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Sample records for high lift airfoils

  1. An aerodynamic comparison of blown and mechanical high lift airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, John E.

    1987-01-01

    Short takeoff and landing (STOL) performance utilizing a circulation control airfoil was successfully demonstrated on the A-6 CCW (circulation control wing). Controlled flight at speeds as slow as 67 knots was demonstrated. Takeoff ground run and liftoff speed reductions in excess of 40 and 20 percent respectively were achieved. Landing ground roll and approach speeds were similarly reduced. The technology demonstrated was intended to be useable on modern high performance aircraft. STOL performance would be achieved through the combination of a 2-D vectored nozzle and a circulation control type of high lift system. The primary objective of this demonstration was to attain A-6 CCW magnitude reductions in takeoff and landing flight speed and ground distance requirements using practical bleed flow rates from a modern turbofan engine for the blown flap system. Also, cruise performance could not be reduced by the wing high lift system. The A-6 was again selected as the optimum demonstration vehicle. The procedure and findings of the study to select the optimum high lift wing design are documented. Some findings of a supercritical airfoil and a comparison of 2-D and 3-D results are also described.

  2. Design of high lift airfoils with a Stratford distribution by the Eppler method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomson, W. G.

    1975-01-01

    Airfoils having a Stratford pressure distribution, which has zero skin friction in the pressure recovery area, were investigated in an effort to develop high lift airfoils. The Eppler program, an inverse conformal mapping technique where the x and y coordinates of the airfoil are developed from a given velocity distribution, was used.

  3. Effect of wakes from moving upstream rods on boundary layer separation from a high lift airfoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volino, Ralph J.

    2011-11-01

    Highly loaded airfoils in turbines allow power generation using fewer airfoils. High loading, however, can cause boundary layer separation, resulting in reduced lift and increased aerodynamic loss. Separation is affected by the interaction between rotating blades and stationary vanes. Wakes from upstream vanes periodically impinge on downstream blades, and can reduce separation. The wakes include elevated turbulence, which can induce transition, and a velocity deficit, which results in an impinging flow on the blade surface known as a ``negative jet.'' In the present study, flow through a linear cascade of very high lift airfoils is studied experimentally. Wakes are produced with moving rods which cut through the flow upstream of the airfoils, simulating the effect of upstream vanes. Pressure and velocity fields are documented. Wake spacing and velocity are varied. At low Reynolds numbers without wakes, the boundary layer separates and does not reattach. At high wake passing frequencies separation is largely suppressed. At lower frequencies, ensemble averaged velocity results show intermittent separation and reattachment during the wake passing cycle. Supported by NASA.

  4. Advanced natural laminar flow airfoil with high lift to drag ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viken, Jeffrey K.; Pfenninger, Werner; Mcghee, Robert J.

    1986-01-01

    An experimental verification of a high performance natural laminar flow (NLF) airfoil for low speed and high Reynolds number applications was completed in the Langley Low Turbulence Pressure Tunnel (LTPT). Theoretical development allowed for the achievement of 0.70 chord laminar flow on both surfaces by the use of accelerated flow as long as tunnel turbulence did not cause upstream movement of transition with increasing chord Reynolds number. With such a rearward pressure recovery, a concave type deceleration was implemented. Two-dimensional theoretical analysis indicated that a minimum profile drag coefficient of 0.0026 was possible with the desired laminar flow at the design condition. With the three-foot chord two-dimensional model constructed for the LTPT experiment, a minimum profile drag coefficient of 0.0027 was measured at c sub l = 0.41 and Re sub c = 10 x 10 to the 6th power. The low drag bucket was shifted over a considerably large c sub l range by the use of the 12.5 percent chord trailing edge flap. A two-dimensional lift to drag ratio (L/D) was 245. Surprisingly high c sub l max values were obtained for an airfoil of this type. A 0.20 chort split flap with 60 deg deflection was also implemented to verify the airfoil's lift capabilities. A maximum lift coefficient of 2.70 was attained at Reynolds numbers of 3 and 6 million.

  5. Numerical and experimental study of blowing jet on a high lift airfoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobonea, A.; Pricop, M. V.

    2013-10-01

    Active manipulation of separated flows over airfoils at moderate and high angles of attack in order to improve efficiency or performance has been the focus of a number of numerical and experimental investigations for many years. One of the main methods used in active flow control is the usage of blowing devices with constant and pulsed blowing. Through CFD simulation over a 2D high-lift airfoil, this study is trying to highlight the impact of pulsed blowing over its aerodynamic characteristics. The available wind tunnel data from INCAS low speed facility are also beneficial for the validation of the numerical analysis. This study intends to analyze the impact of the blowing jet velocity and slot geometry on the efficiency of an active flow control.

  6. High-Lift System for a Supercritical Airfoil: Simplified by Active Flow Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melton, LaTunia Pack; Schaeffler, Norman W.; Lin, John C.

    2007-01-01

    Active flow control wind tunnel experiments were conducted in the NASA Langley Low-Turbulence Pressure Tunnel using a two-dimensional supercritical high-lift airfoil with a 15% chord hinged leading-edge flap and a 25% chord hinged trailing-edge flap. This paper focuses on the application of zero-net-mass-flux periodic excitation near the airfoil trailing edge flap shoulder at a Mach number of 0.1 and chord Reynolds numbers of 1.2 x 10(exp 6) to 9 x 10(exp 6) with leading- and trailing-edge flap deflections of 25 deg. and 30 deg., respectively. The purpose of the investigation was to increase the zero-net-mass-flux options for controlling trailing edge flap separation by using a larger model than used on the low Reynolds number version of this model and to investigate the effect of flow control at higher Reynolds numbers. Static and dynamic surface pressures and wake pressures were acquired to determine the effects of flow control on airfoil performance. Active flow control was applied both upstream of the trailing edge flap and immediately downstream of the trailing edge flap shoulder and the effects of Reynolds number, excitation frequency and amplitude are presented. The excitations around the trailing edge flap are then combined to control trailing edge flap separation. The combination of two closely spaced actuators around the trailing-edge flap knee was shown to increase the lift produced by an individual actuator. The phase sensitivity between two closely spaced actuators seen at low Reynolds number is confirmed at higher Reynolds numbers. The momentum input required to completely control flow separation on the configuration was larger than that available from the actuators used.

  7. Experimental Results for a Flapped Natural-laminar-flow Airfoil with High Lift/drag Ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcghee, R. J.; Viken, J. K.; Pfenninger, W.; Beasley, W. D.; Harvey, W. D.

    1984-01-01

    Experimental results have been obtained for a flapped natural-laminar-flow airfoil, NLF(1)-0414F, in the Langley Low-Turbulence Pressure Tunnel. The tests were conducted over a Mach number range from 0.05 to 0.40 and a chord Reynolds number range from about 3.0 x 10(6) to 22.0 x 10(6). The airfoil was designed for 0.70 chord laminar flow on both surfaces at a lift coefficient of 0.40, a Reynolds number of 10.0 x 10(6), and a Mach number of 0.40. A 0.125 chord simple flap was incorporated in the design to increase the low-drag, lift-coefficient range. Results were also obtained for a 0.20 chord split-flap deflected 60 deg.

  8. Measuring Lift with the Wright Airfoils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heavers, Richard M.; Soleymanloo, Arianne

    2011-01-01

    In this laboratory or demonstration exercise, we mount a small airfoil with its long axis vertical at one end of a nearly frictionless rotating platform. Air from a leaf blower produces a sidewise lift force L on the airfoil and a drag force D in the direction of the air flow (Fig. 1). The rotating platform is kept in equilibrium by adding weights…

  9. Experimental Test Results of Energy Efficient Transport (EET) High-Lift Airfoil in Langley Low-Turbulence Pressure Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Harry L., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes the results of an experimental study conducted in the Langley Low-Turbulence Pressure Tunnel to determine the effects of Reynolds number and Mach number on the two-dimensional aerodynamic performance of the Langley Energy Efficient Transport (EET) High-Lift Airfoil. The high-lift airfoil was a supercritical-type airfoil with a thickness-to- chord ratio of 0.12 and was equipped with a leading-edge slat and a double-slotted trailing-edge flap. The leading-edge slat could be deflected -30 deg, -40 deg, -50 deg, and -60 deg, and the trailing-edge flaps could be deflected to 15 deg, 30 deg, 45 deg, and 60 deg. The gaps and overlaps for the slat and flaps were fixed at each deflection resulting in 16 different configurations. All 16 configurations were tested through a Reynolds number range of 2.5 to 18 million at a Mach number of 0.20. Selected configurations were also tested through a Mach number range of 0.10 to 0.35. The plotted and tabulated force, moment, and pressure data are available on the CD-ROM supplement L-18221.

  10. Measuring Lift with the Wright Airfoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heavers, Richard M.; Soleymanloo, Arianne

    2011-11-01

    In this laboratory or demonstration exercise, we mount a small airfoil with its long axis vertical at one end of a nearly frictionless rotating platform. Air from a leaf blower2 produces a sidewise lift force L on the airfoil and a drag force D in the direction of the air flow (Fig. 1). The rotating platform is kept in equilibrium by adding weights (the measured values of L) to the lower end of a string passing over a pulley and connected to the other end of the rotating platform (Fig. 2). Our homemade airfoils are similar to those tested by the Wright brothers in 1901. From our lift plots in Fig. 3, we can draw the same conclusions as the Wrights about the influence of an airfoil's curvature and shape on lift.

  11. The effect of heavy rain on an airfoil at high lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donaldson, Coleman DUP.; Sullivan, Roger D.

    1987-01-01

    No serious studies of the relationship of heavy rain to aircraft safety were made until 1981 when it was suggested that the torrential rain which often occurs at the time of severe wind shear might substantially increase the danger to aircraft operating at slow speeds and high lift in the vicinity of airports. While these data were not published until early 1983, appropriate measures were taken by NASA to study the effect of heavy rain on the lift of wings typical of commercial aircraft. One of the aspects of these tests that seemed confirmed by the data was the existence of a velocity effect on the lift data. The data seemed to indicate that when all the normal non-dimensional aerodynamic parameters were used to sort out the data, the effect of velocity was not accounted for, as it usually is, by the effect of dynamic pressure. Indeed, the measured lift coefficients at high lift indicated a dropoff in lift coefficient for the same free-stream water content as velocity was increased. indicated a drop-off in lift coefficient for the same free-stream water content as velocity was increased.

  12. An Experimntal Investigation of the 30P30N Multi-Element High-Lift Airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pascioni, Kyle A.; Cattafesta, Louis N.; Choudhari, Meelan M.

    2014-01-01

    High-lift devices often generate an unsteady flow field producing both broadband and tonal noise which radiates from the aircraft. In particular, the leading edge slat is often a dominant contributor to the noise signature. An experimental study of a simplified unswept high-lift configuration, the 30P30N, has been conducted to understand and identify the various flow-induced noise sources around the slat. Closed-wall wind tunnel tests are performed in the Florida State Aeroacoustic Tunnel (FSAT) to characterize the slat cove flow field using a combination of surface and off-body measurements. Mean surface pressures compare well with numerical predictions for the free-air configuration. Consistent with previous measurements and computations for 2D high-lift configurations, the frequency spectra of unsteady surface pressures on the slat surface display several narrowband peaks that decrease in strength as the angle of attack is increased. At positive angles of attack, there are four prominent peaks. The three higher frequency peaks correspond, approximately, to a harmonic sequence related to a feedback resonance involving unstable disturbances in the slat cove shear layer. The Strouhal numbers associated with these three peaks are nearly insensitive to the range of flow speeds (41-58 m/s) and the angles of attack tested (3-8.5 degrees). The first narrow-band peak has an order of magnitude lower frequency than the remaining peaks and displays noticeable sensitivity to the angle of attack. Stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (SPIV) measurements provide supplementary information about the shear layer characteristics and turbulence statistics that may be used for validating numerical simulations.

  13. Airfoil optimization for unsteady flows with application to high-lift noise reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumpfkeil, Markus Peer

    The use of steady-state aerodynamic optimization methods in the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) community is fairly well established. In particular, the use of adjoint methods has proven to be very beneficial because their cost is independent of the number of design variables. The application of numerical optimization to airframe-generated noise, however, has not received as much attention, but with the significant quieting of modern engines, airframe noise now competes with engine noise. Optimal control techniques for unsteady flows are needed in order to be able to reduce airframe-generated noise. In this thesis, a general framework is formulated to calculate the gradient of a cost function in a nonlinear unsteady flow environment via the discrete adjoint method. The unsteady optimization algorithm developed in this work utilizes a Newton-Krylov approach since the gradient-based optimizer uses the quasi-Newton method BFGS, Newton's method is applied to the nonlinear flow problem, GMRES is used to solve the resulting linear problem inexactly, and last but not least the linear adjoint problem is solved using Bi-CGSTAB. The flow is governed by the unsteady two-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations in conjunction with a one-equation turbulence model, which are discretized using structured grids and a finite difference approach. The effectiveness of the unsteady optimization algorithm is demonstrated by applying it to several problems of interest including shocktubes, pulses in converging-diverging nozzles, rotating cylinders, transonic buffeting, and an unsteady trailing-edge flow. In order to address radiated far-field noise, an acoustic wave propagation program based on the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings (FW-H) formulation is implemented and validated. The general framework is then used to derive the adjoint equations for a novel hybrid URANS/FW-H optimization algorithm in order to be able to optimize the shape of airfoils based on their calculated far-field pressure fluctuations. Validation and application results for this novel hybrid URANS/FW-H optimization algorithm show that it is possible to optimize the shape of an airfoil in an unsteady flow environment to minimize its radiated far-field noise while maintaining good aerodynamic performance.

  14. Airfoil design: Finding the balance between design lift and structural stiffness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bak, Christian; Gaudern, Nicholas; Zahle, Frederik; Vronsky, Tomas

    2014-06-01

    When upscaling wind turbine blades there is an increasing need for high levels of structural efficiency. In this paper the relationships between the aerodynamic characteristics; design lift and lift-drag ratio; and the structural characteristics were investigated. Using a unified optimization setup, airfoils were designed with relative thicknesses between 18% and 36%, a structural box height of 85% of the relative thickness, and varying box widths in chordwise direction between 20% and 40% of the chord length. The results from these airfoil designs showed that for a given flapwise stiffness, the design lift coefficient increases if the box length reduces and at the same time the relative thickness increases. Even though the conclusions are specific to the airfoil design approach used, the study indicated that an increased design lift required slightly higher relative thickness compared to airfoils with lower design lift to maintain the flapwise stiffness. Also, the study indicated that the lift-drag ratio as a function of flapwise stiffness was relatively independent of the airfoil design with a tendency that the lift-drag ratio decreased for large box lengths. The above conclusions were supported by an analysis of the three airfoil families Riso-C2, DU and FFA, where the lift-drag ratio as a function of flapwise stiffness was decreasing, but relatively independent of the airfoil design, and the design lift coefficient was varying depending on the design philosophy. To make the analysis complete also design lift and lift- drag ratio as a function of edgewise and torsional stiffness were shown.

  15. Experimental and computational investigation of lift-enhancing tabs on a multi-element airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashby, Dale

    1996-01-01

    An experimental and computational investigation of the effect of lift enhancing tabs on a two-element airfoil was conducted. The objective of the study was to develop an understanding of the flow physics associated with lift enhancing tabs on a multi-element airfoil. A NACA 63(sub 2)-215 ModB airfoil with a 30 percent chord Fowler flap was tested in the NASA Ames 7 by 10 foot wind tunnel. Lift enhancing tabs of various heights were tested on both the main element and the flap for a variety of flap riggings. Computations of the flow over the two-element airfoil were performed using the two-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes code INS2D-UP. The computer results predict all of the trends in the experimental data quite well. When the flow over the flap upper surface is attached, tabs mounted at the main element trailing edge (cove tabs) produce very little change in lift. At high flap deflections. however, the flow over the flap is separated and cove tabs produce large increases in lift and corresponding reductions in drag by eliminating the separated flow. Cove tabs permit high flap deflection angles to be achieved and reduce the sensitivity of the airfoil lift to the size of the flap gap. Tabs attached to the flap training edge (flap tabs) are effective at increasing lift without significantly increasing drag. A combination of a cove tab and a flap tab increased the airfoil lift coefficient by 11 percent relative to the highest lift tab coefficient achieved by any baseline configuration at an angle of attack of zero percent and the maximum lift coefficient was increased by more than 3 percent. A simple analytic model based on potential flow was developed to provide a more detailed understanding of how lift enhancing tabs work. The tabs were modeled by a point vortex at the training edge. Sensitivity relationships were derived which provide a mathematical basis for explaining the effects of lift enhancing tabs on a multi-element airfoil. Results of the modeling effort indicate that the dominant effects of the tabs on the pressure distribution of each element of the airfoil can be captured with a potential flow model for cases with no flow separation.

  16. Compressible flows with periodic vortical disturbances around lifting airfoils. Ph.D. Thesis - Notre Dame Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, James R.

    1991-01-01

    A numerical method is developed for solving periodic, three-dimensional, vortical flows around lifting airfoils in subsonic flow. The first-order method that is presented fully accounts for the distortion effects of the nonuniform mean flow on the convected upstream vortical disturbances. The unsteady velocity is split into a vortical component which is a known function of the upstream flow conditions and the Lagrangian coordinates of the mean flow, and an irrotational field whose potential satisfies a nonconstant-coefficient, inhomogeneous, convective wave equation. Using an elliptic coordinate transformation, the unsteady boundary value problem is solved in the frequency domain on grids which are determined as a function of the Mach number and reduced frequency. The numerical scheme is validated through extensive comparisons with known solutions to unsteady vortical flow problems. In general, it is seen that the agreement between the numerical and analytical results is very good for reduced frequencies ranging from 0 to 4, and for Mach numbers ranging from .1 to .8. Numerical results are also presented for a wide variety of flow configurations for the purpose of determining the effects of airfoil thickness, angle of attack, camber, and Mach number on the unsteady lift and moment of airfoils subjected to periodic vortical gusts. It is seen that each of these parameters can have a significant effect on the unsteady airfoil response to the incident disturbances, and that the effect depends strongly upon the reduced frequency and the dimensionality of the gust. For a one-dimensional (transverse) or two-dimensional (transverse and longitudinal) gust, the results indicate that airfoil thickness increases the unsteady lift and moment at the low reduced frequencies but decreases it at the high reduced frequencies. The results show that an increase in airfoil Mach number leads to a significant increase in the unsteady lift and moment for the low reduced frequencies, but a significant decrease for the high reduced frequencies.

  17. Experimental Study of Slat Noise from 30P30N Three-Element High-Lift Airfoil in JAXA Hard-Wall Low-Speed Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murayama, Mitsuhiro; Nakakita, Kazuyuki; Yamamoto, Kazuomi; Ura, Hiroki; Ito, Yasushi; Choudhari, Meelan M.

    2014-01-01

    Aeroacoustic measurements associated with noise radiation from the leading edge slat of the canonical, unswept 30P30N three-element high-lift airfoil configuration have been obtained in a 2 m x 2 m hard-wall wind tunnel at the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). Performed as part of a collaborative effort on airframe noise between JAXA and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the model geometry and majority of instrumentation details are identical to a NASA model with the exception of a larger span. For an angle of attack up to 10 degrees, the mean surface Cp distributions agree well with free-air computational fluid dynamics predictions corresponding to a corrected angle of attack. After employing suitable acoustic treatment for the brackets and end-wall effects, an approximately 2D noise source map is obtained from microphone array measurements, thus supporting the feasibility of generating a measurement database that can be used for comparison with free-air numerical simulations. Both surface pressure spectra obtained via KuliteTM transducers and the acoustic spectra derived from microphone array measurements display a mixture of a broad band component and narrow-band peaks (NBPs), both of which are most intense at the lower angles of attack and become progressively weaker as the angle of attack is increased. The NBPs exhibit a substantially higher spanwise coherence in comparison to the broadband portion of the spectrum and, hence, confirm the trends observed in previous numerical simulations. Somewhat surprisingly, measurements show that the presence of trip dots between the stagnation point and slat cusp enhances the NBP levels rather than mitigating them as found in a previous experiment.

  18. Effects of Airfoil Thickness and Maximum Lift Coefficient on Roughness Sensitivity: 1997--1998

    SciTech Connect

    Somers, D. M.

    2005-01-01

    A matrix of airfoils has been developed to determine the effects of airfoil thickness and the maximum lift to leading-edge roughness. The matrix consists of three natural-laminar-flow airfoils, the S901, S902, and S903, for wind turbine applications. The airfoils have been designed and analyzed theoretically and verified experimentally in the Pennsylvania State University low-speed, low-turbulence wind tunnel. The effect of roughness on the maximum life increases with increasing airfoil thickness and decreases slightly with increasing maximum lift. Comparisons of the theoretical and experimental results generally show good agreement.

  19. The development of cambered airfoil sections having favorable lift characteristics at supercritical Mach numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, Donald J

    1949-01-01

    Several groups of new airfoil sections, designated as the NACA 8-series, are derived analytically to have lift characteristics at supercritical Mach numbers which are favorable in the sense that the abrupt loss of lift, characteristic of the usual airfoil section at Mach numbers above the critical, is avoided. Aerodynamic characteristics determined from two-dimensional wind-tunnel tests at Mach numbers up to approximately 0.9 are presented for each of the derived airfoils. Comparisons are made between the characteristics of these airfoils and the corresponding characteristics of representative NACA 6-series airfoils.

  20. Wind tunnel tests of two airfoils for wind turbines operating at high reynolds numbers

    SciTech Connect

    Sommers, D.; Tangler, J.

    2000-06-29

    The objectives of this study were to verify the predictions of the Eppler Airfoil Design and Analysis Code for Reynolds numbers up to 6 x 106 and to acquire the section characteristics of two airfoils being considered for large, megawatt-size wind turbines. One airfoil, the S825, was designed to achieve a high maximum lift coefficient suitable for variable-speed machines. The other airfoil, the S827, was designed to achieve a low maximum lift coefficient suitable for stall-regulated machines. Both airfoils were tested in the NASA Langley Low-Turbulence Pressure Tunnel (LTPT) for smooth, fixed-transition, and rough surface conditions at Reynolds numbers of 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 x 106. The results show the maximum lift coefficient of both airfoils is substantially underpredicted for Reynolds numbers over 3 x 106 and emphasized the difficulty of designing low-lift airfoils for high Reynolds numbers.

  1. Investigation of a bio-inspired lift-enhancing effector on a 2D airfoil.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Joe; Gopalarathnam, Ashok

    2012-09-01

    A flap mounted on the upper surface of an airfoil, called a 'lift-enhancing effector', has been shown in wind tunnel tests to have a similar function to a bird's covert feathers, which rise off the wing's surface in response to separated flows. The effector, fabricated from a thin Mylar sheet, is allowed to rotate freely about its leading edge. The tests were performed in the NCSU subsonic wind tunnel at a chord Reynolds number of 4 × 10(5). The maximum lift coefficient with the effector was the same as that for the clean airfoil, but was maintained over an angle-of-attack range from 12° to almost 20°, resulting in a very gentle stall behavior. To better understand the aerodynamics and to estimate the deployment angle of the free-moving effector, fixed-angle effectors fabricated out of stiff wood were also tested. A progressive increase in the stall angle of attack with increasing effector angle was observed, with diminishing returns beyond the effector angle of 60°. Drag tests on both the free-moving and fixed effectors showed a marked improvement in drag at high angles of attack. Oil flow visualization on the airfoil with and without the fixed-angle effectors proved that the effector causes the separation point to move aft on the airfoil, as compared to the clean airfoil. This is thought to be the main mechanism by which an effector improves both lift and drag. A comparison of the fixed-effector results with those from the free-effector tests shows that the free effector's deployment angle is between 30° and 45°. When operating at and beyond the clean airfoil's stall angle, the free effector automatically deploys to progressively higher angles with increasing angles of attack. This slows down the rapid upstream movement of the separation point and avoids the severe reduction in the lift coefficient and an increase in the drag coefficient that are seen on the clean airfoil at the onset of stall. Thus, the effector postpones the stall by 4-8° and makes the stall behavior more gentle. The benefits of using the effector could include care-free operations at high angles of attack during perching and maneuvering flight, especially in gusty conditions. PMID:22498691

  2. Wind tunnel results of the high-speed NLF(1)-0213 airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sewall, William G.; Mcghee, Robert J.; Hahne, David E.; Jordan, Frank L., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests were conducted to evaluate a natural laminar flow airfoil designed for the high speed jet aircraft in general aviation. The airfoil, designated as the High Speed Natural Laminar Flow (HSNLF)(1)-0213, was tested in two dimensional wind tunnels to investigate the performance of the basic airfoil shape. A three dimensional wing designed with this airfoil and a high lift flap system is also being evaluated with a full size, half span model.

  3. High lift selected concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, M. L.

    1979-01-01

    The benefits to high lift system maximum life and, alternatively, to high lift system complexity, of applying analytic design and analysis techniques to the design of high lift sections for flight conditions were determined and two high lift sections were designed to flight conditions. The influence of the high lift section on the sizing and economics of a specific energy efficient transport (EET) was clarified using a computerized sizing technique and an existing advanced airplane design data base. The impact of the best design resulting from the design applications studies on EET sizing and economics were evaluated. Flap technology trade studies, climb and descent studies, and augmented stability studies are included along with a description of the baseline high lift system geometry, a calculation of lift and pitching moment when separation is present, and an inverse boundary layer technique for pressure distribution synthesis and optimization.

  4. An application of active surface heating for augmenting lift and reducing drag of an airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maestrello, Lucio; Badavi, Forooz F.; Noonan, Kevin W.

    1988-01-01

    Application of active control to separated flow on the RC(6)-08 airfoil at high angle of attack by localized surface heating is numerically simulated by integrating the compressible 2-D nonlinear Navier-Stokes equation solver. Active control is simulated by local modification of the temperature boundary condition over a narrow strip of the upper surface of the airfoil. Both mean and perturbed profiles are favorably altered when excited with the same natural frequency of the shear layer by moderate surface heating for both laminar and turbulent separation. The shear layer is found to be very sensitive to localized surface heating in the vicinity of the separation point. The excitation field at the surface sufficiently altered both the local as well as the global circulation to cause a significant increase in lift and reduction in drag.

  5. Experimental and Computational Investigation of Lift-Enhancing Tabs on a Multi-Element Airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashby, Dale L.

    1996-01-01

    An experimental and computational investigation of the effect of lift-enhancing tabs on a two-element airfoil has been conducted. The objective of the study was to develop an understanding of the flow physics associated with lift-enhancing tabs on a multi-element airfoil. An NACA 63(2)-215 ModB airfoil with a 30% chord fowler flap was tested in the NASA Ames 7- by 10-Foot Wind Tunnel. Lift-enhancing tabs of various heights were tested on both the main element and the flap for a variety of flap riggings. A combination of tabs located at the main element and flap trailing edges increased the airfoil lift coefficient by 11% relative to the highest lift coefficient achieved by any baseline configuration at an angle of attack of 0 deg, and C(sub 1max) was increased by 3%. Computations of the flow over the two-element airfoil were performed using the two-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes code INS2D-UP. The computed results predicted all of the trends observed in the experimental data quite well. In addition, a simple analytic model based on potential flow was developed to provide a more detailed understanding of how lift-enhancing tabs work. The tabs were modeled by a point vortex at the air-foil or flap trailing edge. Sensitivity relationships were derived which provide a mathematical basis for explaining the effects of lift-enhancing tabs on a multi-element airfoil. Results of the modeling effort indicate that the dominant effects of the tabs on the pressure distribution of each element of the airfoil can be captured with a potential flow model for cases with no flow separation.

  6. Modeling the Aerodynamic Lift Produced by Oscillating Airfoils at Low Reynolds Number

    E-print Network

    Khalid, Muhammad Saif Ullah

    2015-01-01

    For present study, setting Strouhal Number (St) as control parameter, numerical simulations for flow past oscillating NACA-0012 airfoil at 1,000 Reynolds Numbers (Re) are performed. Temporal profiles of unsteady forces; lift and thrust, and their spectral analysis clearly indicate the solution to be a period-1 attractor for low Strouhal numbers. This study reveals that aerodynamic forces produced by plunging airfoil are independent of initial kinematic conditions of airfoil that proves the existence of limit cycle. Frequencies present in the oscillating lift force are composed of fundamental (fs), even and odd harmonics (3fs) at higher Strouhal numbers. Using numerical simulations, shedding frequencies (f_s) were observed to be nearly equal to the excitation frequencies in all the cases. Unsteady lift force generated due to the plunging airfoil is modeled by modified van der Pol oscillator. Using method of multiple scales and spectral analysis of steady-state CFD solutions, frequencies and damping terms in th...

  7. Numerical solutions of the linearized Euler equations for unsteady vortical flows around lifting airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, James R.; Atassi, Hafiz M.

    1990-01-01

    A linearized unsteady aerodynamic analysis is presented for unsteady, subsonic vortical flows around lifting airfoils. The analysis fully accounts for the distortion effects of the nonuniform mean flow on the imposed vortical disturbances. A frequency domain numerical scheme which implements this linearized approach is described, and numerical results are presented for a large variety of flow configurations. The results demonstrate the effects of airfoil thickness, angle of attack, camber, and Mach number on the unsteady lift and moment of airfoils subjected to periodic vortical gusts. The results show that mean flow distortion can have a very strong effect on the airfoil unsteady response, and that the effect depends strongly upon the reduced frequency, Mach number, and gust wave numbers.

  8. Generation of thrust and lift with airfoils in plunging and pitching motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriche, M.; Flores, O.; García-Villalba, M.

    2015-01-01

    We present fully resolved Direct Numerical Simulations of 2D flow over a moving airfoil, using an in-house code that solves the Navier-Stokes equations of the incompressible flow with an Immersed Boundary Method. A combination of sinusoidal plunging and pitching motions is imposed to the airfoil. Starting from a thrust producing case (Reynolds number, Re = 1000, reduced frequency, k = 1.41, plunging amplitude h0/c = 1, pitching amplitude ?0 = 30°, phase shift phi = 90°), we increase the mean pitching angle (in order to produce lift) and vary the phase shift between pitching and plunging (to optimize the direction and magnitude of the net force on the airfoil). These cases are discussed in terms of their lift coefficient, thrust coefficient and propulsive efficiency.

  9. Estimation of unsteady lift on a pitching airfoil from wake velocity surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaman, K. B. M. Q.; Panda, J.; Rumsey, C. L.

    1993-01-01

    The results of a joint experimental and computational study on the flowfield over a periodically pitched NACA0012 airfoil, and the resultant lift variation, are reported in this paper. The lift variation over a cycle of oscillation, and hence the lift hysteresis loop, is estimated from the velocity distribution in the wake measured or computed for successive phases of the cycle. Experimentally, the estimated lift hysteresis loops are compared with available data from the literature as well as with limited force balance measurements. Computationally, the estimated lift variations are compared with the corresponding variation obtained from the surface pressure distribution. Four analytical formulations for the lift estimation from wake surveys are considered and relative successes of the four are discussed.

  10. Experimental Study of Lift-Enhancing Tabs on a Two-Element Airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storms, Bruce L.; Ross, James C.

    1995-01-01

    The results of a wind-tunnel test are presented for a two-dimensional NASA 63(sub 2)-215 Mod B airfoil with a 30% chord single-slotted flap. The use of lift-enhancing tabs (similar to Gurney flaps) on the lower surface near the trailing edge of both elements was investigated on four nap configurations. A combination of vortex generators on the flap and lift-enhancing tabs was also investigated. Measurements of surface-pressure distributions and wake profiles were used to determine the aerodynamic performance of each configuration. By reducing flow separation on the flap, a lift-enhancing tab at the main-element trailing edge increased the maximum lift by 10.3% for the 42-deg flap case. The tab had a lesser effect at a moderate flap deflection (32 deg) and adversely affected the performance at the smallest flap deflection (22 deg). A tab located near the flap trailing edge produced an additional lift increment for all flap deflections. The application of vortex generators to the flap eliminated lift-curve hysteresis and reduced flow separation on two configurations with large flap deflections (greater than 40 deg). A maximum-lift coefficient of 3.32 (17% above the optimum baseline) was achieved with the combination of lift-enhancing tabs on both elements and vortex generators on the flap.

  11. Low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of an airfoil optimized for maximum lift coefficient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bingham, G. J.; Chen, A. W.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted in the Langley low-turbulence pressure tunnel to determine the two-dimensional characteristics of an airfoil optimized for maximum lift coefficient. The design maximum lift coefficient was 2.1 at a Reynolds number of 9.7 million. The airfoil with a smooth surface and with surface roughness was tested at angles of attack from 6 deg to 26 deg, Reynolds numbers (based on airfoil chord) from 2.0 million to 12.9 million, and Mach numbers from 0.10 to 0.35. The experimental results are compared with values predicted by theory. The experimental pressure distributions observed at angles of attack up to at least 12 deg were similar to the theoretical values except for a slight increase in the experimental upper-surface pressure coefficients forward of 26 percent chord and a more severe gradient just behind the minimum-pressure-coefficient location. The maximum lift coefficients were measured with the model surface smooth and, depending on test conditions, varied from 1.5 to 1.6 whereas the design value was 2.1.

  12. Adaptation of the Theodorsen theory to the representation of an airfoil as a combination of a lifting line and a thickness distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barger, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    The theory provides a direct method for resolving an airfoil into a lifting line and a thickness distribution as well as a means of synthesizing thickness and lift components into a resultant airfoil and computing its aerodynamic characteristics. Specific applications of the technique are discussed.

  13. Summary of Airfoil Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Ira H; Von Doenhoff, Albert E; Stivers, Louis, Jr

    1945-01-01

    The historical development of NACA airfoils is briefly reviewed. New data are presented that permit the rapid calculation of the approximate pressure distributions for the older NACA four-digit and five-digit airfoils by the same methods used for the NACA 6-series airfoils. The general methods used to derive the basic thickness forms for NACA 6 and 7-series airfoils together with their corresponding pressure distributions are presented. Detail data necessary for the application of the airfoils to wing design are presented in supplementary figures placed at the end of the paper. The report includes an analysis of the lift, drag, pitching-moment, and critical-speed characteristics of the airfoils, together with a discussion of the effects of surface conditions. Available data on high-lift devices are presented. Problems associated with lateral-control devices, leading-edge air intakes, and interference are briefly discussed, together with aerodynamic problems of application. (author)

  14. Wind-tunnel Tests of the NACA 45-125 Airfoil: A Thick Airfoil for High-Speed Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delano, James B.

    1940-01-01

    Investigations of the pressure distribution, the profile drag, and the location of transition for a 30-inch-chord 25-percent-thick N.A,C.A. 45-125 airfoil were made in the N.A.C.A 8-foot high-speed wind tunnel for the purpose of aiding in the development of a thick wing for high-speed airplanes. The tests were made at a lift coefficient of 0.1 for Reynolds Numbers from 1,750,000 to 8,690,000, corresponding to speeds from 80 to 440 miles per hour at 59 F. The effect on the profile drag of fixing the transition point was also investigated. The effect of compressibility on the rate of increase of pressure coefficients was found to be greater than that predicted by a simplified theoretical expression for thin wings. The results indicated that, for a lift coefficient of 0.1, the critical speed of the N.A.C,A. 45-125 airfoil was about 460 miles per hour at 59 F,. The value of the profile-drag coefficient at a Reynolds Number of 4,500,000 was 0.0058, or about half as large as the value for the N.A,C,A. 0025 airfoil. The increase in the profile-drag coefficient for a given movement of the transition point was about three times as large as the corresponding increase for the N.A.C,A. 0012 airfoil. Transition determinations indicated that, for Reynolds Numbers up to ?,000,000, laminar boundary 1ayers were maintained over approximately 40 percent of the upper and the lower surfaces of the airfoil.

  15. Active Control of Flow Separation on a High-Lift System with Slotted Flap at High Reynolds Number

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khodadoust, Abdollah; Washburn, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Energy Efficient Transport (EET) airfoil was tested at NASA Langley's Low- Turbulence Pressure Tunnel (LTPT) to assess the effectiveness of distributed Active Flow Control (AFC) concepts on a high-lift system at flight scale Reynolds numbers for a medium-sized transport. The test results indicate presence of strong Reynolds number effects on the high-lift system with the AFC operational, implying the importance of flight-scale testing for implementation of such systems during design of future flight vehicles with AFC. This paper describes the wind tunnel test results obtained at the LTPT for the EET high-lift system for various AFC concepts examined on this airfoil.

  16. Development of high-lift laminar wing using steady active flow control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, Patrick J.

    Fuel costs represent a large fraction of aircraft operating costs. Increased aircraft fuel efficiency is thus desirable. Laminar airfoils have the advantage of reduced cruise drag and increased fuel efficiency. Unfortunately, they cannot perform adequately during high-lift situations (i.e. takeoff and landing) due to low stall angles and low maximum lift caused by flow separation. Active flow control has shown the ability to prevent or mitigate separation effects, and increase maximum lift. This fact makes AFC technology a fitting solution for improving high-lift systems and reducing the need for slats and flap elements. This study focused on experimentally investigating the effects of steady active flow control from three slots, located at 1%, 10%, and 80% chord, respectively, over a laminar airfoil with 45 degree deflected flap. A 30-inch-span airfoil model was designed, fabricated, and then tested in the Bill James 2.5'x3' Wind Tunnel at Iowa State University. Pressure data were collected along the mid-span of the airfoil, and lift and drag were calculated. Five test cases with varying injection locations and varying C? were chosen: baseline, blown flap, leading edge blowing, equal blowing, and unequal blowing. Of these cases, unequal blowing achieved the greatest lift enhancement over the baseline. All cases were able to increase lift; however, gains were less than anticipated.

  17. Development of two supercritical airfoils with a thickness-to-chord ratio of 0.20 and design lift coefficients of 0.3 and 0.4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jernell, L. S.

    1976-01-01

    Two supercritical airfoils were developed specifically for application to span distributed loading cargo aircraft. These airfoils have a thickness-to-chord ratio of 0.20 and design lift coefficients of 0.3 and 0.4, and were derived by modifying a recently developed supercritical airfoil having a thickness-to-chord ratio of 0.18 and a design lift coefficient of 0.5. The aerodynamic characteristics were calculated using a theoretical method which computes the flow field about an airfoil having supercritical surface velocities.

  18. A Systematic Investigation of Pressure Distributions at High Speeds over Five Representative NACA Low-Drag and Conventional Airfoil Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, Donald J; Nitzberg, Gerald E; Olson, Robert N

    1945-01-01

    Pressure distributions determined from high-speed wind-tunnel tests are presented for five NACA airfoil sections representative of both low-drag and conventional types. Section characteristics of lift, drag, and quarter-chord pitching moment are presented along with the measured pressure distributions for the NACA 65sub2-215 (a=0.5), 66sub2-215 (a=0.6), 0015, 23015, and 4415 airfoils for Mach numbers up to approximately 0.85. A critical study is made of the airfoil pressure distributions in an attempt to formulate a set of general criteria for defining the character of high speed flows over typical airfoil shapes. Comparisons are made of the relative characteristics of the low-drag and conventional airfoils investigated insofar as they would influence the high-speed performance and the high-speed stability and control characteristics of airplanes employing these wing sections.

  19. Models of Lift and Drag Coefficients of Stalled and Unstalled Airfoils in Wind Turbines and Wind Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spera, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Equations are developed with which to calculate lift and drag coefficients along the spans of torsionally-stiff rotating airfoils of the type used in wind turbine rotors and wind tunnel fans, at angles of attack in both the unstalled and stalled aerodynamic regimes. Explicit adjustments are made for the effects of aspect ratio (length to chord width) and airfoil thickness ratio. Calculated lift and drag parameters are compared to measured parameters for 55 airfoil data sets including 585 test points. Mean deviation was found to be -0.4 percent and standard deviation was 4.8 percent. When the proposed equations were applied to the calculation of power from a stall-controlled wind turbine tested in a NASA wind tunnel, mean deviation from 54 data points was -1.3 percent and standard deviation was 4.0 percent. Pressure-rise calculations for a large wind tunnel fan deviated by 2.7 percent (mean) and 4.4 percent (standard). The assumption that a single set of lift and drag coefficient equations can represent the stalled aerodynamic behavior of a wide variety of airfoils was found to be satisfactory.

  20. Summary of Airfoil Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stivers, Louis S.; Abbott, Ira H.; von Doenhoff, Albert E.

    1945-01-01

    Recent airfoil data for both flight and wind-tunnel tests have been collected and correlated insofar as possible. The flight data consist largely of drag measurements made by the wake-survey method. Most of the data on airfoil section characteristics were obtained in the Langley two-dimensional low-turbulence pressure tunnel. Detail data necessary for the application of NACA 6-serles airfoils to wing design are presented in supplementary figures, together with recent data for the NACA 24-, 44-, and 230-series airfoils. The general methods used to derive the basic thickness forms for NACA 6- and 7-series airfoils and their corresponding pressure distributions are presented. Data and methods are given for rapidly obtaining the approximate pressure distributions for NACA four-digit, five-digit, 6-, and 7-series airfoils. The report includes an analysis of the lift, drag, pitching-moment, and critical-speed characteristics of the airfoils, together with a discussion of the effects of surface conditions. Available data on high-lift devices are presented. Problems associated with lateral-control devices, leading-edge air intakes, and interference are briefly discussed. The data indicate that the effects of surface condition on the lift and drag characteristics are at least as large as the effects of the airfoil shape and must be considered in airfoil selection and the prediction of wing characteristics. Airfoils permitting extensive laminar flow, such as the NACA 6-series airfoils, have much lower drag coefficients at high speed and cruising lift coefficients than earlier types-of airfoils if, and only if, the wing surfaces are sufficiently smooth and fair. The NACA 6-series airfoils also have favorable critical-speed characteristics and do not appear to present unusual problems associated with the application of high-lift and lateral-control devices. Much of the data given in the NACA Advance Confidential Report entitled "Preliminary Low-Drag-Airfoil and Flap Data from Tests at Large Reynolds Number and Low Turbulence," by Eastman N. Jacobs, Ira R. Abbott, and Milton Davidson, March 1942 has been corrected and included in the present paper, which supersedes the previously published paper.

  1. Summary of section data on trailing-edge high-lift devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cahill, Jones F

    1949-01-01

    A summary has been made of available data on the characteristics of airfoil sections with trailing-edge high-lift devices. Data for plain, split, and slotted flaps are collected and analyzed. The effects of each of the variables involved in the design of the various types of flap are examined and, in cases where sufficient data are given, optimum configurations are deduced. Wherever possible, the effects of airfoil section, Reynolds number, and leading-edge roughness are shown. For single and double slotted flaps, where a large amount of unrelated data are available, maximum lift coefficients of many configurations are presented in tables.

  2. Reversible airfoils for stopped rotors in high speed flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemiec, Robert; Jacobellis, George; Gandhi, Farhan

    2014-10-01

    This study starts with the design of a reversible airfoil rib for stopped-rotor applications, where the sharp trailing-edge morphs into the rounded leading-edge, and vice-versa. A NACA0012 airfoil is approximated in a piecewise linear manner and straight, rigid outer profile links used to define the airfoil contour. The end points of the profile links connect to control links, each set on a central actuation rod via an offset. Chordwise motion of the actuation rod moves the control and the profile links and reverses the airfoil. The paper describes the design methodology and evolution of the final design, based on which two reversible airfoil ribs were fabricated and used to assemble a finite span reversible rotor/wing demonstrator. The profile links were connected by Aluminum strips running in the spanwise direction which provided stiffness as well as support for a pre-tensioned elastomeric skin. An inter-rib connector with a curved-front nose piece supports the leading-edge. The model functioned well and was able to reverse smoothly back-and-forth, on application and reversal of a voltage to the motor. Navier-Stokes CFD simulations (using the TURNS code) show that the drag coefficient of the reversible airfoil (which had a 13% maximum thickness due to the thickness of the profile links) was comparable to that of the NACA0013 airfoil. The drag of a 16% thick elliptical airfoil was, on average, about twice as large, while that of a NACA0012 in reverse flow was 4-5 times as large, even prior to stall. The maximum lift coefficient of the reversible airfoil was lower than the elliptical airfoil, but higher than the NACA0012 in reverse flow operation.

  3. Robust Airfoil Optimization in High Resolution Design Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Wu; Padula, Sharon L.

    2003-01-01

    The robust airfoil shape optimization is a direct method for drag reduction over a given range of operating conditions and has three advantages: (1) it prevents severe degradation in the off-design performance by using a smart descent direction in each optimization iteration, (2) it uses a large number of B-spline control points as design variables yet the resulting airfoil shape is fairly smooth, and (3) it allows the user to make a trade-off between the level of optimization and the amount of computing time consumed. The robust optimization method is demonstrated by solving a lift-constrained drag minimization problem for a two-dimensional airfoil in viscous flow with a large number of geometric design variables. Our experience with robust optimization indicates that our strategy produces reasonable airfoil shapes that are similar to the original airfoils, but these new shapes provide drag reduction over the specified range of Mach numbers. We have tested this strategy on a number of advanced airfoil models produced by knowledgeable aerodynamic design team members and found that our strategy produces airfoils better or equal to any designs produced by traditional design methods.

  4. Development of Advanced High Lift Leading Edge Technology for Laminar Flow Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bright, Michelle M.; Korntheuer, Andrea; Komadina, Steve; Lin, John C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the Advanced High Lift Leading Edge (AHLLE) task performed by Northrop Grumman Systems Corporation, Aerospace Systems (NGAS) for the NASA Subsonic Fixed Wing project in an effort to develop enabling high-lift technology for laminar flow wings. Based on a known laminar cruise airfoil that incorporated an NGAS-developed integrated slot design, this effort involved using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis and quality function deployment (QFD) analysis on several leading edge concepts, and subsequently down-selected to two blown leading-edge concepts for testing. A 7-foot-span AHLLE airfoil model was designed and fabricated at NGAS and then tested at the NGAS 7 x 10 Low Speed Wind Tunnel in Hawthorne, CA. The model configurations tested included: baseline, deflected trailing edge, blown deflected trailing edge, blown leading edge, morphed leading edge, and blown/morphed leading edge. A successful demonstration of high lift leading edge technology was achieved, and the target goals for improved lift were exceeded by 30% with a maximum section lift coefficient (Cl) of 5.2. Maximum incremental section lift coefficients ( Cl) of 3.5 and 3.1 were achieved for a blown drooped (morphed) leading edge concept and a non-drooped leading edge blowing concept, respectively. The most effective AHLLE design yielded an estimated 94% lift improvement over the conventional high lift Krueger flap configurations while providing laminar flow capability on the cruise configuration.

  5. Flow Control Research at NASA Langley in Support of High-Lift Augmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellers, William L., III; Jones, Gregory S.; Moore, Mark D.

    2002-01-01

    The paper describes the efforts at NASA Langley to apply active and passive flow control techniques for improved high-lift systems, and advanced vehicle concepts utilizing powered high-lift techniques. The development of simplified high-lift systems utilizing active flow control is shown to provide significant weight and drag reduction benefits based on system studies. Active flow control that focuses on separation, and the development of advanced circulation control wings (CCW) utilizing unsteady excitation techniques will be discussed. The advanced CCW airfoils can provide multifunctional controls throughout the flight envelope. Computational and experimental data are shown to illustrate the benefits and issues with implementation of the technology.

  6. NREL airfoil families for HAWTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tangler, J. L.; Somers, D. M.

    1995-01-01

    The development of special-purpose airfoils for horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWTs) began in 1984 as a joint effort between the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), formerly the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI), and Airfoils, Incorporated. Since that time seven airfoil families have been designed for various size rotors using the Eppler Airfoil Design and Analysis Code. A general performance requirement of the new airfoil families is that they exhibit a maximum lift coefficient (c(sub l,max)) which is relatively insensitive to roughness effects. The airfoil families address the needs of stall-regulated, variable-pitch, and variable-rpm wind turbines. For stall-regulated rotors, better peak-power control is achieved through the design of tip airfoils that restrain the maximum lift coefficient. Restrained maximum lift coefficient allows the use of more swept disc area for a given generator size. Also, for stall-regulated rotors, tip airfoils with high thickness are used to accommodate overspeed control devices. For variable-pitch and variable-rpm rotors, tip airfoils having a high maximum lift coefficient lend themselves to lightweight blades with low solidity. Tip airfoils having low thickness result in less drag for blades having full-span pitch control. Annual energy improvements from the NREL airfoil families are projected to be 23% to 35% for stall-regulated turbines, 8% to 20% for variable-pitch turbines, and 8% to 10% for variable-rpm turbines. The improvement for stall-regulated turbines has been verified in field tests.

  7. Design of the LRP airfoil series using 2D CFD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahle, Frederik; Bak, Christian; Sørensen, Niels N.; Vronsky, Tomas; Gaudern, Nicholas

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the design and wind tunnel testing of a high-Reynolds number, high lift airfoil series designed for wind turbines. The airfoils were designed using direct gradient- based numerical multi-point optimization based on a Bezier parameterization of the shape, coupled to the 2D Navier-Stokes flow solver EllipSys2D. The resulting airfoils, the LRP2-30 and LRP2-36, achieve both higher operational lift coefficients and higher lift to drag ratios compared to the equivalent FFA-W3 airfoils.

  8. Airfoils for wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Tangler, James L. (Boulder, CO); Somers, Dan M. (State College, PA)

    1996-01-01

    Airfoils for the blade of a wind turbine wherein each airfoil is characterized by a thickness in a range from 16%-24% and a maximum lift coefficient designed to be largely insensitive to roughness effects. The airfoils include a family of airfoils for a blade 15 to 25 meters in length, a family of airfoils for a blade 1 to 5 meters in length, and a family of airfoils for a blade 5 to 10 meters in length.

  9. Airfoils for wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Tangler, J.L.; Somers, D.M.

    1996-10-08

    Airfoils are disclosed for the blade of a wind turbine wherein each airfoil is characterized by a thickness in a range from 16%-24% and a maximum lift coefficient designed to be largely insensitive to roughness effects. The airfoils include a family of airfoils for a blade 15 to 25 meters in length, a family of airfoils for a blade 1 to 5 meters in length, and a family of airfoils for a blade 5 to 10 meters in length. 10 figs.

  10. Effect of High-Fidelity Ice Accretion Simulations on the Performance of a Full-Scale Airfoil Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broeren, Andy P.; Bragg, Michael B.; Addy, Harold E., Jr.; Lee, Sam; Moens, Frederic; Guffond, Didier

    2010-01-01

    The simulation of ice accretion on a wing or other surface is often required for aerodynamic evaluation, particularly at small scale or low-Reynolds number. While there are commonly accepted practices for ice simulation, there are no established and validated guidelines. The purpose of this article is to report the results of an experimental study establishing a high-fidelity, full-scale, iced-airfoil aerodynamic performance database. This research was conducted as a part of a larger program with the goal of developing subscale aerodynamic simulation methods for iced airfoils. Airfoil performance testing was carried out at the ONERA F1 pressurized wind tunnel using a 72-in. (1828.8-mm) chord NACA 23012 airfoil over a Reynolds number range of 4.5x10(exp 6) to 16.0 10(exp 6) and a Mach number range of 0.10 to 0.28. The high-fidelity, ice-casting simulations had a significant impact on the aerodynamic performance. A spanwise-ridge ice shape resulted in a maximum lift coefficient of 0.56 compared to the clean value of 1.85 at Re = 15.9x10(exp 6) and M = 0.20. Two roughness and streamwise shapes yielded maximum lift values in the range of 1.09 to 1.28, which was a relatively small variation compared to the differences in the ice geometry. The stalling characteristics of the two roughness and one streamwise ice simulation maintained the abrupt leading-edge stall type of the clean NACA 23012 airfoil, despite the significant decrease in maximum lift. Changes in Reynolds and Mach number over the large range tested had little effect on the iced-airfoil performance.

  11. Non-Equilibrium Turbulence Modeling for High Lift Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durbin, P. A.

    1998-01-01

    This phase is discussed in ('Non linear kappa - epsilon - upsilon(sup 2) modeling with application to high lift', Application of the kappa - epsilon -upsilon(sup 2) model to multi-component airfoils'). Further results are presented in 'Non-linear upsilon(sup 2) - f modeling with application to high-lift' The ADI solution method in the initial implementation was very slow to converge on multi-zone chimera meshes. I modified the INS implementation to use GMRES. This provided improved convergence and less need for user intervention in the solution process. There were some difficulties with implementation into the NASA compressible codes, due to their use of approximate factorization. The Helmholtz equation for f is not an evolution equation, so it is not of the form assumed by the approximate factorization method. Although The Kalitzin implementation involved a new solution algorithm ('An implementation of the upsilon(sup 2) - f model with application to transonic flows'). The algorithm involves introducing a relaxation term in the f-equation so that it can be factored. The factorization can be into a plane and a line, with GMRES used in the plane. The NASA code already evaluated coefficients in planes, so no additional memory is required except that associated the the GMRES algorithm. So the scope of this project has expanded via these interactions. . The high-lift work has dovetailed into turbine applications.

  12. Key Topics for High-Lift Research: A Joint Wind Tunnel/Flight Test Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, David; Thomas, Flint O.; Nelson, Robert C.

    1996-01-01

    Future high-lift systems must achieve improved aerodynamic performance with simpler designs that involve fewer elements and reduced maintenance costs. To expeditiously achieve this, reliable CFD design tools are required. The development of useful CFD-based design tools for high lift systems requires increased attention to unresolved flow physics issues. The complex flow field over any multi-element airfoil may be broken down into certain generic component flows which are termed high-lift building block flows. In this report a broad spectrum of key flow field physics issues relevant to the design of improved high lift systems are considered. It is demonstrated that in-flight experiments utilizing the NASA Dryden Flight Test Fixture (which is essentially an instrumented ventral fin) carried on an F-15B support aircraft can provide a novel and cost effective method by which both Reynolds and Mach number effects associated with specific high lift building block flows can be investigated. These in-flight high lift building block flow experiments are most effective when performed in conjunction with coordinated ground based wind tunnel experiments in low speed facilities. For illustrative purposes three specific examples of in-flight high lift building block flow experiments capable of yielding a high payoff are described. The report concludes with a description of a joint wind tunnel/flight test approach to high lift aerodynamics research.

  13. High-order simulations of low Reynolds number membrane airfoils under prescribed motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaworski, Justin W.; Gordnier, Raymond E.

    2012-05-01

    The aerodynamics and aeroelastic response of a membrane wing under prescribed motion are investigated using a high-order, two-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver coupled to a geometrically nonlinear membrane model. The impact of increasing Reynolds number on the vortex dynamics and unsteady aerodynamic loads is examined for moderate-amplitude plunge and combined pitch-plunge motions at low frequency. Simulation results are compared with classical thin airfoil theory and highlight the differences between rigid and flexible membrane airfoils undergoing small and moderate amplitude motions. The present study demonstrates the ability of lifting membrane surface flexibility to enhance thrust production and propulsive efficiency, which may inform the design of flapping wing membrane fliers.

  14. Three-Dimensional Effects on Multi-Element High Lift Computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumsey, Christopher L.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Watson, Ralph D.

    2002-01-01

    In an effort to discover the causes for disagreement between previous 2-D computations and nominally 2-D experiment for flow over the 3-clement McDonnell Douglas 30P-30N airfoil configuration at high lift, a combined experimental/CFD investigation is described. The experiment explores several different side-wall boundary layer control venting patterns, document's venting mass flow rates, and looks at corner surface flow patterns. The experimental angle of attack at maximum lift is found to be sensitive to the side wall venting pattern: a particular pattern increases the angle of attack at maximum lift by at least 2 deg. A significant amount of spanwise pressure variation is present at angles of attack near maximum lift. A CFD study using 3-D structured-grid computations, which includes the modeling of side-wall venting, is employed to investigate 3-D effects of the flow. Side-wall suction strength is found to affect the angle at which maximum lift is predicted. Maximum lift in the CFD is shown to be limited by the growth of all off-body corner flow vortex and consequent increase in spanwise pressure variation and decrease in circulation. The 3-D computations with and without wall venting predict similar trends to experiment at low angles of attack, but either stall too earl or else overpredict lift levels near maximum lift by as much as 5%. Unstructured-grid computations demonstrate that mounting brackets lower die the levels near maximum lift conditions.

  15. Wind tunnel test of the S814 thick root airfoil

    SciTech Connect

    Somers, D.M.; Tangler, J.L.

    1996-11-01

    The objective of this wind-tunnel test was to verify the predictions of the Eppler Airfoil Design and Analysis Code for a very thick airfoil having a high maximum lift coefficient designed to be largely insensitive to leading-edge roughness effects. The 24 percent thick S814 airfoil was designed with these characteristics to accommodate aerodynamic and structural considerations for the root region of a wind-turbine blade. In addition, the airfoil`s maximum lift-to-drag ratio was designed to occur at a high lift coefficient. To accomplish the objective, a two-dimensional wind tunnel test of the S814 thick root airfoil was conducted in January 1994 in the low-turbulence wind tunnel of the Delft University of Technology Low Speed Laboratory, The Netherlands. Data were obtained with transition free and transition fixed for Reynolds numbers of 0.7, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 3.0 {times} 10{sup 6}. For the design Reynolds number of 1.5 {times} 10{sup 6}, the maximum lift coefficient with transition free is 1.32, which satisfies the design specification. However, this value is significantly lower than the predicted maximum lift coefficient of almost 1.6. With transition fixed at the leading edge, the maximum lift coefficient is 1.22. The small difference in maximum lift coefficient between the transition-free and transition-fixed conditions demonstrates the airfoil`s minimal sensitivity to roughness effects. The S814 root airfoil was designed to complement existing NREL low maximum-lift-coefficient tip-region airfoils for rotor blades 10 to 15 meters in length.

  16. Noise impact of advanced high lift systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elmer, Kevin R.; Joshi, Mahendra C.

    1995-01-01

    The impact of advanced high lift systems on aircraft size, performance, direct operating cost and noise were evaluated for short-to-medium and medium-to-long range aircraft with high bypass ratio and very high bypass ratio engines. The benefit of advanced high lift systems in reducing noise was found to be less than 1 effective-perceived-noise decibel level (EPNdB) when the aircraft were sized to minimize takeoff gross weight. These aircraft did, however, have smaller wings and lower engine thrusts for the same mission than aircraft with conventional high lift systems. When the advanced high lift system was implemented without reducing wing size and simultaneously using lower flap angles that provide higher L/D at approach a cumulative noise reduction of as much as 4 EPNdB was obtained. Comparison of aircraft configurations that have similar approach speeds showed cumulative noise reduction of 2.6 EPNdB that is purely the result of incorporating advanced high lift system in the aircraft design.

  17. Artificial Bird Feathers: An Adaptive Wing with High Lift Capability.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hage, W.; Meyer, R.; Bechert, D. W.

    1997-11-01

    In Wind tunnel experiments, the operation of the covering feathers of bird wings has been investigated. At incipient flow separation, local flow reversal lifts the feathers and inhibits the spreading of the separation regime towards the leading edge. This mechanism can be utilized by movable flaps on airfoils. The operation of quasi-steady and of vibrating movable flaps is outlined. These devices are self-actuated, require no energy and do not produce parasitic drag. They are compatible with laminar and turbulent airfoils as well as with various conventional flaps on aircraft wings. Laboratory and flight experiments are shown. Ref: AIAA-Paper 97-1960.

  18. High-fidelity simulations of moving and flexible airfoils at low Reynolds numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visbal, Miguel R.; Gordnier, Raymond E.; Galbraith, Marshall C.

    2009-05-01

    The present paper highlights results derived from the application of a high-fidelity simulation technique to the analysis of low-Reynolds-number transitional flows over moving and flexible canonical configurations motivated by small natural and man-made flyers. This effort addresses three separate fluid dynamic phenomena relevant to small fliers, including: laminar separation and transition over a stationary airfoil, transition effects on the dynamic stall vortex generated by a plunging airfoil, and the effect of flexibility on the flow structure above a membrane airfoil. The specific cases were also selected to permit comparison with available experimental measurements. First, the process of transition on a stationary SD7003 airfoil section over a range of Reynolds numbers and angles of attack is considered. Prior to stall, the flow exhibits a separated shear layer which rolls up into spanwise vortices. These vortices subsequently undergo spanwise instabilities, and ultimately breakdown into fine-scale turbulent structures as the boundary layer reattaches to the airfoil surface. In a time-averaged sense, the flow displays a closed laminar separation bubble which moves upstream and contracts in size with increasing angle of attack for a fixed Reynolds number. For a fixed angle of attack, as the Reynolds number decreases, the laminar separation bubble grows in vertical extent producing a significant increase in drag. For the lowest Reynolds number considered ( Re c = 104), transition does not occur over the airfoil at moderate angles of attack prior to stall. Next, the impact of a prescribed high-frequency small-amplitude plunging motion on the transitional flow over the SD7003 airfoil is investigated. The motion-induced high angle of attack results in unsteady separation in the leading edge and in the formation of dynamic-stall-like vortices which convect downstream close to the airfoil. At the lowest value of Reynolds number ( Re c = 104), transition effects are observed to be minor and the dynamic stall vortex system remains fairly coherent. For Re c = 4 × 104, the dynamic-stall vortex system is laminar at is inception, however shortly afterwards, it experiences an abrupt breakdown associated with the onset of spanwise instability effects. The computed phased-averaged structures for both values of Reynolds number are found to be in good agreement with the experimental data. Finally, the effect of structural compliance on the unsteady flow past a membrane airfoil is investigated. The membrane deformation results in mean camber and large fluctuations which improve aerodynamic performance. Larger values of lift and a delay in stall are achieved relative to a rigid airfoil configuration. For Re c = 4.85 × 104, it is shown that correct prediction of the transitional process is critical to capturing the proper membrane structural response.

