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1

High Lift, Low Pitching Moment Airfoils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two families of airfoil sections which can be used for helicopter/rotorcraft rotor blades or aircraft propellers of a particular shape are prepared. An airfoil of either family is one which could be produced by the combination of a camber line and a thickness distribution or a thickness distribution which is scaled from these. An airfoil of either family has a unique and improved aerodynamic performance. The airfoils of either family are intended for use as inboard sections of a helicopter rotor blade or an aircraft propeller.

Noonan, Kevin W. (inventor)

1988-01-01

2

Wind Tunnel Tests of a Trapped Vortex-High Lift Airfoil.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two dimensional low speed wind-tunnel tests have demonstrated the feasibility of employing trapped vortex diffusion on a high lift airfoil configuration. All 11 percent supercritical airfoil was selected as the base contour employing both leading and trai...

K. M. Krall C. H. Haight

1972-01-01

3

Design of high lift airfoils with a Stratford distribution by the Eppler method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Airfoils having a Stratford pressure distribution, which has zero skin friction in the pressure recovery area, were investigated in an effort to develop high lift airfoils. The Eppler program, an inverse conformal mapping technique where the x and y coordinates of the airfoil are developed from a given velocity distribution, was used.

Thomson, W. G.

1975-01-01

4

Parametric Investigation of a High-Lift Airfoil at High Reynolds Numbers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new two-dimensional, three-element, advanced high-lift research airfoil has been tested in the NASA Langley Research Center s Low-Turbulence Pressure Tunnel at a chord Reynolds number up to 1.6 x 107. The components of this high-lift airfoil have been designed using a incompressible computational code (INS2D). The design was to provide high maximum-lift values while maintaining attached flow on the single-segment flap at landing conditions. The performance of the new NASA research airfoil is compared to a similar reference high-lift airfoil. On the new high-lift airfoil the effects of Reynolds number on slat and flap rigging have been studied experimentally, as well as the Mach number effects. The performance trend of the high-lift design is comparable to that predicted by INS2D over much of the angle-of-attack range. However, the code did not accurately predict the airfoil performance or the configuration-based trends near maximum lift where the compressibility effect could play a major role.

Lin, John C.; Dominik, Chet J.

1997-01-01

5

Dynamic Lift of Airfoils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present initial wind tunnel measurements which investigate the dynamic stall effect as it is caused by fluctuations of the wind direction in turbulent wind. In order to quantify this effect, the lift of an FX79-W-151A airfoil is determined by the integral of pressure distribution at the wind tunnel walls while rotating the airfoil with defined angular velocity. The rotation speed is varied by numeric control. The pressure measurement is performed by two sets of 40 pressure sensors. The temporal resolution is in the range of msec. For stochastic analysis the experiment is repeated several hundred times. In contrast to static lift values, there is an increase (overshoot) of lift before flow separation on the suction side occurs. The lift magnitude depends on the rate of change of the airfoil's angle of attack. This knowledge is relevant for the estimation of extreme mechanical loads for wind turbine blades.

Barth, Stephan

2005-11-01

6

Icing Test Results on an Advanced Two-Dimensional High-Lift Multi-Element Airfoil.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An experimental study has been conducted to investigate ice accretions on a high-lift, multi-element airfoil in the Icing Research Tunnel at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The airfoil is representative of an advanced transport wing design. The experiment...

J. Shin P. Wilcox V. Chin D. Sheldon

1994-01-01

7

Icing Test Results on an Advanced Two-Dimensional High-Lift Multi-Element Airfoil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental study has been conducted to investigate ice accretions on a high-lift, multi-element airfoil in the Icing Research Tunnel at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The airfoil is representative of an advanced transport wing design. The experimental work was conducted as part of a cooperative program between McDonnell Douglas Aerospace and the NASA Lewis Research Center to improve current understanding of ice accretion characteristics on the multi-element airfoil. The experimental effort also provided ice shapes for future aerodynamic tests at flight Reynolds numbers to ascertain high-lift performance effects. Ice shapes documented for a landing configuration over a variety of icing conditions are presented along with analyses.

Shin, Jaiwon; Wilcox, Peter; Chin, Vincent; Sheldon, David

1994-01-01

8

An interactive boundary-layer approach to multielement airfoils at high lift  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A calculation method based on an interactive boundary-layer approach to multielement airfoils is described and is applied to three types of airfoil configurations with and without flap-wells in order to demonstrate the applicability of the method to general high-lift configurations. This method, well tested for single airfoils as a function of shape, angle of attack, and Reynolds number, is here shown to apply equally well to two-element airfoils and their wakes, to a flap-well region, and to a three-element arrangement which includes the effects of co-flowing regions, a flap well, and the wake of the elements. In addition to providing accurate representation of these flows, the method is general so that its extension to three-dimensional arrangements is likely to provide a practical, accurate and efficient tool to assist the design process.

Cebeci, Tuncer

1992-01-01

9

Effect of wakes from moving upstream rods on boundary layer separation from a high lift airfoil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Highly loaded airfoils in turbines allow power generation using fewer airfoils. High loading, however, can cause boundary layer separation, resulting in reduced lift and increased aerodynamic loss. Separation is affected by the interaction between rotating blades and stationary vanes. Wakes from upstream vanes periodically impinge on downstream blades, and can reduce separation. The wakes include elevated turbulence, which can induce transition, and a velocity deficit, which results in an impinging flow on the blade surface known as a ``negative jet.'' In the present study, flow through a linear cascade of very high lift airfoils is studied experimentally. Wakes are produced with moving rods which cut through the flow upstream of the airfoils, simulating the effect of upstream vanes. Pressure and velocity fields are documented. Wake spacing and velocity are varied. At low Reynolds numbers without wakes, the boundary layer separates and does not reattach. At high wake passing frequencies separation is largely suppressed. At lower frequencies, ensemble averaged velocity results show intermittent separation and reattachment during the wake passing cycle.

Volino, Ralph J.

2011-11-01

10

Separation Control from the Flap of a High-Lift Airfoil using DBD Plasma Actuators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Control of separation from the deflected flap of a high-lift airfoil is explored using two asymmetric dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuators straddling the flap shoulder for Reynolds numbers of 240,000 and 410,000. Actuators are found to be most effective when operated in an unsteady fashion at the natural oscillation frequency of the trailing edge flow field. The use of

Jesse Little; Munetake Nishihara; Igor Adamovich; Mo Samimy

2009-01-01

11

Two-dimensional wind-tunnel tests of a NASA supercritical airfoil with various high-lift systems. Volume 1: Data analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High-lift systems for a NASA, 9.3%, method for calculating the viscous flow about two-dimensional multicomponent airfoils was evaluated by comparing its predictions with test data. High-lift systems derived from supercritical airfoils were compared in terms of performance to high-lift systems derived from conventional airfoils. The high-lift systems for the supercritical airfoil were designed to achieve maximum lift and consisted of: a single-slotted flap; a double-slotted flap and a leading-edge slat; and a triple-slotted flap and a leading-edge slat. Agreement between theoretical predictions and experimental results are also discussed.

Omar, E.; Zierten, T.; Mahal, A.

1977-01-01

12

Lift-Enhancing Tabs on Multielement Airfoils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of flat-plate tabs (similar to Gurney flaps) to enhance the lift of multielement airfoils is extended here by placing them on the pressure side and near the trailing edge of the main element rather than just on the furthest downstream wing element. The tabs studied range in height from 0.125 to 1.25% of the airfoil reference chord. In practice, such tabs would be retracted when the high-lift system is stowed. The effectiveness of the concept was demonstrated experimentally and computationally on a two-dimensional NACA 63(sub 2)-215 Mod B airfoil with a single-slotted, 30%-chord flap. Both the experiments and computations showed that the tabs significantly increase the lift at a given angle of attack and the maximum lift coefficient of the airfoil. The computational results showed that the increased lift was a result of additional turning of the flow by the tab that reduced or eliminated now separation on the flap. The best configuration tested, a 0.5%-chord tab placed 0.5% chord upstream of the trailing edge of the main element, increased the maximum lift coefficient of the airfoil by 12% and the maximum lift-to-drag ratio by 40%.

Ross, James C.; Storms, Bruce L.; Carrannanto, Paul G.

1995-01-01

13

CFD Validation for High-Lift Devices: Two-Element Airfoil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objectives of this study are to assess the accuracy of CFD codes, investigate the effect of turbulence models as applied to the flow around high-lift devices, and increase the knowledge for computing this kind of flow. CFD validation is conducted for a two-element airfoil and compared with a wind tunnel test to predict the aerodynamic forces, including the maximum lift and the stall angle. Sensitivity to grid density and influence of the grid extent are investigated. Four RANS codes with the same turbulence model are tested and computational results are compared with each other. Three commonly used turbulence models implemented in a CFD code are applied to investigate the effects of turbulence models for this kind of high-lift flow.

Lei, Zhong; Murayama, Mitsuhiro; Takenaka, Keizo; Yamamoto, Kazuomi

14

Two-Dimensional Wind-Tunnel Tests of a NASA Supercritical Airfoil with Various High-Lift Systems. Volume 2: Test Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three high lift systems for a 9.3 percent blunt based, supercritical airfoil were designed, fabricated, and wind tunnel tested. A method for calculating the viscous flow about two dimensional multicomponent airfoils was evaluated by comparing its predicti...

A. Mahal E. Omar E. Szpiro M. Hahn T. Zierten

1977-01-01

15

Design and test of a natural laminar flow/large Reynolds number airfoil with a high design cruise lift coefficient  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research activity on an airfoil designed for a large airplane capable of very long endurance times at a low Mach number of 0.22 is examined. Airplane mission objectives and design optimization resulted in requirements for a very high design lift coefficient and a large amount of laminar flow at high Reynolds number to increase the lift/drag ratio and reduce the loiter lift coefficient. Natural laminar flow was selected instead of distributed mechanical suction for the measurement technique. A design lift coefficient of 1.5 was identified as the highest which could be achieved with a large extent of laminar flow. A single element airfoil was designed using an inverse boundary layer solution and inverse airfoil design computer codes to create an airfoil section that would achieve performance goals. The design process and results, including airfoil shape, pressure distributions, and aerodynamic characteristics are presented. A two dimensional wind tunnel model was constructed and tested in a NASA Low Turbulence Pressure Tunnel which enabled testing at full scale design Reynolds number. A comparison is made between theoretical and measured results to establish accuracy and quality of the airfoil design technique.

Kolesar, C. E.

1987-01-01

16

Two-Dimensional Wind-Tunnel Tests of a NASA Supercritical Airfoil with Various High-Lift Systems. Volume 1: Data Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

High-lift systems for a NASA, 9.3%, method for calculating the viscous flow about two-dimensional multicomponent airfoils was evaluated by comparing its predictions with test data. High-lift systems derived from supercritical airfoils were compared in ter...

E. Omar T. Zierten A. Mahal

1977-01-01

17

Two-dimensional wind-tunnel tests of a NASA supercritical airfoil with various high-lift systems. Volume 2: Test data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three high lift systems for a 9.3 percent blunt based, supercritical airfoil were designed, fabricated, and wind tunnel tested. A method for calculating the viscous flow about two dimensional multicomponent airfoils was evaluated by comparing its predictions with test data. A comparison of high lift systems derived from supercritical airfoils with high lift systems derived from conventional airfoils is presented. The high lift systems for the supercritical airfoil were designed to achieve maximum lift and consisted of: (1) a single slotted flap, (2) a double slotted flap and a leading edge slat, and (3) a triple slotted flap and a leading edge slat. Aerodynamic force and moment data and surface pressure data are presented for all configurations and boundary layer and wake profiles for the single slotted flap configuration. The wind-tunnel models, test facilities and instrumentation, and data reduction are described.

Omar, E.; Zierten, T.; Hahn, M.; Szpiro, E.; Mahal, A.

1977-01-01

18

Multi-element airfoil optimization for maximum lift at high Reynolds numbers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental study has been performed to assess the maximum lift capability of a supercritical multielement airfoil representative of an advanced transport aircraft wing. The airfoil model was designed with a leading-edge slat and single or two-segment trailing-edge flaps. Optimization work was performed at various slat/flap deflections as well as gap/overhang positions. Landing configurations and the attainment of maximum lift coefficients of 4.5 with single-element flaps and 5.0 with two-segment flaps was emphasized. Test results showed a relatively linear variation of the optimum gap/overhang positioning of the slat versus slat deflection, considerable differences in optimum rigging between single and double segment flaps, and large Reynolds number effects on multielement airfoil optimization.

Valarezo, Walter O.; Dominik, Chet J.; Mcghee, Robert J.; Goodman, Wesley L.; Paschal, Keith B.

1991-01-01

19

A study of high-lift airfoils at high Reynolds numbers in the Langley low-turbulence pressure tunnel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental study was conducted in the Langley Low Turbulence Pressure Tunnel to determine the effects of Reynolds number and Mach number on the two-dimensional aerodynamic performance of two supercritical type airfoils, one equipped with a conventional flap system and the other with an advanced high lift flap system. The conventional flap system consisted of a leading edge slat and a double slotted, trailing edge flap with a small chord vane and a large chord aft flap. The advanced flap system consisted of a leading edge slat and a double slotted, trailing edge flap with a large chord vane and a small chord aft flap. Both models were tested with all elements nested to form the cruise airfoil and with the leading edge slat and with a single or double slotted, trailing edge flap deflected to form the high lift airfoils. The experimental tests were conducted through a Reynolds number range from 2.8 to 20.9 x 1,000,000 and a Mach number range from 0.10 to 0.35. Lift and pitching moment data were obtained. Summaries of the test results obtained are presented and comparisons are made between the observed aerodynamic performance trends for both models. The results showing the effect of leading edge frost and glaze ice formation is given.

Morgan, Harry L., Jr.; Ferris, James C.; Mcghee, Robert J.

1987-01-01

20

Experimental Results for a Flapped Natural-Laminar-Flow Airfoil with High Lift/Drag Ratio  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental results have been obtained for a flapped natural-laminar-flow airfoil, NLF(1)-0414F, in the Langley Low-Turbulence Pressure Tunnel. The tests were conducted over a Mach number range from 0.05 to 0.40 and a chord Reynolds number range from about 3.0 x 10(6) to 22.0 x 10(6). The airfoil was designed for 0.70 chord laminar flow on both surfaces at a lift coefficient of 0.40, a Reynolds number of 10.0 x 10(6), and a Mach number of 0.40. A 0.125 chord simple flap was incorporated in the design to increase the low-drag, lift-coefficient range. Results were also obtained for a 0.20 chord split-flap deflected 60 deg.

Mcghee, R. J.; Viken, J. K.; Pfenninger, W.; Beasley, W. D.; Harvey, W. D.

1984-01-01

21

Experimental Test Results of Energy Efficient Transport (EET) High-Lift Airfoil in Langley Low-Turbulence Pressure Tunnel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes the results of an experimental study conducted in the Langley Low-Turbulence Pressure Tunnel to determine the effects of Reynolds number and Mach number on the two-dimensional aerodynamic performance of the Langley Energy Efficient Transport (EET) High-Lift Airfoil. The high-lift airfoil was a supercritical-type airfoil with a thickness-to- chord ratio of 0.12 and was equipped with a leading-edge slat and a double-slotted trailing-edge flap. The leading-edge slat could be deflected -30 deg, -40 deg, -50 deg, and -60 deg, and the trailing-edge flaps could be deflected to 15 deg, 30 deg, 45 deg, and 60 deg. The gaps and overlaps for the slat and flaps were fixed at each deflection resulting in 16 different configurations. All 16 configurations were tested through a Reynolds number range of 2.5 to 18 million at a Mach number of 0.20. Selected configurations were also tested through a Mach number range of 0.10 to 0.35. The plotted and tabulated force, moment, and pressure data are available on the CD-ROM supplement L-18221.

Morgan, Harry L., Jr.

2002-01-01

22

Measuring Lift with the Wright Airfoils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this laboratory or demonstration exercise, we mount a small airfoil with its long axis vertical at one end of a nearly frictionless rotating platform.1 Air from a leaf blower2 produces a sidewise lift force L on the airfoil and a drag force D in the direction of the air flow (Fig. 1). The rotating platform is kept in equilibrium by adding weights (the measured values of L) to the lower end of a string passing over a pulley and connected to the other end of the rotating platform (Fig. 2). Our homemade airfoils are similar to those tested by the Wright brothers in 1901. From our lift plots in Fig. 3, we can draw the same conclusions as the Wrights about the influence of an airfoil's curvature and shape on lift.

Heavers, Richard M.; Soleymanloo, Arianne

2011-11-01

23

The effect of heavy rain on an airfoil at high lift  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

No serious studies of the relationship of heavy rain to aircraft safety were made until 1981 when it was suggested that the torrential rain which often occurs at the time of severe wind shear might substantially increase the danger to aircraft operating at slow speeds and high lift in the vicinity of airports. While these data were not published until early 1983, appropriate measures were taken by NASA to study the effect of heavy rain on the lift of wings typical of commercial aircraft. One of the aspects of these tests that seemed confirmed by the data was the existence of a velocity effect on the lift data. The data seemed to indicate that when all the normal non-dimensional aerodynamic parameters were used to sort out the data, the effect of velocity was not accounted for, as it usually is, by the effect of dynamic pressure. Indeed, the measured lift coefficients at high lift indicated a dropoff in lift coefficient for the same free-stream water content as velocity was increased. indicated a drop-off in lift coefficient for the same free-stream water content as velocity was increased.

Donaldson, Coleman DUP.; Sullivan, Roger D.

1987-01-01

24

Unsteady lift of thick airfoils in incompressible turbulent flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

nuThe unsteady lift forces that act on an airfoil in turbulent flow are an undesirable source of vibration and noise in many industrial applications. Methods to predict these forces have traditionally treated the airfoil as a flat plate. At higher frequencies, where the relevant turbulent length scales are comparable to the airfoil thickness, the at plate approximation becomes invalid and results in overprediction of the unsteady force spectrum. This work provides an improved methodology for the prediction of the unsteady lift forces that accounts for the thickness of the airfoil. An analytical model was developed to calculate the response of the airfoil to high frequency gusts. The approach is based on a time-domain calculation with a sharp-edged gust and accounts for the distortion of the gust by the mean flow around the airfoil leading edge. The unsteady lift is calculated from a weighted integration of the gust vorticity, which makes the model relatively straightforward to implement and verify. For routine design calculations of turbulence-induced forces, a closed-form gust response thickness correction factor was developed for NACA 65 series airfoils. The model was then validated by measuring the unsteady lift spectrum using piezoelectric force gages in a water tunnel with grid-generated turbulence. A series of four airfoils with thickness-to-chord ratios ranging from 8 to 16 percent were tested over a wide range of speeds. In addition, the turbulence spectrum was measured using Laser Doppler Velocimetry. The experimental results confirmed that the analytical model accurately predicts the attenuation of the high frequency gust response due to the airfoil thickness.

Lysak, Peter D.

25

Comparative Results from a CFD Challenge Over a 2D Three-Element High-Lift Airfoil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high-lift workshop was held in May of 1993 at NASA Langley Research Center. A major part of the workshop centered on a blind test of various computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods in which the flow about a two- dimensional (2D) three-element airfoil was computed without prior knowledge of the experimental data. The results of this 'blind' test revealed: (1) The Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) methods generally showed less variability among codes than did potential/Euler solvers coupled with boundary-layer solution techniques. However, some of the coupled methods still provided excellent predictions. (2) Drag prediction using coupled methods agreed more closely with experiment than the RANS methods. Lift was more accurately predicted than drag for both methods. (3) The CFD methods did well in predicting lift and drag changes due to changes in Reynolds number, however, they did not perform as well when predicting lift and drag increments due to changing flap gap, (4) Pressures and skin friction compared favorably with experiment for most of the codes. (5) There was a large variability in most of the velocity profile predictions. Computational results predict a stronger siat wake than measured suggesting a missing component in turbulence modeling, perhaps curvature effects.

Klausmeyer, Steven M.; Lin, John C.

1997-01-01

26

Scaling laws for testing of high lift airfoils under heavy rainfall  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of studies regarding the effect of rainfall about aircraft are briefly reviewed. It is found that performance penalties on airfoils have been identified in subscale tests. For this reason, it is of great importance that scaling laws be dveloped to aid in the extrapolation of these data to fullscale. The present investigation represents an attempt to develop scaling laws for testing subscale airfoils under heavy rain conditions. Attention is given to rain statistics, airfoil operation in heavy rain, scaling laws, thermodynamics of condensation and/or evaporation, rainfall and airfoil scaling, aspects of splash back, film thickness, rivulets, and flap slot blockage. It is concluded that the extrapolation of airfoil performance data taken at subscale under simulated heavy rain conditions to fullscale must be undertaken with caution.

Bilanin, A. J.

1985-01-01

27

Computation of viscous transonic flow about a lifting airfoil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The viscous transonic flow about a stationary body in free air was numerically investigated. The geometry chosen was a symmetric NACA 64A010 airfoil at a freestream Mach number of 0.8, a Reynolds number of 4 million based on chord, and angles of attack of 0 and 2 degrees. These conditions were such that, at 2 degrees incidence unsteady periodic motion was calculated along the aft portion of the airfoil and in its wake. Although no unsteady measurements were made for the NACA 64A010 airfoil at these flow conditions, interpolated steady measurements of lift, drag, and surface static pressures compared favorably with corresponding computed time-averaged lift, drag, and surface static pressures.

Walitt, L.; Liu, C. Y.

1976-01-01

28

Investigation of effects of surface roughness on symmetric airfoil lift and lift-to-drag ratio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research investigated the effects of surface roughness in the form of protuberances on the lift and lift-to-drag ratio of an airfoil with a NACA 0015 profile. Russian researchers first recorded the positive effect on lift from naturally formed surface protuberances in 1984 and reported on their research in 1991. Based on experimental studies, the Russian researchers identified a protuberance geometry on a low aspect ratio wing which created both additional lift and an improved lift-to-drag ratio for a given angle-of-attack over the low to moderate angle-of-attack region. The primary objective of this research was to develop a phenomenological understanding of the flow physics related to the effects of surface roughness on the lift and lift-to-drag ratio of a symmetric airfoil. Two wind tunnel experiments were conducted at the University of Maryland's Glenn L. Martin Wind Tunnel to investigate the effect of protuberance coverage, size, and density. A two-dimensional computational experiment studied the effect of protuberance location, geometry, and spacing using the OVERFLOW Navier-Stokes flow solver. Results indicated that the variation of the aerodynamic lift and the lift-to-drag ratio for symmetric airfoils and wings populated with protuberances is due to the increased pressure induced by a recirculation region downstream of the protuberance. An alternative understanding based on changes in the effective camber and thickness of the airfoil was developed. Wind tunnel and computational results qualitatively validated the lift enhancement on symmetric airfoils due to surface roughness. Results indicated that the magnitude of the lift increment was strongly dependent on airfoil angle-of-attack and protuberance height and had a weak dependence on protuberance width and spacing. Just one configuration, based on a wind tunnel test of a wing with protuberances, generated a larger lift-to-drag ratio compared to a smooth wing. This research concluded that surface protuberances located on the lower surface of a symmetric airfoil are a lift generating mechanism at low to moderate angles-of-attack.

Beierle, Mark Thomas

29

Acoustic radiation from lifting airfoils in compressible subsonic flow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The far field acoustic radiation from a lifting airfoil in a three-dimensional gust is studied. The acoustic pressure is calculated using the Kirchhoff method, instead of using the classical acoustic analogy approach due to Lighthill. The pressure on the Kirchhoff surface is calculated using an existing numerical solution of the unsteady flow field. The far field acoustic pressure is calculated in terms of these values using Kirchhoff's formula. The method is validated against existing semi-analytical results for a flat plate. The method is then used to study the problem of an airfoil in a harmonic three-dimensional gust, for a wide range of Mach numbers. The effect of variation of the airfoil thickness and angle of attack on the acoustic far field is studied. The changes in the mechanism of sound generation and propagation due to the presence of steady loading and nonuniform mean flow are also studied.

Atassi, Hafiz M.; Subramaniam, Shankar; Scott, James R.

1990-01-01

30

Computation of viscous transonic flow about a lifting airfoil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations are solved numerically for the viscous transonic flow about a stationary NACA 64A010 airfoil in free air. This paper presents descriptions of the numerical method, turbulence models employed, and boundary conditions appropriate to simulation of free-air flight. Computed results are presented for the airfoil at a free-stream Mach number of 0.8, angles of attack of 0 and 2 deg, and a Reynolds number based on a chord of 4 x 10 to the 6th. For the lifting case, unsteady periodic motion was calculated along the aft portion of the airfoil and in its wake. Recent experimental results obtained by Johnson indicate periodicity aft of the shock closely approximates the computed frequency, but the amplitude of the disturbances was significantly less than the calculated amplitude.

Walitt, L.; King, L. S.; Liu, C. Y.

1977-01-01

31

A study on the mechanism of high-lift generation by an airfoil in unsteady motion at low reynolds number  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aerodynamic force and flow structure of NACA 0012 airfoil performing an unsteady motion at low Reynolds number (Re=100) are calculated by solving Navier-Stokes equations. The motion consists of three parts: the first translation, rotation\\u000a and the second translation in the direction opposite to the first. The rotation and the second translation in this motion\\u000a are expected to represent the

Sun Mao; Hossein Hamdani

2001-01-01

32

Impact of Airfoils on Aerodynamic Optimization of Heavy Lift Rotorcraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rotor airfoils were developed for two large tiltrotor designs, the Large Civil Tilt Rotor (LCTR) and the Military Heavy Tilt Rotor (MHTR). The LCTR was the most promising of several rotorcraft concepts produced by the NASA Heavy Lift Rotorcraft Systems Investigation. It was designed to carry 120 passengers for 1200 nm, with performance of 350 knots cruise at 30,000 ft altitude. A parallel design, the MHTR, had a notional mission of 40,000 Ib payload, 500 nm range, and 300 knots cruise at 4000 ft, 95 F. Both aircraft were sized by the RC code developed by the U. S. Army Aeroflightdynamics Directorate (AFDD). The rotors were then optimized using the CAMRAD II comprehensive analysis code. Rotor airfoils were designed for each aircraft, and their effects on performance analyzed by CAMRAD II. Airfoil design criteria are discussed for each rotor. Twist and taper optimization are presented in detail for each rotor, with discussions of performance improvements provided by the new airfoils, compared to current technology airfoils. Effects of stall delay and blade flexibility on performance are also included.

Acree, Cecil W., Jr.; Martin Preston B.; Romander, Ethan A.

2006-01-01

33

Compressible flows with periodic vortical disturbances around lifting airfoils. Ph.D. Thesis - Notre Dame Univ.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A numerical method is developed for solving periodic, three-dimensional, vortical flows around lifting airfoils in subsonic flow. The first-order method that is presented fully accounts for the distortion effects of the nonuniform mean flow on the convected upstream vortical disturbances. The unsteady velocity is split into a vortical component which is a known function of the upstream flow conditions and the Lagrangian coordinates of the mean flow, and an irrotational field whose potential satisfies a nonconstant-coefficient, inhomogeneous, convective wave equation. Using an elliptic coordinate transformation, the unsteady boundary value problem is solved in the frequency domain on grids which are determined as a function of the Mach number and reduced frequency. The numerical scheme is validated through extensive comparisons with known solutions to unsteady vortical flow problems. In general, it is seen that the agreement between the numerical and analytical results is very good for reduced frequencies ranging from 0 to 4, and for Mach numbers ranging from .1 to .8. Numerical results are also presented for a wide variety of flow configurations for the purpose of determining the effects of airfoil thickness, angle of attack, camber, and Mach number on the unsteady lift and moment of airfoils subjected to periodic vortical gusts. It is seen that each of these parameters can have a significant effect on the unsteady airfoil response to the incident disturbances, and that the effect depends strongly upon the reduced frequency and the dimensionality of the gust. For a one-dimensional (transverse) or two-dimensional (transverse and longitudinal) gust, the results indicate that airfoil thickness increases the unsteady lift and moment at the low reduced frequencies but decreases it at the high reduced frequencies. The results show that an increase in airfoil Mach number leads to a significant increase in the unsteady lift and moment for the low reduced frequencies, but a significant decrease for the high reduced frequencies.

Scott, James R.

1991-01-01

34

Effects of Airfoil Thickness and Maximum Lift Coefficient on Roughness Sensitivity: 1997--1998  

SciTech Connect

A matrix of airfoils has been developed to determine the effects of airfoil thickness and the maximum lift to leading-edge roughness. The matrix consists of three natural-laminar-flow airfoils, the S901, S902, and S903, for wind turbine applications. The airfoils have been designed and analyzed theoretically and verified experimentally in the Pennsylvania State University low-speed, low-turbulence wind tunnel. The effect of roughness on the maximum life increases with increasing airfoil thickness and decreases slightly with increasing maximum lift. Comparisons of the theoretical and experimental results generally show good agreement.

Somers, D. M.

2005-01-01

35

Optimization of an Advanced Design Three-Element Airfoil at High Reynolds Numbers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New high-lift components have been designed for a three-element advanced high-lift research airfoil using a state-of-the-art computational method. The new components were designed with the aim to provide high maximum-lift values while maintaining attached flow on the single-segment flap at approach conditions. This three-element airfoil has been tested in the NASA Langley Low-Turbulence Pressure Tunnel at chord Reynolds number up to 16 million. The performance of the NASA research airfoil is compared to a reference advanced high-lift research airfoil. Effects of Reynolds number on slat and flap rigging have been studied experimentally. The performance trend of this new high-lift design is comparable to that predicted by the computational method over much of the angle of attack range. Nevertheless, the method did not accurately predict the airfoil performance or the configuration-based trends near maximum lift.

Lin, John C.; Dominik, Chet J.

1995-01-01

36

Wind tunnel results of the high-speed NLF(1)-0213 airfoil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wind tunnel tests were conducted to evaluate a natural laminar flow airfoil designed for the high speed jet aircraft in general aviation. The airfoil, designated as the High Speed Natural Laminar Flow (HSNLF)(1)-0213, was tested in two dimensional wind tunnels to investigate the performance of the basic airfoil shape. A three dimensional wing designed with this airfoil and a high lift flap system is also being evaluated with a full size, half span model.

Sewall, William G.; Mcghee, Robert J.; Hahne, David E.; Jordan, Frank L., Jr.

1987-01-01

37

High lift selected concepts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The benefits to high lift system maximum life and, alternatively, to high lift system complexity, of applying analytic design and analysis techniques to the design of high lift sections for flight conditions were determined and two high lift sections were designed to flight conditions. The influence of the high lift section on the sizing and economics of a specific energy efficient transport (EET) was clarified using a computerized sizing technique and an existing advanced airplane design data base. The impact of the best design resulting from the design applications studies on EET sizing and economics were evaluated. Flap technology trade studies, climb and descent studies, and augmented stability studies are included along with a description of the baseline high lift system geometry, a calculation of lift and pitching moment when separation is present, and an inverse boundary layer technique for pressure distribution synthesis and optimization.

Henderson, M. L.

1979-01-01

38

Lift enhancement of an airfoil using a Gurney flap and vortex generators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a low-speed wind tunnel test are presented for a single-element airfoil incorporating two lift-enhancing devices, namely a Gurney flap and vortex generators. The former consists of a small plate, on the order of one to two percent of the airfoil chord in height, located at the trailing edge perpendicular to the pressure side of the airfoil. The later consist of commercially-available, wishbone-shaped vortex generators. The test was conducted in the NASA Ames 7- by 10-foot Wind Tunnel with a full-span NACA 4412 airfoil. Measurements of surface pressure distributions and wake profiles were made to determine the lift, drag, and pitching-moment coefficients for the various airfoil configurations. The results indicate that the addition of a Gurney flap increased the maximum lift coefficient from 1.49 up to 1.96.

Storms, Bruce L.; Jang, Cory S.

1993-01-01

39

Prediction of high frequency gust response with airfoil thickness effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The unsteady lift forces that act on an airfoil in turbulent flow are an undesirable source of vibration and noise in many industrial applications. Methods to predict these forces have traditionally treated the airfoil as a flat plate. At higher frequencies, where the relevant turbulent length scales are comparable to the airfoil thickness, the flat plate approximation becomes invalid and results in overprediction of the unsteady force spectrum. This work provides an improved methodology for the prediction of the unsteady lift forces that accounts for the thickness of the airfoil. An analytical model was developed to calculate the response of the airfoil to high frequency gusts. The approach is based on a time-domain calculation with a sharp-edged gust and accounts for the distortion of the gust by the mean flow around the airfoil leading edge. The unsteady lift is calculated from a weighted integration of the gust vorticity, which makes the model relatively straightforward to implement and verify. For routine design calculations of turbulence-induced forces, a closed-form gust response thickness correction factor was developed for NACA 65 series airfoils.

Lysak, Peter D.; Capone, Dean E.; Jonson, Michael L.

2013-05-01

40

High-flaps for natural laminar flow airfoils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review of the NACA and NASA low-drag airfoil research is presented with particular emphasis given to the development of mechanical high-lift flap systems and their application to general aviation aircraft. These flap systems include split, plain, single-slotted, and double-slotted trailing-edge flaps plus slat and Krueger leading-edge devices. The recently developed continuous variable-camber high-lift mechanism is also described. The state-of-the-art of theoretical methods for the design and analysis of multi-component airfoils in two-dimensional subsonic flow is discussed, and a detailed description of the Langley MCARF (Multi-Component Airfoil Analysis Program) computer code is presented. The results of a recent effort to design a single- and double-slotted flap system for the NASA high speed natural laminar flow (HSNLF) (1)-0213 airfoil using the MCARF code are presented to demonstrate the capabilities and limitations of the code.

Morgan, Harry L.

1986-01-01

41

Pressure Distribution Over Airfoils at High Speeds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report deals with the pressure distribution over airfoils at high speeds, and describes an extension of an investigation of the aerodynamic characteristics of certain airfoils which was presented in NACA Technical Report no. 207. The results presented in report no. 207 have been confirmed and extended to higher speeds through a more extensive and systematic series of tests. Observations were also made of the air flow near the surface of the airfoils, and the large changes in lift coefficients were shown to be associated with a sudden breaking away of the flow from the upper surface. The tests were made on models of 1-inch chord and comparison with the earlier measurements on models of 3-inch chord shows that the sudden change in the lift coefficient is due to compressibility and not to a change in the Reynolds number. The Reynolds number still has a large effect, however, on the drag coefficient. The pressure distribution observations furnish the propeller designer with data on the load distribution at high speeds, and also give a better picture of the air-flow changes.

Briggs, L J; Dryden, H L

1927-01-01

42

Experimental and Computational Investigation of Lift-Enhancing Tabs on a Multi-Element Airfoil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental and computational investigation of the effect of lift-enhancing tabs on a two-element airfoil has been conducted. The objective of the study was to develop an understanding of the flow physics associated with lift-enhancing tabs on a multi-element airfoil. An NACA 63(2)-215 ModB airfoil with a 30% chord fowler flap was tested in the NASA Ames 7- by 10-Foot Wind Tunnel. Lift-enhancing tabs of various heights were tested on both the main element and the flap for a variety of flap riggings. A combination of tabs located at the main element and flap trailing edges increased the airfoil lift coefficient by 11% relative to the highest lift coefficient achieved by any baseline configuration at an angle of attack of 0 deg, and C(sub 1max) was increased by 3%. Computations of the flow over the two-element airfoil were performed using the two-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes code INS2D-UP. The computed results predicted all of the trends observed in the experimental data quite well. In addition, a simple analytic model based on potential flow was developed to provide a more detailed understanding of how lift-enhancing tabs work. The tabs were modeled by a point vortex at the air-foil or flap trailing edge. Sensitivity relationships were derived which provide a mathematical basis for explaining the effects of lift-enhancing tabs on a multi-element airfoil. Results of the modeling effort indicate that the dominant effects of the tabs on the pressure distribution of each element of the airfoil can be captured with a potential flow model for cases with no flow separation.

Ashby, Dale L.

1996-01-01

43

High lift aerodynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current program is aimed at providing a physical picture of the flow physics and quantitative turbulence data of the interaction of a high Reynolds number wake with a flap element. The impact of high lift on aircraft performance is studied for a 150 passenger transport aircraft with the goal of designing optimum high lift systems with minimum complexity.

Sullivan, John; Schneider, Steve; Campbell, Bryan; Bucci, Greg; Boone, Rod; Torgerson, Shad; Erausquin, Rick; Knauer, Chad

1994-01-01

44

Lift enhancement and flow structure of airfoil with joint trailing-edge flap and Gurney flap  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of Gurney flaps (GF), of different heights and perforations, on the aerodynamic and wake characteristics of a NACA 0015 airfoil equipped with a trailing-edge flap (TEF) was investigated experimentally at Re = 2.54 × 105. The addition of the Gurney flap to the TEF produced a further increase in the downward turning of the mean flow (increased aft camber), leading to a significant increase in the lift, drag, and pitching moment compared to that produced by independently deployed TEF or GF. The maximum lift increased with flap height, with the maximum lift-enhancement effectiveness exhibited at the smallest flap height. The near wake behind the joint TEF and GF became wider and had a larger velocity deficit and fluctuations compared to independent GF and TEF deployment. The Gurney flap perforation had only a minor impact on the wake and aerodynamics characteristics compared to TEF with a solid GF. The rapid rise in lift generation of the joint TEF and GF application, compared to conventional TEF deployment, could provide an improved off-design high-lift device during landing and takeoff.

Lee, T.; Su, Y. Y.

2011-06-01

45

Low-Speed Aerodynamic Characteristics of an Airfoil Optimized for Maximum Lift Coefficient.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An investigation has been conducted in the Langley low-turbulence pressure tunnel to determine the two-dimensional characteristics of an airfoil optimized for maximum lift coefficient. The design maximum lift coefficient was 2.1 at a Reynolds number of 9....

G. J. Bingham A. W. Chen

1972-01-01

46

Numerical solutions of the linearized Euler equations for unsteady vortical flows around lifting airfoils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A linearized unsteady aerodynamic analysis is presented for unsteady, subsonic vortical flows around lifting airfoils. The analysis fully accounts for the distortion effects of the nonuniform mean flow on the imposed vortical disturbances. A frequency domain numerical scheme which implements this linearized approach is described, and numerical results are presented for a large variety of flow configurations. The results demonstrate the effects of airfoil thickness, angle of attack, camber, and Mach number on the unsteady lift and moment of airfoils subjected to periodic vortical gusts. The results show that mean flow distortion can have a very strong effect on the airfoil unsteady response, and that the effect depends strongly upon the reduced frequency, Mach number, and gust wave numbers.

Scott, James R.; Atassi, Hafiz M.

1990-01-01

47

Wind tunnel tests of two airfoils for wind turbines operating at high reynolds numbers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to verify the predictions of the Eppler Airfoil Design and Analysis Code for Reynolds numbers up to 6 x 106 and to acquire the section characteristics of two airfoils being considered for large, megawatt-size wind turbines. One airfoil, the S825, was designed to achieve a high maximum lift coefficient suitable for variable-speed machines. The

D. Sommers; J. Tangler

2000-01-01

48

Tests on an Airfoil with Two Slots Suitable for an Aircraft of High Performance : Lift, Drag, Rolling and Yawing Moment Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results that are described in this article form a complete series of tests on an airfoil fitted with front and rear slots, the rear slot being formed between the portion of the wing aft of the rear spar and the forward portion of the flap.

Page, F Handley

1926-01-01

49

Lift and drag performances of an axisymmetric airfoil controlled by plasma actuator  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) is mounted at the leading edge of a NACA 0015 airfoil model. The effects of steady and unsteady actuations on the lift and drag coefficients are investigated by time-averaged force measurements. Results demonstrate that the stall regime can be delayed of one or two degrees while the drag coefficient is reduced. The aerodynamic performances are

N. Benard; J. Jolibois; E. Moreau

2009-01-01

50

Experimental Study of Lift-Enhancing Tabs on a Two-Element Airfoil.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results of a wind-tunnel test are presented for a two-dimensional NASA 63(sub 2)-215 Mod B airfoil with a 30% chord single-slotted flap. The use of lift-enhancing tabs (similar to Gurney flaps) on the lower surface near the trailing edge of both eleme...

B. L. Storms J. C. Ross

1995-01-01

51

Computation of Viscous Transonic Flow About a Lifting Airfoil.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The viscous transonic flow about a stationary body in free air was numerically investigated. The geometry chosen was a symmetric NACA 64A010 airfoil at a freestream Mach number of 0.8, a Reynolds number of 4 million based on chord, and angles of attack of...

L. Walitt C. Y. Liu

1976-01-01

52

High lift wake investigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The behavior of wakes in adverse pressure gradients is critical to the performance of high-lift systems for transport aircraft. Wake deceleration is known to lead to sudden thickening and the onset of reversed flow; this 'wake bursting' phenomenon can occur while surface flows remain attached. Although known to be important for high-lift systems, few studies of such decelerated wakes exist. In this study, the wake of a flat plate has been subjected to an adverse pressure gradient in a two-dimensional diffuser, whose panels were forced to remain attached by use of slot blowing. Pitot probe surveys, L.D.V. measurements, and flow visualization have been used to investigate the physics of this decelerated wake, through the onset of reversed flow.

Sullivan, J. P.; Schneider, S. P.; Hoffenberg, R.

1996-01-01

53

Progress in high-lift aerodynamic calculations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current work presents progress in the effort to numerically simulate the flow over high-lift aerodynamic components, namely, multi-element airfoils and wings in either a take-off or a landing configuration. The computational approach utilizes an incompressible flow solver and an overlaid chimera grid approach. A detailed grid resolution study is presented for flow over a three-element airfoil. Two turbulence models, a one-equation Baldwin-Barth model and a two equation k-omega model are compared. Excellent agreement with experiment is obtained for the lift coefficient at all angles of attack, including the prediction of maximum lift when using the two-equation model. Results for two other flap riggings are shown. Three-dimensional results are presented for a wing with a square wing-tip as a validation case. Grid generation and topology is discussed for computing the flow over a T-39 Sabreliner wing with flap deployed and the initial calculations for this geometry are presented.

Rogers, Stuart E.

1993-01-01

54

Experimental Study of Lift-Enhancing Tabs on a Two-Element Airfoil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a wind-tunnel test are presented for a two-dimensional NASA 63(sub 2)-215 Mod B airfoil with a 30% chord single-slotted flap. The use of lift-enhancing tabs (similar to Gurney flaps) on the lower surface near the trailing edge of both elements was investigated on four nap configurations. A combination of vortex generators on the flap and lift-enhancing tabs was also investigated. Measurements of surface-pressure distributions and wake profiles were used to determine the aerodynamic performance of each configuration. By reducing flow separation on the flap, a lift-enhancing tab at the main-element trailing edge increased the maximum lift by 10.3% for the 42-deg flap case. The tab had a lesser effect at a moderate flap deflection (32 deg) and adversely affected the performance at the smallest flap deflection (22 deg). A tab located near the flap trailing edge produced an additional lift increment for all flap deflections. The application of vortex generators to the flap eliminated lift-curve hysteresis and reduced flow separation on two configurations with large flap deflections (greater than 40 deg). A maximum-lift coefficient of 3.32 (17% above the optimum baseline) was achieved with the combination of lift-enhancing tabs on both elements and vortex generators on the flap.

Storms, Bruce L.; Ross, James C.

1995-01-01

55

High-Lift Flow Physics Experiment With MDA 3-Element Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

MDA 3-element high-lift airfoil model installed in the Basic Aerodynamics Research Tunnel. Configuration to b e used for particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) and Laser Velocimetry (LV) measurements. In building 1214.

1997-01-01

56

High fidelity computational simulation of a membrane wing airfoil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computations and analysis for a two-dimensional flexible membrane wing airfoil are presented. A well-validated, robust, sixth-order Navier-Stokes solver is employed coupled with a membrane structural model suitable for the highly nonlinear structural response of the membrane. A low Reynolds number, Re=2500, consistent with MAV flight is chosen for the majority of the calculations. The most notable effect of the membrane flexibility is the introduction of a mean camber to the membrane airfoil. A close coupling between unsteady vortex shedding and the dynamic structural response is demonstrated. The dynamic motion of the membrane surface is also shown to significantly alter the unsteady flow over the membrane airfoil at high angles of attack. The coupling of this dynamic effect and the mean camber results in a delay in stall with enhanced lift for higher angles of attack. Exploratory computations investigating the effects of angle of attack, membrane rigidity, membrane pretension and Reynolds number on the membrane airfoil response are also presented.

Gordnier, R. E.

2009-07-01

57

Separation control on high Reynolds number multi-element airfoils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Small surface-mounted vortex generators were investigated as means for the control of a boundary-layer separation on a 2D single-flap three-element high-lift system at near-flight Reynolds numbers and in landing configurations. Wind-tunnel results obtained for small vane-type vortex generators mounted on a multielement airfoil showed that vortex generators as small as 0.18 percent of total chord can effectively reduce or eliminate boundary-layer separation on the flap at approach conditions. It was found that both the outerrotating and the corotating streamwise vortices were effective in reducing flow separation.

Lin, John C.; Robinson, Stephen K.; Mcghee, Robert J.; Valarezo, Walter O.

1992-01-01

58

Maximum Mean Lift Coefficient Characteristics at Low Tip Mach Numbers of a Hovering Helicopter Rotor Having an NACA 64(1)A012 Airfoil Section  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation has been conducted on the Langley helicopter test tower to determine experimentally the maximum mean lift-coefficient characteristics at low tip Mach number and a limited amount of drag- divergence data at high tip Mach number of a helicopter rotor having an NACA 64(1)AO12 airfoil section and 8 deg of linear washout. Data are presented for blade tip Mach numbers M(t) of 0.29 to 0.74 with corresponding values 6 6 of tip Reynolds number of 2.59 x 10(exp 6) and 6.58 x 10(exp 6). Comparisons are made between the data from the present rotor with results previously obtained from two other rotors: one having NACA 0012 airfoil sections and the other having an NACA 0009 airfoil tip section. At low tip Mach numbers, the maximum mean lift coefficient for the blade having the NACA 64(1)AO12 section was about 0.08 less than that obtained with the blade having the NACA 0009 tip section and 0.21 less than the value obtained with the blade having the NACA 0012 tip section. Blade maximum mean lift coefficient values were not obtained for Mach number values greater than 0.47 because of a blade failure encountered during the tests. The effective mean lift-curve slope required for predicting rotor thrust varied from 5.8 for the tip Mach nuniber range of 0.29 to 0.55 to a value of 6.65 for a tip Mach number of 0.71. The blade pitching-moment coefficients were small and relatively unaffected by changes in thrust coefficient and Mach number. In the instances in which stall was reached, the break in the blade pitching-moment curve was in a stable direction. The efficiency of the rotor decreased with an increase in tip speed. Expressed as figure of merit, at a tip Mach number of 0.29 the maximum value was about 0.74. Similar measurements made on another rotor having an NACA 0012 airfoil and with a rotor having an NACA 0009 tip section, showed a value of 0.75. Synthesized section lift and profile-drag characteristics for the rotor-blade airfoil section are presented as an aid in predicting the high-tip-speed performance of rotors having similar airfoils.

