rephrasing gravity

    E-print Network

    Nicolas Behr; Stanislav Kuperstein; Ayan Mukhopadhyay

    2015-12-30

    We investigate how the holographic correspondence can be reformulated as a generalisation of Wilsonian RG flow in a strongly interacting large $N$ quantum field theory. We firstly define a \\textit{highly efficient RG flow} as one in which the Ward identities related to local conservation of energy, momentum and charges preserve the same form at each scale -- to achieve this it is necessary to redefine the background metric and external sources at each scale as functionals of the effective single trace operators. These redefinitions also absorb the contributions of the multi-trace operators to these effective Ward identities. Thus the background metric and external sources become effectively dynamical reproducing the dual classical gravity equations in one higher dimension. Here, we focus on reconstructing the pure gravity sector as a highly efficient RG flow of the energy-momentum tensor operator, leaving the explicit constructive field theory approach for generating such RG flows to the second part of the work. We show that special symmetries of the highly efficient RG flows carry information through which we can decode the gauge fixing of bulk diffeomorphisms in the corresponding gravity equations. We also show that the highly efficient RG flow which reproduces a given classical gravity theory in a given gauge is \\textit{unique} provided the endpoint can be transformed to a non-relativistic fixed point with a finite number of parameters under a universal rescaling. This prepares the ground for the second part of our work, where we show that the mentioned infrared criterion is realised \\textit{only} for specific UV data, which matches exactly with those values of UV data necessary to reproduce dual geometries \\textit{without} naked singularities. Thus we achieve a complete reformulation of the holographic correspondence that also determines all observables in the dual field theory.

  8. Investigating High Field Gravity using Astrophysical Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Bloom, Elliott D.; /SLAC

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of these lectures is to introduce particle physicists to astrophysical techniques. These techniques can help us understand certain phenomena important to particle physics that are currently impossible to address using standard particle physics experimental techniques. As the subject matter is vast, compromises are necessary in order to convey the central ideas to the reader. Many general references are included for those who want to learn more. The paragraphs below elaborate on the structure of these lectures. I hope this discussion will clarify my motivation and make the lectures easier to follow. The lectures begin with a brief review of more theoretical ideas. First, elements of general relativity are reviewed, concentrating on those aspects that are needed to understand compact stellar objects (white dwarf stars, neutron stars, and black holes). I then review the equations of state of these objects, concentrating on the simplest standard models from astrophysics. After these mathematical preliminaries, Sec. 2(c) discusses 'The End State of Stars'. Most of this section also uses the simplest standard models. However, as these lectures are for particle physicists, I also discuss some of the more recent approaches to the equation of state of very dense compact objects. These particle-physics-motivated equations of state can dramatically change how we view the formation of black holes. Section 3 focuses on the properties of the objects that we want to characterize and measure. X-ray binary systems and Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) are stressed because the lectures center on understanding very dense stellar objects, black hole candidates (BHCs), and their accompanying high gravitational fields. The use of x-ray timing and gamma-ray experiments is also introduced in this section. Sections 4 and 5 review information from x-ray and gamma-ray experiments. These sections also discuss the current state of the art in x-ray and gamma-ray satellite experiments and plans for future experiments.

  9. Highly relativistic spin-gravity coupling for fermions

    E-print Network

    Roman Plyatsko; Mykola Fenyk

    2015-03-29

    Descriptions of highly relativistic fermions in a gravitational field in the classical (nonquantum) and quantum approaches are discussed. The results following from the Mathisson-Papapetrou equations for a fast spinning particle in Schwarzschild's and Kerr's background are considered. Numerical estimates for electron, proton and neutrino in the gravitational field of black holes are presented.The general relativistic Dirac equation is analyzed from the point of view it is using for the adequate description of highly relativistic fermions in a gravitational field, in the linear and nonlinear spin approximation. It is necessary to have some corrected Dirac equation for a highly relativistic fermion with strong spin-gravity coupling.

  10. High resolution gravity models combining terrestrial and satellite data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rapp, Richard H.; Pavlis, Nikolaos K.; Wang, Yan M.

    1992-01-01

    Spherical harmonic expansions to degree 360 have been developed that combine satellite potential coefficient information, terrestrial gravity data, satellite altimeter information as a direct tracking data type and topographic information. These models define improved representations of the Earth's gravitational potential beyond that available from just satellite or terrestrial data. The development of the degree 360 models, however, does not imply a uniform accuracy in the determination of the gravity field as numerous geographic areas are devoid of terrestrial data or the resolution of such data is limited to, for example, 100 km. This paper will consider theoretical and numerical questions related to the combination of the various data types. Various models of the combination process are discussed with a discussion of various correction terms for the different models. Various sources of gravity data will be described. The new OSU91 360 model will be discussed with comparisons made to previous 360 models and to other potential coefficient models that are complete to degree 50. Future directions in high degree potential coefficient models will be discussed.

  11. Thermal-gravitational modeling and scaling of two-phase heat transport systems from micro-gravity to super-gravity levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delil, A. A. M.

    2001-02-01

    Earlier publications extensively describe NLR research on thermal-gravitational modeling and scaling of two-phase heat transport systems for spacecraft applications. These publications on mechanically and capillary pumped two-phase loops discuss pure geometric scaling, pure fluid to fluid scaling, and combined (hybrid) scaling of a prototype system by a model at the same gravity level, and of a prototype in micro-gravity environment by a scale-model on earth. More recent publications include the scaling aspects of prototype two-phase loops for Moon or Mars applications by scale-models on earth. Recent work, discussed here, concerns extension of thermal-gravitational scaling to super-g acceleration levels. This turned out to be necessary, since a very promising super-g application for (two-phase) heat transport systems will be cooling of high-power electronics in spinning satellites and in military combat aircraft. In such aircraft, the electronics can be exposed during maneuvres to transient accelerations up to 120 m/s2. The discussions focus on ``conventional'' (capillary) pumped two-phase loops. It can be considered as introduction to the accompanying article, which focuses on pulsating and oscillating devices. .

  12. High pressure droplet burning experiments in reduced gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chauveau, Christian; Goekalp, Iskender

    1995-01-01

    A parametric investigation of single droplet gasification regimes is helpful in providing the necessary physical ideas for sub-grid models used in spray combustion numerical prediction codes. A research program has been initiated at the LCSR to explore the vaporization regimes of single and interacting hydrocarbon and liquid oxygen droplets under high pressure conditions. This paper summarizes the status of the LCSR program on the high pressure burning of single fuel droplets; recent results obtained under normal and reduced gravity conditions with suspended droplets are presented. In the work described here, parabolic flights of the CNES Caravelle is used to create a reduced gravity environment of the order of 10(exp -2) g(sub O). For all the droplet burning experiments reported here, the suspended droplet initial diameters are scattered around 1.5 mm; and the ambient air temperature is 300 K. The ambient pressure is varied between 0.1 MPa and 12 MPa. Four fuels are investigated: methanol (Pc = 7.9 MPa), n-heptane (Pc = 2.74 MPa), n-hexane (Pc = 3.01 MPa) and n-octane (Pc = 2.48 MPa).

  13. Optimizing High Level Waste Disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Dirk Gombert

    2005-09-01

    If society is ever to reap the potential benefits of nuclear energy, technologists must close the fuel-cycle completely. A closed cycle equates to a continued supply of fuel and safe reactors, but also reliable and comprehensive closure of waste issues. High level waste (HLW) disposal in borosilicate glass (BSG) is based on 1970s era evaluations. This host matrix is very adaptable to sequestering a wide variety of radionuclides found in raffinates from spent fuel reprocessing. However, it is now known that the current system is far from optimal for disposal of the diverse HLW streams, and proven alternatives are available to reduce costs by billions of dollars. The basis for HLW disposal should be reassessed to consider extensive waste form and process technology research and development efforts, which have been conducted by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), international agencies and the private sector. Matching the waste form to the waste chemistry and using currently available technology could increase the waste content in waste forms to 50% or more and double processing rates. Optimization of the HLW disposal system would accelerate HLW disposition and increase repository capacity. This does not necessarily require developing new waste forms, the emphasis should be on qualifying existing matrices to demonstrate protection equal to or better than the baseline glass performance. Also, this proposed effort does not necessarily require developing new technology concepts. The emphasis is on demonstrating existing technology that is clearly better (reliability, productivity, cost) than current technology, and justifying its use in future facilities or retrofitted facilities. Higher waste processing and disposal efficiency can be realized by performing the engineering analyses and trade-studies necessary to select the most efficient methods for processing the full spectrum of wastes across the nuclear complex. This paper will describe technologies being evaluated at Idaho National Laboratory and the facilities we’ve designed to evaluate options and support optimization.

  14. High-gravity Spreading of Liquid Coatings on Wetting Flexible Substrates

    E-print Network

    Yang, Chen; Xie, Jingjin; Shaikh, Hassan; Elike-Avion, Akofa; Rojas, Luis; Ramachandran, Adithya; Choi, Wonjae; Mazzeo, Aaron D

    2015-01-01

    This work describes a mechanical approach for manipulating the capillary length and spreading of liquid coatings on flexible substrates with high gravity. Experimental verification in the literature has focused on cases under standard gravity on earth, and to the authors' knowledge, this work is the first to explore its relevance to spreading puddles under high gravity. By using centrifugation with a high-density liquid base underneath a coated substrate, it is possible to apply acceleration normal to a substrate to decrease the capillary length and increase the rate of spreading. Due to the nature of centrifugation, this method works primarily on flexible substrates, which bend with a curvature that conforms to a contour of uniformly distributed centrifugal acceleration. With high gravity of 600 g applied, the capillary length reduces by a factor of 24.5, and the spreading shifts from "transient spreading" between the surface tension-driven and gravity-driven regimes to the gravity-driven regime. Experimenta...

  15. High temperature liquid level sensor

    DOEpatents

    Tokarz, Richard D. (West Richland, WA)

    1983-01-01

    A length of metal sheathed metal oxide cable is perforated to permit liquid access to the insulation about a pair of conductors spaced close to one another. Changes in resistance across the conductors will be a function of liquid level, since the wetted insulation will have greater electrical conductivity than that of the dry insulation above the liquid elevation.

  16. Regulation by gravity of the transcript levels of MAP65 in azuki bean epicotyls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soga, Kouichi; Hoson, Takayuki; Wakabayashi, Kazuyuki; Kotake, Toshihisa

    2012-07-01

    Development of a short and thick body by reorientation of cortical microtubules is required for the resistance of plants to the gravitational force. The 65 kDa microtubule-associated protein (MAP65) has microtubule bundling activity and is involved in the reorientation of cortical microtubules. Here, we investigated the relation between the orientation of cortical microtubules and the transcript levels of VaMAP65-1 under centrifugal hypergravity conditions in azuki bean epicotyls. The percentage of cells with transverse microtubules was decreased, while that with longitudinal microtubules was increased, in proportion to the logarithm of the magnitude of gravity. The orientation of microtubules was restored to the original direction after removal of the hypergravity stimulus. The transcript level of VaMAP65-1 was down-regulated in proportion to the logarithm of the magnitude of gravity (R=-0.99). By removal of hypergravity stimulus, expression of VaMAP65-1 was increased to control levels. Strong correlations were observed between the percentage of cells with longitudinal or transverse microtubules and the transcript levels of VaMAP65-1 (R=-0.93, 0.91). These results suggest that down-regulation of VaMAP65-1 expression is involved in the regulation by gravity of the orientation of cortical microtubules in azuki bean epicotyls. Lanthanum and gadolinium ions, potential blockers of mechanosensitive calcium ion-permeable channels (mechanoreceptors), nullified the down-regulation of expression of VaMAP65-1 gene, suggesting that mechanoreceptors are responsible for regulation by gravity of VaMAP65-1 expression.

  17. How unimodular gravity theories differ from general relativity at quantum level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bufalo, R.; Oksanen, M.; Tureanu, A.

    2015-10-01

    We investigate path integral quantization of two versions of unimodular gravity. First a fully diffeomorphism-invariant theory is analyzed, which does not include a unimodular condition on the metric, while still being equivalent to other unimodular gravity theories at the classical level. The path integral has the same form as in general relativity (GR), except that the cosmological constant is an unspecified value of a variable, and it thus is unrelated to any coupling constant. When the state of the universe is a superposition of vacuum states, the path integral is extended to include an integral over the cosmological constant. Second, we analyze the standard unimodular theory of gravity, where the metric determinant is fixed by a constraint. Its path integral differs from the one of GR in two ways: the metric of spacetime satisfies the unimodular condition only in average over space, and both the Hamiltonian constraint and the associated gauge condition have zero average over space. Finally, the canonical relation between the given unimodular theories of gravity is established.

  18. On the benefit of next-generation gravity missions for sea level and ocean mass applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusche, J.; Löcher, A.; Rietbroek, R.; Eicker, A.; Flechtner, F.; Raimondo, J.-C.; Fenoglio-Marc, L.; Schröter, J.

    2012-04-01

    Today, the analysis of the Earth's time-variable gravity field plays a key role in Earth system research. The GRACE observables provide an almost direct measurement of the mass that is redistributed at or near the surface of the planet. Yet, important questions such as closing the sea level budget from GRACE, altimetry and steric data still pose a challenge, even after 9 years of GRACE. Promising approaches have been developed that combine multisensor data and/or model output, e.g. to estimate ocean warming/cooling, calibrate hydrological models or to improve geo-centre motion estimates. However, in the view of the authors, the biggest challenge in climate applications such as sea level studies is the problem of signal separation. This problem involves separating signal and noise stemming from the measurement systems and/or background modelling, as well as separating mass flux patterns originating from different or the same compartments of the Earth system (the leakage problem in ice sheet mass balance from GRACE, sea level rise partitioning, teleconnections in the hydrological cycle, trends in continental hydrology vs. GIA). Here we will first review the state of the art in addressing the signal separation problem after 10 years of GRACE. Then, we will discuss the potential of a number of candidate schemes for future gravity missions that were investigated in the recent ESA-funded Next Generation Gravity Mission (NG2) study.

  19. Feedback Loop between High Level Semantics and Low Level Vision

    E-print Network

    Daume III, Hal

    scores. For example, in an event recognition system for basketball, the low level detections like shot-on-one basketball videos that uses Markov Logic Networks. 1 Introduction Computer vision systems are generally missed and rebound events are related by high level rules of the game which say that a shot missed event

  20. Coal Ash Contains High Levels of Radioactivity

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 154590.html Coal Ash Contains High Levels of Radioactivity: Study End product from coal-fired plants may ... 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Coal ash contains levels of radioactivity that raise concern about the environment and human ...

  1. Effects of Varying Gravity Levels in Parabolic Flight on the Size-Mass Illusion

    PubMed Central

    Clément, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    When an observer lifts two objects with the same weight but different sizes, the smaller object is consistently reported to feel heavier than the larger object even after repeated trials. Here we explored the effect of reduced and increased gravity on this perceptual size-mass illusion. Experiments were performed on board the CNES Airbus A300 Zero-G during parabolic flights eliciting repeated exposures to short periods of zero g, 0.16 g, 0.38 g, one g, and 1.8 g. Subjects were asked to assess perceived heaviness by actively oscillating objects with various sizes and masses. The results showed that a perceptual size-mass illusion was clearly present at all gravity levels. During the oscillations, the peak arm acceleration varied as a function of the gravity level, irrespective of the mass and size of the objects. In other words we did not observe a sensorimotor size-mass illusion. These findings confirm dissociation between the sensorimotor and perceptual systems for determining object mass. In addition, they suggest that astronauts on the Moon or Mars with the eyes closed will be able to accurately determine the relative difference in mass between objects. PMID:24901519

  2. Effects of varying gravity levels in parabolic flight on the size-mass illusion.

    PubMed

    Clément, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    When an observer lifts two objects with the same weight but different sizes, the smaller object is consistently reported to feel heavier than the larger object even after repeated trials. Here we explored the effect of reduced and increased gravity on this perceptual size-mass illusion. Experiments were performed on board the CNES Airbus A300 Zero-G during parabolic flights eliciting repeated exposures to short periods of zero g, 0.16 g, 0.38 g, one g, and 1.8 g. Subjects were asked to assess perceived heaviness by actively oscillating objects with various sizes and masses. The results showed that a perceptual size-mass illusion was clearly present at all gravity levels. During the oscillations, the peak arm acceleration varied as a function of the gravity level, irrespective of the mass and size of the objects. In other words we did not observe a sensorimotor size-mass illusion. These findings confirm dissociation between the sensorimotor and perceptual systems for determining object mass. In addition, they suggest that astronauts on the Moon or Mars with the eyes closed will be able to accurately determine the relative difference in mass between objects. PMID:24901519

  3. High-Level Data Races

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Artho, Cyrille; Havelund, Klaus; Biere, Armin; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Data races are a common problem in concurrent and multi-threaded programming. They are hard to detect without proper tool support. Despite the successful application of these tools, experience shows that the notion of data race is not powerful enough to capture certain types of inconsistencies occurring in practice. In this paper we investigate data races on a higher abstraction layer. This enables us to detect inconsistent uses of shared variables, even if no classical race condition occurs. For example, a data structure representing a coordinate pair may have to be treated atomically. By lifting the meaning of a data race to a higher level, such problems can now be covered. The paper defines the concepts view and view consistency to give a notation for this novel kind of property. It describes what kinds of errors can be detected with this new definition, and where its limitations are. It also gives a formal guideline for using data structures in a multi-threading environment.

  4. Tethered gravity laboratories study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucchetti, F.

    1989-01-01

    The use is studied of tether systems to improve the lowest possible steady gravity level on the Space Station. Particular emphasis is placed by the microgravity community on the achievement of high quality microgravity conditions. The tether capability is explored for active control of the center of gravity and the analysis of possible tethered configurations.

  5. Parallel Processing at the High School Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheary, Kathryn Anne

    This study investigated the ability of high school students to cognitively understand and implement parallel processing. Data indicates that most parallel processing is being taught at the university level. Instructional modules on C, Linux, and the parallel processing language, P4, were designed to show that high school students are highly

  6. Evaluation of EIGEN-6C4 by means of various functions of the gravity potential, and by GPS/Leveling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klokocnik, Jaroslav; Kostelecky, Jan; Bucha, Blazej; Bezdek, Ales; Foerste, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    The combined gravity field model EIGEN-6C4 (Foerste et al., 2014) is the latest combined global gravity field model of GFZ Potsdam and GRGS Toulouse. EIGEN-6C4 has been generated including the satellite gravity gradiometry data of the entire GOCE mission (November 2009 till October 2013) and is of maximum spherical degree and order 2190. In this study EIGEN-6C4 has been compared with EGM 2008 to its maximum degree and order via gravity disturbancies, the Marussi tensor of the second derivatives of the disturbing potential, the invariants of the gravity field, their specific combinations, strike angles and virtual deformations over the whole world. The emphasis is put on such areas where GOCE data (complete set of gradiometry measurements after reductions) in EIGEN-6C4 obviously contributes to an improvement of the gravity field description. GNSS/Leveling geoid heights are independent data source for the evaluation of gravity field models. Therefore, we use the GNSS/Leveling data sets over the territories of several countries in Europe, Brazil, the USA, Canada and Japan for the evaluation of EIGEN-6C4 w.r.t. EGM 2008.

  7. High-resolution local gravity model of the south pole of the Moon from GRAIL extended mission data

    E-print Network

    Goossens, Sander

    We estimated a high-resolution local gravity field model over the south pole of the Moon using data from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory's extended mission. Our solution consists of adjustments with respect ...

  8. Ocean contribution to seismic gravity changes: the sea level equation for seismic perturbations revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broerse, Taco; Riva, Riccardo; Vermeersen, Bert

    2014-11-01

    During megathrust earthquakes, great ruptures are accompanied by large scale mass redistribution inside the solid Earth and by ocean mass redistribution due to bathymetry changes. These large scale mass displacements can be detected using the monthly gravity maps of the GRACE satellite mission. In recent years it has become increasingly common to use the long wavelength changes in the Earth's gravity field observed by GRACE to infer seismic source properties for large megathrust earthquakes. An important advantage of space gravimetry is that it is independent from the availability of land for its measurements. This is relevant for observation of megathrust earthquakes, which occur mostly offshore, such as the M_{text{w}} ˜ 9 2004 Sumatra-Andaman, 2010 Maule (Chile) and 2011 Tohoku-Oki (Japan) events. In Broerse et al., we examined the effect of the presence of an ocean above the rupture on long wavelength gravity changes and showed it to be of the first order. Here we revisit the implementation of an ocean layer through the sea level equation and compare the results with approximated methods that have been used in the literature. One of the simplifications usually lies in the assumption of a globally uniform ocean layer. We show that especially in the case of the 2010 Maule earthquake, due to the closeness of the South American continent, the uniform ocean assumption is not valid and causes errors up to 57 per cent for modelled peak geoid height changes (expressed at a spherical harmonic truncation degree of 40). In addition, we show that when a large amount of slip occurs close to the trench, horizontal motions of the ocean floor play a mayor role in the ocean contribution to gravity changes. Using a slip model of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake that places the majority of slip close to the surface, the peak value in geoid height change increases by 50 per cent due to horizontal ocean floor motion. Furthermore, we test the influence of the maximum spherical harmonic degree at which the sea level equation is performed for sea level changes occurring along coastlines, which shows to be important for relative sea level changes occurring along the shore. Finally, we demonstrate that ocean floor loading, self-gravitation of water and conservation of water mass are of second order importance for coseismic gravity changes. When GRACE observations are used to determine earthquake parameters such as seismic moment or source depth, the uniform ocean layer method introduces large biases, depending on the location of the rupture with respect to the continent. The same holds for interpreting shallow slip when horizontal motions are not properly accounted for in the ocean contribution. In both cases the depth at which slip occurs will be underestimated.

  9. High-energy scattering in gravity and supergravity

    SciTech Connect

    Giddings, Steven B.; Schmidt-Sommerfeld, Maximilian; Andersen, Jeppe R.

    2010-11-15

    We investigate features of perturbative gravity and supergravity by studying scattering in the ultra-Planckian limit, and sharpen arguments that the dynamics is governed by long-distance physics. A simple example capturing aspects of the eikonal resummation suggests why short-distance phenomena and, in particular, divergences or nonrenormalizability do not necessarily play a central role in this regime. A more profound problem is apparently unitarity. These considerations can be illustrated by showing that known gravity and supergravity amplitudes have the same long-distance behavior, despite the extra light states of supergravity, and this serves as an important check on long-range dynamics in a context where perturbative amplitudes are finite. We also argue that these considerations have other important implications: they obstruct both probing the conjectured phenomenon of asymptotic safety through a physical scattering process, and ultra-Planckian scattering exhibiting Regge behavior. These arguments sharpen the need to find a nonperturbative completion of gravity with mechanisms which restore unitarity in the strong gravity regime.

  10. High-Level Application Framework for LCLS

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, P; Chevtsov, S.; Fairley, D.; Larrieu, C.; Rock, J.; Rogind, D.; White, G.; Zalazny, M.; /SLAC

    2008-04-22

    A framework for high level accelerator application software is being developed for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). The framework is based on plug-in technology developed by an open source project, Eclipse. Many existing functionalities provided by Eclipse are available to high-level applications written within this framework. The framework also contains static data storage configuration and dynamic data connectivity. Because the framework is Eclipse-based, it is highly compatible with any other Eclipse plug-ins. The entire infrastructure of the software framework will be presented. Planned applications and plug-ins based on the framework are also presented.

  11. Centrifugal Sieve for Gravity-Level-Independent Size Segregation of Granular Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, Otis R.; Dreyer, Christopher; Riedel, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Conventional size segregation or screening in batch mode, using stacked vibrated screens, is often a time-consuming process. Utilization of centrifugal force instead of gravity as the primary body force can significantly shorten the time to segregate feedstock into a set of different-sized fractions. Likewise, under reduced gravity or microgravity, a centrifugal sieve system would function as well as it does terrestrially. When vibratory and mechanical blade sieving screens designed for terrestrial conditions were tested under lunar gravity conditions, they did not function well. The centrifugal sieving design of this technology overcomes the issues that prevented sieves designed for terrestrial conditions from functioning under reduced gravity. These sieves feature a rotating outer (cylindrical or conical) screen wall, rotating fast enough for the centrifugal forces near the wall to hold granular material against the rotating screen. Conventional centrifugal sieves have a stationary screen and rapidly rotating blades that shear the granular solid near the stationary screen, and effect the sieving process assisted by the airflow inside the unit. The centrifugal sieves of this new design may (or may not) have an inner blade or blades, moving relative to the rotating wall screen. Some continuous flow embodiments would have no inner auger or blades, but achieve axial motion through vibration. In all cases, the shearing action is gentler than conventional centrifugal sieves, which have very high velocity differences between the stationary outer screen and the rapidly rotating blades. The new design does not depend on airflow in the sieving unit, so it will function just as well in vacuum as in air. One advantage of the innovation for batch sieving is that a batch-mode centrifugal sieve may accomplish the same sieving operation in much less time than a conventional stacked set of vibrated screens (which utilize gravity as the primary driving force for size separation). In continuous mode, the centrifugal sieves can provide steady streams of fine and coarse material separated from a mixed feedstock flow stream. The centrifugal sieves can be scaled to any desired size and/or mass flow rate. Thus, they could be made in sizes suitable for small robotic exploratory missions, or for semi-permanent processing of regolith for extraction of volatiles of minerals. An advantage of the continuous-mode system is that it can be made with absolutely no gravity flow components for feeding material into, or for extracting the separated size streams from, the centrifugal sieve. Thus, the system is capable of functioning in a true microgravity environment. Another advantage of the continuous-mode system is that some embodiments of the innovation have no internal blades or vanes, and thus, can be designed to handle a very wide range of feedstock sizes, including occasional very large oversized pieces, without jamming or seizing up.

  12. Case hardenability at high carbon levels

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, H.W.

    1995-02-01

    Loss of hardenability in the case was thought to be responsible for a lower than specified hardness found on a large carburized bushing. Pseudo Jominy testing on several high hardenability carburizing grades confirmed that hardenability fade was present at carbon levels above 0.65% and particularly for those steels containing molybdenum. Analysis of previous work provided a formula for calculating Jominy hardenability at various carbon levels. Again the results confirmed that the loss of hardenability was more severe in steels containing molybdenum.

  13. Future high sea levels in south Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Blomgren, S.H.; Hanson, H.

    1997-12-31

    An estimation of future mean high water levels in Oeresund and the southwest Baltic Sea is presented together with a discussion of probable consequences for Falsterbo Peninsula, a trumpet-shaped sandy formation of some 25 km{sup 2} size situated in the very southwest corner of Sweden. A literature review coupled with sea-level measurements and observations made in the area every four hours since October 1945 are given and comprise the base for the present analysis.

  14. A Software Architecture for High Level Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Shen,G.

    2009-05-04

    A modular software platform for high level applications is under development at the National Synchrotron Light Source II project. This platform is based on client-server architecture, and the components of high level applications on this platform will be modular and distributed, and therefore reusable. An online model server is indispensable for model based control. Different accelerator facilities have different requirements for the online simulation. To supply various accelerator simulators, a set of narrow and general application programming interfaces is developed based on Tracy-3 and Elegant. This paper describes the system architecture for the modular high level applications, the design of narrow and general application programming interface for an online model server, and the prototype of online model server.

  15. Effect of Gravity Level on the Particle Shape and Size During Zeolite Crystal Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Song, Hong-Wei; Ilebusi, Olusegun J.; Sacco, Albert, Jr.

    2003-01-01

    A microscopic diffusion model is developed to represent solute transport in the boundary layer of a growing zeolite crystal. This model is used to describe the effect of gravity on particle shape and solute distribution. Particle dynamics and crystal growth kinetics serve as the boundary conditions of flow and convection-diffusion equations. A statistical rate theory is used to obtain the rate of solute transport across the growing interface, which is expressed in terms of concentration and velocity of solute species. Microgravity can significantly decrease the solute velocity across the growing interface compared to its earth-based counterpart. The extent of this reduction highly depends on solute diffusion constant in solution. Under gravity, the flow towards the crystal enhances solute transport rate across the growing interface while the flow away from crystals reduces this rate, suggesting a non-uniform growth rate and thus an elliptic final shape. However, microgravity can significantly reduce the influence of flow and obtain a final product with perfect spherical shape. The model predictions compare favorably with the data of space experiment of zeolites grown in space.

  16. Mars gravity: high-resolution results from viking orbiter 2.

    PubMed

    Sjogren, W L

    1979-03-01

    Doppler radio-tracking data have provided detailed measurements for a martian gravity map extending from 30 degrees S to 65 degrees N in latitude and through 360 degrees of longitude. The feature resolution is approximately 500 kilometers, revealing a huge anomaly associated with Olympus Mons, a mascon in Isidis Planitia, and other anomalies correlated with volcanic structure. Olympus Mons has been modeled with a 600-kilometer surface disk having a mass of 8.7 x 1021grams. PMID:17811123

  17. High Resolution Measurement of Gravity Deflections from the Vertical over Long Baselines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sander, S.; Ferguson, S.; Sander, L.; Elieff, S. H.

    2011-12-01

    Sander Geophysics has operated its AIRGrav system for over ten years and has worked to continually improve the accuracy and resolution of the entire system. New data processing techniques have allowed the extraction of the gravity deflections from the vertical (horizontal components of the airborne gravity data) in addition to the traditionally used scalar gravity measurement, and operations have expanded to acquisition speeds ranging from 15 km/hr to over 1000 km/hr. The gravimeter is based on an assembly of gyroscopes and accelerometers held in a stable spatial orientation, and has horizontal accelerometers of sufficient accuracy that it is possible to estimate the horizontal components of the gravity vector. "Geodetic quality" GPS receivers are used to collect data at a high rate, and these data are post-processed with the recorded gravimeter data to produce estimates of the three gravity vector components. The estimates of the gravity deflections from the vertical are very sensitive to initial settings of sensor parameters, unmodelled gyro and other sensor errors, as well as unpredictable changes in the sensor errors. As a consequence, it is necessary to constrain the long-wavelength errors using some external source of data. All three components of gravity can be measured to sub-mGal resolution, providing the horizontal components can be constrained in a long-wavelength sense. Data recorded during several flights each consisting of a single long line will be presented, showing the estimates of the gravity deflections from the vertical and comparing them with the best available reference data. Figure 1 illustrates the extent of the long lines. The examples will demonstrate that the horizontal gravity components can be measured with high repeatability, and agree with geoid models of the highest order available. Results from airborne and marine surveys acquired at a wide range of speeds will also be presented to illustrate the resolution attained using these varied platforms.

  18. Gain of balance and critical level absorption for inertio gravity waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lott, Francois; Millet, Christophe; Vanneste, Jacques

    2014-05-01

    The absorption of an inertio gravity wave (IGW) at critical levels is analyzed in the rotating linear case, and for a constant vertically sheared flow. We give for the first time an exact solution valid over the entire domain, and check its validity by deriving from it the classical values of the transmission and reflection coefficients of the wave |T| = exp( ) - ?°J-(1+-?2)-0.25- and |R| = 0, respectively. Here J is the Richardson number and ? the ratio between the horizontal transverse and along shear wavenumbers. For large J, a WKB analysis permits to interpret this classical result in term of tunneling. In this interpretation, the wave as it arrives to the lowest inertial critical level becomes evanescent (there is a turning point very near the critical level), and the transmitted signal is just the amplitude of this evanescent disturbance at the upper inertial level where it becomes an IGW again. As this evanescent solution is near a quasi-geostrophic solution between the inertial levels we see that it is a gain of balance there that explain the exponential smallness of the transmitted wave. The exact and approximate solutions also permit to describe how the "valve" effect, which amplify the disturbances with phase line tilted in the direction of the isentropes, is only significant when the flow is inertially unstable (when J < 1). In this case, a small incident asymmetric transverse wave can result in a very large disturbance between the inertial levels, a result that establish a correspondence between the absoptive properties of the shear layer and the criteria for flow stability.

  19. Importance of terrestrial surface density information and satellite-aided global gravity field models for high precision regional geoid computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pock, Christian; Mayer-Gürr, Torsten; Rieser, Daniel; Kühtreiber, Norbert

    2015-04-01

    High precision regional geoid determination is a challenging task. Besides the quality of the input data, the quality of the global gravity field data and the density information is essential for a consistent treatment of the gravity field quantities within the remove-compute-restore procedure. In this investigation a surface density model based on geological observations is introduced, replacing the constant standard crustal density. The long-wavelength component of the gravity field is represented by the GOCO05s global gravity field model. The geoid computation is based on a Gauss-Markov model with radial basis function parametrization. The achieved improvements are remarkable and lead to an unprecedented accuracy of the pure gravimetric geoid in Austria. As final outcomes a new geoid solution and a map for the xi and eta components of deflections of the vertical are computed. The achieved results are primarily validated with independent GPS/leveling observations. Secondly validation has been carried out through deflections of the vertical, obtained from precise zenith camera and astronomical measurements. Furthermore, differences between the current official Austrian geoid solution based on data from 2008 and the new estimated geoid are shown. An overview about the achieved improvements and the validation is given in the presentation.

  20. PAIRWISE BLENDING OF HIGH LEVEL WASTE (HLW)

    SciTech Connect

    CERTA, P.J.

    2006-02-22

    The primary objective of this study is to demonstrate a mission scenario that uses pairwise and incidental blending of high level waste (HLW) to reduce the total mass of HLW glass. Secondary objectives include understanding how recent refinements to the tank waste inventory and solubility assumptions affect the mass of HLW glass and how logistical constraints may affect the efficacy of HLW blending.

  1. High-level radioactive wastes. Supplement 1

    SciTech Connect

    McLaren, L.H.

    1984-09-01

    This bibliography contains information on high-level radioactive wastes included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from August 1982 through December 1983. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number. 1452 citations.

  2. High Level Modeling and Evaluation of

    E-print Network

    High Level Modeling and Evaluation of Multi-Channel Services Thesis for the degree of Philosophiae service acceptance model (MSAM) to access the adoption of mobile services. Research artifact two is a conceptual modeling language, called business process characterizing model (BPCM), which aims to support

  3. High-degree Gravity Models from GRAIL Primary Mission Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemoine, Frank G.; Goossens, Sander J.; Sabaka, Terence J.; Nicholas, Joseph B.; Mazarico, Erwan; Rowlands, David D.; Loomis, Bryant D.; Chinn, Douglas S.; Caprette, Douglas S.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2013-01-01

    We have analyzed Ka?band range rate (KBRR) and Deep Space Network (DSN) data from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) primary mission (1 March to 29 May 2012) to derive gravity models of the Moon to degree 420, 540, and 660 in spherical harmonics. For these models, GRGM420A, GRGM540A, and GRGM660PRIM, a Kaula constraint was applied only beyond degree 330. Variance?component estimation (VCE) was used to adjust the a priori weights and obtain a calibrated error covariance. The global root?mean?square error in the gravity anomalies computed from the error covariance to 320×320 is 0.77 mGal, compared to 29.0 mGal with the pre?GRAIL model derived with the SELENE mission data, SGM150J, only to 140×140. The global correlations with the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter?derived topography are larger than 0.985 between l = 120 and 330. The free?air gravity anomalies, especially over the lunar farside, display a dramatic increase in detail compared to the pre?GRAIL models (SGM150J and LP150Q) and, through degree 320, are free of the orbit?track?related artifacts present in the earlier models. For GRAIL, we obtain an a posteriori fit to the S?band DSN data of 0.13 mm/s. The a posteriori fits to the KBRR data range from 0.08 to 1.5 micrometers/s for GRGM420A and from 0.03 to 0.06 micrometers/s for GRGM660PRIM. Using the GRAIL data, we obtain solutions for the degree 2 Love numbers, k20=0.024615+/-0.0000914, k21=0.023915+/-0.0000132, and k22=0.024852+/-0.0000167, and a preliminary solution for the k30 Love number of k30=0.00734+/-0.0015, where the Love number error sigmas are those obtained with VCE.

  4. High Degree and Order Gravity Fields of the Moon Derived from GRAIL Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemoine, F. G.; Goossens, S. J.; Sabaka, T. J.; Nicholas, J. B.; Mazarico, E.; Rowlands, D. D.; Loomis, B. D.; Chinn, D. S.; Caprette, D. S.; McCarthy, J. J.; Neumann, G. A.; Zuber, M. T.; Smith, D. E.

    2012-01-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) spacecraft conducted the mapping of the gravity field of the Moon from March 1, 2012 to May 29, 2012. The twin spacecraft acquired highly precise K Band range-rate (KBRR) intersatellite ranging data and Deep Space Network (DSN) data during this prime mission phase from altitudes of 15 to 75 km above the lunar surface over three lunar months. We have processed these data using the NASA GSFC GEODYN orbit determination and geodetic parameter estimation program, and we have determined gravity fields up to degree and order 420 in spherical harmonics. The new gravity solutions show improved correlations with LOLA-derived topography to high degree and order and resolve many lunar features in the geopotential with a resolution of less than 30 km, including for example the central peak of the crater Tycho. We discuss the methodology used for the processing of the GRAIL data, the quality of the orbit determination on the GRAIL satellites and the derivation of the solutions, and their evaluation with independent data, including Lunar Prospector. We show that with these new GRAIL gravity solutions, we can now fit the low altitude, extended mission Lunar Prospector tracking data better than with any previous gravity model that included the LP data.

  5. Using high-resolution gravity and pumping data to infer aquifer parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, J.; Pool, D.; Ferre, P. A.; Wilson, C. R.

    2011-12-01

    Drawdown measurements during a pumping test are often of limited spatial extent but typically provide the only available head observations for developing and evaluating a groundwater model. Previous field and modeling studies have shown gravity data to be complementary to head observations for aquifer-storage-change monitoring and estimating aquifer properties. Although spatially distributed gravity measurements have proven useful for monitoring aquifer storage change and oil and gas extraction, to date, no direct superconducting gravimeter measurements of aquifer response to high-volume pumping have been reported. Data collected from March 2010 to March 2011 with a superconducting gravimeter located 200 m from a public supply well in Tucson, AZ, show a decrease in gravity-up to 10 microgals- primarily correlated with withdrawal of water-mass from pumping, and to a lesser degree, with pumping-induced land surface elevation changes that indicate elastic aquifer compressibility. This small gravity change was scarcely detected with a co-located A10 absolute gravimeter. These gravity data provide an additional tool to evaluate and calibrate a groundwater flow model, and suggest more interesting aquifer-storage dynamics than a simple correlation between drawdown and gravity change. The superconducting gravimeter, together with the desert environment and urban setting where direct recharge is not present and non-pumping hydrologic effects are minimal, provides a high signal-to-noise ratio not possible with other instruments.

  6. High-resolution gravity and geoid models in Tahiti obtained from new airborne and land gravity observations: data fusion by spectral combination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Hsuan-Chang; Hwang, Cheinway; Barriot, Jean-Pierre; Mouyen, Maxime; Corréia, Pascal; Lequeux, Didier; Sichoix, Lydie

    2015-12-01

    For the first time, we carry out an airborne gravity survey and we collect new land gravity data over the islands of Tahiti and Moorea in French Polynesia located in the South Pacific Ocean. The new land gravity data are registered with GPS-derived coordinates, network-adjusted and outlier-edited, resulting in a mean standard error of 17 ?Gal. A crossover analysis of the airborne gravity data indicates a mean gravity accuracy of 1.7 mGal. New marine gravity around the two islands is derived from Geosat/GM, ERS-1/GM, Jason-1/GM, and Cryosat-2 altimeter data. A new 1-s digital topography model is constructed and is used to compute the topographic gravitational effects. To use EGM08 over Tahiti and Moorea, the optimal degree of spherical harmonic expansion is 1500. The fusion of the gravity datasets is made by the band-limited least-squares collocation, which best integrates datasets of different accuracies and spatial resolutions. The new high-resolution gravity and geoid grids are constructed on a 9-s grid. Assessments of the grids by measurements of ground gravity and geometric geoidal height result in RMS differences of 0.9 mGal and 0.4 cm, respectively. The geoid model allows 1-cm orthometric height determination by GPS and Lidar and yields a consistent height datum for Tahiti and Moorea. The new Bouguer anomalies show gravity highs and lows in the centers and land-sea zones of the two islands, allowing further studies of the density structure and volcanism in the region.

  7. High-Level Waste Melter Study Report

    SciTech Connect

    Perez Jr, Joseph M; Bickford, Dennis F; Day, Delbert E; Kim, Dong-Sang; Lambert, Steven L; Marra, Sharon L; Peeler, David K; Strachan, Denis M; Triplett, Mark B; Vienna, John D; Wittman, Richard S

    2001-07-13

    At the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, the path to site cleanup involves vitrification of the majority of the wastes that currently reside in large underground tanks. A Joule-heated glass melter is the equipment of choice for vitrifying the high-level fraction of these wastes. Even though this technology has general national and international acceptance, opportunities may exist to improve or change the technology to reduce the enormous cost of accomplishing the mission of site cleanup. Consequently, the U.S. Department of Energy requested the staff of the Tanks Focus Area to review immobilization technologies, waste forms, and modifications to requirements for solidification of the high-level waste fraction at Hanford to determine what aspects could affect cost reductions with reasonable long-term risk. The results of this study are summarized in this report.

  8. ALTURAS: A MULTI-PURPOSE RUSSET POTATO CULTIVAR WITH HIGH YIELD AND SPECIFIC GRAVITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alturas, a late- maturing, high-yielding, russet potato cultivar with high tuber specific gravity, was released in 2002 by the USDA-ARS and the Agricultural Experiment Stations of Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. Originally selected for dehydration processing, its cold-sweetening resistance also make...

  9. Commissioning of the CMS High Level Trigger

    SciTech Connect

    Agostino, Lorenzo; et al.

    2009-08-01

    The CMS experiment will collect data from the proton-proton collisions delivered by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at a centre-of-mass energy up to 14 TeV. The CMS trigger system is designed to cope with unprecedented luminosities and LHC bunch-crossing rates up to 40 MHz. The unique CMS trigger architecture only employs two trigger levels. The Level-1 trigger is implemented using custom electronics, while the High Level Trigger (HLT) is based on software algorithms running on a large cluster of commercial processors, the Event Filter Farm. We present the major functionalities of the CMS High Level Trigger system as of the starting of LHC beams operations in September 2008. The validation of the HLT system in the online environment with Monte Carlo simulated data and its commissioning during cosmic rays data taking campaigns are discussed in detail. We conclude with the description of the HLT operations with the first circulating LHC beams before the incident occurred the 19th September 2008.

  10. A Fast Full Tensor Gravity computation algorithm for High Resolution 3D Geologic Interpretations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayaram, V.; Crain, K.; Keller, G. R.

    2011-12-01

    We present an algorithm to rapidly calculate the vertical gravity and full tensor gravity (FTG) values due to a 3-D geologic model. This algorithm can be implemented on single, multi-core CPU and graphical processing units (GPU) architectures. Our technique is based on the line element approximation with a constant density within each grid cell. This type of parameterization is well suited for high-resolution elevation datasets with grid size typically in the range of 1m to 30m. The large high-resolution data grids in our studies employ a pre-filtered mipmap pyramid type representation for the grid data known as the Geometry clipmap. The clipmap was first introduced by Microsoft Research in 2004 to do fly-through terrain visualization. This method caches nested rectangular extents of down-sampled data layers in the pyramid to create view-dependent calculation scheme. Together with the simple grid structure, this allows the gravity to be computed conveniently on-the-fly, or stored in a highly compressed format. Neither of these capabilities has previously been available. Our approach can perform rapid calculations on large topographies including crustal-scale models derived from complex geologic interpretations. For example, we used a 1KM Sphere model consisting of 105000 cells at 10m resolution with 100000 gravity stations. The line element approach took less than 90 seconds to compute the FTG and vertical gravity on an Intel Core i7 CPU at 3.07 GHz utilizing just its single core. Also, unlike traditional gravity computational algorithms, the line-element approach can calculate gravity effects at locations interior or exterior to the model. The only condition that must be met is the observation point cannot be located directly above the line element. Therefore, we perform a location test and then apply appropriate formulation to those data points. We will present and compare the computational performance of the traditional prism method versus the line element approach on different CPU-GPU system configurations. The algorithm calculates the expected gravity at station locations where the observed gravity and FTG data were acquired. This algorithm can be used for all fast forward model calculations of 3D geologic interpretations for data from airborne, space and submarine gravity, and FTG instrumentation.

  11. Evaluation of EGM2008 Earth Gravitational Model in Algeria using gravity and GPS/levelling data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benahmed Daho, S. A.

    2009-04-01

    The present work focuses on the evaluation of the EGM2008 geopotential model that was recently released by the NGA (National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, U.S)/EGM-development team, in Algeria using the free air gravity anomalies supplied by BGI and GETECH, some of the precise GPS data collected from the international TYRGEONET (TYRhenian GEOdynamical NETwork) and ALGEONET (ALGerian GEOdynamical NETwork) projects and the last Algerian local gravimetric geoid model. Additional comparisons of the terrestrial point data with the corresponding values obtained from other geopotential models were made. Five global geopotential models were used in this comparison: the Preliminary Earth Gravitational Model PGM2007A, the combined CHAMP and GRACE model EIGEN-CG01C, the combined GRACE and LAGEOS model EIGEN-GL04C, OSU91A and EGM96. The study shows that all tested models are an improvement over OSU91A geopotential model used in all previous Algerian geoid computations and that new released combined model (EGM2008) is relatively superior to other tested models in the Algerian region. According to our numerical results, the new EGM2008 model fits better the observed values used in this investigation. Its standard deviations fit with GPS/levelling data are 21.4cm and 18.7cm before and after fitting using four-parameters transformation model. We strongly recommend the use of this new model in the remove-restore technique for the computation of the improved geoid for Algeria. In addition to these more general investigations, special GPS campaign has been performed for altimetric auscultation of a storage tank in which we wanted to test the possibilities to replace levelling by GPS measurements. The evaluation revealed promising results but also that much attention has to be paid on the GPS evaluation method. Key words: Geopotential model, TYRGEONET and ALGEONET projects, GPS/levelling data.

  12. Combustion of Gaseous Fuels with High Temperature Air in Normal- and Micro-gravity Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Y.; Gupta, A. K.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study is determine the effect of air preheat temperature on flame characteristics in normal and microgravity conditions. We have obtained qualitative (global flame features) and some quantitative information on the features of flames using high temperature combustion air under normal gravity conditions with propane and methane as the fuels. This data will be compared with the data under microgravity conditions. The specific focus under normal gravity conditions has been on determining the global flame features as well as the spatial distribution of OH, CH, and C2 from flames using high temperature combustion air at different equivalence ratio.

  13. 40 CFR 227.30 - High-level radioactive waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2014-07-01 false High-level radioactive waste. 227.30 Section 227.30 Protection... Definitions § 227.30 High-level radioactive waste. High-level radioactive waste means the aqueous waste resulting...

  14. 40 CFR 227.30 - High-level radioactive waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 false High-level radioactive waste. 227.30 Section 227.30 Protection... Definitions § 227.30 High-level radioactive waste. High-level radioactive waste means the aqueous waste resulting...

  15. 40 CFR 227.30 - High-level radioactive waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false High-level radioactive waste. 227.30 Section 227.30 Protection... Definitions § 227.30 High-level radioactive waste. High-level radioactive waste means the aqueous waste resulting...

  16. 40 CFR 227.30 - High-level radioactive waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2013-07-01 false High-level radioactive waste. 227.30 Section 227.30 Protection... Definitions § 227.30 High-level radioactive waste. High-level radioactive waste means the aqueous waste resulting...

  17. Could quantum gravity phenomenology be tested with high intensity lasers?

    SciTech Connect

    Magueijo, Joao

    2006-06-15

    In phenomenological quantum gravity theories, Planckian behavior is triggered by the energy of elementary particles approaching the Planck energy, E{sub P}, but it is also possible that anomalous behavior strikes systems of particles with total energy near E{sub P}. This is usually perceived to be pathological and has been labeled 'the soccer ball problem'. We point out that there is no obvious contradiction with experiment if coherent collections of particles with bulk energy of order E{sub P} do indeed display Planckian behavior, a possibility that would open a new experimental window. Unfortunately, field theory realizations of 'doubly' (or deformed) special relativity never exhibit a soccer ball problem; we present several formulations where this is undeniably true. Upon closer scrutiny we discover that the only chance for Planckian behavior to be triggered by large coherent energies involves the details of second quantization. We find a formulation where the quanta have their energy-momentum (mass-shell) relations deformed as a function of the bulk energy of the coherent packet to which they belong, rather than the frequency. Given ongoing developments in laser technology, such a possibility would be of great experimental interest.

  18. Service Oriented Architecture for High Level Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Chungming; Chevtsov, Sergei; Wu, Juhao; Shen, Guobao; /Brookhaven

    2012-06-28

    Standalone high level applications often suffer from poor performance and reliability due to lengthy initialization, heavy computation and rapid graphical update. Service-oriented architecture (SOA) is trying to separate the initialization and computation from applications and to distribute such work to various service providers. Heavy computation such as beam tracking will be done periodically on a dedicated server and data will be available to client applications at all time. Industrial standard service architecture can help to improve the performance, reliability and maintainability of the service. Robustness will also be improved by reducing the complexity of individual client applications.

  19. Regulation of high density lipoprotein levels

    SciTech Connect

    Krauss, R.M.

    1982-03-01

    An increasing awareness of the physiologic and pathologic importance of serum high density lipoproteins (HDL) has led to a large number of observations regarding factors which influence their concentrations. HDL consists of a heterogeneous collection of macromolecules with diverse physical properties and chemical constituents. While laboratory techniques have made it possible to measure HDL and their individual components, there are as yet large gaps in our knowledge of the biochemical mechanisms and clinical significance of changes in these laboratory parameters. In this review, current concepts of the structure and metabolism of HDL will be briefly summarized, and the factors influencing their levels in humans will be surveyed. 313 references.

  20. The High Level Data Reduction Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballester, P.; Gabasch, A.; Jung, Y.; Modigliani, A.; Taylor, J.; Coccato, L.; Freudling, W.; Neeser, M.; Marchetti, E.

    2015-09-01

    The European Southern Observatory (ESO) provides pipelines to reduce data for most of the instruments at its Very Large telescope (VLT). These pipelines are written as part of the development of VLT instruments, and are used both in the ESO's operational environment and by science users who receive VLT data. All the pipelines are highly specific geared toward instruments. However, experience showed that the independently developed pipelines include significant overlap, duplication and slight variations of similar algorithms. In order to reduce the cost of development, verification and maintenance of ESO pipelines, and at the same time improve the scientific quality of pipelines data products, ESO decided to develop a limited set of versatile high-level scientific functions that are to be used in all future pipelines. The routines are provided by the High-level Data Reduction Library (HDRL). To reach this goal, we first compare several candidate algorithms and verify them during a prototype phase using data sets from several instruments. Once the best algorithm and error model have been chosen, we start a design and implementation phase. The coding of HDRL is done in plain C and using the Common Pipeline Library (CPL) functionality. HDRL adopts consistent function naming conventions and a well defined API to minimise future maintenance costs, implements error propagation, uses pixel quality information, employs OpenMP to take advantage of multi-core processors, and is verified with extensive unit and regression tests. This poster describes the status of the project and the lesson learned during the development of reusable code implementing algorithms of high scientific quality.

  1. High accuracy electronic material level sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1997-03-11

    The High Accuracy Electronic Material Level Sensor (electronic dipstick) is a sensor based on time domain reflectometry (TDR) of very short electrical pulses. Pulses are propagated along a transmission line or guide wire that is partially immersed in the material being measured; a launcher plate is positioned at the beginning of the guide wire. Reflected pulses are produced at the material interface due to the change in dielectric constant. The time difference of the reflections at the launcher plate and at the material interface are used to determine the material level. Improved performance is obtained by the incorporation of: (1) a high accuracy time base that is referenced to a quartz crystal, (2) an ultrawideband directional sampler to allow operation without an interconnect cable between the electronics module and the guide wire, (3) constant fraction discriminators (CFDs) that allow accurate measurements regardless of material dielectric constants, and reduce or eliminate errors induced by triple-transit or ``ghost`` reflections on the interconnect cable. These improvements make the dipstick accurate to better than 0.1%. 4 figs.

  2. High accuracy electronic material level sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1997-01-01

    The High Accuracy Electronic Material Level Sensor (electronic dipstick) is a sensor based on time domain reflectometry (TDR) of very short electrical pulses. Pulses are propagated along a transmission line or guide wire that is partially immersed in the material being measured; a launcher plate is positioned at the beginning of the guide wire. Reflected pulses are produced at the material interface due to the change in dielectric constant. The time difference of the reflections at the launcher plate and at the material interface are used to determine the material level. Improved performance is obtained by the incorporation of: 1) a high accuracy time base that is referenced to a quartz crystal, 2) an ultrawideband directional sampler to allow operation without an interconnect cable between the electronics module and the guide wire, 3) constant fraction discriminators (CFDs) that allow accurate measurements regardless of material dielectric constants, and reduce or eliminate errors induced by triple-transit or "ghost" reflections on the interconnect cable. These improvements make the dipstick accurate to better than 0.1%.

  3. Technetium Chemistry in High-Level Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Hess, Nancy J.

    2006-06-01

    Tc contamination is found within the DOE complex at those sites whose mission involved extraction of plutonium from irradiated uranium fuel or isotopic enrichment of uranium. At the Hanford Site, chemical separations and extraction processes generated large amounts of high level and transuranic wastes that are currently stored in underground tanks. The waste from these extraction processes is currently stored in underground High Level Waste (HLW) tanks. However, the chemistry of the HLW in any given tank is greatly complicated by repeated efforts to reduce volume and recover isotopes. These processes ultimately resulted in mixing of waste streams from different processes. As a result, the chemistry and the fate of Tc in HLW tanks are not well understood. This lack of understanding has been made evident in the failed efforts to leach Tc from sludge and to remove Tc from supernatants prior to immobilization. Although recent interest in Tc chemistry has shifted from pretreatment chemistry to waste residuals, both needs are served by a fundamental understanding of Tc chemistry.

  4. On the recovery of gravity anomalies from high precision altimeter data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lelgemann, D.

    1976-01-01

    A model for the recovery of gravity anomalies from high precision altimeter data is derived which consists of small correction terms to the inverse Stokes' formula. The influence of unknown sea surface topography in the case of meandering currents such as the Gulf Stream is discussed. A formula was derived in order to estimate the accuracy of the gravity anomalies from the known accuracy of the altimeter data. It is shown that for the case of known harmonic coefficients of lower order the range of integration in Stokes inverse formula can be reduced very much.

  5. Evidence of high frequency gravity wave forcing on the meridional residual circulation at the mesopause region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, Fabio; Swenson, Gary; Liu, Alan

    2015-11-01

    Data of high frequency gravity wave propagation direction from globally distributed stations indicate a meridional preference of mesospheric gravity waves to be globally oriented toward the summer pole. This orientation is opposite to the mean residual circulation (from summer to winter pole) at mesospheric altitudes. We discuss here a number of dynamic mechanisms including filtering that may be responsible for the preferential wave orientation, and the effects of the gravity wave forcing imposed on the meridional flow due to dissipative waves. Using nightglow image data recorded in three distinct latitude stations, we have estimated the meridional wave drag (i.e, deceleration) of about - 4.6 ± 0.2 m/s/day during the summer, and 3.8 ± 0.2 m/s/day during the winter, which is significant because the meridional flow has small magnitude. This is a component of dynamic forcing in the mesopause region, not heretofore recognized.

  6. Umbra's High Level Architecture (HLA) Interface

    SciTech Connect

    GOTTLIEB, ERIC JOSEPH; MCDONALD, MICHAEL J.; OPPEL III, FRED J.

    2002-04-01

    This report describes Umbra's High Level Architecture HLA library. This library serves as an interface to the Defense Simulation and Modeling Office's (DMSO) Run Time Infrastructure Next Generation Version 1.3 (RTI NG1.3) software library and enables Umbra-based models to be federated into HLA environments. The Umbra library was built to enable the modeling of robots for military and security system concept evaluation. A first application provides component technologies that ideally fit the US Army JPSD's Joint Virtual Battlespace (JVB) simulation framework for Objective Force concept analysis. In addition to describing the Umbra HLA library, the report describes general issues of integrating Umbra with RTI code and outlines ways of building models to support particular HLA simulation frameworks like the JVB.