  19. High-fidelity simulations of moving and flexible airfoils at low Reynolds numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visbal, Miguel R.; Gordnier, Raymond E.; Galbraith, Marshall C.

    The present paper highlights results derived from the application of a high-fidelity simulation technique to the analysis of low-Reynolds-number transitional flows over moving and flexible canonical configurations motivated by small natural and man-made flyers. This effort addresses three separate fluid dynamic phenomena relevant to small fliers, including: laminar separation and transition over a stationary airfoil, transition effects on the dynamic stall vortex generated by a plunging airfoil, and the effect of flexibility on the flow structure above a membrane airfoil. The specific cases were also selected to permit comparison with available experimental measurements. First, the process of transition on a stationary SD7003 airfoil section over a range of Reynolds numbers and angles of attack is considered. Prior to stall, the flow exhibits a separated shear layer which rolls up into spanwise vortices. These vortices subsequently undergo spanwise instabilities, and ultimately breakdown into fine-scale turbulent structures as the boundary layer reattaches to the airfoil surface. In a timeaveraged sense, the flow displays a closed laminar separation bubble which moves upstream and contracts in size with increasing angle of attack for a fixed Reynolds number. For a fixed angle of attack, as the Reynolds number decreases, the laminar separation bubble grows in vertical extent producing a significant increase in drag. For the lowest Reynolds number considered (Re_c = 10^4), transition does not occur over the airfoil at moderate angles of attack prior to stall. Next, the impact of a prescribed high-frequency small-amplitude plunging motion on the transitional flow over the SD7003 airfoil is investigated. The motioninduced high angle of attack results in unsteady separation in the leading edge and in the formation of dynamic-stalllike vortices which convect downstream close to the airfoil. At the lowest value of Reynolds number (Re_c = 10^4), transition effects are observed to be minor and the dynamic stall vortex system remains fairly coherent. For Re_c = 4 × 10^4, the dynamic-stall vortex system is laminar at is inception, however shortly afterwards, it experiences an abrupt breakdown associated with the onset of spanwise instability effects. The computed phased-averaged structures for both values of Reynolds number are found to be in good agreement with the experimental data. Finally, the effect of structural compliance on the unsteady flow past a membrane airfoil is investigated. The membrane deformation results in mean camber and large fluctuations which improve aerodynamic performance. Larger values of lift and a delay in stall are achieved relative to a rigid airfoil configuration. For Re_c = 4.85 × 10^4, it is shown that correct prediction of the transitional process is critical to capturing the proper membrane structural response.

  20. Two-Dimensional High-Lift Aerodynamic Optimization Using Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenman, Roxana M.

    1998-01-01

    The high-lift performance of a multi-element airfoil was optimized by using neural-net predictions that were trained using a computational data set. The numerical data was generated using a two-dimensional, incompressible, Navier-Stokes algorithm with the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model. Because it is difficult to predict maximum lift for high-lift systems, an empirically-based maximum lift criteria was used in this study to determine both the maximum lift and the angle at which it occurs. The 'pressure difference rule,' which states that the maximum lift condition corresponds to a certain pressure difference between the peak suction pressure and the pressure at the trailing edge of the element, was applied and verified with experimental observations for this configuration. Multiple input, single output networks were trained using the NASA Ames variation of the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm for each of the aerodynamic coefficients (lift, drag and moment). The artificial neural networks were integrated with a gradient-based optimizer. Using independent numerical simulations and experimental data for this high-lift configuration, it was shown that this design process successfully optimized flap deflection, gap, overlap, and angle of attack to maximize lift. Once the neural nets were trained and integrated with the optimizer, minimal additional computer resources were required to perform optimization runs with different initial conditions and parameters. Applying the neural networks within the high-lift rigging optimization process reduced the amount of computational time and resources by 44% compared with traditional gradient-based optimization procedures for multiple optimization runs.

  1. Modification of the Douglas Neumann program to improve the efficiency of predicting component interference and high lift characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bristow, D. R.; Grose, G. G.

    1978-01-01

    The Douglas Neumann method for low-speed potential flow on arbitrary three-dimensional lifting bodies was modified by substituting the combined source and doublet surface paneling based on Green's identity for the original source panels. Numerical studies show improved accuracy and stability for thin lifting surfaces, permitting reduced panel number for high-lift devices and supercritical airfoil sections. The accuracy of flow in concave corners is improved. A method of airfoil section design for a given pressure distribution, based on Green's identity, was demonstrated. The program uses panels on the body surface with constant source strength and parabolic distribution of doublet strength, and a doublet sheet on the wake. The program is written for the CDC CYBER 175 computer. Results of calculations are presented for isolated bodies, wings, wing-body combinations, and internal flow.

  2. A Theoretical Investigation of Vortex-Sheet Deformation Behind a Highly Loaded Wing and Its Effect on Lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cone, Clarence D., Jr.

    1961-01-01

    The induced drag polar is developed for wt-ngs capable of attaining extremely high loadings while possessing an elliptical distribution of circulation. This development is accomplished through a theoretical investigation of the vortex-wake deformation process and the deduction of the airfoil forces from the impulse and kinetic energy contents of the ultimate wake form. The investigation shows that the induced velocities of the wake limit the maximum lift coefficient to a value of 1.94 times the wing aspect ratio, for aspect ratios equal to or less than 6.5, and that the section properties of the airfoil limit the lift coefficient to 12.6 for aspect ratios greater than 6.5. Relations are developed for the rate of deformation of the vortex wake. It is also shown that linear wing theory is app1icable up to lift coefficients equal to 1.1 times the aspect ratio.

  3. Quiet airfoils for small and large wind turbines

    DOEpatents

    Tangler, James L. (Boulder, CO); Somers, Dan L. (Port Matilda, PA)

    2012-06-12

    Thick airfoil families with desirable aerodynamic performance with minimal airfoil induced noise. The airfoil families are suitable for a variety of wind turbine designs and are particularly well-suited for use with horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWTs) with constant or variable speed using pitch and/or stall control. In exemplary embodiments, a first family of three thick airfoils is provided for use with small wind turbines and second family of three thick airfoils is provided for use with very large machines, e.g., an airfoil defined for each of three blade radial stations or blade portions defined along the length of a blade. Each of the families is designed to provide a high maximum lift coefficient or high lift, to exhibit docile stalls, to be relatively insensitive to roughness, and to achieve a low profile drag.

  4. S825 and S826 Airfoils: 1994--1995

    SciTech Connect

    Somers, D. M.

    2005-01-01

    A family of airfoils, the S825 and S826, for 20- to 40-meter, variable-speed and variable-pitch (toward feather), horizontal-axis wind turbines has been designed and analyzed theoretically. The two primary objectives of high maximum lift, insensitive to roughness, and low profile drag have been achieved. The constraints on the pitching moments and the airfoil thicknesses have been satisfied. The airfoils should exhibit docile stalls.

  5. Simulation of flow over double-element airfoil and wind tunnel test for use in vertical axis wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chougule, Prasad; Nielsen, Søren R. K.

    2014-06-01

    Nowadays, small vertical axis wind turbines are receiving more attention due to their suitability in micro-electricity generation. There are few vertical axis wind turbine designs with good power curve. However, the efficiency of power extraction has not been improved. Therefore, an attempt has been made to utilize high lift technology for vertical axis wind turbines in order to improve power efficiency. High lift is obtained by double-element airfoil mainly used in aeroplane wing design. In this current work a low Reynolds number airfoil is selected to design a double-element airfoil blade for use in vertical axis wind turbine to improve the power efficiency. Double-element airfoil blade design consists of a main airfoil and a slat airfoil. Orientation of slat airfoil is a parameter of investigation in this paper and air flow simulation over double-element airfoil. With primary wind tunnel test an orientation parameter for the slat airfoil is initially obtained. Further a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been used to obtain the aerodynamic characteristics of double-element airfoil. The CFD simulations were carried out using ANSYS CFX software. It is observed that there is an increase in the lift coefficient by 26% for single-element airfoil at analysed conditions. The CFD simulation results were validated with wind tunnel tests. It is also observe that by selecting proper airfoil configuration and blade sizes an increase in lift coefficient can further be achieved.

  6. Separation Control on a Cascade of Airfoils using Pulsed Vortex Generator Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volino, R. J.; Ibrahim, M. B.; Kartuzova, O.

    2009-11-01

    Flow through a row of airfoils will separate if the loading (lift) on each airfoil is too high. This can happen if the airfoil turning angle or the spacing between airfoils is too high. If the boundary layers separate, the actual flow turning and lift drop, and aerodynamic losses increase. In applications, such as the flow through turbines, high lift airfoils are desirable, as the same power generation can be achieved using fewer airfoils, thereby saving weight and cost. Advances in understanding of separation and transition have led to high lift airfoils without separation problems, but further increases in loading will likely require flow control. In the present study, flow through a linear cascade of very high lift low pressure turbine airfoils is controlled using pulsed vortex generator jets. Without flow control there is a large unclosed separation bubble at low Reynolds numbers. Separation causes a 20% drop in lift and increases losses by up to a factor of seven. Transition of the separated shear layer does not guarantee reattachment. Vortex generator jets with very low mass flow successfully control the separation if the jet velocity and pulsing frequency are sufficiently high. Experimental pressure distributions and phase averaged velocity and turbulence results will be presented.

  7. Flatback airfoil wind tunnel experiment.

    SciTech Connect

    Mayda, Edward A.; van Dam, C.P.; Chao, David D.; Berg, Dale E.

    2008-04-01

    A computational fluid dynamics study of thick wind turbine section shapes in the test section of the UC Davis wind tunnel at a chord Reynolds number of one million is presented. The goals of this study are to validate standard wind tunnel wall corrections for high solid blockage conditions and to reaffirm the favorable effect of a blunt trailing edge or flatback on the performance characteristics of a representative thick airfoil shape prior to building the wind tunnel models and conducting the experiment. The numerical simulations prove the standard wind tunnel corrections to be largely valid for the proposed test of 40% maximum thickness to chord ratio airfoils at a solid blockage ratio of 10%. Comparison of the computed lift characteristics of a sharp trailing edge baseline airfoil and derived flatback airfoils reaffirms the earlier observed trend of reduced sensitivity to surface contamination with increasing trailing edge thickness.

  8. Wind tunnel results for a high-speed, natural laminar-flow airfoil designed for general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sewall, William G.; Mcghee, Robert J.; Viken, Jeffery K.; Waggoner, Edgar G.; Walker, Betty S.; Millard, Betty F.

    1985-01-01

    Two dimensional wind tunnel tests were conducted on a high speed natural laminar flow airfoil in both the Langley 6 x 28 inch Transonic Tunnel and the Langley Low Turbulence Pressure Tunnel. The test conditions consisted of Mach numbers ranging from 0.10 to 0.77 and Reynolds numbers ranging from 3 x 1 million to 11 x 1 million. The airfoil was designed for a lift coefficient of 0.20 at a Mach number of 0.70 and Reynolds number of 11 x 1 million. At these conditions, laminar flow would extend back to 50 percent chord of the upper surface and 70 percent chord of the lower surface. Low speed results were also obtained with a 0.20 chord trailing edge split flap deflected 60 deg.

  9. A unified viscous theory of lift and drag of 2-D thin airfoils and 3-D thin wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yates, John E.

    1991-01-01

    A unified viscous theory of 2-D thin airfoils and 3-D thin wings is developed with numerical examples. The viscous theory of the load distribution is unique and tends to the classical inviscid result with Kutta condition in the high Reynolds number limit. A new theory of 2-D section induced drag is introduced with specific applications to three cases of interest: (1) constant angle of attack; (2) parabolic camber; and (3) a flapped airfoil. The first case is also extended to a profiled leading edge foil. The well-known drag due to absence of leading edge suction is derived from the viscous theory. It is independent of Reynolds number for zero thickness and varies inversely with the square root of the Reynolds number based on the leading edge radius for profiled sections. The role of turbulence in the section induced drag problem is discussed. A theory of minimum section induced drag is derived and applied. For low Reynolds number the minimum drag load tends to the constant angle of attack solution and for high Reynolds number to an approximation of the parabolic camber solution. The parabolic camber section induced drag is about 4 percent greater than the ideal minimum at high Reynolds number. Two new concepts, the viscous induced drag angle and the viscous induced separation potential are introduced. The separation potential is calculated for three 2-D cases and for a 3-D rectangular wing. The potential is calculated with input from a standard doublet lattice wing code without recourse to any boundary layer calculations. Separation is indicated in regions where it is observed experimentally. The classical induced drag is recovered in the 3-D high Reynolds number limit with an additional contribution that is Reynold number dependent. The 3-D viscous theory of minimum induced drag yields an equation for the optimal spanwise and chordwise load distribution. The design of optimal wing tip planforms and camber distributions is possible with the viscous 3-D wing theory.

  10. Viscous-flow analysis of a subsonic transport aircraft high-lift system and correlation with flight data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, R. C.; Vandam, C. P.

    1995-01-01

    High-lift system aerodynamics has been gaining attention in recent years. In an effort to improve aircraft performance, comprehensive studies of multi-element airfoil systems are being undertaken in wind-tunnel and flight experiments. Recent developments in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) offer a relatively inexpensive alternative for studying complex viscous flows by numerically solving the Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations. Current limitations in computer resources restrict practical high-lift N-S computations to two dimensions, but CFD predictions can yield tremendous insight into flow structure, interactions between airfoil elements, and effects of changes in airfoil geometry or free-stream conditions. These codes are very accurate when compared to strictly 2D data provided by wind-tunnel testing, as will be shown here. Yet, additional challenges must be faced in the analysis of a production aircraft wing section, such as that of the NASA Langley Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV). A primary issue is the sweep theory used to correlate 2D predictions with 3D flight results, accounting for sweep, taper, and finite wing effects. Other computational issues addressed here include the effects of surface roughness of the geometry, cove shape modeling, grid topology, and transition specification. The sensitivity of the flow to changing free-stream conditions is investigated. In addition, the effects of Gurney flaps on the aerodynamic characteristics of the airfoil system are predicted.

  11. An experimental low Reynolds number comparison of a Wortmann FX67-K170 airfoil, a NACA 0012 airfoil and a NACA 64-210 airfoil in simulated heavy rain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, Anthony P.; Hansman, R. John

    1987-01-01

    Wind tunnel experiments were conducted on Wortmann FX67-K170, NACA 0012, and NACA 64-210 airfoils at rain rates of 1000 mm/hr and Reynolds numbers of 310,000 to compare the aerodynamic performance degradation of the airfoils and to attempt to identify the various mechanisms which affect performance in heavy rain conditions. Lift and drag were measured in dry and wet conditions, a variety of flow visualization techniques were employed, and a computational code which predicted airfoil boundary layer behavior was used. At low angles of attack, the lift degradation in wet conditions varied significantly between the airfoils. The Wortmann section had the greatest overall lift degradation and the NACA 64-210 airfoil had the smallest. At high angles of attack, the NACA 64-210 and 0012 airfoils had improved aerodynamic performance in rain conditions due to an apparent reduction of the boundry layer separation. Performance degradation in heavy rain for all three airfoils at low angles of attack could be emulated by forced boundary layer transition near the leading edge. The secondary effect occurs at time scales consistent with top surface water runback times. The runback layer is thought to effectively alter the airfoil geometry. The severity of the performance degradation for the airfoils varied. The relative differences appeared to be related to the susceptibility of each airfoil to premature boundary layer transition.

  12. Trailing edge modifications for flatback airfoils.

    SciTech Connect

    Kahn, Daniel L.; van Dam, C.P.; Berg, Dale E.

    2008-03-01

    The adoption of blunt trailing edge airfoils (also called flatback airfoils) for the inboard region of large wind turbine blades has been proposed. Blunt trailing edge airfoils would not only provide a number of structural benefits, such as increased structural volume and ease of fabrication and handling, but they have also been found to improve the lift characteristics of thick airfoils. Therefore, the incorporation of blunt trailing edge airfoils would allow blade designers to more freely address the structural demands without having to sacrifice aerodynamic performance. These airfoils do have the disadvantage of generating high levels of drag as a result of the low-pressure steady or periodic flow in the near-wake of the blunt trailing edge. Although for rotors, the drag penalty appears secondary to the lift enhancement produced by the blunt trailing edge, high drag levels are of concern in terms of the negative effect on the torque and power generated by the rotor. Hence, devices are sought that mitigate the drag of these airfoils. This report summarizes the literature on bluff body vortex shedding and bluff body drag reduction devices and proposes four devices for further study in the wind tunnel.

  13. Close to real life. [solving for transonic flow about lifting airfoils using supercomputers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Victor L.; Bailey, F. Ron

    1988-01-01

    NASA's Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation (NAS) facility for CFD modeling of highly complex aerodynamic flows employs as its basic hardware two Cray-2s, an ETA-10 Model Q, an Amdahl 5880 mainframe computer that furnishes both support processing and access to 300 Gbytes of disk storage, several minicomputers and superminicomputers, and a Thinking Machines 16,000-device 'connection machine' processor. NAS, which was the first supercomputer facility to standardize operating-system and communication software on all processors, has done important Space Shuttle aerodynamics simulations and will be critical to the configurational refinement of the National Aerospace Plane and its intergrated powerplant, which will involve complex, high temperature reactive gasdynamic computations.

  14. Design and experimental results for the S814 airfoil

    SciTech Connect

    Somers, D.M.

    1997-01-01

    A 24-percent-thick airfoil, the S814, for the root region of a horizontal-axis wind-turbine blade has been designed and analyzed theoretically and verified experimentally in the low-turbulence wind tunnel of the Delft University of Technology Low Speed Laboratory, The Netherlands. The two primary objectives of high maximum lift, insensitive to roughness, and low profile drag have been achieved. The constraints on the pitching moment and the airfoil thickness have been satisfied. Comparisons of the theoretical and experimental results show good agreement with the exception of maximum lift which is overpredicted. Comparisons with other airfoils illustrate the higher maximum lift and the lower profile drag of the S814 airfoil, thus confirming the achievement of the objectives.

  15. Increasing Lift by Releasing Compressed Air on Suction Side of Airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seewald, F

    1927-01-01

    The investigation was limited chiefly to the region of high angles of attack since it is only in this region that any considerable change in the character of the flow can be expected from such artificial aids. The slot, through which compressed air was blown, was formed by two pieces of sheet steel connected by screws at intervals of about 5 cm. It was intended to regulate the width of the slot by means of these screws. Much more compressed air was required than was originally supposed, hence all the delivery pipes were much too small. This experiment, therefore, is to be regarded as only a preliminary one.

  16. Assessment of the aerodynamic characteristics of thick airfoils in high Reynolds and moderate Ma numbers using CFD modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prospathopoulos, John M.; Papadakis, Giorgos; Sieros, Giorgos; Voutsinas, Spyros G.; Chaviaropoulos, Takis K.; Diakakis, Kostas

    2014-06-01

    The aerodynamic characteristics of thick airfoils in high Reynolds number is assessed using two different CFD RANS solvers: the compressible MaPFlow and the incompressible CRES-flowNS-2D both equipped with the k-? SST turbulence model. Validation is carried out by comparing simulations against existing high Reynolds experimental data for the NACA 63-018 airfoil in the range of -10° to 20°. The use of two different solvers aims on one hand at increasing the credibility in the results and on the other at quantifying the compressibility effects. Convergence of steady simulations is achieved within a mean range of -10° to 14° which refers to attached or light stall conditions. Over this range the simulations from the two codes are in good agreement. As stall gets deeper, steady convergence ceases and the simulations must switch to unsteady. Lift and drag oscillations are produced which increase in amplitude as the angle of attack increases. Finally in post stall, the average CL is found to decrease up to ~24° or 32° for the FFA or the NACA 63-018 airfoils respectively, and then recover to higher values indicating a change in the unsteady features of the flow.

  17. NASA supercritical airfoils: A matrix of family-related airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Charles D.

    1990-01-01

    The NASA supercritical airfoil development program is summarized in a chronological fashion. Some of the airfoil design guidelines are discussed, and coordinates of a matrix of family related supercritical airfoils ranging from thicknesses of 2 to 18 percent and over a design lift coefficient range from 0 to 1.0 are presented.

  18. Lift augmentation for highly swept wing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Dhanvada M. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A pair of spaced slots, disposed on each side of an aircraft centerline and spaced well inboard of the wing leading edges, are provided in the wing upper surfaces and directed tangentially spanwise toward thin sharp leading wing edges of a highly swept, delta wing aircraft. The slots are individually connected through separate plenum chambers to separate compressed air tanks and serve, collectively, as a system for providing aircraft lift augmentation. A compressed air supply is tapped from the aircraft turbojet power plant. Suitable valves, under the control of the aircraft pilot, serve to selective provide jet blowing from the individual slots to provide spanwise sheets of jet air closely adjacent to the upper surfaces and across the aircraft wing span to thereby create artificial vortices whose suction generate additional lift on the aircraft. When desired, or found necessary, unequal or one-side wing blowing is employed to generate rolling moments for augmented lateral control. Trailing flaps are provided that may be deflected differentially, individually, or in unison, as needed for assistance in take-off or landing of the aircraft.

  19. S833, S834, and S835 Airfoils: November 2001--November 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Somers, D. M.

    2005-08-01

    A family of quiet, thick, natural-laminar-flow airfoils, the S833, S834, and S835, for 1 - 3-meter-diameter, variable-speed/variable-pitch, horizontal-axis wind turbines has been designed and analyzed theoretically. The two primary objectives of high maximum lift, relatively insensitive to roughness, and low profile drag have been achieved. The airfoils should exhibit docile stalls, which meet the design goal. The constraints on the pitching moment and the airfoils thicknesses have been satisfied.

  20. S830, S831, and S832 Airfoils: November 2001-November 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Somers, D. M.

    2005-08-01

    A family of quiet, thick, natural-laminar-flow airfoils, the S830, S831, and S832, for 40 - 50-meter-diameter, variable-speed/variable-pitch, horizontal-axis wind turbines has been designed and analyzed theoretically. The two primary objectives of high maximum lift, relatively insensitive to roughness, and low profile drag have been achieved. The airfoils should exhibit docile stalls, which meet the design goal. The constraints on the pitching moment and the airfoils thicknesses have been satisfied.

  1. Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Number of Modified NACA Four-Digit-Series Airfoil Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loftin, Laurence K., Jr.; Cohen, Kenneth G.

    1947-01-01

    Theoretical pressure distributions and measured lift, drag, and pitching moment characteristics at three values of Reynolds number are presented for a group of NACA four-digit-series airfoil sections modified for high-speed applications. The effectiveness of flaps applied to these airfoils and the effect of standard leading-edge roughness were also investigated at one value of Reynolds number. Results are also presented of tests of three conventional NACA four-digit-series airfoil sections.

  2. AFC-Enabled Simplified High-Lift System Integration Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartwich, Peter M.; Dickey, Eric D.; Sclafani, Anthony J.; Camacho, Peter; Gonzales, Antonio B.; Lawson, Edward L.; Mairs, Ron Y.; Shmilovich, Arvin

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this trade study report is to explore the potential of using Active Flow Control (AFC) for achieving lighter and mechanically simpler high-lift systems for transonic commercial transport aircraft. This assessment was conducted in four steps. First, based on the Common Research Model (CRM) outer mold line (OML) definition, two high-lift concepts were developed. One concept, representative of current production-type commercial transonic transports, features leading edge slats and slotted trailing edge flaps with Fowler motion. The other CRM-based design relies on drooped leading edges and simply hinged trailing edge flaps for high-lift generation. The relative high-lift performance of these two high-lift CRM variants is established using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solutions to the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations for steady flow. These CFD assessments identify the high-lift performance that needs to be recovered through AFC to have the CRM variant with the lighter and mechanically simpler high-lift system match the performance of the conventional high-lift system. Conceptual design integration studies for the AFC-enhanced high-lift systems were conducted with a NASA Environmentally Responsible Aircraft (ERA) reference configuration, the so-called ERA-0003 concept. These design trades identify AFC performance targets that need to be met to produce economically feasible ERA-0003-like concepts with lighter and mechanically simpler high-lift designs that match the performance of conventional high-lift systems. Finally, technical challenges are identified associated with the application of AFC-enabled highlift systems to modern transonic commercial transports for future technology maturation efforts.

  3. High-Lift Systems on Commercial Subsonic Airliners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudolph, Peter K. C.

    1996-01-01

    The early breed of slow commercial airliners did not require high-lift systems because their wing loadings were low and their speed ratios between cruise and low speed (takeoff and landing) were about 2:1. However, even in those days the benefit of high-lift devices was recognized. Simple trailing-edge flaps were in use, not so much to reduce landing speeds, but to provide better glide-slope control without sideslipping the airplane and to improve pilot vision over the nose by reducing attitude during low-speed flight. As commercial-airplane cruise speeds increased with the development of more powerful engines, wing loadings increased and a real need for high-lift devices emerged to keep takeoff and landing speeds within reasonable limits. The high-lift devices of that era were generally trailing-edge flaps. When jet engines matured sufficiently in military service and were introduced commercially, airplane speed capability had to be increased to best take advantage of jet engine characteristics. This speed increase was accomplished by introducing the wing sweep and by further increasing wing loading. Whereas increased wing loading called for higher lift coefficients at low speeds, wing sweep actually decreased wing lift at low speeds. Takeoff and landing speeds increased on early jet airplanes, and, as a consequence, runways worldwide had to be lengthened. There are economical limits to the length of runways; there are safety limits to takeoff and landing speeds; and there are speed limits for tires. So, in order to hold takeoff and landing speeds within reasonable limits, more powerful high-lift devices were required. Wing trailing-edge devices evolved from plain flaps to Fowler flaps with single, double, and even triple slots. Wing leading edges evolved from fixed leading edges to a simple Krueger flap, and from fixed, slotted leading edges to two- and three-position slats and variable-camber (VC) Krueger flaps. The complexity of high-lift systems probably peaked on the Boeing 747, which has a VC Krueger flap and triple-slotted, inboard and outboard trailing-edge flaps. Since then, the tendency in high-lift system development has been to achieve high levels of lift with simpler devices in order to reduce fleet acquisition and maintenance costs. The intent of this paper is to: (1) review available high-lift devices, their functions, and design criteria; (2) appraise high-lift systems presently in service on commercial air liners; (3) present personal study results on high-lift systems; (4) develop a weight and cost model for high-lift systems; and (5) discuss the development tendencies of future high-lift systems.

  4. Computation of airfoil buffet boundaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, L. L., Jr.; Bailey, H. E.

    1981-01-01

    The ILLIAC IV computer has been programmed with an implicit, finite-difference code for solving the thin layer compressible Navier-Stokes equation. Results presented for the case of the buffet boundaries of a conventional and a supercritical airfoil section at high Reynolds numbers are found to be in agreement with experimentally determined buffet boundaries, especially at the higher freestream Mach numbers and lower lift coefficients where the onset of unsteady flows is associated with shock wave-induced boundary layer separation.

  5. Lift force of delta wings

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, M.; Ho, Chihming )

    1990-09-01

    On a delta wing, the separation vortices can be stationary due to the balance of the vorticity surface flux and the axial convection along the swept leading edge. These stationary vortices keep the wing from losing lift. A highly swept delta wing reaches the maximum lift at an angle of attack of about 40, which is more than twice as high as that of a two-dimensional airfoil. In this paper, the experimental results of lift forces for delta wings are reviewed from the perspective of fundamental vorticity balance. The effects of different operational and geometrical parameters on the performance of delta wings are surveyed.

  6. Shapes for rotating airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bingham, G. J. (inventor)

    1984-01-01

    An airfoil which has particular application to the blade or blades of rotor aircraft and aircraft propellers is presented. The airfoil thickness distribution, camber and leading edge radius are shaped to locate the airfoil crest at a more aft position along the chord, and to increase the freestream Mach number at which sonic flow is attained at the airfoil crest. The reduced slope of the airfoil causes a reduction in velocity at the airfoil crest at lift coefficients from zero to the maximum lift coefficient. The leading edge radius is adjusted so that the maximum local Mach number at 1.25 percent chord and at the designed maximum lift coefficient is limited to about 0.48 when the Mach number normal to the leading edge is approximately 0.20. The lower surface leading edge radius is shaped so that the maximum local Mach number at the leading edge is limited to about 0.29 when the Mach number normal to the leading edge is approximately 0.20. The drag divergence Mach number associated with the airfoil is moved to a higher Mach number over a range of lift coefficients resulting in superior aircraft performance.

  7. Tests of N-85, N-86 and N-87 airfoil sections in the 11-inch high speed wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stack, John; Lindsey, W F

    1938-01-01

    Three airfoils, the N-85, the N-86, and the N-87, were tested at the request of the Bureau of Aeronautics, Navy Department, to determine the suitability of these sections for use as propeller-blade sections. Further tests of the NACA 0009-64 airfoil were also made to measure the aerodynamic effect of thickening the trailing edge in accordance with current propeller practice. The N-86 and the N-87 airfoils appear to be nearly equivalent aerodynamically and both are superior to the N-85 airfoil. Comparison of those airfoils with the previously developed NACA 2409-34 airfoils indicate that the NACA 2409-34 is superior, particularly at high speeds. Thickening the trailing edge appears to have a detrimental effect, although the effect may be small if the trailing-edge radius is less than 0.5 percent of the cord. The N-86 and the N-87 airfoils appear to be nearly equivalent.

  8. Impulsive Start of a Symmetric Airfoil at High Angle of Attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Joseph; Yon, Steven; Rogers, Stuart E.

    1996-01-01

    The fluid dynamic phenomena following the impulsive start of a NACA 0015 airfoil were studied by using a time accurate solution of the incompressible laminar Navier-Stokes equations. Angle of attack was set at 10 deg to simulate steady-state poststall conditions at a Reynolds number of 1.2 x 10(exp 4). The calculation revealed that large initial lift values can be obtained, immediately following the impulsive start, when a trapped vortex develops above the airfoil. Before the buildup of this trapped vortex and immediately after the airfoil was set into motion, the fluid is attached to the airfoil's surface and flows around the trailing edge, demonstrating the delay in the buildup of the classical Kutta condition. The transient of this effect is quite short and is followed by an attached How event that leads to the trapped vortex that has a longer duration. The just described initial phenomenon eventually transits into a fully developed separated flow pattern identifiable by an alternating, periodic vortex shedding.

  9. Wind tunnel testing of low-drag airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, W. Donald; Mcghee, R. J.; Harris, C. D.

    1986-01-01

    Results are presented for the measured performance recently obtained on several airfoil concepts designed to achieve low drag by maintaining extensive regions of laminar flow without compromising high-lift performance. The wind tunnel results extend from subsonic to transonic speeds and include boundary-layer control through shaping and suction. The research was conducted in the NASA Langley 8-Ft Transonic Pressure Tunnel (TPT) and Low Turbulence Pressure Tunnel (LTPT) which have been developed for testing such low-drag airfoils. Emphasis is placed on identifying some of the major factors influencing the anticipated performance of low-drag airfoils.

  10. An Exploratory Investigation of a Slotted, Natural-Laminar-Flow Airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somers, Dan M.

    2012-01-01

    A 15-percent-thick, slotted, natural-laminar-flow (SNLF) airfoil, the S103, for general aviation applications has been designed and analyzed theoretically and verified experimentally in the Langley Low-Turbulence Pressure Tunnel. The two primary objectives of high maximum lift and low profile drag have been achieved. The constraints on the pitching moment and the airfoil thickness have been satisfied. The airfoil exhibits a rapid stall, which does not meet the design goal. Comparisons of the theoretical and experimental results show good agreement. Comparison with the baseline, NASA NLF(1)-0215F airfoil confirms the achievement of the objectives.

  11. Subsonic and transonic low-Reynolds-number airfoils with reduced pitching moments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Dam, C. P.; Hicks, R.; Reuther, J.

    1990-01-01

    A subsonic and a transonic airfoil are presented for application in a high-altitude long-endurance aircraft and a very-high-altitude aircraft, respectively. The subsonic airfoil is designed for a lift coefficient c(l) = 1.4 at a chord Reynolds number Re = 700,000 and a very low Mach number. The transonic airfoil is designed for c(l) = 1.0 at Re = 500,000 and a transonic Mach number M = 0.7. Both airfoils are developed to perform as well or better than previously designed airfoils. However, the present airfoils are developed for a constrained pitching moment to reduce aircraft trim drag and to relieve, to some extent, the torsional loads in the typically high-aspect-ratio wings. The beneficial effects of a cruise flap and of boundary-layer transition control on the off-design performance characteristics are illustrated.

  12. The inception of stall on thin airfoils at moderately high Reynolds number flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusak, Zvi; Morris, Wallace J., II

    2004-11-01

    The leading-edge stall on smooth thin airfoils at moderately high Reynolds number flows is investigated by an asymptotic approach and numerical simulations. The asymptotic theory is based on Rusak (1994) and demonstrates that a subsonic flow about a thin airfoil can be described in terms of an outer and an inner region that asymptotically match each other. The flow in the outer region is dominated by the classical thin airfoil theory. Scaled (magnified) coordinates and a modified Reynolds number are used to correctly account for the nonlinear behavior in the nose region where both the near stagnation and high suction areas occur. It results in a model problem of a uniform flow past a semi-infinite parabola with a far-field circulation governed by a parameter A that is related to the airfoil's angle of attack, nose radius of curvature, camber and flow Mach number. The model parabola problem consists of a viscous flow that is solved numerically to determine the value of A where the nose flow first separates. The change of this parameter with Reynolds number is computed. It indicates stall onset on the airfoil at various flow conditions. The predictions according to this approach show good agreement with results from both full numerical simulations and much available experimental data. This simplified approach provides for the first time a universal criterion to determine the stall angle of airfoils and the effect of airfoil's thickness ratio, nose radius of curvature, camber and flaps and flow compressibility on the onset of stall. Rusak, Z. 1994 Euro J App Math, 5, 283-311.

  13. Root region airfoil for wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Tangler, James L. (Boulder, CO); Somers, Dan M. (State College, PA)

    1995-01-01

    A thick airfoil for the root region of the blade of a wind turbine. The airfoil has a thickness in a range from 24%-26% and a Reynolds number in a range from 1,000,000 to 1,800,000. The airfoil has a maximum lift coefficient of 1.4-1.6 that has minimum sensitivity to roughness effects.

  14. The Aerodynamic Characteristics of Airfoils as Affected by Surface Roughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    HOCKER RAY W

    1933-01-01

    The effect on airfoil characteristics of surface roughness of varying degrees and types at different locations on an airfoil was investigated at high values of the Reynolds number in a variable density wind tunnel. Tests were made on a number of National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) 0012 airfoil models on which the nature of the surface was varied from a rough to a very smooth finish. The effect on the airfoil characteristics of varying the location of a rough area in the region of the leading edge was also investigated. Airfoils with surfaces simulating lap joints were also tested. Measurable adverse effects were found to be caused by small irregularities in airfoil surfaces which might ordinarily be overlooked. The flow is sensitive to small irregularities of approximately 0.0002c in depth near the leading edge. The tests made on the surfaces simulating lap joints indicated that such surfaces cause small adverse effects. Additional data from earlier tests of another symmetrical airfoil are also included to indicate the variation of the maximum lift coefficient with the Reynolds number for an airfoil with a polished surface and with a very rough one.

  15. Airfoils for wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Tangler, James L. (Boulder, CO); Somers, Dan M. (State College, PA)

    2000-01-01

    Airfoils for the tip and mid-span regions of a wind turbine blade have upper surface and lower surface shapes and contours between a leading edge and a trailing edge that minimize roughness effects of the airfoil and provide maximum lift coefficients that are largely insensitive to roughness effects. The airfoil in one embodiment is shaped and contoured to have a thickness in a range of about fourteen to seventeen percent, a Reynolds number in a range of about 1,500,000 to 2,000,000, and a maximum lift coefficient in a range of about 1.4 to 1.5. In another embodiment, the airfoil is shaped and contoured to have a thickness in a range of about fourteen percent to sixteen percent, a Reynolds number in a range of about 1,500,000 to 3,000,000, and a maximum lift coefficient in a range of about 0.7 to 1.5. Another embodiment of the airfoil is shaped and contoured to have a Reynolds in a range of about 1,500,000 to 4,000,000, and a maximum lift coefficient in a range of about 1.0 to 1.5.

  16. Analytical and computational investigations of airfoils undergoing high-frequency sinusoidal pitch and plunge motions at low Reynolds numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGowan, Gregory Z.

    Current interests in Micro Air Vehicle (MAV) technologies call for the development of aerodynamic-design tools that will aid in the design of more efficient platforms that will also have adequate stability and control for flight in gusty environments. Influenced largely by nature MAVs tend to be very small, have low flight speeds, and utilize flapping motions for propulsion. For these reasons the focus is, specifically, on high-frequency motions at low Reynolds numbers. Toward the goal of developing design tools, it is of interest to explore the use of elementary flow solutions for simple motions such as pitch and plunge oscillations to predict aerodynamic performance for more complex motions. In the early part of this research, a validation effort was undertaken. Computations from the current effort were compared with experiments conducted in a parallel, collaborative effort at the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). A set of pure-pitch and pure-plunge sinusoidal oscillations of the SD7003 airfoil were examined. Phase-averaged measurements using particle image velocimetry in a water tunnel were compared with computations using two flow solvers: (i) an incompressible Navier-Stokes Immersed Boundary Method and (ii) an unsteady compressible Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solver. The motions were at a reduced frequency of k = 3.93, and pitch-angle amplitudes were chosen such that a kinematic equivalence in amplitudes of effective angle of attack (from plunge) was obtained. Plunge cases showed good qualitative agreement between computation and experiment, but in the pitch cases, the wake vorticity in the experiment was substantially different from that predicted by both computations. Further, equivalence between the pure-pitch and pure-plunge motions was not attained through matching effective angle of attack. With the failure of pitch/plunge equivalence using equivalent amplitudes of effective angle of attack, the effort shifted to include pitch-rate and wake-effect terms through the use of analytical methods including quasi-steady thin-airfoil theory (QSTAT) and Theodorsen's theory. These theories were used to develop three analytical approaches for determining pitch motions equivalent to plunge motions. A study of variation in plunge height was then examined and followed by a study of the effect of rotation point using the RANS solver. For the range of plunge heights studied, it was observed that kinematic matching between plunge and pitch using QSTAT gave outstanding similarities in flow field, while the matching performed using Theodorsen's theory gave the best equivalence in lift coefficients for all cases. The variation of rotation point revealed that, for the given plunge height, with rotation point in front of the mid-chord location, all three schemes matched flow-field vorticity well, and with rotation point aft of the mid-chord no scheme matched vorticity fields. However, for all rotation points (except for the mid-chord location), CFD prediction of lift coefficients from the Theodorsen matching scheme matched the lift time histories closely to CFD predictions for pure-pitch. Combined pitch and plunge motions were then examined using kinematic parameters obtained from the three schemes. The results showed that QSTAT nearly cancels the vortices emanating from the trailing edge. Theodorsen's matching approach was successful in generating a lift that was close to constant over the entire cycle. Additionally this approach showed the presence of the reverse Karman vortex sheet through the wake. Combined pitch/plunge motions were then analyzed, computationally and experimentally, with a non-zero mean angle of attack. All computational results compared excellently with experiments, capturing vorticity production on the airfoil's surface and through the wake. Lift coefficient through a cycle was shown to tend toward a constant using Theodorsen's parameters, with the constant being dependent on the initial angle of attack. This result points to the possibility of designing an unsteady motion to match a given flig

  17. Wind Tunnel Tests of Wind Turbine Airfoils at High Reynolds Numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llorente, E.; Gorostidi, A.; Jacobs, M.; Timmer, W. A.; Munduate, X.; Pires, O.

    2014-06-01

    Wind tunnel tests have been performed to measure the two-dimensional aerodynamic characteristics of two different airfoil families at high Reynolds numbers (from 3 to 12 millions) in the DNW High Pressure Wind Tunnel in Gottingen (HDG), Germany. Also, tests at a Reynolds number of 3 millions have been performed in the Low-Speed Low- Turbulence Wind Tunnel of Delft University, The Netherlands. The airfoils tested belong to two wind turbine dedicated families: the TU-Delft DU family and the ACCIONA Windpower AWA family that was designed in collaboration with CENER. Reynolds number effects on airfoil performance have been obtained in the range of 3 to 12 millions. The availability of data from two different wind tunnels has brought the opportunity to cross compare the results from the two facilities.

  18. Airfoil flutter model suspension system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Wilmer H. (inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A wind tunnel suspension system for testing flutter models under various loads and at various angles of attack is described. The invention comprises a mounting bracket assembly affixing the suspension system to the wind tunnel, a drag-link assembly and a compound spring arrangement comprises a plunge spring working in opposition to a compressive spring so as to provide a high stiffness to trim out steady state loads and simultaneously a low stiffness to dynamic loads. By this arrangement an airfoil may be tested for oscillatory response in both plunge and pitch modes while being held under high lifting loads in a wind tunnel.

  19. Theoretical Prediction of Pressure Distributions on Nonlifting Airfoils at High Subsonic Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spreiter, John R; Alksne, Alberta

    1955-01-01

    Theoretical pressure distributions on nonlifting circular-arc airfoils in two-dimensional flows with high subsonic free-stream velocity are found by determining approximate solutions, through an iteration process, of an integral equation for transonic flow proposed by Oswatitsch. The integral equation stems directly from the small-disturbance theory for transonic flow. This method of analysis possesses the advantage of remaining in the physical, rather than the hodograph, variable and can be applied in airfoils having curved surfaces. After discussion of the derivation of the integral equation and qualitative aspects of the solution, results of calculations carried out for circular-arc airfoils in flows with free-stream Mach numbers up to unity are described. These results indicate most of the principal phenomena observed in experimental studies.

  20. Overview of NASA HSR high-lift program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, William P.

    1992-01-01

    The viewgraphs and discussion of the NASA High-Speed Research (HSR) Program being conducted to develop the technologies essential for the successful U.S. development of a commercial supersonic air transport in the 2005 timeframe are provided. The HSR program is being conducted in two phases, with the first phase stressing technology to ensure environmental acceptability and the second phase stressing technology to make the vehicle economically viable (in contrast to the current Concorde design). During Phase 1 of the program, a key element of the environmental emphases is minimization of community noise through effective engine nozzle noise suppression technology and through improving the performance of high-lift systems. An overview of the current Phase 1 High-Lift Program, directed at technology for community noise reduction, is presented. The total target for takeoff engine noise reduction to meet expected regulations is believed to be about 20 EPNdB. The high-lift research is stressing the exploration of innovative high-lift concepts and advanced flight operations procedures to achieve a substantial (approximately 6 EPNdB) reduction in community noise to supplement the reductions expected from engine nozzle noise suppression concepts; primary concern is focused on the takeoff and climbout operations where very high engine power settings are used. Significant reductions in aerodynamic drag in this regime will allow substantial reductions in the required engine thrust levels and therefore reductions in the noise generated.

  1. Numerical analysis of the s1020 airfoils in tandem under different flapping configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, K. B.; Tay, W. B.

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this project is to improve the performance of the efficiency, thrust and lift of flapping wings in tandem arrangement. This research investigates the effect of the arrangement of the airfoils in tandem on the performance of the airfoils by varying the phase difference and distance between the airfoils. Three flapping configurations from an earlier phase of a research which gives high efficiency, thrust and lift are used in the tandem simulation. It is found all the different flapping configurations show improvement in the efficiency, thrust or lift when the distance between the two airfoils and the phase angle between the heaving positions of the two airfoils are optimal. The average thrust coefficient of the tandem arrangement managed to attain more than twice that of the single one (4.84 vs. 2.05). On the other hand, the average lift coefficient of the tandem arrangement also increased to 4.59, as compared to the original single airfoil value of 3.04. All these results obtained will aid in the design of a better ornithopter with tandem wing arrangement.

  2. Computational design and analysis of flatback airfoil wind tunnel experiment.

    SciTech Connect

    Mayda, Edward A.; van Dam, C.P.; Chao, David D.; Berg, Dale E.

    2008-03-01

    A computational fluid dynamics study of thick wind turbine section shapes in the test section of the UC Davis wind tunnel at a chord Reynolds number of one million is presented. The goals of this study are to validate standard wind tunnel wall corrections for high solid blockage conditions and to reaffirm the favorable effect of a blunt trailing edge or flatback on the performance characteristics of a representative thick airfoil shape prior to building the wind tunnel models and conducting the experiment. The numerical simulations prove the standard wind tunnel corrections to be largely valid for the proposed test of 40% maximum thickness to chord ratio airfoils at a solid blockage ratio of 10%. Comparison of the computed lift characteristics of a sharp trailing edge baseline airfoil and derived flatback airfoils reaffirms the earlier observed trend of reduced sensitivity to surface contamination with increasing trailing edge thickness.

  3. Airfoil family design for large offshore wind turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Méndez, B.; Munduate, X.; San Miguel, U.

    2014-06-01

    Wind turbine blades size has scaled-up during last years due to wind turbine platform increase especially for offshore applications. The EOLIA project 2007-2010 (Spanish Goverment funded project) was focused on the design of large offshore wind turbines for deep waters. The project was managed by ACCIONA Energia and the wind turbine technology was designed by ACCIONA Windpower. The project included the design of a wind turbine airfoil family especially conceived for large offshore wind turbine blades, in the order of 5MW machine. Large offshore wind turbines suffer high extreme loads due to their size, in addition the lack of noise restrictions allow higher tip speeds. Consequently, the airfoils presented in this work are designed for high Reynolds numbers with the main goal of reducing blade loads and mantainig power production. The new airfoil family was designed in collaboration with CENER (Spanish National Renewable Energy Centre). The airfoil family was designed using a evolutionary algorithm based optimization tool with different objectives, both aerodynamic and structural, coupled with an airfoil geometry generation tool. Force coefficients of the designed airfoil were obtained using the panel code XFOIL in which the boundary layer/inviscid flow coupling is ineracted via surface transpiration model. The desing methodology includes a novel technique to define the objective functions based on normalizing the functions using weight parameters created from data of airfoils used as reference. Four airfoils have been designed, here three of them will be presented, with relative thickness of 18%, 21%, 25%, which have been verified with the in-house CFD code, Wind Multi Block WMB, and later validated with wind tunnel experiments. Some of the objectives for the designed airfoils concern the aerodynamic behavior (high efficiency and lift, high tangential coefficient, insensitivity to rough conditions, etc.), others concern the geometry (good for structural design, compatibility for the different airfoil family members, etc.) and with the ultimate objective that the airfoils will reduce the blade loads. In this paper the whole airfoil design process and the main characteristics of the airfoil family are described. Some force coefficients for the design Reynolds number are also presented. The new designed airfoils have been studied with computational calculations (panel method code and CFD) and also in a wind tunnel experimental campaign. Some of these results will be also presented in this paper.

  4. Effects of front-loading and stagger angle on endwall losses of high lift low pressure turbine vanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyall, M. Eric

    Past efforts to reduce the airfoil count in low pressure turbines have produced high lift profiles with unacceptably high endwall loss. The purpose of the current work is to suggest alternative approaches for reducing endwall losses. The effects of the fluid mechanics and high lift profile geometry are considered. Mixing effects of the mean flow and turbulence fields are decoupled to show that mean flow shear in the endwall wake is negligible compared to turbulent shear, indicating that turbulence dissipation is the primary cause of total pressure loss. The mean endwall flow field does influence total pressure loss by causing excessive wake growth and perhaps outright separation on the suction surface. For equivalent stagger angles, a front-loaded high lift profile will produce less endwall loss than one aft-loaded, primarily by suppressing suction surface flow separation. Increasing the stagger setting, however, increases the endwall loss due to the static pressure field generating a stronger blockage relative to the incoming endwall boundary layer flow and causing a larger mass of fluid to become entrained in the horseshoe vortex. In short, front-loading the pressure distribution suppresses suction surface separation whereas limiting the stagger angle suppresses inlet boundary layer separation. Results of this work suggest that a front-loaded low stagger profile be used at the endwall to reduce the endwall loss.

  5. Shape optimization of corrugated airfoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Sambhav; Bhatt, Varun Dhananjay; Mittal, Sanjay

    2015-10-01

    The effect of corrugations on the aerodynamic performance of a Mueller C4 airfoil, placed at a 5° angle of attack and Re=10{,}000 , is investigated. A stabilized finite element method is employed to solve the incompressible flow equations in two dimensions. A novel parameterization scheme is proposed that enables representation of corrugations on the surface of the airfoil, and their spontaneous appearance in the shape optimization loop, if indeed they improve aerodynamic performance. Computations are carried out for different location and number of corrugations, while holding their height fixed. The first corrugation causes an increase in lift and drag. Each of the later corrugations leads to a reduction in drag. Shape optimization of the Mueller C4 airfoil is carried out using various objective functions and optimization strategies, based on controlling airfoil thickness and camber. One of the optimal shapes leads to 50 % increase in lift coefficient and 23 % increase in aerodynamic efficiency compared to the Mueller C4 airfoil.

  6. Modern Airfoil Ice Accretions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Addy, Harold E., Jr.; Potapczuk, Mark G.; Sheldon, David W.

    1997-01-01

    This report presents results from the first icing tests performed in the Modem Airfoils program. Two airfoils have been subjected to icing tests in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel (IRT). Both airfoils were two dimensional airfoils; one was representative of a commercial transport airfoil while the other was representative of a business jet airfoil. The icing test conditions were selected from the FAR Appendix C envelopes. Effects on aerodynamic performance are presented including the effects of varying amounts of glaze ice as well as the effects of approximately the same amounts of glaze, mixed, and rime ice. Actual ice shapes obtained in these tests are also presented for these cases. In addition, comparisons are shown between ice shapes from the tests and ice shapes predicted by the computer code, LEWICE for similar conditions. Significant results from the tests are that relatively small amounts of ice can have nearly as much effect on airfoil lift coefficient as much greater amounts of ice and that glaze ice usually has a more detrimental effect than either rime or mixed ice. LEWICE predictions of ice shapes, in general, compared reasonably well with ice shapes obtained in the IRT, although differences in details of the ice shapes were observed.

  7. High School Redesign Gets Presidential Lift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Caralee J.

    2013-01-01

    President Barack Obama applauded high school redesign efforts in his State of the Union address and encouraged districts to look to successful models for inspiration. Last week, he followed up with a request in his fiscal 2014 budget proposal for a new, $300 million competitive-grant program. Recognition is widespread that high schools need to…

  8. Low speed aerodynamic characteristics of NACA 6716 and NACA 4416 airfoils with 35 percent-chord single-slotted flaps. [low turbulence pressure tunnel tests to determine two dimensional lift and pitching moment characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bingham, G. J.; Noonan, K. W.

    1974-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in a low-turbulence pressure tunnel to determine the two-dimensional lift and pitching-moment characteristics of an NACA 6716 and an NACA 4416 airfoil with 35-percent-chord single-slotted flaps. Both models were tested with flaps deflected from 0 deg to 45 deg, at angles of attack from minus 6 deg to several degrees past stall, at Reynolds numbers from 3.0 million to 13.8 million, and primarily at a Mach number of 0.23. Tests were also made to determine the effect of several slot entry shapes on performance.

  9. Wind-tunnel test of the S814 thick root airfoil

    SciTech Connect

    Somers, D.M.; Tangler, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this wind-tunnel test was to verify the predictions of the Eppler Airfoil Design and Analysis Code for a very thick airfoil having a high maximum lift coefficient (c{sub 1,max} designed to be largely insensitive to leading edge roughness effects. The 24-percent-thick S814 airfoil was designed with these characteristics to accommodate aerodynamic and structural considerations for the root region of a wind-turbine blade. In addition, the airfoil`s maximum lift-to-drag ratio was designed to occur it a high lift coefficient. To accomplish the objective, a two-dimensional wind-tunnel test of the S814 thick root airfog was conducted in January 1994 in the low-turbulence wind tunnel of the Delft University of Technology Low Speed Laboratory. Data were obtained for transition-free and transition-fixed conditions at Reynolds numbers of 0.7, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 3.0 {times} 10{sup 6}. For the design Reynolds numbers of 1.5 {times} l0{sup 6}, the transition-free c{sub 1,max} is 1.3 which satisfies the design specification. However, this value is significantly lower than the predicted c{sub 1,max} of almost l.6. With transition-fixed at the is 1.2. The difference in c{sub 1,max} between the transition-free and transition-fixed conditions demonstrates the airfoil`s minimal sensitivity to roughness effects. The S814 root airfoil was designed to complement existing NREL low c{sub 1,max} tip-region airfoils for rotor blades 10 to 15 meters in length.

  10. Lift enhancement by trapped vortex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossow, Vernon J.

    1992-01-01

    The viewgraphs and discussion of lift enhancement by trapped vortex are provided. Efforts are continuously being made to find simple ways to convert wings of aircraft from an efficient cruise configuration to one that develops the high lift needed during landing and takeoff. The high-lift configurations studied here consist of conventional airfoils with a trapped vortex over the upper surface. The vortex is trapped by one or two vertical fences that serve as barriers to the oncoming stream and as reflection planes for the vortex and the sink that form a separation bubble on top of the airfoil. Since the full three-dimensional unsteady flow problem over the wing of an aircraft is so complicated that it is hard to get an understanding of the principles that govern the vortex trapping process, the analysis is restricted here to the flow field illustrated in the first slide. It is assumed that the flow field between the two end plates approximates a streamwise strip of the flow over a wing. The flow between the endplates and about the airfoil consists of a spanwise vortex located between the suction orifices in the endplates. The spanwise fence or spoiler located near the nose of the airfoil serves to form a separated flow region and a shear layer. The vorticity in the shear layer is concentrated into the vortex by withdrawal of fluid at the suction orifices. As the strength of the vortex increases with time, it eventually dominates the flow in the separated region so that a shear or vertical layer is no longer shed from the tip of the fence. At that point, the vortex strength is fixed and its location is such that all of the velocity contributions at its center sum to zero thereby making it an equilibrium point for the vortex. The results of a theoretical analysis of such an idealized flow field are described.

  11. High-lift chemical heat pump technologies for industrial processes

    SciTech Connect

    Olszewski, M.; Zaltash, A.

    1995-03-01

    Traditionally industrial heat pumps (IHPs) have found applications on a process specific basis with reject heat from a process being upgraded and returned to the process. The IHP must be carefully integrated into a process since improper placement may result in an uneconomic application. Industry has emphasized a process integration approach to the design and operation of their plants. Heat pump applications have adopted this approach and the area of applicability was extended by utilizing a process integrated approach where reject heat from one process is upgraded and then used as input for another process. The DOE IHP Program has extended the process integration approach of heat pump application with a plant utility emphasis. In this design philosophy, reject heat from a process is upgraded to plant utility conditions and fed into the plant distribution system. This approach has the advantage that reject heat from any pr@s can be used as input and the output can be used at any location within the plant. Thus the approach can be easily integrated into existing industrial applications and all reject heat streams are potential targets of opportunity. The plant utility approach can not be implemented without having heat pumps with high-lift capabilities (on the order of 65{degree}C). Current heat pumps have only about half the lift capability required. Thus the current emphasis for the DOE IHP Program is the development of high lift chemical heat pumps that can deliver heat more economically to higher heat delivery temperatures. This is achieved with innovative cooling (refrigeration) and heating technologies which are based on advanced cycles and advanced working fluids or a combination of both. This paper details the plan to develop economically competitive, environmentally acceptable heat pump technologies that are capable of providing the delivery temperature and lift required to supply industrial plant utility-grade process heating and/or cooling.

  12. Comparative wind tunnel test at high Reynolds numbers of NACA 64 621 airfoils with two aileron configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregorek, G. M.

    1995-01-01

    An experimental program to measure the aerodynamic characteristics of the NACA 64-621 airfoil when equipped with plain ailerons of 0.38 chord and 0.30 chord and with 0.38 chord balanced aileron has been conducted in the pressurized O.S.U. 6 x 12 ft High Reynolds Number Wind Tunnel. Surface pressures were measured and integrated to yield lift and pressure drag coefficients for angles of attack from -3 to +42 deg and for selected aileron deflections from 0 to -90 deg at nominal Mach and Reynolds numbers of 0.25 and 5 x 10(exp 6). When resolved into thrust coefficient for wind turbine aerodynamic control applications, the data indicated the anticipated decrease in thrust coefficient with negative aileron deflection at low angles of attack; however, as angle of attack increased, thrust coefficients eventually became positive. All aileron configurations, even at -90 deg deflections showed this trend. Hinge moments for each configuration complete the data set.

  13. Comparative wind tunnel tests at high Reynolds numbers of NACA 64 621 airfoils with two aileron configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregorek, G. M.

    1984-01-01

    An experimental program to measure the aerodynamic characteristics of the NACA 64-621 airfoil when equipped with plain ailerons of 0.38 chord and 0.30 chord and with 0.38 chord balanced aileron has been conducted in a pressurized 6 x 12-inch High Reynolds Number Wind Tunnel. Surface pressures were measured and integrated to yield lift and pressure drag coefficients for angles of attack from -3 deg to +42 deg, and for selected aileron deflections from 0 to -90 deg at nominal Mach and Reynolds numbers of 0.25 and 5 x l0 exp 6, respectively. When resolved into thrust coefficient for wind turbine aerodynamic control applications, the data indicated the anticipated decrease in thrust coefficient with negative aileron deflection at low angles of attack; however, as angle of attack increased, thrust coefficients eventually became positive. All aileron configurations, even at -90 deg deflections, showed this trend. Hinge moments for each configuration complete the data set.

  14. Root region airfoil for wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Tangler, J.L.; Somers, D.M.

    1995-05-23

    A thick airfoil is described for the root region of the blade of a wind turbine. The airfoil has a thickness in a range from 24%--26% and a Reynolds number in a range from 1,000,000 to 1,800,000. The airfoil has a maximum lift coefficient of 1.4--1.6 that has minimum sensitivity to roughness effects. 3 Figs.

  15. Systematic Airfoil Tests in the Large Wind Tunnel of the DVL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doetsch, H; Kramer, M

    1938-01-01

    The present report is a description of systematic tests at maximum lift on airfoils with and without split flap and of profile drag at low lift. In order to obtain an opinion as to the suitability of the airfoils with flaps, the maximum-lift measurements were repeated on airfoils with split flaps. The profile drag at low lift was arrived at by direct weighing and momentum measurements and, since the profiles were of unusual depth, extended to large Reynolds numbers.

  16. Design of a Slotted, Natural-Laminar-Flow Airfoil for Business-Jet Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somers, Dan M.

    2012-01-01

    A 14-percent-thick, slotted, natural-laminar-flow airfoil, the S204, for light business-jet applications has been designed and analyzed theoretically. The two primary objectives of high maximum lift, relatively insensitive to roughness, and low profile drag have been achieved. The drag-divergence Mach number is predicted to be greater than 0.70.

  17. Airfoil structure

    DOEpatents

    Frey, G.A.; Twardochleb, C.Z.

    1998-01-13

    Past airfoil configurations have been used to improve aerodynamic performance and engine efficiencies. The present airfoil configuration further increases component life and reduces maintenance by reducing internal stress within the airfoil itself. The airfoil includes a chord and a span. Each of the chord and the span has a bow being summed to form a generally ``C`` configuration of the airfoil. The generally ``C`` configuration includes a compound bow in which internal stresses resulting from a thermal temperature gradient are reduced. The structural configuration reduces internal stresses resulting from thermal expansion. 6 figs.

  18. Airfoil structure

    DOEpatents

    Frey, Gary A. (Poway, CA); Twardochleb, Christopher Z. (Alpine, CA)

    1998-01-01

    Past airfoil configurations have been used to improve aerodynamic performance and engine efficiencies. The present airfoil configuration further increases component life and reduces maintenance by reducing internal stress within the airfoil itself. The airfoil includes a chord and a span. Each of the chord and the span has a bow being summed to form a generally "C" configuration of the airfoil. The generally "C" configuration includes a compound bow in which internal stresses resulting from a thermal temperature gradient are reduced. The structural configuration reduces internal stresses resulting from thermal expansion.

  19. Design of a family of new advanced airfoils for low wind class turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasso, Francesco

    2014-12-01

    In order to maximize the ratio of energy capture and reduce the cost of energy, the selection of the airfoils to be used along the blade plays a crucial role. Despite the general usage of existing airfoils, more and more, families of airfoils specially tailored for specific applications are developed. The present research is focused on the design of a new family of airfoils to be used for the blade of one megawatt wind turbine working in low wind conditions. A hybrid optimization scheme has been implemented, combining together genetic and gradient based algorithms. Large part of the work is dedicated to present and discuss the requirements that needed to be satisfied in order to have a consistent family of geometries with high efficiency, high lift and good structural characteristics. For each airfoil, these characteristics are presented and compared to the ones of existing airfoils. Finally, the aerodynamic design of a new blade for low wind class turbine is illustrated and compared to a reference shape developed by using existing geometries. Due to higher lift performance, the results show a sensitive saving in chords, wetted area and so in loads in idling position.

  20. Leading-edge singularities in thin-airfoil theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. T.

    1976-01-01

    If the thin airfoil theory is applied to an airfoil having a rounded leading edge, a certain error will arise in the determination of the pressure distribution around the nose. It is shown that the evaluation of the drag of such a blunt nosed airfoil by the thin airfoil theory requires the addition of a leading edge force, analogous to the leading edge thrust of the lifting airfoil. The method of calculation is illustrated by application to: (1) The Joukowski airfoil in subsonic flow; and (2) the thin elliptic cone in supersonic flow. A general formula for the edge force is provided which is applicable to a variety of wing forms.