Powell, Robert D., Jr.

1959-01-01

59

Numerical and experimental study of high-lift configurations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flow of two high-lift devices is studied on the basis of the solution to two-dimensional Reynolds equations with the Spalart — Allmaras one-equation turbulence model. Computation results are compared with the experiment under the conditions of airfoil flow in the low-speed wind tunnel with open test section. It is shown that such approach is the most correct for this comparison.

Rumyantsev, A. G.; Silantiev, V. A.

2010-06-01

60

Wind-tunnel Tests of the NACA 45-125 Airfoil: A Thick Airfoil for High-Speed Airplanes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Investigations of the pressure distribution, the profile drag, and the location of transition for a 30-inch-chord 25-percent-thick N.A,C.A. 45-125 airfoil were made in the N.A.C.A 8-foot high-speed wind tunnel for the purpose of aiding in the development of a thick wing for high-speed airplanes. The tests were made at a lift coefficient of 0.1 for Reynolds Numbers from 1,750,000 to 8,690,000, corresponding to speeds from 80 to 440 miles per hour at 59 F. The effect on the profile drag of fixing the transition point was also investigated. The effect of compressibility on the rate of increase of pressure coefficients was found to be greater than that predicted by a simplified theoretical expression for thin wings. The results indicated that, for a lift coefficient of 0.1, the critical speed of the N.A.C,A. 45-125 airfoil was about 460 miles per hour at 59 F,. The value of the profile-drag coefficient at a Reynolds Number of 4,500,000 was 0.0058, or about half as large as the value for the N.A,C,A. 0025 airfoil. The increase in the profile-drag coefficient for a given movement of the transition point was about three times as large as the corresponding increase for the N.A.C,A. 0012 airfoil. Transition determinations indicated that, for Reynolds Numbers up to ?,000,000, laminar boundary 1ayers were maintained over approximately 40 percent of the upper and the lower surfaces of the airfoil.

Delano, James B.

1940-01-01

61

Active Control of Flow Separation on a High-Lift System with Slotted Flap at High Reynolds Number  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Energy Efficient Transport (EET) airfoil was tested at NASA Langley's Low- Turbulence Pressure Tunnel (LTPT) to assess the effectiveness of distributed Active Flow Control (AFC) concepts on a high-lift system at flight scale Reynolds numbers for a medium-sized transport. The test results indicate presence of strong Reynolds number effects on the high-lift system with the AFC operational, implying the importance of flight-scale testing for implementation of such systems during design of future flight vehicles with AFC. This paper describes the wind tunnel test results obtained at the LTPT for the EET high-lift system for various AFC concepts examined on this airfoil.

Khodadoust, Abdollah; Washburn, Anthony

2007-01-01

62

High fidelity numerical simulation of airfoil thickness and kinematics effects on flapping airfoil propulsion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-fidelity numerical simulations with the spectral difference (SD) method are carried out to investigate the unsteady flow over a series of oscillating NACA 4-digit airfoils. Airfoil thickness and kinematics effects on the flapping airfoil propulsion are highlighted. It is confirmed that the aerodynamic performance of airfoils with different thickness can be very different under the same kinematics. Distinct evolutionary patterns of vortical structures are analyzed to unveil the underlying flow physics behind the diverse flow phenomena associated with different airfoil thickness and kinematics and reveal the synthetic effects of airfoil thickness and kinematics on the propulsive performance. Thickness effects at various reduced frequencies and Strouhal numbers for the same chord length based Reynolds number (=1200) are then discussed in detail. It is found that at relatively small Strouhal number (=0.3), for all types of airfoils with the combined pitching and plunging motion (pitch angle 20°, the pitch axis located at one third of chord length from the leading edge, pitch leading plunge by 75°), low reduced frequency (=1) is conducive for both the thrust production and propulsive efficiency. Moreover, relatively thin airfoils (e.g. NACA0006) can generate larger thrust and maintain higher propulsive efficiency than thick airfoils (e.g. NACA0030). However, with the same kinematics but at relatively large Strouhal number (=0.45), it is found that airfoils with different thickness exhibit diverse trend on thrust production and propulsive efficiency, especially at large reduced frequency (=3.5). Results on effects of airfoil thickness based Reynolds numbers indicate that relative thin airfoils show superior propulsion performance in the tested Reynolds number range. The evolution of leading edge vortices and the interaction between the leading and trailing edge vortices play key roles in flapping airfoil propulsive performance.

Yu, Meilin; Wang, Z. J.; Hu, Hui

2013-10-01

63

A recontoured, upper surface designed to increase the maximum lift coefficient of a modified NACA 65 (0.82) (9.9) airfoil section  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A recontoured upper surface was designed to increase the maximum lift coefficient of a modified NACA 65 (0.82)(9.9) airfoil section which was tested at Mach numbers of 0.3 and 0.4 and Reynolds numbers of 2.3x10(6) and 4.3x10(6). The original 6-series section was tested for comparison with the recontoured section. The recontoured profile was found to have a higher maximum lift coefficient at all test conditions than the original airfoil. The recontoured airfoil showed less drag and nearly the same pitching moment characteristics as the original 6-series airfoil at all test conditions. The improvements found for the recontoured airfoil of the present study are similar to those found during previous investigations of recontoured 6-series airfoils with less camber.

Hicks, R. M.

1984-01-01

64

A systematic investigation of pressure distributions at high speeds over five representative NACA low-drag and conventional airfoil sections  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pressure distributions determined from high-speed wind-tunnel tests are presented for five NACA airfoil sections representative of both low-drag and conventional types. Section characteristics of lift, drag, and quarter-chord pitching moment are presented along with the measured pressure distributions for the NACA 65sub2-215 (a=0.5), 66sub2-215 (a=0.6), 0015, 23015, and 4415 airfoils for Mach numbers up to approximately 0.85. A critical study is made of the airfoil pressure distributions in an attempt to formulate a set of general criteria for defining the character of high speed flows over typical airfoil shapes. Comparisons are made of the relative characteristics of the low-drag and conventional airfoils investigated insofar as they would influence the high-speed performance and the high-speed stability and control characteristics of airplanes employing these wing sections.

Graham, Donald J; Nitzberg, Gerald E; Olson, Robert N

1945-01-01

65

Summary of Airfoil Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent airfoil data for both flight and wind-tunnel tests have been collected and correlated insofar as possible. The flight data consist largely of drag measurements made by the wake-survey method. Most of the data on airfoil section characteristics were obtained in the Langley two-dimensional low-turbulence pressure tunnel. Detail data necessary for the application of NACA 6-serles airfoils to wing design are presented in supplementary figures, together with recent data for the NACA 24-, 44-, and 230-series airfoils. The general methods used to derive the basic thickness forms for NACA 6- and 7-series airfoils and their corresponding pressure distributions are presented. Data and methods are given for rapidly obtaining the approximate pressure distributions for NACA four-digit, five-digit, 6-, and 7-series airfoils. The report includes an analysis of the lift, drag, pitching-moment, and critical-speed characteristics of the airfoils, together with a discussion of the effects of surface conditions. Available data on high-lift devices are presented. Problems associated with lateral-control devices, leading-edge air intakes, and interference are briefly discussed. The data indicate that the effects of surface condition on the lift and drag characteristics are at least as large as the effects of the airfoil shape and must be considered in airfoil selection and the prediction of wing characteristics. Airfoils permitting extensive laminar flow, such as the NACA 6-series airfoils, have much lower drag coefficients at high speed and cruising lift coefficients than earlier types-of airfoils if, and only if, the wing surfaces are sufficiently smooth and fair. The NACA 6-series airfoils also have favorable critical-speed characteristics and do not appear to present unusual problems associated with the application of high-lift and lateral-control devices. Much of the data given in the NACA Advance Confidential Report entitled "Preliminary Low-Drag-Airfoil and Flap Data from Tests at Large Reynolds Number and Low Turbulence," by Eastman N. Jacobs, Ira R. Abbott, and Milton Davidson, March 1942 has been corrected and included in the present paper, which supersedes the previously published paper.

Stivers, Louis S.; Abbott, Ira H.; von Doenhoff, Albert E.

1945-01-01

66

Summary of section data on trailing-edge high-lift devices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A summary has been made of available data on the characteristics of airfoil sections with trailing-edge high-lift devices. Data for plain, split, and slotted flaps are collected and analyzed. The effects of each of the variables involved in the design of the various types of flap are examined and, in cases where sufficient data are given, optimum configurations are deduced. Wherever possible, the effects of airfoil section, Reynolds number, and leading-edge roughness are shown. For single and double slotted flaps, where a large amount of unrelated data are available, maximum lift coefficients of many configurations are presented in tables.

Cahill, Jones F

1949-01-01

67

Summary of Section Data on Trailing-Edge High-Lift Devices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A summary has been made of available data on the characteristics of airfoil sections with trailing-edge high-lift devices. Data for plain, split, and slotted flaps are collected and analyzed. The effects of each of the variables involved in the design of the various types of flap are examined and, in cases where sufficient data are given, optimum configurations are deduced. Wherever possible, the effects of airfoil section, Reynolds number, and leading-edge roughness are shown. For single and double slotted flaps, where a great mass of unrelated date are available, maximum lift coefficients of a large number of configurations are presented in tables.

1948-01-01

68

Lift Increase by Blowing Out Air, Tests on Airfoil of 12 Percent Thickness, Using Various Types of Flap  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NACA 23012-4 airfoil was investigated for the purpose of increasing lift by means of blowing out air from the wing, in conjunction with the effect of plain flap of variable contour and slotted flap of 25 percent chord length. The wing also was provided with a hinged nose, to be deflected at will. Air was blown out frcm the wing immediately in front of the flap; also at the opening between wing and hinged nose,tangentially to the surface of the wing. Another device employed to increase maximum lift was a movable slat, to be opened to form a clot. Lift was measured in relation to the volume of blown-out air and considerable increases were observed with increasing volume.

Schwier, W.

1947-01-01

69

Determining the Lift and Drag Distributions on a Three-Dimensional Airfoil from Flow-Field Velocity Surveys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application of the incompressible momentum integral equation to a three-dimensional airfoil was reviewed to interpret the resulting equations in a way that suggests a reasonable experimental technique for determining the spanwise distributions of lift and drag. Consideration was given to constraints that must be placed on the character of the vortex wake structure shed by the wing, to provide the familiar relationship between lift and bound vorticity. It is shown that the induced drag distribution is not directly measurable, but can be obtained, via the lift distribution, approximately for a deflected wake and exactly for a planar wake. Moreover, it is shown that it is only necessary to survey a short distance above and below the wing trailing edge. Examples are presented for several typical loading distributions and the results of a numerical simulation of the suggested experiment are discussed.

Orloff, K. L.

1977-01-01

70

Development of Advanced High Lift Leading Edge Technology for Laminar Flow Wings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the Advanced High Lift Leading Edge (AHLLE) task performed by Northrop Grumman Systems Corporation, Aerospace Systems (NGAS) for the NASA Subsonic Fixed Wing project in an effort to develop enabling high-lift technology for laminar flow wings. Based on a known laminar cruise airfoil that incorporated an NGAS-developed integrated slot design, this effort involved using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis and quality function deployment (QFD) analysis on several leading edge concepts, and subsequently down-selected to two blown leading-edge concepts for testing. A 7-foot-span AHLLE airfoil model was designed and fabricated at NGAS and then tested at the NGAS 7 x 10 Low Speed Wind Tunnel in Hawthorne, CA. The model configurations tested included: baseline, deflected trailing edge, blown deflected trailing edge, blown leading edge, morphed leading edge, and blown/morphed leading edge. A successful demonstration of high lift leading edge technology was achieved, and the target goals for improved lift were exceeded by 30% with a maximum section lift coefficient (Cl) of 5.2. Maximum incremental section lift coefficients ( Cl) of 3.5 and 3.1 were achieved for a blown drooped (morphed) leading edge concept and a non-drooped leading edge blowing concept, respectively. The most effective AHLLE design yielded an estimated 94% lift improvement over the conventional high lift Krueger flap configurations while providing laminar flow capability on the cruise configuration.

Bright, Michelle M.; Korntheuer, Andrea; Komadina, Steve; Lin, John C.

2013-01-01

71

Hybrid Inverse Airfoil Design Method for Complex Three-Dimensional Lifting Surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is presented for inverse design of airfoils for complex three-dimensional wings in incompressible èow. The method allows for prescription of inviscid velocity distributions over different cross sections of the wing in a multipoint fashion. A hybrid approach is used to determine the shapes of the wing cross sections that satisfy the design speciécations. The airfoils forming the cross

Ashok Gopalarathnam; Michael S. Selig

2002-01-01

72

Experimental investigations on airfoils with different geometries in the domain of high angles of attack-flow separation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wind tunnel tests were conducted on airfoil models in order to study the flow separation phenomena occurring for high angles of attack. Pressure distribution on wings of different geometries were measured. Results show that for three-dimensional airfoils layout and span lift play a role. Separation effects on airfoils with moderate extension are three-dimensional. The flow domains separated from the air foil must be treated three-dimensionally. The rolling-up of separated vortex layers increases with angle in intensity and induction effect and shows strong nonlinearities. Boundary layer material moves perpendicularly to the flow direction due to the pressure gradients at the airfoil; this has a stabilizing effect. The separation starts earlier with increasing pointed profiles.

Keil, J.

1985-01-01

73

Airfoils for wind turbine  

DOEpatents

Airfoils for the blade of a wind turbine wherein each airfoil is characterized by a thickness in a range from 16%-24% and a maximum lift coefficient designed to be largely insensitive to roughness effects. The airfoils include a family of airfoils for a blade 15 to 25 meters in length, a family of airfoils for a blade 1 to 5 meters in length, and a family of airfoils for a blade 5 to 10 meters in length.

Tangler, James L. (Boulder, CO); Somers, Dan M. (State College, PA)

1996-01-01

74

Airfoils for wind turbine  

DOEpatents

Airfoils are disclosed for the blade of a wind turbine wherein each airfoil is characterized by a thickness in a range from 16%-24% and a maximum lift coefficient designed to be largely insensitive to roughness effects. The airfoils include a family of airfoils for a blade 15 to 25 meters in length, a family of airfoils for a blade 1 to 5 meters in length, and a family of airfoils for a blade 5 to 10 meters in length. 10 figs.

Tangler, J.L.; Somers, D.M.

1996-10-08

75

Non-Equilibrium Turbulence Modeling for High Lift Aerodynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This phase is discussed in ('Non linear kappa - epsilon - upsilon(sup 2) modeling with application to high lift', Application of the kappa - epsilon -upsilon(sup 2) model to multi-component airfoils'). Further results are presented in 'Non-linear upsilon(sup 2) - f modeling with application to high-lift' The ADI solution method in the initial implementation was very slow to converge on multi-zone chimera meshes. I modified the INS implementation to use GMRES. This provided improved convergence and less need for user intervention in the solution process. There were some difficulties with implementation into the NASA compressible codes, due to their use of approximate factorization. The Helmholtz equation for f is not an evolution equation, so it is not of the form assumed by the approximate factorization method. Although The Kalitzin implementation involved a new solution algorithm ('An implementation of the upsilon(sup 2) - f model with application to transonic flows'). The algorithm involves introducing a relaxation term in the f-equation so that it can be factored. The factorization can be into a plane and a line, with GMRES used in the plane. The NASA code already evaluated coefficients in planes, so no additional memory is required except that associated the the GMRES algorithm. So the scope of this project has expanded via these interactions. . The high-lift work has dovetailed into turbine applications.

Durbin, P. A.

1998-01-01

76

Key Topics for High-Lift Research: A Joint Wind Tunnel/Flight Test Approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future high-lift systems must achieve improved aerodynamic performance with simpler designs that involve fewer elements and reduced maintenance costs. To expeditiously achieve this, reliable CFD design tools are required. The development of useful CFD-based design tools for high lift systems requires increased attention to unresolved flow physics issues. The complex flow field over any multi-element airfoil may be broken down into certain generic component flows which are termed high-lift building block flows. In this report a broad spectrum of key flow field physics issues relevant to the design of improved high lift systems are considered. It is demonstrated that in-flight experiments utilizing the NASA Dryden Flight Test Fixture (which is essentially an instrumented ventral fin) carried on an F-15B support aircraft can provide a novel and cost effective method by which both Reynolds and Mach number effects associated with specific high lift building block flows can be investigated. These in-flight high lift building block flow experiments are most effective when performed in conjunction with coordinated ground based wind tunnel experiments in low speed facilities. For illustrative purposes three specific examples of in-flight high lift building block flow experiments capable of yielding a high payoff are described. The report concludes with a description of a joint wind tunnel/flight test approach to high lift aerodynamics research.

Fisher, David; Thomas, Flint O.; Nelson, Robert C.

1996-01-01

77

An overview of NACA 6-digit airfoil series characteristics with reference to airfoils for large wind turbine blades  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the NACA 63 and 64 6-digit series of airfoils tested in the NACA LTPT in view to verify the RFOIL calculated airfoil characteristics for high Reynolds numbers. Some anomalies in the zero-lift angles of 15% and 18% thick airfoils from these series are identified, both in the airfoil clean case and in case of wrap-around roughness. It

W. A. Timmer

2009-01-01

78

Effect of High-Fidelity Ice Accretion Simulations on the Performance of a Full-Scale Airfoil Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The simulation of ice accretion on a wing or other surface is often required for aerodynamic evaluation, particularly at small scale or low-Reynolds number. While there are commonly accepted practices for ice simulation, there are no established and validated guidelines. The purpose of this article is to report the results of an experimental study establishing a high-fidelity, full-scale, iced-airfoil aerodynamic performance database. This research was conducted as a part of a larger program with the goal of developing subscale aerodynamic simulation methods for iced airfoils. Airfoil performance testing was carried out at the ONERA F1 pressurized wind tunnel using a 72-in. (1828.8-mm) chord NACA 23012 airfoil over a Reynolds number range of 4.5x10(exp 6) to 16.0 10(exp 6) and a Mach number range of 0.10 to 0.28. The high-fidelity, ice-casting simulations had a significant impact on the aerodynamic performance. A spanwise-ridge ice shape resulted in a maximum lift coefficient of 0.56 compared to the clean value of 1.85 at Re = 15.9x10(exp 6) and M = 0.20. Two roughness and streamwise shapes yielded maximum lift values in the range of 1.09 to 1.28, which was a relatively small variation compared to the differences in the ice geometry. The stalling characteristics of the two roughness and one streamwise ice simulation maintained the abrupt leading-edge stall type of the clean NACA 23012 airfoil, despite the significant decrease in maximum lift. Changes in Reynolds and Mach number over the large range tested had little effect on the iced-airfoil performance.

Broeren, Andy P.; Bragg, Michael B.; Addy, Harold E., Jr.; Lee, Sam; Moens, Frederic; Guffond, Didier

2010-01-01

79

Three-Dimensional Effects on Multi-Element High Lift Computations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In an effort to discover the causes for disagreement between previous 2-D computations and nominally 2-D experiment for flow over the 3-clement McDonnell Douglas 30P-30N airfoil configuration at high lift, a combined experimental/CFD investigation is described. The experiment explores several different side-wall boundary layer control venting patterns, document's venting mass flow rates, and looks at corner surface flow patterns. The experimental angle of attack at maximum lift is found to be sensitive to the side wall venting pattern: a particular pattern increases the angle of attack at maximum lift by at least 2 deg. A significant amount of spanwise pressure variation is present at angles of attack near maximum lift. A CFD study using 3-D structured-grid computations, which includes the modeling of side-wall venting, is employed to investigate 3-D effects of the flow. Side-wall suction strength is found to affect the angle at which maximum lift is predicted. Maximum lift in the CFD is shown to be limited by the growth of all off-body corner flow vortex and consequent increase in spanwise pressure variation and decrease in circulation. The 3-D computations with and without wall venting predict similar trends to experiment at low angles of attack, but either stall too earl or else overpredict lift levels near maximum lift by as much as 5%. Unstructured-grid computations demonstrate that mounting brackets lower die the levels near maximum lift conditions.

Rumsey, Christopher L.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Watson, Ralph D.

2002-01-01

80

High-order simulations of low Reynolds number membrane airfoils under prescribed motion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aerodynamics and aeroelastic response of a membrane wing under prescribed motion are investigated using a high-order, two-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver coupled to a geometrically nonlinear membrane model. The impact of increasing Reynolds number on the vortex dynamics and unsteady aerodynamic loads is examined for moderate-amplitude plunge and combined pitch-plunge motions at low frequency. Simulation results are compared with classical thin airfoil theory and highlight the differences between rigid and flexible membrane airfoils undergoing small and moderate amplitude motions. The present study demonstrates the ability of lifting membrane surface flexibility to enhance thrust production and propulsive efficiency, which may inform the design of flapping wing membrane fliers.

Jaworski, Justin W.; Gordnier, Raymond E.

2012-05-01

81

FROM ANALYSIS TO DESIGN OF HIGH-LIFT CONFIGURATIONS USING A NEWTON-KRYLOV ALGORITHM  

Microsoft Academic Search

An efficient multi-block Newton-Krylov algo- rithm using the compressible Navier-Stokes equations is presented for the analysis and de- sign of high-lift airfoil configurations. The pre- conditioned generalized minimum residual (GM- RES) method is applied to solve the discrete- adjoint equation, leading to a fast computation of accurate objective function gradients. Further- more, the GMRES method is used in conjunc- tion

Marian Nemec; David W. Zingg

2002-01-01

82

The Determination of the Geometries of Multiple-Element Airfoils Optimized for Maximum Lift Coefficient. Ph.D. Thesis - Illinois Univ., Urbana  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optimum airfoils in the sense of maximum lift coefficient are obtained by a newly developed method. The maximum lift coefficient is achieved by requiring that the turbulent skin friction be zero in the pressure rise region on the upper surface. Under this constraint, the pressure distribution is optimized. The optimum pressure distribution consists of a uniform stagnation pressure on the lower surface, a uniform minimum pressure on the upper surface immediately downstream of the front stagnation point followed by a Stratford zero skin friction pressure rise. When multiple-element airfoils are under consideration, this optimum pressure distribution appears on every element. The parameters used to specify the pressure distribution on each element are the Reynolds number and the normalized trailing edge velocity. The newly developed method of design computes the velocity distribution on a given airfoil and modifies the airfoil contour in a systematic manner until the desired velocity distribution is achieved. There are no limitations on how many elements the airfoil to be designed can have.

Chen, A. W.

1971-01-01

83

Aerodynamic Performance Enhancement of a NACA 66-206 Airfoil Using Supersonic Channel Airfoil Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supersonic channel airfoil design techniques have b een shown to significantly reduce drag in high-speed flows over diamond shaped airfoils by Ruffin and colleagues. The effect of applying these techniques to a NACA 66-206 airfoil is presented. The design domain entails channel heights of 8-16.6% thickness-to-cho rd and speeds from Mach 1.5-3.0. Numerical simulations show an increase in the lift-

David M. Giles; David D. Marshall

2008-01-01

84

Noise impact of advanced high lift systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The impact of advanced high lift systems on aircraft size, performance, direct operating cost and noise were evaluated for short-to-medium and medium-to-long range aircraft with high bypass ratio and very high bypass ratio engines. The benefit of advanced high lift systems in reducing noise was found to be less than 1 effective-perceived-noise decibel level (EPNdB) when the aircraft were sized to minimize takeoff gross weight. These aircraft did, however, have smaller wings and lower engine thrusts for the same mission than aircraft with conventional high lift systems. When the advanced high lift system was implemented without reducing wing size and simultaneously using lower flap angles that provide higher L/D at approach a cumulative noise reduction of as much as 4 EPNdB was obtained. Comparison of aircraft configurations that have similar approach speeds showed cumulative noise reduction of 2.6 EPNdB that is purely the result of incorporating advanced high lift system in the aircraft design.

Elmer, Kevin R.; Joshi, Mahendra C.

1995-01-01

85

Wind tunnel test of the S814 thick root airfoil  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this wind-tunnel test was to verify the predictions of the Eppler Airfoil Design and Analysis Code for a very thick airfoil having a high maximum lift coefficient designed to be largely insensitive to leading-edge roughness effects. The 24 percent thick S814 airfoil was designed with these characteristics to accommodate aerodynamic and structural considerations for the root region of a wind-turbine blade. In addition, the airfoil`s maximum lift-to-drag ratio was designed to occur at a high lift coefficient. To accomplish the objective, a two-dimensional wind tunnel test of the S814 thick root airfoil was conducted in January 1994 in the low-turbulence wind tunnel of the Delft University of Technology Low Speed Laboratory, The Netherlands. Data were obtained with transition free and transition fixed for Reynolds numbers of 0.7, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 3.0 {times} 10{sup 6}. For the design Reynolds number of 1.5 {times} 10{sup 6}, the maximum lift coefficient with transition free is 1.32, which satisfies the design specification. However, this value is significantly lower than the predicted maximum lift coefficient of almost 1.6. With transition fixed at the leading edge, the maximum lift coefficient is 1.22. The small difference in maximum lift coefficient between the transition-free and transition-fixed conditions demonstrates the airfoil`s minimal sensitivity to roughness effects. The S814 root airfoil was designed to complement existing NREL low maximum-lift-coefficient tip-region airfoils for rotor blades 10 to 15 meters in length.

Somers, D.M. [Airfoils, Inc., State College, PA (United States); Tangler, J.L. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

1996-11-01

86

Lift and Drag on a NACA0015 Airfoil With Duty Cycle Active Flow Control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Active flow control experiments were carried out over a NACA 0015 airfoil with a trailing edge flap. Two arrays of synthetic jet actuators were mounted in the airfoil with one on near the leading edge (0.1c) and the other on the main wing body near the wing/flap interface (0.65c). Characterization of the SJA's showed they produced their highest exit velocities at a frequency of 1100 Hz, which was near the natural frequency of the piezo membranes. When actuated at frequencies corresponding to the flow natural frequencies (10-100Hz) the jets produced no jet velocity. In order to control the flow using a frequency near the flow's natural shedding frequency the synthetic jets were actuated using a forcing frequency near the piezo natural frequency with a duty cycle frequency of 10-1000Hz. Force balance results showed that for a 0 flap deflection the active flow control delayed stall and lowered drag regardless of the duty cycle frequency. At flap deflections of 20 and 40 differences were observed between the continuously forced and duty cycles cases. For these cases continuous forcing increased the stall angle and reduced drag. Duty cycle forcing also delayed stall however it significantly increased drag near the stall AOA even compared to the no forcing case.

Kabiri, Pooya; Bohl, Douglas; Ahmadi, Goodarz

2011-11-01

87

Two-Dimensional High-Lift Aerodynamic Optimization Using Neural Networks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The high-lift performance of a multi-element airfoil was optimized by using neural-net predictions that were trained using a computational data set. The numerical data was generated using a two-dimensional, incompressible, Navier-Stokes algorithm with the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model. Because it is difficult to predict maximum lift for high-lift systems, an empirically-based maximum lift criteria was used in this study to determine both the maximum lift and the angle at which it occurs. The 'pressure difference rule,' which states that the maximum lift condition corresponds to a certain pressure difference between the peak suction pressure and the pressure at the trailing edge of the element, was applied and verified with experimental observations for this configuration. Multiple input, single output networks were trained using the NASA Ames variation of the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm for each of the aerodynamic coefficients (lift, drag and moment). The artificial neural networks were integrated with a gradient-based optimizer. Using independent numerical simulations and experimental data for this high-lift configuration, it was shown that this design process successfully optimized flap deflection, gap, overlap, and angle of attack to maximize lift. Once the neural nets were trained and integrated with the optimizer, minimal additional computer resources were required to perform optimization runs with different initial conditions and parameters. Applying the neural networks within the high-lift rigging optimization process reduced the amount of computational time and resources by 44% compared with traditional gradient-based optimization procedures for multiple optimization runs.

Greenman, Roxana M.

1998-01-01

88

Experiments on the flow field physics of confluent boundary layers for high-lift systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of sub-scale wind tunnel test data to predict the behavior of commercial transport high lift systems at in-flight Reynolds number is limited by the so-called 'inverse Reynolds number effect'. This involves an actual deterioration in the performance of a high lift device with increasing Reynolds number. A lack of understanding of the relevant flow field physics associated with numerous complicated viscous flow interactions that characterize flow over high-lift devices prohibits computational fluid dynamics from addressing Reynolds number effects. Clearly there is a need for research that has as its objective the clarification of the fundamental flow field physics associated with viscous effects in high lift systems. In this investigation, a detailed experimental investigation is being performed to study the interaction between the slat wake and the boundary layer on the primary airfoil which is known as a confluent boundary layer. This little-studied aspect of the multi-element airfoil problem deserves special attention due to its importance in the lift augmentation process. The goal of this research is is to provide an improved understanding of the flow physics associated with high lift generation. This process report will discuss the status of the research being conducted at the Hessert Center for Aerospace Research at the University of Notre Dame. The research is sponsored by NASA Ames Research Center under NASA grant NAG2-905. The report will include a discussion of the models that have been built or that are under construction, a description of the planned experiments, a description of a flow visualization apparatus that has been developed for generating colored smoke for confluent boundary layer studies and some preliminary measurements made using our new 3-component fiber optic LDV system.

Nelson, Robert C.; Thomas, F. O.; Chu, H. C.

1994-01-01

89

Wind Tunnel Testing of Low-Drag Airfoils.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results are presented for the measured performance recently obtained on several airfoil concepts designed to achieve low drag by maintaining extensive regions of laminar flow without compromising high-lift performance. The wind tunnel results extend from ...

W. D. Harvey R. J. McGhee C. D. Harris

1986-01-01

90

Feasibility of airfoil tests with a small high subsonic cryogenic wind tunnel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cryogenic wind tunnel has a capability to perform relatively high Reynolds number airfoil testing using a small airfoil model. However, it is desirable to use a model as large as possible to utilize the high Reynolds number flow capability of the cryogenic wind tunnel. The most serious problem on the airfoil testing is the tunnel sidewall interference. As the

Yutaka Yamaguchi; Masashi Kashitani; Kenji Kaibara; Teruo Saito

1999-01-01

91

Quiet airfoils for small and large wind turbines  

DOEpatents

Thick airfoil families with desirable aerodynamic performance with minimal airfoil induced noise. The airfoil families are suitable for a variety of wind turbine designs and are particularly well-suited for use with horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWTs) with constant or variable speed using pitch and/or stall control. In exemplary embodiments, a first family of three thick airfoils is provided for use with small wind turbines and second family of three thick airfoils is provided for use with very large machines, e.g., an airfoil defined for each of three blade radial stations or blade portions defined along the length of a blade. Each of the families is designed to provide a high maximum lift coefficient or high lift, to exhibit docile stalls, to be relatively insensitive to roughness, and to achieve a low profile drag.

Tangler, James L. (Boulder, CO); Somers, Dan L. (Port Matilda, PA)

2012-06-12

92

Performance predictions of VAWTs with NLF airfoil blades  

SciTech Connect

The successful design of an efficient Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) can be obtained only when appropriate airfoil sections have been selected. Most VAWTs currently operating worldwide use blades of symmetrical NACA airfoil series. As these blades were designed for aviation applications, Sandia National Laboratories developed a family of airfoils specifically designed for VAWTs in order to decrease the Cost of Energy (COE) of the VAWT (Berg, 1990). Objectives formulated for the blade profile were: modest values of maximum lift coefficient, low drag at low angle of attack, high drag at high angle of attack, sharp stall, and low thickness-to-chord ratio. These features are similar to those of Natural Laminar Flow airfoils (NLF) and gave birth to the SNLA airfoil series. This technical brief illustrates the benefits and losses resulting from using NLF airfoils on VAWT blades. To achieve this goal, the streamtube model of Paraschivoiu (1988) is used to predict the performance of VAWTs equipped with blades of various airfoil shapes. The airfoil shapes considered are the conventional airfoils NACA 0018 and NACA 0021, and the SNLA 0018/50 airfoil designed at Sandia. Furthermore, the potential benefit of reducing the airfoil drag is clearly illustrated by the presentation of the individual contributions of lift and drag to power.

Masson, C.; Leclerc, C.; Paraschivoiu, I. [Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

1997-02-01

93

Wind tunnel test of the S814 thick root airfoil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this wind-tunnel test was to verify the predictions of the Eppler Airfoil Design and Analysis Code for a very thick airfoil having a high maximum lift coefficient designed to be largely insensitive to leading-edge roughness effects. The 24 percent thick S814 airfoil was designed with these characteristics to accommodate aerodynamic and structural considerations for the root region

D. M. Somers; J. L. Tangler

1996-01-01

94

Aerodynamic characteristics of circular-arc airfoils at high speeds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aerodynamic characteristics of eight circular-arc airfoils at speeds of 0.5, 0.8, 0.95, and 1.08 times the speed of sound have been determined in an open-jet air stream 2 inches in diameter, using models of 1-inch chord. The lower surface of each airfoil was plane; the upper surface was cylindrical. As compared with the measurements described in NACA-TR-319, the circular-arc airfoils at speeds of 0.95 and 1.08 times the speed of sound are more efficient than airfoils of the R. A. F. or Clark Y families. At a speed of 0.5 times the speed of sound, the thick circular-arc sections are extremely inefficient, but thin sections compare favorably with those of the R. A. F. family. A moderate round of the sharp edges changes the characteristics very little and is in many instances beneficial. The results indicate that the section of the blades of propellers intended for use at high tip-speeds should be of the circular-arc form for the outer part of the blade and should be changed gradually to the R. A. F. or Clark Y form as the hub is approached.

Briggs, L J; Dryden, H L

1932-01-01

95

Advances in Pneumatic-Controlled High-Lift Systems Through Pulsed Blowing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Circulation Control technologies have been around for 65 years, and have been successfully demonstrated in laboratories and flight vehicles alike. Yet there are few production aircraft flying today that implement these advances. Circulation Control techniques may have been overlooked due to perceived unfavorable trade offs of mass flow, pitching moment, cruise drag, noise, etc. Improvements in certain aspects of Circulation Control technology are the focus of this paper. This report will describe airfoil and blown high lift concepts that also address cruise drag reduction and reductions in mass flow through the use of pulsed pneumatic blowing on a Coanda surface. Pulsed concepts demonstrate significant reductions in mass flow requirements for Circulation Control, as well as cruise drag concepts that equal or exceed conventional airfoil systems.

Jones, Gregory S.; Englar, Robet J.

2003-01-01

96

Flatback airfoil wind tunnel experiment.  

SciTech Connect

A computational fluid dynamics study of thick wind turbine section shapes in the test section of the UC Davis wind tunnel at a chord Reynolds number of one million is presented. The goals of this study are to validate standard wind tunnel wall corrections for high solid blockage conditions and to reaffirm the favorable effect of a blunt trailing edge or flatback on the performance characteristics of a representative thick airfoil shape prior to building the wind tunnel models and conducting the experiment. The numerical simulations prove the standard wind tunnel corrections to be largely valid for the proposed test of 40% maximum thickness to chord ratio airfoils at a solid blockage ratio of 10%. Comparison of the computed lift characteristics of a sharp trailing edge baseline airfoil and derived flatback airfoils reaffirms the earlier observed trend of reduced sensitivity to surface contamination with increasing trailing edge thickness.

Mayda, Edward A. (University of California, Davis, CA); van Dam, C.P. (University of California, Davis, CA); Chao, David D. (University of California, Davis, CA); Berg, Dale E.

2008-04-01

97

A unified viscous theory of lift and drag of 2-D thin airfoils and 3-D thin wings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A unified viscous theory of 2-D thin airfoils and 3-D thin wings is developed with numerical examples. The viscous theory of the load distribution is unique and tends to the classical inviscid result with Kutta condition in the high Reynolds number limit. A new theory of 2-D section induced drag is introduced with specific applications to three cases of interest: (1) constant angle of attack; (2) parabolic camber; and (3) a flapped airfoil. The first case is also extended to a profiled leading edge foil. The well-known drag due to absence of leading edge suction is derived from the viscous theory. It is independent of Reynolds number for zero thickness and varies inversely with the square root of the Reynolds number based on the leading edge radius for profiled sections. The role of turbulence in the section induced drag problem is discussed. A theory of minimum section induced drag is derived and applied. For low Reynolds number the minimum drag load tends to the constant angle of attack solution and for high Reynolds number to an approximation of the parabolic camber solution. The parabolic camber section induced drag is about 4 percent greater than the ideal minimum at high Reynolds number. Two new concepts, the viscous induced drag angle and the viscous induced separation potential are introduced. The separation potential is calculated for three 2-D cases and for a 3-D rectangular wing. The potential is calculated with input from a standard doublet lattice wing code without recourse to any boundary layer calculations. Separation is indicated in regions where it is observed experimentally. The classical induced drag is recovered in the 3-D high Reynolds number limit with an additional contribution that is Reynold number dependent. The 3-D viscous theory of minimum induced drag yields an equation for the optimal spanwise and chordwise load distribution. The design of optimal wing tip planforms and camber distributions is possible with the viscous 3-D wing theory.

Yates, John E.

1991-01-01

98

Wind tunnel results for a high-speed, natural laminar-flow airfoil designed for general aviation aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two dimensional wind tunnel tests were conducted on a high speed natural laminar flow airfoil in both the Langley 6 x 28 inch Transonic Tunnel and the Langley Low Turbulence Pressure Tunnel. The test conditions consisted of Mach numbers ranging from 0.10 to 0.77 and Reynolds numbers ranging from 3 x 1 million to 11 x 1 million. The airfoil was designed for a lift coefficient of 0.20 at a Mach number of 0.70 and Reynolds number of 11 x 1 million. At these conditions, laminar flow would extend back to 50 percent chord of the upper surface and 70 percent chord of the lower surface. Low speed results were also obtained with a 0.20 chord trailing edge split flap deflected 60 deg.

Sewall, William G.; Mcghee, Robert J.; Viken, Jeffery K.; Waggoner, Edgar G.; Walker, Betty S.; Millard, Betty F.

1985-01-01

99

Viscous-flow analysis of a subsonic transport aircraft high-lift system and correlation with flight data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High-lift system aerodynamics has been gaining attention in recent years. In an effort to improve aircraft performance, comprehensive studies of multi-element airfoil systems are being undertaken in wind-tunnel and flight experiments. Recent developments in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) offer a relatively inexpensive alternative for studying complex viscous flows by numerically solving the Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations. Current limitations in computer resources restrict practical high-lift N-S computations to two dimensions, but CFD predictions can yield tremendous insight into flow structure, interactions between airfoil elements, and effects of changes in airfoil geometry or free-stream conditions. These codes are very accurate when compared to strictly 2D data provided by wind-tunnel testing, as will be shown here. Yet, additional challenges must be faced in the analysis of a production aircraft wing section, such as that of the NASA Langley Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV). A primary issue is the sweep theory used to correlate 2D predictions with 3D flight results, accounting for sweep, taper, and finite wing effects. Other computational issues addressed here include the effects of surface roughness of the geometry, cove shape modeling, grid topology, and transition specification. The sensitivity of the flow to changing free-stream conditions is investigated. In addition, the effects of Gurney flaps on the aerodynamic characteristics of the airfoil system are predicted.

Potter, R. C.; Vandam, C. P.

1995-01-01

100

An experimental low Reynolds number comparison of a Wortmann FX67-K170 airfoil, a NACA 0012 airfoil and a NACA 64-210 airfoil in simulated heavy rain  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wind tunnel experiments were conducted on Wortmann FX67-K170, NACA 0012, and NACA 64-210 airfoils at rain rates of 1000 mm/hr and Reynolds numbers of 310,000 to compare the aerodynamic performance degradation of the airfoils and to attempt to identify the various mechanisms which affect performance in heavy rain conditions. Lift and drag were measured in dry and wet conditions, a variety of flow visualization techniques were employed, and a computational code which predicted airfoil boundary layer behavior was used. At low angles of attack, the lift degradation in wet conditions varied significantly between the airfoils. The Wortmann section had the greatest overall lift degradation and the NACA 64-210 airfoil had the smallest. At high angles of attack, the NACA 64-210 and 0012 airfoils had improved aerodynamic performance in rain conditions due to an apparent reduction of the boundry layer separation. Performance degradation in heavy rain for all three airfoils at low angles of attack could be emulated by forced boundary layer transition near the leading edge. The secondary effect occurs at time scales consistent with top surface water runback times. The runback layer is thought to effectively alter the airfoil geometry. The severity of the performance degradation for the airfoils varied. The relative differences appeared to be related to the susceptibility of each airfoil to premature boundary layer transition.

Craig, Anthony P.; Hansman, R. John

1987-01-01

101

Close to real life. [solving for transonic flow about lifting airfoils using supercomputers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation (NAS) facility for CFD modeling of highly complex aerodynamic flows employs as its basic hardware two Cray-2s, an ETA-10 Model Q, an Amdahl 5880 mainframe computer that furnishes both support processing and access to 300 Gbytes of disk storage, several minicomputers and superminicomputers, and a Thinking Machines 16,000-device 'connection machine' processor. NAS, which was the first supercomputer facility to standardize operating-system and communication software on all processors, has done important Space Shuttle aerodynamics simulations and will be critical to the configurational refinement of the National Aerospace Plane and its intergrated powerplant, which will involve complex, high temperature reactive gasdynamic computations.

Peterson, Victor L.; Bailey, F. Ron

1988-01-01

102

Trailing edge modifications for flatback airfoils.  

SciTech Connect

The adoption of blunt trailing edge airfoils (also called flatback airfoils) for the inboard region of large wind turbine blades has been proposed. Blunt trailing edge airfoils would not only provide a number of structural benefits, such as increased structural volume and ease of fabrication and handling, but they have also been found to improve the lift characteristics of thick airfoils. Therefore, the incorporation of blunt trailing edge airfoils would allow blade designers to more freely address the structural demands without having to sacrifice aerodynamic performance. These airfoils do have the disadvantage of generating high levels of drag as a result of the low-pressure steady or periodic flow in the near-wake of the blunt trailing edge. Although for rotors, the drag penalty appears secondary to the lift enhancement produced by the blunt trailing edge, high drag levels are of concern in terms of the negative effect on the torque and power generated by the rotor. Hence, devices are sought that mitigate the drag of these airfoils. This report summarizes the literature on bluff body vortex shedding and bluff body drag reduction devices and proposes four devices for further study in the wind tunnel.

Kahn, Daniel L. (University of California, Davis, CA); van Dam, C.P. (University of California, Davis, CA); Berg, Dale E.

2008-03-01

103

HSR High Lift Program and PCD2 Update  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mission of High-Lift Technology is to develop technology allowing the design of practical high lift concepts for the High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) in order to: 1) operate safely and efficiently; and 2) reduce terminal control area and community noise. In fulfilling this mission, close and continuous coordination will be maintained with other High-Speed Research (HSR) technology elements in order to support optimization of the overall airplane (rather than just the high lift system).

Kemmerly, Guy T.; Coen, Peter; Meredith, Paul; Clark, Roger; Hahne, Dave; Smith, Brian

1999-01-01

104

Design and experimental results for the S814 airfoil  

SciTech Connect

A 24-percent-thick airfoil, the S814, for the root region of a horizontal-axis wind-turbine blade has been designed and analyzed theoretically and verified experimentally in the low-turbulence wind tunnel of the Delft University of Technology Low Speed Laboratory, The Netherlands. The two primary objectives of high maximum lift, insensitive to roughness, and low profile drag have been achieved. The constraints on the pitching moment and the airfoil thickness have been satisfied. Comparisons of the theoretical and experimental results show good agreement with the exception of maximum lift which is overpredicted. Comparisons with other airfoils illustrate the higher maximum lift and the lower profile drag of the S814 airfoil, thus confirming the achievement of the objectives.

Somers, D.M. [Airfoils, Inc., State College, PA (United States)

1997-01-01

105

Boundary Layer Relaminarization and High-Lift Aerodynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern high-lift devices are complicated systems that exhibit a variety of complex flow physics phenomena. Thomas( Thomas, F.O., Liu, X., & Nelson, R.C., 1997, ``Experimental Investigation of the Confluent Boundary Layer of a High-Lift System,'' AIAA Paper 97-1934.) outlines several critical flow phenomena, dubbed ``high-lift building block flows'', that can be found in a typical multi-element high-lift system. One such high-lift building block flow is turbulent boundary layer relaminarization, which may be responsible for such phenomena as ``inverse Reynolds number effects.'' Flight test experiments on leading edge transition and relaminarization conducted by Yip, et al(Yip, et al), ``The NASA B737-100 High-Lift Flight Research Program--Measurements and Computations,'' Aeronautical Journal, Paper No. 2125, Nov. 1995. using the NASA Transport Systems Research Vehicle, a Boeing 737-100, have provided tantalizing evidence but not proof of the existence of relaminarization in high-lift systems. To investigate the possibility of boundary layer relaminarization occuring on a high-lift system, a joint wind tunnel/flight test program is in progress with the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center to determine the role, if any, that turbulent boundary layer relaminarization plays in high-lift aerodynamics. Sponsored under NASA grant No. NAG4-123

Bourassa, Corey; Thomas, Flint O.; Nelson, Robert C.

