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Sample records for high plains dairy

  1. Methane emissions from Southern High Plains dairy wastewater lagoons in the summer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methane is a greenhouse gas with a global warming potential 25 fold that of CO2, and animal agriculture is recognized as a source of CH4to the atmosphere. Dairy farms on the Southern High Plains of New Mexico and Texas (USA) are typically open lot, and sources of CH4 are enteric emissions from cattl...

  2. Ambient and indoor particulate aerosols generated by dairies in the Southern High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives were to quantify and size ambient aerosolized dust in and around the facilities of four Southern High Plains dairies of New Mexico and to determine where health of workers might be vulnerable to particulate aerosols, based on aerosol concentrations that exceed national air quality sta...

  3. Salmonella diversity and burden in cows on and culled from dairy farms in the Texas High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to further characterize the epidemiology of Salmonella carried by dairy cows culled from herds in the Texas High Plains and marketed for human consumption. Feces were collected from 706 animals culled from a convenience sample of 9 dairies. In addition, individually...

  4. Ammonia losses and nitrogen partitioning at a southern High Plains open lot dairy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, Richard W.; Cole, N. Andy; Hagevoort, G. Robert; Casey, Kenneth D.; Auvermann, Brent W.

    2015-06-01

    Animal agriculture is a significant source of ammonia (NH3). Cattle excrete most ingested nitrogen (N); most urinary N is converted to NH3, volatilized and lost to the atmosphere. Open lot dairies on the southern High Plains are a growing industry and face environmental challenges as well as reporting requirements for NH3 emissions. We quantified NH3 emissions from the open lot and wastewater lagoons of a commercial New Mexico dairy during a nine-day summer campaign. The 3500-cow dairy consisted of open lot, manure-surfaced corrals (22.5 ha area). Lactating cows comprised 80% of the herd. A flush system using recycled wastewater intermittently removed manure from feeding alleys to three lagoons (1.8 ha area). Open path lasers measured atmospheric NH3 concentration, sonic anemometers characterized turbulence, and inverse dispersion analysis was used to quantify emissions. Ammonia fluxes (15-min) averaged 56 and 37 μg m-2 s-1 at the open lot and lagoons, respectively. Ammonia emission rate averaged 1061 kg d-1 at the open lot and 59 kg d-1 at the lagoons; 95% of NH3 was emitted from the open lot. The per capita emission rate of NH3 was 304 g cow-1 d-1 from the open lot (41% of N intake) and 17 g cow-1 d-1 from lagoons (2% of N intake). Daily N input at the dairy was 2139 kg d-1, with 43, 36, 19 and 2% of the N partitioned to NH3 emission, manure/lagoons, milk, and cows, respectively.

  5. Determination of water quality variables, endotoxin concentration, and Enterobacteriaceae concentration and identification in southern High Plains dairy lagoons.

    PubMed

    Purdy, C W; Clark, R N; Straus, D C

    2010-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the concentration of endotoxin, determine 20 water quality variables, and identify and enumerate fungal and bacterial pathogens from United States southern High Plains dairy lagoons and control lakes during summer and winter. Water samples were collected in triplicate from the north, south, east, and west quadrants of each body of water. The mean (+/- SEM) winter dairy lagoon endotoxin concentration was significantly higher (9,678+/-1,834 ng/mL) than the summer concentration (3,220+/-810 ng/mL). The mean endotoxin concentration of the 2 control lakes (summer: 58.1+/-8.8 ng/mL; winter: 38.6+/-4.2 ng/mL) was significantly less than that of the dairy lagoons. Two hundred-one Salmonella enterica spp. isolates were identified, 7 serovars were recovered from the dairy lagoons, and 259 Salmonella ssp. were identified from 5 other dairy locations (milk barn, ditch effluent, settling basin, feed alley pad flush, and center pivots). Twenty-eight Salmonella spp. were identified from center pivot water. Escherichia coli O157:H7 pathogens were isolated from other dairy locations but not from lagoons. Neither Salmonella spp. nor E. coli O157:H7 were identified from control lakes. Enterobacteriaceae opportunistic pathogens were isolated from both dairies and control lakes. Important mesophilic and thermophilic catabolic (to manure biosolids) fungal isolates were identified from dairy effluent locations, but no thermophilic fungal isolates were cultured from the control lakes. Adequate curing of green forage following center pivot irrigation is important to kill lagoon water enteric pathogens, even though the lagoon water is mixed with fresh water. Recirculating lagoon water to flush the feed alley pad, where cows stand while eating, to remove manure and using lagoon water to abate dairy dust in loafing pens and unimproved dairy roads is inconsistent with good environmental practice management. PMID:20338428

  6. Ambient and indoor particulate aerosols generated by dairies in the southern High Plains.

    PubMed

    Purdy, C W; Clark, R N; Straus, D C

    2009-12-01

    The objectives were to quantify and size ambient aerosolized dust in and around the facilities of 4 southern High Plains dairies of New Mexico and to determine where health of workers might be vulnerable to particulate aerosols, based on aerosol concentrations that exceed national air quality standards. Ambient dust air samples were collected upwind (background) and downwind of 3 dairy location sites (loafing pen boundary, commodity, and compost field). The indoor milking parlor, a fourth site, was monitored immediately upwind and downwind. Aerosolized particulate samples were collected using high-volume sequential reference air samplers, laser aerosol monitors, and cyclone air samplers. The overall (main effects and estimable interactions) statistical general linear model statement for particulate matter (PM(10); particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of up to 10 microm) and PM(2.5) resulted in a greater mean concentration of dust in the winter (PM(10) = 97.4 +/- 4.4 microg/m(3); PM(2.5) = 32.6 +/- 2.6 microg/m(3)) compared with the summer (PM(10) = 71.9 +/- 5.0 microg/m(3); PM(2.5) = 18.1 +/- 1.2 microg/m(3)). The upwind and downwind boundary PM(10) concentrations were significantly higher in the winter (upwind = 64.3 +/- 9.5 microg/m(3); downwind = 119.8 +/- 13.0 microg/m(3)) compared with the summer (upwind = 35.2 +/- 7.5 microg/m(3); downwind = 66.8 +/- 11.8 microg/m(3)). The milking parlor PM(10) and PM(2.5) concentration data were significantly higher in the winter (PM(10) = 119.5 +/- 5.8 microg/m(3); PM(2.5) = 55.3 +/- 5.8microg/m(3)) compared with the summer (PM(10) = 88.6.0 +/- 5.8 microg/m(3); PM(2.5) = 21.0 +/- 2.1 microg/m(3)). Personnel should be protected from high aerosol concentrations found at the commodity barn, compost field, and milking parlor during the winter. PMID:19923606

  7. Indoor air quality of four Southern High Plains dairy milking parlors in the summer and winter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Milking parlor indoor air quality of 4 large dairies was sampled to investigate: (1) bacterial and fungal concentration/m**3 of air, (2) bioaerosol microbial types, and (3) respirable and non-respirable bioaerosol concentrations/m**3 of air. Equipment used were cascade biological samplers, a laser s...

  8. PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations in four dairies on the Southern High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Air quality was determined in 4 dairies at the boundary, commodity barn, and compost field. Two laser DustTrak PM10 aerosol monitors and four RAAS -300 gravimetric monitors, 2 PM2.5 and 2 PM10 were employed. The DustTrak flow rate was set at 1.7 L/min and the RAAS were set at 16.6 L/min. Monitors we...

  9. Carbapenem-Resistant Bacteria Recovered from Faeces of Dairy Cattle in the High Plains Region of the USA

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Hattie E.; Bugarel, Marie; den Bakker, Henk C.; Nightingale, Kendra K.; Granier, Sophie A.; Scott, H. Morgan; Loneragan, Guy H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective A study was conducted to recover carbapenem-resistant bacteria from the faeces of dairy cattle and identify the underlying genetic mechanisms associated with reduced phenotypic susceptibility to carbapenems. Methods One hundred and fifty-nine faecal samples from dairy cattle were screened for carbapenem-resistant bacteria. Phenotypic screening was conducted on two media containing ertapenem. The isolates from the screening step were characterised via disk diffusion, Modified Hodge, and Carba NP assays. Carbapenem-resistant bacteria and carbapenemase-producing isolates were subjected to Gram staining and biochemical testing to include Gram-negative bacilli. Whole genome sequencing was performed on bacteria that exhibited either a carbapenemase-producing phenotype or were not susceptible to ertapenem and were presumptively Enterobacteriaceae. Results Of 323 isolates collected from the screening media, 28 were selected for WGS; 21 of which were based on a carbapenemase-producing phenotype and 7 were presumptively Enterobacteriaceae and not susceptible to ertapenem. Based on analysis of WGS data, isolates included: 3 Escherichia coli harbouring blaCMY-2 and truncated ompF genes; 8 Aeromonas harbouring blacphA-like genes; 1 Acinetobacter baumannii harbouring a novel blaOXA gene (blaOXA-497); and 6 Pseudomonas with conserved domains of various carbapenemase-producing genes. Conclusions Carbapenem resistant bacteria appear to be rare in cattle. Nonetheless, carbapenem-resistant bacteria were detected across various genera and were found to harbour a variety of mechanisms conferring reduced susceptibility. The development and dissemination of carbapenem-resistant bacteria in livestock would have grave implications for therapeutic treatment options in human medicine; thus, continued monitoring of carbapenem susceptibility among enteric bacteria of livestock is warranted. PMID:26824353

  10. Herd- and cow-level risk factors associated with subclinical mastitis in dairy farms from the High Plains of the northern Antioquia, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, N F; Keefe, G; Dohoo, I; Sánchez, J; Arroyave, O; Cerón, J; Jaramillo, M; Palacio, L G

    2014-07-01

    Mastitis is the main disease entity affecting dairy farms in the Colombian High Plains of northern Antioquia, Colombia. However, no previous epidemiologic studies have determined the characteristics that increase the risk of infection in this region, where manual milking is still the prevailing system of milking. A 24-mo longitudinal study was designed to identify the predominant mastitis pathogens and important herd- and cow-level risk factors. Monthly visits were made to 37 commercial dairy farms to collect herd- and cow-level data and milk samples. Herd size varied from 6 to 136 cows (mean 37.0, median 29). Herd-level factors included type of milking system (manual or mechanical) and a range of management practices recommended by the National Mastitis Council (Madison, WI) to prevent mastitis. Individual cow-level risk factors included parity, stage of lactation, breed, udder hygiene, and lameness. A logistic regression analysis was used to investigate associations between herd- and cow-level risk factors with the presence of subclinical mastitis and infection caused by Streptococcus agalactiae at the quarter level. A quarter was considered to have subclinical mastitis if it had a positive California Mastitis Test and was subsequently confirmed to have a somatic cell count of ≥200,000 cells/mL. Any cow with one or more quarters with subclinical mastitis was considered to have subclinical mastitis at the cow level. Using 17,622 cow observations, the mean prevalence of subclinical mastitis at the cow level was 37.2% (95% confidence interval: 31.2, 43.3) for the first month and did not substantially change throughout the study. The predominant microorganisms isolated from quarters meeting the subclinical mastitis definition were contagious pathogens, including Strep. agalactiae (34.4%), Corynebacterium spp. (13.2%), and Staphylococcus aureus (8.0%). Significant variables associated with subclinical mastitis risk at the quarter level included being a purebred

  11. Finger millet: An alternative crop for the Southern High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the Southern High Plains, dairies are expanding to take advantage of favorable climatic conditions. Currently, corn (Zea mays L.) and forage sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] are the two major crops grown in the region to meet silage demands for the expanding dairy industry, but they have rel...

  12. Quails on the High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Southern High Plains of Texas are on the southern end of the North American Great Plains and occupy about 20 million acres. The climate is semi-arid, with long-term (90-year) average annual precipitation at Lubbock of 18.9 inches. Two species of quail, northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) and...

  13. Finger millet: An alternative forage crop for Southern High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the Southern High Plains, dairies are expanding to take advantage of favorable climatic conditions. Currently corn (Zea mays L.) and forage sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) are the two major crops grown in the region to meet the current silage demand. Corn and sorghum have relatively large w...

  14. The Texas High Plains Evapotranspiration (TXHPET) network

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The newly developed Texas High Plains Evapotranspiration (TXHPET) network is comprised of the North Plains and South Plains evapotranspiration (ET) networks. The TXHPET network currently entails the operation of 18 meteorological stations located in 15 Texas counties and regional coverage is estima...

  15. Water Production Functions For High Plains Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Declining water supplies is the critical resource issue for irrigated agriculture in the High Plains and much of the western U.S. Farmers need to maximize production per unit water consumed to remain economically viable and sustain irrigated agriculture. The Agricultural Research Service (ARS) Wat...

  16. Guayule production on the southern high plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New production areas need to be identified for guayule in order to meet the expected world-wide shortage of natural rubber by 2020. One promising area is the Texas High Plains region. For guayule to be grown in this region, more cold tolerant lines need to be identified. The objective of our study w...

  17. Calibrating northern Texas High Plains groundwater model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the Northern High Plains of Texas, irrigated crop production accounts for a major portion of groundwater withdrawals from the Ogallala aquifer. The concern is that diminishing groundwater supplies will severely reduce regional crop and animal production, which in turn would impact the regional ec...

  18. Water Production Functions for High Plains Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water Production Functions for High Plains Crops Water consumptive use by a crop can be reduced through limited (deficit) irrigation. If the reduced consumptive use (CU) can be quantified, the saved water can be transferred to other users. If the value of the transferred water is greater than the fa...

  19. 27 CFR 9.144 - Texas High Plains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Texas High Plains. 9.144... Texas High Plains. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Texas High Plains.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Texas High...

  20. 27 CFR 9.144 - Texas High Plains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Texas High Plains. 9.144... Texas High Plains. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Texas High Plains.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Texas High...

  1. 27 CFR 9.144 - Texas High Plains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Texas High Plains. 9.144... Texas High Plains. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Texas High Plains.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Texas High...

  2. 27 CFR 9.144 - Texas High Plains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Texas High Plains. 9.144... Texas High Plains. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Texas High Plains.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Texas High...

  3. Sorghum and legume intercropping to improve resource use efficiency of forage production systems in the Southern High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Declining water resources and the presence of large dairy and beef facilities in the Southern High Plains necessitates improving efficiency of forage production system to sustain irrigated agriculture in the region. Delayed inhabitance of interrow space by annual row cropping systems leads to ineffi...

  4. Calculating crop water use in the northern Texas High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The North Plains Evapotranspiration network (NPET) has been in operation providing meteorological and crop water use (evapotranspiration or ET) data to producers for over 14 years. Recently, the NPET and South Plains ET (SPET) merged to form the Texas High Plains ET network (TXHPET). Each of the r...

  5. Milking the Plains: movement of large dairy operations into southwestern Kansas.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Lisa M B; Lu, Max; Kromm, David E

    2010-01-01

    Western Kansas has an historical identification with cattle, with a focus on cattle ranching and more specifically since the 1950s, beef-cattle feedlots. Since the mid-1990s large dairy operations have moved into southwestern Kansas. Today more than twenty large dairies house more than 70,000 milk cows. These operate as confined feeding operations similar to beef-cattle feedlots. Regional advantages for the dairy industry include affordable land with wide-open space, local residents' cattle- and dairy-friendly attitudes, and other factors. Regional promoters have actively recruited dairies, and a dairy-business support system has emerged. The prospects for continued expansion of dairies in southwestern Kansas are unclear; despite the locational advantages and the possibility that the industry may continue to relocate here, as did the cattle-feeding industry several decades ago, further moves into the area may depend on continued resources availability and additional infrastructure development. PMID:21132919

  6. High Plains Regional Ground-water Study web site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Qi, Sharon L.

    2000-01-01

    Now available on the Internet is a web site for the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program- High Plains Regional Ground-Water Study. The purpose of the web site is to provide public access to a wide variety of information on the USGS investigation of the ground-water resources within the High Plains aquifer system. Typical pages on the web site include the following: descriptions of the High Plains NAWQA, the National NAWQA Program, the study-area setting, current and past activities, significant findings, chemical and ancillary data (which can be downloaded), listing and access to publications, links to other sites about the High Plains area, and links to other web sites studying High Plains ground-water resources. The High Plains aquifer is a regional aquifer system that underlies 174,000 square miles in parts of eight States (Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming). Because the study area is so large, the Internet is an ideal way to provide project data and information on a near real-time basis. The web site will be a collection of living documents where project data and information are updated as it becomes available throughout the life of the project. If you have an interest in the High Plains area, you can check this site periodically to learn how the High Plains NAWQA activities are progressing over time and access new data and publications as they become available.

  7. EXTERNAL EFFECTS OF IRRIGATORS' PUMPING DECISIONS, HIGH PLAINS AQUIFER.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alley, William M.; Schefter, John E.

    1987-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer, which underlies about 174,000 square miles (1 square mile equals 2. 59 km**2) in the Great Plains, is the principal source of water in one of the nation's major agricultural areas. This paper examines relationships between the scale of management areas and physical factors, resulting from the lateral movement of groundwater, that limit the ability of irrigators in the High Plains to reduce their own future pumping lifts. At the scale of individual farms, irrigators have very limited ability to 'bank' water in order to obtain reduced future pumping lifts.

  8. Stabilizers: indispensable substances in dairy products of high rheology.

    PubMed

    Tasneem, Madiha; Siddique, Farzana; Ahmad, Asif; Farooq, Umar

    2014-01-01

    The functionality of stabilizers is apparent in many food applications including dairy products. The role of stabilizers like gelatin, pectins, alginates, carboxymethylcellulose, gums, ispghol, sago starch, and chitosan in the development of dairy products of high rheology, like yoghurt, ice cream, and flavored milk, is discussed in this review. Attention is also paid to comprehend on interactions among milk proteins, minerals, and other milk constituents with the reactive sites of stabilizers to get the desirable properties such as appearance, body and texture, mouthfeel, consistency. The role played by stabilizers in the control of syneresis and overrun problems in the high-rheology dairy products is also the topic of discussion. PMID:24499066

  9. Dynamics of playa lakes in the Texas High Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeves, C. C., Jr. (Principal Investigator)

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Regional viewing of ERTS-1 imagery around the test sites shows that storm paths can be accurately traced and a count made of the number of intermittent lake basins filled by the storm. Therefore, during wet years ERTS-type imagery can be used to conduct a reliable count of the tens of thousands of natural lake basins on the southern High Plains which contain water. This type of regional overview of water filled basins in the normally arid southern High Plains is illustrated by bands 6 and 7, ERTS E-1078-16524.

  10. Ginning picker and stripper harvested high plains cotton - update

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Texas High Plains cotton has improved over the last ten years with regard to yield and High Volume Instrument (HVI) fiber quality. Harvesting and ginning practices are needed which preserve fiber quality and maximize return to the producer. The objective of this work is to investigate the influence ...

  11. Optimizing subsurface drip irrigation in the Texas High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the Texas High Plains (THP), irrigated agriculture accounts for half of the cultivated area and > 80% of crop production and gross incomes. This agriculture depends on water extracted from the Ogallala Aquifer, which is declining because withdrawals exceed natural recharge. This fact compromises ...

  12. Vernacular Literacy on the Lake Titicaca High Plains, Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomon, Frank; Apaza, Emilio Chambi

    2006-01-01

    Ethnographic "New Literacy Studies" question the idea that literacy as such has any uniform effects, arguing instead that effects of literacy inhere in the social practices that impart it. What change, then, does literacy produce where it arrived from two opposed sets of practices? In Quechua-and Aymara-speaking villages on the high plains of Lake…

  13. 27 CFR 9.144 - Texas High Plains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...” 1954, revised 1975. (6) “Big Spring, Texas” 1954, revised 1975. (c) Boundary. The Texas High Plains...; (2) The boundary follows U.S. Route 180 east through Seminole, Texas and onto the Big Spring, Texas... the U.S.G.S. maps of Big Spring and Lubbock, Texas; (4) The boundary continues along the 3,000...

  14. Estimating High Plains Aquifer Recharge Using Temperature Probes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The magnitude of recharge through playa wetlands in the High Plains Region of the United States has been debated, but rarely quantified. The ephemeral nature of water in playas makes it difficult and expensive to observe filling and drying/draining cycles. Inexpensive tools are needed to quantify ...

  15. The future of irrigation on the High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The future of irrigation on the U.S. High Plains was examined through the lens of past changes in water supply and innovations in irrigation technology, management and agronomy. The innovations have greatly increased the efficiency of water application and use, and the agricultural productivity of t...

  16. Groundwater modeling of the Texas High Plains using MODFLOW

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to develop and calibrate a groundwater model for a four county area in the Texas High Plains of the Ogallala Aquifer Region. This study is a major component of a comprehensive regional analysis of groundwater depletion in the Ogallala Aquifer Region with the purpose o...

  17. METRIC estimated ET evaluation on the semiarid Southern High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Declining groundwater levels in the Southern High Plains of the United States, and the fact that agriculture in this region uses more than 90% of groundwater withdrawals, requires efficient agricultural water use. Accurate regional evapotranspiration (ET) maps would provide valuable information on c...

  18. Sediments in Semi-arid Wetlands: US Southern High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Playas are ephemeral wetlands on the semi-arid U.S. Southern High Plains that serve as runoff catchment basins and are thought to be focal points of Ogallala aquifer recharge. Sediments in playas alter biodiversity and hydroperiods. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of outerbas...

  19. Educational enhancements to the Texas High Plains Evapotranspiration (ET) network

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, an irrigation scheduling and management tool was developed for addressing large acreage and multiple field irrigated farms, particularly those in the Texas High Plains where the declining Ogallala Aquifer is the primary source of irrigation water. This tool, while providing in-season ...

  20. The High Plains Aquifer, USA: Groundwater development and sustainability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dennehy, K.F.; Litke, D.W.; McMahon, P.B.

    2002-01-01

    The High Plains Aquifer, located in the United States, is one of the largest freshwater aquifers in the world and is threatened by continued decline in water levels and deteriorating water quality. Understanding the physical and cultural features of this area is essential to assessing the factors that affect this groundwater resource. About 27% of the irrigated land in the United States overlies this aquifer, which yields about 30% of the nation's groundwater used for irrigation of crops including wheat, corn, sorghum, cotton and alfalfa. In addition, the aquifer provides drinking water to 82% of the 2.3 million people who live within the aquifer boundary. The High Plains Aquifer has been significantly impacted by human activities. Groundwater withdrawals from the aquifer exceed recharge in many areas, resulting in substantial declines in groundwater level. Residents once believed that the aquifer was an unlimited resource of high-quality water, but they now face the prospect that much of the water may be gone in the near future. Also, agricultural chemicals are affecting the groundwater quality. Increasing concentrations of nitrate and salinity can first impair the use of the water for public supply and then affect its suitability for irrigation. A variety of technical and institutional measures are currently being planned and implemented across the aquifer area in an attempt to sustain this groundwater resource for future generations. However, because groundwater withdrawals remain high and water quality impairments are becoming more commonplace, the sustainability of the High Plains Aquifer is uncertain.

  1. METRIC Estimated ET Evaluation on the Semiarid Southern High Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavez, J. L.; Gowda, P. H.; Colaizzi, P. D.; Evett, S. R.; Howell, T. A.; Copeland, K.

    2007-05-01

    Declining groundwater levels in the Southern High Plains of the United States, and the fact that agriculture in this region uses more than 90% of groundwater withdrawals, combine to increase the demand for efficient agricultural water use. Accurate regional evapotranspiration (ET) maps would provide valuable information on crop water use. In this study, we applied METRIC (Mapping Evapotranspiration at High Resolution using Internalized Calibration), a remote sensing based ET algorithm, and micrometeorological data measured at a grass reference ET weather station maintained by the Texas High Plains Evapotranspiration Network (TXHPET). For this purpose, a Landsat Thematic Mapper image covering a major portion of the Southern High Plains (parts of Texas Panhandle and northeastern New Mexico) was acquired for 23 July 2006 at 11:26 AM CST. Comprehensive ground-truth data were collected to develop a detailed land use map showing major crops grown in the region. Performance of the METRIC model was evaluated using measured ET data on five weighing lysimeters at Bushland, TX [35 Deg. 11' N, 102 Deg. 06' W; 1,170 m elevation MSL] managed by the Conservation and Production Research Laboratory, USDA-ARS. Lysimeter-measured ET rates varied from 2.4 to 7.8 mm/d. Good agreement was found between the remote sensing based ET and measured ET. Comparison of estimated daily mapped ET values with lysimetric measurements had an accuracy within 9% of the measured ET (r2 = 0.89) with a mean square error of 0.9 mm/d. The use of METRIC for advective conditions of the Southern High Plains is promising; however, more evaluation is needed for different agroclimatological conditions.

  2. Impact of Irrigated Agroecosystems on Groundwater Resources in the US High Plains and North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scanlon, B. R.; Longuevergne, L.; Cao, G.; Shen, Y.; Gates, J. B.; Reedy, R. W.; Zheng, C.

    2010-12-01

    Overabstraction of groundwater for irrigation in semiarid regions is depleting the worlds’ largest aquifers at much greater rates than these aquifers are being replenished by recharge. This study evaluates groundwater sustainability in the US High Plains (US HP) and North China Plain (NCP) where intensive irrigation has resulted in large water table declines. A variety of approaches were used to evaluate impacts of irrigation on groundwater resources, including GRACE satellite data, unsaturated zone profiling, and groundwater quantity and quality data. Cultivation (40% of area) and irrigation (12%) are less intensive in the US HP than in the NCP (80% cultivated, 50% irrigated). Irrigation is estimated to consume ~97% of groundwater resources in the US HP and ~70% in the NCP. Although only ~10% of groundwater resources has been consumed in the US HP (330 km3 out of 3,900 km3), the problem lies in the uneven spatial distribution. Groundwater depletion is greatest in the Central High Plains (CHP) where water table declines of up to 1.5 m/yr have been recorded in individual wells and regional declines of up to 30 m have been found over a 7,000 km2 area since irrigation began in the 1950s to 1960s. This depletion indicates an irrigation deficit of ~75 mm/yr over 60 yr (specific yield 15%). Recharge rates in the CHP are extremely low (median ~10 mm/yr) with reductions in groundwater storage exceeding recharge by ~10 times. High correlations between GRACE and measured water storage changes (R = 0.7 - 0.8) show that the satellite can accurately track regional changes in water storage. Groundwater in the NCP has declined from a depth of ~1 m in the 1960s to 20 to 40 m in the Piedmont region since expansion of irrigation beginning in the 1970s. Groundwater level declines in individual hydrographs range from 0.5 to 1.0 m/yr, indicating irrigation deficits ranging from 100 to 200 mm/yr (specific yield 20%). Lower groundwater storage changes from GRACE satellites relative to

  3. Climate change projections for the Texas High Plains and Rolling Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modala, Naga Raghuveer; Ale, Srinivasulu; Goldberg, Daniel W.; Olivares, Miriam; Munster, Clyde L.; Rajan, Nithya; Feagin, Rusty A.

    2016-03-01

    Potential changes in future climate in the Texas Plains region were investigated in the context of agriculture by analyzing three climate model projections under the A2 climate scenario (medium-high emission scenario). Spatially downscaled historic (1971-2000) and future (2041-2070) climate datasets (rainfall and temperature) were downloaded from the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP). Climate variables predicted by three regional climate models (RCMs) namely the Regional Climate Model Version3-Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (RCM3-GFDL), Regional Climate Model Version3-Third Generation Coupled Global Climate Model (RCM3-CGCM3), and Canadian Regional Climate Model-Community Climate System Model (CRCM-CCSM) were evaluated in this study. Gaussian and Gamma distribution mapping techniques were employed to remove the bias in temperature and rainfall data, respectively. Both the minimum and maximum temperatures across the study region in the future showed an upward trend, with the temperatures increasing in the range of 1.9 to 2.9 °C and 2.0 to 3.2 °C, respectively. All three climate models predicted a decline in rainfall within a range of 30 to 127 mm in majority of counties across the study region. In addition, they predicted an increase in the intensity of extreme rainfall events in the future. The frost-free season as predicted by the three models showed an increase by 2.6-3.4 weeks across the region, and the number of frost days declined by 17.9 to 30 %. Overall, these projections indicate considerable changes to the climate in the Texas Plains region in the future, and these changes could potentially impact agriculture in this region.

  4. Dynamics of playa lakes in the Texas High Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeves, C. C., Jr. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 MSS imagery has been found useful for taking a regional wet census of the tens of thousands of lake basins on the Southern High Plains, Texas and New Mexico. Once the ground truth which has been correlated with the MSS imagery, is correlated with CCT data, and reliable computer classifications are determined, a lake census from CCT printouts will be possible. Correlation of satellite imagery products with water fluctuations and water budget is also underway.

  5. Climate Change Impacts of Irrigation on the Central High Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotterman, K. A.; Kendall, A. D.; Basso, B.; Hyndman, D. W.

    2015-12-01

    Since the 1940s, the High Plains Aquifer (HPA) has been pivotal for irrigation over the Central High Plains (CHP), a region spanning parts of five states in the central U.S.. Today after decades of over-pumping, many areas of the CHP are no longer able to irrigate due to localized depletion of the HPA. With a range of global climate models predicting an increase in temperature and decrease in growing-season precipitation for the CHP, demand for irrigation is likely to increase and exacerbate drawdown and depletion of the aquifer. Here we apply the Landscape Hydrology Model (LHM) coupled with the crop simulation model SALUS to simulate irrigation water use in response to historical climate and land use. This model is validated using historical groundwater levels. We then simulate future climate scenarios to predict how irrigation demand and water availability will alter the hydrology of the CHP. This study provides a predictive relationship of future irrigation demand linked to both climate change and agricultural management, and presents a modeling approach to answer two questions: How will future climate change affect irrigation demand? How will climate change and irrigation demand affect groundwater availability for the future? Different climate scenarios based on the representative concentration pathways (RCPs) are used to simulate the impact of different projected future climate conditions through the year 2100. By examining predicted groundwater levels along with saturated thickness we analyze where irrigation is likely to be viable in the future and compare this to current irrigation extent.

  6. Groundwater Modeling of the Texas High Plains using Modflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, J. E.; Gowda, P. H.; Misra, D.; Marek, T.; Howell, T. A.

    2008-12-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and calibrate a groundwater model for a 4-county area in the Texas High Plains of the Ogallala Aquifer Region. This study is a major component of a comprehensive regional analysis of groundwater depletion in the Ogallala Aquifer Region with the purpose of understanding short- and long-term effects of existing and alternative land use scenarios on groundwater changes. A comprehensive geographic information system (GIS) database was developed for this purpose that included a recent land cover map. This 2008 land cover map was developed using Landsat satellite imagery with ground-truth points for Dallam, Sherman, Hartley, and Moore Counties in Texas. Other GIS layers included aquifer elevation contours, surficial geology, hydraulic conductivity contours, saturated thickness areas, well locations and piezometric heads, aquifer discharge and recharge areas, topography, hydrographic data, ecological regions, and soil type data. The hydrologic simulations were done using MODFLOW. Anticipated outcomes from this modeling effort include the effect of change in land use/land cover on sustainability of the aquifer life in the study region. Our results will be used to develop strategies to conserve groundwater in the Ogallala Aquifer beneath Central High Plains and improve regional water planning.