  1. High-order Method for Modeling of Aerodynamics of Flapping Wings: Airfoil-Gust Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalan, Harish; Povitsky, Alex

    2011-11-01

    The use of Micro Air Vehicles (MAV) with flapping wing motion has received considerable attention in the recent years due to their great potential in military and commercial applications. A number of analytical, experimental, and computational studies have been performed to investigate the aerodynamic performance of MAV. However, most of these studies have been performed under idealized operating conditions. Hence, there is a lack of detailed knowledge on the operation of MAV in complex flow environments including flights in wind gust and near obstacles. The current numerical study investigates the performance of a rigid MAV in the presence of periodic gust for two different kinematic motions: plunge and pitch. Two-dimensional rigid airfoils are taken as prototypes of MAVs wings. The gust is assumed to be sinusoidal and modeled as a source term in the Navier-Stokes equations to avoid the implementation of special boundary conditions. The investigation showed a significant drop in the average lift force for the plunging motion in the presence of the gust compared to the pitching motion.

  2. Dynamic Stall Characteristics of Drooped Leading Edge Airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sankar, Lakshmi N.; Sahin, Mehmet; Gopal, Naveen

    2000-01-01

    Helicopters in high-speed forward flight usually experience large regions of dynamic stall over the retreating side of the rotor disk. The rapid variations in the lift and pitching moments associated with the stall process can result in vibratory loads, and can cause fatigue and failure of pitch links. In some instances, the large time lag between the aerodynamic forces and the blade motion can trigger stall flutter. A number of techniques for the alleviation of dynamic stall have been proposed and studied by researchers. Passive and active control techniques have both been explored. Passive techniques include the use of high solidity rotors that reduce the lift coefficients of individual blades, leading edge slots and leading edge slats. Active control techniques include steady and unsteady blowing, and dynamically deformable leading edge (DDLE) airfoils. Considerable amount of experimental and numerical data has been collected on the effectiveness of these concepts. One concept that has not received as much attention is the drooped-leading edge airfoil idea. It has been observed in wind tunnel studies and flight tests that drooped leading edge airfoils can have a milder dynamic stall, with a significantly milder load hysteresis. Drooped leading edge airfoils may not, however, be suitable at other conditions, e.g. in hover, or in transonic flow. Work needs to be done on the analysis and design of drooped leading edge airfoils for efficient operation in a variety of flight regimes (hover, dynamic stall, and transonic flow). One concept that is worthy of investigation is the dynamically drooping airfoil, where the leading edge shape is changed roughly once-per-rev to mitigate the dynamic stall.

  3. A critical assessment of UH-60 main rotor blade airfoil data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Totah, Joseph

    1993-01-01

    Many current comprehensive rotorcraft analyses employ lifting-line methods that require main rotor blade airfoil data, typically obtained from wind tunnel tests. In order to effectively evaluate these lifting-line methods, it is of the utmost importance to ensure that the airfoil section data are free of inaccuracies. A critical assessment of the SC1095 and SC1094R8 airfoil data used on the UH-60 main rotor blade was performed for that reason. Nine sources of wind tunnel data were examined, all of which contain SC1095 data and four of which also contain SC1094R8 data. Findings indicate that the most accurate data were generated in 1982 at the 11-Foot Wind Tunnel Facility at NASA Ames Research Center and in 1985 at the 6-inch by 22-inch transonic wind tunnel facility at Ohio State University. It has not been determined if data from these two sources are sufficiently accurate for their use in comprehensive rotorcraft analytical models of the UH-60. It is recommended that new airfoil tables be created for both airfoils using the existing data. Additional wind tunnel experimentation is also recommended to provide high quality data for correlation with these new airfoil tables.

  4. AIAA 2003-3957 Optimization of High-Lift

    E-print Network

    Zingg, David W.

    of sepa- rated flow, confluent boundary layers and wakes, and regions of supercritical flow.1 Such flow of an aircraft, as well as provide weight savings and reductions in me- chanical complexity.2 This has motivated. predictions of aerodynamic performance for complex airfoil geometries up to stall conditions.1 In Refs. 11

  5. A study on high subsonic airfoil flows in relatively high Reynolds number by using OpenFOAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakao, Shinichiro; Kashitani, Masashi; Miyaguni, Takeshi; Yamaguchi, Yutaka

    2014-04-01

    In the present study, numerical calculations of the flow-field around the airfoil model are performed by using the OpenFOAM in high subsonic flows. The airfoil model is NACA 64A010. The maximum thickness is 10 % of the chord length. The SonicFOAM and the RhoCentralFOAM are selected as the solver in high subsonic flows. The grid point is 158,000 and the Mach numbers are 0.277 and 0.569 respectively. The CFD data are compared with the experimental data performed by the cryogenic wind tunnel in the past. The results are as follows. The numerical results of the pressure coefficient distribution on the model surface calculated by the SonicFOAM solver showed good agreement with the experimental data measured by the cryogenic wind tunnel. And the data calculated by the SonicFOAM have the capability for the quantitative comparison of the experimental data at low angle of attack.

  6. Nonlinear Analysis of Airfoil High-Intensity Gust Response Using a High-Order Prefactored Compact Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crivellini, A.; Golubev, V.; Mankbadi, R.; Scott, J. R.; Hixon, R.; Povinelli, L.; Kiraly, L. James (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The nonlinear response of symmetric and loaded airfoils to an impinging vortical gust is investigated in the parametric space of gust dimension, intensity, and frequency. The study, which was designed to investigate the validity limits for a linear analysis, is implemented by applying a nonlinear high-order prefactored compact code and comparing results with linear solutions from the GUST3D frequency-domain solver. Both the unsteady aerodynamic and acoustic gust responses are examined.

  7. Dynamic Stall Measurements and Computations for a VR-12 Airfoil with a Variable Droop Leading Edge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, P. B.; McAlister, K. W.; Chandrasekhara, M. S.; Geissler, W.

    2003-01-01

    High density-altitude operations of helicopters with advanced performance and maneuver capabilities have lead to fundamental research on active high-lift system concepts for rotor blades. The requirement for this type of system was to improve the sectional lift-to-drag ratio by alleviating dynamic stall on the retreating blade while simultaneously reducing the transonic drag rise of the advancing blade. Both measured and computational results showed that a Variable Droop Leading Edge (VDLE) airfoil is a viable concept for application to a rotor high-lift system. Results are presented for a series of 2D compressible dynamic stall wind tunnel tests with supporting CFD results for selected test cases. These measurements and computations show a dramatic decrease in the drag and pitching moment associated with severe dynamic stall when the VDLE concept is applied to the Boeing VR-12 airfoil. Test results also show an elimination of the negative pitch damping observed in the baseline moment hysteresis curves.

  8. Origin of transonic buffet on airfoils.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crouch, J.; Garbaruk, A.; Magidov, D.

    2007-11-01

    Transonic airfoils are characterized by a zone of supersonic flow followed by a shockwave, which intensifies with increasing lift coefficient. At sufficiently high values of lift, the flow becomes globally unsteady resulting in dramatic oscillations in the shock position. This buffet onset has been shown to result from global instability (Crouch, Gabaruk & Magidov 2007, J. Comput. Phys. v. 224, p. 924). The stability analysis is based on linear perturbations to steady solutions of the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS), which are required to analyze the flow at the high Reynolds numbers of interest for transonic flow. We briefly describe the global-stability approach, and then apply the stability analysis and unsteady RANS calculations to investigate the origins of the buffet onset. Buffet-boundary predictions from the stability analysis are shown to be in good agreement with experiments.

  9. Validation of the CQU-DTU-LN1 series of airfoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, W. Z.; Zhu, W. J.; Fischer, A.; Garcia, N. R.; Cheng, J. T.; Chen, J.; Madsen, J.

    2014-12-01

    The CQU-DTU-LN1 series of airfoils were designed with an objective of high lift and low noise emission. In the design process, the aerodynamic performance is obtained using XFOIL while noise emission is obtained with the BPM model. In this paper we present some validations of the designed CQU-DTU-LN118 airfoil by using wind tunnel measurements in the acoustic wind tunnel located at Virginia Tech and numerical computations with the inhouse Q3uic and EllipSys 2D/3D codes. To show the superiority of the new airfoils, comparisons with a NACA64618 airfoil are made. For the aerodynamic features, the designed Cl and Cl/Cd agrees well with the experiment and are in general higher than those of the NACA airfoil. For the acoustic features, the noise emission of the LN118 airfoil is compared with the acoustic measurements and that of the NACA airfoil. Comparisons show that the BPM model can predict correctly the noise changes.

  10. Prediction of laminar-turbulent transition on an airfoil at high level of free-stream turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernoray, V.

    2015-06-01

    Prediction of laminar-turbulent transition at high level of free-stream turbulence in boundary layers of airfoil geometries with external pressure gradient changeover is in focus. The aim is a validation of a transition model for transition prediction in turbomachinery applications. Numerical simulations have been performed by using a transition model by Langtry and Menter for a number of different cases of pressure gradient, at Reynolds-number range, based on the airfoil chord, 50 000 ? Re ? 500 000, and free-stream turbulence intensities 2% and 4%. The validation of the computational results against the experimental data showed good performance of used turbulence model for all test cases.

  11. Influence of airfoil thickness on sound generated by high-frequency gust interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, C. T.; Kerschen, E. J.

    1992-01-01

    The sound radiated by interaction of a short wavelength gust with a symmetric thin airfoil is analyzed. The theory is based on a linearization of the Euler equations about the subsonic mean flow past the airfoil. The sound generation mechanism is found to be concentrated in a local region surrounding the parabolic nose of the airfoil; the size of this local region scales on the gust wavelength. At low Mach numbers, moderate values of airfoil thickness decrease the sound power, while at higher Mach numbers the sound power tends to increase with airfoil thickness. Airfoil thickness produces dramatic changes in the far field directivity. Both the sound power and the directivity are strong functions of the gust orientation.

  12. Recent progress in the analysis of iced airfoils and wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cebeci, Tuncer; Chen, Hsun H.; Kaups, Kalle; Schimke, Sue

    1992-01-01

    Recent work on the analysis of iced airfoils and wings is described. Ice shapes for multielement airfoils and wings are computed using an extension of the LEWICE code that was developed for single airfoils. The aerodynamic properties of the iced wing are determined with an interactive scheme in which the solutions of the inviscid flow equations are obtained from a panel method and the solutions of the viscous flow equations are obtained from an inverse three-dimensional finite-difference boundary-layer method. A new interaction law is used to couple the inviscid and viscous flow solutions. The newly developed LEWICE multielement code is amplified to a high-lift configuration to calculate the ice shapes on the slat and on the main airfoil and on a four-element airfoil. The application of the LEWICE wing code to the calculation of ice shapes on a MS-317 swept wing shows good agreement with measurements. The interactive boundary-layer method is applied to a tapered iced wing in order to study the effect of icing on the aerodynamic properties of the wing at several angles of attack.

  13. Aerodynamic characteristics of a propeller-powered high-lift semispan wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentry, Garl L., Jr.; Takallu, M. A.; Applin, Zachary T.

    1994-01-01

    A small-scale semispan high-lift wing-flap system equipped under the wing with a turboprop engine assembly was tested in the LaRC 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel. Experimental data were obtained for various propeller rotational speeds, nacelle locations, and nacelle inclinations. To isolate the effects of the high lift system, data were obtained with and without the flaps and leading-edge device. The effects of the propeller slipstream on the overall longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of the wing-propeller assembly were examined. Test results indicated that the lift coefficient of the wing could be increased by the propeller slipstream when the rotational speed was increased and high-lift devices were deployed. Decreasing the nacelle inclination (increased pitch down) enhanced the lift performance of the system much more than varying the vertical or horizontal location of the nacelle. Furthermore, decreasing the nacelle inclination led to higher lift curve slope values, which indicated that the powered wing could sustain higher angles of attack near maximum lift performance. Any lift augmentation was accompanied by a drag penalty due to the increased wing lift.

  14. Aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils with ice accretions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg, M. B.; Gregorek, G. M.

    1982-01-01

    Results of a wind tunnel test to evaluate the performance of an airfoil with simulated rime ice are presented with theoretical comparisons. A NACA 65A413 airfoil was tested in the OSU 6 x 22 inch Transonic Airfoil Wind Tunnel at a Reynolds number near three million and Mach numbers from 0.20 to 0.80. The model was tested in four configurations to determine the aero-dynamic effects of the roughness and shape of a rime ice accretion. The simulated rime ice shape was obtained analytically using a time-stepping dry ice accretion computer code. Lift, drag, moment coefficients, and pressure distributions for the clean and simulated rime ice cases are reported. The measured degradation in airfoil performance is compared to an analytical method which uses existing airfoil analysis computer codes with empirical corrections for the surface roughness. A discussion of the empirical surface roughness correction and uses of other airfoil computer methods is included.

  15. Aerodynamic Control of a Pitching Airfoil by Distributed Bleed Actuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kearney, John; Glezer, Ari

    2013-11-01

    The aerodynamic forces and moments on a dynamically pitching 2-D airfoil model are controlled in wind tunnel experiments using distributed active bleed. Bleed flow on the suction surface downstream of the leading edge is driven by pressure differences across the airfoil and is regulated by low-power louver actuators. The bleed interacts with cross flows to effect time-dependent variations of the vorticity flux and thereby alters the local flow attachment, resulting in significant changes in pre- and post-stall lift and pitching moment (over 50% increase in baseline post-stall lift). The flow field over the airfoil is measured using high-speed (2000 fps) PIV, resolving the dynamics and characteristic time-scales of production and advection of vorticity concentrations that are associated with transient variations in the aerodynamic forces and moments. In particular, it is shown that the actuation improves the lift hysteresis and pitch stability during the oscillatory pitching by altering the evolution of the dynamic stall vortex and the ensuing flow attachment during the downstroke. Supported by the Rotorcraft Center (VLRCOE) at Georgia Tech.

  16. Highly turbulent combustion: A study of lifted and shredded flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratner, Albert

    The impact of turbulence on flame chemistry in highly turbulent flames has been studied in order to test existing theories and produce data that are useful to the computer modeling community. In these flames, the fuel is injected separately from the air, but a significant amount of premixing occurs prior to combustion. By employing Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) of chemical species, and exhaust gas sampling, the effect of turbulence on flame chemistry has been quantified for a highly lifted, supersonic flame and for a highly swirled, shredded flame. In the supersonic flame, OH PLIF measurements were combined with combustion efficiency measurements and PIV to help to understand the mixing and flame structure. Negative velocities of more than 200 m/s were identified in the recirculating zones. Mechanisms of fuel-air mixing that result in decreased combustion efficiencies were identified. In the shredded flame, an ultra-high turbulence region was generated to examine what occurs when reaction layers encounter high turbulence levels. The flame was probed with simultaneous CH and OH PLIF and then simultaneous PIV and OH PLIF. It was found that the normalized turbulence level, even though it was ten-times greater than any previous imaging study, still produced no measurable impact on flame reaction layer thickness. This flame was also quantified by measurements of Flame Surface Density (Sigma). The thin flamelet assumption of flamelet theory is found to be valid in these highly turbulent flames. Data are presented that can be used to assess computational models as well as to provide insight into the physical processes of turbulent combustion.

  17. continuum mechanics inviscid fluids In this problem, we will explore how an airfoil, such as the wing of an airplane, generates lift by using

    E-print Network

    , such as the wing of an airplane, generates lift by using a simple analytic model. In this problem, you can assume that air is an incompressible and irrotational fluid with density . In order to model our airplane wing, we will use a conformal mapping to generate a shape which "looks like" an airplane wing. The conformal mapping

  18. Feedback control of a pitching and plunging airfoil via direct numerical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Scott; Brunton, Steven; Rowley, Clarence

    2012-11-01

    Feedback control is implemented in direct numerical simulations at a Reynolds number of 100 to allow a two-dimensional flat plate airfoil to track desired lift profiles using pitching and plunging motions. Robust controllers are designed using both classical models (Theodorsen) and empirical reduced-order models identified from direct numerical simulations. We investigate the capabilities of a variety of controllers for plunging motion and for pitching about different pitch axis locations. Effective control is achieved across a wide range of angles of attack, despite strongly nonlinear flow physics. The forces caused by rapid airfoil motion may be utilized to achieve high lift coefficients for short periods of time. It is also possible to track periodic lift profiles with average lift coefficients that are significantly greater than those achieved by a steady airfoil. The enhanced lift that arises at certain frequencies appears to be caused by favorable interaction of wake vortices. The ability of the controllers to reject gust disturbances and attenuate sensor noise is also investigated, which is relevant for the implementation of such controllers in an experimental setting. This work is supported by AFOSR grant FA9550-12-1-0075.

  19. Overview of Fundamental High-Lift Research for Transport Aircraft at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leavitt, L. D.; Washburn, A. E.; Wahls, R. A.

    2007-01-01

    NASA has had a long history in fundamental and applied high lift research. Current programs provide a focus on the validation of technologies and tools that will enable extremely short take off and landing coupled with efficient cruise performance, simple flaps with flow control for improved effectiveness, circulation control wing concepts, some exploration into new aircraft concepts, and partnership with Air Force Research Lab in mobility. Transport high-lift development testing will shift more toward mid and high Rn facilities at least until the question: "How much Rn is required" is answered. This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of High-Lift research at NASA.

  20. Aerodynamics of S809 Airfoil at Low and Transitional Reynolds Numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carreras, Jaime J.; Laal-Dehghani, Nader; Gorumlu, Serdar; Mehdi, Faraz; Castillo, Luciano; Aksak, Burak; Sheng, Jian

    2013-11-01

    The S809 is a thick airfoil extensively used in wind turbine design applications and model studies in wind tunnel. With increased interests in reducing energy production cost and understanding turbulence and turbine interactions, scaled down models (Re ~103) are often used as an alternative to full scale field experimentation (Re >106). This Reynolds number discrepancy raises the issue of scaling for the airfoil performance from laboratory studies to field scale applications. To the best of our knowledge, there are no studies existing in literature to characterize the lift- and drag-coefficients of S809 airfoil at Re less than 3 ×105 . This study is to fill the deficit in the current state of knowledge by performing high resolution force measurements. The lift and drag measurements are carried out in Texas Tech Wind Tunnel Facility using an in-house developed dual-cell force balance. The configuration eliminates the large torque and torsion often accompanied by conventional mounts. This unique design allows us to reach a measurement accuracy of 0.02N (0.1%). Comparative studies are performed on a two-dimensional airfoil with a smooth- as well as a well-engineered surface covered by micro-pillar array to simulate the surface conditions of a real life airfoil.

  1. Flow structure and performance of a flexible plunging airfoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akkala, James Marcus

    An investigation was performed with the intent of characterizing the effect of flexibility on a plunging airfoil, over a parameter space applicable to birds and flapping MAVs. The kinematics of the motion was determined using of a high speed camera, and the deformations and strains involved in the motion were examined. The vortex dynamics associated with the plunging motion were mapped out using particle image velocimetry (PIV), and categorized according to the behavior of the leading edge vortex (LEV). The development and shedding process of the LEVs was also studied, along with their flow trajectories. Results of the flexible airfoils were compared to similar cases performed with a rigid airfoil, so as to determine the effects caused by flexibility. Aerodynamic loads of the airfoils were also measured using a force sensor, and the recorded thrust, lift and power coefficients were analyzed for dependencies, as was the overall propulsive efficiency. Thrust and power coefficients were found to scale with the Strouhal number defined by the trialing edge amplitude, causing the data of the flexible airfoils to collapse down to a single curve. The lift coefficient was likewise found to scale with trailing edge Strouhal number; however, its data tended to collapse down to a linear relationship. On the other hand, the wake classification and the propulsive efficiency were more successfully scaled by the reduced frequency of the motion. The circulation of the LEV was determined in each case and the resulting data was scaled using a parameter developed for this specific study, which provided significant collapse of the data throughout the entire parameter space tested.

  2. Computational Fluid Dynamic simulation of airfoils in unsteady low Reynolds number flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiralaei, Mohammadreza

    The inherent complexity of low Reynolds number (LRN) flows and their respective viscous vortical patterns demand an accurate solution method to achieve the desired accuracy. This complicated flow field needs even more robust methods when the flow is unsteady. The flow field of unsteady airfoils and wings in LRN regime is challenging to solve and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations stand out as solid solution techniques in this area. This thesis is motivated by an existing rotating-flapping mechanism, whose kinematics components can be broken into pitching, plunging and a novel figure-of-eight-like flapping motion of its blades and each blade's cross section. The focus is on two-dimensional low Reynolds number (LRN) flows using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and a Finite Volume Method (FVM). As one of the targets is to simulate a pair of blades, and consequently a pair of airfoils, a mesh motion library is developed to perform rotational and translational motions of multi-body configurations. The library and its sub-routines are tested on pairs of pitching, plunging and flapping airfoils, where the moving mesh problem is performed with a significant gain in the computational time compared to other moving mesh techniques such as Laplacian smoothing algorithm. The simulations of a single airfoil under harmonic and the novel figure-of-eight-like flapping motions, respectively, are conducted within 67% and 80% time it took to obtain a steady solution using the Laplace smoothing mesh motion algorithm, while the calculated force coefficients were in reasonably close agreement. Flow fields of single unsteady airfoils under pitching, plunging and figure-of-eight flapping motions are also simulated in this thesis accompanied with extensive parametric studies. The simulations of the considered figure-of-eight flapping pattern shows that its highly inclined asymmetrical kinematics results in higher vertical lift coefficients than the existing flapping patterns in the literature, useful for stable hovering flight. The studies over paired-airfoils arrangements under pitching and plunging and the figure-of-eight flapping motion show that the airfoil-airfoil interaction affects the fluid forces noticeably. The multi-plunging analysis, for example, reveals that the maximum lift coefficient is higher than that of a single plunging airfoil, while minimum drag coefficient is lower, showing the favorable effect of airfoil-airfoil interaction in the studied multi-plunging cases.

  3. 1997 NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop. Volume 2; High Lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baize, Daniel G. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    The High-Speed Research Program and NASA Langley Research Center sponsored the NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop on February 25-28, 1997. The workshop was designed to bring together NASA and industry High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in areas of Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag, prediction and minimization), High-Lift, Flight Controls, Supersonic Laminar Flow Control, and Sonic Boom Prediction. The workshop objectives were to (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodynamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among the scientist and engineers working HSCT aerodynamics. In particular, single- and multi-point optimized HSCT configurations, HSCT high-lift system performance predictions, and HSCT Motion Simulator results were presented along with executives summaries for all the Aerodynamic Performance technology areas.

  4. Helium : lifting high-performance stencil kernels from stripped x86 binaries to halide DSL code

    E-print Network

    Mendis, Thirimadura Charith Yasendra

    2015-01-01

    Highly optimized programs are prone to bit rot, where performance quickly becomes suboptimal in the face of new hardware and compiler techniques. In this paper we show how to automatically lift performance-critical stencil ...

  5. Helium: lifting high-performance stencil kernels from stripped x86 binaries to halide DSL code

    E-print Network

    Wu, Kevin

    Highly optimized programs are prone to bit rot, where performance quickly becomes suboptimal in the face of new hardware and compiler techniques. In this paper we show how to automatically lift performance-critical stencil ...

  6. Development of a large-scale, outdoor, ground-based test capability for evaluating the effect of rain on airfoil lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bezos, Gaudy M.; Campbell, Bryan A.

    1993-01-01

    A large-scale, outdoor, ground-based test capability for acquiring aerodynamic data in a simulated rain environment was developed at the Langley Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF) to assess the effect of heavy rain on airfoil performance. The ALDF test carriage was modified to transport a 10-ft-chord NACA 64210 wing section along a 3000-ft track at full-scale aircraft approach speeds. An overhead rain simulation system was constructed along a 525-ft section of the track with the capability of producing simulated rain fields of 2, 10, 30, and 40 in/hr. The facility modifications, the aerodynamic testing and rain simulation capability, the design and calibration of the rain simulation system, and the operational procedures developed to minimize the effect of wind on the simulated rain field and aerodynamic data are described in detail. The data acquisition and reduction processes are also presented along with sample force data illustrating the environmental effects on data accuracy and repeatability for the 'rain-off' test condition.

  7. Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes investigation of high-lift low-pressure turbine blade aerodynamics at low Reynolds number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arko, Bryan M.

    Design trends for the low-pressure turbine (LPT) section of modern gas turbine engines include increasing the loading per airfoil, which promises a decreased airfoil count resulting in reduced manufacturing and operating costs. Accurate Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes predictions of separated boundary layers and transition to turbulence are needed, as the lack of an economical and reliable computational model has contributed to this high-lift concept not reaching its full potential. Presented here for what is believed to be the first time applied to low-Re computations of high-lift linear cascade simulations is the Abe-Kondoh-Nagano (AKN) linear low-Re two-equation turbulence model which utilizes the Kolmogorov velocity scale for improved predictions of separated boundary layers. A second turbulence model investigated is the Kato-Launder modified version of the AKN, denoted MPAKN, which damps turbulent production in highly strained regions of flow. Fully Laminar solutions have also been calculated in an effort to elucidate the transitional quality of the turbulence model solutions. Time accurate simulations of three modern high-lift blades at a Reynolds number of 25,000 are compared to experimental data and higher-order computations in order to judge the accuracy of the results, where it is shown that the RANS simulations with highly refined grids can produce both quantitatively and qualitatively similar separation behavior as found in experiments. In particular, the MPAKN model is shown to predict the correct boundary layer behavior for all three blades, and evidence of transition is found through inspection of the components of the Reynolds Stress Tensor, spectral analysis, and the turbulence production parameter. Unfortunately, definitively stating that transition is occurring becomes an uncertain task, as similar evidence of the transition process is found in the Laminar predictions. This reveals that boundary layer reattachment may be a result of laminar vortex shedding interaction with the blade surface, or that application of Laminar solvers with highly refined grids may be valid for investigations of transitional flow. It is recommended that this be studied in the future along with further studies of the turbulence models presented, which have proved to be worthy of additional study in the present application.

  8. Design and Experimental Results for the S825 Airfoil; Period of Performance: 1998-1999

    SciTech Connect

    Somers, D. M.

    2005-01-01

    A 17%-thick, natural-laminar-flow airfoil, the S825, for the 75% blade radial station of 20- to 40-meter, variable-speed and variable-pitch (toward feather), horizontal-axis wind turbines has been designed and analyzed theoretically and verified experimentally in the NASA Langley Low-Turbulence Pressure Tunnel. The two primary objectives of high maximum lift, relatively insensitive to roughness and low-profile drag have been achieved. The airfoil exhibits a rapid, trailing-edge stall, which does not meet the design goal of a docile stall. The constraints on the pitching moment and the airfoil thickness have been satisfied. Comparisons of the theoretical and experimental results generally show good agreement.

  9. Effects of forward contour modification on the aerodynamic characteristics of the NACA 641-212 airfoil section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, R. M.; Mendoza, J. P.; Bandettini, A.

    1975-01-01

    Two different forward contour modifications designed to increase the maximum lift coefficient of the NACA 64 sub 1-212 airfoil section were evaluated experimentally at low speeds. One modification consisted of a slight droop of the leading edge with an increased leading-edge radius; the other modification incorporated increased thickness over the forward 35 percent of the upper surface of the profile. Both modified airfoil sections were found to provide substantially higher maximum lift coefficients than the 64 sub 1-212 section. The drooped leading-edge modification incurred a drag penalty of approximately 10 percent at low and moderate lift coefficients and exhibited a greater nosedown pitching moment than the 64 sub 1-212 profile. The upper surface modification produced about the same drag level as the 64 sub 1-212 section at low and moderate lift coefficients and less nosedown pitching moment than the 64 sub 1-212 profile. Both modified airfoil sections had lower drag coefficients than the 64 sub 1-212 section at high lift coefficients.

  10. Numerical simulation by TVD schemes of complex shock reflections from airfoils at high angle of attack. [Total Variation Diminishing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moon, Young J.; Yee, H. C.

    1987-01-01

    The shock-capturing capability of total variation diminishing (TVD) schemes is demonstrated for a more realistic complex shock-diffraction problem for which the experimental data are available. Second-order explicit upwind and symmetric TVD schemes are used to solve the time-dependent Euler equations of gas dynamics for the interaction of a blast wave with an airfoil at high angle-of-attack. The test cases considered are a time-dependent moving curved-shock wave and a contant moving planar-shock wave impinging at an angle-of-attack 30 deg on a NACA 0018 airfoil. Good agreement is obtained between isopycnic contours computed by the TVD schemes and those from experimental interferograms. No drastic difference in flow-field structure is found between the curved- and planar-shock wave cases, except for a difference in density level near the lower surface of the airfoil. Computation for cases with higher shock Mach numbers is also possible. Numerical experiments show that the symmetric TVD scheme is less sensitive to the boundary conditions treatment than the upwind scheme.

  11. The application to airfoils of a technique for reducing orifice-induced pressure error at high Reynolds numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plentovich, E. B.

    1986-01-01

    A wind tunnel investigation was conducted in the Langley 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel to study the effects of porous (sintered metal) plug orifices on orifice-induced static-pressure measurement error at high Reynolds numbers. A NACA airfoil was tested at Mach numbers from 0.60 to 0.80 and at Reynolds numbers from 6 x 1,000,000 to 40 x 1,000,000. Data are included which compare pressure measurements obtained from porous plug orifices and from conventional orifices with diameters of 0.025 cm (0.010 in.) and 0.102 cm (0.040 in.). The two dimensional airfoil code GRUMFOIL was used to calculate boundary layer displacement thickness. The response time and the downstream effect of the porous plug orifice were considered in this investigation. The results showed that the porous plug orifice could be a viable method of reducing pressure error. The data also showed that the pressure measurements obtained with a 0.102-cm-diameter orifice were very close to the measurements obtained with 0.025-cm-diameter orifice over such of the airfoil and that downstream of a shock the orifice size was not critical.

  12. Experimental and simulated control of lift using trailing edge devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooperman, A.; Blaylock, M.; van Dam, C. P.

    2014-12-01

    Two active aerodynamic load control (AALC) devices coupled with a control algorithm are shown to decrease the change in lift force experienced by an airfoil during a change in freestream velocity. Microtabs are small (1% chord) surfaces deployed perpendicular to an airfoil, while microjets are pneumatic jets with flow perpendicular to the surface of the airfoil near the trailing edge. Both devices are capable of producing a rapid change in an airfoil's lift coefficient. A control algorithm for microtabs has been tested in a wind tunnel using a modified S819 airfoil, and a microjet control algorithm has been simulated for a NACA 0012 airfoil using OVERFLOW. In both cases, the AALC devices have shown the ability to mitigate the changes in lift during a gust.

  13. Armature lift windmill

    SciTech Connect

    Willmouth, R. W.

    1985-04-02

    Airfoils are secured to the frame of a vertical axis windmill to provide vertical lift to a rotatable vertical shaft and to armatures of electrical generators, thereby eliminating friction between each armature and its end bearing as well as between the vertical shaft and its end bearing. An indicator provides an indication that the generators of the windmill are generating an alternating electrical current having at least a predetermined voltage magnitude.

  14. Light aircraft lift, drag, and moment prediction: A review and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smetana, F. O.; Summey, D. C.; Smith, N. S.; Carden, R. K.

    1975-01-01

    The historical development of analytical methods for predicting the lift, drag, and pitching moment of complete light aircraft configurations in cruising flight is reviewed. Theoretical methods, based in part on techniques described in the literature and in part on original work, are developed. These methods form the basis for understanding the computer programs given to: (1) compute the lift, drag, and moment of conventional airfoils, (2) extend these two-dimensional characteristics to three dimensions for moderate-to-high aspect ratio unswept wings, (3) plot complete configurations, (4) convert the fuselage geometric data to the correct input format, (5) compute the fuselage lift and drag, (6) compute the lift and moment of symmetrical airfoils to M = 1.0 by a simplified semi-empirical procedure, and (7) compute, in closed form, the pressure distribution over a prolate spheroid at alpha = 0. Comparisons of the predictions with experiment indicate excellent lift and drag agreement for conventional airfoils and wings. Limited comparisons of body-alone drag characteristics yield reasonable agreement. Also included are discussions for interference effects and techniques for summing the results above to obtain predictions for complete configurations.

  15. Design Methodology for Multi-Element High-Lift Systems on Subsonic Civil Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepper, R. S.; vanDam, C. P.

    1996-01-01

    The choice of a high-lift system is crucial in the preliminary design process of a subsonic civil transport aircraft. Its purpose is to increase the allowable aircraft weight or decrease the aircraft's wing area for a given takeoff and landing performance. However, the implementation of a high-lift system into a design must be done carefully, for it can improve the aerodynamic performance of an aircraft but may also drastically increase the aircraft empty weight. If designed properly, a high-lift system can improve the cost effectiveness of an aircraft by increasing the payload weight for a given takeoff and landing performance. This is why the design methodology for a high-lift system should incorporate aerodynamic performance, weight, and cost. The airframe industry has experienced rapid technological growth in recent years which has led to significant advances in high-lift systems. For this reason many existing design methodologies have become obsolete since they are based on outdated low Reynolds number wind-tunnel data and can no longer accurately predict the aerodynamic characteristics or weight of current multi-element wings. Therefore, a new design methodology has been created that reflects current aerodynamic, weight, and cost data and provides enough flexibility to allow incorporation of new data when it becomes available.

  16. Overview and Summary of the Second AIAA High Lift Prediction Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumsey, Christopher L.; Slotnick, Jeffrey P.

    2014-01-01

    The second AIAA CFD High-Lift Prediction Workshop was held in San Diego, California, in June 2013. The goals of the workshop continued in the tradition of the first high-lift workshop: to assess the numerical prediction capability of current-generation computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technology for swept, medium/high-aspect-ratio wings in landing/takeoff (high-lift) configurations. This workshop analyzed the flow over the DLR-F11 model in landing configuration at two different Reynolds numbers. Twenty-six participants submitted a total of 48 data sets of CFD results. A variety of grid systems (both structured and unstructured) were used. Trends due to grid density and Reynolds number were analyzed, and effects of support brackets were also included. This paper analyzes the combined results from all workshop participants. Comparisons with experimental data are made. A statistical summary of the CFD results is also included.

  17. Does Small High School Reform Lift Urban Districts? Evidence from New York City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiefel, Leanna; Schwartz, Amy Ellen; Wiswall, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Research finds that small high schools deliver better outcomes than large high schools for urban students. An important outstanding question is whether this better performance is gained at the expense of losses elsewhere: Does small school reform lift the whole district? We explore New York City's small high school reform in which hundreds of new…

  18. Large-eddy simulation of flow around an airfoil on a structured mesh

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaltenbach, Hans-Jakob; Choi, Haecheon

    1995-01-01

    The diversity of flow characteristics encountered in a flow over an airfoil near maximum lift taxes the presently available statistical turbulence models. This work describes our first attempt to apply the technique of large-eddy simulation to a flow of aeronautical interest. The challenge for this simulation comes from the high Reynolds number of the flow as well as the variety of flow regimes encountered, including a thin laminar boundary layer at the nose, transition, boundary layer growth under adverse pressure gradient, incipient separation near the trailing edge, and merging of two shear layers at the trailing edge. The flow configuration chosen is a NACA 4412 airfoil near maximum lift. The corresponding angle of attack was determined independently by Wadcock (1987) and Hastings & Williams (1984, 1987) to be close to 12 deg. The simulation matches the chord Reynolds number U(sub infinity)c/v = 1.64 x 10(exp 6) of Wadcock's experiment.

  19. Design and experimental results for the S805 airfoil

    SciTech Connect

    Somers, D.M.

    1997-01-01

    An airfoil for horizontal-axis wind-turbine applications, the S805, has been designed and analyzed theoretically and verified experimentally in the low-turbulence wind tunnel of the Delft University of Technology Low Speed Laboratory, The Netherlands. The two primary objectives of restrained maximum lift, insensitive to roughness, and low profile drag have been achieved. The airfoil also exhibits a docile stall. Comparisons of the theoretical and experimental results show good agreement. Comparisons with other airfoils illustrate the restrained maximum lift coefficient as well as the lower profile-drag coefficients, thus confirming the achievement of the primary objectives.

  20. Design and experimental results for the S809 airfoil

    SciTech Connect

    Somers, D.M.

    1997-01-01

    A 21-percent-thick, laminar-flow airfoil, the S809, for horizontal-axis wind-turbine applications, has been designed and analyzed theoretically and verified experimentally in the low-turbulence wind tunnel of the Delft University of Technology Low Speed Laboratory, The Netherlands. The two primary objectives of restrained maximum lift, insensitive to roughness, and low profile drag have been achieved. The airfoil also exhibits a docile stall. Comparisons of the theoretical and experimental results show good agreement. Comparisons with other airfoils illustrate the restrained maximum lift coefficient as well as the lower profile-drag coefficients, thus confirming the achievement of the primary objectives.

  1. 3-D High-Lift Flow-Physics Experiment - Transition Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGinley, Catherine B.; Jenkins, Luther N.; Watson, Ralph D.; Bertelrud, Arild

    2005-01-01

    An analysis of the flow state on a trapezoidal wing model from the NASA 3-D High Lift Flow Physics Experiment is presented. The objective of the experiment was to characterize the flow over a non-proprietary semi-span three-element high-lift configuration to aid in assessing the state of the art in the computation of three-dimensional high-lift flows. Surface pressures and hot-film sensors are used to determine the flow conditions on the slat, main, and flap. The locations of the attachments lines and the values of the attachment line Reynolds number are estimated based on the model surface pressures. Data from the hot-films are used to determine if the flow is laminar, transitional, or turbulent by examining the hot-film time histories, statistics, and frequency spectra.

  2. 1999 NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop. Volume 2; High Lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahne, David E. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    The High-Speed Research Program sponsored the NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Review on February 8-12, 1999 in Anaheim, California. The review was designed to bring together NASA and industry High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in areas of: Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag prediction and minimization) and High-Lift. The review objectives were to: (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodynamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among the scientist and engineers working HSCT aerodynamics. The HSR AP Technical Review was held simultaneously with the annual review of the following airframe technology areas: Materials and Structures, Environmental Impact, Flight Deck, and Technology Integration Thus, a fourth objective of the Review was to promote synergy between the Aerodynamic Performance technology area and the other technology areas within the airframe element of the HSR Program. This Volume 2/Part 1 publication presents the High-Lift Configuration Development session.

  3. An analytical evaluation of airfoil sections for helicopter rotor applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bingham, G. J.

    1975-01-01

    An analytical technique was used to evaluate airfoils for helicopter rotor application. This technique permits assessment of the influences of airfoil geometric variations on drag divergence Mach number at lift coefficients from near zero to near maximum lift. Analytical results presented in this paper indicate the compromises in drag divergence Mach number which result from changes in (1) thickness ratio, (2) location of maximum thickness, (3) leading-edge radius, (4) camber addition, and (5) location of maximum camber of NACA four- and five-digit-series airfoils and some 6-series airfoils of potential interest for helicopters. Examples of airfoil sections which combine several of the geometric changes favorable to both advancing and retreating section performance have been presented.

  4. Composite airfoil assembly

    DOEpatents

    Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose

    2015-03-03

    A composite blade assembly for mounting on a turbine wheel includes a ceramic airfoil and an airfoil platform. The ceramic airfoil is formed with an airfoil portion, a blade shank portion and a blade dovetail tang. The metal platform includes a platform shank and a radially inner platform dovetail. The ceramic airfoil is captured within the metal platform, such that in use, the ceramic airfoil is held within the turbine wheel independent of the metal platform.

  5. On the general theory of thin airfoils for nonuniform motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reissner, Eric

    1944-01-01

    General thin-airfoil theory for a compressible fluid is formulated as boundary problem for the velocity potential, without recourse to the theory of vortex motion. On the basis of this formulation the integral equation of lifting-surface theory for an incompressible fluid is derived with the chordwise component of the fluid velocity at the airfoil as the function to be determined. It is shown how by integration by parts this integral equation can be transformed into the Biot-Savart theorem. A clarification is gained regarding the use of principal value definitions for the integral which occur. The integral equation of lifting-surface theory is used a s the starting point for the establishment of a theory for the nonstationary airfoil which is a generalization of lifting-line theory for the stationary airfoil and which might be called "lifting-strip" theory. Explicit expressions are given for section lift and section moment in terms of the circulation function, which for any given wing deflection is to be determined from an integral equation which is of the type of the equation of lifting-line theory. The results obtained are for airfoils of uniform chord. They can be extended to tapered airfoils. One of the main uses of the results should be that they furnish a practical means for the analysis of the aerodynamic span effect in the problem of wing flutter. The range of applicability of "lifting-strip" theory is the same as that of lifting-line theory so that its results may be applied to airfoils with aspect ratios as low as three.

  6. Numerical modeling of aerodynamics of airfoils of micro air vehicles in gusty environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalan, Harish

    The superior flight characteristics exhibited by birds and insects can be taken as a prototype of the most perfect form of flying machine ever created. The design of Micro Air Vehicles (MAV) which tries mimic the flight of birds and insects has generated a great deal of interest as the MAVs can be utilized for a number of commercial and military operations which is usually not easily accessible by manned motion. The size and speed of operation of a MAV results in low Reynolds number flight, way below the flying conditions of a conventional aircraft. The insensitivity to wind shear and gust is one of the required factors to be considered in the design of airfoil for MAVs. The stability of flight under wind shear is successfully accomplished in the flight of birds and insects, through the flapping motion of their wings. Numerous studies which attempt to model the flapping motion of the birds and insects have neglected the effect of wind gust on the stability of the motion. Also sudden change in flight conditions makes it important to have the ability to have an instantaneous change of the lift force without disturbing the stability of the MAV. In the current study, two dimensional rigid airfoil, undergoing flapping motion is studied numerically using a compressible Navier-Stokes solver discretized using high-order finite difference schemes. The high-order schemes in space and in time are needed to keep the numerical solution economic in terms of computer resources and to prevent vortices from smearing. The numerical grid required for the computations are generated using an inverse panel method for the streamfunction and potential function. This grid generating algorithm allows the creation of single-block orthogonal H-grids with ease of clustering anywhere in the domain and the easy resolution of boundary layers. The developed numerical algorithm has been validated successfully against benchmark problems in computational aeroacoustics (CAA), and unsteady viscous flows. The numerical results for pure-plunge and pure-pitching motion of SD 7003 airfoil are compared with the particle image velocimetry data of Michael Ol by plotting the contours of streamwise velocity and vorticity and also by observing the wake profile of the streamwise velocity. A very good agreement in the location of the vortices was observed between the numerical and experimental results. Also the numerical tracking of streaklines was compared with the dye injection experiments and excellent agreement in the horizontal and vertical locations of the vortex cores was observed. The importance of using the angle of attack to match the wake structures and lift forces of airfoils in pure-pitch and pure-plunge was investigated and it was found that matching the plunging amplitude with the maximum displacement of the leading edge provides a closer match in the observed wake structures and coefficient of lift. Next, the average coefficient of list of an airfoil in pure-pitch was studied and it was found that the pitching about the leading edge produced the maximum value. Two difference methods of enhancements were considered: (i) axis of rotation, and (ii) moving airfoil, as possible ways to enhance the average coefficient of lift for an airfoil pitching about its leading edge. The first case produced two times increase and the second case produced almost four times increase in the average coefficient of lift respectively. Hence these two kinds of motion can be used for lift enhancement to overcome sudden changes in the flight conditions. Finally the effect of a sinusoidal gust on an airfoil in pure-pitch and pure-plunge motion was examined. The pitching motion showed a much lesser drop in the average coefficient of lift compared to the plunging motion, suggesting its effectiveness to overcome disturbances in the freestream. The plunging motion on the other hand can be employed for cases that require the suppression of the oscillation in the lift coefficient.

  7. 1999 NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop. Volume 2; High Lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahne, David E. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    NASA's High-Speed Research Program sponsored the 1999 Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review on February 8-12, 1999 in Anaheim, California. The review was designed to bring together NASA and industry High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in the areas of Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag prediction and minimization), High Lift, and Flight Controls. The review objectives were to (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodynamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among die scientists and engineers working on HSCT aerodynamics. In particular, single and midpoint optimized HSCT configurations, HSCT high-lift system performance predictions, and HSCT simulation results were presented, along with executive summaries for all the Aerodynamic Performance technology areas. The HSR Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review was held simultaneously with the annual review of the following airframe technology areas: Materials and Structures, Environmental Impact, Flight Deck, and Technology Integration. Thus, a fourth objective of the Review was to promote synergy between the Aerodynamic Performance technology area and the other technology areas of the HSR Program. This Volume 2/Part 2 publication covers the tools and methods development session.

  8. 1998 NASA High-Speed Research Program Aerodynamic Performance Workshop. Volume 2; High Lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMillin, S. Naomi (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    NASA's High-Speed Research Program sponsored the 1998 Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review on February 9-13, in Los Angeles, California. The review was designed to bring together NASA and industry High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Aerodynamic Performance technology development participants in areas of Configuration Aerodynamics (transonic and supersonic cruise drag prediction and minimization), High-Lift, and Flight Controls. The review objectives were to (1) report the progress and status of HSCT aerodynamic performance technology development; (2) disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; and (3) promote synergy among the scientists and engineers working HSCT aerodynamics. In particular, single- and multi-point optimized HSCT configurations, HSCT high-lift system performance predictions, and HSCT simulation results were presented along with executive summaries for all the Aerodynamic Performance technology areas. The HSR Aerodynamic Performance Technical Review was held simultaneously with the annual review of the following airframe technology areas: Materials and Structures, Environmental Impact, Flight Deck, and Technology Integration. Thus, a fourth objective of the Review was to promote synergy between the Aerodynamic Performance technology area and the other technology areas of the HSR Program.

  9. Active Control of Flow Separation Over an Airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ravindran, S. S.

    1999-01-01

    Designing an aircraft without conventional control surfaces is of interest to aerospace community. In this direction, smart actuator devices such as synthetic jets have been proposed to provide aircraft maneuverability instead of control surfaces. In this article, a numerical study is performed to investigate the effects of unsteady suction and blowing on airfoils. The unsteady suction and blowing is introduced at the leading edge of the airfoil in the form of tangential jet. Numerical solutions are obtained using Reynolds-Averaged viscous compressible Navier-Stokes equations. Unsteady suction and blowing is investigated as a means of separation control to obtain lift on airfoils. The effect of blowing coefficients on lift and drag is investigated. The numerical simulations are compared with experiments from the Tel-Aviv University (TAU). These results indicate that unsteady suction and blowing can be used as a means of separation control to generate lift on airfoils.

  10. Numerical investigation of acoustic radiation from vortex-airfoil interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legault, Anne; Ji, Minsuk; Wang, Meng

    2012-11-01

    Numerical simulations of vortices interacting with a NACA 0012 airfoil and a flat-plate airfoil at zero angle of attack are carried out to assess the applicability and accuracy of classical theories. Unsteady lift and sound are computed and compared with the predictions by theories of Sears and Amiet, which assume a thin-plate airfoil in an inviscid flow. A Navier-Stokes solver is used in the simulations, and therefore viscous effects are taken into consideration. For the thin-plate airfoil, the effect of viscosity is negligible. For a NACA 0012 airfoil, the viscous contribution to the unsteady lift and sound mainly comes from coherent vortex shedding in the wake of the airfoil and the interaction of the incoming vortices with the airfoil wake, which become stronger at higher Reynolds numbers for a 2-D laminar flow. When the flow is turbulent at chord Reynolds number of 4 . 8 ×105 , however, the viscous contribution becomes negligible as coherent vortex shedding is not present. Sound radiation from vortex-airfoil interaction at turbulent Reynolds numbers is computed numerically via Lighthill's theory and the result is compared with the predictions of Amiet and Curle. The effect of the airfoil thickness is also examined. Supported by ONR Grant N00014-09-1-1088.

  11. Airfoil self-noise and prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Thomas F.; Pope, D. Stuart; Marcolini, Michael A.

    1989-01-01

    A prediction method is developed for the self-generated noise of an airfoil blade encountering smooth flow. The prediction methods for the individual self-noise mechanisms are semiempirical and are based on previous theoretical studies and data obtained from tests of two- and three-dimensional airfoil blade sections. The self-noise mechanisms are due to specific boundary-layer phenomena, that is, the boundary-layer turbulence passing the trailing edge, separated-boundary-layer and stalled flow over an airfoil, vortex shedding due to laminar boundary layer instabilities, vortex shedding from blunt trailing edges, and the turbulent vortex flow existing near the tip of lifting blades. The predictions are compared successfully with published data from three self-noise studies of different airfoil shapes. An application of the prediction method is reported for a large scale-model helicopter rotor, and the predictions compared well with experimental broadband noise measurements. A computer code of the method is given.

  12. Ice Accretions on Modern Airfoils Investigated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Addy, Harold E., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    The Icing Branch at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field initiated and conducted the Modern Airfoils Ice Accretions project to identify ice shapes and determine their effects on the aerodynamic performance of aircraft, particularly on lift and drag. Previous aircraft ice shape and performance documentation focused on a few, older airfoils. This permitted more basic studies of the ice accretion process to be undertaken. However, having established both a working data base of ice shapes and the capability to predict these shapes for basic airfoils, questions arose about how ice might accrete differently on airfoils more representative of those being designed and flown on various aircraft today. Similarly, information about how these ice shapes would affect aerodynamic performance was needed.

  13. Pressure Distribution Over Airfoils with Fowler Flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenzinger, Carl J; Anderson, Walter B

    1938-01-01

    Report presents the results of tests made of a Clark y airfoil with a Clark y Fowler flap and of an NACA 23012 airfoil with NACA Fowler flaps. Some of the tests were made in the 7 by 10-foot wind tunnel and others in the 5-foot vertical wind tunnel. The pressures were measured on the upper and lower surfaces at one chord section both on the main airfoils and on the flaps for several angles of attack with the flaps located at the maximum-lift settings. A test installation was used in which the model was mounted in the wind tunnel between large end planes so that two-dimensional flow was approximated. The data are given in the form of pressure-distribution diagrams and as plots of calculated coefficients for the airfoil-and-flap combinations and for the flaps alone.

  14. Scale Effect on Clark Y Airfoil Characteristics from NACA Full-Scale Wind-Tunnel Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silverstein, Abe

    1935-01-01

    This report presents the results of wind tunnel tests conducted to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of the Clark Y airfoil over a large range of Reynolds numbers. Three airfoils of aspect ratio 6 and with 4, 6, and 8 foot chords were tested at velocities between 25 and 118 miles per hour, and the characteristics were obtained for Reynolds numbers (based on the airfoil chord) in the range between 1,000,000 and 9,000,000 at the low angles of attack, and between 1,000,000 and 6,000,000 at maximum lift. With increasing Reynolds number the airfoil characteristics are affected in the following manner: the drag at zero lift decreases, the maximum lift increases, the slope of the lift curve increases, the angle of zero lift occurs at smaller negative angles, and the pitching moment at zero lift does not change appreciably.

  15. CFD Simulations for the Effect of Unsteady Wakes on the Boundary Layer of a Highly Loaded Low-Pressure Turbine Airfoil (L1A)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinci, Samuel, J.

    2012-01-01

    This report is the third part of a three-part final report of research performed under an NRA cooperative Agreement contract. The first part was published as NASA/CR-2012-217415. The second part was published as NASA/CR-2012-217416. The study of the very high lift low-pressure turbine airfoil L1A in the presence of unsteady wakes was performed computationally and compared against experimental results. The experiments were conducted in a low speed wind tunnel under high (4.9%) and then low (0.6%) freestream turbulence intensity for Reynolds number equal to 25,000 and 50,000. The experimental and computational data have shown that in cases without wakes, the boundary layer separated without reattachment. The CFD was done with LES and URANS utilizing the finite-volume code ANSYS Fluent (ANSYS, Inc.) under the same freestream turbulence and Reynolds number conditions as the experiment but only at a rod to blade spacing of 1. With wakes, separation was largely suppressed, particularly if the wake passing frequency was sufficiently high. This was validated in the 3D CFD efforts by comparing the experimental results for the pressure coefficients and velocity profiles, which were reasonable for all cases examined. The 2D CFD efforts failed to capture the three dimensionality effects of the wake and thus were less consistent with the experimental data. The effect of the freestream turbulence intensity levels also showed a little more consistency with the experimental data at higher intensities when compared with the low intensity cases. Additional cases with higher wake passing frequencies which were not run experimentally were simulated. The results showed that an initial 25% increase from the experimental wake passing greatly reduced the size of the separation bubble, nearly completely suppressing it.

  16. Laminar-flow airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somers, Dan M. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An airfoil having a fore airfoil element, an aft airfoil element, and a slot region in between them. These elements induce laminar flow over substantially all of the fore airfoil element and also provide for laminar flow in at least a portion of the slot region. The method of the invention is one for inducing natural laminar flow over an airfoil. In the method, a fore airfoil element, having a leading and trailing edge, and an aft airfoil element define a slot region. Natural laminar flow is induced over substantially all of the fore airfoil element, by inducing the pressures on both surfaces of the fore airfoil element to decrease to a location proximate the trailing edge of the fore airfoil element using pressures created by the aft airfoil element.

  17. Improvement of Laminar Lifted Flame Stability Excited by High-Frequency Acoustic Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirota, Mitsutomo; Hashimoto, Kota; Oso, Hiroki; Masuya, Goro

    A high-frequency (20kHz) standing wave was applied to the unburned mixture upstream of a methane-air lifted jet flame using a bolt-clamped Langevin transducer (BLT) to improve stability. The flow field near the flame was visualized using acetone planar-laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF). The standing wave decreased the lifted flame height and increased the blow-off limit. The upstream flow field of the center jet then bent. This phenomenon appeared when there was a density difference between the center jet and the surrounding secondary flow. When the density of the center jet was less than that of the co-flow, the center jet was redirected to the pressure anti-node side. Conversely, when the density of the center jet was greater than that of the co-flow, the center jet was redirected to the pressure node side. This redirection tended to stabilize the laminar lifted flame.

  18. Non-monotonic hydrodynamic lift force on highly-extended polymers near surfaces

    E-print Network

    Charles E Sing; Alfredo Alexander-Katz

    2011-03-17

    The hydrodynamic lift force that polymers experience near boundaries is known to be a crucial element when considering rheological flows of dilute polymer solutions. Here we develop theory to describe the hydrodynamic lift force on extended polymers flowing near flat surfaces. The lift force is shown to display a non-monotonic character increasing linearly with the distance to the wall $Z$ in the near-surface regime defined as $Zlift force displays a maximum, and for $Z>L$ we recover the well known far-field result in which the force decays as $Z^{-2}$. Our analytical theory has important implications in understanding adsorption, desorption, and depletion layers of highly extended objects in flow.

  19. Performance of Advanced Heavy-Lift, High-Speed Rotorcraft Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wayne; Yeo, Hyeonsoo; Acree, C. W., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    The aerodynamic performance of rotorcraft designed for heavy-lift and high-speed cruise is examined. Configurations considered include the tiltrotor, the compound helicopter, and the lift-offset rotor. Design conditions are hover and 250-350 knot cruise, at 5k/ISA+20oC (civil) or 4k/95oF (military); with cruise conditions at 4000 or 30,000 ft. The performance was calculated using the comprehensive analysis CAMRAD II, emphasizing rotor optimization and performance, including wing-rotor interference. Aircraft performance was calculated using estimates of the aircraft drag and auxiliary propulsion efficiency. The performance metric is total power, in terms of equivalent aircraft lift-to-drag ratio L/D = WV/P for cruise, and figure of merit for hover.

  20. Transition Documentation on a Three-Element High-Lift Configuration at High Reynolds Numbers: Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertelrud, Arild; Anders, J. B. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A 2-D high-lift system experiment was conducted in August of 1996 in the Low Turbulence Pressure Tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA. The purpose of the experiment was to obtain transition measurements on a three element high-lift system for CFD code validation studies. A transition database has been created using the data from this experiment. The present report contains the analysis of the surface hot film data in terms of the transition locations on the three elements. It also includes relevant information regarding the pressure loads and distributions and the wakes behind the model to aid in the interpretation of the transition data. For some of the configurations the current pressure data has been compared with previous wind tunnel entries of the same model. The methodology used to determine the regions of transitional flow is outlined and each configuration tested has been analyzed. A discussion of interference effects, repeatability, and three-dimensional effects on the data is included.

  1. Mechanical Design of High Lift Systems for High Aspect Ratio Swept Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudolph, Peter K. C.

    1998-01-01

    The NASA Ames Research Center is working to develop a methodology for the optimization and design of the high lift system for future subsonic airliners with the involvement of two partners. Aerodynamic analysis methods for two dimensional and three dimensional wing performance with flaps and slats deployed are being developed through a grant with the aeronautical department of the University of California Davis, and a flap and slat mechanism design procedure is being developed through a contract with PKCR, Inc., of Seattle, WA. This report documents the work that has been completed in the contract with PKCR on mechanism design. Flap mechanism designs have been completed for seven (7) different mechanisms with a total of twelve (12) different layouts all for a common single slotted flap configuration. The seven mechanisms are as follows: Simple Hinge, Upside Down/Upright Four Bar Linkage (two layouts), Upside Down Four Bar Linkages (three versions), Airbus A330/340 Link/Track Mechanism, Airbus A320 Link/Track Mechanism (two layouts), Boeing Link/Track Mechanism (two layouts), and Boeing 767 Hinged Beam Four Bar Linkage. In addition, a single layout has been made to investigate the growth potential from a single slotted flap to a vane/main double slotted flap using the Boeing Link/Track Mechanism. All layouts show Fowler motion and gap progression of the flap from stowed to a fully deployed position, and evaluations based on spanwise continuity, fairing size and number, complexity, reliability and maintainability and weight as well as Fowler motion and gap progression are presented. For slat design, the options have been limited to mechanisms for a shallow leading edge slat. Three (3) different layouts are presented for maximum slat angles of 20 deg, 15 deg and 1O deg all mechanized with a rack and pinion drive similar to that on the Boeing 757 airplane. Based on the work of Ljungstroem in Sweden, this type of slat design appears to shift the lift curve so that higher lift is achieved with the deployed slat with no increase in angle of attack. The layouts demonstrate that these slat systems can be designed with no need for slave links, and an experimental test program is outlined to experimentally validate the lift characteristics of the shallow slat.

  2. Wind tunnel wall interference in V/STOL and high lift testing: A selected, annotated bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuttle, M. H.; Mineck, R. E.; Cole, K. L.

    1986-01-01

    This bibliography, with abstracts, consists of 260 citations of interest to persons involved in correcting aerodynamic data, from high lift or V/STOL type configurations, for the interference arising from the wind tunnel test section walls. It provides references which may be useful in correcting high lift data from wind tunnel to free air conditions. References are included which deal with the simulation of ground effect, since it could be viewed as having interference from three tunnel walls. The references could be used to design tests from the standpoint of model size and ground effect simulation, or to determine the available testing envelope with consideration of the problem of flow breakdown. The arrangement of the citations is chronological by date of publication in the case of reports or books, and by date of presentation in the case of papers. Included are some documents of historical interest in the development of high lift testing techniques and wall interference correction methods. Subject, corporate source, and author indices, by citation numbers, have been provided to assist the users. The appendix includes citations of some books and documents which may not deal directly with high lift or V/STOL wall interference, but include additional information which may be helpful.

  3. Evaluation of Airfoil Dynamic Stall Characteristics for Maneuverability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bousman, William G.; Aiken, Edwin W. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    In severe maneuvers, out of necessity for a military aircraft or inadvertently for a civil aircraft, a helicopter airfoil will stall in a dynamic manner and provide lift beyond what would be calculated based on static airfoil tests. The augmented lift that occurs in dynamic stall is related to a vortex that is shed near the leading edge of the airfoil. However, directly related to the augmented lift that results from the dynamic stall vortex are significant penalties in pitching moment and drag. An understanding of the relationship between the augmented lift in dynamic stall and the associated moment and drag penalties is the purpose of this paper. This relationship is characterized using data obtained in two-dimensional wind tunnel tests and related to the problem of helicopter maneuverability.

  4. Numerical Calculations of 3-D High-Lift Flows and Comparison with Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, William B, III

    2015-01-01

    Solutions were obtained with the Navier-Stokes CFD code TLNS3D to predict the flow about the NASA Trapezoidal Wing, a high-lift wing composed of three elements: the main-wing element, a deployed leading-edge slat, and a deployed trailing-edge flap. Turbulence was modeled by the Spalart-Allmaras one-equation turbulence model. One case with massive separation was repeated using Menter's two-equation SST (Menter's Shear Stress Transport) k-omega turbulence model in an attempt to improve the agreement with experiment. The investigation was conducted at a free stream Mach number of 0.2, and at angles of attack ranging from 10.004 degrees to 34.858 degrees. The Reynolds number based on the mean aerodynamic chord of the wing was 4.3 x 10 (sup 6). Compared to experiment, the numerical procedure predicted the surface pressures very well at angles of attack in the linear range of the lift. However, computed maximum lift was 5% low. Drag was mainly under predicted. The procedure correctly predicted several well-known trends and features of high-lift flows, such as off-body separation. The two turbulence models yielded significantly different solutions for the repeated case.

  5. 14 CFR 23.345 - High lift devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Flight Loads § 23.345 High... device is used, the airplane may be designed for the critical combinations of airspeed and flap...

  6. 14 CFR 23.345 - High lift devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Flight Loads § 23.345 High... device is used, the airplane may be designed for the critical combinations of airspeed and flap...