  7. High-level connectionist models. Semiannual report

    SciTech Connect

    Pollack, J.B.

    1989-08-01

    The major achievement of this semiannum was the significant revision and extension of the Recursive Auto-Associative Memory (RAAM) work for publication in the journal Artificial Intelligence. Included as an appendix to this report, the article includes several new elements: (1) Background - The work was more clearly set into the area of recursive distributed representations, machine learning, and the adequacy of the connectionist approach for high-level cognitive modeling; (2) New Experiment - RAAM was applied to finding compact representations for sequences of letters; (3) Analysis - The developed representations were analyzed as features which range from categorical to distinctive. Categorical features distinguish between conceptual categories while distinctive features vary within categories and discriminate or label the members. The representations were also analyzed geometrically; and (4) Applications - Feasibility studies were performed and described on inference by association, and on using RAAM-generated patterns along with cascaded networks for natural language parsing. Both of these remain long-term goals of the project.

  8. High-resolution global and local lunar gravity field models using GRAIL mission data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goossens, S. J.; Lemoine, F. G.; Sabaka, T. J.; Nicholas, J. B.; Mazarico, E.; Rowlands, D. D.; Neumann, G. A.; Loomis, B.; Chinn, D. S.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.

    2014-12-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) spacecraft were designed to map the structure of the Moon through high-precision global gravity mapping. The mission consisted of two spacecraft with Ka-band inter-satellite tracking complemented by tracking from Earth. The mission had two phases: (1) a primary mapping mission from March 1 until May 29, 2012 at an average altitude of 50 km; (2) an extended mission from August 30 until December 14, 2012, with an average altitude of 23 km before November 18, and between 11-20 km through December 14. Both the primary and the extended mission data have been processed into global models of the lunar gravity field at NASA/GSFC using the GEODYN software. Here we present our latest global model, an expansion in spherical harmonics of degree and order 1080. We discuss this new solution in terms of its power spectrum, its free-air and Bouguer anomalies, its associated error spectrum, and its correlations with topography-induced gravity. In addition to global models we also estimated local gravity adjustments in areas of particular interest such as Mare Orientale and the south pole area. We express gravity in terms of anomalies, and estimate them with respect to a global background model. We apply neighbor-smoothing in our estimation procedure. We present a local solution over the south pole area in a resolution of 1/6 by 1/6 of a degree, equivalent to degree and order 1080, and we compare this local solution to our global model.

  9. Development of high accuracy and resolution geoid and gravity maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaposchkin, E. M.

    1986-01-01

    Precision satellite to satellite tracking can be used to obtain high precision and resolution maps of the geoid. A method is demonstrated to use data in a limited region to map the geopotential at the satellite altitude. An inverse method is used to downward continue the potential to the Earth surface. The method is designed for both satellites in the same low orbit.

  10. Curvature Oscillations in Modified Gravity and High Energy Cosmic Rays

    E-print Network

    E. V. Arbuzova; A. D. Dolgov; L. Reverberi

    2012-11-24

    It is shown that F(R)-modified gravitational theories lead to curvature oscillations in astrophysical systems with rising energy density. The frequency and the amplitude of such oscillations could be very high and would lead to noticeable production of energetic cosmic ray particles.

  11. GTOOLS: an Interactive Computer Program to Process Gravity Data for High-Resolution Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battaglia, M.; Poland, M. P.; Kauahikaua, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    An interactive computer program, GTOOLS, has been developed to process gravity data acquired by the Scintrex CG-5 and LaCoste & Romberg EG, G and D gravity meters. The aim of GTOOLS is to provide a validated methodology for computing relative gravity values in a consistent way accounting for as many environmental factors as possible (e.g., tides, ocean loading, solar constraints, etc.), as well as instrument drift. The program has a modular architecture. Each processing step is implemented in a tool (function) that can be either run independently or within an automated task. The tools allow the user to (a) read the gravity data acquired during field surveys completed using different types of gravity meters; (b) compute Earth tides using an improved version of Longman's (1959) model; (c) compute ocean loading using the HARDISP code by Petit and Luzum (2010) and ocean loading harmonics from the TPXO7.2 ocean tide model; (d) estimate the instrument drift using linear functions as appropriate; and (e) compute the weighted least-square-adjusted gravity values and their errors. The corrections are performed up to microGal ( ?Gal) precision, in accordance with the specifications of high-resolution surveys. The program has the ability to incorporate calibration factors that allow for surveys done using different gravimeters to be compared. Two additional tools (functions) allow the user to (1) estimate the instrument calibration factor by processing data collected by a gravimeter on a calibration range; (2) plot gravity time-series at a chosen benchmark. The interactive procedures and the program output (jpeg plots and text files) have been designed to ease data handling and archiving, to provide useful information for future data interpretation or modeling, and facilitate comparison of gravity surveys conducted at different times. All formulas have been checked for typographical errors in the original reference. GTOOLS, developed using Matlab, is open source and machine independent. We will demonstrate program use and utility with data from multiple microgravity surveys at Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i.

  12. Bed Topography of Store Glacier and Fjord, Greenland from High-Resolution Gravity Data and Multi-Beam Echo Sounding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, L.; Rignot, E. J.; Muto, A.; Morlighem, M.; Kemp, C.

    2014-12-01

    Store Glacier is a major west Greenland outlet tidewater glacier draining an area of 30,000 square km into Uummannaq Fjord, and flowing at a speed of 4.8 km per year at its terminus. The bed topography of the glacier is poorly known and the fjord bathymetry was partially surveyed for the first time in August 2012. In this study, we present a new approach for the inference of the glacier bed topography, ice thickness and sea floor bathymetry using high-resolution airborne gravity data combined with other data. In August 2012, we acquired a 250 m spacing grid of free-air gravity data at a speed of 50 knots with accuracy at sub-milligal level much higher accuracy than NASA Operation IceBridge (OIB) gravity campaign with approximate 5.2 km resolution at 290 knots flying speed. In August 2012 and 2013, we used multi-beam echo sounding to survey the sea floor bathymetry in front of the glacier, extending to the calving face of the glacier. Inland, we combined radar-derived ice thickness with ice motion vectors to reconstruct the bed topography at a high resolution. Using a 3D inversion of the gravity data, we reconstruct seamless bed topography across the ice front boundary that matches interior data and sea floor bathymetry, and provides information about sediment thickness beneath and in front of the glacier. Comparison of the results with prior maps reveals vast differences. IBCAO3 bathymetry suggests an ice front grounded at sea level while the measured ice front is grounded 550 m below sea level. The seamless topography obtained across the grounding line reveals the presence of a previously unknown sill, which explains why the glacier has been so stable in the last 50 years. The results have important impacts on the interpretation of the glacier stability, and sensitivity to thermal forcing from the ocean and surface melt. This work was conducted at UCI under a contract with the Gordon and Betty More Foundation and with NASA.

  13. The University of Maryland Space Systems Laboratory is developing the capability to simulate partial gravity levels

    E-print Network

    Akin, David

    anthropometric data on reach envelopes or postural control, as well as accumulating an experience base on partial gravity. This includes data such as how far someone can bend over to pick up objects, or the required size of interior passageways. The only way to collect this data before flight is through simulation. Several

  14. Decontamination of high-level waste canisters

    SciTech Connect

    Nesbitt, J.F.; Slate, S.C.; Fetrow, L.K.

    1980-12-01

    This report presents evaluations of several methods for the in-process decontamination of metallic canisters containing any one of a number of solidified high-level waste (HLW) forms. The use of steam-water, steam, abrasive blasting, electropolishing, liquid honing, vibratory finishing and soaking have been tested or evaluated as potential techniques to decontaminate the outer surfaces of HLW canisters. Either these techniques have been tested or available literature has been examined to assess their applicability to the decontamination of HLW canisters. Electropolishing has been found to be the most thorough method to remove radionuclides and other foreign material that may be deposited on or in the outer surface of a canister during any of the HLW processes. Steam or steam-water spraying techniques may be adequate for some applications but fail to remove all contaminated forms that could be present in some of the HLW processes. Liquid honing and abrasive blasting remove contamination and foreign material very quickly and effectively from small areas and components although these blasting techniques tend to disperse the material removed from the cleaned surfaces. Vibratory finishing is very capable of removing the bulk of contamination and foreign matter from a variety of materials. However, special vibratory finishing equipment would have to be designed and adapted for a remote process. Soaking techniques take long periods of time and may not remove all of the smearable contamination. If soaking involves pickling baths that use corrosive agents, these agents may cause erosion of grain boundaries that results in rough surfaces.

  15. HIGH LEVEL RF FOR THE SNS RING.

    SciTech Connect

    ZALTSMAN,A.; BLASKIEWICZ,M.; BRENNAN,J.; BRODOWSKI,J.; METH,M.; SPITZ,R.; SEVERINO,F.

    2002-06-03

    A high level RF system (HLRF) consisting of power amplifiers (PA's) and ferrite loaded cavities is being designed and built by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) project. It is a fixed frequency, two harmonic system whose main function is to maintain a gap for the kicker rise time. Three cavities running at the fundamental harmonic (h=l) will provide 40 kV and one cavity at the second harmonic (h=2) will provide 20 kV. Each cavity has two gaps with a design voltage of 10 kV per gap and will be driven by a power amplifier (PA) directly adjacent to it. The PA uses a 600kW tetrode to provide the necessary drive current. The anode of the tetrode is magnetically coupled to the downstream cell of the cavity. Drive to the PA will be provided by a wide band, solid state amplifier located remotely. A dynamic tuning scheme will be implemented to help compensate for the effect of beam loading.

  16. High Sensitivity Gravity Measurements in the Adverse Environment of Oil Wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfutzner, Harold

    2014-03-01

    Bulk density is a primary measurement within oil and gas reservoirs and is the basis of most reserves calculations by oil companies. The measurement is performed with a gamma-ray source and two scintillation gamma-ray detectors from within newly drilled exploration and production wells. This nuclear density measurement, while very precise is also very shallow and is therefore susceptible to errors due to any alteration of the formation and fluids in the vicinity of the borehole caused by the drilling process. Measuring acceleration due to gravity along a well provides a direct measure of bulk density with a very large depth of investigation that makes it practically immune to errors from near-borehole effects. Advances in gravity sensors and associated mechanics and electronics provide an opportunity for routine borehole gravity measurements with comparable density precision to the nuclear density measurement and with sufficient ruggedness to survive the rough handling and high temperatures experienced in oil well logging. We will describe a borehole gravity meter and its use under very realistic conditions in an oil well in Saudi Arabia. The density measurements will be presented. Alberto Marsala (2), Paul Wanjau (1), Olivier Moyal (1), and Justin Mlcak (1); (1) Schlumberger, (2) Saudi Aramco.

  17. A high-resolution spherical harmonic degree 1200 lunar gravity field from the GRAIL mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, R. S.; Konopliv, A. S.; Yuan, D. N.; Asmar, S. W.; Watkins, M. M.; Williams, J. G.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.

    2014-12-01

    The highest resolution lunar gravity field to date has been generated from processing Gravity Recovery And Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) data from the primary and extended missions. The Ka-band inter-spacecraft range-rate data has a precision near 0.50 micron/second with spacecraft altitudes as close as a few kilometers above the lunar surface. This new spherical harmonic degree 1200 field involves solving for nearly 1.5 million parameters in a least-square estimation procedure and a resulting 8 TB covariance matrix, computed using the NASA Pleiades Supercomputer. The Bouguer spectrum shows that the Bouguer gravity is globally accurate to about n=600. The correlation with topography shows that the high order coefficients (n>900) are improved significantly. Moreover, the Ka-band residual RMS are significantly improved for the orbit solutions for the especially low altitudes of the last month of the extended mission. This new gravity field corresponds to the surface resolution of 5 km.

  18. Fuel alcohol production: Optimization of temperature for efficient very-high-gravity fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, A.M.; Ingledew, M.M. )

    1994-03-01

    The time required to end ferment wheat mash decreased as the temperature was increased from 17 to 33[degrees]C, but it increased as the concentration of dissolved solids was raised from 14.0 to 36.5 g/100 ml. Ethanol yield was not appreciably affected. Over the range of fermentation temperature tested, the addition of urea accelerated the rate of fermentation, decreased the time required to complete fermentation at all dissolved-solid concentrations, and stimulated the production of slightly more ethanol than was produced by the corresponding unsupplemented control mashes. The optimum temperature for maximum ethanol production in urea-supplemented very-high-gravity wheat mash was 27[degrees]C. These data are important for the industrial assessment of very-high-gravity fermentation technology. 19 refs., 2 figs.

  19. 46 CFR 119.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Systems § 119.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) Each vessel must...operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the following normally...spaces subject to flooding from sea water piping within the space; and...

  20. 46 CFR 119.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Systems § 119.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) Each vessel must...operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the following normally...spaces subject to flooding from sea water piping within the space; and...

  1. 46 CFR 119.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Systems § 119.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) Each vessel must...operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the following normally...spaces subject to flooding from sea water piping within the space; and...

  2. 46 CFR 119.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Systems § 119.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) Each vessel must...operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the following normally...spaces subject to flooding from sea water piping within the space; and...

  3. 46 CFR 119.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Systems § 119.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) Each vessel must...operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the following normally...spaces subject to flooding from sea water piping within the space; and...

  4. High-resolution airborne gravity imaging over James Ross Island (West Antarctica)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jordan, T.A.; Ferraccioli, F.; Jones, P.C.; Smellie, J.L.; Ghidella, M.; Corr, H.; Zakrajsek, A.F.

    2007-01-01

    James Ross Island (JRI) exposes a Miocene-Recent alkaline basaltic volcanic complex that developed in a back-arc, east of the northern Antarctic Peninsula. JRI has been the focus of several geological studies because it provides a window on Neogene magmatic processes and paleoenvironments. However, little is known about its internal structure. New airborne gravity data were collected as part of the first high-resolution aerogeophysical survey flown over the island and reveal a prominent negative Bouguer gravity anomaly over Mt Haddington. This is intriguing as basaltic volcanoes are typically associated with positive Bouguer anomalies, linked to underlying mafic intrusions. The negative Bouguer anomaly may be associated with a hitherto unrecognised low-density sub-surface body, such as a breccia-filled caldera, or a partially molten magma chamber.

  5. 40 CFR 227.30 - High-level radioactive waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true High-level radioactive waste. 227.30 Section 227.30 Protection... Definitions § 227.30 High-level radioactive waste. High-level radioactive waste means the aqueous waste resulting...

  6. High Level Synthesis of Timed Asynchronous Circuits Tomohiro Yoneda

    E-print Network

    Myers, Chris J.

    implementations. The high level synthesis of asynchronous circuits have been studied mainly in the context reasons that this approach has not been used to date for high level synthesis are the state explosionHigh Level Synthesis of Timed Asynchronous Circuits Tomohiro Yoneda National Institute

  7. 46 CFR 182.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 182.530 Section 182.530... TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Bilge and Ballast Systems § 182.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) On a... operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the following normally unmanned spaces: (1)...

  8. 46 CFR 182.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 182.530 Section 182.530... TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Bilge and Ballast Systems § 182.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) On a... operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the following normally unmanned spaces: (1)...

  9. 46 CFR 119.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 119.530 Section 119.530... Bilge and Ballast Systems § 119.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) Each vessel must be provided with a visual and audible alarm at the operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the...

  10. 46 CFR 119.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 119.530 Section 119.530... Bilge and Ballast Systems § 119.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) Each vessel must be provided with a visual and audible alarm at the operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the...

  11. 46 CFR 119.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 119.530 Section 119.530... Bilge and Ballast Systems § 119.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) Each vessel must be provided with a visual and audible alarm at the operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the...

  12. 46 CFR 182.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 182.530 Section 182.530... TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Bilge and Ballast Systems § 182.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) On a... operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the following normally unmanned spaces: (1)...

  13. 46 CFR 119.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 119.530 Section 119.530... Bilge and Ballast Systems § 119.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) Each vessel must be provided with a visual and audible alarm at the operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the...

  14. 46 CFR 182.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 182.530 Section 182.530... TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Bilge and Ballast Systems § 182.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) On a... operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the following normally unmanned spaces: (1)...

  15. 46 CFR 182.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 182.530 Section 182.530... TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Bilge and Ballast Systems § 182.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) On a... operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the following normally unmanned spaces: (1)...

  16. Einstein Gravity from Conformal Gravity

    E-print Network

    Juan Maldacena

    2011-06-09

    We show that that four dimensional conformal gravity plus a simple Neumann boundary condition can be used to get the semiclassical (or tree level) wavefunction of the universe of four dimensional asymptotically de-Sitter or Euclidean anti-de Sitter spacetimes. This simple Neumann boundary condition selects the Einstein solution out of the more numerous solutions of conformal gravity. It thus removes the ghosts of conformal gravity from this computation. In the case of a five dimensional pure gravity theory with a positive cosmological constant we show that the late time superhorizon tree level probability measure, $|\\Psi [ g ]|^2$, for its four dimensional spatial slices is given by the action of Euclidean four dimensional conformal gravity.

  17. High-order discontinuous Galerkin methods for coupled thermoconvective flows under gravity modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papanicolaou, N. C.; Aristotelous, A. C.

    2015-10-01

    In this work, we develop a High-Order Symmetric Interior Penalty (SIP) Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) Finite Element Method (FEM) to investigate convective flows in a rectangular cavity subject to both vertical and horizontal temperature gradients. The whole cavity is subject to gravity modulation (g-jitter), simulating a microgravity environment. The sensitivity of the bifurcation problem makes the use of a high-order accurate and efficient technique essential. Our method is validated by solving the plane-parallel flow problem and the results were found to be in good agreement with published results. The numerical method was designed to be easily extendable to even more complex flows.

  18. Probing low-scale quantum gravity with high-energy neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Ennadifi, Salah Eddine

    2013-05-15

    Motivated by the quantum structure of space-time at high scales M{sub QG}, we study the propagation behavior of the high-energy neutrino within the quantum gravity effect. We consider the possible induced dispersive effect and derive the resulting vacuum refraction index {eta}{sub vac}(E{sub {nu}}) Asymptotically-Equal-To 1 + E{sub {nu}}{sup 2}/M{sub QG}{sup 2}. Then, by referring to the SN1987A and basing on the recorded neutrino data we approach the corresponding scale M{sub QG} Asymptotically-Equal-To 10{sup 4} GeV.

  19. Statistics of high-level scene context

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Michelle R.

    2013-01-01

    Context is critical for recognizing environments and for searching for objects within them: contextual associations have been shown to modulate reaction time and object recognition accuracy, as well as influence the distribution of eye movements and patterns of brain activations. However, we have not yet systematically quantified the relationships between objects and their scene environments. Here I seek to fill this gap by providing descriptive statistics of object-scene relationships. A total of 48, 167 objects were hand-labeled in 3499 scenes using the LabelMe tool (Russell et al., 2008). From these data, I computed a variety of descriptive statistics at three different levels of analysis: the ensemble statistics that describe the density and spatial distribution of unnamed “things” in the scene; the bag of words level where scenes are described by the list of objects contained within them; and the structural level where the spatial distribution and relationships between the objects are measured. The utility of each level of description for scene categorization was assessed through the use of linear classifiers, and the plausibility of each level for modeling human scene categorization is discussed. Of the three levels, ensemble statistics were found to be the most informative (per feature), and also best explained human patterns of categorization errors. Although a bag of words classifier had similar performance to human observers, it had a markedly different pattern of errors. However, certain objects are more useful than others, and ceiling classification performance could be achieved using only the 64 most informative objects. As object location tends not to vary as a function of category, structural information provided little additional information. Additionally, these data provide valuable information on natural scene redundancy that can be exploited for machine vision, and can help the visual cognition community to design experiments guided by statistics rather than intuition. PMID:24194723

  20. Effects of Varying Gravity Levels on fNIRS Headgear Performance and Signal Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackey, Jeffrey R.; Harrivel, Angela R.; Adamovsky, Grigory; Lewandowski, Beth E.; Gotti, Daniel J.; Tin, Padetha; Floyd, Bertram M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the effects of varying gravitational levels on functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) headgear. The fNIRS systems quantify neural activations in the cortex by measuring hemoglobin concentration changes via optical intensity. Such activation measurement allows for the detection of cognitive state, which can be important for emotional stability, human performance and vigilance optimization, and the detection of hazardous operator state. The technique depends on coupling between the fNIRS probe and users skin. Such coupling may be highly susceptible to motion if probe-containing headgear designs are not adequately tested. The lack of reliable and self-applicable headgear robust to the influence of motion artifact currently inhibits its operational use in aerospace environments. Both NASAs Aviation Safety and Human Research Programs are interested in this technology as a method of monitoring cognitive state of pilots and crew.

  1. Revealing the beneficial effect of protease supplementation to high gravity beer fermentations using "-omics" techniques

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Addition of sugar syrups to the basic wort is a popular technique to achieve higher gravity in beer fermentations, but it results in dilution of the free amino nitrogen (FAN) content in the medium. The multicomponent protease enzyme Flavourzyme has beneficial effect on the brewer's yeast fermentation performance during high gravity fermentations as it increases the initial FAN value and results in higher FAN uptake, higher specific growth rate, higher ethanol yield and improved flavour profile. Results In the present study, transcriptome and metabolome analysis were used to elucidate the effect on the addition of the multicomponent protease enzyme Flavourzyme and its influence on the metabolism of the brewer's yeast strain Weihenstephan 34/70. The study underlines the importance of sufficient nitrogen availability during the course of beer fermentation. The applied metabolome and transcriptome analysis allowed mapping the effect of the wort sugar composition on the nitrogen uptake. Conclusion Both the transcriptome and the metabolome analysis revealed that there is a significantly higher impact of protease addition for maltose syrup supplemented fermentations, while addition of glucose syrup to increase the gravity in the wort resulted in increased glucose repression that lead to inhibition of amino acid uptake and hereby inhibited the effect of the protease addition. PMID:21513553

  2. High-resolution Gravity Field Models of the Moon Using GRAIL mission Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemoine, Frank G.; Goossens, Sander; Sabaka, Terrence J.; Nicholas, Joseph B.; Mazarico, Erwan; Rowlands, David D.; Loomis, Bryant D.; Chinn, Douglas S.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2015-04-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission was designed to map the structure of the lunar interior from crust to core and to advance the understanding of the Moon's thermal evolution by producing a high-quality, high-resolution map of the gravitational field of the Moon. GRAIL consisted of two spacecraft, with Ka-band tracking between the two satellites as the single science instrument, with the addition of Earth-based tracking using the Deep Space Network. The science mission was divided into two phases: a primary mission from March 1, 2012 to May 29, 2012, and an extended mission from August 30, 2012 to December 14, 2012. The altitude varied from 3 km to 94 km above the lunar surface during both mission phases. Both the primary and the extended mission data have been processed into global models of the lunar gravity field at NASA/GSFC using the GEODYN software up to 1080 x 1080 in spherical harmonics. In addition to the high-resolution global models, local models have also been developed. Due to varying spacecraft altitude and ground track spacing, the actual resolution of the global models varies geographically. Information beyond the current resolution is still present in the data, as indicated by relatively higher fits in the last part of the extended mission, where the satellites achieved their lowest altitude above lunar surface. Local models of the lunar gravitational field at high resolution were thus estimated to accommodate this signal. Here, we present the current status of GRAIL gravity modeling at NASA/GSFC, for both global and local models. We discuss the methods we used for the processing of the GRAIL data, and evaluate these solutions with respect to the derived power spectra, Bouguer anomalies, and fits with independent data (such as from the low-altitude phase of the Lunar Prospector mission). We also evaluate the prospects for extending the resolution of our current models

  3. Viscosity Measurement of Highly Viscous Liquids Using Drop Coalescence in Low Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antar, Basil N.; Ethridge, Edwin; Maxwell, Daniel

    1999-01-01

    The method of drop coalescence is being investigated for use as a method for determining the viscosity of highly viscous undercooled liquids. Low gravity environment is necessary in this case to minimize the undesirable effects of body forces and liquid motion in levitated drops. Also, the low gravity environment will allow for investigating large liquid volumes which can lead to much higher accuracy for the viscosity calculations than possible under 1 - g conditions. The drop coalescence method is preferred over the drop oscillation technique since the latter method can only be applied for liquids with vanishingly small viscosities. The technique developed relies on both the highly accurate solution of the Navier-Stokes equations as well as on data from experiments conducted in near zero gravity environment. In the analytical aspect of the method two liquid volumes are brought into contact which will coalesce under the action of surface tension alone. The free surface geometry development as well as its velocity during coalescence which are obtained from numerical computations are compared with an analogous experimental model. The viscosity in the numerical computations is then adjusted to bring into agreement of the experimental results with the calculations. The true liquid viscosity is the one which brings the experiment closest to the calculations. Results are presented for method validation experiments performed recently on board the NASA/KC-135 aircraft. The numerical solution for this validation case was produced using the Boundary Element Method. In these tests the viscosity of a highly viscous liquid, in this case glycerine at room temperature, was determined to high degree of accuracy using the liquid coalescence method. These experiments gave very encouraging results which will be discussed together with plans for implementing the method in a shuttle flight experiment.

  4. 40 CFR 227.30 - High-level radioactive waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-level radioactive waste. 227.30...-level radioactive waste. High-level radioactive waste means the aqueous waste resulting from the operation of the first cycle solvent extraction system, or equivalent, and the concentrated waste...

  5. 40 CFR 227.30 - High-level radioactive waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true High-level radioactive waste. 227.30...-level radioactive waste. High-level radioactive waste means the aqueous waste resulting from the operation of the first cycle solvent extraction system, or equivalent, and the concentrated waste...

  6. 40 CFR 227.30 - High-level radioactive waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false High-level radioactive waste. 227.30...-level radioactive waste. High-level radioactive waste means the aqueous waste resulting from the operation of the first cycle solvent extraction system, or equivalent, and the concentrated waste...

  7. 46 CFR 182.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...182.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) On...station to indicate a high water level in each of the following...subject to flooding from sea water piping within the space...paragraph (a), provide bilge level alarms in all...

  8. 46 CFR 182.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...182.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) On...station to indicate a high water level in each of the following...subject to flooding from sea water piping within the space...paragraph (a), provide bilge level alarms in all...

  9. 46 CFR 182.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...182.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) On...station to indicate a high water level in each of the following...subject to flooding from sea water piping within the space...paragraph (a), provide bilge level alarms in all...

  10. 46 CFR 182.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...182.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) On...station to indicate a high water level in each of the following...subject to flooding from sea water piping within the space...paragraph (a), provide bilge level alarms in all...

  11. 46 CFR 182.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...182.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) On...station to indicate a high water level in each of the following...subject to flooding from sea water piping within the space...paragraph (a), provide bilge level alarms in all...

  12. High level indole signalling in Escherichia coli

    E-print Network

    Gaimster, Hannah Dorne

    2014-06-10

    -di-GMP levels, because synthesis and breakdown are controlled by a range of factors (reviewed by Hengge, 2009). c-di-GMP can mediate its effects by binding to effector proteins, transcription factors or riboswitches. An example of c-di-GMP interacting... ATP Adenosine triphosphate A/E attaching and effacing cAMP cyclic adenosine monophosphate CRP cAMP receptor protein CCSM cell to cell signalling molecule c-di-GMP cyclic dimeric guanosine 3’-5’-monophosphate cGMP cyclic guanosine 3...

  13. Dynamic equilibrium under vibrations of H? liquid-vapor interface at various gravity levels.

    PubMed

    Gandikota, G; Chatain, D; Lyubimova, T; Beysens, D

    2014-06-01

    Horizontal vibration applied to the support of a simple pendulum can deviate from the equilibrium position of the pendulum to a nonvertical position. A similar phenomenon is expected when a liquid-vapor interface is subjected to strong horizontal vibration. Beyond a threshold value of vibrational velocity the interface should attain an equilibrium position at an angle to the initial horizontal position. In the present paper experimental investigation of this phenomenon is carried out in a magnetic levitation device to study the effect of the vibration parameters, gravity acceleration, and the liquid-vapor density on the interface position. The results compare well with the theoretical expression derived by Wolf [G. H. Wolf, Z. Phys. B 227, 291 (1969)]. PMID:25019875

  14. Gravity waves and high-altitude CO$_2$ ice cloud formation in the Martian atmosphere

    E-print Network

    Yi?it, Erdal; Hartogh, Paul

    2015-01-01

    We present the first general circulation model simulations that quantify and reproduce patches of extremely cold air required for CO$_2$ condensation and cloud formation in the Martian mesosphere. They are created by subgrid-scale gravity waves (GWs) accounted for in the model with the interactively implemented spectral parameterization. Distributions of GW-induced temperature fluctuations and occurrences of supersaturation conditions are in a good agreement with observations of high-altitude CO$_2$ ice clouds. Our study confirms the key role of GWs in facilitating CO$_2$ cloud formation, discusses their tidal modulation, and predicts clouds at altitudes higher than have been observed to date.

  15. Analysis of Cyberbullying Sensitivity Levels of High School Students and Their Perceived Social Support Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akturk, Ahmet Oguz

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine the cyberbullying sensitivity levels of high school students and their perceived social supports levels, and analyze the variables that predict cyberbullying sensitivity. In addition, whether cyberbullying sensitivity levels and social support levels differed according to gender was also…

  16. Infrared Thermography in High Level Waste

    SciTech Connect

    GLEATON, DAVIDT.

    2004-08-24

    The Savannah River Site is a Department of Energy, government-owned, company-operated industrial complex built in the 1950s to produce materials used in nuclear weapons. Five reactors were built to support the production of nuclear weapons material. Irradiated materials were moved from the reactors to one of the two chemical separation plants. In these facilities, known as ''canyons,'' the irradiated fuel and target assemblies were chemically processed to separate useful products from waste. Unfortunately, the by-product waste of nuclear material production was a highly radioactive liquid that had to be stored and maintained. In 1993 a strategy was developed to implement predictive maintenance technologies in the Liquid Waste Disposition Project Division responsible for processing the liquid waste. Responsibilities include the processing and treatment of 51 underground tanks designed to hold 750,000 to1,300,000 gallons of liquid waste and operation of a facility that vitrifies highly radioactive liquid waste into glass logs. Electrical and mechanical equipment monitored at these facilities is very similar to that found in non-nuclear industrial plants. Annual inspections are performed on electrical components, roof systems, and mechanical equipment. Troubleshooting and post installation and post-maintenance infrared inspections are performed as needed. In conclusion, regardless of the industry, the use of infrared thermography has proven to be an efficient and effective method of inspection to help improve plant safety and reliability through early detection of equipment problems.

  17. High level tools for GKS graphics

    SciTech Connect

    Worlton, T.G.

    1988-01-01

    GKS graphics software provides a device independent method of producing graphics on a number of different devices, but it is a rather low level package which is difficult to use. The GPLOT Fortran library of graphics tools discussed here can be used to simplify the creation of scientific graphics with VAX GKS(GPL). GPLOT contains routines for drawing and labelling of axes for linear, log, and log-log plots. It supports the drawing of data curves with or without markers and/or error bars on the data points. It provides routines for producing a legend which automatically keeps track of the line type, color, and marker type used in producing each of the curves on a plot. There are also routines for producing contour plots, bar graphs and for drawing vectors with various types of arrow heads. GPLOT allows setting the text font by font name and attributes. It also allows the definition of switch characters to switch fonts or do subscripts and superscripts using instructions embedded in the string. GPLOT supports the GKS feature of multiple active workstations which allows creation of hardcopy plots while plotting to the screen. GPLOT supports creation of GKS metafiles and includes a program for interpreting and plotting GKS metafiles. It also supports graphics locator input with conversion of coordinates to user units if desired. To simplify user interaction during input, there are routines for switching between VT220 mode and graphics mode. A number of examples are presented. 12 refs., 6 figs.

  18. Gravity investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Healey, D.L.

    1983-12-31

    A large density contrast exists between the Paleozoic rocks (including the rocks of Climax stock) and less dense, Tertiary volcanic rocks and alluvium. This density contrast ranges widely, and herein for interpretive purposes, is assumed to average 0.85 Mg/m{sup 3} (megagrams per cubic meter). The large density contrast makes the gravity method a useful tool with which to study the interface between these rock types. However, little or no density contrast is discernible between the sedimentary Paleozoic rocks that surround the Climax stock and the intrusive rocks of the stock itself. Therefore the gravity method can not be used to define the configuration of the stock. Gravity highs coincide with outcrops of the dense Paleozoic rocks, and gravity lows overlie less-dense Tertiary volcanic rocks and Quaternary alluvium. The positions of three major faults (Boundary, Yucca, and Butte faults) are defined by steep gravity gradients. West of the Climax stock, the Tippinip fault has juxtaposed Paleozoic rocks of similar density, and consequently, has no expression in the gravity data in that area. The gravity station spacing, across Oak Spring Butte, is not sufficient to adequately define any gravity expression of the Tippinip fault. 18 refs., 5 figs.

  19. Bumblebee Pupae Contain High Levels of Aluminium

    PubMed Central

    Exley, Christopher; Rotheray, Ellen; Goulson, David

    2015-01-01

    The causes of declines in bees and other pollinators remains an on-going debate. While recent attention has focussed upon pesticides, other environmental pollutants have largely been ignored. Aluminium is the most significant environmental contaminant of recent times and we speculated that it could be a factor in pollinator decline. Herein we have measured the content of aluminium in bumblebee pupae taken from naturally foraging colonies in the UK. Individual pupae were acid-digested in a microwave oven and their aluminium content determined using transversely heated graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Pupae were heavily contaminated with aluminium giving values between 13.4 and 193.4 ?g/g dry wt. and a mean (SD) value of 51.0 (33.0) ?g/g dry wt. for the 72 pupae tested. Mean aluminium content was shown to be a significant negative predictor of average pupal weight in colonies. While no other statistically significant relationships were found relating aluminium to bee or colony health, the actual content of aluminium in pupae are extremely high and demonstrate significant exposure to aluminium. Bees rely heavily on cognitive function and aluminium is a known neurotoxin with links, for example, to Alzheimer’s disease in humans. The significant contamination of bumblebee pupae by aluminium raises the intriguing spectre of cognitive dysfunction playing a role in their population decline. PMID:26042788

  20. Bumblebee pupae contain high levels of aluminium.

    PubMed

    Exley, Christopher; Rotheray, Ellen; Goulson, David

    2015-01-01

    The causes of declines in bees and other pollinators remains an on-going debate. While recent attention has focussed upon pesticides, other environmental pollutants have largely been ignored. Aluminium is the most significant environmental contaminant of recent times and we speculated that it could be a factor in pollinator decline. Herein we have measured the content of aluminium in bumblebee pupae taken from naturally foraging colonies in the UK. Individual pupae were acid-digested in a microwave oven and their aluminium content determined using transversely heated graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Pupae were heavily contaminated with aluminium giving values between 13.4 and 193.4 ?g/g dry wt. and a mean (SD) value of 51.0 (33.0) ?g/g dry wt. for the 72 pupae tested. Mean aluminium content was shown to be a significant negative predictor of average pupal weight in colonies. While no other statistically significant relationships were found relating aluminium to bee or colony health, the actual content of aluminium in pupae are extremely high and demonstrate significant exposure to aluminium. Bees rely heavily on cognitive function and aluminium is a known neurotoxin with links, for example, to Alzheimer's disease in humans. The significant contamination of bumblebee pupae by aluminium raises the intriguing spectre of cognitive dysfunction playing a role in their population decline. PMID:26042788

  1. High-resolution Local Gravity Model of the South Pole of the Moon from GRAIL Extended Mission Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goossens, Sander Johannes; Sabaka, Terence J.; Nicholas, Joseph B.; Lemoine, Frank G.; Rowlands, David D.; Mazarico, Erwan; Neumann, Gregory A.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2014-01-01

    We estimated a high-resolution local gravity field model over the south pole of the Moon using data from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory's extended mission. Our solution consists of adjustments with respect to a global model expressed in spherical harmonics. The adjustments are expressed as gridded gravity anomalies with a resolution of 1/6deg by 1/6deg (equivalent to that of a degree and order 1080 model in spherical harmonics), covering a cap over the south pole with a radius of 40deg. The gravity anomalies have been estimated from a short-arc analysis using only Ka-band range-rate (KBRR) data over the area of interest. We apply a neighbor-smoothing constraint to our solution. Our local model removes striping present in the global model; it reduces the misfit to the KBRR data and improves correlations with topography to higher degrees than current global models.

  2. Goose Bay radar observations of earth-reflected atmospheric gravity waves in the high-latitude ionosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Ruohoniemi, J.M.; Greenwald, R.A.; Baker, K.B.; Samson, J.C.

    1990-05-03

    An HF backscatter radar at Goose Bay, Labrador made it possible to observe irregularities in the distribution of ionospheric ionization at E and F region altitudes (100 - 600 km) in the high-latitude (65 - 85 deg Lambda) ionosphere. Recently it has been established that the passage of atmospheric gravity waves perturbs the ionosphere in ways that are readily detected in returns that reflect off the ionospheric layers. The particular strength of the technique lies in the nearly instantaneous measurement of gravity wave effects over large areas ( 1 million sq. km). With this information the propagation of gravity waves can be accurately modelled. Generally gravity waves are observed during daylight hours propagating away from the auroral electrojets. The propagation mode involves penetration of wave energy through the lower atmosphere and subsequent reflection by the earth's surface. The frequencies associated with the waves lie in the 0.4 - 0.6 mHz range and the wavelengths vary from 300 to 500 km. The excitation sources appear to lie in the vicinity of the high-latitude electrojets. In this paper we outline the analysis of gravity wave effects on HF propagation and present an example of a modelled gravity wave event.

  3. Ethanol Production from Extruded Thermoplastic Maize Meal by High Gravity Fermentation with Zymomonas mobilis

    PubMed Central

    Peralta-Contreras, Mayeli; Aguilar-Zamarripa, Edna; Pérez-Carrillo, Esther; Escamilla-García, Erandi; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio Othon

    2014-01-01

    A comparative study of extruded and ground maize meals as raw materials for the production of regular (12°P) and high gravity (20°P) worts was devised. Extruded water solubility index (WSI) was higher (9.8 percentage units) and crude fat was lower (2.64 percentage units) compared to ground maize. Free-amino nitrogen compounds (FAN), pH, and glucose were evaluated in regular and high gravity worts produced from ground or extruded maize. Extrusion improved glucose content and ethanol yield. In 20°P mashes, extrusion is enhanced by 2.14% initial glucose compared with regular ground mashes. The 12°P and 20°P extruded treatments averaged 12.2% and 8.4% higher ethanol, respectively, compared to the uncooked counterpart. The 20°P worts fermented with Zymomonas mobilis produced 9.56% more ethanol than the 12°P counterpart. The results show that the combination of extrusion and fermentation of 20°P worts improved ethanol yield per kg flour until 20.93%. This pretreatment stimulates Z. mobilis fermentation efficiency. PMID:25530885

  4. Evaluation of an enhanced gravity-based fine-coal circuit for high-sulfur coal

    SciTech Connect

    Mohanty, M.K.; Samal, A.R.; Palit, A.

    2008-02-15

    One of the main objectives of this study was to evaluate a fine-coal cleaning circuit using an enhanced gravity separator specifically for a high sulfur coal application. The evaluation not only included testing of individual unit operations used for fine-coal classification, cleaning and dewatering, but also included testing of the complete circuit simultaneously. At a scale of nearly 2 t/h, two alternative circuits were evaluated to clean a minus 0.6-mm coal stream utilizing a 150-mm-diameter classifying cyclone, a linear screen having a projected surface area of 0.5 m{sup 2}, an enhanced gravity separator having a bowl diameter of 250 mm and a screen-bowl centrifuge having a bowl diameter of 500 mm. The cleaning and dewatering components of both circuits were the same; however, one circuit used a classifying cyclone whereas the other used a linear screen as the classification device. An industrial size coal spiral was used to clean the 2- x 0.6-mm coal size fraction for each circuit to estimate the performance of a complete fine-coal circuit cleaning a minus 2-mm particle size coal stream. The 'linear screen + enhanced gravity separator + screen-bowl circuit' provided superior sulfur and ash-cleaning performance to the alternative circuit that used a classifying cyclone in place of the linear screen. Based on these test data, it was estimated that the use of the recommended circuit to treat 50 t/h of minus 2-mm size coal having feed ash and sulfur contents of 33.9% and 3.28%, respectively, may produce nearly 28.3 t/h of clean coal with product ash and sulfur contents of 9.15% and 1.61 %, respectively.

  5. Impact of Low-Level Southerly Surges on Mixed Rossby Gravity Waves over the Central Pacific.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukutomi, Y.

    2014-12-01

    This study examines dynamical impacts of lower-tropospheric southerly wind surges originating in midlatitudes of the Southern Hemisphere (SH) on the development of mixed Rossby gravity (MRG) waves over the central Pacific during June-August 1979-2012, through the statistical analysis of the JRA-55 products and NOAA outgoing long wave radiation data. The central Pacific MRG waves are identified by an extended EOF (EEOF) analysis on 2-8-day filtered daily 850-hPa meridional wind anomalies during June-August 1979-2012. Composite analysis based on the leading EEOF time coefficients is able to capture the development of the MRG waves associated with a southerly surge originating in the SH extratropics. As a weak clockwise gyre as a part of an off-equatorial easterly wavetrain moves eastward and southeastward from the off-equatorial eastern Pacific into the equatorial central Pacific, the southerly surge penetrates into the equatorial tropics at around 150W. Then, the clockwise gyre develops into a MRG-type gyre over the central Pacific. A transition from an easterly wave-type gyre into a MRG-type gyre occurs associated with the southerly surge. The southerly surge forms a cross-equatorial flow on the western flank of the MRG-type gyre. The gyre is amplified when the southerly surge reaches the equatorial tropics. At the same time, convection coupled with the MRG-type gyre is enhanced. The southerly surges are originated in the midlatitude South Pacific, and they are induced by synoptic-scale baroclinic disturbances propagating along the SH midlatitude westerly jet. An eddy vorticity budget analysis indicates that the southerly surge plays an important role in spinning up the MRG-type gyre through transient advection of absolute vorticiy. A case study of a MRG-wave event in mid-July 2006 also illustrates development of a MRG wave associated with the southerly surge and an easterly wave-to-MRG wave transition.

  6. Adhesive High-Level Replacement Categories and Systems

    E-print Network

    Habel, Annegret

    Adhesive High-Level Replacement Categories and Systems Hartmut Ehrig1 , Annegret Habel2 , Julia.habel@informatik.uni-oldenburg.de Abstract. Adhesive high-level replacement (HLR) categories and sys- tems are introduced as a new of HLR systems with the new concept of adhesive categories introduced by Lack and Soboci

  7. High-Level Synthesis of Digital Microfluidic Biochips

    E-print Network

    Chakrabarty, Krishnendu

    , the synthesis approach is applied to a protein assay, which serves as a more complex bioassay application16 High-Level Synthesis of Digital Microfluidic Biochips FEI SU Intel Corporation and KRISHNENDU design methodology that attempts to apply classical high-level synthesis techniques to the design

  8. Physical Activity Levels in Portuguese High School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marmeleira, Jose Francisco Filipe; Aldeias, Nuno Micael Carrasqueira; da Graca, Pedro Miguel dos Santos Medeira

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate the physical activity (PA) levels of high school Portuguese students during physical education (PE) and investigate the association of PA levels with students' goal orientation and intrinsic motivation. Forty-six students from three high schools participated. Heart rate telemetry and pedometry were used…

  9. Dynamic Communicating Automata and Branching High-Level MSCs

    E-print Network

    Bollig, Benedikt

    Communicating Automata · Branching High-Level MSCs ... x := new(s,x) x ? comx ! req(y) #12;Outline · Dynamic Communicating Automata · Branching High-Level MSCs ... x y x y req(y) x y com com x := new(s,x) x ? comx ! req com x := new(s,x) x ? comx ! req(y) implementable? #12;Outline · Dynamic Communicating Automata

  10. Exploring Quantum Gravity with Very-High-Energy Gamma-Ray Instruments - Prospects and Limitations

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Robert

    2009-04-08

    Some models for quantum gravity (QG) violate Lorentz invariance and predict an energy dependence of the speed of light, leading to a dispersion of high-energy gamma-ray signals that travel over cosmological distances. Limits on the dispersion from short-duration substructures observed in gamma-rays emitted by gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) at cosmological distances have provided interesting bounds on Lorentz invariance violation (LIV). Recent observations of unprecedentedly fast flares in the very-high energy gamma-ray emission of the active galactic nuclei (AGNs) Mkn 501 in 2005 and PKS 2155-304 in 2006 resulted in the most constraining limits on LIV from light-travel observations, approaching the Planck mass scale, at which QG effects are assumed to become important. I review the current status of LIV searches using GRBs and AGN flare events, and discuss limitations of light-travel time analyses and prospects for future instruments in the gamma-ray domain.

  11. Exploring Quantum Gravity with Very-High-Energy Gamma-Ray Instruments - Prospects and Limitations

    E-print Network

    Robert Wagner

    2009-01-20

    Some models for quantum gravity (QG) violate Lorentz invariance and predict an energy dependence of the speed of light, leading to a dispersion of high-energy gamma-ray signals that travel over cosmological distances. Limits on the dispersion from short-duration substructures observed in gamma-rays emitted by gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) at cosmological distances have provided interesting bounds on Lorentz invariance violation (LIV). Recent observations of unprecedentedly fast flares in the very-high energy gamma-ray emission of the active galactic nuclei (AGNs) Mkn 501 in 2005 and PKS 2155-304 in 2006 resulted in the most constraining limits on LIV from light-travel observations, approaching the Planck mass scale, at which QG effects are assumed to become important. I review the current status of LIV searches using GRBs and AGN flare events, and discuss limitations of light-travel time analyses and prospects for future instruments in the gamma-ray domain.

  12. Acceleration levels on board the Space Station and a tethered elevator for micro and variable-gravity applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzini, E. C.; Cosmo, M.; Vetrella, S.; Moccia, A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper investigates the dynamics and acceleration levels of a new tethered system for micro and variable-gravity applications. The system consists of two platforms tethered on opposite sides to the Space Station. A fourth platform, the elevator, is placed in between the Space Station and the upper platform. Variable-g levels on board the elevator are obtained by moving this facility along the upper tether, while micro-g experiments are carried out on board the Space Station. By controlling the length of the lower tether the position of the system CM can be maintained on board the Space Station despite variations of the station's distribution of mass. The paper illustrates the mathematical model, the environmental perturbations and the control techniques which have been adopted for the simulation and control of the system dynamics. Two sets of results from two different simulation runs are shown. The first set shows the system dynamics and the acceleration spectra on board the Space Station and the elevator during station-keeping. The second set of results demonstrates the capability of the elevator to attain a preselected g-level.

  13. High latitude gravity waves at the Venus cloud tops as observed by the Venus Monitoring Camera on board Venus Express

    E-print Network

    Spiga, Aymeric

    High latitude gravity waves at the Venus cloud tops as observed by the Venus Monitoring Camera on board Venus Express A. Piccialli a,b, , D.V. Titov a , A. Sanchez-Lavega c,d , J. Peralta e,f , O September 2013 Available online 25 September 2013 Keywords: Venus Atmospheres, dynamics a b s t r a c t High

  14. Predictors of Placement in Lower Level versus Higher Level High School Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archbald, Doug; Farley-Ripple, Elizabeth N.

    2012-01-01

    Educators and researchers have long been interested in determinants of access to honors level and college prep courses in high school. Factors influencing access to upper level mathematics courses are particularly important because of the hierarchical and sequential nature of this subject and because students who finish high school with only lower…

  15. Local gravity disturbance estimation from multiple-high-single-low satellite-to-satellite tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jekeli, Christopher

    1989-01-01

    The idea of satellite-to-satellite tracking in the high-low mode has received renewed attention in light of the uncertain future of NASA's proposed low-low mission, Geopotential Research Mission (GRM). The principal disadvantage with a high-low system is the increased time interval required to obtain global coverage since the intersatellite visibility is often obscured by Earth. The U.S. Air Force has begun to investigate high-low satellite-to-satellite tracking between the Global Positioning System (GPS) of satellites (high component) and NASA's Space Transportation System (STS), the shuttle (low component). Because the GPS satellites form, or will form, a constellation enabling continuous three-dimensional tracking of a low-altitude orbiter, there will be no data gaps due to lack of intervisibility. Furthermore, all three components of the gravitation vector are estimable at altitude, a given grid of which gives a stronger estimate of gravity on Earth's surface than a similar grid of line-of-sight gravitation components. The proposed Air Force mission is STAGE (Shuttle-GPS Tracking for Anomalous Gravitation Estimation) and is designed for local gravity field determinations since the shuttle will likely not achieve polar orbits. The motivation for STAGE was the feasibility to obtain reasonable accuracies with absolutely minimal cost. Instead of simulating drag-free orbits, STAGE uses direct measurements of the nongravitational forces obtained by an inertial package onboard the shuttle. The sort of accuracies that would be achievable from STAGE vis-a-vis other satellite tracking missions such as GRM and European Space Agency's POPSAT-GRM are analyzed.

  16. GOCE long-wavelength gravity field recovery from high-low satellite-to-satellite-tracking using the acceleration approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reubelt, T.; Baur, O.; Weigelt, M.; Roth, M.; Sneeuw, N.

    2012-04-01

    The restricted sensitivity of the GOCE (Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer) gradiometer instrument requires satellite gravity gradiometry to be supplemented by orbit analysis in order to resolve long-wavelength features of the geopotential. In this context, the energy conservation method gained particular interest to exploit GPS-based satellite-to-satellite tracking (SST) information. This method has been adopted within official ESA products. On the other hand, various investigations showed the energy conservation principle to be a sub-optimal choice. For this reason, we propose to estimate the low-frequency part of the gravity field by the acceleration approach, which proved to be an efficient and accurate tool in high-low-SST data analysis of former satellite data. This approach balances the gravitational vector with satellite accelerations by means of Newton's law of motion, and hence is characterized by (second-order) numerical differentiation of the kinematic orbit. However, the application of this method to GOCE-SST data, given with a 1s-sampling, showed that serious problems arise due to strong noise amplification of high frequency noise. In order to mitigate this problem, tailored processing strategies with regard to low-pass filtering, variance-covariance information handling, and robust parameter estimation have been adopted. By comparison of our GIWF (Geodetic Institute (GI), Space Research Institute (Institut für Weltraumforschung, IWF)) solutions and the official GOCE models with a state-of-the-art gravity field solution derived from GRACE (Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment), we conclude that the acceleration approach is better suited for GOCE-only gravity field determination as opposed to the energy conservation method. Comparisons with solutions from other algorithms, e.g. the variational approach, show that the acceleration approach is able to estimate gravity fields of similar quality.

  17. The Grace Mission: The Challenges of Using Micron-Level Satellite-to-Satellite Ranging to Measure the Earth's Gravity Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, M.; Bettadpur, S.

    2000-01-01

    The GRACE Mission, to be launched in mid-2001, will provide an unprecedented map of the Earth's gravity field every month. In this paper, we outline the challenges associated with this micron-level satellite-to-satellite ranging, the solutions used by the GRACE project, and the expected science applications of the data.

  18. Optical Mass Gauging System for Measuring Liquid Levels in a Reduced Gravity Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullenberger, Ryan M.; Munoz, Wesley M.; Lyon, Matt P.; Vogel, Kenny; Yalin, Azer P.; Korman, Valentin; Polzin, Kurt A.

    2010-01-01

    A compact and rugged fiber-coupled liquid volume sensor designed for flight on a sounding rocket platform is presented. The sensor consists of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer capable of measuring the amount of liquid contained in a tank under any gravitational conditions, including a microgravity environment, by detecting small changes in the index of refraction of the gas contained within a sensing region. By monitoring changes in the interference fringe pattern as the system undergoes a small compression provided by a piston, the ullage volume of a tank can be directly measured allowing for a determination of the liquid volume. To demonstrate the technique, data are acquired using two tanks containing different volumes of liquid, which are representative of the levels of liquid in a tank at different time periods during a mission. The two tanks are independently exposed to the measurement apparatus, allowing for a determination of the liquid level in each. In a controlled, laboratory test of the unit, the system demonstrated a capability of measuring a liquid level in an individual tank of 10.53 mL with a 2% error. The overall random uncertainty for the flight system is higher than that one test, at +/- 1.5 mL.

  19. High Energy Astrophysics Tests of Lorentz Invariance and Quantum Gravity Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, Floyd W.

    2011-01-01

    High-energy astrophysics observations provide the best possibilities to detect a very small violation of Lorentz invariance such as may be related to the structure of space-time near the Planck scale of approximately 10-35 m. I will discuss here the possible signatures of Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) from observations of the spectra, polarization, and timing of gamma-rays from active galactic nuclei and gamma-ray bursts. Other sensitive tests are provided by observations ofthe spectra of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays and neutrinos. Using the latest data from the Pierre Auger Observatory one can already derive an upper limit of 4.5 x 10(exp -23) to the amount of LIV at a proton Lorentz factor of -2 x 10(exp 11). This result has fundamental implications for quantum gravity models. I will also discuss the possibilities of using more sensitive space based detection techniques to improve searches for LIV in the future.

  20. Simultaneous dewatering and reconstitution in a high-gravity solid-bowl centrifuge

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, W.W.; Gray, M.L.; Killmeyer, R.P.; Finseth, D.H.

    1994-12-31

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center has developed a dewatering and reconstitution process in which bitumen emulsion is added to a fine clean coal slurry ahead of the dewatering device. The process simultaneously improves dewatering efficiency and reduces dustiness of the fine coal product during subsequent handling. This paper describes the test results from dewatering and reconstitution of fine coal in a 500 lb. per hour continuous bench scale high-gravity solid-bowl centrifuge in PETC`s Coal Preparation Process Research Facility. Test results will be evaluated in terms of type and dosage of emulsion, product moisture and strength, and product handling and dust reduction efficiency. A preliminary cost analysis will also be included.

  1. Reference commercial high-level waste glass and canister definition.

    SciTech Connect

    Slate, S.C.; Ross, W.A.; Partain, W.L.

    1981-09-01

    This report presents technical data and performance characteristics of a high-level waste glass and canister intended for use in the design of a complete waste encapsulation package suitable for disposal in a geologic repository. The borosilicate glass contained in the stainless steel canister represents the probable type of high-level waste product that will be produced in a commercial nuclear-fuel reprocessing plant. Development history is summarized for high-level liquid waste compositions, waste glass composition and characteristics, and canister design. The decay histories of the fission products and actinides (plus daughters) calculated by the ORIGEN-II code are presented.