  7. The high producing dairy cow and its reproductive performance

    PubMed Central

    Dobson, H; Smith, RF; Royal, MD; Knight, CH; Sheldon, IM

    2009-01-01

    Contents: Intensive genetic selection has resulted in modern dairy cow with very high milk yields but reduced fertility, due mainly to an increase in postpartum clinical problems, poor expression of oestrus, defective oocytes/embryos and uterine infections. It is a challenge to get enough food into these cows to meet the high demands of peak milk yields in early lactation and the animals require considerable veterinary attention in the early period after calving. Both genetic and management changes to increase the persistency of lactations would reduce the number and intensity of clinical risk periods throughout a cow's life without compromising milk output. PMID:17688598

  8. Dynamics of Playa lakes in the Texas High Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeves, C. C., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Three small playa lake basins on the Texas High Plains were originally selected as ERTS-1 test sites to attempt correlation of ERTS-1 imagery with the water balance ecosystem and geology/morphology of the lake basins. The 5-mile long large Double Lakes playa complex was also instrumented as an alternate test site. Analysis of bands 6 and 7 of ERTS-1 MSS imagery shows that lake basins as small as 200 m in diameter (+ or - 10 acres) can be reliably classified as being wet or dry, thus supplying the methodology for a rapid, periodic census of surface water. A cost/benefit analysis reveals that the use of MSS imagery for such a census results in a 66 to 200-fold cost reduction when compared to the costs of using other conventional methods.

  9. Dynamics of playa lakes in the Texas High Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeves, C. C., Jr. (Principal Investigator)

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Three small playa lake basins on the southern High Plains, Texas, have been examined by geologists, pedologists, hydrologists, and botanists to establish ground truth for correlation with ERTS-1 imagery. Although the sites are recognizable, details of the three playa basins are too small, at present resolution, to be accurately determined by the available MSS imagery. However, a fourth study site, consisting of a dual playa complex approximately 5 miles long in a basin of 9 square miles, does resolve available imagery allowing accurate measurement of water fluctuations and water depth. Of the available MSS imagery, Band 5 is the most usable. Definition of Band 4 is less due to reduced tonal contrast. The greatest tonal contrast appears on Band 6 and Band 7 between dry land and water areas. Band 6 is particularly good for defining large water areas, Band 7 being best for small lake basins, and Band 5 for growing fields.

  10. Playa basin development, southern High Plains, Texas and New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Gustavson, T.C. ); Holliday, V.T. )

    1992-01-01

    More than 20,000 playa basins have formed on fine-grained eolian sediments of the Quaternary Blackwater Draw and Tertiary Ogallala Formations on the High Plains of TX and NM. Numerous hypotheses have been proposed for the development of playa basins: (1) subsidence due to dissolution of underlying Permian bedded salt, (2) dissolution of soil carbonate and piping of clastic sediment into the subsurface, (3) animal activity, and (4) deflation. Evidence of eolian processes includes lee dunes and straightened shorelines on the eastern and southern margins of many playas. Lee dunes, which occur on the eastern side of ca 15% of playa basins and contain sediment deflated from adjacent playas, are cresentic to oval in plain view and typically account for 15--40% of the volume of the playa basin. Quaternary fossil biotas and buried calcic soils indicate that grasslands and semi-arid to aid climatic conditions prevailed as these basins formed. Evidence of fluviolacustrine processes in playa basins includes centripetal drainage leading to fan deltas at playa margins and preserved deltaic and lacustrine sediments. Playa basins expanded as fluvial processes eroded basin slopes and carried sediment to the basin floor where, during periods of minimal vegetation cover, loose sediment was removed by deflation. Other processes that played secondary roles in the development of certain playa basins include subsidence induced by dissolution of deeply buried Permian salt, dissolution of soil carbonate and piping, and animal activity. Two small lake basins in Gray County, TX, occur above strata affected by dissolution-induced subsidence. Dissolution of soil carbonate was observed in exposures and cores of strata underlying playa basins. Cattle, and in the past vast numbers of migrating buffalo, destroy soil crusts in dry playas, making these sediments more susceptible to deflation, and carry sediment out of flooded playas on their hooves.

  11. Does climatic variability influence agricultural land prices under differing uses? The Texas High Plains case

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Texas High Plains faces projections of increasing temperature and declining precipitation in the future on account of its semi-arid climate. This research evaluated the impact of climatic variability on agricultural land prices under different land uses in the Texas High Plains, employing the Ri...

  12. Spatial distribution and morphology of sediments in Texas Southern High Plains playa wetlands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Playas are depressional geomorphic features on the U.S. High Plains. About 20,000 Southern High Plains playa wet¬lands serve as runoff catchment basins, which are thought to be focal points of Ogallala aquifer recharge. Sediments in playas can alter biodiversity services, impede aquifer recharge, an...

  13. Spatial Distribution and Morphology of Sediments in Texas Southern High Plains Playa Wetlands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Playas are depressional geomorphic features on the U.S. High Plains and about 20,000 Southern High Plains playa wetlands serve as runoff catchment basins, which are thought to be focal points of Ogallala aquifer recharge. Sediments in playas can alter biodiversity services, impede aquifer recharge,...

  14. Effect of harvesting method on fiber and yarn quality from irrigated cotton on the High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years, Texas cotton production has represented almost half of all the US cotton production, with most of that production coming from the High Plains. Due to the harsh weather conditions, most cotton on the High Plains is of more storm-proof varieties that are harvested using stripper harve...

  15. Estimating recharge through Playa Lakes to the Southern High Plains Aquifer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the Southern High Plains of Texas, it is accepted that focused recharge to the High Plains Aquifer (locally known as the Ogallala) occurs through over 20,000 playa lakes, which are local depressions that collect storm runoff. The amount and rate of recharge is not precisely known, and the impact ...

  16. Comparison of high-speed roller and saw ginning on Texas high plains cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New high-quality cotton cultivars have been adopted in the Southern High Plains recently and, as a result, interest has grown in finding harvest and ginning practices that better preserve fiber quality. Advancements in roller ginning technology have increased the ginning rate of some roller gins to ...

  17. An aerodynamic temperature-based regional ET model evaluation for Texas High Plains agrometeorological conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High groundwater pumping costs and rapidly declining water levels in the Texas High Plains makes it imperative to improve irrigation water management for sustainability and economic viability. In this area, agriculture uses approximately 90% of groundwater withdrawals. Accurate regional evapotrans...

  18. Irrigation Management in the Texas High Plains: Present Status, Challenges, and Opportunities (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gowda, P. H.

    2013-12-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is an essential component of the water balance and a major consumptive use of irrigation water and precipitation on cropland. Any attempt to improve water use efficiency must be based on reliable estimates of ET for irrigation scheduling purposes. In the Texas High Plains, irrigation scheduling is implemented using lysimeter-based crop coefficients and reference ET data from the Texas High Plains ET Network. This presentation will discuss the current state of irrigation management in the Texas High Plains, knowledge gaps, ongoing developments, and role of remote sensing based regional ET mapping algorithms with respect to irrigated agriculture.

  19. Bat use of a high-plains urban wildlife refuge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Everette, A.L.; O'Shea, T.J.; Ellison, L.E.; Stone, L.A.; McCance, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    Bats are significant components of mammalian diversity and in many areas are of management concern. However, little attention has been given to bats in urban or prairie landscapes. In 1997 and 1998, we determined species richness, relative abundance, roosting habits, and echolocation activity of bats at Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge (RMA), the largest urban unit in the United States refuge system, located on the high plains near Denver, Colorado. An inventory using mist nets revealed 3 species foraging at the site: big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus), and silver-haired bats (Lasionycteris noctivagans). Big brown bats comprised 86% of captures (n=176). This pattern was consistent with continental-scale predictions of bat species richness and evenness based on availability of potential roosts. Relative abundance based on captures was similar to that revealed by echolocation detector surveys, except that the latter revealed the likely presence of at least 2 additional species (Myotis spp. and red bats [Lasiurus borealis]). Echolocation activity was significantly greater (P=0.009) in areas with tree or water habitat edges than in open prairie, suggesting that maintaining such features is important for bats. Big brown bats commuted greater distances (9.20-18.8 km) from roosts in urban core areas to foraging sites on the refuge than typically reported for this species elsewhere, emphasizing the value of the site to these bats. Urban refuges can provide habitat of importance to bat populations, but may be characterized by abundant bats that roost in buildings if a variety of other kinds of roosting habitats are unavailable.

  20. High Resolution Mosaic of Ridges, Plains, and Mountains on Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This mosaic shows some of the highest resolution images obtained by the Solid State Imaging (SSI) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft during its eleventh orbit around Jupiter. North is to the top of the image. The sun illuminates the scene from the left, showing hundreds of ridges that cut across each other, indicating multiple episodes of ridge formation either by volcanic or tectonic activity within the ice. Also visible in the image are numerous isolated mountains or 'massifs'. The highest of these, located in the upper right corner and lower center of the mosaic, are approximately 500 meters (1,640 feet) high. Irregularly shaped areas where the ice surface appears to be lower than the surrounding plains (e.g., in the left-center and lower left corner of the mosaic) may be related to the 'chaos' areas of iceberg-like features seen in earlier SSI images of Europa.

    The mosaic, centered at 35.4 degrees north latitude and 86.8 degrees west longitude, covers an area of 108 kilometers by 90 kilometers (66 miles by 55 miles). The smallest distinguishable features in the image are about 68 meters (223 feet) across. These images were obtained on November 6, 1997, when the Galileo spacecraft was approximately 3,250 kilometers (1,983 miles) from Europa.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is a division of California Institute of Technology.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  1. Surface energy balance based evapotranspiration mapping in the Texas High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture on the Texas High Plains (THP) uses approximately 89% of groundwater withdrawals from the Ogallala Aquifer. Consequently, groundwater levels are declining faster than the recharge rate. Therefore, efficient agricultural water use is essential for economic viability and sustainability of ...

  2. Water Level Declines in the High Plains Aquifer: Predevelopment to Resource Senescence.

    PubMed

    Haacker, Erin M K; Kendall, Anthony D; Hyndman, David W

    2016-03-01

    A large imbalance between recharge and water withdrawal has caused vital regions of the High Plains Aquifer (HPA) to experience significant declines in storage. A new predevelopment map coupled with a synthesis of annual water levels demonstrates that aquifer storage has declined by approximately 410 km(3) since the 1930s, a 15% larger decline than previous estimates. If current rates of decline continue, much of the Southern High Plains and parts of the Central High Plains will have insufficient water for irrigation within the next 20 to 30 years, whereas most of the Northern High Plains will experience little change in storage. In the western parts of the Central and northern part of the Southern High Plains, saturated thickness has locally declined by more than 50%, and is currently declining at rates of 10% to 20% of initial thickness per decade. The most agriculturally productive portions of the High Plains will not support irrigated production within a matter of decades without significant changes in management. PMID:26014963

  3. Changes in Water Levels and Storage in the High Plains Aquifer, Predevelopment to 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGuire, V.L.

    2009-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer underlies 111.6 million acres (174,000 square miles) in parts of eight States - Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The area overlying the High Plains aquifer is one of the primary agricultural regions in the Nation. Water-level declines began in parts of the High Plains aquifer soon after the beginning of substantial irrigation with ground water in the aquifer area. By 1980, water levels in the High Plains aquifer in parts of Texas, Oklahoma, and southwestern Kansas had declined more than 100 feet (Luckey and others, 1981). In response to these water-level declines, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with numerous Federal, State, and local water-resources agencies, began monitoring more than 7,000 wells in 1988 to assess annual water-level changes in the aquifer. This fact sheet summarizes changes in water levels and drainable water in storage in the High Plains aquifer from predevelopment (before about 1950) to 2007 and serves as a companion product to a USGS report that presents more detailed and technical information about water-level and storage changes in the High Plains aquifer during this period (McGuire, 2009).

  4. Vulnerability of recently recharged ground water in the High Plains aquifer to nitrate contamination

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gurdak, Jason J.; Qi, Sharon L.

    2006-01-01

    Nitrate concentrations greater than background levels have been detected in ground water of the High Plains aquifer. Empirically based models and corresponding maps were developed that predict the vulnerability of the aquifer to nonpoint-source nitrate contamination. The models predict the probability of detecting nitrate concentrations larger than 4 milligrams per liter in ground water of the High Plains aquifer that was recharged during the last 50 years. The models were calibrated by correlating concentrations of nitrate in ground water from 336 wells that intercept recently recharged (less than 50 years) water with anthropogenic and hydrogeologic explanatory variables. Particle-tracking simulations delineated well-contributing areas and determined well-screen depths that intercept recently recharged ground water. The models were developed using multivariate logistic regression, and a map was generated from these models using a geographic information system. Two multivariate logistic regression models of vulnerability were found to have the most statistical significance and the best model fit and predictive ability. The two models represent the Northern High Plains and the combined Central and Southern High Plains, and they indicate that ground-water vulnerability of the entire High Plains aquifer is best explained by the spatial distribution of nonirrigated and irrigated agricultural lands, organic matter of the soil, depth to the regional water table, and clay content of the unsaturated zone. Vulnerability of the Northern High Plains is greater in areas that have more nonirrigated and irrigated agricultural lands and less organic matter in the soil. The vulnerability of the Central and Southern High Plains also is greater in areas that have more nonirrigated and irrigated agricultural lands and also in areas with shallow depths to water table and less clay in the unsaturated zone. The majority (53.3 percent) of the High Plains aquifer has less than a 40

  5. Potentiometric surfaces, summer 2013 and winter 2015, and select hydrographs for the Southern High Plains aquifer, Cannon Air Force Base, Curry County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collison, Jake

    2016-01-01

    Cannon Air Force Base (Cannon AFB) is located in the High Plains physiographic region of east-central New Mexico, about 5 miles west of Clovis, New Mexico. The area surrounding Cannon AFB is primarily used for agriculture, including irrigated cropland and dairies. The Southern High Plains aquifer is the principal source of water for Cannon AFB, for the nearby town of Clovis, and for local agriculture and dairies. The Southern High Plains aquifer in the vicinity of Cannon AFB consists of three subsurface geological formations: the Chinle Formation of Triassic age, the Ogallala Formation of Tertiary age, and the Blackwater Draw Formation of Quaternary age. The Ogallala Formation is the main water-yielding formation of the Southern High Plains aquifer. Groundwater-supplied, center-pivot irrigation dominates pumping from the Southern High Plains aquifer in the area surrounding Cannon AFB, where the irrigation season typically extends from early March through October. The U.S. Geological Survey has been monitoring groundwater levels in the vicinity of Cannon AFB since 1954 and has developed general potentiometric-surface maps that show groundwater flow from northwest to southeast in the study area. While previous potentiometric-surface maps show the general direction of groundwater flow, a denser well network is needed to show details of groundwater flow at a local scale. Groundwater levels were measured in 93 wells during summer 2013 and 100 wells during winter 2015.The summer and winter potentiometric-surface maps display the presence of what is interpreted to be a groundwater trough trending from the northwest to the southeast through the study area. This groundwater trough may be the hydraulic expression of a Tertiary-age paleochannel. Groundwater north of the trough flows in a southerly direction into the trough, and groundwater south of the trough flows in an easterly direction into the trough.During the 18-month period between summer 2013 and winter 2015, changes

  6. High-Resolution Image of Europa's Ridged Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This spectacular image taken by NASA's Galileo spacecraft camera shows a region of ridged plains on Jupiter's moon Europa. The plains are comprised of many parallel and cross-cutting ridges, commonly in pairs. The majority of the region is of very bright, but darker material is seen primarily in valleys between ridges. Some of the most prominent ridges have dark deposits along their margins and in their central valleys. Some of this dark material probably moved down the flanks of the ridges and has piled up along their bases. The most prominent ridges are about a kilometer in width (less than a mile). In the top right hand corner of the image the end of a dark wide ridge (about 2 kilometers or 1.2 miles across) is visible. Several deep fractures cut through this ridge and continue into the plains. The brightness of the region suggests that frost covers much of Europa's surface. This image looks different from those obtained earlier in Galileo's mission, because this image was taken with the Sun higher in Europa's sky.

    This image was taken on December 16, 1997 at a range of 1,300 kilometers (800 miles) by Galileo's solid state imaging system. North is to the top of the picture, and the Sun illuminates the surface from the upper left. This image, centered at approximately 14 degrees south latitude and 194 degrees west longitude, covers an area approximately 20 kilometers (12 miles) on each side. The resolution is 26 meters (85 feet) per picture element.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/ galileo.

  7. Utility of Thermal Sharpening Over Texas High Plains Irrigated Agricultural Fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irrigated crop production in the Texas High Plains (THP) is dependent on water extracted from the Ogallala Aquifer, an area suffering from sever water shortage. Water management in this area is therefore highly important. Thermal satellite imagery at high-temporal (~daily) and high-spatial (~100 m...

  8. Distinctive upper mantle anisotropy beneath the High Lava Plains and Eastern Snake River Plain, Pacific Northwest, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Lara S.; Long, Maureen D.

    2013-10-01

    The Pacific Northwest (PNW) has experienced voluminous intraplate volcanism over the past ˜17 Ma, beginning with the Steens/Columbia River flood basalts and continuing with the still-ongoing volcanism in the High Lava Plains (HLP) and eastern Snake River Plain (SRP). Here we present two complementary datasets (SKS splitting and Rayleigh wave phase velocity anisotropy) that place constraints on the anisotropic structure of the upper mantle beneath the HLP and SRP regions. Beneath the HLP, SKS phases reveal dominantly E-W fast splitting directions and large (up to ˜2.7 s) delay times, with pronounced lateral variations in δt. Lateral and depth variability in the strength of anisotropy beneath the HLP is also evident from Rayleigh wave dispersion. Beneath the SRP, SKS splitting delay times are much smaller (˜0.5 s), and surface wave observations suggest a region of upper mantle anisotropy (˜50-150 km depth) with a geometry that deviates significantly from the generally plate motion parallel fast directions observed just outside of the SRP. Beneath the HLP, the geometry of the anomalously strong anisotropy is similar to the anisotropy in the deeper parts of the upper mantle, resulting in constructive interference and large SKS splitting delay times. Beneath the SRP, the geometry of the anomalous anisotropic region in the shallow mantle is different, resulting in destructive interference and reduced SKS splitting delay times. We discuss several possible explanations for these observations, including variations in olivine lattice-preferred orientation (LPO) strength, transitions in olivine fabric type, and a contribution from aligned partial melt.

  9. Hydrologic characteristics of soils in the High Plains, northern Great Plains, and Central Texas Carbonates Regional Aquifer Systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dugan, Jack T.; Hobbs, Ryne D.; Ihm, Laurie A.

    1990-01-01

    Certain physical characteristics of soils, including permeability, available water capacity, thickness, and topographic position, have a measurable effect on the hydrology of an area. These characteristics control the rate at which precipitation infiltrates or is transmitted through the soil, and thus they have an important role in determining the rates of actual evapotranspiration (consumptive water use), groundwater recharge, and surface runoff. In studies of groundwater hydrology, it is useful to differentiate soils spatially according to their physical characteristics and to assign values that indicate their hydrologic responses.The principal purpose of this report is to describe the relation between the hydrologic characteristics of the soils in the study area and those environmental factors that affect the development and distribution of the soils. This objective will be achieved by (1) defining both qualitatively and quantitatively those soil characteristics that affect hydrology, and (2) classifying and delineating the boundaries of the soils in the study area according to these hydrologic characteristics.The study area includes the High Plains, Northern Great Plains, the Central Texas Carbonates, and parts of the Central Midwest Regional Aquifer Systems as described by the U.S. Geological Survey Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) Program (Sun, 1986, p.5and Sun, personal commun., June 1985) and shown in figures 1 through 5. The spatial patterns of the soils classified according to their quantifiable hydrologic characteristics will subsequently serve as an integral component in the analysis of actual evapotranspiration (consumptive water use), consumptive irrigation requirements, and potential ground-water recharge of the study area.The classification system used to describe the soils in this report is compatible with that of Dugan (1986). Dugan described the same characteristics of soils that are immediately underlain by principal aquifers of

  10. Management characteristics, lameness, and body injuries of dairy cattle housed in high-performance dairy herds in Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Cook, N B; Hess, J P; Foy, M R; Bennett, T B; Brotzman, R L

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to benchmark the prevalence of lameness, hock and knee injuries, and neck and back injuries among high-performance, freestall-housed dairy herds in Wisconsin. A random selection of 66 herds with 200 or more cows was derived from herds that clustered with high performance in year 2011 Dairy Herd Improvement records for milk production, udder health, reproduction, and other health parameters. Herds were surveyed to collect information about management, facilities, and well-being. Well-being measures were obtained through direct observation of the high-producing mature cow group, surveying 9,690 cows in total. Total herd size averaged (mean ± standard deviation) 851±717 cows, ranging 203 to 2,966 cows, with an energy-corrected milk production of 40.1±4.4kg/cow per day. Prevalence of clinical lameness (5-point scale, locomotion score ≥3) and severe lameness (locomotion score ≥4) averaged 13.2±7.3 and 2.5±2.7%, respectively. The prevalence of all hock and knee injuries, including hair loss, swelling, and ulceration, was similar at 50.3±28.3 and 53.0±24.0%, respectively. Severe (swelling and ulceration) hock and knee injury prevalence were 12.2±15.3 and 6.2±5.5%, respectively. The prevalence of all neck injuries (including hair loss, swelling and ulceration) was 8.6±16.3%; whereas the prevalence of swollen or abraded necks was low, averaging 2.0±4.1%. Back injuries (proportion of cows with missing or abraded spinous processes, hooks, or pins) followed a similar trend with a low mean prevalence of 3.6±3.4%. Overall, physical well-being characteristics of this selection of high-producing, freestall-housed dairy herds provide evidence that lameness and injury are not inevitable consequences of the confinement housing of large numbers of dairy cattle. In particular, lameness prevalence rivals that of lower-production grazing systems. However, hock and other injury risk remains a concern that can be addressed through a choice in

  11. Groundwater depletion and sustainability of irrigation in the US High Plains and Central Valley

    PubMed Central

    Scanlon, Bridget R.; Faunt, Claudia C.; Longuevergne, Laurent; Reedy, Robert C.; Alley, William M.; McGuire, Virginia L.; McMahon, Peter B.

    2012-01-01

    Aquifer overexploitation could significantly impact crop production in the United States because 60% of irrigation relies on groundwater. Groundwater depletion in the irrigated High Plains and California Central Valley accounts for ∼50% of groundwater depletion in the United States since 1900. A newly developed High Plains recharge map shows that high recharge in the northern High Plains results in sustainable pumpage, whereas lower recharge in the central and southern High Plains has resulted in focused depletion of 330 km3 of fossil groundwater, mostly recharged during the past 13,000 y. Depletion is highly localized with about a third of depletion occurring in 4% of the High Plains land area. Extrapolation of the current depletion rate suggests that 35% of the southern High Plains will be unable to support irrigation within the next 30 y. Reducing irrigation withdrawals could extend the lifespan of the aquifer but would not result in sustainable management of this fossil groundwater. The Central Valley is a more dynamic, engineered system, with north/south diversions of surface water since the 1950s contributing to ∼7× higher recharge. However, these diversions are regulated because of impacts on endangered species. A newly developed Central Valley Hydrologic Model shows that groundwater depletion since the 1960s, totaling 80 km3, occurs mostly in the south (Tulare Basin) and primarily during droughts. Increasing water storage through artificial recharge of excess surface water in aquifers by up to 3 km3 shows promise for coping with droughts and improving sustainability of groundwater resources in the Central Valley. PMID:22645352

  12. Groundwater depletion and sustainability of irrigation in the US High Plains and Central Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scanlon, Bridget R.; Faunt, Claudia C.; Longuevergne, Laurent; Reedy, Robert C.; Alley, William M.; McGuire, Virginia L.; McMahon, Peter B.

    2012-01-01

    Aquifer overexploitation could significantly impact crop production in the United States because 60% of irrigation relies on groundwater. Groundwater depletion in the irrigated High Plains and California Central Valley accounts for ~50% of groundwater depletion in the United States since 1900. A newly developed High Plains recharge map shows that high recharge in the northern High Plains results in sustainable pumpage, whereas lower recharge in the central and southern High Plains has resulted in focused depletion of 330 km3 of fossil groundwater, mostly recharged during the past 13,000 y. Depletion is highly localized with about a third of depletion occurring in 4% of the High Plains land area. Extrapolation of the current depletion rate suggests that 35% of the southern High Plains will be unable to support irrigation within the next 30 y. Reducing irrigation withdrawals could extend the lifespan of the aquifer but would not result in sustainable management of this fossil groundwater. The Central Valley is a more dynamic, engineered system, with north/south diversions of surface water since the 1950s contributing to ~7× higher recharge. However, these diversions are regulated because of impacts on endangered species. A newly developed Central Valley Hydrologic Model shows that groundwater depletion since the 1960s, totaling 80 km3, occurs mostly in the south (Tulare Basin) and primarily during droughts. Increasing water storage through artificial recharge of excess surface water in aquifers by up to 3 km3 shows promise for coping with droughts and improving sustainability of groundwater resources in the Central Valley.

  13. Groundwater depletion and sustainability of irrigation in the US High Plains and Central Valley.

    PubMed

    Scanlon, Bridget R; Faunt, Claudia C; Longuevergne, Laurent; Reedy, Robert C; Alley, William M; McGuire, Virginia L; McMahon, Peter B

    2012-06-12

    Aquifer overexploitation could significantly impact crop production in the United States because 60% of irrigation relies on groundwater. Groundwater depletion in the irrigated High Plains and California Central Valley accounts for ~50% of groundwater depletion in the United States since 1900. A newly developed High Plains recharge map shows that high recharge in the northern High Plains results in sustainable pumpage, whereas lower recharge in the central and southern High Plains has resulted in focused depletion of 330 km(3) of fossil groundwater, mostly recharged during the past 13,000 y. Depletion is highly localized with about a third of depletion occurring in 4% of the High Plains land area. Extrapolation of the current depletion rate suggests that 35% of the southern High Plains will be unable to support irrigation within the next 30 y. Reducing irrigation withdrawals could extend the lifespan of the aquifer but would not result in sustainable management of this fossil groundwater. The Central Valley is a more dynamic, engineered system, with north/south diversions of surface water since the 1950s contributing to ~7× higher recharge. However, these diversions are regulated because of impacts on endangered species. A newly developed Central Valley Hydrologic Model shows that groundwater depletion since the 1960s, totaling 80 km(3), occurs mostly in the south (Tulare Basin) and primarily during droughts. Increasing water storage through artificial recharge of excess surface water in aquifers by up to 3 km(3) shows promise for coping with droughts and improving sustainability of groundwater resources in the Central Valley. PMID:22645352

  14. The High Plains Groundwater Availability Study: Abundant Groundwater Doesn't Necessarily Mean Abundant Surface Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, S. M.; Stanton, J. S.; Flynn, A. T.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's Groundwater Resources Program is conducting an assessment of groundwater availability to gain a clearer understanding of the status of the Nation's groundwater resources and the natural and human factors that can affect those resources. Additional goals are to better estimate availability and suitability of those resources in the future for various uses. The High Plains aquifer is a nationally important water resource that underlies about 174,000 square miles in parts of eight western states. The aquifer serves as a primary source of drinking water for approximately 2.3 million people and also sustains more than one quarter of the Nation's agricultural production. In 2000, total water withdrawals of 17.5 billion gallons per day from the aquifer accounted for 20 percent of all groundwater withdrawn in the United States, making it the most intensively pumped aquifer in the Nation. In the Central and Southern High Plains, the aquifer historically had less saturated thickness, and current resource management issues are focused on the availability of water, and reduced ability to irrigate as water levels and well productivity have declined. In contrast, the Northern High Plains aquifer includes the thickest part of the aquifer and a larger saturated thickness than the other parts of the aquifer, and current water resource management issues are related to the interaction of groundwater with surface water and resource management triggered primarily by the availability of surface water. The presentation will cover major components of the High Plains Groundwater Availability Study, including estimating water budget components for the entire High Plains aquifer, building a refined groundwater model for the Northern High Plains aquifer, and using that model to better understand surface- and groundwater interaction and characterize water availability.

  15. Changes in water levels and storage in the High Plains Aquifer, predevelopment to 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGuire, V.L.

    2011-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer underlies 111.8 million acres (175,000 square miles) in parts of eight States - Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The area overlying the High Plains aquifer is one of the primary agricultural regions in the Nation. Water-level declines began in parts of the High Plains aquifer soon after the onset of substantial irrigation with groundwater from the aquifer (about 1950 and termed "predevelopment" in this fact sheet). By 1980, water levels in the High Plains aquifer in parts of Texas, Oklahoma, and southwestern Kansas had declined more than 100 feet (ft) (Luckey and others, 1981). In 1987, in response to declining water levels, Congress directed the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with numerous Federal, State, and local water-resources entities, to assess and track water-level changes in the aquifer. This fact sheet summarizes changes in water levels and drainable water in storage in the High Plains aquifer from predevelopment to 2009. Drainable water in storage is the fraction of water in the aquifer that will drain by gravity and can be withdrawn by wells. The remaining water in the aquifer is held to the aquifer material by capillary forces and generally cannot be withdrawn by wells. Drainable water in storage is termed "water in storage" in this report. A companion USGS report presents more detailed and technical information about water-level and storage changes in the High Plains aquifer during this period (McGuire, 2011).

  16. Methane emissions from a New Mexico dairy lagoon system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methane is a greenhouse gas with a global warming potential 25 times that of carbon dioxide. Animal agriculture is recognized as a significant source of methane to the atmosphere. Dairies on the Southern High Plains of New Mexico and Texas are typically open lot, and major sources of methane are the...

  17. Chemical Analysis of Pottery Demonstrates Prehistoric Origin for High-Altitude Alpine Dairying

    PubMed Central

    Carrer, Francesco; Colonese, André Carlo; Lucquin, Alexandre; Petersen Guedes, Eduardo; Thompson, Anu; Walsh, Kevin; Reitmaier, Thomas; Craig, Oliver E.