  7. Grid-Adapted FUN3D Computations for the Second High Lift Prediction Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee-Rausch, E. M.; Rumsey, C. L.; Park, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Contributions of the unstructured Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes code FUN3D to the 2nd AIAA CFD High Lift Prediction Workshop are described, and detailed comparisons are made with experimental data. Using workshop-supplied grids, results for the clean wing configuration are compared with results from the structured code CFL3D Using the same turbulence model, both codes compare reasonably well in terms of total forces and moments, and the maximum lift is similarly over-predicted for both codes compared to experiment. By including more representative geometry features such as slat and flap brackets and slat pressure tube bundles, FUN3D captures the general effects of the Reynolds number variation, but under-predicts maximum lift on workshop-supplied grids in comparison with the experimental data, due to excessive separation. However, when output-based, off-body grid adaptation in FUN3D is employed, results improve considerably. In particular, when the geometry includes both brackets and the pressure tube bundles, grid adaptation results in a more accurate prediction of lift near stall in comparison with the wind-tunnel data. Furthermore, a rotation-corrected turbulence model shows improved pressure predictions on the outboard span when using adapted grids.

  8. Shape Changing Airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, Eric A.

    2005-01-01

    Scoping of shape changing airfoil concepts including both aerodynamic analysis and materials-related technology assessment effort was performed. Three general categories of potential components were considered-fan blades, booster and compressor blades, and stator airfoils. Based on perceived contributions to improving engine efficiency, the fan blade was chosen as the primary application for a more detailed assessment. A high-level aerodynamic assessment using a GE90-90B Block 4 engine cycle and fan blade geometry indicates that blade camber changes of approximately +/-4deg would be sufficient to result in fan efficiency improvements nearing 1 percent. Constraints related to flight safety and failed mode operation suggest that use of the baseline blade shape with actuation to the optimum cruise condition during a portion of the cycle would be likely required. Application of these conditions to the QAT fan blade and engine cycle was estimated to result in an overall fan efficiency gain of 0.4 percent.

  9. Summary of the First AIAA CFD High Lift Prediction Workshop (invited)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumsey, C. L.; Long, M.; Stuever, R. A.; Wayman, T. R.

    2011-01-01

    The 1st AIAA CFD High Lift Prediction Workshop was held in Chicago in June 2010. The goals of the workshop included an assessment of the numerical prediction capability of current-generation CFD technology/ codes for swept, medium/high-aspect ratio wings in landing/take-off (high lift) configurations. 21 participants from 8 countries and 18 organizations, submitted a total of 39 datasets of CFD results. A variety of grid systems (both structured and unstructured) were used. Trends due to flap angle were analyzed, and effects of grid family, grid density, solver, and turbulence model were addressed. Some participants also assessed the effects of support brackets used to attach the flap and slat to the main wing. This invited paper describes the combined results from all workshop participants. Comparisons with experimental data are made. A statistical summary of the CFD results is also included.

  10. A Mission-Adaptive Variable Camber Flap Control System to Optimize High Lift and Cruise Lift-to-Drag Ratios of Future N+3 Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urnes, James, Sr.; Nguyen, Nhan; Ippolito, Corey; Totah, Joseph; Trinh, Khanh; Ting, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Boeing and NASA are conducting a joint study program to design a wing flap system that will provide mission-adaptive lift and drag performance for future transport aircraft having light-weight, flexible wings. This Variable Camber Continuous Trailing Edge Flap (VCCTEF) system offers a lighter-weight lift control system having two performance objectives: (1) an efficient high lift capability for take-off and landing, and (2) reduction in cruise drag through control of the twist shape of the flexible wing. This control system during cruise will command varying flap settings along the span of the wing in order to establish an optimum wing twist for the current gross weight and cruise flight condition, and continue to change the wing twist as the aircraft changes gross weight and cruise conditions for each mission segment. Design weight of the flap control system is being minimized through use of light-weight shape memory alloy (SMA) actuation augmented with electric actuators. The VCCTEF program is developing better lift and drag performance of flexible wing transports with the further benefits of lighter-weight actuation and less drag using the variable camber shape of the flap.

  11. Wind tunnel force and pressure tests of a 21% thick general aviation airfoil with 20% aileron, 25% slotted flap and 10% slot-lip spoiler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wentz, W. H., Jr.; Fiscko, K. A.

    1979-01-01

    Force and surface pressure distributions were measured for the 21% LS(1)-0421 modified airfoil fitted with 20% aileron, 25% slotted flap and 10% slot lip spoiler. All tests were conducted at a Reynolds number of 2.2 x 10 to the 6th power and a Mach number of 0.13. The lift, drag, pitching moments, control surface normal force and hinge moments, and surface pressure distributions are included in the results. Incremental performance of flap and aileron are discussed and compared to the GA(W)-2 airfoil. Spoiler control which shows a slight reversal tendency at high alpha, is examined.

  12. Microstructure Characteristics of High Lift Factor MOCVD REBCO Coated Conductors With High Zr Content

    SciTech Connect

    Galstyan, E; Gharahcheshmeh, MH; Delgado, L; Xu, AX; Majkic, G; Selvamanickam, V

    2015-06-01

    We report the microstructural characteristics of high levels of Zr-added REBa2Cu3O7-x (RE = Gd, Y rare earth) coated conductors fabricated by Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD). The enhancements of the lift factor defined as a ratio of the in-field (3 T, B parallel to c-axis) critical current density (J(c)) at 30 K and self-field J(c) at 77 K have been achieved for Zr addition levels of 20 and 25 mol% via optimization of deposition parameters. The presence of strong flux pinning is attributed to the aligned nanocolumns of BaZrO3 and nanoprecipitates embedded in REBa2Cu3O7-x matrix with good crystal quality. A high density of BZO nanorods with a typical size 6-8 nm and spacing of 20 nm has been observed. Moreover, the high Zr content was found to induce a high density of intrinsic defects, including stacking faults and dislocations. The correlation between in-field performance along the c-axis and microstructure of (Gd, Y) BCO film with a high level of Zr addition is discussed.

  13. Robust, optimal subsonic airfoil shapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rai, Man Mohan (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Method system, and product from application of the method, for design of a subsonic airfoil shape, beginning with an arbitrary initial airfoil shape and incorporating one or more constraints on the airfoil geometric parameters and flow characteristics. The resulting design is robust against variations in airfoil dimensions and local airfoil shape introduced in the airfoil manufacturing process. A perturbation procedure provides a class of airfoil shapes, beginning with an initial airfoil shape.

  14. Aerodynamic Analysis of Trailing Edge Enlarged Wind Turbine Airfoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Haoran; Shen, Wenzhong; Zhu, Weijun; Yang, Hua; Liu, Chao

    2014-06-01

    The aerodynamic performance of blunt trailing edge airfoils generated from the DU- 91-W2-250, DU-97-W-300 and DU-96-W-350 airfoils by enlarging the thickness of trailing edge symmetrically from the location of maximum thickness to chord to the trailing edge were analyzed by using CFD and RFOIL methods at a chord Reynolds number of 3 × 106. The goal of this study is to analyze the aerodynamic performance of blunt trailing edge airfoils with different thicknesses of trailing edge and maximum thicknesses to chord. The steady results calculated by the fully turbulent k-? SST, transitional k-? SST model and RFOIL all show that with the increase of thickness of trailing edge, the linear region of lift is extended and the maximum lift also increases, the increase rate and amount of lift become limited gradually at low angles of attack, while the drag increases dramatically. For thicker airfoils with larger maximum thickness to chord length, the increment of lift is larger than that of relatively thinner airfoils when the thickness of blunt trailing edge is increased from 5% to 10% chord length. But too large lift can cause abrupt stall which is profitless for power output. The transient characteristics of blunt trailing edge airfoils are caused by blunt body vortices at low angles of attack, and by the combined effect of separation and blunt body vortices at large angles of attack. With the increase of thickness of blunt trailing edge, the vibration amplitudes of lift and drag curves increase. The transient calculations over-predict the lift at large angles of attack and drag at all angles of attack than the steady calculations which is likely to be caused by the artificial restriction of the flow in two dimensions.

  15. A High-Lift Building Block Flow: Turbulent Boundary Layer Relaminarization A Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourassa, Corey; Thomas, Flint O.; Nelson, Robert C.

    2000-01-01

    Experimental evidence exists which suggests turbulent boundary layer relaminarization may play an important role in the inverse Reynolds number effect in high-lift systems. An experimental investigation of turbulent boundary layer relaminarization has been undertaken at the University of Notre Dame's Hessert Center for Aerospace Research in cooperation with NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. A wind tunnel facility has been constructed at the Hessert Center and relaminarization achieved. Preliminary evidence suggests the current predictive tools available are inadequate at determining the onset of relaminarization. In addition, an in-flight relaminarization experiment for the NASA Dryden FTF-II has been designed to explore relaminarization at Mach and Reynolds numbers more typical of commercial high-lift systems.

  16. Theory and Low-Order Modeling of Unsteady Airfoil Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesh, Kiran

    Unsteady flow phenomena are prevalent in a wide range of problems in nature and engineering. These include, but are not limited to, aerodynamics of insect flight, dynamic stall in rotorcraft and wind turbines, leading-edge vortices in delta wings, micro-air vehicle (MAV) design, gust handling and flow control. The most significant characteristics of unsteady flows are rapid changes in the circulation of the airfoil, apparent-mass effects, flow separation and the leading-edge vortex (LEV) phenomenon. Although experimental techniques and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods have enabled the detailed study of unsteady flows and their underlying features, a reliable and inexpensive loworder method for fast prediction and for use in control and design is still required. In this research, a low-order methodology based on physical principles rather than empirical fitting is proposed. The objective of such an approach is to enable insights into unsteady phenomena while developing approaches to model them. The basis of the low-order model developed here is unsteady thin-airfoil theory. A time-stepping approach is used to solve for the vorticity on an airfoil camberline, allowing for large amplitudes and nonplanar wakes. On comparing lift coefficients from this method against data from CFD and experiments for some unsteady test cases, it is seen that the method predicts well so long as LEV formation does not occur and flow over the airfoil is attached. The formation of leading-edge vortices (LEVs) in unsteady flows is initiated by flow separation and the formation of a shear layer at the airfoil's leading edge. This phenomenon has been observed to have both detrimental (dynamic stall in helicopters) and beneficial (high-lift flight in insects) effects. To predict the formation of LEVs in unsteady flows, a Leading Edge Suction Parameter (LESP) is proposed. This parameter is calculated from inviscid theory and is a measure of the suction at the airfoil's leading edge. It is hypothesized, and verified with experimental and computational data, that LEV formation always occurs at the same critical value of LESP irrespective of motion kinematics. Further, the applicability of the LESP criterion in influencing the occurrence of LEV formation is demonstrated. To model the growth and convection of leading-edge vortices, the unsteady thin-airfoil theory is augmented with discrete-vortex shedding from the leading edge. The LESP criterion is used to predict and modulate the shedding of leading-edge vorticity. Comparisons with experiments and CFD for test-cases with different airfoils, Reynolds numbers and motion kinematics, show that the method performs remarkably well in predicting force coefficients and flowfields for unsteady flows. The use of a single empirical parameter - the critical LESP value, allows the determination of onset, growth and termination of leading-edge vortex shedding. In the final part of the research, the discrete-vortex model is extended to flows where the freestream velocity is varying or small in comparison with motion velocity. With this extension, the method is made applicable to a larger set of 2D flows such as perching and hovering maneuvers, gusts, and sinusoidally varying freestream. Abstractions of perching and hovering are designed as test cases and used to validate the low-order model's performance in highly-unsteady, vortex-dominated flows. Alongside development of the low-order methodology, several features of unsteady flows are studied and analyzed with the aid of CFD and experiments. While remaining computationally inexpensive and retaining the essential flow-physics, the method is seen to be successful in prediction of both force coefficients and flow histories.

  17. Flexible-Membrane Airfoils at Low Reynolds Numbers Masatoshi Tamai,

    E-print Network

    Hu, Hui

    Flexible-Membrane Airfoils at Low Reynolds Numbers Hui Hu, Masatoshi Tamai, and Jeffery T. Murphy to assess the benefits of using flexible-membrane airfoils/wings at low Reynolds numbers for micro air aerodynamic forces acting on flexible-membrane airfoils/wings, a high-resolution particle image velocimetry

  18. FUN3D and CFL3D Computations for the First High Lift Prediction Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Michael A.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Rumsey, Christopher L.

    2011-01-01

    Two Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes codes were used to compute flow over the NASA Trapezoidal Wing at high lift conditions for the 1st AIAA CFD High Lift Prediction Workshop, held in Chicago in June 2010. The unstructured-grid code FUN3D and the structured-grid code CFL3D were applied to several different grid systems. The effects of code, grid system, turbulence model, viscous term treatment, and brackets were studied. The SST model on this configuration predicted lower lift than the Spalart-Allmaras model at high angles of attack; the Spalart-Allmaras model agreed better with experiment. Neglecting viscous cross-derivative terms caused poorer prediction in the wing tip vortex region. Output-based grid adaptation was applied to the unstructured-grid solutions. The adapted grids better resolved wake structures and reduced flap flow separation, which was also observed in uniform grid refinement studies. Limitations of the adaptation method as well as areas for future improvement were identified.

  19. Characterization of the Effect of Wing Surface Instrumentation on UAV Airfoil Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnayake, Nalin A.

    2009-01-01

    Recently proposed flight research at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) has prompted study into the aerodynamic effects of modifications made to the surfaces of laminar airfoils. The research is focused on the high-aspect ratio, laminar-flow type wings commonly found on UAVs and other aircraft with a high endurance requirement. A broad range of instrumentation possibilities, such as structural, pressure, and temperature sensing devices may require the alteration of the airfoil outer mold line as part of the installation process. This study attempts to characterize the effect of installing this additiona1 instrumentation on key airfoil performance factors, such as transition location, lift and drag curves, and stall point. In particular, the general case of an airfoil that is channeled in the spanwise direction is considered, and the impact on key performance characteristics is assessed. Particular attention is focused on exploring the limits of channel depth and low-Reynolds number on performance and stall characteristics. To quantify the effect of increased skin friction due to premature transition caused by protruding or recessed instrumentation, two simplified, conservative scenarios are used to consider two potential sources of diaturbance: A) that leading edge alterations would cause linearly expanding areas (triangles) of turbulent flow on both surfaces of the wing upstream of the natural transition point, and B) that a channel or bump on the upper surface would trip turbulent flow across the whole upper surface upstream of the natural transition point. A potentially more important consideration than the skin friction drag increment is the change in overall airfoil performance due to the installation of instrumentation along most of the wingspan. To quantify this effect, 2D CFD simulations of the flow over a representative mid-span airfoil section were conducted in order to assess the change in lift and drag curves for the airfoil in the presence of disturbed flow due to the installed instrumentation. A discussion as to the impact on high-altitude and low-speed operation of this and similar aircraft is provided.

  20. Active Control of Separation from the Slat Shoulder of a Supercritical Airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pack, LaTunia G.; Schaeffler, Norman W.; Yao, Chung-Sheng; Seifert, Avi

    2002-01-01

    Active flow control in the form of zero-mass-flux excitation was applied at the slat shoulder of a simplified high-lift airfoil to delay flow separation. The NASA Energy Efficient Transport (EET) supercritical airfoil was equipped with a 15% chord simply hinged leading edge slat and a 25% chord simply hinged trailing edge flap. The cruise configuration data was successfully reproduced, repeating previous experiments. The effects of flap and slat deflection angles on the performance of the airfoil integral parameters were quantified. Detailed flow features were measured as well, in an attempt to identify optimal actuator placement. The measurements included: steady and unsteady model and tunnel wall pressures, wake surveys, arrays of surface hot-films, flow visualization and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). High frequency periodic excitation was applied to delay the occurrence of slat stall and improve the maximum lift by 10 to 15%. Low frequency amplitude modulation was used to reduce the oscillatory momentum coefficient by roughly 50% with similar aerodynamic performance.

  1. Aerodynamic, aeroacoustic, and aeroelastic investigations of airfoil-vortex interaction using large-eddy simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilie, Marcel

    In helicopters, vortices (generated at the tip of the rotor blades) interact with the next advancing blades during certain flight and manoeuvring conditions, generating undesirable levels of acoustic noise and vibration. These Blade-Vortex Interactions (BVIs), which may cause the most disturbing acoustic noise, normally occur in descent or high-speed forward flight. Acoustic noise characterization (and potential reduction) is one the areas generating intensive research interest to the rotorcraft industry. Since experimental investigations of BVI are extremely costly, some insights into the BVI or AVI (2-D Airfoil-Vortex Interaction) can be gained using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) numerical simulations. Numerical simulation of BVI or AVI has been of interest to CFD for many years. There are still difficulties concerning an accurate numerical prediction of BVI. One of the main issues is the inherent dissipation of CFD turbulence models, which severely affects the preservation of the vortex characteristics. Moreover this is not an issue only for aerodynamic and aeroacoustic analysis but also for aeroelastic investigations as well, especially when the strong (two-way) aeroelastic coupling is of interest. The present investigation concentrates mainly on AVI simulations. The simulations are performed for Mach number, Ma = 0.3, resulting in a Reynolds number, Re = 1.3 x 106, which is based on the chord, c, of the airfoil (NACA0012). Extensive literature search has indicated that the present work represents the first comprehensive investigation of AVI using the LES numerical approach, in the rotorcraft research community. The major factor affecting the aerodynamic coefficients and aeroacoustic field as a result of airfoil-vortex interaction is observed to be the unsteady pressure generated at the location of the interaction. The present numerical results show that the aerodynamic coefficients (lift, moment, and drag) and aeroacoustic field are strongly dependent on the airfoil-vortex vertical miss-distance, airfoil angle of attack, vortex characteristics, and aeroelastic response of airfoil to airfoil-vortex interaction. A decay of airfoil-vortex interactions with the increase of vertical miss-distance and angle of attack was observed. Also, a decay of airfoil-vortex interactions is observed for the case of a flexible structure when compared with the case of a rigid structure. The decay of vortex core size produces a decrease in the aerodynamic coefficients.

  2. Dynamic stall study of a multi-element airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tung, Chee; Mcalister, Kenneth W.; Wang, Clin M.

    1992-01-01

    Unsteady flow behavior and load characteristics of a VR-7 airfoil with and without a slat were studied in the water tunnel of the Aeroflightdynamics Directorate, NASA Ames Research Center. Both airfoils were oscillated sinusoidally between 5 and 25 degrees at a Reynolds number of 200,000 to obtain the unsteady lift, drag and pitching moment data. A fluorescing dye was released from an orifice located at the leading edge of the airfoil for the purpose of visualizing the boundary layer and wake flow. The flow field and load predictions of an incompressible Navier-Stokes code based on a velocity-vorticity formulation were compared with the test data. The test and predictions both confirm that the slatted VR-7 airfoil delays both static and dynamic stall as compared to the VR-7 airfoil alone.

  3. Two-and three-dimensional unsteady lift problems in high-speed flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lomax, Harvard; Heaslet, Max A; Fuller, Franklyn B; Sluder, Loma

    1952-01-01

    The problem of transient lift on two- and three-dimensional wings flying at high speeds is discussed as a boundary-value problem for the classical wave equation. Kirchoff's formula is applied so that the analysis is reduced, just as in the steady state, to an investigation of sources and doublets. The applications include the evaluation of indicial lift and pitching-moment curves for two-dimensional sinking and pitching wings flying at Mach numbers equal to 0, 0.8, 1.0, 1.2 and 2.0. Results for the sinking case are also given for a Mach number of 0.5. In addition, the indicial functions for supersonic-edged triangular wings in both forward and reverse flow are presented and compared with the two-dimensional values.

  4. Development of a Fowler flap system for a high performance general aviation airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wentz, W. H., Jr.; Seetharam, H. C.

    1974-01-01

    A two-dimensional wind-tunnel evaluation of two Fowler flap configurations on the new GA(W)-1 airfoil was conducted. One configuration used a computer-designed 29-percent chord Fowler flap. The second configuration was modified to have increased Fowler action with a 30-percent chord flap. Force, pressure, and flow-visualization data were obtained at Reynolds numbers of 2.2 million to 2.9 million. Optimum slot geometry and performance were found to be close to computer predictions. A C sub L max of 3.8 was achieved. Optimum flap deflection, slot gap, and flap overlap are presented as functions of C sub L. Tests were made with the lower surface cusp filled in to show the performance penalties that result. Some data on the effects of adding vortex generators and hinged-plate spoilers were obtained.

  5. The use of a panel code on high lift configurations of a swept forward wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheib, J. S.; Sandlin, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    A study was done on high lift configurations of a generic swept forward wing using a panel code prediction method. A survey was done of existing codes available at Ames, frow which the program VSAERO was chosen. The results of VSAERO were compared with data obtained from the Ames 7- by 10-foot wind tunnel. The results of the comparison in lift were good (within 3.5%). The comparison of the pressure coefficients was also good. The pitching moment coefficients obtained by VSAERO were not in good agreement with experiment. VSAERO's ability to predict drag is questionable and cannot be counted on for accurate trends. Further studies were done on the effects of a leading edge glove, canards, leading edge sweeps and various wing twists on spanwise loading and trim lift with encouraging results. An unsuccessful attempt was made to model spanwise blowing and boundary layer control on the trailing edge flap. The potential results of VSAERO were compared with experimental data of flap deflections with boundary layer control to check the first order effects.

  6. Wind tunnel tests of high-lift systems for advanced transports using high-aspect-ratio supercritical wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, J. B.; Oliver, W. R.; Spacht, L. A.

    1982-01-01

    The wind tunnel testing of an advanced technology high lift system for a wide body and a narrow body transport incorporating high aspect ratio supercritical wings is described. This testing has added to the very limited low speed high Reynolds number data base for this class or aircraft. The experimental results include the effects on low speed aerodynamic characteristics of various leading and trailing edge devices, nacelles and pylons, ailerons, and spoilers, and the effects of Mach and Reynolds numbers.

  7. AIAA Paper 2004-2208 A Novel Airfoil Circulation Augment Flow Control

    E-print Network

    Zha, Gecheng

    for subsonic aircraft is proved numerically by CFD simulation. The advantages of co-flow jet airfoil include][2]. To enhance lift and suppress separation, various flow control techniques have been used including rotating edge and trailing edge[5][6] [7][8][9][10], multi-element airfoils[11][12], pulsed jet separation

  8. An Approach to the Constrained Design of Natural Laminar Flow Airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Bradford E.

    1997-01-01

    A design method has been developed by which an airfoil with a substantial amount of natural laminar flow can be designed, while maintaining other aerodynamic and geometric constraints. After obtaining the initial airfoil's pressure distribution at the design lift coefficient using an Euler solver coupled with an integral turbulent boundary layer method, the calculations from a laminar boundary layer solver are used by a stability analysis code to obtain estimates of the transition location (using N-Factors) for the starting airfoil. A new design method then calculates a target pressure distribution that will increase the laminar flow toward the desired amount. An airfoil design method is then iteratively used to design an airfoil that possesses that target pressure distribution. The new airfoil's boundary layer stability characteristics are determined, and this iterative process continues until an airfoil is designed that meets the laminar flow requirement and as many of the other constraints as possible.

  9. Tornado lift

    E-print Network

    Ivanchin, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    It is shown that one of the causes for tornado is Tornado Lift. At increasing vortex diameter its kinetic energy decreases to keep the moment of momentum constant. A kinetic energy gradient of such vortex is Tornado Lift. Evaluation shows that contribution of Tornado Lift in air lifting in a tornado is comparable to buoyancy according to the order of magnitude.

  10. Tornado lift

    E-print Network

    Alexander Ivanchin

    2010-02-06

    It is shown that one of the causes for tornado is Tornado Lift. At increasing vortex diameter its kinetic energy decreases to keep the moment of momentum constant. A kinetic energy gradient of such vortex is Tornado Lift. Evaluation shows that contribution of Tornado Lift in air lifting in a tornado is comparable to buoyancy according to the order of magnitude.

  11. Subcutaneous lateral brow lift (“Z-lift”)

    PubMed Central

    Ueberreiter, Klaus; Tanzella, Ursula; Surlemont, Yves; Krapohl, Björn Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Surgical eyebrow lift has been described by using many different open and endoscopic methods. Difficult techniques and only short time benefits oft lead to patients’ complaints. We present a safe and simple temporal Z-incision technique for eyebrow lift in 37 patients. Besides simplicity and safety, our technique shows long lasting aesthetic results with hidden scars and a high rate of patient satisfaction.

  12. Pneumatic Flap Performance for a 2D Circulation Control Airfoil, Steady and Pulsed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Gregory S.

    2005-01-01

    Circulation Control technologies have been around for 65 years, and have been successfully demonstrated in laboratories and flight vehicles alike, yet there are few production aircraft flying today that implement these advances. Circulation Control techniques may have been overlooked due to perceived unfavorable trade offs of mass flow, pitching moment, cruise drag, noise, etc. Improvements in certain aspects of Circulation Control technology are the focus of this paper. This report will describe airfoil and blown high lift concepts that also address cruise drag reduction and reductions in mass flow through the use of pulsed pneumatic blowing on a Coanda surface. Pulsed concepts demonstrate significant reductions in mass flow requirements cor Circulation Control, as well as cruise drag concepts that equal or exceed conventional airfoil systems.

  13. Experimental study of delta wing leading-edge devices for drag reduction at high lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, T. D., Jr.; Rao, D. M.

    1982-01-01

    The drag reduction devices selected for evaluation were the fence, slot, pylon-type vortex generator, and sharp leading-edge extension. These devices were tested on a 60 degree flatplate delta (with blunt leading edges) in the Langley Research Center 7- by 10-foot high-speed tunnel at low speed and to angles of attack of 28 degrees. Balance and static pressure measurements were taken. The results indicate that all the devices had significant drag reduction capability and improved longitudinal stability while a slight loss of lift and increased cruise drag occurred.

  14. Two-dimensional cascade test of a highly loaded, low-solidity, tandem airfoil turbine rotor blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kline, J. F.; Stabe, R. G.

    1973-01-01

    A tip region section of a low-solidity tandem airfoil blade for a turbine rotor was tested in a two-dimensional cascade tunnel at solidities of 0.736 and 0.912. Blade surface static pressures and blade exit total and static pressure and flow angle were surveyed. Blade surface velocities, wake shapes, and kinetic energy losses were analyzed and compared with values for 1.852 solidity tandem airfoil blading.

  15. High-Lift OVERFLOW Analysis of the DLR-F11 Wind Tunnel Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pulliam, Thomas H.; Sclafani, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    In response to the 2nd AIAA CFD High Lift Prediction Workshop, the DLR-F11 wind tunnel model is analyzed using the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes flow solver OVERFLOW. A series of overset grids for a bracket-off landing configuration is constructed and analyzed as part of a general grid refinement study. This high Reynolds number (15.1 million) analysis is done at multiple angles-of-attack to evaluate grid resolution effects at operational lift levels as well as near stall. A quadratic constitutive relation recently added to OVERFLOW for improved solution accuracy is utilized for side-of-body separation issues at low angles-of-attack and outboard wing separation at stall angles. The outboard wing separation occurs when the slat brackets are added to the landing configuration and is a source of discrepancy between the predictions and experimental data. A detailed flow field analysis is performed at low Reynolds number (1.35 million) after pressure tube bundles are added to the bracket-on medium grid system with the intent of better understanding bracket/bundle wake interaction with the wing's boundary layer. Localized grid refinement behind each slat bracket and pressure tube bundle coupled with a time accurate analysis are exercised in an attempt to improve stall prediction capability. The results are inconclusive and suggest the simulation is missing a key element such as boundary layer transition. The computed lift curve is under-predicted through the linear range and over-predicted near stall, and the solution from the most complete configuration analyzed shows outboard wing separation occurring behind slat bracket 6 where the experiment shows it behind bracket 5. These results are consistent with most other participants of this workshop.

  16. Wind-Tunnel Investigation of an NACA 23021 Airfoil with a 0.32-Airfoil-Chord Double Slotted Flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischel, Jack; Riebe, John M

    1944-01-01

    An investigation was made in the LMAL 7- by 10-foot wind tunnel of a NACA 23021 airfoil with a double slotted flap having a chord 32 percent of the airfoil chord (0.32c) to determine the aerodynamic section characteristics with the flaps deflected at various positions. The effects of moving the fore flap and rear flap as a unit and of deflecting or removing the lower lip of the slot were also determined. Three positions were selected for the fore flap and at each position the maximum lift of the airfoil was obtained with the rear flap at the maximum deflection used at that fore-flap position. The section lift of the airfoil increased as the fore flap was extended and maximum lift was obtained with the fore flap deflected 30 deg in the most extended position. This arrangement provided a maximum section lift coefficient of 3.31, which was higher than the value obtained with either a 0.2566c or a 0.40c single-slotted-flap arrangement and 0.25 less than the value obtained with a 0.4c double-slotted-flap arrangement on the same airfoil. The values of the profile-drag coefficient obtained with the 0.32c double slotted flap were larger than those for the 0.2566c or 0.40c single slotted flaps for section lift coefficients between 1.0 and approximately 2.7. At all values of the section lift coefficient above 1.0, the 0.40c double slotted flap had a lower profile drag than the 0.32c double slotted flap. At various values of the maximum section lift coefficient produced by various flap defections, the 0.32c double slotted flap gave negative section pitching-moment coefficients that were higher than those of other slotted flaps on the same airfoil. The 0.32c double slotted flap gave approximately the same maximum section lift coefficient as, but higher profile-drag coefficients over the entire lift range than, a similar arrangement of a 0.30c double slotted flap on an NACA 23012 airfoil.

  17. Process optimization of LIFT through visualization: towards high resolution metal circuit printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giesbers, Merijn P.; Hoppenbrouwers, M. B.; Smits, E. C. P.; Mandamparambil, R.

    2014-05-01

    Laser induced forward transfer (LIFT) is a freeform, additive patterning technique capable of depositing high resolution metal structures. A laser pulse is used to generate small droplets from the donor material, defined by the spot size and energy of the pulse. Metallic as well as non-metallic materials can be patterned using this method. Being a contactless, additive and high resolution patterning technique, this method enables fabrication of multi-layer circuits, enabling bridge printing, thereby decreasing component spacing. Here we demonstrate copper droplet formation from a thin film donor. The investigation of the LIFT process is done via shadowgraphy and provides detailed insight on the droplet formation. Of particular importance is the interplay of the droplet jetting mechanism and the spacing between donor and receiving substrate on a stable printing process. Parameters such as the influence of laser fluence and donor thickness on the formation of droplets are discussed. An angle deviation analysis of the copper droplets during flight is carried out to estimate the pointing accuracy of the transfer. The possibility of understanding the droplet formation, could allow for stable droplets transferred with large gaps, simplifying the process for patterning continuous high-resolution conductive lines.

  18. Results of design studies and wind tunnel tests of an advanced high lift system for an Energy Efficient Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliver, W. R.

    1980-01-01

    The development of an advanced technology high lift system for an energy efficient transport incorporating a high aspect ratio supercritical wing is described. This development is based on the results of trade studies to select the high lift system, analysis techniques utilized to design the high lift system, and results of a wind tunnel test program. The program included the first experimental low speed, high Reynolds number wind tunnel test for this class of aircraft. The experimental results include the effects on low speed aerodynamic characteristics of various leading and trailing edge devices, nacelles and pylons, aileron, spoilers, and Mach and Reynolds numbers. Results are discussed and compared with the experimental data and the various aerodynamic characteristics are estimated.

  19. Simulation of self-induced unsteady motion in the near wake of a Joukowski airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghia, K. N.; Osswald, G. A.; Ghia, U.

    1986-01-01

    The unsteady Navier-Stokes analysis is shown to be capable of analyzing the massively separated, persistently unsteady flow in the post-stall regime of a Joukowski airfoil for an angle of attack as high as 53 degrees. The analysis has provided the detailed flow structure, showing the complex vortex interaction for this configuration. The aerodynamic coefficients for lift, drag, and moment were calculated. So far only the spatial structure of the vortex interaction was computed. It is now important to potentially use the large-scale vortex interactions, an additional energy source, to improve the aerodynamic performance.

  20. Effect of camber on the trimmed lift capability of a close-coupled canard-wing configuration. [test in the Langley high speed 7- by 10-foot tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gloss, B. B.

    1978-01-01

    A close-coupled canard-wing configuration was tested in the Langely high-speed 7 by 10 foot tunnel at a Mach number of 0.30 to determine the effect of changing wing camber on the trimmed lift capability. Trimmed lift coefficients of near 2.0 were attained; however, the data indicated that the highest buffet-free trimmed lift coefficient attainable was approximately 1.30. The buffet used in this investigation were qualitative in nature and gave no indication of buffet intensity. Thus, the trimmed lift coefficient of near 2.0 might be attainable if the buffet intensity was not too high. The data showed that there was approximately a 10 percent variation in drag coefficient, for different model configurations, at a given trimmed lift coefficient. Large increases in wing lift had only small effects on canard lift.

  1. Investigation of the Kline-Fogleman airfoil section for rotor blade applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lumsdaine, E.; Johnson, W. S.; Fletcher, L. M.; Peach, J. E.

    1974-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests of a wedgeshaped airfoil with sharp leading edge and a spanwise step were conducted. The airfoil was tested with variations of the following parameters: (1) Reynolds number, (2) step location, (3) step shape, (4) apex angle, and (5) with the step on either the upper or lower surface. The results are compared with a flat plate and with wedge airfoils without a step having the same aspect ratio. Water table tests were conducted for flow visualization and it was determined that the flow separates from the upper surface at low angles of attack. The wind tunnel tests show that the lift/drag ratio of the airfoil is lower than for a flat plate and the pressure data show that the airfoil derives its lift in the same manner as a flat plate.

  2. A Near-Term, High-Confidence Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothschild, William J.; Talay, Theodore A.

    2009-01-01

    The use of well understood, legacy elements of the Space Shuttle system could yield a near-term, high-confidence Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle that offers significant performance, reliability, schedule, risk, cost, and work force transition benefits. A side-mount Shuttle-Derived Vehicle (SDV) concept has been defined that has major improvements over previous Shuttle-C concepts. This SDV is shown to carry crew plus large logistics payloads to the ISS, support an operationally efficient and cost effective program of lunar exploration, and offer the potential to support commercial launch operations. This paper provides the latest data and estimates on the configurations, performance, concept of operations, reliability and safety, development schedule, risks, costs, and work force transition opportunities for this optimized side-mount SDV concept. The results presented in this paper have been based on established models and fully validated analysis tools used by the Space Shuttle Program, and are consistent with similar analysis tools commonly used throughout the aerospace industry. While these results serve as a factual basis for comparisons with other launch system architectures, no such comparisons are presented in this paper. The authors welcome comparisons between this optimized SDV and other Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle concepts.

  3. High Reynolds number tests of a Douglas DLBA 032 airfoil in the Langley 0.3-meter transonic cryogenic tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Charles B.; Dress, David A.; Hill, Acquilla S.; Wilcox, Peter A.; Bui, Minh H.

    1986-01-01

    A wind-tunnel investigation of a Douglas advanced-technology airfoil was conducted in the Langley 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel (0.3-m TCT). The temperature was varied from 227 K (409 R) to 100 K (180 R) at pressures ranging from about 159 kPa (1.57 atm) to about 514 kPa (5.07 atm). Mach number was varied from 0.50 to 0.78. These variables provided a Reynolds number range (based on airfoil chord) from 6.0 to 30.0 x 10 to the 6th power. This investigation was specifically designed to: (1) test a Douglas airfoil from moderately low to flight-equivalent Reynolds numbers, and (2) evaluate sidewall-boundary-layer effects on transonic airfoil performance characteristics by a systematic variation of Mach number, Reynolds number, and sidewall-boundary-layer removal. Data are included which demonstrate the effects of fixing transition, Mach number, Reynolds number, and sidewall-boundary-layer removal on the aerodynamic characteristics of the airfoil. Also included are remarks on model design and model structural integrity.

  4. Unsteady flow model for circulation-control airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, B. M.

    1979-01-01

    An analysis and a numerical lifting surface method are developed for predicting the unsteady airloads on two-dimensional circulation control airfoils in incompressible flow. The analysis and the computer program are validated by correlating the computed unsteady airloads with test data and also with other theoretical solutions. Additionally, a mathematical model for predicting the bending-torsion flutter of a two-dimensional airfoil (a reference section of a wing or rotor blade) and a computer program using an iterative scheme are developed. The flutter program has a provision for using the CC airfoil airloads program or the Theodorsen hard flap solution to compute the unsteady lift and moment used in the flutter equations. The adopted mathematical model and the iterative scheme are used to perform a flutter analysis of a typical CC rotor blade reference section. The program seems to work well within the basic assumption of the incompressible flow.

  5. Full-scale semispan tests of a business-jet wing with a natural laminar flow airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahne, David E.; Jordan, Frank L., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    A full-scale semispan model was investigated to evaluate and document the low-speed, high-lift characteristics of a business-jet class wing that utilized the HSNLF(1)-0213 airfoil section and a single-slotted flap system. Also, boundary-layer transition effects were examined, a segmented leading-edge droop for improved stall/spin resistance was studied, and two roll-controlled devices were evaluated. The wind-tunnel investigation showed that deployment of single-slotted, trailing-edge flap was effective in providing substantial increments in lift required for takeoff and landing performance. Fixed-transition studies to investigate premature tripping of the boundary layer indicated no adverse effects in lift and pitching-moment characteristics for either the cruise or landing configuration. The full-scale results also suggested the need to further optimize the leading-edge droop design that was developed in the subscale tests.

  6. Three-Dimensional High-Lift Analysis Using a Parallel Unstructured Multigrid Solver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mavriplis, Dimitri J.

    1998-01-01

    A directional implicit unstructured agglomeration multigrid solver is ported to shared and distributed memory massively parallel machines using the explicit domain-decomposition and message-passing approach. Because the algorithm operates on local implicit lines in the unstructured mesh, special care is required in partitioning the problem for parallel computing. A weighted partitioning strategy is described which avoids breaking the implicit lines across processor boundaries, while incurring minimal additional communication overhead. Good scalability is demonstrated on a 128 processor SGI Origin 2000 machine and on a 512 processor CRAY T3E machine for reasonably fine grids. The feasibility of performing large-scale unstructured grid calculations with the parallel multigrid algorithm is demonstrated by computing the flow over a partial-span flap wing high-lift geometry on a highly resolved grid of 13.5 million points in approximately 4 hours of wall clock time on the CRAY T3E.

  7. A finite-difference method for transonic airfoil design.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steger, J. L.; Klineberg, J. M.

    1972-01-01

    This paper describes an inverse method for designing transonic airfoil sections or for modifying existing profiles. Mixed finite-difference procedures are applied to the equations of transonic small disturbance theory to determine the airfoil shape corresponding to a given surface pressure distribution. The equations are solved for the velocity components in the physical domain and flows with embedded shock waves can be calculated. To facilitate airfoil design, the method allows alternating between inverse and direct calculations to obtain a profile shape that satisfies given geometric constraints. Examples are shown of the application of the technique to improve the performance of several lifting airfoil sections. The extension of the method to three dimensions for designing supercritical wings is also indicated.

  8. Characteristics of the NACA 23012 Airfoil from Tests in the Full-Scale and Variable-Density Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, Eastman N; Clay, William C

    1936-01-01

    This report gives the results of tests in the NACA full-scale and variable-density tunnels of a new wing section, the NACA 23012, which is one of the more promising of an extended series of related airfoils recently developed. The tests were made at several values of the Reynolds number between 1,000,000 and 8,000,000. The new airfoil develops a reasonably high maximum lift and a low profile drag, which results in an unusually high value of the speed-range index. In addition, the pitching-moment coefficient is very small. The superiority of the new section over well-known and commonly used sections of small camber and moderate thickness is indicated by making a direct comparison with variable-density tests of the NACA 2212, the well-known NACA family airfoil that most nearly resembles it. The superiority is further indicated by comparing the characteristics with those obtained from full-scale-tunnel tests of the Clark y airfoil.

  9. Investigation of advanced thrust vectoring exhaust systems for high speed propulsive lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchison, R. A.; Petit, J. E.; Capone, F. J.; Whittaker, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a wind tunnel investigation conducted at the NASA-Langley research center to determine thrust vectoring/induced lift characteristics of advanced exhaust nozzle concepts installed on a supersonic tactical airplane model. Specific test objectives include: (1) basic aerodynamics of a wing body configuration, (2) investigation of induced lift effects, (3) evaluation of static and forward speed performance, and (4) the effectiveness of a canard surface to trim thrust vectoring/induced lift forces and moments.

  10. High Reynolds Number Test of the Boeing TR77 Airfoil in the Langley 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Julio; Flechner, Stuart G.; Hill, Acquilla S.; Rozendaal, Roger A.

    1990-01-01

    A Boeing TR77 airfoil associated with the Advanced Technology Airfoil Test (ATAT) program was tested in the Langley 0.3 m Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel. Limited analysis of the data indicated that increasing Reynolds number for a fixed Mach number resulted in increased normal-force, nose-down pitching moment, and decreased drag coefficient. Increasing Mach number while keeping the Reynolds number constant yielded the expected increase in normal-force slopes, nose-down pitching moment coefficients, and decrease in angle of attack associated with maximum normal-force coefficient. Turbulent boundary layer flow was achieved over the airfoil at low Reynolds numbers for the test Mach number range using aluminum discs.

  11. Lock-On to a High-Lift State with Oscillatory Forcing in a Three-Dimensional Wake Flow

    E-print Network

    -aspect-ratio wings and high Reynolds numbers. Since the Reynolds number at which insects and birds use their wingsLock-On to a High-Lift State with Oscillatory Forcing in a Three-Dimensional Wake Flow Kunihiko-dimensional post-stall flow around a rectangular low-aspect-ratio wing. Steady actuation is used to examine

  12. An investigation of the aerodynamic characteristics of a new general aviation airfoil in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregorek, G. M.; Hoffmann, M. J.; Weislogel, G. S.

    1982-01-01

    A low speed airfoil, the GA(W)-2, - a 13% thickness to chord ratio airfoil was evaluated. The wing of a Beech Sundowner was modified at by adding balsa ribs and covered with aluminum skin, to alter the existing airfoil shape to that of the GA(W)-2 airfoil. The aircraft was flown in a flight test program that gathered wing surface pressures and wake data from which the lift drag, and pitching moment of the airfoil could be determined. After the base line performance of the airfoil was measured, the drag due to surface irregularities such as steps, rivets and surface waviness was determined. The potential reduction of drag through the use of surface coatings such as KAPTON was also investigated.

  13. Optimum configuration of high-lift aeromaneuvering orbital transfer vehicles in viscous flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, C. B.; Park, C.

    1985-01-01

    The results of an analysis to determine the geometrical configuration of an aeroassisted transfer vehicle with a high lift-to-drag ratio (L/D) are described and the constraints imposed on this type of entry vehicle are considered. The aerodynamic characteristics of three configurations, a flat-plate delta wing, a truncated straight cone, and a truncated bent biconic are compared. The effect of viscosity is included in the analysis which examines the rounding of the sharp leading edges. It is shown that, under the constraints of carrying a given volume in the dead air region, the values of L/D are similar for each configuration and that a small blunt leading edge only slightly affects each vehicle's aerodynamic performance, causing less than a 5 percent drop in L/D. The truncated bent biconic is found to be the only configuration that provides the necessary stabilizing moments.

  14. Lift-off PMN-PT Thick Film for High Frequency Ultrasonic Biomicroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Benpeng; Han, Jiangxue; Shi, Jing; Shung, K. Krik; Wei, Q.; Huang, YuHong; Kosec, M.; Zhou, Qifa

    2010-01-01

    Piezoelectric 0.65Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.35PbTiO3 (PMN-35PT) thick film with a thickness of approximately 12 µm has been deposited on the platinum buffered Si substrate via a sol-gel composite method. The separation of the film from the substrate was achieved using a wet chemical method. The lifted-off PMN-35PT thick film exhibited good dielectric and ferroelectric properties. At 1 kHz, the dielectric constant and the dielectric loss were 3,326 and 0.037, respectively, while the remnant polarization was 30.0 µC/cm2. A high frequency single element acoustic transducer fabricated with this film showed a bandwidth at ?6 dB of 63.6% at 110 MHz. PMID:21170158

  15. Reynolds Number Effects on a Supersonic Transport at Subsonic High-Lift Conditions (Invited)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, L.R.; Wahls, R. A.

    2001-01-01

    A High Speed Civil Transport configuration was tested in the National Transonic Facility at the NASA Langley Research Center as part of NASA's High Speed Research Program. The primary purposes of the tests were to assess Reynolds number scale effects and high Reynolds number aerodynamic characteristics of a realistic, second generation supersonic transport while providing data for the assessment of computational methods. The tests included longitudinal and lateral/directional studies at transonic and low-speed, high-lift conditions across a range of Reynolds numbers from that available in conventional wind tunnels to near flight conditions. Results are presented which focus on Reynolds number and static aeroelastic sensitivities of longitudinal characteristics at Mach 0.30 for a configuration without an empennage. A fundamental change in flow-state occurred between Reynolds numbers of 30 to 40 million, which is characterized by significantly earlier inboard leading-edge separation at the high Reynolds numbers. Force and moment levels change but Reynolds number trends are consistent between the two states.

  16. Modeling and Grid Generation of Iced Airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vickerman, Mary B.; Baez, Marivell; Braun, Donald C.; Hackenberg, Anthony W.; Pennline, James A.; Schilling, Herbert W.

    2007-01-01

    SmaggIce Version 2.0 is a software toolkit for geometric modeling and grid generation for two-dimensional, singleand multi-element, clean and iced airfoils. A previous version of SmaggIce was described in Preparing and Analyzing Iced Airfoils, NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 8 (August 2004), page 32. To recapitulate: Ice shapes make it difficult to generate quality grids around airfoils, yet these grids are essential for predicting ice-induced complex flow. This software efficiently creates high-quality structured grids with tools that are uniquely tailored for various ice shapes. SmaggIce Version 2.0 significantly enhances the previous version primarily by adding the capability to generate grids for multi-element airfoils. This version of the software is an important step in streamlining the aeronautical analysis of ice airfoils using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools. The user may prepare the ice shape, define the flow domain, decompose it into blocks, generate grids, modify/divide/merge blocks, and control grid density and smoothness. All these steps may be performed efficiently even for the difficult glaze and rime ice shapes. Providing the means to generate highly controlled grids near rough ice, the software includes the creation of a wrap-around block (called the "viscous sublayer block"), which is a thin, C-type block around the wake line and iced airfoil. For multi-element airfoils, the software makes use of grids that wrap around and fill in the areas between the viscous sub-layer blocks for all elements that make up the airfoil. A scripting feature records the history of interactive steps, which can be edited and replayed later to produce other grids. Using this version of SmaggIce, ice shape handling and grid generation can become a practical engineering process, rather than a laborious research effort.

  17. Piloted Simulation Study of the Effects of High-Lift Aerodynamics on the Takeoff Noise of a Representative High-Speed Civil Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaab, Louis J.; Riley, Donald R.; Brandon, Jay M.; Person, Lee H., Jr.; Glaab, Patricia C.

    1999-01-01

    As part of an effort between NASA and private industry to reduce airport-community noise for high-speed civil transport (HSCT) concepts, a piloted simulation study was initiated for the purpose of predicting the noise reduction benefits that could result from improved low-speed high-lift aerodynamic performance for a typical HSCT configuration during takeoff and initial climb. Flight profile and engine information from the piloted simulation were coupled with the NASA Langley Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP) to estimate jet engine noise and to propagate the resulting source noise to ground observer stations. A baseline aircraft configuration, which also incorporated different levels of projected improvements in low-speed high-lift aerodynamic performance, was simulated to investigate effects of increased lift and lift-to-drag ratio on takeoff noise levels. Simulated takeoff flights were performed with the pilots following a specified procedure in which either a single thrust cutback was performed at selected altitudes ranging from 400 to 2000 ft, or a multiple-cutback procedure was performed where thrust was reduced by a two-step process. Results show that improved low-speed high-lift aerodynamic performance provides at least a 4 to 6 dB reduction in effective perceived noise level at the FAA downrange flyover measurement station for either cutback procedure. However, improved low-speed high-lift aerodynamic performance reduced maximum sideline noise levels only when using the multiple-cutback procedures.

  18. Airfoil System for Cruising Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shams, Qamar A. (Inventor); Liu, Tianshu (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An airfoil system includes an airfoil body and at least one flexible strip. The airfoil body has a top surface and a bottom surface, a chord length, a span, and a maximum thickness. Each flexible strip is attached along at least one edge thereof to either the top or bottom surface of the airfoil body. The flexible strip has a spanwise length that is a function of the airfoil body's span, a chordwise width that is a function of the airfoil body's chord length, and a thickness that is a function of the airfoil body's maximum thickness.

  19. Wind tunnel evaluation of a truncated NACA 64-621 airfoil for wind turbine applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Law, S. P.; Gregorek, G. M.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental program to measure the aerodynamic performance of a NACA 64-621 airfoil with a truncated trailing edge for wind turbine applications has been conducted in the Ohio State University Aeronautical and Astronautical Research Laboratory 6 in. by 21 in. pressurized wind tunnel. The blunted or trailing edge truncated (TET) airfoil has an advantage over similar trailing edge airfoils because it is able to streamline a larger spar structure, while also providing aerodynamic properties that are quite good. Surface pressures were measured and integrated to determine the lift, pressure drag, and moment coefficients over angles of attack ranging from -14 to +90 deg at Mach 0.2 and Reynolds numbers of 1,000,000 and 600,000. Results are compared to the NACA 0025, 0030, and 0035 thick airfoils with sharp trailing edges. Comparison shows that the 30 percent thick NACA 64-621-TET airfoil has higher maximum lift, higher lift curve slope, lower drag at higher lift coefficients, and higher chordwise force coefficient than similar thick airfoils with sharp trailing edges.

  20. Wind tunnel evaluation of a truncated NACA 64-621 airfoil for wind turbine applications

    SciTech Connect

    Law, S.P.; Gregorek, G.M.

    1987-07-01

    An experimental program to measure the aerodynamic performance of a NACA 64-621 airfoil with a truncated trailing edge for wind turbine applications has been conducted in the Ohio State University Aeronautical and Astronautical Research Laboratory 6 in. x 22 in. pressurized wind tunnel. The blunted or trailing edge truncated (TET) airfoil has an advantage over similar sharp trailing edge airfoils because it is able to streamline a larger spar structure, while also providing aerodynamic properties that are quite good. Surface pressures were measured and integrated to determine the lift, pressure drag, and moment coefficients over angles of attack ranging from -14 to +90 at Mach 0.2 and Reynolds numbers of 1,000,000 and 600,000. Results are compared to the NACA 0025, 0030, and 0035 thick airfoils with sharp trailing edges. Comparison shows that the 30% thick NACA 64-621-TET airfoil has higher maximum lift, higher lift curve slope, lower drag at higher lift coefficients, and higher chordwise force coefficient than similar thick airfoils with sharp trailing edges.

  1. High-Lift Flight Tunnel - Phase II Report. Phase 2 Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lofftus, David; Lund, Thomas; Rote, Donald; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The High-Lift Flight Tunnel (HiLiFT) concept is a revolutionary approach to aerodynamic ground testing. This concept utilizes magnetic levitation and linear motors to propel an aerodynamic model through a tube containing a quiescent test medium. This medium (nitrogen) is cryogenic and pressurized to achieve full flight Reynolds numbers higher than any existing ground test facility world-wide for the range of 0.05 to 0.50 Mach. The results of the Phase II study provide excellent assurance that the HiLiFT concept will provide a valuable low-speed, high Reynolds number ground test facility. The design studies concluded that the HiLiFT facility is feasible to build and operate and the analytical studies revealed no insurmountable difficulties to realizing a practical high Reynolds number ground test facility. It was determined that a national HiLiFT facility, including development, would cost approximately $400M and could be operational by 2013 if fully funded. Study participants included National Aeronautics and Space Administration Langley Research Center as the Program Manager and MSE Technology Applications, Inc., (MSE) of Butte, Montana as the prime contractor and study integrator. MSE#s subcontractors included the University of Texas at Arlington for aerodynamic analyses and the Argonne National Laboratory for magnetic levitation and linear motor technology support.

  2. An analytic study of nonsteady two-phase laminar boundary layer around an airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, Yu-Kao

    1989-01-01

    Recently, NASA, FAA, and other organizations have focused their attention upon the possible effects of rain on airfoil performance. Rhode carried out early experiments and concluded that the rain impacting the aircraft increased the drag. Bergrum made numerical calculation for the rain effects on airfoils. Luers and Haines did an analytic investigation and found that heavy rain induces severe aerodynamic penalties including both a momentum penalty due to the impact of the rain and a drag and lift penalty due to rain roughening of the airfoil and fuselage. More recently, Hansman and Barsotti performed experiments and declared that performance degradation of an airfoil in heavy rain is due to the effective roughening of the surface by the water layer. Hansman and Craig did further experimental research at low Reynolds number. E. Dunham made a critical review for the potential influence of rain on airfoil performance. Dunham et al. carried out experiments for the transport type airfoil and concluded that there is a reduction of maximum lift capability with increase in drag. There is a scarcity of published literature in analytic research of two-phase boundary layer around an airfoil. Analytic research is being improved. The following assumptions are made: the fluid flow is non-steady, viscous, and incompressible; the airfoil is represented by a two-dimensional flat plate; and there is only a laminar boundary layer throughout the flow region. The boundary layer approximation is solved and discussed.

  3. Numerical design of advanced multi-element airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathias, Donovan L.; Cummings, Russell M.

    1994-01-01

    The current study extends the application of computational fluid dynamics to three-dimensional high-lift systems. Structured, overset grids are used in conjunction with an incompressible Navier-Stokes flow solver to investigate flow over a two-element high-lift configuration. The computations were run in a fully turbulent mode using the one-equation Baldwin-Barth turbulence model. The geometry consisted of an unswept wing which spanned a wind tunnel test section. Flows over full and half-span Fowler flap configurations were computed. Grid resolution issues were investigated in two dimensional studies of the flapped airfoil. Results of the full-span flap wing agreed well with experimental data and verified the method. Flow over the wing with the half-span was computed to investigate the details of the flow at the free edge of the flap. The results illustrated changes in flow streamlines, separation locations, and surface pressures due to the vortex shed from the flap edge.

  4. Multiple piece turbine airfoil

    DOEpatents

    Kimmel, Keith D (Jupiter, FL); Wilson, Jr., Jack W. (Palm Beach Gardens, FL)

    2010-11-02

    A turbine airfoil, such as a rotor blade or a stator vane, for a gas turbine engine, the airfoil formed as a shell and spar construction with a plurality of dog bone struts each mounted within openings formed within the shell and spar to allow for relative motion between the spar and shell in the airfoil chordwise direction while also forming a seal between adjacent cooling channels. The struts provide the seal as well as prevent bulging of the shell from the spar due to the cooling air pressure.

  5. Computing Aerodynamic Performance of a 2D Iced Airfoil: Blocking Topology and Grid Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chi, X.; Zhu, B.; Shih, T. I.-P.; Slater, J. W.; Addy, H. E.; Choo, Yung K.; Lee, Chi-Ming (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The ice accrued on airfoils can have enormously complicated shapes with multiple protruded horns and feathers. In this paper, several blocking topologies are proposed and evaluated on their ability to produce high-quality structured multi-block grid systems. A transition layer grid is introduced to ensure that jaggedness on the ice-surface geometry do not to propagate into the domain. This is important for grid-generation methods based on hyperbolic PDEs (Partial Differential Equations) and algebraic transfinite interpolation. A 'thick' wrap-around grid is introduced to ensure that grid lines clustered next to solid walls do not propagate as streaks of tightly packed grid lines into the interior of the domain along block boundaries. For ice shapes that are not too complicated, a method is presented for generating high-quality single-block grids. To demonstrate the usefulness of the methods developed, grids and CFD solutions were generated for two iced airfoils: the NLF0414 airfoil with and without the 623-ice shape and the B575/767 airfoil with and without the 145m-ice shape. To validate the computations, the computed lift coefficients as a function of angle of attack were compared with available experimental data. The ice shapes and the blocking topologies were prepared by NASA Glenn's SmaggIce software. The grid systems were generated by using a four-boundary method based on Hermite interpolation with controls on clustering, orthogonality next to walls, and C continuity across block boundaries. The flow was modeled by the ensemble-averaged compressible Navier-Stokes equations, closed by the shear-stress transport turbulence model in which the integration is to the wall. All solutions were generated by using the NPARC WIND code.

  6. Suppression of dynamic stall with a leading-edge slat on a VR-7 airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcalister, K. W.; Tung, C.

    1993-01-01

    The VR-7 airfoil was experimentally studied with and without a leading-edge slat at fixed angles of attack from 0 deg to 30 deg at Re = 200,000 and for unsteady pitching motions described by alpha equals alpha(sub m) + 10 deg(sin(wt)). The models were two dimensional, and the test was performed in a water tunnel at Ames Research Center. The unsteady conditions ranged over Re equals 100,000 to 250,000, k equals 0.001 to 0.2, and alpha(sub m) = 10 deg to 20 deg. Unsteady lift, drag, and pitching-moment measurements were obtained along with fluorescent-dye flow visualizations. The addition of the slat was found to delay the static-drag and static-moment stall by about 5 degrees and to eliminate completely the development of a dynamic-stall vortex during unsteady motions that reached angles as high as 25 degrees. In all of the unsteady cases studied, the slat caused a significant reduction in the force and moment hysteresis amplitudes. The reduced frequency was found to have the greatest effect on the results, whereas the Reynolds number had little effect on the behavior of either the basic or the slatted airfoil. The slat caused a slight drag penalty at low angles of attack, but generally increased the lift/drag ratio when averaged over the full cycle of oscillation.

  7. Closed loop steam cooled airfoil

    DOEpatents

    Widrig, Scott M.; Rudolph, Ronald J.; Wagner, Gregg P.

    2006-04-18

    An airfoil, a method of manufacturing an airfoil, and a system for cooling an airfoil is provided. The cooling system can be used with an airfoil located in the first stages of a combustion turbine within a combined cycle power generation plant and involves flowing closed loop steam through a pin array set within an airfoil. The airfoil can comprise a cavity having a cooling chamber bounded by an interior wall and an exterior wall so that steam can enter the cavity, pass through the pin array, and then return to the cavity to thereby cool the airfoil. The method of manufacturing an airfoil can include a type of lost wax investment casting process in which a pin array is cast into an airfoil to form a cooling chamber.

  8. Samus Counter Lifting Fixture

    SciTech Connect

    Stredde, H.; /Fermilab

    1998-05-27

    A lifting fixture has been designed to handle the Samus counters. These counters are being removed from the D-zero area and will be transported off site for further use at another facility. This fixture is designed specifically for this particular application and will be transferred along with the counters. The future use of these counters may entail installation at a facility without access to a crane and therefore a lift fixture suitable for both crane and/or fork lift usage has been created The counters weigh approximately 3000 lbs. and have threaded rods extended through the counter at the top comers for lifting. When these counters were first handled/installed these rods were used in conjunction with appropriate slings and handled by crane. The rods are secured with nuts tightened against the face of the counter. The rod thread is M16 x 2({approx}.625-inch dia.) and extends 2-inch (on average) from the face of the counter. It is this cantilevered rod that the lift fixture engages with 'C' style plates at the four top comers. The strongback portion of the lift fixture is a steel rectangular tube 8-inch (vertical) x 4-inch x .25-inch wall, 130-inch long. 1.5-inch square bars are welded perpendicular to the long axis of the rectangular tube at the appropriate lift points and the 'C' plates are fastened to these bars with 3/4-10 high strength bolts -grade 8. Two short channel sections are positioned-welded-to the bottom of the rectangular tube on 40 feet centers, which are used as locators for fork lift tines. On the top are lifting eyes for sling/crane usage and are rated at 3500 lbs. safe working load each - vertical lift only.

  9. Patterning of epitaxial VO2 microstructures by a high-temperature lift-off process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamin, Tony; Havdala, Tal; Sharoni, Amos

    2014-12-01

    The growing field of oxide-electronics demands adequate fabrication methods that do not impair the material’s beneficial properties. To this end, we present a modified lift-off lithography method replacing the conventional polymer mask with an AlOx based mask. It can sustain the high-temperature and reactive gasses conditions commonly needed for oxide deposition, and is effectively wet-etched in dilute NaOH solutions. Here we demonstrate patterning of VO2 films. With its metal-insulator transition (MIT) near room temperature, it is attractive for various applications including sensors and transistors. But patterning is challenging since its properties are very sensitive to fabrication processes. We demonstrate patterning of 3 ?m wide VO2 electrodes and show they preserve the MIT magnitude and epitaxial growth of the non-patterned films. Some thinning of the VO2 is also observed. This process can be useful for patterning other materials that require harsh deposition conditions, and are resilient to low NaOH concentrations.

  10. Inverse lift: a signature of the elasticity of complex fluids?

    E-print Network

    Benjamin Dollet; Miguel Aubouy; Francois Graner

    2005-02-15

    To understand the mechanics of a complex fluid such as a foam we propose a model experiment (a bidimensional flow around an obstacle) for which an external sollicitation is applied, and a local response is measured, simultaneously. We observe that an asymmetric obstacle (cambered airfoil profile) experiences a downards lift, opposite to the lift usually known (in a different context) in aerodynamics. Correlations of velocity, deformations and pressure fields yield a clear explanation of this inverse lift, involving the elasticity of the foam. We argue that such an inverse lift is likely common to complex fluids with elasticity.