  2. High-resolution local gravity model of the south pole of the Moon from GRAIL extended mission data

    PubMed Central

    Goossens, Sander; Sabaka, Terence J; Nicholas, Joseph B; Lemoine, Frank G; Rowlands, David D; Mazarico, Erwan; Neumann, Gregory A; Smith, David E; Zuber, Maria T

    2014-01-01

    We estimated a high-resolution local gravity field model over the south pole of the Moon using data from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory's extended mission. Our solution consists of adjustments with respect to a global model expressed in spherical harmonics. The adjustments are expressed as gridded gravity anomalies with a resolution of 1/6° by 1/6° (equivalent to that of a degree and order 1080 model in spherical harmonics), covering a cap over the south pole with a radius of 40°. The gravity anomalies have been estimated from a short-arc analysis using only Ka-band range-rate (KBRR) data over the area of interest. We apply a neighbor-smoothing constraint to our solution. Our local model removes striping present in the global model; it reduces the misfit to the KBRR data and improves correlations with topography to higher degrees than current global models. Key Points We present a high-resolution gravity model of the south pole of the Moon Improved correlations with topography to higher degrees than global models Improved fits to the data and reduced striping that is present in global models PMID:26074637

  3. Cineradiographic Analysis of Mouse Postural Response to Alteration of Gravity and Jerk (Gravity Deceleration Rate)

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Katsuya; de Campos, Priscila S.; Zeredo, Jorge L.; Kumei, Yasuhiro

    2014-01-01

    The ability to maintain the body relative to the external environment is important for adaptation to altered gravity. However, the physiological limits for adaptation or the disruption of body orientation are not known. In this study, we analyzed postural changes in mice upon exposure to various low gravities. Male C57BL6/J mice (n = 6) were exposed to various gravity-deceleration conditions by customized parabolic flight-maneuvers targeting the partial-gravity levels of 0.60, 0.30, 0.15 and ? g (<0.001 g). Video recordings of postural responses were analyzed frame-by-frame by high-definition cineradiography and with exact instantaneous values of gravity and jerk. As a result, the coordinated extension of the neck, spine and hindlimbs was observed during the initial phase of gravity deceleration. Joint angles widened to 120%–200% of the reference g level, and the magnitude of the thoracic-curvature stretching was correlated with gravity and jerk, i.e., the gravity deceleration rate. A certain range of jerk facilitated mouse skeletal stretching efficiently, and a jerk of ?0.3~?0.4 j (g/s) induced the maximum extension of the thoracic-curvature. The postural response of animals to low gravity may undergo differential regulation by gravity and jerk. PMID:25370191

  4. Deep Crustal Seismic Investigation Across the Silkeborg Gravity High, Central Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandrin, A.; Thybo, H.; Nielsen, L.; Lyngsie, S. B.; Keller, G. R.

    2004-12-01

    We recently completed a seismic refraction study across northwestern Denmark (the Jutland Peninsula) as part of our efforts to understand the origin and evolution of the Danish Basin. We were testing the hypothesis that the origin of the Mesozoic sedimentary basins in Denmark is related to extensional regimes and intensive magmatic activity during the Carboniferous and early Permian. Potential field data and existing seismic studies indicate that a large batholith is present within the lower crust below the Silkeborg Gravity High (Central Jutland). The goal of project ESTRID (Explosion Seismic Transect across a Rift In Denmark) is to define the shape and size of this batholith. Our main profile (more 140 km long) was laid out along the strike direction of the Silkeborg anomaly. Around 240 Texan instruments were deployed on this profile and ca. 150 more instruments where deployed in arcuate fan geometries, whose centres of curvature were located at the two extreme shotpoints on each end of the profile. These two shots were detonated in water, in the North Sea (shot 1) and in the Arhus Bay (shot 6). Additionally, 4 shots were fired at regular distances along the main profile. Preliminary analysis with seismic tomography locates the top of the crystalline crust at approximately 9 to 11 km depth, below a thick package of sedimentary rocks of Mesozoic and Palaeozoic age. This result is also confirmed by 1D modelling of the data. The tomographic study also defines the extension and depth to the top (ca. 12 km) of the supposed batholith and the depth to the Moho (ca. 30 km). The PmP (Moho reflection) signal is clearly identified along most of the profile, but not in a ca. 30 km long window at the centre of the gravity high. The Pn (diving waves in the upper mantle) is recognizable at the end of the profile. The reflection from the Moho shows a ringing which is interpreted as indicating a layered structure in the lower crust.

  5. The ATLAS high level trigger region of interest builder.;

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, R.; Dawson, J.; Drake, G.; Haberichter, W.; Schlereth, J.; Zhang, J.; Ermoline, Y.; Pope, B.; Aboline, M.; High Energy Physics; Michigan State Univ.

    2008-04-01

    This article describes the design, testing and production of the ATLAS Region of Interest Builder (RoIB). This device acts as an interface between the Level 1 trigger and the high level trigger (HLT) farm for the ATLAS LHC detector. It distributes all of the Level 1 data for a subset of events to a small number of (16 or less) individual commodity processors. These processors in turn provide this information to the HLT. This allows the HLT to use the Level 1 information to narrow data requests to areas of the detector where Level 1 has identified interesting objects.

  6. High Estradiol Levels During Postmenopause – Pitfalls in Laboratory Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mebes, I.; Graf, M.; Kellner, M.; Keck, C.; Segerer, S. E.

    2015-01-01

    A 54-year-old woman was admitted with a result of high serum estradiol levels (>?4300?pg/ml) and typical postmenopausal symptoms. She had a history of an adnexectomy (normal histopathology) due to the elevated estradiol levels. After surgery, estradiol levels were as high as before. Analyzing the anti-mullerian hormone (AMH), inhibin B, DHEA-S and estrone, typical postmenopausal levels were found. Serum estradiol levels were controlled several times with rabbit-derived polyclonal as well as monoclonal antibodies to optimize the selectivity of the test system. Secondary, a radioimmunoassay was performed to exclude interferences of the detection system where lower, but still elevated estradiol levels (186?pg/ml) were found. Hypothesizing that our patient underwent a cross reaction with irregular antibodies, a control was done using sheep-derived antibodies, which proved a postmenopausal hormone level (estradiol level high levels of irregular antibodies (>?200?mg/l; reference levels in a postmenopausal woman. PMID:26500371

  7. Gravity, Time, and Lagrangians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huggins, Elisha

    2010-01-01

    Feynman mentioned to us that he understood a topic in physics if he could explain it to a college freshman, a high school student, or a dinner guest. Here we will discuss two topics that took us a while to get to that level. One is the relationship between gravity and time. The other is the minus sign that appears in the Lagrangian. (Why would one…

  8. Holism and High Level Wellness in the Treatment of Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartha, Robert; Davis, Tom

    1982-01-01

    Discusses how a holistic and wellness philosophy is a viable alternative in the treatment of alcoholism. Describes five major dimensions of high-level wellness: nutritional awareness, physical fitness, stress management, environmental sensitivity, and self-responsibility. (RC)

  9. Technical career opportunities in high-level radioactive waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    Technical career opportunities in high-level radioactive waste management are briefly described in the areas of: Hydrology; geology; biological sciences; mathematics; engineering; heavy equipment operation; and skilled labor and crafts.

  10. GravityCam: ground-based wide-field high-resolution imaging and high-speed photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominik, Martin; Mackay, Craig; Steele, Iain; Snodgrass, Colin; Hirsch, Michael; Gråe Jørgensen, Uffe; Hundertmark, Markus; Rebolo, Rafael; Horne, Keith; Bridle, Sarah; Sicardy, Bruno; Bramich, Daniel; Alsubai, Khalid

    2015-12-01

    The image blurring by the Earth's atmosphere generally poses a substantial limitation to ground-based observations. While opportunities in space are scarce, lucky imaging can correct over a much larger patch of sky and with much fainter reference stars. We propose the first of a new kind of versatile instruments, "GravityCam", composed of ~100 EMCCDs, that will open up two entirely new windows to ground-based astronomy: (1) wide-field high-resolution imaging, and (2) wide-field high-speed photometry. Potential applications include (a) a gravitational microlensing survey going 4 magnitudes deeper than current efforts, and thereby gaining a factor 100 in mass at the same sensitivity, which means probing down to Lunar mass or even below, (b) extra-solar planet hunting via transits in galactic bulge fields, with high time resolution well-suited for transit timing variation studies, (c) variable stars in crowded fields, with sensitivity to very short periods, (d) asteroseismology with many bright stars in one pointing, (e) serendipitous occultations of stars by small solar system bodies, giving access to the small end of the Kuiper Belt size distribution and potentially leading to the first detection of true Oort cloud objects, while predicted occultations at high time resolution can reveal atmospheres, satellites, or rings, (f) general data mining of the high-speed variable sky (down to 40 ms cadence).

  11. Equilibrium Tides Along with surface gravity waves, the predictable rise and fall of sea level at the coast are

    E-print Network

    Thompson, LuAnne

    of the barotropic tides with topography can then also generate baroclinic internal gravity waves, as we have seen, and the tides propagate as Poincare (inertia-gravity) waves and Kelvin waves. Observations of tides The methods of various frequencies. These components are called partial tides or tidal constituents. For example, if we

  12. UNCORRECTEDPROOF Anatomical distribution of abnormally high levels of starch

    E-print Network

    Burns, Jacqueline K.

    UNCORRECTEDPROOF Anatomical distribution of abnormally high levels of starch in HLB or citrus greening) is characterized, among other symptoms, by extraordinary levels of starch accumulation partitioning imbalances throughout the tree. In all aerial tissues, starch accumulation in HLB-affected trees

  13. Field Trips as Cognitive Motivators for High Level Science Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, Marlene M.

    2006-01-01

    Using a composite example of field trips from several years of traveling to Yellowstone with high school biology students, the author illustrates how to raise the cognitive level of science instruction and student learning through science field trips. The author examines what teachers can do to raise the level of both teaching and learning in all…

  14. Survey of National Programs for Managing High-Level Radioactive

    E-print Network

    Survey of National Programs for Managing High-Level Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Fuel-Level Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Fuel A Report to Congress and the Secretary of Energy October 2009 #12 Safety (Germany) Peter De Preter: National Agency for Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials

  15. High-Level Waste System Process Interface Description

    SciTech Connect

    d'Entremont, P.D.

    1999-01-14

    The High-Level Waste System is a set of six different processes interconnected by pipelines. These processes function as one large treatment plant that receives, stores, and treats high-level wastes from various generators at SRS and converts them into forms suitable for final disposal. The three major forms are borosilicate glass, which will be eventually disposed of in a Federal Repository, Saltstone to be buried on site, and treated water effluent that is released to the environment.

  16. The shallow structure of Klauea caldera from high-resolution Bouguer gravity and total magnetic anomaly mapping

    E-print Network

    Williams-Jones, Glyn

    The shallow structure of Klauea caldera from high-resolution Bouguer gravity and total magnetic the summit caldera of Klauea Volcano, Hawai'i. Two significant and distinctive magnetic anomalies were identified within the caldera. One is interpreted to be associated with a long-lived prehistoric eruptive

  17. Aeromagrnetic study of the midcontinent gravity high of central United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Elizabeth R.; Zietz, Isidore

    1971-01-01

    A composite map of detailed aeromagnetic surveys over the midcontinent gravity high provides coverage of the 600-mi-long buried belt of mafic rocks of the Keweenawan Series from their outcrop localities in Minnesota and Wisconsin through Iowa and Nebraska. A map of the subsurface extent of the mafic rocks, based on the intricate magnetic patterns, shows that the rocks form a long, semicontinuous block, averaging 40 mi wide and consisting mainly of a sequence of layered flows. This sequence is probably fault-bounded and has been tilted up along the margins, where the linearity of the anomalies indicates steeper dips. The associated clastic rocks, indicated by a smoother magnetic pattern, occur in basins along both sides of the mafic belt and in grabens and a series of axial basins on the upper surface of the block. The well-defined outliers of flows marginal to the main block and the truncation of some of the outermost flow units along a diagonal boundary striking at an angle to them suggest that the present boundaries of the block are postdepositional structural features. The basins and the edges of the block appear to have controlled later, largely vertical movement in the overlying Paleozoic and younger sedimentary cover. Calculated models based on coincident magnetic and detailed gravity profiles along typical cross sections of the midcontinent gravity high show that the block of mafic rocks is steep-sided and as much as several miles thick. The free-air gravity anomaly, which consists of a large positive maximum flanked by minima, averages very close to zero, indicating that this major crustal feature is regionally compensated, although locally each of its components shows a large departure from equilibrium. Remanent magnetization is a primary factor in the interpretation of the magnetic data. Magnetic property studies of Keweenawan mafic rocks in the Lake Superior region show that remanent magnetization may be five times the magnetization induced by the present Earth's field and differs from it radically in direction. This magnetization was acquired before the flows were tilted into their present positions. A computed magnetic profile shows that a trough of flows with such a magnetization and inward-dipping limbs can account for the observed persistent lows along the western edge of the block, the relatively low magnetic values along the axis of the block, and the large positive anomaly along the eastern side of the block. Flows as much as 1 mi thick near the base of the sequence have a remanent magnetization with a nearly opposite polarity. This reverse polarity has been measured on both sides of Lake Superior and is probably also present farther south, particularly in Iowa where the outer units of the block in an area north of Des Moines give rise to a prominent magnetic low. The axis of this long belt of Keweenawan mafic rocks cuts discordantly through the prevailing east-west-trending fabric of the older Precambrian terrane from southern Kansas to Lake Superior. This belt has several major left-lateral offsets, one of which produces a complete hiatus in the vicinity of the 40th parallel where an east-west transcontinental rift or fracture zone has been proposed. The axial basins of clastic rocks are outlined by linear magnetic anomalies and show a concordant relation to the structure of the mafic flows. These basins are oriented at an angle to the main axis, suggesting that the entire feature originated as a major rift composed of a series of short, linear, en echelon segments with offsets similar to the transform faults characterizing the present mid-ocean rift system. This midcontinent rift may well have been part of a Keweenawan global rift system with initial offsets consisting of transform faults along pre-existing fractures, but apparently it never fully developed laterally into an ocean basin, and the upwelling mafic material was localized along a relatively narrow belt.

  18. Aeromagnetic study of the midcontinent gravity high of central United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Elizabeth R.; Zietz, Isidore

    1971-01-01

    A composite map of detailed aeromagnetic surveys over the midcontinent gravity high provides coverage of the 600-mi-long buried belt of mafic rocks of the Keweenawan Series from their outcrop localities in Minnesota and Wisconsin through Iowa and Nebraska. A map of the subsurface extent of the mafic rocks, based on the intricate magnetic patterns, shows that the rocks form a long, semicontinuous block, averaging 40 mi wide and consisting mainly of a sequence of layered flows. This sequence is probably fault-bounded and has been tilted up along the margins, where the linearity of the anomalies indicates steeper dips. The associated clastic rocks, indicated by a smoother magnetic pattern, occur in basins along both sides of the mafic belt and in grabens and a series of axial basins on the upper surface of the block. The well-defined outliers of flows marginal to the main block and the truncation of some of the outermost flow units along a diagonal boundary striking at an angle to them suggest that the present boundaries of the block are postdepositional structural features. The basins and the edges of the block appear to have controlled later, largely vertical movement in the overlying Paleozoic and younger sedimentary cover. Calculated models based on coincident magnetic and detailed gravity profiles along typical cross sections of the midcontinent gravity high show that the block of mafic rocks is steep-sided and as much as several miles thick. The free-air gravity anomaly, which consists of a large positive maximum flanked by minima, averages very close to zero, indicating that this major crustal feature is regionally compensated, although locally each of its components shows a large departure from equilibrium. Remanent magnetization is a primary factor in the interpretation of the magnetic data. Magnetic property studies of Keweenawan mafic rocks in the Lake Superior region show that remanent magnetization may be five times the magnetization induced by the present Earth's field and differs from it radically in direction. This magnetization was acquired before the flows were tilted into their present positions. A computed magnetic profile shows that a trough of flows with such a magnetization and inward-dipping limbs can account for the observed persistent lows along the western edge of the block, the relatively low magnetic values along the axis of the block, and the large positive anomaly along the eastern side of the block. Flows as much as 1 mi thick near the base of the sequence have a remanent magnetization with a nearly opposite polarity. This reverse polarity has been measured on both sides of Lake Superior and is probably also present farther south, particularly in Iowa where the outer units of the block in an area north of Des Moines give rise to a prominent magnetic low. The axis of this long belt of Keweenawan mafic rocks cuts discordantly through the prevailing east-west-trending fabric of the older Precambrian terrane from southern Kansas to Lake Superior. This belt has several major left-lateral offsets, one of which produces a complete hiatus in the vicinity of the 40th parallel where an east-west transcontinental rift or fracture zone has been proposed. The axial basins of clastic rocks are outlined by linear magnetic anomalies and show a concordant relation to the structure of the mafic flows. These basins are oriented at an angle to the main axis, suggesting that the entire feature originated as a major rift composed of a series of short, linear, en echelon segments with offsets similar to the transform faults characterizing the present mid-ocean rift system. This midcontinent rift may well have been part of a Keweenawan global rift system with initial offsets consisting of transform faults along pre-existing fractures, but apparently it never fully developed laterally into an ocean basin, and the upwelling mafic material was localized along a relatively narrow belt.

  19. Dominance, plasma testosterone levels, and testis size in house mice artificially selected for high activity levels

    E-print Network

    Saltzman, Wendy

    Dominance, plasma testosterone levels, and testis size in house mice artificially selected for high-bred control lines with respect to dominance, testis size, and plasma testosterone level. Behavior was measured tube test; plasma testosterone was measured by enzyme immunoassay with chromatography. As compared

  20. Low Gravity Improves Welds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.; Kaukler, William F.; Plaster, Teresa C.

    1993-01-01

    Hardnesses and tensile strengths greater. Welds made under right conditions in low gravity appear superior to those made under high gravity. Conclusion drawn from results of welding experiments conducted during low- and high-gravity-simulating maneuvers of KC-135 airplane. Results have implications not only for welding in outer space but also for repeated rapid welding on Earth or in airplanes under simulated low gravity to obtain unusually strong joints.

  1. Physics of Artificial Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bukley, Angie; Paloski, William; Clement, Gilles

    2006-01-01

    This chapter discusses potential technologies for achieving artificial gravity in a space vehicle. We begin with a series of definitions and a general description of the rotational dynamics behind the forces ultimately exerted on the human body during centrifugation, such as gravity level, gravity gradient, and Coriolis force. Human factors considerations and comfort limits associated with a rotating environment are then discussed. Finally, engineering options for designing space vehicles with artificial gravity are presented.

  2. On the Numerical Solution of High-Order Gravity Modes in Rapidly Rotating Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clement, Maurice J.

    1996-05-01

    The slowly pulsating B stars and the line-profile variables on the upper main sequence are now believed to involve nonradial gravity modes of high radial order (n > 15) and be driven by the ionization zones of mainly iron group metals. This paper is a progress report on efforts to compute numerically the eigenfunctions of these particular modes, including the effects of rapid rotation. This computational problem is very challenging for several reasons: (i) high radial orders require very small integration stepsizes to achieve acceptable numerical accuracy and stability, (ii) for a given azimuthal symmetry m, rotation couples or mixes components of different latitudinal symmetry l, each having quite different radial orders, and (iii) in the long-period limit (high n), the g-mode spectrum is so ``rich'' (due in part to rotational mixing) that convergence is possible only if the trial eigenfrequency and the trial eigenfunction boundary values are very close to being the correct ones. Moreover, Murphy's Laws apply here in that the modes of greatest observational interest -- the sectorial or l = m ones -- are the most difficult to compute because for a given radial order they have the longest periods and, therefore, lie in the richest part of mode-space. Nevertheless, I have been successful so far in computing sectorial modes up to radial order n ~ 10 and tesseral ones (l > m) up to n ~ 20. Some examples will be presented.

  3. Assimilation of TOPEX Sea Level Measurements with a Reduced-Gravity, Shallow Water Model of the Tropical Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fukumori, Ichiro

    1995-01-01

    Sea surface height variability measured by TOPEX is analyzed in the tropical Pacific Ocean by way of assimilation into a wind-driven, reduced-gravity, shallow water model using an approximate Kalman filter and smoother. The analysis results in an optimal fit of the dynamic model to the observations, providing it dynamically consistent interpolation of sea level and estimation of the circulation. Nearly 80% of the expected signal variance is accounted for by the model within 20 deg of the equator, and estimation uncertainty is substantially reduced by the voluminous observation. Notable features resolved by the analysis include seasonal changes associated with the North Equatorial Countercurrent and equatorial Kelvin and Rossby waves. Significant discrepancies are also found between the estimate and TOPEX measurements, especially near the eastern boundary. Improvements in the estimate made by the assimilation are validated by comparisons with independent tide gauge and current meter observations. The employed filter and smoother are based on approximately computed estimation error covariance matrices, utilizing a spatial transformation and an symptotic approximation. The analysis demonstrates the practical utility of a quasi-optimal filter and smoother.

  4. Water borne transport of high level nuclear waste in very deep borehole disposal of high level nuclear waste

    E-print Network

    Cabeche, Dion Tunick

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to examine the feasibility of the very deep borehole experiment and to determine if it is a reasonable method of storing high level nuclear waste for an extended period of time. The objective ...

  5. An overview of very high level software design methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asdjodi, Maryam; Hooper, James W.

    1988-01-01

    Very High Level design methods emphasize automatic transfer of requirements to formal design specifications, and/or may concentrate on automatic transformation of formal design specifications that include some semantic information of the system into machine executable form. Very high level design methods range from general domain independent methods to approaches implementable for specific applications or domains. Applying AI techniques, abstract programming methods, domain heuristics, software engineering tools, library-based programming and other methods different approaches for higher level software design are being developed. Though one finds that a given approach does not always fall exactly in any specific class, this paper provides a classification for very high level design methods including examples for each class. These methods are analyzed and compared based on their basic approaches, strengths and feasibility for future expansion toward automatic development of software systems.

  6. Updated Hungarian Gravity Field Solution Based on Fifth Generation GOCE Gravity Field Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toth, Gyula; Foldvary, Lorant

    2015-03-01

    With the completion of the ESA's GOCE satellite's mission fifth generation gravity field models are available from the ESA's GOCE High Processing Facility. Our contribution is an updated gravity field solution for Hungary using the latest DIR R05 GOCE gravity field model. The solution methodology is least squares gravity field parameter estimation using Spherical Radial Base Functions (SRBF). Regional datasets include deflections of the vertical (DOV), gravity anomalies and quasigeoid heights by GPS/levelling. The GOCE DIR R05 model has been combined with the EGM20008 model and has been evaluated in comparison with the EGM2008 and EIGEN-6C3stat models to assess the performance of our regional gravity field solution.

  7. Coulomb drag in high Landau levels I. V. Gornyi,1,

    E-print Network

    von Oppen, Felix

    Coulomb drag in high Landau levels I. V. Gornyi,1, * A. D. Mirlin,1,2, and F. von Oppen3,4 1 December 2004) Recent experiments on Coulomb drag in the quantum Hall regime have yielded a number of surprises. The most striking observations are that the Coulomb drag can become negative in high Landau

  8. A Testing Instrument for High School Arabic, Level III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolowelsky, Joel B.

    The Arabic language examination was designed for Jewish immigrants from Syria wishing to satisfy New York State language requirements for high school graduation by indicating their proficiency in Arabic. The test is essentially a translation of a state test of Hebrew, and is intended to test Arabic at the third-year high school level. The…

  9. High-altitude gravity waves in the Martian thermosphere observed by MAVEN/NGIMS and modeled by a gravity wave scheme

    E-print Network

    Yi?it, Erdal; Liu, Guiping; Medvedev, Alexander S; Mahaffy, Paul R; Kuroda, Takeshi; Jakosky, Bruce M

    2015-01-01

    First high-altitude observations of gravity wave (GW)-induced CO$_2$ density perturbations in the Martian thermosphere retrieved from NASA's NGIMS instrument on board the MAVEN satellite are presented and interpreted using the extended GW parameterization of Yi\\u{g}it et al. [2008] and the Mars Climate Database as an input. Observed relative density perturbations between 180-220 km of 20-40 % demonstrate appreciable local time, latitude, and altitude variations. Modeling for the spatiotemporal conditions of the MAVEN observations suggests that GWs can directly propagate from the lower atmosphere to the thermosphere, produce appreciable dynamical effects, and likely contribute to the observed fluctuations. Modeled effects are somewhat smaller than the observed but their highly variable nature is in qualitative agreement with observations. Possible reasons for discrepancies between modeling and measurements are discussed.

  10. High precision gravity analysis and hydrological modeling from the Lunar Laser Ranging Observatory at Apache Point, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Jiahao

    The NASA-supported Lunar Laser Ranging project (LLR) is located at Apache Point, New Mexico, which strives to precisely measure the orbital distance between the Earth and the Moon in an accuracy of a few millimeters. To archive this objective, LLR project requires precise data on local ground deformation, which is difficult to measure directly. However, the high precision gravity data is the reflection of vertical ground deformation of the Earth, therefore the gravity data is able to contribute to the LLR project. Gravity time series is affected by Earth tides, atmospheric pressure, polar motion, and the most critical effect, local hydrology. In order to isolate pure geodetic variation, these effects must be removed from the data. Thus, the goal of this research is to create models of above effects, especially local hydrology model, in order to isolate the vertical deformation signal. The Earth tides, atmospheric pressure and polar motion effects have been modeled and subtracted from gravity data (2009~2012). The local hydrological model has been created based on the in-situ data, which are rainfall, snowfall and temperature. The correlation coefficient and RMS misfit between the hydrological model and gravity residual (2010~2012) is 0.92 and 1.26 microGal. The instrument drift corrections in 2009 have been reanalyzed after comparing with some global hydrological models. The gravity residual from new corrections showed a correlation coefficient of 0.76 and RMS misfit of 1.25 microGal. The isolated deformation signal was obtained after we subtracted the hydrological effects, and the results can be used for further modeling.

  11. Mercury levels in high-end consumers of fish.

    PubMed Central

    Hightower, Jane M; Moore, Dan

    2003-01-01

    Consumption of food containing mercury has been identified as a health risk. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) and the National Academy of Sciences recommend keeping the whole blood mercury level < 5.0 microg/L or the hair level < 1.0 microg/g. This corresponds to a reference dose (RfD) of 0.1 microg/kg body weight per day. All patients in a 1-year period (n = 720) who came for an office visit in a private internal medicine practice in San Francisco, California, were evaluated for mercury excess using the current RfD. One hundred twenty-three patients were tested (93 females, 30 males). Of these, data were statistically analyzed for 89 subjects. Mercury levels ranged from 2.0 to 89.5 microg/L for the 89 subjects. The mean for 66 women was 15 microg/L [standard deviation (SD) = 15], and for 23 men was 13 microg/L (SD = 5); 89% had levels exceeding the RfD. Subjects consumed 30 different forms or types of fish. Swordfish had the highest correlation with mercury level. Sixty-seven patients with serial blood levels over time after stopping fish showed a decline in mercury levels; reduction was significant (p < 0.0001). A substantial fraction of patients had diets high in fish consumption; of these, a high proportion had blood mercury levels exceeding the maximum level recommended by the U.S. EPA and National Academy of Sciences. The mean level for women in this survey was 10 times that of mercury levels found in a recent population survey by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Some children were > 40 times the national mean. PMID:12676623

  12. High-level aminoglycoside resistant enterococci isolated from swine.

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, C. R.; Fedorka-Cray, P. J.; Barrett, J. B.; Ladely, S. R.

    2005-01-01

    Approximately 42% (187/444) of swine enterococci collected between the years 1999 and 2000 exhibited high-level resistance to gentamicin (MIC > or =500 microg/ml), kanamycin (MIC > or =500 microg/ml), or streptomycin (MIC > or =1000 microg/ml). Eight aminoglycoside resistance genes were detected using PCR, most frequently ant(6)-Ia and aac(6')-Ii from Enterococcus faecium. Twenty-four per cent (45/187) of total high-level aminoglycoside-resistant isolates and 26% (4/15) of isolates resistant to high levels of all three antimicrobials were negative for all genes tested. These data suggest that enterococci isolated from swine contain diverse and possibly unidentified aminoglycoside resistance genes. PMID:15816164

  13. High Level Waste (HLW) Feed Process Control Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    STAEHR, T.W.

    2000-06-14

    The primary purpose of this document is to describe the overall process control strategy for monitoring and controlling the functions associated with the Phase 1B high-level waste feed delivery. This document provides the basis for process monitoring and control functions and requirements needed throughput the double-shell tank system during Phase 1 high-level waste feed delivery. This document is intended to be used by (1) the developers of the future Process Control Plan and (2) the developers of the monitoring and control system.

  14. High level radioactive waste management facility design criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Sheikh, N.A.; Salaymeh, S.R.

    1993-10-01

    This paper discusses the engineering systems for the structural design of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). At the DWPF, high level radioactive liquids will be mixed with glass particles and heated in a melter. This molten glass will then be poured into stainless steel canisters where it will harden. This process will transform the high level waste into a more stable, manageable substance. This paper discuss the structural design requirements for this unique one of a kind facility. A special emphasis will be concentrated on the design criteria pertaining to earthquake, wind and tornado, and flooding.

  15. Terrestrial Gravity Fluctuations

    E-print Network

    Jan Harms

    2015-07-21

    The article reviews the current state of the field, and also presents new analyses especially with respect to the impact of seismic scattering on gravity perturbations, active gravity noise cancellation, and time-domain models of gravity perturbations from atmospheric and seismic point sources. Our understanding of terrestrial gravity fluctuations will have great impact on the future development of GW detectors and high-precision gravimetry in general, and many open questions need to be answered still as emphasized in this article.

  16. High Energy Astrophysics Tests of Lorentz Invariance and Quantum Gravity Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.

    2011-01-01

    High energy astrophysics observations provide the best possibilities to detect a very small violation of Lorentz invariance such as may be related to the structure of space-time near the Planck scale of approximately 10(exp -35)m. I will discuss the possible signatures of Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) that can be manifested by observing of the spectra, polarization, and timing of gamma-rays from active galactic nuclei and y-ray bursts. Other sensitive tests are provided by observations of the spectra of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays and neutrinos. Using the latest data from the Pierre Auger Observatory one can already derive an upper limit of 4.5 x 10(exp -23) on the fraction of LIV at a Lorentz factor of approximately 2 x 10(exp 11). This result has fundamental implications for quantum gravity models. I will also discuss the possibilities of using more sensitive space-based detection techniques to improve searches for LIV in the future.

  17. High Energy Astrophysics Tests of Lorentz Invariance and Quantum Gravity Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, Floyd W.

    2012-01-01

    High energy astrophysics observations provide the best possibilities to detect a very small violation of Lorentz invariance such as may be related to the structure of space-time near the Planck scale of approx.10(exp -35) m. I will discuss the possible signatures of Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) that can be manifested by observing of the spectra, polarization, and timing of gamma-rays from active galactic nuclei and gamma-ray bursts. Other sensitive tests are provided by observations of the spectra of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays and neutrinos. Using the latest data from the Pierre Auger Observatory one can already derive an upper limit of 4.5 x 10(exp -23) on the fraction of LIV at a Lorentz factor of approx. 2 x 10(exp 11). This result has fundamental implications for quantum gravity models. I will also discuss the possibilities of using more sensitive space-based detection techniques to improve searches for LIV in the future. I will also discuss how the LIV formalism casts doubt on the OPERA superluminal neutrino claim.

  18. Ultra-High Gravity Darkening in the oEA Star RZ Cas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkachenko, A.; Lehmann, H.; Tsymbal, V.; Mkrtichian, D. E.

    2008-12-01

    We report on first results obtained in the framework of a larger study of oEA stars, i.e. Algol-type systems with oscillating components. We investigate an extended time series of high-resolution spectra of the oEA star RZ Cas taken in 2006. By comparing our model calculations with the observations, we try to determine the system and atmospheric parameters of RZ Cas. Starting values were obtained from uvby photometry and from an analysis of the mean out-of-eclipse spectra by means of the KOREL program. The fine tuning of the model was done using the modified SHELLSPEC code. With SHELLSPEC we determined an unusual large gravity darkening exponent of 0.5 for the secondary of RZ Cas. This value is far above the theoretical limit given by the Von Zeipel law but in good agreement with those obtained by Unno et al. in 1994. We attribute the large value of different large star spots on the front and back sides of the secondary with respect to the primary that exists in the result of mass-outflow from the donor to the gainer.

  19. Preparation and characterization of zinc sulfide nanoparticles under high-gravity environment

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Jianfeng; Li Yaling; Wang Yuhong; Yun, Jimmy; Cao Dapeng

    2004-02-02

    Nanosized ZnS particles were prepared under high-gravity environment generated by the rotating packed bed reactor (RPBR) using zinc nitrate solution and hydrogen sulfide gas as raw materials. The effects of experimental conditions such as reactant concentration, reaction temperature, rotating speed of the RPBR and aging time, on the preparation of nanosized ZnS particles were investigated. A set of suitable operating parameters (the aging time of 48 h, concentration of zinc nitrate of 0.1 mol/l, reaction temperature of 45 deg. C and rotating speed of the RPBR of 1500-1800 rotation/min) for the preparation of nanosized ZnS were recommended. Under these optimum conditions, well-dispersed ZnS nanoparticles was obtained. The crystal structure, optical properties, size and morphology of the product were also characterized by XRD, UV-Vis spectrophotometer, and TEM, respectively. Results indicate that the prepared ZnS has a good absorption for light in the wavelength range of 200-330 nm. XRD analysis also shows the prepared ZnS is in a sphalerite crystal phase. The process has great potential of commercialization.

  20. Low voltage to high voltage level shifter and related methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mentze, Erik J. (Inventor); Hess, Herbert L. (Inventor); Buck, Kevin M. (Inventor); Cox, David F. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A shifter circuit comprises a high and low voltage buffer stages and an output buffer stage. The high voltage buffer stage comprises multiple transistors arranged in a transistor stack having a plurality of intermediate nodes connecting individual transistors along the stack. The transistor stack is connected between a voltage level being shifted to and an input voltage. An inverter of this stage comprises multiple inputs and an output. Inverter inputs are connected to a respective intermediate node of the transistor stack. The low voltage buffer stage has an input connected to the input voltage and an output, and is operably connected to the high voltage buffer stage. The low voltage buffer stage is connected between a voltage level being shifted away from and a lower voltage. The output buffer stage is driven by the outputs of the high voltage buffer stage inverter and the low voltage buffer stage.

  1. Effect of Melt Convection at Various Gravity Levels and Orientations on the Forces Acting on a Large Spherical Particle in the Vicinity of a Solidification Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bune, Andris V.; Sen, Subhayu; Mukherjee, Sundeep; Catalina, Adrian; Stefanescu, Doru M.

    2000-01-01

    Numerical modeling was Undertaken to analyze the influence of both radial and axial thermal gradients on convection patterns and velocities claiming solidification of pure Al and an Al-4 wt% Cu alloy. The objective of the numerical task was to predict the influence of convective velocity on an insoluble particle near a solid/liquid (s/l) interface. These predictions were then be used to define the minimum gravity level (q) required to investigate the fundamental physics of interactions between a particle and a s/l interface. This is an ongoing NASA founded flight experiment entitled "particle engulfment and pushing by solidifying interfaces (PEP)". Steady-state calculations were performed for different gravity levels and orientations with respect to the gravity vector The furnace configuration used in this analysis is the quench module insert (QMI-1) proposed for the Material Science Research Facility (MSRF) on board the International Space Station (ISS). The general model of binary alloy solidification was based on the finite element code FIDAP. At a low g level of 10(exp -4) g(sub o) (g(sub o) = 9.8 m/square s) maximum melt convection was obtained for an orientation of 90 deg. Calculations showed that even for this worst case orientation the dominant forces acting on the particle are the fundamental drag and interfacial forces.

  2. Terrestrial Gravity Fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harms, Jan

    2015-12-01

    Different forms of fluctuations of the terrestrial gravity field are observed by gravity experiments. For example, atmospheric pressure fluctuations generate a gravity-noise foreground in measurements with super-conducting gravimeters. Gravity changes caused by high-magnitude earthquakes have been detected with the satellite gravity experiment GRACE, and we expect high-frequency terrestrial gravity fluctuations produced by ambient seismic fields to limit the sensitivity of ground-based gravitational-wave (GW) detectors. Accordingly, terrestrial gravity fluctuations are considered noise and signal depending on the experiment. Here, we will focus on ground-based gravimetry. This field is rapidly progressing through the development of GW detectors. The technology is pushed to its current limits in the advanced generation of the LIGO and Virgo detectors, targeting gravity strain sensitivities better than 10^-23 Hz^-1/2 above a few tens of a Hz. Alternative designs for GW detectors evolving from traditional gravity gradiometers such as torsion bars, atom interferometers, and superconducting gradiometers are currently being developed to extend the detection band to frequencies below 1 Hz. The goal of this article is to provide the analytical framework to describe terrestrial gravity perturbations in these experiments. Models of terrestrial gravity perturbations related to seismic fields, atmospheric disturbances, and vibrating, rotating or moving objects, are derived and analyzed. The models are then used to evaluate passive and active gravity noise mitigation strategies in GW detectors, or alternatively, to describe their potential use in geophysics. The article reviews the current state of the field, and also presents new analyses especially with respect to the impact of seismic scattering on gravity perturbations, active gravity noise cancellation, and time-domain models of gravity perturbations from atmospheric and seismic point sources. Our understanding of terrestrial gravity fluctuations will have great impact on the future development of GW detectors and high-precision gravimetry in general, and many open questions need to be answered still as emphasized in this article.

  3. Detection method and observed data of high-energy gamma rays under the influence of quantum gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Kifune, T.

    2014-05-20

    The interaction of high-energy particles affected by quantum gravity is argued from the experimental viewpoint of raising a question, 'our detection method for high-energy ?-rays supplies trustworthy observation data and we are now seeing the true image of the universe through high-energy ?-rays?' The modified dispersion relation (MDR) for particles' energy and momentum is applied to the equation of energy-momentum conservation in particle reactions, to study the restriction imposed on the kinematic state of high-energy particles by the Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) due to quantum gravity, as a function of the incident particle energy of the reaction. The result suggests that the interaction utilized for ?-ray detection is not free from the effect of quantum gravity when ?-ray energy is higher than 10{sup 13} ? 10{sup 17} eV depending on models of MDR. Discussion is presented on the prospect of finding clear evidence of the LIV effect from ?-ray observations, as well as on the radiation and propagation mechanism of ?-rays under the influence of the LIV effect.

  4. The Estuary Guide. Level 3: High School. Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Glen; And Others

    Estuaries are marine systems that serve as nurseries for animals, links in the migratory pathways, and habitat for a complex community of organisms. This curriculum guide intended for use at the high school level seeks to teach what estuaries are; provide opportunities to practice decision-making that affects estuaries; and encourage students to…

  5. High level cognitive information processing in neural networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnden, John A.; Fields, Christopher A.

    1992-01-01

    Two related research efforts were addressed: (1) high-level connectionist cognitive modeling; and (2) local neural circuit modeling. The goals of the first effort were to develop connectionist models of high-level cognitive processes such as problem solving or natural language understanding, and to understand the computational requirements of such models. The goals of the second effort were to develop biologically-realistic model of local neural circuits, and to understand the computational behavior of such models. In keeping with the nature of NASA's Innovative Research Program, all the work conducted under the grant was highly innovative. For instance, the following ideas, all summarized, are contributions to the study of connectionist/neural networks: (1) the temporal-winner-take-all, relative-position encoding, and pattern-similarity association techniques; (2) the importation of logical combinators into connection; (3) the use of analogy-based reasoning as a bridge across the gap between the traditional symbolic paradigm and the connectionist paradigm; and (4) the application of connectionism to the domain of belief representation/reasoning. The work on local neural circuit modeling also departs significantly from the work of related researchers. In particular, its concentration on low-level neural phenomena that could support high-level cognitive processing is unusual within the area of biological local circuit modeling, and also serves to expand the horizons of the artificial neural net field.

  6. High-level similarity of dentitions in carnivorans and rodents

    E-print Network

    Jernvall, Jukka

    LETTERS High-level similarity of dentitions in carnivorans and rodents Alistair R. Evans1 , Gregory or in summarizing their tooth shapes, yet both carnivorans and rodents possess a comparable spectrum of dietary) analysis of 441 teeth from 81 species of carnivorans and rodents, we show that the surface complexity

  7. 46 CFR 119.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 119.530 Section 119.530 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS MACHINERY INSTALLATION Bilge and Ballast Systems § 119.530 Bilge...

  8. Equity-Focused Schools Carry All Students to High Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WestEd, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Despite decades of experience supporting efforts from local to state levels to improve learning for underserved students, Sonia Caus Gleason and WestEd's Nancy Gerzon could not point to examples of entire schools accomplishing what they believed was possible: high-poverty public schools personalizing learning for all students to consistently reach…

  9. MIXING PROCESSES IN HIGH-LEVEL WASTE TANKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Flammable gases can be generated in DOE high-level waste tanks, including radiolytic hydrogen, and during cesium precipitation from salt solutions, benzene. Under normal operating conditions the potential for deflagration or detonation from these gases is precluded by purging and...

  10. Execution Monitoring of High-Level Robot Giuseppe De Giacomo

    E-print Network

    De Giacomo, Giuseppe

    Execution Monitoring of High-Level Robot Programs. Giuseppe De Giacomo Dipartimento di Informatica Science University of Toronto mes@cs.toronto.edu Abstract Imagine a robot that is executing a program on-line, and, insofar as it is reasonable to do so, it wishes to continue with this on-line program execution

  11. THE XAL INFRASTRUCTURE FOR HIGH LEVEL CONTROL ROOM APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Shishlo, Andrei P; Allen, Christopher K; Chu, Paul; Galambos, John D; Pelaia II, Tom

    2009-01-01

    XAL is a Java programming framework for building high-level control applications related to accelerator physics. The structure, details of implementation, and interaction between components, auxiliary XAL packages, and the latest modifications are discussed. A general overview of XAL applications created for the SNS project is presented.

  12. A Novel Strategy to Construct Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains for Very High Gravity Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tianzhe; Wang, Pinmei; Zhao, Wenpeng; Zhu, Muyuan; Jiang, Xinhang; Zhao, Yuhua; Wu, Xuechang

    2012-01-01

    Very high gravity (VHG) fermentation is aimed to considerably increase both the fermentation rate and the ethanol concentration, thereby reducing capital costs and the risk of bacterial contamination. This process results in critical issues, such as adverse stress factors (ie., osmotic pressure and ethanol inhibition) and high concentrations of metabolic byproducts which are difficult to overcome by a single breeding method. In the present paper, a novel strategy that combines metabolic engineering and genome shuffling to circumvent these limitations and improve the bioethanol production performance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains under VHG conditions was developed. First, in strain Z5, which performed better than other widely used industrial strains, the gene GPD2 encoding glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase was deleted, resulting in a mutant (Z5?GPD2) with a lower glycerol yield and poor ethanol productivity. Second, strain Z5?GPD2 was subjected to three rounds of genome shuffling to improve its VHG fermentation performance, and the best performing strain SZ3-1 was obtained. Results showed that strain SZ3-1 not only produced less glycerol, but also increased the ethanol yield by up to 8% compared with the parent strain Z5. Further analysis suggested that the improved ethanol yield in strain SZ3-1 was mainly contributed by the enhanced ethanol tolerance of the strain. The differences in ethanol tolerance between strains Z5 and SZ3-1 were closely associated with the cell membrane fatty acid compositions and intracellular trehalose concentrations. Finally, genome rearrangements in the optimized strain were confirmed by karyotype analysis. Hence, a combination of genome shuffling and metabolic engineering is an efficient approach for the rapid improvement of yeast strains for desirable industrial phenotypes. PMID:22363590

  13. Fast fabrication of W-Cu functionally graded material by high-gravity combustion synthesis and melt-infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, P.; Guo, S. B.; Liu, G. H.; Chen, Y. X.; Li, J. T.

    2014-02-01

    W-Cu functionally graded material (FGM, 75 wt% W + 25 wt% Cu-40 wt% W + 60 wt% Cu) has been prepared by a method of high-gravity combustion synthesis and melt-infiltration in a short time (?5 min). The infiltration mechanism in the high-gravity field was investigated. The W-Cu FGM showed an overall relative density of ?97% and gradually-varying properties in terms of density, micro hardness, coefficient of thermal expansion. Especially, the W-Cu FGM exhibited a coefficient of thermal expansion between those of W and Cu, and thus could be used as a transition layer between W and Cu to relax the thermal stresses.

  14. The Current Status of the Space Station Biological Research Project: a Core Facility Enabling Multi-Generational Studies under Slectable Gravity Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, O.

    2002-01-01

    The Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) has developed a new plan which greatly reduces the development costs required to complete the facility. This new plan retains core capabilities while allowing for future growth. The most important piece of equipment required for quality biological research, the 2.5 meter diameter centrifuge capable of accommodating research specimen habitats at simulated gravity levels ranging from microgravity to 2.0 g, is being developed by NASDA, the Japanese space agency, for the SSBRP. This is scheduled for flight to the ISS in 2007. The project is also developing a multi-purpose incubator, an automated cell culture unit, and two microgravity habitat holding racks, currently scheduled for launch in 2005. In addition the Canadian Space Agency is developing for the project an insect habitat, which houses Drosophila melanogaster, and provides an internal centrifuge for 1 g controls. NASDA is also developing for the project a glovebox for the contained manipulation and analysis of biological specimens, scheduled for launch in 2006. This core facility will allow for experimentation on small plants (Arabidopsis species), nematode worms (C. elegans), fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster), and a variety of microorganisms, bacteria, yeast, and mammalian cells. We propose a plan for early utilization which focuses on surveys of changes in gene expression and protein structure due to the space flight environment. In the future, the project is looking to continue development of a rodent habitat and a plant habitat that can be accommodated on the 2.5 meter centrifuge. By utilizing the early phases of the ISS to broadly answer what changes occur at the genetic and protein level of cells and organisms exposed to the ISS low earth orbit environment, we can generate interest for future experiments when the ISS capabilities allow for direct manipulation and intervention of experiments. The ISS continues to hold promise for high quality, long term, multi-generational biological studies with large sample sizes and appropriate controls.

  15. Global observations of gravity waves from High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder temperature measurements: A yearlong record of temperature amplitude and vertical wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Xiuping; Arnold, Neil; Remedios, John

    2010-05-01

    Global observations of gravity waves have been performed using the High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) temperature data. A background field that was derived by dynamically calculating 31 day (±15 day) means to block the stationary component and the slowly varying planetary-scale waves, was first subtracted from the HIRDLS temperature measurements. An additional step was then taken to remove rapidly moving planetary-scale waves by developing an along-track temperature filter, which was created by averaging the profiles within a 1000 km along-track window. Finally, each individual temperature perturbation vertical profile was analyzed using a fast Fourier transform to estimate gravity wave temperature amplitudes and vertical wavelengths. The investigation of the monthly mean gravity wave temperature amplitudes for the year 2006 found that gravity wave activity in the stratosphere is highly variable with season and can be very orographically dependent, especially in the winter extratropics. The monthly zonal means show that the peak vertical wavelengths correspond closely to the peak amplitudes. The increasing amplitudes and vertical wavelengths are faster and generated at lower altitudes in the winter extratropical and high-latitude stratosphere than those in the summer tropical stratosphere. This is consistent with the lower source altitudes of orographic gravity waves in the extratropics and high latitudes and the higher source altitudes of convectively generated gravity waves in the tropics. Three cases were studied for the observed gravity waves over large mountain ranges using the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts wind data. Investigations of episodes of enhanced gravity wave activity over the southern Andes, the Cascade Range, and the Rockies in winter months of 2006 indicate that orographic gravity waves refract downwind from the mountains and propagate along the direction of the intense winds. By way of contrast, observations of gravity waves around the Himalayas show a strong relationship with the cyclones in that region.

  16. High-accurate optical fiber liquid level sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Dexing; Chen, Shouliu; Pan, Chao; Jin, Henghuan

    1991-08-01

    A highly accurate optical fiber liquid level sensor is presented. The single-chip microcomputer is used to process and control the signal. This kind of sensor is characterized by self-security and is explosion-proof, so it can be applied in any liquid level detecting areas, especially in the oil and chemical industries. The theories and experiments about how to improve the measurement accuracy are described. The relative error for detecting the measurement range 10 m is up to 0.01%.

  17. GRAIL gravity field determination using the Celestial Mechanics Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Daniel; Bertone, Stefano; Jäggi, Adrian; Beutler, Gerhard; Mervart, Leos

    2015-11-01

    The NASA mission GRAIL (Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory) inherited its concept from the GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) mission to determine the gravity field of the Moon. We present lunar gravity fields based on the data of GRAIL's primary mission phase. Gravity field recovery is realized in the framework of the Celestial Mechanics Approach, using a development version of the Bernese GNSS Software along with Ka-band range-rate data series as observations and the GNI1B positions provided by NASA JPL as pseudo-observations. By comparing our results with the official level-2 GRAIL gravity field models we show that the lunar gravity field can be recovered with a high quality by adapting the Celestial Mechanics Approach, even when using pre-GRAIL gravity field models as a priori fields and when replacing sophisticated models of non-gravitational accelerations by appropriately spaced pseudo-stochastic pulses (i.e., instantaneous velocity changes). We present and evaluate two lunar gravity field solutions up to degree and order 200 - AIUB-GRL200A and AIUB-GRL200B. While the first solution uses no gravity field information beyond degree 200, the second is obtained by using the official GRAIL field GRGM900C up to degree and order 660 as a priori information. This reduces the omission errors and demonstrates the potential quality of our solution if we resolved the gravity field to higher degree.

  18. Overview of high-level waste management accomplishments

    SciTech Connect

    Lawroski, H; Berreth, J R; Freeby, W A

    1980-01-01

    Storage of power reactor spent fuel is necessary at present because of the lack of reprocessing operations particularly in the U.S. By considering the above solidification and storage scenario, there is more than reasonable assurance that acceptable, stable, low heat generation rate, solidified waste can be produced, and safely disposed. The public perception of no waste disposal solutions is being exploited by detractors of nuclear power application. The inability to even point to one overall system demonstration lends credibility to the negative assertions. By delaying the gathering of on-line information to qualify repository sites, and to implement a demonstration, the actions of the nuclear power detractors are self serving in that they can continue to point out there is no demonstration of satisfactory high-level waste disposal. By maintaining the liquid and solidified high-level waste in secure above ground storage until acceptable decay heat generation rates are achieved, by producing a compatible, high integrity, solid waste form, by providing a second or even third barrier as a compound container and by inserting the enclosed waste form in a qualified repository with spacing to assure moderately low temperature disposal conditions, there appears to be no technical reason for not progressing further with the disposal of high-level wastes and needed implementation of the complete nuclear power fuel cycle.

  19. Reflection surveys conducted on the western side of the mid-continental gravity high

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, R.W.; Fromm, A.J. ); Okita, P. )

    1992-01-01

    The few spatially isolated deeper drill holes available on the western side of the mid-continental gravity high have established elevation changes in the Sioux quartzite that exceed 500m within a few hundred kilometers. Thirteen, 12-fold, CMP, reflection surveys were conducted within this area to supplement the limited drilling data. These surveys used an elastic wave generator as the energy source and a digital 24 channel IFP system for recording. The survey locations were selected to best supplement the existing drill hole data. Phone spacings and near offsets were selected on the basis of walk-out surveys conducted at each reflection site. No velocity control was available and the stacking velocities were selected based on graded velocity stacks. Interval velocities, constrained by general stratigraphic considerations, were calculated from the stacking velocities. For the near surface, interval velocities were extracted from the first arrivals. The lack of velocity control did not appear to seriously degrade the interpretation of gross structural features. Both the Sioux quartzite and a deeper interface, assumed to be the top of igneous basement, were reliably mapped. The two-way times of the basement reflector varied from 400m sec to 200m sec, approximately 500m to 300m respectively. The two-way times to the top of the quartzite varied from 300 m secs to 135m secs, approximately 350m to 160m respectively. The results suggest a major northeast, southwest trending basement fault with displacements exceeding 100m. The structure of both the basement and the quartzite appear to be a faulted anticline or dome. The reflection surveys provided a cost effective method for reconnaissance studies required to establish gross structural features.

  20. Sensorimotor aspects of high-speed artificial gravity: III. Sensorimotor adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiZio, Paul; Lackner, James R.; Young, L. R. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    As a countermeasure to the debilitating physiological effects of weightlessness, astronauts could live continuously in an artificial gravity environment created by slow rotation of an entire spacecraft or be exposed to brief daily "doses" in a short radius centrifuge housed within a non-rotating spacecraft. A potential drawback to both approaches is that head movements made during rotation may be disorienting and nauseogenic. These side effects are more severe at higher rotation rates, especially upon first exposure. Head movements during rotation generate aberrant vestibular stimulation and Coriolis force perturbations of the head-neck motor system. This article reviews our progress toward distinguishing vestibular and motor factors in side effects of rotation, and presents new data concerning the rates of rotation up to which adaptation is possible. We have studied subjects pointing to targets during constant velocity rotation, because these movements generate Coriolis motor perturbations of the arm but do not involve unusual vestibular stimulation. Initially, reaching paths and endpoints are deviated in the direction of the transient lateral Coriolis forces generated. With practice, subjects soon move in straighter paths and land on target once more. If sight of the arm is permitted, adaptation is more rapid than in darkness. Initial arm movement trajectory and endpoint deviations are proportional to Coriolis force magnitude over a range of rotation speeds from 5 to 20 rpm, and there is rapid, complete motor adaptation at all speeds. These new results indicate that motor adaptation to high rotation rates is possible. Coriolis force perturbations of head movements also occur in a rotating environment but adaptation gradually develops over the course of many head movements.

  1. Time-dependent convective flows with high viscosity contrasts under micro gravity conditions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaussinger, Florian; Egbers, Christoph; Krebs, Andreas; Schwarzbach, Felix; Kunze, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Thermal driven convection in spherical geometry is of main interest in geo- and astrophysical research. To capture certain aspects of temperature dependent viscosity we investigate the micro-gravity experiment GeoFlow-IIb, located on the ISS. This unique experimental setup consists of a bottom heated and top cooled spherical gap, filled with the silicon oil 1-Nonanol. However, rotation and varying temperature gradients can be applied, to spread the experimental parameter space. The main focus of the current mission is the investigation of time dependent convective flow structures. Since the ISS requirements makes it impossible to use tracer particles, the flow structures are captured by interferometry, whose outcome is analysed by an ground based adapted image processing technique. To guarantee valid results the experimental time of each parameter is in the order of the thermal time scale, which is about 40 min. We are presenting latest results of plume-like and sheet-like time-dependent convective patterns in the spherical shell, their evolution and temporal behaviour under high viscosity contrasts. Due to an unexpected nonlinear coupling between the temperature dependent viscosity of the working fluid and the applied dielectrophoretic force field, we are able to maintain a viscosity contrast of 50 and more. This gives the chance to compare cautiously our experimental results with theoretical assumptions of the mantle convection theory. Besides, numerical simulations in the same parameter regime are performed, which give the opportunity to deduce the internal structure of the experimental flow flied. The main focus of the presented results are the long time temporal evolution of convective plumes in the spherical gap, image capturing- and processing techniques and the deduction of the internal flow field based on planar interferometry pictures.

  2. Dynamics of three-level ?-type atom interacting with one mode cavity field with both classical gravity and quantum radiation: Lie algebra approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd El-Wahab, N. H.; Abdel Rady, A. S.; Osman, Abdel-Nasser A.; Salah, Ahmed

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, a model is introduced to investigate the interaction between a three-level atom and one-mode of the radiation field. The atomic motion and the classical homogenous gravitational field are taken into consideration. For this purpose, we first introduce a set of new atomic operators obeying an su(3) algebraic structure to derive an effective Hamiltonian for the system under consideration. By solving the Schrödinger equation in the interaction picture, the exact solution is given when the atom and the field are initially prepared in excited state and coherent state, respectively. The influences of the gravity parameter on the collapses-revivals phenomena, the atomic momentum diffusion, the Mandel Q-parameter, the normal squeezing phenomena and the coherent properties for the considered system are examined. It is found that the gravity parameter has important effects on the properties of these phenomena.

  3. Gravity effects obtained from global hydrology models in comparison with high precision gravimetric time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wziontek, Hartmut; Wilmes, Herbert; Güntner, Andreas; Creutzfeldt, Benjamin

    2010-05-01

    Water mass changes are a major source of variations in residual gravimetric time series obtained from the combination of observations with superconducting and absolute gravimeters. Changes in the local water storage are the main influence, but global variations contribute to the signal significantly. For three European gravity stations, Bad Homburg, Wettzell and Medicina, different global hydrology models are compared. The influence of topographic effects is discussed and due to the long-term stability of the combined gravity time series, inter-annual signals in model data and gravimetric observations are compared. Two sources of influence are discriminated, i.e., the effect of a local zone with an extent of a few kilometers around the gravimetric station and the global contribution beyond 50km. Considering their coarse resolution and uncertainties, local effects calculated from global hydrological models are compared with the in-situ gravity observations and, for the station Wettzell, with local hydrological monitoring data.