    2016-01-01

    The European high Alps are internationally renowned for their dairy produce, which are of huge cultural and economic significance to the region. Although the recent history of alpine dairying has been well studied, virtually nothing is known regarding the origins of this practice. This is due to poor preservation of high altitude archaeological sites and the ephemeral nature of transhumance economic practices. Archaeologists have suggested that stone structures that appear around 3,000 years ago are associated with more intense seasonal occupation of the high Alps and perhaps the establishment of new economic strategies. Here, we report on organic residue analysis of small fragments of pottery sherds that are occasionally preserved both at these sites and earlier prehistoric rock-shelters. Based mainly on isotopic criteria, dairy lipids could only be identified on ceramics from the stone structures, which date to the Iron Age (ca. 3,000–2,500 BP), providing the earliest evidence of this practice in the high Alps. Dairy production in such a marginal environment implies a high degree of risk even by today’s standards. We postulate that this practice was driven by population increase and climate deterioration that put pressure on lowland agropastoral systems and the establishment of more extensive trade networks, leading to greater demand for highly nutritious and transportable dairy products. PMID:27100391

  18. Chemical Analysis of Pottery Demonstrates Prehistoric Origin for High-Altitude Alpine Dairying.

    PubMed

    Carrer, Francesco; Colonese, André Carlo; Lucquin, Alexandre; Petersen Guedes, Eduardo; Thompson, Anu; Walsh, Kevin; Reitmaier, Thomas; Craig, Oliver E

    2016-01-01

    The European high Alps are internationally renowned for their dairy produce, which are of huge cultural and economic significance to the region. Although the recent history of alpine dairying has been well studied, virtually nothing is known regarding the origins of this practice. This is due to poor preservation of high altitude archaeological sites and the ephemeral nature of transhumance economic practices. Archaeologists have suggested that stone structures that appear around 3,000 years ago are associated with more intense seasonal occupation of the high Alps and perhaps the establishment of new economic strategies. Here, we report on organic residue analysis of small fragments of pottery sherds that are occasionally preserved both at these sites and earlier prehistoric rock-shelters. Based mainly on isotopic criteria, dairy lipids could only be identified on ceramics from the stone structures, which date to the Iron Age (ca. 3,000-2,500 BP), providing the earliest evidence of this practice in the high Alps. Dairy production in such a marginal environment implies a high degree of risk even by today's standards. We postulate that this practice was driven by population increase and climate deterioration that put pressure on lowland agropastoral systems and the establishment of more extensive trade networks, leading to greater demand for highly nutritious and transportable dairy products. PMID:27100391

  19. Harvest timing and techniques to optimize fiber quality in the Texas High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Production conditions typical to the Texas High Plains region can produce cotton crops with high short fiber and nep content, both of which have a detrimental impact on ring spinning performance. Since Texas now produces nearly 50% of the US cotton crop annually, it is critical that research focuses...

  20. Lysimetric evaluation of eddy covariance fluxes over irrigated sunflower in the Texas High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water use efficiency of different cropping systems is of high interest to the agricultural community in arid and semi-arid regions such as the Texas High Plains. In these regions, irrigation is extensively used to supplement generally limited, erratic growing season rainfall to meet crop water deman...

  1. Nitrogen Requirements for Ethanol Production from Sweet and Photoperiod Sensitive Sorghums in the Southern High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum (Sorhum bicolor L.) has high water use efficiency, and is therefore widely cultivated in the Southern High Plains (SHP). Interest in sorghums for biofuel feedstock has increased recently as ethanol demand expands. Unlike grain sorghum, little data are available on N fertilizer requirements f...

  2. Identifiying and evaluating a suitable index for agricultural drought monitoring in the Texas High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drought is a highly destructive natural phenomenon that affects portions of the United States almost every year. Severe water deficiencies can become catastrophic for agriculture and crop yields, especially in the Texas High Plains where generally inadequate rainfall is augmented by irrigation for c...

  3. Evaluating three evapotranspiration mapping algorithms with lysimetric data in the semi-arid Texas High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ground water levels are declining at unsustainable rates in the Texas High Plains. Accurate evapotranspiration (ET) maps would provide valuable information on regional crop water use and hydrology. This study evaluated three remote sensing based algorithms for estimating ET rates for the Texas High ...

  4. Downscaling of Land Surface Temperature Maps in the Texas High Plains with TsHARP Method

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High spatial resolution daily evapotranspiration (ET) maps would significantly improve assessing crop water requirements in arid and semi-arid regions of the world such as Texas High Plains (THP) where water demand exceeds supply for irrigation. Remote sensing-based models that use energy balance eq...

  5. Adaptability of irrigated spring canola oil production to the U.S. High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Canola oil is high in oleic acid which is commonly used for food and industrial purposes. To determine adaptability of spring canola (Brassica napus L.) to the High Plains for industrial oil production, 26 irrigated trials were conducted from 2005-2008. Trials were divided into five regions: (1) 36...

  6. Lysimetric evaluation of eddy covariance fluxes over irrigated cotton in the Texas High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water use efficiency of different cropping systems is of high interest to the agricultural community in arid and semi-arid regions such as the Texas High Plains. In these regions, irrigation is extensively used to supplement inadequate growing season rainfall to meet crop water demand. Although larg...

  7. Ovarian cysts in high-yielding dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Braw-Tal, R; Pen, S; Roth, Z

    2009-09-15

    We examined the hormonal and morphologic changes associated with ovarian cyst formation in high-yielding dairy cows. Follicle fluid was aspirated from 90 cysts and 15 preovulatory and 18 subordinate follicles and used for hormonal determination. Pieces of cystic wall were subjected to morphologic and immunohistochemical evaluation. Cysts were characterized by low concentrations of insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), and glucose and high activity of IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs). Insulin and IGF-I levels were (mean+/-SEM) 205+/-22 pg/mL and 146+/-42 ng/mL in preovulatory follicles and 3+/-1 pg/mL and 61+/-6 ng/mL in cysts, respectively (P<0.001). Insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins activity was about 10 times higher in cysts than in preovulatory follicles. Cysts were classified into three types according to their estradiol-to-progesterone (E/P) ratio. Type 1 cysts (n=23) exhibited the highest E/P ratio (10.8+/-2.3), partial loss of granulosa cells, and severe morphologic changes in the theca interna. Expression of P(450) side-chain cleavage and P(450) 17 alpha-hydroxylase was noted in theca cells and expression of inhibin-alpha in granulosa cells. Type 2 cysts (n=35) had a low E/P ratio (0.07+/-0.02), and patches of luteal-like tissue in the cystic wall. Type 3 cysts (n=32) had an E/P ratio of 0.91+/-0.17, and no recognizable granulosa or theca cells. In summary, intrafollicular steroid levels as expressed by E/P ratio, together with IGF-I and insulin levels and morphologic changes in the follicular wall, may serve as accurate cyst-classification parameters. Because IGF-I and/or insulin play an essential role in the final stage of follicle development, it can be speculated that abnormal levels of these metabolic hormones might lead to follicle dysfunction, resulting in follicular regression or cyst formation. PMID:19559473

  8. Composition and Characteristics of Aerosols in the Southern High Plains of Texas (USA)

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, Thomas E.; Stout, John E.; Peinado, Porfirio

    2009-03-10

    Aerosol samples on polycarbonate filters were collected daily for several years in the Southern High Plains region of western Texas. Selected samples representing a variety of size modes, locations, and air quality conditions were analyzed by PIXE. Silicon and other crustal elements dominated during dust storms and in the coarse mode; sulfur dominated during anthropogenic pollution episodes and in the fine mode. A mixture of both aerosol types was present even during 'clear' conditions. The Al/Si ratio in dust events increases with wind speed. These data provide an initial assessment of aerosol chemistry in the West Texas plains.

  9. Composition and Characteristics of Aerosols in the Southern High Plains of Texas (USA)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aerosol samples on polycarbonate filters were collected daily for several years in the Southern High Plains region of western Texas. Selected samples representing a variety of size modes, locations, and air quality conditions were analyzed by PIXE. Silicon and other crustal elements dominated duri...

  10. Spatial interpolation of daily evapotranspiration data in the Texas High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Texas High Plains Evapotranspiration (ET) Network collects meteorological data from grass-referenced weather stations at hourly intervals and estimates hourly and daily reference ET using the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) Standardized Reference ET equation. Producers in the Texas Hi...

  11. Picker vs. stripper harvesting in the Texas High Plains: Agronomic implications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many changes have occurred during the last decade in the Texas High Plains which have resulted in increased cotton yields and improved fiber quality. The main factors associated with both higher lint yield and quality include a shift in varieties planted, with virtually no "storm-proof stripper type...

  12. Evaluation of commercial cotton harvesting systems in the southern high plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton production practices have changed in the Southern High Plains of the US over the last decade resulting in increased yeilds and improved fiber quality. Moreover, the majority of US cotton now competes in a global fiber market that demands higher quality fiber for ring spun yarn than the former...

  13. Field Wind Tunnel Testing of Two Silt Loam Soils in the North American Central High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The change from conventional tillage to no-till cropping systems and the emergence of cropping systems with fewer and shorter fallow periods has resulted in reduced wind erosion on the North American Central High Plains. This reduction has been attributed primarily to increased surface coverage by ...

  14. Water use and grain yield in drought-tolerant corn in the Texas High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drought is an important factor limiting corn (Zea mays L.) yields in the Texas High Plains, and adoption of drought-tolerant (DT) hybrids could be a management tool under water shortage. We conducted a 3-yr field study to investigate grain yield, evapotranspiration (ET), and water use efficiency (WU...

  15. Early and late maturing grain sorghum under variable climatic conditions in the Texas High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the Texas High Plains, variable climatic conditions prevail between and within growing seasons. As this area continues to experience drought conditions, and water resources for irrigation become more limited, sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] production may become a more popular choice to sus...

  16. Evapotranspiration and crop coefficients for irrigated sunflower in the southern high plains.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is diverse crop grown for oil or confectionary uses in the Southern High Plains often under irrigation. Crop water use (evapotranspiration or ET) was measured in 2009 and 2011 in two 4-ha fields using two precision 9 m**2 weighing lysimeters containing 2.3-m deep mo...

  17. Validating Northern Texas High Plains groundwater model with data from observation wells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diminishing groundwater supplies will severely reduce regional crop and animal production in the Northern High Plains of Texas where irrigated crop production accounts for a major portion of groundwater withdrawals from the Ogallala Aquifer. The objective of this study was to develop, calibrate and...

  18. Irrigation in the Texas High Plains: A brief history and potential reductions in demand

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irrigation for crop production in the semi-arid Texas High Plains is dependent on groundwater withdrawals from the Ogallala Aquifer, which is declining because withdrawals exceed natural recharge. Irrigation development in the region accelerated during the 1950s. Both irrigated area and volume pumpe...

  19. Hydrus-3D simulations: Irrigation management strategies for the Texas High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Half of the cultivated area and more than 80% of crop production in the Texas High Plains (THP) comes from irrigated agriculture, which depends on water from the Ogallala Aquifer. The water table of this aquifer is declining because groundwater withdrawals exceed recharge. This fact compromises its ...

  20. Wastewater reuse and Ogallala Aquifer Recharge in the Southern High Plains of Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Municipalities in the Southern High Plains of TX use land application of treated wastewater extensively. For example, in the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality’s Region 2 counties (Lubbock and surrounding counties), there are ~ 7285 ha of agricultural land over lying the Ogallala Aquifer per...

  1. Spatial interpolation of daily reference evapotranspiration in the Texas High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Texas High Plains Evapotranspiration (ET) Network collects meteorological data from 18 grass reference weather stations at hourly intervals and estimates hourly and daily reference ET using the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) Standardized Reference ET equation. Producers in the Texas ...

  2. How Rural and Nonrural Principals Differ in High Plains U.S. States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beesley, Andrea D.; Clark, Tedra F.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the characteristics of rural versus nonrural principals in the High Plains states. It is based on data from the Schools and Staffing Survey, examining the differences in preparation and experience and the extent to which characteristics of the rural principalship (perceptions of autonomy, workload, etc.) predicted retention.…

  3. Water-level records for the northern High Plains of Colorado, 1979-83

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blattner, Joe L.; Rasmuson, Bruce D.

    1983-01-01

    Water-level measurements were made in 638 wells in the winter of 1982-83, in the northern High Plains of Colorado. The water-level measurements for the winter of 1982-83 and for four preceding winters are given in a table, which also contains the location, depth, land-surface elevation and the aquifer for each well. (USGS)

  4. Comparing SEBAL ET with lysimeter data in the semi-arid Texas High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL), a spatial evapotranspiration (ET) estimation method, has been applied with Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data throughout the world. However, it has never been tested for semiarid conditions of the Texas High Plains. In this study, SEBAL algorithm was...

  5. El Nino southern oscillation effects on dryland crop production in the Texas High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Risk adverse dryland crop management in the US Southern High Plains may stabilize year to year productivity, however in some years the full yield potential is unrealized thereby reducing the overall cropping system productivity. Equatorial Pacific sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) systematica...

  6. Groundwater levels in Northern Texas High Plains:Baseline for existing agricultural management practices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New groundwater policies are being debated for the northern High Plains of Texas due to the depletion of the underlying Ogallala Aquifer, the major source of water for irrigation, and they should be thoroughly evaluated using a calibrated groundwater model for assessing the impact on subsequent grou...

  7. Influence of conservation practices on ecosystem services provided by playas in the High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The majority of the High Plains region is comprised of shortgrass prairie. Within this shortgrass prairie region, playas are the dominant wetland type. Playas are shallow depressional recharge wetlands, each existing within their own individual catchments. This is also one of the most intensively...

  8. Energy balance of irrigated and dryland cotton in the Southern High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) is a major crop in the Southern High Plains that is produced under both irrigated and dryland cultures. In 2008, the energy balance components (net radiation, soil heat flux, sensible heat flux, and latent heat flux) were measured at Bushland, Texas. Four precision weighi...

  9. Impact of agroecosystems on groundwater resources in the Central High Plains, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agroecosystems impact water resources by changing water partitioning at the land surface and by consuming most fresh water through irrigation. The study assesses impacts of agroecosystems on groundwater resources in the Texas High Plains (37,000 km2 area). Borehole samples beneath different agroecos...

  10. Soil Profile Sulfate in Irrigated Southern High Plains Cotton Fields and Ogallala Groundwater

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil Profile Sulfate in Irrigated Southern High Plains Cotton Fields and Ogallala Groundwater Abstract: Sulfate (SO4) is one of the most important anions in soils and groundwater in semiarid regions, including West Texas. Crops’ sulfur (S) requirement is about 10 to 20 % of the nitrogen (N) require...

  11. Modeling Crop Responses to Initial Soil Water in the High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dryland farming strategies in the High Plains must make efficient use of limited and variable precipitation and stored water in the soil profile for stable and sustainable farm productivity. Current research efforts focus on replacing summer fallow in the region with more profitable and environmenta...

  12. Influence of feedyards on bioaerosols of two small towns on the Southern High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aerosol particulates and bioaerosols were compared between two small cities located in the Southern High Plains. Aerosol particulate generators in rural communities have not been well studied. City 1 had many feedyards located in and near it and City 2 had one feedyard located beyond the air sampli...

  13. Assessing satellite-based start-of-season trends in the US High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To adequately assess the effects of global warming it is necessary to address trends and impacts at the local level. This study examines phenological changes in the start-of-season (SOS) derived from satellite observations from 1982–2008 in the US High Plains region. The surface climate-based SOS wa...

  14. A water resource assessment of the playa lakes of the Texas High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Texas Water Development Board (TWDB) staff are studying the water-resource potential of playa lakes in the Texas High Plains in partnership with the U. S. Department of Agriculture— Agricultural Research Service and Texas Tech University. Phase 1 of the research seeks to measure the volume of water ...

  15. Altitude and configuration of the water table in the High Plains Aquifer in Kansas, 1960

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pabst, Marilyn E.; Stullken, Lloyd E.

    1986-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer in Kansas is part of a regional aquifer system that extends into Colorado, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The aquifer in Kansas underlies an area of 31,000 square miles in the western and south-central part of the State. The aquifer is a hydraulically connected assemblage of unconsolidated water-bearing deposits. In western Kansas, the High Plains aquifer consists principally of the Ogallala Formation of the late Tertiary age and the overlying deposits of Quaternary age. In south-central Kansas, the aquifer consists of unconsolidated deposits principally of Quaternary age. Valley alluvium of Quaternary age also is included in the deposits in both areas. The High Plains aquifer is delimited on the east by outcrops of Permian or Cretaceous rocks and by unsaturated deposits of Quaternary age. The altitude and configuration of the water table during 1960 are shown for the High Plains aquifer in Kansas. The water table sloped generally from west to east at an average rate of 10 feet per mile. The altitude of the water table ranged from about 3,900 feet in the southwest corner of Sherman County, northwestern Kansas, to about 1,350 feet in northern Sedgwick County, southcentral Kansas. Groundwater moves perpendicular to the water table contours from higher altitudes in the western part of the High Plains to lower altitudes in the east. Contours that cross stream valleys without flexure may indicate that the water table was below the streambed. Upstream flexure of water table contours along streams indicates that groundwater flowed toward, and discharged into, streams. This is most evident along the South Fork Republican River in Cheyenne County, Northwestern Kansas, and the South Fork Ninnescah River in Pratt and Kingman Counties, south-central Kansas. (USGS)

  16. Dynamics of Cultural Transmission in Native Americans of the High Great Plains

    PubMed Central

    Lycett, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Culture is a phenomenon shared by all humans. Attempts to understand how dynamic factors affect the origin and distribution of cultural elements are, therefore, of interest to all humanity. As case studies go, understanding the distribution of cultural elements in Native American communities during the historical period of the Great Plains would seem a most challenging one. Famously, there is a mixture of powerful internal and external factors, creating-for a relatively brief period in time-a seemingly distinctive set of shared elements from a linguistically diverse set of peoples. This is known across the world as the “Great Plains culture.” Here, quantitative analyses show how different processes operated on two sets of cultural traits among nine High Plains groups. Moccasin decorations exhibit a pattern consistent with geographically-mediated between-group interaction. However, group variations in the religious ceremony of the Sun Dance also reveal evidence of purifying cultural selection associated with historical biases, dividing down ancient linguistic lines. The latter shows that while the conglomeration of “Plains culture” may have been a product of merging new ideas with old, combined with cultural interchange between groups, the details of what was accepted, rejected or elaborated in each case reflected preexisting ideological biases. Although culture may sometimes be a “melting pot,” the analyses show that even in highly fluid situations, cultural mosaics may be indirectly shaped by historical factors that are not always obvious. PMID:25372277

  17. Dynamics of cultural transmission in Native Americans of the high Great Plains.

    PubMed

    Lycett, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    Culture is a phenomenon shared by all humans. Attempts to understand how dynamic factors affect the origin and distribution of cultural elements are, therefore, of interest to all humanity. As case studies go, understanding the distribution of cultural elements in Native American communities during the historical period of the Great Plains would seem a most challenging one. Famously, there is a mixture of powerful internal and external factors, creating-for a relatively brief period in time-a seemingly distinctive set of shared elements from a linguistically diverse set of peoples. This is known across the world as the "Great Plains culture." Here, quantitative analyses show how different processes operated on two sets of cultural traits among nine High Plains groups. Moccasin decorations exhibit a pattern consistent with geographically-mediated between-group interaction. However, group variations in the religious ceremony of the Sun Dance also reveal evidence of purifying cultural selection associated with historical biases, dividing down ancient linguistic lines. The latter shows that while the conglomeration of "Plains culture" may have been a product of merging new ideas with old, combined with cultural interchange between groups, the details of what was accepted, rejected or elaborated in each case reflected preexisting ideological biases. Although culture may sometimes be a "melting pot," the analyses show that even in highly fluid situations, cultural mosaics may be indirectly shaped by historical factors that are not always obvious. PMID:25372277

  18. Geodatabase compilation of hydrogeologic, remote sensing, and water-budget-component data for the High Plains aquifer, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houston, Natalie A.; Gonzales-Bradford, Sophia L.; Flynn, Amanda T.; Qi, Sharon L.; Peterson, Steven M.; Stanton, Jennifer S.; Ryter, Derek W.; Sohl, Terry L.; Senay, Gabriel B.

    2013-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer underlies almost 112 million acres in the central United States. It is one of the largest aquifers in the Nation in terms of annual groundwater withdrawals and provides drinking water for 2.3 million people. The High Plains aquifer has gained national and international attention as a highly stressed groundwater supply primarily because it has been appreciably depleted in some areas. The U.S. Geological Survey has an active program to monitor the changes in groundwater levels for the High Plains aquifer and has documented substantial water-level changes since predevelopment: the High Plains Groundwater Availability Study is part of a series of regional groundwater availability studies conducted to evaluate the availability and sustainability of major aquifers across the Nation. The goals of the regional groundwater studies are to quantify current groundwater resources in an aquifer system, evaluate how these resources have changed over time, and provide tools to better understand a systems response to future demands and environmental stresses. The purpose of this report is to present selected data developed and synthesized for the High Plains aquifer as part of the High Plains Groundwater Availability Study. The High Plains Groundwater Availability Study includes the development of a water-budget-component analysis for the High Plains completed in 2011 and development of a groundwater-flow model for the northern High Plains aquifer. Both of these tasks require large amounts of data about the High Plains aquifer. Data pertaining to the High Plains aquifer were collected, synthesized, and then organized into digital data containers called geodatabases. There are 8 geodatabases, 1 file geodatabase and 7 personal geodatabases, that have been grouped in three categories: hydrogeologic data, remote sensing data, and water-budget-component data. The hydrogeologic data pertaining to the northern High Plains aquifer is included in three separate

  19. Incidence and Diversity of Potentially Highly Heat-Resistant Spores Isolated at Dairy Farms

    PubMed Central

    Scheldeman, Patsy; Pil, Annelies; Herman, Lieve; De Vos, Paul; Heyndrickx, Marc

    2005-01-01

    The presence of highly heat-resistant spores of Bacillus sporothermodurans in ultrahigh-temperature or sterilized consumer milk has emerged as an important item in the dairy industry. Their presence is considered undesirable since they hamper the achievement of commercial sterility requirements. By using a selective 30-min heat treatment at 100°C, 17 Belgian dairy farms were screened to evaluate the presence, sources, and nature of potentially highly heat-resistant spores in raw milk. High numbers of these spores were detected in the filter cloth of the milking equipment and in green crop and fodder samples. About 700 strains were isolated after the selective heating, of which 635 could be screened by fatty acid methyl ester analysis. Representative strains were subjected to amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, percent G+C content, and DNA-DNA reassociations for further identification. The strain collection showed a remarkable diversity, with representatives of seven aerobic spore-forming genera. Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus pallidus were the most predominant species overall. Twenty-three percent of the 603 spore-forming isolates proved to belong to 18 separate novel species. These findings suggest that the selective heating revealed a pool of unknown organisms with a higher heat-resistant character. This study showed that high spore counts can occur at the dairy farm and that feed and milking equipment can act as reservoirs or entry points for potentially highly heat-resistant spores into raw milk. Lowering this spore load by good hygienic measures could probably further reduce the contamination level of raw milk, in this way minimizing the aerobic spore-forming bacteria that could lead to spoilage of milk and dairy products. Assessment and characterization of this particular flora are of great importance to allow the dairy or food industry to adequately deal with newly arising microbiological problems. PMID:15746351

  20. Assessment of the effects of farming and conservation programs on pesticide deposition in high plains wetlands.

    PubMed

    Belden, Jason B; Hanson, Brittany Rae; McMurry, Scott T; Smith, Loren M; Haukos, David A

    2012-03-20

    We examined pesticide contamination in sediments from depressional playa wetlands embedded in the three dominant land-use types in the western High Plains and Rainwater Basin of the United States including cropland, perennial grassland enrolled in conservation programs (e.g., Conservation Reserve Program [CRP]), and native grassland or reference condition. Two hundred and sixty four playas, selected from the three land-use types, were sampled from Nebraska and Colorado in the north to Texas and New Mexico in the south. Sediments were examined for most of the commonly used agricultural pesticides. Atrazine, acetochlor, metolachlor, and trifluralin were the most commonly detected pesticides in the northern High Plains and Rainwater Basin. Atrazine, metolachlor, trifluralin, and pendimethalin were the most commonly detected pesticides in the southern High Plains. The top 5-10% of playas contained herbicide concentrations that are high enough to pose a hazard for plants. However, insecticides and fungicides were rarely detected. Pesticide occurrence and concentrations were higher in wetlands surrounded by cropland as compared to native grassland and CRP perennial grasses. The CRP, which is the largest conservation program in the U.S., was protective and had lower pesticide concentrations compared to cropland. PMID:22356096

  1. Altitude and configuration of the water table in the High Plains aquifer in Kansas, 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pabst, Marilyn E.; Stullken, Lloyd E.

    1985-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer in Kansas is a part of a regional system that extends from South Dakota to Texas. The aquifer in Kansas underlies an area of 31,000 square miles in the western and south-central part of the State. This aquifer is a hydraulically connected assemblage of unconsolidated water-bearing deposits of Tertiary and Quaternary age. Maps published at a scale of 1:500 ,000 show the altitude and configuration of the water table in Kansas during 1980. Ground water moves from higher altitudes in the western part of the high Plains to lower altitudes in the eastern part at an average rate of 10 feet per mile. The up-gradient flexure of water-table contours along some of the valleys indicates that ground water discharges to the streams in those areas. (USGS)

  2. Altitude and configuration of the water table in the High Plains Aquifer in Kansas, 1970

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pabst, Marilyn E.; Stullken, Lloyd E.

    1985-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer in Kansas is a part of a regional system that extends from South Dakota to Texas. The aquifer in Kansas underlies an area of 31,000 square miles in the western and south-central part. This aquifer is a hydraulically connected assemblage of unconsolidated water-bearing deposits of Tertiary and Quaternary age. Maps published at a scale of 1:500,000 show the altitude and configuration of the water table in Kansas during 1970. Ground water moved from higher altitudes in the western part of the High Plains to lower altitudes in the eastern part under an average gradient of 10 feet per mile. The upgradient flexure of water-table contours along some of the valleys indicates that ground water was discharged to the streams in those areas. (USGS)

  3. Altitude and configuration of the water table in the High Plains Aquifer in Kansas, 1965

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pabst, Marilyn E.; Stullken, Lloyd E.

    1982-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer in Kansas is a part of a regional system that extends South Dakota to Texas. The aquifer in Kansas underlies an area of 31,000 square miles in the western and south-central part. This aquifer is a hydraulically connected assemblage of unconsolidated water-bearing deposits of Tertiary and Quaternary age. Maps published at a scale of 1:500,000 show the altitude and configuration of the water table in Kansas during 1965. Groundwater moved from higher altitudes in the western part of the High Plains to lower altitudes in the eastern part at a average rate of 10 ft/mi. The upgradient flexure of water table contours along some of the valleys indicates that groundwater was discharged to the streams in those areas. (USGS)

  4. Altitude and configuration of the 1980 water table in the High Plains regional aquifer, northwestern Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Havens, John S.

    1982-01-01

    During 1978, the U.S. Geological Survey began a 5-year study of the High Plains regional aquifer system to provide hydrologic information for evaluation of the effects of long-term development of the aquifer and to develop computer models for prediction of aquifer response to alternative changes in ground-water management (Weeks, 1978). This report is one of a series presenting hydrologic information of the High Plains aquifer in Oklahoma. The altitude and configuration of the water table are shown for the eastern area, consisting of Harper, Ellis, Woodward, Dewey, and Roger Mills Counties (sheet 1), and for the Panhandle area, consisting of Cimarron, Texas, and Beaver Counties (sheet 2). Water levels were measured in January, February, and March 1980 by the Oklahoma Water Resources Board.

  5. Mapping the Potential for Eolian Surface Activity in Grasslands of the High Plains using Landsat Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutmann, Ethan Dain

    2002-01-01

    There are over 100,000 square kilometers of eolian sand dunes and sand sheets in the High Plains of the central United States. These land-forms may be unstable and may reactivate again as a result of land-use, climate change, or natural climatic variability. The main goal of this thesis was to develop a model that could be used to map an estimate of future dune activity. Multi-temporal calibrated Landsats 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) and 7 Enhanced Thematic Map per Plus (ETM+) NDVI imagery were used in conjunction with the CENTURY vegetation model to correlate vegetation cover to climatic variability. This allows the creation of a predicted vegetation map which, combined with current wind and soil data, was used to create a potential sand transport map for range land in the High Plains under drought conditions.

  6. Methane Emissions from a Beef Cattle Feedyard during Winter and Summer on the Southern High Plains of Texas.

    PubMed

    Todd, Richard W; Altman, Miriam B; Cole, N Andy; Waldrip, Heidi M

    2014-07-01

    Methane (CH) emissions from enteric fermentation by livestock account for about 2.1% of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions, with beef and dairy cattle being the most significant sources. A better understanding of CH emissions from beef cattle feedyards can help build more accurate emission inventories, improve predictive models, and meet potential regulatory requirements. Our objective was to quantify CH emissions during winter and summer at a typical beef cattle feedyard on the southern High Plains in Texas. Methane emissions were quantified over 32 d in winter and 44 d in summer using open-path lasers and inverse dispersion analysis. Methane per capita emission rate (PCER) ranged from 71 to 118 g animal d in winter and from 70 to 130 g animal d in summer. Mean CH PCER was similar in January, February, and May (average, 85.0 ± 0.95 g animal d) and increased to 93.4 g animal d during the June-July period. This increase coincided with increased dietary fiber. Methane loss ranged from 9.2 to 11.4 g CH kg dry matter intake, with lower values during winter. Gross energy intake (GEI) ranged from 135.2 to 164.5 MJ animal d, and CH energy loss ranged from 4.5 to 4.9 MJ animal d. Fraction of GEI lost as CH (Y) averaged 2.8% in winter, 3.2% in summer, and 3.0% overall. These values confirm the Y value currently recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change for Tier 2 estimates of enteric CH from feedlot fed cattle. PMID:25603061

  7. A reconnaissance study of the effect of irrigated agriculture on water quality in the Ogallala Formation, Central High Plains Aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMahon, Peter B.