  11. Predicted Aerodynamic Characteristics of a NACA 0015 Airfoil Having a 25% Integral-Type Trailing Edge Flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hassan, Ahmed

    1999-01-01

    Using the two-dimensional ARC2D Navier-Stokes flow solver analyses were conducted to predict the sectional aerodynamic characteristics of the flapped NACA-0015 airfoil section. To facilitate the analyses and the generation of the computational grids, the airfoil with the deflected trailing edge flap was treated as a single element airfoil with no allowance for a gap between the flap's leading edge and the base of the forward portion of the airfoil. Generation of the O-type computational grids was accomplished using the HYGRID hyperbolic grid generation program. Results were obtained for a wide range of Mach numbers, angles of attack and flap deflections. The predicted sectional lift, drag and pitching moment values for the airfoil were then cast in tabular format (C81) to be used in lifting-line helicopter rotor aerodynamic performance calculations. Similar were also generated for the flap. Mathematical expressions providing the variation of the sectional lift and pitching moment coefficients for the airfoil and for the flap as a function of flap chord length and flap deflection angle were derived within the context of thin airfoil theory. The airfoil's sectional drag coefficient were derived using the ARC2D drag predictions for equivalent two dimensional flow conditions.

  12. A rapidly settled closed-loop control for airfoil aerodynamics based on plasma actuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Z.; Wong, C. W.; Wang, L.; Lu, Z.; Zhu, Y.; Zhou, Y.

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation on the response of the slope seeking with extended Kalman filter (EKF) deployed in a closed-loop system for airfoil aerodynamics control. A novel dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuator was used to manipulate the flow around the NACA 0015 airfoil. Experiments were performed under different freestream velocities U ?, covering the chord Reynolds number Re from 4.4 × 104 to 7.7 × 104. Firstly, the advantages of applying this DBD plasma actuator (hereafter called sawtooth plasma actuator) on the airfoil were examined in an open-loop system at Re = 7.7 × 104. The sawtooth plasma actuator led to a delay in the stall angle ? stall by 5° and an increase in the maximum lift coefficient by about 9 %. On the other hand, at the same input power, the traditional DBD plasma actuator managed a delay in ? stall by only 3° and an increase in by about 3 %. Secondly, the convergence time t c of the lift force F L at Re from 4.4 × 104 to 7.7 × 104 was investigated for two closed-loop systems. It has been demonstrated that the t c was about 70 % less under the slope seeking with EKF than that under the conventional slope seeking with high-pass (HP) and low-pass (LP) filters at Re = 7.7 × 104. The reduction in t c was also observed at a different Re. Finally, the slope seeking with EKF showed excellent robustness over a moderate Re range; that is, the voltage amplitude determined by the control algorithm promptly responded to a change in Re, much faster than that of the conventional slope seeking with HP and LP filters.

  13. Aerodynamic Characterization of a Thin, High-Performance Airfoil for Use in Ground Fluids Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broeren, Andy P.; Lee, Sam; Clark, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    The FAA has worked with Transport Canada and others to develop allowance times for aircraft operating in ice-pellet precipitation. Wind-tunnel testing has been carried out to better understand the flowoff characteristics and resulting aerodynamic effects of anti-icing fluids contaminated with ice pellets using a thin, high-performance wing section at the National Research Council of Canada Propulsion and Icing Wind Tunnel. The objective of this paper is to characterize the aerodynamic behavior of this wing section in order to better understand the adverse aerodynamic effects of anti-icing fluids and ice-pellet contamination. Aerodynamic performance data, boundary-layer surveys and flow visualization were conducted at a Reynolds number of approximately 6.0×10(exp 6) and a Mach number of 0.12. The clean, baseline model exhibited leading-edge stall characteristics including a leading-edge laminar separation bubble and minimal or no separation on the trailing edge of the main element or flap. These results were consistent with expected 2-D aerodynamics and showed no anomalies that could adversely affect the evaluation of anti-icing fluids and ice-pellet contamination on the wing. Tests conducted with roughness and leading-edge flow disturbances helped to explain the aerodynamic impact of the anti-icing fluids and contamination. The stalling characteristics of the wing section with fluid and contamination appear to be driven at least partially by the effects of a secondary wave of fluid that forms near the leading edge as the wing is rotated in the simulated takeoff profile. These results have provided a much more complete understanding of the adverse aerodynamic effects of anti-icing fluids and ice-pellet contamination on this wing section. This is important since these results are used, in part, to develop the ice-pellet allowance times that are applicable to many different airplanes.

  14. Aerodynamic Characterization of a Thin, High-Performance Airfoil for Use in Ground Fluids Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broeren, Andy P.; Lee, Sam; Clark, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    The FAA has worked with Transport Canada and others to develop allowance times for aircraft operating in ice-pellet precipitation. Wind-tunnel testing has been carried out to better understand the flowoff characteristics and resulting aerodynamic effects of anti-icing fluids contaminated with ice pellets using a thin, high-performance wing section at the National Research Council of Canada Propulsion and Icing Wind Tunnel. The objective of this paper is to characterize the aerodynamic behavior of this wing section in order to better understand the adverse aerodynamic effects of anti-icing fluids and ice-pellet contamination. Aerodynamic performance data, boundary-layer surveys and flow visualization were conducted at a Reynolds number of approximately 6.0 x 10(exp 6) and a Mach number of 0.12. The clean, baseline model exhibited leading-edge stall characteristics including a leading-edge laminar separation bubble and minimal or no separation on the trailing edge of the main element or flap. These results were consistent with expected 2-D aerodynamics and showed no anomalies that could adversely affect the evaluation of anti-icing fluids and ice-pellet contamination on the wing. Tests conducted with roughness and leading-edge flow disturbances helped to explain the aerodynamic impact of the anti-icing fluids and contamination. The stalling characteristics of the wing section with fluid and contamination appear to be driven at least partially by the effects of a secondary wave of fluid that forms near the leading edge as the wing is rotated in the simulated takeoff profile. These results have provided a much more complete understanding of the adverse aerodynamic effects of anti-icing fluids and ice-pellet contamination on this wing section. This is important since these results are used, in part, to develop the ice-pellet allowance times that are applicable to many different airplanes.

  15. Wind tunnel investigation of rotor lift and propulsive force at high speed: Data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mchugh, F.; Clark, R.; Soloman, M.

    1977-01-01

    The basic test data obtained during the lift-propulsive force limit wind tunnel test conducted on a scale model CH-47b rotor are analyzed. Included are the rotor control positions, blade loads and six components of rotor force and moment, corrected for hub tares. Performance and blade loads are presented as the rotor lift limit is approached at fixed levels of rotor propulsive force coefficients and rotor tip speeds. Performance and blade load trends are documented for fixed levels of rotor lift coefficient as propulsive force is increased to the maximum obtainable by the model rotor. Test data is also included that defines the effect of stall proximity on rotor control power. The basic test data plots are presented in volumes 2 and 3.

  16. Unsteady aerodynamic behavior of an airfoil with and without a slat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tung, Chee; Mcalister, Kenneth W.; Wang, Clin M.

    1993-01-01

    Unsteady flow behavior and load characteristics of a 2D VR-7 airfoil with and without a leading-edge slat were studied in the water tunnel of the Aeroflightdynamics Directorate, NASA Ames Research Center. Both airfoils were oscillated sinusoidally between 5 and 25 deg at Re = 200,000 to obtain the unsteady lift, drag, and pitching moment data. A fluorescent dye was released from an orifice located at the leading edge of the airfoil for the purpose of visualizing the boundary layer and wake flow. The flowfield and load predictions of an incompressible Navier-Stokes code based on a velocity-vorticity formulation were compared with the test data. The test and predictions both confirm that the slatted VR-7 airfoil delays both static and dynamic stall as compared to the VR-7 airfoil alone.

  17. Study of laminar separation bubble on low Reynolds number operating airfoils: RANS modelling by means of an high-accuracy solver and experimental verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crivellini, A.; D'Alessandro, V.; Di Benedetto, D.; Montelpare, S.; Ricci, R.

    2014-04-01

    This work is devoted to the Computational Fluid-Dynamics (CFD) simulation of laminar separation bubble (LSB) on low Reynolds number operating airfoils. This phenomenon is of large interest in several fields, such as wind energy, and it is characterised by slow recirculating flow at an almost constant pressure. Presently Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) methods, due to their limited computational requests, are the more efficient and feasible CFD simulation tool for complex engineering applications involving LSBs. However adopting RANS methods for LSB prediction is very challenging since widely used models assume a fully turbulent regime. For this reason several transitional models for RANS equations based on further Partial Differential Equations (PDE) have been recently introduced in literature. Nevertheless in some cases they show questionable results. In this work RANS equations and the standard Spalart-Allmaras (SA) turbulence model are used to deal with LSB problems obtaining promising results. This innovative result is related to: (i) a particular behaviour of the SA equation; (ii) a particular implementation of SA equation; (iii) the use of a high-order discontinuous Galerkin (DG) solver. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is tested on different airfoils at several angles of attack and Reynolds numbers. Numerical results were verified with both experimental measurements performed at the open circuit subsonic wind tunnel of Università Politecnica delle Marche (UNIVPM) and literature data.

  18. Automated CFD for Generation of Airfoil Performance Tables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strawn, Roger; Mayda, E. Q.; vamDam, C. P.

    2009-01-01

    A method of automated computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been invented for the generation of performance tables for an object subject to fluid flow. The method is applicable to the generation of tables that summarize the effects of two-dimensional flows about airfoils and that are in a format known in the art as C81. (A C81 airfoil performance table is a text file that lists coefficients of lift, drag, and pitching moment of an airfoil as functions of angle of attack for a range of Mach numbers.) The method makes it possible to efficiently generate and tabulate data from simulations of flows for parameter values spanning all operational ranges of actual or potential interest. In so doing, the method also enables filling of gaps and resolution of inconsistencies in C81 tables generated previously from incomplete experimental data or from theoretical calculations that involved questionable assumptions.

  19. Unsteady Lift Response and Energy Extraction in Gusting Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jeesoon; Colonius, Tim; Williams, David

    2012-11-01

    The unsteady aerodynamic forces associated with streamwise (surging) and transverse (plunging) oscillating motions are studied to understand the dynamic response to gusts and the potential for energy extraction. We focus on 2D thin airfoils at low sub- and super-critical Reynolds number so that the role of wake instability can be isolated. Simulations are performed in a large parameter space of angle of attack, reduced frequency, and oscillation amplitude. At low angle of attack, the magnitude and phase of the fluctuating lift are in reasonable agreement with classical theory at all reduced frequencies. In this case, the quasi-steady force is modified by contributions from shed vorticity at the trailing edge and added-mass at high reduced frequency. At high angle of attack, the fluctuating forces are found to be enhanced or attenuated by a leading-edge vortex, depending on the reduced frequency. Resonance with the wake instability is also investigated.

  20. Aerodynamic loading distribution effects on the overall performance of ultra-high-lift LP turbine cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrino, M.; Satta, F.; Simoni, D.; Ubaldi, M.; Zunino, P.; Bertini, F.

    2014-02-01

    The present paper reports the results of an experimental investigation aimed at comparing aerodynamic performance of three low-pressure turbine cascades for several Reynolds numbers under steady and unsteady inflows. This study is focused on finding design criteria useful to reduce both profile and secondary losses in the aero-engine LP turbine for the different flight conditions. The baseline blade cascade, characterized by a standard aerodynamic loading (Zw=1.03), has been compared with two Ultra-High-Lift profiles with the same Zweifel number (Zw=1.3 for both cascades), but different velocity peak positions, leading to front and mid-loaded blade cascade configurations. The aerodynamic flow fields downstream of the cascades have been experimentally investigated for Reynolds numbers in the range 70000

  1. Prediction of leading-edge transition and relaminarization phenomena on a subsonic multi-element high-lift system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandam, C. P.

    1993-01-01

    Boundary-layer transition and relaminarization may have a critical effect on the flow development about multi-element high-lift systems of subsonic transport jets with swept wings. The purpose of the research is to study these transition phenomena in the leading-edge region of the various elements of a high-lift system. The flow phenomena studied include transition to the attachment-line flow, relaminarization, and crossflow instability, and transition. The calculations are based on pressure distributions measured in flight on the NASA Transport Systems Research Vehicle (Boeing 737-100) at a wing station where the flow approximated infinite swept wing conditions. The results indicate that significant regions of laminar flow can exist on all flap elements in flight. In future flight experiments (planned for January-February, 1994) the extent of these regions, the transition mechanisms and the effect of laminar flow on the high-lift characteristics of the multi-element system will be further explored.

  2. High-lift flow-physics flight experiments on a subsonic civil transport aircraft (B737-100)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandam, Cornelis P.

    1994-01-01

    As part of the subsonic transport high-lift program, flight experiments are being conducted using NASA Langley's B737-100 to measure the flow characteristics of the multi-element high-lift system at full-scale high-Reynolds-number conditions. The instrumentation consists of hot-film anemometers to measure boundary-layer states, an infra-red camera to detect transition from laminar to turbulent flow, Preston tubes to measure wall shear stress, boundary-layer rakes to measure off-surface velocity profiles, and pressure orifices to measure surface pressure distributions. The initial phase of this research project was recently concluded with two flights on July 14. This phase consisted of a total of twenty flights over a period of about ten weeks. In the coming months the data obtained in this initial set of flight experiments will be analyzed and the results will be used to finalize the instrumentation layout for the next set of flight experiments scheduled for Winter and Spring of 1995. The main goal of these upcoming flights will be: (1) to measure more detailed surface pressure distributions across the wing for a range of flight conditions and flap settings; (2) to visualize the surface flows across the multi-element wing at high-lift conditions using fluorescent mini tufts; and (3) to measure in more detail the changes in boundary-layer state on the various flap elements as a result of changes in flight condition and flap deflection. These flight measured results are being correlated with experimental data measured in ground-based facilities as well as with computational data calculated with methods based on the Navier-Stokes equations or a reduced set of these equations. Also these results provide insight into the extent of laminar flow that exists on actual multi-element lifting surfaces at full-scale high-life conditions. Preliminary results indicate that depending on the deflection angle, the slat and flap elements have significant regions of laminar flow over a wide range of angles of attack. Boundary-layer transition mechanisms that were observed include attachment-line contamination on the slat and inflectional instability on the slat and fore flap. Also, the results agree fairly well with the predictions reported in a paper presented at last year's AIAA Fluid Dynamics Conference. The fact that extended regions of laminar flow are shown to exist on the various elements of the high-lift system raises the question what the effect is of loss of laminar flow as a result of insect contamiantion, rain or ice accumulation on high-life performance.

  3. An analytical and experimental evaluation of airfoil sections for helicopter rotor application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bingham, G. J.; Noonan, K. W.

    1975-01-01

    The influence of the more independent airfoil parameters such as thickness, thickness distribution, leading-edge radius, camber, and camber distribution on lift-Mach number characteristics is investigated at lift coefficients up to near-maximum lift. The analysis is based on the drag divergence Mach number (Md) prediction techniques, where Md is the free-stream Mach number at which the rate of increase of drag coefficient with Mach number equals 0.1. The analytical results obtained indicate the compromises in Md which result from changes in thickness ratio, location of maximum thickness, leading edge radius, camber addition, and location of maximum camber for four- and five-digit airfoils and some six-series airfoils of potential interest for helicopters. An example of airfoil sections which combines several of the favorable geometric changes is evaluated analytically and experimentally. A comparison of results shows that the relative effect of the geometric changes on the lift coefficient-Md relation is realistic, and that the methods of analysis employed can be effectively used during preliminary vehicle design and airfoil selection.

  4. A DNS study on the stabilization mechanism of a turbulent lifted ethylene jet flame in highly-heated coflow

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, Chun S

    2011-01-01

    Direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the near-field of a three-dimensional spatially-developing turbulent ethylene jet flame in highly-heated coflow is performed with a reduced mechanism to determine the stabilization mechanism. The DNS was performed at a jet Reynolds number of 10,000 with over 1.29 billion grid points. The results show that auto-ignition in a fuel-lean mixture at the flame base is the main source of stabilization of the lifted jet flame. The Damkoehler number and chemical explosive mode (CEM) analysis also verify that auto-ignition occurs at the flame base. In addition to auto-ignition, Lagrangian tracking of the flame base reveals the passage of large-scale flow structures and their correlation with the fluctuations of the flame base similar to a previous study (Yoo et al., J. Fluid Mech. 640 (2009) 453-481) with hydrogen/air jet flames. It is also observed that the present lifted flame base exhibits a cyclic 'saw-tooth' shaped movement marked by rapid movement upstream and slower movement downstream. This is a consequence of the lifted flame being stabilized by a balance between consecutive auto-ignition events in hot fuel-lean mixtures and convection induced by the high-speed jet and coflow velocities. This is confirmed by Lagrangian tracking of key variables including the flame-normal velocity, displacement speed, scalar dissipation rate, and mixture fraction at the stabilization point.

  5. A DNS study on the stabilization mechanism of a turbulent lifted ethylene jet flame in highly-heated coflow

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, C. S.; Richardson, E.; Sankaran, R.; Chen, J. H.

    2011-01-01

    Direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the near-field of a three-dimensional spatially-developing turbulent ethylene jet flame in highly-heated coflow is performed with a reduced mechanism to determine the stabilization mechanism. The DNS was performed at a jet Reynolds number of 10,000 with over 1.29 billion grid points. The results show that auto-ignition in a fuel-lean mixture at the flame base is the main source of stabilization of the lifted jet flame. The Damköhler number and chemical explosive mode (CEM) analysis also verify that auto-ignition occurs at the flame base. In addition to auto-ignition, Lagrangian tracking of the flame base reveals the passage of large-scale flow structures and their correlation with the fluctuations of the flame base similar to a previous study (Yoo et al., J. Fluid Mech. 640 (2009) 453–481) with hydrogen/air jet flames. It is also observed that the present lifted flame base exhibits a cyclic ‘saw-tooth’ shaped movement marked by rapid movement upstream and slower movement downstream. This is a consequence of the lifted flame being stabilized by a balance between consecutive auto-ignition events in hot fuel-lean mixtures and convection induced by the high-speed jet and coflow velocities. This is confirmed by Lagrangian tracking of key variables including the flame-normal velocity, displacement speed, scalar dissipation rate, and mixture fraction at the stabilization point.

  6. Aerodynamic coefficients in generalized unsteady thin airfoil theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, M. H.

    1980-01-01

    Two cases are considered: (1) rigid body motion of an airfoil-flap combination consisting of vertical translation of given amplitude, rotation of given amplitude about a specified axis, and rotation of given amplitude of the control surface alone about its hinge; the upwash for this problem is defined mathematically; and (2) sinusoidal gust of given amplitude and wave number, for which the upwash is defined mathematically. Simple universal formulas are presented for the most important aerodynamic coefficients in unsteady thin airfoil theory. The lift and moment induced by a generalized gust are evaluated explicitly in terms of the gust wavelength. Similarly, in the control surface problem, the lift, moment, and hinge moments are given as explicit algebraic functions of hinge location. These results can be used together with any of the standard numerical inversion routines for the elementary loads (pitch and heave).

  7. Robust, Optimal Subsonic Airfoil Shapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rai, Man Mohan

    2014-01-01

    A method has been developed to create an airfoil robust enough to operate satisfactorily in different environments. This method determines a robust, optimal, subsonic airfoil shape, beginning with an arbitrary initial airfoil shape, and imposes the necessary constraints on the design. Also, this method is flexible and extendible to a larger class of requirements and changes in constraints imposed.

  8. Comparison of pressure distributions on model and full-scale NACA 64-621 airfoils with ailerons for wind turbine application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregorek, G. M.; Kuniega, R. J.; Nyland, T. W.

    1988-01-01

    The aerodynamic similarity between a small (4-inch chord) wind tunnel model and a full-scale wind turbine blade (24-foot tip section with a 36-inch chord) was evaluated by comparing selected pressure distributions around the geometrically similar cross sections. The airfoils were NACA 64-621 sections, including trailing-edge ailerons with a width equal to 38 percent of the airfoil chord. The model airfoil was tested in the OSU 6- by 12-inch High Reynolds Number Wind Tunnel; the full-scale blade section was tested in the NASA Langley Research Center 30- by 60-foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel. The model airfoil contained 61 pressure taps connected by embedded tubes to pressure transducers. A belt containing 29 pressure taps was fixed to the full-scale section at midspan to obtain surface pressure data. Lift coefficients were obtained by integrating pressures, and corrections were made for the 3-D effects of blade twist and downwash in the blade tip section. The results of the two different experimental methods correlated well for angles of attack from minus 4 to 36 degrees and aileron reflections from 0 to 90 degrees.

  9. Comparison of pressure distributions on model and full-scale NACA 64-621 airfoils with ailerons for wind turbine application

    SciTech Connect

    Gregorek, G.M.; Kuniega, R.J.; Nyland, T.W.

    1988-04-01

    The aerodynamic similarity between a small (4-in. chord) wind tunnel model and a full-scale wind turbine blade (24-ft tip section with a 36-in. chord) was evaluated by comparing selected pressure distributions around the geometrically similar cross sections. The airfoils were NACA 64-621 sections, including trailing-edge ailerons with a width equal to 38 percent of the airfoil chord. The model airfoil was tested in the OSU 6- by 12-In. High Reynolds Number Wind Tunnel; the full-scale blade section was tested in the NASA Langley Research Center 30- by 60-Ft Subsonic Wind Tunnel. The model airfoil contained 61 pressure taps connected by embedded tubes to pressure transducers. A belt containing 29 pressure taps was fixed to the full-scale section at midspan to obtain surface pressure data. Lift coefficients were obtained by integrating pressures, and corrections were made for the three-dimensional effects of blade twist and downwash in the blade tip section. Good correlation was obtained between the results of the two different experimental methods for angles of attack from -4/degree/ to 36/degree/ and aileron deflections from 0/degree/ to 90/degree/. 4 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Bioinspired Corrugated Airfoil at Low Reynolds Numbers

    E-print Network

    Hu, Hui

    -speed wind tunnel. A high-resolution particle image velocimetry system was used to conduct detailed flowfield airfoils. The particle image velocimetry measurement results demonstrated clearly that the corrugated in the valleys of the corrugated cross section would pump high-speed fluid from outside to near-wall regions

  11. Navier-Stokes computations for circulation control airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pulliam, Thomas H.; Jespersen, Dennis C.; Barth, Timothy J.

    1987-01-01

    Navier-Stokes computations of subsonic to transonic flow past airfoils with augmented lift due to rearward jet blowing over a curved trailing edge are presented. The approach uses a spiral grid topology. Solutions are obtained using a Navier-Stokes code which employs an implicit finite difference method, an algebraic turbulence model, and developments which improve stability, convergence, and accuracy. Results are compared against experiments for no jet blowing and moderate jet pressures and demonstrate the capability to compute these complicated flows.

  12. Experimental Optimization Methods for Multi-Element Airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landman, Drew; Britcher, Colin P.

    1996-01-01

    A modern three element airfoil model with a remotely activated flap was used to investigate optimum flap testing position using an automated optimization algorithm in wind tunnel tests. Detailed results for lift coefficient versus flap vertical and horizontal position are presented for two angles of attack: 8 and 14 degrees. An on-line first order optimizer is demonstrated which automatically seeks the optimum lift as a function of flap position. Future work with off-line optimization techniques is introduced and aerodynamic hysteresis effects due to flap movement with flow on are discussed.

  13. 2-D Circulation Control Airfoil Benchmark Experiments Intended for CFD Code Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englar, Robert J.; Jones, Gregory S.; Allan, Brian G.; Lin, Johb C.

    2009-01-01

    A current NASA Research Announcement (NRA) project being conducted by Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) personnel and NASA collaborators includes the development of Circulation Control (CC) blown airfoils to improve subsonic aircraft high-lift and cruise performance. The emphasis of this program is the development of CC active flow control concepts for both high-lift augmentation, drag control, and cruise efficiency. A collaboration in this project includes work by NASA research engineers, whereas CFD validation and flow physics experimental research are part of NASA s systematic approach to developing design and optimization tools for CC applications to fixed-wing aircraft. The design space for CESTOL type aircraft is focusing on geometries that depend on advanced flow control technologies that include Circulation Control aerodynamics. The ability to consistently predict advanced aircraft performance requires improvements in design tools to include these advanced concepts. Validation of these tools will be based on experimental methods applied to complex flows that go beyond conventional aircraft modeling techniques. This paper focuses on recent/ongoing benchmark high-lift experiments and CFD efforts intended to provide 2-D CFD validation data sets related to NASA s Cruise Efficient Short Take Off and Landing (CESTOL) study. Both the experimental data and related CFD predictions are discussed.

  14. Multiple piece turbine airfoil

    DOEpatents

    Kimmel, Keith D (Jupiter, FL)

    2010-11-09

    A turbine airfoil, such as a rotor blade or a stator vane, for a gas turbine engine, the airfoil formed as a shell and spar construction with a plurality of hook shaped struts each mounted within channels extending in a spanwise direction of the spar and the shell to allow for relative motion between the spar and shell in the airfoil chordwise direction while also fanning a seal between adjacent cooling channels. The struts provide the seal as well as prevent bulging of the shell from the spar due to the cooling air pressure. The hook struts have a hooked shaped end and a rounded shaped end in order to insert the struts into the spar.

  15. Design and Predictions for a High-Altitude (Low-Reynolds-Number) Aerodynamic Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greer, Donald; Hamory, Phil; Krake, Keith; Drela, Mark

    1999-01-01

    A sailplane being developed at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center will support a high-altitude flight experiment. The experiment will measure the performance parameters of an airfoil at high altitudes (70,000 to 100,000 ft), low Reynolds numbers (200,000 to 700,000), and high subsonic Mach numbers (0.5 and 0.65). The airfoil section lift and drag are determined from pitot and static pressure measurements. The locations of the separation bubble, Tollmien-Schlichting boundary layer instability frequencies, and vortex shedding are measured from a hot-film strip. The details of the planned flight experiment are presented. Several predictions of the airfoil performance are also presented. Mark Drela from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology designed the APEX-16 airfoil, using the MSES code. Two-dimensional Navier-Stokes analyses were performed by Mahidhar Tatineni and Xiaolin Zhong from the University of California, Los Angeles, and by the authors at NASA Dryden.

  16. Development of High-Efficiency Low-Lift Vapor Compression System - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Armstrong, Peter; Wang, Weimin; Fernandez, Nicholas; Cho, Heejin; Goetzler, W.; Burgos, J.; Radhakrishnan, R.; Ahlfeldt, C.

    2010-03-31

    PNNL, with cofunding from the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and Building Technologies Program, conducted a research and development activity targeted at addressing the energy efficiency goals targeted in the BPA roadmap. PNNL investigated an integrated heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system option referred to as the low-lift cooling system that potentially offers an increase in HVAC energy performance relative to ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004.

  17. Rime ice accretion and its effect on airfoil performance. Ph.D. Thesis. Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg, M. B.

    1982-01-01

    A methodology was developed to predict the growth of rime ice, and the resulting aerodynamic penalty on unprotected, subcritical, airfoil surfaces. The system of equations governing the trajectory of a water droplet in the airfoil flowfield is developed and a numerical solution is obtained to predict the mass flux of super cooled water droplets freezing on impact. A rime ice shape is predicted. The effect of time on the ice growth is modeled by a time-stepping procedure where the flowfield and droplet mass flux are updated periodically through the ice accretion process. Two similarity parameters, the trajectory similarity parameter and accumulation parameter, are found to govern the accretion of rime ice. In addition, an analytical solution is presented for Langmuir's classical modified inertia parameter. The aerodynamic evaluation of the effect of the ice accretion on airfoil performance is determined using an existing airfoil analysis code with empirical corrections. The change in maximum lift coefficient is found from an analysis of the new iced airfoil shape. The drag correction needed due to the severe surface roughness is formulated from existing iced airfoil and rough airfoil data. A small scale wind tunnel test was conducted to determine the change in airfoil performance due to a simulated rime ice shape.

  18. High Reynolds number tests of the CAST 10-2/DOA 2 airfoil in the Langley 0.3-meter transonic cryogenic tunnel, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dress, D. A.; Mcguire, P. D.; Stanewsky, E.; Ray, E. J.

    1983-01-01

    A wind tunnel investigation of an advanced technology airfoil, the CAST 10-2/DOA 2, was conducted in the Langley 0.3 meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel (0.3 m TCT). This was the first of a series of tests conducted in a cooperative National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Deutsche Forschungs- und Versuchsanstalt fur Luft- und Raumfahrt e. V. (DFVLR) airfoil research program. Test temperature was varied from 280 K to 100 K to pressures from slightly above 1 to 5.8 atmospheres. Mach number was varied from 0.60 to 0.80, and the Reynolds number (based on airfoil chord) was varied from 4 x 10 to the 8th power to 45 x 10 to the 6th power. This report presents the experimental aerodynamic data obtained for the airfoil and includes descriptions of the airfoil model, the 0.3 m TCT, the test instrumentation, and the testing procedures.

  19. High Reynolds number tests of the cast 10-2/DOA 2 airfoil in the Langley 0.3-meter transonic cryogenic tunnel, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dress, D. A.; Stanewsky, E.; Mcguire, P. D.; Ray, E. J.

    1984-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests of an advanced technology airfoil, the CAST 10-2/DOA 2, were conducted in the Langley 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel (0.3-m TCT). This was the third of a series of tests conducted in a cooperative airfoil research program between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Deutsche Forschungsund Versuchsanstalt fur Luft- und Raumfahrt e. V. For these tests, temperature was varied from 270 K to 110 K at pressures from 1.5 to 5.75 atmospheres. Mach number was varied from 0.60 to 0.80, and the Reynolds number (based on airfoil chord) was varied from 2 to 20 million. The aerodynamic data for the 7.62 cm chord airfoil model used in these tests is presented without analysis. Descriptions of the 0.3-m TCT, the airfoil model, the test instrumentation, and the testing procedures are included.

  20. Active Control of Separation From the Flap of a Supercritical Airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melton, La Tunia Pack; Yao, Chung-Sheng; Seifert, Avi

    2003-01-01

    Active flow control in the form of periodic zero-mass-flux excitation was applied at several regions on the leading edge and trailing edge flaps of a simplified high-lift system t o delay flow separation. The NASA Energy Efficient Transport (EET) supercritical airfoil was equipped with a 15% chord simply hinged leading edge flap and a 25% chord simply hinged trailing edge flap. Detailed flow features were measured in an attempt to identify optimal actuator placement. The measurements included steady and unsteady model and tunnel wall pressures, wake surveys, arrays of surface hot-films, flow visualization, and particle image velocimetry (PIV). The current paper describes the application of active separation control at several locations on the deflected trailing edge flap. High frequency (F(+) approx.= 10) and low frequency amplitude modulation (F(+)AM approx.= 1) of the high frequency excitation were used for control. Preliminary efforts to combine leading and trailing edge flap excitations are also reported.

  1. Experimental study of pitching and plunging airfoils at low Reynolds numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baik, Yeon Sik; Bernal, Luis P.

    2012-12-01

    Measurements of the unsteady flow structure and force time history of pitching and plunging SD7003 and flat plate airfoils at low Reynolds numbers are presented. The airfoils were pitched and plunged in the effective angle of attack range of 2.4°-13.6° (shallow-stall kinematics) and -6° to 22° (deep-stall kinematics). The shallow-stall kinematics results for the SD7003 airfoil show attached flow and laminar-to-turbulent transition at low effective angle of attack during the down stroke motion, while the flat plate model exhibits leading edge separation. Strong Re-number effects were found for the SD7003 airfoil which produced approximately 25 % increase in the peak lift coefficient at Re = 10,000 compared to higher Re flows. The flat plate airfoil showed reduced Re effects due to leading edge separation at the sharper leading edge, and the measured peak lift coefficient was higher than that predicted by unsteady potential flow theory. The deep-stall kinematics resulted in leading edge separation that led to formation of a large leading edge vortex (LEV) and a small trailing edge vortex (TEV) for both airfoils. The measured peak lift coefficient was significantly higher (~50 %) than that for the shallow-stall kinematics. The effect of airfoil shape on lift force was greater than the Re effect. Turbulence statistics were measured as a function of phase using ensemble averages. The results show anisotropic turbulence for the LEV and isotropic turbulence for the TEV. Comparison of unsteady potential flow theory with the experimental data showed better agreement by using the quasi-steady approximation, or setting C( k) = 1 in Theodorsen theory, for leading edge-separated flows.

  2. Stiffness characteristics of airfoils under pulse loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Kevin Eugene

    The turbomachinery industry continually struggles with the adverse effects of contact rubs between airfoils and casings. The key parameter controlling the severity of a given rub event is the contact load produced when the airfoil tips incur into the casing. These highly non-linear and transient forces are difficult to calculate and their effects on the static and rotating components are not well understood. To help provide this insight, experimental and analytical capabilities have been established and exercised through an alliance between GE Aviation and The Ohio State University Gas Turbine Laboratory. One of the early findings of the program is the influence of blade flexibility on the physics of rub events. The core focus of the work presented in this dissertation is to quantify the influence of airfoil flexibility through a novel modeling approach that is based on the relationship between applied force duration and maximum tip deflection. This relationship is initially established using a series of forward, non-linear and transient analyses in which simulated impulse rub loads are applied. This procedure, although effective, is highly inefficient and costly to conduct by requiring numerous explicit simulations. To alleviate this issue, a simplified model, named the pulse magnification model, is developed that only requires a modal analysis and a static analyses to fully describe how the airfoil stiffness changes with respect to load duration. Results from the pulse magnification model are compared to results from the full transient simulation method and to experimental results, providing sound verification for the use of the modeling approach. Furthermore, a unique and highly efficient method to model airfoil geometries was developed and is outlined in this dissertation. This method produces quality Finite Element airfoil definitions directly from a fully parameterized mathematical model. The effectiveness of this approach is demonstrated by comparing modal properties of the simulated geometries to modal properties of various current airfoil designs. Finally, this modeling approach was used in conjunction with the pulse magnification model to study the effects of various airfoil geometric features on the stiffness of the blade under impulsive loading.

  3. Multi-Element Airfoil System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Travis L. (Inventor); Khorrami, Mehdi R. (Inventor); Lockard, David P. (Inventor); McKenney, Martin J. (Inventor); Atherley, Raymond D. (Inventor); Kidd, Reggie T. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A multi-element airfoil system includes an airfoil element having a leading edge region and a skin element coupled to the airfoil element. A slat deployment system is coupled to the slat and the skin element, and is capable of deploying and retracting the slat and the skin element. The skin element substantially fills the lateral gap formed between the slat and the airfoil element when the slat is deployed. The system further includes an uncoupling device and a sensor to remove the skin element from the gap based on a critical angle-of-attack of the airfoil element. The system can alternatively comprise a trailing edge flap, where a skin element substantially fills the lateral gap between the flap and the trailing edge region of the airfoil element. In each case, the skin element fills a gap between the airfoil element and the deployed flap or slat to reduce airframe noise.

  4. Erosion/corrosion of turbine airfoil materials in the high-velocity effluent of a pressurized fluidized coal combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zellars, G. R.; Rowe, A. P.; Lowell, C. E.

    1978-01-01

    Four candidate turbine airfoil superalloys were exposed to the effluent of a pressurized fluidized bed with a solids loading of 2 to 4 g/scm for up to 100 hours at two gas velocities, 150 and 270 m/sec, and two temperatures, 730 deg and 795 C. Under these conditions, both erosion and corrosion occurred. The damaged specimens were examined by cross-section measurements, scanning electron and light microscopy, and X-ray analysis to evaluate the effects of temperature, velocity, particle loading, and alloy material. Results indicate that for a given solids loading the extent of erosion is primarily dependent on gas velocity. Corrosion occurred only at the higher temperature. There was little difference in the erosion/corrosion damage to the four alloys tested under these severe conditions.

  5. Breast lift

    MedlinePLUS

    ... lift sagging, loose breasts. Pregnancy, breastfeeding, and normal aging may cause a woman to have stretched skin and smaller ... be noticeable, even in low-cut clothing. Normal aging, pregnancy, and changes in your weight may all cause your breasts to sag again.

  6. Powered-Lift Aerodynamics and Acoustics. [conferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Powered lift technology is reviewed. Topics covered include: (1) high lift aerodynamics; (2) high speed and cruise aerodynamics; (3) acoustics; (4) propulsion aerodynamics and acoustics; (5) aerodynamic and acoustic loads; and (6) full-scale and flight research.

  7. The Monoplane as a Lifting Vortex Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blenk, Hermann

    1947-01-01

    In Prandtl's airfoil theory the monoplane was replaced by a single lifting vortex line and yielded fairly practical results. However, the theory remained restricted to the straight wing. Yawed wings and those curved in flight direction could not be computed with this first approximation; for these the chordwise lift distribution must be taken into consideration. For the two-dimensional problem the transition from the lifting line to the lifting surface has been explained by Birnbaum. In the present report the transition to the three-dimensional problem is undertaken. The first fundamental problem involves the prediction of flow, profile, and drag for prescribed circulation distribution on the straight rectangular wing, the yawed wing for lateral boundaries parallel to the direction of flight, the swept-back wing, and the rectangular wing in slipping, with the necessary series developments for carrying through the calculations, the practical range of convergence of which does not comprise the wing tips or the break point of the swept-back wing. The second problem concerns the calculation of the circulation distribution with given profile for a slipping rectangular monoplane with flat profile and aspect ratio 6, and a rectangular wing with cambered profile and variable aspect ratio-the latter serving as check of the so-called conversion formulas of the airfoil theory.

  8. Turbine airfoil manufacturing technology

    SciTech Connect

    Kortovich, C.

    1995-12-31

    The specific goal of this program is to define manufacturing methods that will allow single crystal technology to be applied to complex-cored airfoils components for power generation applications. Tasks addressed include: alloy melt practice to reduce the sulfur content; improvement of casting process; core materials design; and grain orientation control.

  9. Serrated-Planform Lifting-Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGrath, Brian E. (Inventor); Wood, Richard M. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A novel set of serrated-planform lifting surfaces produce unexpectedly high lift coefficients at moderate to high angles-of-attack. Each serration, or tooth, is designed to shed a vortex. The interaction of the vortices greatly enhances the lifting capability over an extremely large operating range. Variations of the invention use serrated-planform lifting surfaces in planes different than that of a primary lifting surface. In an alternate embodiment, the individual teeth are controllably retractable and deployable to provide for active control of the vortex system and hence lift coefficient. Differential lift on multiple serrated-planform lifting surfaces provides a means for vehicle control. The important aerodynamic advantages of the serrated-planform lifting surfaces are not limited to aircraft applications but can be used to establish desirable performance characteristics for missiles, land vehicles, and/or watercraft.

  10. Tu-144LL SST Flying Laboratory Lifts off Runway on a High-Speed Research Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Tupolev Tu-144LL lifts off from the Zhukovsky Air Development Center near Moscow, Russia, on a 1998 test flight. NASA teamed with American and Russian aerospace industries for an extended period in a joint international research program featuring the Russian-built Tu-144LL supersonic aircraft. The object of the program was to develop technologies for a proposed future second-generation supersonic airliner to be developed in the 21st Century. The aircraft's initial flight phase began in June 1996 and concluded in February 1998 after 19 research flights. A shorter follow-on program involving seven flights began in September 1998 and concluded in April 1999. All flights were conducted in Russia from Tupolev's facility at the Zhukovsky Air Development Center near Moscow. The centerpiece of the research program was the Tu 144LL, a first-generation Russian supersonic jetliner that was modified by its developer/builder, Tupolev ANTK (aviatsionnyy nauchno-tekhnicheskiy kompleks-roughly, aviation technical complex), into a flying laboratory for supersonic research. Using the Tu-144LL to conduct flight research experiments, researchers compared full-scale supersonic aircraft flight data with results from models in wind tunnels, computer-aided techniques, and other flight tests. The experiments provided unique aerodynamic, structures, acoustics, and operating environment data on supersonic passenger aircraft. Data collected from the research program was being used to develop the technology base for a proposed future American-built supersonic jetliner. Although actual development of such an advanced supersonic transport (SST) is currently on hold, commercial aviation experts estimate that a market for up to 500 such aircraft could develop by the third decade of the 21st Century. The Tu-144LL used in the NASA-sponsored research program was a 'D' model with different engines than were used in production-model aircraft. Fifty experiments were proposed for the program and eight were selected, including six flight and two ground (engine) tests. The flight experiments included studies of the aircraft's exterior surface, internal structure, engine temperatures, boundary-layer airflow, the wing's ground-effect characteristics, interior and exterior noise, handling qualities in various flight profiles, and in-flight structural flexibility. The ground tests studied the effect of air inlet structures on airflow entering the engine and the effect on engine performance when supersonic shock waves rapidly change position in the engine air inlet. A second phase of testing further studied the original six in-flight experiments with additional instrumentation installed to assist in data acquisition and analysis. A new experiment aimed at measuring the in-flight deflections of the wing and fuselage was also conducted. American-supplied transducers and sensors were installed to measure nose boom pressures, angle of attack, and sideslip angles with increased accuracy. Two NASA pilots, Robert Rivers of Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia, and Gordon Fullerton from Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, assessed the aircraft's handling at subsonic and supersonic speeds during three flight tests in September 1998. The program concluded after four more data-collection flights in the spring of 1999. The Tu-144LL model had new Kuznetsov NK-321 turbofan engines rated at more than 55,000 pounds of thrust in full afterburner. The aircraft is 215 feet, 6 inches long and 42 feet, 2 inches high with a wingspan of 94 feet, 6 inches. The aircraft is constructed mostly of light aluminum alloy with titanium and stainless steel on the leading edges, elevons, rudder, and the under-surface of the rear fuselage.

  11. Simulation of flow around a thick airfoil with a vortex trapping cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeed, F.; Basha, M.; Al-Garni, A. Z.

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents a numerical study of a low Reynolds number flow around a thick airfoil (Eppler's E863 airfoil) with and without an upper-surface vortex-trapping cavity. The numerical model of flow is constructed using an O-grid computational domain around the airfoil and analyzed using four different turbulence models: namely standard k-?, RNG k-?, SST k-? and the one-equation Spallart-Almaras (SA). Enhance wall treatment is employed for the two-equation turbulence models with the non-dimensional first cell height y+ at the wall region kept close to 1. The Reynolds number is kept constant at 354000. Results of lift & drag coefficient as well as velocity profiles are presented for four different angles of attack from 0 to 15 deg. The RNG k-? model is found to better predict the flow field and airfoil lift and drag characteristics as compared to the other turbulence models taken into consideration in this paper. The presence of the vortex-trapping cavity midway on the upper-surface of the airfoil is found to yield higher lift coefficients as well as prevent flow separation but at the cost of increase the drag coefficient.

  12. Supersonic, nonlinear, attached-flow wing design for high lift with experimental validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pittman, J. L.; Miller, D. S.; Mason, W. H.

    1984-01-01

    Results of the experimental validation are presented for the three dimensional cambered wing which was designed to achieve attached supercritical cross flow for lifting conditions typical of supersonic maneuver. The design point was a lift coefficient of 0.4 at Mach 1.62 and 12 deg angle of attack. Results from the nonlinear full potential method are presented to show the validity of the design process along with results from linear theory codes. Longitudinal force and moment data and static pressure data were obtained in the Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel at Mach numbers of 1.58, 1.62, 1.66, 1.70, and 2.00 over an angle of attack range of 0 to 14 deg at a Reynolds number of 2.0 x 10 to the 6th power per foot. Oil flow photographs of the upper surface were obtained at M = 1.62 for alpha approx. = 8, 10, 12, and 14 deg.

  13. Experiments on heave/pitch limit-cycle oscillations of a supercritical airfoil close to the transonic dip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietz, G.; Schewe, G.; Mai, H.

    2004-01-01

    Recent results from flutter experiments of the supercritical airfoil NLR 7301 at flow conditions near the transonic dip are presented. The airfoil was mounted with two degrees of freedom in an adaptive solid-wall wind tunnel, and boundary-layer transition was tripped. Two limit-cycle oscillation (LCO) test cases obtained in an adaptive test-section are proposed for comparison with numerical simulations. The results link the global aerodynamic force behavior to the observed LCOs and the identified transonic dip. The time lag of the lift response to the pitching motion of the airfoil appears to be responsible for the characteristic shape of the transonic dip. The amplitude limitation of the LCOs results from a slightly nonlinear dependency of lift and moment on the amplitude of the airfoil motion. LCOs can be controlled by relatively small forces, but amplitudes strongly depend on the damping of the aeroelastic system.

  14. Characteristics of an Airfoil as Affected by Fabric Sag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, Kenneth E

    1932-01-01

    This report presents the results of tests made at a high value of the Reynolds Number in the N.A.C.A. variable-density wind tunnel to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of an airfoil as affected by fabric sag. Tests were made of two Gottingen 387 airfoils, one having the usual smooth surface and the other having a surface modified to simulate two types of fabric sag. The results of these tests indicate that the usual sagging of the wind covering between ribs has a very small effect on the aerodynamic characteristics of an airfoil.

  15. Unsteady Newton-Busemann flow theory. I - Airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hui, W. H.; Tobak, M.

    1981-01-01

    Newtonian flow theory for unsteady flow at very high Mach numbers is completed by the addition of a centrifugal force correction to the impact pressures. The correction term is the unsteady counterpart of Busemann's centrifugal force correction to impact pressures in steady flow. For airfoils of arbitary shape, exact formulas for the unsteady pressure and stiffness and damping-in-pitch derivatives are obtained in closed form, which require only numerical quadratures of terms involving the airfoil shape. They are applicable to airfoils of arbitrary thickness having sharp or blunt leading edges. For wedges and thin airfoils these formulas are greatly simplified, and it is proved that the pitching motions of thin airfoils of convex shape and of wedges of arbitrary thickness are always dynamically stable according to Newton-Busemann theory. Leading-edge bluntness is shown to have a favorable effect on the dynamic stability; on the other hand, airfoils of concave shape tend toward dynamic instability over a range of axis positions if the surface curvature exceeds a certain limit. As a byproduct, it is also shown that a pressure formula recently given by Barron and Mandl for unsteady Newtonian flow over a pitching power-law shaped airfoil is erroneous and that their conclusion regarding the effect of pivot position on the dynamic stability is misleading.

  16. Vertical axis wind turbine airfoil

    DOEpatents

    Krivcov, Vladimir; Krivospitski, Vladimir; Maksimov, Vasili; Halstead, Richard; Grahov, Jurij Vasiljevich

    2012-12-18

    A vertical axis wind turbine airfoil is described. The wind turbine airfoil can include a leading edge, a trailing edge, an upper curved surface, a lower curved surface, and a centerline running between the upper surface and the lower surface and from the leading edge to the trailing edge. The airfoil can be configured so that the distance between the centerline and the upper surface is the same as the distance between the centerline and the lower surface at all points along the length of the airfoil. A plurality of such airfoils can be included in a vertical axis wind turbine. These airfoils can be vertically disposed and can rotate about a vertical axis.

  17. High Reynolds number tests of the CAST-10-2/DOA 2 transonic airfoil at ambient and cryogenic temper ature conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanewsky, E.; Demurie, F.; Ray, Edward J.; Johnson, C. B.

    1989-01-01

    The transonic airfoil CAST 10-2/DOA 2 was investigated in several major transonic wind tunnels at Reynolds numbers ranging from Re=1.3 x 10(exp 6) to 45 x 10(exp 6) at ambient and cryogenic temperature conditions. The main objective was to study the degree and extent of the effects of Reynolds number on both the airfoil aerodynamic characteristics and the interference effects of various model-wind-tunnel systems. The initial analysis of the CAST 10-2 airfoil results revealed appreciable real Reynolds number effects on this airfoil and showed that wall interference can be significantly affected by changes in Reynolds number thus appearing as true Reynolds number effects.

  18. Inverse transonic airfoil design methods including boundary layer and viscous interaction effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, L. A.

    1979-01-01

    The development and incorporation into TRANDES of a fully conservative analysis method utilizing the artificial compressibility approach is described. The method allows for lifting cases and finite thickness airfoils and utilizes a stretched coordinate system. Wave drag and massive separation studies are also discussed.

  19. Waste Package Lifting Calculation

    SciTech Connect

    H. Marr

    2000-05-11

    The objective of this calculation is to evaluate the structural response of the waste package during the horizontal and vertical lifting operations in order to support the waste package lifting feature design. The scope of this calculation includes the evaluation of the 21 PWR UCF (pressurized water reactor uncanistered fuel) waste package, naval waste package, 5 DHLW/DOE SNF (defense high-level waste/Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel)--short waste package, and 44 BWR (boiling water reactor) UCF waste package. Procedure AP-3.12Q, Revision 0, ICN 0, calculations, is used to develop and document this calculation.

  20. Inverse transonic airfoil design methods including boundary layer and viscous interaction effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, L. A.

    1982-01-01

    A body-fitted grid embedment technique applicable to inviscid transonic airfoil flow field analysis was developed and verified through a series of tests. Test cases used to verify the technique show that the accuracy of the solution was increased by grid embedding. This enhancement of the solution is especially true when small supercritical zones occur which cannot be adequately described using the main grid only. Results obtained with the SKANFP full potential program are considered with regard to the massive separated flow and high lift and the undesirable unrealistic 'bump' in the vicinity of the separation point due to a mismatch between the unseparated and separated pressure distributions. Techniques used to eliminate this feature are discussed.

  1. A Method for the Constrained Design of Natural Laminar Flow Airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Bradford E.; Whitesides, John L.; Campbell, Richard L.; Mineck, Raymond E.

    1996-01-01

    A fully automated iterative design method has been developed by which an airfoil with a substantial amount of natural laminar flow can be designed, while maintaining other aerodynamic and geometric constraints. Drag reductions have been realized using the design method over a range of Mach numbers, Reynolds numbers and airfoil thicknesses. The thrusts of the method are its ability to calculate a target N-Factor distribution that forces the flow to undergo transition at the desired location; the target-pressure-N-Factor relationship that is used to reduce the N-Factors in order to prolong transition; and its ability to design airfoils to meet lift, pitching moment, thickness and leading-edge radius constraints while also being able to meet the natural laminar flow constraint. The method uses several existing CFD codes and can design a new airfoil in only a few days using a Silicon Graphics IRIS workstation.

  2. The influence of laminar separation and transition on low Reynolds number airfoil hysteresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, T. J.

    1984-01-01

    An experimental study of the Lissaman 7769 and Miley MO6-13-128 airfoils at low chord Reynolds numbers is presented. Although both airfoils perform well near their design Reynolds number of about 600,000, they each produce a different type of hysteresis loop in the lift and drag forces when operated below chord Reynolds numbers of 300,000. The type of hysteresis loop was found to depend upon the relative location of laminar separation and transition. The influence of disturbance environment and experimental procedure on the low Reynolds number airfoil boundary layer behavior is also presented. The use of potential flow solutions to help predict how a given airfoil will behave at low Reynolds numbers is also discussed.

  3. Turbine airfoil with controlled area cooling arrangement

    DOEpatents

    Liang, George

    2010-04-27

    A gas turbine airfoil (10) includes a serpentine cooling path (32) with a plurality of channels (34,42,44) fluidly interconnected by a plurality of turns (38,40) for cooling the airfoil wall material. A splitter component (50) is positioned within at least one of the channels to bifurcate the channel into a pressure-side channel (46) passing in between the outer wall (28) and the inner wall (30) of the pressure side (24) and a suction-side channel (48) passing in between the outer wall (28) and the inner wall (30) of the suction side (26) longitudinally downstream of an intermediate height (52). The cross-sectional area of the pressure-side channel (46) and suction-side channel (48) are thereby controlled in spite of an increasing cross-sectional area of the airfoil along its longitudinal length, ensuring a sufficiently high mach number to provide a desired degree of cooling throughout the entire length of the airfoil.

  4. Aerodynamic Simulation of Ice Accretion on Airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broeren, Andy P.; Addy, Harold E., Jr.; Bragg, Michael B.; Busch, Greg T.; Montreuil, Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    This report describes recent improvements in aerodynamic scaling and simulation of ice accretion on airfoils. Ice accretions were classified into four types on the basis of aerodynamic effects: roughness, horn, streamwise, and spanwise ridge. The NASA Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) was used to generate ice accretions within these four types using both subscale and full-scale models. Large-scale, pressurized windtunnel testing was performed using a 72-in.- (1.83-m-) chord, NACA 23012 airfoil model with high-fidelity, three-dimensional castings of the IRT ice accretions. Performance data were recorded over Reynolds numbers from 4.5 x 10(exp 6) to 15.9 x 10(exp 6) and Mach numbers from 0.10 to 0.28. Lower fidelity ice-accretion simulation methods were developed and tested on an 18-in.- (0.46-m-) chord NACA 23012 airfoil model in a small-scale wind tunnel at a lower Reynolds number. The aerodynamic accuracy of the lower fidelity, subscale ice simulations was validated against the full-scale results for a factor of 4 reduction in model scale and a factor of 8 reduction in Reynolds number. This research has defined the level of geometric fidelity required for artificial ice shapes to yield aerodynamic performance results to within a known level of uncertainty and has culminated in a proposed methodology for subscale iced-airfoil aerodynamic simulation.

  5. Transition Documentation on a Three-Element High-Lift Configuration at High Reynolds Numbers--Database. [conducted in the Langley Low Turbulence Pressure Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertelrud, Arild; Johnson, Sherylene; Anders, J. B. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A 2-D (two dimensional) high-lift system experiment was conducted in August of 1996 in the Low Turbulence Pressure Tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA. The purpose of the experiment was to obtain transition measurements on a three element high-lift system for CFD (computational fluid dynamics) code validation studies. A transition database has been created using the data from this experiment. The present report details how the hot-film data and the related pressure data are organized in the database. Data processing codes to access the data in an efficient and reliable manner are described and limited examples are given on how to access the database and store acquired information.

  6. Pressure distribution from high Reynolds number tests of a NASA SC(3)-0712(B) airfoil in the Langley 0.3-meter transonic cryogenic tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. G., Jr.; Hill, A. S.; Eichmann, O.

    1985-01-01

    A wind tunnel investigation of a NASA 12-percent-thick, advanced-technology supercritical airfoil was conducted in the Langley 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel (TCT). This investigation represents another in the series of NASA/U.S. industry two-dimensional airfoil studies to be completed in the Advanced Technology Airfoil Tests program. Test temperature was varied from 220 K to 96 K at pressures ranging from 1.2 to 4.3 atm. Mach number was varied from 0.50 to 0.80. This investigation was designed to: (1) test a NASA advanced-technology airfoil from low to flight equivalent Reynolds numbers, (2) provide experience in cryogenic wind-tunnel model design and testing techniques, and (3) demonstrate the suitability of the 0.3-m TCT as an airfoil test facility. All the test objectives were met. The pressure data are presented without analysis in tabulated format and as plots of pressure coefficient versus position on the airfoil. This report was prepared for use in conjunction with the aerodynamic coefficient data published in NASA-TM-86371. Data are included which demonstrate the effects of fixed transition. Also included are remarks on the model design and fabrication.

  7. A two element laminar flow airfoil optimized for cruise. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steen, Gregory Glen

    1994-01-01

    Numerical and experimental results are presented for a new two-element, fixed-geometry natural laminar flow airfoil optimized for cruise Reynolds numbers on the order of three million. The airfoil design consists of a primary element and an independent secondary element with a primary to secondary chord ratio of three to one. The airfoil was designed to improve the cruise lift-to-drag ratio while maintaining an appropriate landing capability when compared to conventional airfoils. The airfoil was numerically developed utilizing the NASA Langley Multi-Component Airfoil Analysis computer code running on a personal computer. Numerical results show a nearly 11.75 percent decrease in overall wing drag with no increase in stall speed at sailplane cruise conditions when compared to a wing based on an efficient single element airfoil. Section surface pressure, wake survey, transition location, and flow visualization results were obtained in the Texas A&M University Low Speed Wind Tunnel. Comparisons between the numerical and experimental data, the effects of the relative position and angle of the two elements, and Reynolds number variations from 8 x 10(exp 5) to 3 x 10(exp 6) for the optimum geometry case are presented.

  8. The acoustics and unsteady wall pressure of a circulation control airfoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silver, Jonathan C.

    A Circulation Control (CC) airfoil uses a wall jet exiting onto a rounded trailing edge to generate lift via the Coanda effect. The aerodynamics of the CC airfoil have been studied extensively. The acoustics of the airfoil are, however, much less understood. The primary goal of the present work was to study the radiated sound and unsteady surface pressures of a CC airfoil. The focus of this work can be divided up into three main categories: characterizing the unsteady surface pressures, characterizing the radiated sound, and understanding the acoustics from surface pressures. The present work is the first to present the unsteady surface pressures from the trailing edge cylinder of a circulation control airfoil. The auto-spectral density of the unsteady surface pressures at various locations around the trailing edge are presented over a wide range of the jets momentum coefficient. Coherence of pressure and length scales were computed and presented. Single microphone measurements were made at a range of angles for a fixed observer distance in the far field. Spectra are presented for select angles to show the directivity of the airfoil's radiated sound. Predictions of the acoustics were made from unsteady surface pressures via Howe's curvature noise model and a modified Curle's analogy. A summary of the current understanding of the acoustics from a CC airfoil is given along with suggestions for future work.

  9. Comparison of selected lift and sideslip characteristics of the Ayres Thrush S2R-800, winglets off and winglets on, to full-scale wind-tunnel data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roskam, J.; Williams, M.

    1981-01-01

    All calculations were done in the stability axes system. The winglets used were constructed of modified GA(w)-2 airfoils. Aerodynamic characteristics discussed include: angle of attack; lift-curve slope; side force; yawing moments; rolling moments.

  10. Tail Rotor Airfoils Stabilize Helicopters, Reduce Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Founded by former Ames Research Center engineer Jim Van Horn, Van Horn Aviation of Tempe, Arizona, built upon a Langley Research Center airfoil design to create a high performance aftermarket tail rotor for the popular Bell 206 helicopter. The highly durable rotor has a lifetime twice that of the original equipment manufacturer blade, reduces noise by 40 percent, and displays enhanced performance at high altitudes. These improvements benefit helicopter performance for law enforcement, military training, wildfire and pipeline patrols, and emergency medical services.

  11. Experimental and numerical research of lift force produced by Coand? effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantinescu, S. G.; Niculescu, M. L.

    2013-10-01

    The paper presents research results of aerodynamics of Coand? airfoil, that is a key element of drones with jet propulsion. The Coand? propulsion allows drones to monitor quickly the large areas in emergencies: forest fires, earthquakes, meteor attacks and so on. The aim of this work consists in establishment of geometric and aerodynamic parameters at which, the lift force produced by Coand? airfoil is maximal.

  12. Low-Reynolds number compressible flow around a triangular airfoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munday, Phillip; Taira, Kunihiko; Suwa, Tetsuya; Numata, Daiju; Asai, Keisuke

    2013-11-01

    We report on the combined numerical and experimental effort to analyze the nonlinear aerodynamics of a triangular airfoil in low-Reynolds number compressible flow that is representative of wings on future Martian air vehicles. The flow field around this airfoil is examined for a wide range of angles of attack and Mach numbers with three-dimensional direct numerical simulations at Re = 3000 . Companion experiments are conducted in a unique Martian wind tunnel that is placed in a vacuum chamber to simulate the Martian atmosphere. Computational findings are compared with pressure sensitive paint and direct force measurements and are found to be in agreement. The separated flow from the leading edge is found to form a large leading-edge vortex that sits directly above the apex of the airfoil and provides enhanced lift at post stall angles of attack. For higher subsonic flows, the vortical structures elongate in the streamwise direction resulting in reduced lift enhancement. We also observe that the onset of spanwise instability for higher angles of attack is delayed at lower Mach numbers. Currently at Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Nagasaki.

  13. Airfoil Ice-Accretion Aerodynamics Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg, Michael B.; Broeren, Andy P.; Addy, Harold E.; Potapczuk, Mark G.; Guffond, Didier; Montreuil, E.

    2007-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center, ONERA, and the University of Illinois are conducting a major research program whose goal is to improve our understanding of the aerodynamic scaling of ice accretions on airfoils. The program when it is completed will result in validated scaled simulation methods that produce the essential aerodynamic features of the full-scale iced-airfoil. This research will provide some of the first, high-fidelity, full-scale, iced-airfoil aerodynamic data. An initial study classified ice accretions based on their aerodynamics into four types: roughness, streamwise ice, horn ice, and spanwise-ridge ice. Subscale testing using a NACA 23012 airfoil was performed in the NASA IRT and University of Illinois wind tunnel to better understand the aerodynamics of these ice types and to test various levels of ice simulation fidelity. These studies are briefly reviewed here and have been presented in more detail in other papers. Based on these results, full-scale testing at the ONERA F1 tunnel using cast ice shapes obtained from molds taken in the IRT will provide full-scale iced airfoil data from full-scale ice accretions. Using these data as a baseline, the final step is to validate the simulation methods in scale in the Illinois wind tunnel. Computational ice accretion methods including LEWICE and ONICE have been used to guide the experiments and are briefly described and results shown. When full-scale and simulation aerodynamic results are available, these data will be used to further develop computational tools. Thus the purpose of the paper is to present an overview of the program and key results to date.

  14. Propeller thrust analysis using Prandtl's lifting line theory, a comparison between the experimental thrust and the thrust predicted by Prandtl's lifting line theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesler, Steven R.