  4. Evaluation of the fermentation of high gravity thick sugar beet juice worts for efficient bioethanol production

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sugar beet and intermediates of sugar beet processing are considered to be very attractive feedstock for ethanol production due to their content of fermentable sugars. In particular, the processing of the intermediates into ethanol is considerably facilitated because it does not require pretreatment or enzymatic treatment in contrast to production from starch raw materials. Moreover, the advantage of thick juice is high solid substance and saccharose content which eliminates problems with the storability of this feedstock. Results The objective of this study were to investigate bioethanol production from thick juice worts and the effects of their concentration, the type of mineral supplement, as well as the dose of yeast inoculum on fermentation dynamics and ethanol yield. The obtained results show that to ensure efficient ethanolic fermentation of high gravity thick juice worts, one needs to use a yeast strain with high ethanol tolerance and a large amount of inoculum. The highest ethanol yield (94.9?±?2.8% of the theoretical yield) and sugars intake of 96.5?±?2.9% were obtained after the fermentation of wort with an extract content of 250 g/kg supplemented with diammonium hydrogen phosphate (0.3 g/L of wort) and inoculated with 2 g of Ethanol Red dry yeast per L of wort. An increase in extract content in the fermentation medium from 250 g/L to 280 g/kg resulted in decreased efficiency of the process. Also the distillates originating from worts with an extract content of 250 g/kg were characterized by lower acetaldehyde concentration than those obtained from worts with an extract content of 280 g/kg. Conclusions Under the favorable conditions determined in our experiments, 38.9?±?1.2 L of 100% (v/v) ethyl alcohol can be produced from 100 kg of thick juice. The obtained results show that the selection of process conditions and the yeast for the fermentation of worts with a higher sugar content can improve the economic performance of the alcohol-distilling industry due to more efficient ethanol production, reduced consumption of cooling water, and energy for ethanol distillation, as well as a decreased volume of fermentation stillage. PMID:24206573

  5. Application of low-cost algal nitrogen source feeding in fuel ethanol production using high gravity sweet potato medium.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yu; Guo, Jin-Song; Chen, You-Peng; Zhang, Hai-Dong; Zheng, Xu-Xu; Zhang, Xian-Ming; Bai, Feng-Wu

    2012-08-31

    Protein-rich bloom algae biomass was employed as nitrogen source in fuel ethanol fermentation using high gravity sweet potato medium containing 210.0 g l(-1) glucose. In batch mode, the fermentation could not accomplish even in 120 h without any feeding of nitrogen source. While, the feeding of acid-hydrolyzed bloom algae powder (AHBAP) notably promoted fermentation process but untreated bloom algae powder (UBAP) was less effective than AHBAP. The fermentation times were reduced to 96, 72, and 72 h if 5.0, 10.0, and 20.0 g l(-1) AHBAP were added into medium, respectively, and the ethanol yields and productivities increased with increasing amount of feeding AHBAP. The continuous fermentations were performed in a three-stage reactor system. Final concentrations of ethanol up to 103.2 and 104.3 g l(-1) with 4.4 and 5.3 g l(-1) residual glucose were obtained using the previously mentioned medium feeding with 20.0 and 30.0 g l(-1) AHBAP, at dilution rate of 0.02 h(-1). Notably, only 78.5 g l(-1) ethanol and 41.6 g l(-1) residual glucose were obtained in the comparative test without any nitrogen source feeding. Amino acids analysis showed that approximately 67% of the protein in the algal biomass was hydrolyzed and released into the medium, serving as the available nitrogen nutrition for yeast growth and metabolism. Both batch and continuous fermentations showed similar fermentation parameters when 20.0 and 30.0 g l(-1) AHBAP were fed, indicating that the level of available nitrogen in the medium should be limited, and an algal nitrogen source feeding amount higher than 20.0 g l(-1) did not further improve the fermentation performance. PMID:22387426

  6. High-level waste management technology program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, H.D.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this plan is to document the integrated technology program plan for the Savannah River Site (SRS) High-Level Waste (HLW) Management System. The mission of the SRS HLW System is to receive and store SRS high-level wastes in a see and environmentally sound, and to convert these wastes into forms suitable for final disposal. These final disposal forms are borosilicate glass to be sent to the Federal Repository, Saltstone grout to be disposed of on site, and treated waste water to be released to the environment via a permitted outfall. Thus, the technology development activities described herein are those activities required to enable successful accomplishment of this mission. The technology program is based on specific needs of the SRS HLW System and organized following the systems engineering level 3 functions. Technology needs for each level 3 function are listed as reference, enhancements, and alternatives. Finally, FY-95 funding, deliverables, and schedules are s in Chapter IV with details on the specific tasks that are funded in FY-95 provided in Appendix A. The information in this report represents the vision of activities as defined at the beginning of the fiscal year. Depending on emergent issues, funding changes, and other factors, programs and milestones may be adjusted during the fiscal year. The FY-95 SRS HLW technology program strongly emphasizes startup support for the Defense Waste Processing Facility and In-Tank Precipitation. Closure of technical issues associated with these operations has been given highest priority. Consequently, efforts on longer term enhancements and alternatives are receiving minimal funding. However, High-Level Waste Management is committed to participation in the national Radioactive Waste Tank Remediation Technology Focus Area. 4 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs.

  7. Evaluation and selection of candidate high-level waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Bernadzikowski, T. A.; Allender, J. S.; Butler, J. L.; Gordon, D. E.; Gould, Jr., T. H.; Stone, J. A.

    1982-03-01

    Seven candidate waste forms being developed under the direction of the Department of Energy's National High-Level Waste (HLW) Technology Program, were evaluated as potential media for the immobilization and geologic disposal of high-level nuclear wastes. The evaluation combined preliminary waste form evaluations conducted at DOE defense waste-sites and independent laboratories, peer review assessments, a product performance evaluation, and a processability analysis. Based on the combined results of these four inputs, two of the seven forms, borosilicate glass and a titanate based ceramic, SYNROC, were selected as the reference and alternative forms for continued development and evaluation in the National HLW Program. Both the glass and ceramic forms are viable candidates for use at each of the DOE defense waste-sites; they are also potential candidates for immobilization of commercial reprocessing wastes. This report describes the waste form screening process, and discusses each of the four major inputs considered in the selection of the two forms.

  8. Life Extension of Aging High-Level Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Bryson, D.; Callahan, V.; Ostrom, M.; Bryan, W.; Berman, H.

    2002-02-26

    The Double Shell Tanks (DSTs) play a critical role in the Hanford High-Level Waste Treatment Complex, and therefore activities are underway to protect and better understand these tanks. The DST Life Extension Program is focused on both tank life extension and on evaluation of tank integrity. Tank life extension activities focus on understanding tank failure modes and have produced key chemistry and operations controls to minimize tank corrosion and extend useful tank life. Tank integrity program activities have developed and applied key technologies to evaluate the condition of the tank structure and predict useful tank life. Program results to date indicate that DST useful life can be extended well beyond the original design life and allow the existing tanks to fill a critical function within the Hanford High-Level Waste Treatment Complex. In addition the tank life may now be more reliably predicted, facilitating improved planning for the use and possible future replacement of these tanks.

  9. Nondestructive examination of DOE high-level waste storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Bush, S.; Bandyopadhyay, K.; Kassir, M.; Mather, B.; Shewmon, P.; Streicher, M.; Thompson, B.; van Rooyen, D.; Weeks, J.

    1995-05-01

    A number of DOE sites have buried tanks containing high-level waste. Tanks of particular interest am double-shell inside concrete cylinders. A program has been developed for the inservice inspection of the primary tank containing high-level waste (HLW), for testing of transfer lines and for the inspection of the concrete containment where possible. Emphasis is placed on the ultrasonic examination of selected areas of the primary tank, coupled with a leak-detection system capable of detecting small leaks through the wall of the primary tank. The NDE program is modelled after ASME Section XI in many respects, particularly with respects to the sampling protocol. Selected testing of concrete is planned to determine if there has been any significant degradation. The most probable failure mechanisms are corrosion-related so that the examination program gives major emphasis to possible locations for corrosion attack.

  10. Review of High Level Waste Tanks Ultrasonic Inspection Data

    SciTech Connect

    Wiersma, B

    2006-03-09

    A review of the data collected during ultrasonic inspection of the Type I high level waste tanks has been completed. The data was analyzed for relevance to the possibility of vapor space corrosion and liquid/air interface corrosion. The review of the Type I tank UT inspection data has confirmed that the vapor space general corrosion is not an unusually aggressive phenomena and correlates well with predicted corrosion rates for steel exposed to bulk solution. The corrosion rates are seen to decrease with time as expected. The review of the temperature data did not reveal any obvious correlations between high temperatures and the occurrences of leaks. The complex nature of temperature-humidity interaction, particularly with respect to vapor corrosion requires further understanding to infer any correlation. The review of the waste level data also did not reveal any obvious correlations.

  11. RETENTION OF SULFATE IN HIGH LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE GLASS

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K.

    2010-09-07

    High level radioactive wastes are being vitrified at the Savannah River Site for long term disposal. Many of the wastes contain sulfate at concentrations that can be difficult to retain in borosilicate glass. This study involves efforts to optimize the composition of a glass frit for combination with the waste to improve sulfate retention while meeting other process and product performance constraints. The fabrication and characterization of several series of simulated waste glasses are described. The experiments are detailed chronologically, to provide insight into part of the engineering studies used in developing frit compositions for an operating high level waste vitrification facility. The results lead to the recommendation of a specific frit composition and a concentration limit for sulfate in the glass for the next batch of sludge to be processed at Savannah River.

  12. Management of data quality of high level waste characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, W.I., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-12

    Over the past 10 years, the Hanford Site has been transitioning from nuclear materials production to Site cleanup operations. High-level waste characterization at the Hanford Site provides data to support present waste processing operations, tank safety programs, and future waste disposal programs. Quality elements in the high-level waste characterization program will be presented by following a sample through the data quality objective, sampling, laboratory analysis and data review process. Transition from production to cleanup has resulted in changes in quality systems and program; the changes, as well as other issues in these quality programs, will be described. Laboratory assessment through quality control and performance evaluation programs will be described, and data assessments in the laboratory and final reporting in the tank characterization reports will be discussed.

  13. Ionization chamber for measurements of high-level tritium gas

    SciTech Connect

    Carstens, D.H.W.; David, W.R.

    1980-01-01

    The construction and calibration of a simple ionization-chamber apparatus for measurement of high level tritium gas is described. The apparatus uses an easily constructed but rugged chamber containing the unknown gas and an inexpensive digital multimeter for measuring the ion current. The equipment after calibration is suitable for measuring 0.01 to 100% tritium gas in hydrogen-helium mixes with an accuracy of a few percent. At both the high and low limits of measurements deviations from the predicted theoretical current are observed. These are briefly discussed.

  14. High Level Information Fusion (HLIF) with nested fusion loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodley, Robert; Gosnell, Michael; Fischer, Amber

    2013-05-01

    Situation modeling and threat prediction require higher levels of data fusion in order to provide actionable information. Beyond the sensor data and sources the analyst has access to, the use of out-sourced and re-sourced data is becoming common. Through the years, some common frameworks have emerged for dealing with information fusion—perhaps the most ubiquitous being the JDL Data Fusion Group and their initial 4-level data fusion model. Since these initial developments, numerous models of information fusion have emerged, hoping to better capture the human-centric process of data analyses within a machine-centric framework. 21st Century Systems, Inc. has developed Fusion with Uncertainty Reasoning using Nested Assessment Characterizer Elements (FURNACE) to address challenges of high level information fusion and handle bias, ambiguity, and uncertainty (BAU) for Situation Modeling, Threat Modeling, and Threat Prediction. It combines JDL fusion levels with nested fusion loops and state-of-the-art data reasoning. Initial research has shown that FURNACE is able to reduce BAU and improve the fusion process by allowing high level information fusion (HLIF) to affect lower levels without the double counting of information or other biasing issues. The initial FURNACE project was focused on the underlying algorithms to produce a fusion system able to handle BAU and repurposed data in a cohesive manner. FURNACE supports analyst's efforts to develop situation models, threat models, and threat predictions to increase situational awareness of the battlespace. FURNACE will not only revolutionize the military intelligence realm, but also benefit the larger homeland defense, law enforcement, and business intelligence markets.

  15. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING ENABLING ORGANIC HIGH LEVEL WASTE DISPOSAL

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M

    2008-05-09

    Waste streams planned for generation by the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) and existing radioactive High Level Waste (HLW) streams containing organic compounds such as the Tank 48H waste stream at Savannah River Site have completed simulant and radioactive testing, respectfully, by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). GNEP waste streams will include up to 53 wt% organic compounds and nitrates up to 56 wt%. Decomposition of high nitrate streams requires reducing conditions, e.g. provided by organic additives such as sugar or coal, to reduce NOX in the off-gas to N2 to meet Clean Air Act (CAA) standards during processing. Thus, organics will be present during the waste form stabilization process regardless of the GNEP processes utilized and exists in some of the high level radioactive waste tanks at Savannah River Site and Hanford Tank Farms, e.g. organics in the feed or organics used for nitrate destruction. Waste streams containing high organic concentrations cannot be stabilized with the existing HLW Best Developed Available Technology (BDAT) which is HLW vitrification (HLVIT) unless the organics are removed by pretreatment. The alternative waste stabilization pretreatment process of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) operates at moderate temperatures (650-750 C) compared to vitrification (1150-1300 C). The FBSR process has been demonstrated on GNEP simulated waste and radioactive waste containing high organics from Tank 48H to convert organics to CAA compliant gases, create no secondary liquid waste streams and create a stable mineral waste form.

  16. Local acceptance of a high-level nuclear waste repository.

    PubMed

    Sjöberg, Lennart

    2004-06-01

    The siting of nuclear waste facilities has been very difficult in all countries. Recent experience in Sweden indicates, however, that it may be possible, under certain circumstances, to gain local support for the siting of a high-level nuclear waste (HLNW) repository. The article reports on a study of attitudes and risk perceptions of people living in four municipalities in Sweden where HLNW siting was being intensely discussed at the political level, in media, and among the public. Data showed a relatively high level of consensus on acceptability of at least further investigation of the issue; in two cases local councils have since voted in favor of a go-ahead, and in one case only a very small majority defeated the issue. Models of policy attitudes showed that these were related to attitude to nuclear power, attributes of the perceived HLNW risk, and trust. Factors responsible for acceptance are discussed at several levels. One is the attitude to nuclear power, which is becoming more positive, probably because no viable alternatives are in sight. Other factors have to do with the extensive information programs conducted in these municipalities, and with the logical nature of the conclusion that they would be good candidates for hosting the national HLNW repository. PMID:15209942

  17. Case for retrievable high-level nuclear waste disposal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roseboom, Eugene H., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Plans for the nation's first high-level nuclear waste repository have called for permanently closing and sealing the repository soon after it is filled. However, the hydrologic environment of the proposed site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, should allow the repository to be kept open and the waste retrievable indefinitely. This would allow direct monitoring of the repository and maintain the options for future generations to improve upon the disposal methods or use the uranium in the spent fuel as an energy resource.

  18. Automatic rule generation for high-level vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhee, Frank Chung-Hoon; Krishnapuram, Raghu

    1992-01-01

    Many high-level vision systems use rule-based approaches to solving problems such as autonomous navigation and image understanding. The rules are usually elaborated by experts. However, this procedure may be rather tedious. In this paper, we propose a method to generate such rules automatically from training data. The proposed method is also capable of filtering out irrelevant features and criteria from the rules.

  19. Executive functions in kindergarteners with high levels of disruptive behaviours.

    PubMed

    Monette, Sébastien; Bigras, Marc; Guay, Marie-Claude

    2015-11-01

    Executive function (EF) deficits have yet to be demonstrated convincingly in children with disruptive behaviour disorders (DBD), as only a few studies have reported these. The presence of EF weaknesses in children with DBD has often been contested on account of the high comorbidity between DBD and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and of methodological shortcomings regarding EF measures. Against this background, the link between EF and disruptive behaviours in kindergarteners was investigated using a carefully selected battery of EF measures. Three groups of kindergarteners were compared: (1) a group combining high levels of disruptive behaviours and ADHD symptoms (COMB); (2) a group presenting high levels of disruptive/aggressive behaviours and low levels of ADHD symptoms (AGG); and (3) a normative group (NOR). Children in the COMB and AGG groups presented weaker inhibition capacities compared with normative peers. Also, only the COMB group showed weaker working memory capacities compared with the NOR group. Results support the idea that preschool children with DBD have weaker inhibition capacities and that this weakness could be common to both ADHD and DBD. PMID:26198079

  20. Handbook of high-level radioactive waste transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Sattler, L.R.

    1992-10-01

    The High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Handbook serves as a reference to which state officials and members of the general public may turn for information on radioactive waste transportation and on the federal government`s system for transporting this waste under the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The Handbook condenses and updates information contained in the Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer. It is intended primarily to assist legislators who, in the future, may be called upon to enact legislation pertaining to the transportation of radioactive waste through their jurisdictions. The Handbook is divided into two sections. The first section places the federal government`s program for transporting radioactive waste in context. It provides background information on nuclear waste production in the United States and traces the emergence of federal policy for disposing of radioactive waste. The second section covers the history of radioactive waste transportation; summarizes major pieces of legislation pertaining to the transportation of radioactive waste; and provides an overview of the radioactive waste transportation program developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE). To supplement this information, a summary of pertinent federal and state legislation and a glossary of terms are included as appendices, as is a list of publications produced by the Midwestern Office of The Council of State Governments (CSG-MW) as part of the Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Project.

  1. Adaptive user interfaces for relating high-level concepts to low-level photographic parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Edward; Madhawa Silva, Pubudu; Pardo, Bryan; Pappas, Thrasyvoulos N.

    2011-03-01

    Common controls for photographic editing can be difficult to use and have a significant learning curve. Often, a user does not know a direct mapping from a high-level concept (such as "soft") to the available parameters or controls. In addition, many concepts are subjective in nature, and the appropriate mapping may vary from user to user. To overcome these problems, we propose a system that can quickly learn a mapping from a high-level subjective concept onto low- level image controls using machine learning techniques. To learn such a concept, the system shows the user a series of training images that are generated by modifying a seed image along different dimensions (e.g., color, sharpness), and collects the user ratings of how well each training image matches the concept. Since it is known precisely how each modified example is different from the original, the system can determine the correlation between the user ratings and the image parameters to generate a controller tailored to the concept for the given user. The end result - a personalized image controller - is applicable to a variety of concepts. We have demonstrated the utility of this approach to relate low-level parameters, such as color balance and sharpness, to simple concepts, such as "lightness" and "crispness," as well as more complex and subjective concepts, such as "pleasantness." We have also applied the proposed approach to relate subband statistics (variance) to perceived roughness of visual textures (from the CUReT database).

  2. Chiral Gravity, Log Gravity and Extremal CFT

    E-print Network

    Alexander Maloney; Wei Song; Andrew Strominger

    2009-03-26

    We show that the linearization of all exact solutions of classical chiral gravity around the AdS3 vacuum have positive energy. Non-chiral and negative-energy solutions of the linearized equations are infrared divergent at second order, and so are removed from the spectrum. In other words, chirality is confined and the equations of motion have linearization instabilities. We prove that the only stationary, axially symmetric solutions of chiral gravity are BTZ black holes, which have positive energy. It is further shown that classical log gravity-- the theory with logarithmically relaxed boundary conditions --has finite asymptotic symmetry generators but is not chiral and hence may be dual at the quantum level to a logarithmic CFT. Moreover we show that log gravity contains chiral gravity within it as a decoupled charge superselection sector. We normally evaluate the Euclidean sum over geometries of chiral gravity and show that it gives precisely the holomorphic extremal CFT partition function. The modular invariance and integrality of the expansion coefficients of this partition function are consistent with the existence of an exact quantum theory of chiral gravity. We argue that the problem of quantizing chiral gravity is the holographic dual of the problem of constructing an extremal CFT, while quantizing log gravity is dual to the problem of constructing a logarithmic extremal CFT.

  3. Mars Gravity and Topography Interpretations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuber, Maria T.; Smith, David E.; Solomon, Sean C.; Phillips, Roger J.

    1999-01-01

    New models of the topography of Mars and its gravity field from the Mars Global Surveyor mission are shedding new light on the structure of the planet and the state of isostatic compensation. Gravity field observations over the flat northern hemisphere plains show a number of anomalies at the 100 to 200 mGal level that have no apparent manifestation in the surface topography. We believe that these anomalies are probably the result of ancient impacts and represent regions of denser material buried beneath the outer depositional crust. Similar anomalies are also found in the region of the north polar ice cap even though a gravity anomaly resulting from the 3 km high icecap has not been uniquely identified. This leads us to speculate that the ice cap is largely compensated and is older than the timescale of isostatic compensation, about 10(exp 15) years.

  4. Integration of P- and SH-wave high-resolution seismic reflection and micro-gravity techniques to improve interpretation of shallow subsurface structure: New Madrid seismic zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bexfield, C.E.; McBride, J.H.; Pugin, Andre J.M.; Ravat, D.; Biswas, S.; Nelson, W.J.; Larson, T.H.; Sargent, S.L.; Fillerup, M.A.; Tingey, B.E.; Wald, L.; Northcott, M.L.; South, J.V.; Okure, M.S.; Chandler, M.R.

    2006-01-01

    Shallow high-resolution seismic reflection surveys have traditionally been restricted to either compressional (P) or horizontally polarized shear (SH) waves in order to produce 2-D images of subsurface structure. The northernmost Mississippi embayment and coincident New Madrid seismic zone (NMSZ) provide an ideal laboratory to study the experimental use of integrating P- and SH-wave seismic profiles, integrated, where practicable, with micro-gravity data. In this area, the relation between "deeper" deformation of Paleozoic bedrock associated with the formation of the Reelfoot rift and NMSZ seismicity and "shallower" deformation of overlying sediments has remained elusive, but could be revealed using integrated P- and SH-wave reflection. Surface expressions of deformation are almost non-existent in this region, which makes seismic reflection surveying the only means of detecting structures that are possibly pertinent to seismic hazard assessment. Since P- and SH-waves respond differently to the rock and fluid properties and travel at dissimilar speeds, the resulting seismic profiles provide complementary views of the subsurface based on different levels of resolution and imaging capability. P-wave profiles acquired in southwestern Illinois and western Kentucky (USA) detect faulting of deep, Paleozoic bedrock and Cretaceous reflectors while coincident SH-wave surveys show that this deformation propagates higher into overlying Tertiary and Quaternary strata. Forward modeling of micro-gravity data acquired along one of the seismic profiles further supports an interpretation of faulting of bedrock and Cretaceous strata. The integration of the two seismic and the micro-gravity methods therefore increases the scope for investigating the relation between the older and younger deformation in an area of critical seismic hazard. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Radiative Lifetimes for High Levels of Neutral Fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawler, James E.; Den Hartog, E.; Guzman, A.

    2013-01-01

    New radiative lifetime measurements for ~ 50 high lying levels of Fe I are reported. Laboratory astrophysics faces a challenge to provide basic spectroscopic data, especially reliable atomic transition probabilities, in the IR region for abundance studies. The availability of HgCdTe (HAWAII) detector arrays has opened IR spectral regions for extensive new spectroscopic studies. The SDSS III APOGEE project in the H-Band is an important example which will penetrate the dust obscuring the Galactic bulge. APOGEE will survey elemental abundances of 100,000 red giant stars in the bulge, bar, disk, and halo of the Milky Way. Many stellar spectra in the H-Band are, as expected, dominated by transitions of Fe I. Most of these IR transitions connect high levels of Fe. Our program has started an effort to meet this challenge with new radiative lifetime measurements on high lying levels of Fe I using time resolved laser induced fluorescence (TRLIF). The TRLIF method is typically accurate to 5% and is efficient. Our goal is to combine these accurate, absolute radiative lifetimes with emission branching fractions [1] to determine log(gf) values of the highest quality for Fe I lines in the UV, visible, and IR. This method was used very successfully by O’Brian et al. [2] on lower levels of Fe I. This method is still the best available for all but very simple spectra for which ab-initio theory is more accurate. Supported by NSF grant AST-0907732. [1] Branching fractions are being measured by M. Ruffoni and J. C. Pickering at Imperial College London. [2] O'Brian, T. R., Wickliffe, M. E., Lawler, J. E., Whaling, W., & Brault, J. W. 1991, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 1185

  6. Exceptionally high levels of multiple mating in an army ant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denny, A. Jay; Franks, Nigel R.; Powell, Scott; Edwards, Keith J.

    Most species of social insects have singly mated queens, although there are notable exceptions. Competing hypotheses have been proposed to explain the evolution of high levels of multiple mating, but this issue is far from resolved. Here we use microsatellites to investigate mating frequency in the army ant Eciton burchellii and show that queens mate with an exceptionally large number of males, eclipsing all but one other social insect species for which data are available. In addition we present evidence that suggests that mating is serial, continuing throughout the lifetime of the queen. This is the first demonstration of serial mating among social hymenoptera. We propose that high paternity within colonies is most likely to have evolved to increase genetic diversity and to counter high pathogen and parasite loads.

  7. ALICE: Project Overview and High Level Science Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soummer, Remi; Choquet, Elodie; Pueyo, Laurent; Brendan Hagan, J.; Gofas-Salas, Elena; Rajan, Abhijith; Perrin, Marshall D.; Chen, Christine; Debes, John H.; Golimowski, David A.; Hines, Dean C.; Schneider, Glenn; N'Diaye, Mamadou; Mawet, Dimitri; Marois, Christian; Barman, Travis

    2015-01-01

    We report on the status of the ALICE project (Archival Legacy Investigation of Circumstellar Environments), which consists in a consistent reanalysis of the entire HST-NICMOS coronagraphic archive. Over the last two years, we have developed a sophisticated pipeline able to handle the data of the 400 stars of the archive. This pipeline builds on the Karhunen-Loeve Image Projection (KLIP) algorithm, and was completed in the fall of 2014. We discuss the first processing and analysis results of the overall reduction campaign. As we will deliver high-level science products to the STScI MAST archive, we are defining a new standard format for high-contrast science products, which will be compatible with every new high-contrast imaging instrument (GPI, SPHERE, P1640, CHARIS, etc.) and used by the JWST coronagraphs. We present here the specifications of this standard.

  8. Investigation of nocturnal low-level jet-generated gravity waves over Oklahoma City during morning boundary layer transition period using Doppler wind lidar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yansen; Creegan, Edward; Felton, Melvin; Ligon, David; Huynh, Giap

    2013-01-01

    Low-level jet (LLJ)-generated gravity waves were observed over Oklahoma City by a scanning Doppler wind lidar during the transition periods of atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) from stable to convective conditions in the mornings after sunrise. The temperature profiles had a multilayer structure with a shallow neutral layer immediately above the ground and a stable cap layer above the neutral layer. The wind profiles exhibited a typical shape of a LLJ with nearly linear growth of wind speed with respect to height, and maximum wind speed occurred at the top of the stable cap layer. The average wavelength and its relation with mean wind and temperature profiles are characterized with data from Doppler wind lidar, radiosonde, and wind profiler. A linear stability analysis was performed to check the stratification conditions for wave occurrence. The wind signals from sonic anemometers near the ground were separated into waves and turbulence parts using a wavelet decomposition method, and the momentum fluxes due to the wave motions and turbulence were computed. The downward gravity wave momentum flux was 1.5 to 3.0 times of turbulent momentum flux. The analysis indicated that gravity wave momentum transport from the stable cap layer downward is one of the mechanisms of stable-to-convective transition in the LLJ-dominated ABL.

  9. Ultrasonic level sensors for liquids under high pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuckerwar, A. J.; Mazel, D. S.; Hodges, D. Y.

    1986-01-01

    An ultrasonic level sensor of novel design continuously measures the level of a liquid subjected to a high pressure (up to about 40 MPa), as is sometimes required for the effective transfer of the liquid. The sensor operates as a composite resonator fabricated from a standard high-pressure plug. A flat-bottom hole is machined into the plug along its center line. An ultrasonic transducer is bonded rigidly to the interior surface of the bottom wall, while the exterior surface is in contact with the liquid. Although the bottom wall is designed to satisfy the pressure code, it is still sufficiently thin to permit ready excitation of the axisymmetric plate modes of vibration. The liquid level is measured by a conventional pulse-echo technique. A prototype sensor was tested successfully in a 2300-l water vessel at pressures up to about 37 MPa. A spectral analysis of the transmitted pulse reveals that the flexural, extensional, thickness-shear, and radial plate modes are excited into vibration, but none of these appears to be significantly affected by the pressurization of the liquid.

  10. Space augmentation of military high-level waste disposal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    English, T.; Lees, L.; Divita, E.

    1979-01-01

    Space disposal of selected components of military high-level waste (HLW) is considered. This disposal option offers the promise of eliminating the long-lived radionuclides in military HLW from the earth. A space mission which meets the dual requirements of long-term orbital stability and a maximum of one space shuttle launch per week over a period of 20-40 years, is a heliocentric orbit about halfway between the orbits of earth and Venus. Space disposal of high-level radioactive waste is characterized by long-term predictability and short-term uncertainties which must be reduced to acceptably low levels. For example, failure of either the Orbit Transfer Vehicle after leaving low earth orbit, or the storable propellant stage failure at perihelion would leave the nuclear waste package in an unplanned and potentially unstable orbit. Since potential earth reencounter and subsequent burn-up in the earth's atmosphere is unacceptable, a deep space rendezvous, docking, and retrieval capability must be developed.

  11. High level language-based robotic control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Guillermo (Inventor); Kreutz, Kenneth K. (Inventor); Jain, Abhinandan (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    This invention is a robot control system based on a high level language implementing a spatial operator algebra. There are two high level languages included within the system. At the highest level, applications programs can be written in a robot-oriented applications language including broad operators such as MOVE and GRASP. The robot-oriented applications language statements are translated into statements in the spatial operator algebra language. Programming can also take place using the spatial operator algebra language. The statements in the spatial operator algebra language from either source are then translated into machine language statements for execution by a digital control computer. The system also includes the capability of executing the control code sequences in a simulation mode before actual execution to assure proper action at execution time. The robot's environment is checked as part of the process and dynamic reconfiguration is also possible. The languages and system allow the programming and control of multiple arms and the use of inward/outward spatial recursions in which every computational step can be related to a transformation from one point in the mechanical robot to another point to name two major advantages.

  12. High level language-based robotic control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Guillermo (inventor); Kruetz, Kenneth K. (inventor); Jain, Abhinandan (inventor)

    1994-01-01

    This invention is a robot control system based on a high level language implementing a spatial operator algebra. There are two high level languages included within the system. At the highest level, applications programs can be written in a robot-oriented applications language including broad operators such as MOVE and GRASP. The robot-oriented applications language statements are translated into statements in the spatial operator algebra language. Programming can also take place using the spatial operator algebra language. The statements in the spatial operator algebra language from either source are then translated into machine language statements for execution by a digital control computer. The system also includes the capability of executing the control code sequences in a simulation mode before actual execution to assure proper action at execution time. The robot's environment is checked as part of the process and dynamic reconfiguration is also possible. The languages and system allow the programming and control of multiple arms and the use of inward/outward spatial recursions in which every computational step can be related to a transformation from one point in the mechanical robot to another point to name two major advantages.

  13. Permitting plan for the high-level waste interim storage

    SciTech Connect

    Deffenbaugh, M.L.

    1997-04-23

    This document addresses the environmental permitting requirements for the transportation and interim storage of solidified high-level waste (HLW) produced during Phase 1 of the Hanford Site privatization effort. Solidified HLW consists of canisters containing vitrified HLW (glass) and containers that hold cesium separated during low-level waste pretreatment. The glass canisters and cesium containers will be transported to the Canister Storage Building (CSB) in a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-provided transportation cask via diesel-powered tractor trailer. Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) Milestone M-90 establishes a new major milestone, and associated interim milestones and target dates, governing acquisition and/or modification of facilities necessary for: (1) interim storage of Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) immobilized HLW (IHLW) and other canistered high-level waste forms; and (2) interim storage and disposal of TWRS immobilized low-activity tank waste (ILAW). An environmental requirements checklist and narrative was developed to identify the permitting path forward for the HLW interim storage (HLWIS) project (See Appendix B). This permitting plan will follow the permitting logic developed in that checklist.

  14. Characterization of Transducers and Resonators under High Drive Levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, X.; Sigel, D. A.; Gradziel, M. J.; Askins, S. A.; Dolgin, B. P.; Bar-Cohen, Y.

    2001-01-01

    In many applications, piezoelectric transducers are driven at AC voltage levels well beyond the level for which the material was nominally characterized. In this paper we describe an experimental setup that allows for the determination of the main transducer or resonator properties under large AC drive. A sinusoidal voltage from a waveform generator is amplified and applied across the transducer/resonator in series with a known high power resistor. The amplitude of applied voltage and the amplitude and the relative phase of the current through the resistor are monitored on a digital scope. The frequency of the applied signal is swept through resonance and the voltage/current signals are recorded. After corrections for the series resistance and parasitic elements the technique allows for the determination of the complex impedance spectra of the sample as a function of frequency. In addition, access to the current signal allows for the direct investigation of non-linear effects through the application of Fourier transform techniques on the current signal. Our results indicate that care is required when interpreting impedance data at high drive level due to the frequency dependence of the dissipated power. Although the transducer/resonator at a single frequency and after many cycles may reach thermal equilibrium, the spectra as a whole cannot be considered an isothermal measurement due to the temperature change with frequency. Methods to correct for this effect will be discussed. Results determined from resonators of both soft and hard PZT and a ultrasonic horn transducer are presented.

  15. (abstract) Venus Gravity Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Konopliv, A. S.; Sjogren, W. L.

    1995-01-01

    A global gravity field model of Venus to degree and order 75 (5772 spherical harmonic coefficients) has been estimated from Doppler radio tracking of the orbiting spacecraft Pioneer Venus Orbiter (1979-1992) and Magellan (1990-1994). After the successful aerobraking of Magellan, a near circular polar orbit was attained and relatively uniform gravity field resolution (approximately 200 km) was obtained with formal uncertainties of a few milligals. Detailed gravity for several highland features are displayed as gravity contours overlaying colored topography. The positive correlation of typography with gravity is very high being unlike that of the Earth, Moon, and Mars. The amplitudes are Earth-like, but have significantly different gravity-topography ratios for different features. Global gravity, geoid, and isostatic anomaly maps as well as the admittance function are displayed.

  16. Numerical solution of the altimetry-gravimetry BVP for high-resolution modelling of the altimetry-derived gravity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ?underlík, Róbert; Macák, Marek; Minarechová, Zuzana; Mikula, Karol

    2015-04-01

    We present a numerical solution of the altimetry-gravimetry boundary-value problem using the finite volume method, which discretizes the 3D computational domain between an ellipsoidal approximation of the Earth's surface and an upper boundary given at the mean altitude of the GOCE orbits. A parallel implementation of the finite volume numerical scheme and large-scale parallel computations on clusters with distributed memory allow high-resolution modelling of the altimetry-derived gravity disturbances over oceans. Here the Dirichlet boundary conditions in form of the disturbing potential are prescribed. They are obtained by nonlinear diffusion filtering of the geopotential generated on the mean sea surface from the GRACE/GOCE-based satellite-only geopotential model. On the upper boundary, the Dirichlet boundary conditions generated from the same model are prescribed as well. Numerical experiments present the detailed gravity disturbances derived over oceans from the DTU13 mean sea surface model and the GO_CONS_GCF_2_DIR_R5 geopotential model. Their comparison with the DTU13_GRAV altimetry-derived gravity data indicates an importance of a-priori information about the mean dynamic topography for achieved accuracy, especially in zones of main ocean geosprophic surface currents.

  17. Goose Bay radar observations of Earth-reflected, atmospheric gravity waves in the high-latitude ionosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Samson, J.C.; Greenwald, R.A.; Ruohoniemi, J.M.; Frey, A.; Baker, K.B. )

    1990-06-01

    In the late fall and early winter, The Johns Hopkins University HF radar at Goose Bay, Labrador, observes the effects of atmospheric gravity waves on radar transmissions that are obliquely reflected from the ionosphere and subsequently backscattered from the Earth's surface. The waves exist under a wide variety of geomagnetic conditions; however, they are particularly noticeable under quiet conditions (O {le} Kp {le} 1 +). The clearest signatures of the waves are spatially localized enhancements in the backscattered power and quasi-periodic fluctuations in the backscatter powers, Doppler velocities, and reflection heights. The waves are generally observed during daylight hours and propagate equatorward from regions of high-latitude ionospheric backscatter that are located near the ionospheric convection reversal boundary. The gravity waves appear to be generated just equatorward of the dayside flow-reversal boundary in the vicinity of the auroral electrojet at altitudes of 115 to 135 km and propagate approximately perpendicular to the boundary along azimuths ranging from 156{degree} to 180{degree}. The waves propagate obliquely downward through the lower atmosphere until they are reflected by the Earth's surface back into the upper atmosphere. The frequencies associated with these gravity waves cover the range of 0.3 to 0.6 mHz, with wavelengths of 300 to 500 km, and with average phase velocities of 110 to 180 m/s. The maximum phase speeds are 270 to 300 m/s, which is slightly less than the speed of sound in the lower atmosphere. Poleward-propagating gravity waves are sometimes observed under disturbed conditions when the polar cap and convection reversal boundary have expanded equatorward.

  18. University-Level Research Projects for High School Students

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McConnell, Mark L.

    2000-01-01

    The goal of this project was to provide an opportunity for high school students to participate in university-level research projects. In this case, students from Pinkerton Academy (Derry, New Hampshire) were invited to participate in efforts to catalog data from the COMPTEL experiment on NASA's Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO). These activities were part of a senior level honors course at Pinkerton. Although the success of this particular program was rather limited, we feel that the general concept is a sound one. In principle, the concept of partnerships between local schools and university researchers is one that could be especially attractive to soft money researchers. Programs can be carefully designed to benefit both the students and the research program.

  19. The PHENIX High Transverse Momentum Charged Particle Level-2 Trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lajoie, John; PHENIX Collaboration

    2001-10-01

    The PHENIX Experiment is one of the large detector projects at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory designed to study matter under extreme conditions. High transverse momentum particles created in the collision of heavy nuclei from the scattering of partons (quarks and gluons) are an excellent probe of the properties of the produced matter. The suppression of high transverse momentum particles through interaction with the surrounding matter may be an indication of a phase transition from ordinary hadronic matter to a deconfined state knows as the Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP). The PHENIX Level-2 trigger is a software based trigger tasked with selecting rare events and providing sufficient rejection to keep the data acquistion system within its allocated bandwidth for recording data. A high transverse momentum charged particle trigger has been developed by using a set of primitives that are generated online from the PHENIX tracking detector data. An overview of the design and performance of this Level-2 trigger and its physics capabilities will be presented.

  20. Engineering Escherichia coli for high-level production of propionate.

    PubMed

    Akawi, Lamees; Srirangan, Kajan; Liu, Xuejia; Moo-Young, Murray; Perry Chou, C

    2015-07-01

    Mounting environmental concerns associated with the use of petroleum-based chemical manufacturing practices has generated significant interest in the development of biological alternatives for the production of propionate. However, biological platforms for propionate production have been limited to strict anaerobes, such as Propionibacteria and select Clostridia. In this work, we demonstrated high-level heterologous production of propionate under microaerobic conditions in engineered Escherichia coli. Activation of the native Sleeping beauty mutase (Sbm) operon not only transformed E. coli to be propionogenic (i.e., propionate-producing) but also introduced an intracellular "flux competition" between the traditional C2-fermentative pathway and the novel C3-fermentative pathway. Dissimilation of the major carbon source of glycerol was identified to critically affect such "flux competition" and, therefore, propionate synthesis. As a result, the propionogenic E. coli was further engineered by inactivation or overexpression of various genes involved in the glycerol dissimilation pathways and their individual genetic effects on propionate production were investigated. Generally, knocking out genes involved in glycerol dissimilation (except glpA) can minimize levels of solventogenesis and shift more dissimilated carbon flux toward the C3-fermentative pathway. For optimal propionate production with high C3:C2-fermentative product ratios, glycerol dissimilation should be channeled through the respiratory pathway and, upon suppressed solventogenesis with minimal production of highly reduced alcohols, the alternative NADH-consuming route associated with propionate synthesis can be critical for more flexible redox balancing. With the implementation of various biochemical and genetic strategies, high propionate titers of more than 11 g/L with high yields up to 0.4 g-propionate/g-glycerol (accounting for ~50 % of dissimilated glycerol) were achieved, demonstrating the potential for industrial application. To our knowledge, this represents the most effective engineered microbial system for propionate production with titers and yields comparable to those achieved by anaerobic batch cultivation of various native propionate-producing strains of Propionibacteria. PMID:25948049

  1. CEMENTITIOUS GROUT FOR CLOSING SRS HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANKS - #12315

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C.; Burns, H.; Stefanko, D.

    2012-01-10

    In 1997, the first two United States Department of Energy (US DOE) high level waste tanks (Tanks 17-F and 20-F: Type IV, single shell tanks) were taken out of service (permanently closed) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). In 2012, the DOE plans to remove from service two additional Savannah River Site (SRS) Type IV high-level waste tanks, Tanks 18-F and 19-F. These tanks were constructed in the late 1950's and received low-heat waste and do not contain cooling coils. Operational closure of Tanks 18-F and 19-F is intended to be consistent with the applicable requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and will be performed in accordance with South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC). The closure will physically stabilize two 4.92E+04 cubic meter (1.3 E+06 gallon) carbon steel tanks and isolate and stabilize any residual contaminants left in the tanks. The closure will also fill, physically stabilize and isolate ancillary equipment abandoned in the tanks. A Performance Assessment (PA) has been developed to assess the long-term fate and transport of residual contamination in the environment resulting from the operational closure of the F-Area Tank Farm (FTF) waste tanks. Next generation flowable, zero-bleed cementitious grouts were designed, tested, and specified for closing Tanks 18-F and 19-F and for filling the abandoned equipment. Fill requirements were developed for both the tank and equipment grouts. All grout formulations were required to be alkaline with a pH of 12.4 and chemically reduction potential (Eh) of -200 to -400 to stabilize selected potential contaminants of concern. This was achieved by including Portland cement and Grade 100 slag in the mixes, respectively. Ingredients and proportions of cementitious reagents were selected and adjusted, respectively, to support the mass placement strategy developed by closure operations. Subsequent down selection was based on compressive strength and saturated hydraulic conductivity results. Fresh slurry property results were used as the first level of screening. A high range water reducing admixture and a viscosity modifying admixture were used to adjust slurry properties to achieve flowable grouts. Adiabatic calorimeter results were used as the second level screening. The third level of screening was used to design mixes that were consistent with the fill material parameters used in the F-Tank Farm Performance Assessment which was developed to assess the long-term fate and transport of residual contamination in the environment resulting from the operational closures.

  2. Development of a High Level Waste Tank Inspection System

    SciTech Connect

    Appel, D.K.; Loibl, M.W.; Meese, D.C.

    1995-03-21

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Technology Center was requested by it`s sister site, West Valley Nuclear Service (WVNS), to develop a remote inspection system to gather wall thickness readings of their High Level Waste Tanks. WVNS management chose to take a proactive approach to gain current information on two tanks t hat had been in service since the early 70`s. The tanks contain high level waste, are buried underground, and have only two access ports to an annular space between the tank and the secondary concrete vault. A specialized remote system was proposed to provide both a visual surveillance and ultrasonic thickness measurements of the tank walls. A magnetic wheeled crawler was the basis for the remote delivery system integrated with an off-the-shelf Ultrasonic Data Acquisition System. A development program was initiated for Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) to design, fabricate, and test a remote system based on the Crawler. The system was completed and involved three crawlers to perform the needed tasks, an Ultrasonic Crawler, a Camera Crawler, and a Surface Prep Crawler. The crawlers were computer controlled so that their operation could be done remotely and their position on the wall could be tracked. The Ultrasonic Crawler controls were interfaced with ABB Amdata`s I-PC, Ultrasonic Data Acquisition System so that thickness mapping of the wall could be obtained. A second system was requested by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC), to perform just ultrasonic mapping on their similar Waste Storage Tanks; however, the system needed to be interfaced with the P-scan Ultrasonic Data Acquisition System. Both remote inspection systems were completed 9/94. Qualifications tests were conducted by WVNS prior to implementation on the actual tank and tank development was achieved 10/94. The second inspection system was deployed at WSRC 11/94 with success, and the system is now in continuous service inspecting the remaining high level waste tanks at WSRC.

  3. Stagnation Region Heat Transfer Augmentation at Very High Turbulence Levels

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, Forrest; Kingery, Joseph E.

    2015-06-17

    A database for stagnation region heat transfer has been extended to include heat transfer measurements acquired downstream from a new high intensity turbulence generator. This work was motivated by gas turbine industry heat transfer designers who deal with heat transfer environments with increasing Reynolds numbers and very high turbulence levels. The new mock aero-combustor turbulence generator produces turbulence levels which average 17.4%, which is 37% higher than the older turbulence generator. The increased level of turbulence is caused by the reduced contraction ratio from the liner to the exit. Heat transfer measurements were acquired on two large cylindrical leading edge test surfaces having a four to one range in leading edge diameter (40.64 cm and 10.16 cm). Gandvarapu and Ames [1] previously acquired heat transfer measurements for six turbulence conditions including three grid conditions, two lower turbulence aero-combustor conditions, and a low turbulence condition. The data are documented and tabulated for an eight to one range in Reynolds numbers for each test surface with Reynolds numbers ranging from 62,500 to 500,000 for the large leading edge and 15,625 to 125,000 for the smaller leading edge. The data show augmentation levels of up to 136% in the stagnation region for the large leading edge. This heat transfer rate is an increase over the previous aero-combustor turbulence generator which had augmentation levels up to 110%. Note, the rate of increase in heat transfer augmentation decreases for the large cylindrical leading edge inferring only a limited level of turbulence intensification in the stagnation region. The smaller cylindrical leading edge shows more consistency with earlier stagnation region heat transfer results correlated on the TRL (Turbulence, Reynolds number, Length scale) parameter. The downstream regions of both test surfaces continue to accelerate the flow but at a much lower rate than the leading edge. Bypass transition occurs in these regions providing a useful set of data to ground the prediction of transition onset and length over a wide range of Reynolds numbers and turbulence intensity and scales.

  4. Abnormally high serum ferritin levels among professional road cyclists

    PubMed Central

    Zotter, H; Robinson, N; Zorzoli, M; Schattenberg, L; Saugy, M; Mangin, P

    2004-01-01

    Background: An international, longitudinal medical follow up examination of male professional road cyclists revealed excessively elevated serum ferritin levels. Objective: To evaluate the importance of elevated ferritin values among professional cyclists, their relationship with age and nationality, and their evolution over 3 years. Methods: Over 1000 serum ferritin values were collected. Other parameters were included in order to exclude conditions which might have increased ferritin levels without changing body iron stores. Results: In 1999, over 45% of riders displayed ferritin values above 300 ng/ml and one fourth levels over 500 ng/ml. These percentages had decreased to 27% and 9%, respectively, 3 years later, while the overall average, which was above the normal limits in 1999, had decreased by 33% in 3 years. Older cyclists had higher ferritin values than younger cyclists. There was also a relationship between ferritin levels and the nationality of the cyclists. Analysis of 714 riders in 2000 and 2002 showed only a slight and insignificant decrease in the mean ferritin value although those with initially elevated iron stores had a much greater decrease. Conclusion: Professional road cyclists used excessive iron supplementation leading to high serum ferritin levels correlating with increased body iron stores. Although the situation progressively improved over 3 years, it remains worrying as increased body iron stores are related to health complications. Therefore, prevention in addition to the fight against doping should be a main goal of the UCI. Aggressive therapy for athletes with excessive ferritin values should be carried out at or before the end of their careers. PMID:15562163

  5. HIGH LEVELS OF URANIUM IN GROUNDWATER OF ULAANBAATAR, MONGOLIA

    PubMed Central

    Nriagu, Jerome; Nam, Dong-Ha; Ayanwola, Titilayo A.; Dinh, Hau; Erdenechimeg, Erdenebayar; Ochir, Chimedsuren; Bolormaa, Tsend-Ayush

    2011-01-01

    Water samples collected from 129 wells in seven of the nine sub-divisions of Ulaanbaatar were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) using Clean Lab methods. The levels of many trace elements were found to be very low with the average concentrations (ranges in brackets) being 0.9 (<0.1-7.9) ?g/L for As; 7.7 (0.12-177) ?g/L for Mn; 0.2 (<0.05-1.9) ?g/L for Co; 16 (<0.1-686) ?g/L for Zn; 0.7 (<0.1-1.8) ?g/L for Se; <0.1 (<0.02-0.69) ?g/L for Cd; and 1.3 (<0.02-32) ?g/L for Pb. The levels of uranium were surprisingly elevated (mean, 4.6 ?g/L; range <0.01-57 ?g/L, with the values for many samples exceeding the World Health Organization's guideline of 15 ?g/L for uranium in drinking water. Local rocks and soils appear to be the natural source of the uranium. The levels of uranium in Ulaanbaatar's groundwater are in the range that has been associated with nephrotoxicity, high blood pressure, bone dysfunction and likely reproductive impairment in human populations. We consider the risk associated with drinking the groundwater with elevated levels of uranium in Ulaanbaatar to be a matter for some public health concern and conclude that the paucity of data on chronic effects of low level exposure is a risk factor for continuing the injury to many people in this city. PMID:22142646

  6. High-level neutron coincidence counter maintenance manual

    SciTech Connect

    Swansen, J.; Collinsworth, P.

    1983-05-01

    High-level neutron coincidence counter operational (field) calibration and usage is well known. This manual makes explicit basic (shop) check-out, calibration, and testing of new units and is a guide for repair of failed in-service units. Operational criteria for the major electronic functions are detailed, as are adjustments and calibration procedures, and recurrent mechanical/electromechanical problems are addressed. Some system tests are included for quality assurance. Data on nonstandard large-scale integrated (circuit) components and a schematic set are also included.

  7. Corrosion and failure processes in high-level waste tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Mahidhara, R.K.; Elleman, T.S.; Murty, K.L.

    1992-11-01

    A large amount of radioactive waste has been stored safely at the Savannah River and Hanford sites over the past 46 years. The aim of this report is to review the experimental corrosion studies at Savannah River and Hanford with the intention of identifying the types and rates of corrosion encountered and indicate how these data contribute to tank failure predictions. The compositions of the High-Level Wastes, mild steels used in the construction of the waste tanks and degradation-modes particularly stress corrosion cracking and pitting are discussed. Current concerns at the Hanford Site are highlighted.

  8. Modern Alchemy: Solidifying high-level nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, C.C.

    1997-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is putting a modern version of alchemy to work to produce an answer to a decades-old problem. It is taking place at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, South Carolina and at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) near Buffalo, New York. At both locations, contractor Westinghouse Electric Corporation is applying technology that is turning liquid high-level radioactive waste (HLW) into a stabilized, durable glass for safer and easier management. The process is called vitrification. SRS and WVDP are now operating the nation`s first full-scale HLW vitrification plants.

  9. Market Designs for High Levels of Variable Generation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Milligan, M.; Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Orths, A.; Lynch, M.; Soder, L.

    2014-10-01

    Variable renewable generation is increasing in penetration in modern power systems, leading to higher variability in the supply and price of electricity as well as lower average spot prices. This raises new challenges, particularly in ensuring sufficient capacity and flexibility from conventional technologies. Because the fixed costs and lifetimes of electricity generation investments are significant, designing markets and regulations that ensure the efficient integration of renewable generation is a significant challenge. This papers reviews the state of play of market designs for high levels of variable generation in the United States and Europe and considers new developments in both regions.

  10. High-Gravity Carbonation Process for Enhancing CO2 Fixation and Utilization Exemplified by the Steelmaking Industry.

    PubMed

    Pan, Shu-Yuan; Chen, Yi-Hung; Chen, Chun-Da; Shen, Ai-Lin; Lin, Michael; Chiang, Pen-Chi

    2015-10-20

    The high-gravity carbonation process for CO2 mineralization and product utilization as a green cement was evaluated using field operation data from the steelmaking industry. The effect of key operating factors, including rotation speed, liquid-to-solid ratio, gas flow rate, and slurry flow rate, on CO2 removal efficiency was studied. The results indicated that a maximal CO2 removal of 97.3% was achieved using basic oxygen furnace slag at a gas-to-slurry ratio of 40, with a capture capacity of 165 kg of CO2 per day. In addition, the product with different carbonation conversions (i.e., 0%, 17%, and 48%) was used as supplementary cementitious materials in blended cement at various substitution ratios (i.e., 0%, 10%, and 20%). The performance of the blended cement mortar, including physicochemical properties, morphology, mineralogy, compressive strength, and autoclave soundness, was evaluated. The results indicated that the mortar with a high carbonation conversion of slag exhibited a higher mechanical strength in the early stage than pure portland cement mortar, suggesting its suitability for use as a high early strength cement. It also possessed superior soundness compared to the mortar using fresh slag. Furthermore, the optimal operating conditions of the high-gravity carbonation were determined by response surface models for maximizing CO2 removal efficiency and minimizing energy consumption. PMID:26397167

  11. Online Pattern Recognition for the ALICE High Level Trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindenstruth, V.; Loizides, C.; Rohrich, D.; Skaali, B.; Steinbeck, T.; Stock, R.; Tilsner, H.; Ullaland, K.; Vestbo, A.; Vik, T.

    2004-06-01

    The ALICE High Level Trigger has to process data online, in order to select interesting (sub)events, or to compress data efficiently by modeling techniques. Focusing on the main data source, the Time Projection Chamber (TPC), we present two pattern recognition methods under investigation: a sequential approach (cluster finder and track follower) and an iterative approach (track candidate finder and cluster deconvoluter). We show, that the former is suited for pp and low multiplicity PbPb collisions, whereas the latter might be applicable for high multiplicity PbPb collisions of dN/dy>3000. Based on the developed tracking schemes we show that using modeling techniques a compression factor of around 10 might be achievable.