    2000-01-01

    In 1998, the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program began a regional study of water quality in the High Plains aquifer. The High Plains aquifer underlies an area of about 174,000 square miles in parts of eight States. Because of its large size, the High Plains aquifer has been divided into three regions: the Southern High Plains, Central High Plains, and Northern High Plains (fig. 1A). Although an assessment of water quality in each of the three regions is planned, the initial focus will be the Central High Plains aquifer. Anyone who has flown over the Central High Plains in the summer and has seen the large green circles associated with center pivot sprinklers (fig. 2) knows that irrigated agriculture is a widespread land use. Pesticides and fertilizers applied on those irrigated fields will not degrade ground-water quality if they remain in or above the root zone (fig. 3). However, if those chemicals move downward through the unsaturated zone to the water table, they may degrade the quality of the ground water. Water is the principal agent for transporting chemicals from land surface to the water table, and in the semiarid Central High Plains, irrigation often represents the most abundant source of water during the growing season. One objective of NAWQA's High Plains Regional Ground-Water study is to evaluate the effect of irrigated agriculture on the quality of recently recharged water in the Ogallala Formation of the Central High Plains aquifer (figs. 1A and 1B). The Ogallala Formation is the principal geologic unit in the Central High Plains aquifer, and it consists of poorly sorted clay, silt, sand, and gravel that generally is unconsolidated (Gutentag and others, 1984). Approximately 23 percent of the cropland overlying the Ogallala Formation is irrigated (U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1999). The NAWQA Program generally defines recently recharged ground water to be water recharged in the last 50 years. The water table in

  8. Inflammatory and metabolic responses to high-fat meals with and without dairy products in men.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Alexandra; Petry, Nicolai; Walther, Barbara; Bütikofer, Ueli; Luginbühl, Werner; Gille, Doreen; Chollet, Magali; McTernan, Philip G; Gijs, Martin A M; Vionnet, Nathalie; Pralong, François P; Laederach, Kurt; Vergères, Guy

    2015-06-28

    Postprandial inflammation is an important factor for human health since chronic low-grade inflammation is associated with chronic diseases. Dairy products have a weak but significant anti-inflammatory effect on postprandial inflammation. The objective of the present study was to compare the effect of a high-fat dairy meal (HFD meal), a high-fat non-dairy meal supplemented with milk (HFM meal) and a high-fat non-dairy control meal (HFC meal) on postprandial inflammatory and metabolic responses in healthy men. A cross-over study was conducted in nineteen male subjects. Blood samples were collected before and 1, 2, 4 and 6 h after consumption of the test meals. Plasma concentrations of insulin, glucose, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, TAG and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured at each time point. IL-6, TNF-α and endotoxin concentrations were assessed at baseline and endpoint (6 h). Time-dependent curves of these metabolic parameters were plotted, and the net incremental AUC were found to be significantly higher for TAG and lower for CRP after consumption of the HFM meal compared with the HFD meal; however, the HFM and HFD meals were not different from the HFC meal. Alterations in IL-6, TNF-α and endotoxin concentrations were not significantly different between the test meals. The results suggest that full-fat milk and dairy products (cheese and butter) have no significant impact on the inflammatory response to a high-fat meal. PMID:25990454

  9. Groundwater Management Innovations in the High Plains Aquifer, USA: A possible path towards sustainability? (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sophocleous, M. A.

    2009-12-01

    The U.S. High Plains aquifer, one of the largest freshwater aquifer systems in the world covering parts of eight US states, continues to decline, threatening the long-term viability of the region’s irrigation-based economy. The theory of the commons has meaningful messages for High-Plains jurisdictions as no private incentive exists to save for tomorrow, and agricultural prosperity depends on mining water from large portions of the aquifer. The eight High Plains states take different approaches to the development and management of the aquifer based on each state’s body of water laws that abide by different legal doctrines, on which Federal laws are superposed, thus creating difficulties in integrated regional water management efforts. Although accumulating hydrologic stresses and competing demands on groundwater resources are making groundwater management increasingly complex, they are also leading to innovative approaches to the management of groundwater supplies, and those are highlighted in this presentation as good examples for emulation in managing groundwater resources. The highlighted innovations include (1) the Texas Groundwater Availability Modeling program, (2) Colorado’s water-augmentation program, (3) Kansas’ Intensive Groundwater Use Control Area policy, (4) the Kansas Groundwater Management Districts’ “safe yield” policies, (5) the water-use reporting program in Kansas, (6) the Aquifer Storage and Recovery program of the City of Wichita, Kansas, and (7) Nebraska’s Natural Resources Districts. It is concluded that the fragmented and piecemeal institutional arrangements for managing the supplies and quality of water are unlikely to be sufficient to meet the water challenges of the future. A number of recommendations for enhancing the sustainability of the aquifer are presented, including the formation of an interstate groundwater commission for the High Plains aquifer along the lines of the Delaware and Susquehanna River Basins

  10. Location of Irrigated Land Classified from Satellite Imagery - High Plains Area, Nominal Date 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Qi, Sharon L.; Konduris, Alexandria; Litke, David W.; Dupree, Jean

    2002-01-01

    Satellite imagery from the Landsat Thematic Mapper (nominal date 1992) was used to classify and map the location of irrigated land overlying the High Plains aquifer. The High Plains aquifer underlies 174,000 square miles in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a water-quality study of the High Plains aquifer as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program. To help interpret data and select sites for the study, it is helpful to know the location of irrigated land within the study area. To date, the only information available for the entire area is 20 years old. To update the data on irrigated land, 40 summer and 40 spring images (nominal date 1992) were acquired from the National Land Cover Data set and processed using a band-ratio method (Landsat Thematic Mapper band 4 divided by band 3) to enhance the vegetation signatures. The study area was divided into nine subregions with similar environmental characteristics, and a band-ratio threshold was selected from imagery in each subregion that differentiated the cutoff between irrigated and nonirrigated land. The classified images for each subregion were mosaicked to produce an irrigated-land map for the study area. The total amount of irrigated land classified from the 1992 imagery was 13.1 million acres, or about 12 percent of the total land in the High Plains. This estimate is approximately 1.5 percent greater than the amount of irrigated land reported in the 1992 Census of Agriculture (12.8 millions acres).

  11. Groundwater recharge and chemical evolution in the southern High Plains of Texas, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fryar, Alan; Mullican, William; Macko, Stephen

    2001-11-01

    The unconfined High Plains (Ogallala) aquifer is the largest aquifer in the USA and the primary water supply for the semiarid southern High Plains of Texas and New Mexico. Analyses of water and soils northeast of Amarillo, Texas, together with data from other regional studies, indicate that processes during recharge control the composition of unconfined groundwater in the northern half of the southern High Plains. Solute and isotopic data are consistent with a sequence of episodic precipitation, concentration of solutes in upland soils by evapotranspiration, runoff, and infiltration beneath playas and ditches (modified locally by return flow of wastewater and irrigation tailwater). Plausible reactions during recharge include oxidation of organic matter, dissolution and exsolution of CO2, dissolution of CaCO3, silicate weathering, and cation exchange. Si and 14C data suggest leakage from perched aquifers to the High Plains aquifer. Plausible mass-balance models for the High Plains aquifer include scenarios of flow with leakage but not reactions, flow with reactions but not leakage, and flow with neither reactions nor leakage. Mechanisms of recharge and chemical evolution delineated in this study agree with those noted for other aquifers in the south-central and southwestern USA. Résumé. L'aquifère libre des Hautes Plaines (Ogallala) est le plus vaste aquifère des états-Unis et la ressource de base pour l'eau potable de la région semi-aride du sud des Hautes Plaines du Texas et du Nouveau-Mexique. Des analyses de l'eau et des sols prélevés au nord-est d'Amarillo (Texas), associées à des données provenant d'autres études dans cette région, indiquent que des processus intervenant au cours de l'infiltration contrôlent la composition de l'eau de la nappe libre dans la moitié septentrionale du sud des Hautes Plaines. Les données chimiques et isotopiques sont compatibles avec une séquence de précipitation épisodique, avec la reconcentration en solut

  12. Generalized altitude and configuration of the base of the High Plains regional aquifer, northwestern Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Havens, John S.

    1981-01-01

    During 1978, the U.S. Geological Survey began a 5-year study of the High Plains regional aquifer system to provide hydrologic information for evaluation of the effects of long-term development of the aquifer and to develop computer models for prediction of aquifer response to alternative changes in ground-water management (Weeks, 1978). This report is one of a series presenting hydrologic information of the High Plains aquifer in Oklahoma. This report consists of two maps showing the altitude and configuration of the eroded pre-Ogallala bedrock surface (sheets 1 and 2) that forms the base of the aquifer. Bedrock slopes generally from west to east and is composed of rocks of Permian, Triassic-Jurassic, and Cretaceous age. The subcrop extent of these rocks is shown by Morton (1973) for Oklahoma and by Weeks and Gutentag (1981) for the entire High Plains study area. Altitudes of the aquifer base were determined from drillers' logs provided by the Oklahoma Water Resources Board and from published and unpublished information in the files of the U.S. Geological Survey. Where data were sparse, the total well depth was used as the aquifer base under the assumption that wells generally are not drilled very deep into non-water yielding bedrock.

  13. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the High Plains Aquifer in western Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becker, C.J.; Runkle, D.L.; Rea, Alan

    1997-01-01

    ARC/INFO export files This diskette contains digitized aquifer boundaries and maps of hydraulic conductivity, recharge, and ground-water level elevation contours for the High Plains aquifer in western Oklahoma. This area encompasses the panhandle counties of Cimarron, Texas, and Beaver, and the western counties of Harper, Ellis, Woodward, Dewey, and Roger Mills. The High Plains aquifer underlies approximately 7,000 square miles of Oklahoma and is used extensively for irrigation. The High Plains aquifer is a water-table aquifer and consists predominately of the Tertiary-age Ogallala Formation and overlying Quaternary-age alluvial and terrace deposits. In some areas the aquifer is absent and the underlying Triassic, Jurassic, or Cretaceous-age rocks are exposed at the surface. These rocks are hydraulically connected with the aquifer in some areas. The High Plains aquifer is composed of interbedded sand, siltstone, clay, gravel, thin limestones, and caliche. The proportion of various lithological materials changes rapidly from place to place, but poorly sorted sand and gravel predominate. The rocks are poorly to moderately well cemented by calcium carbonate. The aquifer boundaries, hydraulic conductivity, and recharge data sets were created by extracting geologic contact lines from published digital surficial geology maps based on a scale of 1:125,000 for the panhandle counties and 1:250,000 for the western counties. The water-level elevation contours and some boundary lines were digitized from maps in a published water-level elevation map for 1980 based on a scale of 1:250,000. The hydraulic conductivity and recharge values in this report were used as input to the ground-water flow model on the High Plains aquifer. Ground-water flow models are numerical representations that simplify and aggregate natural systems. Models are not unique; different combinations of aquifer characteristics may produce similar results. Therefore, values of hydraulic conductivity and

  14. Changes in Water Levels and Storage in the High Plains Aquifer, Predevelopment to 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGuire, V.L.

    2007-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer underlies 111.4 million acres (174,000 square miles) in parts of eight States-Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The area overlying the High Plains aquifer is one of the major agricultural regions in the world. Water-level declines began in parts of the High Plains aquifer soon after the beginning of extensive ground-water irrigation. By 1980, water levels in the High Plains aquifer in parts of Texas, Oklahoma, and southwestern Kansas had declined more than 100 feet (Luckey and others, 1981). In response to these water-level declines, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with numerous Federal, State, and local water-resources agencies, began monitoring more than 7,000 wells in 1988 to assess annual water-level change in the aquifer. A report by the USGS, 'Water-Level Changes in the High Plains Aquifer, Predevelopment to 2005 and 2003 to 2005' (McGuire, 2007), shows the areas of substantial water-level changes in the aquifer from the time prior to substantial ground-water irrigation development (predevelopment or about 1950) to 2005 (fig. 1). In parts of the area, farmers began using ground water for irrigation extensively in the 1930s and 1940s. Estimated irrigated acreage in the area overlying the High Plains aquifer increased rapidly from 1940 to 1980 and changed slightly from 1980 to 2002: 1949-2.1 million acres, 1980-13.7 million acres, 1997-13.9 million acres, 2002-12.7 million acres. Irrigated acres in 2002 were 12 percent of the aquifer area, not including the areas with little or no saturated thickness (McGuire, 2007). Ground-water withdrawals for irrigation and other uses are compiled and reported by the USGS and agencies in each State about every 5 years. Ground-water withdrawals from the High Plains aquifer for irrigation increased from 4 to 19 million acre-feet from 1949 to 1974. Ground-water withdrawals for irrigation in 1980, 1985, 1990, and 1995 were from 4 to 18

  15. Percentage of Probability of Nonpoint-Source Nitrate Contamination of Recently Recharged Ground Water in the High Plains Aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Qi, Sharon L.; Gurdak, Jason J.

    2006-01-01

    This raster data set represents the percentage of probability of nonpoint-source nitrate contamination (greater than the proposed background concentration of 4 milligrams per liter (mg/L) as N) of recently (defined as less than 50 years) recharged ground water in the High Plains aquifer of the United States. The High Plains aquifer covers approximately 175,000 square miles in eight States; Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. Elevated nitrate concentrations above the background concentration have been detected in recently recharged (less than 50 years) ground water in the High Plains aquifer. This data set is derived from empirical models developed using multivariate logistic regression to evaluate the vulnerability of the High Plains aquifer to nitrate contamination from nonpoint sources. This data set was generated in a geographic information system from these models and represents the spatial extent of vulnerability of nitrate contamination greater than 4 mg/L across the aquifer.

  16. Crop phenology and LANDSAT-based irrigated lands inventory in the high plains. [United States of America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinko, E. A. (Principal Investigator); Poracsky, J.; Kipp, E. R.; Krieger, H.

    1980-01-01

    The activity concentrated on identifying crop and irrigation data sources for the eight states within the High Plains Aquifer and making contacts concerning the nature of these data. A mail questionnaire was developed to gather specific data not routinely reported through standard data collection channels. Input/output routines were designed for High Plains crop and irrigation data and initial statistical data on crops were input to computer files.

  17. Study of the United States coal resources. [Appalachian Plateau, Interior Basins, Gulf Coastal Plain, Rocky Mountain Basins, High Plains, North Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Ferm, J.C.; Muthig, P.J.

    1982-09-15

    The objectives of this study were: (1) the identification of geologically significant coal resources for the United States, including Alaska; and (2) the preparation of statistically controlled tonnage estimates for each resource type. Particular emphasis was placed on the identification and description of coals in terms of seam thickness, inclination, depth of cover, discontinuities caused by faulting and igneous intrusion, and occurrence as isolated or multiseam deposits. The national resource was organized into six major coal provinces: the Appalachian Plateau, the Interior Basins, the Gulf Coastal Plain, the Rocky Mountain Basins, the High Plains, and North Alaska. Total coal tonnage for a subarea was estimated from an analysis of the cumulative coal thickness derived from borehole or surface section records and subsequently categorized in terms of seam thickness, dip, overburden, multiseam proportions, coal quality, and tonnage impacted by severe faulting and igneous intrusions. Results indicate an aggregate resource in place of 11.6 trillion tons, of which North Alaska accounts for 3.5 trillion tons of subbituminous and bituminous coal; the Rocky Mountains, 2.2 trillion tons of bituminous and subbituminous deposits; and the Gulf Coast, 3.8 trillion tons of lignites. The Appalachian Plateau and Interior Basins are estimated to contain slightly less than 1 trillion tons each of bituminous coal, and the High Plains slightly more than 0.5 trillion tons of lignite. The Appalachian Plateau and Interior Basins are estimated to contain slightly less than 1 trillion tons each, and the High Plains Province is estimated to contain a bit more than 0.5 trillion tons. The implications of the results for research on advanced mining systems are discussed. 27 figures, 25 tables.

  18. A case study of the carbon footprint of milk from high-performing confinement and grass-based dairy farms.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, D; Capper, J L; Garnsworthy, P C; Grainger, C; Shalloo, L

    2014-03-01

    Life-cycle assessment (LCA) is the preferred methodology to assess carbon footprint per unit of milk. The objective of this case study was to apply an LCA method to compare carbon footprints of high-performance confinement and grass-based dairy farms. Physical performance data from research herds were used to quantify carbon footprints of a high-performance Irish grass-based dairy system and a top-performing United Kingdom (UK) confinement dairy system. For the US confinement dairy system, data from the top 5% of herds of a national database were used. Life-cycle assessment was applied using the same dairy farm greenhouse gas (GHG) model for all dairy systems. The model estimated all on- and off-farm GHG sources associated with dairy production until milk is sold from the farm in kilograms of carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2-eq) and allocated emissions between milk and meat. The carbon footprint of milk was calculated by expressing GHG emissions attributed to milk per tonne of energy-corrected milk (ECM). The comparison showed that when GHG emissions were only attributed to milk, the carbon footprint of milk from the Irish grass-based system (837 kg of CO2-eq/t of ECM) was 5% lower than the UK confinement system (884 kg of CO2-eq/t of ECM) and 7% lower than the US confinement system (898 kg of CO2-eq/t of ECM). However, without grassland carbon sequestration, the grass-based and confinement dairy systems had similar carbon footprints per tonne of ECM. Emission algorithms and allocation of GHG emissions between milk and meat also affected the relative difference and order of dairy system carbon footprints. For instance, depending on the method chosen to allocate emissions between milk and meat, the relative difference between the carbon footprints of grass-based and confinement dairy systems varied by 3 to 22%. This indicates that further harmonization of several aspects of the LCA methodology is required to compare carbon footprints of contrasting dairy systems. In

  19. Artificial-recharge experiments and operations on the Southern High Plains of Texas and New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Richmond F.; Signor, Donald C.

    1973-01-01

    Experiments using highly turbid water from playa lakes for injection into the Ogallala Formation have resulted in greatly decreased yield of the recharge wells, Recharge of ground or surface water of good quality has indicated, however, that injection through wells is an effective method of recharging the aquifer. Water that is slightly turbid can be successfully injected for a period of time, but generally results in constantly declining yields and capacity for recharge. Redevelopment through pumping and surging significantly prolongs the life of recharge wells under some conditions. Surface spreading is little practiced on the High Plains, but locally may be a feasible means of artificial recharge.

  20. Artificial-Recharge Experiments and Operations on the Southern High Plains of Texas and New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Richmond F.; Signor, Donald C.

    1973-01-01

    Experiments using highly turbid water from playa lakes for injection into the Ogallala Formation have resulted in greatly decreased yield of the recharge wells, Recharge of ground or surface water of good quality has indicated, however, that injection through wells is an effective method of recharging the aquifer. Water that is slightly turbid can be successfully injected for a period of time, but generally results in constantly declining yields and capacity for recharge. Redevelopment through pumping and surging significantly prolongs the life of recharge wells under some conditions. Surface spreading is little practiced on the High Plains, but locally may be a feasible means of artificial recharge.

  1. Quantifying Fractional Ground Cover on the Climate Sensitive High Plains Using AVIRIS and Landsat TM Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, Amanda Susan

    2002-01-01

    The High Plains is an economically important and climatologically sensitive region of the United States and Canada. The High Plains contain 100,000 sq km of Holocene sand dunes and sand sheets that are currently stabilized by natural vegetation. Droughts and the larger threat of global warming are climate phenomena that could cause depletion of natural vegetation and make this region susceptible to sand dune reactivation. This thesis is part of a larger study that is assessing the effect of climate variability on the natural vegetation that covers the High Plains using Landsat 5 and Landsat 7 data. The question this thesis addresses is how can fractional vegetation cover be mapped with the Landsat instruments using linear spectral mixture analysis and to what accuracy. The method discussed in this thesis made use of a high spatial and spectral resolution sensor called AVIRIS (Airborne Visible and Infrared Imaging Spectrometer) and field measurements to test vegetation mapping in three Landsat 7 sub-scenes. Near-simultaneous AVIRIS images near Ft. Morgan, Colorado and near Logan, New Mexico were acquired on July 10, 1999 and September 30, 1999, respectively. The AVIRIS flights preceded Landsat 7 overpasses by approximately one hour. These data provided the opportunity to test spectral mixture algorithms with AVIRIS and to use these data to constrain the multispectral mixed pixels of Landsat 7. The comparisons of mixture analysis between the two instruments showed that AVIRIS endmembers can be used to unmix Landsat 7 data with good estimates of soil cover, and reasonable estimates of non-photosynthetic vegetation and green vegetation. Landsat 7 derived image endmembers correlate with AVIRIS fractions, but the error is relatively large and does not give a precise estimate of cover.

  2. Groundwater recharge and sustainability in the High Plains aquifer in Kansas, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sophocleous, M.

    2005-01-01

    Sustainable use of groundwater must ensure not only that the future resource is not threatened by overuse, but also that natural environments that depend on the resource, such as stream baseflows, riparian vegetation, aquatic ecosystems, and wetlands are protected. To properly manage groundwater resources, accurate information about the inputs (recharge) and outputs (pumpage and natural discharge) within each groundwater basin is needed so that the long-term behavior of the aquifer and its sustainable yield can be estimated or reassessed. As a first step towards this effort, this work highlights some key groundwater recharge studies in the Kansas High Plains at different scales, such as regional soil-water budget and groundwater modeling studies, county-scale groundwater recharge studies, as well as field-experimental local studies, including some original new findings, with an emphasis on assumptions and limitations as well as on environmental factors affecting recharge processes. The general impact of irrigation and cultivation on recharge is to appreciably increase the amount of recharge, and in many cases to exceed precipitation as the predominant source of recharge. The imbalance between the water input (recharge) to the High Plains aquifer and the output (pumpage and stream baseflows primarily) is shown to be severe, and responses to stabilize the system by reducing water use, increasing irrigation efficiency, adopting water-saving land-use practices, and other measures are outlined. Finally, the basic steps necessary to move towards sustainable use of groundwater in the High Plains are delineated, such as improving the knowledge base, reporting and providing access to information, furthering public education, as well as promoting better understanding of the public's attitudinal motivations; adopting the ecosystem and adaptive management approaches to managing groundwater; further improving water efficiency; exploiting the full potential of dryland and

  3. Identifying the effect of irrigation on evapotranspiration variability over the High Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, R.; Cai, X.

    2015-12-01

    Irrigation is widely adopted as a measure to maintain crop yield when precipitation is limited and stabilize crop yield to buffer climatic fluctuation. Irrigation has considerably interfered with hydrological processes in many areas with extensive and intensive irrigation requirement; with the increasing demand for food and weather variability related to climate change, irrigation application is expected to increase, which would aggravate the interferences to hydrologic processes. Current studies focus on the impact of irrigation on the mean value of ET at either local or regional scale, however, how irrigation changes the variability of ET has not been well understood. This study analyzes the impact of extensive irrigation on ET variability in the High Plains. We apply an ET variance decomposition framework (Zeng and Cai 2015) to quantify the effects of both climate and irrigation on ET variance in in the High Plains watersheds. Based on climatic and groundwater storage data, we assess the monthly ET variance and its components for both pre-development (1930s-1960s) and development periods (1970-2010s). It is found that irrigation not only causes the well-known groundwater drawdown and stream depletion problems in the area associated with, but also changes ET variance, which further affects land surface processes. With complementary water supply from irrigation, ET approaches to potential ET, and ET variance is more attributed to climatic variables such as temperature, while causing significant seasonal fluctuations to groundwater storage. For sustainable water resources management in the High Plains, we argue that both the mean value and the variance of ET should be considered together for the regulation of irrigation in this region.

  4. Effects of the Conservation Reserve Program on Groundwater Resources of the High Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haacker, E. M.; Brena, A.; Kendall, A. D.; Hyndman, D. W.

    2013-12-01

    For nearly 20 years, the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) has incentivized large-scale shifts from intensively-managed agriculture to native plants. In the High Plains of the United States, nearly seven million acres of arable land are enrolled in the program. The relationship remains largely unexplored between the High Plains Aquifer groundwater levels and the changing land use in the region. While it is well understood that land conversion from native grassland to dryland monoculture tends to increase the rate of recharge to the underlying aquifer, previous work on the effects of reverse conversion is limited and conflicting. Groundwater quantity is not considered in the Environmental Benefits Index (EBI) for CRP adoption, and there is little understanding of the relationship between land use change and water levels. A lack of understanding of this complex system could lead to poor management choices if farmers believe that a change from monoculture to CRP will be beneficial for water supply. However, CRP could also prevent salinization in areas where the water table approaches the land surface. Variability in climate, soils, and topography also play a role in determining the complex interactions among CRP enrollment and water level response. This study will help inform models of land use change and climate adaptation related to groundwater resources by clarifying the role of management in feedbacks between land use, water resource extraction, and groundwater availability. This project investigates changes in water levels across the High Plains as they relate to CRP land cover conversion at the county level, including analysis of the effects of CRP on hydrologic processes such as runoff and recharge. It incorporates a new reanalysis of water level changes across space and time in the aquifer, and examines varied responses to CRP enrollment across 115 counties in eight states.

  5. Novel High-Molecular Weight Fucosylated Milk Oligosaccharides Identified in Dairy Streams

    PubMed Central

    Mehra, Raj; Barile, Daniela; Marotta, Mariarosaria; Lebrilla, Carlito B.; Chu, Caroline; German, J. Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Oligosaccharides are the third largest component in human milk. This abundance is remarkable because oligosaccharides are not digestible by the newborn, and yet they have been conserved and amplified during evolution. In addition to encouraging the growth of a protective microbiota dominated by bifidobacteria, oligosaccharides have anti-infective activity, preventing pathogens from binding to intestinal cells. Although it would be advantageous adding these valuable molecules to infant milk formula, the technologies to reproduce the variety and complexity of human milk oligosaccharides by enzymatic/organic synthesis are not yet mature. Consequently, there is an enormous interest in alternative sources of these valuable oligosaccharides. Recent research has demonstrated that bovine milk and whey permeate also contain oligosaccharides. Thus, a thorough characterization of oligosaccharides in bovine dairy streams is an important step towards fully assessing their specific functionalities. In this study, bovine milk oligosaccharides (BMOs) were concentrated by membrane filtration from a readily available dairy stream called “mother liquor”, and analyzed by high accuracy MALDI FT-ICR mass spectrometry. The combination of HPLC and accurate mass spectrometry allowed the identification of ideal processing conditions leading to the production of Kg amount of BMO enriched powders. Among the BMOs identified, 18 have high-molecular weight and corresponded in size to the most abundant oligosaccharides present in human milk. Notably 6 oligosaccharides contained fucose, a sugar monomer that is highly abundant in human milk, but is rarely observed in bovine milk. This work shows that dairy streams represent a potential source of complex milk oligosaccharides for commercial development of unique dairy ingredients in functional foods that reproduce the benefits of human milk. PMID:24810963

  6. Classification of irrigated land using satellite imagery, the High Plains aquifer, nominal date 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Qi, Sharon L.; Konduris, Alexandria; Litke, David W.; Dupree, Jean

    2002-01-01

    Satellite imagery from the Landsat Thematic Mapper (nominal date 1992) was used to classify and map the location of irrigated land across the High Plains aquifer. The High Plains aquifer underlies 174,000 square miles in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a waterquality study of the High Plains aquifer as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program. To help interpret data and select sites for the study, it is helpful to know the location of irrigated land within the study area. To date, the only information available for the entire area is 20 years old. To update the data on irrigated land, 40 summer and 40 spring images (nominal date 1992) were acquired from the National Land Cover Data set and processed using a band-ratio method (Landsat Thematic Mapper band 4 divided by band 3) to enhance the vegetation signatures. The study area was divided into nine subregions with similar environmental characteristics, and a band-ratio threshold was selected from imagery in each subregion that differentiated the cutoff between irrigated and nonirrigated land. The classified images for each subregion were mosaicked to produce an irrigated land map for the study area. The total amount of irrigated land classified from the 1992 imagery was 13.1 million acres, or about 12 percent of the total land in the High Plains. This estimate is approximately 1.5 percent greater than the amount of irrigated land reported in the 1992 Census of Agriculture (12.8 millions acres). This information was also compared to a similar data set based on 1980 imagery. The 1980 data classified 13.7 million acres as irrigated. Although the change in the amount of irrigated land between the two times was not substantial, the location of the irrigated land did shift from areas where there were large ground-water-level declines to other areas where ground-water levels were static or rising.

  7. High Prevalence of Bovine Tuberculosis in Dairy Cattle in Central Ethiopia: Implications for the Dairy Industry and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Sombo, Melaku; Hailu, Elena; Erenso, Girume; Kiros, Teklu; Yamuah, Lawrence; Vordermeier, Martin; Hewinson, R. Glyn; Young, Douglas; Gordon, Stephen V.; Sahile, Mesfin; Aseffa, Abraham; Berg, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Background Ethiopia has the largest cattle population in Africa. The vast majority of the national herd is of indigenous zebu cattle maintained in rural areas under extensive husbandry systems. However, in response to the increasing demand for milk products and the Ethiopian government's efforts to improve productivity in the livestock sector, recent years have seen increased intensive husbandry settings holding exotic and cross breeds. This drive for increased productivity is however threatened by animal diseases that thrive under intensive settings, such as bovine tuberculosis (BTB), a disease that is already endemic in Ethiopia. Methodology/Principal Findings An extensive study was conducted to: estimate the prevalence of BTB in intensive dairy farms in central Ethiopia; identify associated risk factors; and characterize circulating strains of the causative agent, Mycobacterium bovis. The comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CIDT), questionnaire survey, post-mortem examination, bacteriology, and molecular typing were used to get a better understanding of the BTB prevalence among dairy farms in the study area. Based on the CIDT, our findings showed that around 30% of 2956 tested dairy cattle from 88 herds were positive for BTB while the herd prevalence was over 50%. Post-mortem examination revealed gross tuberculous lesions in 34/36 CIDT positive cattle and acid-fast bacilli were recovered from 31 animals. Molecular typing identified all isolates as M. bovis and further characterization by spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR typing indicated low strain diversity within the study area. Conclusions/Significance This study showed an overall BTB herd prevalence of 50% in intensive dairy farms in Addis Ababa and surroundings, signalling an urgent need for intervention to control the disease and prevent zoonotic transmission of M. bovis to human populations consuming dairy products coming from these farms. It is suggested that government and policy makers should work

  8. Large lake basins of the southern High Plains: ground-water control of their origin?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, W.W.; Sanford, W.E.; Reeves, C.C., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    We modify the deflation hypothesis by proposing that the calcrete caprock may never have been deposited in the areas now occupied by the basins. The absence of calcrete deposition is proposed to have resulted from high water tables caused by an increase in hydraulic gradient where aquifers thinned above bedrock highs. A high water table close to and/or intersecting the surface prevents deposition of calcrete, and thus, the uncemented surface would be more susceptible to deflation than the surrounding calcrete-covered areas after decline of the water table. The rise in water table associated with bedrock highs is documented by numerical simulation using boundary conditions and hydrologic parameters representative of the southern High Plains. -from Authors

  9. Groundwater Depletion versus Soil Salinization in Irrigated Agriculture in Semiarid Southern High Plains, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reedy, R. C.; Gates, J. B.; Scanlon, B. R.