1998-11-01

106

Aerodynamic characteristics of a propeller powered high lift semispan wing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental investigation was conducted on the engine/airframe integration aerodynamics for potential high-lift aircraft configurations. The model consisted of a semispan wing with a double-isolated flap system and a Krueger leading edge device. The advanced propeller and the powered nacelle were tested and aerodynamic characteristics of the combined system are presented. It was found that the lift coefficient of the powered wing could be increased by the propeller slipstream when the rotational speed was increased and high-lift devices were deployed. Moving the nacelle/propeller closer to the wing in the vertical direction indicated higher lift augmentation than a shift in the longitudinal direction. A pitch-down nacelle inclination enhanced the lift performance of the system much better than vertical and horizontal variation of the nacelle locations and showed that the powered wing can sustain higher angles of attack near maximum lift performance.

Takallu, M. A.; Gentry, G. L., Jr.

1992-01-01

107

High-Lift Systems on Commercial Subsonic Airliners  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The early breed of slow commercial airliners did not require high-lift systems because their wing loadings were low and their speed ratios between cruise and low speed (takeoff and landing) were about 2:1. However, even in those days the benefit of high-lift devices was recognized. Simple trailing-edge flaps were in use, not so much to reduce landing speeds, but to provide better glide-slope control without sideslipping the airplane and to improve pilot vision over the nose by reducing attitude during low-speed flight. As commercial-airplane cruise speeds increased with the development of more powerful engines, wing loadings increased and a real need for high-lift devices emerged to keep takeoff and landing speeds within reasonable limits. The high-lift devices of that era were generally trailing-edge flaps. When jet engines matured sufficiently in military service and were introduced commercially, airplane speed capability had to be increased to best take advantage of jet engine characteristics. This speed increase was accomplished by introducing the wing sweep and by further increasing wing loading. Whereas increased wing loading called for higher lift coefficients at low speeds, wing sweep actually decreased wing lift at low speeds. Takeoff and landing speeds increased on early jet airplanes, and, as a consequence, runways worldwide had to be lengthened. There are economical limits to the length of runways; there are safety limits to takeoff and landing speeds; and there are speed limits for tires. So, in order to hold takeoff and landing speeds within reasonable limits, more powerful high-lift devices were required. Wing trailing-edge devices evolved from plain flaps to Fowler flaps with single, double, and even triple slots. Wing leading edges evolved from fixed leading edges to a simple Krueger flap, and from fixed, slotted leading edges to two- and three-position slats and variable-camber (VC) Krueger flaps. The complexity of high-lift systems probably peaked on the Boeing 747, which has a VC Krueger flap and triple-slotted, inboard and outboard trailing-edge flaps. Since then, the tendency in high-lift system development has been to achieve high levels of lift with simpler devices in order to reduce fleet acquisition and maintenance costs. The intent of this paper is to: (1) review available high-lift devices, their functions, and design criteria; (2) appraise high-lift systems presently in service on commercial air liners; (3) present personal study results on high-lift systems; (4) develop a weight and cost model for high-lift systems; and (5) discuss the development tendencies of future high-lift systems.

Rudolph, Peter K. C.

1996-01-01

108

S814 and S815 Airfoils. (Report for October 1991-July 1992).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two thick laminar-flow airfoils for the root portion of a horizontal-axis wind turbine blade, the S814 and S815, have been designed and analyzed theoretically. For both airfoils, the primary objectives of high maximum lift, insensitive to roughness, and l...

D. M. Somers

2004-01-01

109

Wind-tunnel test of the S814 thick root airfoil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this wind-tunnel test was to verify the predictions of the Eppler Airfoil Design and Analysis Code for a very thick airfoil having a high maximum lift coefficient (c{sub 1,max} designed to be largely insensitive to leading edge roughness effects. The 24-percent-thick S814 airfoil was designed with these characteristics to accommodate aerodynamic and structural considerations for the root

D. M. Somers; J. L. Tangler

1995-01-01

110

High-lift aerodynamics: Trends, trades, and options  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The trend toward the utilization of higher maximum lift coefficient with increased aircraft size and cruise velocities is discussed. The impact of this trend on the need for tradeoffs between cruise performance and takeoff, climb, and landing performance is examined. Theoretical methods for the analysis of the two-dimensional characteristics of flap systems are described and compared with experimental data. Four powered-lift concepts are described to outline some of the options currently being developed. Two jet-flap theories are described which provide analytical methods for estimation of the three-dimensional aerodynamic high-lift performance characteristics of powered lift systems.

Margason, R. J.; Morgan, H. L., Jr.

1975-01-01

111

Lift force of delta wings  

SciTech Connect

On a delta wing, the separation vortices can be stationary due to the balance of the vorticity surface flux and the axial convection along the swept leading edge. These stationary vortices keep the wing from losing lift. A highly swept delta wing reaches the maximum lift at an angle of attack of about 40, which is more than twice as high as that of a two-dimensional airfoil. In this paper, the experimental results of lift forces for delta wings are reviewed from the perspective of fundamental vorticity balance. The effects of different operational and geometrical parameters on the performance of delta wings are surveyed.

Lee, M.; Ho, Chihming (Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles (USA))

1990-09-01

112

Application of Excitation from Multiple Locations on a Simplified High-Lift System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of active flow control experiments were recently conducted on a simplified high-lift system. The purpose of the experiments was to explore the prospects of eliminating all but simply hinged leading and trailing edge flaps, while controlling separation on the supercritical airfoil using multiple periodic excitation slots. Excitation was provided by three. independently controlled, self-contained, piezoelectric actuators. Low frequency excitation was generated through amplitude modulation of the high frequency carrier wave, the actuators' resonant frequencies. It was demonstrated, for the first time, that pulsed modulated signal from two neighboring slots interact favorably to increase lift. Phase sensitivity at the low frequency was measured, even though the excitation was synthesized from the high-frequency carrier wave. The measurements were performed at low Reynolds numbers and included mean and unsteady surface pressures, surface hot-films, wake pressures and particle image velocimetry. A modest (6%) increase in maximum lift (compared to the optimal baseline) was obtained due t o the activation of two of the three actuators.

Melton, LaTunia Pack; Yao, Chung-Sheng; Seifert, Avi

2004-01-01

113

Heat Transfer from airfoils at high Reynolds numbers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modeling using CFD was performed to obtain the magnitude of heat transfer from the surface of an airfoil along its entire chord length. The computations were performed on various shapes of airfoils at different angles of attack and Reynolds numbers for the purpose of giving a good representation of the behavior of heat transfer throughout varying flight conditions. The results

Ephraim Gutmark; David Cusimano

1999-01-01

114

Effects of Compressibility on the Maximum Lift Characteristics and Spanwise Load Distribution of a 12-Foot-Span Fighter-Type Wing of NACA 230-Series Airfoil Sections  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lift characteristics and pressure distribution for a NACA 230 wing were investigated for an angle of attack range of from -10 to +24 degrees and Mach range of from 0.2 to 0.7. Maximum lift coefficient increased up to a Mach number of 0.3, decreased rapidly to a Mach number of 0.55, and then decreased moderately. At high speeds, maximum lift coefficient was reached at from 10 to 12 degrees beyond the stalling angle. In high-speed stalls, resultant load underwent a moderate shift outward.

West, F E

1945-01-01

115

Development of the highly loaded axial flow turbine airfoils, making use of the improved inverse channel flow design method  

Microsoft Academic Search

To reduce the number of the turbine airfoils or the solidity as far as possible without increasing energy loss, a study of highly loaded turbine airfoils was conducted. These airfoils were designed for the typical velocity diagrams of the first and second stages of a jet engine low pressure turbine. With regard to the design procedures, an improved inverse method,

K. Hashimoto

1985-01-01

116

A comparison of Wortmann airfoil computer-generated lift and drag polars with flight and wind tunnel results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computations of drag polars for a low-speed Wortmann sailplane airfoil are compared with both wind tunnel and flight test results. Excellent correlation was shown to exist between computations and flight results except when separated flow regimes were encountered. Smoothness of the input coordinates to the PROFILE computer program was found to be essential to obtain accurate comparisons of drag polars or transition location to either the flight or wind tunnel flight results.

Bowers, A. H.; Sim, A. G.

1984-01-01

117

Development of the Risø wind turbine airfoils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the wind turbine airfoil development at Risø. The design method is described together with our target characteristics for wind turbine airfoils. The use of the CFD code Ellipsys2D for prediction of final target characteristics is described together with the VELUX wind tunnel testing setup. Three airfoil families were developed; Risø-A1, Risø-P and Risø-B1. The Risø-A1 airfoil family was developed for rotors of 600 kW and larger. Wind tunnel testing and field testing showed that this airfoil family is well suited for stall and active stall control. However, sensitivity to roughness was higher than expected. Field tests of a 600 kW active stall wind turbine showed an estimated reduction in blade fatigue loading of up to 15% at the same annual energy yield and at the same time reduced blade weight and blade solidity. The Risø-P airfoils were developed to replace the Risø-A1 airfoils for use on pitch controlled wind turbines. Improved design objectives should reduce the sensitivity to roughness, but measurements are not yet available. The Risø-B1 airfoil family was developed for variable speed operation with pitch control of large megawatt sized rotors. Wind tunnel testing verified the high maximum lift for these airfoils, and the airfoils were found to be very insensitive to leading edge roughness. Performance with vortex generators and Gurney flaps in combination was found to be attractive for the blade root part. Field testing of a 1.5 MW rotor is in progress. Copyright

Fuglsang, Peter; Bak, Christian

2004-04-01

118

Heat Transfer from airfoils at high Reynolds numbers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modeling using CFD was performed to obtain the magnitude of heat transfer from the surface of an airfoil along its entire chord length. The computations were performed on various shapes of airfoils at different angles of attack and Reynolds numbers for the purpose of giving a good representation of the behavior of heat transfer throughout varying flight conditions. The results were validated against existing experimental data. Heat transfer form the heated airfoil was computed at Reynolds numbers ranging from 3.5 X 10^6 to 9.8 X 10^6. Individual runs were performed on two-dimensional cross sections at four evenly spaced locations across the span of the twisted wing. Boundary layer transition point was predicted from correlations from experimental data. All cases showed a regional heat transfer maximum near the stagnation region at the leading edge of the airfoil and a decline further downstream on both upper and lower surfaces of the airfoil. The minimum is followed by a sharp increase in heat transfer at the point where the boundary layer becomes turbulent and a moderate tapering off towards the aft section as the boundary layer thickens. The model was validated with actual flight and tunnel test data for several airfoil shapes and for the same range of flight conditions and was found to be in good agreement at the conditions presented in this study.

Gutmark, Ephraim; Cusimano, David

1999-11-01

119

Wind tunnel testing of low-drag airfoils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are presented for the measured performance recently obtained on several airfoil concepts designed to achieve low drag by maintaining extensive regions of laminar flow without compromising high-lift performance. The wind tunnel results extend from subsonic to transonic speeds and include boundary-layer control through shaping and suction. The research was conducted in the NASA Langley 8-Ft Transonic Pressure Tunnel (TPT) and Low Turbulence Pressure Tunnel (LTPT) which have been developed for testing such low-drag airfoils. Emphasis is placed on identifying some of the major factors influencing the anticipated performance of low-drag airfoils.

Harvey, W. Donald; Mcghee, R. J.; Harris, C. D.

1986-01-01

120

An Exploratory Investigation of a Slotted, Natural-Laminar-Flow Airfoil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 15-percent-thick, slotted, natural-laminar-flow (SNLF) airfoil, the S103, for general aviation applications has been designed and analyzed theoretically and verified experimentally in the Langley Low-Turbulence Pressure Tunnel. The two primary objectives of high maximum lift and low profile drag have been achieved. The constraints on the pitching moment and the airfoil thickness have been satisfied. The airfoil exhibits a rapid stall, which does not meet the design goal. Comparisons of the theoretical and experimental results show good agreement. Comparison with the baseline, NASA NLF(1)-0215F airfoil confirms the achievement of the objectives.

Somers, Dan M.

2012-01-01

121

High-Speed FPGA Implementation for DWT of Lifting Scheme  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new approach for Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) has been proposed recently under the name of lifting scheme. This scheme presents many advantages over the convolution-based approach. In this paper, a high speed 9\\/7 lifting DWT algorithm which is implementation on FPGA with multi-stage pipelining structure and rational 9\\/7 coefficients is presented. Compared with the architecture without multi-stage pipeline, the

Wei Wang; Zhiyun Du; Yong Zeng

2009-01-01

122

Tests of N-85, N-86 and N-87 airfoil sections in the 11-inch high speed wind tunnel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three airfoils, the N-85, the N-86, and the N-87, were tested at the request of the Bureau of Aeronautics, Navy Department, to determine the suitability of these sections for use as propeller-blade sections. Further tests of the NACA 0009-64 airfoil were also made to measure the aerodynamic effect of thickening the trailing edge in accordance with current propeller practice. The N-86 and the N-87 airfoils appear to be nearly equivalent aerodynamically and both are superior to the N-85 airfoil. Comparison of those airfoils with the previously developed NACA 2409-34 airfoils indicate that the NACA 2409-34 is superior, particularly at high speeds. Thickening the trailing edge appears to have a detrimental effect, although the effect may be small if the trailing-edge radius is less than 0.5 percent of the cord. The N-86 and the N-87 airfoils appear to be nearly equivalent.

Stack, John; Lindsey, W F

1938-01-01

123

Theory of viscous transonic flow over airfoils at high Reynolds number  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper considers viscous flows with unseparated turbulent boundary layers over two-dimensional airfoils at transonic speeds. Conventional theoretical methods are based on boundary layer formulations which do not account for the effect of the curved wake and static pressure variations across the boundary layer in the trailing edge region. In this investigation an extended viscous theory is developed that accounts for both effects. The theory is based on a rational analysis of the strong turbulent interaction at airfoil trailing edges. The method of matched asymptotic expansions is employed to develop formal series solutions of the full Reynolds equations in the limit of Reynolds numbers tending to infinity. Procedures are developed for combining the local trailing edge solution with numerical methods for solving the full potential flow and boundary layer equations. Theoretical results indicate that conventional boundary layer methods account for only about 50% of the viscous effect on lift, the remaining contribution arising from wake curvature and normal pressure gradient effects.

Melnik, R. E.; Chow, R.; Mead, H. R.

1977-01-01

124

Experimental and Numerical Investigations of a High Performance Co-Flow Jet Airfoil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work reflected in this thesis includes a detailed study of co-flow jet (CFJ) technologies as they are applied to a typical thin airfoil, NACA 6415, at take-off and landing speeds. Numerical analysis and experimental testing were conducted on baseline and co-flow jet airfoils of the same plan form. The CFJ mechanism employs high pressure air injected along the span

Danah Kirk

2009-01-01

125

Unsteady flow structure and vorticity convection over the airfoil oscillating at high reduced frequency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unsteady vortex structures and vorticity convection over the airfoil (NACA 0012), oscillating in the uniform inflow, are studied by flow visualization and velocity measurements. The airfoil, pivoting at one-third of the chord, oscillates periodically near the static stalling angle of attack (AOA) at high reduced-frequency. The phase-triggering and modified phase-averaged techniques are employed to reconstruct the pseudo instantaneous velocity field

Cheng-Hsiung Kuo; J. K. Hsieh

2001-01-01

126

Wind-tunnel test results of airfoil modifications for the EA-6B  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wind-tunnel tests have been conducted (to determine the effects on airfoil performance for several airfoil modifications) for the EA-6B Wing Improvement Program. The modifications consist of contour changes to the leading-edge slat and trailing-edge flap to provide a higher low-speed maximum lift with no high-speed cruise-drag penalty. Airfoil sections from the 28- and 76-percent span stations were selected as baseline shapes with the major testing devoted to the inboard airfoil section (28-percent span station). The airfoil modifications increased the low-speed maximum lift coefficient between 20 and 35 percent over test conditions of 3 to 14 million chord Reynolds number and 0.14 to 0.34 Mach number. At the high-speed test conditions of 0.4 to 0.80 Mach number and 10 million chord Reynolds number, the modified airfoils had either matched or had lower drag coefficients for all normal-force coefficients above 0.2 as compared to the baseline airfoil. At normal-force coefficients less than 0.2, the baseline (original) airfoil had lower drag coefficients than any of the modified airfoils.

Sewall, W. G.; Mcghee, R. J.; Ferris, J. C.

1987-01-01

127

Wind tunnel tests of an NACA 23021 airfoil equipped with a slotted extensible and a plain extensible flap  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation has been made in the NACA 7- by 10-foot wind tunnel of a large chord NACA 23021 airfoil equipped with two arrangements of a completely extended 15 percent chord extensible flap. One of the flaps had a faired juncture, without a gap; the other was provided with a slot between the trailing edge of the airfoil and the nose of the flap. The results showed that the basic airfoil gave the lowest profile-drag coefficients over the low lift range, the airfoil with the plain extensible flap gave the lowest profile-drag coefficients over the moderate lift range, and the airfoil with the slotted extensible flap gave the lowest profile-drag coefficients over the high lift range. The airfoil with the slotted extensible flap had the same maximum lift at a flap deflection of 25 degrees as the airfoil with the plain extensible flap had at a flap deflection of 60 degrees. The results of comparisons of the airfoil pitching-moment coefficients obtained with the two types of flap are dependent upon the basis chosen for comparison. Complete aerodynamic section characteristics are presented for the various flap deflections for both flap arrangements in the completely extended portion.

Swanson, Robert S; Harris, Thomas A

1940-01-01

128

Airfoils for wind turbine  

DOEpatents

Airfoils for the tip and mid-span regions of a wind turbine blade have upper surface and lower surface shapes and contours between a leading edge and a trailing edge that minimize roughness effects of the airfoil and provide maximum lift coefficients that are largely insensitive to roughness effects. The airfoil in one embodiment is shaped and contoured to have a thickness in a range of about fourteen to seventeen percent, a Reynolds number in a range of about 1,500,000 to 2,000,000, and a maximum lift coefficient in a range of about 1.4 to 1.5. In another embodiment, the airfoil is shaped and contoured to have a thickness in a range of about fourteen percent to sixteen percent, a Reynolds number in a range of about 1,500,000 to 3,000,000, and a maximum lift coefficient in a range of about 0.7 to 1.5. Another embodiment of the airfoil is shaped and contoured to have a Reynolds in a range of about 1,500,000 to 4,000,000, and a maximum lift coefficient in a range of about 1.0 to 1.5.

Tangler, James L. (Boulder, CO) [Boulder, CO; Somers, Dan M. (State College, PA) [State College, PA

2000-01-01

129

Trailing edge modifications for flatback airfoils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adoption of blunt trailing edge airfoils (also called flatback airfoils) for the inboard region of large wind turbine blades has been proposed. Blunt trailing edge airfoils would not only provide a number of structural benefits, such as increased structural volume and ease of fabrication and handling, but they have also been found to improve the lift characteristics of thick

Daniel L. Kahn; C. P. van Dam; Dale E. Berg

2008-01-01

130

Root region airfoil for wind turbine  

DOEpatents

A thick airfoil for the root region of the blade of a wind turbine. The airfoil has a thickness in a range from 24%-26% and a Reynolds number in a range from 1,000,000 to 1,800,000. The airfoil has a maximum lift coefficient of 1.4-1.6 that has minimum sensitivity to roughness effects.

Tangler, James L. (Boulder, CO) [Boulder, CO; Somers, Dan M. (State College, PA) [State College, PA

1995-01-01

131

Analytical and computational investigations of airfoils undergoing high-frequency sinusoidal pitch and plunge motions at low Reynolds numbers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current interests in Micro Air Vehicle (MAV) technologies call for the development of aerodynamic-design tools that will aid in the design of more efficient platforms that will also have adequate stability and control for flight in gusty environments. Influenced largely by nature MAVs tend to be very small, have low flight speeds, and utilize flapping motions for propulsion. For these reasons the focus is, specifically, on high-frequency motions at low Reynolds numbers. Toward the goal of developing design tools, it is of interest to explore the use of elementary flow solutions for simple motions such as pitch and plunge oscillations to predict aerodynamic performance for more complex motions. In the early part of this research, a validation effort was undertaken. Computations from the current effort were compared with experiments conducted in a parallel, collaborative effort at the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). A set of pure-pitch and pure-plunge sinusoidal oscillations of the SD7003 airfoil were examined. Phase-averaged measurements using particle image velocimetry in a water tunnel were compared with computations using two flow solvers: (i) an incompressible Navier-Stokes Immersed Boundary Method and (ii) an unsteady compressible Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solver. The motions were at a reduced frequency of k = 3.93, and pitch-angle amplitudes were chosen such that a kinematic equivalence in amplitudes of effective angle of attack (from plunge) was obtained. Plunge cases showed good qualitative agreement between computation and experiment, but in the pitch cases, the wake vorticity in the experiment was substantially different from that predicted by both computations. Further, equivalence between the pure-pitch and pure-plunge motions was not attained through matching effective angle of attack. With the failure of pitch/plunge equivalence using equivalent amplitudes of effective angle of attack, the effort shifted to include pitch-rate and wake-effect terms through the use of analytical methods including quasi-steady thin-airfoil theory (QSTAT) and Theodorsen's theory. These theories were used to develop three analytical approaches for determining pitch motions equivalent to plunge motions. A study of variation in plunge height was then examined and followed by a study of the effect of rotation point using the RANS solver. For the range of plunge heights studied, it was observed that kinematic matching between plunge and pitch using QSTAT gave outstanding similarities in flow field, while the matching performed using Theodorsen's theory gave the best equivalence in lift coefficients for all cases. The variation of rotation point revealed that, for the given plunge height, with rotation point in front of the mid-chord location, all three schemes matched flow-field vorticity well, and with rotation point aft of the mid-chord no scheme matched vorticity fields. However, for all rotation points (except for the mid-chord location), CFD prediction of lift coefficients from the Theodorsen matching scheme matched the lift time histories closely to CFD predictions for pure-pitch. Combined pitch and plunge motions were then examined using kinematic parameters obtained from the three schemes. The results showed that QSTAT nearly cancels the vortices emanating from the trailing edge. Theodorsen's matching approach was successful in generating a lift that was close to constant over the entire cycle. Additionally this approach showed the presence of the reverse Karman vortex sheet through the wake. Combined pitch/plunge motions were then analyzed, computationally and experimentally, with a non-zero mean angle of attack. All computational results compared excellently with experiments, capturing vorticity production on the airfoil's surface and through the wake. Lift coefficient through a cycle was shown to tend toward a constant using Theodorsen's parameters, with the constant being dependent on the initial angle of attack. This result points to the possibility of designing an unsteady motion to match a given flig

McGowan, Gregory Z.

132

Noise exposure reduction of advanced high-lift systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of NASA Contract NAS1-20090 Task 3 was to investigate the potential for noise reduction that would result from improving the high-lift performance of conventional subsonic transports. The study showed that an increase in lift-to-drag ratio of 15 percent would reduce certification noise levels by about 2 EPNdB on approach, 1.5 EPNdB on cutback, and zero EPNdB on sideline. In most cases, noise contour areas would be reduced by 10 to 20 percent.

Haffner, Stephen W.

1995-01-01

133

Airfoil flutter model suspension system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A wind tunnel suspension system for testing flutter models under various loads and at various angles of attack is described. The invention comprises a mounting bracket assembly affixing the suspension system to the wind tunnel, a drag-link assembly and a compound spring arrangement comprises a plunge spring working in opposition to a compressive spring so as to provide a high stiffness to trim out steady state loads and simultaneously a low stiffness to dynamic loads. By this arrangement an airfoil may be tested for oscillatory response in both plunge and pitch modes while being held under high lifting loads in a wind tunnel.

Reed, Wilmer H. (inventor)

1987-01-01

134

Design of low Reynolds number airfoils. II  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Low Reynolds number airfoils were designed for high lift-to-drag ratios. Design considerations of low Re-airfoils are discussed and design examples are presented. It is shown that the performance of advance low Reynolds airfoils critically depends on proper laminar separation and transition control for the minimum profile drag coefficient with minimum turbulator device drag. This transition control close to the laminar separation is possible by enforcing transition on the upper surface either directly by means of spanwise rows of three-dimensional roughness elements, bleed or suction holes, or indirectly by means of destabilizing the upper surface boundary layer by means of backward facing surface steps, two-dimensional or zig-zag tapes or weak boundary layer blowing. Pneumatic turbulators are found to be advantageous because they can be adjusted to different external flow conditions better than mechanical ones.

Pfenninger, W.; Vemuru, C. S.; Mangalam, S.; Evangelista, R.

1988-01-01

135

An analytical model for highly seperated flow on airfoils at low speeds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer program was developed to solve the low speed flow around airfoils with highly separated flow. A new flow model included all of the major physical features in the separated region. Flow visualization tests also were made which gave substantiation to the validity of the model. The computation involves the matching of the potential flow, boundary layer and flows in the separated regions. Head's entrainment theory was used for boundary layer calculations and Korst's jet mixing analysis was used in the separated regions. A free stagnation point aft of the airfoil and a standing vortex in the separated region were modelled and computed.

Zunnalt, G. W.; Naik, S. N.

1977-01-01

136

Low speed aerodynamic characteristics of NACA 6716 and NACA 4416 airfoils with 35 percent-chord single-slotted flaps. [low turbulence pressure tunnel tests to determine two dimensional lift and pitching moment characteristics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation was conducted in a low-turbulence pressure tunnel to determine the two-dimensional lift and pitching-moment characteristics of an NACA 6716 and an NACA 4416 airfoil with 35-percent-chord single-slotted flaps. Both models were tested with flaps deflected from 0 deg to 45 deg, at angles of attack from minus 6 deg to several degrees past stall, at Reynolds numbers from 3.0 million to 13.8 million, and primarily at a Mach number of 0.23. Tests were also made to determine the effect of several slot entry shapes on performance.

Bingham, G. J.; Noonan, K. W.

1974-01-01

137

High School Redesign Gets Presidential Lift  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

President Barack Obama applauded high school redesign efforts in his State of the Union address and encouraged districts to look to successful models for inspiration. Last week, he followed up with a request in his fiscal 2014 budget proposal for a new, $300 million competitive-grant program. Recognition is widespread that high schools need to…

Adams, Caralee J.

2013-01-01

138

Flow control on a high thickness airfoil by a trapped vortex cavity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarises the experimental campaign performed at CIRA CT-1 wind tunnel aimed to investigate the potential benefit obtainable using a trapping vortex cell system on a high thickness airfoil with and without steady suction and\\/or injection mass flow. The behaviour of a 2D model, equipped with a span wise oriented circular cavity, has been investigated. Pressure distribution on the

Fabrizio De Gregorio; Giuseppe Fraioli

2008-01-01

139

Airfoil Theory at Supersonic Speed  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A theory is developed for the airfoil of finite span at supersonic speed analogous to the Prandtl airfoil theory of 1918-1919 for incompressible flow. In addition to the profile and induced drags, account must be taken at supersonic flow of still another drag, namely, the wave drag, which is independent of the wing aspect ratio. Both wave and induced drags are proportional to the square of the lift and depend on the Mach number, that is, the ratio of flight to sound speed. In general, in the case of supersonic flow, the drag-lift ratio is considerably less favorable than is the case for incompressible flow. Among others the following examples are considered: 1) lifting line with constant lift distribution (horseshoe vortex); 2) computation of wave and induced drag and the twist of a trapezoidal wing of constant lift density; 3) computation of the lift distribution and drag of an untwisted rectangular wing.

Schlichting, H

1939-01-01

140

Aerodynamic Characteristics of Twenty-Four Airfoils at High Speeds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aerodynamic characteristics of 24 airfoils are given for speeds of 0.5, 0.65, 0.8, 0.95, and 1.08 times the speed of sound, as measured in an open-jet air stream 2 inches in diameter, using models of 1-inch chord. The 24 airfoils belong to four general groups. The first is the standard R. A. F. family in general use by the Army and Navy for propeller design, the members of the family differing only in thickness. This family is represented by nine members ranging in thickness from 0.04 to 0.20 inch. The second group consists of five members of the Clark Y family, the members of the family again differing only in thickness. The third group, comprising six members, is a second R. A. F. Family in which the position of the maximum ordinate is varied. Combined with two members of the first R.A.F. family, this group represents a variation of maximum ordinate position from 30 to 60 percent of the chord in two camber ratios, 0.08 and 0.16. The fourth group consists of three geometrical forms, a flat plate, a wedge, and a segment of a right circular cylinder. In addition one section used in the reed metal propeller was included. These measurements form a part of a general program outlined at a Conference on Propeller Research organized by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics and the work was carried out with the financial assistance of the committee (author)

Brigg, L J; Dryden, H L

1930-01-01

141

Multi-objective optimization design of low-Reynolds-number airfoil in Near Space  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the reason of practical use in propeller design for low-dynamic aircrafts in Near Space, it is very important to have high-performance low-Reynolds-number airfoils which should have high lift-drag ratio, high endurance factor and high maximum-lift-coefficient, etc. Multi-objective optimal design can effectively solve the multiple design-points problem, which is an effective means and methods for optimum aerodynamic design. The paper

Rong Ma; Bowen Zhong; Peiqing Liu; Wenhu Wang

2010-01-01

142

The Effect of Acoustics on Flow Passing a High-Aoa Airfoil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper a study is presented of the separated flow properties and corresponding aerodynamic behaviors of a high-AOA, NACA 63 3-018 airfoil under internal acoustically pulsing excitation in a subsonic wind tunnel. The measurements by means of pitot-static pressure tube and hot-wire anemometer include the boundary layer velocity profiles, boundary layer velocity energy spectra and velocity defect profiles in the wake. Results indicate that the acoustic excitation technique is able to alter the flow properties and thus to improve the aerodynamic performance, especially when the airfoil is fully stalled at high AOA. After the flow is effectively excited, the developed boundary layer delays its separation from the surface. The most effective excitation frequency is found to be equal to the shear layer instability frequency when the airfoil is around at the post-stall angle; however, it becomes of the vortex shedding frequency of the wake when the airfoil's AOA is increased beyond the stall. Data also shown that the higher the pulsing acoustic level is, the better the flow properties are improved.

Hsiao, F.-B.; Jih, J.-J.; Shyu, R.-N.

1997-01-01

143

High-lift chemical heat pump technologies for industrial processes  

SciTech Connect

Traditionally industrial heat pumps (IHPs) have found applications on a process specific basis with reject heat from a process being upgraded and returned to the process. The IHP must be carefully integrated into a process since improper placement may result in an uneconomic application. Industry has emphasized a process integration approach to the design and operation of their plants. Heat pump applications have adopted this approach and the area of applicability was extended by utilizing a process integrated approach where reject heat from one process is upgraded and then used as input for another process. The DOE IHP Program has extended the process integration approach of heat pump application with a plant utility emphasis. In this design philosophy, reject heat from a process is upgraded to plant utility conditions and fed into the plant distribution system. This approach has the advantage that reject heat from any pr@s can be used as input and the output can be used at any location within the plant. Thus the approach can be easily integrated into existing industrial applications and all reject heat streams are potential targets of opportunity. The plant utility approach can not be implemented without having heat pumps with high-lift capabilities (on the order of 65{degree}C). Current heat pumps have only about half the lift capability required. Thus the current emphasis for the DOE IHP Program is the development of high lift chemical heat pumps that can deliver heat more economically to higher heat delivery temperatures. This is achieved with innovative cooling (refrigeration) and heating technologies which are based on advanced cycles and advanced working fluids or a combination of both. This paper details the plan to develop economically competitive, environmentally acceptable heat pump technologies that are capable of providing the delivery temperature and lift required to supply industrial plant utility-grade process heating and/or cooling.

Olszewski, M.; Zaltash, A.

1995-03-01

144

Wind-tunnel test of the S814 thick root airfoil  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this wind-tunnel test was to verify the predictions of the Eppler Airfoil Design and Analysis Code for a very thick airfoil having a high maximum lift coefficient (c{sub 1,max} designed to be largely insensitive to leading edge roughness effects. The 24-percent-thick S814 airfoil was designed with these characteristics to accommodate aerodynamic and structural considerations for the root region of a wind-turbine blade. In addition, the airfoil`s maximum lift-to-drag ratio was designed to occur it a high lift coefficient. To accomplish the objective, a two-dimensional wind-tunnel test of the S814 thick root airfog was conducted in January 1994 in the low-turbulence wind tunnel of the Delft University of Technology Low Speed Laboratory. Data were obtained for transition-free and transition-fixed conditions at Reynolds numbers of 0.7, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 3.0 {times} 10{sup 6}. For the design Reynolds numbers of 1.5 {times} l0{sup 6}, the transition-free c{sub 1,max} is 1.3 which satisfies the design specification. However, this value is significantly lower than the predicted c{sub 1,max} of almost l.6. With transition-fixed at the is 1.2. The difference in c{sub 1,max} between the transition-free and transition-fixed conditions demonstrates the airfoil`s minimal sensitivity to roughness effects. The S814 root airfoil was designed to complement existing NREL low c{sub 1,max} tip-region airfoils for rotor blades 10 to 15 meters in length.

Somers, D.M. [Airfoils, Inc., State College, VA (United States); Tangler, J.L. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

1995-01-01

145

Lift enhancement by trapped vortex  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The viewgraphs and discussion of lift enhancement by trapped vortex are provided. Efforts are continuously being made to find simple ways to convert wings of aircraft from an efficient cruise configuration to one that develops the high lift needed during landing and takeoff. The high-lift configurations studied here consist of conventional airfoils with a trapped vortex over the upper surface. The vortex is trapped by one or two vertical fences that serve as barriers to the oncoming stream and as reflection planes for the vortex and the sink that form a separation bubble on top of the airfoil. Since the full three-dimensional unsteady flow problem over the wing of an aircraft is so complicated that it is hard to get an understanding of the principles that govern the vortex trapping process, the analysis is restricted here to the flow field illustrated in the first slide. It is assumed that the flow field between the two end plates approximates a streamwise strip of the flow over a wing. The flow between the endplates and about the airfoil consists of a spanwise vortex located between the suction orifices in the endplates. The spanwise fence or spoiler located near the nose of the airfoil serves to form a separated flow region and a shear layer. The vorticity in the shear layer is concentrated into the vortex by withdrawal of fluid at the suction orifices. As the strength of the vortex increases with time, it eventually dominates the flow in the separated region so that a shear or vertical layer is no longer shed from the tip of the fence. At that point, the vortex strength is fixed and its location is such that all of the velocity contributions at its center sum to zero thereby making it an equilibrium point for the vortex. The results of a theoretical analysis of such an idealized flow field are described.

Rossow, Vernon J.

1992-01-01

146

Barbell lifting wavelet transform for highly scalable video coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a generic lifting technology (Barbell Lifting), where each predicting or updating signal is generated with a Barbell function instead of always a sample from single direction or bi-direction, to incorporate various motion alignment methods into temporal wavelet transform. The proposed lifting technology embraces fractional pixel motion alignment, variable block size motion alignment and overlapped block motion alignment

Ruiqin Xiong; Feng Wu; Jizheng Xu; Shipeng Li; Ya-Qin Zhang

2004-01-01

147

THE EFFECT OF ACOUSTICS ON FLOW PASSING A HIGH-AOA AIRFOIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a study is presented of the separated flow properties and corresponding aerodynamic behaviors of a high-AOA, NACA 633-018 airfoil under internal acoustically pulsing excitation in a subsonic wind tunnel. The measurements by means of pitot-static pressure tube and hot-wire anemometer include the boundary layer velocity profiles, boundary layer velocity energy spectra and velocity defect profiles in the

F.-B. Hsiao; J.-J. Jih; R.-N. Shyu

1997-01-01

148

Gurney flap—Lift enhancement, mechanisms and applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since its invention by a race car driver Dan Gurney in 1960s, the Gurney flap has been used to enhance the aerodynamics performance of subsonic and supercritical airfoils, high-lift devices and delta wings. In order to take stock of recent research and development of Gurney flap, we have carried out a review of the characteristics and mechanisms of lift enhancement by the Gurney flap and its applications. Optimum design of the Gurney flap is also summarized in this paper. For the Gurney flap to be effective, it should be mounted at the trailing edge perpendicular to the chord line of airfoil or wing. The flap height must be of the order of local boundary layer thickness. For subsonic airfoils, an additional Gurney flap increases the pressure on the upstream surface of the Gurney flap, which increases the total pressure of the lower surface. At the same time, a long wake downstream of the flap containing a pair of counter-rotating vortices can delay or eliminate the flow separation near the trailing edge on the upper surface. Correspondingly, the total suction on the airfoil is increased. For supercritical airfoils, the lift enhancement of the Gurney flap mainly comes from its ability to shift the shock on the upper surface in the downstream. Applications of the Gurney flap to modern aircraft design are also discussed in this review.

Wang, J. J.; Li, Y. C.; Choi, K.-S.

2008-01-01

149

On the Use of Surface Porosity to Reduce Unsteady Lift  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An innovative application of existing technology is proposed for attenuating the effects of transient phenomena, such as rotor-stator and rotor-strut interactions, linked to noise and fatigue failure in turbomachinery environments. A computational study was designed to assess the potential of passive porosity technology as a mechanism for alleviating interaction effects by reducing the unsteady lift developed on a stator airfoil subject to wake impingement. The study involved a typical high bypass fan Stator airfoil (solid baseline and several porous configurations), immersed in a free field and exposed to the effects of a transversely moving wake. It was found that, for the airfoil under consideration, the magnitude of the unsteady lift could be reduced more than 18% without incurring significant performance losses.

Tinetti, Ana F.; Kelly, Jeffrey J.; Bauer, Steven X. S.; Thomas, Russell H.

2001-01-01

150

LES of High-Reynolds-Number Coanda Flow Separating from a Rounded Trailing Edge of a Circulation Control Airfoil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the Large Eddy Simulation of a high reynolds number Coanda flow that is separated from a round trailing edge of a ciruclation control airfoil. The objectives of the study are: (1) To investigate detailed physics (flow structures and statistics) of the fully turbulent Coanda jet applied to a CC airfoil, by using LES (2) To compare LES and RANS results to figure out how to improve the performance of existing RANS models for this type of flow.

Nichino, Takafumi; Hahn, Seonghyeon; Shariff, Karim

2010-01-01

151

Measurements of surface-pressure and wake-flow fluctuations in the flow field of a whitcomb supercritical airfoil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements of surface pressure and wake flow fluctuations were made as part of a transonic wind tunnel investigation into the nature of a supercritical airfoil flow field. Emphasis was on a range of high subsonic Mach numbers and moderate lift coefficients corresponding to the development of drag divergence and buffeting. Fluctuation data were analyzed statistically for intensity, frequency content, and spatial coherence. Variations in these parameters were correlated with changes in the mean airfoil flow field.

Roos, F. W.; Riddle, D. W.

1977-01-01

152

Root region airfoil for wind turbine  

DOEpatents

A thick airfoil is described for the root region of the blade of a wind turbine. The airfoil has a thickness in a range from 24%--26% and a Reynolds number in a range from 1,000,000 to 1,800,000. The airfoil has a maximum lift coefficient of 1.4--1.6 that has minimum sensitivity to roughness effects. 3 Figs.

Tangler, J.L.; Somers, D.M.

1995-05-23

153

Systematic airfoil tests in the large wind tunnel of the DVL  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present report is a description of systematic tests at maximum lift on airfoils with and without split flap and of profile drag at low lift. In order to obtain an opinion as to the suitability of the airfoils with flaps, the maximum-lift measurements were repeated on airfoils with split flaps. The profile drag at low lift was arrived at by direct weighing and momentum measurements and, since the profiles were of unusual depth, extended to large Reynolds numbers.

Doetsch, H; Kramer, M

1938-01-01

154

Development of a Large-Scale, Outdoor, Ground-Based Test Capability for Evaluating the Effect of Rain on Airfoil Lift.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A large-scale, outdoor, ground-based test capability for acquiring aerodynamic data in a simulated rain environment was developed at the Langley Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF) to assess the effect of heavy rain on airfoil performance. The ALDF ...

G. M. Bezos B. A. Campbell

1993-01-01

155

Aerodynamic flow control of a high lift system with dual synthetic jet arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Implementing flow control systems will mitigate the vibration and aeroacoustic issues associated with weapons bays; enhance the performance of the latest generation aircraft by reducing their fuel consumption and improving their high angle-of-attack handling qualities; facilitate steep climb out profiles for military transport aircraft. Experimental research is performed on a NACA 0015 airfoil with a simple flap at angle of attack of 16o in both clean and high lift configurations. The results of the active control phase of the project will be discussed. Three different experiments were conducted; they are Amplitude Modulated Dual Location Open Loop Control, Adaptive Control with Amplitude Modulation using Direct Sensor Feedback and Adaptive Control with Amplitude Modulation using Extremum Seeking Control. All the closed loop experiments are dual location. The analysis presented uses the spatial variation of the root mean square pressure fluctuations, power spectral density estimates, Fast Fourier Transforms (FFTs), and time frequency analysis which consists of the application of the Morlet and Mexican Hat wavelets. Additionally, during the course of high speed testing in the wind tunnel, some aeroacoustic phenomena were uncovered; those results will also be presented. A cross section of the results shows that the shape of the RMS pressure distributions is sensitive to forcing frequency. The application of broadband excitation in the case adaptive control causes the flow to select a frequency to lock in to. Additionally, open loop control results in global synchronization via switching between two stable states and closed loop control inhibits the switching phenomena, but rather synchronizes the flow about multiple stable shedding frequencies.

Alstrom, Robert Bruce

156

Aerodynamics of High-Lift Configuration Civil Aircraft Model in JAXA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents basic aerodynamics and stall characteristics of the high-lift configuration aircraft model JSM (JAXA Standard Model). During research process of developing high-lift system design method, wind tunnel testing at JAXA 6.5m by 5.5m low-speed wind tunnel and Navier-Stokes computation on unstructured hybrid mesh were performed for a realistic configuration aircraft model equipped with high-lift devices, fuselage, nacelle-pylon, slat

Yuzuru Yokokawa; Mitsuhiro Murayama; Takeshi Ito; Kazuomi Yamamoto

2007-01-01

157

Design of a Slotted, Natural-Laminar-Flow Airfoil for Business-Jet Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 14-percent-thick, slotted, natural-laminar-flow airfoil, the S204, for light business-jet applications has been designed and analyzed theoretically. The two primary objectives of high maximum lift, relatively insensitive to roughness, and low profile drag have been achieved. The drag-divergence Mach number is predicted to be greater than 0.70.

Somers, Dan M.

2012-01-01

158

Airfoil structure  

DOEpatents

Past airfoil configurations have been used to improve aerodynamic performance and engine efficiencies. The present airfoil configuration further increases component life and reduces maintenance by reducing internal stress within the airfoil itself. The airfoil includes a chord and a span. Each of the chord and the span has a bow being summed to form a generally ``C`` configuration of the airfoil. The generally ``C`` configuration includes a compound bow in which internal stresses resulting from a thermal temperature gradient are reduced. The structural configuration reduces internal stresses resulting from thermal expansion. 6 figs.

Frey, G.A.; Twardochleb, C.Z.

1998-01-13

159

Airfoil structure  

DOEpatents

Past airfoil configurations have been used to improve aerodynamic performance and engine efficiencies. The present airfoil configuration further increases component life and reduces maintenance by reducing internal stress within the airfoil itself. The airfoil includes a chord and a span. Each of the chord and the span has a bow being summed to form a generally "C" configuration of the airfoil. The generally "C" configuration includes a compound bow in which internal stresses resulting from a thermal temperature gradient are reduced. The structural configuration reduces internal stresses resulting from thermal expansion.

Frey, Gary A. (Poway, CA) [Poway, CA; Twardochleb, Christopher Z. (Alpine, CA) [Alpine, CA

1998-01-01

160

High-order Method for Modeling of Aerodynamics of Flapping Wings: Airfoil-Gust Interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of Micro Air Vehicles (MAV) with flapping wing motion has received considerable attention in the recent years due to their great potential in military and commercial applications. A number of analytical, experimental, and computational studies have been performed to investigate the aerodynamic performance of MAV. However, most of these studies have been performed under idealized operating conditions. Hence, there is a lack of detailed knowledge on the operation of MAV in complex flow environments including flights in wind gust and near obstacles. The current numerical study investigates the performance of a rigid MAV in the presence of periodic gust for two different kinematic motions: plunge and pitch. Two-dimensional rigid airfoils are taken as prototypes of MAVs wings. The gust is assumed to be sinusoidal and modeled as a source term in the Navier-Stokes equations to avoid the implementation of special boundary conditions. The investigation showed a significant drop in the average lift force for the plunging motion in the presence of the gust compared to the pitching motion.

Gopalan, Harish; Povitsky, Alex

2011-11-01

161

Numerical bifurcation analysis of static stall of airfoil and dynamic stall under unsteady perturbation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By the finite element method combined with Arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) frame and explicit Characteristic Based Split Scheme (CBS), the complex flows around stationary and sinusoidal pitching airfoil are studied numerically. In particular, the static and dynamic stalls are analyzed in detail, and the natures of the static stall of NACA0012 airfoil are given from viewpoint of bifurcations. Following the bifurcation in Map, the static stall is proved to be the result from saddle-node bifurcation which involves both the hysteresis and jumping phenomena, by introducing a Map and its Floquet multiplier, which is constructed in the numerical simulation of flow field and related to the lift of the airfoil. Further, because the saddle-node bifurcation is sensitive to imperfection or perturbation, the airfoil is then subjected to a perturbation which is a kind of sinusoidal pitching oscillation, and the flow structure and aerodynamic performance are studied numerically. The results show that the large-scale flow separation at the static stall on the airfoil surface can be removed or delayed feasibly, and the ensuing lift could be enhanced significantly and also the stalling incidence could be delayed effectively. As a conclusion, it can be drawn that the proper external excitation can be considered as a powerful control strategy for the stall. As an unsteady aerodynamic behavior of high angle of attack, the dynamic stall can be investigated from viewpoint of nonlinear dynamics, and there exists a rich variety of nonlinear phenomena, which are related to the lift enhancement and drag reduction.