  12. Generation of Acoustic Gravity Waves by Periodic Radio Transmissions from a High-Power Ionospheric Heater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolov, Vladimir; Chernogor, Leonid; Rozumenko, Victor

    The Radiophysical Research Institute (Nizhny Novgorod, Russia) and Kharkiv V. N. Karazin National University (Kharkiv, Ukraine) have studied opportunities for the effective generation of acoustic gravity waves (AGWs) in 3 - 180-min period range. The excitation of such waves was conducted for the last several years using the SURA heating facility (Nizhny Novgorod). The detection of the HF-induced AGWs was carried out in the Radiophysical Observatory located near Kharkiv City at a distance of about 960 km from the SURA. A coherent radar for vertical sounding, an ionosonde, and magnetometer chains were used in our measurements. The main results are the following (see [1-5]): 1. Infrasound oscillation trains with a period of 6 min are detected during periodic SURA heater turn-on and -off. Similar oscillation trains are detected after long time pumping, during periodic transmissions with a period of 20 s, as well as after pumping turn-off. The train recordings begin 28 - 54 min after the heater turn-on or -off, and the train propagation speeds are about 300 - 570 m/s, the value of which is close to the sound speed at upper atmospheric altitudes. The amplitude of the Doppler shift frequency is of 10 - 40 mHz, which fits to the 0.1 - 0.3% electron density disturbances at ionospheric altitudes. The amplitude of the infrasound oscillations depends on the SURA mode of operation and the state of the upper atmosphere and ionosphere. 2. High-power radio transmissions stimulate the generation (or enhancement) of waves at ionospheric altitudes in the range of internal gravity wave periods. The HF-induced waves propagate with speeds of 360 - 460 m/s and produce changes in electron density with amplitudes of 2 - 3%. The generation of such periodic perturbations is more preferable with periods of 10 - 60 minutes. Their features depend significantly on the heater mode of operation. It should be stressed that perturbation intensity increases when a pumping wave frequency approaches the F _{_2} layer critical frequency. High-power periodic radio transmissions are capable of enhancing/damping natural wave perturbations generated by the solar terminator. 3. The study has demonstrated that the generation and propagation of AGWs with periods close to the natural oscillation periods of the atmosphere is possible. The duration of AGW oscillation trains does not dependent on the duration of turn-on/-off trains, but it is determined by changes in the current state of the atmosphere-ionosphere-magnetosphere system in general. The period of the AGW oscillation trains is determined by the period or semi-period of the pumping. It means that the mechanism of AGW generation in this case is distinct from the agreed-upon mechanism developed earlier. The AGWs, whose periods are 5 - 10% greater than the Brunt-Vaisala period, exhibit group velocities less than the speed of sound that is of about 80 - 160 m/s. They induce electron density perturbations of about 1.1 - 1.5%. The AGW generation has the following features. When the effective radiated power (ERP) is 50 MW or less, AGWs are not detected; they are reliably observed when the ERP is equal or larger than about 100 MW. Geomagnetic storms play a dual role in the AGW generation because they: (i) increase amplitudes of AGWs with 4 - 6-min and 8 - 12-min periods and (ii) yet enhance background oscillations. The latter hampers the identification of the HF-induced oscillations. Moderate magnetic storms do not markedly exert an influence on the amplitudes of oscillations with 13 - 17-min periods. 4. The quasi-periodic variations in the horizontal components of the geomagnetic field with 8 - 12-min periods become observable near Kharkiv 35 - 45 min after the beginning of pumping. Their speeds are 355 - 460 m/s, and they form trains 40 - 90 min in duration when the [5-min on, 5-min off] or [10-min on, 10-min off] heater timing is used. The 12 - 18-min period variations become observable 35 - 45 min after the beginning of pumping. Their speeds are 355 - 460 m/s, and they form trains 55 - 90 min in duration when the

  13. Symmetries In Evolving Space-time and Their Connection To High-frequency Gravity Wave Production

    E-print Network

    A. W. Beckwith

    2008-04-01

    We present how a worm hole bridge from a prior to the present universe allows us to use symmetry arguments which allow us to generate relic gravity waves, and also non massless gravitons. The relic gravitons are produced due to thermal / vacuum energy transferral from a prior universe using a pseudo time dependent version of the Wheeler De Witt equation as presented by Crowell (2005)

  14. Estimating gravity wave parameters from oblique high-frequency backscatter: Modeling and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bristow, W.A.; Greenwald, R.A.

    1995-03-01

    A new technique for estimating electron density perturbation amplitudes of traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs), using HF radar data, is presented. TIDs are observed in HF radar data as enhancements of the ground-scattered power which propagate through the radar`s field of view. These TIDs are the ionospheric manifestation of atmospheric acoustic-gravity waves. TID electron density perturbation amplitudes were estimated by simulating the radar returns, using HF ray tracing through a model ionosphere perturbed by a model gravity wave. The simulation determined the return power in the ground-scattered portion of the signal as a function of range, and this was compared to HF radar data from the Goose Bay HF radar at a time when evidence of gravity waves was present in the data. By varying the amplitude of the electron density perturbation in the model it was possible to estimate the perturbation of the actual wave. It was found that the perturbations that are observed by the Goose Bay HF radar are of the order of 20% to 35%. It was also found that the number of observable power enhancements, and the relative amplitudes of these enhancements, depended on the vertical thickness of the gravity wave`s source region. From the simulations and observations it was estimated that the source region for the case presented here was approximately 20 km thick. In addition, the energy in the wave packet was calculated and compared to an estimate of the available energy in the source region. It was found that the wave energy was about 0.2% of the estimated available source region energy. 20 refs., 12 figs.

  15. Estimating gravity wave parameters from oblique high-frequency backscatter: Modeling and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bristow, W. A.; Greenwald, R. A.

    1995-01-01

    A new technique for estimating electron density perturbation amplitudes of traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs), using HF radar data, is presented. TIDs are observed in HF radar data as enhancements of the ground-scattered power which propagate through the radar's field of view. These TIDs are the ionospheric manifestation of atmospheric acoustic-gravity waves. TID electron density perturbation amplitudes were estimated by simulating the radar returns, using HF ray tracing through a model ionosphere perturbed by a model gravity wave. The simulation determined the return power in the ground-scattered portion of the signal as a function of range, and this was compared to HF radar data from the Goose Bay HF radar at a time when evidence of gravity waves was present in the data. By varying the amplitude of the electron density perturbation in the model it was possible to estimate the perturbation of the actual wave. It was found that the perturbations that are observed by the Goose Bay HF radar are of the order of 20% to 35%. It was also found that the number of observable power enhancements, and the relative amplitudes of these enhancements, depended on the vertical thickness of the gravity wave's source region. From the simulations and observations it was estimated that the source region for the case presented here was approximately 20 km thick. In addition, the energy in the wave packet was calculated and compared to an estimate of the available energy in the source region. It was found that the wave energy was about 0.2% of the estimated available source region energy.

  16. High Level High Performance Computing for Multitask Learning of Time-varying Models

    E-print Network

    High Level High Performance Computing for Multitask Learning of Time-varying Models Marco on spectral regularization and encodes the typical multi-task learning as- sumption that models lie near. Multitask Learning Approach Rather that imposing a specific structure over a single forecasting model

  17. LIQUIDUS TEMPERATURE AND PRIMARY CRYSTALLIZATION PHASES IN HIGH-ZIRCONIA HIGH-LEVEL WASTE BOROSILICATE GLASSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Liquidus temperature (TL) studies of high-Zr high-level waste (HLW) borosilicate glasseshave identified three primary phases: baddelyite (ZrO2), zircon (ZrSiO4), and alkali-zirconiumsilicates, such as parakeldyshite (Na2ZrSi2O7). Using published TL data for HLW glasses withthe...

  18. Pupil responses to high-level image content.

    PubMed

    Naber, Marnix; Nakayama, Ken

    2013-01-01

    The link between arousal and pupil dilation is well studied, but it is less known that other cognitive processes can trigger pupil responses. Here we present evidence that pupil responses can be induced by high-level scene processing, independent of changes in low-level features or arousal. In Experiment 1, we recorded changes in pupil diameter of observers while they viewed a variety of natural scenes with or without a sun that were presented either upright or inverted. Image inversion had the strongest effect on the pupil responses. The pupil constricted more to the onset of upright images as compared to inverted images. Furthermore, the amplitudes of pupil constrictions to viewing images containing a sun were larger relative to control images. In Experiment 2, we presented cartoon versions of upright and inverted pictures that included either a sun or a moon. The image backgrounds were kept identical across conditions. Similar to Experiment 1, upright images triggered pupil constrictions with larger amplitudes than inverted images and images of the sun evoked greater pupil contraction than images of the moon. We suggest that the modulations of pupil responses were due to higher-level interpretations of image content. PMID:23685390

  19. System-Level Virtualization for High Performance Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Vallee, Geoffroy R; Naughton, III, Thomas J; Engelmann, Christian; Ong, Hong Hoe; Scott, Stephen L

    2008-01-01

    System-level virtualization has been a research topic since the 70's but regained popularity during the past few years because of the availability of efficient solution such as Xen and the implementation of hardware support in commodity processors (e.g. Intel-VT, AMD-V). However, a majority of system-level virtualization projects is guided by the server consolidation market. As a result, current virtualization solutions appear to not be suitable for high performance computing (HPC) which is typically based on large-scale systems. On another hand there is significant interest in exploiting virtual machines (VMs) within HPC for a number of other reasons. By virtualizing the machine, one is able to run a variety of operating systems and environments as needed by the applications. Virtualization allows users to isolate workloads, improving security and reliability. It is also possible to support non-native environments and/or legacy operating environments through virtualization. In addition, it is possible to balance work loads, use migration techniques to relocate applications from failing machines, and isolate fault systems for repair. This document presents the challenges for the implementation of a system-level virtualization solution for HPC. It also presents a brief survey of the different approaches and techniques to address these challenges.

  20. How to achieve high-level expression of microbial enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Long; Yang, Haiquan; Shin, Hyun-dong; Chen, Rachel R.; Li, Jianghua; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Microbial enzymes have been used in a large number of fields, such as chemical, agricultural and biopharmaceutical industries. The enzyme production rate and yield are the main factors to consider when choosing the appropriate expression system for the production of recombinant proteins. Recombinant enzymes have been expressed in bacteria (e.g., Escherichia coli, Bacillus and lactic acid bacteria), filamentous fungi (e.g., Aspergillus) and yeasts (e.g., Pichia pastoris). The favorable and very advantageous characteristics of these species have resulted in an increasing number of biotechnological applications. Bacterial hosts (e.g., E. coli) can be used to quickly and easily overexpress recombinant enzymes; however, bacterial systems cannot express very large proteins and proteins that require post-translational modifications. The main bacterial expression hosts, with the exception of lactic acid bacteria and filamentous fungi, can produce several toxins which are not compatible with the expression of recombinant enzymes in food and drugs. However, due to the multiplicity of the physiological impacts arising from high-level expression of genes encoding the enzymes and expression hosts, the goal of overproduction can hardly be achieved, and therefore, the yield of recombinant enzymes is limited. In this review, the recent strategies used for the high-level expression of microbial enzymes in the hosts mentioned above are summarized and the prospects are also discussed. We hope this review will contribute to the development of the enzyme-related research field. PMID:23686280

  1. Spent Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by SSEB in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ``comprehensive overview of the issues.`` This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste Issues. In addition. this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages will be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list.

  2. ATW system impact on high-level waste

    SciTech Connect

    Arthur, E.D.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) concept which aims at destruction of key long-lived radionuclides in high-level nuclear waste (HLW), both fission products and actinides. This focus makes it different from most other transmutation concepts which concentrate primarily on actinide burning. The ATW system uses an accelerator-driven, sub-critical assembly to create an intense thermal neutron environment for radionuclide transmutation. This feature allows rapid transmutation under low-inventory system conditions, which in turn, has a direct impact on the size of chemical separations and materials handling components of the system. Inventories in ATW are factors of eight to thirty times smaller than reactor systems of equivalent thermal power. Chemical separations systems are relatively small in scale and can be optimized to achieve high decontamination factors and minimized waste streams. The low-inventory feature also directly impacts material amounts remaining in the system at its end of life. In addition to its low-inventory operation, the accelerator-driven neutron source features of ATW are key to providing a sufficient level of neutrons to allow transmutation of long-lived fission products.

  3. ATW system impact on high-level waste

    SciTech Connect

    Arthur, E.D.

    1992-12-01

    This report discusses the Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) concept which aims at destruction of key long-lived radionuclides in high-level nuclear waste (HLW), both fission products and actinides. This focus makes it different from most other transmutation concepts which concentrate primarily on actinide burning. The ATW system uses an accelerator-driven, sub-critical assembly to create an intense thermal neutron environment for radionuclide transmutation. This feature allows rapid transmutation under low-inventory system conditions, which in turn, has a direct impact on the size of chemical separations and materials handling components of the system. Inventories in ATW are factors of eight to thirty times smaller than reactor systems of equivalent thermal power. Chemical separations systems are relatively small in scale and can be optimized to achieve high decontamination factors and minimized waste streams. The low-inventory feature also directly impacts material amounts remaining in the system at its end of life. In addition to its low-inventory operation, the accelerator-driven neutron source features of ATW are key to providing a sufficient level of neutrons to allow transmutation of long-lived fission products.

  4. A Compiler for Fault-Tolerant High Level Quantum Circuits

    E-print Network

    Alexandru Paler; Ilia Polian; Kae Nemoto; Simon J. Devitt

    2015-09-07

    Fault-tolerant quantum error correction is an absolute necessity for any quantum architecture destined to tackle interesting, large-scale quantum algorithms. The theoretical formalism of quantum error correction codes, fault-tolerant circuit constructions, gate decompositions and relevant optimisations have been well founded for nearly two decades. However, at this point we still do not have a reliable compiler to adapt a high level circuit description to a fully fault-tolerant, error corrected description. There are many technical hurdles to this, including dynamic circuit constructions that occur due to teleportation protocols necessary to achieve fault-tolerance with commonly used error correction codes. We combine multiple results to develop a package that takes any high level quantum circuit consisting of CNOT, Toffoli, Controlled-$\\sqrt{X}$ and arbitrary single qubit rotations and converts it to a equivalent quantum circuit employing ancillary protocols needed for fault-tolerant error correction. We call this representation the (I)initialisation, (C)NOT, (M)measurement representation (ICM) and consists of an initialisation layer of qubits into one of four distinct states, a massive array of CNOT operations that implement the relevant algorithmic decompositions and fault-tolerant ancillary protocols and a series of time ordered $X$- and $Z$-basis measurements. Our package will output either a standard circuit description or a canonical geometric structure that represents its implementation for topological quantum codes that can be further optimised and implemented on actual quantum hardware.

  5. Spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste transportation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-11-01

    This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ``comprehensive overview of the issues.`` This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste issues. In addition, this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages sew be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list.

  6. Department of Energy pretreatment of high-level and low-level wastes

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, C.P.; Hunt, R.D.

    1995-12-31

    The remediation of the 1 {times} 10{sup 8} gal of highly radioactive waste in the underground storage tanks (USTs) at five US Department of Energy (DOE) sites is one of DOE`s greatest challenges. Therefore, the DOE Office of Environmental Management has created the Tank Focus Area (TFA) to manage an integrated technology development program that results in the safe and efficient remediation of UST waste. The TFA has divided its efforts into five areas, which are safety, characterization, retrieval/closure, pretreatment, and immobilization. All DOE pretreatment activities are integrated by the Pretreatment Technical Integration Manager of the TFA. For FY 1996, the 14 pretreatment tasks are divided into 3 systems: supernate separations, sludge treatment, and solid/liquid separation. The plans and recent results of these TFA tasks, which include two 25,000-gal demonstrations and two former TFA tasks on Cs removal, are presented. The pretreatment goals are to minimize the volume of high-level waste and the radioactivity in low-level waste.

  7. High-Level Microsatellite Instability in Appendiceal Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Taggart, Melissa W.; Galbincea, John; Mansfield, Paul F.; Fournier, Keith F.; Royal, Richard E.; Overman, Michael J.; Rashid, Asif; Abraham, Susan C.

    2014-01-01

    High-level microsatellite instability (MSI-high) is found in approximately 15% of all colorectal adenocarcinomas (CRCs) and in at least 20% of right-sided cancers. It is most commonly due to somatic hypermethylation of the MLH1 gene promoter region, with familial cases (Lynch syndrome) representing only 2–3% of CRCs overall. In contrast to CRC, MSI-high in appendiceal adenocarcinomas is rare. Only four MSI-high appendiceal carcinomas and one MSI-high appendiceal serrated adenoma have been previously reported, and the prevalence of MSI in the appendix is unknown. We identified 108 appendiceal carcinomas from M. D. Anderson Cancer Center in which MSI status had been assessed by immunohistochemistry for the DNA mismatch repair proteins MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 (n=83), polymerase chain reaction (n=7), or both (n=18). Three cases (2.8%) were MSI-high and one was MSI-low. The three MSI-high cases included: 1) a poorly differentiated nonmucinous adenocarcinoma with loss of MLH1/PMS2 expression, lack of MLH1 promoter methylation, and lack of BRAF gene mutation, but no detected germline mutation in MLH1 from a 39-year-old man; 2) an undifferentiated carcinoma with loss of MSH2/MSH6, but no detected germline mutation in MSH2 or TACSTD1, from a 59-year-old woman; and 3) a moderately differentiated mucinous adenocarcinoma arising in a villous adenoma with loss of MSH2/MSH6 expression, in a 38-year-old man with a strong family history of CRC who declined germline testing. When the overall group of appendiceal carcinomas was classified according to histologic features and precursor lesions, the frequencies of MSI-high were: 3 of 108 (2.8%) invasive carcinomas, 3 of 96 (3.1%) invasive carcinomas that did not arise from a background of goblet cell carcinoid, and 0 of 12 (0%) signet ring and mucinous carcinomas arising in goblet cell carcinoid tumors. These findings, in conjunction with the previously reported MSI-high appendiceal carcinomas, highlight the low prevalence of MSI in the appendix as compared to the right colon and suggest that MLH1 promoter methylation is not a mechanism for microsatellite instability in this location. PMID:23648460

  8. Confidence Level and Sensitivity Limits in High Contrast Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Marois, C; LaFreniere, D; Macintosh, B; Doyon, R

    2008-06-02

    In long adaptive optics corrected exposures, exoplanet detections are currently limited by speckle noise originating from the telescope and instrument optics, and it is expected that such noise will also limit future high-contrast imaging instruments for both ground and space-based telescopes. Previous theoretical analysis have shown that the time intensity variations of a single speckle follows a modified Rician. It is first demonstrated here that for a circular pupil this temporal intensity distribution also represents the speckle spatial intensity distribution at a fix separation from the point spread function center; this fact is demonstrated using numerical simulations for coronagraphic and non-coronagraphic data. The real statistical distribution of the noise needs to be taken into account explicitly when selecting a detection threshold appropriate for some desired confidence level. In this paper, a technique is described to obtain the pixel intensity distribution of an image and its corresponding confidence level as a function of the detection threshold. Using numerical simulations, it is shown that in the presence of speckles noise, a detection threshold up to three times higher is required to obtain a confidence level equivalent to that at 5{sigma} for Gaussian noise. The technique is then tested using TRIDENT CFHT and angular differential imaging NIRI Gemini adaptive optics data. It is found that the angular differential imaging technique produces quasi-Gaussian residuals, a remarkable result compared to classical adaptive optic imaging. A power-law is finally derived to predict the 1-3 x 10{sup -7} confidence level detection threshold when averaging a partially correlated non-Gaussian noise.

  9. Confidence Level and Sensitivity Limits in High Contrast Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Marois, C

    2007-11-07

    In long adaptive optics corrected exposures, exoplanet detections are currently limited by speckle noise originating from the telescope and instrument optics, and it is expected that such noise will also limit future high-contrast imaging instruments for both ground and space-based telescopes. Previous theoretical analysis have shown that the time intensity variations of a single speckle follows a modified Rician. It is first demonstrated here that for a circular pupil this temporal intensity distribution also represents the speckle spatial intensity distribution at a fix separation from the point spread function center; this fact is demonstrated using numerical simulations for coronagraphic and non-coronagraphic data. The real statistical distribution of the noise needs to be taken into account explicitly when selecting a detection threshold appropriate for some desired confidence level. In this paper, a technique is described to obtain the pixel intensity distribution of an image and its corresponding confidence level as a function of the detection threshold. Using numerical simulations, it is shown that in the presence of speckles noise, a detection threshold up to three times higher is required to obtain a confidence level equivalent to that at 5{sigma} for Gaussian noise. The technique is then tested using TRIDENT CFHT and angular differential imaging NIRI Gemini adaptive optics data. It is found that the angular differential imaging technique produces quasi-Gaussian residuals, a remarkable result compared to classical adaptive optic imaging. A power-law is finally derived to predict the 1-3 x 10{sup -7} confidence level detection threshold when averaging a partially correlated non-Gaussian noise.

  10. Feeling Gravity's Pull: Gravity Modeling. The Gravity Field of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemoine, Frank; Smith, David; Rowlands, David; Zuber, Maria; Neumann, G.; Chinn, Douglas; Pavlis, D.

    2000-01-01

    Most people take the constant presence of gravitys pull for granted. However, the Earth's gravitational strength actually varies from location to location. This variation occurs because mass, which influences an object's gravitational pull, is not evenly distributed within the planet. Changes in topography, such as glacial movement, an earthquake, or a rise in the ocean level, can subtly affect the gravity field. An accurate measurement of the Earth's gravity field helps us understand the distribution of mass beneath the surface. This insight can assist us in locating petroleum, mineral deposits, ground water, and other valuable substances. Gravity mapping can also help notice or verify changes in sea surface height and other ocean characteristics. Such changes may indicate climate change from polar ice melting and other phenomena. In addition, gravity mapping can indicate how land moves under the surface after earthquakes and other plate tectonic processes. Finally, changes in the Earth's gravity field might indicate a shift in water distribution that could affect agriculture, water supplies for population centers, and long-term weather prediction. Scientists can map out the Earth's gravity field by watching satellite orbits. When a satellite shifts in vertical position, it might be passing over an area where gravity changes in strength. Gravity is only one factor that may shape a satellite's orbital path. To derive a gravity measurement from satellite movement, scientists must remove other factors that might affect a satellite's position: 1. Drag from atmospheric friction. 2. Pressure from solar radiation as it heads toward Earth and. as it is reflected off the surface of the Earth 3. Gravitational pull from the Sun, the Moon, and other planets in the Solar System. 4. The effect of tides. 5. Relativistic effects. Scientists must also correct for the satellite tracking process. For example, the tracking signal must be corrected for refraction through the atmosphere of the Earth. Supercomputers can calculate the effect of gravity for specific locations in space following a mathematical process known as spherical harmonics, which quantifies the gravity field of a planetary body. The process is based on Laplace's fundamental differential equation of gravity. The accuracy of a spherical harmonic solution is rated by its degree and order. Minute variations in gravity are measured against the geoid, a surface of constant gravity acceleration at mean sea level. The geoid reference gravity model strength includes the central body gravitational attraction (9.8 m/sq s) and a geopotential variation in latitude partially caused by the rotation of the Earth. The rotational effect modifies the shape of the geoid to be more like an ellipsoid, rather than a perfect, circle. Variations of gravity strength from the ellipsoidal reference model are measured in units called milli-Galileos (mGals). One mGal equals 10(exp -5) m/sq s. Research projects have also measured the gravity fields of other planetary bodies, as noted in the user profile that follows. From this information, we may make inferences about our own planet's internal structure and evolution. Moreover, mapping the gravity fields of other planets can help scientists plot the most fuel-efficient course for spacecraft expeditions to those planets.

  11. Selection from Industrial Lager Yeast Strains of Variants with Improved Fermentation Performance in Very-High-Gravity Worts?

    PubMed Central

    Huuskonen, Anne; Markkula, Tuomas; Vidgren, Virve; Lima, Luis; Mulder, Linda; Geurts, Wim; Walsh, Michael; Londesborough, John

    2010-01-01

    There are economic and other advantages if the fermentable sugar concentration in industrial brewery fermentations can be increased from that of currently used high-gravity (ca. 14 to 17°P [degrees Plato]) worts into the very-high-gravity (VHG; 18 to 25°P) range. Many industrial strains of brewer's yeast perform poorly in VHG worts, exhibiting decreased growth, slow and incomplete fermentations, and low viability of the yeast cropped for recycling into subsequent fermentations. A new and efficient method for selecting variant cells with improved performance in VHG worts is described. In this new method, mutagenized industrial yeast was put through a VHG wort fermentation and then incubated anaerobically in the resulting beer while maintaining the ?-glucoside concentration at about 10 to 20 g·liter?1 by slowly feeding the yeast maltose or maltotriose until most of the cells had died. When survival rates fell to 1 to 10 cells per 106 original cells, a high proportion (up to 30%) of survivors fermented VHG worts 10 to 30% faster and more completely (residual sugars lower by 2 to 8 g·liter?1) than the parent strains, but the sedimentation behavior and profiles of yeast-derived flavor compounds of the survivors were similar to those of the parent strains. PMID:20081007

  12. Animate shape features influence high-level animate categorization.

    PubMed

    Alaoui Soce, Abla; Long, Bria; Alvarez, George

    2015-09-01

    The distinction between animate and inanimate entities is fundamental at both the cognitive and neural levels (e.g. Mahon and Caramazza, 2009; Konkle & Caramazza, 2013). Previous work suggests that animate versus inanimate entities have consistent perceptual differences that can be extracted at early stages of perceptual processing (Long et al., in prep). Do these visual features feed-forward to activate high-level, conceptual representations? In Experiment 1, we developed a flanker interference task in which recognizable images of animals and objects influenced reaction time on a word categorization task. In Experiment 2, we used the same paradigm with textures that were unrecognizable at the basic-category level, but which preserved statistical features of the original images (by coercing white noise to match the low and mid-level statistics of animal and object images, Freeman & Simoncelli, 2011). On each trial, participants categorized a written word (e.g., 'FERRET') as either an 'animal' or an 'object'. Words were presented concurrently with a distractor image that was either congruent (e.g., a picture of a panda) or incongruent (e.g., a picture of a tractor) with the broad category of the word. With recognizable images (Experiment 1), participants were faster at categorizing the words as animal or object when the distractor image belonged to the same (versus the different) category (Congruent=735.33ms, Incongruent=762.14ms, F(1,15)=41.539, p< 0.001). With texture images (Experiment 2), participants were again significantly faster at categorizing words when the textures were from images that originally belonged to the same broad category (Congruent=728.76ms, Incongruent=744.12ms, F(1,15)=22.010, p< 0.001). The textures were unrecognizable at the basic level (average identifiability=3.5%), but with unlimited viewing time they could be classified as animate versus inanimate (d prime=1.01). These results suggest that animate versus inanimate entities differ in perceptual features, and that these features feed-forward to automatically activate the conceptual representations of animate and inanimate entities. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26326847

  13. High estradiol levels improve false memory rates and meta-memory in highly schizotypal women.

    PubMed

    Hodgetts, Sophie; Hausmann, Markus; Weis, Susanne

    2015-10-30

    Overconfidence in false memories is often found in patients with schizophrenia and healthy participants with high levels of schizotypy, indicating an impairment of meta-cognition within the memory domain. In general, cognitive control is suggested to be modulated by natural fluctuations in oestrogen. However, whether oestrogen exerts beneficial effects on meta-memory has not yet been investigated. The present study sought to provide evidence that high levels of schizotypy are associated with increased false memory rates and overconfidence in false memories, and that these processes may be modulated by natural differences in estradiol levels. Using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm, it was found that highly schizotypal participants with high estradiol produced significantly fewer false memories than those with low estradiol. No such difference was found within the low schizotypy participants. Highly schizotypal participants with high estradiol were also less confident in their false memories than those with low estradiol; low schizotypy participants with high estradiol were more confident. However, these differences only approached significance. These findings suggest that the beneficial effect of estradiol on memory and meta-memory observed in healthy participants is specific to highly schizotypal individuals and might be related to individual differences in baseline dopaminergic activity. PMID:26292620

  14. High Resolution Magnetic and Gravity Surveys to Constrain Maar Geometry and Eruption Mechanisms, Rattlesnake Crater, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, A. M.; Kruse, S. E.; Connor, C.; Connor, L.; Abdollahzadeh, M.; Harburger, A.; Richardson, J. A.; Courtland, L. M.; Farrell, A. K.; Kiflu, H. G.; Malservisi, R.; McNiff, C. M.; Njoroge, M.; Nushart, N.; Rookey, K.

    2013-12-01

    Located 25 kilometers east of Flagstaff, Arizona, Rattlesnake Crater is an oblong phreatomagmatic feature in the San Francisco Volcanic Field. The shallow crater is approximately 1.4 kilometers at its widest point, and surrounded by an uneven tuff ring which is overlapped by a scoria cone volcano on the southeastern side. Improved understanding of its formation and evolution requires geophysical study because there are very few outcrops, and no digging is permitted on site. Geologic features related to the crater are further obscured by deposits from the overlapping scoria cone, as well as tephra from eruptions at nearby Sunset Crater. We present the results of a detailed magnetic and gravity survey in and around Rattlesnake Crater. A substantial NW-SE trending elongate magnetic anomaly (1400 nT) and a smaller similarly trending anomaly are observed inside the crater, as well as a longer wavelength positive gravitational anomaly (+1.0-1.5 mGal) across the crater. The magnetic survey was completed on foot with a 50 meter line spacing inside the crater, and 100 meter line spacing across a portion of the surrounding area outside the crater. The gravity survey was done on two intersecting survey lines - one running west to east, and another roughly north to south, with recordings every 100 meters extending at least 1000 meters outside the crater in all four directions. 2D models of the magnetic and gravity data are presented illustrating the possible geometry of the diatreme, and the approximate size and shape of the major intrusive features. Eruption estimates based on the models are calculated, and the models are favorably compared to the size and depth estimates given in a recent publication (Valentine 2012) that used xenolith content to estimate the size and depth of the diatreme.

  15. High level architecture evolved modular federation object model

    E-print Network

    Wang, Wenguang; Chen, Xin; Li, Qun; Wang, Weiping

    2009-01-01

    To improve the agility, dynamics, composability, reusability, and development efficiency restricted by monolithic Federation Object Model (FOM), a modular FOM was proposed by High Level Architecture (HLA) Evolved product development group. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of HLA Evolved modular FOM. In particular, related concepts, the overall impact on HLA standards, extension principles, and merging processes are discussed. Also permitted and restricted combinations, and merging rules are provided, and the influence on HLA interface specification is given. The comparison between modular FOM and Base Object Model (BOM) is performed to illustrate the importance of their combination. The applications of modular FOM are summarized. Finally, the significance to facilitate composable simulation both in academia and practice is presented and future directions are pointed out.

  16. Characterization of composite ceramic high level waste forms.

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, S. M.; Bateman, K. J.; DiSanto, T.; Johnson, S. G.; Moschetti, T. L.; Noy, M. H.; O'Holleran, T. P.

    1997-12-05

    Argonne National Laboratory has developed a composite ceramic waste form for the disposition of high level radioactive waste produced during electrometallurgical conditioning of spent nuclear fuel. The electrorefiner LiCl/KCl eutectic salt, containing fission products and transuranics in the chloride form, is contacted with a zeolite material which removes the fission products from the salt. After salt contact, the zeolite is mixed with a glass binder. The zeolite/glass mixture is then hot isostatic pressed (HIPed) to produce the composite ceramic waste form. The ceramic waste form provides a durable medium that is well suited to incorporate fission products and transuranics in the chloride form. Presented are preliminary results of the process qualification and characterization studies, which include chemical and physical measurements and product durability testing, of the ceramic waste form.

  17. High-level waste tank farm set point document

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony, J.A. III

    1995-01-15

    Setpoints for nuclear safety-related instrumentation are required for actions determined by the design authorization basis. Minimum requirements need to be established for assuring that setpoints are established and held within specified limits. This document establishes the controlling methodology for changing setpoints of all classifications. The instrumentation under consideration involve the transfer, storage, and volume reduction of radioactive liquid waste in the F- and H-Area High-Level Radioactive Waste Tank Farms. The setpoint document will encompass the PROCESS AREA listed in the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) (DPSTSA-200-10 Sup 18) which includes the diversion box HDB-8 facility. In addition to the PROCESS AREAS listed in the SAR, Building 299-H and the Effluent Transfer Facility (ETF) are also included in the scope.

  18. Calculates Neutron Production in Canisters of High-level Waste

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1993-01-15

    ALPHN calculates the (alpha,n) neutron production rate of a canister of vitrified high-level waste. The user supplies the chemical composition of the glass or glass-ceramic and the curies of the alpha-emitting actinides present. The output of the program gives the (alpha,n) neutron production of each actinide in neutrons per second and the total for the canister. The (alpha,n) neutron production rates are source terms only; that is, they are production rates within the glass andmore »do not take into account the shielding effect of the glass. For a given glass composition, the user can calculate up to eight cases simultaneously; these cases are based on the same glass composition but contain different quantities of actinides per canister.« less

  19. High Level Waste System Impacts from Acid Dissolution of Sludge

    SciTech Connect

    KETUSKY, EDWARD

    2006-04-20

    This research evaluates the ability of OLI{copyright} equilibrium based software to forecast Savannah River Site High Level Waste system impacts from oxalic acid dissolution of Tank 1-15 sludge heels. Without further laboratory and field testing, only the use of oxalic acid can be considered plausible to support sludge heel dissolution on multiple tanks. Using OLI{copyright} and available test results, a dissolution model is constructed and validated. Material and energy balances, coupled with the model, identify potential safety concerns. Overpressurization and overheating are shown to be unlikely. Corrosion induced hydrogen could, however, overwhelm the tank ventilation. While pH adjustment can restore the minimal hydrogen generation, resultant precipitates will notably increase the sludge volume. OLI{copyright} is used to develop a flowsheet such that additional sludge vitrification canisters and other negative system impacts are minimized. Sensitivity analyses are used to assess the processability impacts from variations in the sludge/quantities of acids.

  20. A high-level language for rule-based modelling.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Michael; Phillips, Andrew; Plotkin, Gordon D

    2015-01-01

    Rule-based languages such as Kappa excel in their support for handling the combinatorial complexities prevalent in many biological systems, including signalling pathways. But Kappa provides little structure for organising rules, and large models can therefore be hard to read and maintain. This paper introduces a high-level, modular extension of Kappa called LBS-?. We demonstrate the constructs of the language through examples and three case studies: a chemotaxis switch ring, a MAPK cascade, and an insulin signalling pathway. We then provide a formal definition of LBS-? through an abstract syntax and a translation to plain Kappa. The translation is implemented in a compiler tool which is available as a web application. We finally demonstrate how to increase the expressivity of LBS-? through embedded scripts in a general-purpose programming language, a technique which we view as generally applicable to other domain specific languages. PMID:26043208

  1. A High-Level Language for Rule-Based Modelling

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Michael; Phillips, Andrew; Plotkin, Gordon D.

    2015-01-01

    Rule-based languages such as Kappa excel in their support for handling the combinatorial complexities prevalent in many biological systems, including signalling pathways. But Kappa provides little structure for organising rules, and large models can therefore be hard to read and maintain. This paper introduces a high-level, modular extension of Kappa called LBS-?. We demonstrate the constructs of the language through examples and three case studies: a chemotaxis switch ring, a MAPK cascade, and an insulin signalling pathway. We then provide a formal definition of LBS-? through an abstract syntax and a translation to plain Kappa. The translation is implemented in a compiler tool which is available as a web application. We finally demonstrate how to increase the expressivity of LBS-? through embedded scripts in a general-purpose programming language, a technique which we view as generally applicable to other domain specific languages. PMID:26043208

  2. SIMULANT DEVELOPMENT FOR SAVANNAH RIVER SITE HIGH LEVEL WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, M; Russell Eibling, R; David Koopman, D; Dan Lambert, D; Paul Burket, P

    2007-09-04

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site vitrifies High Level Waste (HLW) for repository internment. The process consists of three major steps: waste pretreatment, vitrification, and canister decontamination/sealing. The HLW consists of insoluble metal hydroxides (primarily iron, aluminum, magnesium, manganese, and uranium) and soluble sodium salts (carbonate, hydroxide, nitrite, nitrate, and sulfate). The HLW is processed in large batches through DWPF; DWPF has recently completed processing Sludge Batch 3 (SB3) and is currently processing Sludge Batch 4 (SB4). The composition of metal species in SB4 is shown in Table 1 as a function of the ratio of a metal to iron. Simulants remove radioactive species and renormalize the remaining species. Supernate composition is shown in Table 2.

  3. Transmutation of high-level radioactive waste - Perspectives

    E-print Network

    Junghans, Arnd; Grosse, Eckart; Hannaske, Roland; Kögler, Toni; Massarczyk, Ralf; Schwengner, Ronald; Wagner, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    In a fast neutron spectrum essentially all long-lived actinides (e.g. Plutonium) undergo fission and thus can be transmuted into generally short lived fission products. Innovative nuclear reactor concepts e.g. accelerator driven systems (ADS) are currently in development that foresee a closed fuel cycle. The majority of the fissile nuclides (uranium, plutonium) shall be used for power generation and only fission products will be put into final disposal that needs to last for a historical time scale of only 1000 years. For the transmutation of high-level radioactive waste a lot of research and development is still required. One aspect is the precise knowledge of nuclear data for reactions with fast neutrons. Nuclear reactions relevant for transmutation are being investigated in the framework of the european project ERINDA. First results from the new neutron time-of-flight facility nELBE at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf will be presented.

  4. Testing the half-scale model of the defense high level waste transportation cask

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, M.M.; Uncapher, W.L.; Stenberg, D.R.; Baynes, E.E.

    1987-08-01

    Large quantities of defense high level waste (DHLW) produced at reprocessing sites of the US Department of Energy (DOE) exist at various locations across the country. In response to the need for a safe and efficient transportation system for this waste, a program was initiated by DOE at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in 1979 to design, test, and certify a Type B shipping system. This report presents the results of the testing of the half-scale model of this single containment design. The testing, conducted at Sandia National Laboratories' Coyote Test Facility, included 9 m (30 ft) drop tests and 1 m (40 in.) puncture tests as defined in Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 71. The orientations for the drop tests were: bottom end, closure end (performed at -29/sup 0/C (-20/sup 0/F)), side no. 1, center of gravity over bottom corner, and side no. 2. The puncture tests were conducted at two orientations on the cask closure. All instrumentation and dimensional measurement values documented in this report are for the half-scale model. The instrumentation devices used to evaluate the structural response of the cask included accelerometers, strain gages, strain-gaged closure bolts, and linear variable differential transformers. Nondestructive examinations included: leakage testing of the cask closure seals, cavity gas sample port welds, and cask body welds; radiographs of the cask body weldments and depleted uranium shield liner; and dimensional inspections of all components and assemblies. Report contains test data on microfiche. 3 refs.

  5. CMU-ITC-83-028 WHITE PAPER: A High Level Virtual Machine"

    E-print Network

    CMU-ITC-83-028 WHITE PAPER: A High Level Virtual Machine" Document Number 003-001/002.00 DRAFT ITC Park Pittsburgh, PA 15213 #12;A High Level Virtual Machine" DRAFT 003-001/002.00 ITC Internal 2 A High Level Virtual Machine" #12;A High Level Virtual Machine" DRAFT 003-001/002.00 ITC Internal ABSTRACT

  6. Enclosure 3 DOE Response to EPA Question Regarding "High-Level Liquid Radioactive Waste"

    E-print Network

    Enclosure 3 DOE Response to EPA Question Regarding "High-Level Liquid Radioactive Waste" Subsequent regarding "high-level liquid radioactive waste". As stated in the body of the letter the solid wastes defining High Level Waste: For the purpose of this statement of policy, "high-level liquid radioactive

  7. PLUTONIUM/HIGH-LEVEL VITRIFIED WASTE BDBE DOSE CALCULATION

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Ziegler

    2000-11-20

    The purpose of this calculation is to provide a dose consequence analysis of high-level waste (HLW) consisting of plutonium immobilized in vitrified HLW to be handled at the proposed Monitored Geologic Repository at Yucca Mountain for a beyond design basis event (BDBE) under expected conditions using best estimate values for each calculation parameter. In addition to the dose calculation, a plutonium respirable particle size for dose calculation use is derived. The current concept for this waste form is plutonium disks enclosed in cans immobilized in canisters of vitrified HLW (i.e., glass). The plutonium inventory at risk used for this calculation is selected from Plutonium Immobilization Project Input for Yucca Mountain Total Systems Performance Assessment (Shaw 1999). The BDBE examined in this calculation is a nonmechanistic initiating event and the sequence of events that follow to cause a radiological release. This analysis will provide the radiological releases and dose consequences for a postulated BDBE. Results may be considered in other analyses to determine or modify the safety classification and quality assurance level of repository structures, systems, and components. This calculation uses best available technical information because the BDBE frequency is very low (i.e., less than 1.0E-6 events/year) and is not required for License Application for the Monitored Geologic Repository. The results of this calculation will not be used as part of a licensing or design basis.

  8. A High School Project Seminar on Sea Level Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seitz, M.; Bosch, W.

    2012-04-01

    In Bavaria the curriculum of the upper grade of high school includes a so called project seminar, running over one and a half year. The aims of the seminar are to let the pupils learn to work on a specific topic, to organize themselves in a team, to improve their soft skills and become familiar with the working life. The topic of the project seminar, jointly organized by the Bertold-Brecht-Gymnasium in Munich and the Deutsche Geodätische Forschungsinstitut (DGFI) was on the "Global sea level rise". A team of 13 pupils computed the mean sea level rise by using on the one hand altimetry data of TOPEX, Jason-1 and Jason2 and on the other hand data of globally distributed tide gauges, corrected for vertical crustal movements derived from GPS products. The results of the two independent approaches were compared with each other and discussed considering also statements and discussions found in press, TV, and the web. Finally, a presentation was prepared and presented at school.

  9. Predicting high levels of multitasking reduces between-tasks interactions.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Rico; Dreisbach, Gesine

    2015-12-01

    The simultaneous handling of 2 tasks requires shielding of the prioritized primary task (T1) from interference caused by the secondary task (T2) processing. Such interactions between tasks (e.g., between-task interference, or crosstalk) depend on the similarity of both tasks and are especially pronounced when both tasks overlap strongly in time. In the present study we investigated whether between-tasks interference can be reduced when specific items do not predict the level of interference but instead the degree of temporal proximity between both tasks. We implemented an item-specific proportion manipulation of temporal task overlap (stimulus onset asynchrony [SOA]). Selected stimuli of T1 predicted high temporal task overlap (short SOAs) in 80% of trials, whereas other stimuli of T1 predicted low temporal task overlap (long SOAs) in 80% of trials. Results showed that the predictive value of T1 stimuli determined the adjustment of T1 shielding. That is, interference from the secondary task was significantly reduced for items predicting high temporal task overlap compared to items predicting low temporal task overlap. It is important to note that task shielding was not initiated by predicting the actual conflict level (i.e., whether T1 and T2 required compatible/incompatible responses) between tasks but by specific items predicting conditions in which 2 tasks are likely to interact (i.e., short vs. long SOA). These findings offer new insights into the specificity of contextual bottom-up regulations of cognitive control. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26480246

  10. Measurements of radiative lifetime of high-lying odd parity energy levels of U I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, R. C.; Mandal, P. K.; Shah, M. L.; Seema, A. U.; Rathod, D. R.; Dev, Vas; Manohar, K. G.; Suri, B. M.

    2012-03-01

    We have measured the radiative lifetimes of nine odd-parity high-lying energy levels of atomic uranium (U I) using pump probe techniques. These measurements were carried out by employing a resonance ionisation mass spectrometry (RIMS) setup consisting of three dye lasers and a Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (TOF-MS). In most of the cases, our measurement values match reasonably well with those reported in the literature; however, large deviations were also observed in two long-lived cases, which we have tried to explain. The lifetimes of three odd parity energy levels of U I were measured for the first time.

  11. Ultrafilter Conditions for High Level Waste Sludge Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Geeting, John GH; Hallen, Richard T.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2006-08-28

    An evaluation of the optimal filtration conditions was performed based on test data obtained from filtration of a High Level Waste Sludge sample from the Hanford tank farms. This evaluation was performed using the anticipated configuration for the Waste Treatment Plant at the Hanford site. Testing was performed to identify the optimal pressure drop and cross flow velocity for filtration at both high and low solids loading. However, this analysis indicates that the actual filtration rate achieved is relatively insensitive to these conditions under anticipated operating conditions. The maximum filter flux was obtained by adjusting the system control valve pressure from 400 to 650 kPa while the filter feed concentration increased from 5 to 20 wt%. However, operating the system with a constant control valve pressure drop of 500 kPa resulted in a less than 1% reduction in the average filter flux. Also note that allowing the control valve pressure to swing as much as +/- 20% resulted in less than a 5% decrease in filter flux.

  12. Sea level rise Contribution from High Mountain Asia by 20150

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Liyun; Moore, John; Ding, Ran

    2015-04-01

    We estimate individual area and volume change by 2050 of all 83,460 glaciers of high mountain Asia (HMA), with a total area of 118,263 km2, delineated in the Randolph Glacier Inventory version 4.0 which separates glacier complexes in its previous version into individual glaciers. We used the 25 km resolution regional climate model RegCM 3.0 temperature and precipitation change projections forced by the IPCC A1B scenario. Glacier simulations were based on a novel surface mass balance-altitude parameterization fitted to observational data, and various volume-area scaling approaches using Shuttle Radar Topography Mission surface topography of each individual glacier. We generate mass balance-altitude relations for all the glaciers by region using nearest available glacier measurements. Two method are used to model the Equilibrium line altitude (ELA) variation. One is to use ELA sensitivities to temperature and precipitation change vary by region based on the relative importance of sublimation and melting processes. The other is solved ELA implicitly for every year using the temperature at ELA and Degree Day model. We project total glacier area loss in high mountain Asia in 2050 to be 22% of their extent in 2000, and they will contribute 5-8 mm to global sea level rise.

  13. Kelvin and Rossby gravity wave packets in the lower stratosphere of some high-top CMIP5 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lott, Francois; Denvil, Sébastien; Butchard, Neal; Cagnazzo, Chiara; Giorgetta, Marco; Hardiman, Steven; Manzini, Elisa; Krismer, Thomas; Duvel, Jean-Philippe; Maury, Pauline; Scinocca, John

    2015-04-01

    We analyse the stratospheric Kelvin and Rossby-gravity wave packets with periods of a few days in nine high-top (i.e. with stratosphere) models of the fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). These models simulate realistic aspects of these waves, and represent them better than the tropospheric convectively coupled waves analyzed in previous studies. There is nevertheless a large spread among the models, and those with a Quasi-biennial Oscillation (QBO) produce larger amplitude waves than the models without a QBO. For the Rossby-gravity waves this is explained by the fact that models without a QBO never have positive zonal mean zonal winds in the lower stratosphe re, a situation that is favorable to the propagation of Rossby-gravity waves. For the Kelvin waves, larger amplitudes in the presence of a QBO is counter intuitive because Kelvin waves are expected to have larger amplitude when the zonal mean zonal wind is negative, and this is always satisfied in models without a QBO. We attribute the larger amplitude to the fact that models tuned to have a QBO require finer vertical resolution in the stratosphere. We also find that models with large precipitation variability tend to produce larger amplitude waves. However, the effect is not as pronounced as was found in previous studies. In fact, even models with weak precipitation variability still have quite realistic stratospheric waves, indicating either that (i) other sources can be significant or that (ii) the dynamical filtering mitigates the differences in the sources between models.

  14. Effects of particulate materials and osmoprotectants on very-high-gravity ethanolic fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, K C; Hynes, S H; Ingledew, W M

    1994-01-01

    The effects of osmoprotectants (such as glycine betaine and proline) and particulate materials on the fermentation of very high concentrations of glucose by the brewing strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae (uvarum) NCYC 1324 were studied. The yeast growing at 20 degrees C consumed only 15 g of the sugar per 100 ml from a minimal medium which initially contained 35% (wt/vol) glucose. Supplementing the medium with a mixture of glycine betaine, glycine, and proline increased the amount of sugar fermented to 30.5 g/100 ml. With such supplementation, the viability of the yeast cells was maintained above 80% throughout the fermentation, while it dropped to less than 12% in the unsupplemented controls. Among single additives, glycine was more effective than proline or glycine betaine. On incubating the cultures for 10 days, the viability decreased to only 55% with glycine, while it dropped to 36 and 27%, respectively, with glycine betaine and proline. It is suggested that glycine and proline, known to be poor nitrogen sources for growth, may serve directly or indirectly as osmoprotectants. Nutrients such as tryptone, yeast extract, and a mixture of purine and pyrimidine bases increased the sugar uptake and ethanol production but did not allow the population to maintain the high level of cell viability. While only 43% of the sugar was fermented in unsupplemented medium, the presence of particulate materials such as wheat bran, wheat mash insolubles, alumina, and soy flour increased sugar utilization to 68, 75, 81, and 82%, respectively. PMID:8017934

  15. Activity profile of high-level Australian lacrosse players.

    PubMed

    Polley, Chris S; Cormack, Stuart J; Gabbett, Tim J; Polglaze, Ted

    2015-01-01

    Despite lacrosse being one of the fastest growing team sports in the world, there is a paucity of information detailing the activity profile of high-level players. Microtechnology systems (global positioning systems and accelerometers) provide the opportunity to obtain detailed information on the activity profile in lacrosse. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the activity profile of lacrosse match-play using microtechnology. Activity profile variables assessed relative to minutes of playing time included relative distance (meter per minute), distance spent standing (0-0.1 m·min), walking (0.2-1.7 m·min), jogging (1.8-3.2 m·min), running (3.3-5.6 m·min), sprinting (?5.7 m·min), number of high, moderate, low accelerations and decelerations, and player load (PL per minute), calculated as the square root of the sum of the squared instantaneous rate of change in acceleration in 3 vectors (medio-lateral, anterior-posterior, and vertical). Activity was recorded from 14 lacrosse players over 4 matches during a national tournament. Players were separated into positions of attack, midfield, or defense. Differences (effect size [ES] ± 90% confidence interval) between positions and periods of play were considered likely positive when there was ?75% likelihood of the difference exceeding an ES threshold of 0.2. Midfielders had likely covered higher (mean ± SD) meters per minute (100 ± 11) compared with attackers (87 ± 14; ES = 0.89 ± 1.04) and defenders (79 ± 14; ES = 1.54 ± 0.94) and more moderate and high accelerations and decelerations. Almost all variables across positions were reduced in quarter 4 compared with quarter 1. Coaches should accommodate for positional differences when preparing lacrosse players for competition. PMID:25264672

  16. Review of high-level waste form properties. [146 bibliographies

    SciTech Connect

    Rusin, J.M.

    1980-12-01

    This report is a review of waste form options for the immobilization of high-level-liquid wastes from the nuclear fuel cycle. This review covers the status of international research and development on waste forms as of May 1979. Although the emphasis in this report is on waste form properties, process parameters are discussed where they may affect final waste form properties. A summary table is provided listing properties of various nuclear waste form options. It is concluded that proposed waste forms have properties falling within a relatively narrow range. In regard to crystalline versus glass waste forms, the conclusion is that either glass of crystalline materials can be shown to have some advantage when a single property is considered; however, at this date no single waste form offers optimum properties over the entire range of characteristics investigated. A long-term effort has been applied to the development of glass and calcine waste forms. Several additional waste forms have enough promise to warrant continued research and development to bring their state of development up to that of glass and calcine. Synthetic minerals, the multibarrier approach with coated particles in a metal matrix, and high pressure-high temperature ceramics offer potential advantages and need further study. Although this report discusses waste form properties, the total waste management system should be considered in the final selection of a waste form option. Canister design, canister materials, overpacks, engineered barriers, and repository characteristics, as well as the waste form, affect the overall performance of a waste management system. These parameters were not considered in this comparison.

  17. HIGH LEVELS OF GENETIC DIVERSITY AND LOW LEVELS OF GENETIC DIFFERENTIATION IN NORTH SEA PSEUDO-NITZSCHIA PUNGENS

    E-print Network

    HIGH LEVELS OF GENETIC DIVERSITY AND LOW LEVELS OF GENETIC DIFFERENTIATION IN NORTH SEA PSEUDO of P. pungens. Key index words: diatom; genetic differentiation; genetic diversity; genetic structure). Consequently, our understanding of levels of genetic diversity and its par- titioning, both spatially

  18. ULS: A Dual-Vth/High-Nano-CMOS Universal Level Shifter for System-Level Power Management

    E-print Network

    Mohanty, Saraju P.

    /mixed-signal system-on-chips (AMS- SoCs). Particular example of such AMS-SoCs are Drug-Delivery Nano facilitating their reconfigurability. The system-level architectures for three AMS-SoCs, such as Drug DeliveryULS: A Dual-Vth/High- Nano-CMOS Universal Level Shifter for System-Level Power Management Saraju P

  19. Gravity Waves Gravity Waves

    E-print Network

    Weijgaert, Rien van de

    ;14/03/2014 3 Kayak Surfing on ocean gravity waves Oregon Coast Waves: sea & ocean waves #12;14/03/2014 4 Sound Waves Sound Waves: #12;14/03/2014 5 Sound Waves Linear Waves Sound Waves compression rarefaction #12 are inevitable if sound waves propagate over long distances; 4. Shocks always occur when a flow hits an obstacle

  20. Cementitious Grout for Closing SRS High Level Waste Tanks - 12315

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C.A.; Stefanko, D.B.; Burns, H.H.; Waymer, J.; Mhyre, W.B.; Herbert, J.E.; Jolly, J.C. Jr.

    2012-07-01

    In 1997, the first two United States Department of Energy (US DOE) high level waste tanks (Tanks 17-F and 20-F: Type IV, single shell tanks) were taken out of service (permanently closed) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). In 2012, the DOE plans to remove from service two additional Savannah River Site (SRS) Type IV high-level waste tanks, Tanks 18-F and 19-F. These tanks were constructed in the late 1950's and received low-heat waste and do not contain cooling coils. Operational closure of Tanks 18-F and 19-F is intended to be consistent with the applicable requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and will be performed in accordance with South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC). The closure will physically stabilize two 4.92E+04 cubic meter (1.3 E+06 gallon) carbon steel tanks and isolate and stabilize any residual contaminants left in the tanks. Ancillary equipment abandoned in the tanks will also be filled to the extent practical. A Performance Assessment (PA) has been developed to assess the long-term fate and transport of residual contamination in the environment resulting from the operational closure of the F-Area Tank Farm (FTF) waste tanks. Next generation flowable, zero-bleed cementitious grouts were designed, tested, and specified for closing Tanks 18-F and 19-F and for filling the abandoned equipment. Fill requirements were developed for both the tank and equipment grouts. All grout formulations were required to be alkaline with a pH of 12.4 and to be chemically reducing with a reduction potential (Eh) of -200 to -400. Grouts with this chemistry stabilize potential contaminants of concern. This was achieved by including Portland cement and Grade 100 slag in the mixes, respectively. Ingredients and proportions of cementitious reagents were selected and adjusted to support the mass placement strategy developed by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Closure Operations. Subsequent down selection was based on compressive strength and saturated hydraulic conductivity results. Fresh slurry property results were used as the first level of screening. A high range water reducing admixture and a viscosity modifying admixture were used to adjust slurry properties to achieve flowable grouts. Adiabatic calorimeter results were used as the second level screening. The third level of screening was used to design mixes that were consistent with the fill material parameters used in the F-Tank Farm Performance Assessment which was developed to assess the long-term fate and transport of residual contamination in the environment resulting from the operational closures. The cement and slag contents of a mix selected for filling Tanks 18-F and 19-F should be limited to no more than 125 and 210 lbs/cyd, respectively, to limit the heat generated as the result of hydration reaction during curing and thereby enable mass pour placement. Trial mixes with water to total cementitious materials ratios of 0.550 to 0.580 and 125 lbs/cyd of cement and 210 lbs/cyd of slag met the strength and permeability requirements. Mix LP no.8-16 was selected for closing SRS Tanks 18-F and 19-F because it meets or exceeds the design requirements with the least amount of Portland cement and blast furnace slag. This grout is expected to flow at least 45 feet. A single point of discharge should be sufficient for unrestricted flow conditions. However, additional entry points should be identified as back-up in case restrictions in the tank impede flow. The LP no.8 series of trial mixes had surprisingly high design compressive strengths (2000 to 4000/5000 psi) which were achieved at extended curing times (28 to 90 days, respectively) given the small amount of Portland cement in the mixes (100 to 185 lbs/cyd). The grouts were flowable structural fills containing 3/8 inch gravel and concrete sand aggregate. These grouts did not segregate and require no compaction. They have low permeabilities (? 10{sup -9} cm/s) and are consequen

  1. Spent nuclear fuel project high-level information management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Main, G.C.

    1996-09-13

    This document presents the results of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNFP) Information Management Planning Project (IMPP), a short-term project that identified information management (IM) issues and opportunities within the SNFP and outlined a high-level plan to address them. This high-level plan for the SNMFP IM focuses on specific examples from within the SNFP. The plan`s recommendations can be characterized in several ways. Some recommendations address specific challenges that the SNFP faces. Others form the basis for making smooth transitions in several important IM areas. Still others identify areas where further study and planning are indicated. The team`s knowledge of developments in the IM industry and at the Hanford Site were crucial in deciding where to recommend that the SNFP act and where they should wait for Site plans to be made. Because of the fast pace of the SNFP and demands on SNFP staff, input and interaction were primarily between the IMPP team and members of the SNFP Information Management Steering Committee (IMSC). Key input to the IMPP came from a workshop where IMSC members and their delegates developed a set of draft IM principles. These principles, described in Section 2, became the foundation for the recommendations found in the transition plan outlined in Section 5. Availability of SNFP staff was limited, so project documents were used as a basis for much of the work. The team, realizing that the status of the project and the environment are continually changing, tried to keep abreast of major developments since those documents were generated. To the extent possible, the information contained in this document is current as of the end of fiscal year (FY) 1995. Programs and organizations on the Hanford Site as a whole are trying to maximize their return on IM investments. They are coordinating IM activities and trying to leverage existing capabilities. However, the SNFP cannot just rely on Sitewide activities to meet its IM requirements. While the SNFP can use some work done Sitewide and by projects such as the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS), they will still need to make some IM investments of their own.