    2008-12-01

    Because irrigated agriculture is the primary consumer of global freshwater resources, there is increased emphasis on using more water conservative irrigation application techniques to reduce depletion of water resources while maintaining crop productivity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impacts of land use change from natural or rainfed agricultural ecosystems to irrigated agricultural ecosystems on water resources and soil salinity using data from the southern High Plains (SHP, 75,000 km2) in Texas, USA as an example. Approximately 11% of the land surface is irrigated with groundwater from the Ogallala (High Plains) Aquifer. Boreholes were drilled beneath irrigated cropland (13 boreholes) and beneath rainfed cropland (19 boreholes) and native vegetation (3 boreholes) to provide baseline control. Unsaturated zone soil samples were analyzed for water content, matric potential, and water-extractable chloride, bromide, sulfate, and nitrate concentrations. Increased drainage beneath irrigated sites displaced pre-existing salt bulges downward to 5 m in fine-grained soils and to greater than profile depths in coarser soils (4 - 17 m). Most irrigated profiles showed salt bulges which are attributed to deficit irrigation. Large inventories of nitrate and high correlations with chloride indicate overapplication of fertilizers and leaching below the root zone. Estimated drainage rates beneath irrigated sites are similar to the range of drainage/recharge rates beneath rainfed agriculture. These results emphasize the potential for soil salinization with deficit irrigation when the irrigation water quality is poor and precipitation is insufficient to flush accumulating salts.

  10. High-resolution seismic images of potentially seismogenic structures beneath the northwest Canterbury Plains, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorn, C.; Green, A. G.; Jongens, R.; Carpentier, S.; Kaiser, A. E.; Campbell, F.; Horstmeyer, H.; Campbell, J.; Finnemore, M.; Pettinga, J.

    2010-11-01

    The transpressional boundary between the Australian and Pacific plates in the central South Island of New Zealand comprises the Alpine Fault and a broad region of distributed strain concentrated in the Southern Alps but encompassing regions further to the east, including the northwest Canterbury Plains. Low to moderate levels of seismicity (e.g., 2 > M 5 events since 1974 and 2 > M 4.0 in 2009) and Holocene sediments offset or disrupted along rare exposed active fault segments are evidence for ongoing tectonism in the northwest plains, the surface topography of which is remarkably flat and even. Because the geology underlying the late Quaternary alluvial fan deposits that carpet most of the plains is not established, the detailed tectonic evolution of this region and the potential for larger earthquakes is only poorly understood. To address these issues, we have processed and interpreted high-resolution (2.5 m subsurface sampling interval) seismic data acquired along lines strategically located relative to extensive rock exposures to the north, west, and southwest and rare exposures to the east. Geological information provided by these rock exposures offer important constraints on the interpretation of the seismic data. The processed seismic reflection sections image a variably thick layer of generally undisturbed younger (i.e., < 24 ka) Quaternary alluvial sediments unconformably overlying an older (>59 ka) Quaternary sedimentary sequence that shows evidence of moderate faulting and folding during and subsequent to deposition. These Quaternary units are in unconformable contact with Late Cretaceous-Tertiary interbedded sedimentary and volcanic rocks that are highly faulted, folded, and tilted. The lowest imaged unit is largely reflection-free Permian - Triassic basement rocks. Quaternary-age deformation has affected all the rocks underlying the younger alluvial sediments, and there is evidence for ongoing deformation. Eight primary and numerous secondary faults as

  11. Genomic insights into high exopolysaccharide-producing dairy starter bacterium Streptococcus thermophilus ASCC 1275

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qinglong; Tun, Hein Min; Leung, Frederick Chi-Ching; Shah, Nagendra P.

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus thermophilus ASCC 1275 (ST 1275), a typical dairy starter bacterium, yields the highest known amount (~1,000 mg/L) of exopolysaccharide (EPS) in milk among the species of S. thermophilus. The addition of this starter in milk fermentation exhibited texture modifying properties for fermented dairy foods such as yogurt and cheese in the presence of EPS as its important metabolite. In this genomic study, a novel eps gene cluster for EPS assembly of repeating unit has been reported. It contains two-pair epsC-epsD genes which are assigned to determine the chain length of EPS. This also suggests this organism produces two types of EPSs – capsular and ropy EPS, as observed in our previous studies. Additionally, ST 1275 appears to exhibit effective proteolysis system and sophisticated stress response systems to stressful conditions, and has the highest number of four separate CRISPR/Cas loci. These features may be conducive to milk adaptation of this starter and against undesirable bacteriophage infections which leads to failure of milk fermentation. Insights into the genome of ST 1275 suggest that this strain may be a model high EPS-producing dairy starter. PMID:24827399

  12. Three-dimensional nonhydrostatic simulations of summer thunderstorms in the humid subtropics versus High Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hsin-mu; Wang, Pao K.; Schlesinger, Robert E.

    2005-11-01

    This article presents a detailed comparison of cloud microphysical evolution among six warm-season thunderstorm simulations using a time-dependent three-dimensional model WISCDYMM. The six thunderstorms chosen for this study consist of three apiece from two contrasting climate zones, the US High Plains (one supercell and two multicells) and the humid subtropics (two in Florida, US and one in Taipei, Taiwan, all multicells). The primary goal of this study is to investigate the differences among thunderstorms in different climate regimes in terms of their microphysical structures and how differently these structures evolve in time. A subtropical case is used as an example to illustrate the general contents of a simulated storm, and two examples of the simulated storms, one humid subtropical and one northern High Plains case, are used to describe in detail the microphysical histories. The simulation results are compared with the available observational data, and the agreement between the two is shown to be at least fairly close overall. The analysis, synthesis and implications of the simulation results are then presented. The microphysical histories of the six simulated storms in terms of the domain-integrated masses of all five hydrometeor classes (cloud water, cloud ice, rain, snow, graupel/hail), along with the individual sources (and sinks) of the three precipitating hydrometeor classes (rain, snow, graupel/hail) are analyzed in detail. These analyses encompass both the absolute magnitudes and their percentage contributions to the totals, for the condensate mass and their precipitation production (and depletion) rates, respectively. Comparisons between the hydrometeor mass partitionings for the High Plains versus subtropical thunderstorms show that, in a time-averaged sense, ice hydrometeors (cloud ice, snow, graupel/hail) account for ˜ 70-80% of the total hydrometeor mass for the High Plains storms but only ˜ 50% for the subtropical storms, after the systems

  13. Quantifying the Impacts of Irrigation Technology Adoption on Water Resources in the High Plains Aquifer, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendall, Anthony; Cotterman, Kayla; Hyndman, David

    2016-04-01

    Producers in key agricultural regions worldwide are contending with increasing demand while simultaneously managing declining water resources. The High Plains Aquifer (HPA) is the largest aquifer system in the United States, and supplied most of the water to irrigate 6 million hectares in 2012. Water levels in the central and southern sections of the aquifer have steadily declined, as groundwater recharge in this semi-arid region is insufficient to meet water demands. Individual irrigators have responded to these declines by moving from less efficient irrigation technologies to those that apply water more precisely. Yet, these newer technologies have also allowed for water to be pumped from lower-yielding wells, thus extending the life of any given well and allowing drawdown to continue. Here we use a dataset of the annual irrigation technology choices from every irrigator in the state of Kansas, located in the Central High Plains. This irrigation data, along with remotely-sensed Leaf Area Index, crop choice, and irrigated area, drives a coupled surface/groundwater simulation created using the Landscape Hydrology Model (LHM) to examine the impacts of changing irrigation technology on the regional water cycle, and water levels in the HPA. The model is applied to simulate cases in which no irrigation technology change had occurred, and complete adoption of newer technologies to better understand impacts of management choices on regional water resources.

  14. Impacts of Climate Changes on the Future Groundwater Storage in the High Plains Aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, M. H.; Wu, W. Y.; Wada, Y.; Reager, J. T., II; Famiglietti, J. S.; Yeh, P. J. F.; Ducharne, A.

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater contributes approximately 40% of global freshwater use, and it is critical for water supply and associated food production in arid or semi-arid areas during dry seasons. The increasing demand for water and finite water sources have led to long-term groundwater depletion, creating an obstacle to sustainability in several regions of the world under the pressures of population growth and climate change. The High Plains Aquifer System has an area of 450,000 km2, and is the most pumped aquifer and one of the most important agricultural areas in the United States. In this study, we use coupled climate-hydrological model simulations from the NCAR Community Earth System Model Large Ensemble Project to investigate the groundwater storage changes in the High Plains Aquifer under future climate changes and also to explore how such groundwater storage changes might in turn affect the climate through land-atmosphere coupling. Preliminary results indicate that not only the amount of groundwater recharge declines, but the seasonal variations of groundwater recharge also become smaller, resulting in widespread water table decline in a future warmer climate. We will explore how such variations associate to projected changes in precipitation and evapotranspiration, and feedback to the climate.

  15. Lysimetric evaluation of simplified surface energy balance approach in the Texas high plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gowda, P.H.; Senay, G.B.; Howell, T.A.; Marek, T.H.

    2009-01-01

    Numerous energy balance (EB) algorithms have been developed to make use of remote sensing data to estimate evapotranspiration (ET) regionally. However, most EB models are complex to use and efforts are being made to simplify procedures mainly through the scaling of reference ET. The Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEB) is one such method. This approach has never been evaluated using measured ET data. In this study, the SSEB approach was applied to 14 Landsat TM images covering a major portion of the Southern High Plains that were acquired during 2006 and 2007 cropping seasons. Performance of the SSEB was evaluated by comparing estimated ET with measured daily ET from four large monolithic lysimeters at the USDA-ARS Conservation and Production Research Laboratory, Bushland, Texas. Statistical evaluation of results indicated that the SSEB accounted for 84% of the variability in the measured ET values with a slope and intercept of 0.75 and 1.1 mm d-1, respectively. Considering the minimal amount of ancillary data required and excellent performance in predicting daily ET, the SSEB approach is a promising tool for mapping ET in the semiarid Texas High Plains and in other parts of the world with similar hydro-climatic conditions.

  16. Lysimetric Evaluation of Simplified Surface Energy Balance Approach in the Texas High Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senay, Gabriel B.; Gowda, P.H.; Howell, T.A.; Marek, T.H.

    2009-01-01

    Numerous energy balance (EB) algorithms have been developed to make use of remote sensing data to estimate evapotranspiration (ET) regionally. However, most EB models are complex to use and efforts are being made to simplify procedures mainly through the scaling of reference ET. The Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEB) is one such method. This approach has never been evaluated using measured ET data. In this study, the SSEB approach was applied to fourteen Landsat TM images covering a major portion of the Southern High Plains that were acquired during 2006 and 2007 cropping seasons. Performance of the SSEB was evaluated by comparing estimated ET with measured daily ET from four large monolithic lysimeters at the USDA-ARS Conservation and Production Research Laboratory, Bushland, Texas. Statistical evaluation of results indicated that the SSEB accounted for 84% of the variability in the measured ET values with a slope and intercept of 0.75 and 1.1 mm d-1, respectively. Considering the minimal amount of ancillary data required and excellent performance in predicting daily ET, the SSEB approach is a promising tool for mapping ET in the semiarid Texas High Plains and in other parts of the world with similar hydro-climatic conditions.

  17. Design and Installation of a Groundwater Monitoring-Well Network in the High Plains Aquifer, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arnold, L.R.; Flynn, J.L.; Paschke, S.S.

    2009-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer is an important water source for irrigated agriculture and domestic supplies in northeastern Colorado. To address the needs of Colorado's Groundwater Protection Program, the U.S. Geological Survey designed and installed a groundwater monitoring-well network in cooperation with the Colorado Department of Agriculture in 2008 to characterize water quality in the High Plains aquifer underlying areas of irrigated agriculture in eastern Colorado. A 30-well network was designed to provide for statistical representation of water-quality conditions by using a computerized technique to generate randomly distributed potential groundwater sampling sites based on aquifer extent, extent of irrigated agricultural land, depth to water from land surface, and saturated thickness. Twenty of the 30 sites were selected for well installation, and wells were drilled and installed during the period June-September 2008. Lithologic logs and well-construction reports were prepared for each well, and wells were developed after drilling to remove mud and foreign material to provide for good hydraulic connection between the well and aquifer. Documentation of the well-network design, site selection, lithologic logs, well-construction diagrams, and well-development records is presented in this report.

  18. Altitude and configuration of the predevelopment water table in the High Plains regional aquifer, northwestern Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Havens, John S.

    1982-01-01

    During 1978, the U.S. Geological Survey began a 5-year study of the High Plains regional aquifer system to provide hydrologic information for evaluation of the effects of long-term development of the aquifer and to develop computer models for prediction of aquifer response to alternative changes in ground-water management (Weeks, 1978). This report is one of a series presenting hydrologic information of the High Plains aquifer in Oklahoma. The altitude and configuration of the water table are shown for the eastern area (sheet 1) and for the Panhandle area (sheet 2). In the eastern area, consisting of Harper, Ellis, Woodward, Dewey, and Roger Mills Counties, water levels measured from the 1950's to the 1970's represent predevelopment conditions and were obtained from published and unpublished data in the files of the U.S. Geological Survey. In the Panhandle, predevelopment contours were based on measurements made from 1937 to 1940. Some water levels in Beaver County were measured as late as 1959 in areas where significant development had not occurred previously.

  19. A multidisciplinary analysis of groundwater declines and agricultural production in the High Plains Aquifer of Kansas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steward, David R.; Bruss, Paul J.; Yang, Xiaoying; Staggenborg, Scott A.; Welch, Stephen M.; Apley, Michael D.

    2014-05-01

    The High Plains Aquifer provides groundwater for 30% of the irrigated agriculture in the USA. Within Kansas, groundwater supports the congressional district with highest market value of agriculture. And yet, over-pumping and associated groundwater declines threaten the long-term prospects. The groundwater portion of this study quantifies the availability of groundwater stores over the next 100 years. A water-use function is developed to quantify the historical and future impacts of irrigation on corn production. A relationship between corn consumption per head of cattle quantifies the herd size that can be supported by irrigated corn. Together, we project the impacts of changes in groundwater stores on corn and cattle production for the next century. Scenarios analyze the impacts of water savings today on current and future agriculture production. Reference: Steward, D. R., Bruss, P. J., Yang, X., Staggenborg, S. A., Welch, S. M. and M. D. Apley, Tapping unsustainable groundwater stores for agricultural production in the High Plains Aquifer of Kansas, projections to 2110, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 110(37) E3477-E3486, September 10, 2013. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1220351110

  20. Effects of the Conservation Reserve Program on Hydrologic Processes in the Southern High Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haacker, E. M.; Smidt, S. J.; Kendall, A. D.; Basso, B.; Hyndman, D. W.

    2015-12-01

    The Southern High Plains Aquifer is a rapidly depleting resource that supports agriculture in parts of New Mexico and the Texas Panhandle. The development of the aquifer has changed the landscape and the water cycle of the region. This study illustrates the evolving patterns of land use and the effects of cultivation, from irrigated to dryland farming to the countermanding influence of the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP). Previous research indicates that greater recharge rates occur under cultivated land in the Southern High Plains than under unbroken soil: the transition to cultivation causes increased recharge, under both dryland and irrigated management, though most recharge still occurs through playa lakes. The Conservation Reserve Program takes land out of crop production, replacing the land cover with something more like the natural ecosystem. This may decrease recharge below fields, and reduce runoff that feeds playa lakes; or, CRP may help stabilize playa lakes, increasing recharge. Changes to the water cycle are investigated at the field scale using the System Approach to Land Use Sustainability (SALUS) crop model, and at the regional scale with the Landscape Hydrology Model (LHM), and compared with historical data and water table elevations.

  1. Hydraulic conductivity, specific yield, and pumpage--High Plains aquifer system, Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pettijohn, Robert A.; Chen, Hsiu-Hsiung

    1983-01-01

    Hydrologic data used to evalute the ground-water potential of the High Plains aquifer system in Nebraska are presented on maps showing the hydraulic conductivity and specific yield of the aquifer system and the volume and distribution of water pumped for irrigation from the aquifer system during 1980. The High Plains aquifer system underlies 177,000 square miles in parts of eight states, including 64,770 square miles in Nebraska. It consists of the Ogallala Formation and Tertiary and Quaternary deposits that are saturated and hydraulically connected to the Ogallala. The hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer system varies from greater than 200 feet per day in parts of the North Platte, Platte, Elkhorn, and Republican River valleys to less than 25 feet per day in the northwestern part of the state. Specific yield of the aquifer system ranges from 10 to 20 percent in most of the state and averages 16 percent. The estimated volume of water recoverable from the aquifer system in Nebraska is 2,237 million acre-feet. Inches of water withdrawn from the aquifer system during 1980 varied from less than 1.5 in the sandhills of north-central Nebraska to more than 12 in the Platte River and Blue River basins. This withdrawal represents about 6,703,000 acre-feet of ground water. (USGS)

  2. Slab-controlled Tectonomagmatism of the Pacific Northwest: A Holistic view of Columbia River, High Lava Plains, and Snake River Plain/Yellowstone Volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, D. E.; Fouch, M. J.; Long, M. D.; Druken, K. A.; Wagner, L. S.; Chen, C.; Carlson, R. W.

    2012-12-01

    We interpret post-20 Ma tectonomagmatism across the U.S. Pacific Northwest in the context of subduction related processes. While mantle plume models have long enjoyed favor as an explanation for the post 20-Ma magmatism in the region, conceptually their support has hinged almost entirely on two major features: (1) Steens/Columbia River flood basalt volcanism (plume head); and (2) The Snake River Plain/Yellowstone hotspot track (plume tail). Recent work, synthesized in this presentation, suggests that these features are more plausibly the result of mantle dynamical processes driven by southerly truncation of the Farallon/Juan de Fuca subduction zone and slab detachment along the evolving margin of western North America (Long et al., 2012; James et al., 2011). Plate reconstructions indicate that shortening of the subduction zone by the northward migration of the Mendocino triple junction resulted in a significant increase in the rate of trench retreat and slab rollback ca 20 Ma. Both numerical modeling and physical tank experiments in turn predict large-scale mantle upwelling and flow around the southern edge of the rapidly retreating slab, consistent both with the observed Steens/Columbia River flood volcanism and with the strong E-W mantle fabric observed beneath the region of the High Lava Plains of central and eastern Oregon. The High Lava Plains and Snake River Plain time-progressive volcanism began concurrently about 12 Ma, but along highly divergent tracks and characterized by strikingly different upper mantle structure. Crustal and upper mantle structure beneath the High Lava Plains exhibits evidence typical of regional extension; i.e. thin crust, flat and sharp Moho, and an uppermost mantle with low velocities but otherwise largely devoid of significant vertical structure. In contrast, the Snake River Plain exhibits ultra-low mantle velocities to depths of about 180 km along the length of the hotspot track. Seismic images of the upper mantle in the depth

  3. Land and Land-use Change in the Climate Sensitive High Plains: An Automated Approach with Landsat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goetz, Alexander F.; Williams, D. L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The High Plains is an economically important and climatologically sensitive region of the United States and Canada. The High Plains contain 100,000 sq km of Holocene sand dunes and sand sheets that are currently stabilized by natural vegetation. Droughts and the larger threat of global warming are climate phenomena that could cause depletion of natural vegetation and make this region susceptible to sand dune reactivation. The original proposal was directed toward the use of Landsat TM data to establish the state and ongoing changes of the surface in the 1.2 million sq. km, semi-arid High Plains region of the central US, A key objective was to develop a model to predict the reactivation of the 100,000 sq. km of Holocene dunes found on the High Plains during an extended drought. At least one Landsat 5 image per year for 1985, 1988 and 1996 was obtained for 32 scenes on the High Plains to coincide with wet and dry years. Additional Landsat 7 data were acquired for 1999 and 2000 primarily for Colorado and Nebraska. As luck would have it, there was no severe drought during the study period 1985-2000. Attention was focused on developing methods for mapping dry vs. green vegetation on sparsely vegetated rangelands in sandy soils, since these were the areas most susceptible to surface reactivation during a drought.

  4. High rate psychrophilic anaerobic digestion of high solids (35%) dairy manure in sequence batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Saady, Noori M Cata; Massé, Daniel I

    2015-06-01

    Zero liquid discharge is increasingly adopted as an objective for waste treatment process. The objective of this study was to increase the feed total solids (TS) and the organic loading rate (OLR) fed to a novel psychrophilic (20°C) dry anaerobic digestion (PDAD). Duplicate laboratory-scale bioreactors were fed cow feces and wheat straw (35% TS in feed) at OLR of 6.0 g TCOD kg(-1) inoculum d(-1) during long-term operation (147 days consisting of 7 successive cycles). An overall average specific methane yield (SMY) of 151.8±7.9 N L CH4 kg(-1) VS fed with an averaged volatile solids removal of 42.4±4.3% were obtained at a volatile solids-based inoculum-to-substrate ratio (ISR) of 2.13±0.2. The operation was stable as indicated by biogas and VFAs profiles and the results were reproducible in successive cycles; a maximum SMY of 163.3±5.7 N L CH4 kg(-1) VS fed was obtained. Hydrolysis was the reaction limiting step. High rate PDAD of 35% TS dairy manure is possible in sequential batch reactor within 21 days treatment cycle length. PMID:25804501

  5. Altitude and configuration of the water table in the High Plains aquifer system of Kansas, pre-1950

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stullken, Lloyd E.; Pabst, Marilyn E.

    1985-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer in Kansas is a part of a regional system that extends from South Dakota to Texas. The aquifer in Kansas underlies an area of 31,000 square miles in the western and south-central part. The aquifer is a hydraulically connected assemblage of unconsolidated water-bearing deposits of Tertiary and Quaternary age. Maps at a scale of 1:500,000 show the altitude and configuration of the water table in Kansas prior to 1950. The water-table maps depict the water-level surface that was present prior to major development of the High Plains aquifer. Ground water moves from higher altitudes in the western part of the High Plains to lower altitudes in the eastern part at an average slope of 10 feet per mile. The upgradient flexure of water-table contours along some of the valleys indicates that ground water is discharged to the streams in those areas. (USGS)

  6. Reducing microbial contamination in storm runoff from high use areas on California coastal dairies.

    PubMed

    Lewis, D J; Atwill, E R; Lennox, M S; Pereira, M D G; Miller, W A; Conrad, P A; Tate, K W

    2009-01-01

    High use areas are a fundamental part of California coastal dairies and grazing livestock ranches as feeding areas, nurseries, and sick pens. High stocking densities and daily use in these areas lead to soil surfaces devoid of vegetation and covered in manure, with high potential for manure transport during winter rains to receiving waters regulated for shellfish harvesting and recreation. We characterized the association between California's Mediterranean climate and a series of existing and proposed management practices on fecal coliform bacteria (FCB) transport from high use areas on dairies and ranches. Results from 351 storm runoff samples collected below 35 high-use areas indicate that removal of cattle during winter, locating high use areas on level ground, application of straw and seeding, and vegetative buffer strip implementation were significantly associated with FCB concentration and load reductions. These results complement our findings for reductions of specific pathogens in runoff from these areas. These findings have practical significance because they document surface water quality benefits that the studied management practices provide in application on working farms and ranches. This direction is critical and timely for on-farm management efforts seeking to reduce microbial pollution in runoff and comply with indicator bacteria water quality criteria. PMID:19809136

  7. High-Resolution Topography and its Implications for the Formation of Europa's Ridged Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, E. J.; Pappalardo, R. T.; Yin, A.; Patthoff, D. A.; Schenk, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Galileo Solid State Imager (SSI) recorded nine very high-resolution frames—eight at 12 m/pixel and one at 6 m/pixel—during the E12 flyby of Europa in Dec. 1997. To understand the implications for the small-scale structure and evolution of Europa, we mosaicked these frames (observations 12ESMOTTLE01 and 02, incidence ≈18°, emission ≈77°) into their regional context (part of observation 11ESREGMAP01, 220 m/pixel, incidence ≈74°, emission ≈23°). The topography data, which was created from the image mosaic overlaps, is sparse and segmented over the high-resolution images but connected by the underlying regional resolution topography. The high-resolution topography (24 m/pixel) is among the best for the current Europan dataset. From this dataset we ascertain the root mean square, or RMS, slope for some of the most common Europan surface features in a new region. We also employ a Fourier Transform method previously used on Ganymede and on other areas of Europa (Patel et al., 1999 JGR), to derive common wavelengths for the subunits of the ubiquitous ridged plains terrain. These results have important implications for differentiating between possible formation mechanisms—extensional tilt blocks (Pappalardo et al., 1995 JGR) or folds (Leonard et al., 2015 LPSC Abstract)—and for potential future missions. We continue this method for another high-resolution region taken in the E12 orbit, WEDGES01 and 02, with the specific goal of investigating how the variations in ridged plains morphologies relate across the surface of Europa.

  8. Simulating the 2012 High Plains drought using three single column versions (SCM) of BUGS5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina, I. D.; Denning, S.

    2013-12-01

    The impact of changes in the frequency and severity of drought on fresh water sustainability is a great concern for many regions of the world. One such location is the High Plains, where the local economy is primarily driven by fresh water withdrawals from the Ogallala Aquifer, which accounts for approximately 30% of total irrigation withdrawals from all U.S. aquifers combined. Modeling studies that focus on the feedback mechanisms that control the climate and eco-hydrology during times of drought are limited, and have used conventional General Circulation Models (GCMs) with grid length scales ranging from one hundred to several hundred kilometers. Additionally, these models utilize crude statistical parameterizations of cloud processes for estimating sub-grid fluxes of heat and moisture and have a poor representation of land surface heterogeneity. For this research, we will focus on the 2012 High Plains drought and will perform numerical simulations using three single column versions (SCM) of BUGS5 (Colorado State University (CSU) GCM coupled to the Simple Biosphere Model (SiB3)) at multiple sites overlying the Ogallala Aquifer for the 2011-2012 periods. In the first version of BUGS5, the model will be used in its standard bulk setting (single atmospheric column coupled to a single instance of SiB3), secondly, the Super-Parameterized Community Atmospheric Model (SP-CAM), a cloud resolving model (CRM consists of 64 atmospheric columns), will replace the single CSU GCM atmospheric parameterization and will be coupled to a single instance of SiB3, and for the third version of BUGS5, an instance of SiB3 will be coupled to each CRM column of the SP-CAM (64 CRM columns coupled to 64 instances of SiB3). To assess the physical realism of the land-atmosphere feedbacks simulated at each site by all versions of BUGS5, differences in simulated energy and moisture fluxes will be computed between the 2011 and 2012 period and will be compared to differences calculated using

  9. Simulating the 2012 High Plains Drought Using Three Single Column Models (SCM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina, I. D.; Baker, I. T.; Denning, S.; Dazlich, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    The impact of changes in the frequency and severity of drought on fresh water sustainability is a great concern for many regions of the world. One such location is the High Plains, where the local economy is primarily driven by fresh water withdrawals from the Ogallala Aquifer, which accounts for approximately 30% of total irrigation withdrawals from all U.S. aquifers combined. Modeling studies that focus on the feedback mechanisms that control the climate and eco-hydrology during times of drought are limited, and have used conventional General Circulation Models (GCMs) with grid length scales ranging from one hundred to several hundred kilometers. Additionally, these models utilize crude statistical parameterizations of cloud processes for estimating sub-grid fluxes of heat and moisture and have a poor representation of land surface heterogeneity. For this research, we focus on the 2012 High Plains drought and perform numerical simulations using three single column model (SCM) versions of BUGS5 (Colorado State University (CSU) GCM coupled to the Simple Biosphere Model (SiB3)). In the first version of BUGS5, the model is used in its standard bulk setting (single atmospheric column coupled to a single instance of SiB3), secondly, the Super-Parameterized Community Atmospheric Model (SP-CAM), a cloud resolving model (CRM) (CRM consists of 32 atmospheric columns), replaces the single CSU GCM atmospheric parameterization and is coupled to a single instance of SiB3, and for the third version of BUGS5, an instance of SiB3 is coupled to each CRM column of the SP-CAM (32 CRM columns coupled to 32 instances of SiB3). To assess the physical realism of the land-atmosphere feedbacks simulated by all three versions of BUGS5, differences in simulated energy and moisture fluxes are computed between the 2011 and 2012 period and are compared to those calculated using observational data from the AmeriFlux Tower Network for the same period at the ARM Site in Lamont, OK. This research

  10. Isotopic and physical evidence for persistently high eruption temperatures for Yellowstone-Snake River Plain rhyolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loewen, M.; Bindeman, I. N.; Melnik, O. E.

    2015-12-01

    Low crystallinity rhyolite lavas and tuffs from the Yellowstone-Snake River plain system were long-thought to erupt at high 800-900 °C temperatures with evidence derived from experimental work and geothermometry (e.g., QUILF, Ti-in-quartz). Despite this evidence, newer experimental phase equilibria studies as well as a reformulation of zircon saturation temperatures support lower temperature magma eruption conditions. Here we present two independent lines of evidence for 850 °C and greater temperatures. We present high precision oxygen isotope thermometry for coexisting quartz, glass, pyroxene, and magnetite in order make temperature estimates independent of phase equilibria. For all analyzed Snake River Plain-Yellowstone rhyolites, we determine 800-1100 °C temperatures for clinopyroxene and 850-1100 °C temperatures for magnetite. Extremely slow oxygen diffusion in pyroxene will preserve oxygen isotope crystal composition for millions of years stored at magmatic temperatures. Interestingly, oxygen in magnetite will reequilibrate in <1000 years, so systematically higher magnetite-quartz temperatures suggests a short lifespan of magmas from liquidus crystallization to eruption. In an alternative approach, we have modeled the physical emplacement of the large volume (up to 70 km3) rhyolite lavas of the recent Central Plateau Member group. Using simple solutions to gravity-driven viscous fluid flow, we have made first-order estimates for extremely high discharge rates in order to enable effusion of sufficient volume in relatively axisymmetric morphologies—where glacial ice caps or prexisiting topography did not otherwise restrict flow. Using these results and simple conductive cooling models, we show that flows erupted at >800 °C and probably ~850 °C in order to be emplaced before cooling below the melt-glass transition and forming a more dome-like and lobate morphology.

  11. The application of remote sensing technology to the inventory of playa lakes in the High Plains of Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyatt, A. W.; Ellis, M. L.; Bell, A. E.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility of using LANDSAT digital data to inventory the playa lakes of the High Plains region of Texas was investigated. The project will use the detection and mapping (DAM) package developed at NASA-Johnson Space Center. The economy of the High Plains region is dependent on ground water for irrigation and the Ogallala aquifer is being depleted faster than it is being recharged. The playa lakes represent a potential source of artificial recharge for the aquifer and an inventory is the first step in that direction.

  12. Hampton Butte, a 30-Ma rhyodacite basement high bounding the subsiding Miocene to Pliocene High Lava Plains of Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iademarco, M. J.; Grunder, A.