Liu, Yan; Li, Kailun; Zhang, Jiazhong; Wang, Hang; Liu, Liguang

2012-08-01

162

Preliminary Investigation in the NACA Low-Turbulence Tunnel of Low-Drag Airfoil Sections Suitable for Admitting Air at the Leading Edge  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation was carried out in the NACA low-turbulence tunnel to develop low-drag airfoil sections suitable for admitting air at the leading edge. A thickness distribution having the desired type of pressure distribution was found from tests of a flexible model. Other airfoil shapes were derived from this original shape by varying the thickness, the camper, the leading-edge radius, and the size of the leading-edge opening. Data are presented giving the characteristics of the airfoil shapes in the range of lift coefficients for high-speed and cruising flight. Shapes have been developed which show no substantial increases in drag over that of the same position along the chord. Many of these shapes appear to have higher critical compressibility speeds than plain airfoils of the same thickness. Low-drag airfoil sections have been developed with openings in the leading edge as large as 41.5 percent of the maximum thickness. The range of lift coefficients for low drag in several cases is nearly as large as that of the corresponding plain airfoil sections. Preliminary measurements of maximum lift characteristics indicate that nose-opening sections of the type herein considered may not produce any marked effects on the maximum lift coefficient.

von Doenhoff, Albert E.; Horton, Elmer A.

1942-01-01

163

Aerodynamic characteristics of a propeller-powered high-lift semispan wing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A small-scale semispan high-lift wing-flap system equipped under the wing with a turboprop engine assembly was tested in the LaRC 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel. Experimental data were obtained for various propeller rotational speeds, nacelle locations, and nacelle inclinations. To isolate the effects of the high lift system, data were obtained with and without the flaps and leading-edge device. The effects of the propeller slipstream on the overall longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of the wing-propeller assembly were examined. Test results indicated that the lift coefficient of the wing could be increased by the propeller slipstream when the rotational speed was increased and high-lift devices were deployed. Decreasing the nacelle inclination (increased pitch down) enhanced the lift performance of the system much more than varying the vertical or horizontal location of the nacelle. Furthermore, decreasing the nacelle inclination led to higher lift curve slope values, which indicated that the powered wing could sustain higher angles of attack near maximum lift performance. Any lift augmentation was accompanied by a drag penalty due to the increased wing lift.

Gentry, Garl L., Jr.; Takallu, M. A.; Applin, Zachary T.

1994-01-01

164

Modeling of human lower limb and technical analysis of athlete's high leg lift  

Microsoft Academic Search

The appearance of human motion capture system enables the analysis of human motion. In this paper, the athlete's high leg lift exercise is studied. The motion was sampled through NDI motion capture system, and the data was imported into Visual 3D software to establish a lower limb model and to execute the simulation and analysis. The high leg lift exercise

Shuyang Han; Shirong Ge; Hongtao Liu

2010-01-01

165

Airfoil Dynamic Stall and Rotorcraft Maneuverability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The loading of an airfoil during dynamic stall is examined in terms of the augmented lift and the associated penalties in pitching moment and drag. It is shown that once stall occurs and a leading-edge vortex is shed from the airfoil there is a unique relationship between the augmented lift, the negative pitching moment, and the increase in drag. This relationship, referred to here as the dynamic stall function, shows limited sensitivity to effects such as the airfoil section profile and Mach number, and appears to be independent of such parameters as Reynolds number, reduced frequency, and blade sweep. For single-element airfoils there is little that can be done to improve rotorcraft maneuverability except to provide good static C(l(max)) characteristics and the chord or blade number that is required to provide the necessary rotor thrust. However, multi-element airfoils or airfoils with variable geometry features can provide augmented lift in some cases that exceeds that available from a single-element airfoil. The dynamic stall function is shown to be a useful tool for the evaluation of both measured and calculated dynamic stall characteristics of single element, multi-element, and variable geometry airfoils.

Bousman, William G.

2000-01-01

166

Three-dimensional aerodynamic analysis of a subsonic transport high-lift configuration and comparisons with wind-tunnel test results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The sizing and efficiency of an aircraft is largely determined by the performance of its high-lift system. Subsonic civil transports most often use deployable multi-element airfoils to achieve the maximum-lift requirements for landing, as well as the high lift-to-drag ratios for take-off. However, these systems produce very complex flow fields which are not fully understood by the scientific community. In order to compete in today's market place, aircraft manufacturers will have to design better high-lift systems. Therefore, a more thorough understanding of the flows associated with these systems is desired. Flight and wind-tunnel experiments have been conducted on NASA Langley's B737-100 research aircraft to obtain detailed full-scale flow measurements on a multi-element high-lift system at various flight conditions. As part of this effort, computational aerodynamic tools are being used to provide preliminary flow-field information for instrumentation development, and to provide additional insight during the data analysis and interpretation process. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the ability and usefulness of a three-dimensional low-order potential flow solver, PMARC, by comparing computational results with data obtained from 1/8 scale wind-tunnel tests. Overall, correlation of experimental and computational data reveals that the panel method is able to predict reasonably well the pressures of the aircraft's multi-element wing at several spanwise stations. PMARC's versatility and usefulness is also demonstrated by accurately predicting inviscid three-dimensional flow features for several intricate geometrical regions.

Edge, D. Christian; Perkins, John N.

1995-01-01

167

Dynamic Stall Measurements and Computations for a VR-12 Airfoil with a Variable Droop Leading Edge  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High density-altitude operations of helicopters with advanced performance and maneuver capabilities have lead to fundamental research on active high-lift system concepts for rotor blades. The requirement for this type of system was to improve the sectional lift-to-drag ratio by alleviating dynamic stall on the retreating blade while simultaneously reducing the transonic drag rise of the advancing blade. Both measured and computational results showed that a Variable Droop Leading Edge (VDLE) airfoil is a viable concept for application to a rotor high-lift system. Results are presented for a series of 2D compressible dynamic stall wind tunnel tests with supporting CFD results for selected test cases. These measurements and computations show a dramatic decrease in the drag and pitching moment associated with severe dynamic stall when the VDLE concept is applied to the Boeing VR-12 airfoil. Test results also show an elimination of the negative pitch damping observed in the baseline moment hysteresis curves.

Martin, P. B.; McAlister, K. W.; Chandrasekhara, M. S.; Geissler, W.

2003-01-01

168

SiC/SiC Leading Edge Turbine Airfoil Tested Under Simulated Gas Turbine Conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Silicon-based ceramics have been proposed as component materials for use in gas turbine engine hot-sections. A high pressure burner rig was used to expose both a baseline metal airfoil and ceramic matrix composite leading edge airfoil to typical gas turbine conditions to comparatively evaluate the material response at high temperatures. To eliminate many of the concerns related to an entirely ceramic, rotating airfoil, this study has focused on equipping a stationary metal airfoil with a ceramic leading edge insert to demonstrate the feasibility and benefits of such a configuration. Here, the idea was to allow the SiC/SiC composite to be integrated as the airfoil's leading edge, operating in a "free-floating" or unrestrained manner. and provide temperature relief to the metal blade underneath. The test included cycling the airfoils between simulated idle, lift, and cruise flight conditions. In addition, the airfoils were air-cooled, uniquely instrumented, and exposed to the same internal and external conditions, which included gas temperatures in excess of 1370 C (2500 F). Results show the leading edge insert remained structurally intact after 200 simulated flight cycles with only a slightly oxidized surface. The instrumentation clearly suggested a significant reduction (approximately 600 F) in internal metal temperatures as a result of the ceramic leading edge. The object of this testing was to validate the design and analysis done by Materials Research and Design of Rosemont, PA and to determine the feasibility of this design for the intended application.

Robinson, R. Craig; Hatton, Kenneth S.

1999-01-01

169

Nonlinear Analysis of Airfoil High-Intensity Gust Response Using a High-Order Prefactored Compact Code  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The nonlinear response of symmetric and loaded airfoils to an impinging vortical gust is investigated in the parametric space of gust dimension, intensity, and frequency. The study, which was designed to investigate the validity limits for a linear analysis, is implemented by applying a nonlinear high-order prefactored compact code and comparing results with linear solutions from the GUST3D frequency-domain solver. Both the unsteady aerodynamic and acoustic gust responses are examined.

Crivellini, A.; Golubev, V.; Mankbadi, R.; Scott, J. R.; Hixon, R.; Povinelli, L.; Kiraly, L. James (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

170

High Lift Surface Design Procedures. Experimental Verification. Volume I. Summary and Evaluation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The main purpose of this work was to determine the performance gains of wings designed for optimized high lift by a new design procedure based on lifting surface theory for wings in steady subsonic flow. The theoretically predicted performance of the wing...

J. R. Stevens J. W. McDonald J. W. Headley

1966-01-01

171

Overview of Fundamental High-Lift Research for Transport Aircraft at NASA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA has had a long history in fundamental and applied high lift research. Current programs provide a focus on the validation of technologies and tools that will enable extremely short take off and landing coupled with efficient cruise performance, simple flaps with flow control for improved effectiveness, circulation control wing concepts, some exploration into new aircraft concepts, and partnership with Air Force Research Lab in mobility. Transport high-lift development testing will shift more toward mid and high Rn facilities at least until the question: "How much Rn is required" is answered. This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of High-Lift research at NASA.

Leavitt, L. D.; Washburn, A. E.; Wahls, R. A.

2007-01-01

172

A new direct design method for the medium thickness wind turbine airfoil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The newly developed integral function of airfoil profiles based on Trajkovski conformal transform theory could be used to optimize the profiles for the thin thickness airfoil. However, it is hard to adjust the coefficients of the integral function for the medium thickness airfoil. B-spline curve has an advantage of local adjustment, which makes it to effectively control the airfoil profiles at the trailing edge. Therefore, a new direct design method for the medium thickness wind turbine airfoil based on airfoil integral expression and B-spline curve is presented in this paper. An optimal mathematical model of an airfoil is built. Two new airfoils with similar thickness, based on the new designed method and the original integral method, are designed. According to the comparative analysis, the CQU-A25 airfoil designed based on the new method exhibits better results than that of the CQU-I25 airfoil which is designed based on the original method. It is demonstrated that the new method is feasible to design wind turbine airfoils. Meanwhile, the comparison of the aerodynamic performance for the CQU-A25 airfoil and for the DU91-W2-250 airfoil is studied. Results show that the maximum lift coefficient and the maximum lift/drag ratio of the CQU-A25 airfoil are higher than the ones of DU91-W2-250 airfoil in the same condition. This new airfoil design method would make it possible to design other airfoils with different thicknesses.

Wang, Quan; Chen, Jin; Pang, Xiaoping; Li, Songlin; Guo, Xiaofeng

2013-11-01

173

Lithographic process for high-resolution metal lift-off  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved single layer lithographic metal lift off process which relies on formation of an inhibition layer at the top of the resist film by a simple treatment with an aqueous TMAH solution is introduced. The improvements that lead to an increase in the amount of overhang in the process are a flood exposure step prior to the post exposure

Randy Redd; Mark A. Spak; John P. Sagan; Octavia P. Lehar; Ralph R. Dammel

1999-01-01

174

Assessment of computational issues associated with analysis of high-lift systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thin-layer Navier-Stokes calculations for wing-fuselage configurations from subsonic to hypersonic flow regimes are now possible. However, efficient, accurate solutions for using these codes for two- and three-dimensional high-lift systems have yet to be realized. A brief overview of salient experimental and computational research is presented. An assessment of the state-of-the-art relative to high-lift system analysis and identification of issues related to grid generation and flow physics which are crucial for computational success in this area are also provided. Research in support of the high-lift elements of NASA's High Speed Research and Advanced Subsonic Transport Programs which addresses some of the computational issues is presented. Finally, fruitful areas of concentrated research are identified to accelerate overall progress for high lift system analysis and design.

Balasubramanian, R.; Jones, Kenneth M.; Waggoner, Edgar G.

1992-01-01

175

1997 NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop. Volume 2; High Lift  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The High-Speed Research Program and NASA Langley Research Center sponsored the NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop on February 25-28, 1997. The workshop was designed to bring together NASA and industry High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in areas of Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag, prediction and minimization), High-Lift, Flight Controls, Supersonic Laminar Flow Control, and Sonic Boom Prediction. The workshop objectives were to (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodynamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among the scientist and engineers working HSCT aerodynamics. In particular, single- and multi-point optimized HSCT configurations, HSCT high-lift system performance predictions, and HSCT Motion Simulator results were presented along with executives summaries for all the Aerodynamic Performance technology areas.

Baize, Daniel G. (Editor)

1999-01-01

176

Experimental testing using a remotely operated flap with a 2D high lift model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problem of efficient wind tunnel testing for multi-element airfoils was first addressed by the author during a previous ASEE fellowship. A modern three element model with internal actuators to position a flap in two degrees of freedom was designed and later built. Some preliminary testing proved that the approach was viable. The purpose of this summer's work was to fully develop experimental methods including efficient data acquisition. The final goal is to develop dense data sets for both lift and drag measurements as a function of flap position for both take-off and landing configurations. The model has a span of 36 in. and chord of 18 in. and is currently being fitted for a 3 ft. x 4 ft. low speed wind tunnel. The flap was reworked to allow all pressure taps to function after initial tests showed two blocked ports. The serial method of obtaining pressures from the surface taps was found to be exceedingly slow so a new method using 12 pressure transducers and a 12 port parallel scanning valve were developed. A new automated data acquisition and control algorithm was developed using LabView software and a PC platform. Flow two-dimensionality is currently under investigation with boundary layer control by blowing; this was previously omitted for initial testing. By the end of the summer a detailed data set (uncorrected) consisting of lift coefficient versus flap position for the landing configuration should be available.

Landman, Drew

1995-01-01

177

Efficient simulation of incompressible viscous flow over multi-element airfoils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The incompressible, viscous, turbulent flow over single and multi-element airfoils is numerically simulated in an efficient manner by solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The solution algorithm employs the method of pseudo compressibility and utilizes an upwind differencing scheme for the convective fluxes, and an implicit line-relaxation scheme. The motivation for this work includes interest in studying high-lift take-off and landing configurations of various aircraft. In particular, accurate computation of lift and drag at various angles of attack up to stall is desired. Two different turbulence models are tested in computing the flow over an NACA 4412 airfoil; an accurate prediction of stall is obtained. The approach used for multi-element airfoils involves the use of multiple zones of structured grids fitted to each element. Two different approaches are compared; a patched system of grids, and an overlaid Chimera system of grids. Computational results are presented for two-element, three-element, and four-element airfoil configurations. Excellent agreement with experimental surface pressure coefficients is seen. The code converges in less than 200 iterations, requiring on the order of one minute of CPU time on a CRAY YMP per element in the airfoil configuration.

Rogers, Stuart E.; Wiltberger, N. Lyn; Kwak, Dochan

1993-01-01

178

Efficient simulation of incompressible viscous flow over multi-element airfoils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The incompressible, viscous, turbulent flow over single and multi-element airfoils is numerically simulated in an efficient manner by solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The computer code uses the method of pseudo-compressibility with an upwind-differencing scheme for the convective fluxes and an implicit line-relaxation solution algorithm. The motivation for this work includes interest in studying the high-lift take-off and landing configurations of various aircraft. In particular, accurate computation of lift and drag at various angles of attack, up to stall, is desired. Two different turbulence models are tested in computing the flow over an NACA 4412 airfoil; an accurate prediction of stall is obtained. The approach used for multi-element airfoils involves the use of multiple zones of structured grids fitted to each element. Two different approaches are compared: a patched system of grids, and an overlaid Chimera system of grids. Computational results are presented for two-element, three-element, and four-element airfoil configurations. Excellent agreement with experimental surface pressure coefficients is seen. The code converges in less than 200 iterations, requiring on the order of one minute of CPU time (on a CRAY YMP) per element in the airfoil configuration.

Rogers, Stuart E.; Wiltberger, N. Lyn; Kwak, Dochan

1992-01-01

179

Efficient simulation of incompressible viscous flow over single and multi-element airfoils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Incompressible viscous turbulent flows over single- and multiple-element airfoils are numerically simulated in an efficient manner by solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The solution algorithm uses the method of pseudocompressibility with an upwind-differencing scheme for the convective fluxes and an implicit line-relaxation scheme to study high-lift take-off and landing configurations and to compute lift and drag at various angles of attack up to stall. Two different turbulence models are tested in computing the flow over an NACA 4412 airfoil. The approach used for multiple-element airfoils involves the use of multiple zones of structured grids fitted to each element. Two different approaches are compared: a patched system of grids and an overlaid Chimera system of grids. Computational results are presented for two-element, three-element, and four-element airfoil configurations. Excellent agreement with experimental surface-pressure coefficients is seen. The code converges in less than 200 iterations, requiring on the order of one minute of CPU time on a CRAY YMP per element in the airfoil configuration.

Rogers, Stuart E.; Wiltberger, N. L.; Kwak, Dochan

1992-01-01

180

Flow structure and performance of a flexible plunging airfoil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An investigation was performed with the intent of characterizing the effect of flexibility on a plunging airfoil, over a parameter space applicable to birds and flapping MAVs. The kinematics of the motion was determined using of a high speed camera, and the deformations and strains involved in the motion were examined. The vortex dynamics associated with the plunging motion were mapped out using particle image velocimetry (PIV), and categorized according to the behavior of the leading edge vortex (LEV). The development and shedding process of the LEVs was also studied, along with their flow trajectories. Results of the flexible airfoils were compared to similar cases performed with a rigid airfoil, so as to determine the effects caused by flexibility. Aerodynamic loads of the airfoils were also measured using a force sensor, and the recorded thrust, lift and power coefficients were analyzed for dependencies, as was the overall propulsive efficiency. Thrust and power coefficients were found to scale with the Strouhal number defined by the trialing edge amplitude, causing the data of the flexible airfoils to collapse down to a single curve. The lift coefficient was likewise found to scale with trailing edge Strouhal number; however, its data tended to collapse down to a linear relationship. On the other hand, the wake classification and the propulsive efficiency were more successfully scaled by the reduced frequency of the motion. The circulation of the LEV was determined in each case and the resulting data was scaled using a parameter developed for this specific study, which provided significant collapse of the data throughout the entire parameter space tested.

Akkala, James Marcus

181

A direct-inverse method for transonic and separated flows about airfoils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A direct-inverse technique and computer program called TAMSEP that can be sued for the analysis of the flow about airfoils at subsonic and low transonic freestream velocities is presented. The method is based upon a direct-inverse nonconservative full potential inviscid method, a Thwaites laminar boundary layer technique, and the Barnwell turbulent momentum integral scheme; and it is formulated using Cartesian coordinates. Since the method utilizes inverse boundary conditions in regions of separated flow, it is suitable for predicing the flowfield about airfoils having trailing edge separated flow under high lift conditions. Comparisons with experimental data indicate that the method should be a useful tool for applied aerodynamic analyses.

Carlson, K. D.

1985-01-01

182

Prediction of High-Lift Flows using Turbulent Closure Models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The flow over two different multi-element airfoil configurations is computed using linear eddy viscosity turbulence models and a nonlinear explicit algebraic stress model. A subset of recently-measured transition locations using hot film on a McDonnell Douglas configuration is presented, and the effect of transition location on the computed solutions is explored. Deficiencies in wake profile computations are found to be attributable in large part to poor boundary layer prediction on the generating element, and not necessarily inadequate turbulence modeling in the wake. Using measured transition locations for the main element improves the prediction of its boundary layer thickness, skin friction, and wake profile shape. However, using measured transition locations on the slat still yields poor slat wake predictions. The computation of the slat flow field represents a key roadblock to successful predictions of multi-element flows. In general, the nonlinear explicit algebraic stress turbulence model gives very similar results to the linear eddy viscosity models.

Rumsey, Christopher L.; Gatski, Thomas B.; Ying, Susan X.; Bertelrud, Arild

1997-01-01

183

Development of a large-scale, outdoor, ground-based test capability for evaluating the effect of rain on airfoil lift  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A large-scale, outdoor, ground-based test capability for acquiring aerodynamic data in a simulated rain environment was developed at the Langley Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF) to assess the effect of heavy rain on airfoil performance. The ALDF test carriage was modified to transport a 10-ft-chord NACA 64210 wing section along a 3000-ft track at full-scale aircraft approach speeds. An overhead rain simulation system was constructed along a 525-ft section of the track with the capability of producing simulated rain fields of 2, 10, 30, and 40 in/hr. The facility modifications, the aerodynamic testing and rain simulation capability, the design and calibration of the rain simulation system, and the operational procedures developed to minimize the effect of wind on the simulated rain field and aerodynamic data are described in detail. The data acquisition and reduction processes are also presented along with sample force data illustrating the environmental effects on data accuracy and repeatability for the 'rain-off' test condition.

Bezos, Gaudy M.; Campbell, Bryan A.

1993-01-01

184

Dynamic airfoil stall investigations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental and computational investigations of the dynamic stall phenomenon continue to attract the attention of various research groups in the major aeronautical research laboratories. There are two reasons for this continued research interest. First, the occurrence of dynamic stall on the retreating blade of helicopters imposes a severe performance limitation and thus suggests to search for ways to delay the onset of dynamic stall. Second, the lift enhancement prior to dynamic stall presents an opportunity to achieve enhanced maneuverability of fighter aircraft. A description of the major parameters affecting dynamic stall and lift and an evaluation of research efforts prior to 1988 has been given by Carr. In this paper the authors' recent progress in the development of experimental and computational methods to analyze the dynamic stall phenomena occurring on NACA 0112 airfoils is reviewed. First, the major experimental and computational approaches and results are summarized. This is followed by an assessment of our results and an outlook toward the future.

Platzer, M. F.; Chandrasekhara, M. S.; Ekaterinaris, J. A.; Carr, L. W.

1992-01-01

185

Static and dynamic pressure measurements on a NACA 0012 airfoil in the Ames High Reynolds Number Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The supercritical flows at high subsonic speeds over a NACA 0012 airfoil were studied to acquire aerodynamic data suitable for evaluating numerical-flow codes. The measurements consisted primarily of static and dynamic pressures on the airfoil and test-channel walls. Shadowgraphs were also taken of the flow field near the airfoil. The tests were performed at free-stream Mach numbers from approximately 0.7 to 0.8, at angles of attack sufficient to include the onset of buffet, and at Reynolds numbers from 1 million to 14 million. A test action was designed specifically to obtain two-dimensional airfoil data with a minimum of wall interference effects. Boundary-layer suction panels were used to minimize sidewall interference effects. Flexible upper and lower walls allow test-channel area-ruling to nullify Mach number changes induced by the mass removal, to correct for longitudinal boundary-layer growth, and to provide contouring compatible with the streamlines of the model in free air.

Mcdevitt, J. B.; Okuno, A. F.

1985-01-01

186

Parameter study of simplified dragonfly airfoil geometry at Reynolds number of 6000.  

PubMed

Aerodynamic study of a simplified Dragonfly airfoil in gliding flight at Reynolds numbers below 10,000 is motivated by both pure scientific interest and technological applications. At these Reynolds numbers, the natural insect flight could provide inspiration for technology development of Micro UAV's and more. Insect wings are typically characterized by corrugated airfoils. The present study follows a fundamental flow physics study (Levy and Seifert, 2009), that revealed the importance of flow separation from the first corrugation, the roll-up of the separated shear layer to discrete vortices and their role in promoting flow reattachment to the aft arc, as the leading mechanism enabling high-lift, low drag performance of the Dragonfly gliding flight. This paper describes the effect of systematic airfoil geometry variations on the aerodynamic properties of a simplified Dragonfly airfoil at Reynolds number of 6000. The parameter study includes a detailed analysis of small variations of the nominal geometry, such as corrugation placement or height, rear arc and trailing edge shape. Numerical simulations using the 2D laminar Navier-Stokes equations revealed that the flow accelerating over the first corrugation slope is followed by an unsteady pressure recovery, combined with vortex shedding. The latter allows the reattachment of the flow over the rear arc. Also, the drag values are directly linked to the vortices' magnitude. This parametric study shows that geometric variations which reduce the vortices' amplitude, as reduction of the rear cavity depth or the reduction of the rear arc and trailing edge curvature, will reduce the drag values. Other changes will extend the flow reattachment over the rear arc for a larger mean lift coefficients range; such as the negative deflection of the forward flat plate. These changes consequently reduce the drag values at higher mean lift coefficients. The detailed geometry study enabled the definition of a corrugated airfoil geometry with enhanced aerodynamic properties, such as range and endurance factors, as compared to the nominal airfoil studied in the literature. PMID:20673771

Levy, David-Elie; Seifert, Avraham

2010-10-21

187

Wind Tunnel and Numerical Analysis of Thick Blunt Trailing Edge Airfoils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two-dimensional aerodynamic characteristics of several thick blunt trailing edge airfoils are presented. These airfoils are not only directly applicable to the root section of wind turbine blades, where they provide the required structural strength at a fraction of the material and weight of an equivalent sharp trailing edge airfoil, but are also applicable to the root sections of UAVs having high aspect ratios, that also encounter heavy root bending forces. The Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes code, ARC2D, was the primary numerical tool used to analyze each airfoil. The UCD-38-095, referred to as the Pareto B airfoil in this thesis, was also tested in the University of California, Davis Aeronautical Wind Tunnel. The Pareto B has an experimentally determined maximum lift coefficient of 1.64 at 14 degrees incidence, minimum drag coefficient of 0.0385, and maximum lift over drag ratio of 35.9 at a lift coefficient of 1.38, 10 degrees incidence at a Reynolds number of 666,000. Zig-zag tape at 2% and 5% of the chord was placed on the leading edge pressure and suction side of the Pareto B model in order to determine the aerodynamic performance characteristics at turbulent flow conditions. Experimental Pareto B wind tunnel data and previous FB-3500-0875 data is also presented and used to validate the ARC2D results obtained in this study. Additionally MBFLO, a detached eddy simulation Navier-Stokes code, was used to analyze the Pareto B airfoil for comparison and validation purposes.

McLennan, Anthony William

188

High speed VLSI architecture for 2-D lifting Discrete Wavelet Transform  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lifting scheme reduces the computational complexity for computing Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) compared to convolution. We have proposed a high performance and memory efficient architecture with parallel scanning method for 2-D DWT using 5\\/3 Lifting wavelet. This 2-D architecture is composed with two 1-D DWT units and a Transpose Unit (TU). Proposed parallel scanning reduces requirement of on-chip line

A. D. Darji; Rajul Bansal; S. N. Merchant; A. N. Chandorkar

2011-01-01

189

Transonic airfoil analysis and design in nonuniform flow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A nonuniform transonic airfoil code is developed for applications in analysis, inverse design and direct optimization involving an airfoil immersed in propfan slipstream. Problems concerning the numerical stability, convergence, divergence and solution oscillations are discussed. The code is validated by comparing with some known results in incompressible flow. A parametric investigation indicates that the airfoil lift-drag ratio can be increased by decreasing the thickness ratio. A better performance can be achieved if the airfoil is located below the slipstream center. Airfoil characteristics designed by the inverse method and a direct optimization are compared. The airfoil designed with the method of direct optimization exhibits better characteristics and achieves a gain of 22 percent in lift-drag ratio with a reduction of 4 percent in thickness.

Chang, J. F.; Lan, C. E.

1986-01-01

190

Calculation of transonic flow over supercritical airfoil sections  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two numerical methods for calculating the transonic flow, including viscous effects over lifting airfoil sections and experimental data are compared for turbulent flow over a supercritical airfoil. In addition, results for a NACA 64A010 airfoil at nonzero angle of attack are compared to demonstrate the applicability of the numerical methods to classical, lifting airfoils. One numerical method is a solution to the time-averaged Navier-Stokes equations throughout the entire flow field. The other is a hybrid method that combines inviscid, boundary-layer, and Navier-Stokes equations in appropriate regions of the flow field. Both methods adequately predict the surface pressures and flow field about the 64A010 airfoil at M = 0.8 and alpha = 2 deg when an appropriate turbulence model is used. The methods are not as successful for the supercritical airfoil.

Rose, W. C.; Seginer, A.

1977-01-01

191

Numerical investigation of multi-element airfoils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The flow over multi-element airfoils with flat-plate lift-enhancing tabs was numerically investigated. Tabs ranging in height from 0.25 percent to 1.25 percent of the reference airfoil chord were studied near the trailing edge of the main-element. This two-dimensional numerical simulation employed an incompressible Navier-Stokes solver on a structured, embedded grid topology. New grid refinements were used to improve the accuracy of the solution near the overlapping grid boundaries. The effects of various tabs were studied at a constant Reynolds number on a two-element airfoil with a slotted flap. Both computed and measured results indicated that a tab in the main-element cove improved the maximum lift and lift-to-drag ratio relative to the baseline airfoil without a tab. Computed streamlines revealed that the additional turning caused by the tab may reduce the amount of separated flow on the flap. A three-element airfoil was also studied over a range of Reynolds numbers. For the optimized flap rigging, the computed and measured Reynolds number effects were similar. When the flap was moved from the optimum position, numerical results indicated that a tab may help to reoptimize the airfoil to within 1 percent of the optimum flap case.

Cummings, Russell M.

1993-01-01

192

Determination of forced convective heat transfer coefficients for subsonic flows over heated asymmetric NANA 4412 airfoil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forced convection over traditional surfaces such as flat plate, cylinder and sphere have been well researched and documented. Data on forced convection over airfoil surfaces, however, remain very scanty in literature. High altitude vehicles that employ airfoils as lifting surfaces often suffer leading edge ice accretions which have tremendous negative consequences on the lifting capabilities and stability of the vehicle. One of the ways of mitigating the effect of ice accretion involves judicious leading edge convective cooling technique which in turn depends on the accuracy of convective heat transfer coefficient used in the analysis. In this study empirical investigation of convective heat transfer measurements on asymmetric airfoil is presented at different angle of attacks ranging from 0° to 20° under subsonic flow regime. The top and bottom surface temperatures are measured at given points using Senflex hot film sensors (Tao System Inc.) and used to determine heat transfer characteristics of the airfoils. The model surfaces are subjected to constant heat fluxes using KP Kapton flexible heating pads. The monitored temperature data are then utilized to determine the heat convection coefficients modelled empirically as the Nusselt Number on the surface of the airfoil. The experimental work is conducted in an open circuit-Eiffel type wind tunnel, powered by a 37 kW electrical motor that is able to generate subsonic air velocities up to around 41 m/s in the 24 square-inch test section. The heat transfer experiments have been carried out under constant heat flux supply to the asymmetric airfoil. The convective heat transfer coefficients are determined from measured surface temperature and free stream temperature and investigated in the form of Nusselt number. The variation of Nusselt number is shown with Reynolds number at various angles of attacks. It is concluded that Nusselt number increases with increasing Reynolds number and increase in angle of attack from 0° to 20° on the upper and lower surface of the airfoil.

Dag, Yusuf

193

Prediction of longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of STOL configurations with externally blown high lift devices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A theoretical method has been developed to predict the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of engine-wing-flap combinations with externally blown flaps (EBF) and upper surface blowing (USB) high lift devices. Potential flow models of the lifting surfaces and the jet wake are combined to calculate the induced interference of the engine wakes on the lifting surfaces. The engine wakes may be circular, elliptic, or rectangular cross-sectional jets, and the lifting surfaces are comprised of a wing with multiple-slotted trailing-edge flaps or a deflected trailing-edge Coanda surface. Results are presented showing comparisons of measured and predicted forces, pitching moments, span-load distributions, and flow fields.

Mendenhall, M. R.; Spangler, S. B.

1976-01-01

194

High-altitude launching of rockets lifted by helium devices and platforms with rotatable wings  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A system is disclosed for lifting a rocket into the upper atmosphere and establishing forward flight at several hundred miles per hour, before the rocket engines are ignited and the rocket is released from the lifting system. The main subassemblies of this lifting system comprise: (1) an array of large helium-filled dirigibles, of a size that can provide hundreds or thousands of tons of lifting force; (2) a tank-holding assembly that will be tethered to the dirigibles, and that will contain pumps and high-pressure tanks, to recapture and store the helium for use in subsequent launches; and, (3) a winged platform, with wings that can be rotated vertically during liftoff, and horizontally to establish forward flight after a desired altitude has been reached, and having conventional aircraft engines on each wing. This system enables safer, less expensive, and more efficient launching of rockets and heavy payloads into space, using easily reusable subassemblies.

2006-11-07

195

Instability of transonic flow past flattened airfoils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transonic flow past a Whitcomb airfoil and two modifications of it at Reynolds numbers of the order of ten millions is studied. The numerical modeling is based on the system of Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The flow simulations show that variations of the lift coefficient versus the angle of attack become more abrupt with decreasing curvature of the airfoil in the midchord region. This is caused by an instability of closely spaced local supersonic regions on the upper surface of the airfoil.

Kuzmin, Alexander

2013-12-01

196

A study of inviscid flow about airfoils at high supersonic speeds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Steady flow about curved airfoils is investigated analytically, first assuming air behaves as an ideal gas, and then assuming it behaves as a thermally perfect, calorically imperfect gas. Conclusions are drawn from the study.

Eggers, A J; Syvertson, Clarence A; Kraus, Samuel

1953-01-01

197

Application of shock tubes to transonic airfoil testing at high Reynolds numbers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Performance analysis of a gas-driven shock tube shows that transonic airfoil flows with chord Reynolds numbers of the order of 100 million can be produced, with limitations being imposed by the structural integrity of the facility or the model. A study of flow development over a simple circular arc airfoil at zero angle of attack was carried out in a shock tube at low and intermediate Reynolds numbers to assess the testing technique. Results obtained from schlieren photography and airfoil pressure measurements show that steady transonic flows similar to those produced for the same airfoil in a wind tunnel can be generated within the available testing time in a shock tube with properly contoured test section walls.

Cook, W. J.; Chaney, M. J.; Presley, L. L.; Chapman, G. T.

1978-01-01

198

Theoretical analysis of aerodynamic characteristics of two helicopter rotor airfoils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analytical study was conducted to predict the aerodynamic characteristics of two helicopter rotor airfoils. Documentation of the predictive process covers the development of empirical factors used in conjunction with computer programs for airfoil analysis. Tables of lift, drag, and pitching-moment coefficient for each airfoil were prepared for two dimensional, steady flow conditions at Mach numbers from 0.3 to 0.9 and Reynolds numbers of 7,700,000 to 23,000,000, respectively.

Morris, C. E. K., Jr.; Yeager, W. T., Jr.

1978-01-01

199

Numerical simulation of a powered-lift landing, tracking flow features using overset grids, and simulation of high lift devices on a fighter-lift-and-control wing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Attached as appendices to this report are documents describing work performed on the simulation of a landing powered-lift delta wing, the tracking of flow features using overset grids, and the simulation of flaps on the Wright Patterson Lab's fighter-lift-and-control (FLAC) wing. Numerical simulation of a powered-lift landing includes the computation of flow about a delta wing at four fixed heights as well as a simulated landing, in which the delta wing descends toward the ground. Comparison of computed and experimental lift coefficients indicates that the simulations capture the qualitative trends in lift-loss encountered by thrust-vectoring aircraft operating in ground effect. Power spectra of temporal variations of pressure indicate computed vortex shedding frequencies close to the jet exit are in the experimentally observed frequency range; the power spectra of pressure also provide insights into the mechanisms of lift oscillations. Also, a method for using overset grids to track dynamic flow features is described and the method is validated by tracking a moving shock and vortices shed behind a circular cylinder. Finally, Chimera gridding strategies were used to develop pressure coefficient contours for the FLAC wing for a Mach no. of 0.18 and Reynolds no. of 2.5 million.

Chawla, Kalpana

1993-01-01

200

Control of unsteady separated flow associated with the dynamic pitching of airfoils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although studies have been done to understand the dependence of parameters for the occurrence of deep stall, studies to control the flow for sustaining lift for a longer time has been little. To sustain the lift for a longer time, an understanding of the development of the flow over the airfoil is essential. Studies at high speed are required to study how the flow behavior is dictated by the effects of compressibility. When the airfoil is pitched up in ramp motion or during the upstroke of an oscillatory cycle, the flow development on the upper surface of the airfoil and the formation of the vortex dictates the increase in lift behavior. Vortex shedding past the training edge decreases the lift. It is not clear what is the mechanism associated with the unsteady separation and vortex formation in present unsteady environment. To develop any flow control device, to suppress the vortex formation or delay separation, it is important that this mechanism be properly understood. The research activities directed toward understanding these questions are presented and the results are summarized.

Ahmed, Sajeer

1991-01-01

201

Effects of grit roughness and pitch oscillations on the NACA 4415 airfoil  

SciTech Connect

A NACA 4415 airfoil model was tested in The Ohio State University Aeronautical and Astronautical Research Laboratory 3 x 5 subsonic wind tunnel under steady state and unsteady conditions. The test defined baseline conditions for steady state angles of attack from {minus}10{degree} to +40{degree} and examined unsteady behavior by oscillating the model about its pitch axis for three mean angles, three frequencies, and two amplitudes. For all cases, Reynolds numbers of 0.75, 1, 1.25, and 1.5 million were used. In addition, these were repeated after the application of leading edge grit roughness (LEGR) to determine contamination effects on the airfoil performance. Steady state results of the NACA 4415 testing at Reynolds number of 1.25 million showed a baseline maximum lift coefficient of 1.30 at 12.3{degree} angle of attack. The application of LEGR reduced the maximum lift coefficient by 20% and increased the 0.0090 minimum drag coefficient value by 62%. The zero lift pitching moment of {minus}0.0967 showed a 13% reduction in magnitude to {minus}0.0842 with LEGR applied. Data were also obtained for two pitch oscillation amplitudes: {+-}5.5{degree} and {+-}10{degree}. The larger amplitude consistently gave a higher maximum lift coefficient than the smaller amplitude, and both unsteady maximum lift coefficients were greater than the steady state values. Stall is delayed on the airfoil while the angle of attack is increasing, thereby causing an increase in maximum lift coefficient. A hysteresis behavior was exhibited for all the unsteady test cases. The hysteresis loops were larger for the higher reduced frequencies and for the larger amplitude oscillations. As in the steady case, the effect of LEGR in the unsteady case was to reduce the lift coefficient at high angles of attack. In addition, with LEGR, the hysteresis behavior persisted into lower angles of attack than for the clean case.

Hoffmann, M.J.; Reuss Ramsay, R.; Gregorek, G.M. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

1996-07-01

202

Design procedure for low-drag subsonic airfoils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Airfoil has least amount of drag under given restrictions of boundary layer transition position, lift coefficient, thickness ratio, and Reynolds number based on airfoil chord. It is suitable for use as wing and propeller aircraft sections operating at subsonic speeds and for hydrofoil sections and blades for fans, compressors, turbines, and windmills.

Peterson, J. B.; Chen, A. B.

1975-01-01

203

S822 and S823 Airfoils: October 1992--December 1993  

SciTech Connect

A family of thick airfoils for 3- to 10-meter, stall-regulated, horizontal-axis wind turbines, the S822 and S823, has been designed and analyzed theoretically. The primary objectives of restrained maximum lift, insensitive to roughness, and low profile have been achieved. The constraints on the pitching moments and airfoil thicknesses have been satisfied.

Somers, D. M.

2005-01-01

204

Evaluation of Airfoil Dynamic Stall Characteristics for Maneuverability.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The loading of an airfoil during dynamic stall is examined in terms of the augmented lift and the associated penalties in pitching moment and drag. It is shown that once stall occurs and a leading-edge vortex is shed from the airfoil there is a unique rel...

W. G. Bousman

2000-01-01

205

The quest for stall-free dynamic lift  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the past decade, numerous major effects have addressed the question of how to control or alleviate dynamic stall effects on helicopter rotors, but little concrete evidence of any significant reduction of the adverse characteristics of the dynamic stall phenomenon has been demonstrated. Nevertheless, it is important to remember that the control of dynamic stall is an achievable goal. Experiments performed at the US Army Aeroflight-dynamics Directorate more than a decade ago demonstrated that dynamic stall is not an unavoidable penalty of high amplitude motion, and that airfoils can indeed operate dynamically at angles far above the static-stall angle without necessarily forming a stall vortex. These experiments, one of them featuring a slat that was designed from static airfoil considerations, showed that unsteadiness can be a very beneficial factor in the development of high-lift devices for helicopter rotors. The experience drawn from these early experiments is now being focused on a program for the alleviation of dynamic-stall effects on helicopter rotors. The purpose of this effort is to demonstrate that rotor stall can be controlled through an improved understanding of the unsteady effects on airfoil stall and to document the role of specific means that lead to stall alleviation in the three dimensional unsteady environment of helicopter rotors in forward flight. The first concept to be addressed in this program will be a slatted airfoil. A two dimensional unsteady Navier-Stokes code has been modified to compute the flow around a two-element airfoil.

Tung, C.; Mcalister, K. W.; Carr, Lawrence W.; Duque, E.; Zinner, R.

1992-01-01

206

Armature lift windmill  

SciTech Connect

Airfoils are secured to the frame of a vertical axis windmill to provide vertical lift to a rotatable vertical shaft and to armatures of electrical generators, thereby eliminating friction between each armature and its end bearing as well as between the vertical shaft and its end bearing. An indicator provides an indication that the generators of the windmill are generating an alternating electrical current having at least a predetermined voltage magnitude.

Willmouth, R. W.

1985-04-02

207

Design Methodology for Multi-Element High-Lift Systems on Subsonic Civil Transport Aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The choice of a high-lift system is crucial in the preliminary design process of a subsonic civil transport aircraft. Its purpose is to increase the allowable aircraft weight or decrease the aircraft's wing area for a given takeoff and landing performance. However, the implementation of a high-lift system into a design must be done carefully, for it can improve the aerodynamic performance of an aircraft but may also drastically increase the aircraft empty weight. If designed properly, a high-lift system can improve the cost effectiveness of an aircraft by increasing the payload weight for a given takeoff and landing performance. This is why the design methodology for a high-lift system should incorporate aerodynamic performance, weight, and cost. The airframe industry has experienced rapid technological growth in recent years which has led to significant advances in high-lift systems. For this reason many existing design methodologies have become obsolete since they are based on outdated low Reynolds number wind-tunnel data and can no longer accurately predict the aerodynamic characteristics or weight of current multi-element wings. Therefore, a new design methodology has been created that reflects current aerodynamic, weight, and cost data and provides enough flexibility to allow incorporation of new data when it becomes available.

Pepper, R. S.; vanDam, C. P.

1996-01-01

208

Effects of forward contour modification on the aerodynamic characteristics of the NACA 641-212 airfoil section  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two different forward contour modifications designed to increase the maximum lift coefficient of the NACA 64 sub 1-212 airfoil section were evaluated experimentally at low speeds. One modification consisted of a slight droop of the leading edge with an increased leading-edge radius; the other modification incorporated increased thickness over the forward 35 percent of the upper surface of the profile. Both modified airfoil sections were found to provide substantially higher maximum lift coefficients than the 64 sub 1-212 section. The drooped leading-edge modification incurred a drag penalty of approximately 10 percent at low and moderate lift coefficients and exhibited a greater nosedown pitching moment than the 64 sub 1-212 profile. The upper surface modification produced about the same drag level as the 64 sub 1-212 section at low and moderate lift coefficients and less nosedown pitching moment than the 64 sub 1-212 profile. Both modified airfoil sections had lower drag coefficients than the 64 sub 1-212 section at high lift coefficients.

Hicks, R. M.; Mendoza, J. P.; Bandettini, A.

1975-01-01

209

Light aircraft lift, drag, and moment prediction: A review and analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The historical development of analytical methods for predicting the lift, drag, and pitching moment of complete light aircraft configurations in cruising flight is reviewed. Theoretical methods, based in part on techniques described in the literature and in part on original work, are developed. These methods form the basis for understanding the computer programs given to: (1) compute the lift, drag, and moment of conventional airfoils, (2) extend these two-dimensional characteristics to three dimensions for moderate-to-high aspect ratio unswept wings, (3) plot complete configurations, (4) convert the fuselage geometric data to the correct input format, (5) compute the fuselage lift and drag, (6) compute the lift and moment of symmetrical airfoils to M = 1.0 by a simplified semi-empirical procedure, and (7) compute, in closed form, the pressure distribution over a prolate spheroid at alpha = 0. Comparisons of the predictions with experiment indicate excellent lift and drag agreement for conventional airfoils and wings. Limited comparisons of body-alone drag characteristics yield reasonable agreement. Also included are discussions for interference effects and techniques for summing the results above to obtain predictions for complete configurations.

Smetana, F. O.; Summey, D. C.; Smith, N. S.; Carden, R. K.

1975-01-01

210

Shock Wave/Stable Vortex Interaction over A NACA 0012 Airfoil: A Numerical Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While many studies have been conducted on shock wave/vortex interaction in general, not much attention has been given to shock wave/stable vortex interaction over airfoils or wings, and the affect of vortices on transonic airfoil performance. This work is intended to numerically investigate shock wave/stable vortex interaction over airfoils, and to quantify vortex affect on airfoil performance at transonic speeds. To accomplish the objective, a steady, transonic turbulent flow around a 0.5-m NACA 0012 airfoil at alpha = 1 degree was simulated. The simulation was carried out using one, three, and no vortices. The stable vortices were placed on the suction side using cavities (dimples of 15-mm diameter). The simulation was conducted using the commercial code "Fluent". The second-order, coupled solver was invoked. Spalart-Almaras model was used in the formulation. The ideal-gas model and Sutherland's law were used for density and viscosity calculations, respectively. The computation was carried out at Mach 0.8 and Reynolds number of 9.1x106. Due to geometric complexity of the dimples, an unstructured mesh was used. The commercial code "Gambit" was utilized to construct the mesh. Three mesh blocks were generated to accommodate the boundary layer, the wake region, and the remainder of the computational space. A 3-mm, 20-layer boundary layer was constructed, and the first row was 0.01-mm high. The mesh consisted of 156,000 cells (tetrahedral for the domain and wedges for the boundary layer). Grid independence was checked by doubling the number of cells around the airfoil and in the wake region. No significant changes in the results were observed. The far field was 20 chords away from the surface. The simulation revealed the stable vortical flow structure inside the dimples. Small separation and reattachment was Predicted in all cases. It was found that the shock wave on the suction side of the airfoil was pushed up-stream by the stable vortices. Three vortices induced further retarding of the shock wave than a single vortex. The vortices, on the other hand, were compressed by the shock wave. In the three-vortex case, the first vortex suffered the most affect, and the affect on the following vortices gradually decreased. Compared to the smooth airfoil, the drag coefficient has increased by 4 the case of three vortices. The lift coefficient, however, was reduced substantially. 23.7 and 39 smooth case, respectively. The simulation in this work shows the possibility of altering shock wave location over transonic airfoils through use of stable vortices. The vortices, however, can negatively impact the airfoil performance by substantially reducing the lift-to-drag ratio.