    The lifting line theory was first developed by Prandtl and was used primarily on analysis of airplane wings. Though the theory is about one hundred years old, it is still used in the initial calculations to find the lift of a wing. The question that guided this thesis was, "How close does Prandtl's lifting line theory predict the thrust of a propeller?" In order to answer this question, an experiment was designed that measured the thrust of a propeller for different speeds. The measured thrust was compared to what the theory predicted. In order to do this experiment and analysis, a propeller needed to be used. A walnut wood ultralight propeller was chosen that had a 1.30 meter (51 inches) length from tip to tip. In this thesis, Prandtl's lifting line theory was modified to account for the different incoming velocity depending on the radial position of the airfoil. A modified equation was used to reflect these differences. A working code was developed based on this modified equation. A testing rig was built that allowed the propeller to be rotated at high speeds while measuring the thrust. During testing, the rotational speed of the propeller ranged from 13-43 rotations per second. The thrust from the propeller was measured at different speeds and ranged from 16-33 Newton's. The test data were then compared to the theoretical results obtained from the lifting line code. A plot in Chapter 5 (the results section) shows the theoretical vs. actual thrust for different rotational speeds. The theory over predicted the actual thrust of the propeller. Depending on the rotational speed, the error was: at low speeds 36%, at low to moderate speeds 84%, and at high speeds the error increased to 195%. Different reasons for these errors are discussed.

  15. Boundary layer development on turbine airfoil suction surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, O. P.; Wells, R. A.; Schlinker, R. H.; Bailey, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    The results of a study supported by NASA under the Energy Efficient Engine Program, conducted to investigate the development of boundary layers under the influence of velocity distributions that simulate the suction sides of two state-of-the-art turbine airfoils, are presented. One velocity distribution represented a forward loaded airfoil ('squared-off' design), while the other represented an aft loaded airfoil ('aft loaded' design). These velocity distributions were simulated in a low-speed, high-aspect-ratio wind tunnel specifically designed for boundary layer investigations. It is intended that the detailed data presented in this paper be used to develop improved turbulence model suitable for application to turbine airfoil design.

  16. Effects of upper surface modification on the aerodynamic characteristics of the NACA 63 sub 2-215 airfoil section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, R. M.; Schairer, E. T.

    1979-01-01

    An upper surface modification designed to increase the maximum lift coefficient of a 63 sub 2 - 215 airfoil section was tested at Mach numbers of 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 Reynolds numbers of 1.3 x 1 million, 2 x 10 sub 6 and 2.5 x 1 million. Comparisons of the aerodynamic coefficients before and after the modification were made. The upper surface modification increased the maximum lift coefficient of the airfoil significantly at all conditions.

  17. Turbine airfoil to shround attachment

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, Christian X; Morrison, Jay A; James, Allister W; Snider, Raymond G; Eshak, Daniel M; Marra, John J; Wessell, Brian J

    2014-05-06

    A turbine airfoil (31) with an end portion (42) that tapers (44) toward the end (43) of the airfoil. A ridge (46) extends around the end portion. It has proximal (66) and distal (67) sides. A shroud platform (50) is bi-cast onto the end portion around the ridge without bonding. Cooling shrinks the platform into compression (62) on the end portion (42) of the airfoil. Gaps between the airfoil and platform are formed using a fugitive material (56) in the bi-casting stage. These gaps are designed in combination with the taper angle (44) to accommodate differential thermal expansion while maintaining a gas seal along the contact surfaces. The taper angle (44) may vary from lesser on the pressure side (36) to greater on the suction side (38) of the airfoil. A collar portion (52) of the platform provides sufficient contact area for connection stability.

  18. CFD aerodynamic analysis of non-conventional airfoil sections for very large rotor blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadakis, G.; Voutsinas, S.; Sieros, G.; Chaviaropoulos, T.

    2014-12-01

    The aerodynamic performance of flat-back and elliptically shaped airfoils is analyzed on the basis of CFD simulations. Incompressible and low-Mach preconditioned compressible unsteady simulations have been carried out using the k-w SST and the Spalart Allmaras turbulence models. Time averaged lift and drag coefficients are compared to wind tunnel data for the FB 3500-1750 flat back airfoil while amplitudes and frequencies are also recorded. Prior to separation averaged lift is well predicted while drag is overestimated keeping however the trend in the tests. The CFD models considered, predict separation with a 5° delay which is reflected on the load results. Similar results are provided for a modified NACA0035 with a rounded (elliptically shaped) trailing edge. Finally as regards the dynamic characteristics in the load signals, there is fair agreement in terms of Str number but significant differences in terms of lift and drag amplitudes.

  19. Absolute Coefficients and the Graphical Representation of Airfoil Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munk, Max

    1921-01-01

    It is argued that there should be an agreement as to what conventions to use in determining absolute coefficients used in aeronautics and in how to plot those coefficients. Of particular importance are the absolute coefficients of lift and drag. The author argues for the use of the German method over the kind in common use in the United States and England, and for the Continental over the usual American and British method of graphically representing the characteristics of an airfoil. The author notes that, on the whole, it appears that the use of natural absolute coefficients in a polar diagram is the logical method for presentation of airfoil characteristics, and that serious consideration should be given to the advisability of adopting this method in all countries, in order to advance uniformity and accuracy in the science of aeronautics.

  20. Prediction of the Effect of Vortex Generators on Airfoil Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sørensen, Niels N.; Zahle, F.; Bak, C.; Vronsky, T.

    2014-06-01

    Vortex Generators (VGs) are widely used by the wind turbine industry, to control the flow over blade sections. The present work describes a computational fluid dynamic procedure that can handle a geometrical resolved VG on an airfoil section. After describing the method, it is applied to two different airfoils at a Reynolds number of 3 million, the FFA- W3-301 and FFA-W3-360, respectively. The computations are compared with wind tunnel measurements from the Stuttgart Laminar Wind Tunnel with respect to lift and drag variation as function of angle of attack. Even though the method does not exactly capture the measured performance, it can be used to compare different VG setups qualitatively with respect to chord- wise position, inter and intra-spacing and inclination of the VGs already in the design phase.

  1. Effect of oscillation frequency on wind turbine airfoil dynamic stall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Z.; Li, C.; Nie, J. B.; Chen, Y.

    2013-12-01

    At the same oscillation amplitude, Reynolds Number, mean angle of attack, the dynamic stall characteristics of the NREL S809 airfoil undergoing sinusoidal pitch oscillations of different oscillation frequencies were investigated with modified k-? SST turbulence model of CFD solution for two-dimensional numerical simulation. The predicted lift, drag coefficients and moment coefficients were compared with the Ohio State University wind tunnel test results, which showed a good agreement. The birth, development and breaking off of eddies were analyzed through streamline distribution around airfoil and the influence of oscillation frequencies on dynamic stall characteristics was also described and analyzed in detail, which enrich the database of dynamic stall characteristics needed by the quantization of oscillation frequencies on dynamic characteristics and prove that sliding mesh method is reliable when dealing with dynamic stall problems.

  2. Surface integral analogy approaches for predicting noise from 3D high-lift low-noise wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Hua-Dong; Davidson, Lars; Eriksson, Lars-Erik; Peng, Shia-Hui; Grundestam, Olof; Eliasson, Peter E.

    2014-06-01

    Three surface integral approaches of the acoustic analogies are studied to predict the noise from three conceptual configurations of three-dimensional high-lift low-noise wings. The approaches refer to the Kirchhoff method, the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings (FW-H) method of the permeable integral surface and the Curle method that is known as a special case of the FW-H method. The first two approaches are used to compute the noise generated by the core flow region where the energetic structures exist. The last approach is adopted to predict the noise specially from the pressure perturbation on the wall. A new way to construct the integral surface that encloses the core region is proposed for the first two methods. Considering the local properties of the flow around the complex object-the actual wing with high-lift devices-the integral surface based on the vorticity is constructed to follow the flow structures. The surface location is discussed for the Kirchhoff method and the FW-H method because a common surface is used for them. The noise from the core flow region is studied on the basis of the dependent integral quantities, which are indicated by the Kirchhoff formulation and by the FW-H formulation. The role of each wall component on noise contribution is analyzed using the Curle formulation. Effects of the volume integral terms of Lighthill's stress tensors on the noise prediction are then evaluated by comparing the results of the Curle method with the other two methods.

  3. Method for forming a liquid cooled airfoil for a gas turbine

    DOEpatents

    Grondahl, Clayton M. (Clifton Park, NY); Willmott, Leo C. (Ballston Spa, NY); Muth, Myron C. (Amsterdam, NY)

    1981-01-01

    A method for forming a liquid cooled airfoil for a gas turbine is disclosed. A plurality of holes are formed at spaced locations in an oversized airfoil blank. A pre-formed composite liquid coolant tube is bonded into each of the holes. The composite tube includes an inner member formed of an anti-corrosive material and an outer member formed of a material exhibiting a high degree of thermal conductivity. After the coolant tubes have been bonded to the airfoil blank, the airfoil blank is machined to a desired shape, such that a portion of the outer member of each of the composite tubes is contiguous with the outer surface of the machined airfoil blank. Finally, an external skin is bonded to the exposed outer surface of both the machined airfoil blank and the composite tubes.

  4. Experimental investigation of the flowfield of an oscillating airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panda, J.; Zaman, K. B. M. Q.

    1992-01-01

    The flowfield of an airfoil oscillated periodically over a wide range of reduced frequencies, 0 less than or = k less than or = 1.6 is studied experimentally at chord Reynolds numbers of R sub c = 22,000 and 44,000. The NACA0012 airfoil is pitched sinusoidally about one quarter chord between angles of attack (alpha) of 5 and 25 degrees. Detailed flow visualization and phase averaged vorticity measurements are carried out for k = 0.2 to document the evolution and the shedding of the dynamic stall vortex (DSV). In addition to the DSV, an intense vortex of opposite sign originates from the trailing edge just when the DSV is shed. After being shed into the wake, the two together take the shape of a large 'mushroom' while being convected away from the airfoil. The unsteady circulation around the airfoil and, therefore, the time varying component of the lift is estimated in a novel way from the shed vorticity flux and is found to be in good agreement with the lift variation reported by others. The delay in the shedding of the DSV with increasing k, as observed by previous researchers, is documented for the full range of k. The DSV, for example, is shed nearly at the maximum alpha of 25 degrees at k = 0.2, but is shed at the minimum alpha of 5 degrees at k = 0.8. At low k, the flowfield appears quasi-steady and the bluff body shedding corresponding to the maximum alpha (25 degrees) dominates the unsteady fluctuations in the wake.

  5. Experimental investigation of the flowfield of an oscillating airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panda, J.; Zaman, K. B. M. Q.

    1992-01-01

    The flow field of an airfoil oscillated periodically over a wide range of reduced frequencies, 0 less than k less than 1.6, is studied experimentally at chord Reynolds numbers of R sub c = 22,000 and 44,000. The NACA0012 airfoil is pitched sinusoidally about one quarter chord between alpha of 5 deg and 25 deg. Detailed flow visualization and phase averaged vorticity measurements are carried out for k = 0.2 to document the evolution and the shedding of the dynamic stall vortex (DSV). In addition to the DSV, an intense vortex of opposite sign originates from the trailing edge just when the DSV is shed. After being shed into the wake, the two together take the shape of a large 'mushroom' while being convected away from the airfoil. The unsteady circulation around the airfoil and, therefore, the time varying component of the lift is estimated in a novel way from the shed vorticity flux and is found to be in good agreement with the lift variation reported by others. The delay in the shedding of the DSV with increasing k, as observed by previous researchers, is documented for the full range of k. The DSV, for example, is shed nearly at the maximum alpha of 25 deg at k = 0.2, but is shed at the minimum alpha of 5 deg at k = 0.8. At low k, the flowfield appears quasi-steady and the bluff body shedding corresponding to the maximum alpha (25 deg) dominates the unsteady fluctuations in the wake.

  6. Low-speed wind-tunnel investigation of the longitudinal characteristics of a large-scale variable wing-sweep fighter model in the high-lift configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckert, W. T.; Maki, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    The low-speed characteristics of a large-scale model of the U. S. Navy/Grumman F-14A aircraft were studied in tests conducted in the Ames Research Center 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel. The primary purpose of the program was the determination of lift and stability levels and landing approach attitude of the aircraft in its high-lift configuration. Tests were conducted at wing angles of attack between minus 2 deg and 30 deg with zero yaw. Data were taken at Reynolds numbers ranging from 3.48 million to 9.64 million based on a wing mean aerodynamic chord of 7.36 ft. The model configuration was changed as required to show the effects of glove slat, wing slat leading-edge radius, cold flow ducting, flap deflection, direct lift control (spoilers), horizontal tail, speed brake, landing gear and missiles.

  7. Uncertainty Analysis for a Jet Flap Airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Lawrence L.; Cruz, Josue

    2006-01-01

    An analysis of variance (ANOVA) study was performed to quantify the potential uncertainties of lift and pitching moment coefficient calculations from a computational fluid dynamics code, relative to an experiment, for a jet flap airfoil configuration. Uncertainties due to a number of factors including grid density, angle of attack and jet flap blowing coefficient were examined. The ANOVA software produced a numerical model of the input coefficient data, as functions of the selected factors, to a user-specified order (linear, 2-factor interference, quadratic, or cubic). Residuals between the model and actual data were also produced at each of the input conditions, and uncertainty confidence intervals (in the form of Least Significant Differences or LSD) for experimental, computational, and combined experimental / computational data sets were computed. The LSD bars indicate the smallest resolvable differences in the functional values (lift or pitching moment coefficient) attributable solely to changes in independent variable, given just the input data points from selected data sets. The software also provided a collection of diagnostics which evaluate the suitability of the input data set for use within the ANOVA process, and which examine the behavior of the resultant data, possibly suggesting transformations which should be applied to the data to reduce the LSD. The results illustrate some of the key features of, and results from, the uncertainty analysis studies, including the use of both numerical (continuous) and categorical (discrete) factors, the effects of the number and range of the input data points, and the effects of the number of factors considered simultaneously.

  8. Results of LFC experiment on slotted swept supercritical airfoil in Langley's 8-foot transonic pressure tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Cuyler W., Jr.; Harris, Charles D.

    1987-01-01

    A large chord swept supercritical laminar-flow control (LFC) airfoil was designed, constructed, and tested in the Langley 8-foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel (TPT). The LFC airfoil experiment was established to provide basic information concerning the design and compatibility of high performance supercritical airfoils with suction boundary-layer control achieved through fine slots or porous surface concepts. Shockless pressure distribution was achieved. Full chord laminar flow was achieved on upper and lower surfaces. Full chord laminar flow was maintained at subcritical speeds and over large supercritical zones. Feasibility of combined suction laminarization and supercritical airfoil technology was demonstrated.

  9. Lift hysteresis at stall as an unsteady boundary-layer phenomenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Franklin K

    1956-01-01

    Analysis of rotating stall of compressor blade rows requires specification of a dynamic lift curve for the airfoil section at or near stall, presumably including the effect of lift hysteresis. Consideration of the magnus lift of a rotating cylinder suggests performing an unsteady boundary-layer calculation to find the movement of the separation points of an airfoil fixed in a stream of variable incidence. The consideration of the shedding of vorticity into the wake should yield an estimate of lift increment proportional to time rate of change of angle of attack. This increment is the amplitude of the hysteresis loop. An approximate analysis is carried out according to the foregoing ideas for a 6:1 elliptic airfoil at the angle of attack for maximum lift. The assumptions of small perturbations from maximum lift are made, permitting neglect of distributed vorticity in the wake. The calculated hysteresis loop is counterclockwise. Finally, a discussion of the forms of hysteresis loops is presented; and, for small reduced frequency of oscillation, it is concluded that the concept of a viscous "time lag" is appropriate only for harmonic variations of angle of attack with time at mean conditions other than maximum lift.

  10. Optimization of Wind Turbine Airfoils/Blades and Wind Farm Layouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaomin

    Shape optimization is widely used in the design of wind turbine blades. In this dissertation, a numerical optimization method called Genetic Algorithm (GA) is applied to address the shape optimization of wind turbine airfoils and blades. In recent years, the airfoil sections with blunt trailing edge (called flatback airfoils) have been proposed for the inboard regions of large wind-turbine blades because they provide several structural and aerodynamic performance advantages. The FX, DU and NACA 64 series airfoils are thick airfoils widely used for wind turbine blade application. They have several advantages in meeting the intrinsic requirements for wind turbines in terms of design point, off-design capabilities and structural properties. This research employ both single- and multi-objective genetic algorithms (SOGA and MOGA) for shape optimization of Flatback, FX, DU and NACA 64 series airfoils to achieve maximum lift and/or maximum lift to drag ratio. The commercially available software FLUENT is employed for calculation of the flow field using the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations in conjunction with a two-equation Shear Stress Transport (SST) turbulence model and a three equation k-kl-o turbulence model. The optimization methodology is validated by an optimization study of subsonic and transonic airfoils (NACA0012 and RAE 2822 airfoils). In this dissertation, we employ DU 91-W2-250, FX 66-S196-V1, NACA 64421, and Flat-back series of airfoils (FB-3500-0050, FB-3500-0875, and FB-3500-1750) and compare their performance with S809 airfoil used in NREL Phase II and III wind turbines; the lift and drag coefficient data for these airfoils sections are available. The output power of the turbine is calculated using these airfoil section blades for a given B and lambda and is compared with the original NREL Phase II and Phase III turbines using S809 airfoil section. It is shown that by a suitable choice of airfoil section of HAWT blade, the power generated by the turbine can be significantly increased. Parametric studies are also conducted by varying the turbine diameter. In addition, a simplified dynamic inflow model is integrated into the BEM theory. It is shown that the improved BEM theory has superior performance in capturing the instantaneous behavior of wind turbines due to the existence of wind turbine wake or temporal variations in wind velocity. The dissertation also considers the Wind Farm layout optimization problem using a genetic algorithm. Both the Horizontal --Axis Wind Turbines (HAWT) and Vertical-Axis Wind Turbines (VAWT) are considered. The goal of the optimization problem is to optimally position the turbines within the wind farm such that the wake effects are minimized and the power production is maximized. The reasonably accurate modeling of the turbine wake is critical in determination of the optimal layout of the turbines and the power generated. For HAWT, two wake models are considered; both are found to give similar answers. For VAWT, a very simple wake model is employed. Finally, some preliminary investigation of shape optimization of 3D wind turbine blades at low Reynolds numbers is conducted. The optimization employs a 3D straight untapered wind turbine blade with cross section of NACA 0012 airfoils as the geometry of baseline blade. The optimization objective is to achieve maximum Cl/Cd as well as maximum Cl. The multi-objective genetic algorithm is employed together with the commercially available software FLUENT for calculation of the flow field using the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations in conjunction with a one-equation Sparlart-Allmaras turbulence model. The results show excellent performance of the optimized wind turbine blade and indicate the feasibility of optimization on real wind turbine blades with more complex shapes in the future. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  11. A finite-step method for estimating the spanwise lift distribution of wings in symmetric, yawed, and rotary flight at low speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krenkel, A. R.

    1978-01-01

    The finite-step method was programmed for computing the span loading and stability derivatives of trapezoidal shaped wings in symmetric, yawed, and rotary flight. Calculations were made for a series of different wing planforms and the results compared with several available methods for estimating these derivatives in the linear angle of attack range. The agreement shown was generally good except in a few cases. An attempt was made to estimate the nonlinear variation of lift with angle of attack in the high alpha range by introducing the measured airfoil section data into the finite-step method. The numerical procedure was found to be stable only at low angles of attack.

  12. Airfoil nozzle and shroud assembly

    DOEpatents

    Shaffer, J.E.; Norton, P.F.

    1997-06-03

    An airfoil and nozzle assembly are disclosed including an outer shroud having a plurality of vane members attached to an inner surface and having a cantilevered end. The assembly further includes a inner shroud being formed by a plurality of segments. Each of the segments having a first end and a second end and having a recess positioned in each of the ends. The cantilevered end of the vane member being positioned in the recess. The airfoil and nozzle assembly being made from a material having a lower rate of thermal expansion than that of the components to which the airfoil and nozzle assembly is attached. 5 figs.

  13. Airfoil nozzle and shroud assembly

    DOEpatents

    Shaffer, James E. (Maitland, FL); Norton, Paul F. (San Diego, CA)

    1997-01-01

    An airfoil and nozzle assembly including an outer shroud having a plurality of vane members attached to an inner surface and having a cantilevered end. The assembly further includes a inner shroud being formed by a plurality of segments. Each of the segments having a first end and a second end and having a recess positioned in each of the ends. The cantilevered end of the vane member being positioned in the recess. The airfoil and nozzle assembly being made from a material having a lower rate of thermal expansion than that of the components to which the airfoil and nozzle assembly is attached.

  14. An experimental investigation of unsteady surface pressure on single and multiple airfoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mish, Patrick Francis

    This dissertation presents measurements of unsteady surface pressure on airfoils encountering flow disturbances. Analysis of measurements made on an airfoil immersed in turbulence and comparisons with inviscid theory are presented with the goal of determining the effect of angle of attack on an airfoils inviscid response. Unsteady measurements made on the surface of a linear cascade immersed in periodic flow are presented and analyzed to determine the relationship between the blades inviscid response and tip leakage vortex strength. Measurements of fluctuating surface pressure were made on a NACA 0015 airfoil immersed in grid generated turbulence. The airfoil model has a 2? chord and spans the 6? Virginia Tech Stability Wind Tunnel test section. Two grids were used to investigate the effects of turbulence length scale on the surface pressure response. A large grid which produced turbulence with an integral scale 13% of the chord and a smaller grid which produced turbulence with an integral scale 1.3% of the chord. Measurements were performed at angles of attack, a from 0° to 20°. An array of microphones mounted subsurface was used to measure the unsteady surface pressure. The goal of this measurement was to characterize the effects of angle of attack on the inviscid response. Lift spectra calculated from pressure measurements at each angle of attack revealed two distinct interaction regions; for wr=wbUinfinity < 10 a reduction in unsteady lift of up to 7 decibels (dB) occurs while an increase occurs for or > 10 as the angle of attack is increased. The reduction in unsteady lift at low o r with increasing angle of attack is a result that has never before been shown either experimentally or theoretically. The source of the reduction in lift spectral level appears to be closely related to the distortion of inflow turbulence based on analysis of surface pressure spanwise correlation length scales. Furthermore, while the distortion of the inflow appears to be critical in this experiment, this effect does not seem to be significant in larger integral scale (relative to the chord) flows based on the previous experimental work of McKeough (1976) suggesting the airfoils size relative to the inflow integral scale is critical in defining how the airfoil will respond under variation of angle of attack. A prediction scheme is developed that correctly accounts for the effects of distortion when the inflow integral scale is small relative to the airfoil chord.* (Abstract shortened by UMI.) *This dissertation is multimedia (contains text and other applications not available in printed format). The accompanying CD requires the following system requirements: Windows 95 or higher; Adobe Acrobat; Windows MediaPlayer or RealPlayer.

  15. Circulation Measurements About the Tip of an Airfoil During Flight Through a Gust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuethe, Arnold

    1939-01-01

    Measurements were made of the circulation about the rectangular tip of a short-span airfoil passing through an artificial gust of known velocity gradient. A Clark Y airfoil of 30-centimeter chord was mounted on a whirling arm and moved at a velocity of 29 meters per second over a vertical gust with a velocity of nearly 7 meters per second. Flow angles were measured with a hot-wire apparatus. The rate at which the lift at the tips of a wing entering a gust is realized was found to be in satisfactory agreement with that predicted on the basis of the two-dimensional theory of von Karman and Sears.

  16. Turbomachinery Airfoil Design Optimization Using Differential Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madavan, Nateri K.; Biegel, Bryan A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    An aerodynamic design optimization procedure that is based on a evolutionary algorithm known at Differential Evolution is described. Differential Evolution is a simple, fast, and robust evolutionary strategy that has been proven effective in determining the global optimum for several difficult optimization problems, including highly nonlinear systems with discontinuities and multiple local optima. The method is combined with a Navier-Stokes solver that evaluates the various intermediate designs and provides inputs to the optimization procedure. An efficient constraint handling mechanism is also incorporated. Results are presented for the inverse design of a turbine airfoil from a modern jet engine. The capability of the method to search large design spaces and obtain the optimal airfoils in an automatic fashion is demonstrated. Substantial reductions in the overall computing time requirements are achieved by using the algorithm in conjunction with neural networks.

  17. Turbomachinery Airfoil Design Optimization Using Differential Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madavan, Nateri K.; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    An aerodynamic design optimization procedure that is based on a evolutionary algorithm known at Differential Evolution is described. Differential Evolution is a simple, fast, and robust evolutionary strategy that has been proven effective in determining the global optimum for several difficult optimization problems, including highly nonlinear systems with discontinuities and multiple local optima. The method is combined with a Navier-Stokes solver that evaluates the various intermediate designs and provides inputs to the optimization procedure. An efficient constraint handling mechanism is also incorporated. Results are presented for the inverse design of a turbine airfoil from a modern jet engine and compared to earlier methods. The capability of the method to search large design spaces and obtain the optimal airfoils in an automatic fashion is demonstrated. Substantial reductions in the overall computing time requirements are achieved by using the algorithm in conjunction with neural networks.

  18. Aerodynamic data banks for Clark-Y, NACA 4-digit and NACA 16-series airfoil families

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korkan, K. D.; Camba, J., III; Morris, P. M.

    1986-01-01

    With the renewed interest in propellers as means of obtaining thrust and fuel efficiency in addition to the increased utilization of the computer, a significant amount of progress was made in the development of theoretical models to predict the performance of propeller systems. Inherent in the majority of the theoretical performance models to date is the need for airfoil data banks which provide lift, drag, and moment coefficient values as a function of Mach number, angle-of-attack, maximum thickness to chord ratio, and Reynolds number. Realizing the need for such data, a study was initiated to provide airfoil data banks for three commonly used airfoil families in propeller design and analysis. The families chosen consisted of the Clark-Y, NACA 16 series, and NACA 4 digit series airfoils. The various component of each computer code, the source of the data used to create the airfoil data bank, the limitations of each data bank, program listing, and a sample case with its associated input-output are described. Each airfoil data bank computer code was written to be used on the Amdahl Computer system, which is IBM compatible and uses Fortran.

  19. Robust Airfoil Optimization to Achieve Consistent Drag Reduction Over a Mach Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Wu; Huyse, Luc; Padula, Sharon; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We prove mathematically that in order to avoid point-optimization at the sampled design points for multipoint airfoil optimization, the number of design points must be greater than the number of free-design variables. To overcome point-optimization at the sampled design points, a robust airfoil optimization method (called the profile optimization method) is developed and analyzed. This optimization method aims at a consistent drag reduction over a given Mach range and has three advantages: (a) it prevents severe degradation in the off-design performance by using a smart descent direction in each optimization iteration, (b) there is no random airfoil shape distortion for any iterate it generates, and (c) it allows a designer to make a trade-off between a truly optimized airfoil and the amount of computing time consumed. For illustration purposes, we use the profile optimization method to solve a lift-constrained drag minimization problem for 2-D airfoil in Euler flow with 20 free-design variables. A comparison with other airfoil optimization methods is also included.

  20. A Surrogate Approach to the Experimental Optimization of Multielement Airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otto, John C.; Landman, Drew; Patera, Anthony T.

    1996-01-01

    The incorporation of experimental test data into the optimization process is accomplished through the use of Bayesian-validated surrogates. In the surrogate approach, a surrogate for the experiment (e.g., a response surface) serves in the optimization process. The validation step of the framework provides a qualitative assessment of the surrogate quality, and bounds the surrogate-for-experiment error on designs "near" surrogate-predicted optimal designs. The utility of the framework is demonstrated through its application to the experimental selection of the trailing edge ap position to achieve a design lift coefficient for a three-element airfoil.

  1. Total Facelift: Forehead Lift, Midface Lift, and Neck Lift

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Patients with thick skin mainly exhibit the aging processes of sagging, whereas patients with thin skin develop wrinkles or volume loss. Asian skin is usually thicker than that of Westerners; and thus, the sagging of skin due to aging, rather than wrinkling, is the chief problem to be addressed in Asians. Asian skin is also relatively large in area and thick, implying that the weight of tissue to be lifted is considerably heavier. These factors account for the difficulties in performing a facelift in Asians. Facelifts can be divided into forehead lift, midface lift, and lower face lift. These can be performed individually or with 2-3 procedures combined. PMID:25798381

  2. Pressure distributions from high Reynolds number tests of a Boeing BAC 1 airfoil in the Langley 0.3-meter transonic cryogenic tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. G., Jr.; Hill, A. S.

    1985-01-01

    A wind-tunnel investigation designed to test a Boeing advanced-technology airfoil from low to flight-equivalent Reynolds numbers has been completed in the Langley 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel. This investigation represents the first in a series of NASA/U.S. industry two-dimensional airfoil studies to be completed in the Advanced Technology Airfoil Test program. Test temperature was varied from ambient to about 100 K at pressures ranging from about 1.2 to 6.0 atm. Mach number was varied from about 0.40 to 0.80. These variables provided a Reynolds number (based on airfoil chord) range from 4.4 X 10 to the 6th power to 50.0 X 10 to the 6th power. All the test objectives were met. The pressure data are presented without analysis in plotted and tabulated formats for use in conjunction with the aerodynamic coefficient data published as NASA TM-81922. At the time of the test, these pressure data were considered proprietary and have only recently been made available by Boeing for general release. Data are included which demonstrate the effects of fixed transition. Also included are remarks on the model design, the model structural integrity, and the overall test experience.

  3. Nozzle airfoil having movable nozzle ribs

    DOEpatents

    Yu, Yufeng Phillip (Greenville, SC); Itzel, Gary Michael (Greenville, SC)

    2002-01-01

    A nozzle vane or airfoil structure is provided in which the nozzle ribs are connected to the side walls of the vane or airfoil in such a way that the ribs provide the requisite mechanical support between the concave side and convex side of the airfoil but are not locked in the radial direction of the assembly, longitudinally of the airfoil. The ribs may be bi-cast onto a preformed airfoil side wall structure or fastened to the airfoil by an interlocking slide connection and/or welding. By attaching the nozzle ribs to the nozzle airfoil metal in such a way that allows play longitudinally of the airfoil, the temperature difference induced radial thermal stresses at the nozzle airfoil/rib joint area are reduced while maintaining proper mechanical support of the nozzle side walls.

  4. A flow physics study of flap-mounted vortex generators on a multi-element airfoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klausmeyer, Steven Michael

    Vortex generators are a commonly used aerodynamic "fix" for flow separation problems. They are typically used to remedy flow separation due to design shortcomings or changes in operating conditions that exceed the original design point. Flow separation is often encountered with high lift systems. Flaps and slats can be difficult to design due to complicated flow phenomena and large Reynolds number effects. Previous research has indicated the effectiveness of vortex generators in correcting flow separation over a flap. In fact, significant aerodynamic performance improvements were predicted for high-lift systems that incorporate vortex generators in the original design. Before this may be attempted, a better understanding of vortex generator flow physics must be obtained for the development of appropriate design tools and analysis methods. The research contained herein is focused on a detailed flow physics study of vortex generators mounted to the flap of a three-element high-lift airfoil. Detailed velocity measurements taken using a three-component laser Doppler velocimeter were used to vortex/boundary layer interactions and global flowfield effects. The full Reynolds stress tensor and mean velocity field was measured in addition to surface pressures. Three basic vortex generator arrangements were studied: upflow, downflow, and corotating. Although not optimized, all three types of vortex generators were effective at eliminating boundary layer separation. The vortices demonstrated a tendency to rise from the flap surface regardless of orientation and decayed rapidly, with cross-stream vorticity dropping below measurable levels by 75% flap chord. However, the embedded vortices produced significant perturbations in the turbulence field and mean flow of the flap boundary layer that persisted to the flap trailing edge.

  5. [Lifting and blepharoplasty].

    PubMed

    Trepsat, F

    1995-03-01

    The term face lifting enconpasses a variety of surgical procedures. Their goal is to obtain a rejuvenated look: frontal lift, temporal lift, cervico facial lift. The mask lift tends to a more radical modification of the upper third and mind third of the face. Its indications, with the psychological counterpart must be cautiously decided. The video endoscopy has recently modified and reduced the importance of the incision in frontal and mask lift. The blepharoplasties may be performed separately or, in combination with a face lift. The upper blepharoplasties rejunevate the look. The lower blepharoplasties are mostly indicated in baggy eyelids. PMID:7740270

  6. Boundary Layer Control on Airfoils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerhab, George; Eastlake, Charles

    1991-01-01

    A phenomena, boundary layer control (BLC), produced when visualizing the fluidlike flow of air is described. The use of BLC in modifying aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils, race cars, and boats is discussed. (KR)

  7. Advanced wind turbine with lift cancelling aileron for shutdown

    DOEpatents

    Coleman, Clint (Warren, VT); Juengst, Theresa M. (Warren, VT); Zuteck, Michael D. (Kemah, TX)

    1996-06-18

    An advanced aileron configuration for wind turbine rotors featuring an independent, lift generating aileron connected to the rotor blade. The aileron has an airfoil profile which is inverted relative to the airfoil profile of the main section of the rotor blade. The inverted airfoil profile of the aileron allows the aileron to be used for strong positive control of the rotation of the rotor while deflected to angles within a control range of angles. The aileron functions as a separate, lift generating body when deflected to angles within a shutdown range of angles, generating lift with a component acting in the direction opposite the direction of rotation of the rotor. Thus, the aileron can be used to shut down rotation of the rotor. The profile of the aileron further allows the center of rotation to be located within the envelope of the aileron, at or near the centers of pressure and mass of the aileron. The location of the center of rotation optimizes aerodynamically and gyroscopically induced hinge moments and provides a fail safe configuration.

  8. Civil applications of high-speed rotorcraft and powered-lift aircraft configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albers, James A.; Zuk, John

    1987-01-01

    Advanced subsonic vertical and short takeoff and landing (V/STOL) aircraft configurations offer new transportation options for civil applications. Described is a range of vehicles from low-disk to high-disk loading aircraft, including high-speed rotorcraft, V/STOL aircraft, and short takeoff and landing (STOL) aircraft. The status and advantages of the various configurations are described. Some of these show promise for relieving congestion in high population-density regions and providing transportation opportunities for low population-density regions.

  9. Application of multivariable search techniques to the optimization of airfoils in a low speed nonlinear inviscid flow field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hague, D. S.; Merz, A. W.

    1975-01-01

    Multivariable search techniques are applied to a particular class of airfoil optimization problems. These are the maximization of lift and the minimization of disturbance pressure magnitude in an inviscid nonlinear flow field. A variety of multivariable search techniques contained in an existing nonlinear optimization code, AESOP, are applied to this design problem. These techniques include elementary single parameter perturbation methods, organized search such as steepest-descent, quadratic, and Davidon methods, randomized procedures, and a generalized search acceleration technique. Airfoil design variables are seven in number and define perturbations to the profile of an existing NACA airfoil. The relative efficiency of the techniques are compared. It is shown that elementary one parameter at a time and random techniques compare favorably with organized searches in the class of problems considered. It is also shown that significant reductions in disturbance pressure magnitude can be made while retaining reasonable lift coefficient values at low free stream Mach numbers.

  10. Vortex Interactions on Plunging Airfoil and Wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eslam Panah, Azar; Buchholz, James

    2012-11-01

    The development of robust qualitative and quantitative models for the vorticity fields generated by oscillating foils and wings can provide a framework in which to understand flow interactions within groups of unsteady lifting bodies (e.g. shoals of birds, fish, MAV's), and inform low-order aerodynamic models. In the present experimental study, the flow fields generated by a plunging flat-plate airfoil and finite-aspect-ratio wing are characterized in terms of vortex topology, and circulation at Re=10,000. Strouhal numbers (St=fA/U) between 0.1 and 0.6 are investigated for plunge amplitudes of ho/c = 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4, resulting in reduced frequencies (k= ? fc/U) between 0.39 and 4.71. For the nominally two-dimensional airfoil, the number of discrete vortex structures shed from the trailing edge, and the trajectory of the leading edge vortex (LEV) and its interaction with trailing edge vortex (TEV) are found to be primarily governed by k; however, for St >0.4, the role of St on these phenomena increases. Likewise, circulation of the TEV exhibits a dependence on k; however, the circulation of the LEV depends primarily on St. The growth and ultimate strength of the LEV depends strongly on its interaction with the body; in particular, with a region of opposite-sign vorticity generated on the surface of the body due to the influence of the LEV. In the finite-aspect-ratio case, spanwise flow is also a significant factor. The roles of these phenomena on vortex evolution and strength will be discussed in detail.

  11. A flight investigation of blade section aerodynamics for a helicopter main rotor having NLR-1T airfoil sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, C. E. K., Jr.; Stevens, D. D.; Tomaine, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    A flight investigation was conducted using a teetering-rotor AH-1G helicopter to obtain data on the aerodynamic behavior of main-rotor blades with the NLR-1T blade section. The data system recorded blade-section aerodynamic pressures at 90 percent rotor radius as well as vehicle flight state, performance, and loads. The test envelope included hover, forward flight, and collective-fixed maneuvers. Data were obtained on apparent blade-vortex interactions, negative lift on the advancing blade in high-speed flight and wake interactions in hover. In many cases, good agreement was achieved between chordwise pressure distributions predicted by airfoil theory and flight data with no apparent indications of blade-vortex interactions.

  12. An empirically derived basis for calculating the area, rate, and distribution of water-drop impingement on airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergrun, Norman R

    1952-01-01

    An empirically derived basis for predicting the area, rate, and distribution of water-drop impingement on airfoils of arbitrary section is presented. The concepts involved represent an initial step toward the development of a calculation technique which is generally applicable to the design of thermal ice-prevention equipment for airplane wing and tail surfaces. It is shown that sufficiently accurate estimates, for the purpose of heated-wing design, can be obtained by a few numerical computations once the velocity distribution over the airfoil has been determined. The calculation technique presented is based on results of extensive water-drop trajectory computations for five airfoil cases which consisted of 15-percent-thick airfoils encompassing a moderate lift-coefficient range. The differential equations pertaining to the paths of the drops were solved by a differential analyzer.

  13. Simulation of hybrid heat pumps with two- and three-stage solution circuits for high-lift applications

    SciTech Connect

    Mehendale, S.S.; Radermacher, R.

    1996-11-01

    Vapor-compression heat pumps that use absorption technology with two-stage and three-stage solution circuits are investigated by simulation. Ammonia-water is the working fluid. The cycle performance is evaluated for high-temperature-lift applications. The applications include three cooling cases, four heating cases, and a combination of cooling and heating. The two- and three-stage cycle performance is compared with that of the vapor-compression cascade cycle and the single-stage vapor absorption cycle. For the combined cooling and heating case and the heating cases, the single-stage cycle is seen to operate at supercritical pressures. The two-stage and three-stage cycles operate below the critical pressure of ammonia and at significantly lower pressure ratios. With a view to improving the coefficient of performance (COP), certain modifications are introduced in the configuration of the cycles. These include passing the vapor from the lowest temperature desorber into and through the next higher temperature desorber instead of mixing separate vapor streams. Similarly, the compressed vapor is absorbed in subsequent absorbers instead of splitting the discharge vapor stream. These changes reduce the irreversibilities associated with the internal heat transfer processes in the cycle and thereby improve the COP. The cooling COP of the two-stage cycle is found to improve by about 27%, while that of the three-stage cycle improves by more than three times as compared with the original versions of these cycles.

  14. Lifting Body Flight Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barret, Chris

    1998-01-01

    NASA has a technology program in place to build the X-33 test vehicle and then the full sized Reusable Launch Vehicle, VentureStar. VentureStar is a Lifting Body (LB) flight vehicle which will carry our future payloads into orbit, and will do so at a much reduced cost. There were three design contenders for the new Reusable Launch Vehicle: a Winged Vehicle, a Vertical Lander, and the Lifting Body(LB). The LB design won the competition. A LB vehicle has no wings and derives its lift solely from the shape of its body, and has the unique advantages of superior volumetric efficiency, better aerodynamic efficiency at high angles-of-attack and hypersonic speeds, and reduced thermal protection system weight. Classically, in a ballistic vehicle, drag has been employed to control the level of deceleration in reentry. In the LB, lift enables the vehicle to decelerate at higher altitudes for the same velocity and defines the reentry corridor which includes a greater cross range. This paper outlines our LB heritage which was utilized in the design of the new Reusable Launch Vehicle, VentureStar. NASA and the U.S. Air Force have a rich heritage of LB vehicle design and flight experience. Eight LB's were built and over 225 LB test flights were conducted through 1975 in the initial LB Program. Three LB series were most significant in the advancement of today's LB technology: the M2-F; HL-1O; and X-24 series. The M2-F series was designed by NASA Ames Research Center, the HL-10 series by NASA Langley Research Center, and the X-24 series by the Air Force. LB vehicles are alive again today.

  15. An experimental study of transonic flow about a supercritical airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spaid, F. W.; Dahlin, J. A.; Bachalo, W. D.; Stivers, L. S., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    A series of experiments was conducted on flow fields about two airfoil models whose sections are slight modifications of the original Whitcomb supercritical airfoil section. Data obtained include surface static-pressure distributions, far-wake surveys, oil-flow photographs, pitot-pressure surveys in the viscous regions, and holographic interferograms. These data were obtained for different combinations of lift coefficient and free-stream Mach number, which included both subcritical cases and flows with upper-surface shock waves. The availability of both pitot-pressure data and density data from interferograms allowed determination of flow-field properties in the vicinity of the trailing edge and in the wake without recourse to any assumptions about the local static pressure. The data show that significant static-pressure gradients normal to viscous layers exist in this region, and that they persist to approximately 10% chord downstream of the trailing edge. Comparisons are made between measured boundary-layer properties and results from boundary-layer computations that employed measured static-pressure distributions, as well as comparisons between data and results of airfoil flow-field computations.

  16. Design and Predictions for High-Altitude (Low Reynolds Number) Aerodynamic Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greer, Donald; Harmory, Phil; Krake, Keith; Drela, Mark

    2000-01-01

    A sailplane being developed at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center will support a high-altitude flight experiment. The experiment will measure the performance parameters or an airfoil at high altitudes (70,000 - 100,000 ft), low Reynolds numbers (2 x 10(exp 5) - 7 x 10(exp 5)), and high subsonic Mach numbers (0.5 and 0.65). The airfoil section lift and drag are determined from pilot and static pressure measurements. The locations of the separation bubble, Tollmien-Schlichting boundary-layer instability frequencies, and vortex shedding are measured from a hot-film strip. The details of the planned flight experiment are presented as well as several predictions of the airfoil performance.

  17. Comparison of Evolutionary (Genetic) Algorithm and Adjoint Methods for Multi-Objective Viscous Airfoil Optimizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pulliam, T. H.; Nemec, M.; Holst, T.; Zingg, D. W.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A comparison between an Evolutionary Algorithm (EA) and an Adjoint-Gradient (AG) Method applied to a two-dimensional Navier-Stokes code for airfoil design is presented. Both approaches use a common function evaluation code, the steady-state explicit part of the code,ARC2D. The parameterization of the design space is a common B-spline approach for an airfoil surface, which together with a common griding approach, restricts the AG and EA to the same design space. Results are presented for a class of viscous transonic airfoils in which the optimization tradeoff between drag minimization as one objective and lift maximization as another, produces the multi-objective design space. Comparisons are made for efficiency, accuracy and design consistency.

  18. The effects of actuation frequency on the separation control over an airfoil using a synthetic jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Y.; Okada, K.; Nonomura, T.; Fujii, K.

    2015-06-01

    The simulation of separation control using a synthetic jet (SJ) is conducted around an NACA (National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics) 0015 airfoil by large-eddy simulation (LES) with a compact difference scheme. The synthetic jet is installed at the leading edge of the airfoil and the effects of an actuation frequency F+ (normalized by chord length and velocity of freestream) are observed. The lift-drag coefficient is recovered the most for F+ = 6. The relationship between momentum addition by turbulent mixing and large vortex structures is investigated using a phase-averaging procedure based on F+. The Reynolds shear stress is decomposed into periodic and turbulent components where the turbulent components are found to be dominant on the airfoil. The strong turbulent components appear near the large vortex structures that are observed in phase- and span-averaged flow fields.

  19. The effects of gusts on the fluctuating airloads of airfoils in transonic flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccroskey, W. J.

    1984-01-01

    Unsteady interactions of distributed and sharp-edged gusts with a stationary airfoil have been analyzed in two-dimensional transonic flow.A simple method of introducing such disturbances has been numerically implemented within the framework of unsteady, transonic small-disturbance theory. Representative solutions for various airfoils subjected to chordwise and transverse gusts show that the strength and unsteady motion of the shock wave on the airfoil significantly affect the flowfield development and, consequently, the dynamic airloads. Also a study was made of the reductions in the unsteady airloads that can be achieved by the proper active control motion of a trailing-edge flap, and a simple gust-alleviation strategy was developed. However, the chordwise pressure distributions associated with gusts are very different from those produced by trailing-edge flap oscillations. Consequently, the fluctuating lift and the unsteady pitching moments cannot both be eliminated simultaneously.

  20. Influence of Lift Offset on Rotorcraft Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wayne

    2009-01-01

    The influence of lift offset on the performance of several rotorcraft configurations is explored. A lift-offset rotor, or advancing blade concept, is a hingeless rotor that can attain good efficiency at high speed by operating with more lift on the advancing side than on the retreating side of the rotor disk. The calculated performance capability of modern-technology coaxial rotors utilizing a lift offset is examined, including rotor performance optimized for hover and high-speed cruise. The ideal induced power loss of coaxial rotors in hover and twin rotors in forward flight is presented. The aerodynamic modeling requirements for performance calculations are evaluated, including wake and drag models for the high-speed flight condition. The influence of configuration on the performance of rotorcraft with lift-offset rotors is explored, considering tandem and side-by-side rotorcraft as well as wing-rotor lift share.

  1. Numerical Simulation of a High-Lift Configuration with Embedded Fluidic Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vatsa, Veer N.; Casalino, Damiano; Lin, John C.; Appelbaum, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Numerical simulations have been performed for a vertical tail configuration with deflected rudder. The suction surface of the main element of this configuration is embedded with an array of 32 fluidic actuators that produce oscillating sweeping jets. Such oscillating jets have been found to be very effective for flow control applications in the past. In the current paper, a high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code known as the PowerFLOW(Registered TradeMark) code is used to simulate the entire flow field associated with this configuration, including the flow inside the actuators. The computed results for the surface pressure and integrated forces compare favorably with measured data. In addition, numerical solutions predict the correct trends in forces with active flow control compared to the no control case. Effect of varying yaw and rudder deflection angles are also presented. In addition, computations have been performed at a higher Reynolds number to assess the performance of fluidic actuators at flight conditions.

  2. Transonic single-mode flutter and buffet of a low aspect ratio wing having a subsonic airfoil shape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, L. L.

    1974-01-01

    Transonic flutter and buffet results obtained from wind-tunnel tests of a low aspect ratio semispan wing model are presented. The tests were conducted to investigate potential transonic aeroelastic problems of vehicles having subsonic airfoil sections. The model employed NACA 00XX-64 airfoil sections in the streamwise direction and had a 14 deg leading edge sweep angle. Aspect ratio, and average thickness were 4.0, 0.35, and 8 percent, respectively. The model was tested at Mach numbers from 0.6 to 0.95 at angles of attack from 0 deg to 15 deg. Two zero lift flutter conditions were found that involved essentially single normal mode vibrations. With boundary layer trips on the model, flutter occurred in a narrow Mach number range centered at about Mach 0.90. The frequency and motion of this flutter were like that of the first normal mode vibration. With the trips removed flutter occurred at a slightly high Mach number but in a mode strongly resembling that of the second normal mode.

  3. Lift truck safety review

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1997-03-01

    This report presents safety information about powered industrial trucks. The basic lift truck, the counterbalanced sit down rider truck, is the primary focus of the report. Lift truck engineering is briefly described, then a hazard analysis is performed on the lift truck. Case histories and accident statistics are also given. Rules and regulations about lift trucks, such as the US Occupational Safety an Health Administration laws and the Underwriter`s Laboratories standards, are discussed. Safety issues with lift trucks are reviewed, and lift truck safety and reliability are discussed. Some quantitative reliability values are given.

  4. Pressure distributions from high Reynolds number transonic tests of an NACA 0012 airfoil in the Langley 0.3-meter transonic cryogenic tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ladson, Charles L.; Hill, Acquilla S.; Johnson, William G., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Tests were conducted in the 2-D test section of the Langley 0.3-meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel on a NACA 0012 airfoil to obtain aerodynamic data as a part of the Advanced Technology Airfoil Test (ATAT) program. The test program covered a Mach number range of 0.30 to 0.82 and a Reynolds number range of 3.0 to 45.0 x 10 to the 6th power. The stagnation pressure was varied between 1.2 and 6.0 atmospheres and the stagnation temperature was varied between 300 K and 90 K to obtain these test conditions. Tabulated pressure distributions and integrated force and moment coefficients are presented as well as plots of the surface pressure distributions. The data are presented uncorrected for wall interference effects and without analysis.

  5. Performance of advanced wind turbine airfoils with vortex generators

    SciTech Connect

    Wetzel, K.K.; Farokhi, S.

    1995-12-31

    The performance of the NREL S807 airfoil is experimentally determined via wind tunnel testing. The tests are conducted at Reynolds numbers of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5{sm_bullet}10{sup 6}, with a clean surface, with two levels of leading edge surface roughness, and with surface roughness and large wishbone vortex generators. The results show that the S807 maximum lift coefficient drops with the application of leading edge surface roughness. The wishbone vortex generators are successful in restoring most of the loss in maximum lift coefficient at the cost of significant increase in profile drag at pre-stall angles of attack. The aerodynamic characteristics of the S807 with and without vortex generators are used as the input to the PROP93 and SEACC computer models to simulate the performance of an advanced wind turbine employing vortex generators. The results demonstrate that vortex generators could improve the performance of advanced wind turbines using the NREL airfoils by up to 4%.

  6. A Comparative Study Using CFD to Predict Iced Airfoil Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chi, x.; Li, Y.; Chen, H.; Addy, H. E.; Choo, Y. K.; Shih, T. I-P.

    2005-01-01

    WIND, Fluent, and PowerFLOW were used to predict the lift, drag, and moment coefficients of a business-jet airfoil with a rime ice (rough and jagged, but no protruding horns) and with a glaze ice (rough and jagged end has two or more protruding horns) for angles of attack from zero to and after stall. The performance of the following turbulence models were examined by comparing predictions with available experimental data. Spalart-Allmaras (S-A), RNG k-epsilon, shear-stress transport, v(sup 2)-f, and a differential Reynolds stress model with and without non-equilibrium wall functions. For steady RANS simulations, WIND and FLUENT were found to give nearly identical results if the grid about the iced airfoil, the turbulence model, and the order of accuracy of the numerical schemes used are the same. The use of wall functions was found to be acceptable for the rime ice configuration and the flow conditions examined. For rime ice, the S-A model was found to predict accurately until near the stall angle. For glaze ice, the CFD predictions were much less satisfactory for all turbulence models and codes investigated because of the large separated region produced by the horns. For unsteady RANS, WIND and FLUENT did not provide better results. PowerFLOW, based on the Lattice Boltzmann method, gave excellent results for the lift coefficient at and near stall for the rime ice, where the flow is inherently unsteady.

  7. Use of a liquid-crystal, heater-element composite for quantitative, high-resolution heat transfer coefficients on a turbine airfoil, including turbulence and surface roughness effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hippensteele, Steven A.; Russell, Louis M.; Torres, Felix J.

    1987-01-01

    Local heat transfer coefficients were measured along the midchord of a three-times-size turbine vane airfoil in a static cascade operated at roon temperature over a range of Reynolds numbers. The test surface consisted of a composite of commercially available materials: a Mylar sheet with a layer of cholestric liquid crystals, which change color with temperature, and a heater made of a polyester sheet coated with vapor-deposited gold, which produces uniform heat flux. After the initial selection and calibration of the composite sheet, accurate, quantitative, and continuous heat transfer coefficients were mapped over the airfoil surface. Tests were conducted at two free-stream turbulence intensities: 0.6 percent, which is typical of wind tunnels; and 10 percent, which is typical of real engine conditions. In addition to a smooth airfoil, the effects of local leading-edge sand roughness were also examined for a value greater than the critical roughness. The local heat transfer coefficients are presented for both free-stream turbulence intensities for inlet Reynolds numbers from 1.20 to 5.55 x 10 to the 5th power. Comparisons are also made with analytical values of heat transfer coefficients obtained from the STAN5 boundary layer code.

  8. On the estimation of time dependent lift of a European Starling during flapping

    E-print Network

    Stalnov, Oksana; Kirchhefer, Adam J; Guglielmo, Christoper G; Kopp, Gregory A; Liberzon, Alex; Gurka, Roi

    2015-01-01

    We study the role of unsteady lift in the context of flapping wings in birds' flight. Both aerodynamicists and biologists attempt to address this subject, yet it seems that the contribution of the unsteady lift still holds many open questions. The current study deals with the estimation of unsteady aerodynamic forces on a freely flying bird through analysis of wingbeat kinematics and near wake flow measurements using time resolved particle image velocimetry. The aerodynamic forces are obtained through unsteady thin airfoil theory and lift calculation using the momentum equation for viscous flows. The unsteady lift is comprised of circulatory and non-circulatory components. Both are presented over wingbeat cycles. Using long sampling data, several wingbeat cycles have been analyzed in order to cover the downstroke and upstroke phases. It appears that the lift varies over the wingbeat cycle emphasizing its contribution to the total lift and its role in power estimations. It is suggested that the circulatory lif...

  9. A Computational Study of an Oscillating VR-12 Airfoil with a Gurney Flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhee, Myung

    2004-01-01

    Computations of the flow over an oscillating airfoil with a Gurney-flap are performed using a Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes code and compared with recent experimental data. The experimental results have been generated for different sizes of the Gurney flaps. The computations are focused mainly on a configuration. The baseline airfoil without a Gurney flap is computed and compared with the experiments in both steady and unsteady cases for the purpose of initial testing of the code performance. The are carried out with different turbulence models. Effects of the grid refinement are also examined and unsteady cases, in addition to the assessment of solver effects. The results of the comparisons of steady lift and drag computations indicate that the code is reasonably accurate in the attached flow of the steady condition but largely overpredicts the lift and underpredicts the drag in the higher angle steady flow.

  10. An experimental investigation of the low Reynolds number performance of the Lissaman 7769 airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conigliaro, P. E.

    1983-01-01

    A Lissaman 7769 airfoil, used on the Gossamer Condor and Gossamer Albatross human-powered aircraft, was tested in a low turbulence subsonic wind tunnel. Lift and drag data were collected at chord Reynolds numbers of 100,000, 150,000, 200,000, 250,000, and 300,000; at angles of attack from -10 to +20 deg by using an external strain gage force balance. Lift curves, drag curves, and drag polars were generated from both uncorrected data and data corrected for wind tunnel blockage effects. A flow visualization study was performed to correlate with the force data. The results of the investigation have shown that the airfoil exhibits a significant degradation in performance for chord Reynolds numbers below 150,000.

  11. Advanced technology airfoil research, volume 2. [conferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A comprehensive review of airfoil research is presented. The major thrust of the research is in three areas: development of computational aerodynamic codes for airfoil analysis and design, development of experimental facilities and test techniques, and all types of airfoil applications.

  12. Some observations on the aerodynamics of an airfoil with a jet exhausting from the lower surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leopold, D.; Krothapalli, A.; Tavella, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    A preliminary investigation was carried out to study the aerodynamics of an 18% symmetrical airfoil with a rectangular jet exhausting from the lower surface. Static pressures on the airfoil surface and total pressures in the near wake were measured at jet momentum coefficients ranging from 0 to 2. Results from these measurements were used to study the effects of a jet-cross flow interaction on the aerodynamics of an airfoil. These results were also compared with those obtained from a two-dimensional inviscid theoretical model. Measurements indicate positive and negative pressure regions in front of and behind the jet respectively. The intensity of the pressure in these regions increases with increasing jet strength. Upper surface pressures also decrease due to an effective angle of attack induced by the jet-cross flow interaction. The pressure variations on the upper and lower surfaces induce a positive sectional lift coefficient on the airfoil. The magnitude of the lift coefficient for a given momentum coefficient decreases with decreasing aspect ratio of the nozzle.

  13. A supercritical airfoil experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mateer, George G.; Seegmiller, H. Lee; Hand, Lawrence A.; Szodruch, Joachim

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to provide a comprehensive data base for the validation of numerical simulations. The initial results of the study (single angle of attack) were presented in ref. 1, where the effects of various parameters and the adequacies of selected turbulence models were discussed. The objective of the present paper is to provide a tabulation of the experimental data. The data were obtained in the two-dimensional, transonic flowfield surrounding a supercritical airfoil. A variety of flows were studied in which the boundary layer at the trailing edge of the model was either attached or separated. Unsteady flows were avoided by controlling the Mach number and angle of attack. Surface pressures were measured on both the model and wind tunnel walls, and the flowfield surrounding the model was documented using a laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV). Although wall interference could not be completely eliminated, its effect was minimized by employing the following techniques. Sidewall boundary layers were reduced by aspiration, and upper and lower walls were contoured to accommodate the flow around the model and the boundary-layer growth on the tunnel walls. A data base with minimal interference from a tunnel with solid walls provides an ideal basis for evaluating the development of codes for the transonic speed range because the codes can include the wall boundary conditions more precisely than interference corrections can be made to the data sets.

  14. A supercritical airfoil experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mateer, G. G.; Seegmiller, H. L.; Hand, L. A.; Szodruck, J.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to provide a comprehensive data base for the validation of numerical simulations. The objective of the present paper is to provide a tabulation of the experimental data. The data were obtained in the two-dimensional, transonic flowfield surrounding a supercritical airfoil. A variety of flows were studied in which the boundary layer at the trailing edge of the model was either attached or separated. Unsteady flows were avoided by controlling the Mach number and angle of attack. Surface pressures were measured on both the model and wind tunnel walls, and the flowfield surrounding the model was documented using a laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV). Although wall interference could not be completely eliminated, its effect was minimized by employing the following techniques. Sidewall boundary layers were reduced by aspiration, and upper and lower walls were contoured to accommodate the flow around the model and the boundary-layer growth on the tunnel walls. A data base with minimal interference from a tunnel with solid walls provides an ideal basis for evaluating the development of codes for the transonic speed range because the codes can include the wall boundary conditions more precisely than interference connections can be made to the data sets.

  15. Aerodynamic performance of transonic and subsonic airfoils: Effects of surface roughness, turbulence intensity, Mach number, and streamline curvature-airfoil shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiang

    The effects of surface roughness, turbulence intensity, Mach number, and streamline curvature-airfoil shape on the aerodynamic performance of turbine airfoils are investigated in compressible, high speed flows. The University of Utah Transonic Wind Tunnel is employed for the experimental part of the study. Two different test sections are designed to produce Mach numbers, Reynolds numbers, passage mass flow rates, and physical dimensions, which match values along turbine blades in operating engines: (i) a nonturning test section with a symmetric airfoil, and (ii) a cascade test section with a cambered turbine vane. The nonuniform, irregular, three-dimensional surface roughness is characterized using the equivalent sand grain roughness size. Changing the airfoil surface roughness condition has a substantial effect on wake profiles of total pressure loss coefficients, normalized Mach number, normalized kinetic energy, and on the normalized and dimensional magnitudes of Integrated Aerodynamic Losses produced by the airfoils. Comparisons with results for a symmetric airfoil and a cambered vane show that roughness has more substantial effects on losses produced by the symmetric airfoil than the cambered vane. Data are also provided that illustrate the larger loss magnitudes are generally present with flow turning and cambered airfoils, than with symmetric airfoils. Wake turbulence structure of symmetric airfoils and cambered vanes are also studied experimentally. The effects of surface roughness and freestream turbulence levels on wake distributions of mean velocity, turbulence intensity, and power spectral density profiles and vortex shedding frequencies are quantified one axial chord length downstream of the test airfoils. As the level of surface roughness increases, all wake profile quantities broaden significantly and nondimensional vortex shedding frequencies decrease. Wake profiles produced by the symmetric airfoil are more sensitive to variations of surface roughness and freestream turbulence, compared with data from the cambered vane airfoil. Stanton numbers, skin friction coefficients, aerodynamic losses, and Reynolds analogy behavior are numerically predicted for a turbine vane using the FLUENT with a k-epsilon RNG model to show the effects of Mach number, mainstream turbulence level, and surface roughness. Comparisons with wake aerodynamic loss experimental data are made. Numerically predicted skin friction coefficients and Stanton numbers are also used to deduce Reynolds analogy behavior on the vane suction and pressure sides.

  16. Materials for advanced turbine engines (MATE). Project 4: erosion resistant compressor airfoil coating

    SciTech Connect

    Rashid, J.M.; Freling, M.; Friedrich, L.A.

    1987-05-01

    The ability of coatings to provide at least a 2X improvement in particulate erosion resistance for steel, nickel and titanium compressor airfoils was identified and demonstrated. Coating materials evaluated included plasma sprayed cobalt tungsten carbide, nickel carbide and diffusion applied chromium plus boron. Several processing parameters for plasma spray processing and diffusion coating were evaluated to identify coating systems having the most potential for providing airfoil erosion resistance. Based on laboratory results and analytical evaluations, selected coating systems were applied to gas turbine blades and evaluated for surface finish, burner rig erosion resistance and effect on high cycle fatigue strength. Based on these tests, the following coatings were recommended for engine testing: Gator-Gard plasma spray 88WC-12Co on titanium alloy airfoils, plasma spray 83WC-17Co on steel and nickel alloy airfoils, and Cr+B on nickel alloy airfoils.