    2012-12-01

    Hampton Butte, a 30-Ma rhyodacite basement high bounding the subsiding Miocene to Pliocene High Lava Plains Michael J. Iademarco and Anita L. Grunder The Hampton Butte area of south central Oregon lies at the boundary between major volcanic and tectonic provinces. Hampton Butte is a large rhyodacite dome complex dated at 30.39 ± 0.13 Ma and is slightly older than the 28.63 ± 0.17 Ma dacite of Cougar Butte to the immediate southeast. They extend the known distribution of vent rocks of John Day age (~35-20 Ma) and are among the oldest rocks exposed in southeastern Oregon. Excepting a remnant of a Cretaceous pluton that intrudes metasedimentary rocks of uncertain age in southeasternmost Oregon, there are no pre-Oligocene basement rocks in the northwest corner of the Basin and Range. Hampton Butte is at least 70 km east of the inferred Oligocene arc indicating that, if it was part of early Cascade volcanism, the arc was much broader than today. Hampton Butte lies at the northern margin of the High Lava Plains, which extend from behind the Cascades arc ~300 km eastward and separate the northwest corner of the Basin a Range form relatively little extended Blue Mountains region to the north. Rocks of the High Lava Plains (HLP) range from ~10 to 0 Ma and are high alumina olivine tholeiites intercalated with tuffaceous sediments and thin widespread ash-flow tuffs; the HLP is punctuated by rhyolite dome complexes that are successively younger to the west. A stack of compound flows of HLP basalt are banked on the south flank of Hampton Butte and dip about 5 degrees south, toward the HLP. These basalts have an age of 7.75 ± 0.06 Ma and correlate with a tongue of basalt with an age of 7.81 ± 0.06, which is preserved in a paleovalley cut into Hampton Butte. These basalts are part of an HLP-wide episode of ~7.5-8 Ma basalt activity. The Hampton Tuff is also banked on the south flank of Hampton Butte, like the basalts dips 5-7 degrees south. The Hampton Tuff yields an age of 3

  13. In search of annual legumes to improve forage sorghum yield and nutritive value in the southern high plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Livestock production is significant in the Southern High Plains of the USA and demand is increasing for greater forage dry matter (DM) yield with increased nutritive value. Forage sorghum (FS)[Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is commonly used, although, it is low in crude protein (CP) and high in fiber....

  14. Optical dating of geoarchaeologically significant sites from the Southern High Plains and South Texas, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rich, J.; Stokes, S.

    2001-12-01

    The Southern High Plains of the United States is a key region for the investigation of early human occupation of North America. This area, including selected archaeological sites located in southern Texas, contains a range of aeolian, fluvial and playa deposits. Such deposits may be suited to luminescence-based methods of age assessment. In this paper we describe a combination of multiple and single-aliquot optical dating results for a selection of sites with some independent age control. We find generally good agreement between multiple- and single-aliquot equivalent dose ( De) estimates for the 20 samples compared, but note that the single-aliquot approach results in errors in mean De's to be less by an order of magnitude. Our results suggest that at least some of the single-aliquot methods are of great utility for low-latitude geoarchaeological sites.

  15. Projecting groundwater declines and agricultural production through 2110 in the High Plains Aquifer of Kansas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steward, D. R.; Bruss, P. J.; Yang, X.; Staggenborg, S. A.; Welch, S. M.; Apley, M. D.

    2013-12-01

    Groundwater pumping supports vibrant agricultural production in the High Plains Aquifer region of Kansas, and yet, persistent aquifer depletion threatens the long-term prospects and the capacity to help feed to world's population. A new model is presented to project changes in groundwater storage and agricultural production into the future using methodology recently developed by the authors (Steward et al. 2013). This vertically integrated model directly relates groundwater pumping to corn production and feed for cattle production. Estimates are provided for the time to aquifer depletion, the rate of recharge, and the time it would take to completely refill a depleted aquifer. Estimates are also projected into the future for corn and cattle production. Scenario analysis shows the impacts of reduced pumping today on future groundwater stores and on agricultural production. This knowledge is important for society to balance groundwater use across the demands of the present with the needs of the future.

  16. Political economy of natural resources: water scarcity in the High Plains region of the US

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, W.M.

    1986-01-01

    This dissertation demonstrates the inadequacy of conventional neoclassical economic theories to explain natural resource depletion in a market economy. That theoretical perspective claims that the worry over depletion and scarcity of natural resources results from treating them as unique inputs in the production process. Accordingly, it finds that special controls designed to ration natural resources often lead to erroneous and unintended impacts. An alternative view presented in this dissertation provides a political economic explanation for natural resource scarcity. Importantly, natural resource scarcity and exhaustion result from specific historical developments which define the limits of economic activity. There are conditions unique to a particular nonrenewable resource that determines whether it will be exhausted. A political economic assessment of natural resource depletion utilizing a case study of the High Plains and the declining groundwater in the Ogallala Aquifer finds that exhaustion results from the conflicts and contradictions inherent in a market economy and the structural impediments preventing the state from instituting resource conservation policies.

  17. Irrigated Area Mapping in The Northern High Plains of Texas Using Landsat Thematic Mapper Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biradar, C. M.; Gowda, P. H.; Hernandez, J. E.; Howell, T. A.; Marek, T. H.; Xiao, X.

    2009-12-01

    Irrigated agriculture in the Texas High Plains accounts for a major portion of the groundwater withdrawals from the Ogallala aquifer, and groundwater levels are declining. Accurate information on irrigated acreage and its spatial distribution enhances local groundwater districts’ ability to manage limited water resources. In addition, irrigated land area is one of the important inputs in most surface and groundwater models to evaluate economic feasibility for various crop rotations systems and irrigation management practices. In this study, we used a novel approach to derive an irrigated area map covering a 4-county area (Dallam, Sherman, Hartley, and Moore Counties) in the northwest region of the Texas High Plains from a Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper image acquired on August 13, 2008. The spectral band ratios and vegetation indices were used to define threshold value for the irrigated pixels. The hierarchical rule-based decision tree classification algorithm was employed to delineate final irrigated class. Ground truth data collected for accuracy assessment included land cover type, irrigation practices and their geographic locations using a global positioning system. Accuracy assessment of the irrigated area map indicated that we achieved an overall mapping accuracy of 96% with omission and commission errors at 9% and 8%, respectively, which are mainly due to clouds and shadows of clouds. Irrigated acreages of summer crops derived from the TM image closely matched with that from agricultural statistical reports for the 4-county area. At present, a spring image is being processed to identify irrigated area planted with winter wheat in the study area. The combined irrigated area map will be used in the comprehensive regional analysis of groundwater depletion in the Ogallala Aquifer Region with the purpose of understanding short- and long-term effects of existing and alternative land use scenarios on groundwater changes.

  18. Evaluation of Four Water Management Policies for Ogallala Aquifer Sustainability in the Texas High Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, J. E.; Gowda, P. H.; Howell, T. A.; Marek, T. H.; Ha, W.; Almas, L. K.

    2010-12-01

    Diminishing groundwater supply in the Ogallala Aquifer will severely reduce regional crop and animal production in the absence of a sustainable water management policy. It is essential to mitigate adverse impacts on the regional economy due to future withdrawals of the limited groundwater resource. Currently, approximately ten alternative water management policies are being debated by policy makers in the Central and Southern High Plains of the Ogallala Aquifer region. Before implementing any new policy or modifying current policies, newer alternative policies should be evaluated for their impact on groundwater levels with eventual extension to regional economic impacts. The main objective of this study was to evaluate four water management policies, from the debated ones, on future groundwater levels in the Ogallala Aquifer beneath four heavily irrigated counties (Dallam, Sherman, Hartley, and Moore) located in the northwest corner of the Texas High Plains using a calibrated ModFlow model. The four water management policies were (1) voluntary permanent conversion to dry land production up to 10% of the total irrigated area, (2) adoption of advances in biotechnology that allow water use reductions at a rate of 1% per year up to 10% of current use, (3) mandatory water use reduction to decrease the total water pumped by 10% (volume per unit land area per year), and (4) voluntary temporary conversion to dry land production during 15 years for a maximum area of 10% of the total irrigated area. The water management policies were converted into water demand rates for ModFlow model inputs. Simulations were conducted for a 50-year (2010-2060) period. Preliminary results indicate that a combination of more than one policy will be required to produce a significant reduction in the current groundwater depletion rates.

  19. Future Projections for Southern High Plains Agriculture Using Coupled Economic and Hydrologic Models and Climate Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rainwater, K.; Tewari, R.; Willis, D.; Stovall, J.; Hayhoe, K.; Hernandez, A.; Mauget, S. A.; Leiker, G.; Johnson, J.

    2013-12-01

    The objective of the project was to evaluate the hypothesis that predicted climate change will affect the useful life of the Ogallala aquifer in the Southern High Plains (SHP) through its impact on the amount of irrigation withdrawals, and thus affect the yields and economic costs and net income. A ninety-year time frame has been considered, although the research team recognizes that long-term predictions of crop prices and selections are perhaps even more uncertain than long-term weather projections. Previous work by the research team recently demonstrated the development of regionally downscaled climate projections for the SHP. Quantitative projections of precipitation, potential evaporation, and temperature trends for the 90-yr duration were selected from a downscaled set of high-resolution (one-eighth degree) daily climate and hydrological simulations covering the entire Great Plains region, driven by the latest IPCC AR4 climate model outputs. These projections were used as input to the Ogallala Ag Tool software developed by the USDA-ARS to predict daily and seasonal values of those variables, which directly affect irrigation, at different locations in the study area. Results from the Ogallala Ag Tool were then used to drive future projected crop production functions for cotton, corn, wheat, and sorghum using the DSSAT crop model. These production functions were then included in an integrated economic-hydrologic modeling approach that coupled an economic optimization model with a groundwater hydrological model. The groundwater model was based on the Texas Water Development Board's Southern Ogallala Groundwater Availability Model, which has been recalibrated by the research team for previous applications. The coupling of the two models allowed better recognition of spatial heterogeneity across the SHP, such that irrigation water availability was better represented through the spatial variations in pumping demands and saturated thickness. With this hydrologic

  20. Nitrate reduction during ground-water recharge, Southern High Plains, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fryar, Alan E.; Macko, Stephen A.; Mullican, William F., III; Romanak, Katherine D.; Bennett, Philip C.

    2000-01-01

    In arid and semi-arid environments, artificial recharge or reuse of wastewater may be desirable for water conservation, but NO 3- contamination of underlying aquifers can result. On the semi-arid Southern High Plains (USA), industrial wastewater, sewage, and feedlot runoff have been retained in dozens of playas, depressions that focus recharge to the regionally important High Plains (Ogallala) aquifer. Analyses of ground water, playa-basin core extracts, and soil gas in an 860-km 2 area of Texas suggest that reduction during recharge limits NO 3- loading to ground water. Tritium and Cl - concentrations in ground water corroborate prior findings of focused recharge through playas and ditches. Typical δ15N values in ground water (>12.5‰) and correlations between δ15N and ln CNO -3-N suggest denitrification, but O 2 concentrations ≥3.24 mg l -1 indicate that NO 3- reduction in ground water is unlikely. The presence of denitrifying and NO 3--respiring bacteria in cores, typical soil-gas δ15N values <0‰, and decreases in NO 3--N/Cl - and SO 42-/Cl - ratios with depth in cores suggest that reduction occurs in the upper vadose zone beneath playas. Reduction may occur beneath flooded playas or within anaerobic microsites beneath dry playas. However, NO 3--N concentrations in ground water can still exceed drinking-water standards, as observed in the vicinity of one playa that received wastewater. Therefore, continued ground-water monitoring in the vicinity of other such basins is warranted.

  1. Climate variability controls on unsaturated water and chemical movement, High Plains aquifer, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gurdak, J.J.; Hanson, R.T.; McMahon, P.B.; Bruce, B.W.; McCray, J.E.; Thyne, G.D.; Reedy, R.C.

    2007-01-01

    Responses in the vadose zone and groundwater to interannual, interdecadal, and multidecadal climate variability have important implications for groundwater resource sustainability, yet they are poorly documented and not well understood in most aquifers of the USA. This investigation systematically examines the role of interannual to multidecadal climate variability on groundwater levels, deep infiltration (3-23 m) events, and downward displacement (>1 m) of chloride and nitrate reservoirs in thick (15-50 m) vadose zones across the regionally extensive High Plains aquifer. Such vadose zone responses are unexpected across much of the aquifer given a priori that unsaturated total-potential profiles indicate upward water movement from the water table toward the root zone, mean annual potential evapotranspiration exceeds mean annual precipitation, and millennia-scale evapoconcentration results in substantial vadose zone chloride and nitrate reservoirs. Using singular spectrum analysis (SSA) to reconstruct precipitation and groundwater level time-series components, variability was identified in all time series as partially coincident with known climate cycles, such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) (10-25 yr) and the El Nin??o/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) (2-6 yr). Using these lag-correlated hydrologic time series, a new method is demonstrated to estimate climate-varying unsaturated water flux. The results suggest the importance of interannual to interdecadal climate variability on water-flux estimation in thick vadose zones and provide better understanding of the climate-induced transients responsible for the observed deep infiltration and chemical-mobilization events. Based on these results, we discuss implications for climate-related sustainability of the High Plains aquifer. ?? Soil Science Society of America.

  2. The tactical value of ENSO forecast information to dual use winter wheat production in the US Southern High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal here was to estimate the tactical value of El Niño–Southern oscillation (ENSO) forecast information to dual-use winter wheat management over the U.S. Southern High Plains via a simulation approach. These model simulations considered three market scenarios, and the most profitable management...

  3. Long-Term Dryland Cropping Systems and Their Impact on Selected Soil Parameters in the Texas High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to the decline of the Ogallala aquifer and the increasing dryland crop production, efforts are needed to enhance soil quality and functioning, and particularly water holding capacity of dryland soils in the semi-arid Texas High Plains (THP). The predominant cropping system in the THP involves dr...

  4. Irrigation Water Supply and Management in the Central High Plains: Can Agriculture Compete for a Limited Resource?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The era of expanding irrigated agriculture in the central high plains has come to an end, and we are likely entering a period of contraction. Contraction has begun in Colorado where the state estimates that current consumptive use exceeds sustainable supplies by about 10%. Groundwater pumping has ...

  5. Modeling Responses of Dryland Spring Triticale, Proso Millet and Foxtail Millet to Initial Soil Water in the High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dryland farming strategies in the High Plains must make efficient use of limited and variable precipitation and stored water in the soil profile for stable and sustainable farm productivity. Current research efforts focus on replacing summer fallow in the region with more profitable and environmenta...

  6. An integrated framework of operational ET remote sensing program for irrigation management in the Texas High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irrigated agriculture and management of limited groundwater are critical issues in the Texas High Plains where irrigation accounts for more than 90% of groundwater use. With low recharge rates, groundwater levels in the underlain Ogallala aquifer are declining at unsustainable rates. Daily field-sca...

  7. Wheat mosaic virus (WMoV), the causal agent of High Plains disease, is present in Ohio wheat fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat mosaic virus (WMoV), the causal agent of High Plains disease in wheat, was found in wheat fields in three western counties in Ohio: Auglaize, Miami, and Paulding. WMoV nucleoprotein sequence was identified from Illumina deep sequencing of RNA collected from symptomatic and asymptomatic wheat s...

  8. Soil bacterial and fungal community responses across a conservation reserve program chronosequence in Texas high plains region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated changes in soil bacterial and fungal communities with increasing restoration time across a Conservation Reserve Program chronosequence (CRP) on fine sandy loam soils in the Texas high plains region. Soil samples (0-10cm) were collected in 2012 and 2014 from seven dryland croplands (0...

  9. The value of ENSO forecast information to dual purpose winter wheat production in the US Southern High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The value of El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) forecast information to Southern High Plains winter wheat and cattle grazing production systems was estimated here by simulation. Although previous work has calculated average forecast value, our approach was to estimate probabilities of the value of ...

  10. Soil water extraction, water use, and grain yield by drought tolerant maize on the Texas High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anticipated water shortages pose a challenge to the sustainability of maize (Zea mays L.) production on the Texas High Plains. Adoption of drought tolerant (DT) hybrids is a critical management strategy for maize production under water limited conditions. However, limited information is available co...

  11. Tapping unsustainable groundwater stores for agricultural production in the High Plains Aquifer of Kansas, projections to 2110

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Groundwater provides a reliable tap to sustain agricultural production, yet persistent aquifer depletion threatens future sustainability. The High Plains Aquifer supplies 30% of the nation’s irrigated groundwater, and the Kansas portion supports the congressional district with the highest market val...

  12. Estimating seasonal crop ET using calendar and heat unit based crop coefficients in the Texas High Plains Evapotranspiration Network

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Texas High Plains Evapotranspiration (TXHPET) network utilizes a heat unit-based approach (growing degree day concept) in the timing of various crop growth stages along with crop coefficients for computation of crop water use with the newly standardized ASCE/EWRI reference evapotranspiration (E...

  13. 77 FR 63813 - Tesoro High Plains Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Request for Temporary Waiver of Tariff Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-17

    ... Waiver of Tariff Filing and Reporting Requirements On October 9, 2012 Tesoro High Plains Pipeline Company, LLC (THPP) filed a Request for a Temporary Waiver of Tariff Filing and Reporting Requirements. THPP requests that the Commission grant a temporary waiver from the tariff filing and reporting requirements...

  14. A web application for cotton irrigation management on the U.S. southern high plains. Part II: Application design

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A web-based application to help Southern High Plains cotton producers estimate profitability under center pivot irrigated production is described. The application’s crop modeling and general profit calculation approach are outlined in a preceding companion paper, while additional details of the prof...

  15. The emerging imperative to improve crop water productivity: U.S. Southern High Plains as a case study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the U.S. there is growing demand for water as the supply diminishes; it is uncertain how irrigated agriculture will fare under these circumstances. The USDA-ERS noted in 2007 that irrigated crops accounted for 55% of U.S. production from 7.5% of the crop acreage. The Southern High Plains is one e...

  16. A Web Application for Cotton Irrigation Management on The US Southern High Plains. Part II: Application Design

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A web-based application intended to help Southern High Plains cotton producers estimate profitability under center pivot irrigated production is described. The application’s crop modeling and general profit calculation approach are outlined in a preceding companion paper, while additional details of...

  17. The use of sequencing batch reactor technology for the treatment of high-strength dairy processing waste

    SciTech Connect

    Kolarski, R.; Nyhuis, G.

    1996-11-01

    Mueller Milch, a German dairy, discharged process wastewater to a local municipal treatment plant. However, increasing user fees for industrial discharges and overloading of the local treatment plant forced Mueller Milch to evaluate alternatives for a new wastewater treatment facility. In 1992, after the evaluation of treatment alternatives, Mueller Milch dairy discharged effluent from Europe`s first full scale 0.4 mgd Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR). In a similar situation was Westmilch dairy, another German milk processor unable to meet new stringent effluent limits requiring nutrient removal with their conventional activated sludge system. Following a construction period of only six weeks, the existing treatment facility was retrofitted to a dual basin 0.19 mgd SBR system with sludge digester, eliminating the need for additional tanks. This paper focuses on the design and performance of the SBR process for the treatment of high-strength dairy process wastewater, and describes the success both Mueller Milch and Westmilch dairy have achieved by utilizing this technology.

  18. Epidemiology and impact of Fasciola hepatica exposure in high-yielding dairy herds

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Alison; Baylis, Matthew; Smith, Rob; Pinchbeck, Gina; Williams, Diana

    2015-01-01

    The liver fluke Fasciola hepatica is a trematode parasite with a worldwide distribution and is the cause of important production losses in the dairy industry. The aim of this observational study was to assess the prevalence of exposure to F. hepatica in a group of high yielding dairy herds, to determine the risk factors and investigate their associations with production and fertility parameters. Bulk milk tank samples from 606 herds that supply a single retailer with liquid milk were tested with an antibody ELISA for F. hepatica. Multivariable linear regression was used to investigate the effect of farm management and environmental risk factors on F. hepatica exposure. Higher rainfall, grazing boggy pasture, presence of beef cattle on farm, access to a stream or pond and smaller herd size were associated with an increased risk of exposure. Univariable regression was used to look for associations between fluke exposure and production-related variables including milk yield, composition, somatic cell count and calving index. Although causation cannot be assumed, a significant (p < 0.001) negative association was seen between F. hepatica exposure and estimated milk yield at the herd level, representing a 15% decrease in yield for an increase in F. hepatica exposure from the 25th to the 75th percentile. This remained significant when fertility, farm management and environmental factors were controlled for. No associations were found between F. hepatica exposure and any of the other production, disease or fertility variables. PMID:26093971

  19. Epidemiology and impact of Fasciola hepatica exposure in high-yielding dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Howell, Alison; Baylis, Matthew; Smith, Rob; Pinchbeck, Gina; Williams, Diana

    2015-09-01

    The liver fluke Fasciola hepatica is a trematode parasite with a worldwide distribution and is the cause of important production losses in the dairy industry. The aim of this observational study was to assess the prevalence of exposure to F. hepatica in a group of high yielding dairy herds, to determine the risk factors and investigate their associations with production and fertility parameters. Bulk milk tank samples from 606 herds that supply a single retailer with liquid milk were tested with an antibody ELISA for F. hepatica. Multivariable linear regression was used to investigate the effect of farm management and environmental risk factors on F. hepatica exposure. Higher rainfall, grazing boggy pasture, presence of beef cattle on farm, access to a stream or pond and smaller herd size were associated with an increased risk of exposure. Univariable regression was used to look for associations between fluke exposure and production-related variables including milk yield, composition, somatic cell count and calving index. Although causation cannot be assumed, a significant (p<0.001) negative association was seen between F. hepatica exposure and estimated milk yield at the herd level, representing a 15% decrease in yield for an increase in F. hepatica exposure from the 25th to the 75th percentile. This remained significant when fertility, farm management and environmental factors were controlled for. No associations were found between F. hepatica exposure and any of the other production, disease or fertility variables. PMID:26093971

  20. Generalized potentiometric surface, estimated depth to water, and estimated saturated thickness of the High Plains aquifer system, March–June 2009, Laramie County, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartos, Timothy T.; Hallberg, Laura L.

    2011-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer system, commonly called the High Plains aquifer in many publications, is a nationally important water resource that underlies a 111-million-acre area (173,000 square miles) in parts of eight States including Wyoming. Through irrigation of crops with groundwater from the High Plains aquifer system, the area that overlies the aquifer system has become one of the major agricultural regions in the world. In addition, the aquifer system also serves as the primary source of drinking water for most residents of the region. The High Plains aquifer system is one of the largest aquifers or aquifer systems in the world. The High Plains aquifer system underlies an area of 8,190 square miles in southeastern Wyoming. Including Laramie County, the High Plains aquifer system is present in parts of five counties in southeastern Wyoming. The High Plains aquifer system underlies 8 percent of Wyoming, and 5 percent of the aquifer system is located within the State. Based on withdrawals for irrigation, public supply, and industrial use in 2000, the High Plains aquifer system is the most utilized source of groundwater in Wyoming. With the exception of the Laramie Mountains in western Laramie County, the High Plains aquifer system is present throughout Laramie County. In Laramie County, the High Plains aquifer system is the predominant groundwater resource for agricultural (irrigation), municipal, industrial, and domestic uses. Withdrawal of groundwater for irrigation (primarily in the eastern part of the county) is the largest use of water from the High Plains aquifer system in Laramie County and southeastern Wyoming. Continued interest in groundwater levels in the High Plains aquifer system in Laramie County prompted a study by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Wyoming State Engineer's Office to update the potentiometric-surface map of the aquifer system in Laramie County. Groundwater levels were measured in wells completed in the High Plains

  1. Dairy Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pico, Richard F.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from the dairy industry covering publications of 1976-77. This review covers: (1) government regulations; (2) ion-plant control of dairy effluents; (3) dairy effluent treatment methods; and (4) research on dairy effluents. A list of 26 references is also presented. (HM)

  2. The origin of high sodium bicarbonate waters in the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, M.D.

    1950-01-01

    Some sodium bicarbonate waters at depth in the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains have the same bicarbonate content as the shallower calcium bicarbonate waters in the same formation and appear to be the result of replacement of calcium by sodium through the action of base-exchange minerals. Others, however, contain several hundred parts per million more of bicarbonate than any of the calcium bicarbonate waters and much more bicarbonate than can be attributed to solution of calcium carbonate through the action of carbon dioxide derived from the air and soil. As the waters in the Potomac group (Cretaceous) are all low in sulphate and as the environmental conditions under which the sediments of the Potomac group were deposited do not indicate that large amounts of sulphate are available for solution, it does not seem probable that carbon dioxide generated by chemical or biochemical breakdown of sulphate is responsible for the high sodium bicarbonate waters in this area. Sulphate as a source of oxygen is not necessary for the generation of carbon dioxide by carbonaceous material. Oxygen is an important constituent of carbonaceous material and carbon dioxide is a characteristic decomposition product of such material-as, for example, peat and lignite. Experimental work showed that distilled water, calcium bicarbonate water, and sodium bicarbonate water, after contact with lignite, calcium carbonate, and permutite (a base-exchange material), had all increased greatly in sodium bicarbonate content and had become similar in chemical character and in mineral content to high sodium bicarbonate waters found in the Coastal Plain. The tests indicated that carbonaceous material can act as a source of carbon dioxide, which, when dissolved in water, enables it to take into solution more calcium carbonate. If base-exchange materials are also present to replace calcium with sodium, a still greater amount of bicarbonate can be held in solution. The presence of carbonaceous material

  3. Impacts of varying agricultural intensification on crop yield and groundwater resources: comparison of the North China Plain and US High Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Hongwei; Scanlon, Bridget R.; Shen, Yanjun; Reedy, Robert C.; Long, Di; Liu, Changming

    2015-04-01

    Agricultural intensification is often considered the primary approach to meet rising food demand. Here we compare impacts of intensive cultivation on crop yield in the North China Plain (NCP) with less intensive cultivation in the US High Plains (USHP) and associated effects on water resources using spatial datasets. Average crop yield during the past decade from intensive double cropping of wheat and corn in the NCP was only 15% higher than the yield from less intensive single cropping of corn in the USHP, although nitrogen fertilizer application and percent of cropland that was irrigated were both ˜2 times greater in the NCP than in the USHP. Irrigation and fertilization in both regions have depleted groundwater storage and resulted in widespread groundwater nitrate contamination. The limited response to intensive management in the NCP is attributed in part to the two month shorter growing season for corn to accommodate winter wheat than that for corn in the USHP. Previous field and modeling studies of crop yield in the NCP highlight over application of N and water resulting in low nitrogen and water use efficiencies and indicate that cultivars, plant densities, soil fertility and other factors had a much greater impact on crop yields over the past few decades. The NCP-USHP comparison along with previous field and modeling studies underscores the need to weigh the yield returns from intensive management relative to the negative impacts on water resources. Future crop management should consider the many factors that contribute to yield along with optimal fertilization and irrigation to further increase crop yields while reducing adverse impacts on water resources.

  4. High variation and very low differentiation in wide ranging plains zebra (Equus quagga): insights from mtDNA and microsatellites.

    PubMed

    Lorenzen, Eline D; Arctander, Peter; Siegismund, Hans R

    2008-06-01

    Patterns of genetic differentiation in the plains zebra (Equus quagga) were analysed using mitochondrial DNA control region variation and seven microsatellites. The six morphologically defined subspecies of plains zebra lacked the population genetic structure indicative of distinct evolutionary units. Both marker sets showed high levels of genetic variation and very low levels of differentiation. There was no geographical structuring of mitochondrial DNA haplotypes in the phylogenetic tree, and the plains zebra showed the lowest overall differentiation recorded in any African ungulate studied so far. Arid-adapted African ungulates have shown significant regional genetic structuring in support of the Pleistocene refuge theory. This was not the case in the zebra, and the data are discussed in relation to the impact of Pleistocene climate change on a nonbovid member of the savannah ungulate community. The only other species showing a similar absence of genetic structuring is the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), but this taxon lacks the high levels of morphological variation present in the plains zebra. PMID:18466230

  5. Investigating the Processes of Crust Formation and Intraplate Continental Volcanism in the High Lava Plains, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, R. W.; James, D. E.; Fouch, M. J.; Grove, T. L.; Hart, W. K.; Grunder, A. L.; Duncan, R. A.; Keller, G. R.; Harder, S. H.; Kincaid, C. R.

    2006-12-01

    East of the southern Cascades is an area of voluminous Late-Cenozoic volcanism built on an immature crustal section accreted to North America in the Mesozoic. With the exception of the Snake River Plain, the High Lava Plains (HLP) of eastern Oregon has been the most volcanically active area in the western United States in the late Cenozoic. Through much of this area, the oldest exposed basement is early Miocene intermediate composition volcanic rocks. Beginning at approximately 16.5 Ma, the HLP was blanketed with flood basalts from both the Steens and Columbia River eruptive centers. The flood basalt era was followed by a time- progressive migration of large silicic centers beginning near the Oregon-Nevada-Idaho borders and extending to the present day activity at Newberry volcano. Quaternary basaltic volcanism is scattered along this whole trend, making the HLP more of a hot-line than a hot-spot. A variety of mechanisms have been proposed to explain this activity including: outflow of the Yellowstone plume-head, back-arc spreading, lithosphere delamination, Basin and Range extension, and asthenospheric inflow around the northward migrating edge of the subducting Juan de Fuca plate. These models make distinct predictions about the flow patterns and temperature structure of the shallow mantle underlying this area, but geophysical information capable of discriminating these models is sparse to absent. To remedy this situation and better define the causes of the voluminous volcanism in this area, the HLP project, funded by the NSF Continental Dynamics program, has initiated a multi-level broadband and active-source seismic study combined with field geology, geochemistry, petrology, geochronology and 3D geodynamic modeling of an area reaching from the southern Cascades across eastern Oregon into Idaho and northernmost Nevada. The seismic part of the project employs very dense station spacing that will provide high-resolution images of the crust and upper 100 km of the

  6. Estimating Recharge through Playa Lakes to the Southern High Plains Aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rainwater, K.; Ganesan, G.; Gitz, D.; Zartman, R.; Hudnall, W.; Smith, L.