Alammar, Khalid

2002-11-01

211

An experimental investigation of the flow physics of high-lift systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This progress report, a series of viewgraphs, outlines experiments on the flow physics of confluent boundary layers for high lift systems. The design objective is to design high lift systems with improved C(sub Lmax) for landing approach and improved take-off L/D and simultaneously reduce acquisition and maintenance costs. In effect, achieve improved performance with simpler designs. The research objectives include: establish the role of confluent boundary layer flow physics in high-lift production; contrast confluent boundary layer structure for optimum and non-optimum C(sub L) cases; formation of a high quality, detailed archival data base for CFD/modeling; and examination of the role of relaminarization and streamline curvature.

Thomas, Flint O.; Nelson, R. C.

1995-01-01

212

CFD Computations for a Generic High-Lift Configuration Using TetrUSS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Assessment of the accuracy of computational results for a generic high-lift trapezoidal wing with a single slotted flap and slat is presented. The paper is closely aligned with the focus of the 1st AIAA CFD High Lift Prediction Workshop (HiLiftPW-1) which was to assess the accuracy of CFD methods for multi-element high-lift configurations. The unstructured grid Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes solver TetrUSS/USM3D is used for the computational results. USM3D results are obtained assuming fully turbulent flow using the Spalart-Allmaras (SA) and Shear Stress Transport (SST) turbulence models. Computed solutions have been obtained at seven different angles-of-attack ranging from 6 -37 . Three grids providing progressively higher grid resolution are used to quantify the effect of grid resolution on the lift, drag, pitching moment, surface pressure and stall angle. SA results, as compared to SST results, exhibit better agreement with the measured data. However, both turbulence models under-predict upper surface pressures near the wing tip region.

Pandya, Mohagna J.; Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.; Parlette, Edward B.

2011-01-01

213

Design Integration and Noise Studies for Jet STOL Aircraft. Task 7B Wind Tunnel Investigation of a 14-Percent-Thick Airfoil with Upper Surface Blowing at High Subsonic Mach Numbers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An exploratory wind tunnel test has been conducted at Mach numbers from 0.60 to 0.80 to investigate the effects of nozzle geometry and upper surface blowing on the aerodynamic characteristics of a 14-percent-thick airfoil. Measured data included lift, dra...

A. S. Mahal I. J. Gilchrist

1973-01-01

214

Design integration and noise studies for jet STOL aircraft. Task 7B: Wind tunnel investigation of a 14-percent-thick airfoil with upper surface blowing at high subsonic Mach numbers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An exploratory wind tunnel test has been conducted at Mach numbers from 0.60 to 0.80 to investigate the effects of nozzle geometry and upper surface blowing on the aerodynamic characteristics of a 14-percent-thick airfoil. Measured data included lift, drag, pitching moments, surface pressures, and nozzle thrust.

Mahal, A. S.; Gilchrist, I. J.

1973-01-01

215

Large-scale Parallel Unstructured Mesh Computations for 3D High-lift Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A complete "geometry to drag-polar" analysis capability for the three-dimensional high-lift configurations is described. The approach is based on the use of unstructured meshes in order to enable rapid turnaround for complicated geometries that arise in high-lift configurations. Special attention is devoted to creating a capability for enabling analyses on highly resolved grids. Unstructured meshes of several million vertices are initially generated on a work-station, and subsequently refined on a supercomputer. The flow is solved on these refined meshes on large parallel computers using an unstructured agglomeration multigrid algorithm. Good prediction of lift and drag throughout the range of incidences is demonstrated on a transport take-off configuration using up to 24.7 million grid points. The feasibility of using this approach in a production environment on existing parallel machines is demonstrated, as well as the scalability of the solver on machines using up to 1450 processors.

Mavriplis, Dimitri J.; Pirzadeh, S.

1999-01-01

216

Large-Scale Parallel Unstructured Mesh Computations for 3D High-Lift Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A complete "geometry to drag-polar" analysis capability for three-dimensional high-lift configurations is described. The approach is based on the use of unstructured meshes in order to enable rapid turnaround for complicated geometries which arise in high-lift con gurations. Special attention is devoted to creating a capability for enabling analyses on highly resolved grids. Unstructured meshes of several million vertices are initially generated on a work-station, and subsequently refined on a supercomputer. The flow is solved on these refined meshes on large parallel computers using an unstructured agglomeration multigrid algorithm. Good prediction of lift and drag throughout the range of incidences is demonstrated on a transport take-off configuration using up to 24.7 million grid points. The feasibility of using this approach in a production environment on existing parallel machines is demonstrated, as well as the scalability of the solver on machines using up to 1450 processors.

Mavriplis, D. J.; Pirzadeh, S.

1999-01-01

217

Large-Scale Parallel Unstructured Mesh Computations for 3D High-Lift Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A complete "geometry to drag-polar" analysis capability for three-dimensional high-lift configurations is described. The approach is based on the use of unstructured meshes in order to enable rapid turnaround for complicated geometries which arise in high-lift configurations. Special attention is devoted to creating a capability for enabling analyses on highly resolved grids. Unstructured meshes of several million vertices are initially generated on a work-station, and subsequently refined on a supercomputer. The flow is solved on these refined meshes on large parallel computers using an unstructured agglomeration multigrid algorithm. Good prediction of lift and drag throughout the range of incidences is demonstrated on a transport take-off configuration using up to 24.7 million grid points. The feasibility of using this approach in a production environment on existing parallel machines is demonstrated, as well as the scalability of the solver on machines using up to 1450 processors.

Mavriplis, D. J.; Pirzadeh, S.

1999-01-01

218

3-D High-Lift Flow-Physics Experiment - Transition Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis of the flow state on a trapezoidal wing model from the NASA 3-D High Lift Flow Physics Experiment is presented. The objective of the experiment was to characterize the flow over a non-proprietary semi-span three-element high-lift configuration to aid in assessing the state of the art in the computation of three-dimensional high-lift flows. Surface pressures and hot-film sensors are used to determine the flow conditions on the slat, main, and flap. The locations of the attachments lines and the values of the attachment line Reynolds number are estimated based on the model surface pressures. Data from the hot-films are used to determine if the flow is laminar, transitional, or turbulent by examining the hot-film time histories, statistics, and frequency spectra.

McGinley, Catherine B.; Jenkins, Luther N.; Watson, Ralph D.; Bertelrud, Arild

2005-01-01

219

Unstructured Grid Generation for Complex 3D High-Lift Configurations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application of an unstructured grid methodology on a three-dimensional high-lift configuration is presented. The focus of this paper is on the grid generation aspect of an integrated effort for the development of an unstructured-grid computational fluid dynamics (CFD) capability at the NASA Langley Research Center. The meshing approach is based on tetrahedral grids generated by the advancing-front and the advancing-layers procedures. The capability of the method for solving high-lift problems is demonstrated on an aircraft model referred to as the energy efficient transport configuration. The grid generation issues, including the pros and cons of the present approach, are discussed in relation to the high-lift problems. Limited viscous flow results are presented to demonstrate the viability of the generated grids. A corresponding Navier-Stokes solution capability, along with further computations on the present grid, is presented in a companion SAE paper.

Pirzadeh, Shahyar Z.

1999-01-01

220

Application of direct-inverse techniques to airfoil analysis and design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The direct-inverse technique was developed into a numerical method, called TRANDES, that is suitable for the analysis and design of subsonic and transonic airfoils and for the evaluation of design concepts. A general description of the method is given and its application to a design analysis type of problem is demonstrated. A usage of the method for the low speed high lift case is discussed.

Carlson, L. A.; Rocholl, B. M.

1979-01-01

221

Lifting up and laying down a weight causes high spinal loads.  

PubMed

Lifting up weights from a cupboard or table and putting them back are activities of daily living. Patients with spinal problems want to know whether they should avoid these activities. However, little is known about the spinal forces during these activities and about the effect of level height. Loads on a telemeterized vertebral body replacement were measured in 5 patients. The effect of level height when lifting or setting down weights of 0.01, 1.5 and 3.0 kg in a standing posture were investigated. Furthermore, these weights were lifted and set down with a stretched arm while sitting at a table. No instructions were given on how to perform the task. For these activities, forces as high as 5 times the value for standing alone were measured. In 2 patients, implant loads decreased with increasing level height. In the other patients the effect of level height was small. Lifting a weight from a table with a stretched arm while sitting led to a strong increase of the maximum implant force. Setting down the weight usually caused a slightly higher maximum implant force than lifting it. Forces on a vertebral body replacement during lifting and setting down a weight varied strongly when no precise instructions were given on how to perform the activity. Thus, the measured forces are representative for such activities performed in daily life. This, however, led to wide variations in measured data. Compared to the value for standing, 5 times higher forces were measured for lifting and setting down of weights. This suggests that these activities should be avoided by patients who have spinal problems. PMID:23141957

Rohlmann, Antonius; Zander, Thomas; Graichen, Friedmar; Bergmann, Georg

2013-02-01

222

Design and experimental results for the S809 airfoil  

SciTech Connect

A 21-percent-thick, laminar-flow airfoil, the S809, for horizontal-axis wind-turbine applications, has been designed and analyzed theoretically and verified experimentally in the low-turbulence wind tunnel of the Delft University of Technology Low Speed Laboratory, The Netherlands. The two primary objectives of restrained maximum lift, insensitive to roughness, and low profile drag have been achieved. The airfoil also exhibits a docile stall. Comparisons of the theoretical and experimental results show good agreement. Comparisons with other airfoils illustrate the restrained maximum lift coefficient as well as the lower profile-drag coefficients, thus confirming the achievement of the primary objectives.

Somers, D.M. [Airfoils, Inc., State College, PA (United States)] [Airfoils, Inc., State College, PA (United States)

1997-01-01

223

Design and experimental results for the S805 airfoil  

SciTech Connect

An airfoil for horizontal-axis wind-turbine applications, the S805, has been designed and analyzed theoretically and verified experimentally in the low-turbulence wind tunnel of the Delft University of Technology Low Speed Laboratory, The Netherlands. The two primary objectives of restrained maximum lift, insensitive to roughness, and low profile drag have been achieved. The airfoil also exhibits a docile stall. Comparisons of the theoretical and experimental results show good agreement. Comparisons with other airfoils illustrate the restrained maximum lift coefficient as well as the lower profile-drag coefficients, thus confirming the achievement of the primary objectives.

Somers, D.M. [Airfoils, Inc., State College, PA (United States)

1997-01-01

224

Large-eddy simulation of flow around an airfoil on a structured mesh  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The diversity of flow characteristics encountered in a flow over an airfoil near maximum lift taxes the presently available statistical turbulence models. This work describes our first attempt to apply the technique of large-eddy simulation to a flow of aeronautical interest. The challenge for this simulation comes from the high Reynolds number of the flow as well as the variety of flow regimes encountered, including a thin laminar boundary layer at the nose, transition, boundary layer growth under adverse pressure gradient, incipient separation near the trailing edge, and merging of two shear layers at the trailing edge. The flow configuration chosen is a NACA 4412 airfoil near maximum lift. The corresponding angle of attack was determined independently by Wadcock (1987) and Hastings & Williams (1984, 1987) to be close to 12 deg. The simulation matches the chord Reynolds number U(sub infinity)c/v = 1.64 x 10(exp 6) of Wadcock's experiment.

Kaltenbach, Hans-Jakob; Choi, Haecheon

1995-01-01

225

Advancements in adaptive aerodynamic technologies for airfoils and wings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although aircraft operate over a wide range of flight conditions, current fixed-geometry aircraft are optimized for only a few of these conditions. By altering the shape of the aircraft, adaptive aerodynamics can be used to increase the safety and performance of an aircraft by tailoring the aircraft for multiple flight conditions. Of the various shape adaptation concepts currently being studied, the use of multiple trailing-edge flaps along the span of a wing offers a relatively high possibility of being incorporated on aircraft in the near future. Multiple trailing-edge flaps allow for effective spanwise camber adaptation with resulting drag benefits over a large speed range and load alleviation at high-g conditions. The research presented in this dissertation focuses on the development of this concept of using trailing-edge flaps to tailor an aircraft for multiple flight conditions. One of the major tasks involved in implementing trailing-edge flaps is in designing the airfoil to incorporate the flap. The first part of this dissertation presents a design formulation that incorporates aircraft performance considerations in the inverse design of low-speed laminar-flow adaptive airfoils with trailing-edge cruise flaps. The benefit of using adaptive airfoils is that the size of the low-drag region of the drag polar can be effectively increased without increasing the maximum thickness of the airfoil. Two aircraft performance parameters are considered: level-flight maximum speed and maximum range. It is shown that the lift coefficients for the lower and upper corners of the airfoil low-drag range can be appropriately adjusted to tailor the airfoil for these two aircraft performance parameters. The design problem is posed as a part of a multidimensional Newton iteration in an existing conformal-mapping based inverse design code, PROFOIL. This formulation automatically adjusts the lift coefficients for the corners of the low-drag range for a given flap deflection as required for the airfoil-aircraft matching. Examples are presented to illustrate the flapped-airfoil design approach for a general aviation aircraft and the results are validated by comparison with results from post-design aircraft performance computations. Once the airfoil is designed to incorporate a TE flap, it is important to determine the most suitable flap angles along the wing for different flight conditions. The second part of this dissertation presents a method for determining the optimum flap angles to minimize drag based on pressures measured at select locations on the wing. Computational flow simulations using a panel method are used "in the loop" for demonstrating closed-loop control of the flaps. Examples in the paper show that the control algorithm is successful in correctly adapting the wing to achieve the target lift distributions for minimizing induced drag while adjusting the wing angle of attack for operation of the wing in the drag bucket. It is shown that the "sense-and-adapt" approach developed is capable of handling varying and unpredictable inflow conditions. Such a capability could be useful in adapting long-span flexible wings that may experience significant and unknown atmospheric inflow variations along the span. To further develop the "sense-and-adapt" approach, the method was tested experimentally in the third part of the research. The goal of the testing was to see if the same results found computationally can be obtained experimentally. The North Carolina State University subsonic wind tunnel was used for the wind tunnel tests. Results from the testing showed that the "sense-and-adapt" approach has the same performance experimentally as it did computationally. The research presented in this dissertation is a stepping stone towards further development of the concept, which includes modeling the system in the Simulink environment and flight experiments using uninhabited aerial vehicles.

Jepson, Jeffrey Keith

226

1999 NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop. Volume 2; High Lift  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The High-Speed Research Program sponsored the NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Review on February 8-12, 1999 in Anaheim, California. The review was designed to bring together NASA and industry High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in areas of: Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag prediction and minimization) and High-Lift. The review objectives were to: (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodynamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among the scientist and engineers working HSCT aerodynamics. The HSR AP Technical Review was held simultaneously with the annual review of the following airframe technology areas: Materials and Structures, Environmental Impact, Flight Deck, and Technology Integration Thus, a fourth objective of the Review was to promote synergy between the Aerodynamic Performance technology area and the other technology areas within the airframe element of the HSR Program. This Volume 2/Part 1 publication presents the High-Lift Configuration Development session.

Hahne, David E. (Editor)

1999-01-01

227

Numerical simulation by TVD schemes of complex shock reflections from airfoils at high angle of attack. [Total Variation Diminishing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The shock-capturing capability of total variation diminishing (TVD) schemes is demonstrated for a more realistic complex shock-diffraction problem for which the experimental data are available. Second-order explicit upwind and symmetric TVD schemes are used to solve the time-dependent Euler equations of gas dynamics for the interaction of a blast wave with an airfoil at high angle-of-attack. The test cases considered are a time-dependent moving curved-shock wave and a contant moving planar-shock wave impinging at an angle-of-attack 30 deg on a NACA 0018 airfoil. Good agreement is obtained between isopycnic contours computed by the TVD schemes and those from experimental interferograms. No drastic difference in flow-field structure is found between the curved- and planar-shock wave cases, except for a difference in density level near the lower surface of the airfoil. Computation for cases with higher shock Mach numbers is also possible. Numerical experiments show that the symmetric TVD scheme is less sensitive to the boundary conditions treatment than the upwind scheme.

Moon, Young J.; Yee, H. C.

1987-01-01

228

Effectiveness of spoilers on the GA(W)-1 airfoil with a high performance Fowler flap  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two-dimensional wind-tunnel tests were conducted to determine effectiveness of spoilers applied to the GA(W)-1 airfoil. Tests of several spoiler configurations show adequate control effectiveness with flap nested. It is found that providing a vent path allowing lower surface air to escape to the upper surface as the spoiler opens alleviates control reversal and hysteresis tendencies. Spoiler cross-sectional shape variations generally have a modest influence on control characteristics. A series of comparative tests of vortex generators applied to the (GA-W)-1 airfoil show that triangular planform vortex generators are superior to square planform vortex generators of the same span.

Wentz, W. H., Jr.

1975-01-01

229

Demonstration of a Low-Lift Heat Pump for High-Power Spacecraft Thermal Control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the development and demonstration of a prototype low-lift heat pump for high-power spacecraft thermal control The low-lift heat pump was designed to provide 25 kW of cooling at 303 K and transport this waste heat to a radiator for heat rejection. To accomplish this, a demonstration heat pump with an evaporation temperature of 298 K and a condensing temperature of 301 K was designed and built. HFC-227ea was the working fluid. This effort resulted in optimization of the centrifugal compressor impeller, diffuser, and shroud designs through extensive experimental testing. The detailed design of a magnetic bearing centrifugal compressor was completed. A prototype heat pump thermal control system was designed and fabricated which contained prototypical cold plate and condenser designs. This prototype system was extensively tested and demonstrated to measure performance parameters such as power consumption, cooling capacity, system size and mass, and other key parameters. Finally, the experimental performance was input into the theoretical trade study allowing for a comparison of the actual performance of the low-lift heat pump to a single-phase pumped loop. Inputting the experimental low-lift heat pump performance into the trade study showed that the low-lift heat pump still has lower system mass than the single-phase pumped loop for all space temperatures considered. The experimental results very closely match the theoretical results used in the trade study.

Grzyll, Lawrence R.

2006-01-01

230

1998 NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop. Volume 2; High Lift  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's High-Speed Research Program sponsored the 1998 Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review on February 9-13, in Los Angeles, California. The review was designed to bring together NASA and industry High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in areas of Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag prediction and minimization), High-Lift, and Flight Controls. The review objectives were to (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodynamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among the scientists and engineers working HSCT aerodynamics. In particular, single- and multi-point optimized HSCT configurations, HSCT high-lift system performance predictions, and HSCT simulation results were presented along with executive summaries for all the Aerodynamic Performance technology areas. The HSR Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review was held simultaneously with the annual review of the following airframe technology areas: Materials and Structures, Environmental Impact, Flight Deck, and Technology Integration. Thus, a fourth objective of the Review was to promote synergy between the Aerodynamic Performance technology area and the other technology areas of the HSR Program.

McMillin, S. Naomi (Editor)

1999-01-01

231

1999 NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop. Volume 2; High Lift  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's High-Speed Research Program sponsored the 1999 Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review on February 8-12, 1999 in Anaheim, California. The review was designed to bring together NASA and industry High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in the areas of Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag prediction and minimization), High Lift, and Flight Controls. The review objectives were to (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodynamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among die scientists and engineers working on HSCT aerodynamics. In particular, single and midpoint optimized HSCT configurations, HSCT high-lift system performance predictions, and HSCT simulation results were presented, along with executive summaries for all the Aerodynamic Performance technology areas. The HSR Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review was held simultaneously with the annual review of the following airframe technology areas: Materials and Structures, Environmental Impact, Flight Deck, and Technology Integration. Thus, a fourth objective of the Review was to promote synergy between the Aerodynamic Performance technology area and the other technology areas of the HSR Program. This Volume 2/Part 2 publication covers the tools and methods development session.

Hahne, David E. (Editor)

1999-01-01

232

On the general theory of thin airfoils for nonuniform motion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

General thin-airfoil theory for a compressible fluid is formulated as boundary problem for the velocity potential, without recourse to the theory of vortex motion. On the basis of this formulation the integral equation of lifting-surface theory for an incompressible fluid is derived with the chordwise component of the fluid velocity at the airfoil as the function to be determined. It is shown how by integration by parts this integral equation can be transformed into the Biot-Savart theorem. A clarification is gained regarding the use of principal value definitions for the integral which occur. The integral equation of lifting-surface theory is used a s the starting point for the establishment of a theory for the nonstationary airfoil which is a generalization of lifting-line theory for the stationary airfoil and which might be called "lifting-strip" theory. Explicit expressions are given for section lift and section moment in terms of the circulation function, which for any given wing deflection is to be determined from an integral equation which is of the type of the equation of lifting-line theory. The results obtained are for airfoils of uniform chord. They can be extended to tapered airfoils. One of the main uses of the results should be that they furnish a practical means for the analysis of the aerodynamic span effect in the problem of wing flutter. The range of applicability of "lifting-strip" theory is the same as that of lifting-line theory so that its results may be applied to airfoils with aspect ratios as low as three.

Reissner, Eric

1944-01-01

233

Scale effect on Clark Y airfoil characteristics from NACA full-scale wind-tunnel tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents the results of wind tunnel tests conducted to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of the Clark Y airfoil over a large range of Reynolds numbers. Three airfoils of aspect ratio 6 and with 4, 6, and 8 foot chords were tested at velocities between 25 and 118 miles per hour, and the characteristics were obtained for Reynolds numbers (based on the airfoil chord) in the range between 1,000,000 and 9,000,000 at the low angles of attack, and between 1,000,000 and 6,000,000 at maximum lift. With increasing Reynolds number the airfoil characteristics are affected in the following manner: the drag at zero lift decreases, the maximum lift increases, the slope of the lift curve increases, the angle of zero lift occurs at smaller negative angles, and the pitching moment at zero lift does not change appreciably.

Silverstein, Abe

1935-01-01

234

Design parameters for flow energizers. [highly swept strakes mounted above lifting surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the most significant uses of flow energizers, which are small highly swept strakes mounted immediately above a lifting surface, is in flow control over regions where a lifting surface is joined to another body, such as a fuselage or nacelle. In the presently reported systematic wind tunnel test study of flow energizers, 14 different geometric configurations using a 75-deg sweep flow energizer were tested on a light twin-engine general aviation aircraft model. It is found that cambered flow energizers perform better than their flat counterparts. All but two of the energizer installations developed lower L/D at cruise angles of attack, lower maximum lift coefficients, and lower stall angles of attack than the baseline model.

Ward, D. T.; Binford, R. S.

1984-01-01

235

Improvement of Laminar Lifted Flame Stability Excited by High-Frequency Acoustic Oscillation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high-frequency (20kHz) standing wave was applied to the unburned mixture upstream of a methane-air lifted jet flame using a bolt-clamped Langevin transducer (BLT) to improve stability. The flow field near the flame was visualized using acetone planar-laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF). The standing wave decreased the lifted flame height and increased the blow-off limit. The upstream flow field of the center jet then bent. This phenomenon appeared when there was a density difference between the center jet and the surrounding secondary flow. When the density of the center jet was less than that of the co-flow, the center jet was redirected to the pressure anti-node side. Conversely, when the density of the center jet was greater than that of the co-flow, the center jet was redirected to the pressure node side. This redirection tended to stabilize the laminar lifted flame.

Hirota, Mitsutomo; Hashimoto, Kota; Oso, Hiroki; Masuya, Goro

236

Performance of Advanced Heavy-Lift, High-Speed Rotorcraft Configurations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aerodynamic performance of rotorcraft designed for heavy-lift and high-speed cruise is examined. Configurations considered include the tiltrotor, the compound helicopter, and the lift-offset rotor. Design conditions are hover and 250-350 knot cruise, at 5k/ISA+20oC (civil) or 4k/95oF (military); with cruise conditions at 4000 or 30,000 ft. The performance was calculated using the comprehensive analysis CAMRAD II, emphasizing rotor optimization and performance, including wing-rotor interference. Aircraft performance was calculated using estimates of the aircraft drag and auxiliary propulsion efficiency. The performance metric is total power, in terms of equivalent aircraft lift-to-drag ratio L/D = WV/P for cruise, and figure of merit for hover.

Johnson, Wayne; Yeo, Hyeonsoo; Acree, C. W., Jr.

2007-01-01

237

Numerical modeling of aerodynamics of airfoils of micro air vehicles in gusty environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The superior flight characteristics exhibited by birds and insects can be taken as a prototype of the most perfect form of flying machine ever created. The design of Micro Air Vehicles (MAV) which tries mimic the flight of birds and insects has generated a great deal of interest as the MAVs can be utilized for a number of commercial and military operations which is usually not easily accessible by manned motion. The size and speed of operation of a MAV results in low Reynolds number flight, way below the flying conditions of a conventional aircraft. The insensitivity to wind shear and gust is one of the required factors to be considered in the design of airfoil for MAVs. The stability of flight under wind shear is successfully accomplished in the flight of birds and insects, through the flapping motion of their wings. Numerous studies which attempt to model the flapping motion of the birds and insects have neglected the effect of wind gust on the stability of the motion. Also sudden change in flight conditions makes it important to have the ability to have an instantaneous change of the lift force without disturbing the stability of the MAV. In the current study, two dimensional rigid airfoil, undergoing flapping motion is studied numerically using a compressible Navier-Stokes solver discretized using high-order finite difference schemes. The high-order schemes in space and in time are needed to keep the numerical solution economic in terms of computer resources and to prevent vortices from smearing. The numerical grid required for the computations are generated using an inverse panel method for the streamfunction and potential function. This grid generating algorithm allows the creation of single-block orthogonal H-grids with ease of clustering anywhere in the domain and the easy resolution of boundary layers. The developed numerical algorithm has been validated successfully against benchmark problems in computational aeroacoustics (CAA), and unsteady viscous flows. The numerical results for pure-plunge and pure-pitching motion of SD 7003 airfoil are compared with the particle image velocimetry data of Michael Ol by plotting the contours of streamwise velocity and vorticity and also by observing the wake profile of the streamwise velocity. A very good agreement in the location of the vortices was observed between the numerical and experimental results. Also the numerical tracking of streaklines was compared with the dye injection experiments and excellent agreement in the horizontal and vertical locations of the vortex cores was observed. The importance of using the angle of attack to match the wake structures and lift forces of airfoils in pure-pitch and pure-plunge was investigated and it was found that matching the plunging amplitude with the maximum displacement of the leading edge provides a closer match in the observed wake structures and coefficient of lift. Next, the average coefficient of list of an airfoil in pure-pitch was studied and it was found that the pitching about the leading edge produced the maximum value. Two difference methods of enhancements were considered: (i) axis of rotation, and (ii) moving airfoil, as possible ways to enhance the average coefficient of lift for an airfoil pitching about its leading edge. The first case produced two times increase and the second case produced almost four times increase in the average coefficient of lift respectively. Hence these two kinds of motion can be used for lift enhancement to overcome sudden changes in the flight conditions. Finally the effect of a sinusoidal gust on an airfoil in pure-pitch and pure-plunge motion was examined. The pitching motion showed a much lesser drop in the average coefficient of lift compared to the plunging motion, suggesting its effectiveness to overcome disturbances in the freestream. The plunging motion on the other hand can be employed for cases that require the suppression of the oscillation in the lift coefficient.

Gopalan, Harish

238

S822 and S823 Airfoils.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A family of thick airfoils for 3- to 10-meter, stall-regulated, horizontal-axis wind turbines, the S822 and S823, has been designed and analyzed theoretically. The primary objectives of restrained maximum lift, insensitive to roughness, and low profile ha...

D. M. Somers

2005-01-01

239

Active Control of Flow Separation Over an Airfoil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Designing an aircraft without conventional control surfaces is of interest to aerospace community. In this direction, smart actuator devices such as synthetic jets have been proposed to provide aircraft maneuverability instead of control surfaces. In this article, a numerical study is performed to investigate the effects of unsteady suction and blowing on airfoils. The unsteady suction and blowing is introduced at the leading edge of the airfoil in the form of tangential jet. Numerical solutions are obtained using Reynolds-Averaged viscous compressible Navier-Stokes equations. Unsteady suction and blowing is investigated as a means of separation control to obtain lift on airfoils. The effect of blowing coefficients on lift and drag is investigated. The numerical simulations are compared with experiments from the Tel-Aviv University (TAU). These results indicate that unsteady suction and blowing can be used as a means of separation control to generate lift on airfoils.

Ravindran, S. S.

1999-01-01

240

Aerodynamics of High-Lift Configuration Civil Aircraft Model in JAXA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents basic aerodynamics and stall characteristics of the high-lift configuration aircraft model JSM (JAXA Standard Model). During research process of developing high-lift system design method, wind tunnel testing at JAXA 6.5m by 5.5m low-speed wind tunnel and Navier-Stokes computation on unstructured hybrid mesh were performed for a realistic configuration aircraft model equipped with high-lift devices, fuselage, nacelle-pylon, slat tracks and Flap Track Fairings (FTF), which was assumed 100 passenger class modern commercial transport aircraft. The testing and the computation aimed to understand flow physics and then to obtain some guidelines for designing a high performance high-lift system. As a result of the testing, Reynolds number effects within linear region and stall region were observed. Analysis of static pressure distribution and flow visualization gave the knowledge to understand the aerodynamic performance. CFD could capture the whole characteristics of basic aerodynamics and clarify flow mechanism which governs stall characteristics even for complicated geometry and its flow field. This collaborative work between wind tunnel testing and CFD is advantageous for improving or has improved the aerodynamic performance.

Yokokawa, Yuzuru; Murayama, Mitsuhiro; Ito, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Kazuomi

241

Application of Shock Tubes to Transonic Airfoil Testing at High Reynolds Numbers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Performance analysis of a gas-driven shock tube shows that transonic airfoil flows with chord Reynolds numbers of the order of 100 million can be produced, with limitations being imposed by the structural integrity of the facility or the model. A study of...

W. J. Cook M. J. Chaney L. L. Presley G. T. Chapman

1978-01-01

242

Influences of wind tunnel parameters on airfoil characteristics at high subsonic speeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influences of several wind tunnel parameters on airfoil characteristics are experimentally investigated in a transonic wind tunnel. Quantified as Mach number errors they show decisive effects and confirm that they have to be taken into consideration in a valuation of test results. Differences in data gained in measurements of several wind tunnels can be partly explained thereby.

H. Scheitle; S. Wagner

1991-01-01

243

Effectiveness of Spoilers on the Ga(W)-1 Airfoil with a High Performance Fowler Flap.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two-dimensional wind-tunnel tests were conducted to determine effectiveness of spoilers applied to the GA(W)-1 airfoil. Tests of several spoiler configurations show adequate control effectiveness with flap nested. It is found that providing a vent path al...

W. H. Wentz

1975-01-01

244

Transition Documentation on a Three-Element High-Lift Configuration at High Reynolds Numbers: Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 2-D high-lift system experiment was conducted in August of 1996 in the Low Turbulence Pressure Tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA. The purpose of the experiment was to obtain transition measurements on a three element high-lift system for CFD code validation studies. A transition database has been created using the data from this experiment. The present report contains the analysis of the surface hot film data in terms of the transition locations on the three elements. It also includes relevant information regarding the pressure loads and distributions and the wakes behind the model to aid in the interpretation of the transition data. For some of the configurations the current pressure data has been compared with previous wind tunnel entries of the same model. The methodology used to determine the regions of transitional flow is outlined and each configuration tested has been analyzed. A discussion of interference effects, repeatability, and three-dimensional effects on the data is included.

Bertelrud, Arild; Anders, J. B. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

245

Wind tunnel wall interference in V/STOL and high lift testing: A selected, annotated bibliography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This bibliography, with abstracts, consists of 260 citations of interest to persons involved in correcting aerodynamic data, from high lift or V/STOL type configurations, for the interference arising from the wind tunnel test section walls. It provides references which may be useful in correcting high lift data from wind tunnel to free air conditions. References are included which deal with the simulation of ground effect, since it could be viewed as having interference from three tunnel walls. The references could be used to design tests from the standpoint of model size and ground effect simulation, or to determine the available testing envelope with consideration of the problem of flow breakdown. The arrangement of the citations is chronological by date of publication in the case of reports or books, and by date of presentation in the case of papers. Included are some documents of historical interest in the development of high lift testing techniques and wall interference correction methods. Subject, corporate source, and author indices, by citation numbers, have been provided to assist the users. The appendix includes citations of some books and documents which may not deal directly with high lift or V/STOL wall interference, but include additional information which may be helpful.

Tuttle, M. H.; Mineck, R. E.; Cole, K. L.

1986-01-01

246

Analysis of a jet-controlled high-lift hydrofoil with a flap  

Microsoft Academic Search

A jet-controlled high-lift hydrofoil with a flap is investigated using both experimental and computational methods. Experiments were carried out in a cavitation tunnel to measure forces and moment acting on the hydrofoil, and surface pressure distribution. The measured data show the feasibility of such a device for marine applications. Computational studies have also been carried out in parallel with the

S. H. Rhee; S.-E. Kim; H. Ahn; J. Oh; H. Kim

2003-01-01

247

Two-axis hydraulic joint for high speed, heavy lift robotic operations  

SciTech Connect

A hydraulically driven universal joint was developed for a heavy lift, high speed nuclear waste remediation application. Each axis is driven by a simple hydraulic cylinder controlled by a jet pipe servovalve. Servovalve behavior is controlled by a force feedback control system, which damps the hydraulic resonance. A prototype single joint robot was built and tested. A two joint robot is under construction.

Vaughn, M.R.; Robinett, R.D.; Phelan, J.R.; VanZuiden, D.M.

1994-04-01

248

Lift measurement  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A method of determining the lift generated by a lift-generating member is presented. The lift-generating member being coupled to a component within the lift load path with the lift load path component experiencing strain as a result of the lift generated by the lift-generating member. The method involves the steps of coupling at least one strain measurement means to the lift load path component, obtaining strain measurements from the strain measurement means, and calculating the lift generated by the lift-generating member from strain measurements.

2010-02-09

249

Experimental characterization of an airfoil-based actuator using high-temperature shape memory alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports experimental results of an airfoil-based flap actuator that is actuated using high temperature Nickel-Titanium (NiTi) polycrystal and Copper-Aluminium-Nickel (CuAlNi) single crystal wires with a nominal diameter of 1.5 mm. The stress-free transformation temperatures of the commercially available NiTi wires are Mf = 53°C, Ms = 70°C , As = 95°C , Af = 110°C whereas those for the CuAlNi wires are Mf = 80°C ,Ms = 100.5°C, As = 104.5°C , Af = 117°C. Due to a significantly low electrical resistivity of the CuAlNi, the commonly used joule heating approach for thermal actuation is shelved for a heating coil approach. Uniaxial stress measurements, trailing edge flap deflections and temperature measurements are recorded during a typical heating and cooling cycle using a load cell in line with the SMA wire, a LVDT at the trailing edge tip and a thermocouple on the wire (outside the heating coil). It is seen that actuation by the CuAlNi (with a prestrain = 5.5%) leads to about a 50% higher tip deflection and about a 67% lower cooling time after actuation as compared to the corresponding values for NiTi (with a prestrain = 5.6%). The larger tip deflection is attributed to a higher strain recovery for the CuAlNi as compared to the NiTi during phase transformation whereas the lower actuation time is attributed, in part, to the narrow hysteresis in the stress-free transformation temperatures of the CuAlNi (~ 37°C) as compared to the NiTi (~ 57°C).

Bhattacharyya, Abhijit; Ables, William L.; Kannarpady, Ganesh K.; Qidwai, Muhammad A.

2004-07-01

250

CFD Simulations for the Effect of Unsteady Wakes on the Boundary Layer of a Highly Loaded Low-Pressure Turbine Airfoil (L1A)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report is the third part of a three-part final report of research performed under an NRA cooperative Agreement contract. The first part was published as NASA/CR-2012-217415. The second part was published as NASA/CR-2012-217416. The study of the very high lift low-pressure turbine airfoil L1A in the presence of unsteady wakes was performed computationally and compared against experimental results. The experiments were conducted in a low speed wind tunnel under high (4.9%) and then low (0.6%) freestream turbulence intensity for Reynolds number equal to 25,000 and 50,000. The experimental and computational data have shown that in cases without wakes, the boundary layer separated without reattachment. The CFD was done with LES and URANS utilizing the finite-volume code ANSYS Fluent (ANSYS, Inc.) under the same freestream turbulence and Reynolds number conditions as the experiment but only at a rod to blade spacing of 1. With wakes, separation was largely suppressed, particularly if the wake passing frequency was sufficiently high. This was validated in the 3D CFD efforts by comparing the experimental results for the pressure coefficients and velocity profiles, which were reasonable for all cases examined. The 2D CFD efforts failed to capture the three dimensionality effects of the wake and thus were less consistent with the experimental data. The effect of the freestream turbulence intensity levels also showed a little more consistency with the experimental data at higher intensities when compared with the low intensity cases. Additional cases with higher wake passing frequencies which were not run experimentally were simulated. The results showed that an initial 25% increase from the experimental wake passing greatly reduced the size of the separation bubble, nearly completely suppressing it.

Vinci, Samuel, J.

2012-01-01

251

Investigation of low-speed turbulent separated flow around airfoils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Described is a low-speed wind tunnel experiment to measure the flowfield around a two-dimensional airfoil operating close to maximum lift. Boundary layer separation occurs on the upper surface at x/c=0.85. A three-component laser velocimeter, coupled with a computer-controlled data acquisition system, was used to obtain three orthogonal mean velocity components and three components of the Reynolds stress tensor in both the boundary layer and wake of the airfoil. Pressure distributions on the airfoil, skin friction distribution on the upper surface of the airfoil, and integral properties of the airfoil boudary layer are also documented. In addition to these near-field flow properties, static pressure distributions, both upstream and downstream from the airfoil and on the walls of the wind tunnel, are also presented.

Wadcock, Alan J.

1987-01-01

252

Navier-Stokes Analysis of a High Wing Transport High-Lift Configuration with Externally Blown Flaps  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Insights and lessons learned from the aerodynamic analysis of the High Wing Transport (HWT) high-lift configuration are presented. Three-dimensional Navier-Stokes CFD simulations using the OVERFLOW flow solver are compared with high Reynolds test data obtained in the NASA Ames 12 Foot Pressure Wind Tunnel (PWT) facility. Computational analysis of the baseline HWT high-lift configuration with and without Externally Blown Flap (EBF) jet effects is highlighted. Several additional aerodynamic investigations, such as nacelle strake effectiveness and wake vortex studies, are presented. Technical capabilities and shortcomings of the computational method are discussed and summarized.

Slotnick, Jeffrey P.; An, Michael Y.; Mysko, Stephen J.; Yeh, David T.; Rogers, Stuart E.; Roth, Karlin; Baker, M.David; Nash, S.

2000-01-01

253

Tests in the variable-density wind tunnel of the NACA 23012 airfoil with plain and split flaps  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Section characteristics for use in wing design are presented for the NACA 23012 airfoil with plain and split flaps of 20 percent wing chord at a value of the effective Reynolds number of about 8,000,000. The flap deflections covered a range from 60 degrees upward to 75 degrees downward for the plain flap and from neutral to 90 degrees downward for the split flap. The split flap was aerodynamically superior to the plain flap in producing high maximum lift coefficients and in having lower profile-drag coefficients at high lift coefficients.

Abbott, Ira H; Greenberg, Harry

1939-01-01

254

Lower-body lift.  

PubMed

The lower-body lift, designed for patients with multiple lower-body contour deformities, uses a circumferential bikini-line incision to simultaneously lift relaxed trunk and thigh tissues. The author describes 2 lower-body lift procedures, focusing primarily on the high-lateral-tension abdominoplasty with transverse-thigh/buttock lift, which he developed in 1996. (Aesthetic Surg J 2001;21:355-370.). PMID:19331916

Lockwood, T E

2001-07-01

255

A Mission-Adaptive Variable Camber Flap Control System to Optimize High Lift and Cruise Lift-to-Drag Ratios of Future N+3 Transport Aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Boeing and NASA are conducting a joint study program to design a wing flap system that will provide mission-adaptive lift and drag performance for future transport aircraft having light-weight, flexible wings. This Variable Camber Continuous Trailing Edge Flap (VCCTEF) system offers a lighter-weight lift control system having two performance objectives: (1) an efficient high lift capability for take-off and landing, and (2) reduction in cruise drag through control of the twist shape of the flexible wing. This control system during cruise will command varying flap settings along the span of the wing in order to establish an optimum wing twist for the current gross weight and cruise flight condition, and continue to change the wing twist as the aircraft changes gross weight and cruise conditions for each mission segment. Design weight of the flap control system is being minimized through use of light-weight shape memory alloy (SMA) actuation augmented with electric actuators. The VCCTEF program is developing better lift and drag performance of flexible wing transports with the further benefits of lighter-weight actuation and less drag using the variable camber shape of the flap.

Urnes, James, Sr.; Nguyen, Nhan; Ippolito, Corey; Totah, Joseph; Trinh, Khanh; Ting, Eric

2013-01-01

256

MultiElement High-Lift Configuration Design Optimization Using Viscous Continuous Adjoint Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

An adjoint-based Navier-Stokes design and optimization method for two-dimensional multi-element high-lift configurations is derived and presented. The compressible Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are used as a flow model together with the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model to account for high Reynolds number effects. When a viscous continuous adjoint formulation is used, the necessary aerodynamic gradient information is obtained with large computational savings over

Sangho Kim; Juan J. Alonso; Antony Jameson

2004-01-01

257

Hierarchical High Level Information Fusion (H2LIFT).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary objective of this effort was the progression of Level 2/3 fusion of informational content to obtain an advanced multi-intelligent system for hierarchical high-level decision making processes. The goal was to develop an information integration ...

A. Crassidis A. Stotz J. Crassidis M. Sudit R. Nagi

2008-01-01

258

Summary of the First AIAA CFD High Lift Prediction Workshop (invited)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 1st AIAA CFD High Lift Prediction Workshop was held in Chicago in June 2010. The goals of the workshop included an assessment of the numerical prediction capability of current-generation CFD technology/ codes for swept, medium/high-aspect ratio wings in landing/take-off (high lift) configurations. 21 participants from 8 countries and 18 organizations, submitted a total of 39 datasets of CFD results. A variety of grid systems (both structured and unstructured) were used. Trends due to flap angle were analyzed, and effects of grid family, grid density, solver, and turbulence model were addressed. Some participants also assessed the effects of support brackets used to attach the flap and slat to the main wing. This invited paper describes the combined results from all workshop participants. Comparisons with experimental data are made. A statistical summary of the CFD results is also included.

Rumsey, C. L.; Long, M.; Stuever, R. A.; Wayman, T. R.

2011-01-01

259

Simulation of the cross-flow fan and application to a propulsive airfoil concept  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A concept of embedding a cross-flow fan into a wing for lift enhancement and thrust production is proposed. The design places a cross-flow fan near the trailing edge of the wing. Flow is drawn in from the suction surface, energized, and expelled out the trailing edge. The commercial CFD software Fluent is used to perform both 2D and 3D calculations for validation of an isolated cross-flow fan and housing against experimental data, with good correlation found in terms of both global performance and local flow field data. CFD results are used to identify regions of high loss, as well as make recommendations in regard to the temporal and spatial accuracy of collected data. Parametric studies demonstrate fan performance and flow field sensitivities to various cross-flow fan housing parameters. The effect of vortex cavities, clearance gap, and blade shape are investigated. A new inline housing geometry is developed and integrated within a modified Gottingen 570 airfoil. Unsteady sliding mesh calculations are used to visualize the flow field, and calculate fan performance and airfoil lift coefficient. The results of the CFD work show that the jet leaving the fan fills up the wake behind the airfoil, while the suction effect produced by the fan virtually eliminates flow separation at high angle of attack, yielding very high lift coefficients. A system level analysis demonstrates the benefits of using an embedded cross-flow fan for distributed aircraft propulsion. The goal of the system analysis is to investigate the tradeoffs between various design parameters, and provide a basis for preliminary cross-flow fan airfoil design.

Kummer, Joseph

260

Numerical studies of the application of active flow control to subsonic and transonic airfoil flows using a synthetic jet actuator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Active control of flow over airfoils is currently an area of heightened interest in the aerospace community because of its potential in reducing drag, eliminating separation at high angles of attack, and modulating the aerodynamic forces and moments. We study these possibilities by performing several numerical simulations. Numerical simulations are performed by employing an Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) equations solver in conjunction with a two-equation Shear-Stress-Transport (SST) turbulence model. In particular, the computations are performed for the following three classes of flows: (1) Subsonic flow past a 24% thick Clark-Y airfoil with a triangular bump on the upper surface with and without a synthetic jet actuator. The goal is to perform numerical simulations of this experimentally observed fluidic modification of airfoil pressure distributions leading to reduced pressure drag. The computations are compared with experiments performed at Georgia Tech. (2) Transonic flow past a NACA64A010 airfoil with a synthetic jet actuator. The goal is to control the shock/boundary layer interaction on the airfoil using a synthetic jet actuator to reduce drag as well to achieve desired modulation of aerodynamic forces and moments. (3) Subsonic flow past a commercial supercritical airfoil leveraging the presence of a Gurney flap with a synthetic jet actuator. The goal is again to improve the aerodynamic performance (increase or maintain lift and reduce drag) by using a synthetic jet actuator integrated in a bump on the pressure surface of the airfoil near the trailing edge. The computations are compared with the experiments performed at Georgia Tech. The computations as well as the experiments show the feasibility of active flow control in reducing the drag of airfoils and in achieving the desired modulation of aerodynamic forces and moments.

Vadillo, Jose L.

261

Computerized three-dimensional aerodynamic design of a lifting rotor blade  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A three-dimensional, inviscid, full-potential lifting rotor code was used to demonstrate that pressure distributions on both advancing and retreating blades could be significantly improved by perturbing local airfoil sections. The perturbations were described by simple geometric shape functions. To illustrate the procedure, an example calculation was made at a forward flight speed of 85 m/sec (165 knots) and an advance ratio of 0.385. It was found that a minimum of three shape functions was required to improve the pressures without producing undesirable secondary effects in high-speed forward flight on a hypothetical modern rotor blade initially having an NLR-1 supercritical airfoil. Reductions in the shock strength on the advancing blade could be achieved, while simultaneously lessening leading-edge pressure gradients on the retreating blade. The major blade section modifications required were blunting of the upper surface leading edge and some reshaping of the blade's upper surface resulting in moderately thicker airfoils.

Tauber, M. E.; Hicks, R. M.