  17. Materials for Advanced Turbine Engines (MATE). Project 4: Erosion resistant compressor airfoil coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rashid, J. M.; Freling, M.; Friedrich, L. A.

    1987-01-01

    The ability of coatings to provide at least a 2X improvement in particulate erosion resistance for steel, nickel and titanium compressor airfoils was identified and demonstrated. Coating materials evaluated included plasma sprayed cobalt tungsten carbide, nickel carbide and diffusion applied chromium plus boron. Several processing parameters for plasma spray processing and diffusion coating were evaluated to identify coating systems having the most potential for providing airfoil erosion resistance. Based on laboratory results and analytical evaluations, selected coating systems were applied to gas turbine blades and evaluated for surface finish, burner rig erosion resistance and effect on high cycle fatigue strength. Based on these tests, the following coatings were recommended for engine testing: Gator-Gard plasma spray 88WC-12Co on titanium alloy airfoils, plasma spray 83WC-17Co on steel and nickel alloy airfoils, and Cr+B on nickel alloy airfoils.

  18. The NASA Langley Laminar-Flow-Control (LFC) experiment on a swept, supercritical airfoil: Design overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Charles D.; Harvey, William D.; Brooks, Cuyler W., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    A large-chord, swept, supercritical, laminar-flow-control (LFC) airfoil was designed and constructed and is currently undergoing tests in the Langley 8 ft Transonic Pressure Tunnel. The experiment was directed toward evaluating the compatibility of LFC and supercritical airfoils, validating prediction techniques, and generating a data base for future transport airfoil design as part of NASA's ongoing research program to significantly reduce drag and increase aircraft efficiency. Unique features of the airfoil included a high design Mach number with shock free flow and boundary layer control by suction. Special requirements for the experiment included modifications to the wind tunnel to achieve the necessary flow quality and contouring of the test section walls to simulate free air flow about a swept model at transonic speeds. Design of the airfoil with a slotted suction surface, the suction system, and modifications to the tunnel to meet test requirements are discussed.

  19. Unsteady inflow effects on the wake shed from a high-lift LPT blade subjected to boundary layer laminar separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satta, Francesca; Ubaldi, Marina; Zunino, Pietro

    2012-04-01

    An experimental investigation on the near and far wake of a cascade of high-lift low-pressure turbine blades subjected to boundary layer separation over the suction side surface has been carried out, under steady and unsteady inflows. Two Reynolds number conditions, representative of take-off/landing and cruise operating conditions of the real engine, have been tested. The effect of upstream wake-boundary layer interaction on the wake shed from the profile has been investigated in a three-blade large-scale linear turbine cascade. The comparison between the wakes shed under steady and unsteady inflows has been performed through the analysis of mean velocity and Reynolds stress components measured at midspan of the central blade by means of a two-component crossed miniature hot-wire probe. The wake development has been analyzed in the region between 2% and 100% of the blade chord from the central blade trailing edge, aligned with the blade exit direction. Wake integral parameters, half-width and maximum velocity defects have been evaluated from the mean velocity distributions to quantify the modifications induced on the vane wake by the upstream wake. Moreover the thicknesses of the two wake shear layers have been considered separately in order to identify the effects of Reynolds number and incoming flow on the wake shape. The self-preserving state of the wake has been looked at, taking into account the different thicknesses of the two shear layers. The evaluation of the power density spectra of the velocity fluctuations allowed the study of the wake unsteady behavior, and the detection of the effects induced by the different operating conditions on the trailing edge vortex shedding.

  20. Profile design for an advanced-technology airfoil for general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welte, D.

    1978-01-01

    A profile from the NASA General Aviation Whitcomb series and NACA profiles are used as a starting point in designing an advanced airfoil for general aviation aircraft. Potential theory pressure distribution calculations, together with boundary layer calculations, permit a decrease in the null moment and an optimization of the lift characteristics of the wing. Trailing edge flap design is also improved. Wind tunnel tests are used to compare the conventional profiles, the NASA profile, and the improved design.

  1. Section Characteristics of the NACA 0006 Airfoil with Leading-edge and Trailing-edge Flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gambucci, Bruno J

    1956-01-01

    Lift and pitching-moment characteristics of an NACA 0006 airfoil are presented for various deflections of a 0.15-chord leading-edge flap and a 0.30-chord plain trailing-edge flap. Pressure-distribution data are presented in tabular form. The data were obtained at a Mach number of 0.15 and a Reynolds number of 4,500,000.

  2. Highly nonplanar lifting systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroo, Ilan; McMasters, John; Smith, Stephen C.

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals with nonplanar wing concepts -- their advantages and possible applications in a variety of aircraft designs. A brief review and assessment of several concepts from winglets to ring wings is followed by a more detailed look at two recent ideas: exploiting nonplanar wakes to reduce induced drag, and applying a 'C-wing' design to large commercial transports. Results suggest that potential efficiency gains may be significant, while several nonaerodynamic characteristics are particularly interesting.

  3. Advanced Airfoils Boost Helicopter Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Carson Helicopters Inc. licensed the Langley RC4 series of airfoils in 1993 to develop a replacement main rotor blade for their Sikorsky S-61 helicopters. The company's fleet of S-61 helicopters has been rebuilt to include Langley's patented airfoil design, and the helicopters are now able to carry heavier loads and fly faster and farther, and the main rotor blades have twice the previous service life. In aerial firefighting, the performance-boosting airfoils have helped the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Forest Service control the spread of wildfires. In 2003, Carson Helicopters signed a contract with Ducommun AeroStructures Inc., to manufacture the composite blades for Carson Helicopters to sell

  4. Turbine Airfoil With CMC Leading-Edge Concept Tested Under Simulated Gas Turbine Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, R. Craig; Hatton, Kenneth S.

    2000-01-01

    Silicon-based ceramics have been proposed as component materials for gas turbine engine hot-sections. When the Navy s Harrier fighter experienced engine (Pegasus F402) failure because of leading-edge durability problems on the second-stage high-pressure turbine vane, the Office of Naval Research came to the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field for test support in evaluating a concept for eliminating the vane-edge degradation. The High Pressure Burner Rig (HPBR) was selected for testing since it could provide temperature, pressure, velocity, and combustion gas compositions that closely simulate the engine environment. The study focused on equipping the stationary metal airfoil (Pegasus F402) with a ceramic matrix composite (CMC) leading-edge insert and evaluating the feasibility and benefits of such a configuration. The test exposed the component, with and without the CMC insert, to the harsh engine environment in an unloaded condition, with cooling to provide temperature relief to the metal blade underneath. The insert was made using an AlliedSignal Composites, Inc., enhanced HiNicalon (Nippon Carbon Co. LTD., Yokohama, Japan) fiber-reinforced silicon carbide composite (SiC/SiC CMC) material fabricated via chemical vapor infiltration. This insert was 45-mils thick and occupied a recessed area in the leading edge and shroud of the vane. It was designed to be free floating with an end cap design. The HPBR tests provided a comparative evaluation of the temperature response and leading-edge durability and included cycling the airfoils between simulated idle, lift, and cruise flight conditions. In addition, the airfoils were aircooled, uniquely instrumented, and exposed to the exact set of internal and external conditions, which included gas temperatures in excess of 1370 C (2500 F). In addition to documenting the temperature response of the metal vane for comparison with the CMC, a demonstration of improved leading-edge durability was a primary goal. First, the metal vane was tested for a total of 150 cycles. Both the leading edge and trailing edge of the blade exhibited fatigue cracking and burn-through similar to the failures experienced in service by the F402 engine. Next, an airfoil, fitted with the ceramic leading edge insert, was exposed for 200 cycles. The temperature response of those HPBR cycles indicated a reduced internal metal temperature, by as much as 600 F at the midspan location for the same surface temperature (2100 F). After testing, the composite insert appeared intact, with no signs of failure on either the vane s leading or trailing edge. Only a slight oxide scale, as would be expected, was noted on the insert. Overall, the CMC insert performed similarly to a thick thermal barrier coating. With a small air gap between the metal and the SiC/SiC leading edge, heat transfer from the CMC to the metal alloy was low, effectively lowering the temperatures. The insert's performance has proven that an uncooled CMC can be engineered and designed to withstand the thermal up-shock experienced during the severe lift conditions in the Pegasus engine. The design of the leading-edge insert, which minimized thermal stresses in the SiC/SiC CMC, showed that the CMC/metal assembly can be engineered to be a functioning component.

  5. Experimental measurement of the aerodynamic charateristics of two-dimensional airfoils for an unmanned aerial vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velazquez, Luis; Noži?ka, Ji?í; Vav?ín, Jan

    2012-04-01

    This paper is part of the development of an airfoil for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) with internal propulsion system; the investigation involves the analysis of the aerodynamic performance for the gliding condition of two-dimensional airfoil models which have been tested. This development is based on the modification of a selected airfoil from the NACA four digits family. The modification of this base airfoil was made in order to create a blowing outlet with the shape of a step on the suction surface since the UAV will have an internal propulsion system. This analysis involved obtaining the lift, drag and pitching moment coefficients experimentally for the situation where there is not flow through the blowing outlet, called the no blowing condition by means of wind tunnel tests. The methodology to obtain the forces experimentally was through an aerodynamic wire balance. Obtained results were compared with numerical results by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) from references and found in very good agreement. Finally, a selection of the airfoil with the best aerodynamic performance is done and proposed for further analysis including the blowing condition.

  6. Two-dimensional laminar incompressible separated flow past airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plotkin, A.

    1973-01-01

    A method is proposed to treat the problem of steady, two-dimensional, laminar, incompressible high Reynolds number separated flow past thin airfoils. An integral form of the boundary layer equations with interaction is used and the interaction between the inviscid and viscous flow fields is provided for by use of a thin-airfoil integral. Documentation of the attempts at obtaining a solution is presented. A survey of the current state-of-the-art of problems involving viscous-inviscid interactions in flow fields with separation is given.

  7. Modeling of heavy-gas effects on airfoil flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drela, Mark

    1992-01-01

    Thermodynamic models were constructed for a calorically imperfect gas and for a non-ideal gas. These were incorporated into a quasi one dimensional flow solver to develop an understanding of the differences in flow behavior between the new models and the perfect gas model. The models were also incorporated into a two dimensional flow solver to investigate their effects on transonic airfoil flows. Specifically, the calculations simulated airfoil testing in a proposed high Reynolds number heavy gas test facility. The results indicate that the non-idealities caused significant differences in the flow field, but that matching of an appropriate non-dimensional parameter led to flows similar to those in air.

  8. Airfoil shape for a turbine nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Burdgick, Steven Sebastian (Schenectady, NY); Patik, Joseph Francis (Cohoes, NY); Itzel, Gary Michael (Simpsonville, SC)

    2002-01-01

    A first-stage nozzle vane includes an airfoil having a profile according to Table I. The annulus profile of the hot gas path is defined in conjunction with the airfoil profile and the profile of the inner and outer walls by the Cartesian coordinate values given in Tables I and II, respectively. The airfoil is a three-dimensional bowed design, both in the airfoil body and in the trailing edge. The airfoil is steam and air-cooled by flowing cooling mediums through cavities extending in the vane between inner and outer walls.

  9. Hook nozzle arrangement for supporting airfoil vanes

    DOEpatents

    Shaffer, James E. (Maitland, FL); Norton, Paul F. (San Diego, CA)

    1996-01-01

    A gas turbine engine's nozzle structure includes a nozzle support ring, a plurality of shroud segments, and a plurality of airfoil vanes. The plurality of shroud segments are distributed around the nozzle support ring. Each airfoil vane is connected to a corresponding shroud segment so that the airfoil vanes are also distributed around the nozzle support ring. Each shroud segment has a hook engaging the nozzle support ring so that the shroud segments and corresponding airfoil vanes are supported by the nozzle support ring. The nozzle support ring, the shroud segments, and the airfoil vanes may be ceramic.

  10. Hook nozzle arrangement for supporting airfoil vanes

    DOEpatents

    Shaffer, J.E.; Norton, P.F.

    1996-02-20

    A gas turbine engine`s nozzle structure includes a nozzle support ring, a plurality of shroud segments, and a plurality of airfoil vanes. The plurality of shroud segments are distributed around the nozzle support ring. Each airfoil vane is connected to a corresponding shroud segment so that the airfoil vanes are also distributed around the nozzle support ring. Each shroud segment has a hook engaging the nozzle support ring so that the shroud segments and corresponding airfoil vanes are supported by the nozzle support ring. The nozzle support ring, the shroud segments, and the airfoil vanes may be ceramic. 8 figs.

  11. Static Extended Trailing Edge for Lift Enhancement: Experimental and Computational Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Tianshu; Montefort; Liou, William W.; Pantula, Srinivasa R.; Shams, Qamar A.

    2007-01-01

    A static extended trailing edge attached to a NACA0012 airfoil section is studied for achieving lift enhancement at a small drag penalty. It is indicated that the thin extended trailing edge can enhance the lift while the zero-lift drag is not significantly increased. Experiments and calculations are conducted to compare the aerodynamic characteristics of the extended trailing edge with those of Gurney flap and conventional flap. The extended trailing edge, as a simple mechanical device added on a wing without altering the basic configuration, has a good potential to improve the cruise flight efficiency.

  12. Turbulent Navier-Stokes Flow Analysis of an Advanced Semispan Diamond-Wing Model in Tunnel and Free Air at High-Lift Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghaffari, Farhad; Biedron, Robert T.; Luckring, James M.

    2002-01-01

    Turbulent Navier-Stokes computational results are presented for an advanced diamond wing semispan model at low-speed, high-lift conditions. The numerical results are obtained in support of a wind-tunnel test that was conducted in the National Transonic Facility at the NASA Langley Research Center. The model incorporated a generic fuselage and was mounted on the tunnel sidewall using a constant-width non-metric standoff. The computations were performed at to a nominal approach and landing flow conditions.The computed high-lift flow characteristics for the model in both the tunnel and in free-air environment are presented. The computed wing pressure distributions agreed well with the measured data and they both indicated a small effect due to the tunnel wall interference effects. However, the wall interference effects were found to be relatively more pronounced in the measured and the computed lift, drag and pitching moment. Although the magnitudes of the computed forces and moment were slightly off compared to the measured data, the increments due the wall interference effects were predicted reasonably well. The numerical results are also presented on the combined effects of the tunnel sidewall boundary layer and the standoff geometry on the fuselage forebody pressure distributions and the resulting impact on the configuration longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics.

  13. Experimental investigation of airfoil models for use on wind turbine blades

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsay, R.R.; Gregorek, G.M.; Hoffmann, M.J.

    1995-12-31

    In a continuing effort to provide experimental data for wind turbine airfoils, tests were conducted at the Ohio State University, Aeronautical and Astronautical Research Laboratory in the 3 X 5 subsonic wind tunnel on the National Renewable Energy Laboratory S814, S812, and S810 airfoil sections. The airfoils were tested for steady state and for model oscillating conditions having a test matrix which included Reynolds numbers of 0.75 through 1.5 million; however, for brevity, only the results for 1 million Reynolds number are included. The unsteady data discussed includes {plus_minus}10{degrees} sinusoidal angle of attack oscillation at 0.6 and 1.8 Hz at mean angles of attack of 8{degrees}, 14{degrees}, and 20{degrees}. In addition, the effect of the application of leading edge grit roughness was studied. In general, application of leading edge grit roughness reduced the maximum lift coefficient and zero lift pitching moment coefficient and increased the minimum drag coefficient for the steady state data. For the unsteady cases, there were increases in the maximum lift and pitching moment coefficient performance for all cases in comparison to the steady state data and a hysteresis behavior due to the oscillating motion.

  14. Aerodynamic Forces and Loadings on Symmetrical Circular-Arc Airfoils with Plain Leading-Edge and Plain Trailing-Edge Flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cahill, Jones F; Underwood, William J; Nuber, Robert J; Cheesman, Gail A

    1953-01-01

    An investigation has been made in the Langley two-dimensional low-turbulence tunnel and in the Langley two-dimensional low-pressure tunnel of 6- and 10-percent-thick symmetrical circular-arc airfoil sections at low Mach numbers and several Reynolds numbers. The airfoils were equipped with 0.15-chord plain leading-edge flaps and 0.20-chord plan trailing-edge flaps. The section lift and pitching-moment characteristics were determined for both airfoils with the flaps deflected individually and in combination. The section drag characteristics were obtained for the 6-percent-thick airfoil with the flaps partly deflected as low-drag-control flaps and for airfoils with the flaps neutral. Surface pressures were measured on the 6-percent-thick airfoil section with the flaps deflected either individually or in appropriate combination to furnish flap load and hinge-moment data applicable to the structural design of the airfoil. A generalized method is developed that permits the determination of the chordwise pressure distribution over sharp-edge airfoils with plain leading-edge flaps and plain trailing-edge flaps of arbitrary size and deflection.

  15. Lift production through asymmetric flapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalikop, Shreyas; Sreenivas, K. R.

    2009-11-01

    At present, there is a strong interest in developing Micro Air Vehicles (MAV) for applications like disaster management and aerial surveys. At these small length scales, the flight of insects and small birds suggests that unsteady aerodynamics of flapping wings can offer many advantages over fixed wing flight, such as hovering-flight, high maneuverability and high lift at large angles of attack. Various lift generating mechanims such as delayed stall, wake capture and wing rotation contribute towards our understanding of insect flight. We address the effect of asymmetric flapping of wings on lift production. By visualising the flow around a pair of rectangular wings flapping in a water tank and numerically computing the flow using a discrete vortex method, we demonstrate that net lift can be produced by introducing an asymmetry in the upstroke-to-downstroke velocity profile of the flapping wings. The competition between generation of upstroke and downstroke tip vortices appears to hold the key to understanding this lift generation mechanism.

  16. Airfoil-Shaped Fluid Flow Tool for Use in Making Differential Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    England, John Dwight (Inventor); Kelley, Anthony R. (Inventor); Cronise, Raymond J. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A fluid flow tool includes an airfoil structure and a support arm. The airfoil structure's high-pressure side and low-pressure side are positioned in a conduit by the support arm coupled to the conduit. The high-pressure and low-pressure sides substantially face opposing walls of the conduit. At least one measurement port is formed in the airfoil structure at each of its high-pressure side and low-pressure side. A first manifold, formed in the airfoil structure and in fluid communication with each measurement port so-formed at the high-pressure side, extends through the airfoil structure and support arm to terminate and be accessible at the exterior wall of the conduit. A second manifold, formed in the airfoil structure and in fluid communication with each measurement port so-formed at the low-pressure side, extends through the airfoil structure and support arm to terminate and be accessible at the exterior wall of the conduit.

  17. Wind-tunnel tests on combinations of a wing with fixed auxiliary airfoils having various chords and profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weick, Fred E; Sanders, Robert

    1934-01-01

    This report presents the results of wind tunnel tests on various auxiliary airfoils having three different airfoil sections and several different chord lengths in combination with a Clark y model wing in a sufficient number of relative positions to determine the optimum with regard to certain criterions of aerodynamic performance. The airfoil sections included a symmetrical profile, one of medium camber, and a highly cambered one. The chord sizes of the auxiliary airfoils ranged from 7.5 to 25 percent of the chord of the main wing, and the span was equal to that of the main wing.

  18. Influence of heat transfer on the aerodynamic performance of a plunging and pitching NACA0012 airfoil at low Reynolds numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinz, Denis F.; Alighanbari, Hekmat; Breitsamter, Christian

    2013-02-01

    The unsteady low Reynolds number aerodynamics phenomena around flapping wings are addressed in several investigations. Elsewhere, airfoils at higher Mach numbers and Reynolds numbers have been treated quite comprehensively in the literature. It is duly noted that the influence of heat transfer phenomena on the aerodynamic performance of flapping wings configurations is not well studied. The objective of the present study is to investigate the effect of heat transfer upon the aerodynamic performance of a pitching and plunging NACA0012 airfoil in the low Reynolds number flow regime with particular emphasis upon the airfoil's lift and drag coefficients. The compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved using a finite volume method. To consider the variation of fluid properties with temperature, the values of dynamic viscosity and thermal diffusivity are evaluated with Sutherland's formula and the Eucken model, respectively. Instantaneous and mean lift and drag coefficients are calculated for several temperature differences between the airfoil surface and freestream within the range 0-100 K. Simulations are performed for a prescribed airfoil motion schedule and flow parameters. It is learnt that the aerodynamic performance in terms of the lift CL and drag CD behavior is strongly dependent upon the heat transfer rate from the airfoil to the flow field. In the plunging case, the mean value of CD tends to increase, whereas the amplitude of CL tends to decrease with increasing temperature difference. In the pitching case, on the other hand, the mean value and the amplitude of both CD and CL decrease. A spectral analysis of CD and CL in the pitching case shows that the amplitudes of both CD and CL decrease with increasing surface temperature, whereas the harmonic frequencies are not affected.

  19. Experimental study on the use of synthetic jet actuators for lift control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Ricardo Benjamin

    An experimental study on the use of synthetic jet actuators for lift control is conducted. The synthetic jet actuator is placed on the pressure side towards the trailing edge on a NACA 65(2)-415 airfoil representative of the cross section of an Inlet Guide Vane (IGV) in an industrial gas compressor. By redirecting or vectoring the shear layer at the trailing edge, the synthetic jet actuator increases lift and decreases drag on the airfoil without a mechanical device or flap. A compressor map that defines upper and lower bounds on operating velocities and airfoil dimensions, is compared with operating conditions of the low-speed wind tunnel at San Diego State University, to match gas compressor conditions in the wind tunnel. Realistic test conditions can range from Mach=0.12 to Mach= 0.27 and an airfoil chord from c=0.1 m to c=0.3 m. Based on the operating conditions, a final airfoil model is fabricated with a chord of c=0.1m. Several synthetic jet actuator designs are considered. A initial synthetic jet is designed to house a piezoelectric element with a material frequency of 1200 hz in a cavity with a volume of 4.47 cm3, a slot width of 0.25 mm, and a slot depth of 1.5 mm. With these dimensions, the Helmholtz frequency of the design is 1800Hz. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) experiments show that the design has a jet with a peak centerline jet velocity of 26 m/s at 750 Hz. A modified slant face synthetic jet is designed so that the cavity fits flush within the NACA airfoil surface. The slanted synthetic jet has a cavity volume of 4.67 cm3, a slot width of 0.25 mm, and a slot depth of 3.45 mm resulting in a Helmholtz frequency of 1170 hz for this design. PIV experiments show that the jet is redirected along the slant face according to the Coanda effect. A final synthetic jet actuator is directly integrated into the trailing edge of an airfoil with a cavity volume of 4.6 cm3, a slot width of 0.2 mm, and a slot depth of 1.6 mm. The Helmholtz frequency is 1450 Hz and matches closely with the piezoelectric element material frequency. The slot is designed so that actuator creates a jet normal to the airfoil surface. A wind tunnel model of the airfoil is 3D-printed with nine actuators integrated along the span of the airfoil. The synthetic jet slots cover 61% of the airfoil's span and the synthetic jet slots are located at a 13% chord upstream of the trailing edge. Tests are performed at multiple free stream velocities ranging from 17 m/s to 54 m/s which is the equivalent of an airfoil Reynolds number of Re=1.5105 to Re=4.5105. The integrated synthetic jet actuator increases lift. The increase is dependent on the freestream velocity, the actuation frequency, and angle of attack. For actuation at 1450 hz, and various freestream velocities, the synthetic jet actuator increases the lift by 2% at = alpha7° to 7% at = alpha15°. The synthetic jet increases L/D by 2% at = alpha7° to 15% at = alpha15°. Velocity contours obtained through PIV show that the synthetic jet turns the trailing edge shear layer similar to a Gurney flap, which increases lift. The synthetic jet reduces the wake velocity defect through injection of momentum, reducing the drag on the airfoil.

  20. Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Large-Scale Model with a High Disk-Loading Lifting Fan Mounted in the Fuselage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aoyagi, Kiyoshi; Hickey, David H.; deSavigny, Richard A.

    1961-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the longitudinal characteristics during low-speed flight of a large-scale VTOL airplane model with a direct lifting fan enclosed in the fuselage. The model had a shoulder-mounted unswept wing of aspect ratio 5. The effect on longitudinal characteristics of fan operation, propulsion by means of deflecting the fan efflux, trailing-edge flap deflection, and horizontal-tail height were studied.

  1. A direct numerical simulation investigation of the synthetic jet frequency effects on separation control of low-Re flow past an airfoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Samtaney, Ravi

    2015-05-01

    We present results of direct numerical simulations of a synthetic jet (SJ) based separation control of flow past a NACA-0018 (National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics) airfoil, at 10° angle of attack and Reynolds number 104 based on the airfoil chord length C and uniform inflow velocity U0. The actuator of the SJ is modeled as a spanwise slot on the airfoil leeward surface and is placed just upstream of the leading edge separation position of the uncontrolled flow. The momentum coefficient of the SJ is chosen at a small value 2.13 × 10-4 normalized by that of the inflow. Three forcing frequencies are chosen for the present investigation: the low frequency (LF) F+ = feC/U0 = 0.5, the medium frequency (MF) F+ = 1.0, and the high frequency (HF) F+ = 4.0. We quantify the effects of forcing frequency for each case on the separation control and related vortex dynamics patterns. The simulations are performed using an energy conservative fourth-order parallel code. Numerical results reveal that the geometric variation introduced by the actuator has negligible effects on the mean flow field and the leading edge separation pattern; thus, the separation control effects are attributed to the SJ. The aerodynamic performances of the airfoil, characterized by lift and lift-to-drag ratio, are improved for all controlled cases, with the F+ = 1.0 case being the optimal one. The flow in the shear layer close to the actuator is locked to the jet, while in the wake this lock-in is maintained for the MF case but suppressed by the increasing turbulent fluctuations in the LF and HF cases. The vortex evolution downstream of the actuator presents two modes depending on the frequency: the vortex fragmentation and merging mode in the LF case where the vortex formed due to the SJ breaks up into several vortices and the latter merge as convecting downstream; the discrete vortices mode in the HF case where discrete vortices form and convect downstream without any fragmentation and merging. In the MF case, the vortex dynamics is at a transition state between the two modes. The low frequency actuation has the highest momentum rate during the blowing phase and substantially affects the flow upstream of the actuator and triggers early transition to turbulence. In the LF case, the transverse velocity has a 1%U0 pulsation at the position 18%C upstream of the actuator.

  2. Preparing and Analyzing Iced Airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vickerman, Mary B.; Baez, Marivell; Braun, Donald C.; Cotton, Barbara J.; Choo, Yung K.; Coroneos, Rula M.; Pennline, James A.; Hackenberg, Anthony W.; Schilling, Herbert W.; Slater, John W.; Burke, Kevin M.; Nolan, Gerald J.; Brown, Dennis

    2004-01-01

    SmaggIce version 1.2 is a computer program for preparing and analyzing iced airfoils. It includes interactive tools for (1) measuring ice-shape characteristics, (2) controlled smoothing of ice shapes, (3) curve discretization, (4) generation of artificial ice shapes, and (5) detection and correction of input errors. Measurements of ice shapes are essential for establishing relationships between characteristics of ice and effects of ice on airfoil performance. The shape-smoothing tool helps prepare ice shapes for use with already available grid-generation and computational-fluid-dynamics software for studying the aerodynamic effects of smoothed ice on airfoils. The artificial ice-shape generation tool supports parametric studies since ice-shape parameters can easily be controlled with the artificial ice. In such studies, artificial shapes generated by this program can supplement simulated ice obtained from icing research tunnels and real ice obtained from flight test under icing weather condition. SmaggIce also automatically detects geometry errors such as tangles or duplicate points in the boundary which may be introduced by digitization and provides tools to correct these. By use of interactive tools included in SmaggIce version 1.2, one can easily characterize ice shapes and prepare iced airfoils for grid generation and flow simulations.

  3. Experimental Investigation of Water Droplet Impingement on Airfoils, Finite Wings, and an S-duct Engine Inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papadakis, Michael; Hung, Kuohsing E.; Vu, Giao T.; Yeong, Hsiung Wei; Bidwell, Colin S.; Breer, Martin D.; Bencic, Timothy J.

    2002-01-01

    Validation of trajectory computer codes, for icing analysis, requires experimental water droplet impingement data for a wide range of aircraft geometries as well as flow and icing conditions. This report presents improved experimental and data reduction methods for obtaining water droplet impingement data and provides a comprehensive water droplet impingement database for a range of test geometries including an MS(1)-0317 airfoil, a GLC-305 airfoil, an NACA 65(sub 2)-415 airfoil, a commercial transport tail section, a 36-inch chord natural laminar flow NLF(1)-0414 airfoil, a 48-inch NLF(1)-0414 section with a 25 percent chord simple flap, a state-of-the-art three-element high lift system, a NACA 64A008 finite span swept business jet tail, a full-scale business jet horizontal tail section, a 25 percent-scale business jet empennage, and an S-duct turboprop engine inlet. The experimental results were obtained at the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) for spray clouds with median volumetric diameter (MVD) of 11, 11.5, 21, 92, and 94 microns and for a range of angles of attack. The majority of the impingement experiments were conducted at an air speed of 175 mph corresponding to a Reynolds number of approximately 1.6 million per foot. The maximum difference of repeated tests from the average ranged from 0.24 to 12 percent for most of the experimental results presented. This represents a significant improvement in test repeatability compared to previous experimental studies. The increase in test repeatability was attributed to improvements made to the experimental and data reduction methods. Computations performed with the LEWICE-2D and LEWICE-3D computer codes for all test configurations are presented in this report. For the test cases involving median volumetric diameters of 11 and 21 microns, the correlation between the analytical and experimental impingement efficiency distributions was good. For the median volumetric diameters of 92 and 94-micron cases, however, the analysis produced higher impingement efficiencies and larger impingement limits than the experiment. It is speculated that this discrepancy is due to droplet splashing and breakup experienced by large droplets during impingement.

  4. Soccer Ball Lift Coefficients via Trajectory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goff, John Eric; Carre, Matt J.

    2010-01-01

    We performed experiments in which a soccer ball was launched from a machine while two high-speed cameras recorded portions of the trajectory. Using the trajectory data and published drag coefficients, we extracted lift coefficients for a soccer ball. We determined lift coefficients for a wide range of spin parameters, including several spin…

  5. Active Control of Separation From the Flap of a Supercritical Airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melton, LaTunia Pack; Yao, Chung-Sheng; Seifert, Avi

    2006-01-01

    Zero-mass-flux periodic excitation was applied at several regions on a simplified high-lift system to delay the occurrence of flow separation. The NASA Energy Efficient Transport (EET) supercritical airfoil was equipped with a 15% chord simply hinged leading edge flap and a 25% chord simply hinged trailing edge flap. Detailed flow features were measured in an attempt to identify optimal actuator placement. The measurements included steady and unsteady model and tunnel wall pressures, wake surveys, arrays of surface hot-films, flow visualization, and particle image velocimetry (PIV). The current paper describes the application of active separation control at several locations on the deflected trailing edge flap. High frequency (F(+) approximately equal to 10) and low frequency amplitude modulation (F(+) sub AM approximately equal to 1) of the high frequency excitation were used for control. It was noted that the same performance gains were obtained with amplitude modulation and required only 30% of the momentum input required by pure sine excitation.

  6. Highly robust electron beam lithography lift-off process using chemically amplified positive tone resist and PEDOT:PSS as a protective coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kofler, Johannes; Schmoltner, Kerstin; Klug, Andreas; List-Kratochvil, Emil J. W.

    2014-09-01

    Highly sensitive chemically amplified resists are well suited for large-area, high-resolution rapid prototyping by electron beam lithography. The major drawback of these resists is their susceptibility to T-topping effects, sensitivity losses, and linewidth variations caused by delay times between individual process steps. Hence, they require a very tight process control, which hinders their potentially wide application in R&D. We demonstrate a highly robust electron beam lithography lift-off process using a chemically amplified positive tone 40XT photoresist in combination with an acidic conducting polymer (PEDOT:PSS) as a protective top-coating. Even extended delay times of 24?h did not lead to any sensitivity losses or linewidth variations. Moreover, an overall high performance with a resolution of 80?nm (after lift-off) and a high sensitivity (<10 µC/cm2) comparable to other standard chemically amplified resists was achieved. The development characteristics of this resist-layer system revealed new insights into the immanent trade-off between resolution and process stability.

  7. Effect of an extendable slat on the stall behavior of a VR-12 airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dehugues, P. Plantin; Mcalister, K. W.; Tung, C.

    1993-01-01

    Experimental and computational tests were performed on a VR-12 airfoil to determine if the dynamic-stall behavior that normally accompanies high-angle pitch oscillations could be modified by segmenting the forward portion of the airfoil and extending it ahead of the main element. In the extended position the configuration would appear as an airfoil with a leading-edge slat, and in the retracted position it would appear as a conventional VR-12 airfoil. The calculations were obtained from a numerical code that models the vorticity transport equation for an incompressible fluid. These results were compared with test data from the water tunnel facility of the Aeroflightdynamics Directorate at Ames Research Center. Steady and unsteady flows around both airfoils were examined at angles of attack between 0 and 30 deg. The Reynolds number was fixed at 200,000 and the unsteady pitch oscillations followed a sinusoidal motion described by alpha = alpha(sub m) + 10 deg sin(omega t). The mean angle (alpha(sub m)) was varied from 10 to 20 deg and the reduced frequency from 0.05 to 0.20. The results from the experiment and the calculations show that the extended-slat VR-12 airfoil experiences a delay in both static and dynamic stall not experienced by the basic VR-12 airfoil.

  8. Boundary-layer stability and airfoil design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viken, Jeffrey K.

    1986-01-01

    Several different natural laminar flow (NLF) airfoils have been analyzed for stability of the laminar boundary layer using linear stability codes. The NLF airfoils analyzed come from three different design conditions: incompressible; compressible with no sweep; and compressible with sweep. Some of the design problems are discussed, concentrating on those problems associated with keeping the boundary layer laminar. Also, there is a discussion on how a linear stability analysis was effectively used to improve the design for some of the airfoils.

  9. Airfoil seal system for gas turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Diakunchak, Ihor S.

    2013-06-25

    A turbine airfoil seal system of a turbine engine having a seal base with a plurality of seal strips extending therefrom for sealing gaps between rotational airfoils and adjacent stationary components. The seal strips may overlap each other and may be generally aligned with each other. The seal strips may flex during operation to further reduce the gap between the rotational airfoils and adjacent stationary components.

  10. Wavy flow cooling concept for turbine airfoils

    DOEpatents

    Liang, George (Palm City, FL)

    2010-08-31

    An airfoil including an outer wall and a cooling cavity formed therein. The cooling cavity includes a leading edge flow channel located adjacent a leading edge of the airfoil and a trailing edge flow channel located adjacent a trailing edge of the airfoil. Each of the leading edge and trailing edge flow channels define respective first and second flow axes located between pressure and suction sides of the airfoil. A plurality of rib members are located within each of the flow channels, spaced along the flow axes, and alternately extending from opposing sides of the flow channels to define undulating flow paths through the flow channels.

  11. The effects of variations in Reynolds number between 3.0 x 10sub6 and 25.0 x 10sub6 upon the aerodynamic characteristics of a number of NACA 6-series airfoil sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loftin, Laurence K, Jr; Bursnall, William J

    1950-01-01

    Results are presented of an investigation made to determine the two-dimensional lift and drag characteristics of nine NACA 6-series airfoil section at Reynolds numbers of 15.0 x 10sub6, 20.0 x 10sub6, and 25.0 x 10sub6. Also presented are data from NACA Technical Report 824 for the same airfoils at Reynolds numbers of 3.0 x 10sub6, 6.0 x 10sub6, and 9.0 x 10sub6. The airfoils selected represent sections having variations in the airfoil thickness, thickness form, and camber. The characteristics of an airfoil with a split flap were determined in one instance, as was the effect of surface roughness. Qualitative explanations in terms of flow behavior are advanced for the observed types of scale effect.

  12. A Survey of Reynolds Number and Wing Geometry Effects on Lift Characteristics in the Low Speed Stall Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polhamus, Edward C.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a survey of the effects of Reynolds number on the low- speed lift characteristics of wings encountering separated flows at their leading and side edges, with emphasis on the region near the stall. The influence of leading-edge profile and Reynolds number on the stall characteristics of two- dimensional airfoils are reviewed first to provide a basis for evaluating three- dimensional effects associated with various wing planforms. This is followed by examples of the effects of Reynolds number and geometry on the lift characteristics near the stall for a series of three-dimensional wings typical of those suitable for high-speed aircraft and missiles. Included are examples of the effects of wing geometry on the onset and spanwise progression of turbulent reseparation near the leading edge and illustrations of the degree to which simplified theoretical approaches can be useful in defining the influence of the various geometric parameters. Also illustrated is the manner in which the Reynolds number and wing geometry parameters influence whether the turbulent reseparation near the leading edge results in a sudden loss of lift, as in the two-dimensional case, or the formation of a leading-edge vortex with Rs increase in lift followed by a gentle stall as in the highly swept wing case. Particular emphasis is placed on the strong influence of 'induced camber' on the development of turbulent reseparation. R is believed that the examples selected for this report may be useful in evaluating viscous flow solutions by the new computational methods based on the Navier-Stokes equations as well as defining fruitful research areas for the high-Reynolds-number wind tunnels.

  13. Catwalk grate lifting tool

    DOEpatents

    Gunter, Larry W. (615 Sandpit Rd., Leesville, SC 29070)

    1992-01-01

    A device for lifting catwalk grates comprising an elongated bent member with a handle at one end and a pair of notched braces and a hook at the opposite end that act in conjunction with each other to lock onto the grate and give mechanical advantage in lifting the grate.

  14. Understanding Wing Lift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, J.; Soares, A. A.

    2010-01-01

    The conventional explanation of aerodynamic lift based on Bernoulli's equation is one of the most common mistakes in presentations to school students and is found in children's science books. The fallacies in this explanation together with an alternative explanation for aerofoil lift have already been presented in an excellent article by Babinsky…

  15. Catwalk grate lifting tool

    DOEpatents

    Gunter, L.W.

    1992-08-11

    A device is described for lifting catwalk grates comprising an elongated bent member with a handle at one end and a pair of notched braces and a hook at the opposite end that act in conjunction with each other to lock onto the grate and give mechanical advantage in lifting the grate. 10 figs.

  16. Portable seat lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddendorf, Bruce (inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A portable seat lift that can help individuals either (1) lower themselves to a sitting position or (2) raise themselves to a standing position is presented. The portable seat lift consists of a seat mounted on a base with two levers, which are powered by a drive unit.

  17. Experimental Determination of Jet Boundary Corrections for Airfoil Tests in Four Open Wind Tunnel Jets of Different Shapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Montgomery; Harris, Thomas A

    1931-01-01

    This experimental investigation was conducted primarily for the purpose of obtaining a method of correcting to free air conditions the results of airfoil force tests in four open wind tunnel jets of different shapes. Tests were also made to determine whether the jet boundaries had any appreciable effect on the pitching moments of a complete airplane model. Satisfactory corrections for the effect of the boundaries of the various jets were obtained for all the airfoils tested, the span of the largest being 0.75 of the jet width. The corrections for angle of attack were, in general, larger than those for drag. The boundaries had no appreciable effect on the pitching moments of either the airfoils or the complete airplane model. Increasing turbulence appeared to increase the minimum drag and maximum lift and to decrease the pitching moment.

  18. Recent Turbulence Model Advances Applied to Multielement Airfoil Computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumsey, Christopher L.; Gatski, Thomas B.

    2000-01-01

    A one-equation linear turbulence model and a two-equation nonlinear explicit algebraic stress model (EASM) are applied to the flow over a multielement airfoil. The effect of the K-epsilon and K-omega forms of the two-equation model are explored, and the K-epsilon form is shown to be deficient in the wall-bounded regions of adverse pressure gradient flows. A new K-omega form of EASM is introduced. Nonlinear terms present in EASM are shown to improve predictions of turbulent shear stress behind the trailing edge of the main element and near midflap. Curvature corrections are applied to both the one- and two-equation turbulence models and yield only relatively small local differences in the flap region, where the flow field undergoes the greatest curvature. Predictions of maximum lift are essentially unaffected by the turbulence model variations studied.

  19. Techniques for modifying airfoils and fairings on aircraft using foam and fiberglass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, M. B.; Jiran, F.

    1981-01-01

    The concept of using foam and fiberglass reinforced plastic to modify airfoils and fairings was applied successfully to high-speed aircraft at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. An on-aircraft installation method was used to modify an F-15 wing glove and wing leading edge and an F-104 flap trailing edge in support of the Shuttle tile airload tests. A combination of methods, both an on-aircraft installation and an off-aircraft fabrication for installation on the aircraft, was used to modify a section of an F-111 supercritical wing with a natural laminar flow airfoil. Techniques, methods, problem areas, and recommendations are presented which indicate that using foam and fiberglass to modify airfoils and fairings on high-speed aircraft is a viable means of quickly developing airfoils and fairings with desired aerodynamic characteristics with little risk to the parent or carrier aircraft.

  20. Effect of End Plates on the Surface Pressure Distribution of a Given Cambered Airfoil: Experimental Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, K. S. V.; Sharma, D. M.; Poddar, K.

    While conducting 2-D experiments for flow over airfoil in small wind tunnels, models are usually mounted by spanning the tunnel. However, in large wind tunnels, it is a usual practice to test airfoil models with end plates mounted at its both ends. Thus reduces the blockage, eliminates the tip effects, enables two-dimensional configuration for the flow over airfoil, apart of being cost effective and time saving. Main objective of the present investigation is to study the effect of different sized and shaped end plates on the surface pressure distribution for a given airfoil. Experiments were carried out on a single aerofoil GA(W)-2 at National Wind Tunnel Facility in IIT-Kanpur and surface pressures were measured at constant free stream speed of 30 m/s by varying the end-plates shapes at discrete angle of attack (-10° to 30°). Present study employed three different size end plates A, B, and C. Size of the endplate A is extended 20% chord length all along the airfoil cross sectional area. And end plate B is one chord length extended on airfoil except lower surface. In addition end plate B has wedge on the upper side. End plate C is spanning the tunnel height. These selected varied shaped end-plates had a significant affect on the aerodynamic characteristics along with a considerable variations in the flow phenomena involving flow separations, tip and blockage effects. Results indicates that endplate C gives the closest 2-D configuration (Figure a). Lift curve slope increases and stall angle decreases as the end plate size increases from A to C. It appears that for small size end plates (A and B), the stalling angle delayed to higher angles because of the interaction of the outer free stream flow with the flow on the suction side of the airfoil. And this interaction provides the energy to recover pressure and sustains to higher angles at the expense of the lift. And also stalling occurs abruptly. Effect of endplates changes the moment curve slope. Negative slope observed for all the three cases (Figure b).

  1. Structure of the Turbulent Separated Flow Around a Stalled Airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wadcock, A. J.

    1979-01-01

    Hot-wire measurements were made in the boundary layer, the separated region, and the near wake for flow past a NACA 4412 airfoil at maximum lift. The Reynolds number based on chord was 1,500,000. Special care was taken to achieve a two-dimensional mean flow. Data were obtained at several thousand locations in the flow field. These data include intermittency, two components of mean velocity, and mean values for three double, four triple, and five quadruple products of two velocity fluctuations. No information was obtained about the third (spanwise) velocity component. Smoothing and interpolating routines were used to determine intermittency, two components of mean velocity, and mean values of three double, four triple, and five quadruple products of two velocity fluctuations on a fine rectangular mesh aligned with the airfoil chord. The data are presented in contour plots, in three-dimensional plots, and in tabular form. The format used to store the experimental data in digital form is described and a computer program which illustrates how this data can be accessed is presented.

  2. An experimental study of airfoil-spoiler aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclachlan, B. G.; Karamcheti, K.

    1985-01-01

    The steady/unsteady flow field generated by a typical two dimensional airfoil with a statically deflected flap type spoiler was investigated. Subsonic wind tunnel tests were made over a range of parameters: spoiler deflection, angle of attack, and two Reynolds numbers; and comprehensive measurements of the mean and fluctuating surface pressures, velocities in the boundary layer, and velocities in the wake. Schlieren flow visualization of the near wake structure was performed. The mean lift, moment, and surface pressure characteristics are in agreement with previous investigations of spoiler aerodynamics. At large spoiler deflections, boundary layer character affects the static pressure distribution in the spoiler hingeline region; and, the wake mean velocity fields reveals a closed region of reversed flow aft of the spoiler. It is shown that the unsteady flow field characteristics are as follows: (1) the unsteady nature of the wake is characterized by vortex shedding; (2) the character of the vortex shedding changes with spoiler deflection; (3) the vortex shedding characteristics are in agreement with other bluff body investigations; and (4) the vortex shedding frequency component of the fluctuating surface pressure field is of appreciable magnitude at large spoiler deflections. The flow past an airfoil with deflected spoiler is a particular problem in bluff body aerodynamics is considered.

  3. Experimental investigation on the effects of wake passing frequency on boundary layer transition in high-lift low-pressure turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yun; Zou, Zheng-Ping; Liu, Hou-Xing; Zhang, Wei-Hao

    2015-04-01

    Detailed experimental investigation was carried out to investigate the interaction of unsteady wakes with boundary layer in a high-lift low-pressure turbine. Extensive measurements about boundary layer character were conducted using hot-film and hot-wire methods. In-depth analysis of the effect of wake passing frequency on boundary layer transition was carried out. The strength of separation control and profile loss variation at two wake passing frequencies were also studied. The results show that wake-induced transition can be detected in the separating shear layer, and complex vortex structures are induced by the interaction between the negative jet of wake and separation bubble. The proportions of laminar, separation and turbulence friction loss in the total loss vary with wake passing frequency, which leads to the change in the total boundary layer loss. In particular, as the wake passing frequency changes, the laminar and turbulent friction loss show opposite trends, and this indicates that the best frequency can be achieved by balancing these two types of losses. For a given high-lift profile, an optimum wake passing frequency that will lead to the minimum loss exists.

  4. Experimental hingeless rotor characteristics at low advance ratio with thrust. [wind tunnel tests of rotary wing operating at moderate to high lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    London, R. J.; Watts, G. A.; Sissingh, G. J.

    1973-01-01

    An experimental investigation to determine the dynamic characteristics of a hingeless rotor operating at moderate to high lift was conducted on a small scale, 7.5-foot diameter, four-bladed hingeless rotor model in a 7 x 10-foot wind tunnel. The primary objective of this research program was the empirical determination of the rotor steady-state and frequency responses to swashplate and body excitations. Collective pitch was set from 0 to 20 degrees, with the setting at a particular advance ratio limited by the cyclic pitch available for hub moment trim. Advance ratio varied from 0.00 to 0.36 for blades with nondimensional first-flap frequencies at 1.15, 1.28 and 1.33 times the rotor rotation frequency. Several conditions were run with the rotor operating in the transition regime. Rotor response at high lift is shown to be generally nonlinear in this region. As a secondary objective an experimental investigation of the rotor response to 4/revolution swashplate excitations at advance ratios of 0.2 to 0.85 and at a nondimensional, first-flap modal frequency of 1.34 was also conducted, using the 7 x 10-foot wind tunnel. It is shown that 4/revolution swashplate inputs are a method for substantially reducing rotor-induced, shafttransmitted vibratory forces.

  5. A Numerical Evaluation of Icing Effects on a Natural Laminar Flow Airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, James J.; Addy, Harold E., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    As a part of CFD code validation efforts within the Icing Branch of NASA Glenn Research Center, computations were performed for natural laminar flow (NLF) airfoil, NLF-0414. with 6 and 22.5 minute ice accretions. Both 3-D ice castings and 2-D machine-generated ice shapes were used in wind tunnel tests to study the effects of natural ice is well as simulated ice. They were mounted in the test section of the Low Turbulence Pressure Tunnel (LTPT) at NASA Langley that the 2-dimensionality of the flow can be maintained. Aerodynamic properties predicted by computations were compared to data obtained through the experiment by the authors at the LTPT. Computations were performed only in 2-D and in the case of 3-D ice, the digitized ice shape obtained at one spanwise location was used. The comparisons were mainly concentrated on the lift characteristics over Reynolds numbers ranging from 3 to 10 million and Mach numbers ranging from 0.12 to 0.29. WIND code computations indicated that the predicted stall angles were in agreement with experiment within one or two degrees. The maximum lift values obtained by computations were in good agreement with those of the experiment for the 6 minute ice shapes and the minute 3-D ice, but were somewhat lower in the case of the 22.5 minute 2-D ice. In general, the Reynolds number variation did not cause much change in the lift values while the variation of Mach number showed more change in the lift. The Spalart-Allmaras (S-A) turbulence model was the best performing model for the airfoil with the 22.5 minute ice and the Shear Stress Turbulence (SST) turbulence model was the best for the airfoil with the 6 minute ice and also for the clean airfoil. The pressure distribution on the surface of the iced airfoil showed good agreement for the 6 minute ice. However, relatively poor agreement of the pressure distribution on the upper surface aft of the leading edge horn for the 22.5 minute ice suggests that improvements are needed in the grid or turbulence models.

  6. An Experimental Investigation of Unsteady Surface Pressure on an Airfoil in Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mish, Patrick F.; Devenport, William J.

    2003-01-01

    Measurements of fluctuating surface pressure were made on a NACA 0015 airfoil immersed in grid generated turbulence. The airfoil model has a 2 ft chord and spans the 6 ft Virginia Tech Stability Wind Tunnel test section. Two grids were used to investigate the effects of turbulence length scale on the surface pressure response. A large grid which produced turbulence with an integral scale 13% of the chord and a smaller grid which produced turbulence with an integral scale 1.3% of the chord. Measurements were performed at angles of attack, alpha from 0 to 20 . An array of microphones mounted subsurface was used to measure the unsteady surface pressure. The goal of this measurement was to characterize the effects of angle of attack on the inviscid response. Lift spectra calculated from pressure measurements at each angle of attack revealed two distinct interaction regions; for omega(sub r) = omega b / U(sub infinity) is less than 10 a reduction in unsteady lift of up to 7 decibels (dB) occurs while an increase occurs for omega(sub r) is greater than 10 as the angle of attack is increased. The reduction in unsteady lift at low omega(sub r) with increasing angle of attack is a result that has never before been shown either experimentally or theoretically. The source of the reduction in lift spectral level appears to be closely related to the distortion of inflow turbulence based on analysis of surface pressure spanwise correlation length scales. Furthermore, while the distortion of the inflow appears to be critical in this experiment, this effect does not seem to be significant in larger integral scale (relative to the chord) flows based on the previous experimental work of McKeough suggesting the airfoils size relative to the inflow integral scale is critical in defining how the airfoil will respond under variation of angle of attack. A prediction scheme is developed that correctly accounts for the effects of distortion when the inflow integral scale is small relative to the airfoil chord. This scheme utilizes Rapid Distortion Theory to account for the distortion of the inflow with the distortion field modeled using a circular cylinder.

  7. CFD investigation of effects of wind tunnel walls on flow properties over S809 airfoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moshfeghi, Mohammad; Xie, Yonghui

    2013-07-01

    This article researches CFD simulations of the subsonic wind tunnel at Xi'an Jiaotong University's Laboratory of Thermal Turbo-machines. The wind tunnel cross section measures 800×600 mm2, and the simulations are conducted on a wind tunnel with a 375 mm chord S809 airfoil at the Reynolds number of one million. The angles of attack for the 2D airfoil range from 0 to 22 degrees. In another set of 2D simulations, a 750 mm chord airfoil is calculated in open-air with no walls restricting airflow. The pressure fields, flow patterns and lift and drag coefficients are compared with each other to show the blockage effects in the wind tunnel. As the results show, the wind tunnel walls directly cause the flow to stream faster and increase the lift and drag values. Another consequence of this channeled flow is that the separated area expands. Moreover, the commencement of the separation also occurs at a smaller angle of attack.

  8. Numerical and Experimental Study on Aerodynamic Characteristics of Basic Airfoils at Low Reynolds Numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Katsuya; Kawakita, Masatoshi; Iijima, Takayoshi; Koga, Mitsuhiro; Kihira, Mitsuhiko; Funaki, Jiro

    The aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils have been researched in higher Reynolds-number ranges more than 106, in a historic context closely related with the developments of airplanes and fluid machineries in the last century. However, our knowledge is not enough at low and middle Reynolds-number ranges. So, in the present study, we investigate such basic airfoils as a NACA0015, a flat plate and the flat plates with modified fore-face and after-face geometries at Reynolds number Re < 1.0×105, using two- and three-dimensional computations together with wind-tunnel and water-tank experiments. As a result, we have revealed the effect of the Reynolds number Re upon the minimum drag coefficient CDmin. Besides, we have shown the effects of attack angle ? upon various aerodynamic characteristics such as the lift coefficient CL, the drag coefficient CD and the lift-to-drag ratio CL/CD at Re = 1.0×102, discussing those effects on the basis of both near-flow-field information and surface-pressure profiles. Such results suggest the importance of sharp leading edges, which implies the possibility of an inversed NACA0015. Furthermore, concerning the flat-plate airfoil, we investigate the influences of fore-face and after-face geometries upon such effects.

  9. Flight-Determined Subsonic Lift and Drag Characteristics of Seven Lifting-Body and Wing-Body Reentry Vehicle Configurations With Truncated Bases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saltzman, Edwin J.; Wang, K. Charles; Iliff, Kenneth W.

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines flight-measured subsonic lift and drag characteristics of seven lifting-body and wing-body reentry vehicle configurations with truncated bases. The seven vehicles are the full-scale M2-F1, M2-F2, HL-10, X-24A, X-24B, and X-15 vehicles and the Space Shuttle prototype. Lift and drag data of the various vehicles are assembled under aerodynamic performance parameters and presented in several analytical and graphical formats. These formats unify the data and allow a greater understanding than studying the vehicles individually allows. Lift-curve slope data are studied with respect to aspect ratio and related to generic wind-tunnel model data and to theory for low-aspect-ratio planforms. The proper definition of reference area was critical for understanding and comparing the lift data. The drag components studied include minimum drag coefficient, lift-related drag, maximum lift-to-drag ratio, and, where available, base pressure coefficients. The effects of fineness ratio on forebody drag were also considered. The influence of forebody drag on afterbody (base) drag at low lift is shown to be related to Hoerner's compilation for body, airfoil, nacelle, and canopy drag. These analyses are intended to provide a useful analytical framework with which to compare and evaluate new vehicle configurations of the same generic family.

  10. Aerodynamic Assessment of Flight-Determined Subsonic Lift and Drag Characteristics of Seven Lifting-Body and Wing-Body Reentry Vehicle Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saltzman, Edwin J.; Wang, K. Charles; Iliff, Kenneth W.

    2002-01-01

    This report examines subsonic flight-measured lift and drag characteristics of seven lifting-body and wing-body reentry vehicle configurations with truncated bases. The seven vehicles are the full-scale M2-F1, M2-F2, HL-10, X-24A, X-24B, and X-15 vehicles and the Space Shuttle Enterprise. Subsonic flight lift and drag data of the various vehicles are assembled under aerodynamic performance parameters and presented in several analytical and graphical formats. These formats are intended to unify the data and allow a greater understanding than individually studying the vehicles allows. Lift-curve slope data are studied with respect to aspect ratio and related to generic wind-tunnel model data and to theory for low-aspect-ratio platforms. The definition of reference area is critical for understanding and comparing the lift data. The drag components studied include minimum drag coefficient, lift-related drag, maximum lift-to drag ratio, and, where available, base pressure coefficients. The influence of forebody drag on afterbody and base drag at low lift is shown to be related to Hoerner's compilation for body, airfoil, nacelle, and canopy drag. This feature may result in a reduced need of surface smoothness for vehicles with a large ratio of base area to wetted area. These analyses are intended to provide a useful analytical framework with which to compare and evaluate new vehicle configurations of the same generic family.

  11. Two-dimensional aerodynamic characteristics of the OLS/TAAT airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, Michael E.; Cross, Jeffrey L.; Noonan, Kevin W.

    1988-01-01

    Two flight tests have been conducted that obtained extension pressure data on a modified AH-1G rotor system. These two tests, the Operational Loads Survey (OLS) and the Tip Aerodynamics and Acoustics Test (TAAT) used the same rotor set. In the analysis of these data bases, accurate 2-D airfoil data is invaluable, for not only does it allow comparison studies between 2- and 3-D flow, but also provides accurate tables of the airfoil characteristics for use in comprehensive rotorcraft analysis codes. To provide this 2-D data base, a model of the OLS/TAAT airfoil was tested over a Reynolds number range from 3 x 10 to the 6th to 7 x 10 to the 7th and between Mach numbers of 0.34 to 0.88 in the NASA Langley Research Center's 6- by 28-Inch Transonic Tunnel. The 2-D airfoil data is presented as chordwise pressure coefficient plots, as well as lift, drag, and pitching moment coefficient plots and tables.

  12. Fluid-structure analysis of a flexible flapping airfoil at low Reynolds number flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unger, Ralf; Haupt, Matthias C.; Horst, Peter; Radespiel, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a coupling simulation methodology is applied to investigate the fluid flow around a light and flexible airfoil based on a handfoil of a seagull. A finite element model of the flexible airfoil is fully coupled to the flow solver by using a load and displacement transfer as well as a fluid grid deformation algorithm. The flow field is characterized by a laminar-turbulent transition at a Reynolds number of Re=100 000, which takes place along a laminar separation bubble. An unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes flow solver is used to take this transition process into account by comparison of a critical N-factor with the N-factor computed by the eN-method. Results of computations have shown that the flexibility of the airfoil has a major influence on the thrust efficiency, the mean drag and lift, and the location of laminar-turbulent transition. The thrust efficiency can be considerably improved by increasing the plunging amplitude and by using a time dependent airfoil stiffness, inspired by the muscle contraction of birds.

  13. Vortex flow structures and interactions for the optimum thrust efficiency of a heaving airfoil at different mean angles of attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín-Alcántara, A.; Fernandez-Feria, R.; Sanmiguel-Rojas, E.

    2015-07-01

    The thrust efficiency of a two-dimensional heaving airfoil is studied computationally for a low Reynolds number using a vortex force decomposition. The auxiliary potentials that separate the total vortex force into lift and drag (or thrust) are obtained analytically by using an elliptic airfoil. With these auxiliary potentials, the added-mass components of the lift and drag (or thrust) coefficients are also obtained analytically for any heaving motion of the airfoil and for any value of the mean angle of attack ?. The contributions of the leading- and trailing-edge vortices to the thrust during their down- and up-stroke evolutions are computed quantitatively with this formulation for different dimensionless frequencies and heave amplitudes (Stc and Sta) and for several values of ?. Very different types of flows, periodic, quasi-periodic, and chaotic described as Stc, Sta, and ?, are varied. The optimum values of these parameters for maximum thrust efficiency are obtained and explained in terms of the interactions between the vortices and the forces exerted by them on the airfoil. As in previous numerical and experimental studies on flapping flight at low Reynolds numbers, the optimum thrust efficiency is reached for intermediate frequencies (Stc slightly smaller than one) and a heave amplitude corresponding to an advance ratio close to unity. The optimal mean angle of attack found is zero. The corresponding flow is periodic, but it becomes chaotic and with smaller average thrust efficiency as |?| becomes slightly different from zero.

  14. Control of unsteady separated flow associated with the dynamic stall of airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilder, M. C.

    1994-01-01

    A unique active flow-control device is proposed for the control of unsteady separated flow associated with the dynamic stall of airfoils. The device is an adaptive-geometry leading-edge which will allow controlled, dynamic modification of the leading-edge profile of an airfoil while the airfoil is executing an angle-of-attack pitch-up maneuver. A carbon-fiber composite skin has been bench tested, and a wind tunnel model is under construction. A baseline parameter study of compressible dynamic stall was performed for flow over an NACA 0012 airfoil. Parameters included Mach number, pitch rate, pitch history, and boundary layer tripping. Dynamic stall data were recorded via point-diffraction interferometry and the interferograms were analyzed with in-house developed image processing software. A new high-speed phase-locked photographic image recording system was developed for real-time documentation of dynamic stall.

  15. Understanding wing lift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, J.; Soares, A. A.

    2010-05-01

    The conventional explanation of aerodynamic lift based on Bernoulli's equation is one of the most common mistakes in presentations to school students and is found in children's science books. The fallacies in this explanation together with an alternative explanation for aerofoil lift have already been presented in an excellent article by Babinsky (2003 Phys. Educ. 38 497-503). However, in Babinsky's explanation, the air friction forces are ignored and the flow-field curvature introduced by the aerofoil shape is understood intuitively. In this article, a simple analysis of the lift with friction forces incorporated is presented to give a more precise qualitative explanation.

  16. Airfoil modification effects on subsonic and transonic pressure distributions and performance for the EA-6B airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, Dennis O.; Sewall, William G.

    1995-01-01

    Longitudinal characteristics and wing-section pressure distributions are compared for the EA-6B airplane with and without airfoil modifications. The airfoil modifications were designed to increase low-speed maximum lift for maneuvering, while having a minimal effect on transonic performance. Section contour changes were confined to the leading-edge slat and trailing-edge flap regions of the wing. Experimental data are analyzed from tests in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel on the baseline and two modified wing-fuselage configurations with the slats and flaps in their retracted positions. Wing modification effects on subsonic and transonic performance are seen in wing-section pressure distributions of the various configurations at similar lift coefficients. The modified-wing configurations produced maximum lift coefficients which exceeded those of the baseline configuration at low-speed Mach numbers (0.300 and 0.400). This benefit was related to the behavior of the wing upper surface leading-edge suction peak and the behavior of the trailing-edge pressure. At transonic Mach numbers (0.725 to 0.900), the wing modifications produced a somewhat stronger nose-down pitching moment, a slightly higher drag at low-lift levels, and a lower drag at higher lift levels.