    2009-12-01

    In the Southern High Plains of Texas, it is accepted that focused recharge to the High Plains Aquifer (locally known as the Ogallala) occurs through over 20,000 playa lakes, which are local depressions that collect storm runoff. The amount and rate of recharge is not precisely known, and the impact of the land use surrounding each playa lake on the amount of runoff has not been quantified. Each playa exists within its own watershed, and many of those are cultivated, while others are surrounded by native grassland or conservation reserve program (CRP) lands. The amount of sediments entering most playas following cultivation has been substantial, but whether this erosion has had a harmful influence on recharge is unknown. Changing recharge rates can also impact the playa ecosystems that are pivotal to many types of local wildlife. Improved understanding of playa recharge is necessary for proper management strategies for long-term survivability of the Ogallala aquifer. Over the last four years, the research team selected and instrumented 30 playas (10 counties, one cropland playa, one native grassland playa, one CRP playa in each) for observation of their water budgets. To quantify recharge in each playa, data collection includes sufficient weather instrumentation to determine local precipitation and free water evaporation, as well as water level monitoring in the playa lake. The depth/area/volume relationship for each playa was developed by local GPS surveying. Between rainfall/runoff events, seepage through the playa bottom is calculated as the difference between the change in the volume of water stored in the playa and the calculated free water evaporation. The research team hopes to keep the instrumentation operational for as long as possible, hopefully several years, to observe enough inundation events to characterize a range of behaviors in the different playa basins. In this presentation, initial water budget analyses for several of the initially instrumented

  7. High frequency water quality and flow observations of a hypereutrophic Coastal Plain millpond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andres, S.; Ullman, W. J.; Voynova, Y. G.

    2014-12-01

    Eutrophication due to runoff of N and P occurs in many impoundments in agricultural areas around the world with deleterious impacts on fisheries, drinking water, and recreational resources. Coursey Pond, a hypereutrophic, shallow, Coastal Plain mill pond located on the Murderkill River in central Delaware has seasonal algal blooms between May and October. High frequency automated water quality, meteorlogical, and flow observations initiated in June 2014 as part of the NEWRNet project provide insights into the relationships between hydrologic events, changes in water quality, and primary productivity. During blooms the pond becomes stratified, allowing for dissolved oxygen (DO) levels at the surface to exceed 150% saturation, while DO within 2 m of the surface to falls below 50% saturation. During fair weather turbidity and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) also gradually rise. Turbidity, DOC, and DO quickly decrease in response to storms and increased flow, indicating that storms are important regulators of water column stratification. Decreases in primary productivity due to decreased sunlight, dilution by addition of rain and runoff, and mixing in response to storm winds and flows abruptly end blooms, although they often return within a few days of storm events. Analysis of hourly meterological data will help determine the importance of solar insolation, winds, and rainfall intensity to the timing, rate, and magnitude of these water quality changes. Groundwater is the primary source of water to the streams that feed the pond and delivers nitrogen as nitrate. Historical grab sample nitrate concentration data from summer months (<1 mg/L) in comparison to winter months (4-8 mg/L) indicate that primary productivity consumes nearly all available nitrate during algal blooms, and perhaps improving water quality in downstream areas. There is no clear relationship between storms, flow and nitrate in the short period of high frequency observations, when nitrate concentrations

  8. Episodic bedrock erosion by gully-head migration, Colorado High Plains, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rengers, Francis; Tucker, G.E.; Mahan, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the frequency of bedrock exposure in a soil-mantled low-relief (i.e. non-mountainous) landscape. In the High Plains of eastern Colorado, gully headcuts are among the few erosional features that will incise through the soil mantle to expose bedrock. We measured the last time of bedrock exposure using optically stimulated luminescence dating of alluvial sediment overlying bedrock in gully headcuts. Our dating suggests that headcuts in adjacent gullies expose bedrock asynchronously, and therefore, the headcuts are unlikely to have been triggered by a base-level drop in the trunk stream. This finding supports the hypothesis that headcuts can develop locally in gullies as a result of focused scour in locations where hydraulic stress during a flash flood is sufficiently high, and/or ground cover is sufficiently weak, to generate a scour hole that undermines vegetation. Alluvium dating also reveals that gullies have been a persistent part of this landscape since the early Holocene. 

  9. Surface Energy Balance Based Evapotranspiration Mapping in the Texas High Plains

    PubMed Central

    Gowda, Prasanna H.; Chávez, José L.; Howell, Terry A.; Marek, Thomas H.; New, Leon L.

    2008-01-01

    Agriculture on the Texas High Plains (THP) uses approximately 89% of groundwater withdrawals from the Ogallala Aquifer. Consequently, groundwater levels are declining faster than the recharge rate. Therefore, efficient agricultural water use is essential for economic viability and sustainability of the THP. Accurate regional evapotranspiration (ET) maps would provide valuable information on actual crop water use. In this study, METRIC (Mapping Evapotranspiration at High Resolution using Internalized Calibration), a remote sensing based ET algorithm, was evaluated for mapping ET in the THP. Two Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper images acquired on 27 June (DOY 178) and 29 July (DOY 210) 2005 were used for this purpose. The performance of the ET model was evaluated by comparing the predicted daily ET with values derived from soil moisture budget at four commercial agricultural fields. Daily ET estimates resulted with a prediction error of 12.7±8.1% (mean bias error ± root mean square error) on DOY 178 and -4.7±9.4% on DOY 210 when compared with ET derived from measured soil moisture through the soil water balance. These results are good considering the prevailing advective conditions in the THP. METRIC have the potential to be used for mapping regional ET in the THP region. However, more evaluation is needed under different agroclimatological conditions.

  10. A dairy-based high calcium diet improves glucose homeostasis and reduces steatosis in the context of pre-existing obesity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High dietary calcium (Ca) in the context of a dairy food matrix has been shown to reduce obesity development and associated inflammation in diet-induced obese (DIO) rodents. The influence of Ca and dairy on these phenotypes in the context of pre-existing obesity is not known. Furthermore, interpre...

  11. Future consequences of decreasing marginal production efficiency in the high-yielding dairy cow.

    PubMed

    Moallem, U

    2016-04-01

    The objectives were to examine the gross and marginal production efficiencies in high-yielding dairy cows and the future consequences on dairy industry profitability. Data from 2 experiments were used in across-treatments analysis (n=82 mid-lactation multiparous Israeli-Holstein dairy cows). Milk yields, body weights (BW), and dry matter intakes (DMI) were recorded daily. In both experiments, cows were fed a diet containing 16.5 to 16.6% crude protein and net energy for lactation (NEL) at 1.61 Mcal/kg of dry matter (DM). The means of milk yield, BW, DMI, NEL intake, and energy required for maintenance were calculated individually over the whole study, and used to calculate gross and marginal efficiencies. Data were analyzed in 2 ways: (1) simple correlation between variables; and (2) cows were divided into 3 subgroups, designated low, moderate, and high DMI (LDMI, MDMI, and HDMI), according to actual DMI per day: ≤ 26 kg (n=27); >26 through 28.2 kg (n=28); and >28.2 kg (n=27). The phenotypic Pearson correlations among variables were analyzed, and the GLM procedure was used to test differences between subgroups. The relationships between milk and fat-corrected milk yields and the corresponding gross efficiencies were positive, whereas BW and gross production efficiency were negatively correlated. The marginal production efficiency from DM and energy consumed decreased with increasing DMI. The difference between BW gain as predicted by the National Research Council model (2001) and the present measurements increased with increasing DMI (r=0.68). The average calculated energy balances were 1.38, 2.28, and 4.20 Mcal/d (standard error of the mean=0.64) in the LDMI, MDMI, and HDMI groups, respectively. The marginal efficiency for milk yields from DMI or energy consumed was highest in LDMI, intermediate in MDMI, and lowest in HDMI. The predicted BW gains for the whole study period were 22.9, 37.9, and 75.8 kg for the LDMI, MDMI, and HDMI groups, respectively. The

  12. High concentrations of regional dust from deserts to plains across the central Rocky Mountains, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, R. L.; Munson, S. M.; Fernandez, D. P.; Neff, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    Regional mineral dust in the American Southwest affects snow-melt rates, biogeochemical cycling, visibility, and public health. We measured total suspended particulates (TSP) across a 500-km-long sampling network of five remote sites in Utah and Colorado, USA, forming a gradient in distance from major dust emitting areas. The two westernmost sites on the Colorado Plateau desert had similar TSP concentrations (2008-2012, daily average=126 μg m-3; max. daily average over a two-week period=700 μg m-3 at Canyonlands National Park, Utah), while the easternmost High Plains site, close to cropped and grazed areas in northeastern Colorado, had an average concentration of 143 μg m-3 in 2011-2012 (max. daily average=656 μg m-3). Such concentrations rank comparably with those of TSP in several African and Asian cities in the paths of frequent dust storms. Dust loadings at the two intervening montane sites decreased from the western slope of the Rocky Mountains (Telluride, daily average=68 μg m-3) to an eastern site (Niwot Ridge, daily average=58 μg m-3). Back-trajectory analyses and satellite retrievals indicated that the three westernmost sites received most dust from large desert-source regions as far as 300 km to their southwest. These sources also sometimes sent dust to the two easternmost sites, which additionally captured dust from sources north and northwest of the central Rocky Mountains as well as locally at the Plains site. The PM10 fraction accounted for <15% of TSP, but most TSP is only slightly larger (typical median size, 15-20 μm) after about 100-800 km transport distances. Correlations between TSP and PM10 values indicate increases in both fractions during regional wind storms, especially related to Pacific frontal systems during late winter to late spring. These measurements and observations indicate that most dust deposition and associated air-quality problems in the interior American West are connected to regional dust sources and not to those in

  13. Development of a method to characterize high-protein dairy powders using an ultrasonic flaw detector.

    PubMed

    Hauser, M; Amamcharla, J K

    2016-02-01

    Dissolution behavior of high-protein dairy powders plays a critical role for achieving functional and nutritional characteristics of a finished food product. Current methods for evaluating powder dissolution properties are time consuming, difficult to reproduce, and subjective. Ultrasound spectroscopy is a rapid and precise method, but requires expensive equipment and skilled technicians to carry out the tests. In the present study, an ultrasonic flaw detector (UFD) was used as an economical alternative to characterize the powder dissolution properties. The objective of study was to develop a method to characterize the dissolution behavior of milk protein concentrate (MPC) using a UFD. The experimental setup included a UFD connected to a 1-MHz immersion transducer that was kept a constant distance from a reflector plate. To validate the method, 2 batches of MPC80 from a commercial manufacturer were procured and stored at 25 and 40°C for 4 wk. Focus beam reflectance measurement and solubility index were used as reference methods. Relative ultrasound velocity and ultrasound attenuation were acquired during the dissolution of MPC samples. To characterize the MPC dissolution, 4 parameters including standard deviation of relative velocity, area under the attenuation curve, and peak attenuation were extracted from ultrasound data. As the storage temperature and time increased, the area under the attenuation curve and peak height decreased, indicating a loss of solubility. The proposed UFD-based method was able to capture the changes in dissolution of MPC during storage at 25 and 40°C. It was observed that a high-quality MPC had a low standard deviation and a larger area under the attenuation curve. As the MPC aged at 40°C, the particle dispersion rate decreased and, consequently, an increase in standard deviation and reduction in area were observed. Overall, the UFD can be a low-cost method to characterize the dissolution behavior of high-protein dairy powders. PMID

  14. Texturized dairy proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy proteins are amenable to structural modifications induced by high temperature, shear and moisture; in particular, whey proteins can change conformation to new unfolded states. The change in protein state is a basis for creating new foods. The dairy products, nonfat dried milk (NDM), whey prote...

  15. Supplementing lactating dairy cows fed high-quality pasture with black wattle (Acacia mearnsii) tannin.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, W M; Clark, C E F; Clark, D A; Waghorn, G C

    2013-11-01

    A reduction in urinary nitrogen (N) excretion from dairy cows fed pasture containing a high N concentration in the dry matter (DM) will have environmental benefits, because losses to soil water and air by leachate and nitrous oxides (N2O) will be reduced. Condensed tannins (CT) reduce digestion of N, and provision as a dietary additive could have nutritional benefits for production, but the amount required and the responses to different sources of CT on milk production have not been defined. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate effects of supplementation with CT extracted from black wattle (Acacia mearnsii De Wild.) on milk production and faecal N concentration by lactating dairy cows grazing a vegetative Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)-based pasture. In one experiment, CT was administered as a drench, twice daily, to 38 multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows assigned to four treatments; control (CONT, 0 g/day), low CT (LCT, 111 g/day), medium CT (MCT, 222 g/day) and high CT (HCT, 444 g/day), grazing as a single group. The CT supplementation affected milk yield (P < 0.001) with a trend of declining milk yield as CT concentration increased from about 0.6 to about 2.9% of dietary DM. Milk urea nitrogen (MUN) decreased at MCT and HCT levels of supplementation (P < 0.01) but milk fat, CP and lactose percentage were not affected by CT supplementation. The CT supplementation increased N concentration in faeces for LCT and MCT treatments (P < 0.05), suggesting partitioning of dietary N away from urine. When CT was pelleted with grain, in a second experiment and fed twice daily as a supplement at milking, it reduced the acceptability relative to pellets without CT, and tended to lower milk production from 25.4 to 24.5 kg/day, although the decline was not significant (P > 0.05). The diet of cows fed pellets with CT contained about 1.2% CT in the DM but neither milk constituents nor MUN were affected by CT-supplemented grain (P > 0.05). These findings demonstrate

  16. Deviation from the formulated target weight of ingredients loaded into high milk yield cow recipes on California dairies.

    PubMed

    Trillo, Y; Lago, A; Silva-Del-Río, N

    2016-07-01

    Nutrient composition of the feed and formulated ration often differ depending on uncertainties in DM content and nutrient composition of ingredients, as well as from feeder errors during loading. The objective of this study was to describe the deviation from target weight for the high-producing cow ration (HCR) and premix (HCP) on 26 California dairies ranging in size from 1,100 to 6,900 cows. Records from a consecutive 12-mo period were extracted from FeedWatch 7 (Valley Agricultural Software Inc., Tulare, CA), a feeding management software. Variables extracted and studied were date, recipe type, recipe number, ingredient, loading sequence, target weight, weight, and tolerance level (TL, deviation allowed per ingredient during loading). Based on the distribution of the deviation from target weight for the 8 most common ingredients, loading accuracy (quartile 1; small: |<10| kg; medium |10| to |20| kg; large |>20| kg), loading precision (interquartile range=quartile 3 to 1; small: <20kg; medium: 20 to 40kg; large >40kg), and extreme observations (quartile 3; small: |<25| kg; medium: |25| to |40| kg; large: |>40| kg) were described. Descriptive statistics were conducted with SAS 9.4 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). The median TL assigned to ingredients across dairies ranged from 0 to 90kg. At the ingredient level, the TL allowed a deviation from the median ingredient target weight of 0 to 2 (53.9%), >2 to 5 (25.5%), >5 to 10 (11.6%), or >10% (8.9%). A total of 2.5% of the loads did not reach the target weight set by the TL, ranging from 0.1 to 21.1% loads across dairies. Ingredient deviation from the formulated target weight across dairies was below target 49.1% of the time [<-10 (2.5%), -10 to <-5 (4.8%), -5 to <-2 (8.9%), -2 to <0% (32.8%)] or at or above target 50.9% of the time [0 (3.9%), >0 to 2 (36.7%), >2 to 5 (8.9%), >5 to 10 (1.2%), >10% (0.2%)]. Five dairies loaded ingredients with adequate accuracy (small to medium, quartile 1) and adequate precision

  17. Geoarchaeology and Geochronology of the Miami (Clovis) Site, Southern High Plains of Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holliday, Vance T.; Haynes, C. Vance; Hofman, Jack L.; Meltzer, David J.

    1994-03-01

    The Miami site, excavated in 1937, is in a small "playa" basin on the High Plains surface. The site is one of the earliest documented co-occurrences of Clovis points and mammoth. Reinvestigation of the site and related collections was undertaken to better understand the stratigraphy, geochronology, and archaeology. The basin, 23 m diameter × 1.6 m deep, filled with (1) dark gray silty clay, and (2) near the top of the section, a lens of well-sorted silt or loess. The basin started to fill ca. 13,700 yr B.P., the loess dates to ca. 11,400 yr B.P., and the bone bed probably dates to ca. 11,400-10,500 yr B.P. The loess may be the local manifestation of a "Clovis drought." The partial remains of five mammoths (three adults and two juveniles) were recovered in 1937; no other animal remains are known. The bone is heavily weathered and there are no clear indications of human modification. Artifacts found at the site include three Clovis points and a scraper found among the bones and two flakes and a scraper found on the surface near the playa. The origins of the bone and stone assemblage are uncertain but four scenarios are offered: a successful mammoth kill, an unsuccessful kill with wounded animals dying at the watering hole, opportunistic scavenging following natural deaths, or a palimpsest of multiple deaths following both natural and human causes.

  18. Ammonia emissions from a beef cattle feedyard on the southern High Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, Richard W.; Cole, N. Andy; Clark, R. Nolan; Flesch, Thomas K.; Harper, Lowry A.; Baek, Bok H.

    Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) are major sources of ammonia emitted into the atmosphere. There is considerable literature on ammonia emissions from poultry and swine CAFO, but few comprehensive studies have investigated large, open lot beef cattle feedyards. Ammonia emission rates and emission factors for a 77-ha, 45 000-head commercial beef cattle feedyard on the southern High Plains were quantified using measured profiles of ammonia concentration, wind speed and air temperature, and an inverse dispersion model. Mean summer emission rate was 7420 kg NH 3 d -1, and winter emission rate was about half that, at 3330 kg NH 3 d -1. Annual NH 3-N emission rate was 4430 kg NH 3-N d -1, which was 53% of the N fed to cattle. Daily per capita NH 3-N losses increased by 10-64% after the daily per capita N in feed rations increased by 15-26%. Annual emission factors for the pen area of the feedyard were 19.3 kg NH 3 (head fed) -1, or 70.2 kg NH 3 Mg -1 biomass produced. Annual emission factors for the retention pond of the feedyard were estimated to be 0.9 kg NH 3 (head fed) -1, or 3.2 kg NH 3 Mg -1 biomass produced.

  19. Investigation into rainwater use by cotton under multiple irrigation management conditions in the Texas High Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goebel, T.; Lascano, R. J.

    2012-12-01

    Irrigation management practices in the Texas High Plains (THP) might be improved if we could ascertain the proportion of rainfall utilized by the crop in any given rainfall event. For instance, the primary source of irrigation water in the THP is pumped from the Ogallala Aquifer (OA), and can be enriched in 18O compared to rainfall-captured water. Given this expected difference, it should be possible to determine if the crop is utilizing the water from a rainfall event. To this end, cotton was grown using three irrigation management practices: subsurface drip, center pivot, and no irrigation (dry land). The water used for irrigation was pumped from the Ogallala aquifer, and rainfall was gathered in a rain gauge with mineral oil to prevent evaporation. Additionally, plant and soil samples were collected following each precipitation event every two hours and every eight hours respectively. Water was then extracted from the soil and plant samples using cryogenic vacuum distillation, and analyzed for 18O/16O ratios using the DLT-100 Liquid-Water Isotope Analyzer from Los Gatos Research Inc. The difference in isotope concentrations in the extracts from soils was used to determine infiltration depth into the soil profile at each location. The isotopic composition of the plant water was used to determine if the was used to compare rainwater use across the different irrigation management practices. Results might suggest changes to the way in which we apply irrigation water that would improve root growth and distribution to enhance the capture of rainfall.

  20. Lithostratigraphy and geochronology of fills in small playa basins on the Southern High Plains, United States

    SciTech Connect

    Holliday, V.T.; Hovorka, S.D.; Gustavson, T.C.

    1996-08-01

    Playa basins are small depressions (typically <=1.5 km{sup 2}) on the Southern High Plains of northwestern Texas and eastern New Mexico. There are about 25000 playas in the region; they lie on the Blackwater Draw Formation (Pleistocene), a widespread eolin deposit, and locally on the Ogallala Formation (Miocene-Pliocene). Understanding the lithostratigraphy and chronostratigraphy of the fill in the basins is important because it should (1) provide clues to the origin and evolution of playas, which have been long debated; (2) yield a paleoenvironmental record for the region; and (3) aid in understanding the history and future of the regional aquifer because playas are the principal source of recharge. Data from 19 playa basins, combined with published data from 4 other basins, show that the basin fill is composed of six distinctive facies: (1) lacustrine mud; (2) lacustrine carbonate; (3) lacustrine delta deposits; (4) eolian sand and silt; (5) eolian loam; and (6) accretionary eolian deposits (Blackwater Draw Formation). Dating is based on radiocarbon ages from the fill in 12 basins and from lunettes adjacent to 5 basins. All dated basins were present at the end of the Pleistocene and some were present in some form throughout the Pleistocene. These lithostratigraphic and chronostratigraphic relationships show that some basins have a prolonged history as depressions. 96 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. GRACE Hydrological estimates for small basins: Evaluating processing approaches on the High Plains Aquifer, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longuevergne, Laurent; Scanlon, Bridget R.; Wilson, Clark R.

    2010-11-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites provide observations of water storage variation at regional scales. However, when focusing on a region of interest, limited spatial resolution and noise contamination can cause estimation bias and spatial leakage, problems that are exacerbated as the region of interest approaches the GRACE resolution limit of a few hundred km. Reliable estimates of water storage variations in small basins require compromises between competing needs for noise suppression and spatial resolution. The objective of this study was to quantitatively investigate processing methods and their impacts on bias, leakage, GRACE noise reduction, and estimated total error, allowing solution of the trade-offs. Among the methods tested is a recently developed concentration algorithm called spatiospectral localization, which optimizes the basin shape description, taking into account limited spatial resolution. This method is particularly suited to retrieval of basin-scale water storage variations and is effective for small basins. To increase confidence in derived methods, water storage variations were calculated for both CSR (Center for Space Research) and GRGS (Groupe de Recherche de Géodésie Spatiale) GRACE products, which employ different processing strategies. The processing techniques were tested on the intensively monitored High Plains Aquifer (450,000 km2 area), where application of the appropriate optimal processing method allowed retrieval of water storage variations over a portion of the aquifer as small as ˜200,000 km2.

  2. Holocene chronology for lunette dune deposition on the Southern High Plains, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rich, J.; Stokes, S.; Wood, W.W.

    1999-01-01

    Lunettes flank the margins of numerous ephemeral lakes that occur across the Southern High Plains of the United States. While their genesis is closely associated with the hydrology of the adjacent lake systems, the detailed inter-relationships between climate changes and geomorphological and hydrological changes upon the lake-lunette system has been hindered by an absence of reliable age control. In order to develop a chronology of lunette deposition, a luminescence dating programme was undertaken on surface collected and core sections from sets of lunettes which flank the southeast margins of three lake basins near Lubbock, Texas. In contrast to the preconception that the formation of lunettes occurred primarily during the last glacial maximum (18-12 ka), the inner two lunette ridges were observed to be emplaced in a punctuated manner during the middle and late Holocene from 5.6??0.5 to 0.7??0.02 ka. The chronostratigraphy developed in the context of the complex hydrogeological processes associated with the Lubbock lake basins demonstrates that the records of activity preserved within the lunettes provides a useful resolution record of climate change and landscape response.

  3. Nest success of snowy plovers (Charadrius nivosus) in the Southern high plains of Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saalfeld, S.T.; Conway, Warren C.; Haukos, D.A.; Johnson, W.P.

    2011-01-01

    Snowy Plovers (Charadrius nivosus) nesting on edges of saline lakes within the Southern High Plains (SHP) of Texas are threatened by habitat degradation due to reduced artesian spring flow, making many saline lakes unsuitable for nesting and migrating shorebirds. Factors influencing nest success were evaluated, current nest success estimates in the SHP of Texas were compared to estimates obtained ten years prior, and causes and timing of nest failures determined. Overall, 215 nests were monitored from three saline lakes in 20082009, with nest success estimates from Program MARK ranging from 7-33% ( x??= 22%). The leading causes of nest failures were attributed to predation (40%) and weather (36%). Nest success was negatively influenced by number of plants within 707-cm 2 plot, positively influenced by percent surface water availability, and at one saline lake, negatively influenced by day during the nesting season (i.e., nest success declined later in the nesting season). When compared to estimates ten years prior (19981999), mean nest success has declined by 31%. If nesting Snowy Plovers continue to experience increased predation rates, decreased hydrological integrity, and habitat alterations, populations will continue to decline throughout this region.

  4. Evolution of playa basins on the Texas High Plains--Evidence from playa-basin fills

    SciTech Connect

    Hovorka, S.D. . Bureau of Economic Geology)

    1993-02-01

    Heterogeneous sediments in playa basins document the evolution of shallow depressions on the Texas High Plains surface through the late Quaternary. The suite of sediments encountered in playa-lake basins differs from the typical lithologies of the Blackwater Draw Formation in upland areas. The upland Blackwater Draw Formation has red-brown clayey silt containing root casts, well-developed soil fabrics, and abundant pedogenic carbonate nodules. Cores drilled in playa basins encountered a repetitive suite of gray clay, well-sorted fine to medium sand, and laminated sand and silt associated with clay drapes and beds of pedogenic calcite pebbles. The gray clay was deposited in ephemeral lakes similar to modern playa lakes. Small clams and drab colors extending downward from these deposits demonstrate ponding. Soil fabrics, soil slickensides, deep clay-filled cracks, and root tubules within the clayey beds indicate desiccation and exposure of the lake floor. Well-sorted sand layers represent episodic migration of sand sheets across the playa. Laminated sand and silt beds are interpreted as delta deposits that formed at the mouths of draws. Minimal soil formation indicates relatively rapid deposition during delta progradation. The suite of playa sediments interfingers with upland Blackwater Draw facies, documenting the temporal equivalence of playa and upland deposition and expansion and contraction of the lake within the playa basin. Complex patterns of oxidation, reduction, and precipitation and dissolution of calcite document the interaction between ground water and sediments.

  5. Raptor community composition in the Texas Southern High Plains lesser prairie-chicken range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Behney, A.C.; Boal, Clint W.; Whitlaw, H.A.; Lucia, D.R.

    2012-01-01

    Predation can be a factor in preventing prey population growth and sustainability when prey populations are small and fragmented, and when predator density is unrelated to the density of the single prey species. We conducted monthly raptor surveys from February 2007 to May 2009 in adjacent areas of the Texas Southern High Plains (USA) that do and do not support lesser prairie-chickens (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus), a candidate for protection under the Endangered Species Act. During the summer period corresponding to prairie-chicken nesting and brood-rearing, Swainson's hawks (Buteo swainsoni) were the most abundant raptor. During the lekking and overwintering period, the raptor community was diverse, with northern harriers (Circus cyaneus) being the most abundant species. Raptor abundance peaked during the early autumn and was lowest during the spring. Utility poles were a significant predictor of raptor density at survey points and Swainson's hawks and all raptors, pooled, were found in greater densities in non-prairie-chicken habitat dominated by mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa). Avian predation risk on prairie-chickens, based on presence and abundance of raptors, appears to be greatest during winter when there is a more abundant and diverse raptor community, and in areas with utility poles.

  6. Susceptibility to enhanced chemical migration from depression-focused preferential flow, High Plains aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gurdak, J.J.; Walvoord, M.A.; McMahon, P.B.

    2008-01-01

    Aquifer susceptibility to contamination is controlled in part by the inherent hydrogeologic properties of the vadose zone, which includes preferential-flow pathways. The purpose of this study was to investigate the importance of seasonal ponding near leaky irrigation wells as a mechanism for depression-focused preferential flow and enhanced chemical migration through the vadose zone of the High Plains aquifer. Such a mechanism may help explain the widespread presence of agrichemicals in recently recharged groundwater despite estimates of advective chemical transit times through the vadose zone from diffuse recharge that exceed the historical period of agriculture. Using a combination of field observations, vadose zone flow and transport simulations, and probabilistic neural network modeling, we demonstrated that vadose zone transit times near irrigation wells range from 7 to 50 yr, which are one to two orders of magnitude faster than previous estimates based on diffuse recharge. These findings support the concept of fast and slow transport zones and help to explain the previous discordant findings of long vadose zone transit times and the presence of agrichemicals at the water table. Using predictions of aquifer susceptibility from probabilistic neural network models, we delineated approximately 20% of the areal extent of the aquifer to have conditions that may promote advective chemical transit times to the water table of <50 yr if seasonal ponding and depression-focused flow exist. This aquifer-susceptibility map may help managers prioritize areas for groundwater monitoring or implementation of best management practices.

  7. Change in Water in Storage in the High Plains Aquifer, Predevelopment to 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, V. L.

    2014-12-01

    The High Plains aquifer underlies about 175,000 square miles in parts of eight States—Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The aquifer is the principal source of water for irrigation and public supply in this area, which is one of the major agricultural areas in the United States. However, soon after groundwater irrigation began, water-level declines occurred in some parts of the aquifer. In response, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with numerous Federal, State, and local water-resource agencies, began monitoring groundwater levels in the aquifer. Water levels are measured annually primarily in irrigation wells in winter to early spring (generally January to May, depending on location), when water levels generally have recovered from groundwater pumping for irrigation in the previous growing season and before the current year's irrigation season. The water-level elevation for predevelopment (about 1950) conditions was determined using water-level measurements from more than 20,000 wells. The water-level elevation for 2013 was measured in more than 9,000 wells. The water-level measurements were analyzed and interpolated to map discrete intervals of water-level changes from predevelopment to the year 2013. The change in the volume of drainable water stored in the aquifer was calculated using the mapped area of each water-level-change interval, the average water-level change within each mapped interval, and the estimated average specific yield for the aquifer.