1980-01-01

262

A High-Lift Building Block Flow: Turbulent Boundary Layer Relaminarization A Final Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental evidence exists which suggests turbulent boundary layer relaminarization may play an important role in the inverse Reynolds number effect in high-lift systems. An experimental investigation of turbulent boundary layer relaminarization has been undertaken at the University of Notre Dame's Hessert Center for Aerospace Research in cooperation with NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. A wind tunnel facility has been constructed at the Hessert Center and relaminarization achieved. Preliminary evidence suggests the current predictive tools available are inadequate at determining the onset of relaminarization. In addition, an in-flight relaminarization experiment for the NASA Dryden FTF-II has been designed to explore relaminarization at Mach and Reynolds numbers more typical of commercial high-lift systems.

Bourassa, Corey; Thomas, Flint O.; Nelson, Robert C.

2000-01-01

263

Navier-Stokes simulations of WECS airfoil flowfields  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories has initiated an effort to apply Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to the study of WECS aerodynamics. Preliminary calculations are presented for the flow past a SAND 0018/50 airfoil. The flow solver used is F3D, an implicitly, finite-difference code which solves the Thin-Layer Navier-airfoil. The flow solver used is F3D, an implicit, finite-difference code which solves the Thin-Layer Navier-Stokes equations. 2D steady-state calculations are presented at various angles of attack, {alpha}. Sectional lift and drag coefficient, as well as surface pressure distributions, are compared with wind tunnel data, and exhibit reasonable agreement at low to moderate angles of attack. At high {alpha}, where the airfoil is stalled, a converged solution to the steady-state equations could not be obtained. The flowfield continued to change with successive iterations, which is consistent with the fact that the actual flow is inherently transient, and requires the solution of the full unsteady form of the equations.

Homicz, G.F. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Computational Fluid Dynamics Dept.

1994-06-01

264

Blowing Circulation Control on a Seaplane Airfoil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

RANS simulations are presented for blowing circulation control on a seaplane airfoil. Realizable k-epsilon turbulent model and pressure-based coupled algorithm with second-order discretization were adopted to simulate the compressible flow. Both clear and simple flap configuration were simulated with blowing momentum coefficient C? = 0, 0.15 and 0.30. The results show that blowing near the airfoil trailing edge could enhance the Coanda effect, delay the flow separation, and increase the lift coefficient dramatically. The blowing circulation control is promising to apply to taking off and landing of an amphibious aircraft or seaplane.

Guo, B. D.; Liu, P. Q.; Qu, Q. L.

2011-09-01

265

A CFD Assessment of Several High-Lift Reference H Configuration Using Structured Grids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this study is to calibrate a Navier-Stokes code for a high-lift Reference H configuration using structured grids. The outline of this presentation will first include a brief description of the grids used and the flow solver. Next the results will be presented in terms of convergence and resources used on the C-90. Predicted force and moment and surface pressure results are compared to experiment and off- and on-surface flow viz. is discussed.

Lessard, Wendy B.

1999-01-01

266

FUN3D and CFL3D Computations for the First High Lift Prediction Workshop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes codes were used to compute flow over the NASA Trapezoidal Wing at high lift conditions for the 1st AIAA CFD High Lift Prediction Workshop, held in Chicago in June 2010. The unstructured-grid code FUN3D and the structured-grid code CFL3D were applied to several different grid systems. The effects of code, grid system, turbulence model, viscous term treatment, and brackets were studied. The SST model on this configuration predicted lower lift than the Spalart-Allmaras model at high angles of attack; the Spalart-Allmaras model agreed better with experiment. Neglecting viscous cross-derivative terms caused poorer prediction in the wing tip vortex region. Output-based grid adaptation was applied to the unstructured-grid solutions. The adapted grids better resolved wake structures and reduced flap flow separation, which was also observed in uniform grid refinement studies. Limitations of the adaptation method as well as areas for future improvement were identified.

Park, Michael A.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Rumsey, Christopher L.

2011-01-01

267

Unsteady Surface Pressure Measurements on a Pitching Airfoil.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Surface pressure measurements were taken in an experimental investigation of energetic dynamic stall vortices. The associated unsteady flowfield was generated by a 6-in. NACA 0015 airfoil pitching at high rates to large angles of attack. The airfoil pitch...

J. Walker H. Helin D. Chou

1985-01-01

268

Analytical study of a free-wing/free-trimmer concept. [for gust alleviation and high lift  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The free-wing/free-trimmer is a NASA-Conceived extension of the free-wing concept intended to permit the use of high-lift flaps. Wing pitching moments are balanced by a smaller, external surface attached by a boom or equivalent structure. The external trimmer is, itself, a miniature free wing, and pitch control of the wing-trimmer assembly is effected through a trailing-edge control tab on the trimmer surface. The longitudinal behavior of representative small free-wing/free-trimmer aircraft was analyzed. Aft-mounted trimmer surfaces are found to be superior to forward trimmers, although the permissible trimmer moment arm is limited, in both cases, by adverse dynamic effects. Aft-trimmer configurations provide excellent gust alleviation and meet fundamental stick-fixed stability criteria while exceeding the lift capabilities of pure free-wing configurations.

Porter, R. F.; Hall, D. W.; Brown, J. H., Jr.; Gregorek, G. M.

1978-01-01

269

Wind tunnel test results of heavy rain effects on airfoil performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of simulated heavy rain on the aerodynamic characteristics of a NACA 64-210 airfoil section equipped with high-lift devices were investigated in the NASA Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel. The experiment was part of an on-going NASA program to determine the effect of heavy rain on airplane performance, and was directed at providing insight into scaling laws for subscale model testing of rain effects. The model used in the investigation had a chord of 2.5 feet, a span of 8.0 feet, and was mounted on the tunnel centerline between two large endplates. A water spray distribution system was located 10 chord lengths upstream of the model. The sensitivity of test results to partial-span coverage of the model in the simulated rain environment as compared to full-span coverage was also investigated. The lift and drag data obtained for the high-lift configuration show excellent repeatability of results compared to the previous data. Results obtained for various spray concentrations and tunnel speeds showed significant losses in maximum lift capability, a decrease in the angle of attack for maximum lift, and an increase in drag as the stimulated rain rate was increased. The test results also indicated that the data were not strongly affected by surface tension effects for the high-lift configuration.

Bezos, G. M.; Dunham, R. E., Jr.; Gentry, G. L., Jr.; Melson, W. Edward, Jr.

1987-01-01

270

Robust, optimal subsonic airfoil shapes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Method system, and product from application of the method, for design of a subsonic airfoil shape, beginning with an arbitrary initial airfoil shape and incorporating one or more constraints on the airfoil geometric parameters and flow characteristics. The resulting design is robust against variations in airfoil dimensions and local airfoil shape introduced in the airfoil manufacturing process. A perturbation procedure provides a class of airfoil shapes, beginning with an initial airfoil shape.

Rai, Man Mohan (Inventor)

2008-01-01

271

The use of a panel code on high lift configurations of a swept forward wing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was done on high lift configurations of a generic swept forward wing using a panel code prediction method. A survey was done of existing codes available at Ames, frow which the program VSAERO was chosen. The results of VSAERO were compared with data obtained from the Ames 7- by 10-foot wind tunnel. The results of the comparison in lift were good (within 3.5%). The comparison of the pressure coefficients was also good. The pitching moment coefficients obtained by VSAERO were not in good agreement with experiment. VSAERO's ability to predict drag is questionable and cannot be counted on for accurate trends. Further studies were done on the effects of a leading edge glove, canards, leading edge sweeps and various wing twists on spanwise loading and trim lift with encouraging results. An unsuccessful attempt was made to model spanwise blowing and boundary layer control on the trailing edge flap. The potential results of VSAERO were compared with experimental data of flap deflections with boundary layer control to check the first order effects.

Scheib, J. S.; Sandlin, D. R.

1985-01-01

272

Flight-measured lift and drag characteristics of a large, flexible, high supersonic cruise airplane  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flight measurements of lift, drag, and angle of attack were obtained for the XB-70 airplane, a large, flexible, high supersonic cruise airplane. This airplane had a length of over 57 meters, a takeoff gross mass of over 226,800 kilograms, and a design cruise speed of Mach 3 at an altitude of 21,340 meters. The performance measurements were made at Mach numbers from 0.72 to 3.07 and altitudes from approximately 7620 meters to 21,340 meters. The measurements were made to provide data for evaluating the techniques presently being used to design and predict the performance of aircraft in this category. Such performance characteristics as drag polars, lift-curve slopes, and maximum lift-to-drag ratios were derived from the flight data. The base drag of the airplane, changes in airplane drag with changes in engine power setting at transonic speeds, and the magnitude of the drag components of the propulsion system are also discussed.

Arnaiz, H. H.

1977-01-01

273

Dynamic stall study of a multi-element airfoil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Unsteady flow behavior and load characteristics of a VR-7 airfoil with and without a slat were studied in the water tunnel of the Aeroflightdynamics Directorate, NASA Ames Research Center. Both airfoils were oscillated sinusoidally between 5 and 25 degrees at a Reynolds number of 200,000 to obtain the unsteady lift, drag and pitching moment data. A fluorescing dye was released from an orifice located at the leading edge of the airfoil for the purpose of visualizing the boundary layer and wake flow. The flow field and load predictions of an incompressible Navier-Stokes code based on a velocity-vorticity formulation were compared with the test data. The test and predictions both confirm that the slatted VR-7 airfoil delays both static and dynamic stall as compared to the VR-7 airfoil alone.

Tung, Chee; Mcalister, Kenneth W.; Wang, Clin M.

1992-01-01

274

Characterization of the Effect of Wing Surface Instrumentation on UAV Airfoil Performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recently proposed flight research at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) has prompted study into the aerodynamic effects of modifications made to the surfaces of laminar airfoils. The research is focused on the high-aspect ratio, laminar-flow type wings commonly found on UAVs and other aircraft with a high endurance requirement. A broad range of instrumentation possibilities, such as structural, pressure, and temperature sensing devices may require the alteration of the airfoil outer mold line as part of the installation process. This study attempts to characterize the effect of installing this additiona1 instrumentation on key airfoil performance factors, such as transition location, lift and drag curves, and stall point. In particular, the general case of an airfoil that is channeled in the spanwise direction is considered, and the impact on key performance characteristics is assessed. Particular attention is focused on exploring the limits of channel depth and low-Reynolds number on performance and stall characteristics. To quantify the effect of increased skin friction due to premature transition caused by protruding or recessed instrumentation, two simplified, conservative scenarios are used to consider two potential sources of diaturbance: A) that leading edge alterations would cause linearly expanding areas (triangles) of turbulent flow on both surfaces of the wing upstream of the natural transition point, and B) that a channel or bump on the upper surface would trip turbulent flow across the whole upper surface upstream of the natural transition point. A potentially more important consideration than the skin friction drag increment is the change in overall airfoil performance due to the installation of instrumentation along most of the wingspan. To quantify this effect, 2D CFD simulations of the flow over a representative mid-span airfoil section were conducted in order to assess the change in lift and drag curves for the airfoil in the presence of disturbed flow due to the installed instrumentation. A discussion as to the impact on high-altitude and low-speed operation of this and similar aircraft is provided.

Ratnayake, Nalin A.

2009-01-01

275

Wind tunnel tests of high-lift systems for advanced transports using high-aspect-ratio supercritical wings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The wind tunnel testing of an advanced technology high lift system for a wide body and a narrow body transport incorporating high aspect ratio supercritical wings is described. This testing has added to the very limited low speed high Reynolds number data base for this class or aircraft. The experimental results include the effects on low speed aerodynamic characteristics of various leading and trailing edge devices, nacelles and pylons, ailerons, and spoilers, and the effects of Mach and Reynolds numbers.

Allen, J. B.; Oliver, W. R.; Spacht, L. A.

1982-01-01

276

Wind-tunnel tests of a Clark Y wing with a narrow auxiliary airfoil in different positions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerodynamic force tests were made on a combination of a Clark Y wing and a narrow auxiliary airfoil to find the best location of the auxiliary airfoil with respect to the main wing. The auxiliary was a highly cambered airfoil of medium thickness having a chord 14.5 per cent that of the main wing. It was tested in 141 different positions ahead of, above, and behind the nose portion of the main wing, the range of the test points being extended until the best aerodynamic conditions were covered. A range of positions was found in which the combination of main wing and auxiliary gave substantially greater aerodynamic efficiency and higher maximum lift coefficients (based on total area) than the main Clark Y wing alone. In the optimum position tested, considering both the maximum lift and the speed-range ratio, the combination of main wing and auxiliary gave an increase in the maximum lift coefficient of 32 per cent together with an increase in the ratio of 21 per cent of the respective values for the main Clark Y wing alone.

Weick, Fred E; Bamber, Millard J

1933-01-01

277

Development of a Fowler flap system for a high performance general aviation airfoil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A two-dimensional wind-tunnel evaluation of two Fowler flap configurations on the new GA(W)-1 airfoil was conducted. One configuration used a computer-designed 29-percent chord Fowler flap. The second configuration was modified to have increased Fowler action with a 30-percent chord flap. Force, pressure, and flow-visualization data were obtained at Reynolds numbers of 2.2 million to 2.9 million. Optimum slot geometry and performance were found to be close to computer predictions. A C sub L max of 3.8 was achieved. Optimum flap deflection, slot gap, and flap overlap are presented as functions of C sub L. Tests were made with the lower surface cusp filled in to show the performance penalties that result. Some data on the effects of adding vortex generators and hinged-plate spoilers were obtained.

Wentz, W. H., Jr.; Seetharam, H. C.

1974-01-01

278

Profile-Drag Coefficients of Conventional and Low-Drag Airfoils as Obtained in Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of flight tests indicate that profile-drag coefficients which were obtained with the low-drag airfoils were lower than with the conventional types over the range of light coefficients tested. For comparable conditions of the lift coefficient and Reynolds Number, the low-drag airfoils have profile-drag coefficients which may be 27 percent lower than the profile drag of the conventional airfoils tested. Detailed results are presented graphically.

Zalovcik, John A.

1944-01-01

279

Surface pressure and aerodynamic loads determination of a transonic airfoil based on particle image velocimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present investigation assesses a procedure to extract the aerodynamic loads and pressure distribution on an airfoil in the transonic flow regime from particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements. The wind tunnel model is a two-dimensional NACA-0012 airfoil, and the PIV velocity data are used to evaluate pressure fields, whereas lift and drag coefficients are inferred from the evaluation of momentum

D. Ragni; A. Ashok; B. W. van Oudheusden; F. Scarano

2009-01-01

280

An investigation on the aerodynamics of a symmetrical airfoil in ground effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flow characteristics over a symmetrical airfoil––NACA 0015––are studied experimentally in a low speed wind tunnel. The pressure distribution on the airfoil surface was obtained, lift and drag forces were measured and mean velocity profiles were obtained over the surface. The wake region was also explored in detail and measurements of mean velocity and turbulence intensities were performed at two

M. R. Ahmed; S. D. Sharma

2005-01-01

281

Lighter-Than-Air System Enhanced with Kinetic Lift.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A hybrid airship system is proposed in which the buoyant lift is enhanced with kinetic lift. The airship would consist of twin hulls in which the buoyant gas is contained. The twin hulls would be connected in parallel by a wing having an airfoil contour. ...

M. L. Spearman

2002-01-01

282

Numerical Simulations of the Steady and Unsteady Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Circulation Control Wing Airfoil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aerodynamic characteristics of a Circulation Control Wing (CCW) airfoil have been numerically investigated, and comparisons with experimental data have been made. The configuration chosen was a supercritical airfoil with a 30 degree dual-radius CCW flap. Steady and pulsed jet calculations were performed. It was found that the use of steady jets, even at very small mass flow rates, yielded a lift coefficient that is comparable or superior to conventional high-lift systems. The attached flow over the flap also gave rise to lower drag coefficients, and high L/D ratios. Pulsed jets with a 50% duty cycle were also studied. It was found that they were effective in generating lift at lower reduced mass flow rates compared to a steady jet, provided the pulse frequency was sufficiently high. This benefit was attributable to the fact that the momentum coefficient of the pulsed jet, during the portions of the cycle when the jet was on, was typically twice as much as that of a steady jet.

Liu, Yi; Sankar, Lakshmi N.; Englar, Robert J.; Ahuja, Krishan K.

2003-01-01

283

Experimental study of delta wing leading-edge devices for drag reduction at high lift  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The drag reduction devices selected for evaluation were the fence, slot, pylon-type vortex generator, and sharp leading-edge extension. These devices were tested on a 60 degree flatplate delta (with blunt leading edges) in the Langley Research Center 7- by 10-foot high-speed tunnel at low speed and to angles of attack of 28 degrees. Balance and static pressure measurements were taken. The results indicate that all the devices had significant drag reduction capability and improved longitudinal stability while a slight loss of lift and increased cruise drag occurred.

Johnson, T. D., Jr.; Rao, D. M.

1982-01-01

284

An Approach to the Constrained Design of Natural Laminar Flow Airfoils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A design method has been developed by which an airfoil with a substantial amount of natural laminar flow can be designed, while maintaining other aerodynamic and geometric constraints. After obtaining the initial airfoil's pressure distribution at the design lift coefficient using an Euler solver coupled with an integral turbulent boundary layer method, the calculations from a laminar boundary layer solver are used by a stability analysis code to obtain estimates of the transition location (using N-Factors) for the starting airfoil. A new design method then calculates a target pressure distribution that will increase the laminar flow toward the desired amount. An airfoil design method is then iteratively used to design an airfoil that possesses that target pressure distribution. The new airfoil's boundary layer stability characteristics are determined, and this iterative process continues until an airfoil is designed that meets the laminar flow requirement and as many of the other constraints as possible.

Green, Bradford E.

1997-01-01

285

An approach to the constrained design of natural laminar flow airfoils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A design method has been developed by which an airfoil with a substantial amount of natural laminar flow can be designed, while maintaining other aerodynamic and geometric constraints. After obtaining the initial airfoil's pressure distribution at the design lift coefficient using an Euler solver coupled with an integml turbulent boundary layer method, the calculations from a laminar boundary layer solver are used by a stability analysis code to obtain estimates of the transition location (using N-Factors) for the starting airfoil. A new design method then calculates a target pressure distribution that will increase the larninar flow toward the desired amounl An airfoil design method is then iteratively used to design an airfoil that possesses that target pressure distribution. The new airfoil's boundary layer stability characteristics are determined, and this iterative process continues until an airfoil is designed that meets the laminar flow requirement and as many of the other constraints as possible.

Green, Bradford Earl

1995-01-01

286

Eyelid lift  

MedlinePLUS

... lift to improve their appearance. This is called cosmetic or elective surgery. The eyelid lift may be done alone or ... Codere F, Tucker N. Cosmetic blepharoplasty and browplasty. In: ... Skin. 2nd ed . Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2010:chap 39.

287

Navier-Stokes Simulation of Several High-Lift Reference H Configurations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The subsonic flow field was numerically simulated around several High Speed Research Reference H configurations at various pitch and yaw angles. A sequence of structured-viscous grids were generated; the first grid modeled the wing-body high-lift geometry, and the second grid incorporated the nacelles and the horizontal tail. The third grid modeled the full-span geometry for sideslip calculations, and was obtained by mirroring a coarser version of the second grid. The CFL3D code, a Reynolds averaged, thin-layer Navier-Stokes flow solver for structural grids, was used for the flow solver and modeled the free-air Reference H high-lift configuration at wind tunnel conditions of Mach number 0.24 and Reynolds number of 1.4 x 10(exp 5) per in. Pitch sweeps were performed at angles of attack from 6 deg to 15 deg. Sideslip angle sweeps at 0 deg <= Beta <= +18 deg were performed at an angle of attack of 8 deg. The lateral and longitudinal performance characteristics were well predicted and very good force and moment comparisons were obtained. A very complex multiple vortical system develops at the higher angles of attack, and detailed postprocessing of the solutions provided a comprehensive three-dimensional understanding of the flow which helps to correlate and interpret the wind tunnel data.

Lessard, Wendy B.

1999-01-01

288

Process optimization of LIFT through visualization: towards high resolution metal circuit printing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser induced forward transfer (LIFT) is a freeform, additive patterning technique capable of depositing high resolution metal structures. A laser pulse is used to generate small droplets from the donor material, defined by the spot size and energy of the pulse. Metallic as well as non-metallic materials can be patterned using this method. Being a contactless, additive and high resolution patterning technique, this method enables fabrication of multi-layer circuits, enabling bridge printing, thereby decreasing component spacing. Here we demonstrate copper droplet formation from a thin film donor. The investigation of the LIFT process is done via shadowgraphy and provides detailed insight on the droplet formation. Of particular importance is the interplay of the droplet jetting mechanism and the spacing between donor and receiving substrate on a stable printing process. Parameters such as the influence of laser fluence and donor thickness on the formation of droplets are discussed. An angle deviation analysis of the copper droplets during flight is carried out to estimate the pointing accuracy of the transfer. The possibility of understanding the droplet formation, could allow for stable droplets transferred with large gaps, simplifying the process for patterning continuous high-resolution conductive lines.

Giesbers, Merijn P.; Hoppenbrouwers, M. B.; Smits, E. C. P.; Mandamparambil, R.

2014-05-01

289

Lifting Surface Theory for Thrust Augmenting Ejectors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The circulation theory of airfoil lift has been applied to predict the static performance of thrust augmenting ejectors. The ejector shroud is considered to be 'flying' in the velocity field induced by the entrainment of the primary jets, so that the thru...

P. M. Bevilaqua

1982-01-01

290

Unstructured Grid Viscous Flow Simulation Over High-Speed Research Technology Concept Airplane at High-Lift Conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Numerical viscous solutions based on an unstructured grid methodology are presented for a candidate high-speed civil transport configuration, designated as the Technology Concept Airplane (TCA), within the High-Speed Research (HSR) program. The numerical results are obtained on a representative TCA high-lift configuration that consisted of the fuselage and the wing, with deflected full-span leading-edge and trailing-edge flaps. Typical on-and off-surface flow structures, computed at high-lift conditions appropriate for the takeoff and landing, indicated features that are generally plausible. Reasonable surface pressure correlations between the numerical results and the experimental data are obtained at free-stream Mach number M(sub infinity) = 0.25 and Reynolds number based on bar-c R(sub c) = 8 x 10(exp 6) for moderate angles of attack of 9.7 deg. and 13.5 deg. However, above and below this angle-of-attack range, the correlation between computed and measured pressure distributions starts to deteriorate over the examined angle-of-attack range. The predicted longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics are shown to correlate very well with existing experimental data across the examined angle-of-attack range. An excellent agreement is also obtained between the predicted lift-to-drag ratio and the experimental data over the examined range of flow conditions.

Ghaffari, Farhad

1999-01-01

291

Transonic flow past an airfoil with condensation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In connection with investigations conducted to determine the influence of water vapor on experiments in wind tunnels, the question arose as to what changes due to vapor condensation might be expected in airfoil measurements. Density measurements on circular-arc airfoils aided by an interferometer in choked tunnels with parallel walls show that increasing humidity produces increasing changes in the flow field. The flow becomes nonstationary at high humidity. At the airfoil, however, the influence of the condensation is only felt, inasmuch as the shock bounding the local supersonic region moves upstream with increasing humidity while its intensity decreases. The density distribution upstream of the shock remains unchanged. Even if the flow becomes nonstationary in the vicinity of the airfoil, no changes occur at the airfoil.

Schmidt, B.

1978-01-01

292

Viscous Transonic Airfoil Workshop compendium of results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results from the Viscous Transonic Airfoil Workshop held at the AIAA 25th Aerospace Sciences Meeting at Reno, NV in January 1987, are compared with each other and with experimental data. Test cases used in this workshop include attached and separated transonic flows for three different airfoils: the NACA 0012 airfoil, the RAE 2822 airfoil, and the Jones airfoil. A total of 23 sets of numerical results from 15 different author groups are included. The numerical methods used vary widely and include: 16 Navier-Stokes methods, 2 Euler/boundary-layer methods, and 5 full-potential/boundary-layer methods. The results indicate a high degree of sophistication among the numerical methods with generally good agreement between the various computed and experimental results for attached or moderately-separated cases. The agreement for cases with larger separation is only fair and suggests additional work is required in this area.

Holst, Terry L.

1987-01-01

293

In-flight surface-flow measurements on a subsonic transport high-lift flap system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of a multiphased program for subsonic transport high-lift flight research, flight tests were conducted on the Transport Systems Research Vehicle (B737-100 aircraft) at the NASA Langley Research Center, to obtain detailed flow characteristics of the high-lift flap system for correlation with computational and wind-tunnel investigations. Pressure distributions, skin friction, and flow-visualization measurements were made on a triple-slotted flap system for a range of flap deflections, chord Reynolds numbers (10 to 21 million), and Mach numbers (0.16 to 0.36). Experimental test results are given for representative flap settings indicating flow separation on the fore-flap element for the largest flap deflection. Comparisons of the in-flight flow measurements were made with predictions from available viscous multielement computational methods modified with simple-sweep theory. Computational results overpredicted the experimentally measured pressures, particularly in the case involving separation of the fore lap, indicating the need for better modeling of confluent boundary layers and three-dimensional sweep effects.

Yip, Long P.; Vijgen, Paul M. H. W.; Hardin, Jay D.

1992-01-01

294

Results of design studies and wind tunnel tests of an advanced high lift system for an Energy Efficient Transport  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of an advanced technology high lift system for an energy efficient transport incorporating a high aspect ratio supercritical wing is described. This development is based on the results of trade studies to select the high lift system, analysis techniques utilized to design the high lift system, and results of a wind tunnel test program. The program included the first experimental low speed, high Reynolds number wind tunnel test for this class of aircraft. The experimental results include the effects on low speed aerodynamic characteristics of various leading and trailing edge devices, nacelles and pylons, aileron, spoilers, and Mach and Reynolds numbers. Results are discussed and compared with the experimental data and the various aerodynamic characteristics are estimated.

Oliver, W. R.

1980-01-01

295

Nonlinear lift control at high speed and high angle of attack using vortex flow technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nonlinear lift control at subsonic, transonic and low supersonic speeds owes its origin to the separated but organized vortical flows interacting with the wing upper surface. Since most of this flow originates near the wing or control-surface leading edge, a variety of devices has been studied experimentally which interact with and/or control this flow in order to gain a beneficial effect. The benefits (effects) originally studied were associated only with lift enhancement. Whereas, now the studied benefits encompass performance increase, attention to changes in trimmed conditions and longitudinal stability, improvements in lateral stability, and the attendant variation with changing Mach number. For those devices that can be theoretically modeled, state-of-the-art computer codes have been used for device design and/or analysis. Comparisons at design and off-design conditions are presented for validation purposes.

Lamar, John E.

1987-01-01

296

A Near-Term, High-Confidence Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of well understood, legacy elements of the Space Shuttle system could yield a near-term, high-confidence Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle that offers significant performance, reliability, schedule, risk, cost, and work force transition benefits. A side-mount Shuttle-Derived Vehicle (SDV) concept has been defined that has major improvements over previous Shuttle-C concepts. This SDV is shown to carry crew plus large logistics payloads to the ISS, support an operationally efficient and cost effective program of lunar exploration, and offer the potential to support commercial launch operations. This paper provides the latest data and estimates on the configurations, performance, concept of operations, reliability and safety, development schedule, risks, costs, and work force transition opportunities for this optimized side-mount SDV concept. The results presented in this paper have been based on established models and fully validated analysis tools used by the Space Shuttle Program, and are consistent with similar analysis tools commonly used throughout the aerospace industry. While these results serve as a factual basis for comparisons with other launch system architectures, no such comparisons are presented in this paper. The authors welcome comparisons between this optimized SDV and other Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle concepts.

Rothschild, William J.; Talay, Theodore A.

2009-01-01

297

Low Reynolds number airfoil aerodynamic loads determination via line integral of velocity obtained with particle image velocimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The small magnitude lift forces generated by both a NACA 0012 airfoil and a thin flat plate at Re = 29,000 and 54,000 were determined through the line integral of velocity, obtained with particle image velocimetry, via the application of the Kutta-Joukowsky theorem. Surface pressure measurements of the NACA0012 airfoil were also obtained to validate the lift coefficient C l. The bound circulation was found to be insensitive to the size and aspect ratio of the rectangular integration loop for pre-stall angles. The present C l data were also found to agree very well with the surface pressure-determined lift coefficient for pre-stall conditions. A large variation in C l with the loop size and aspect ratio for post-stall conditions was, however, observed. Nevertheless, the present flat-plate C l data were also found to collectively agree with the published force-balance measurements at small angles of attack, despite the large disparity exhibited among the various published data at high angles. Finally, the ensemble-averaged wake velocity profiles were also used to compute the drag coefficient and, subsequently, the lift-to-drag ratio.

Lee, T.; Su, Y. Y.

2012-11-01

298

Investigation of advanced thrust vectoring exhaust systems for high speed propulsive lift  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper presents the results of a wind tunnel investigation conducted at the NASA-Langley research center to determine thrust vectoring/induced lift characteristics of advanced exhaust nozzle concepts installed on a supersonic tactical airplane model. Specific test objectives include: (1) basic aerodynamics of a wing body configuration, (2) investigation of induced lift effects, (3) evaluation of static and forward speed performance, and (4) the effectiveness of a canard surface to trim thrust vectoring/induced lift forces and moments.

Hutchison, R. A.; Petit, J. E.; Capone, F. J.; Whittaker, R. W.

1980-01-01

299

Two-dimensional computational analysis of a transport high-lift system and a comparison with flight-test results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two currently available coupled inviscid/viscous multielement computational codes, including a relatively simple panel method and an Euler method, are used to analyze a high-lift system. The results are compared with two-dimensional wind-tunnel test results and then with the three-dimensional flight-test results obtained from the NASA Langley Transport Systems Research Vehicle five-element high-lift wing section. Comparisons were also made between the panel method, the Euler method, and flight data for two high-lift configurations, one representing a take-off configuration and the other an approach configuration. For the take-off configuration, both codes agreed reasonably well with experimental data, but both codes were found to overpredict the flap upper-surface pressures for the approach configuration.

Hardin, Jay D.; Potter, R. C.; Van Dam, C. P.; Yip, Long P.

1993-01-01

300

A numerical study of the controlled flow tunnel for a high lift model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A controlled flow tunnel employs active control of flow through the walls of the wind tunnel so that the model is in approximately free air conditions during the test. This improves the wind tunnel test environment, enhancing the validity of the experimentally obtained test data. This concept is applied to a three dimensional jet flapped wing with full span jet flap. It is shown that a special treatment is required for the high energy wake associated with this and other V/STOL models. An iterative numerical scheme is developed to describe the working of an actual controlled flow tunnel and comparisons are shown with other available results. It is shown that control need be exerted over only part of the tunnel walls to closely approximate free air flow conditions. It is concluded that such a tunnel is able to produce a nearly interference free test environment even with a high lift model in the tunnel.

Parikh, P. C.

1984-01-01

301

Theoretical and Experimental Data for a Number of NACA 6A-Series Airfoil Sections  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NACA 6A-series airfoil sections were designed to eliminate the trailing-edge cusp which is characteristic of the NACA 6-series sections. Theoretical data are presented for NACA 6A-series basic thickness forms having the position of minimum pressure at 30-, 40-, and 50-percent chord and with thickness ratios varying from 6 percent to 15 percent. Also presented are data for a mean line designed to maintain straight sides on the cambered sections. The experimental results of a two dimensional wind tunnel investigation of the aerodynamic characteristics of five NACA 64A-series airfoil sections and two NACA 63A-series airfoil sections are presented. An analysis of these results, which were obtained at Reynolds numbers of 3 x 10(exp 6), 6 x 10(exp 6), and 9 x 10(exp 6), indicates that the section minimum drag and maximum lift characteristics of comparable NACA 6-series and 6A-series airfoil sections are essentially the same. The quarter-chord pitching-moment coefficients and angles of zero lift of NACA 6A-series airfoil sections are slightly more negative than those of corresponding NACA 6-series airfoil sections. The position of the aerodynamic center and the lift-curve slope of smooth NACA 6-series sections. The addition of standard leading-edge roughness causes the lift-curve slope of the newer sections to decrease with increasing airfoil thickness ratio.

Loftin, Laurence K., Jr.

1946-01-01

302

A discrete vortex method for the non-steady separated flow over an airfoil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A discrete vortex method was used to analyze the separated non-steady flow about a cambered airfoil. The foil flow modelling is based on the thin lifting-surface approach, where the chordwise location of the separation point is assumed to be known from experiments or flow-visualization data. Calculated results provided good agreement when compared with the post-stall aerodynamic data of two airfoils. Those airfoil sections differed in the extent of travel of the separation point with increasing angle of attack. Furthermore, the periodic wake shedding was analyzed and its time-dependent influence on the airfoil was investigated.

Katz, J.

1981-01-01

303

Full-scale semispan tests of a business-jet wing with a natural laminar flow airfoil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A full-scale semispan model was investigated to evaluate and document the low-speed, high-lift characteristics of a business-jet class wing that utilized the HSNLF(1)-0213 airfoil section and a single-slotted flap system. Also, boundary-layer transition effects were examined, a segmented leading-edge droop for improved stall/spin resistance was studied, and two roll-controlled devices were evaluated. The wind-tunnel investigation showed that deployment of single-slotted, trailing-edge flap was effective in providing substantial increments in lift required for takeoff and landing performance. Fixed-transition studies to investigate premature tripping of the boundary layer indicated no adverse effects in lift and pitching-moment characteristics for either the cruise or landing configuration. The full-scale results also suggested the need to further optimize the leading-edge droop design that was developed in the subscale tests.

Hahne, David E.; Jordan, Frank L., Jr.

1991-01-01

304

Investigation of the Kline-Fogleman airfoil section for rotor blade applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wind tunnel tests of a wedgeshaped airfoil with sharp leading edge and a spanwise step were conducted. The airfoil was tested with variations of the following parameters: (1) Reynolds number, (2) step location, (3) step shape, (4) apex angle, and (5) with the step on either the upper or lower surface. The results are compared with a flat plate and with wedge airfoils without a step having the same aspect ratio. Water table tests were conducted for flow visualization and it was determined that the flow separates from the upper surface at low angles of attack. The wind tunnel tests show that the lift/drag ratio of the airfoil is lower than for a flat plate and the pressure data show that the airfoil derives its lift in the same manner as a flat plate.

Lumsdaine, E.; Johnson, W. S.; Fletcher, L. M.; Peach, J. E.

1974-01-01

305

S829 Airfoil. Period of Performance: 1994-1995.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A 16%-thick, natural-laminar-flow airfoil, the S829, for the tip region of 20- to 40-meter-diameter, stall-regulated, horizontal-axis wind turbines has been designed and analyzed theoretically. The two primary objectives of restrained maximum lift, insens...

D. M. Somers

2005-01-01

306

Lift-off PMN-PT Thick Film for High Frequency Ultrasonic Biomicroscopy  

PubMed Central

Piezoelectric 0.65Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.35PbTiO3 (PMN-35PT) thick film with a thickness of approximately 12 µm has been deposited on the platinum buffered Si substrate via a sol-gel composite method. The separation of the film from the substrate was achieved using a wet chemical method. The lifted-off PMN-35PT thick film exhibited good dielectric and ferroelectric properties. At 1 kHz, the dielectric constant and the dielectric loss were 3,326 and 0.037, respectively, while the remnant polarization was 30.0 µC/cm2. A high frequency single element acoustic transducer fabricated with this film showed a bandwidth at ?6 dB of 63.6% at 110 MHz.

Zhu, Benpeng; Han, Jiangxue; Shi, Jing; Shung, K. Krik; Wei, Q.; Huang, YuHong; Kosec, M.; Zhou, Qifa

2010-01-01

307

Grid Sensitivity and Aerodynamic Optimization of Generic Airfoils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An algorithm is developed to obtain the grid sensitivity with respect to design parameters for aerodynamic optimization. The procedure is advocating a novel (geometrical) parameterization using spline functions such as NURBS (Non-Uniform Rational B- Splines) for defining the airfoil geometry. An interactive algebraic grid generation technique is employed to generate C-type grids around airfoils. The grid sensitivity of the domain with respect to geometric design parameters has been obtained by direct differentiation of the grid equations. A hybrid approach is proposed for more geometrically complex configurations such as a wing or fuselage. The aerodynamic sensitivity coefficients are obtained by direct differentiation of the compressible two-dimensional thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations. An optimization package has been introduced into the algorithm in order to optimize the airfoil surface. Results demonstrate a substantially improved design due to maximized lift/drag ratio of the airfoil.

Sadrehaghighi, Ideen; Smith, Robert E.; Tiwari, Surendra N.

1995-01-01

308

Aerodynamic Characteristics at High and Low Subsonic Mach Numbers of the NACA 0012, 64(sub 2)-015, and 64(sub 3)-018 Airfoil Sections at Angles of Attack from -2 Degrees to 30 Degrees  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation has been made in the Langley low-turbulence pressure tunnel of the aerodynamic characteristics of the NACA 0012, 64(sub 2)-015, and 64(sub 3)-018 airfoil sections. Data were obtained at Mach numbers from 0.3 to that for tunnel choke, at angles of attack from -2deg to 30deg, and with the surface. of each airfoil smooth-and with roughness applied at the leading edge.The Reynolds numbers of the tests ranged from 0.8 x 10(exp 6) to 4.4 x 10(exp 6). The results are presented as variations of lift, drag, and quarter-chord pitching-moment coefficients with Mach number.

Critzos, Chris C.

1954-01-01

309

High Reynolds number tests of a Douglas DLBA 032 airfoil in the Langley 0.3-meter transonic cryogenic tunnel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A wind-tunnel investigation of a Douglas advanced-technology airfoil was conducted in the Langley 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel (0.3-m TCT). The temperature was varied from 227 K (409 R) to 100 K (180 R) at pressures ranging from about 159 kPa (1.57 atm) to about 514 kPa (5.07 atm). Mach number was varied from 0.50 to 0.78. These variables provided a Reynolds number range (based on airfoil chord) from 6.0 to 30.0 x 10 to the 6th power. This investigation was specifically designed to: (1) test a Douglas airfoil from moderately low to flight-equivalent Reynolds numbers, and (2) evaluate sidewall-boundary-layer effects on transonic airfoil performance characteristics by a systematic variation of Mach number, Reynolds number, and sidewall-boundary-layer removal. Data are included which demonstrate the effects of fixing transition, Mach number, Reynolds number, and sidewall-boundary-layer removal on the aerodynamic characteristics of the airfoil. Also included are remarks on model design and model structural integrity.

Johnson, Charles B.; Dress, David A.; Hill, Acquilla S.; Wilcox, Peter A.; Bui, Minh H.

1986-01-01

310

High Reynolds Number Test of the Boeing TR77 Airfoil in the Langley 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Boeing TR77 airfoil associated with the Advanced Technology Airfoil Test (ATAT) program was tested in the Langley 0.3 m Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel. Limited analysis of the data indicated that increasing Reynolds number for a fixed Mach number resulted in increased normal-force, nose-down pitching moment, and decreased drag coefficient. Increasing Mach number while keeping the Reynolds number constant yielded the expected increase in normal-force slopes, nose-down pitching moment coefficients, and decrease in angle of attack associated with maximum normal-force coefficient. Turbulent boundary layer flow was achieved over the airfoil at low Reynolds numbers for the test Mach number range using aluminum discs.

Chu, Julio; Flechner, Stuart G.; Hill, Acquilla S.; Rozendaal, Roger A.

1990-01-01

311

Computation of full-coverage film-cooled airfoil temperatures by two methods and comparison with high heat flux data  

SciTech Connect

Two methods were used to calculate the heat flux to full-coverage film cooled airfoils and, subsequently, the airfoil wall temperatures. The calculated wall temperatures were compared to measured temperatures obtained in the Hot Section Facility operating at real engine conditions. Gas temperatures and pressures up to 1900 K and 18 atm with a Reynolds number up to 1.9 million were investigated. Heat flux was calculated by the convective heat transfer coefficient adiabatic wall method and by the superposition method which incorporates the film injection effects in the heat transfer coefficient. The results of the comparison indicate the first method can predict the experimental data reasonably well. However, superposition overpredicted the heat flux to the airfoil without a significant modification of the turbulent Prandtl number. The results suggest that additional research is required to model the physics of full-coverage film cooling where there is significant temperature/density differences between the gas and the coolant.

Gladden, H.J.; Yeh, F.C.; Austin, P.J. Jr.

1987-06-01

312

Piloted Simulation Study of the Effects of High-Lift Aerodynamics on the Takeoff Noise of a Representative High-Speed Civil Transport  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of an effort between NASA and private industry to reduce airport-community noise for high-speed civil transport (HSCT) concepts, a piloted simulation study was initiated for the purpose of predicting the noise reduction benefits that could result from improved low-speed high-lift aerodynamic performance for a typical HSCT configuration during takeoff and initial climb. Flight profile and engine information from the piloted simulation were coupled with the NASA Langley Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP) to estimate jet engine noise and to propagate the resulting source noise to ground observer stations. A baseline aircraft configuration, which also incorporated different levels of projected improvements in low-speed high-lift aerodynamic performance, was simulated to investigate effects of increased lift and lift-to-drag ratio on takeoff noise levels. Simulated takeoff flights were performed with the pilots following a specified procedure in which either a single thrust cutback was performed at selected altitudes ranging from 400 to 2000 ft, or a multiple-cutback procedure was performed where thrust was reduced by a two-step process. Results show that improved low-speed high-lift aerodynamic performance provides at least a 4 to 6 dB reduction in effective perceived noise level at the FAA downrange flyover measurement station for either cutback procedure. However, improved low-speed high-lift aerodynamic performance reduced maximum sideline noise levels only when using the multiple-cutback procedures.

Glaab, Louis J.; Riley, Donald R.; Brandon, Jay M.; Person, Lee H., Jr.; Glaab, Patricia C.

1999-01-01

313

An investigation of the aerodynamic characteristics of a new general aviation airfoil in flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A low speed airfoil, the GA(W)-2, - a 13% thickness to chord ratio airfoil was evaluated. The wing of a Beech Sundowner was modified at by adding balsa ribs and covered with aluminum skin, to alter the existing airfoil shape to that of the GA(W)-2 airfoil. The aircraft was flown in a flight test program that gathered wing surface pressures and wake data from which the lift drag, and pitching moment of the airfoil could be determined. After the base line performance of the airfoil was measured, the drag due to surface irregularities such as steps, rivets and surface waviness was determined. The potential reduction of drag through the use of surface coatings such as KAPTON was also investigated.

Gregorek, G. M.; Hoffmann, M. J.; Weislogel, G. S.

1982-01-01

314

Navier-Stokes Computations and Experimental Comparisons for Multielement Airfoil Configurations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A two-dimensional unstructured Navier-Stokes code is utilized for computing the flow around multielement airfoil configurations. Comparisons are shown for a landing configuration with an advanced-technology flap. Grid convergence studies are conducted to assess inaccuracies caused by inadequate grid resolution. Although adequate resolution is obtained for determining the pressure distributions, further refinement is needed to sufficiently resolve the velocity profiles at high angles of attack. For the advanced flap configuration, comparisons of pressure distributions and lift are made with experimental data. Here, two flap riggings and two Reynolds numbers are considered. In general, the trends caused by variations in these quantities are well predicted by the computations, although the angle of attack for maximum lift is overpredicted.

Anderson, W. Kyle; Bonhaus, Daryl L.; McGhee, Robert; Walker, Betty

1993-01-01

315

Reynolds Number Effects on a Supersonic Transport at Subsonic High-Lift Conditions (Invited)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A High Speed Civil Transport configuration was tested in the National Transonic Facility at the NASA Langley Research Center as part of NASA's High Speed Research Program. The primary purposes of the tests were to assess Reynolds number scale effects and high Reynolds number aerodynamic characteristics of a realistic, second generation supersonic transport while providing data for the assessment of computational methods. The tests included longitudinal and lateral/directional studies at transonic and low-speed, high-lift conditions across a range of Reynolds numbers from that available in conventional wind tunnels to near flight conditions. Results are presented which focus on Reynolds number and static aeroelastic sensitivities of longitudinal characteristics at Mach 0.30 for a configuration without an empennage. A fundamental change in flow-state occurred between Reynolds numbers of 30 to 40 million, which is characterized by significantly earlier inboard leading-edge separation at the high Reynolds numbers. Force and moment levels change but Reynolds number trends are consistent between the two states.

Owens, L.R.; Wahls, R. A.

2001-01-01

316

The Prediction of the Bursting of Laminar Separation Bubbles in the Design of Two-Dimensional High-Lift Aerofoils.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The structure of laminar separation bubbles is described and methods of predicting the bursting of these bubbles on the slat of a high-lift wing are examined. In particular Horton's method is found to give a useful description of the growth and bursting o...

B. R. Williams

1980-01-01

317

The Prediction of the Bursting of Laminar Separation Bubbles in the Design of Two Dimensional High-Lift Aerofoils.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The structure of laminar separation bubbles is described and methods of predicting the bursting of these bubbles on the slat of a high-lift wing are examined. In particular Horton's method is found to give a useful description of the growth and bursting o...

B. R. Williams

1980-01-01

318

Prediction of Airfoil Characteristics With Higher Order Turbulence Models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study focuses on the prediction of airfoil characteristics, including lift and drag over a range of Reynolds numbers. Two different turbulence models, which represent two different types of models, are tested. The first is a standard isotropic eddy-viscosity two-equation model, and the second is an explicit algebraic stress model (EASM). The turbulent flow field over a general-aviation airfoil (GA(W)-2) at three Reynolds numbers is studied. At each Reynolds number, predicted lift and drag values at different angles of attack are compared with experimental results, and predicted variations of stall locations with Reynolds number are compared with experimental data. Finally, the size of the separation zone predicted by each model is analyzed, and correlated with the behavior of the lift coefficient near stall. In summary, the EASM model is able to predict the lift and drag coefficients over a wider range of angles of attack than the two-equation model for the three Reynolds numbers studied. However, both models are unable to predict the correct lift and drag behavior near the stall angle, and for the lowest Reynolds number case, the two-equation model did not predict separation on the airfoil near stall.

Gatski, Thomas B.