  2. Clear and measurable signature of modified gravity in the galaxy velocity field.

    PubMed

    Hellwing, Wojciech A; Barreira, Alexandre; Frenk, Carlos S; Li, Baojiu; Cole, Shaun

    2014-06-01

    The velocity field of dark matter and galaxies reflects the continued action of gravity throughout cosmic history. We show that the low-order moments of the pairwise velocity distribution v_{12} are a powerful diagnostic of the laws of gravity on cosmological scales. In particular, the projected line-of-sight galaxy pairwise velocity dispersion ?_{12}(r) is very sensitive to the presence of modified gravity. Using a set of high-resolution N-body simulations, we compute the pairwise velocity distribution and its projected line-of-sight dispersion for a class of modified gravity theories: the chameleon f(R) gravity and Galileon gravity (cubic and quartic). The velocities of dark matter halos with a wide range of masses would exhibit deviations from general relativity at the (5-10)? level. We examine strategies for detecting these deviations in galaxy redshift and peculiar velocity surveys. If detected, this signature would be a "smoking gun" for modified gravity. PMID:24949751

  3. Oasis: A high-level/high-performance open source Navier-Stokes solver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortensen, Mikael; Valen-Sendstad, Kristian

    2015-03-01

    Oasis is a high-level/high-performance finite element Navier-Stokes solver written from scratch in Python using building blocks from the FEniCS project (fenicsproject.org). The solver is unstructured and targets large-scale applications in complex geometries on massively parallel clusters. Oasis utilizes MPI and interfaces, through FEniCS, to the linear algebra backend PETSc. Oasis advocates a high-level, programmable user interface through the creation of highly flexible Python modules for new problems. Through the high-level Python interface the user is placed in complete control of every aspect of the solver. A version of the solver, that is using piecewise linear elements for both velocity and pressure, is shown to reproduce very well the classical, spectral, turbulent channel simulations of Moser et al. (1999). The computational speed is strongly dominated by the iterative solvers provided by the linear algebra backend, which is arguably the best performance any similar implicit solver using PETSc may hope for. Higher order accuracy is also demonstrated and new solvers may be easily added within the same framework.

  4. High-level disinfection of gastrointestinal endoscope reprocessing

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, King-Wah; Lu, Lung-Sheng; Chiou, Shue-Shian

    2015-01-01

    High level disinfection (HLD) of the gastrointestinal (GI) endoscope is not simply a slogan, but rather is a form of experimental monitoring-based medicine. By definition, GI endoscopy is a semicritical medical device. Hence, such medical devices require major quality assurance for disinfection. And because many of these items are temperature sensitive, low-temperature chemical methods, such as liquid chemical germicide, must be used rather than steam sterilization. In summarizing guidelines for infection prevention and control for GI endoscopy, there are three important steps that must be highlighted: manual washing, HLD with automated endoscope reprocessor, and drying. Strict adherence to current guidelines is required because compared to any other medical device, the GI endoscope is associated with more outbreaks linked to inadequate cleaning or disinfecting during HLD. Both experimental evaluation on the surveillance bacterial cultures and in-use clinical results have shown that, the monitoring of the stringent processes to prevent and control infection is an essential component of the broader strategy to ensure the delivery of safe endoscopy services, because endoscope reprocessing is a multistep procedure involving numerous factors that can interfere with its efficacy. Based on our years of experience in the surveillance of culture monitoring of endoscopic reprocessing, we aim in this study to carefully describe what details require attention in the GI endoscopy disinfection and to share our experience so that patients can be provided with high quality and safe medical practices. Quality management encompasses all aspects of pre- and post-procedural care including the efficiency of the endoscopy unit and reprocessing area, as well as the endoscopic procedure itself. PMID:25699232

  5. Deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, Joshua S.; Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Brady, Patrick Vane; Swift, Peter N.; Rechard, Robert Paul; Arnold, Bill Walter; Kanney, Joseph F.; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2009-07-01

    Preliminary evaluation of deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel indicates the potential for excellent long-term safety performance at costs competitive with mined repositories. Significant fluid flow through basement rock is prevented, in part, by low permeabilities, poorly connected transport pathways, and overburden self-sealing. Deep fluids also resist vertical movement because they are density stratified. Thermal hydrologic calculations estimate the thermal pulse from emplaced waste to be small (less than 20 C at 10 meters from the borehole, for less than a few hundred years), and to result in maximum total vertical fluid movement of {approx}100 m. Reducing conditions will sharply limit solubilities of most dose-critical radionuclides at depth, and high ionic strengths of deep fluids will prevent colloidal transport. For the bounding analysis of this report, waste is envisioned to be emplaced as fuel assemblies stacked inside drill casing that are lowered, and emplaced using off-the-shelf oilfield and geothermal drilling techniques, into the lower 1-2 km portion of a vertical borehole {approx}45 cm in diameter and 3-5 km deep, followed by borehole sealing. Deep borehole disposal of radioactive waste in the United States would require modifications to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act and to applicable regulatory standards for long-term performance set by the US Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR part 191) and US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (10 CFR part 60). The performance analysis described here is based on the assumption that long-term standards for deep borehole disposal would be identical in the key regards to those prescribed for existing repositories (40 CFR part 197 and 10 CFR part 63).

  6. EUVE GO Survey: High Levels of User Satisfaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroozas, B. A.

    2000-12-01

    This paper describes the results of a detailed customer survey of Guest Observers (GOs) for NASA's Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) astronomy satellite observatory. The purpose of the research survey was to (1) measure the levels of GO customer satisfaction with respect to EUVE observing services, and (2) compare the observing experiences of EUVE GOs with their experiences using other satellite observatories. This survey was conducted as a business research project -- part of the author's graduate work as an MBA candidate. A total sample of 38 respondents, from a working population of 101 "active" EUVE GOs, participated in this survey. The results, which provided a profile of the "typical" EUVE GO, showed in a statistically significant fashion that these GOs were more than satisfied with the available EUVE observing services. In fact, the sample GOs generally rated their EUVE observing experiences to be better than average as compared to their experiences as GOs on other missions. These relatively high satisfaction results are particularly pleasing to the EUVE Project which, given its significantly reduced staffing environment at U.C. Berkeley, has continued to do more with less. This paper outlines the overall survey process: the relevant background and previous research, the survey design and methodology, and the final results and their interpretation. The paper also points out some general limitations and weaknesses of the study, along with some recommended actions for the EUVE Project and for NASA in general. This work was funded by NASA/UCB Cooperative Agreement NCC5-138.

  7. THERMAL ANALYSIS OF GEOLOGIC HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE PACKAGES

    SciTech Connect

    Hensel, S.; Lee, S.

    2010-04-20

    The engineering design of disposal of the high level waste (HLW) packages in a geologic repository requires a thermal analysis to provide the temperature history of the packages. Calculated temperatures are used to demonstrate compliance with criteria for waste acceptance into the geologic disposal gallery system and as input to assess the transient thermal characteristics of the vitrified HLW Package. The objective of the work was to evaluate the thermal performance of the supercontainer containing the vitrified HLW in a non-backfilled and unventilated underground disposal gallery. In order to achieve the objective, transient computational models for a geologic vitrified HLW package were developed by using a computational fluid dynamics method, and calculations for the HLW disposal gallery of the current Belgian geological repository reference design were performed. An initial two-dimensional model was used to conduct some parametric sensitivity studies to better understand the geologic system's thermal response. The effect of heat decay, number of co-disposed supercontainers, domain size, humidity, thermal conductivity and thermal emissivity were studied. Later, a more accurate three-dimensional model was developed by considering the conduction-convection cooling mechanism coupled with radiation, and the effect of the number of supercontainers (3, 4 and 8) was studied in more detail, as well as a bounding case with zero heat flux at both ends. The modeling methodology and results of the sensitivity studies will be presented.

  8. High-Level Performance Modeling of SAR Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Curtis

    2006-01-01

    SAUSAGE (Still Another Utility for SAR Analysis that s General and Extensible) is a computer program for modeling (see figure) the performance of synthetic- aperture radar (SAR) or interferometric synthetic-aperture radar (InSAR or IFSAR) systems. The user is assumed to be familiar with the basic principles of SAR imaging and interferometry. Given design parameters (e.g., altitude, power, and bandwidth) that characterize a radar system, the software predicts various performance metrics (e.g., signal-to-noise ratio and resolution). SAUSAGE is intended to be a general software tool for quick, high-level evaluation of radar designs; it is not meant to capture all the subtleties, nuances, and particulars of specific systems. SAUSAGE was written to facilitate the exploration of engineering tradeoffs within the multidimensional space of design parameters. Typically, this space is examined through an iterative process of adjusting the values of the design parameters and examining the effects of the adjustments on the overall performance of the system at each iteration. The software is designed to be modular and extensible to enable consideration of a variety of operating modes and antenna beam patterns, including, for example, strip-map and spotlight SAR acquisitions, polarimetry, burst modes, and squinted geometries.

  9. Defense High-Level Waste Leaching Mechanisms Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mendel, J.E.

    1984-08-01

    The Defense High-Level Waste Leaching Mechanisms Program brought six major US laboratories together for three years of cooperative research. The participants reached a consensus that solubility of the leached glass species, particularly solubility in the altered surface layer, is the dominant factor controlling the leaching behavior of defense waste glass in a system in which the flow of leachant is constrained, as it will be in a deep geologic repository. Also, once the surface of waste glass is contacted by ground water, the kinetics of establishing solubility control are relatively rapid. The concentrations of leached species reach saturation, or steady-state concentrations, within a few months to a year at 70 to 90/sup 0/C. Thus, reaction kinetics, which were the main subject of earlier leaching mechanisms studies, are now shown to assume much less importance. The dominance of solubility means that the leach rate is, in fact, directly proportional to ground water flow rate. Doubling the flow rate doubles the effective leach rate. This relationship is expected to obtain in most, if not all, repository situations.

  10. Why consider subseabed disposal of high-level nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Heath, G.R.; Hollister, C.D.; Anderson, D.R.; Leinen, M.

    1980-01-01

    Large areas of the deep seabed warrant assessment as potential disposal sites for high-level radioactive waste because: (1) they are far from seismically and tectonically active lithospheric plate boundaries; (2) they are far from active or young volcanos; (3) they contain thick layers of very uniform fine-grained clays; (4) they are devoid of natural resources likely to be exploited in the forseeable future; (5) the geologic and oceanographic processes governing the deposition of sediments in such areas are well understood, and are remarkably insensitive to past oceanographic and climatic changes; and (6) sedmentary records of tens of millions of years of slow, uninterrupted deposition of fine grained clay support predictions of the future stability of such sites. Data accumulated to date on the permeability, ion-retardation properties, and mechanical strength of pelagic clay sediments indicate that they can act as a primary barrier to the escape of buried nuclides. Work in progress should determine within the current decade whether subseabed disposal is environmentally acceptable and technically feasible, as well as address the legal, political and social issues raised by this new concept.

  11. Using continuous GPS and absolute gravity to separate vertical land movements and changes in sea-level at tide-gauges in the UK.

    PubMed

    Teferle, F N; Bingley, R M; Williams, S D P; Baker, T F; Dodson, A H

    2006-04-15

    Researchers investigating climate change have used historical tide-gauge measurements from all over the world to investigate the changes in sea-level that have occurred over the last century or so. However, such estimates are a combination of any true sea-level variations and any vertical movements of the land at the specific tide-gauge. For a tide- gauge record to be used to determine the climate related component of changes in sea-level, it is therefore necessary to correct for the vertical land movement component of the observed change in sea-level.In 1990, the Institute of Engineering Surveying and Space Geodesy and Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory started developing techniques based on the Global Positioning System (GPS) for measuring vertical land movements (VLM) at tide-gauges in the UK. This paper provides brief details of these early developments and shows how they led to the establishment of continuous GPS (CGPS) stations at a number of tide-gauges. The paper then goes on to discuss the use of absolute gravity (AG), as an independent technique for measuring VLM at tide-gauges. The most recent results, from CGPS time-series dating back to 1997 and AG time-series dating back to 1995/1996, are then used to demonstrate the complementarity of these two techniques and their potential for providing site-specific estimates of VLM at tide-gauges in the UK. PMID:16537148

  12. Engineering ?-amylase levels in wheat grain suggests a highly sophisticated level of carbohydrate regulation during development

    PubMed Central

    Whan, Alex; Dielen, Anne-Sophie; Mieog, Jos; Bowerman, Andrew F.; Robinson, Hannah M.; Byrne, Keren; Colgrave, Michelle; Larkin, Philip J.; Howitt, Crispin A.; Morell, Matthew K.; Ral, Jean-Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Wheat starch degradation requires the synergistic action of different amylolytic enzymes. Our spatio-temporal study of wheat ?-amylases throughout grain development shows that AMY3 is the most abundant isoform compared with the other known ?-amylases. Endosperm-specific over-expression of AMY3 resulted in an increase of total ?-amylase activity in harvested grains. Unexpectedly, increased activity did not have a significant impact on starch content or composition but led to an increase of soluble carbohydrate (mainly sucrose) in dry grain. In AMY3 overexpression lines (A3OE), germination was slightly delayed and triacylglycerol (TAG) content was increased in the endosperm of mature grain. Despite increased AMY3 transcript and protein content throughout grain development, alterations of ?-amylase activity and starch granule degradation were not detected until grain maturation, suggesting a post-translational inhibition of ?-amylase activity in the endosperm during the starch filling period. These findings show unexpected effects of a high level of ?-amylase on grain development and composition, notably in carbon partitioning and TAG accumulation, and suggest the presence of a hitherto unknown regulatory pathway during grain filling. PMID:25053646

  13. Effects of Body Orientation and Retinal Image Pitch on the Perception of Gravity-Referenced Eye Level (GREL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Malcolm M.; Guzy, Larry T.; Wade, Charles E. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    It has been asserted that the pitch orientation of a visual array and of an observer's body jointly determine the perception of GREL. The current study formally tests this assertion over an extended range with multiple combinations of visual and body pitch orientations. Ten subjects were individually secured in a Circolectric bed surrounded by a room (pitchroom) with walls that could be pitched at various angles with respect to gravity. The bed and the walls of the room were independently adjusted to each of five positions relative to gravitational vertical: -15, -7.5, 0, +7.5, and +15 degrees, yielding 25 combinations of body x room pitch angles, and retinal image pitch (RIP) conditions ranging from -30 to +30 degrees. Each subject set a target to apparent GREL while viewing it against a background of two electroluminescent strips on the outer edges of the far wall of the room. As determined by ANOVA, the orientation of the room, and its interaction with that of the observer, significantly altered GREL (p less than 0.01). Regression analysis showed that GREL was best described as a linear summation of the weighted independent contributions from a body-referenced mechanism (B) and a visual mechanism given by the orientation of the background array on the retina (RIP). The equation for this relationship is: GREL = .74 (B) +.64 (RIP) - 1.42; r-squared = .994.

  14. Geographic distribution of zonal wind and UV albedo at cloud top level from VMC camera on Venus Express: Influence of Venus topography through stationary gravity waves vertical propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertaux, J.-L.; Khatunstsev, I. V.; Hauchecorne, A.; Markiewicz, W.; Marcq, E.; Lebonnois, S.; Patsaeva, M. V.; Turin, A. V.

    2015-10-01

    Based on the analysis of UV images (at 365 nm) of Venus cloud top collected with VMC camera on board Venus Express[4,5], it is found that the zonal wind speed south of the equator (from 5°S to 15°s) shows a conspicuous variation with geographic longitude of Venus, correlated with underlying relief of Aphrodite Terra. We interpret this pattern as the result of stationary gravity waves produced at ground level by the up lift of air when the horizontal wind encounters a mountain slope. The cloud albedo map at 365 nm varies also in longitude and latitude, perhaps the result of increased vertical mixing associated to wave breaking, and decreased abundance of the UV absorber which makes the contrast in images.

  15. JET MIXING ANALYSIS FOR SRS HIGH-LEVEL WASTE RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.

    2011-07-05

    The process of recovering the waste in storage tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) typically requires mixing the contents of the tank to ensure uniformity of the discharge stream. Mixing is accomplished with one to four slurry pumps located within the tank liquid. The slurry pump may be fixed in position or they may rotate depending on the specific mixing requirements. The high-level waste in Tank 48 contains insoluble solids in the form of potassium tetraphenyl borate compounds (KTPB), monosodium titanate (MST), and sludge. Tank 48 is equipped with 4 slurry pumps, which are intended to suspend the insoluble solids prior to transfer of the waste to the Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer (FBSR) process. The FBSR process is being designed for a normal feed of 3.05 wt% insoluble solids. A chemical characterization study has shown the insoluble solids concentration is approximately 3.05 wt% when well-mixed. The project is requesting a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) mixing study from SRNL to determine the solids behavior with 2, 3, and 4 slurry pumps in operation and an estimate of the insoluble solids concentration at the suction of the transfer pump to the FBSR process. The impact of cooling coils is not considered in the current work. The work consists of two principal objectives by taking a CFD approach: (1) To estimate insoluble solids concentration transferred from Tank 48 to the Waste Feed Tank in the FBSR process and (2) To assess the impact of different combinations of four slurry pumps on insoluble solids suspension and mixing in Tank 48. For this work, several different combinations of a maximum of four pumps are considered to determine the resulting flow patterns and local flow velocities which are thought to be associated with sludge particle mixing. Two different elevations of pump nozzles are used for an assessment of the flow patterns on the tank mixing. Pump design and operating parameters used for the analysis are summarized in Table 1. The baseline pump orientations are chosen by the previous work [Lee et. al, 2008] and the initial engineering judgement for the conservative flow estimate since the modeling results for the other pump orientations are compared with the baseline results. As shown in Table 1, the present study assumes that each slurry pump has 900 gpm flowrate for the tank mixing analysis, although the Standard Operating Procedure for Tank 48 currently limits the actual pump speed and flowrate to a value less than 900 gpm for a 29 inch liquid level. Table 2 shows material properties and weight distributions for the solids to be modeled for the mixing analysis in Tank 48.

  16. AIRS high-resolution stratospheric temperature retrievals evaluated with operational Level-2 data and ERA-Interim

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Catrin I.; Hoffmann, Lars

    2015-04-01

    The Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) aboard NASA's Aqua satellite provides stratospheric temperature observations for a variety of scientific tasks. However, the horizontal resolution of the operational temperature retrievals is generally not sufficient for studies of gravity waves. The retrieval discussed here provides stratospheric temperature profiles for each individual AIRS footprint and therefore has nine times better horizontal sampling than the operational data. The retrieval configuration is optimized so that the results provide a trade-off between spatial resolution and retrieval noise which is considered optimal for gravity wave analysis. Here the quality of the high-resolution data is assessed by comparing a nine-year record (2003 - 2011) of stratospheric temperatures with results from the AIRS operational Level-2 data and the ERA-Interim meteorological reanalysis. Due to the large amount of data we performed a statistical comparison of the high-resolution retrieval and reference data sets based on zonal averages and time-series. The temperature data sets are split into day and night, because the AIRS high-resolution retrieval uses different configurations for day- and night-time conditions to cope with non-LTE effects. The temperature data are averaged on a latitudinal grid with a resolution of one degree. The zonal averages are calculated on a daily basis and show significant day-to-day variability. To further summarize the data we calculated monthly averages from the daily averaged data and also computed zonal means. Additionally, the standard deviation of the three data sets was computed. The comparisons show that the high-resolution temperature data are in good agreement with the reference data sets. The bias in the zonal averages is mostly within ± 2 K and reaches a maximum of 7 K to ERA-Interim and 4 K to the AIRS operational data at the stratopause, which is related to the different resolutions of the data sets. Variability is nearly the same in all three data sets, having maximum standard deviations around the polar vortex in the mid and upper stratosphere. The evaluation presented here indicates that the high-resolution temperature retrievals are well-suited for scientific studies and that they will become a valuable asset for further studies of stratospheric gravity waves. Reference: Meyer, C. I. and L. Hoffmann, Validation of AIRS high-resolution stratospheric temperature retrievals, Proc. SPIE 9242, Remote Sensing of Clouds and the Atmosphere XIX; and Optics in Atmospheric Propagation and Adaptive Systems XVII, 92420L (17 October 2014); doi: 10.1117/12.2066967

  17. Magma and fluid migration at Yellowstone Caldera in the last three decades inferred from InSAR, leveling, and gravity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tizzani, P.; Battaglia, M.; Castaldo, R.; Pepe, A.; Zeni, G.; Lanari, R.

    2015-04-01

    We studied the Yellowstone caldera geological unrest between 1977 and 2010 by investigating temporal changes in differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), precise spirit leveling and gravity measurements. The analysis of the 1992-2010 displacement time series, retrieved by applying the SBAS InSAR technique, allowed the identification of three areas of deformation: (i) the Mallard Lake (ML) and Sour Creek (SC) resurgent domes, (ii) a region close to the Northern Caldera Rim (NCR), and (iii) the eastern Snake River Plain (SRP). While the eastern SRP shows a signal related to tectonic deformation, the other two regions are influenced by the caldera unrest. We removed the tectonic signal from the InSAR displacements, and we modeled the InSAR, leveling, and gravity measurements to retrieve the best fitting source parameters. Our findings confirmed the existence of different distinct sources, beneath the brittle-ductile transition zone, which have been intermittently active during the last three decades. Moreover, we interpreted our results in the light of existing seismic tomography studies. Concerning the SC dome, we highlighted the role of hydrothermal fluids as the driving force behind the 1977-1983 uplift; since 1983-1993 the deformation source transformed into a deeper one with a higher magmatic component. Furthermore, our results support the magmatic nature of the deformation source beneath ML dome for the overall investigated period. Finally, the uplift at NCR is interpreted as magma accumulation, while its subsidence could either be the result of fluids migration outside the caldera or the gravitational adjustment of the source from a spherical to a sill-like geometry.

  18. A global view of gravity waves in the Martian atmosphere inferred from a high-resolution general circulation model

    E-print Network

    Kuroda, Takeshi; Yi?it, Erdal; Hartogh, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Global characteristics of the small-scale gravity wave (GW) field in the Martian atmosphere obtained from a high-resolution general circulation model (GCM) are presented for the first time. The simulated GW-induced temperature variances are in a good agreement with available radio occultation data in the lower atmosphere between 10 and 30 km. The model reveals a latitudinal asymmetry with stronger wave generation in the winter hemisphere, and two distinctive sources of GWs: mountainous regions and the meandering winter polar jet. Orographic GWs are filtered while propagating upward, and the mesosphere is primarily dominated by harmonics with faster horizontal phase velocities. Wave fluxes are directed mainly against the local wind. GW dissipation in the upper mesosphere generates body forces of tens of m~s$^{-1}$~sol$^{-1}$, which tend to close the simulated jets. The results represent a realistic surrogate for missing observations, which can be used for constraining GW parameterizations and validating GCM si...

  19. Level 1 Tornado PRA for the High Flux Beam Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Bozoki, G.E.; Conrad, C.S.

    1994-05-01

    This report describes a risk analysis primarily directed at providing an estimate for the frequency of tornado induced damage to the core of the High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR), and thus it constitutes a Level 1 Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) covering tornado induced accident sequences. The basic methodology of the risk analysis was to develop a ``tornado specific`` plant logic model that integrates the internal random hardware failures with failures caused externally by the tornado strike and includes operator errors worsened by the tornado modified environment. The tornado hazard frequency, as well as earlier prepared structural and equipment fragility data, were used as input data to the model. To keep modeling/calculational complexity as simple as reasonable a ``bounding`` type, slightly conservative, approach was applied. By a thorough screening process a single dominant initiating event was selected as a representative initiator, defined as: ``Tornado Induced Loss of Offsite Power.`` The frequency of this initiator was determined to be 6.37E-5/year. The safety response of the HFBR facility resulted in a total Conditional Core Damage Probability of .621. Thus, the point estimate of the HFBR`s Tornado Induced Core Damage Frequency (CDF) was found to be: (CDF){sub Tornado} = 3.96E-5/year. This value represents only 7.8% of the internal CDF and thus is considered to be a small contribution to the overall facility risk expressed in terms of total Core Damage Frequency. In addition to providing the estimate of (CDF){sub Tornado}, the report documents, the relative importance of various tornado induced system, component, and operator failures that contribute most to (CDF){sub Tornado}.

  20. PLUTONIUM/HIGH-LEVEL VITRIFIED WASTE BDBE DOSE CALCULATION

    SciTech Connect

    D.C. Richardson

    2003-03-19

    In accordance with the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, Yucca Mountain was designated as the site to be investigated as a potential repository for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The Yucca Mountain site is an undeveloped area located on the southwestern edge of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), about 100 miles northwest of Las Vegas. The site currently lacks rail service or an existing right-of-way. If the Yucca Mountain site is found suitable for the repository, rail service is desirable to the Office of Civilian Waste Management (OCRWM) Program because of the potential of rail transportation to reduce costs and to reduce the number of shipments relative to highway transportation. A Preliminary Rail Access Study evaluated 13 potential rail spur options. Alternative routes within the major options were also developed. Each of these options was then evaluated for potential land use conflicts and access to regional rail carriers. Three potential routes having few land use conflicts and having access to regional carriers were recommended for further investigation. Figure 1-1 shows these three routes. The Jean route is estimated to be about 120 miles long, the Carlin route to be about 365 miles long, and Caliente route to be about 365 miles long. The remaining ten routes continue to be monitored and should any of the present conflicts change, a re-evaluation of that route will be made. Complete details of the evaluation of the 13 routes can be found in the previous study. The DOE has not identified any preferred route and recognizes that the transportation issues need a full and open treatment under the National Environmental Policy Act. The issue of transportation will be included in public hearings to support development of the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) proceedings for either the Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility or the Yucca Mountain Project or both.

  1. Monthly gravity field models derived from GRACE Level 1B data using a modified short-arc approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qiujie; Shen, Yunzhong; Zhang, Xingfu; Hsu, Houze; Chen, Wu; Ju, Xiaolei; Lou, Lizhi

    2015-03-01

    In this study, a new time series of Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) monthly solutions, complete to degree and order 60 spanning from January 2003 to August 2011, has been derived based on a modified short-arc approach. Our models entitled Tongji-GRACE01 are available on the website of International Centre for Global Earth Models http://icgem.gfz-potsdam.de/ICGEM/. The traditional short-arc approach, with no more than 1 h arcs, requires the gradient corrections of satellite orbits in order to reduce the impact of orbit errors on the final solution. Here the modified short-arc approach has been proposed, which has three major differences compared to the traditional one: (1) All the corrections of orbits and range rate measurements are solved together with the geopotential coefficients and the accelerometer biases using a weighted least squares adjustment; (2) the boundary position parameters are not required; and (3) the arc length can be extended to 2 h. The comparisons of geoid degree powers and the mass change signals in the Amazon basin, the Antarctic, and Antarctic Peninsula demonstrate that our model is comparable with the other existing models, i.e., the Centre for Space Research RL05, Jet Propulsion Laboratory RL05, and GeoForschungsZentrum RL05a models. The correlation coefficients of the mass change time series between our model and the other models are better than 0.9 in the Antarctic and Antarctic Peninsula. The mass change rates in the Antarctic and Antarctic Peninsula derived from our model are -92.7 ± 38.0 Gt/yr and -23.9 ± 12.4 Gt/yr, respectively, which are very close to those from other three models and with similar spatial patterns of signals.

  2. Concerns--High Sea Levels and Temperatures Seen Next Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Paul R.

    1984-01-01

    A National Research Council committee recently concluded that atmospheric carbon dioxide levels will "most likely" double by late in the next century, causing an increase in the earth's average temperature. Effects of the increase on sea levels, global climate, and other parameters are discussed. (JN)

  3. Confidence Level and Sensitivity Limits in High-Contrast Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marois, Christian; Lafrenière, David; Macintosh, Bruce; Doyon, René

    2008-01-01

    In long adaptive optics corrected exposures, exoplanet detections are currently limited by speckle noise originating from the telescope and instrument optics, and it is expected that such noise will also limit future high-contrast imaging instruments for both ground- and space-based telescopes. Previous theoretical analyses have shown that the time intensity variations of a single speckle follow a modified Rician. It is first demonstrated here that for a circular pupil, this temporal intensity distribution also represents the speckle spatial intensity distribution at a fixed separation from the point-spread function center; this fact is demonstrated using numerical simulations for coronagraphic and noncoronagraphic data. The real statistical distribution of the noise needs to be taken into account explicitly when selecting a detection threshold appropriate for some desired confidence level (CL). In this paper, a technique is described to obtain the pixel intensity distribution of an image and its corresponding CL as a function of the detection threshold. Using numerical simulations, it is shown that in the presence of speckle noise, a detection threshold up to 3 times higher is required to obtain a CL equivalent to that at 5 ? for Gaussian noise. The technique is then tested on data acquired by simultaneous spectral differential imaging with TRIDENT and by angular differential imaging with NIRI. It is found that the angular differential imaging technique produces quasi-Gaussian residuals, a remarkable result compared to classical adaptive optic imaging. Finally, a power law is derived to predict the 1-3×10-7 CL detection threshold when averaging a partially correlated non-Gaussian noise. Based on observations obtained at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), which is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii. Also based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), CNPq (Brazil), and CONICET (Argentina).

  4. High level production of tyrosinase in recombinant Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tyrosinase is a bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes both the hydroxylation of monophenols to o-diphenols (monophenolase activity) and the subsequent oxidation of the diphenols to o-quinones (diphenolase activity). Due to the potential applications of tyrosinase in biotechnology, in particular in biocatalysis and for biosensors, it is desirable to develop a suitable low-cost process for efficient production of this enzyme. So far, the best production yield reported for tyrosinase was about 1?g?L-1, which was achieved by cultivating the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei for 6?days. Results In this work, tyrosinase from Verrucomicrobium spinosum was expressed in Escherichia coli and its production was studied in both batch and fed-batch cultivations. Effects of various key cultivation parameters on tyrosinase production were first examined in batch cultures to identify optimal conditions. It was found that a culture temperature of 32?°C and induction at the late growth stage were favorable, leading to a highest tyrosinase activity of 0.76 U mL-1. The fed-batch process was performed by using an exponential feeding strategy to achieve high cell density. With the fed-batch process, a final biomass concentration of 37?g?L-1 (based on optical density) and a tyrosinase activity of 13 U mL-1 were obtained in 28?hours, leading to a yield of active tyrosinase of about 3?g?L-1. The highest overall volumetric productivity of 103?mg of active tyrosinase per liter and hour (corresponding to 464?mU?L-1?h-1) was determined, which is approximately 15 times higher than that obtained in batch cultures. Conclusions We have successfully expressed and produced gram quantities per liter of active tyrosinase in recombinant E. coli by optimizing the expression conditions and fed-batch cultivation strategy. Exponential feed of substrate helped to prolong the exponential phase of growth, to reduce the fermentation time and thus the cost. A specific tyrosinase production rate of 103?mg?L?1?h?1 and a maximum volumetric activity of 464?mU?L?1?h-1 were achieved in this study. These levels have not been reported previously. PMID:23442796

  5. Gravity in Gauge Mediation

    E-print Network

    Zygmunt Lalak; Stefan Pokorski; Krzysztof Turzynski

    2008-08-18

    We investigate O'Raifeartaigh-type models for F-term supersymmetry breaking in gauge mediation scenarios in the presence of gravity. It is pointed out that the vacuum structure of those models is such that in metastable vacua gravity mediation contribution to scalar masses is always suppressed to the level below 1 percent, almost sufficient for avoiding FCNC problem. Close to that limit, gravitino mass can be in the range 10-100 GeV, opening several interesting possibilities for gauge mediation models, including Giudice-Masiero mechanism for mu and Bmu generation. Gravity sector can include stabilized moduli.

  6. The direction of gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linder, E. V.

    2014-03-01

    Gravity directs the paths of light rays and the growth of structure. Moreover, gravity on cosmological scales does not simply point down: It accelerates the universal expansion by pulling outward, either due to a highly negative pressure dark energy or an extension of general relativity. We have examined methods to test the properties of gravity through cosmological measurements. We have then considered specific possibilities for a sound gravitational theory based on the Galilean shift symmetry. The evolution of the laws of gravity from the early universe to the present acceleration to the future fate - the paths of gravity - carries rich information on this fundamental force of physics, and on the mystery of dark energy.

  7. High temperature testing of the EDCON borehole gravity housing system conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratories, January 12-18, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    A series of tests were conducted on the EDCON borehole gravity meter (BHGM) high temperature sonde. The tests were conducted to determine the suitability of this sonde for logging operations in the Department of Energy Salton Trough test well. 1 ref., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Combining Vision Verification with a High Level Robot Programming Language 

    E-print Network

    Yin, Baolin

    1984-01-01

    This thesis describes work on using vision verification within an object level language for describing robot assembly (RAPT). The motivation for this thesis is provided by two problems. The first is how to enhance a ...

  9. Regeneration of eye tissues is modulated by altered levels of gravity at 1g, 2g, and in microgravity during spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoryan, Eleonora; Almeida, Eduardo; Mitashov, Victor

    The pursuit of human space exploration requires detailed knowledge of microgravity-related changes in fundamental biological processes, and their effects on health. Normal regeneration of organs and tissues is one such fundamental process that allows maintenance of vitality and function of living organisms. Animal models of tissue regeneration include the newt (Pleurodeles waltl, Urodela) eye, which has been extensively used by our team in Russian Bion and Foton microgravity experiments since 1985, and in recent NASA 2.5 meter diameter centrifuge hypergravity experiments. In total, these experiments allow us to draw several broad conclusions: Newt lens regeneration is significantly altered in microgravity and hypergravity relative to 1g controls. Lenses formed in microgravity are larger and more developed than those regenerated in 1g controls; Microgravity alterations of lens regeneration can persist after spaceflight, and continue to affect repeated removal and regeneration of the lens after return to 1g; Microgravity increases the numbers of early stage regenerative proliferating BrdU-labeled cells in dorsal iris progenitors and in the lens regenerate. Regeneration under hypergravity conditions at 2g inhibits lens regeneration, and often causes retinal detachment. Molecular mechanisms regulating lens regeneration rate include FGF2 signaling, (a key pathway for eye tissue development and regeneration), and an expression of stress-related proteins - HSPs. In conclusion, regeneration of lens and other eye tissues in the newt is sensitive to, and regulated by the level of gravity mechanotransduction and developmental signaling pathways, with microgravity favoring stem cell progenitor proliferation, and gravity at 1g promoting terminal differentiation, while hypergravity at 2g often causes damage of delicate regenerating tissues.

  10. Low copper and high manganese levels in prion protein plaques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Christopher J.; Gilbert, P.U.P.A.; Abrecth, Mike; Baldwin, Katherine L.; Russell, Robin E.; Pedersen, Joel A.; McKenzie, Debbie

    2013-01-01

    Accumulation of aggregates rich in an abnormally folded form of the prion protein characterize the neurodegeneration caused by transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). The molecular triggers of plaque formation and neurodegeneration remain unknown, but analyses of TSE-infected brain homogenates and preparations enriched for abnormal prion protein suggest that reduced levels of copper and increased levels of manganese are associated with disease. The objectives of this study were to: (1) assess copper and manganese levels in healthy and TSE-infected Syrian hamster brain homogenates; (2) determine if the distribution of these metals can be mapped in TSE-infected brain tissue using X-ray photoelectron emission microscopy (X-PEEM) with synchrotron radiation; and (3) use X-PEEM to assess the relative amounts of copper and manganese in prion plaques in situ. In agreement with studies of other TSEs and species, we found reduced brain levels of copper and increased levels of manganese associated with disease in our hamster model. We also found that the in situ levels of these metals in brainstem were sufficient to image by X-PEEM. Using immunolabeled prion plaques in directly adjacent tissue sections to identify regions to image by X-PEEM, we found a statistically significant relationship of copper-manganese dysregulation in prion plaques: copper was depleted whereas manganese was enriched. These data provide evidence for prion plaques altering local transition metal distribution in the TSE-infected central nervous system.

  11. HighLevel Perception, Representation, and Analogy: A Critique of Artificial Intelligence Methodology

    E-print Network

    Indiana University

    High­Level Perception, Representation, and Analogy: A Critique of Artificial Intelligence of Experimental and Theoretical Artificial Intelligence. #12; High­Level Perception, Representation, and Analogy: A Critique of Artificial Intelligence Methodology Abstract High­level perception---the process of making

  12. High-Level Perception, Representation, and Analogy: A Critique of Artificial Intelligence Methodology

    E-print Network

    High-Level Perception, Representation, and Analogy: A Critique of Artificial Intelligence of Experimental and Theoretical Artificial Intelligence. #12;High-Level Perception, Representation, and Analogy: A Critique of Artificial Intelligence Methodology Abstract High-level perception--the process of making sense

  13. 40 CFR 1065.725 - High-level ethanol-gasoline blends.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2014-07-01 false High-level ethanol-gasoline blends. 1065.725 Section...Standards § 1065.725 High-level ethanol-gasoline blends. For testing vehicles capable of operating on a high-level ethanol-gasoline blend, create a test...

  14. Gravity model studies of Newberry Volcano, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Gettings, M.E.; Griscom, A.

    1988-09-10

    Newberry, Volcano, a large Quaternary volcano located about 60 km east of the axis of the High Cascades volcanoes in central Oregon, has a coincident positive residual gravity anomaly of about 12 mGals. Model calculations of the gravity anomaly field suggest that the volcano is underlain by an intrusive complex of mafic composition of about 20-km diameter and 2-km thickness, at depths above 4 km below sea level. However, uplifted basement in a northwest trending ridge may form part of the underlying excess mass, thus reducing the volume of the subvolcanic intrusive. A ring dike of mafic composition is inferred to intrude to near-surface levels along the caldera ring fractures, and low-density fill of the caldera floor probably has a thickness of 0.7--0.9 km. The gravity anomaly attributable to the volcano is reduced to the east across a north-northwest trending gravity anomaly gradient through Newberry caldera and suggests that normal, perhaps extensional, faulting has occurred subsequent to caldera formation and may have controlled the location of some late-stage basaltic and rhyolitic eruptions. Significant amounts of felsic intrusive material may exist above the mafic intrusive zone but cannot be resolved by the gravity data.

  15. Liouville gravity from Einstein gravity

    E-print Network

    D. Grumiller; R. Jackiw

    2007-12-28

    We show that Liouville gravity arises as the limit of pure Einstein gravity in 2+epsilon dimensions as epsilon goes to zero, provided Newton's constant scales with epsilon. Our procedure - spherical reduction, dualization, limit, dualizing back - passes several consistency tests: geometric properties, interactions with matter and the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy are as expected from Einstein gravity.

  16. Tongji-GRACE01: A GRACE-only static gravity field model recovered from GRACE Level-1B data using modified short arc approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qiujie; Shen, Yunzhong; Zhang, Xingfu; Chen, Wu; Hsu, Houze

    2015-09-01

    The modified short arc approach, where the position vector in force model are regarded as pseudo observation, is implemented in the SAtellite Gravimetry Analysis Software (SAGAS) developed by Tongji university. Based on the SAGAS platform, a static gravity field model (namely Tongji-GRACE01) complete to degree and order 160 is computed from 49 months of real GRACE Level-1B data spanning the period 2003-2007 (including the observations of K-band range-rate, reduced dynamic orbits, non-conservative accelerations and altitudes). The Tongji-GRACE01 model is compared with the recent GRACE-only models (such as GGM05S, AIUB-GRACE03S, ITG-GRACE03, ITG-GRACE2010S, and ITSG-GRACE2014S) and validated with GPS-leveling data sets in different countries. The results show that the Tongji-GRACE01 model has a considered quality as GGM05S, AIUB-GRACE03S and ITG-GRACE03. The Tongji-GRACE01 model is available at the International Centre for Global Earth Models (ICGEM) web page (http://icgem.gfz-potsdam.de/ICGEM/).

  17. Induced gravity Mars transportation systems configuration and hardware penalties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capps, Stephen; Fowler, Robert; Appleby, Matthew

    1991-01-01

    The need for an induced gravity environment in-transit to Mars is assessed based on current knowledge. Two possible alternatives to constant in-transit spinning, periodic spinning and Mars surface reconditioning are discussed and compared. Four propulsion options: cryogenic/aerobraking, solid core nuclear thermal, solar electric and nuclear electric are evaluated for concept adaptability to induced gravity, and salient differences from their microgravity counterparts are assessed. Configurations to the systems level are presented and accompanied by mass estimates. Hardware subsystems required for induced gravity vehicles, such as tether crawlers, tether reels, high-power roll-ring assemblies, etc., have been defined to a sufficient level of detail to confidently determine mass penalties. Results of this study show the mass penalties and complexity involved in producing an induced gravity environment.

  18. Development of Crystal-Tolerant High-Level Waste Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Matyas, Josef; Vienna, John D.; Schaible, Micah J.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Arrigoni, Alyssa L.; Tate, Rachel M.

    2010-12-17

    Twenty five glasses were formulated. They were batched from HLW AZ-101 simulant or raw chemicals and melted and tested with a series of tests to elucidate the effect of spinel-forming components (Ni, Fe, Cr, Mn, and Zn), Al, and noble metals (Rh2O3 and RuO2) on the accumulation rate of spinel crystals in the glass discharge riser of the high-level waste (HLW) melter. In addition, the processing properties of glasses, such as the viscosity and TL, were measured as a function of temperature and composition. Furthermore, the settling of spinel crystals in transparent low-viscosity fluids was studied at room temperature to access the shape factor and hindered settling coefficient of spinel crystals in the Stokes equation. The experimental results suggest that Ni is the most troublesome component of all the studied spinel-forming components producing settling layers of up to 10.5 mm in just 20 days in Ni-rich glasses if noble metals or a higher concentration of Fe was not introduced in the glass. The layer of this thickness can potentially plug the bottom of the riser, preventing glass from being discharged from the melter. The noble metals, Fe, and Al were the components that significantly slowed down or stopped the accumulation of spinel at the bottom. Particles of Rh2O3 and RuO2, hematite and nepheline, acted as nucleation sites significantly increasing the number of crystals and therefore decreasing the average crystal size. The settling rate of ?10-?m crystal size around the settling velocity of crystals was too low to produce thick layers. The experimental data for the thickness of settled layers in the glasses prepared from AZ-101 simulant were used to build a linear empirical model that can predict crystal accumulation in the riser of the melter as a function of concentration of spinel-forming components in glass. The developed model predicts the thicknesses of accumulated layers quite well, R2 = 0.985, and can be become an efficient tool for the formulation of the crystal-tolerant HLW glasses for higher waste loading. A physical modeling effort revealed that the Stokes and Richardson-Zaki equations can be used to adequately predict the accumulation rate of spinel crystals of different sizes and concentrations in the glass discharge riser of HLW melters. The determined shape factor for the glass beads was only 0.73% lower than the theoretical shape factor for a perfect sphere. The shape factor for the spinel crystals matched the theoretically predicted value to within 10% and was smaller than that of the beads, given the larger drag force caused by the larger surface area-to-volume ratio of the octahedral crystals. In the hindered settling experiments, both the glass bead and spinel suspensions were found to follow the predictions of the Richardson-Zaki equation with the exponent n = 3.6 and 2.9 for glass beads and spinel crystals, respectively.

  19. Interactions between Artificial Gravity, the Affected Physiological Systems, and Nutrition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heer, Martina; Baecker, Nathalie; Zwart, Sara; Smith, Scott

    2006-01-01

    Malnutrition, either by insufficient supply of some nutrients or by overfeeding, has a profound effect on the health of an organism. Therefore, optimal nutrition is a necessity in normal gravity on Earth, in microgravity, and when applying artificial gravity to the human system. Reduced physical activity, such as observed in microgravity or bed rest, has an effect on many physiological systems, such as the cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, immune, and body fluids regulation systems. There is currently no countermeasure that is effective to counteract both the cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning when applied for a short duration (see Chapter 1). Artificial gravity therefore seems the simplest physiological approach to keep these systems intact. The application of intermittent daily dose of artificial gravity by means of centrifugation has often been proposed as a potential countermeasure against the physiological deconditioning induced by spaceflight. However, neither the optimal gravity level, nor its optimal duration of exposure have been enough studied to recommend a validated, effective, and efficient artificial gravity application. As discussed in previous chapters, artificial gravity has a very high potential to counteract any changes caused by reduced physical activity. The nutrient supply, which ideally should match the actual needs, will interact with these changes and therefore has also to be taken into account. This chapter reviews the potential interactions between these nutrients (energy intake, vitamins, minerals) and the other physiological systems affected by artificial gravity generated by an on-board short-radius centrifuge.

  20. State-Level High School Improvement Systems Checklist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National High School Center, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This checklist is designed to help states at various stages develop their system of support to reach struggling high schools. The checklist can be used to assess where your state is in terms of the elements of using existing support and guidance mechanisms, and reconfiguring and/or creating new structures to leverage system change for high school…

  1. The development of high performance online tracker for High Level Trigger of Muon Spectrometer of ALICE

    E-print Network

    Indranil Das

    2011-05-19

    The Muon Spectrometer (MS) of the ALICE experiment at LHC is equipped with a HLT (High Level Trigger), whose aim is to improve the accuracy of the trigger cuts delivered at the L0 stage. A computational challenge of real-time event reconstruction is satisfied to achieve this software trigger cut of the HLT. After the description of the online algorithms, the performance of the online tracker is compared with that of the offline tracker using the measured pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV.

  2. Production Cost Modeling for High Levels of Photovoltaics Penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.; Milford, J.

    2008-02-01

    The goal of this report is to evaluate the likely avoided generation, fuels, and emissions resulting from photovoltaics (PV) deployment in several U.S. locations and identify new tools, methods, and analysis to improve understanding of PV impacts at the grid level.

  3. EMPLOYABILITY AND HIGH-LEVEL SKILLS EQUIPPING STUDENTS FOR SUCCESS

    E-print Network

    Martin, Ralph R.

    of Skills, Prosperity for all in the global economy ­ world class skills, showed that there is an urgent global economy. May 2007: In their London Communiqué, Towards the European Higher Education Area The importance of higher-level skills to the knowledge-based economy 08 Aerospace engineering 10 Skills

  4. Dual-level parallelism for high-order CFD methods

    E-print Network

    2004-01-02

    able or the complicated operations prohibit such loop-level parallelization directives. For example, in the spectral element implementation in the current work the ..... Periodic conditions are imposed in the homogeneous direction. ..... help on the thread-safety of the Veclib and many useful discussions. ... benchmark suite.

  5. High Smog Levels Seen in Mecca During the Annual Pilgrimage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urton, James

    2014-12-01

    In 2012, the Hajj drew 3.5 million Muslims to Mecca for 5 days of prayer and spiritual enlightenment. The annual pilgrimage, one of the largest annual gatherings of people in the world, also brings dangerous levels of air pollution to Islam's holiest city.

  6. HIGH ALUMINUM HLW (HIGH LEVEL WASTE ) GLASSES FOR HANFORDS WTP (WASTE TREATMENT PROJECT)

    SciTech Connect

    KRUGER AA; BOWAN BW; JOSEPH I; GAN H; KOT WK; MATLACK KS; PEGG IL

    2010-01-04

    This paper presents the results of glass formulation development and melter testing to identify high waste loading glasses to treat high-Al high level waste (HLW) at Hanford. Previous glass formulations developed for this HLW had high waste loadings but their processing rates were lower that desired. The present work was aimed at improving the glass processing rate while maintaining high waste loadings. Glass formulations were designed, prepared at crucible-scale and characterized to determine their properties relevant to processing and product quality. Glass formulations that met these requirements were screened for melt rates using small-scale tests. The small-scale melt rate screening included vertical gradient furnace (VGF) and direct feed consumption (DFC) melter tests. Based on the results of these tests, modified glass formulations were developed and selected for larger scale melter tests to determine their processing rate. Melter tests were conducted on the DuraMelter 100 (DMIOO) with a melt surface area of 0.11 m{sup 2} and the DuraMelter 1200 (DMI200) HLW Pilot Melter with a melt surface area of 1.2 m{sup 2}. The newly developed glass formulations had waste loadings as high as 50 wt%, with corresponding Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration in the glass of 26.63 wt%. The new glass formulations showed glass production rates as high as 1900 kg/(m{sup 2}.day) under nominal melter operating conditions. The demonstrated glass production rates are much higher than the current requirement of 800 kg/(m{sup 2}.day) and anticipated future enhanced Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) requirement of 1000 kg/(m{sup 2}.day).

  7. An Investigation of High School Seniors' Assertiveness Levels Based on Their Demographic Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çam, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    High school students who are in the development age or in the last class and have chance to win the university exams or disposal stage of the business life must also have a high level of assertiveness. In this context, the purpose of this research is to compare the assertiveness levels of high school seniors. The study group consists of 312 high

  8. Retrieving mesospheric winds and gravity waves using high resolution radar measurements of polar mesospheric summer echoes with MAARSY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stober, G.; Sommer, S.; Schult, C.; Chau, J. L.; Latteck, R.

    2013-12-01

    The Middle Atmosphere Alomar Radar System (MAARSY) located at the northern Norwegian island of Andøya (69.3 ° N, 16° E) observes polar mesosphere summer echoes (PMSE) on a regular basis. This backscatter turned out to be an ideal tracer of atmospheric dynamics and to investigate the wind field at the mesosphere/lower thermosphere (MLT) at high spatial and temporal scales. MAARSY is dedicated to explore the polar mesosphere at such high resolution and employs an active phased array antenna with the capability to steer the beam on a pulse-to-pulse basis, which permits to perform systematic scanning of PMSE and to investigate the horizontal structure of the backscatter. The radar also uses a 16 channel receiver system for interferometric applications e.g. mean angle of arrival analysis or coherent radar imaging. Here we present measurements using these features of MAARSY to study the wind field at the MLT applying sophisticated wind analysis algorithms such as velocity azimuth display or volume velocity processing to derive gravity wave parameters such as horizontal wave length, phase speed and propagation direction. Further, we compare the interferometrically corrected and uncorrected wind measurements to emphasize the importance to account for likely edge effects using PMSE as tracer of the dynamics. The observations indicate huge deviations from the nominal beam pointing direction at the upper and lower edges of the PMSE altering the wind analysis.

  9. Verifications of the high-resolution numerical model and polarization relations of atmospheric acoustic-gravity waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrilov, N. M.; Kshevetskii, S. P.; Koval, A. V.

    2015-06-01

    Comparisons of amplitudes of wave variations of atmospheric characteristics obtained using direct numerical simulation models with polarization relations given by conventional theories of linear acoustic-gravity waves (AGWs) could be helpful for testing these numerical models. In this study, we performed high-resolution numerical simulations of nonlinear AGW propagation at altitudes 0-500 km from a plane wave forcing at the Earth's surface and compared them with analytical polarization relations of linear AGW theory. After some transition time te (increasing with altitude) subsequent to triggering the wave source, the initial wave pulse disappears and the main spectral components of the wave source dominate. The numbers of numerically simulated and analytical pairs of AGW parameters, which are equal with confidence of 95 %, are largest at altitudes 30-60 km at t > te. At low and high altitudes and at t < te, numbers of equal pairs are smaller, because of the influence of the lower boundary conditions, strong dissipation and AGW transience making substantial inclinations from conditions, assumed in conventional theories of linear nondissipative stationary AGWs in the free atmosphere. Reasonable agreements between simulated and analytical wave parameters satisfying the scope of the limitations of the AGW theory prove the adequacy of the used wave numerical model. Significant differences between numerical and analytical AGW parameters reveal circumstances when analytical theories give substantial errors and numerical simulations of wave fields are required. In addition, direct numerical AGW simulations may be useful tools for testing simplified parameterizations of wave effects in the atmosphere.

  10. Geographic distribution of zonal wind and UV albedo at cloud top level from VMC camera on Venus Express: Influence of Venus topography through stationary gravity waves vertical propagation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertaux, Jean-Loup; Khatunstsev, Igor; Hauchecorne, Alain; Markiewicz, Wojciech; Marcq, Emmanuel; Lebonnois, Sébastien; Patsaeva, Marina; Turin, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    UV images (at 365 nm) of Venus cloud top collected with VMC camera on board Venus Express allowed to derive a large number of wind measurements at altitude 67±2 km from tracking of cloud features in the period 2006-2012. Both manual (45,600) and digital (391,600) individual wind measurements over 127 orbits were analyzed showing various patterns with latitude and local time. A new longitude-latitude geographic map of the zonal wind shows a conspicuous region of strongly decreased zonal wind, a remarkable feature that was unknown up to now. While the average zonal wind near equator (from 5°S to 15°s) is -100.9 m/s in the longitude range 200-330°, it reaches -83.4 m/s in the range 60-100°, a difference of 17.5 m/s. When compared to the altimetry map of Venus, it is found that the zonal wind pattern is well correlated with the underlying relief in the region of Aphrodite Terra, with a downstream shift of about 30° (˜3,200 km). We interpret this pattern as the result of stationary gravity waves produced at ground level by the up lift of air when the horizontal wind encounters a mountain slope. These waves can propagate up to cloud top level, break there and transfer their momentum to the zonal flow. A similar phenomenon is known to operate on Earth with an influence on mesospheric winds. The LMD-GCM for Venus was run with or without topography, with and without a parameterization of gravity waves and does not display such an observed change of velocity near equator. The cloud albedo map at 365 nm varies also in longitude and latitude. We speculate that it might be the result of increased vertical mixing associated to wave breaking, and decreased abundance of the UV absorber which makes the contrast in images. The impact of these new findings on current super rotation theories remains to be assessed. This work was triggered by the presence of a conspicuous peak at 117 days in a time series of wind measurements. This is the length of the solar day as seen at the ground of Venus. Since VMC measurements are done preferably in a local time window centred on the sub-solar point, any parameter having a geographic longitude dependence will show a peak at 117 days.

  11. Wafer level reliability for high-performance VLSI design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Root, Bryan J.; Seefeldt, James D.

    1987-01-01

    As very large scale integration architecture requires higher package density, reliability of these devices has approached a critical level. Previous processing techniques allowed a large window for varying reliability. However, as scaling and higher current densities push reliability to its limit, tighter control and instant feedback becomes critical. Several test structures developed to monitor reliability at the wafer level are described. For example, a test structure was developed to monitor metal integrity in seconds as opposed to weeks or months for conventional testing. Another structure monitors mobile ion contamination at critical steps in the process. Thus the reliability jeopardy can be assessed during fabrication preventing defective devices from ever being placed in the field. Most importantly, the reliability can be assessed on each wafer as opposed to an occasional sample.

  12. Changes in polyphenols and expression levels of related genes in 'Duke' blueberries stored under high CO2 levels.

    PubMed

    Harb, Jamil; Saleh, Omar; Kittemann, Dominikus; Neuwald, Daniel Alexandre; Hoffmann, Thomas; Reski, Ralf; Schwab, Wilfried

    2014-07-30

    Blueberries are highly perishable fruits, and consequently, storage under high CO2 and low O2 levels is recommended to preserve the highly appreciated polyphenols. However, high CO2 levels might be detrimental for certain cultivars. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of storage conditions on various quality parameters, including polyphenol composition in 'Duke' berries. Results show that storage under 18 kPa CO2, coupled with 3 kPa O2, resulted in accelerated softening of berries, which was accompanied by lower levels compared to other conditions of hexosides and arabinosides of malvidin, petunidin, cyanidine, and delphinidin. However, this storage condition had no negative impact on chlorogenic acid levels. Expression data of key polyphenol-biosynthesis genes showed higher expression levels of all investigated genes at harvest time compared to all storage conditions. Of particular importance is the expression level of chalcone synthase (VcCHS), which is severely affected by storage at 18 kPa CO2. PMID:24999801

  13. High-Level Treatment of Stormwater Heavy Metals

    E-print Network

    Clark, Shirley E.