  8. Hydrologic analysis of the High Plains aquifer system in Box Butte County, Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pettijohn, R.A.; Chen, Hsiu-Hsiung

    1984-01-01

    During the past 40 years, pumpage of ground water for irrigation from the High Plains aquifer system underlying Box Butte County, Nebraska, has resulted in a steady decline of water levels. Consequently, a digital model of the aquifer system was constructed to evaluate various water-management alternatives. The hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer system ranges from 6 to 60 feet per day; the specific yield ranges from 12 to 21 percent; and natural recharge ranges from 0.06 to 4.33 inches annually. Predevelopment saturated thickness (1938) ranged from 190 to 510 feet. Water pumped in 1980 was estimated at 104,000 acre-feet from an estimated recoverable volume of 34.4 million acre-feet in the aquifer system. Results from model simulation predict that the area of water-level declines of 10 feet or more will increase from 336 square miles (1981) to 630 square miles by 1991 if pumpage is increased at the maximum annual rate experienced for the period 1972-81. Maximum water-level declines would increase from 50 feet (1981) to 79 feet (1991). However, pumpage rates held at the 1981 level (no further development) would limit the decline area of 10 feet or more to 530 square miles by 1991 and the maximum decline to 63 feet. (USGS)

  9. High arsenic groundwater: mobilization, metabolism and mitigation--an overview in the Bengal Delta Plain.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Rupa; Chatterjee, Debashis; Nath, Bibhash; Jana, Joydev; Jacks, Gunnar; Vahter, Marie

    2003-11-01

    The widespread occurrence of high inorganic arsenic in natural waters is attributed to human carcinogen and is identified as a major global public health issue. The scale of the problem in terms of population exposure (36 million) and geographical area coverage (173 x 10(3) Km2) to high arsenic contaminated groundwater (50-3200 microgL(-1)) compared to the National drinking water standard (50 microgL(-1)) and WHO recommended provisional limit (10 microgL(-1)) is greatest in the Holocene alluvium and deltaic aquifers of the Bengal Delta Plain (Bangladesh and West Bengal, India). This large-scale 'natural' high arsenic groundwater poses a great threat to human health via drinking water. Mobilization, metabolism and mitigation issues of high arsenic groundwater are complex and need holistic approach for sustainable development of the resource. Mobilization depends on the redox geochemistry of arsenic that plays a vital role in the release and subsequent transport of arsenic in groundwater. Metabolism narrates the biological response vis-à-vis clinical manifestations of arsenic due to various chemical and biological factors. Mitigation includes alternative source for safe drinking water supply. Drinking water quality regulatory standards as well as guidelines are yet to cover risk assessments for such metal toxicity. Lowering of the ingested inorganic arsenic level and introduction of newer treatment options (implementation of laterite, the natural material) to ensure safe water supply (arsenic free and/or low arsenic within permissible limit) are the urgent need to safe guard the mass arsenic poisoning and internal arsenic related health problems. PMID:14619986

  10. Comparison of two treatment strategies for cows with metritis in high-risk lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Armengol, Ramon; Fraile, Lorenzo

    2015-05-01

    Acute puerperal metritis (APM) and clinical metritis (CM) are uterine diseases frequently diagnosed in dairy cows. These diseases are responsible for important economic loss because of their effect not only on reproductive performance but also on milk production. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of two different treatments for metritis on dairy cows by measuring their reproductive performance in the next gestation. The end points to measure the reproductive performance included the conception rate at the first artificial insemination, the number of days at conception, and the proportion of nonpregnant cows at over 150 days after beginning milk production. The study was carried out in a high production dairy cow farm located in Lleida (northeast Spain). Recordings of 1044 parturitions of 747 Holstein cows were controlled in this farm from 2009 to 2014. Cows were diagnosed as suffering from metritis (APM or CM) if the following parameters were observed: an abnormally enlarged uterus; a fetid, watery, reddish brown uterine discharge with (APM) or without (CM) fever (>39.5 °C); and presence (APM) or absence (CM) of signs of systemic illness (decreased milk production, dullness, or other signs of toxemia) within 21 days postpartum. Afterwards, cows suffering from metritis (APM or CM) were randomly assigned and balanced to two groups: (1) animals receiving parenteral amoxicillin intramuscularly plus intrauterine infusion with oxytetracycline (P + I group) and (2) animals receiving only parenteral amoxicillin intramuscularly (P group). Furthermore, reproductive performance of cows without metritis was used as reference (control group). Metritis was diagnosed in 27.5% of the total parturitions included in the study (288 of 1044). In particular, metritis was diagnosed in 30.5% (118 of 387) and 25.9% (170 of 657) of parturitions from heifers and multiparous cows, respectively. Reproductive performance was not significantly affected by the parity, the

  11. High Genetic Diversity among Strains of the Unindustrialized Lactic Acid Bacterium Carnobacterium maltaromaticum in Dairy Products as Revealed by Multilocus Sequence Typing

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Abdur; Cailliez-Grimal, Catherine; Bontemps, Cyril; Payot, Sophie; Chaillou, Stéphane; Revol-Junelles, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Dairy products are colonized with three main classes of lactic acid bacteria (LAB): opportunistic bacteria, traditional starters, and industrial starters. Most of the population structure studies were previously performed with LAB species belonging to these three classes and give interesting knowledge about the population structure of LAB at the stage where they are already industrialized. However, these studies give little information about the population structure of LAB prior their use as an industrial starter. Carnobacterium maltaromaticum is a LAB colonizing diverse environments, including dairy products. Since this bacterium was discovered relatively recently, it is not yet commercialized as an industrial starter, which makes C. maltaromaticum an interesting model for the study of unindustrialized LAB population structure in dairy products. A multilocus sequence typing scheme based on an analysis of fragments of the genes dapE, ddlA, glpQ, ilvE, pyc, pyrE, and leuS was applied to a collection of 47 strains, including 28 strains isolated from dairy products. The scheme allowed detecting 36 sequence types with a discriminatory index of 0.98. The whole population was clustered in four deeply branched lineages, in which the dairy strains were spread. Moreover, the dairy strains could exhibit a high diversity within these lineages, leading to an overall dairy population with a diversity level as high as that of the nondairy population. These results are in agreement with the hypothesis according to which the industrialization of LAB leads to a diversity reduction in dairy products. PMID:24747901

  12. Daily, monthly, seasonal, and annual ammonia emissions from Southern High Plains cattle feedyards.

    PubMed

    Todd, Richard W; Cole, N Andy; Rhoades, Marty B; Parker, David B; Casey, Kenneth D

    2011-01-01

    Ammonia emitted from beef cattle feedyards adds excess reactive N to the environment, contributes to degraded air quality as a precursor to secondary particulate matter, and represents a significant loss of N from beef cattle feedyards. We used open path laser spectroscopy and an inverse dispersion model to quantify daily, monthly, seasonal, and annual NH emissions during 2 yr from two commercial cattle feedyards in the Panhandle High Plains of Texas. Annual patterns of NH fluxes correlated with air temperature, with the greatest fluxes (>100 kg ha d) during the summer and the lowest fluxes (<15 kg ha d) during the winter. Mean monthly per capita emission rate (PCER) of NH-N at one feedyard ranged from 31 g NH-N head d (January) to 207 g NH-N head d (October), when increased dietary crude protein from wet distillers grains elevated emissions. Ammonia N emissions at the other feedyard ranged from 36 g NH-N head d (January) to 121 g NH-N head d (September). Monthly fractional NH-N loss ranged from a low of 19 to 24% to a high of 80 to 85% of fed N at the two feedyards. Seasonal PCER at the two feedyards averaged 60 to 71 g NH-N head d during winter and 103 to 158 g NH-N head d during summer. Annually, PCER was 115 and 80 g NH-N head d at the two feedyards, which represented 59 and 52% of N fed to the cattle. Detailed studies are needed to determine the effect of management and environmental variables such as diet, temperature, precipitation, and manure water content on NH emissions. PMID:21712577

  13. Comparison of Agricultural Production and Fertilizer Consumption in the North China Plain (NCP) and the U.S. High Plains (HP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, H.; Shen, Y.; Scanlon, B. R.; Long, D.; Reedy, R. C.; Strassberg, G.

    2013-12-01

    The North China Plain (NCP) and US High Plains (USHP) are considered bread baskets of China and the US. The objective of this study was to compare agricultural production during the past 30 yr in both regions to assess impacts of different management options. The NCP and USHP are similar in terms of climate (mean annual precipitation: NCP, 570 mm; USHP, 520 mm) with mostly summer precipitation, and wheat and corn (maize) as the dominant crops. While single cropping is dominant in the USHP with summer crops coincident with seasonal precipitation, double cropping is prevalent in the NCP with summer corn coinciding with precipitation and winter wheat relying on irrigation. During the past 30 yr (1980 - 2008) in the NCP, crop yield has increased by a factor of 2.8 (2,200 - 6,200 kg/ha), grain production by a factor of 2.6 (23 - 59 million tons), chemical fertilizer application by a factor of 5.1 (68 - 350 kg/ha). During the same time period in the USHP, grain yield increased by a factor of 1.8 (2,800 - 5,000 kg/ha), crop production by a factor of 1.4 (48 - 68 million tons), chemical N fertilizer application by a factor of 1.2 (64 - 74 kg/ha). The spatial averages mask large scale local variability with grain yield in Luancheng county in the NCP for double cropped wheat and corn rising from 8,000 kg/ha in 1980 to ~16,000 kg/ha in 2008. The comparison between the two regions leads to the question of whether agricultural production in the NCP would be more sustainable with a single corn crop with a longer growing season more aligned with precipitation distribution. Increases in fertilizer application in the NCP greatly exceed crop yield increases, suggesting that much of this fertilizer may be leached to the environment, resulting in contamination. The comparisons between these two regions provide valuable insights that should be considered to move toward more sustainable management in terms of crop productivity and environmental impacts.

  14. Water quality of the Ogallala Formation, central High Plains aquifer within the North Plains Groundwater Conservation District, Texas Panhandle, 2012-13

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldys, Stanley; Haynie, Monti M.; Beussink, Amy M.

    2014-01-01

    In cooperation with the North Plains Groundwater Conservation District (NPGCD), the U.S. Geological Survey collected and analyzed water-quality samples at 30 groundwater monitor wells in the NPGCD in the Texas Panhandle. All of the wells were completed in the Ogallala Formation of the central High Plains aquifer. Samples from each well were collected during February–March 2012 and in March 2013. Depth to groundwater in feet below land surface was measured at each well before sampling to determine the water-quality sampling depths. Water-quality samples were analyzed for physical properties, major ions, nutrients, and trace metals, and 6 of the 30 samples were analyzed for pesticides. There was a strong relation between specific conductance and dissolved solids as evidenced by a coefficient of determination (R2) value of 0.98. The dissolved-solids concentration in water from five wells exceeded the secondary drinking-water standard of 500 milligrams per liter set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Water from 3 of these 5 wells was near the north central part of the NPGCD. Nitrate values exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant level of 10 milligrams per liter in 2 of the 30 wells. A sodium-adsorption ratio of 23.4 was measured in the sample collected from well Da-3589 in Dallam County, with the next largest sodium-adsorption ratio measured in the sample collected from well Da-3588 (12.5), also in Dallum County. The sodium-adsorption ratios measured in all other samples were less than 10. The groundwater was generally a mixed cation-bicarbonate plus carbonate type. Twenty-three trace elements were analyzed, and no concentrations exceeded the secondary drinking-water standard or maximum contaminant level set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for water supplies. In 2012, 6 of the 30 wells were sampled for commonly used pesticides. Atrazine and its degradate 2-Chloro-4-isopropylamino-6-amino-s-triazine were detected in

  15. Vertical Gradients in Water Chemistry and Age in the Northern High Plains Aquifer, Nebraska, 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMahon, P.B.; Böhlke, J.K.; Carney, C.P.

    2007-01-01

    The northern High Plains aquifer is the primary source of water used for domestic, industrial, and irrigation purposes in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota, and Wyoming. Despite the aquifer's importance to the regional economy, fundamental ground-water characteristics, such as vertical gradients in water chemistry and age, remain poorly defined. As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program, water samples from nested, short-screen monitoring wells installed in the northern High Plains aquifer were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, trace elements, dissolved organic carbon, pesticides, stable and radioactive isotopes, dissolved gases, and other parameters to evaluate vertical gradients in water chemistry and age in the aquifer. Chemical data and tritium and radiocarbon ages show that water in the aquifer was chemically and temporally stratified in the study area, with a relatively thin zone of recently recharged water (less than 50 years) near the water table overlying a thicker zone of older water (1,800 to 15,600 radiocarbon years). In areas where irrigated agriculture was an important land use, the recently recharged ground water was characterized by elevated concentrations of major ions and nitrate and the detection of pesticide compounds. Below the zone of agricultural influence, major-ion concentrations exhibited small increases with depth and distance along flow paths because of rock/water interactions. The concentration increases were accounted for primarily by dissolved calcium, sodium, bicarbonate, sulfate, and silica. In general, the chemistry of ground water throughout the aquifer was of high quality. None of the approximately 90 chemical constituents analyzed in each sample exceeded primary drinking-water standards. Mass-balance models indicate that changes in ground-water chemistry along flow paths in the aquifer can be accounted for by small amounts of feldspar and calcite dissolution; goethite and

  16. Frequency of cardiac arrhythmias in high- and low- yielding dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Jafari Dehkordi, Afshin; Nasser Mohebi, Abdonnaser; Heidari Soreshjani, Masoumeh

    2014-01-01

    Electrocardiography (ECG) may be used to recognize cardiac disorders. Levels of milk production may change the serum electrolytes which its imbalance has a role in cardiac arrhythmia. Fifty high yielding and fifty low yielding Holstein dairy cows were used in this study. Electrocardiography was recorded by base-apex lead and blood samples were collected from jugular vein for measurement of serum elements such as sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorous, iron and magnesium. Cardiac dysrhythmias were detected more frequent in low yielding Holstein cows (62.00%) compared to high yielding Holstein cows (46.00%). The cardiac dysrhythmias that were observed in low yielding Holstein cows included sinus arrhythmia (34.70%), wandering pacemaker (22.45 %), bradycardia (18.37%), tachycardia (10.20%), atrial premature beat (2.04%), sinoatrial block (2.04%), atrial fibrillation (8.16%) and atrial tachycardia (2.04%). The cardiac dysrhythmias were observed in high yielding Holstein cows including, sinus arrhythmia (86.95%) and wandering pacemaker (13.05%). Also, notched P wave was observed to be 30% and 14% in high- and low- yielding Holstein cows respectively. The serum calcium concentration of low yielding Holstein cows was significantly lower than that of high yielding Holstein cows. There was not any detectable significant difference in other serum elements between high- and low- yielding Holstein cows. Based on the result of present study, could be concluded that low serum concentration of calcium results to more frequent dysrhythmias in low yielding Holstein cows. PMID:25568685

  17. Post-milking teat dip use in dairy herds with high or low somatic cell counts.

    PubMed

    Erskine, R J; Eberhart, R J

    1991-12-15

    Milk samples for bacteriologic culture were submitted from 71 dairy herds, 24 with low somatic cell count (SCC) and 47 with high SCC and high prevalence of subclinical mastitis. At the time of sample submission to the Mastitis Diagnostic Laboratory of Pennsylvania State University, information regarding the herd mastitis control practices was collected. A combined program of post-milking teat dipping (PMTD) and antibiotic treatment of all cows at the start of the nonlactating period was practiced more frequently for herds with low SCC, (P less than 0.001) than for herds with high SCC. Among all herds for which PMTD was practiced, a higher proportion (P less than 0.001) of those for which chlorhexidine-based products were used had low SCC than high SCC. Conversely, a higher proportion of herds for which a dip with an acrylic latex barrier was used had high SCC rather than low SCC (P = 0.002). For herds with high prevalence of subclinical mastitis, and despite a program of PMTD and treatment of all cows at the start of the nonlactating period, a change to a different germicidal teat dip product may be indicated to help reduce prevalence of infection. PMID:1813466

  18. A data-management system for areal interpretive data for the High Plains in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luckey, R.R.; Ferrigno, C.F.

    1982-01-01

    The High Plains Regional Aquifer System Analysis has developed a regional water-resources (and related) data storage and retrieval system to organize and preserve areal interpretative data. The system is general and can easily be adapted for other studies. This report documents the High Plains data base as well as the general system that is independent of the High Plains area. The system is built around a hierarchically structured data base consisting of related latitude-longitude blocks. Various parameters in the data base are stored at different degrees of detail, with the finest detail being a block of 1 minute of latitude by 1 minute longitude (approximately 1 square mile). (USGS)

  19. Review: groundwater management practices, challenges, and innovations in the High Plains aquifer, USA—lessons and recommended actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sophocleous, Marios

    2010-05-01

    The US High Plains aquifer, one of the largest freshwater aquifer systems in the world, continues to decline, threatening the long-term viability of the region’s irrigation-based economy. The eight High Plains States take different approaches to the development and management of the aquifer based on each state’s body of water laws that abide by different legal doctrines, on which Federal laws are superposed, thus creating difficulties in integrated regional water-management efforts. Although accumulating hydrologic stresses and competing demands on groundwater resources are making groundwater management increasingly complex, they are also leading to innovative management approaches, which are highlighted in this paper as good examples for emulation in managing groundwater resources. It is concluded that the fragmented and piecemeal institutional arrangements for managing the supplies and quality of water are inadequate to meet the water challenges of the future. A number of recommendations for enhancing the sustainability of the aquifer are presented, including the formation of an interstate groundwater commission for the High Plains aquifer along the lines of the Delaware and Susquehanna River Basins Commissions in the US. Finally, some lessons on groundwater management that other countries can learn from the US experience are outlined.

  20. Modeling regional salinization of the Ogallala aquifer, Southern High Plains, TX, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mehta, S.; Fryar, A.E.; Brady, R.M.; Morin, R.H.

    2000-01-01

    Two extensive plumes (combined area > 1000 km2) have been delineated within the Ogallala aquifer in the Southern High Plains, TX, USA. Salinity varies within the plumes spatially and increases with depth; Cl ranges from 50 to >500 mg 1-1. Variable-density flow modeling using SUTRA has identified three broad regions of upward cross-formational flow from the underlying evaporite units. The upward discharge within the modeled plume area is in the range of 10-4-10-5 m3 day-1, and the TDS concentrations are typically >3000 mg 1-1. Regions of increased salinity, identified within the Whitehorse Group (evaporite unit) underlying the Ogallala aquifer, are controlled by the structure and thickness variations relative to the recharge areas. Distinct flow paths, on the order of tens of km to >100 km in length, and varying flow velocities indicate that the salinization of the Ogallala aquifer has been a slow, ongoing process and may represent circulation of waters recharged during Pleistocene or earlier times. On-going pumping has had negligible impact on the salinity distribution in the Ogallala aquifer, although simulations indicate that the velocity distribution in the underlying units may have been affected to depths of 150 m after 30 years of pumping. Because the distribution of saline ground water in this region of the Ogallala aquifer is heterogeneous, careful areal and vertical characterization is warranted prior to any well-field development. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.Two extensive plumes (combined area >1000 km2) have been delineated within the Ogallala aquifer in the Southern High Plains, TX, USA. Salinity varies within the plumes spatially and increases with depth; Cl ranges from 50 to >500 mg l-1. Variable-density flow modeling using SUTRA has identified three broad regions of upward cross-formational flow from the underlying evaporite units. The upward discharge within the modeled plume area is in the range of 10-4-10-5 m3 day-1, and the TDS concentrations

  1. New data on the stratigraphy and pedology of the Clovis and Plainview sites, Southern High Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holliday, Vance T.

    1985-05-01

    The well known Clovis and Plainview archaeological sites of New Mexico and Texas have yielded new data on regional late Quaternary geologic, paleoclimatic, and pedologic histories. Eolian sedimentation at the Clovis site from about 10,000 to less than 8500 yr B.P. was followed by the formation of a cumulic soil between 8500 and 5000 yr B.P. Episodic eolian and slope wash deposition then culminated in massive eolian sedimentation about 5000 yr B.P. after which a Haplustalf formed then was subsequently buried by part of a dune system within the last 1000 yr. At the Plainview site, a basal stream gravel contains Plainview cultural material (ca. 10,000 yr B.P.), which is followed by a localized early Holocene lacustrine deposit, two eolian deposits (the younger dating to about 5000 yr B.P.), and a marsh deposit which slowly accreted as an Argiustoll formed in the younger eolian unit. The data indicate that on the Southern High Plains (1) between 12,000 and 8500 yr B.P. sedimentation varied from site to site, (2) there was a regional climate change toward warming and drying in the early Holocene, (3) two episodes of severe drought apparently occurred in the middle Holocene (6500 to 4500 yr B.P.), (4) between 4500 yr B.P. and the present an essentially modern climate existed, but with several shifts toward aridity within the last 1000 yr, (5) argillic horizons have developed in late Holocene soils, (6) clay illuviation can occur in calcareous soils, and (7) long-distance correlation of Holocene stratigraphy in the region is possible, particularly with the aid of soil morphology.

  2. Genetic structure in striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) on the southern high plains of Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, L.A.; Mathews, N.E.; Hansen, R.W.; Vander Lee, B. A.; Scott, Lutz R.

    2003-01-01

    Genetic variation within populations reflects population-level social and demographic processes and influences how a population behaves as an evolutionary unit. We examined partitioning of genetic variation in striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) from the Southern High Plains of Texas during 1994-1995. Sixty-nine male and 35 female skunks were sampled on four 12.8-km2 study plots. Plot centers ranged from 17.6 to 61.6 km apart. We used multi-locus DNA fingerprinting with 2 probes, pV47 and CTTxAGG, to test 3 hypotheses: (1) females are more genetically similar to other females than males are to other males on the same plot (indicating greater female philopatry than male philopatry), (2) genetic similarity is greater within plots than among plots (indicating partitioning of genetic variation in space), and (3) genetic similarity of males decreases as the distance separating males increases (indicating geographic distance affects rates of gene flow). In general, males on a plot had lower average genetic similarity than females. Genetic similarity within plots was not different from genetic similarity among plots for males or for females. Genetic similarity of males did not decrease with increasing distance among plots. The lack of geographical genetic structure in striped skunks suggests at the scale of this study (<60 km) that gene flow of biparentally inherited genes is not distance-mediated. However, the higher similarity values for females than for males on the same plot supports an effect of male-biased dispersal and female philopatry on partitioning of genetic variation between sexes.

  3. Ground-water solutes and eolian processes: An example from the High Plains of Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, W.W.; Sanford, W.E. )

    1992-01-01

    Eolian dunes associated with saline-lake basins are important geologic features in arid and semiarid areas. The authors propose that eolian processes may also be important in controlling solute concentration and composition of ground water in these environments. A study of Double Lakes on the Southern High Plains of Texas suggests that approximately 200 megagrams of chloride enters this topographically closed basin from the surrounding water table aquifer, direct precipitation and surface runoff. Solute-transport simulation suggest that approximately 70 of the 200 megagrams of the chloride annually leaves the basin by diffusion and ground-water advection through a 30 meter-thick shale underlying the lake. The remaining 130 megagrams is hypothesized to be removed by eolian processes. Closed water-table contours around the lake and a hydrologic analysis suggest that it is improbable that solutes will reach the surrounding water-table aquifer by ground-water transport from this lake system. The conceptual eolian-transport model is further supported by observed chloride profiles in the unsaturated zone. When analyzed with estimates of recharge fluxes, these profiles suggest that approximately 150 megagrams of chloride enter the unsaturated zone downwind of the lake annually. Thus two independent methods suggest that 130 to 150 megagrams of chloride enter the unsaturated zone downwind of the lake annually. Thus two independent methods suggest that 130 to 150 megagrams of chloride are removed from the basin annually by eolian process and redeposited downwind of the lake. Eolian input to the ground water is consistent with the observed plume shape as well as with the solute and isotopic composition of ground water in the water-table aquifer downwind of the lake basin.

  4. Ground-water quality beneath irrigated agriculture in the central High Plains aquifer, 1999-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bruce, Breton W.; Becker, Mark F.; Pope, Larry M.; Gurdak, Jason J.

    2003-01-01

    In 1999 and 2000, 30 water-quality monitoring wells were installed in the central High Plains aquifer to evaluate the quality of recently recharged ground water in areas of irrigated agriculture and to identify the factors affecting ground-water quality. Wells were installed adjacent to irrigated agricultural fields with 10- or 20-foot screened intervals placed near the water table. Each well was sampled once for about 100 waterquality constituents associated with agricultural practices. Water samples from 70 percent of the wells (21 of 30 sites) contained nitrate concentrations larger than expected background concentrations (about 3 mg/L as N) and detectable pesticides. Atrazine or its metabolite, deethylatrazine, were detected with greater frequency than other pesticides and were present in all 21 samples where pesticides were detected. The 21 samples with detectable pesticides also contained tritium concentrations large enough to indicate that at least some part of the water sample had been recharged within about the last 50 years. These 21 ground-water samples are considered to show water-quality effects related to irrigated agriculture. The remaining 9 groundwater samples contained no pesticides, small tritium concentrations, and nitrate concentrations less than 3.45 milligrams per liter as nitrogen. These samples are considered unaffected by the irrigated agricultural land-use setting. Nitrogen isotope ratios indicate that commercial fertilizer was the dominant source of nitrate in 13 of the 21 samples affected by irrigated agriculture. Nitrogen isotope ratios for 4 of these 21 samples were indicative of an animal waste source. Dissolved-solids concentrations were larger in samples affected by irrigated agriculture, with large sulfate concentrations having strong correlation with large dissolved solids concentrations in these samples. A strong statistical correlation is shown between samples affected by irrigated agriculture and sites with large rates of

  5. Widespread presence of naturally occurring perchlorate in high plains of Texas and New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rajagopalan, S.; Anderson, T.A.; Fahlquist, L.; Rainwater, K.A.; Ridley, M.; Jackson, W.A.

    2006-01-01

    Perchlorate (ClO4-) occurrence in groundwater has previously been linked to industrial releases and the historic use of Chilean nitrate fertilizers. However, recently a number of occurrences have been identified for which there is no obvious anthropogenic source. Groundwater from an area of 155 000 km2 in 56 counties in northwest Texas and eastern New Mexico is impacted by the presence of ClO4-. Concentrations were generally low (<4 ppb), although some areas are impacted by concentrations up to 200 ppb. ClO4- distribution is not related to well type (public water system, domestic, agricultural, or water-table monitoring) or aquifer (Ogallala, Edward Trinity High Plains, Edwards Trinity Plateau, Seymour, or Cenozoic). Results from vertically nested wells strongly indicate a surface source. The source of ClO4- appears to most likely be atmospheric deposition. Evidence supporting this hypothesis primarily relates to the presence of ClO 4- in tritium-free older water, the lack of relation between land use and concentration distribution, the inability of potential anthropogenic sources to account for the estimated mass of ClO4-, and the positive relationship between conserved anions (e.g., IO3-, Cl-, SO4-2) and ClO4-. The ClO4- distribution appears to be mainly related to evaporative concentration and unsaturated transport. This process has led to higher ClO4- and other ion concentrations in groundwater where the water table is relatively shallow, and in areas with lower saturated thickness. Irrigation may have accelerated this process in some areas by increasing the transport of accumulated salts and by increasing the number of evaporative cycles. Results from this study highlight the potential for ClO4- to impact groundwater in arid and semiarid areas through long-term atmospheric deposition. ?? 2006 American Chemical Society.

  6. Nitrous oxide fluxes from cultivated areas and rangeland: U.S. High Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weeks, E.P.; McMahon, P.B.

    2007-01-01

    Concentration profiles of N2O, a greenhouse gas, and the conservative trace gases SF6 and the chlorofluorocarbons CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113, and were measured periodically through thick vadose zones at nine sites in the U.S. High Plains. The CFC and SF6 measurements were used to calibrate a one-dimensional gas diffusion model, using the parameter identification program UCODE. The calibrated model was used with N2O measurements to estimate average annual N2O flux from both the root zone and the deep vadose zone to the atmosphere. Estimates of root-zone N 2O fluxes from three rangeland sites ranged from near 0 to about 0.2 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1, values near the low end of the ranges determined for native grass from other studies. Estimates of root-zone N2O fluxes from two fields planted to corn (Zea mays L.) of about 2 to 6 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1 are similar to those determined for corn in other studies. Estimates of N2O flux from Conservation Reserve grassland converted from irrigated corn indicate that production of N2O is substantially reduced following conversion from cropland. Small N2O fluxes from the water table or from deep in the vadose zone occurred at three sites, ranging from 0.004 to 0.02 kg N 2O-N ha-1 yr-1. Our estimates of N2O flux represent space- and time-averaged values that should be useful to more fully evaluate the significance of instantaneous point flux measurements. ?? Soil Science Society of America.

  7. Monitoring ET over Texas High Plains using two source model and high resolution aster data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In agriculture, evapotranspiration (ET) is a major consumptive use of irrigation water and precipitation. In this study, we applied the Two-Source Model (TSM) to estimate daily ET from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data for the highly advective Texas High...

  8. Sustaining Irrigated Agriculture In The Central High Plains With Limited Irrigation Water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing demands on limited water supplies will require maximizing crop production per unit water. Field studies are being carried out to develop water production functions for crops grown in the Great Plains. Irrigation water is applied through drip irrigation systems; precipitation and reference...

  9. A summary of the occurrence and development of ground water in the southern High Plains of Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cronin, J.G.; Myers, B.N.

    1964-01-01

    The Southern High Plains of Texas occupies an area of about 22,000 square miles in n'Orthwest Texas, extending fr'Om the Canadian River southward. about 250 miles and fr'Om the New Mexico line eastward an average distance of about 120 miles. The economy of the area is dependent largely upon irrigated agriculture, and in 1958 about 44,000 irrigation wells were in operation. The economy of the area is also dependent upon the oil industry either in the f'Orm of oil and gas production or in the form of industries based on the producti'On of petroleum. The Southern High Plains of Tems is characterized. 'by a nearly flat land surface sloping gently toward. the southeast at an average of 8 to 10 feet per mile. Shallow undrained depressions or playas are characteristic of the plains surface, and during periods of heavy rainfall, runoff collects in the depressions to form temporary ponds or lakes. Stream drainage 'On the plains surface is poorly developed; water discharges over the eastern escarpment off the plains only during periods of excessive rainfall. The climate of the area is semiarid; the average annual precipitation is about 20 inches. About 70 percent of the precipitation falls during the growing season from April to September. Rocks of Permian age underlie the entire area and consist chiefly of red sandstone and shale containing nUmerous beds of gypsum and dolomite. The Permian rocks are not a source of water in the Southern High Plains, and any water in these rocks would probably be saline. The Triassic rocks underlying the 'S'Outhern Hi'gh Plains consist of three formations of the Dockum group: the Tecovas formation, the Santa Rosa sandstone. and the Chinle formation equivalent. The Tecovas and Chinle formation equivalent both consist chiefly of shale and sandy shale; however, the Santa Rosa sandstone consists mainly of medium to coarse conglomeratic sandstone containing some shale. Tbe formations of the Dockum group are capable of yielding small to moderate

  10. Blood parameters in Swedish dairy herds with high or low incidence of displaced abomasum or ketosis.

    PubMed

    Stengärde, Lena; Holtenius, Kjell; Emanuelson, Ulf; Hultgren, Jan; Niskanen, Rauni; Tråvén, Madeleine

    2011-10-01

    Sixty dairy herds were studied to investigate the association between long-term incidence of displaced abomasum and clinical ketosis and body condition score and blood profiles, including parameters estimating energy metabolism and hepatic lipidosis in the periparturient period and early lactation. Blood samples were taken around parturition and in early lactation from cows without apparent clinical symptoms of metabolic disorders. A difference in metabolism between high and low incidence herds was shown post-partum by a lower metabolic index (the revised Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index, RQUICKI), and tendencies for higher concentrations of glucose, insulin and non-esterified fatty acids in the high incidence herds. High incidence herds had more cows and produced on average 1400kg energy-corrected milk per cow per year more than the low incidence herds. No differences were found in parameters reflecting liver cell damage. In the first 3weeks post-partum the RQUICKI was a more sensitive marker of herds with a high incidence of displaced abomasum and clinical ketosis than any of the individual parameters, but further research is needed before practical applications of the RQUICKI can be foreseen. PMID:21982532