  17. Mechanism of Water Droplet Breakup Near the Leading Edge of an Airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vargas, Mario; Sor, Suthyvann; Magarino, Adelaida, Garcia

    2012-01-01

    This work presents results of an experimental study on droplet deformation and breakup near the leading edge of an airfoil. The experiment was conducted in the rotating rig test cell at the Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aeroespacial (INTA) in Madrid, Spain. The airfoil model was placed at the end of the rotating arm and a monosize droplet generator produced droplets that fell from above, perpendicular to the path of the airfoil. The interaction between the droplets and the airfoil was captured with high speed imaging and allowed observation of droplet deformation and breakup as the droplet approached the airfoil near the stagnation line. Image processing software was used to measure the position of the droplet centroid, equivalent diameter, perimeter, area, and the major and minor axes of an ellipse superimposed over the deforming droplet. The horizontal and vertical displacement of each droplet against time was also measured, and the velocity, acceleration, Weber number, Bond number, Reynolds number, and the drag coefficients were calculated along the path of the droplet to the beginning of breakup. Droplet deformation is defined and studied against main parameters. The high speed imaging allowed observation of the actual mechanism of breakup and identification of the sequence of configurations from the initiation of the breakup to the disintegration of the droplet. Results and comparisons are presented for droplets of diameters in the range of 500 to 1800 microns, and airfoil velocities of 70 and 90 m/sec.

  18. Mechanism of Water Droplet Breakup near the Leading Edge of an Airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vargas, Mario; Sor, Suthyvann; Magarino, Adelaida Garcia

    2012-01-01

    This work presents results of an experimental study on droplet deformation and breakup near the leading edge of an airfoil. The experiment was conducted in the rotating rig test cell at the Instituto Nacional de T cnica Aeroespacial (INTA) in Madrid, Spain. The airfoil model was placed at the end of the rotating arm and a monosize droplet generator produced droplets that fell from above, perpendicular to the path of the airfoil. The interaction between the droplets and the airfoil was captured with high speed imaging and allowed observation of droplet deformation and breakup as the droplet approached the airfoil near the stagnation line. Image processing software was used to measure the position of the droplet centroid, equivalent diameter, perimeter, area, and the major and minor axes of an ellipse superimposed over the deforming droplet. The horizontal and vertical displacement of each droplet against time was also measured, and the velocity, acceleration, Weber number, Bond number, Reynolds number, and the drag coefficients were calculated along the path of the droplet to the beginning of breakup. Droplet deformation is defined and studied against main parameters. The high speed imaging allowed observation of the actual mechanism of breakup and identification of the sequence of configurations from the initiation of the breakup to the disintegration of the droplet. Results and comparisons are presented for droplets of diameters in the range of 500 to 1800 micrometers, and airfoil velocities of 70 and 90 meters/second.

  19. Wind tunnel results of the low-speed NLF(1)-0414F airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murri, Daniel G.; Mcghee, Robert J.; Jordan, Frank L., Jr.; Davis, Patrick J.; Viken, Jeffrey K.

    1987-01-01

    The large performance gains predicted for the Natural Laminar Flow (NLF)(1)-0414F airfoil were demonstrated in two-dimensional airfoil tests and in wind tunnel tests conducted with a full scale modified Cessna 210. The performance gains result from maintaining extensive areas of natural laminar flow, and were verified by flight tests conducted with the modified Cessna. The lift, stability, and control characteristics of the Cessna were found to be essentially unchanged when boundary layer transition was fixed near the wing leading edge. These characteristics are very desirable from a safety and certification view where premature boundary layer transition (due to insect contamination, etc.) must be considered. The leading edge modifications were found to enhance the roll damping of the Cessna at the stall, and were therefore considered effective in improving the stall/departure resistance. Also, the modifications were found to be responsible for only minor performance penalties.

  20. Wind-tunnel results for a modified 17-percent-thick low-speed airfoil section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcghee, R. J.; Beasley, W. D.

    1981-01-01

    Wind-tunnel tests were conducted in the Langley low-turbulence pressure tunnel to evaluate the effects on performance of modifying a 17-percent-thick low-speed airfoil. The airfoil contour was altered to reduce the pitching-moment coefficient by increasing the forward loading and to increase the climb lift-drag ratio by decreasing the aft upper surface pressure gradient. The tests were conducted over a Mach number range from 0.07 to 0.32, a chord Reynolds number range 1.0 x 10 to the 6th power to 12.0 x 10 to the 6th power, and an angle-of-attack range from about -10 deg to 20 deg.

  1. The manipulation of trailing-edge vortices for an airfoil in plunging motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prangemeier, T.; Rival, D.; Tropea, C.

    2010-02-01

    Trailing-edge vortex manipulation has been investigated using particle image velocimetry (PIV) for an airfoil undergoing harmonic plunging superimposed with a pitching motion near the bottom of the stroke. The so-called quick-pitch motion has been evaluated through a comparison with a benchmark pure-sinusoidal plunge motion for Re=30000 and k=0.25. It has been shown that the trailing-edge vortex circulation can be reduced by more than 60% for all quick-pitch cases. The reduction in trailing-edge vortex circulation has been achieved without diminishing the strength of the leading-edge vortex, thus maintaining the lift augmentation achieved through dynamic stall. The improvement over the benchmark case is then confirmed through a statistical analysis. Finally, an analysis of the flow separation over the airfoil shows that the various quick-pitch motions facilitate earlier flow reattachment at the bottom of the stroke.

  2. Aerodynamic Lifting Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weltner, Klaus

    1990-01-01

    Describes some experiments showing both qualitatively and quantitatively that aerodynamic lift is a reaction force. Demonstrates reaction forces caused by the acceleration of an airstream and the deflection of an airstream. Provides pictures of demonstration apparatus and mathematical expressions. (YP)

  3. Wind tower service lift

    DOEpatents

    Oliphant, David; Quilter, Jared; Andersen, Todd; Conroy, Thomas

    2011-09-13

    An apparatus used for maintaining a wind tower structure wherein the wind tower structure may have a plurality of legs and may be configured to support a wind turbine above the ground in a better position to interface with winds. The lift structure may be configured for carrying objects and have a guide system and drive system for mechanically communicating with a primary cable, rail or other first elongate member attached to the wind tower structure. The drive system and guide system may transmit forces that move the lift relative to the cable and thereby relative to the wind tower structure. A control interface may be included for controlling the amount and direction of the power into the guide system and drive system thereby causing the guide system and drive system to move the lift relative to said first elongate member such that said lift moves relative to said wind tower structure.

  4. Advanced underwater lift device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flanagan, David T.; Hopkins, Robert C.

    1993-01-01

    Flexible underwater lift devices ('lift bags') are used in underwater operations to provide buoyancy to submerged objects. Commercially available designs are heavy, bulky, and awkward to handle, and thus are limited in size and useful lifting capacity. An underwater lift device having less than 20 percent of the bulk and less than 10 percent of the weight of commercially available models was developed. The design features a dual membrane envelope, a nearly homogeneous envelope membrane stress distribution, and a minimum surface-to-volume ratio. A proof-of-concept model of 50 kg capacity was built and tested. Originally designed to provide buoyancy to mock-ups submerged in NASA's weightlessness simulators, the device may have application to water-landed spacecraft which must deploy flotation upon impact, and where launch weight and volume penalties are significant. The device may also be useful for the automated recovery of ocean floor probes or in marine salvage applications.

  5. FREIGHT CONTAINER LIFTING STANDARD

    SciTech Connect

    POWERS DJ; SCOTT MA; MACKEY TC

    2010-01-13

    This standard details the correct methods of lifting and handling Series 1 freight containers following ISO-3874 and ISO-1496. The changes within RPP-40736 will allow better reading comprehension, as well as correcting editorial errors.

  6. Handicapped car lifting seat

    E-print Network

    Schoenmakers, Sean A

    2005-01-01

    Currently there is a lack of assistance in automobile usage for the older people of our society. In an attempt to combat this problem, this thesis designs and builds a working conceptual model of a handicapped car lifting ...

  7. Theory of lifting surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prandtl , L

    1920-01-01

    The general basis of the theory of lifting surfaces is discussed. The problem of the flow of a fluid about a lifting surface of infinite span is examined in terms of the existence of vortexes in the current. A general theory of permanent flow is discussed. Formulas for determining the influence of aspect ratio that may be applied to all wings, whatever their plane form, are given.

  8. An airfoil pitch apparatus-modeling and control design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, Daniel R.

    1989-01-01

    The study of dynamic stall of rapidly pitching airfoils is being conducted at NASA Ames Research Center. Understanding this physical phenomenon will aid in improving the maneuverability of fighter aircraft as well as civilian aircraft. A wind tunnel device which can linearly pitch and control an airfoil with rapid dynamic response is needed for such tests. To develop a mechanism capable of high accelerations, an accurate model and control system is created. The model contains mathematical representations of the mechanical system, including mass, spring, and damping characteristics for each structural element, as well as coulomb friction and servovalve saturation. Electrical components, both digital and analog, linear and nonlinear, are simulated. The implementation of such a high-performance system requires detailed control design as well as state-of-the-art components. This paper describes the system model, states the system requirements, and presents results of its theoretical performance which maximizes the structural and hydraulic aspects of this system.

  9. Drag Coefficient of Water Droplets Approaching the Leading Edge of an Airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vargas, Mario; Sor, Suthyvann; Magarino, Adelaida Garcia

    2013-01-01

    This work presents results of an experimental study on droplet deformation and breakup near the leading edge of an airfoil. The experiment was conducted in the rotating rig test cell at the Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aeroespacial (INTA) in Madrid, Spain. An airfoil model was placed at the end of the rotating arm and a monosize droplet generator produced droplets that fell from above, perpendicular to the path of the airfoil. The interaction between the droplets and the airfoil was captured with high speed imaging and allowed observation of droplet deformation and breakup as the droplet approached the airfoil near the stagnation line. Image processing software was used to measure the position of the droplet centroid, equivalent diameter, perimeter, area, and the major and minor axes of an ellipse superimposed over the deforming droplet. The horizontal and vertical displacement of each droplet against time was also measured, and the velocity, acceleration, Weber number, Bond number, Reynolds number, and the drag coefficients were calculated along the path of the droplet to the beginning of breakup. Results are presented and discussed for drag coefficients of droplets with diameters in the range of 300 to 1800 micrometers, and airfoil velocities of 50, 70 and 90 meters/second. The effect of droplet oscillation on the drag coefficient is discussed.

  10. Numerical Simulations of Subscale Wind Turbine Rotor Inboard Airfoils at Low Reynolds Number

    SciTech Connect

    Blaylock, Myra L.; Maniaci, David Charles; Resor, Brian R.

    2015-04-01

    New blade designs are planned to support future research campaigns at the SWiFT facility in Lubbock, Texas. The sub-scale blades will reproduce specific aerodynamic characteristics of utility-scale rotors. Reynolds numbers for megawatt-, utility-scale rotors are generally above 2-8 million. The thickness of inboard airfoils for these large rotors are typically as high as 35-40%. The thickness and the proximity to three-dimensional flow of these airfoils present design and analysis challenges, even at the full scale. However, more than a decade of experience with the airfoils in numerical simulation, in the wind tunnel, and in the field has generated confidence in their performance. Reynolds number regimes for the sub-scale rotor are significantly lower for the inboard blade, ranging from 0.7 to 1 million. Performance of the thick airfoils in this regime is uncertain because of the lack of wind tunnel data and the inherent challenge associated with numerical simulations. This report documents efforts to determine the most capable analysis tools to support these simulations in an effort to improve understanding of the aerodynamic properties of thick airfoils in this Reynolds number regime. Numerical results from various codes of four airfoils are verified against previously published wind tunnel results where data at those Reynolds numbers are available. Results are then computed for other Reynolds numbers of interest.

  11. A wind tunnel investigation of the effects of micro-vortex generators and Gurney flaps on the high-lift characteristics of a business jet wing. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martuccio, Michelle Therese

    1994-01-01

    A study of a full-scale, semi-span business jet wing has been conducted to investigate the potential of two types of high-lift devices for improving aircraft high-lift performance. The research effort involved low-speed wind-tunnel tests of micro-vortex generators and Gurney flaps applied to the flap system of the business jet wing and included force and moment measurements, surface pressure surveys and flow visualization on the wing and flap. Results showed that the micro-vortex generators tested had no beneficial effects on the longitudinal force characteristics in this particular application, while the Gurney flaps were an effective means of increasing lift. However, the Gurney flaps also caused an increase in drag in most circumstances.

  12. Airfoil shape for a turbine bucket

    DOEpatents

    Hyde, Susan Marie; By, Robert Romany; Tressler, Judd Dodge; Schaeffer, Jon Conrad; Sims, Calvin Levy

    2005-06-28

    Third stage turbine buckets have airfoil profiles substantially in accordance with Cartesian coordinate values of X, Y and Z set forth Table I wherein X and Y values are in inches and the Z values are non-dimensional values from 0 to 0.938 convertible to Z distances in inches by multiplying the Z values by the height of the airfoil in inches. The X and Y values are distances which, when connected by smooth continuing arcs, define airfoil profile sections at each distance Z. The profile sections at each distance Z are joined smoothly to one another to form a complete airfoil shape. The X and Y distances may be scalable as a function of the same constant or number to provide a scaled up or scaled down airfoil section for the bucket. The nominal airfoil given by the X, Y and Z distances lies within an envelop of .+-.0.150 inches in directions normal to the surface of the airfoil.

  13. Prediction of static aerodynamic characteristics for slender bodies alone and with lifting surfaces to very high angles of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgensen, L. H.

    1976-01-01

    An engineering-type method is presented for computing normal-force and pitching-moment coefficients for slender bodies of circular and noncircular cross section alone and with lifting surfaces. In this method, a semi-empirical term representing viscous-separation crossflow is added to a term representing potential-theory crossflow. For many bodies of revolution, computed aerodynamic characteristics are shown to agree with measured results for investigated free-stream Mach numbers from 0.6 to 2.9. For several bodies of elliptic cross section, measured results are also predicted reasonably well over the investigated Mach number range from 0.6 to 2.0 and at angles of attack from 0 to 60 deg. As for the bodies of revolution, the predictions are best for supersonic Mach numbers. For body-wing and body-wing-tail configurations with wings of aspect ratios 3 and 4, measured normal-force coefficients and centers are predicted reasonably well at the upper test Mach number of 2.0. However, with a decrease in Mach number to 0.6, the agreement for C sub N rapidly deteriorates, although the normal-force centers remain in close agreement. Vapor-screen and oil-flow pictures are shown for many body, body-wing, and body-wing-tail configurations. When separation and vortex patterns are asymmetric, undesirable side forces are measured for the models even at zero sideslip angle. Generally, the side-force coefficients decrease or vanish with the following: increase in Mach number, decrease in nose fineness ratio, change from sharp to blunt nose, and flattening of body cross section (particularly the body nose).

  14. Prediction of static aerodynamic characteristics for slender bodies alone and with lifting surfaces to very high angles of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgensen, L. H.

    1977-01-01

    An engineering-type method is presented for computing normal-force and pitching-moment coefficients for slender bodies of circular and noncircular cross section alone and with lifting surfaces. In this method, a semi-empirical term representing viscous-separation crossflow is added to a term representing potential-theory crossflow. For many bodies of revolution, computed aerodynamic characteristics are shown to agree with measured results for investigated free-stream Mach numbers from 0.6 to 2.9. The angles of attack extend from 0 deg to 180 deg for M = 2.9 from 0 deg to 60 deg for M = 0.6 to 2.0. For several bodies of elliptic cross section, measured results are also predicted reasonably well over the investigated Mach number range from 0.6 to 2.0 and at angles of attack from 0 deg to 60 deg. As for the bodies of revolution, the predictions are best for supersonic Mach numbers. For body-wing and body-wing-tail configurations with wings of aspect ratios 3 and 4, measured normal-force coefficients and centers are predicted reasonably well at the upper test Mach number of 2.0. Vapor-screen and oil-flow pictures are shown for many body, body-wing and body-wing-tail configurations. When spearation and vortex patterns are asymmetric, undesirable side forces are measured for the models even at zero sideslip angle. Generally, the side-force coefficients decrease or vanish with the following: increase in Mach number, decrease in nose fineness ratio, change from sharp to blunt nose, and flattening of body cross section (particularly the body nose).

  15. Single Airfoil Gust Response Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, James R.

    2000-01-01

    An unsteady aerodynamic code, called GUST3D, has been developed to solve the single, non-constant coefficient, inhomogeneous convective wave equation for flows with periodic vortical disturbance. The code uses a frequency-domain approach with second-order central differences and a Sommerfeld radiation condition in the far field. It has been extensively validated on model problems with analytical solutions. GUST3D requires as input certain mean flow quantities which are calculated separately by a potential flow solver. This solver calculates the mean flow using a Gothert's Rule approximation. On the airfoil surface, it uses the solution calculated by the potential code FL036. A figure shows the mean pressure along the airfoil surface. To calculate the unsteady pressure, GUST3D was run oil systematically refined grids to obtain a converged solution at each frequency. It was found that 24 points per wavelength was sufficient for convergence. The location of the outer grid boundary was also varied to check for sensitivity to the far-field boundary condition.

  16. An Alternative Maxillary Sinus Lift Technique – Sinu Lift System

    PubMed Central

    T, Parthasaradhi; B, Shivakumar; Kumar, T.S.S.; P, Suganya

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Maxillary sinus augmentation surgical techniques have evolved greatly allowing successful placement of dental implants in the atrophic posterior maxillary region. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the clinical and radiological outcomes and postoperative morbidity of sinus floor elevation procedures performed using the minimally invasive surgical technique the Sinu lift system. Materials and Methods: Sinus lift procedure was done using the sinu lift system by a transcrestal approach and bone augmentation was done on ten systemically healthy patients using ?- tricalcium phosphate and platelet rich plasma mix. The study was evaluated upto six months period with bone related parameters being assessed at base line using CT scan, OPG and after six months the results were analysed using SPSS Version 18.0 software (p < 0.01 (0.005). Wilcoxson signed rank sum test was used to correlate between preoperative and postoperative measurements. Implant placements were done at the desired area of sinus augmentation with a two year follow up. (Nobel Biocare, Nobel Biocare Holding AG, Zürich-Flughafen, Switzerland) Results: The augmented sites had a significant increase in the bone parameters at the desired grafted region. The mean gain in bone height as observed in CT Scan had revealed increased measurements from 5.80mm±0.98 to 10.20mm±1.68 at the sixth month evaluation. This was statistically significant (0.005). Clinically, no complications were observed during or after the surgical procedure. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, the Sinu lift system with a controlled working action resulted in high procedural success and this procedure may be an alternative to the currently used surgical methods. PMID:25954702

  17. Experimental Observations on the Deformation and Breakup of Water Droplets Near the Leading Edge of an Airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vargas, Mario; Feo, Alex

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the results of an experimental study on droplet deformation and breakup near the leading edge of an airfoil. The experiment was conducted in the rotating rig test cell at the Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aeroespacial (INTA) in Madrid, Spain. An airfoil model placed at the end of the rotating arm was moved at speeds of 50 to 90 m/sec. A monosize droplet generator was employed to produce droplets that were allowed to fall from above, perpendicular to the path of the airfoil at a given location. High speed imaging was employed to observe the interaction between the droplets and the airfoil. The high speed imaging allowed observation of droplet deformation and breakup as the droplet approached the airfoil near the stagnation line. A tracking software program was used to measure from the high speed movies the horizontal and vertical displacement of the droplet against time. The velocity, acceleration, Weber number, Bond number, Reynolds number, and the drag coefficients were calculated along the path of a given droplet from beginning of deformation to breakup and/or hitting the airfoil. Results are presented for droplets with a diameter of 490 micrometers at airfoil speeds of 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90 m/sec

  18. Inviscid double wake model for stalled airfoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marion, L.; Ramos-García, N.; Sørensen, J. N.

    2014-06-01

    An inviscid double wake model based on a steady two-dimensional panel method has been developed to predict aerodynamic loads of wind turbine airfoils in the deep stall region. The separated flow is modelled using two constant vorticity sheets which are released at the trailing edge and at the separation point. A calibration of the code through comparison with experiments has been performed using one set of airfoils. A second set of airfoils has been used for the validation of the calibrated model. Predicted aerodynamic forces for a wide range of angles of attack (0 to 90 deg) are in overall good agreement with wind tunnel measurements.

  19. Turbine airfoil with outer wall thickness indicators

    DOEpatents

    Marra, John J; James, Allister W; Merrill, Gary B

    2013-08-06

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine and including a depth indicator for determining outer wall blade thickness. The airfoil may include an outer wall having a plurality of grooves in the outer surface of the outer wall. The grooves may have a depth that represents a desired outer surface and wall thickness of the outer wall. The material forming an outer surface of the outer wall may be removed to be flush with an innermost point in each groove, thereby reducing the wall thickness and increasing efficiency. The plurality of grooves may be positioned in a radially outer region of the airfoil proximate to the tip.

  20. CAST-10-2/DOA 2 Airfoil Studies Workshop Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Edward J. (compiler); Hill, Acquilla S. (compiler)

    1989-01-01

    During the period of September 23 through 27, 1988, the Transonic Aerodynamics Division at the Langely Research Center hosted an International Workshop on CAST-10-2/DOA 2 Airfoil Studies. The CAST-10 studies were the outgrowth of several cooperative study agreements among the NASA, the NAE of Canada, the DLR of West Germany, and the ONERA of France. Both theoretical and experimental CAST-10 airfoil results that were obtained form an extensive series of tests and studies, were reviewed. These results provided an opportunity to make direct comparisons of adaptive wall test section (AWTS) results from the NASA 0.3-meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel and ONERA T-2 AWTS facilities with conventional ventilated wall wind tunnel results from the Canadian high Reynolds number two-dimensional test facility. Individual papers presented during the workshop are included.

  1. Measurement of airfoil heat transfer coefficients on a turbine stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dring, Robert P.; Blair, Michael F.; Joslyn, H. David

    1987-01-01

    A combined experimental and analytical program was conducted to examine the impact of a number of variables on the midspan heat transfer coefficients of the three airfoil rows in a one and one-half stage large scale turbine model. Variables included stator/rotor axial spacing, Reynolds number, turbine inlet turbulence, flow coefficient, relevant stator 1/stator 2 circumferential position, and rotation. Heat transfer data were acquired on the suction and pressure surfaces of the three airfoils. High density data were also acquired in the leading edge stagnation regions. Extensive documentation of the steady and unsteady aerodynamics was acquired. Finally, heat transfer data were compared with both a steady and an unsteady boundary layer analysis.

  2. An airfoil parameterization method for the representation and optimization of wind turbine special airfoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yixiong; Yang, Ce; Song, Xiancheng

    2015-04-01

    A new airfoil shape parameterization method is developed, which extended the Bezier curve to the generalized form with adjustable shape parameters. The local control parameters at airfoil leading and trailing edge regions are enhanced, where have significant effect on the aerodynamic performance of wind turbine. The results show this improved parameterization method has advantages in the fitting characteristics of geometry shape and aerodynamic performance comparing with other three common airfoil parameterization methods. The new parameterization method is then applied to airfoil shape optimization for wind turbine using Genetic Algorithm (GA), and the wind turbine special airfoil, DU93-W-210, is optimized to achieve the favorable Cl/Cd at specified flow conditions. The aerodynamic characteristic of the optimum airfoil is obtained by solving the RANS equations in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method, and the optimization convergence curves show that the new parameterization method has good convergence rate in less number of generations comparing with other methods. It is concluded that the new method not only has well controllability and completeness in airfoil shape representation and provides more flexibility in expressing the airfoil geometry shape, but also is capable to find efficient and optimal wind turbine airfoil. Additionally, it is shown that a suitable parameterization method is helpful for improving the convergence rate of the optimization algorithm.

  3. Low-cost and high-resolution x-ray lithography utilizing a lift-off sputtered lead film mask on a Mylar substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisitsoraat, A.; Mongpraneet, S.; Phatthanakun, R.; Chomnawang, N.; Phokharatkul, D.; Patthanasettakul, V.; Tuantranont, A.

    2010-07-01

    In this work, a low-cost and high-resolution x-ray micromask is developed by sputtered lead film on a Mylar sheet substrate with the lift-off process and the x-ray mask is experimented for patterning SU-8 negative photoresist on a glass substrate. Sputtering is selected for Pb thick film deposition due to its high sputtering yield. The Pb mask is used for x-ray lithography of SU-8 photoresist with 5 µm closely spaced square array patterns, designed for electrowetting electrodes on a microfluidic chip. For 140 µm thick SU-8 photoresist, a Pb film thickness of around 10 µm was used to block x-rays with 95% x-ray image contrast at a critical dose of 4200 mJ cm-3. A high aspect ratio of 26.5 of SU8 microstructure with 5 µm lateral resolution has been demonstrated by the developed low-cost Pb-based x-ray mask. In addition, a steep sidewall angle of nearly 90° for SU-8 structure is confirmed. The results demonstrate that the Pb-based x-ray mask offers high-resolution x-ray lithography at a very low cost. Therefore, it is highly promising for commercial applications.

  4. Aeroelastic airfoil smart spar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhalgh, Skott; Pastore, Christopher M.; Garfinkle, Moishe

    1993-01-01

    Aircraft wings and rotor-blades are subject to undesirable bending and twisting excursions that arise from unsteady aerodynamic forces during high speed flight, abrupt maneuvers, or hard landings. These bending excursions can range in amplitude from wing-tip flutter to failure. A continuous-filament construction 'smart' laminated composite box-beam spar is described which corrects itself when subject to undesirable bending excursions or flutter. The load-bearing spar is constructed so that any tendency for the wing or rotor-blade to bend from its normal position is met by opposite twisting of the spar to restore the wing to its normal position. Experimental and theoretical characterization of these spars was made to evaluate the torsion-flexure coupling associated with symmetric lay-ups. The materials used were uniweave AS-4 graphite and a matrix comprised of Shell 8132 resin and U-40 hardener. Experimental tests were conducted on five spars to determine spar twist and bend as a function of load for 0, 17, 30, 45 and 60 deg fiber angle lay-ups. Symmetric fiber lay-ups do exhibit torsion-flexure couplings. Predictions of the twist and bend versus load were made for different fiber orientations in laminated spars using a spline function structural analysis. The analytical results were compared with experimental results for validation. Excellent correlation between experimental and analytical values was found.

  5. On vortex-airfoil interaction noise including span-end effects, with application to open-rotor aeroacoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roger, Michel; Schram, Christophe; Moreau, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    A linear analytical model is developed for the chopping of a cylindrical vortex by a flat-plate airfoil, with or without a span-end effect. The major interest is the contribution of the tip-vortex produced by an upstream rotating blade in the rotor-rotor interaction noise mechanism of counter-rotating open rotors. Therefore the interaction is primarily addressed in an annular strip of limited spanwise extent bounding the impinged blade segment, and the unwrapped strip is described in Cartesian coordinates. The study also addresses the interaction of a propeller wake with a downstream wing or empennage. Cylindrical vortices are considered, for which the velocity field is expanded in two-dimensional gusts in the reference frame of the airfoil. For each gust the response of the airfoil is derived, first ignoring the effect of the span end, assimilating the airfoil to a rigid flat plate, with or without sweep. The corresponding unsteady lift acts as a distribution of acoustic dipoles, and the radiated sound is obtained from a radiation integral over the actual extent of the airfoil. In the case of tip-vortex interaction noise in CRORs the acoustic signature is determined for vortex trajectories passing beyond, exactly at and below the tip radius of the impinged blade segment, in a reference frame attached to the segment. In a second step the same problem is readdressed accounting for the effect of span end on the aerodynamic response of a blade tip. This is achieved through a composite two-directional Schwarzschild's technique. The modifications of the distributed unsteady lift and of the radiated sound are discussed. The chained source and radiation models provide physical insight into the mechanism of vortex chopping by a blade tip in free field. They allow assessing the acoustic benefit of clipping the rear rotor in a counter-rotating open-rotor architecture.

  6. Turbine airfoil to shroud attachment method

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, Christian X; Kulkarni, Anand A; James, Allister W; Wessell, Brian J; Gear, Paul J

    2014-12-23

    Bi-casting a platform (50) onto an end portion (42) of a turbine airfoil (31) after forming a coating of a fugitive material (56) on the end portion. After bi-casting the platform, the coating is dissolved and removed to relieve differential thermal shrinkage stress between the airfoil and platform. The thickness of the coating is varied around the end portion in proportion to varying amounts of local differential process shrinkage. The coating may be sprayed (76A, 76B) onto the end portion in opposite directions parallel to a chord line (41) of the airfoil or parallel to a mid-platform length (80) of the platform to form respective layers tapering in thickness from the leading (32) and trailing (34) edges along the suction side (36) of the airfoil.

  7. Second-stage turbine bucket airfoil

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, John Zhiqiang; By, Robert Romany; Sims, Calvin L.; Hyde, Susan Marie

    2002-01-01

    The second-stage buckets have airfoil profiles substantially in accordance with Cartesian coordinate values of X, Y and Z set forth in inches in Table I wherein Z is a perpendicular distance from a plane normal to a radius of the turbine centerline and containing the X and Y values with the Z value commencing at zero in the X, Y plane at the radially innermost aerodynamic section of the airfoil and X and Y are coordinate values defining the airfoil profile at each distance Z. The X and Y values may be scaled as a function of the same constant or number to provide a scaled-up or scaled-down airfoil section for the bucket. The second-stage wheel has sixty buckets.

  8. Third-stage turbine bucket airfoil

    SciTech Connect

    Pirolla, Peter Paul; Siden, Gunnar Leif; Humanchuk, David John; Brassfield, Steven Robert; Wilson, Paul Stuart

    2002-01-01

    The third-stage buckets have airfoil profiles substantially in accordance with Cartesian coordinate values of X, Y and Z set forth in inches in Table I wherein Z is a perpendicular distance from a plane normal to a radius of the turbine centerline and containing the X and Y values with the Z value commencing at zero in the X, Y plane at the radially innermost aerodynamic section of the airfoil and X and Y are coordinates defining the airfoil profile at each distance Z. The X, Y and Z values may be scaled as a function of the same constant or number to provide a scaled-up or scaled-down airfoil section for the bucket.

  9. Airfoil for a gas turbine

    DOEpatents

    Liang, George (Palm City, FL)

    2011-01-18

    An airfoil is provided for a gas turbine comprising an outer structure comprising a first wall, an inner structure comprising a second wall spaced relative to the first wall such that a cooling gap is defined between at least portions of the first and second walls, and seal structure provided within the cooling gap between the first and second walls for separating the cooling gap into first and second cooling fluid impingement gaps. An inner surface of the second wall may define an inner cavity. The inner structure may further comprise a separating member for separating the inner cavity of the inner structure into a cooling fluid supply cavity and a cooling fluid collector cavity. The second wall may comprise at least one first impingement passage, at least one second impingement passage, and at least one bleed passage.

  10. Isolated and cascade airfoils with prescribed velocity distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, Arthur W; Jerison, Meyer

    1947-01-01

    An exact solution of the problem of designing an airfoil with a prescribed velocity distribution on the suction surface in a given uniform flow of an incompressible perfect fluid is obtained by replacing the boundary of the airfoil by vortices. By this device, a method of solution is developed that is applicable both to isolated airfoils and to airfoils in cascade. The conformal transformation of the designed airfoil into a circle can then be obtained and the velocity distribution at any angle of attack computed. Numerical illustrations of the method are given for the airfoil in cascade.

  11. On the Estimation of Time Dependent Lift of a European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris) during Flapping Flight.

    PubMed

    Stalnov, Oksana; Ben-Gida, Hadar; Kirchhefer, Adam J; Guglielmo, Christopher G; Kopp, Gregory A; Liberzon, Alexander; Gurka, Roi

    2015-01-01

    We study the role of unsteady lift in the context of flapping wing bird flight. Both aerodynamicists and biologists have attempted to address this subject, yet it seems that the contribution of unsteady lift still holds many open questions. The current study deals with the estimation of unsteady aerodynamic forces on a freely flying bird through analysis of wingbeat kinematics and near wake flow measurements using time resolved particle image velocimetry. The aerodynamic forces are obtained through two approaches, the unsteady thin airfoil theory and using the momentum equation for viscous flows. The unsteady lift is comprised of circulatory and non-circulatory components. Both approaches are presented over the duration of wingbeat cycles. Using long-time sampling data, several wingbeat cycles have been analyzed in order to cover both the downstroke and upstroke phases. It appears that the unsteady lift varies over the wingbeat cycle emphasizing its contribution to the total lift and its role in power estimations. It is suggested that the circulatory lift component cannot assumed to be negligible and should be considered when estimating lift or power of birds in flapping motion. PMID:26394213

  12. On the Estimation of Time Dependent Lift of a European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris) during Flapping Flight

    PubMed Central

    Stalnov, Oksana; Ben-Gida, Hadar; Kirchhefer, Adam J.; Guglielmo, Christopher G.; Kopp, Gregory A.; Liberzon, Alexander; Gurka, Roi

    2015-01-01

    We study the role of unsteady lift in the context of flapping wing bird flight. Both aerodynamicists and biologists have attempted to address this subject, yet it seems that the contribution of unsteady lift still holds many open questions. The current study deals with the estimation of unsteady aerodynamic forces on a freely flying bird through analysis of wingbeat kinematics and near wake flow measurements using time resolved particle image velocimetry. The aerodynamic forces are obtained through two approaches, the unsteady thin airfoil theory and using the momentum equation for viscous flows. The unsteady lift is comprised of circulatory and non-circulatory components. Both approaches are presented over the duration of wingbeat cycles. Using long-time sampling data, several wingbeat cycles have been analyzed in order to cover both the downstroke and upstroke phases. It appears that the unsteady lift varies over the wingbeat cycle emphasizing its contribution to the total lift and its role in power estimations. It is suggested that the circulatory lift component cannot assumed to be negligible and should be considered when estimating lift or power of birds in flapping motion. PMID:26394213

  13. The Compressibility Burble and the Effect of Compressibility on Pressures and Forces Acting on a Airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stack, John; Lindsey, W F; Littell, Robert E

    1939-01-01

    Simultaneous air-flow photographs and pressure-distribution measurements were made of the NACA 4412 airfoil at high speeds to determine the physical nature of the compressibility burble. The tests were conducted in the NACA 24-inch high-speed wind tunnel. The flow photographs were obtained by the Schlieren method and the pressures were simultaneously measured for 54 stations in the 5-inch-chord airfoil by means of a multiple-tube manometer. Following the general program, a few measurements of total-pressure loss in the wake of the airfoil at high speeds were made to illustrate the magnitude of the losses involved and the extent of the disturbed region; and, finally, in order to relate this work to earlier force-test data, a force test of a 5-inch-chord NACA 4412 airfoil was made. The results show the general nature of the phenomenon known as the compressibility burble. The source of the increased drag is shown to be a compression shock that occurs on the airfoil as its speed approaches the speed of sound. Finally, it is indicated that considerable experimentation is needed in order to understand the phenomenon completely.

  14. Back injury prevention: a lift team success story.

    PubMed

    Hefti, Kelly S; Farnham, Richard J; Docken, Lisa; Bentaas, Ruth; Bossman, Sharon; Schaefer, Jill

    2003-06-01

    Work related back injuries among hospital personnel account for high volume, high cost workers' compensation claims. These injuries can be life altering experiences, affecting both the personal and professional lives of injured workers. Lifting must be viewed as a skill involving specialized training and mandated use of mechanical equipment, rather than as a random task performed by numerous health care providers. The use of a lift team specially trained in body mechanics, lifting techniques, and the use of mandated mechanical equipment can significantly affect injury data, financial outcomes, and employee satisfaction. The benefits of a lift team extend beyond the effect on injury and financial outcomes--they can be used for recruitment and retention strategies, and team members serve as mentors to others by demonstrating safe lifting techniques. Ultimately, a lift team helps protect a valuable resource--the health care worker. PMID:12846457

  15. Lifting as You Climb

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Debra R.

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses leadership themes and answers leadership questions presented to "Exchange" by the Panel members who attended the "Exchange" Panel of 300 Reception in Dallas, Texas, last November. There is an old proverb that encourages people to lift as they climb: "While you climb a mountain, you must not forget others along the way." With…

  16. JWST Lifting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolleson, William

    2012-01-01

    A document describes designing, building, testing, and certifying a customized crane (Lifting Device LD) with a strong back (cradle) to facilitate the installation of long wall panels and short door panels for the GHe phase of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The LD controls are variable-frequency drive controls designed to be adjustable for very slow and very-short-distance movements throughout the installation. The LD has a lift beam with an electric actuator attached at the end. The actuator attaches to a rectangular strong back (cradle) for lifting the long wall panels and short door panels from a lower angle into the vertical position inside the chamber, and then rotating around the chamber for installation onto the existing ceiling and floor. The LD rotates 360 (in very small increments) in both clockwise and counterclockwise directions. Eight lifting pads are on the top ring with 2-in. (.5-cm) eye holes spaced evenly around the ring to allow for the device to be suspended by three crane hoists from the top of the chamber. The LD is operated by remote controls that allow for a single, slow mode for booming the load in and out, with slow and very slow modes for rotating the load.

  17. Hydraulic lifting device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terrell, Kyle (inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A piston and cylinder assembly is disclosed which is constructed of polyvinyl chloride that uses local water pressure to perform small lifting tasks. The chamber is either pressurized to extend the piston or depressurized to retract the piston. The present invention is best utilized for raising and lowering toilet seats.

  18. An Experimental and Computational Investigation of Oscillating Airfoil Unsteady Aerodynamics at Large Mean Incidence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capece, Vincent R.; Platzer, Max F.

    2003-01-01

    A major challenge in the design and development of turbomachine airfoils for gas turbine engines is high cycle fatigue failures due to flutter and aerodynamically induced forced vibrations. In order to predict the aeroelastic response of gas turbine airfoils early in the design phase, accurate unsteady aerodynamic models are required. However, accurate predictions of flutter and forced vibration stress at all operating conditions have remained elusive. The overall objectives of this research program are to develop a transition model suitable for unsteady separated flow and quantify the effects of transition on airfoil steady and unsteady aerodynamics for attached and separated flow using this model. Furthermore, the capability of current state-of-the-art unsteady aerodynamic models to predict the oscillating airfoil response of compressor airfoils over a range of realistic reduced frequencies, Mach numbers, and loading levels will be evaluated through correlation with benchmark data. This comprehensive evaluation will assess the assumptions used in unsteady aerodynamic models. The results of this evaluation can be used to direct improvement of current models and the development of future models. The transition modeling effort will also make strides in improving predictions of steady flow performance of fan and compressor blades at off-design conditions. This report summarizes the progress and results obtained in the first year of this program. These include: installation and verification of the operation of the parallel version of TURBO; the grid generation and initiation of steady flow simulations of the NASA/Pratt&Whitney airfoil at a Mach number of 0.5 and chordal incidence angles of 0 and 10 deg.; and the investigation of the prediction of laminar separation bubbles on a NACA 0012 airfoil.

  19. Control of unsteady separated flow associated with the dynamic stall of airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilder, M. C.

    1995-01-01

    An effort to understand and control the unsteady separated flow associated with the dynamic stall of airfoils was funded for three years through the NASA cooperative agreement program. As part of this effort a substantial data base was compiled detailing the effects various parameters have on the development of the dynamic stall flow field. Parameters studied include Mach number, pitch rate, and pitch history, as well as Reynolds number (through two different model chord lengths) and the condition of the boundary layer at the leading edge of the airfoil (through application of surface roughness). It was found for free stream Mach numbers as low as 0.4 that a region of supersonic flow forms on the leading edge of the suction surface of the airfoil at moderate angles of attack. The shocks which form in this supersonic region induce boundary-layer separation and advance the dynamic stall process. Under such conditions a supercritical airfoil profile is called for to produce a flow field having a weaker leading-edge pressure gradient and no leading-edge shocks. An airfoil having an adaptive-geometry, or dynamically deformable leading edge (DDLE), is under development as a unique active flow-control device. The DDLE, formed of carbon-fiber composite and fiberglass, can be flexed between a NACA 0012 profile and a supercritical profile in a controllable fashion while the airfoil is executing an angle-of-attack pitch-up maneuver. The dynamic stall data were recorded using point diffraction interferometry (PDI), a noninvasive measurement technique. A new high-speed cinematography system was developed for recording interferometric images. The system is capable of phase-locking with the pitching airfoil motion for real-time documentation of the development of the dynamic stall flow field. Computer-aided image analysis algorithms were developed for fast and accurate reduction of the images, improving interpretation of the results.

  20. A Wind Tunnel Study of Icing Effects on a Business Jet Airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Addy, Harold E., Jr.; Broeren, Andy P.; Zoeckler, Joesph G.; Lee, Sam

    2003-01-01

    Aerodynamic wind tunnel tests were conducted to study the effects of various ice accretions on the aerodynamic performance of a 36-inch chord, two-dimensional business jet airfoil. Eight different ice shape configurations were tested. Four were castings made from molds of ice shapes accreted in an icing wind tunnel. Two were made using computationally smoothed tracings of two of the ice shapes accreted in the icing tunnel. These smoothed profiles were then extended in the spanwise direction to form a two-dimensional ice shape. The final two configurations were formed by applying grit to the smoothed ice shapes. The ice shapes resulted in as much as 48% reduction in maximum lift coefficient from that of the clean airfoil. Large increases in drag and changes in pitching moment were also observed. The castings and their corresponding smoothed counterparts yielded similar results. Little change in performance was observed with the addition of grit to the smoothed ice shapes. Changes in the Reynolds number (from 3 x 10(exp 6) to 10.5 x 10(exp 6) and Mach number (from 0.12 to 0.28) did not significantly affect the iced-airfoil performance coefficients.

  1. Measurement of the noise generation at the trailing edge of porous airfoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geyer, T.; Sarradj, E.; Fritzsche, C.

    2010-02-01

    Owls are commonly known for their quiet flight, enabled by three adaptions of their wings and plumage: leading edge serrations, trailing edge fringes and a soft and elastic downy upper surface of the feathers. In order to gain a better understanding of the aeroacoustic effects of the third property that is equivalent to an increased permeability of the plumage to air, an experimental survey on a set of airfoils made of different porous materials was carried out. Several airfoils with the same shape and size but made of different porous materials characterized by their flow resistivities and one non-porous reference airfoil were subject to the flow in an aeroacoustic open jet wind tunnel. The flow speed has been varied between approximately 25 and 50 m/s. The geometric angle of attack ranged from -16° to 20° in 4°-steps. The results of the aeroacoustic measurements, made with a 56-microphone array positioned out of flow, and of the measurements of lift and drag are given and discussed.

  2. NASA Heavy Lift Rotorcraft Systems Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wayne; Yamauchi, Gloria K.; Watts, Michael E.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Heavy Lift Rotorcraft Systems Investigation examined in depth several rotorcraft configurations for large civil transport, designed to meet the technology goals of the NASA Vehicle Systems Program. The investigation identified the Large Civil Tiltrotor as the configuration with the best potential to meet the technology goals. The design presented was economically competitive, with the potential for substantial impact on the air transportation system. The keys to achieving a competitive aircraft were low drag airframe and low disk loading rotors; structural weight reduction, for both airframe and rotors; drive system weight reduction; improved engine efficiency; low maintenance design; and manufacturing cost comparable to fixed-wing aircraft. Risk reduction plans were developed to provide the strategic direction to support a heavy-lift rotorcraft development. The following high risk areas were identified for heavy lift rotorcraft: high torque, light weight drive system; high performance, structurally efficient rotor/wing system; low noise aircraft; and super-integrated vehicle management system.

  3. Coriolis effects enhance lift on revolving wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jardin, T.; David, L.

    2015-03-01

    At high angles of attack, an aircraft wing stalls. This dreaded event is characterized by the development of a leading edge vortex on the upper surface of the wing, followed by its shedding which causes a drastic drop in the aerodynamic lift. At similar angles of attack, the leading edge vortex on an insect wing or an autorotating seed membrane remains robustly attached, ensuring high sustained lift. What are the mechanisms responsible for both leading edge vortex attachment and high lift generation on revolving wings? We review the three main hypotheses that attempt to explain this specificity and, using direct numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations, we show that the latter originates in Coriolis effects.

  4. Coriolis effects enhance lift on revolving wings.

    PubMed

    Jardin, T; David, L

    2015-03-01

    At high angles of attack, an aircraft wing stalls. This dreaded event is characterized by the development of a leading edge vortex on the upper surface of the wing, followed by its shedding which causes a drastic drop in the aerodynamic lift. At similar angles of attack, the leading edge vortex on an insect wing or an autorotating seed membrane remains robustly attached, ensuring high sustained lift. What are the mechanisms responsible for both leading edge vortex attachment and high lift generation on revolving wings? We review the three main hypotheses that attempt to explain this specificity and, using direct numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations, we show that the latter originates in Coriolis effects. PMID:25871040

  5. Helicopter Toy and Lift Estimation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakerin, Said

    2013-01-01

    A $1 plastic helicopter toy (called a Wacky Whirler) can be used to demonstrate lift. Students can make basic measurements of the toy, use reasonable assumptions and, with the lift formula, estimate the lift, and verify that it is sufficient to overcome the toy's weight. (Contains 1 figure.)

  6. An Effective Lift-Off Method for Patterning High-Density Gold Interconnects on an Elastomeric Substrate**

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Liang; DeWeerth, Stephen P.

    2012-01-01

    High-resolution, high-density gold interconnects are effectively patterned on an elastomeric substrate. A 3cm cable of ten gold wires with 10?m width and 20?m pitch is achieved, successfully demonstrating density increases of more than one order of magnitude from previously established work. Many applications in the fields of stretchable electronics and conformable neural interfaces will benefit from these fabrication developments. PMID:21104803

  7. Program manual for the Eppler airfoil inversion program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomson, W. G.

    1975-01-01

    A computer program is described for calculating the profile of an airfoil as well as the boundary layer momentum thickness and energy form parameter. The theory underlying the airfoil inversion technique developed by Eppler is discussed.

  8. Aerodynamic effects of simulated ice shapes on two-dimensional airfoils and a swept finite tail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alansatan, Sait

    An experimental study was conducted to investigate the effect of simulated glaze ice shapes on the aerodynamic performance characteristics of two-dimensional airfoils and a swept finite tail. The two dimensional tests involved two NACA 0011 airfoils with chords of 24 and 12 inches. Glaze ice shapes computed with the LEWICE code that were representative of 22.5-min and 45-min ice accretions were simulated with spoilers, which were sized to approximate the horn heights of the LEWICE ice shapes. Lift, drag, pitching moment, and surface pressure coefficients were obtained for a range of test conditions. Test variables included Reynolds number, geometric scaling, control deflection and the key glaze ice features, which were horn height, horn angle, and horn location. For the three-dimensional tests, a 25%-scale business jet empennage (BJE) with a T-tail configuration was used to study the effect of ice shapes on the aerodynamic performance of a swept horizontal tail. Simulated glaze ice shapes included the LEWICE and spoiler ice shapes to represent 9-min and 22.5-min ice accretions. Additional test variables included Reynolds number and elevator deflection. Lift, drag, hinge moment coefficients as well as boundary layer velocity profiles were obtained. The experimental results showed substantial degradation in aerodynamic performance of the airfoils and the swept horizontal tail due to the simulated ice shapes. For the two-dimensional airfoils, the largest aerodynamic penalties were obtained when the 3-in spoiler-ice, which was representative of 45-min glaze ice accretions, was set normal to the chord. Scale and Reynolds effects were not significant for lift and drag. However, pitching moments and pressure distributions showed great sensitivity to Reynolds number and geometric scaling. For the threedimensional study with the swept finite tail, the 22.5-min ice shapes resulted in greater aerodynamic performance degradation than the 9-min ice shapes. The addition of 24-grit roughness to the LEWICE shapes produced greater losses than corresponding smooth ice shapes. Spoiler-ice with constant spanwise height caused larger performance losses than spoiler-ice with height scaled as a function of local chord length. Aerodynamic performance degradation due to the variable height spoiler-ice was similar to that obtained with the corresponding LEWICE shapes.

  9. Strong transient effects of the flow around a harmonically plunging NACA0012 airfoil at low Reynolds numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yucel, S. Banu; Sahin, Mehmet; Unal, M. Fevzi

    2015-12-01

    The flow pattern around a NACA0012 airfoil undergoing harmonic plunging motion corresponding to the deflected wake phenomenon reported by Jones and Platzer (Exp Fluids 46:799-810, 2009) is investigated in detail using direct numerical simulations. An arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation based on an unstructured side-centered finite volume method is utilized in order to solve the incompressible unsteady Navier-Stokes equations. The Reynolds number is chosen to be 252, and the reduced frequency of plunging motion ( k = 2? fc/ U ?) and the plunge amplitude non-dimensionalized with respect to chord are set to be 12.3 and 0.12, respectively, as in the experimental study of Jones and Platzer (2009). The present numerical simulations reveal a highly persistent transient effect, and it takes two orders of magnitude larger duration than the heave period to reach the time-periodic state. In addition, the three-dimensional simulation reveals that the flow field is three-dimensional for the parameters used herein. The calculation reproduces the deflected wake and shows a good agreement with the experimental wake pattern. The instantaneous vorticity contours, finite-time Lyapunov exponent fields and particle traces are presented along with the aerodynamic parameters including the lift and thrust coefficients.

  10. Strong transient effects of the flow around a harmonically plunging NACA0012 airfoil at low Reynolds numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yucel, S. Banu; Sahin, Mehmet; Unal, M. Fevzi

    2015-09-01

    The flow pattern around a NACA0012 airfoil undergoing harmonic plunging motion corresponding to the deflected wake phenomenon reported by Jones and Platzer (Exp Fluids 46:799-810, 2009) is investigated in detail using direct numerical simulations. An arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation based on an unstructured side-centered finite volume method is utilized in order to solve the incompressible unsteady Navier-Stokes equations. The Reynolds number is chosen to be 252, and the reduced frequency of plunging motion (k = 2? fc/U ?) and the plunge amplitude non-dimensionalized with respect to chord are set to be 12.3 and 0.12, respectively, as in the experimental study of Jones and Platzer (2009). The present numerical simulations reveal a highly persistent transient effect, and it takes two orders of magnitude larger duration than the heave period to reach the time-periodic state. In addition, the three-dimensional simulation reveals that the flow field is three-dimensional for the parameters used herein. The calculation reproduces the deflected wake and shows a good agreement with the experimental wake pattern. The instantaneous vorticity contours, finite-time Lyapunov exponent fields and particle traces are presented along with the aerodynamic parameters including the lift and thrust coefficients.

  11. Sidewall boundary layer corrections in subsonic, two-dimensional airfoil/hydrofoil testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treaster, A. L.; Gurney, G. B.; Jacobs, P. P., Jr.

    1984-06-01

    Historically, two-dimensional airfoil or hydrofoil section characteristics have been obtained by measuring individually the lift, drag and pitching moment by the most accurate technique available. The use of force balances to measure the three quantities simultaneously has met with only partial success. Although the lift and pitching moment data have usually been acceptable, the drag data have varied by as much as an order of magnitude from previous reference data. To investigate the parameters which influence two-dimensional force measurements, an experimental program was conducted in the subsonic wind tunnel of the Applied Research Laboratory at The Pennsylvania State University. From the results of this test program, the sidewall boundary layer was identified as the primary factor contributing to the erroneous drag measurements. A correction procedure which is based on the airfoil/hydrofoil geometry, the flow environment and the measured data was developed. Corrected data from the subject test program and from similar programs in other experimental facilities for both symmetrical and cambered sections are in good agreement with the reference data in all cases.

  12. Correcting for the sidewall boundary layer in subsonic two-dimensional airfoil/hydrofoil testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treaster, A. L.; Jacobs, P. P.; Gurney, G. B.

    1981-08-01

    Historically, two dimensional airfoil or hydrofoil section characteristics have been obtained by measuring individually the lift, drag and pitching moment by the most accurate technique available. The use of force balances to measure the three quantities simultaneously has met with only partial success. Although the lift and pitching moment data have usually been acceptable, the drag data have varied by as much as an order of magnitude from the accepted NACA reference data. To investigate the parameters which influence two dimensional force measurement and force balance design, an experimental program was conducted in the subsonic wind tunnel of the Applied Research Laboratory at the Pennsylvania State University (ARL/PSU). From the results of this test program the sidewall boundary layer was identified as the primary factor contributing to the erroneous drag measurements. A correction procedure which is based on the airfoil/hydrofoil geometry, the flow environment and the measured data was developed. Corrected data from the subject test program and from similar programs in other experimental facilities for both symmetrical and cambered sections are in good agreement with NACA data in all cases.

  13. Numerical study of the Interaction between Nonsteady Transition and Separation on Oscillating Airfoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandi, Tarak; Jayaraman, Balaji; Lavely, Adam; Vijayakumar, Ganesh; Paterson, Eric; Brasseur, James

    2013-11-01

    Strong correlation between vertical and horizontal turbulent motions in a daytime atmospheric boundary layer can produce > 50 % variability in local angle of attack (AoA) on commercial wind turbine blade sections. Lee and Gerontakos (JFM 2004) reported an unique experiment where nonsteady transition and boundary layer (BL) separation were estimated on an oscillating airfoil at Re ~105 and reduced frequencies upto 0.2. We use the k - ? SST URANS model and the ? - Re? transition model to explore the predictive capability of these models,and to study the dynamic interactions between transition and separation on an oscillating airfoil with focus on the 3D time-dependent BL characteristics. The calculations are done in OpenFOAM on a wing section of aspect ratio 1 and periodic spanwise boundary conditions. Grid resolution analysis shows that 6M cells are required to resolve the viscous sublayer and capture separation. Fixed AoA cases show good lift comparison but the transition model performs better at higher AoA's when separation-induced transition occurs;fully turbulent URANS mispredicts separation and lift. Prediction of the oscillating cases show differences with experiment in hysteresis loops of the force coefficients. These and related issues will be discussed. This work is being supported by the DOE.

  14. Metamorphic molecular beam epitaxy growth and selective wet etching for epitaxial layer lift-off of AlAsSb toward optical waveguides with high optical confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gozu, Shin-ichiro; Akahane, Kouichi; Yamamoto, Naokatsu; Ueta, Akio; Ohtani, Naoki; Tsuchiya, Masahiro

    2007-04-01

    In this study, we performed epitaxial layer lift-off (ELO) of AlAs 0.37Sb 0.63 layer toward realizing AlAs 0.37Sb 0.63/In 0.75Ga 0.25As systems on SiO 2. This will enable high optical confinement in the AlAs 0.37Sb 0.63/In 0.75Ga 0.25As systems to be achieved owing to the large refractive index contrast (?n˜1.6). ELO consists of two processes: the first is adhesive wafer bonding using positive photoresist and the second is two-step selective wet etching. Metamorphic molecular beam epitaxy was used to grow selective etching layers between the substrate and the AlAs 0.37Sb 0.63. We confirmed that the metamorphic growth did not degrade the crystal quality and ELO was successful. Therefore, ELO improves optical confinement of AlAs 0.37Sb 0.63 and will be able to improve performance of all optical intersubband switches using the AlAs 0.37Sb 0.63/In 0.75Ga 0.25As systems.

  15. Profile and secondary flow losses in a high-lift LPT blade cascade at different reynolds numbers under steady and unsteady inflow conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satta, F.; Simoni, D.; Ubaldi, M.; Zunino, P.; Bertini, F.

    2012-12-01

    The aerodynamic flow field downstream of a Low-Pressure High-Lift (HL) turbine cascade has been experimentally investigated for different Reynolds numbers under both steady and unsteady inflows, in order to analyse the cascade performance under real engine operating conditions. The Reynolds number has been varied in the range 100000

  16. Experimental investigation of separation and transition processes on a high-lift low-pressure turbine profile under steady and unsteady inflow at low Reynolds number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satta, Francesca; Simoni, Daniele; Ubaldi, Marina; Zunino, Pietro; Bertini, F.

    2010-02-01

    The effects induced by the presence of incoming wakes on the boundary layer developing over a high-lift low-pressure turbine profile have been investigated in a linear cascade at mid-span. The tested Reynolds number is 70000, typical of the cruise operating condition. The results of the investigations performed under steady and unsteady inflow conditions are analyzed. The unsteady investigations have been performed at the reduced frequency of f +=0.62, representative of the real engine operating condition. Profile aerodynamic loadings as well as boundary layer velocity profiles have been measured to survey the separation and transition processes. Spectral analysis has been also performed to better understand the phenomena associated with the transition process under steady inflow. For the unsteady case, a phase-locked ensemble averaging technique has been employed to reconstruct the time-resolved boundary layer velocity distributions from the hot-wire instantaneous signal output. The ensemble-averaging technique allowed a detailed analysis of the effects induced by incoming wakes-boundary layer interaction in separation suppression. Time-resolved results are presented in terms of mean velocity and unresolved unsteadiness time-space plots.

  17. Power Effects on High Lift, Stability and Control Characteristics of the TCA Model Tested in the LaRC 14 x 22 Ft Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glessner, Paul T.

    1999-01-01

    The TCA-2 wind-tunnel test was the second in a series of planned tests utilizing the 5% Technology Concept Airplane (TCA) model. Each of the tests was planned to utilize the unique capabilities of the NASA Langley 14'x22' and the NASA Ames 12' test facilities, in order to assess specific aspects of the high lift and stability and control characteristics of the TCA configuration. However, shortly after the completion of the TCA-1 test, an early projection of the Technology Configuration (TC) identified the need for several significant changes to the baseline TCA configuration. These changes were necessary in order to meet more stringent noise certification levels, as well as, to provide a means to control dynamic structural modes. The projected changes included a change to the outboard wing (increased aspect ratio and lower sweep) and a reconfiguration of the longitudinal control surfaces to include a medium size canard and a reduced horizontal tail. The impact of these proposed changes did not affect the TCA-2 test, because it was specifically planned to address power effects on the empennage and a smaller horizontal tail was in the plan to be tested. However, the focus of future tests was reevaluated and the emphasis was shifted away from assessment of TCA specific configurations to a more general assessment of configurations that encompass the projected design space for the TC.

  18. The investigation of a variable camber blade lift control for helicopter rotor systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Awani, A. O.

    1982-01-01

    A new rotor configuration called the variable camber rotor was investigated numerically for its potential to reduce helicopter control loads and improve hover performance. This rotor differs from a conventional rotor in that it incorporates a deflectable 50% chord trailing edge flap to control rotor lift, and a non-feathering (fixed) forward portion. Lift control is achieved by linking the blade flap to a conventional swashplate mechanism; therefore, it is pilot action to the flap deflection that controls rotor lift and tip path plane tilt. This report presents the aerodynamic characteristics of the flapped and unflapped airfoils, evaluations of aerodynamics techniques to minimize flap hinge moment, comparative hover rotor performance and the physical concepts of the blade motion and rotor control. All the results presented herein are based on numerical analyses. The assessment of payoff for the total configuration in comparison with a conventional blade, having the same physical characteristics as an H-34 helicopter rotor blade was examined for hover only.

  19. An analysis of the crossover between local and massive separation on airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, M.; Carter, J. E.

    1987-01-01

    Massive separation on airfoils operating at high Reynolds number is an important problem to the aerodynamicist, since its onset generally determines the limiting performance of an airfoil, and it can lead to serious problems related to aircraft control as well as turbomachinery operation. The phenomenon of crossover between local separation and massive separation on realistic airfoil geometries induced by airfoil thickness is investigated for low speed (incompressible) flow. The problem is studied both for the asymptotic limit of infinite Reynolds number using triple-deck theory, and for finite Reynolds number using interacting boundary-layer theory. Numerical results are presented which follow the evolution of the flow as it develops from a mildly separated state to one dominated by the massively separated flow structure as the thickness of the airfoil geometry is systematically increased. The effect of turbulence upon the evolution of the flow is considered, and the impact is significant, with the principal effect being the suppression of the onset of separation. Finally, the effect of surface suction and injection for boundary-layer control is considered. The approach which was developed provides a valuable tool for the analysis of boundary-layer separation up to and beyond stall. Another important conclusion is that interacting boundary-layer theory provides an efficient tool for the analysis of the effect of turbulence and boundary-layer control upon separated vicsous flow.

  20. Investigation to optimize the passive shock wave/boundary layer control for supercritical airfoil drag reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagamatsu, H. T.; Dyer, R.

    1984-01-01

    The passive shock wave/boundary layer control for reducing the drag of 14%-thick supercritical airfoil was investigated in the 3 in. x 15.4 in. RPI Transonic Wind Tunnel with and without the top wall insert at transonic Mach numbers. Top wall insert was installed to increase the flow Mach number to 0.90 with the model mounted on the test section bottom wall. Various porous surfaces with a cavity underneath were positioned on the area of the airfoil where the shock wave occurs. The higher pressure behind the shock wave circulates flow through the cavity to the lower pressure ahead of the shock wave. The effects from this circulation prevent boundary layer separation and enthropy increase hrough the shock wave. The static pressure distributions over the airfoil, the wake impact pressure survey for determining the profile drag and the Schlieren photographs for porous surfaces are presented and compared with the results for solid surface airfoil. With a 2.8% uniform porosity the normal shock wave for the solid surface was changed to a lambda shock wave, and the wake impact pressure data indicate a drag coefficient reduction as much as 45% lower than for the solid surface airfoil at high transonic Mach numbers.