    , Madison, WI Atomic absorption spectrophotometer with graphite furnace for low- level metal analyses and Colloidal Distributions Zinc 98.7 1.3 Iron 97 3 Chromium 94.5 5.5 Potassium 86.7 13.3 Lead 78.4 21.6 Copper 77.4 22.6 Cadmium 10 90 50 60 70 80 90 100 tion Turbidity Copper Lead Example Stormwater Lead

  14. High-temperature heat capacity and density of simulated high-level waste glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugawara, Toru; Katsuki, Junki; Shiono, Takashi; Yoshida, Satoshi; Matsuoka, Jun; Minami, Kazuhiro; Ochi, Eiji

    2014-11-01

    The heat capacities of two simulated high-level waste borosilicate glasses and glass melts have been determined from differential scanning calorimetry and drop-calorimetry measurements between 345 K and 1673 K. The densities of the glass melts have been measured by double-bob Archimedean method between 1273 K and 1573 K. The volume expansivity between glass transition temperature and 1573 K has been determined by combining the measured densities and density of supercooled melts below 1273 K reported previously. Both of the heat capacity and the volume expansivity of the simulated high-level waste glass melts are characterized by a large increase at the glass transition temperature and the rapid decrease with increasing temperature. The configurational contributions to the heat capacity and the volume expansivity at the glass transition temperature are 35% and 88%, respectively. The significant change of the heat capacity is probably attributed to temperature dependence of chemical mixing of boron, aluminum and silicon in the tetrahedral sites, while the change of the volume expansivity is caused by temperature-induced coordination change of boron.

  15. Initial conditions for cosmological N-body simulations of the scalar sector of theories of Newtonian, Relativistic and Modified Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valkenburg, Wessel; Hu, Bin

    2015-09-01

    We present a description for setting initial particle displacements and field values for simulations of arbitrary metric theories of gravity, for perfect and imperfect fluids with arbitrary characteristics. We extend the Zel'dovich Approximation to nontrivial theories of gravity, and show how scale dependence implies curved particle paths, even in the entirely linear regime of perturbations. For a viable choice of Effective Field Theory of Modified Gravity, initial conditions set at high redshifts are affected at the level of up to 5% at Mpc scales, which exemplifies the importance of going beyond ?-Cold Dark Matter initial conditions for modifications of gravity outside of the quasi-static approximation. In addition, we show initial conditions for a simulation where a scalar modification of gravity is modelled in a Lagrangian particle-like description. Our description paves the way for simulations and mock galaxy catalogs under theories of gravity beyond the standard model, crucial for progress towards precision tests of gravity and cosmology.

  16. Crustal architecture of the Faroe-Shetland Margin: insights from a newly merged high resolution gravity and magnetic dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rippington, Stephen; Mazur, Stan; Anderson, Chris

    2014-05-01

    The Faroe-Shetland region is geologically complex; it has undergone several phases of extension and rifting since the middle Palaeozoic (Ritchie et al., 2011; Coward et al., 2003), culminating in the Eocene with continental breakup between Northwest Europe and Greenland (Gernigon et al., 2012). Final breakup may have been facilitated by the presence of the Iceland Plume and was accompanied by the emplacement of voluminous basaltic rocks, attributed to the North Atlantic Igneous Province (White and McKenzie, 1989). It is difficult to image beneath the thick Paleogene basalts in the region using conventional seismic methods, because the high impedance contrast between the sediments and shallow basalts causes strong reflections. These mask deeper and weaker reflections and cause prominent inter-bed multiples (White et al., 1999). Consequently, determining the location and shape of basins and basement highs, and elucidating the timing and manner of their formation, remains a major cause of uncertainty in the appraisal of the hydrocarbon potential of the region. Gravity and magnetic data record variations in the density and susceptibility of the entire crust. Consequently, the thick basalt piles that are shallow in the section do not hinder the ability to detect deeper features. Instead, the principal challenge is distinguishing superposed bodies, with different densities and susceptibilities, from the combined gravity and magnetic anomalies. In this study, seismic data and horizons from the shallow section are used in combination with gravity and magnetic data to produce map view interpretations, and 2D and 3D models of the crust in the Faroe-Shetland region. These models help distinguish important variations in timing of rifting in different basins, and reveal the crustal architecture of the Faroe-Shetland Basin from the seabed to the Moho. We present a new structural and kinematic interpretation of the geology of the region, and propose an asymmetric simple shear model for the Faroe-Shetland segment of the UK Atlantic Margin. The authors would like to acknowledge the management at ARKeX and PGS for giving permission to present this work. Coward, M.., Dewey, J.F., Hempton, M., and Holroyd, J., 2003, Tectonic evolution, in Evans, D., Graham, C.G., Armour, A., and P, B. eds., Millenium Atlas: petroleum geology of the central and northern North Sea, Geological Society of London. Gernigon, L., Gaina, C., Olesen, O., Ball, P.J., Péron-Pinvidic, G., and Yamasaki, T., 2012, The Norway Basin revisited: From continental breakup to spreading ridge extinction: Marine and Petroleum Geology, v. 35, no. 1, p. 1-19. Ritchie, J.D., Ziska, H., Johnson, H., and Evans, D., 2011, Structure, in Ritchie, J.D., Ziska, H., Johnson, H., and Evans, D. eds., Geology of the Faroe-Shetland Basin and adjacent areas, British Geological Survey, Faroeses Earth and Energy Directorate, p. 9-70. White, R.S., Fruehn, J., Richardson, K.R., Cullen, E., Kirk, W., and Latkiewicz, C., 1999, Faeroes Large Aperture Research Experiment ( FLARE ): imaging through basalt, in Fleet, A.J. and Boldy, S.A.R. eds., Petroleum Geology of Northwest Europe and Global Perspectives: Proceedings of the 5th Conference, Geological Society of London, p. 1243-1252. White, R., and McKenzie, D., 1989, Magmatism at Rift Zones: The Generation of Volcanic Continental Margins: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 94, no. B6, p. 7685-7729.

  17. Cascading gravity is ghost free

    SciTech Connect

    Rham, Claudia de; Khoury, Justin; Tolley, Andrew J.

    2010-06-15

    We perform a full perturbative stability analysis of the 6D cascading gravity model in the presence of 3-brane tension. We demonstrate that for sufficiently large tension on the (flat) 3-brane, there are no ghosts at the perturbative level, consistent with results that had previously only been obtained in a specific 5D decoupling limit. These results establish the cascading gravity framework as a consistent infrared modification of gravity.

  18. Mercury Reduction and Removal from High Level Waste at the Defense Waste Processing Facility - 12511

    SciTech Connect

    Behrouzi, Aria; Zamecnik, Jack

    2012-07-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility processes legacy nuclear waste generated at the Savannah River Site during production of enriched uranium and plutonium required by the Cold War. The nuclear waste is first treated via a complex sequence of controlled chemical reactions and then vitrified into a borosilicate glass form and poured into stainless steel canisters. Converting the nuclear waste into borosilicate glass is a safe, effective way to reduce the volume of the waste and stabilize the radionuclides. One of the constituents in the nuclear waste is mercury, which is present because it served as a catalyst in the dissolution of uranium-aluminum alloy fuel rods. At high temperatures mercury is corrosive to off-gas equipment, this poses a major challenge to the overall vitrification process in separating mercury from the waste stream prior to feeding the high temperature melter. Mercury is currently removed during the chemical process via formic acid reduction followed by steam stripping, which allows elemental mercury to be evaporated with the water vapor generated during boiling. The vapors are then condensed and sent to a hold tank where mercury coalesces and is recovered in the tank's sump via gravity settling. Next, mercury is transferred from the tank sump to a purification cell where it is washed with water and nitric acid and removed from the facility. Throughout the chemical processing cell, compounds of mercury exist in the sludge, condensate, and off-gas; all of which present unique challenges. Mercury removal from sludge waste being fed to the DWPF melter is required to avoid exhausting it to the environment or any negative impacts to the Melter Off-Gas system. The mercury concentration must be reduced to a level of 0.8 wt% or less before being introduced to the melter. Even though this is being successfully accomplished, the material balances accounting for incoming and collected mercury are not equal. In addition, mercury has not been effectively purified and collected in the Mercury Purification Cell (MPC) since 2008. A significant cleaning campaign aims to bring the MPC back up to facility housekeeping standards. Two significant investigations are being undertaken to restore mercury collection. The SMECT mercury pump has been removed from the tank and will be functionally tested. Also, research is being conducted by the Savannah River National Laboratory to determine the effects of antifoam addition on the behavior of mercury. These path forward items will help us better understand what is occurring in the mercury collection system and ultimately lead to an improved DWPF production rate and mercury recovery rate. (authors)

  19. High-temperature leaching of an actinide-bearing, simulated high-level waste glass

    SciTech Connect

    Westsik, J.H. Jr.; Harvey, C.O.; Kuhn, W.L.

    1983-03-01

    The chemical durability of a simulated high-level waste glass when exposed to high-temperature geologic solutions was investigated. In this study, simulated high-level waste glass-beads (76 to 68 glass)l doped with technetium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium, curium and americium were leached in deionized water, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant salt brine B, and 0.03M sodium bicarbonate solution at 150 and 250/sup 0/C for 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 days. The resulting solutions were analyzed for several nonradioactive glass components and for the radioactive dopants. The glass exhibited incongruent leaching behavior, i.e., the normalized releases (g-glass/m/sup 2/) based on the different elements spanned four orders of magnitude. Normalized releases based on boron, molybdenum, sodium, cesium, silicon, and technetium were the same within a factor of three. Most of the nonradioactive components of the glass were released more to the salt brine than to the other two solutions. However, silicon, boron, molybdenum, technetium, and the actinides had their lowest releases in the salt brine. Reaction-layer thickness on the glass surface and weight losses of the glass beads were also smallest in the brine solution. Actinide releases were highest in the sodium bicarbonate solution. Calcium, strontium and barium releases decreased with time and temperature; the releases of most other elements increased with time and temperature. Solubility appears to be limiting the release of most elements. The leachate pH is controlled by chemical species within the original leachant and by species released as the glass leached. Carbonate ion complexes with some elements including uranium, effectively increasing their release. The more soluble elements including sodium, boron, molybdenum and technetium provide an indication of the actual rate of reaction between the glass and water.

  20. Power Benefit Study for Ultra-High Density Transistor-Level Monolithic 3D ICs

    E-print Network

    Lim, Sung Kyu

    Power Benefit Study for Ultra-High Density Transistor-Level Monolithic 3D ICs Young-Joon Lee in monolithic 3D IC technology enable ultra-high density device integration at the indi- vidual transistor-level. In this paper we demonstrate the power ben- efits of transistor-level monolithic 3D designs. We first build

  1. Computational modeling of high-level cognition and brain function.

    PubMed

    Just, M A; Carpenter, P A; Varma, S

    1999-01-01

    This article describes a computational modeling architecture, 4CAPS, which is consistent with key properties of cortical function and makes good contact with functional neuroimaging results. Like earlier cognitive models such as SOAR, ACT-R, 3CAPS, and EPIC, the proposed cognitive model is implemented in a computer simulation that predicts observable variables such as human response times and error patterns. In addition, the proposed 4CAPS model accounts for the functional decomposition of the cognitive system and predicts fMRI activation levels and their localization within specific cortical regions, by incorporating key properties of cortical function into the design of the modeling system. PMID:10524604

  2. High-spin level structure of 35S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydin, S.; Ionescu-Bujor, M.; Recchia, F.; Lenzi, S. M.; Bouhelal, M.; Bazzacco, D.; Bizzeti, P. G.; Bizzeti-Sona, A. M.; de Angelis, G.; Deloncle, I.; Farnea, E.; Gadea, A.; Gottardo, A.; Haas, F.; Huyuk, T.; Laftchiev, H.; Lunardi, S.; Mengoni, D.; Menegazzo, R.; Michelagnoli, C.; Napoli, D. R.; Poves, A.; Sahin, E.; Singh, P. P.; Tonev, D.; Ur, C. A.; Valiente-Dobón, J. J.

    2014-01-01

    The nucleus 35S has been studied by in-beam ?-ray spectroscopy using the 24Mg(14N,3p) fusion-evaporation reaction at Elab=40 MeV. A level scheme extended up to J?=17/2+ at 8023 keV and J?=13/2- at 6352 keV has been established. Lifetimes of six excited states have been determined by applying the Doppler shift attenuation method. The experimental data have been compared with the results of large-scale shell model calculations performed using different effective interactions and model spaces allowing particle-hole excitations across the N =Z=20 shell gap.

  3. Depinning transition of bubble phases in a high Landau level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xuebin; Fu, Hailong; Du, Lingjie; Liu, Xiaoxue; Wang, Pengjie; Pfeiffer, L. N.; West, K. W.; Du, Rui-Rui; Lin, Xi

    2015-03-01

    In the higher Landau levels (N >0 ) a reentrant integer quantum Hall effect (RIQHE) state, which resides at fractional filling factors but exhibits integer Hall plateaus, has been previously observed and studied extensively. The nonlinear dynamics of the RIQHE were measured by microwave resonance, with the results consistent with an electronic bubble phase pinned by impurities. We have carried out depinning experiments on the N =2 bubble phases by using Corbino geometry, where depinning threshold values have been systematically measured as a function of magnetic fields and temperatures. Domain sizes and pinning potential of the bubble phases have been estimated from the nonlinear transport data.

  4. Risk Factors and Levels of Risk for High School Dropouts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suh, Suhyun; Suh, Jingyo

    2007-01-01

    The study in this article identifies three major risk categories of high school dropouts and evaluates the impact of possible prevention strategies. As students accumulate these risks, they became more likely to drop out and prevention programs become less effective. Additionally, it was found that factors influencing the decision to drop out vary…

  5. ZERO-VALENT IRON FOR HIGH-LEVEL ARSENITE REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study conducted by flow through column systems was aimed at investigating the feasibility of using zero-valent iron for arsenic remediation in groundwater. A high concentration arsenic solution (50 mg l-1) was prepared by using sodium arsenite (arsenic (III)) to simulate gr...

  6. Threat Level High (School): Curriculum Reform with Violence in Mind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkes, T. Elijah; Twemlow, Stuart W.

    2015-01-01

    When school communities are troubled by violence, or threats of violence, at the hands of young people, educators have an opportunity to learn about aggression and adolescent identity development. A disturbing threat incident provides the point of departure for this principal's reflection on how high school curriculum can better meet the identity…

  7. Project Water Science. General Science High School Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Water Education Foundation, Sacramento, CA.

    This teacher's guide presents 12 hands-on laboratory activities for high school science classes that cover the environmental issue of water resources in California. The activities are separated into three sections. Five activities in the section on water quality address the topics of groundwater, water hardness, bottled water, water purity, and…

  8. Plugging into Pop at the Junior High Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Dick

    1979-01-01

    Describes a junior high music program in Ridgewood, New Jersey, which capitalizes on student interest in popular music through courses in rock music history, pop music choral concerts, and facilities offering modern music production and performance equipment. This article is part of a theme issue on popular music. (SJL)

  9. High Level Architecture (HLA) federation with Umbra and OPNET federates.

    SciTech Connect

    Oppel, Fred John III; Hart, Brian; Van Leeuwen, Brian P.

    2004-03-01

    Network-centric systems that depend on mobile wireless ad hoc networks for their information exchange require detailed analysis to support their development. In many cases, this critical analysis is best provided with high-fidelity system simulations that include the effects of network architectures and protocols. In this research, we developed a high-fidelity system simulation capability using an HLA federation. The HLA federation, consisting of the Umbra system simulator and OPNET Modeler network simulator, provides a means for the system simulator to both affect, and be affected by, events in the network simulator. Advances are also made in increasing the fidelity of the wireless communication channel and reducing simulation run-time with a dead reckoning capability. A simulation experiment is included to demonstrate the developed modeling and simulation capability.

  10. Nova laser system at ultra high fluence levels

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, J.T.

    1985-01-01

    The Nova experimental facility consists of a ten arm laser system and five experimental stations and was completed in December 1984. Two of these stations are used for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments and the other three are dedicated to doing large aperture (30 to 74 cm) laser experiments. The laser system is deployed in a master oscillator-power amplifier architecture and uses Nd: phosphate glass for the active medium. The fundamental wavelength of the system is 1.05 microns. Frequency converters constructed from potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals are located at the end of each of the ten arms and are used to produce high power frequency doubled (0.53 microns) and tripled (0.35 microns) beams for either ICF or laser experiments. Thus, the Nova laser system can produce high power beams with wavelengths ranging from the infrared to the ultraviolet.

  11. High Voltage Breakdown Levels in Various EPC Potting Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komm, David S.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews exploration activities at JPL into various potting materials. Since high power space-borne microwave transmitters invariably use a vacuum tube as a final power amplifier, and this tube requires high electrode voltages for operation. The associated high voltage insulation typically represents a significant fraction of the mass of the transmitter. Since mass is always a premium resource on board spacecraft, we have been investigating materials with the potential to reduce the mass required for our applications here at JPL. This paper describes electrical breakdown results obtained with various potting materials. Conathane EN-11 (polyurethane) is the traditional HVPS encapsulant at JPL, but due to temperature limitations and durability issues it was deemed inappropriate for the particular application (i.e., CloudSat radar). The choices for the best available materials were epoxies, or silicones. Epoxies are too rigid, and were deemed inadvisable. Two silicones were further investigated (i.e.,ASTM E595- 93e2: GE RTV566(R) and Dow Corning 93-500X(R), another compound was considered (i.e., DC material, Sylgard 184(R)). "Loading" (adding filler materials) the potting compound will frequently alter the final material properties. Powdered alumina and borosilicate glass known as "microballoons" were investigated as possible loading materials. The testing of the materials is described. Each of the two loading materials offers advantages and disadvantages. The advantages and disadvantages are described.

  12. Project MAGNET High-level Vector Survey Data Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, Rachel J.

    1992-01-01

    Since 1951, the U.S. Navy, under its Project MAGNET program, has been continuously collecting vector aeromagnetic survey data to support the U.S. Defense Mapping Agency's world magnetic and charting program. During this forty-year period, a variety of survey platforms and instrumentation configurations have been used. The current Project MAGNET survey platform is a Navy Orion RP-3D aircraft which has been specially modified and specially equipped with a redundant suite of navigational positioning, attitude, and magnetic sensors. A review of the survey data collection procedures and calibration and editing techniques applied to the data generated by this suite of instrumentation will be presented. Among the topics covered will be the determination of its parameters from the low-level calibration maneuvers flown over geomagnetic observatories.

  13. Ethanol production from sweet sorghum juice using very high gravity technology: effects of carbon and nitrogen supplementations.

    PubMed

    Laopaiboon, Lakkana; Nuanpeng, Sunan; Srinophakun, Penjit; Klanrit, Preekamol; Laopaiboon, Pattana

    2009-09-01

    Ethanol production from sweet sorghum juice by Saccharomyces cerevisiae NP01 was investigated under very high gravity (VHG) fermentation and various carbon adjuncts and nitrogen sources. When sucrose was used as an adjunct, the sweet sorghum juice containing total sugar of 280 g l(-1), 3 g yeast extract l(-1) and 5 g peptone l(-1) gave the maximum ethanol production efficiency with concentration, productivity and yield of 120.68+/-0.54 g l(-1), 2.01+/-0.01 g l(-1) h(-1) and 0.51+/-0.00 g g(-1), respectively. When sugarcane molasses was used as an adjunct, the juice under the same conditions gave the maximum ethanol concentration, productivity and yield with the values of 109.34+/-0.78 g l(-1), 1.52+/-0.01 g l(-1) h(-1) and 0.45+/-0.01 g g(-1), respectively. In addition, ammonium sulphate was not suitable for use as a nitrogen supplement in the sweet sorghum juice for ethanol production since it caused the reduction in ethanol concentration and yield for approximately 14% when compared to those of the unsupplemented juices. PMID:19375908

  14. A Logical Approach to HighLevel Robot Programming ---A Progress Report \\Lambda

    E-print Network

    Marcu, Daniel

    (c)) then pick up(c)). The programs can be executed to drive the robot. The interpreter automatically maintainsA Logical Approach to High­Level Robot Programming --- A Progress Report \\Lambda Yves Lesp,hector,fl,marcu,reiter,scherlg@ai.toronto.edu Abstract This paper describes a novel approach to high­level robot programming based on a highly developed

  15. Detecting ellipses of limited eccentricity in images with high noise levels

    E-print Network

    Osnabrück, Universität

    U N C O R R EC TED PR O O F Detecting ellipses of limited eccentricity in images with high noise algorithm for the detection of elliptical shapes in images in the presence of high noise levels, and most images contain a high level of noise. A comparable test image may be represented by Fig. 2 where

  16. Filament-Level Modeling of Aramid-Based High-Performance Structural Materials

    E-print Network

    Grujicic, Mica

    Filament-Level Modeling of Aramid-Based High-Performance Structural Materials M. Grujicic, W/ filaments. These fibers can be considered as prototypes for advanced high strength/high-stiffness fibers to be most affected by the presence of sheet stacking faults. Keywords filament-level modeling, Kevlar

  17. Assembly of highly standardized gene fragments for high-level production of porphyrins in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Morten T; Madsen, Karina M; Seppälä, Susanna; Christensen, Ulla; Riisberg, Lone; Harrison, Scott J; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Nørholm, Morten H H

    2015-03-20

    Standardization of molecular cloning greatly facilitates advanced DNA engineering, parts sharing, and collaborative efforts such as the iGEM competition. All of these attributes facilitate exploitation of the wealth of genetic information made available by genome and RNA sequencing. Standardization also comes at the cost of reduced flexibility. We addressed this paradox by formulating a set of design principles aimed at maximizing standardization while maintaining high flexibility in choice of cloning technique and minimizing the impact of standard sequences. The design principles were applied to formulate a molecular cloning pipeline and iteratively assemble and optimize a six-gene pathway for protoporphyrin IX synthesis in Escherichia coli. State of the art production levels were achieved through two simple cycles of engineering and screening. The principles defined here are generally applicable and simplifies the experimental design of projects aimed at biosynthetic pathway construction or engineering. PMID:24905856

  18. Developmental and Cognitive Characteristics of “High-Level Potentialities” (Highly Gifted) Children

    PubMed Central

    Vaivre-Douret, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    This study covers the interesting field of the development in gifted children which is often neglected in pediatrics because psychomotor development data are still rare, since “gifted” children are generally noticed towards the end of their primary schooling by IQ measurement. Developmental studies have shown the evidence from several fields that children identified as “high-level potentialities” or “intellectually gifted” develop sensory, locomotor, neuropsychological, and language skills earlier than typically expected. The hypothesis is offered that the earlier development originates from biological processes affecting the physical development of the brain and in turn even intellectual abilities are developed earlier, potentially allowing for advanced development. Further it is discussed how these developmental advances interact with the social environment and in certain circumstances may entail increased risk for developing socioemotional difficulties and learning disabilities that often go unaddressed due to the masking by the advance intellectual abilities. PMID:21977044

  19. Developmental and cognitive characteristics of "high-level potentialities" (highly gifted) children.

    PubMed

    Vaivre-Douret, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    This study covers the interesting field of the development in gifted children which is often neglected in pediatrics because psychomotor development data are still rare, since "gifted" children are generally noticed towards the end of their primary schooling by IQ measurement. Developmental studies have shown the evidence from several fields that children identified as "high-level potentialities" or "intellectually gifted" develop sensory, locomotor, neuropsychological, and language skills earlier than typically expected. The hypothesis is offered that the earlier development originates from biological processes affecting the physical development of the brain and in turn even intellectual abilities are developed earlier, potentially allowing for advanced development. Further it is discussed how these developmental advances interact with the social environment and in certain circumstances may entail increased risk for developing socioemotional difficulties and learning disabilities that often go unaddressed due to the masking by the advance intellectual abilities. PMID:21977044

  20. HYPERFINE STRUCTURE CONSTANTS OF ENERGETICALLY HIGH-LYING LEVELS OF ODD PARITY OF ATOMIC VANADIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Güzelçimen, F.; Yap?c?, B.; Demir, G.; Er, A.; Öztürk, I. K.; Ba?ar, Gö.; Kröger, S.; Tamanis, M.; Ferber, R.; Docenko, D.; Ba?ar, Gü. E-mail: sophie.kroeger@htw-berlin.de

    2014-09-01

    High-resolution Fourier transform spectra of a vanadium-argon plasma have been recorded in the wavelength range of 365-670 nm (15,000-27,400 cm{sup –1}). Optical bandpass filters were used in the experimental setup to enhance the sensitivity of the Fourier transform spectrometer. In total, 138 atomic vanadium spectral lines showing resolved or partially resolved hyperfine structure have been analyzed to determine the magnetic dipole hyperfine structure constants A of the involved energy levels. One of the investigated lines has not been previously classified. As a result, the magnetic dipole hyperfine structure constants A for 90 energy levels are presented: 35 of them belong to the configuration 3d {sup 3}4s4p and 55 to the configuration 3d {sup 4}4p. Of these 90 constants, 67 have been determined for the first time, with 23 corresponding to the configuration 3d {sup 3}4s4p and 44 to 3d {sup 4}4p.

  1. Exposure to high levels of glucose increases the expression levels of genes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis in rat islets

    PubMed Central

    SUN, YIXUAN; ZHANG, YUQING; LI, NA; ZHANG, HUA; ZHOU, LIBIN; SHAO, LI

    2014-01-01

    Cells continually adjust their gene expression profiles in order to adapt to the availability of nutrients. Glucose is a major regulator of pxancreatic ?-cell function and cell growth. However, the mechanism of ?-cell adaptation to high levels of glucose remains uncertain. To identify the specific targets responsible for adaptation to high levels of glucose, the differentially expressed genes from primary rat islets treated with 3.3 and 16.7 mmol/l glucose for 24 h were detected by DNA microarray. The results revealed that the expression levels of genes that encode enzymes required for de novo cholesterol biosynthesis [3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase 1 (Hmgcs1), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (Hmgcr), mevalonate (diphospho) decarboxylase (Mvd), isopentenyl-diphosphate ?-isomerase 1 (Idi1), squalene epoxidase (Sqle) and 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase (Dhcr7)] were significantly increased in islets treated with high levels of glucose compared with those in the islets treated with lower glucose levels. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction further confirmed that glucose stimulated the expression levels of these genes in a dose- and time-dependent manner. A similar result was obtained in islets isolated from rats subjected to 12, 24, 48 and 72 h of continuous glucose infusion. It has previously been recognized that cholesterol homeostasis is important for ?-cell function. The present study provides, to the best of our knowledge, the first evidence for the involvement of the de novo cholesterol biosynthesis pathway in the adaptation of rat islets to high levels of glucose in vitro and in vivo. PMID:25120636

  2. Gravity Field Recovery with Simulated GOCE Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marty, J.; Bruinsma, S.; Balmino, G.; Abrikosov, O.; Foerste, C.; Rothacher, M.

    2005-12-01

    Numerical simulations of the gravity field parameter recovery using the direct method, with satellite positions as pseudo observations instead of simulated GPS Satellite-to-Satellite (SST) tracking data, and with gravity gradients (SGG data), were done and are ongoing in the framework of the European GOCE Gravity Consortium test and validation plan for GOCE mission data processing. This work shows the latest results from the CNES and GFZ software packages, GINS and EPOS, respectively. After the iterative least-squares orbit adjustment procedure has converged to the highest attainable precision level, the gravity field normal equations are computed in a subsequent step. These SST normal equations, representing the long wavelength gravity field signal, are then reduced for arc-dependent parameters (i.e. state vector at epoch, empirical parameters) and cumulated over the entire observation period. Secondly, the gravity gradient measurements (SGG) are processed, taking into account the coloured noise in these data, and yield (high resolution) normal equations. They are combined with the SST normal equations and the gravity field and gradiometer common mode calibration parameters are simultaneously estimated. The coloured noise in the SGG data is based on the latest and realistic gradiometer specifications. The precision in the measurement bandwidth is approximately 3-5 milliEotvos, but rapidly decreasing for lower frequencies. Due to this behaviour, the observation equations have to be filtered in order to obtain the most accurate recovery. The filter algorithm, design and results are presented to considerable detail since this particular step is the key element that will enable the achievement of the GOCE mission objectives from the ground segment point of view.

  3. High Power MPD Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) for Artificial Gravity HOPE Missions to Callisto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGuire, Melissa L.; Borowski, Stanley K.; Mason, Lee M.; Gilland, James

    2003-01-01

    This documents the results of a one-year multi-center NASA study on the prospect of sending humans to Jupiter's moon, Callisto, using an all Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) space transportation system architecture with magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters. The fission reactor system utilizes high temperature uranium dioxide (UO2) in tungsten (W) metal matrix cermet fuel and electricity is generated using advanced dynamic Brayton power conversion technology. The mission timeframe assumes on-going human Moon and Mars missions and existing space infrastructure to support launch of cargo and crewed spacecraft to Jupiter in 2041 and 2045, respectively.

  4. Experimental evidence that high levels of inbreeding depress sperm competitiveness.

    PubMed

    Zajitschek, S R K; Lindholm, A K; Evans, J P; Brooks, R C

    2009-06-01

    The effects of inbreeding on sperm quantity and quality are among the most dramatic examples of inbreeding depression. The extent to which inbreeding depression results in decreased fertilization success of a male's sperm, however, remains largely unknown. This task is made more difficult by the fact that other factors, such as cryptic female choice, male sperm allocation and mating order, can also drive patterns of paternity. Here, we use artificial insemination to eliminate these extraneous sources of variation and to measure the effects of inbreeding on the competitiveness of a male's sperm. We simultaneously inseminated female guppies (Poecilia reticulata) with equal amounts of sperm from an outbred (f = 0) male and either a highly (f = 0.59) or a moderately inbred (f = 0.25) male. Highly inbred males sired significantly fewer offspring than outbred males, but share of paternity did not differ between moderately inbred and outbred males. These findings therefore confirm that severe inbreeding can impair the competitiveness of sperm, but suggest that in the focal population inbreeding at order of a brother-sister mating does not reduce a male's sperm competitiveness. PMID:19344380

  5. Copper uptake by Eichhornia crassipes exposed at high level concentrations.

    PubMed

    Melignani, Eliana; de Cabo, Laura Isabel; Faggi, Ana María

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the growth of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and its ability to accumulate Cu from polluted water with high Cu concentrations and a mixture of other contaminants under short-term exposure, in order to use this species for the remediation of highly contaminated sites. Two hydroponic experiments were performed under greenhouse conditions for 7 days. One of them consisted of growing water hyacinth in Hoagland solution supplemented with 15 or 25 mg Cu/L and a control. The other one contained water hyacinth growing in polluted river water supplemented with 15 mg Cu/L and a control. Cu was accumulated principally in roots. The maximum Cu concentration was 23,387.2 mg/kg dw in the treatment of 25 mg Cu/L in Hoagland solution. Cu translocation from roots to leaves was low. The mixture of 15 mg Cu/L with polluted water did not appear to have toxic effects on the water hyacinth. This plant showed a remarkable uptake capacity under elevated Cu concentrations in a mixture of pollutants similar to pure industrial effluents in a short time of exposure. This result has not been reported before, to our knowledge. This species is suitable for phytoremediation of waters subject to discharge of mixed industrial effluents containing elevated Cu concentrations (?15 mg Cu/L), as well as nutrient-rich domestic wastewaters. PMID:25529492

  6. PLUTONIUM/HIGH LEVEL VITRIFIED WASTE - DBE OFFSITE DOSE CALCULATION

    SciTech Connect

    S. O. Bader

    1999-09-20

    The purpose of this calculation is to provide a bounding dose consequence analysis of the immobilized plutonium (can-in-canister) waste form to be handled at the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain. The current concept for the Plutonium Can-in-Canister waste form is provided in Attachment III. A typical design basis event (DBE) defines a scenario that generally includes an initiating event and the sequences of events that follow. This analysis will provide (1) radiological releases and dose consequences for a postulated, bounding DBE and (2) design-related assumptions on which the calculated dose consequences are based. This analysis is part of the safety design basis for the repository. Results will be used in other analyses to determine or modify the safety classification and quality assurance level of repository structures, systems, and components (SSCs). The Quality Assurance (QA) program applies to this calculation. The work reported in this document is part of the analysis of MGR DBEs and is performed using AP-3.12Q, Calculations. The work done for this analysis was evaluated according to QAP-2-0, Control of Activities. This evaluation determined that such activities are subject to DOE/RW/0333PY Quality Assurance Requirements and Description (DOE 1998), requirements. This calculation is quality affecting because the results may be used to support analyses of repository SSCs per QAP-2-3, Classification of Permanent Items.

  7. High levels of lipid peroxidation in semen of diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    La Vignera, S; Condorelli, R A; Vicari, E; D'Agata, R; Salemi, M; Calogero, A E

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) (one of the final products of lipid peroxidation and well-known marker of oxidative stress) in semen of infertile men with type 2 diabetes and to investigate its relationship with their glycaemic control. Forty infertile men with type 2 diabetes were evaluated. The mean ages were 36.5 ± 8.0. Men with diabetes were divided into two groups. Group A (n = 20) with glycated haemoglobin >10% and group B (n = 20) with glycated haemoglobin <7%. A single sample was examined according to the criteria of the World Health Organization (WHO Laboratory Manual for the Examination of Human Semen and Sperm-Cervical Mucus Interaction, 1999, Cambridge University Press). MDA was assessed using the thiobarbituric acid method. MDA concentration in semen of group A patients (0.95 ± 0.35 nmol ml(-1)) was significantly higher than in group B patients (0.43 ± 0.13 nmol ml(-1)) (P value < 0.05) and had negative relationship with sperm density (r = -.717; P value < 0.05), total sperm count (r = -.625; P value < 0.05), progressive motility (r = -.489; P value < 0.05) and normal forms (r = -.545; P value < 0.05). Based on these results, it could be concluded that increase in lipid peroxidation in men with diabetes with poor metabolic control was associated with low sperm quality. PMID:21919944

  8. Effect of water immersion on cardiopulmonary physiology at high gravity (+Gz)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arieli, R.; Boutellier, U.; Farhi, L. E.

    1986-01-01

    The cardiopulmonary responses of eight male subject between 21-31 years exposed to 1, 2, and 3 Gz during immersion at 35 + or - 0.5 C to heart level and during control dry rides are studied. Ventilation, O2 consumption, the end-tidal pressure of CO2, heart frequency, cardiac output, functional residual capacity, and the arterial pressure of CO2 were measured. It is observed that as Gz increases ventilation, heart frequency, and O2 consumption increase, and the end-tidal and arterial pressures of CO2 decrease during dry rides, but are not altered during immersion. It is detected that the functional residual capacity is lower during immersion and decreases in both the dry and immersed state as Gz increases, and cardiac output decreases as Gz increases in dry rides. It is noted that changes produced by acceleration in a Gz direction are due to the effect on the systemic circulation rather than to the effect on the lungs.

  9. High level triggers for explosive mafic volcanism: Albano Maar, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, J. K.; Tomlinson, E. L.; Giordano, G.; Smith, V. C.; De Benedetti, A. A.; Roberge, J.; Manning, C. J.; Wulf, S.; Menzies, M. A.

    2014-03-01

    Colli Albani is a quiescent caldera complex located within the Roman Magmatic Province (RMP), Italy. The recent Via dei Laghi phreatomagmatic eruptions led to the formation of nested maars. Albano Maar is the largest and has erupted seven times between ca 69-33 ka. The highly explosive nature of the Albano Maar eruptions is at odds with the predominant relatively mafic (SiO2 = 48-52 wt.%) foiditic (K2O = 9 wt.%) composition of the magma. The deposits have been previously interpreted as phreatomagmatic, however they contain large amounts (up to 30%vol) of deep seated xenoliths, skarns and all pre-volcanic subsurface units. All of the xenoliths have been excavated from depths of up to 6 km, rather than being limited to the depth at which magma and water interaction is likely to have occurred, suggesting an alternative trigger for eruption. High precision geochemical glass and mineral data of fresh juvenile (magmatic) clasts from the small volume explosive deposits indicate that the magmas have evolved along one of two evolutionary paths towards foidite or phonolite. The foiditic melts record ca. 50% mixing between the most primitive magma and Ca-rich melt, late stage prior to eruption. A major result of our study is finding that the generation of Ca-rich melts via assimilation of limestone, may provide storage for significant amounts of CO2 that can be released during a mixing event with silicate magma. Differences in melt evolution are inferred as having been controlled by variations in storage conditions: residence time and magma volume.

  10. Fracturing of simulated high-level waste glass in canisters

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, R.D.; Slate, S.C.

    1981-09-01

    Waste-glass castings generated from engineering-scale developmental processes at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory are generally found to have significant levels of cracks. The causes and extent of fracturing in full-scale canisters of waste glass as a result of cooling and accidental impact are discussed. Although the effects of cracking on waste-form performance in a repository are not well understood, cracks in waste forms can potentially increase leaching surface area. If cracks are minimized or absent in the waste-glass canisters, the potential for radionuclide release from the canister package can be reduced. Additional work on the effects of cracks on leaching of glass is needed. In addition to investigating the extent of fracturing of glass in waste-glass canisters, methods to reduce cracking by controlling cooling conditions were explored. Overall, the study shows that the extent of glass cracking in full-scale, passively-cooled, continuous melting-produced canisters is strongly dependent on the cooling rate. This observation agrees with results of previously reported Pacific Northwest Laboratory experiments on bench-scale annealed canisters. Thus, the cause of cracking is principally bulk thermal stresses. Fracture damage resulting from shearing at the glass/metal interface also contributes to cracking, more so in stainless steel canisters than in carbon steel canisters. This effect can be reduced or eliminated with a graphite coating applied to the inside of the canister. Thermal fracturing can be controlled by using a fixed amount of insulation for filling and cooling of canisters. In order to maintain production rates, a small amount of additional facility space is needed to accomodate slow-cooling canisters. Alternatively, faster cooling can be achieved using the multi-staged approach. Additional development is needed before this approach can be used on full-scale (60-cm) canisters.

  11. Born-Infeld-Horava gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Guellue, Ibrahim; Sisman, Tahsin Cagri; Tekin, Bayram

    2010-05-15

    We define various Born-Infeld gravity theories in 3+1 dimensions which reduce to Horava's model at the quadratic level in small curvature expansion. In their exact forms, our actions provide z{yields}{infinity} extensions of Horava's gravity, but when small curvature expansion is used, they reproduce finite z models, including some half-integer ones.

  12. First test of high frequency Gravity Waves from inflation using Advanced LIGO

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, Alejandro; Freese, Katherine E-mail: ktfreese@umich.edu

    2015-01-01

    Inflation models ending in a first order phase transition produce gravitational waves (GW) via bubble collisions of the true vacuum phase. We demonstrate that these bubble collisions can leave an observable signature in Advanced LIGO, an upcoming ground-based GW experiment. These GW are dependent on two parameters of the inflationary model: ? represents the energy difference between the false vacuum and the true vacuum of the inflaton potential, and ? measures how fast the phase transition ends (? ? the number of e-folds during the actual phase transition). Advanced LIGO will be able to test the validity of single-phase transition models within the parameter space 10{sup 7} GeV?< ?{sup 1/4} ?< 10{sup 10} GeV and 0.19 ?< ? ?< 1. If inflation occurred through a first order phase transition, then Advanced LIGO could be the first to discover high frequency GW from inflation.

  13. An Underlying Theory for Gravity

    E-print Network

    Yuan K. Ha

    2012-08-14

    A new direction to understand gravity has recently been explored by considering classical gravity to be a derived interaction from an underlying theory. This underlying theory would involve new degrees of freedom at a deeper level and it would be structurally different from classical gravitation. It may conceivably be a quantum theory or a non-quantum theory. The relation between this underlying theory and Einstein's gravity is similar to the connection between statistical mechanics and thermodynamics. We discuss the apparent lack of evidence of any quantum nature of gravity in this context.

  14. Geographical distribution of drinking-water with high iodine level and association between high iodine level in drinking-water and goitre: a Chinese national investigation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hongmei; Liu, Shoujun; Sun, Dianjun; Zhang, Shubin; Su, Xiaohui; Shen, Yanfeng; Han, Hepeng

    2011-07-01

    Excessive iodine intake can cause thyroid function disorders as can be caused by iodine deficiency. There are many people residing in areas with high iodine levels in drinking-water in China. The main aim of the present study was to map the geographical distribution of drinking-water with high iodine level in China and to determine the relationship between high iodine level in drinking-water and goitre prevalence. Iodine in drinking-water was measured in 1978 towns of eleven provinces in China, with a total of 28,857 water samples. We randomly selected children of 8-10 years old, examined the presence of goitre and measured their urinary iodine in 299 towns of nine provinces. Of the 1978 towns studied, 488 had iodine levels between 150 and 300 ?g/l in drinking-water, and in 246 towns, the iodine level was >300 ?g/l. These towns are mainly distributed along the original Yellow River flood areas, the second largest river in China. Of the 56 751 children examined, goitre prevalence was 6.3 % in the areas with drinking-water iodine levels of 150-300 ?g/l and 11.0 % in the areas with drinking-water iodine >300 ?g/l. Goitre prevalence increased with water and urinary iodine levels. For children with urinary iodine >1500 ?g/l, goitre prevalence was 3.69 times higher than that for those with urinary iodine levels of 100-199 ?g/l. The present study suggests that drinking-water with high iodine levels is distributed in eleven provinces of China. Goitre becomes more prevalent with the increase in iodine level in drinking-water. Therefore, it becomes important to prevent goitre through stopping the provision of iodised salt and providing normal drinking-water iodine through pipelines in these areas in China. PMID:21320367

  15. Identification of candidate genes for yeast engineering to improve bioethanol production in very high gravity and lignocellulosic biomass industrial fermentations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The optimization of industrial bioethanol production will depend on the rational design and manipulation of industrial strains to improve their robustness against the many stress factors affecting their performance during very high gravity (VHG) or lignocellulosic fermentations. In this study, a set of Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes found, through genome-wide screenings, to confer resistance to the simultaneous presence of different relevant stresses were identified as required for maximal fermentation performance under industrial conditions. Results Chemogenomics data were used to identify eight genes whose expression confers simultaneous resistance to high concentrations of glucose, acetic acid and ethanol, chemical stresses relevant for VHG fermentations; and eleven genes conferring simultaneous resistance to stresses relevant during lignocellulosic fermentations. These eleven genes were identified based on two different sets: one with five genes granting simultaneous resistance to ethanol, acetic acid and furfural, and the other with six genes providing simultaneous resistance to ethanol, acetic acid and vanillin. The expression of Bud31 and Hpr1 was found to lead to the increase of both ethanol yield and fermentation rate, while Pho85, Vrp1 and Ygl024w expression is required for maximal ethanol production in VHG fermentations. Five genes, Erg2, Prs3, Rav1, Rpb4 and Vma8, were found to contribute to the maintenance of cell viability in wheat straw hydrolysate and/or the maximal fermentation rate of this substrate. Conclusions The identified genes stand as preferential targets for genetic engineering manipulation in order to generate more robust industrial strains, able to cope with the most significant fermentation stresses and, thus, to increase ethanol production rate and final ethanol titers. PMID:22152034

  16. High dispersion spectroscopy of solar-type superflare stars. I. Temperature, surface gravity, metallicity, and vsin i

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Notsu, Yuta; Honda, Satoshi; Maehara, Hiroyuki; Notsu, Shota; Shibayama, Takuya; Nogami, Daisaku; Shibata, Kazunari

    2015-06-01

    We conducted high-dispersion spectroscopic observations of 50 superflare stars with Subaru High Dispersion Spectrograph (HDS), and measured the stellar parameters of them. These 50 targets were selected from the solar-type (G-type main sequence) superflare stars that we had discovered from the Kepler photometric data. As a result of these spectroscopic observations, we found that more than half (34) of our 50 targets have no evidence of binary systems. We then estimated the effective temperature (Teff), surface gravity (log g), metallicity ([Fe/H]), and projected rotational velocity (vsin i) of these 34 superflare stars on the basis of our spectroscopic data. The accuracy of our estimations is higher than that of the Kepler Input Catalog (KIC) values, and the differences between our values and KIC values [(?Teff)rms ˜ 219 K, (?log g)rms ˜ 0.37 dex, and (?[Fe/H])rms ˜ 0.46 dex] are comparable to the large uncertainties and systematic differences of KIC values reported by the previous researchers. We confirmed that the estimated Teff and log g values of the 34 superflare stars are roughly in the range of solar-type stars. In particular, these parameters and the brightness variation period (P0) of nine of the stars are in the range of "Sun-like" stars (5600 ? Teff ? 6000 K, log g ? 4.0, and P0 > 10 d). Five of the 34 target stars are fast rotators (vsin i ? 10 km s-1), while 22 stars have relatively low vsin i values (vsin i < 5 km s-1). These results suggest that stars that have spectroscopic properties similar to the Sun can have superflares, and this supports the hypothesis that the Sun might cause a superflare.

  17. Nifty Native Implemented Functions: low-level meets high-level code

    E-print Network

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    Erlang Native Implemented Functions (NIFs) allow developers to implement functions in C (or C++) rather than Erlang. NIFs are useful for integrating high performance or legacy code in Erlang applications. The talk will cover how to implement NIFs, use cases, and common pitfalls when employing them. Further, we will discuss how and why Erlang applications, such as Riak, use NIFs. About the speaker Ian Plosker is the Technical Lead, International Operations at Basho Technologies, the makers of the open source database Riak. He has been developing software professionally for 10 years and programming since childhood. Prior to working at Basho, he developed everything from CMS to bioinformatics platforms to corporate competitive intelligence management systems. At Basho, he's been helping customers be incredibly successful using Riak.

  18. Gravity, Magnetism, and "Down": Non-Physics College Students' Conceptions of Gravity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asghar, Anila; Libarkin, Julie C.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates how students enrolled in entry-level geology, most of whom would graduate from college without university-level physics courses, thought about and applied the concept of gravity while solving problems concerning gravity. The repercussions of students' gravity concepts are then considered in the context of non-physics…

  19. PLUTONIUM SOLUBILITY IN HIGH-LEVEL WASTE ALKALI BOROSILICATE GLASS

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, J.; Crawford, C.; Fox, K.; Bibler, N.

    2011-01-04

    The solubility of plutonium in a Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) reference glass and the effect of incorporation of Pu in the glass on specific glass properties were evaluated. A Pu loading of 1 wt % in glass was studied. Prior to actual plutonium glass testing, surrogate testing (using Hf as a surrogate for Pu) was conducted to evaluate the homogeneity of significant quantities of Hf (Pu) in the glass, determine the most appropriate methods to evaluate homogeneity for Pu glass testing, and to evaluate the impact of Hf loading in the glass on select glass properties. Surrogate testing was conducted using Hf to represent between 0 and 1 wt % Pu in glass on an equivalent molar basis. A Pu loading of 1 wt % in glass translated to {approx}18 kg Pu per Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister, or about 10X the current allowed limit per the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (2500 g/m{sup 3} of glass or about 1700 g/canister) and about 30X the current allowable concentration based on the fissile material concentration limit referenced in the Yucca Mountain Project License Application (897 g/m{sup 3}3 of glass or about 600 g Pu/canister). Based on historical process throughput data, this level was considered to represent a reasonable upper bound for Pu loading based on the ability to provide Pu containing feed to the DWPF. The task elements included evaluating the distribution of Pu in the glass (e.g. homogeneity), evaluating crystallization within the glass, evaluating select glass properties (with surrogates), and evaluating durability using the Product Consistency Test -- Method A (PCT-A). The behavior of Pu in the melter was evaluated using paper studies and corresponding analyses of DWPF melter pour samples.The results of the testing indicated that at 1 wt % Pu in the glass, the Pu was homogeneously distributed and did not result in any formation of plutonium-containing crystalline phases as long as the glass was prepared under 'well-mixed' conditions. The incorporation of 1 wt % Pu in the glass did not adversely impact glass viscosity (as assessed using Hf surrogate) or glass durability. Finally, evaluation of DWPF glass pour samples that had Pu concentrations below the 897 g/m{sup 3} limit showed that Pu concentrations in the glass pour stream were close to targeted compositions in the melter feed indicating that Pu neither volatilized from the melt nor stratified in the melter when processed in the DWPF melter.

  20. A high-level analysis framework for HAWC

    E-print Network

    Younk, Patrick W; Vianello, Giacomo; Harding, J Patrick; Solares, Hugo Alberto Ayala; Zhou, Hao

    2015-01-01

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Observatory continuously observes gamma-rays between 100 GeV to 100 TeV in an instantaneous field of view of about 2 steradians above the array. The large amount of raw data, the importance of small number statistics, the large dynamic range of gamma-ray signals in time (1 - $10^8$ sec) and angular extent (0.1 - 100 degrees), and the growing need to directly compare results from different observatories pose some special challenges for the analysis of HAWC data. To address these needs, we have designed and implemented a modular analysis framework based on the method of maximum likelihood. The framework facilitates the calculation of a binned Poisson Log-likelihood value for a given physics model (i.e., source model), data set, and detector response. The parameters of the physics model (sky position, spectrum, angular extent, etc.) can be optimized through a likelihood maximization routine to obtain a best match to the data. In a similar way, the parameters of the detect...

  1. Partial gravity - Human impacts on facility design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capps, Stephen; Moore, Nathan

    1990-01-01

    Partial gravity affects the body differently than earth gravity and microgravity environments. The main difference from earth gravity is human locomotion; while the main dfference from microgravity is the specific updown orientation and reach envelopes which increase volume requirements. Much data are available on earth gravity and microgravity design; however, very little information is available on human reactions to reduced gravity levels in IVA situations (without pressure suits). Therefore, if humans commit to permanent lunar habitation, much research should be conducted in the area of partial gravity effects on habitat design.

  2. Sensorimotor aspects of high-speed artificial gravity: I. Sensory conflict in vestibular adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Erika L.; Hecht, Heiko; Young, Laurence R.

    2002-01-01

    Short-radius centrifugation offers a promising and affordable countermeasure to the adverse effects of prolonged weightlessness. However, head movements made in a fast rotating environment elicit Coriolis effects, which seriously compromise sensory and motor processes. We found that participants can adapt to these Coriolis effects when exposed intermittently to high rotation rates and, at the same time, can maintain their perceptual-motor coordination in stationary environments. In this paper, we explore the role of inter-sensory conflict in this adaptation process. Different measures (vertical nystagmus, illusory body tilt, motion sickness) react differently to visual-vestibular conflict and adapt differently. In particular, proprioceptive-vestibular conflict sufficed to adapt subjective parameters and the time constant of nystagmus decay, while retinal slip was required for VOR gain adaptation. A simple correlation between the strength of intersensory conflict and the efficacy of adaptation fails to explain the data. Implications of these findings, which differ from existing data for low rotation rates, are discussed.

  3. Time dependent corrections to absolute gravity determinations in the establishment of modern gravity control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dykowski, Przemyslaw; Krynski, Jan

    2015-04-01

    The establishment of modern gravity control with the use of exclusively absolute method of gravity determination has significant advantages as compared to the one established mostly with relative gravity measurements (e.g. accuracy, time efficiency). The newly modernized gravity control in Poland consists of 28 fundamental stations (laboratory) and 168 base stations (PBOG14 - located in the field). Gravity at the fundamental stations was surveyed with the FG5-230 gravimeter of the Warsaw University of Technology, and at the base stations - with the A10-020 gravimeter of the Institute of Geodesy and Cartography, Warsaw. This work concerns absolute gravity determinations at the base stations. Although free of common relative measurement errors (e.g. instrumental drift) and effects of network adjustment, absolute gravity determinations for the establishment of gravity control require advanced corrections due to time dependent factors, i.e. tidal and ocean loading corrections, atmospheric corrections and hydrological corrections that were not taken into account when establishing the previous gravity control in Poland. Currently available services and software allow to determine high accuracy and high temporal resolution corrections for atmospheric (based on digital weather models, e.g. ECMWF) and hydrological (based on hydrological models, e.g. GLDAS/Noah) gravitational and loading effects. These corrections are mostly used for processing observations with Superconducting Gravimeters in the Global Geodynamics Project. For the area of Poland the atmospheric correction based on weather models can differ from standard atmospheric correction by even ±2 µGal. The hydrological model shows the annual variability of ±8 µGal. In addition the standard tidal correction may differ from the one obtained from the local tidal model (based on tidal observations). Such difference at Borowa Gora Observatory reaches the level of ±1.5 µGal. Overall the sum of atmospheric and hydrological effects and tidal model uncertainty easily exceeds the Total Uncertainty of the A10-020 gravimeter which makes these effects vital for current and future absolute gravity determinations for the needs of the gravity control. This work presents the variability of the atmospheric, hydrological and tidal corrections based on selected models for the area of Poland, especially for the time period of the survey of base stations of the gravity control in Poland in 2012 and 2013. The discrepancies between simplified corrections and the advanced ones are presented showing the importance of the use of advanced corrections. Additionally a time series of 5 years of absolute gravity determinations with the A10-020 gravimeter on laboratory and field stations at Borowa Gora Observatory test network has been analyzed to access the observed variation of gravity with the use of advanced correction models. Also gravity measured in two epochs on a few PBOG14 stations were used to examine the determined gravity difference. The analysis of the A10-020 data includes metrological calibrations as well as traceability to the ICAG and ECAG campaigns.

  4. The sleep of elite athletes at sea level and high altitude: a comparison of sea-level natives and high-altitude natives (ISA3600)

    PubMed Central

    Roach, Gregory D; Schmidt, Walter F; Aughey, Robert J; Bourdon, Pitre C; Soria, Rudy; Claros, Jesus C Jimenez; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Buchheit, Martin; Simpson, Ben M; Hammond, Kristal; Kley, Marlen; Wachsmuth, Nadine; Gore, Christopher J; Sargent, Charli

    2013-01-01

    Background Altitude exposure causes acute sleep disruption in non-athletes, but little is known about its effects in elite athletes. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of altitude on two groups of elite athletes, that is, sea-level natives and high-altitude natives. Methods Sea-level natives were members of the Australian under-17 soccer team (n=14). High-altitude natives were members of a Bolivian under-20 club team (n=12). Teams participated in an 18-day (19 nights) training camp in Bolivia, with 6 nights at near sea level in Santa Cruz (430?m) and 13 nights at high altitude in La Paz (3600?m). Sleep was assessed on every day/night using activity monitors. Results The Australians’ sleep was shorter, and of poorer quality, on the first night at altitude compared with sea level. Sleep quality returned to normal by the end of the first week at altitude, but sleep quantity had still not stabilised at its normal level after 2?weeks. The quantity and quality of sleep obtained by the Bolivians was similar, or greater, on all nights at altitude compared with sea level. The Australians tended to obtain more sleep than the Bolivians at sea level and altitude, but the quality of the Bolivians’ sleep tended to be better than that of the Australians at altitude. Conclusions Exposure to high altitude causes acute and chronic disruption to the sleep of elite athletes who are sea-level natives, but it does not affect the sleep of elite athletes who are high-altitude natives. PMID:24282197

  5. 3-D MAPPING TECHNOLOGIES FOR HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANKS

    SciTech Connect

    Marzolf, A.; Folsom, M.

    2010-08-31

    This research investigated four techniques that could be applicable for mapping of solids remaining in radioactive waste tanks at the Savannah River Site: stereo vision, LIDAR, flash LIDAR, and Structure from Motion (SfM). Stereo vision is the least appropriate technique for the solids mapping application. Although the equipment cost is low and repackaging would be fairly simple, the algorithms to create a 3D image from stereo vision would require significant further development and may not even be applicable since stereo vision works by finding disparity in feature point locations from the images taken by the cameras. When minimal variation in visual texture exists for an area of interest, it becomes difficult for the software to detect correspondences for that object. SfM appears to be appropriate for solids mapping in waste tanks. However, equipment development would be required for positioning and movement of the camera in the tank space to enable capturing a sequence of images of the scene. Since SfM requires the identification of distinctive features and associates those features to their corresponding instantiations in the other image frames, mockup testing would be required to determine the applicability of SfM technology for mapping of waste in tanks. There may be too few features to track between image frame sequences to employ the SfM technology since uniform appearance may exist when viewing the remaining solids in the interior of the waste tanks. Although scanning LIDAR appears to be an adequate solution, the expense of the equipment ($80,000-$120,000) and the need for further development to allow tank deployment may prohibit utilizing this technology. The development would include repackaging of equipment to permit deployment through the 4-inch access ports and to keep the equipment relatively uncontaminated to allow use in additional tanks. 3D flash LIDAR has a number of advantages over stereo vision, scanning LIDAR, and SfM, including full frame time-of-flight data (3D image) collected with a single laser pulse, high frame rates, direct calculation of range, blur-free images without motion distortion, no need for precision scanning mechanisms, ability to combine 3D flash LIDAR with 2D cameras for 2D texture over 3D depth, and no moving parts. The major disadvantage of the 3D flash LIDAR camera is the cost of approximately $150,000, not including the software development time and repackaging of the camera for deployment in the waste tanks.