1996-01-01

319

Application of laser-velocimetry to the study of the flow around a two-dimensional airfoil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The experimental techniques employed by NASA researchers to obtain a high volume throughput of data in a study of high-lift multielement airfoils using a laser velocimeter (LV) are detailed. The two-dimensional LV system recorded mean velocity, turbulence intensities, Re shear stresses, skewness and kurtosis of the flow. A computer-controlled positioning mount for the LV allowed automated surveys of the flows with a 0.001 in. positioning accuracy. The flow was seeded with oil droplets and additional refinement of the wind tunnel controls permitted rapid speedup at selected areas of the flowfield over specific regions of the airfoil. Surface pressure taps furnished data for selecting regions for more detailed investigation. The data processing capabilities processed 30-40 samples every 10 min in an automated mode. Profiles of the data were computed automatically to furnish graphical displays on demand. Numerous samples of the data displays generated are provided.

Braden, J. A.; Whipkey, R. R.; Lilley, D. E.; Jones, G. S.; Morgan, H. L.

1986-01-01

320

Bubble Bursting and Laminar Separation Unsteadiness on a MultiElement High Lift Configuration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this work is to gain insight into the problem of the bursting of a laminar separation bubble in the nose region\\u000a of a slotted flap on a multi-element airfoil configuration. The interest in bubble bursting, which, especially on multi-element\\u000a configurations has not been thoroughly investigated yet, was raised by the experimental results obtained while testing a computer

Marco Baragona; Hester Bijl; Michel van Tooren

2003-01-01

321

Wind tunnel evaluation of a truncated NACA 64-621 airfoil for wind turbine applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental program to measure the aerodynamic performance of a NACA 64-621 airfoil with a truncated trailing edge for wind turbine applications has been conducted in the Ohio State University Aeronautical and Astronautical Research Laboratory 6 in. by 21 in. pressurized wind tunnel. The blunted or trailing edge truncated (TET) airfoil has an advantage over similar trailing edge airfoils because it is able to streamline a larger spar structure, while also providing aerodynamic properties that are quite good. Surface pressures were measured and integrated to determine the lift, pressure drag, and moment coefficients over angles of attack ranging from -14 to +90 deg at Mach 0.2 and Reynolds numbers of 1,000,000 and 600,000. Results are compared to the NACA 0025, 0030, and 0035 thick airfoils with sharp trailing edges. Comparison shows that the 30 percent thick NACA 64-621-TET airfoil has higher maximum lift, higher lift curve slope, lower drag at higher lift coefficients, and higher chordwise force coefficient than similar thick airfoils with sharp trailing edges.

Law, S. P.; Gregorek, G. M.

1987-01-01

322

Wind tunnel evaluation of a truncated NACA 64-621 airfoil for wind turbine applications  

SciTech Connect

An experimental program to measure the aerodynamic performance of a NACA 64-621 airfoil with a truncated trailing edge for wind turbine applications has been conducted in the Ohio State University Aeronautical and Astronautical Research Laboratory 6 in. x 22 in. pressurized wind tunnel. The blunted or trailing edge truncated (TET) airfoil has an advantage over similar sharp trailing edge airfoils because it is able to streamline a larger spar structure, while also providing aerodynamic properties that are quite good. Surface pressures were measured and integrated to determine the lift, pressure drag, and moment coefficients over angles of attack ranging from -14 to +90 at Mach 0.2 and Reynolds numbers of 1,000,000 and 600,000. Results are compared to the NACA 0025, 0030, and 0035 thick airfoils with sharp trailing edges. Comparison shows that the 30% thick NACA 64-621-TET airfoil has higher maximum lift, higher lift curve slope, lower drag at higher lift coefficients, and higher chordwise force coefficient than similar thick airfoils with sharp trailing edges.

Law, S.P.; Gregorek, G.M.

1987-07-01

323

Airfoil Smoothing and Scaling Programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two programs smooth and scale arbitrary airfoil coordinates. Airfoil smoothing program (AFSMO) utilizes both least-squares polynomial and leastsquares cubic-spline techniques to smooth iteratively second derivatives of y-axis airfoil coordinates with respect to transformed x-axis system that unwraps airfoil and stretches nose and trailing-edge regions.

Morgan, Harry L., Jr.

1986-01-01

324

Stabilization of turbulent lifted jet flames assisted by pulsed high voltage discharge  

SciTech Connect

To reduce fuel consumption or the pollutant emissions of combustion (furnaces, aircraft engines, turbo-reactors, etc.), attempts are made to obtain lean mixture combustion regimes. These lead to poor stability of the flame. Thus, it is particularly interesting to find new systems providing more flexibility in aiding flame stabilization than the usual processes (bluff-body, stabilizer, quarl, swirl, etc.). The objective is to enlarge the stability domain of flames while offering flexibility at a low energy cost. Evidence is presented that the stabilization of a turbulent partially premixed flame of more than 10 kW can be enhanced by pulsed high-voltage discharges with power consumption less than 0.1% of the power of the flame. The originality of this work is to demonstrate that very effective stabilization of turbulent flames is obtained when high-voltage pulses with very short rise times are used (a decrease by 300% in terms of liftoff height for a given exit jet velocity can be reached) and to provide measurements of minimum liftoff height obtained with discharge over a large range of the stability domain of the lifted jet flame.

Criner, K.; Cessou, A.; Louiche, J.; Vervisch, P. [CORIA UMR 6614 CNRS-Universite et INSA de Rouen, University of Rouen, 76801 Saint Etienne du Rouvray (France)

2006-01-01

325

Pressure distributions on a rectangular aspect-ratio-6, slotted supercritical airfoil wing with externally blown flaps  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation was made in the 5.18 m (17 ft) test section of the Langley 300 MPH 7 by 10 foot tunnel on a rectangular, aspect ratio 6 wing which had a slotted supercritical airfoil section and externally blown flaps. The 13 percent thick wing was fitted with two high lift flap systems: single slotted and double slotted. The designations single slotted and double slotted do not include the slot which exists near the trailing edge of the basic slotted supercritical airfoil. Tests were made over an angle of attack range of -6 deg to 20 deg and a thrust-coefficient range up to 1.94 for a free-stream dynamic pressure of 526.7 Pa (11.0 lb/sq ft). The results of the investigation are presented as curves and tabulations of the chordwise pressure distributions at the midsemispan station for the wing and each flap element.

Johnson, W. G., Jr.

1976-01-01

326

Patient lifts.  

PubMed

In this issue, we evaluate conventional patient lifts that operate by hand cranking, hand pumping, or battery-powered motors and are intended for use in the home or in institutions. We did not evaluate lifts that are designed to be used solely in bathrooms or vehicles or those that permanently affix to walls, floors or ceilings. Some of the evaluated lifts are intended primarily for use in specific environments (e.g., one can be easily disassembled into small components for automobile transport). We evaluated 15 patient lifts from eight manufacturers, basing our ratings on performance, safety, and human factors design. Because different designs make lifts preferable for different environments, we rated the lifts for both home and institutional use based on their size, ruggedness, ease of storage, maneuverability, and cost. Seven units-the Arjo 218150; the Handi-Move 1200; the Hoyer C-CBL; the Invacare 9901, 9916 and 9917; and the Porto-Lift PL-1 are rated Acceptable for both home and institutional use. The Trans-Aid S1-600 and the Versa Lift are rated Acceptable for institutional use and Acceptable-Not Recommended for home use because of their size and cost. The Arjo B and the Hoyer Travel Lift are rated Acceptable for home use and Acceptable-Not Recommended for institutional use because they will not comfortably accommodate patients of all sizes; the Arjo B has additional limitations. The Hoyer C-HLA, the Invacare 9902, and the Trans-Aid LAT-2 are rated Conditionally Acceptable for home use on the condition that they are not used to transfer patients who weigh more than 200 lb; all three units are rated Conditionally Acceptable-Not Recommended for institutional use since there is no reliable way to ensure that they will not be used on heavier patients. The Century C-3 lift is rated Conditionally Acceptable for institutional use on the condition that it is used with the base fully extended; because the fully extended base makes the unit awkward to maneuver in narrow corridors or passages, we rated the unit Coonditionally Acceptable-Not Recommended for home use. We also assessed the optional electronic scales provided with the lifts and found the Arjo, Century, and Versa Lift scales acceptable; the Hoyer and Trans-Aid scales are also acceptable, but we do not recommend them for use in areas where exposure to fluid spills or moisture is likely to occur. Users should base purchasing decisions on a thorough understanding of our conclusions, which can be gained only by reading this evaluation in its entirety. PMID:2372319

1990-03-01

327

Modeling and Grid Generation of Iced Airfoils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

SmaggIce Version 2.0 is a software toolkit for geometric modeling and grid generation for two-dimensional, singleand multi-element, clean and iced airfoils. A previous version of SmaggIce was described in Preparing and Analyzing Iced Airfoils, NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 8 (August 2004), page 32. To recapitulate: Ice shapes make it difficult to generate quality grids around airfoils, yet these grids are essential for predicting ice-induced complex flow. This software efficiently creates high-quality structured grids with tools that are uniquely tailored for various ice shapes. SmaggIce Version 2.0 significantly enhances the previous version primarily by adding the capability to generate grids for multi-element airfoils. This version of the software is an important step in streamlining the aeronautical analysis of ice airfoils using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools. The user may prepare the ice shape, define the flow domain, decompose it into blocks, generate grids, modify/divide/merge blocks, and control grid density and smoothness. All these steps may be performed efficiently even for the difficult glaze and rime ice shapes. Providing the means to generate highly controlled grids near rough ice, the software includes the creation of a wrap-around block (called the "viscous sublayer block"), which is a thin, C-type block around the wake line and iced airfoil. For multi-element airfoils, the software makes use of grids that wrap around and fill in the areas between the viscous sub-layer blocks for all elements that make up the airfoil. A scripting feature records the history of interactive steps, which can be edited and replayed later to produce other grids. Using this version of SmaggIce, ice shape handling and grid generation can become a practical engineering process, rather than a laborious research effort.

Vickerman, Mary B.; Baez, Marivell; Braun, Donald C.; Hackenberg, Anthony W.; Pennline, James A.; Schilling, Herbert W.

2007-01-01

328

An analytic study of nonsteady two-phase laminar boundary layer around an airfoil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recently, NASA, FAA, and other organizations have focused their attention upon the possible effects of rain on airfoil performance. Rhode carried out early experiments and concluded that the rain impacting the aircraft increased the drag. Bergrum made numerical calculation for the rain effects on airfoils. Luers and Haines did an analytic investigation and found that heavy rain induces severe aerodynamic penalties including both a momentum penalty due to the impact of the rain and a drag and lift penalty due to rain roughening of the airfoil and fuselage. More recently, Hansman and Barsotti performed experiments and declared that performance degradation of an airfoil in heavy rain is due to the effective roughening of the surface by the water layer. Hansman and Craig did further experimental research at low Reynolds number. E. Dunham made a critical review for the potential influence of rain on airfoil performance. Dunham et al. carried out experiments for the transport type airfoil and concluded that there is a reduction of maximum lift capability with increase in drag. There is a scarcity of published literature in analytic research of two-phase boundary layer around an airfoil. Analytic research is being improved. The following assumptions are made: the fluid flow is non-steady, viscous, and incompressible; the airfoil is represented by a two-dimensional flat plate; and there is only a laminar boundary layer throughout the flow region. The boundary layer approximation is solved and discussed.

Hsu, Yu-Kao

1989-01-01

329

Preliminary airfoil testing experience in the NDA cryogenic wind tunnel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A small two-dimensional high-speed cryogenic wind tunnel was constructed at the Japanese National Defense Academy (NDA) in 1985. The authors describe the present status of the NDA cryogenic wind tunnel and give some preliminary airfoil testing results and experience. Two airfoil models, a NACA 0012 and a R4 airfoil model, were constructed. The R4 test results were compared with those

Yutaka Yamaguchi; Yasuo Nakauchi; Masahiro Yorozu; Teruo Saito

1991-01-01

330

Wake instability issues: From circular cylinders to stalled airfoils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some recent results regarding the global dynamical behaviour of the wake of circular cylinders and airfoils with massive separation are reviewed in this paper. In order to investigate the effect of interference, the three-dimensional instability modes are analysed for the flow around two circular cylinders in tandem. In the same way, the flow around a stalled airfoil is investigated in order to provide a better understanding of the three-dimensional characteristics of wakes forming downstream of a lifting body with massive separation. These results are compared with those found for an isolated cylinder. Some fundamental differences among these flows are discussed.

Meneghini, J. R.; Carmo, B. S.; Tsiloufas, S. P.; Gioria, R. S.; Aranha, J. A. P.

2011-07-01

331

Multiple piece turbine airfoil  

DOEpatents

A turbine airfoil, such as a rotor blade or a stator vane, for a gas turbine engine, the airfoil formed as a shell and spar construction with a plurality of dog bone struts each mounted within openings formed within the shell and spar to allow for relative motion between the spar and shell in the airfoil chordwise direction while also forming a seal between adjacent cooling channels. The struts provide the seal as well as prevent bulging of the shell from the spar due to the cooling air pressure.

Kimmel, Keith D (Jupiter, FL); Wilson, Jr., Jack W. (Palm Beach Gardens, FL)

2010-11-02

332

Wind Tunnel Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Transport-type Airfoil in a Simulated Heavy Rain Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of simulated heavy rain on the aerodynamic characteristics of an NACA 64-210 airfoil section equipped with leading-and trailing-edge high-lift devices were investigated in the Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel. The model had a chord of 2.5 ft, a span of 8 ft, and was mounted on the tunnel centerline between two large endplates. Aerodynamic measurements in and out of the simulated rain environment were obtained for dynamic pressures of 30 and 50 psf and an angle-of-attack range of 0 to 20 degrees for the cruise configuration. The rain intensity was varied to produce liquid water contents ranging from 16 to 46 gm/cu m. The results obtained for various rain intensity levels and tunnel speeds showed significant losses in maximum lift capability and increases in drag for a given lift as the liquid water content was increased. The results obtained on the landing configuration also indicate a progressive decrease in the angle of attack at which maximum lift occurred and an increase in the slope of the pitching-moment curve as the liquid water content was increased. The sensitivity of test results to the effects of the water surface tension was also investigated. A chemical was introduced into the rain environment that reduced the surface tension of water by a factor of 2. The reduction in the surface tension of water did not significantly alter the level of performance losses for the landing configuration.

Bezos, Gaudy M.; Dunham, R. Earl, Jr.; Gentry, Garl L., Jr.; Melson, W. Edward, Jr.

1992-01-01

333

Suppression of dynamic stall with a leading-edge slat on a VR-7 airfoil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The VR-7 airfoil was experimentally studied with and without a leading-edge slat at fixed angles of attack from 0 deg to 30 deg at Re = 200,000 and for unsteady pitching motions described by alpha equals alpha(sub m) + 10 deg(sin(wt)). The models were two dimensional, and the test was performed in a water tunnel at Ames Research Center. The unsteady conditions ranged over Re equals 100,000 to 250,000, k equals 0.001 to 0.2, and alpha(sub m) = 10 deg to 20 deg. Unsteady lift, drag, and pitching-moment measurements were obtained along with fluorescent-dye flow visualizations. The addition of the slat was found to delay the static-drag and static-moment stall by about 5 degrees and to eliminate completely the development of a dynamic-stall vortex during unsteady motions that reached angles as high as 25 degrees. In all of the unsteady cases studied, the slat caused a significant reduction in the force and moment hysteresis amplitudes. The reduced frequency was found to have the greatest effect on the results, whereas the Reynolds number had little effect on the behavior of either the basic or the slatted airfoil. The slat caused a slight drag penalty at low angles of attack, but generally increased the lift/drag ratio when averaged over the full cycle of oscillation.

Mcalister, K. W.; Tung, C.

1993-01-01

334

Wind tunnel investigation of rotor lift and propulsive force at high speed: Data analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The basic test data obtained during the lift-propulsive force limit wind tunnel test conducted on a scale model CH-47b rotor are analyzed. Included are the rotor control positions, blade loads and six components of rotor force and moment, corrected for hub tares. Performance and blade loads are presented as the rotor lift limit is approached at fixed levels of rotor propulsive force coefficients and rotor tip speeds. Performance and blade load trends are documented for fixed levels of rotor lift coefficient as propulsive force is increased to the maximum obtainable by the model rotor. Test data is also included that defines the effect of stall proximity on rotor control power. The basic test data plots are presented in volumes 2 and 3.

Mchugh, F.; Clark, R.; Soloman, M.

1977-01-01

335

High Reynolds number transonic tests on a NACA 0012 airfoil in the Langley 0.3-meter transonic cryogenic tunnel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tests were conducted in the two-dimensional test section of the Langley 0.3-m Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel on a NACA 0012 airfoil to obtain aerodynamic data as a part of the Advanced Technology Airfoil Test (ATAT) program. The test program covered a Mach number range of 0.30 to 0.82 and a Reynolds number range of 3.0 to 45.0 x 10 to the 6th. The stagnation pressure was varied between 1.2 and 6.0 atmospheres and the stagnation temperature was varied between 300 K and 90 K to obtain these test conditions. Plots of the spanwise variation of drag coefficient as a function of normal force coefficient and the variation of the basic aerodynamic characteristics with angle of attack are shown. The data are presented uncorrected for wall interference effects and without analysis.

Ladson, Charles L.; Hill, S. Acquilla

1987-01-01

336

Experimental results for the Eppler 387 airfoil at low Reynolds numbers in the Langley low-turbulence pressure tunnel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental results were obtained for an Eppler 387 airfoil in the Langley Low Turbulence Pressure Tunnel. The tests were conducted over a Mach number range from 0.03 to 0.13 and a chord Reynolds number range for 60,000 to 460,000. Lift and pitching moment data were obtained from airfoil surface pressure measurements and drag data for wake surveys. Oil flow visualization was used to determine laminar separation and turbulent reattachment locations. Comparisons of these results with data on the Eppler 387 airfoil from two other facilities as well as the Eppler airfoil code are included.

Mcghee, Robert J.; Walker, Betty S.; Millard, Betty F.

1988-01-01

337

Computing Aerodynamic Performance of a 2D Iced Airfoil: Blocking Topology and Grid Generation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ice accrued on airfoils can have enormously complicated shapes with multiple protruded horns and feathers. In this paper, several blocking topologies are proposed and evaluated on their ability to produce high-quality structured multi-block grid systems. A transition layer grid is introduced to ensure that jaggedness on the ice-surface geometry do not to propagate into the domain. This is important for grid-generation methods based on hyperbolic PDEs (Partial Differential Equations) and algebraic transfinite interpolation. A 'thick' wrap-around grid is introduced to ensure that grid lines clustered next to solid walls do not propagate as streaks of tightly packed grid lines into the interior of the domain along block boundaries. For ice shapes that are not too complicated, a method is presented for generating high-quality single-block grids. To demonstrate the usefulness of the methods developed, grids and CFD solutions were generated for two iced airfoils: the NLF0414 airfoil with and without the 623-ice shape and the B575/767 airfoil with and without the 145m-ice shape. To validate the computations, the computed lift coefficients as a function of angle of attack were compared with available experimental data. The ice shapes and the blocking topologies were prepared by NASA Glenn's SmaggIce software. The grid systems were generated by using a four-boundary method based on Hermite interpolation with controls on clustering, orthogonality next to walls, and C continuity across block boundaries. The flow was modeled by the ensemble-averaged compressible Navier-Stokes equations, closed by the shear-stress transport turbulence model in which the integration is to the wall. All solutions were generated by using the NPARC WIND code.

Chi, X.; Zhu, B.; Shih, T. I.-P.; Slater, J. W.; Addy, H. E.; Choo, Yung K.; Lee, Chi-Ming (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

338

Memory-Efficient and High-Speed Line-Based Architecture for 2-D Discrete Wavelet Transform with Lifting Scheme  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a high-efficient lined-based architecture for the 9\\/7 discrete wavelet transform (DWT) based on lifting scheme is proposed. The proposed parallel and pipelined architecture consists of a horizontal filter (HF) and a vertical filter (VF). The critical path of the proposed architecture is reduced. Filter coefficients of the biorthogonal 9\\/7 wavelet low-pass filter are quantized before implementation in

TZE-YUN SUNG

339

Shape Changing Airfoil.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Scoping of shape changing airfoil concepts including both aerodynamic analysis and materials-related technology assessment effort was performed. Three general categories of potential components were considered-fan blades, booster and compressor blades, an...

E. A. Ott

2005-01-01

340

High-frequency microwave anti-/de-icing system for carbon-reinforced airfoil structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An aircraft may be subjected to icing for a variety of meteorological reasons during the flight. Ice formation on the plane and in particular on the aerodynamically carrying structures adversely affects the flight behaviour. Conventional de-icing methods for aluminum wings are characterised by a high energy consumption during the flight and slow ice melting due to thermal diffusion of the heat in the wing material. In addition to advanced turbines, novel materials and composites have to be used in order to reduce the weight and, hence, the fuel consumption. These composite materials have a far worse thermal conductivity than metals and undergo delamination when hot air systems, resistance or ohmic heating mats are used. In the paper, the unique advantages of a novel High Frequency Microwave Anti-/De-icing System for large future aircraft with carbon reinforced leading edge structures are presented.

Feher, Lambert; Thumm, Manfred

2001-08-01

341

Methods for Reducing Subsonic Drag Due to Lift  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of repeat experimental research on methods for reducing subsonic drag due to lift are discussed. The NASA supercritical airfoils and their application to structurally practical wings with increased aspect radio are described. A design approach and experimental results for wing-tip-mounted winglets are presented. Several methods for utilizing the thrust of jet engines to provide reductions in the drag due to lift are also discussed.

Whitcomb, R. T.

1977-01-01

342

Prediction of leading-edge transition and relaminarization phenomena on a subsonic multi-element high-lift system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Boundary-layer transition and relaminarization may have a critical effect on the flow development about multi-element high-lift systems of subsonic transport jets with swept wings. The purpose of the research is to study these transition phenomena in the leading-edge region of the various elements of a high-lift system. The flow phenomena studied include transition to the attachment-line flow, relaminarization, and crossflow instability, and transition. The calculations are based on pressure distributions measured in flight on the NASA Transport Systems Research Vehicle (Boeing 737-100) at a wing station where the flow approximated infinite swept wing conditions. The results indicate that significant regions of laminar flow can exist on all flap elements in flight. In future flight experiments (planned for January-February, 1994) the extent of these regions, the transition mechanisms and the effect of laminar flow on the high-lift characteristics of the multi-element system will be further explored.

Vandam, C. P.

1993-01-01

343

Separation control on a NACA 0015 airfoil using a 2D micro ZNMF jet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of using a wall-normal, 2D micro zero-net-mass-flux (ZNMF) jet located at the leading edge of a NACA 0015 airfoil to actively control flow separation and enhance lift. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Experiments were conducted over a two-dimensional airfoil in a water tunnel at a Reynolds number of 3.08 × 104

A. Tuck; J. Soria

2008-01-01

344

Time resolved PIV analysis of flow over a NACA 0015 airfoil with Gurney flap  

Microsoft Academic Search

A NACA 0015 airfoil with and without a Gurney flap was studied in a wind tunnel with Re\\u000a c = 2.0 × 105 in order to examine the evolving flow structure of the wake through time-resolved PIV and to correlate this structure with time-averaged measurements of the lift coefficient. The Gurney flap, a tab of small length (1–4% of the airfoil chord) that protrudes

D. R. Troolin; E. K. Longmire; W. T. Lai

2006-01-01

345

Problem of the motion of a thin airfoil near a wavy boundary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The asymptotics of extremely small distances from a solid boundary (the quadrupole theory), is used to study the motion of a thin airfoil at constant velocity and constant angle of attack near a wavy solid boundary. The influence of the wavy boundary is modeled as the effect of periodic disturbances on the airfoil. The dependence of variations of the lift force on changes in the shape of the boundary is analyzed.

Efromov, I. I.; Lukashchik, E. P.

346

Transonic Airfoil Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This lecture consists of three parts, in which discussions are presented of the current state of development of transonic or supercritical airfoils designed for fully turbulent boundary layers on the surfaces, previous research on subcritical airfoils designed to achieve laminar boundary layers on all or parts of the surfaces, and current research on supercritical airfoils designed to achieve laminar boundary layers. In the first part the use of available two dimensional computer codes in the development of supercritical airfoils and the general trends in the design of such airfoils with turbulent boundary layers are discussed. The second part provides the necessary background on laminar boundary layer phenomena. The last part, which constitutes the major portion of the lecture, covers research by NASA on supercritical airfoils utilizing both decreasing pressure gradients and surface suction for stabilizing the laminar boundary layer. An investigation of the former has been recently conducted in fight using gloves on the wing panels of the U.S. Air Force F111 TACT airplane, research on the later is currently being conducted in a transonic wind tunnel which has been modified to greatly reduce the stream turbulence and noise levels in the tests section.

Whitcomb, R. T.

1983-01-01

347

Active Control of Flow around NACA 0015 Airfoil by Using DBD Plasma Actuator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, effect of plasma actuator on a flat plate and manipulation of flow separation on NACA0015 airfoil with plasma actuator at low Reynolds numbers were experimentally investigated. In the first section of the study, plasma actuator which consists of positive and grounded electrode couple and dielectric layer, located on a flat plate was actuated at different frequencies and peak to peak voltages in range of 3-5 kHz and 6-12 kV respectively. Theinduced air flow velocity on the surface of flat plate was measured by pitot tube at different locations behind the actuator. The influence of dielectricthickness and unsteady actuation with duty cycle was also examined. In the second section, the effect of plasma actuator on NACA0015 airfoil was studied atReynolds number 15000 and 30000. Four plasma actuators were placed at x/C = 0.1, 0.3, 0.5 and 0.9, and different electrode combinations were activated by sinusoidal signal. Flow visualizations were done when the attack angles were 0°, 5°, 10°, 15° and 20°. The results indicate that up to the 15° attack angle, the separated flow was reattached by plasma actuator at 12kV peak to peak voltage and 4 kHz frequency. However, 12 kVpp voltage was insufficient to reattach the flow at 20° angle of attack. The separated flow could be reattached by increasing the voltage up to 13 kV. Lift coefficient was also increased by the manipulated flow over the airfoil. Results showed that even high attack angles, the actuators can control the flow separation and prevent the airfoil from stall at low Reynolds numbers.

Akansu, Y. E.; Karakaya, F.; ?anl?soy, A.

2013-04-01

348

Unsteady aerodynamic behavior of an airfoil with and without a slat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Unsteady flow behavior and load characteristics of a 2D VR-7 airfoil with and without a leading-edge slat were studied in the water tunnel of the Aeroflightdynamics Directorate, NASA Ames Research Center. Both airfoils were oscillated sinusoidally between 5 and 25 deg at Re = 200,000 to obtain the unsteady lift, drag, and pitching moment data. A fluorescent dye was released from an orifice located at the leading edge of the airfoil for the purpose of visualizing the boundary layer and wake flow. The flowfield and load predictions of an incompressible Navier-Stokes code based on a velocity-vorticity formulation were compared with the test data. The test and predictions both confirm that the slatted VR-7 airfoil delays both static and dynamic stall as compared to the VR-7 airfoil alone.

Tung, Chee; Mcalister, Kenneth W.; Wang, Clin M.

1993-01-01

349

An analytical and experimental evaluation of airfoil sections for helicopter rotor application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The influence of the more independent airfoil parameters such as thickness, thickness distribution, leading-edge radius, camber, and camber distribution on lift-Mach number characteristics is investigated at lift coefficients up to near-maximum lift. The analysis is based on the drag divergence Mach number (Md) prediction techniques, where Md is the free-stream Mach number at which the rate of increase of drag coefficient with Mach number equals 0.1. The analytical results obtained indicate the compromises in Md which result from changes in thickness ratio, location of maximum thickness, leading edge radius, camber addition, and location of maximum camber for four- and five-digit airfoils and some six-series airfoils of potential interest for helicopters. An example of airfoil sections which combines several of the favorable geometric changes is evaluated analytically and experimentally. A comparison of results shows that the relative effect of the geometric changes on the lift coefficient-Md relation is realistic, and that the methods of analysis employed can be effectively used during preliminary vehicle design and airfoil selection.

Bingham, G. J.; Noonan, K. W.

1975-01-01

350

A Lighter-Than-Air System Enhanced with Kinetic Lift  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A hybrid airship system is proposed in which the buoyant lift is enhanced with kinetic lift. The airship would consist of twin hulls in which the buoyant gas is contained. The twin hulls would be connected in parallel by a wing having an airfoil contour. In forward flight, the wing would provide kinetic lift that would add to the buoyant lift. The added lift would permit a greater payload/altitude combination than that which could be supported by the buoyant lift alone. The buoyant lift is a function of the volume of gas and the flight altitude. The kinetic lift is a function of the airfoil section, wing area, and the speed and altitude of flight. Accordingly there are a number of factors that can be manipulated to arrive at a particular design. Particular designs could vary from small, lightweight systems to very large, heavy-load systems. It will be the purpose of this paper to examine the sensitivity of such a design to the several variables. In addition, possible uses made achievable by such a hybrid system will be suggested.

Spearman, M. Leroy

2002-01-01

351

ILLIAC 4 and lifting surface theory with boundary layer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerodynamic flutter and a re-written computer program for its study are discussed. Data cover: (1) lifting surface theory with boundary layer, (2) incompressible, two dimensional, unsteady flow with control surfaces, (3) improved unsteady theory, (4) combined transonic airfoil thickness and shear layer thickness effects, and (5) bending-torsion flutter calculations.

Dowell, E. H.

1976-01-01

352

An Experimental Evaluation of Advanced Rotorcraft Airfoils in the NASA Ames Eleven-foot Transonic Wind Tunnel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Five full scale rotorcraft airfoils were tested in the NASA Ames Eleven-Foot Transonic Wind Tunnel for full scale Reynolds numbers at Mach numbers from 0.3 to 1.07. The models, which spanned the tunnel from floor to ceiling, included two modern baseline airfoils, the SC1095 and SC1094 R8, which have been previously tested in other facilities. Three advanced transonic airfoils, designated the SSC-A09, SSC-A07, and SSC-B08, were tested to confirm predicted performance and provide confirmation of advanced airfoil design methods. The test showed that the eleven-foot tunnel is suited to two-dimensional airfoil testing. Maximum lift coefficients, drag coefficients, pitching moments, and pressure coefficient distributions are presented. The airfoil analysis codes agreed well with the data, with the Grumman GRUMFOIL code giving the best overall performance correlation.

Flemming, Robert J.

1984-01-01

353

Powered-Lift Aerodynamics and Acoustics. [conferences  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Powered lift technology is reviewed. Topics covered include: (1) high lift aerodynamics; (2) high speed and cruise aerodynamics; (3) acoustics; (4) propulsion aerodynamics and acoustics; (5) aerodynamic and acoustic loads; and (6) full-scale and flight research.

1976-01-01

354

Airfoil characteristics for wind turbines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Airfoil characteristics for use in the Blade Element Momentum (BEM) method calculating the forces on Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines (HAWT) are derived by use of systematic methods. The investigation and derivation of the airfoil characteristics are based o...

C. Bak P. Fuglsang N. N. Soerensen H. Aagaard Madsen Wen Zhong Shen

1999-01-01

355

Method of making an airfoil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved method of making an airfoil includes stacking plies in two groups. A separator ply is positioned between the two groups of plies. The groups of plies and the separator ply are interconnected to form an airfoil blank. The airfoil blank is shaped, by forging or other methods, to have a desired configuration. The material of the separator ply is then dissolved or otherwise removed from between the two sections of the airfoil blank to provide access to the interior of the airfoil blank. Material is removed from inner sides of the two separated sections to form core receiving cavities. After cores have been placed in the cavities, the two sections of the airfoil blank are interconnected and the shaping of the airfoil is completed. The cores are subsequently removed from the completed airfoil.

Moracz, Donald J. (Inventor); Cook, Charles R. (Inventor); Toth, Istvan J. (Inventor)

1984-01-01

356

Method of making an airfoil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved method of making an airfoil includes stacking plies in two groups. A separator ply is positioned between the two groups of plies. The groups of plies and the separator ply are interconnected to form an airfoil blank. The airfoil blank is shaped, by forging or other methods, to have a desired configuration. The material of the separator ply is then dissolved or otherwise removed from between the two sections of the airfoil blank to provide access to the interior of the airfoil blank. Material is removed from inner sides of the two separated sections to form core receiving cavities. After cores have been placed in the cavities, the two sections of the airfoil blank are interconnected and the shaping of the airfoil is completed. The cores are subsequently removed from the completed airfoil.

Moracz, Donald J. (Inventor); Cook, Charles R. (Inventor); Toth, Istvan J. (Inventor)

1986-01-01

357

Airfoil Vibration Dampers program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Airfoil Vibration Damper program has consisted of an analysis phase and a testing phase. During the analysis phase, a state-of-the-art computer code was developed, which can be used to guide designers in the placement and sizing of friction dampers. The use of this computer code was demonstrated by performing representative analyses on turbine blades from the High Pressure Oxidizer Turbopump (HPOTP) and High Pressure Fuel Turbopump (HPFTP) of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). The testing phase of the program consisted of performing friction damping tests on two different cantilever beams. Data from these tests provided an empirical check on the accuracy of the computer code developed in the analysis phase. Results of the analysis and testing showed that the computer code can accurately predict the performance of friction dampers. In addition, a valuable set of friction damping data was generated, which can be used to aid in the design of friction dampers, as well as provide benchmark test cases for future code developers.

Cook, Robert M.

1991-01-01

358

Optimization of High-Lift Configurations Using a Newton-Krylov Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gradient-based Newton-Krylov algorithm for aerodynamic shape optimization is applied to lift maximization of a multi-element landing configuration. The governing flow equations are the two-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations in conjunc- tion with a one-equation transport turbulence model. The objective function gradient is computed via the discrete-adjoint method. The design examples reveal a number of diculties for numerical optimization methods when

Marian Nemec; David W. Zingg

359

Study of laminar separation bubble on low Reynolds number operating airfoils: RANS modelling by means of an high-accuracy solver and experimental verification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work is devoted to the Computational Fluid-Dynamics (CFD) simulation of laminar separation bubble (LSB) on low Reynolds number operating airfoils. This phenomenon is of large interest in several fields, such as wind energy, and it is characterised by slow recirculating flow at an almost constant pressure. Presently Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) methods, due to their limited computational requests, are the more efficient and feasible CFD simulation tool for complex engineering applications involving LSBs. However adopting RANS methods for LSB prediction is very challenging since widely used models assume a fully turbulent regime. For this reason several transitional models for RANS equations based on further Partial Differential Equations (PDE) have been recently introduced in literature. Nevertheless in some cases they show questionable results. In this work RANS equations and the standard Spalart-Allmaras (SA) turbulence model are used to deal with LSB problems obtaining promising results. This innovative result is related to: (i) a particular behaviour of the SA equation; (ii) a particular implementation of SA equation; (iii) the use of a high-order discontinuous Galerkin (DG) solver. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is tested on different airfoils at several angles of attack and Reynolds numbers. Numerical results were verified with both experimental measurements performed at the open circuit subsonic wind tunnel of Università Politecnica delle Marche (UNIVPM) and literature data.

Crivellini, A.; D'Alessandro, V.; Di Benedetto, D.; Montelpare, S.; Ricci, R.

2014-04-01

360

Aerodynamic Characteristics of SC1095 and SC1094 R8 Airfoils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two airfoils are used on the main rotor blade of the UH-60A helicopter, the SC1095 and the SC1094 R8. Measurements of the section lift, drag, and pitching moment have been obtained in ten wind tunnel tests for the SC1095 airfoil, and in five of these tests, measurements have also been obtained for the SC1094 R8. The ten wind tunnel tests are characterized and described in the present study. A number of fundamental parameters measured in these tests are compared and an assessment is made of the adequacy of the test data for use in look-up tables required by lifting-line calculation methods.

Bousman, William G.

2003-01-01

361

2-D Circulation Control Airfoil Benchmark Experiments Intended for CFD Code Validation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A current NASA Research Announcement (NRA) project being conducted by Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) personnel and NASA collaborators includes the development of Circulation Control (CC) blown airfoils to improve subsonic aircraft high-lift and cruise performance. The emphasis of this program is the development of CC active flow control concepts for both high-lift augmentation, drag control, and cruise efficiency. A collaboration in this project includes work by NASA research engineers, whereas CFD validation and flow physics experimental research are part of NASA s systematic approach to developing design and optimization tools for CC applications to fixed-wing aircraft. The design space for CESTOL type aircraft is focusing on geometries that depend on advanced flow control technologies that include Circulation Control aerodynamics. The ability to consistently predict advanced aircraft performance requires improvements in design tools to include these advanced concepts. Validation of these tools will be based on experimental methods applied to complex flows that go beyond conventional aircraft modeling techniques. This paper focuses on recent/ongoing benchmark high-lift experiments and CFD efforts intended to provide 2-D CFD validation data sets related to NASA s Cruise Efficient Short Take Off and Landing (CESTOL) study. Both the experimental data and related CFD predictions are discussed.

Englar, Robert J.; Jones, Gregory S.; Allan, Brian G.; Lin, Johb C.

2009-01-01

362

Robust, Optimal Subsonic Airfoil Shapes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method has been developed to create an airfoil robust enough to operate satisfactorily in different environments. This method determines a robust, optimal, subsonic airfoil shape, beginning with an arbitrary initial airfoil shape, and imposes the necessary constraints on the design. Also, this method is flexible and extendible to a larger class of requirements and changes in constraints imposed.

Rai, Man Mohan

2014-01-01

363

Comparison of pressure distributions on model and full-scale NACA 64-621 airfoils with ailerons for wind turbine application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aerodynamic similarity between a small (4-inch chord) wind tunnel model and a full-scale wind turbine blade (24-foot tip section with a 36-inch chord) was evaluated by comparing selected pressure distributions around the geometrically similar cross sections. The airfoils were NACA 64-621 sections, including trailing-edge ailerons with a width equal to 38 percent of the airfoil chord. The model airfoil was tested in the OSU 6- by 12-inch High Reynolds Number Wind Tunnel; the full-scale blade section was tested in the NASA Langley Research Center 30- by 60-foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel. The model airfoil contained 61 pressure taps connected by embedded tubes to pressure transducers. A belt containing 29 pressure taps was fixed to the full-scale section at midspan to obtain surface pressure data. Lift coefficients were obtained by integrating pressures, and corrections were made for the 3-D effects of blade twist and downwash in the blade tip section. The results of the two different experimental methods correlated well for angles of attack from minus 4 to 36 degrees and aileron reflections from 0 to 90 degrees.

Gregorek, G. M.; Kuniega, R. J.; Nyland, T. W.

1988-01-01

364

Comparison of pressure distributions on model and full-scale NACA 64-621 airfoils with ailerons for wind turbine application  

SciTech Connect

The aerodynamic similarity between a small (4-in. chord) wind tunnel model and a full-scale wind turbine blade (24-ft tip section with a 36-in. chord) was evaluated by comparing selected pressure distributions around the geometrically similar cross sections. The airfoils were NACA 64-621 sections, including trailing-edge ailerons with a width equal to 38 percent of the airfoil chord. The model airfoil was tested in the OSU 6- by 12-In. High Reynolds Number Wind Tunnel; the full-scale blade section was tested in the NASA Langley Research Center 30- by 60-Ft Subsonic Wind Tunnel. The model airfoil contained 61 pressure taps connected by embedded tubes to pressure transducers. A belt containing 29 pressure taps was fixed to the full-scale section at midspan to obtain surface pressure data. Lift coefficients were obtained by integrating pressures, and corrections were made for the three-dimensional effects of blade twist and downwash in the blade tip section. Good correlation was obtained between the results of the two different experimental methods for angles of attack from -4/degree/ to 36/degree/ and aileron deflections from 0/degree/ to 90/degree/. 4 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

Gregorek, G.M.; Kuniega, R.J.; Nyland, T.W.

1988-04-01

365

Navier-Stokes computations of the NREL airfoil using a {kappa}-{omega} turbulent model at high angles of attack  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a two-dimensional numerical simulation of the turbulent flow fields for the NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) S809 airfoil. The flow is modeled as steady, viscous, turbulent, and incompressible. The pseudo-compressible formulation is used for the time-averaged Navier-Stokes equations so that a time marching scheme developed for the compressible flow can be applied directly. The turbulent flow is simulated using Wilcox`s modified {kappa}-{omega} model to account for the low Reynolds number effects near a solid wall and the model`s sensitivity to the freestream conditions. The governing equations are solved by an implicit approximate-factorization scheme. To correctly model the convection terms in the mean-flow and turbulence model equations, the symmetric TVD (Total Variational Diminishing) scheme is incorporated. The methodology developed is then applied to analyze the NREL S809 airfoil at various angles of attack ({alpha}) from 1 to 45 degrees. The accuracy of the numerical results is compared with the available Delft wind tunnel test data. For comparison, two Eppler code results at low angles of attack are also included. Depending on the value of {alpha}, preliminary results show excellent to fairly good agreement with the experimental data. Directions for future work are also discussed.

Yang, S.L.; Chang, Y.L.; Arici, O. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States)

1995-11-01

366

Multiple piece turbine airfoil  

DOEpatents

A turbine airfoil, such as a rotor blade or a stator vane, for a gas turbine engine, the airfoil formed as a shell and spar construction with a plurality of hook shaped struts each mounted within channels extending in a spanwise direction of the spar and the shell to allow for relative motion between the spar and shell in the airfoil chordwise direction while also fanning a seal between adjacent cooling channels. The struts provide the seal as well as prevent bulging of the shell from the spar due to the cooling air pressure. The hook struts have a hooked shaped end and a rounded shaped end in order to insert the struts into the spar.

Kimmel, Keith D (Jupiter, FL)

2010-11-09

367

Lossless high dynamic range image coding based on lifting scheme using nonlinear interpolative effect of discrete-time cellular neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lifting scheme is a flexible method for the construction of linear and nonlinear wavelet transforms. In this paper, we propose a novel lossless high dynamic range (HDR) image coding method based on the lifting scheme using discrete-time cellular neural networks (DT-CNNs). In our proposed method, the image is interpolated by using the nonlinear interpolative dynamics of DT-CNN. Because the

Hisashi Aomori; K. Kawakami; T. Otake; N. Takahashi; M. Yamauchi; M. Tanaka

2005-01-01

368

Tip Vortex Development of an Adaptive Arc Airfoil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The roll-up and development of the wing-tip vortex from an adaptive circular arc airfoil is observed experimentally. A piezoceramic actuator with a steel substrate serves as the adaptive airfoil. The baseline (zero potential) radius of curvature Rc of the airfoil is 16 cm. Rc is varied by changing the voltage applied across the arc airfoil. A maximum input voltage of ± 600 V varies Rc ± 2% resulting in a maximum change in lift coefficient Cl of approximately 7%. Rc can be varied at a frequency f up to 20 kHz. Maximum ? Rc occurs in the range f<25 Hz. This allows a simple method to examine the effect of unsteady Cl on tip vortex development. The arc airfoil is mounted as a wing semi-span in a subsonic wind tunnel and observed at a chord-based Reynolds number from 1.0 \\cdot 10^4 <= Rec <= 1.0 \\cdot 10^5. A helium filled soap bubble generator is used to create tracer particles for DPIV to examine the unsteady wake and a 7-hole Pitot probe is used to measure the steady-state wake. The wing-tip vortex is observed up to 20 chord-lengths downstream for varying f. The phenomenon of aero-elestic coupling between unsteady pressure forces and piezoelectric forces is explored. Potential application to wake vortex alleviation is also discussed.

Jou Pern, Nan; Jacob, J. D.

1998-11-01

369

Heavy Lifting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners work in NASA teams to build balloon-powered rockets using identical parts and compete to launch the greatest number of paper clips to "space" (the ceiling). The rockets learners build model the Ares V heavy lift launchers that carry heavy payloads into orbit. This lesson plan includes background information, tips, discussion questions and answers, and a "Mission Report" sheet for learners.

Shearer, Deborah A.; Gregory L. Vogt, Ed D.

2012-06-26

370

Rime ice accretion and its effect on airfoil performance. Ph.D. Thesis. Final Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A methodology was developed to predict the growth of rime ice, and the resulting aerodynamic penalty on unprotected, subcritical, airfoil surfaces. The system of equations governing the trajectory of a water droplet in the airfoil flowfield is developed and a numerical solution is obtained to predict the mass flux of super cooled water droplets freezing on impact. A rime ice shape is predicted. The effect of time on the ice growth is modeled by a time-stepping procedure where the flowfield and droplet mass flux are updated periodically through the ice accretion process. Two similarity parameters, the trajectory similarity parameter and accumulation parameter, are found to govern the accretion of rime ice. In addition, an analytical solution is presented for Langmuir's classical modified inertia parameter. The aerodynamic evaluation of the effect of the ice accretion on airfoil performance is determined using an existing airfoil analysis code with empirical corrections. The change in maximum lift coefficient is found from an analysis of the new iced airfoil shape. The drag correction needed due to the severe surface roughness is formulated from existing iced airfoil and rough airfoil data. A small scale wind tunnel test was conducted to determine the change in airfoil performance due to a simulated rime ice shape.

Bragg, M. B.

1982-01-01

371

Active Control of Separation From the Flap of a Supercritical Airfoil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Active flow control in the form of periodic zero-mass-flux excitation was applied at several regions on the leading edge and trailing edge flaps of a simplified high-lift system t o delay flow separation. The NASA Energy Efficient Transport (EET) supercritical airfoil was equipped with a 15% chord simply hinged leading edge flap and a 25% chord simply hinged trailing edge flap. Detailed flow features were measured in an attempt to identify optimal actuator placement. The measurements included steady and unsteady model and tunnel wall pressures, wake surveys, arrays of surface hot-films, flow visualization, and particle image velocimetry (PIV). The current paper describes the application of active separation control at several locations on the deflected trailing edge flap. High frequency (F(+) approx.= 10) and low frequency amplitude modulation (F(+)AM approx.= 1) of the high frequency excitation were used for control. Preliminary efforts to combine leading and trailing edge flap excitations are also reported.