  6. The KLT relations in unimodular gravity

    E-print Network

    Burger, Daniel J; Murugan, Jeff; Weltman, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    With this article, we initiate a systematic study of some of the symmetry properties of unimodular gravity, building on much of the known structure of general relativity, and utilising the powerful technology developed in that context. In particular, we show, up to four-points and tree-level, that the KLT relations of perturbative gravity hold for tracefree or unimodular gravity.

  7. The KLT relations in unimodular gravity

    E-print Network

    Daniel J Burger; George F. R. Ellis; Jeff Murugan; Amanda Weltman

    2015-11-26

    With this article, we initiate a systematic study of some of the symmetry properties of unimodular gravity, building on much of the known structure of general relativity, and utilising the powerful technology developed in that context. In particular, we show, up to four-points and tree-level, that the KLT relations of perturbative gravity hold for tracefree or unimodular gravity.

  8. Intake of Meals Containing High Levels of Carbohydrates or High Levels of Unsaturated Fatty Acids Induces Postprandial Dysmetabolism in Young Overweight/Obese Men

    PubMed Central

    Adamska, Edyta; Ostrowska, Lucyna; Go?cik, Joanna; Waszczeniuk, Magdalena; Kr?towski, Adam; Górska, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Postprandial metabolic response depends on the meals' components and can be different in normal weight and obese people. However, there are some discrepancies between various reports. The aim of this study was to determine the metabolic response after intake of standardised meals with various fat and carbohydrate contents and to determine the differences among normal weight and overweight/obese individuals. The study group comprised 46 healthy men. The participants were divided into two groups and study was carried out using a crossover method. Group I received high- and normal-carbohydrate meals, whereas group II received high-carbohydrate and high-fat meals. Glucose, insulin, triglyceride, and free fatty acids levels were measured at fasting state and at 30, 60, 120, 180, and 240 minutes after meal intake. Despite the lack of differences in glucose levels, insulin levels were higher among overweight/obese individuals after each meal. TG and FFA levels were higher after normal-carbohydrate and high-fat meals. Moreover, in overweight/obese young men after high-fat meal intake postprandial hypertriglyceridemia was observed, even if meals contained predominantly unsaturated fatty acids, and fasting triglycerides levels were in normal range. The conducted study showed that postprandial metabolic response depends not only on the meal macronutrient content but also on the current body mass index (BMI). PMID:26609520

  9. Sensorimotor aspects of high-speed artificial gravity: II. The effect of head position on illusory self motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mast, F. W.; Newby, N. J.; Young, L. R.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of cross-coupled stimuli on the semicircular canals are shown to be influenced by the position of the subject's head with respect to gravity and the axis of rotation, but not by the subject's head position relative to the trunk. Seventeen healthy subjects made head yaw movements out of the horizontal plane while lying on a horizontal platform (MIT short radius centrifuge) rotating at 23 rpm about an earth-vertical axis. The subjects reported the magnitude and duration of the illusory pitch or roll sensations elicited by the cross-coupled rotational stimuli acting on the semicircular canals. The results suggest an influence of head position relative to gravity. The magnitude estimation is higher and the sensation decays more slowly when the head's final position is toward nose-up (gravity in the subject's head x-z-plane) compared to when the head is turned toward the side (gravity in the subject's head y-z-plane). The results are discussed with respect to artificial gravity in space and the possible role of pre-adaptation to cross-coupled angular accelerations on earth.

  10. Evaluating Material Flammability in Microgravity and Martian Gravity Compared to the NASA Standard Normal Gravity Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oslon, Sandra. L.; Ferkul, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Drop tower tests are conducted at Martian gravity to determine the flammability of three materials compared to previous tests in other normal gravity and reduced gravity environments. The comparison is made with consideration of a modified NASA standard test protocol. Material flammability limits in the different gravity and flow environments are tabulated to determine the factor of safety associated with normal gravity flammability screening. Previous testing at microgravity and Lunar gravity indicated that some materials burned to lower oxygen concentrations in low gravity than in normal gravity, although the low g extinction limit criteria are not the same as 1g due to time constraints in drop testing. Similarly, the data presented in this paper for Martian gravity suggest that there is a gravity level below Earth s at which materials burn more readily than on Earth. If proven for more materials, this may indicate the need to include a factor of safety on 1g flammability limits.

  11. Predicting gravity and sediment thickness in Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, W.; Brozena, J.; Peters, M.

    2013-02-01

    The US Naval Research Laboratory conducted comprehensive high-altitude (7 km above mean sea level) aero-geophysical surveys over Afghanistan in 2006 (Rampant Lion I). The surveys were done in collaboration with the US Geological Survey and upon the request of Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Ministry of Mines. In this study, we show that a best fitting admittance between topography and airborne gravity in western Afghanistan can be used to predict airborne gravity for the no-data area of eastern Afghanistan where the mountains are too high to conduct airborne surveys, due to the threat of ground fire. The differences between the airborne and the predicted gravity along a tie-track through the no-data area were found to be within ±12 mGal range with rms difference 7.3 mGal, while those between the predicted gravity from a simple Airy model (with compensation depth of 32 km and crustal density of 2.67 g cm-3) and the airborne gravity were within ±22 mGal range with rms difference 10.3 mGal. A combined airborne free-air anomaly has been constructed by merging the predicted gravity with the airborne data. We also demonstrate that sediment thickness can be estimated for basin areas where surface topography and airborne free-air anomaly profiles do not show a correlation presumably because of thick sediments. In order to estimate sediment thickness, we first determine a simple linear relationship from a scatter plot of the airborne gravity points and the interpolated Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) topography along the Rampant Lion I tracks, and computed corresponding quasi-topography tracks by multiplying the linear relationship with the airborne free-air anomalies. We then take the differences between the SRTM and quasi-topography as a first-order estimate of sediment thickness. A global gravity model (GOCO02S), upward continued to the same altitude (7 km above mean sea level) as the data collection, was compared with the low-pass filtered (with cutoff wavelength 132 km which is approximately equivalent to the reported safe degree and order 250 of GOCO02S at 34º N) combined airborne free-air anomalies. The rms difference between the two data sets was 12.4 mGal. The observed admittance in the western Afghanistan mountains appears to be best fit to a theoretical elastic plate compensation model (with an effective elastic thickness of 5 km and crustal thickness of 22 km) where the ratio between surface load and subsurface load is equal.

  12. Heat and Momentum Transfer Studies in High Reynolds Number Wavy Films at Normal and Reduced Gravity Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balakotaiah, V.

    1996-01-01

    We examined the effect of the gas flow on the liquid film when the gas flows in the countercurrent direction in a vertical pipe at normal gravity conditions. The most dramatic effect of the simultaneous flow of gas and liquid in pipes is the greatly increased transport rates of heat, mass, and momentum. In practical situations this enhancement can be a benefit or it can result in serious operational problems. For example, gas-liquid flow always results in substantially higher pressure drop and this is usually undesirable. However, much higher heat transfer coefficients can be expected and this can obviously be of benefit for purposes of design. Unfortunately, designers know so little of the behavior of such two phase systems and as a result these advantages are not utilized. Due to the complexity of the second order boundary model as well as the fact that the pressure variation across the film is small compared to the imposed gas phase pressure, the countercurrent gas flow affect was studied for the standard boundary layer model. A different stream function that can compensate the shear stress affect was developed and this stream function also can predict periodic solutions. The discretized model equations were transformed to a traveling wave coordinate system. A stability analysis of these sets of equations showed the presence of a Hopf bifurcation for certain values of the traveling wave velocity and the shear stress. The Hopf celerity was increased due to the countercurrent shear. For low flow rate the increases of celerity are more than for the high flow rate, which was also observed in experiments. Numerical integration of a traveling wave simplification of the model also predicts the existence of chaotic large amplitude, nonperiodic waves as observed in the experiments. The film thickness was increased by the shear.

  13. Tethered gravity laboratories study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucchetti, F.

    1990-01-01

    The scope of the study is to investigate ways of controlling the microgravity environment of the International Space Station by means of a tethered system. Four main study tasks were performed. First, researchers analyzed the utilization of the tether systems to improve the lowest possible steady gravity level on the Space Station and the tether capability to actively control the center of gravity position in order to compensate for activities that would upset the mass distribution of the Station. The purpose of the second task was to evaluate the whole of the experiments performable in a variable gravity environment and the related beneficial residual accelerations, both for pure and applied research in the fields of fluid, materials, and life science, so as to assess the relevance of a variable g-level laboratory. The third task involves the Tethered Variable Gravity Laboratory. The use of the facility that would crawl along a deployed tether and expose experiments to varying intensities of reduced gravity is discussed. Last, a study performed on the Attitude Tether Stabilizer concept is discussed. The stabilization effect of ballast masses tethered to the Space Station was investigated as a means of assisting the attitude control system of the Station.

  14. Oblique Orientation Discrimination Thresholds Are Superior in Those with a High Level of Autistic Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, Abigail; Jones, Myles; Milne, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Enhanced low-level perception, although present in individuals with autism, is not seen in individuals with high, but non-clinical, levels of autistic traits (Brock et al.in "Percept Lond" 40(6):739. doi:10.1068/p6953, 2011). This is surprising, as many of the higher-level visual differences found in autism have been shown to correlate…

  15. Measuring the Outliers: An Introduction to Out-of-Level Testing with High-Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rambo-Hernandez, Karen E.; Warne, Russell T.

    2015-01-01

    Out-of-level testing is an underused strategy for addressing the needs of students who score in the extremes, and when used wisely, it could provide educators with a much more accurate picture of what students know. Out-of-level testing has been shown to be an effective assessment strategy with high-achieving students; however, out-of-level

  16. Comprehension of College-Level Text with High School Students Underperforming in Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Stephen Vincent

    2012-01-01

    The ability to comprehend sophisticated text is a requisite skill for success at the collegiate level. Unfortunately, there is a large disparity between the complexity of texts used in high schools and those used at the collegiate level. Students may be underprepared if they have never been exposed to texts with the level of rigor that college…

  17. Energy Levels and the de Broglie Relationship for High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gianino, Concetto

    2008-01-01

    In this article, four examples of possible lessons on energy levels for high school are described: a particle in a box, a finite square well, the hydrogen atom and a harmonic oscillator. The energy levels are deduced through the use of the steady-state condition and the de Broglie relationship. In particular, the harmonic oscillator energy levels

  18. Level of Voice Among Female and Male High School Students: Relational Context, Support, and Gender Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harter, Susan; Waters, Patricia L.; Whitesell, Nancy R.; Kastelic, Diana

    1998-01-01

    Examined levels of self-reported "voice" (authentic self expression) with various persons among high school students. Found no gender differences nor evidence that voice declines in female adolescents. Perceived support for voice predicted level of voice. Feminine girls reported lower levels of voice than androgynous girls in public relational…

  19. Bachelor's Project Short-Term Prediction of Dangerous High Water Levels

    E-print Network

    Di Bucchianico, Alessandro

    Bachelor's Project Short-Term Prediction of Dangerous High Water Levels A. Di Bucchianico Keywords linear regression, nonlinear regression, short-term prediction, water levels, harbour induced. By the law the barrier should be closed only when the water is 3 metres above sea level in 10 minute average

  20. Changes in Badminton Game Play across Developmental Skill Levels among High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jianyu; Liu, Wenhao

    2012-01-01

    The study examined changes in badminton game play across developmental skill levels among high school students in a physical education setting. Videotapes of badminton game play of 80 students (40 boys and 40 girls) in the four developmental skill levels (each skill level had 10 boys and 10 girls) were randomly selected from a database associated…

  1. Imaging and Analysis of Void-defects in Solder Joints Formed in Reduced Gravity using High-Resolution Computed Tomography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Easton, John W.; Struk, Peter M.; Rotella, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    As a part of efforts to develop an electronics repair capability for long duration space missions, techniques and materials for soldering components on a circuit board in reduced gravity must be developed. This paper presents results from testing solder joint formation in low gravity on a NASA Reduced Gravity Research Aircraft. The results presented include joints formed using eutectic tin-lead solder and one of the following fluxes: (1) a no-clean flux core, (2) a rosin flux core, and (3) a solid solder wire with external liquid no-clean flux. The solder joints are analyzed with a computed tomography (CT) technique which imaged the interior of the entire solder joint. This replaced an earlier technique that required the solder joint to be destructively ground down revealing a single plane which was subsequently analyzed. The CT analysis technique is described and results presented with implications for future testing as well as implications for the overall electronics repair effort discussed.

  2. Investigation of High School Students' Reading Compherension Levels According to Various Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceran, Dilek

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the level of reading comprehension of high school students in their fields of study and learning strategies to explain the relationship between the level of reading comprehension. This working group is composed of 11th grade high school students. In this study, relational model was used. In the study…

  3. 78 FR 70281 - United States-Mexico High Level Economic Dialogue

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-25

    ... United States-Mexico High Level Economic Dialogue AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Commerce... Register notice on the United States-Mexico High Level Economic Dialogue. DATES: The agency must receive...-1547. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Mexico represents a critical strategic ally and partner of the...

  4. High level language for measurement complex control based on the computer E-100I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zubkov, B. V.

    1980-01-01

    A high level language was designed to control the process of conducting an experiment using the computer "Elektrinika-1001". Program examples are given to control the measuring and actuating devices. The procedure of including these programs in the suggested high level language is described.

  5. High-Level Indicators and Descriptions March 2009: Updated list to add Data Source column

    E-print Network

    that there is a clear and consistent definition of what 'high level' means. We take this to mean a highly summarized, however, to define some HLIs which might apply at a population or individual watershed level. Alternative examples of this for salmon population trend might be: "Within an ESU, the number (or percentage

  6. A High-level Interconnect Power Model for Design Space Exploration

    E-print Network

    Zhong, Lin

    A High-level Interconnect Power Model for Design Space Exploration Pallav Gupta, Lin Zhong to quickly explore the design space and weed out architectures whose interconnect power requirements do consumption in interconnects and hence, enable interconnect- aware, high-level design space exploration. I

  7. High levels of genetic diversity and cryptic recombination is widespread in introduced Diplodia pinea populations

    E-print Network

    High levels of genetic diversity and cryptic recombination is widespread in introduced Diplodia of the fungal tree pathogen Diplodia pinea have been shown to have high levels of genetic diversity, even influenced population structure. Keywords Diplodia pinea . Simple sequence repeat marker. Genetic diversity

  8. PML: Toward a High-Level Formal Language for Biological Systems

    E-print Network

    Chang, Bor-Yuh Evan

    PML: Toward a High-Level Formal Language for Biological Systems Bor-Yuh Evan Chang Manu Sridharan, California 94720 #12;Abstract Documentation of knowledge about biological pathways is often informal), a high-level language for modeling pathways. PML is based on a biological metaphor of molecules

  9. Alternatives Generation and Analysis for Heat Removal from High Level Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    WILLIS, W.L.

    2000-06-15

    This document addresses the preferred combination of design and operational configurations to provide heat removal from high-level waste tanks during Phase 1 waste feed delivery to prevent the waste temperature from exceeding tank safety requirement limits. An interim decision for the preferred method to remove the heat from the high-level waste tanks during waste feed delivery operations is presented herein.

  10. Selection of artificial gravity by animals during suborbital rocket flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lange, K. O.; Belleville, R. E.; Clark, F. C.

    1975-01-01

    White rats selected preferred artificial gravity levels by locomotion in centrifuges consisting of two runways mounted in the nose of sounding rockets. Roll rate of the Aerobee 150A rocket was designed to produce an angular velocity of 45 rpm during 5 min of free-fall, providing a gravity range from 0.3 to 1.5 G depending on a subject's runway position. One animal was released at the high and one at the low gravity position in each flight. Animal positions were continuously recorded. Locomotion patterns during these flights were similar. All four animals explored the entire available G-range. One rat settled at 0.4 G after 2 min; the others crossed the 1-G location in progressively narrower excursions and were near earth gravity at the end of the test period. Tentatively, the data suggest that normal earth-reared rats select earth gravity when available magnitudes include values above and below 1 G. Modification of gravity preference by prolonged exposure to higher or lower levels remains a possibility.

  11. Decadal-scale variations of trophic levels at high trophic levels in the Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, B.; Tang, Q.; Jin, X.

    2007-09-01

    A total of 2759 stomachs collected from a bottom trawl survey carried out by R/V "Bei Dou" in the Yellow Sea between 32°00 and 36°30N in autumn 2000 and spring 2001 were examined. The trophic levels (TL) of eight dominant fish species were calculated based on stomach contents, and trophic levels of 17 dominant species in the Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea reported in later 1950s and mid-1980s were estimated so as to be comparable. The results indicated that the mean trophic level at high trophic levels declined from 4.06 in 1959-1960 to 3.41 in 1998-1999, or 0.16-0.19·decade - 1 (mean 0.17·decade - 1 ) in the Bohai Sea, and from 3.61 in 1985-1986 to 3.40 in 2000-2001, or 0.14·decade - 1 in the Yellow Sea; all higher than global trend. The dominant species composition in the Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea changed, with the percentage of planktivorous species increases and piscivorous or omnivorous species decreases, and this was one of the main reasons for the decline in mean trophic level at high tropic levels. Another main reason was intraspecific changes in TL. Similarly, many factors caused decline of trophic levels in the dominant fish species in the Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea. Firstly, TL of the same prey got lower, and anchovy ( Engraulis japonicus) as prey was most representative. Secondly, TLs of diet composition getting lower resulted in not only decline of trophic levels but also changed feeding habits of some species, such as spotted velvetfish ( Erisphex pottii) and Trichiurus muticus in the Yellow Sea. Thirdly, species size getting smaller also resulted in not only decline of trophic levels but also changed feeding habits of some species, such as Bambay duck ( Harpodon nehereus) and largehead hairtail ( Trichiurus haumela). Furthermore, fishing pressure and climate change may be interfering to cause fishing down the food web in the China coastal ocean.

  12. Gravity brake

    DOEpatents

    Lujan, Richard E. (Santa Fe, NM)

    2001-01-01

    A mechanical gravity brake that prevents hoisted loads within a shaft from free-falling when a loss of hoisting force occurs. A loss of hoist lifting force may occur in a number of situations, for example if a hoist cable were to break, the brakes were to fail on a winch, or the hoist mechanism itself were to fail. Under normal hoisting conditions, the gravity brake of the invention is subject to an upward lifting force from the hoist and a downward pulling force from a suspended load. If the lifting force should suddenly cease, the loss of differential forces on the gravity brake in free-fall is translated to extend a set of brakes against the walls of the shaft to stop the free fall descent of the gravity brake and attached load.

  13. Integrating a Gravity Simulation and Groundwater Modeling on the Calibration of Specific Yield for Choshui Alluvial Fan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Liang Cheng; Tsai, Jui pin; Chen, Yu Wen; Way Hwang, Chein; Chung Cheng, Ching; Chiang, Chung Jung

    2014-05-01

    For sustainable management, accurate estimation of recharge can provide critical information. The accuracy of estimation is highly related to uncertainty of specific yield (Sy). Because Sy value is traditionally obtained by a multi-well pumping test, the available Sy values are usually limited due to high installation cost. Therefore, this information insufficiency of Sy may cause high uncertainty for recharge estimation. Because gravity is a function of a material mass and the inverse square of the distance, gravity measurement can assist to obtain the mass variation of a shallow groundwater system. Thus, the groundwater level observation data and gravity measurements are used for the calibration of Sy for a groundwater model. The calibration procedure includes four steps. First, gravity variations of three groundwater-monitoring wells, Si-jhou, Tu-ku and Ke-cuo, are observed in May, August and November 2012. To obtain the gravity caused by groundwater variation, this study filters the noises from other sources, such as ocean tide and land subsidence, in the collected data The refined data, which are data without noises, are named gravity residual. Second, this study develops a groundwater model using MODFLOW 2005 to simulate the water mass variation of the groundwater system. Third, we use Newton gravity integral to simulate the gravity variation caused by the simulated water mass variation during each of the observation periods. Fourth, comparing the ratio of the gravity variation between the two data sets, which are observed gravity residuals and simulated gravities. The values of Sy is continuously modified until the gravity variation ratios of the two data sets are the same. The Sy value of Si-jhou is 0.216, which is obtained by the multi-well pumping test. This Sy value is assigned to the simulation model. The simulation results show that the simulated gravity can well fit the observed gravity residual without parameter calibration. This result indicates that the proposed approach is correct and reasonable. In Tu-ku and Ke-cuo, the ratios of the gravity variation between observed gravity residuals and simulated gravities are approximate 1.8 and 50, respectively. The Sy values of these two stations are modified 1.8 and 50 times the original values. These modified Sy values are assigned to the groundwater morel. After the parameter re-assignment, the simulated gravities meet the gravity residuals in these two stations. In conclusion, the study results show that the proposed approach has the potential to identify Sy without installing wells. Therefore, the proposed approach can be used to increase the spatial density of Sy and can conduct the recharge estimation with low uncertainty.

  14. Evaluation of S-type fiberglass composites for use in high-level radioactive waste environments

    SciTech Connect

    Parra, S.A.

    1996-12-31

    Two types of S-type fiberglass materials were evaluated for use in a high-level radioactive waste environment. The S-type fiberglass composites tested were in the form of tubes and were exposed to a simulated high-level radioactive waste environment consisting of corrosive chemicals, high gamma radiation, and elevated temperatures. The physical properties of the exposed and unexposed tube samples were compared to determine the effects of the simulated environment on the S-type fiberglass composites.

  15. Model studies of time-dependent ducting for high-frequency gravity waves and associated airglow responses in the upper atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yonghui

    This doctoral dissertation has mainly concentrated on modeling studies of shorter period acoustic-gravity waves propagating in the upper atmosphere. Several cases have been investigated in the literature, which are focusing on the propagation characteristics of highfrequency gravity wave packets. The dissertation consists of five main divisions of which each has its own significance to be addressed, and these five chapters are also bridged in order with each other to present a theme about gravity wave ducting dynamics, energetics, and airglows. The first chapter is served as an introduction of the general topic about atmospheric acoustic-gravity waves. Some of the historical backgrounds are provided as an interesting refreshment and also as a motivation reasoning this scientific research for decades. A new 2-D, time-dependent, and nonlinear model is introduced in the second chapter (the AGE-TIP model, acronymically named atmospheric gravity waves for the Earth plus tides and planetary waves). The model is developed during this entire doctoral study and has carried out almost all research results in this dissertation. The third chapter is a model application for shorter period gravity waves ducted in a thermally stratified atmosphere. In spite of mean winds the thermal ducting occurs because ducted waves are fairly common occurrences in airglow observations. One-dimensional Fourier analysis is applied to identify the ducted wave modes that reside within multiple thermal ducts. Besides, the vertical energy flux and the wave kinetic energy density are derived as wave diagnostic variables to better understand the time-resolved vertical transport of wave energy in the presence of multiple thermal ductings. The fourth chapter is also a model application for shorter period gravity waves, but it instead addresses the propagation of high-frequency gravity waves in the presence of mean background wind shears. The wind structure acts as a significant directional filter to the wave spectra and hence causes noticeable azimuthal variations at higher altitudes. In addition to the spectral analysis applied previously the wave action has been used to interpret the energy coupling between the waves and the mean flow among some atmospheric regions, where the waves are suspected to extract energy from the mean flow at some altitudes and release it to other altitudes. The fifth chapter is a concrete and substantial step connecting theoretical studies and realistic observations through nonlinearly coupling wave dynamic model with airglow chemical reactions. Simulated O (1S) (557.7 nm) airglow images are provided so that they can be compared with observational airglow images. These simulated airglow brightness variations response accordingly with minor species density fluctuations, which are due to propagating and ducting nonlinear gravity waves within related airglow layers. The thermal and wind structures plus the seasonal and geographical variabilities could significantly influence the observed airglow images. By control modeling studies the simulations can be used to collate with concurrent observed data, so that the incoherencies among them could be very useful to discover unknown physical processes behind the observed wave scenes.

  16. Time variable Earth's gravity field from SLR satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    So?nica, Krzysztof; Jäggi, Adrian; Meyer, Ulrich; Thaller, Daniela; Beutler, Gerhard; Arnold, Daniel; Dach, Rolf

    2015-10-01

    The time variable Earth's gravity field contains information about the mass transport within the system Earth, i.e., the relationship between mass variations in the atmosphere, oceans, land hydrology, and ice sheets. For many years, satellite laser ranging (SLR) observations to geodetic satellites have provided valuable information of the low-degree coefficients of the Earth's gravity field. Today, the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission is the major source of information for the time variable field of a high spatial resolution. We recover the low-degree coefficients of the time variable Earth's gravity field using SLR observations up to nine geodetic satellites: LAGEOS-1, LAGEOS-2, Starlette, Stella, AJISAI, LARES, Larets, BLITS, and Beacon-C. We estimate monthly gravity field coefficients up to degree and order 10/10 for the time span 2003-2013 and we compare the results with the GRACE-derived gravity field coefficients. We show that not only degree-2 gravity field coefficients can be well determined from SLR, but also other coefficients up to degree 10 using the combination of short 1-day arcs for low orbiting satellites and 10-day arcs for LAGEOS-1/2. In this way, LAGEOS-1/2 allow recovering zonal terms, which are associated with long-term satellite orbit perturbations, whereas the tesseral and sectorial terms benefit most from low orbiting satellites, whose orbit modeling deficiencies are minimized due to short 1-day arcs. The amplitudes of the annual signal in the low-degree gravity field coefficients derived from SLR agree with GRACE K-band results at a level of 77 %. This implies that SLR has a great potential to fill the gap between the current GRACE and the future GRACE Follow-On mission for recovering of the seasonal variations and secular trends of the longest wavelengths in gravity field, which are associated with the large-scale mass transport in the system Earth.

  17. Gravity Modeling for Variable Fidelity Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madden, Michael M.

    2006-01-01

    Aerospace simulations can model worlds, such as the Earth, with differing levels of fidelity. The simulation may represent the world as a plane, a sphere, an ellipsoid, or a high-order closed surface. The world may or may not rotate. The user may select lower fidelity models based on computational limits, a need for simplified analysis, or comparison to other data. However, the user will also wish to retain a close semblance of behavior to the real world. The effects of gravity on objects are an important component of modeling real-world behavior. Engineers generally equate the term gravity with the observed free-fall acceleration. However, free-fall acceleration is not equal to all observers. To observers on the sur-face of a rotating world, free-fall acceleration is the sum of gravitational attraction and the centrifugal acceleration due to the world's rotation. On the other hand, free-fall acceleration equals gravitational attraction to an observer in inertial space. Surface-observed simulations (e.g. aircraft), which use non-rotating world models, may choose to model observed free fall acceleration as the gravity term; such a model actually combines gravitational at-traction with centrifugal acceleration due to the Earth s rotation. However, this modeling choice invites confusion as one evolves the simulation to higher fidelity world models or adds inertial observers. Care must be taken to model gravity in concert with the world model to avoid denigrating the fidelity of modeling observed free fall. The paper will go into greater depth on gravity modeling and the physical disparities and synergies that arise when coupling specific gravity models with world models.

  18. APPLICATION OF A THIN FILM EVAPORATOR SYSTEM FOR MANAGEMENT OF LIQUID HIGH-LEVEL WASTES AT HANFORD

    SciTech Connect

    TEDESCHI AR; WILSON RA

    2010-01-14

    A modular, transportable evaporator system, using thin film evaporative technology, is planned for deployment at the Hanford radioactive waste storage tank complex. This technology, herein referred to as a wiped film evaporator (WFE), will be located at grade level above an underground storage tank to receive pumped liquids, concentrate the liquid stream from 1.1 specific gravity to approximately 1.4 and then return the concentrated solution back into the tank. Water is removed by evaporation at an internal heated drum surface exposed to high vacuum. The condensed water stream will be shipped to the site effluent treatment facility for final disposal. This operation provides significant risk mitigation to failure of the aging 242-A Evaporator facility; the only operating evaporative system at Hanford maximizing waste storage. This technology is being implemented through a development and deployment project by the tank farm operating contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), for the Office of River Protection/Department of Energy (ORP/DOE), through Columbia Energy & Environmental Services, Inc. (Columbia Energy). The project will finalize technology maturity and install a system at one of the double-shell tank farms. This paper discusses results of pre-project pilot-scale testing by Columbia Energy and ongoing technology maturation development scope through fiscal year 2012, including planned additional pilot-scale and full-scale simulant testing and operation with actual radioactive tank waste.

  19. CRYSTALLIZATION IN HIGH-LEVEL WASTE GLASSES U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OFFICE OF RIVER PROTECTION WTP ENGINEERING DIVISION

    SciTech Connect

    KRUGER AA; HRMA PR

    2009-08-19

    Various circumstances influence crystallization in glassmaking, for example: (1) crystals nucleate and grow before the glass-forming melt occurs; (2) crystals grow or dissolve in flowing melt and during changing temperature; (3) crystals move under the influence of gravity; (4) crystals agglomerate and interact with gas bubbles; (5) high-level wastes (HLW) are mixtures of a large number of components in unusual proportions; (6) melter processing of HLW and the slow cooling of HLW glass in canisters provides an opportunity for a variety of crystalline forms to precipitate; (7) settling of crystals in a HLW glass melter may produce undesirable sludge at the melter bottom; and (8) crystallization of the glass product may increase, but also ruin chemical durability. The conclusions are: (1) crystal growth and dissolution typically proceed in a convective medium at changing temperature; (2) to represent crystallization or dissolution the kinetics must be expressed in the form of rate equations, such as dC/dt = f(C,T) and the temperature dependence of kinetic coefficients and equilibrium concentrations must be accounted for; and (3) non-equilibrium phenomena commonly occur - metastable crystallization, periodic distribution of crystals; and dendritic crystal growth.

  20. Investigation of High School Students' Attitude and Anxiety Levels towards Mathematics in Terms of Some Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dursun, Semsettin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate Turkish high school students' attitude and anxiety levels towards mathematics. For this purpose, the methodology employed in this study was a descriptive study. The participants of the study consisted of 361 high school students from three different high school types from a province in Turkey during…

  1. Reforming Chicago's High Schools: Research Perspectives on School and System Level Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Valerie E., Ed.

    This collection of papers describes research on school and system level change in Chicago's high schools. Papers include "Introduction: Setting Chicago High School Reform within the National Context" (Valerie E. Lee); (1) "The Effort to Redesign Chicago High Schools: Effects on Schools and Achievement" (G. Alfred Hess, Jr. and Solomon Cytrynbaum);…

  2. A Study of the Environmental Risk Perceptions and Environmental Awareness Levels of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anilan, Burcu

    2014-01-01

    This descriptive research was conducted to determine the levels of environmental risk perceptions and environmental awareness of high school students in Eskisehir. High school students in the towns Tepebasi and Odunpazari in the 2010-2011 school years constitute the universe of the research. The sample of the research is composed of 413 high

  3. The Relationship between Internet and Computer Game Addiction Level and Shyness among High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayas, Tuncay

    2012-01-01

    This study is conducted to determine the relationship between the internet and computer games addiction level and the shyness among high school students. The participants of the study consist of 365 students attending high schools in Giresun city centre during 2009-2010 academic year. As a result of the study a positive, meaningful, and high

  4. Research shows that many successful high school students do not maintain the same level

    E-print Network

    Sun, Yi

    BACKGROUND Research shows that many successful high school students do not maintain the same level successfully complete the program will receive one elective high school credit depending on the courses OF THE STEM INSTITUTE The STEM Institute is offered during the New York City Public High School summer session

  5. Gravity and Biology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morey-Holton, Emily R.

    1996-01-01

    Gravity has been the most constant environmental factor throughout the evolution of biological species on Earth. Organisms are rarely exposed to other gravity levels, either increased or decreased, for prolonged periods. Thus, evolution in a constant 1G field has historically prevented us from appreciating the potential biological consequences of a multi-G universe. To answer the question 'Can terrestrial life be sustained and thrive beyond our planet?' we need to understand the importance of gravity on living systems, and we need to develop a multi-G, rather than a 1G, mentality. The science of gravitational biology took a giant step with the advent of the space program, which provided the first opportunity to examine living organisms in gravity environments lower than could be sustained on Earth. Previously, virtually nothing was known about the effects of extremely low gravity on living organisms, and most of the initial expectations were proven wrong. All species that have flown in space survive in microgravity, although no higher organism has ever completed a life cycle in space. It has been found, however, that many systems change, transiently or permanently, as a result of prolonged exposure to microgravity.

  6. Ontological Problem-Solving Framework for Assigning Sensor Systems and Algorithms to High-Level Missions

    PubMed Central

    Qualls, Joseph; Russomanno, David J.

    2011-01-01

    The lack of knowledge models to represent sensor systems, algorithms, and missions makes opportunistically discovering a synthesis of systems and algorithms that can satisfy high-level mission specifications impractical. A novel ontological problem-solving framework has been designed that leverages knowledge models describing sensors, algorithms, and high-level missions to facilitate automated inference of assigning systems to subtasks that may satisfy a given mission specification. To demonstrate the efficacy of the ontological problem-solving architecture, a family of persistence surveillance sensor systems and algorithms has been instantiated in a prototype environment to demonstrate the assignment of systems to subtasks of high-level missions. PMID:22164081

  7. Third-order development of shape, gravity, and moment of inertia for highly flattened celestial bodies. Application to Ceres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rambaux, N.; Chambat, F.; Castillo-Rogez, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    Context. We investigate the hydrostatic shape and gravitational potential coefficients of self-gravitating and rotating bodies large enough to have undergone internal differentiation and chemical stratification. Quantifying these properties under the assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium forms the basis for interpreting shape and gravity data in terms of interior structure and infer deviations from hydrostaticity that can bring information on the thermal and chemical history of the objects. Aims: The main purpose is to show the importance of developing the reference hydrostatic shape for relatively fast rotating bodies up to third order to reach an accuracy of a few tens of meters. This paper especially focuses on Ceres, for which high-resolution shape data are being obtained by the Dawn spacecraft, with a projected accuracy better than 200 m/pixel. Methods: To improve the accuracy on the determination of geodetic parameters, we numerically integrated Clairaut's equations of rotational equilibrium expanded up to third order in a small parameter m, the geodetic parameter. Results: Previous studies of Ceres have been based on shape models developed to first order. However, we show that the first-order theory underestimates (a-c) (where a and c are the equatorial and polar radii) by 1.8 km, which leads to underestimating the extent of mass concentration and is insufficient to interpret the upcoming observations by Dawn space mission. Instead, by using the third-order theory, we obtain an accuracy of 25 meters that is better than the accuracy expected from Dawn. Then, we derive the following geodetical quantities: flattening and other shape parameters, gravitational potential coefficients, and moments of inertia, by using the Ceres models constrained by observations obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope and ground-based adaptive optics telescopes. The difference in equatorial and polar radii for a large parametric space of interior models is investigated, and the large (a-c) corresponds to a model with a low density contrast. Conclusions: This type of modeling will also prove instrumental to infer non-hydrostatic contributions to Ceres' shape that are to be measured by Dawn.

  8. Study on high resolution and high repeatability target localization algorithm in development of national level standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yao; Wang, Weichen; Xue, Zi

    2015-10-01

    At the National Institute of Metrology, China, the national level standard was established for calibrating the level measuring instruments widely used in the field of surveying, construction and engineering. As a key technology in the development, an auto collimation system was set up to compare the level under test with the water level. In the auto collimation system, a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera was set up to acquired the image of a light spot reflected from the water surface and the plane mirror, a composite image processing and analyzing algorithm was designed to find the exact position of the light spot in the image. This target localization algorithm consists of sub-algorithm of background de-noising, dimension transforming, and curve fitting. The experiments prove that this algorithm get resolution of 0.002?, and repeatability of 0.01?.

  9. Fe I OSCILLATOR STRENGTHS FOR TRANSITIONS FROM HIGH-LYING EVEN-PARITY LEVELS

    SciTech Connect

    Den Hartog, E. A.; Lawler, J. E.; Brewer, N. R.; Ruffoni, M. P.; Pickering, J. C.; Lind, K.

    2015-01-01

    New radiative lifetimes, measured to ±5% accuracy, are reported for 31 even-parity levels of Fe I ranging from 45061 cm{sup –1} to 56842 cm{sup –1}. These lifetimes have been measured using single-step and two-step time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence on a slow atomic beam of iron atoms. Branching fractions have been attempted for all of these levels, and completed for 20 levels. This set of levels represents an extension of the collaborative work reported in Ruffoni et al. The radiative lifetimes combined with the branching fractions yields new oscillator strengths for 203 lines of Fe I. Utilizing a 1D-LTE model of the solar photosphere, spectral syntheses for a subset of these lines which are unblended in the solar spectrum yields a mean iron abundance of (log[?(Fe)]) = 7.45 ± 0.06.

  10. Bubble Formation and Detachment in Reduced Gravity Under the Influence of Electric Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, Cila; Iacona, Estelle; Chang, Shinan

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the study is to investigate the behavior of individual air bubbles injected through an orifice into an electrically insulating liquid under the influence of a static electric field. Both uniform and nonuniform electric field configurations were considered. Bubble formation and detachment were recorded and visualized in reduced gravity (corresponding to gravity levels on Mars, on the Moon as well as microgravity) using a high-speed video camera. Bubble volume, dimensions and contact angle at detachment were measured. In addition to the experimental studies, a simple model, predicting bubble characteristics at detachment was developed. The model, based on thermodynamic considerations, accounts for the level of gravity as well as the magnitude of the uniform electric field. Measured data and model predictions show good agreement and indicate that the level of gravity and the electric field magnitude significantly affect bubble shape, volume and dimensions.

  11. Bubble Detachment in Variable Gravity Under the Influence of Electric Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, Cila; Chang, Shinan; Iacona, Estelle

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the research is to investigate the behavior of individual air bubbles injected through an orifice into an electrically insulating liquid under the influence of a static electric field. Situations were considered with both uniform and nonuniform electric fields. Bubble formation and detachment were visualized in terrestrial gravity as well as for several levels of reduced gravity (lunar, martian and microgravity) using a high-speed video camera. Bubble volume, dimensions and contact angles at detachment were measured. In addition to the experimental studies, a simple model, predicting bubble characteristics at detachment in an initially uniform electric field was developed. The model, based on thermodynamic considerations, accounts for the level of gravity as well as the magnitude of the uniform electric field. The results of the study indicate that the level of gravity and the electric field magnitude significantly affect bubble behavior as well as shape, volume and dimensions.

  12. Decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Marangoni, Roberta Gonçalves; Hayata, Andre L.; Borba, Eduardo F.; Azevedo, Pedro M.; Bonfá, Eloisa; Goldenstein-Schainberg, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence of dyslipoproteinemia in a homogeneous cohort of polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients. METHODS: Based on the National Cholesterol Education Program, fasting lipoprotein levels and risk levels for coronary artery disease were determined in 28 patients with polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis. The exclusion criteria included diabetes, thyroid dysfunction, smoking, proteinuria, lipid-lowering drugs, and hormone/diuretic therapy. Disease activity, disease duration, and therapy with corticosteroids and/or chloroquine were defined at the time of lipid measurements. RESULTS: Dyslipoproteinemia was identified in 20 of the 28 (71%) patients with polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis. The primary lipoprotein risk factor was decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (57%), followed by elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (18%), triglycerides (14%), and total cholesterol (7%). The male patients had decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels than the female patients (p<0.05). The incidence of decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels did not seem to be affected by disease activity or therapy because the incidence was similar in patients with active or inactive disease, with or without corticosteroid use and with or without chloroquine use. In addition, the frequency of decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels was similar in patients with short (?5 years) vs. long (>5 years) disease duration. CONCLUSIONS: Dyslipoproteinemia is highly prevalent in patients with polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis and is primarily related to decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels; therefore, early intervention is essential. PMID:22179157

  13. Low-level and high-level modulations of fixational saccades and high frequency oscillatory brain activity in a visual object classification task

    PubMed Central

    Kosilo, Maciej; Wuerger, Sophie M.; Craddock, Matt; Jennings, Ben J.; Hunt, Amelia R.; Martinovic, Jasna

    2013-01-01

    Until recently induced gamma-band activity (GBA) was considered a neural marker of cortical object representation. However, induced GBA in the electroencephalogram (EEG) is susceptible to artifacts caused by miniature fixational saccades. Recent studies have demonstrated that fixational saccades also reflect high-level representational processes. Do high-level as opposed to low-level factors influence fixational saccades? What is the effect of these factors on artifact-free GBA? To investigate this, we conducted separate eye tracking and EEG experiments using identical designs. Participants classified line drawings as objects or non-objects. To introduce low-level differences, contours were defined along different directions in cardinal color space: S-cone-isolating, intermediate isoluminant, or a full-color stimulus, the latter containing an additional achromatic component. Prior to the classification task, object discrimination thresholds were measured and stimuli were scaled to matching suprathreshold levels for each participant. In both experiments, behavioral performance was best for full-color stimuli and worst for S-cone isolating stimuli. Saccade rates 200–700 ms after stimulus onset were modulated independently by low and high-level factors, being higher for full-color stimuli than for S-cone isolating stimuli and higher for objects. Low-amplitude evoked GBA and total GBA were observed in very few conditions, showing that paradigms with isoluminant stimuli may not be ideal for eliciting such responses. We conclude that cortical loops involved in the processing of objects are preferentially excited by stimuli that contain achromatic information. Their activation can lead to relatively early exploratory eye movements even for foveally-presented stimuli. PMID:24391611

  14. Improved GRACE preprocessing methodologies: impact on monthly gravity field solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinger, Beate; Mayer-Guerr, Torsten

    2015-04-01

    The GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellite mission provides K-band ranging (KBR) measurements between the two twin satellites GRACE-A and GRACE-B for the purpose of gravity field recovery. Although the accuracy of gravity field solutions has evolved considerably during the last years, there still remains an offset between the present error level and the predicted GRACE baseline accuracy. Efforts are made to identify the remaining error sources. Both unmodeled errors within the Level-1B data products related to the alignment and outliers within the GRACE observations are potential contributors to the error budget. As the precise inter-satellite pointing is one of the essential requirements for the KBR ranging, we combine both angular accelerometer and star camera data (ACC1B, SCA1B) in a least squares approach to improve the satellites' attitude determination. As a result, the high frequent noise of the attitude data is decreased significantly. In order to benefit from the improvements on the sensor data level, other error sources and disturbances within the GRACE observations have to be identified. Based on these results, we show that even after more than 12 years of mission operation, improved modeling and preprocessing methodologies (e.g.: sensor fusion, outlier detection within the ACC1B data) contribute substantially to the overall accuracy of the recovered monthly gravity field solutions. The purpose of the presented work is to understand and reduce the impact of possible error sources on the GRACE gravity field recovery.

  15. Familial aggregation of high tumor necrosis factor alpha levels in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Mangale, Dorothy; Kariuki, Silvia N; Chrabot, Beverly S; Kumabe, Marissa; Kelly, Jennifer A; Harley, John B; James, Judith A; Sivils, Kathy L; Niewold, Timothy B

    2013-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients frequently have high circulating tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) levels. We explored circulating TNF-? levels in SLE families to determine whether high levels of TNF-? were clustered in a heritable pattern. We measured TNF-? in 242 SLE patients, 361 unaffected family members, 23 unaffected spouses of SLE patients, and 62 unrelated healthy controls. Familial correlations and relative recurrence risk rates for the high TNF-? trait were assessed. SLE-affected individuals had the highest TNF-? levels, and TNF-? was significantly higher in unaffected first degree relatives than healthy unrelated subjects (P = 0.0025). No Mendelian patterns were observed, but 28.4% of unaffected first degree relatives of SLE patients had high TNF-? levels, resulting in a first degree relative recurrence risk of 4.48 (P = 2.9 × 10??). Interestingly, the median TNF-? value in spouses was similar to that of the first degree relatives. Concordance of the TNF-? trait (high versus low) in SLE patients and their spouses was strikingly high at 78.2%. These data support a role for TNF-? in SLE pathogenesis, and TNF-? levels may relate with heritable factors. The high degree of concordance in SLE patients and their spouses suggests that environmental factors may also play a role in the observed familial aggregation. PMID:24187561

  16. High performance liquid level monitoring system based on polymer fiber Bragg gratings embedded in silicone rubber diaphragms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, Carlos A. F.; Peng, Gang-Ding; Webb, David J.

    2015-05-01

    Liquid-level sensing technologies have attracted great prominence, because such measurements are essential to industrial applications, such as fuel storage, flood warning and in the biochemical industry. Traditional liquid level sensors are based on electromechanical techniques; however they suffer from intrinsic safety concerns in explosive environments. In recent years, given that optical fiber sensors have lots of well-established advantages such as high accuracy, costeffectiveness, compact size, and ease of multiplexing, several optical fiber liquid level sensors have been investigated which are based on different operating principles such as side-polishing the cladding and a portion of core, using a spiral side-emitting optical fiber or using silica fiber gratings. The present work proposes a novel and highly sensitive liquid level sensor making use of polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings (POFBGs). The key elements of the system are a set of POFBGs embedded in silicone rubber diaphragms. This is a new development building on the idea of determining liquid level by measuring the pressure at the bottom of a liquid container, however it has a number of critical advantages. The system features several FBG-based pressure sensors as described above placed at different depths. Any sensor above the surface of the liquid will read the same ambient pressure. Sensors below the surface of the liquid will read pressures that increase linearly with depth. The position of the liquid surface can therefore be approximately identified as lying between the first sensor to read an above-ambient pressure and the next higher sensor. This level of precision would not in general be sufficient for most liquid level monitoring applications; however a much more precise determination of liquid level can be made by linear regression to the pressure readings from the sub-surface sensors. There are numerous advantages to this multi-sensor approach. First, the use of linear regression using multiple sensors is inherently more accurate than using a single pressure reading to estimate depth. Second, common mode temperature induced wavelength shifts in the individual sensors are automatically compensated. Thirdly, temperature induced changes in the sensor pressure sensitivity are also compensated. Fourthly, the approach provides the possibility to detect and compensate for malfunctioning sensors. Finally, the system is immune to changes in the density of the monitored fluid and even to changes in the effective force of gravity, as might be obtained in an aerospace application. The performance of an individual sensor was characterized and displays a sensitivity (54 pm/cm), enhanced by more than a factor of 2 when compared to a sensor head configuration based on a silica FBG published in the literature, resulting from the much lower elastic modulus of POF. Furthermore, the temperature/humidity behavior and measurement resolution were also studied in detail. The proposed configuration also displays a highly linear response, high resolution and good repeatability. The results suggest the new configuration can be a useful tool in many different applications, such as aircraft fuel monitoring, and biochemical and environmental sensing, where accuracy and stability are fundamental.

  17. Planning and scheduling of concurrent high-level activities for UUV mission operations

    E-print Network

    Chang, Larry, S. M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2007-01-01

    This thesis develops a mission planning and scheduling algorithm that enables a single Unmanned Undersea Vehicle (UUV) to concurrently perform high level activities, while managing various resources in a dynamic ocean ...

  18. 9.71 Functional MRI of High-Level Vision, Fall 2002

    E-print Network

    Kanwisher, Nancy

    Covers the basics of fMRI, the strengths and limitations of fMRI compared to other techniques, and the design and analysis of fMRI experiments, focusing primarily on experiments on high-level vision. Upon completion, ...

  19. Feasibility of lateral emplacement in very deep borehole disposal of high level nuclear waste

    E-print Network

    Gibbs, Jonathan Sutton

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy recently filed a motion to withdraw the Nuclear Regulatory Commission license application for the High Level Waste Repository at Yucca Mountain in Nevada. As the U.S. has focused exclusively ...

  20. Estimation of Failure Frequency for Type I and II High Level Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, K.H.

    2001-05-15

    The failure frequency of Type I and Type II High Level Waste tanks was calculated. The degradation mechanism that could lead to large break failure and the credits taken for steps taken to prevent large break failure were considered.

  1. Using high level dialogue information for dialogue act recognition using prosodic features. 

    E-print Network

    Wright, Helen; Poesio, Massimo; Isard, Stephen

    1999-01-01

    We look at the effect of using high level discourse knowledge in dialogue act type detection. We also look at ways this knowledge can be used for improving language modelling and intonation modelling of utterance types. ...

  2. 75 FR 61228 - Board Meeting: Technical Lessons Gained From High-Level Nuclear Waste Disposal Efforts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-04

    ...NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD Board Meeting...Lessons Gained From High-Level Nuclear Waste Disposal Efforts Pursuant to its...5051 of Public Law 100-203, Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of...

  3. Design of a high-level waste repository system for the United States

    E-print Network

    Driscoll, Michael J.

    1988-01-01

    This report presents a conceptual design for a High Level Waste disposal system for fuel discharged by U.S. commercial power reactors, using the Yucca Mountain repository site recently designated by federal legislation. ...

  4. Retrieved waste properties and high-level waste critical component ratios for privatization waste feed delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, B.B.

    1998-03-04

    The purpose for this document is to provide the basis for the retrieved waste properties and high-level waste critical component ratios specified in the System Specification for the Double-Shell Tank System.

  5. OCCURRENCE OF HIGH-LEVEL AMINOGLYCOSIDE RESISTANCE IN ENVIRONMENTAL ISOLATES OF ENTEROCOCCI

    EPA Science Inventory

    High-level resistance fo aminoglycosides was observed in environmental isolates of enterococci. Various aquatic habitats, including agricultural runoff, creeks, rivers, wastewater, and wells, were analyzed. Strains of Enterococcus faecalis, e.faecium, E. gallinarum, and other Ent...

  6. Demonstration of Small Tank Tetraphenylborate Precipitation Process Using Savannah River Site High Level Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.B.

    2001-09-10

    This report details the experimental effort to demonstrate the continuous precipitation of cesium from Savannah River Site High Level Waste using sodium tetraphenylborate. In addition, the experiments examined the removal of strontium and various actinides through addition of monosodium titanate.

  7. Risk-informing decisions about high-level nuclear waste repositories

    E-print Network

    Ghosh, Suchandra Tina, 1973-

    2004-01-01

    Performance assessments (PAs) are important sources of information for societal decisions in high-level radioactive waste (HLW) management, particularly in evaluating safety cases for proposed HLW repository development. ...

  8. Assessment of high-level waste form conformance with proposed regulatory and repository criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, D E; Gray, P L; Jennings, A S; Permar, P H

    1982-04-01

    Federal regulatory criteria for geologic disposal of high-level waste are under development. Also, interim performance specifications for high-level waste forms in geologic isolation are being developed within the Federal program responsible for repository selection and operation. Two high-level waste forms, borosilicate glass and crystalline ceramic, have been selected as candidate immobilization forms for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) which is to immobilize high-level wastes at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). An assessment of how these two waste forms conform with the proposed regulatory criteria and repository specifications was performed. Both forms were determined to be in conformance with postulated rules for radionuclide releases and radiation exposures throughout the entire waste disposal system, as well as with proposed repository operation requirements.

  9. Assigning intonation elements and prosodic phrasing for English speech synthesis from high level linguistic input 

    E-print Network

    Black, Alan W; Taylor, Paul A

    This paper describes a method for generating intonation events and prosodic phrasing from a high level linguistic description. Specifically, the input consists of information normally available from linguistic processing: ...

  10. 9.71 Functional MRI of High-Level Vision, Fall 2004

    E-print Network

    Kanwisher, Nancy

    Covers the basics of fMRI, the strengths and limitations of fMRI compared to other techniques, and the design and analysis of fMRI experiments, focusing primarily on experiments on high-level vision. Upon completion, ...

  11. Reading Between the Lines: Learning to Map High-level Instructions to Commands

    E-print Network

    Branavan, Satchuthanan R.

    In this paper, we address the task of mapping high-level instructions to commands in an external environment. Processing these instructions is challenging—they posit goals to be achieved without specifying the steps required ...

  12. Percentage of Adults with High Cholesterol Whose LDL Cholesterol Levels Are Adequately Controlled

    MedlinePLUS

    ... sizes that tend to have greater variability, confidence intervals are displayed, which are important for interpreting the ... Adults with High Cholesterol that is Controlled by Education Level 8k4c-k22f Download these data » Explore these ...

  13. Functional specificity for high-level linguistic processing in the human brain

    E-print Network

    Fedorenko, Evelina G.

    Neuroscientists have debated for centuries whether some regions of the human brain are selectively engaged in specific high-level mental functions or whether, instead, cognition is implemented in multifunctional brain ...

  14. [Kinetic theory and boundary conditions for flows of highly inelastic spheres: Application to gravity driven granular flows down bumpy inclines

    SciTech Connect

    Richman, M.W.

    1992-01-01

    In this quarter, we extended our study of the effects of isotropic boundary vibrations to steady, gravity driven, inclined granular flows. These flows are more complex than those considered last quarter because of the presence of slip and mean velocity gradients at the boundary. Consequently, it was first necessary to modify the boundary conditions derived by Richman (1992) to account for corrections to the flow particle velocity distribution function from velocity gradients. In what follows we only summarize the results obtained.

  15. Volume Manager: A High-Level VR Tool Department of Computing Science

    E-print Network

    Shaw, Chris

    Volume Manager: A High-Level VR Tool Chris Shaw Department of Computing Science University by most VR systems [Shaw92]. The programmer need only provide the simulation and geometric component for his or her VR application, and the tools handle the remaining low-level tasks. While this work

  16. Integrating Functional Reactive Programming in a High-Level VR Framework

    E-print Network

    Beckhaus, Steffi

    Integrating Functional Reactive Programming in a High-Level VR Framework Kristopher J. Blom Steffi Reactive Programming paradigm into higher level VR system, on hand the AVANGO VR system. The implementation Virtual Environments remains an often elusive goal of Virtual Reality(VR). Even today, interaction

  17. 2008 Nature Publishing Group High levels of nitryl chloride in the polluted

    E-print Network

    © 2008 Nature Publishing Group ARTICLES High levels of nitryl chloride in the polluted subtropical are uncertain. Here, we report atmospheric measurements of nitryl chloride, an active halogen, along chloride is the night-time reaction of dinitrogen pentoxide with chloride- containing aerosol. The levels

  18. Meteor: An Automatic Metric for MT Evaluation with High Levels of Correlation with Human Judgments

    E-print Network

    Lavie, Alon

    Meteor: An Automatic Metric for MT Evaluation with High Levels of Correlation with Human Judgments, 15213, USA {alavie,abhayaa}@cs.cmu.edu Abstract Meteor is an automatic metric for Ma- chine Translation not produce very reliable sentence-level scores. Meteor , as well as several other proposed metrics

  19. DRAFT FOR CONSULTATION: Professorial Zoning Descriptors 1. High Level Zone Descriptors

    E-print Network

    Judd, Martin

    DRAFT FOR CONSULTATION: Professorial Zoning Descriptors 1. High Level Zone Descriptors The four levels are outlined in summary terms as follows. Zone placement will be on the basis of `best fit', per the zone allocation principles. Zone 1 Professors will have a recognised international reputation

  20. A Flexible Approach to High Level Simulation of Complex System-on-Chip Muhammad Usman Ilyas

    E-print Network

    Radha, Hayder

    in Hardware Description Languages (HDL) [3]. II. Traditional Simulation Techniques The verification of complex SOC designs is done using a combination of RTL and high-level behavior description in an HDL transfer level testing is done using models implemented in HDL [4]. However, testing using HDL models has