Melton, La Tunia Pack; Yao, Chung-Sheng; Seifert, Avi

2003-01-01

372

Tu-144LL SST Flying Laboratory Lifts off Runway on a High-Speed Research Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Tupolev Tu-144LL lifts off from the Zhukovsky Air Development Center near Moscow, Russia, on a 1998 test flight. NASA teamed with American and Russian aerospace industries for an extended period in a joint international research program featuring the Russian-built Tu-144LL supersonic aircraft. The object of the program was to develop technologies for a proposed future second-generation supersonic airliner to be developed in the 21st Century. The aircraft's initial flight phase began in June 1996 and concluded in February 1998 after 19 research flights. A shorter follow-on program involving seven flights began in September 1998 and concluded in April 1999. All flights were conducted in Russia from Tupolev's facility at the Zhukovsky Air Development Center near Moscow. The centerpiece of the research program was the Tu 144LL, a first-generation Russian supersonic jetliner that was modified by its developer/builder, Tupolev ANTK (aviatsionnyy nauchno-tekhnicheskiy kompleks-roughly, aviation technical complex), into a flying laboratory for supersonic research. Using the Tu-144LL to conduct flight research experiments, researchers compared full-scale supersonic aircraft flight data with results from models in wind tunnels, computer-aided techniques, and other flight tests. The experiments provided unique aerodynamic, structures, acoustics, and operating environment data on supersonic passenger aircraft. Data collected from the research program was being used to develop the technology base for a proposed future American-built supersonic jetliner. Although actual development of such an advanced supersonic transport (SST) is currently on hold, commercial aviation experts estimate that a market for up to 500 such aircraft could develop by the third decade of the 21st Century. The Tu-144LL used in the NASA-sponsored research program was a 'D' model with different engines than were used in production-model aircraft. Fifty experiments were proposed for the program and eight were selected, including six flight and two ground (engine) tests. The flight experiments included studies of the aircraft's exterior surface, internal structure, engine temperatures, boundary-layer airflow, the wing's ground-effect characteristics, interior and exterior noise, handling qualities in various flight profiles, and in-flight structural flexibility. The ground tests studied the effect of air inlet structures on airflow entering the engine and the effect on engine performance when supersonic shock waves rapidly change position in the engine air inlet. A second phase of testing further studied the original six in-flight experiments with additional instrumentation installed to assist in data acquisition and analysis. A new experiment aimed at measuring the in-flight deflections of the wing and fuselage was also conducted. American-supplied transducers and sensors were installed to measure nose boom pressures, angle of attack, and sideslip angles with increased accuracy. Two NASA pilots, Robert Rivers of Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia, and Gordon Fullerton from Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, assessed the aircraft's handling at subsonic and supersonic speeds during three flight tests in September 1998. The program concluded after four more data-collection flights in the spring of 1999. The Tu-144LL model had new Kuznetsov NK-321 turbofan engines rated at more than 55,000 pounds of thrust in full afterburner. The aircraft is 215 feet, 6 inches long and 42 feet, 2 inches high with a wingspan of 94 feet, 6 inches. The aircraft is constructed mostly of light aluminum alloy with titanium and stainless steel on the leading edges, elevons, rudder, and the under-surface of the rear fuselage.

1998-01-01

373

High Reynolds number tests of the cast 10-2/DOA 2 airfoil in the Langley 0.3-meter transonic cryogenic tunnel, phase 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wind tunnel tests of an advanced technology airfoil, the CAST 10-2/DOA 2, were conducted in the Langley 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel (0.3-m TCT). This was the third of a series of tests conducted in a cooperative airfoil research program between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Deutsche Forschungsund Versuchsanstalt fur Luft- und Raumfahrt e. V. For these tests, temperature was varied from 270 K to 110 K at pressures from 1.5 to 5.75 atmospheres. Mach number was varied from 0.60 to 0.80, and the Reynolds number (based on airfoil chord) was varied from 2 to 20 million. The aerodynamic data for the 7.62 cm chord airfoil model used in these tests is presented without analysis. Descriptions of the 0.3-m TCT, the airfoil model, the test instrumentation, and the testing procedures are included.

Dress, D. A.; Stanewsky, E.; Mcguire, P. D.; Ray, E. J.

1984-01-01

374

Supersonic, nonlinear, attached-flow wing design for high lift with experimental validation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of the experimental validation are presented for the three dimensional cambered wing which was designed to achieve attached supercritical cross flow for lifting conditions typical of supersonic maneuver. The design point was a lift coefficient of 0.4 at Mach 1.62 and 12 deg angle of attack. Results from the nonlinear full potential method are presented to show the validity of the design process along with results from linear theory codes. Longitudinal force and moment data and static pressure data were obtained in the Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel at Mach numbers of 1.58, 1.62, 1.66, 1.70, and 2.00 over an angle of attack range of 0 to 14 deg at a Reynolds number of 2.0 x 10 to the 6th power per foot. Oil flow photographs of the upper surface were obtained at M = 1.62 for alpha approx. = 8, 10, 12, and 14 deg.

Pittman, J. L.; Miller, D. S.; Mason, W. H.

1984-01-01

375

Enhanced Performance of Airfoils at Moderate Mach Numbers Using Zero-Mass Flux Pulsed Blowing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oscillatory wall-jets were introduced through spanwise slots along a flapped NACA 0015 airfoil to establish lift augmentation and drag reduction by the unsteady forcing of the separated flow. Pressure coefficient distributions, lift coefficients, and wake velocity profiles, to determine the drag coefficient, were measured over the test-section speed range of 25m\\/s < U? < 140m\\/s in the NDF. The present

Michael Hites; Hassan Nagib

2001-01-01

376

Erosion/corrosion of turbine airfoil materials in the high-velocity effluent of a pressurized fluidized coal combustor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Four candidate turbine airfoil superalloys were exposed to the effluent of a pressurized fluidized bed with a solids loading of 2 to 4 g/scm for up to 100 hours at two gas velocities, 150 and 270 m/sec, and two temperatures, 730 deg and 795 C. Under these conditions, both erosion and corrosion occurred. The damaged specimens were examined by cross-section measurements, scanning electron and light microscopy, and X-ray analysis to evaluate the effects of temperature, velocity, particle loading, and alloy material. Results indicate that for a given solids loading the extent of erosion is primarily dependent on gas velocity. Corrosion occurred only at the higher temperature. There was little difference in the erosion/corrosion damage to the four alloys tested under these severe conditions.

Zellars, G. R.; Rowe, A. P.; Lowell, C. E.

1978-01-01

377

A High Altitude-Low Reynolds Number Aerodynamic Flight Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A sailplane is currently being developed at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center to support a high altitude flight experiment. The purpose of the experiment is to measure the performance characteristics of an airfoil at altitudes between 100,000 and 70,000 feet at Mach numbers between 0.65 and 0.5. The airfoil lift and drag are measured from pilot and static pressures. The location of the separation bubble and vortex shedding are measured from a hot film strip. The details of the flight experiment are presented. A comparison of several estimates of the airfoil performance is also presented. The airfoil, APEX-16, was designed by Drela (MIT) with his MSES code. A two dimensional Navier-Stokes analysis has been performed by Tatineni and Zhong (UCLA) and another at the Dryden Flight Research Center. The role these analysis served to define the experiment is discussed.

Greer, Don; Krake, Keith; Hamory, Phil; Drela, Mark; Lee, Seunghee (Technical Monitor)

1999-01-01

378

Design and Predictions for a High-Altitude (Low-Reynolds-Number) Aerodynamic Flight Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A sailplane being developed at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center will support a high-altitude flight experiment. The experiment will measure the performance parameters of an airfoil at high altitudes (70,000 to 100,000 ft), low Reynolds numbers (200,000 to 700,000), and high subsonic Mach numbers (0.5 and 0.65). The airfoil section lift and drag are determined from pitot and static pressure measurements. The locations of the separation bubble, Tollmien-Schlichting boundary layer instability frequencies, and vortex shedding are measured from a hot-film strip. The details of the planned flight experiment are presented. Several predictions of the airfoil performance are also presented. Mark Drela from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology designed the APEX-16 airfoil, using the MSES code. Two-dimensional Navier-Stokes analyses were performed by Mahidhar Tatineni and Xiaolin Zhong from the University of California, Los Angeles, and by the authors at NASA Dryden.

Greer, Donald; Hamory, Phil; Krake, Keith; Drela, Mark

1999-01-01

379

Stiffness characteristics of airfoils under pulse loading  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The turbomachinery industry continually struggles with the adverse effects of contact rubs between airfoils and casings. The key parameter controlling the severity of a given rub event is the contact load produced when the airfoil tips incur into the casing. These highly non-linear and transient forces are difficult to calculate and their effects on the static and rotating components are not well understood. To help provide this insight, experimental and analytical capabilities have been established and exercised through an alliance between GE Aviation and The Ohio State University Gas Turbine Laboratory. One of the early findings of the program is the influence of blade flexibility on the physics of rub events. The core focus of the work presented in this dissertation is to quantify the influence of airfoil flexibility through a novel modeling approach that is based on the relationship between applied force duration and maximum tip deflection. This relationship is initially established using a series of forward, non-linear and transient analyses in which simulated impulse rub loads are applied. This procedure, although effective, is highly inefficient and costly to conduct by requiring numerous explicit simulations. To alleviate this issue, a simplified model, named the pulse magnification model, is developed that only requires a modal analysis and a static analyses to fully describe how the airfoil stiffness changes with respect to load duration. Results from the pulse magnification model are compared to results from the full transient simulation method and to experimental results, providing sound verification for the use of the modeling approach. Furthermore, a unique and highly efficient method to model airfoil geometries was developed and is outlined in this dissertation. This method produces quality Finite Element airfoil definitions directly from a fully parameterized mathematical model. The effectiveness of this approach is demonstrated by comparing modal properties of the simulated geometries to modal properties of various current airfoil designs. Finally, this modeling approach was used in conjunction with the pulse magnification model to study the effects of various airfoil geometric features on the stiffness of the blade under impulsive loading.

Turner, Kevin Eugene

380

Turbine airfoil manufacturing technology  

SciTech Connect

The specific goal of this program is to define manufacturing methods that will allow single crystal technology to be applied to complex-cored airfoils components for power generation applications. Tasks addressed include: alloy melt practice to reduce the sulfur content; improvement of casting process; core materials design; and grain orientation control.

Kortovich, C. [PCC Airfoils, Inc., Beachwood, OH (United States)

1995-12-31

381

Passive maintenance of high angle of attack and its lift generation during flapping translation in crane fly wing.  

PubMed

We have studied the passive maintenance of high angle of attack and its lift generation during the crane fly's flapping translation using a dynamically scaled model. Since the wing and the surrounding fluid interact with each other, the dynamic similarity between the model flight and actual insect flight was measured using not only the non-dimensional numbers for the fluid (the Reynolds and Strouhal numbers) but also those for the fluid-structure interaction (the mass and Cauchy numbers). A difference was observed between the mass number of the model and that of the actual insect because of the limitation of available solid materials. However, the dynamic similarity during the flapping translation was not much affected by the mass number since the inertial force during the flapping translation is not dominant because of the small acceleration. In our model flight, a high angle of attack of the wing was maintained passively during the flapping translation and the wing generated sufficient lift force to support the insect weight. The mechanism of the maintenance is the equilibrium between the elastic reaction force resulting from the wing torsion and the fluid dynamic pressure. Our model wing rotated quickly at the stroke reversal in spite of the reduced inertial effect of the wing mass compared with that of the actual insect. This result could be explained by the added mass from the surrounding fluid. Our results suggest that the pitching motion can be passive in the crane fly's flapping flight. PMID:19915131

Ishihara, D; Yamashita, Y; Horie, T; Yoshida, S; Niho, T

2009-12-01

382

Experiments on heave/pitch limit-cycle oscillations of a supercritical airfoil close to the transonic dip  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent results from flutter experiments of the supercritical airfoil NLR 7301 at flow conditions near the transonic dip are presented. The airfoil was mounted with two degrees of freedom in an adaptive solid-wall wind tunnel, and boundary-layer transition was tripped. Two limit-cycle oscillation (LCO) test cases obtained in an adaptive test-section are proposed for comparison with numerical simulations. The results link the global aerodynamic force behavior to the observed LCOs and the identified transonic dip. The time lag of the lift response to the pitching motion of the airfoil appears to be responsible for the characteristic shape of the transonic dip. The amplitude limitation of the LCOs results from a slightly nonlinear dependency of lift and moment on the amplitude of the airfoil motion. LCOs can be controlled by relatively small forces, but amplitudes strongly depend on the damping of the aeroelastic system.

Dietz, G.; Schewe, G.; Mai, H.

2004-01-01

383

What's happening in artificial lift  

SciTech Connect

New developments reported this year are primarily in the areas of electrical submersible pumps (ESPs), beam pumps, and gas lift. The available information includes new products, techniques for extending run life, controllers, monitors and various other products. Specific topics in this article include: ESP turn key leases for temporary lifting; Horizontal pumps; Gas diffusion coatings for ESP bushings and sleeves; ESP variable rate current-voltage recording monitor; Power tubing ESP status; Low volume, high efficiency ESP stage; ESP improvements for horizontal and abrasive conditions; ESP computer design program effort; Well analyzer; Beam pump controller with variable frequency drive; Hydraulic pumping units; Mobile swab unit for marginal wells; Device for unseating downhole pumps; Gas lift valve test stand; Plunger lift controllers; Resettable ESP packer; Power generation from wellhead gas; and Artificial lift PC design program.

Lea, J.F. (Amoco Production Research Co., Tulsa, OK (US)); Winkler, H.W.

1991-05-01

384

Comparison of experimental and numerical work on three dimensional trailing edge modifications on airfoils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Miniflaps at the trailing edge of airfoils (i.e., Gurney flaps) change the Kutta condition and thus produce higher lift. Unfortunately, however, the drag also increases due to the flow separation downstream of such modified trailing edges. The present work describes investigations aimed at the stabilization of the wake flow in order to achieve drag reduction and a decrease of sound

W. Hage; R. Meyer; M. Schatz

385

On the calculation of flow past an infinite screen of thin airfoils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report deals with the flow past an infinite screen of thin airfoil (two-dimensional problem). The vortex distribution across the profile is established with appropriate expansion in series and the velocity distribution lift, moment, and profile shape deduced. Inversely, the distribution is deduced from the vorticity. The method is the extension of the Birnbaum-Glauert method for the isolated wing.

Pistolesi, E

1941-01-01

386

Wind tunnel generation of sinusoidal lateral and longitudinal gusts by circulation of twin parallel airfoils  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gust generator capable of producing sinusoidal lateral and longitudinal gusts was developed for the purpose of studying the gust response of a model rotor-propeller in a wind tunnel. The gust generator utilized harmonic circulation control of twin parallel airfoils to achieve the harmonic lift variation required for gust generation. The gust generator design, construction, and testing is described. Typical

N. D. Ham; P. H. Bauer; T. L. Lawrence

1974-01-01

387

Inverse transonic airfoil design methods including boundary layer and viscous interaction effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development and incorporation into TRANDES of a fully conservative analysis method utilizing the artificial compressibility approach is described. The method allows for lifting cases and finite thickness airfoils and utilizes a stretched coordinate system. Wave drag and massive separation studies are also discussed.

Carlson, L. A.

1979-01-01

388

Trailing Edge Modifications for Flatback Airfoils.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The adoption of blunt trailing edge airfoils (also called flatback airfoils) for the inboard region of large wind turbine blades has been proposed. Blunt trailing edge airfoils would not only provide a number of structural benefits, such as increased stru...

C. P. van Dam D. E. Berg D. L. Kahn

2008-01-01

389

Vertical axis wind turbine airfoil  

DOEpatents

A vertical axis wind turbine airfoil is described. The wind turbine airfoil can include a leading edge, a trailing edge, an upper curved surface, a lower curved surface, and a centerline running between the upper surface and the lower surface and from the leading edge to the trailing edge. The airfoil can be configured so that the distance between the centerline and the upper surface is the same as the distance between the centerline and the lower surface at all points along the length of the airfoil. A plurality of such airfoils can be included in a vertical axis wind turbine. These airfoils can be vertically disposed and can rotate about a vertical axis.

Krivcov, Vladimir; Krivospitski, Vladimir; Maksimov, Vasili; Halstead, Richard; Grahov, Jurij Vasiljevich

2012-12-18

390

An experimental study of the lift, drag and static longitudinal stability for a three lifting surface configuration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The experimental procedure and aerodynamic force and moment measurements for wind tunnel testing of the three lifting surface configuration (TLC) are described. The influence of nonelliptical lift distributions on lift, drag, and static longitudinal stability are examined; graphs of the lift coefficient versus angle of attack, the pitching moment coefficient, drag coefficient, and lift to drag ratio versus lift coefficient are provided. The TLC data are compared with the conventional tail-aft configuration and the canard-wing configuration; it is concluded that the TLC has better lift and high-lift drag characteristics, lift to drag ratio, and zero-lift moments than the other two configurations. The effects of variations in forward and tail wind incidence angles, gap, stagger, and forward wind span on the drag, lift, longitudinal stability, and zero-lift moments of the configuration are studied.

Ostowari, C.; Naik, D.

1986-01-01

391

Experimental and numerical research of lift force produced by Coand? effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents research results of aerodynamics of Coand? airfoil, that is a key element of drones with jet propulsion. The Coand? propulsion allows drones to monitor quickly the large areas in emergencies: forest fires, earthquakes, meteor attacks and so on. The aim of this work consists in establishment of geometric and aerodynamic parameters at which, the lift force produced by Coand? airfoil is maximal.

Constantinescu, S. G.; Niculescu, M. L.

2013-10-01

392

Vortex developments over steady and accelerated airfoils incorporating a trailing edge jet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computational and experimental studies are conducted to investigate the influence of a trailing edge jet on flow separation and subsequent vortex formation over steady and accelerated airfoils at high angles of attack. A computer code, employing the stream function-vorticity approach, is developed and utilized to conduct numerical experiments on the flow problem. To verify and economize such efforts, an experimental system is developed and incorporated into a subsonic wind tunnel where streamline and vortex flow visualization experiments are conducted. The study demonstrates the role of the trailing edge jet in controlling flow separation and subsequent vortex development for steady and accelerating flow at angles past the static stall angle of attack. The results suggest that the concept of the trailing edge jet may be utilized to control the characteristics of unsteady separated flows over lifting surfaces. This control possibility seems to be quite effective and could have a significant role in controlling unsteady separated flows.

Finaish, F.; Okong'o, N.; Frigerio, J.

1993-01-01

393

Transition and separation control on a low-Reynolds number airfoil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The major problem associated with the aerodynamic performance of airfoils at low Reynolds numbers is the presence of extensive laminar boundary-layer separation resulting in a large increase in presssure drag and a decrease in lift. The rapid deterioration in airfoil characteristics can be largely eliminated by artificially controlling the flow through the introduction of suitable disturbances in the boundary layer such that transition occurs ahead of the anticipated laminar separation. This paper presents the results of wind-tunnel tests conducted on a 10-cm model of LRN (1)-1007 airfoil with passive (roughness trips) and active (acoustic excitation) controls to trigger transition and suppress separation. Significant improvements in the aerodynamic characteristics of the airfoil were observed. Results of this study for a chord Reynolds number range of 40,000 to 250,000 are presented in this paper.

Mangalam, S. M.; Bar-Sever, A.; Zaman, K. B. M. Q.; Harvey, W. D.

1986-01-01

394

A Method for the Constrained Design of Natural Laminar Flow Airfoils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A fully automated iterative design method has been developed by which an airfoil with a substantial amount of natural laminar flow can be designed, while maintaining other aerodynamic and geometric constraints. Drag reductions have been realized using the design method over a range of Mach numbers, Reynolds numbers and airfoil thicknesses. The thrusts of the method are its ability to calculate a target N-Factor distribution that forces the flow to undergo transition at the desired location; the target-pressure-N-Factor relationship that is used to reduce the N-Factors in order to prolong transition; and its ability to design airfoils to meet lift, pitching moment, thickness and leading-edge radius constraints while also being able to meet the natural laminar flow constraint. The method uses several existing CFD codes and can design a new airfoil in only a few days using a Silicon Graphics IRIS workstation.

Green, Bradford E.; Whitesides, John L.; Campbell, Richard L.; Mineck, Raymond E.

1996-01-01

395

The influence of laminar separation and transition on low Reynolds number airfoil hysteresis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental study of the Lissaman 7769 and Miley MO6-13-128 airfoils at low chord Reynolds numbers is presented. Although both airfoils perform well near their design Reynolds number of about 600,000, they each produce a different type of hysteresis loop in the lift and drag forces when operated below chord Reynolds numbers of 300,000. The type of hysteresis loop was found to depend upon the relative location of laminar separation and transition. The influence of disturbance environment and experimental procedure on the low Reynolds number airfoil boundary layer behavior is also presented. The use of potential flow solutions to help predict how a given airfoil will behave at low Reynolds numbers is also discussed.

Mueller, T. J.

1984-01-01

396

Optical-velocimetry, wake measurements of lift and induced drag on a wing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particle Tracking Velocimetry was used, in a low-speed wind-tunnel study, to obtain simultaneous cross-flow velocity measurements in three planar regions downstream of an airfoil having a NACA 0015 profile. In order to measure both the total lift and induced drag, and their distributions on the airfoil, a wake integration technique based on the control volume approach was used. The airfoil model was tested in clean wing configuration and with a 3.33% Gurney flap attached to the trailing edge. The Gurney flap was found to increase the complexity of the wake and cause a systematic increase in lift and induced drag values. The changes in total lift and induced drag resulting from the fitting of a Gurney flap compared very favourably to investigations using traditional aerodynamic techniques demonstrating the validity of the method.

Grant, I.; McCutcheon, G.; McColgan, A. H.; Hurst, D.

2006-03-01

397

Experimental Study on the Wing Lift Characteristics of Biplane Micro Air Vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigates wing aerodynamic characteristics used for bi-plane micro-air vehicles. Surface pressure distributions of two-dimensional biplane airfoils (4% cambered-plate airfoil) were measured at a chord Reynolds number of 6.4 × 104. Lift characteristics of three-dimensional biplane rectangular wings (aspect ratio of 3) were also measured at the same Reynolds number. It was indicated that the behaviors of laminar separation bubble formed both on the upper and lower airfoils/wings affects their lift characteristics. Bi-plane wings with positive stagger, i.e. protruded upper wing indicated higher maximum lift coefficient. This is caused by different behaviors of laminar separation bubble formed on the wing.

Akiyama, Kohei; Tezuka, Asei; Sunada, Yasuto; Rinoie, Kenichi

398

MATE program: Erosion resistant compressor airfoil coating, volume 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance of candidate erosion resistant airfoil coatings installed in ground tested experimental JT8D and JT9D engines and subjected to cyclic endurance at idle, takeoff and intermediate power conditions has been evaluated. Engine tests were terminated prior to the scheduled 1000 cycles of endurance test due to high cycle fatigue fracture of the Gator-Gard plasma sprayed 88WC-12Co coating on titanium alloy airfoils. Coated steel (AMS5616) and nickel base alloy (Incoloy 901) performed well in both engine tests. Post test airfoil analyses consisted of binocular, scanning electron microscope and metallographic examinations.

Freling, Melvin

1987-01-01

399

Reynolds number, thickness and camber effects on flapping airfoil propulsion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of varying airfoil thickness and camber on plunging and combined pitching and plunging airfoil propulsion at Reynolds number Re=200, 2000, 20 000 and 2×106 was studied by numerical simulations for fully laminar and fully turbulent flow regimes. The thickness study was performed on 2-D NACA symmetric airfoils with 6-50% thick sections undergoing pure plunging motion at reduced frequency k=2 and amplitudes h=0.25 and 0.5, and for combined pitching and plunging motion at k=2, h=0.5, phase ?=90°, pitch angle ?o=15° and 30° and the pitch axis was located at 1/3 of chord from leading edge. At Re=200 for motions where positive thrust is generated, thin airfoils outperform thick airfoils. At higher Re significant gains could be achieved both in thrust generation and propulsive efficiency by using a thicker airfoil section for plunging and combined motion with low pitch amplitude. The camber study was performed on 2-D NACA airfoils with varying camber locations undergoing pure plunging motion at k=2, h=0.5 and Re=20 000. Little variation in thrust performance was found with camber. The underlying physics behind the alteration in propulsive performance between low and high Reynolds numbers has been explored by comparing viscous Navier-Stokes and inviscid panel method results. The role of leading edge vortices was found to be key to the observed performance variation.

Ashraf, M. A.; Young, J.; Lai, J. C. S.

2011-02-01

400

High Reynolds number tests of the CAST-10-2/DOA 2 transonic airfoil at ambient and cryogenic temper ature conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The transonic airfoil CAST 10-2/DOA 2 was investigated in several major transonic wind tunnels at Reynolds numbers ranging from Re=1.3 x 10(exp 6) to 45 x 10(exp 6) at ambient and cryogenic temperature conditions. The main objective was to study the degree and extent of the effects of Reynolds number on both the airfoil aerodynamic characteristics and the interference effects of various model-wind-tunnel systems. The initial analysis of the CAST 10-2 airfoil results revealed appreciable real Reynolds number effects on this airfoil and showed that wall interference can be significantly affected by changes in Reynolds number thus appearing as true Reynolds number effects.

Stanewsky, E.; Demurie, F.; Ray, Edward J.; Johnson, C. B.

1989-01-01

401

A two element laminar flow airfoil optimized for cruise. M.S. Thesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Numerical and experimental results are presented for a new two-element, fixed-geometry natural laminar flow airfoil optimized for cruise Reynolds numbers on the order of three million. The airfoil design consists of a primary element and an independent secondary element with a primary to secondary chord ratio of three to one. The airfoil was designed to improve the cruise lift-to-drag ratio while maintaining an appropriate landing capability when compared to conventional airfoils. The airfoil was numerically developed utilizing the NASA Langley Multi-Component Airfoil Analysis computer code running on a personal computer. Numerical results show a nearly 11.75 percent decrease in overall wing drag with no increase in stall speed at sailplane cruise conditions when compared to a wing based on an efficient single element airfoil. Section surface pressure, wake survey, transition location, and flow visualization results were obtained in the Texas A&M University Low Speed Wind Tunnel. Comparisons between the numerical and experimental data, the effects of the relative position and angle of the two elements, and Reynolds number variations from 8 x 10(exp 5) to 3 x 10(exp 6) for the optimum geometry case are presented.

Steen, Gregory Glen

1994-01-01

402

In-flight pressure distributions and skin-friction measurements on a subsonic transport high-lift wing section  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flight experiments are being conducted as part of a multiphased subsonic transport high-lift research program for correlation with wind-tunnel and computational results. The NASA Langley Transport Systems Research Vehicle (B737-100 aircraft) is used to obtain in-flight flow characteristics at full-scale Reynolds numbers to contribute to the understanding of 3-D high-lift, multi-element flows including attachment-line transition and relaminarization, confluent boundary-layer development, and flow separation characteristics. Flight test results of pressure distributions and skin friction measurements were obtained for a full-chord wing section including the slat, main-wing, and triple-slotted, Fowler flap elements. Test conditions included a range of flap deflections, chord Reynolds numbers (10 to 21 million), and Mach numbers (0.16 to 0.40). Pressure distributions were obtained at 144 chordwise locations of a wing section (53-percent wing span) using thin pressure belts over the slat, main-wing, and flap elements. Flow characteristics observed in the chordwise pressure distributions included leading-edge regions of high subsonic flows, leading-edge attachment-line locations, slat and main-wing cove-flow separation and reattachment, and trailing-edge flap separation. In addition to the pressure distributions, limited skin-friction measurements were made using Preston-tube probes. Preston-tube measurements on the slat upper surface suggested relaminarization of the turbulent flow introduced by the pressure belt on the slat leading-edge surface when the slat attachment line was laminar. Computational analysis of the in-flight pressure measurements using two-dimensional, viscous multielement methods modified with simple-sweep theory showed reasonable agreement. However, overprediction of the pressures on the flap elements suggests a need for better detailed measurements and improved modeling of confluent boundary layers as well as inclusion of three-dimensional viscous effects in the analysis.

Yip, Long P.; Vijgen, Paul M. H. W.; Hardin, Jay D.; Vandam, C. P.

1993-01-01

403

Aerodynamic Simulation of Ice Accretion on Airfoils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes recent improvements in aerodynamic scaling and simulation of ice accretion on airfoils. Ice accretions were classified into four types on the basis of aerodynamic effects: roughness, horn, streamwise, and spanwise ridge. The NASA Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) was used to generate ice accretions within these four types using both subscale and full-scale models. Large-scale, pressurized windtunnel testing was performed using a 72-in.- (1.83-m-) chord, NACA 23012 airfoil model with high-fidelity, three-dimensional castings of the IRT ice accretions. Performance data were recorded over Reynolds numbers from 4.5 x 10(exp 6) to 15.9 x 10(exp 6) and Mach numbers from 0.10 to 0.28. Lower fidelity ice-accretion simulation methods were developed and tested on an 18-in.- (0.46-m-) chord NACA 23012 airfoil model in a small-scale wind tunnel at a lower Reynolds number. The aerodynamic accuracy of the lower fidelity, subscale ice simulations was validated against the full-scale results for a factor of 4 reduction in model scale and a factor of 8 reduction in Reynolds number. This research has defined the level of geometric fidelity required for artificial ice shapes to yield aerodynamic performance results to within a known level of uncertainty and has culminated in a proposed methodology for subscale iced-airfoil aerodynamic simulation.

Broeren, Andy P.; Addy, Harold E., Jr.; Bragg, Michael B.; Busch, Greg T.; Montreuil, Emmanuel

2011-01-01

404

Computational Study of a NACA4415 airfoil using synthetic jet control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Synthetic jet actuators for flow control applications have been an active topic of experimental research since the 90's. Numerical simulations have become an important complement of that experimental work, providing detailed information of the dynamics of the controlled flow. This study is part of the AVOCET (Adaptive VOrticity Control Enabled flighT) project and is intended to provide computational support for the design and evaluation of closed-loop flow control with synthetic jet actuators for small scale Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). The main objective is to analyze active flow control of a NACA4415 airfoil with tangential synthetic jets via computational modeling. A hybrid Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes/Large Eddy Simulation (RANS/LES) turbulent model (called Delayed Detached-Eddy Simulation-DDES) was implemented in CDP, a kinetic energy conserving Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code. CDP is a parallel unstructured grid incompressible flow solver, developed at the Center for Integrated Turbulence Simulations (CITS) at Stanford University. Two models of synthetic jet actuators have been developed and validated. The first is a detailed model in which the flow in and out of the actuator cavity is modeled. A second less costly model (RSSJ) was also developed in which the Reynolds stress produced by the actuator is modeled, based on information from the detailed model. Several static validation test cases at different angle of attack with modified NACA4415 and Dragon Eye airfoils were performed. Numerical results show the effects of the actuators on the vortical structure of the flow, as well as on the aerodynamic properties. The main effect of the actuation on the time averaged vorticity field is a bending of the separation shear layer from the actuator toward the airfoil surface, resulting in changes in the aerodynamic properties. Full actuation of the suction side actuator reduces the pitching moment and increases the lift force, while the pressure side actuator increases the pitching moment and reduces the lift force. These observations are in agreement with experimental results. The effectiveness of the actuator is measured by the change in the aerodynamic properties of the airfoil in particular the lift (Delta Cl) and moment (DeltaCm) coefficients. Computational results for the actuator effectiveness show very good agreement with the experimental values (over the range of --2° to 10°). While the actuation modifies the global pressure distribution, the most pronounced effects are near the trailing edge in which a spike in the pressure coefficient (Cp) is observed. The local reduction of Cp, for both the suction side and pressure side actuators, at xc = 0.96 (the position of the actuators) is about 0.9 with respect to the unactuated case. This local reduction of the pressure is associated with the trapped vorticity and flow acceleration close to the trailing edge. The RSSJ model is designed to capture the synthetic jet time averaged behavior so that the high actuation frequencies are eliminated. This allows the time step to be increased by a factor of 5. This ad hoc model is also tested in dynamic simulations, in which its capacity to capture the detail model average performance was demonstrated. Finally, the RSSJ model was extended to a different airfoil profile (Dragon Eye) with good results.

Lopez Mejia, Omar Dario

405

Pressure distribution from high Reynolds number tests of a NASA SC(3)-0712(B) airfoil in the Langley 0.3-meter transonic cryogenic tunnel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A wind tunnel investigation of a NASA 12-percent-thick, advanced-technology supercritical airfoil was conducted in the Langley 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel (TCT). This investigation represents another in the series of NASA/U.S. industry two-dimensional airfoil studies to be completed in the Advanced Technology Airfoil Tests program. Test temperature was varied from 220 K to 96 K at pressures ranging from 1.2 to 4.3 atm. Mach number was varied from 0.50 to 0.80. This investigation was designed to: (1) test a NASA advanced-technology airfoil from low to flight equivalent Reynolds numbers, (2) provide experience in cryogenic wind-tunnel model design and testing techniques, and (3) demonstrate the suitability of the 0.3-m TCT as an airfoil test facility. All the test objectives were met. The pressure data are presented without analysis in tabulated format and as plots of pressure coefficient versus position on the airfoil. This report was prepared for use in conjunction with the aerodynamic coefficient data published in NASA-TM-86371. Data are included which demonstrate the effects of fixed transition. Also included are remarks on the model design and fabrication.

Johnson, W. G., Jr.; Hill, A. S.; Eichmann, O.

1985-01-01

406

High Reynolds number tests of a NASA SC(3)-0712(B) airfoil in the Langley 0.3-meter transonic cryogenic tunnel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A wind tunnel investigation of a NASA 12-percent-thick, advanced-technology supercritical airfoil was conducted in the Langley 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel (TCT). This investigation represents another in the series of NASA/U.S. industry two-dimensional airfoil studies to be completed in the Advanced Technology Airfoil Tests program. Test temperature was varied from 220 K to 96 K at pressures ranging from 1.2 to 4.3 atm. Mach number was varied from 0.60 to 0.80. These variables provided a Reynolds number range from 4,400,000 to 40,000,000 based on a 15.24-cm (6.0-in.) airfoil chord. This investigation was designed to test a NASA advanced-technology airfoil from low to flight-equivalent Reynolds numbers, provide experience in cryogenic wind tunnel model design and testing techniques, and demonstrate the suitability of the 0.3-m TCT as an airfoil test facility. The aerodynamic results are presented as integrated force and moment coefficients and pressure distributions. Data are included which demonstrate the effects of fixed transition, Mach number, and Reynolds number on the aerodynamic characteristics. Also included are remarks on the model design, the model structural integrity, and the overall test experience.

Johnson, W. G., Jr.; Hill, A. S.; Eichmann, O.

1985-01-01

407

Pressure and velocity measurements in a three dimensional wall jet. [high lift V/STOL wing-flap  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In three recent papers, some results of an experimental investigation of a freely expanding coflowing jet as well as a three dimensional wall jet have been presented. A flat plate as well as a curved wall surface intended to model a wing-flap combination in a high lift V/STOL configuration have been investigated. In these papers, the ratio of the jet exit plane velocity to the free stream velocity, was 5.1. This paper explores the effects of increasing the velocity ratio. The quantities measured include the width of the mixing region, the mean velocity field, turbulent intensities and time scales. In addition, wall and static pressure-velocity correlations and coherences are presented. The velocity measurements are made using a laser Doppler velocimeter with a phase-locked loop processor. The fluctuating pressures are monitored using condenser-type microphones.

Catalano, G. D.; Morton, J. B.; Humphris, R. R.

1979-01-01

408

High-yield thin GaN LED using metal bonding and laser lift-off technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gold-indium metal bonding method was used in this study to increase the product yield of vertical light emitting diodes (LEDs) during laser lift-off (LLO) process. The vertical GaN LED transferred onto Si substrate presented good electrical and optical properties due to the existence of high reflective mirror and texture surface. The chip size and dominant wavelength for vertical type LED are 40×40 mil2 and 450 nm. The optimal conditions of temperature and pressure for 2-inch wafer bonding are set of 200oC and 100 kg/inch2, respectively. The products yield of light output power, forward voltage and leakage current are 96 %, 96.4% and 61.2%, respectively. After aging test, the characteristics decay of light output power, forward voltage and leakage current are less than 4%. Summarization of optical and electrical properties, the total yield of these LEDs products is about 60 %.

Horng, Ray-Hua; Chen, Ching-Ho; Kao, Wei-Cheng; Wuu, Dong-Sing

2012-10-01

409

Surface integral analogy approaches for predicting noise from 3D high-lift low-noise wings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three surface integral approaches of the acoustic analogies are studied to predict the noise from three conceptual configurations of three-dimensional high-lift low-noise wings. The approaches refer to the Kirchhoff method, the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings (FW-H) method of the permeable integral surface and the Curle method that is known as a special case of the FW-H method. The first two approaches are used to compute the noise generated by the core flow region where the energetic structures exist. The last approach is adopted to predict the noise specially from the pressure perturbation on the wall. A new way to construct the integral surface that encloses the core region is proposed for the first two methods. Considering the local properties of the flow around the complex object-the actual wing with high-lift devices-the integral surface based on the vorticity is constructed to follow the flow structures. The surface location is discussed for the Kirchhoff method and the FW-H method because a common surface is used for them. The noise from the core flow region is studied on the basis of the dependent integral quantities, which are indicated by the Kirchhoff formulation and by the FW-H formulation. The role of each wall component on noise contribution is analyzed using the Curle formulation. Effects of the volume integral terms of Lighthill's stress tensors on the noise prediction are then evaluated by comparing the results of the Curle method with the other two methods.

Yao, Hua-Dong; Davidson, Lars; Eriksson, Lars-Erik; Peng, Shia-Hui; Grundestam, Olof; Eliasson, Peter E.

2014-05-01

410

Effects of upper surface modification on the aerodynamic characteristics of the NACA 63 sub 2-215 airfoil section  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An upper surface modification designed to increase the maximum lift coefficient of a 63 sub 2 - 215 airfoil section was tested at Mach numbers of 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 Reynolds numbers of 1.3 x 1 million, 2 x 10 sub 6 and 2.5 x 1 million. Comparisons of the aerodynamic coefficients before and after the modification were made. The upper surface modification increased the maximum lift coefficient of the airfoil significantly at all conditions.

Hicks, R. M.; Schairer, E. T.

1979-01-01

411

Tail Rotor Airfoils Stabilize Helicopters, Reduce Noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Founded by former Ames Research Center engineer Jim Van Horn, Van Horn Aviation of Tempe, Arizona, built upon a Langley Research Center airfoil design to create a high performance aftermarket tail rotor for the popular Bell 206 helicopter. The highly durable rotor has a lifetime twice that of the original equipment manufacturer blade, reduces noise by 40 percent, and displays enhanced performance at high altitudes. These improvements benefit helicopter performance for law enforcement, military training, wildfire and pipeline patrols, and emergency medical services.

2010-01-01

412

Comparisons of two-dimensional shock-expansion theory with experimental aerodynamic data for delta-planform wings at high supersonic speeds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation has been conducted to explore the potential for optimizing airfoil shape at high supersonic speeds by utilizing the two-dimensional shock-expansion method. Theoretical and experimental force and moment coefficients are compared for four delta-planform semispan wings having a leading-edge sweep angle of 65 deg and incorporating modified diamond airfoils with a thickness-chord ratio of 0.06. The wings differ only in airfoil maximum-thickness position and camber. The experimental data are obtained at Mach numbers of 3.95 and 4.63 and at a Reynolds number of 9.84 million per meter. A relatively simple method is developed for predicting, in terms of lift-drag ratio, the optimum modified diamond airfoil at high supersonic and hypersonic speeds.

Jernell, L. S.

1974-01-01

413

Lift hysteresis at stall as an unsteady boundary-layer phenomenon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analysis of rotating stall of compressor blade rows requires specification of a dynamic lift curve for the airfoil section at or near stall, presumably including the effect of lift hysteresis. Consideration of the magnus lift of a rotating cylinder suggests performing an unsteady boundary-layer calculation to find the movement of the separation points of an airfoil fixed in a stream of variable incidence. The consideration of the shedding of vorticity into the wake should yield an estimate of lift increment proportional to time rate of change of angle of attack. This increment is the amplitude of the hysteresis loop. An approximate analysis is carried out according to the foregoing ideas for a 6:1 elliptic airfoil at the angle of attack for maximum lift. The assumptions of small perturbations from maximum lift are made, permitting neglect of distributed vorticity in the wake. The calculated hysteresis loop is counterclockwise. Finally, a discussion of the forms of hysteresis loops is presented; and, for small reduced frequency of oscillation, it is concluded that the concept of a viscous "time lag" is appropriate only for harmonic variations of angle of attack with time at mean conditions other than maximum lift.

Moore, Franklin K

1956-01-01

414

Absolute Coefficients and the Graphical Representation of Airfoil Characteristics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is argued that there should be an agreement as to what conventions to use in determining absolute coefficients used in aeronautics and in how to plot those coefficients. Of particular importance are the absolute coefficients of lift and drag. The author argues for the use of the German method over the kind in common use in the United States and England, and for the Continental over the usual American and British method of graphically representing the characteristics of an airfoil. The author notes that, on the whole, it appears that the use of natural absolute coefficients in a polar diagram is the logical method for presentation of airfoil characteristics, and that serious consideration should be given to the advisability of adopting this method in all countries, in order to advance uniformity and accuracy in the science of aeronautics.

Munk, Max

1921-01-01

415

Application of unsteady airfoil theory to rotary wings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A clarification is presented on recent work concerning the application of unsteady airfoil theory to rotary wings. The application of this theory may be seen as consisting of four steps: (1) the selection of an appropriate unsteady airfoil theory; (2) the resolution of that velocity which is the resultant of aerodynamic and dynamic velocities at a point on the elastic axis into radial, tangential and perpendicular components, and the angular velocity of a blade section about the deformed axis; (3) the expression of lift and pitching moments in terms of the three components; and (4) the derivation of explicit expressions for the components in terms of flight velocity, induced flow, rotor rotational speed, blade motion variables, etc.

Kaza, K. R. V.; Kvaternik, R. G.

1981-01-01

416

Drag and lift in nonadiabatic transonic flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transonic flows with heat addition over airfoils have been calculated for different angles of attack. The fluid is a mixture of an inert carrier gas and a small amount of a condensible vapor. For the phase change process coupled to the flow, two limiting cases are investigated: nonequilibrium condensation after significant supersaturation and homogeneous nucleation and equilibrium condensation. Numerical calculations based on the Euler equations are linked with either the classical nucleation theory coupled with microscopic droplet growth laws or an equilibrium process. An improved explicit time-dependent diabatic finite volume method is developed and applied to calculate stationary flows. Reservoir conditions of pressure, temperature, and vapor content are varied to simulate internal flows in transonic wind tunnels, turbomachinery, and atmospheric flight at low altitudes. The pressure drag and the lift may increase or decrease. Homogeneous condensation in internal flows produces a maximum decrease of the pressure drag of about 60% and a maximum lift decrease of 35%.

Schnerr, Guenter H.; Dohrmann, Ulrich

1994-01-01

417

Effects of surface roughness and vortex generators on the NACA 4415 airfoil  

SciTech Connect

Wind turbines in the field can be subjected to many and varying wind conditions, including high winds with rotor locked or with yaw excursions. In some cases the rotor blades may be subjected to unusually large angles of attack that possibly result in unexpected loads and deflections. To better understand loadings at unusual angles of attack, a wind tunnel test was performed. An 18-inch constant chord model of the NACA 4415 airfoil section was tested under two dimensional steady state conditions in the Ohio State University Aeronautical and Astronautical Research Laboratory (OSU/AARL) 7 x 10 Subsonic Wind Tunnel (7 x 10). The objective of these tests was to document section lift and moment characteristics under various model and air flow conditions. These included a normal angle of attack range of {minus}20{degree} to +40{degree}, an extended angle of attack range of {minus}60{degree} to +230{degree}, applications of leading edge grit roughness (LEGR), and use of vortex generators (VGs), all at chord Reynolds numbers as high as possible for the particular model configuration. To realistically satisfy these conditions the 7 x 10 offered a tunnel-height-to-model-chord ratio of 6.7, suggesting low interference effects even at the relatively high lift and drag conditions expected during the test. Significantly, it also provided chord Reynolds numbers up to 2.0 million. 167 figs., 13 tabs.

Reuss, R.L.; Hoffman, M.J.; Gregorek, G.M. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

1995-12-01

418

Uncertainty Analysis for a Jet Flap Airfoil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis of variance (ANOVA) study was performed to quantify the potential uncertainties of lift and pitching moment coefficient calculations from a computational fluid dynamics code, relative to an experiment, for a jet flap airfoil configuration. Uncertainties due to a number of factors including grid density, angle of attack and jet flap blowing coefficient were examined. The ANOVA software produced a numerical model of the input coefficient data, as functions of the selected factors, to a user-specified order (linear, 2-factor interference, quadratic, or cubic). Residuals between the model and actual data were also produced at each of the input conditions, and uncertainty confidence intervals (in the form of Least Significant Differences or LSD) for experimental, computational, and combined experimental / computational data sets were computed. The LSD bars indicate the smallest resolvable differences in the functional values (lift or pitching moment coefficient) attributable solely to changes in independent variable, given just the input data points from selected data sets. The software also provided a collection of diagnostics which evaluate the suitability of the input data set for use within the ANOVA process, and which examine the behavior of the resultant data, possibly suggesting transformations which should be applied to the data to reduce the LSD. The results illustrate some of the key features of, and results from, the uncertainty analysis studies, including the use of both numerical (continuous) and categorical (discrete) factors, the effects of the number and range of the input data points, and the effects of the number of factors considered simultaneously.

Green, Lawrence L.; Cruz, Josue

2006-01-01

419

Turbomachine airfoil vibration control utilizing active and passive piezoelectric elements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vibration of turbomachine airfoils due to unsteady aerodynamic loading is a significant cause of gas turbine engine failures and the need for both unscheduled and scheduled maintenance. Minimization of the response to the aerodynamic forcing functions which the components experience can reduce or even alleviate the need for costly repairs and diminish the possibility of failure. This thesis research is directed at investigating a series of preliminary airfoil vibration control experiments which are described. Electrically shunted bonded piezoelectric elements are utilized to actively and passively control airfoil vibrational motion and alleviate the high cycle induced stresses in the airfoil which lead to premature failure. The shunts are optimized to control specific vibrational modes. Data are analyzed and demonstrate the viability of this unique vibration control technique.

Cross, Charles John