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Sample records for high pressure hose

  1. 30 CFR 56.13021 - High-pressure hose connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false High-pressure hose connections. 56...NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 56.13021 High-pressure hose connections. Except...connections to machines of high-pressure hose lines of 3/4...

  2. 30 CFR 56.13021 - High-pressure hose connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false High-pressure hose connections. 56...NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 56.13021 High-pressure hose connections. Except...connections to machines of high-pressure hose lines of 3/4...

  3. 30 CFR 57.13021 - High-pressure hose connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false High-pressure hose connections. 57...NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 57.13021 High-pressure hose connections. Except...connections to machines of high-pressure hose lines of 3/4...

  4. 30 CFR 57.13021 - High-pressure hose connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false High-pressure hose connections. 57...NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 57.13021 High-pressure hose connections. Except...connections to machines of high-pressure hose lines of 3/4...

  5. 30 CFR 56.13021 - High-pressure hose connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false High-pressure hose connections. 56...NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 56.13021 High-pressure hose connections. Except...connections to machines of high-pressure hose lines of 3/4...

  6. 30 CFR 57.13021 - High-pressure hose connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false High-pressure hose connections. 57...NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 57.13021 High-pressure hose connections. Except...connections to machines of high-pressure hose lines of 3/4...

  7. 30 CFR 56.13021 - High-pressure hose connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false High-pressure hose connections. 56...NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 56.13021 High-pressure hose connections. Except...connections to machines of high-pressure hose lines of 3/4...

  8. 30 CFR 57.13021 - High-pressure hose connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false High-pressure hose connections. 57...NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 57.13021 High-pressure hose connections. Except...connections to machines of high-pressure hose lines of 3/4...

  9. 30 CFR 57.13021 - High-pressure hose connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false High-pressure hose connections. 57...NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 57.13021 High-pressure hose connections. Except...connections to machines of high-pressure hose lines of 3/4...

  10. 30 CFR 56.13021 - High-pressure hose connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false High-pressure hose connections. 56...NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 56.13021 High-pressure hose connections. Except...connections to machines of high-pressure hose lines of 3/4...

  11. 30 CFR 57.13021 - High-pressure hose connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 57.13021 High-pressure hose connections. Except where automatic shutoff valves...

  12. 30 CFR 57.13021 - High-pressure hose connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 57.13021 High-pressure hose connections. Except where automatic shutoff valves...

  13. 30 CFR 57.13021 - High-pressure hose connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 57.13021 High-pressure hose connections. Except where automatic shutoff valves...

  14. 30 CFR 57.13021 - High-pressure hose connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 57.13021 High-pressure hose connections. Except where automatic shutoff valves...

  15. 30 CFR 57.13021 - High-pressure hose connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 57.13021 High-pressure hose connections. Except where automatic shutoff valves...

  16. 30 CFR 56.13021 - High-pressure hose connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false High-pressure hose connections. 56.13021 Section 56.13021 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed...

  17. 30 CFR 56.13021 - High-pressure hose connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false High-pressure hose connections. 56.13021 Section 56.13021 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed...

  18. 30 CFR 56.13021 - High-pressure hose connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false High-pressure hose connections. 56.13021 Section 56.13021 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed...

  19. 30 CFR 56.13021 - High-pressure hose connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false High-pressure hose connections. 56.13021 Section 56.13021 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed...

  20. 30 CFR 56.13021 - High-pressure hose connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-pressure hose connections. 56.13021 Section 56.13021 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed...

  1. Apparatus for Leak Testing Pressurized Hoses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Underwood, Steve D. (Inventor); Garrison, Steve G. (Inventor); Gant, Bobby D. (Inventor); Palmer, John R. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A hose-attaching apparatus for leak-testing a pressurized hose may include a hose-attaching member. A bore may extend through the hose-attaching member. An internal annular cavity may extend coaxially around the bore. At least one of a detector probe hole and a detector probe may be connected to the internal annular cavity. At least a portion of the bore may have a diameter which is at least one of substantially equal to and less than a diameter of a hose to be leak-tested.

  2. 46 CFR 154.554 - Cargo hose: Bursting pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cargo hose: Bursting pressure. 154.554 Section 154.554... Hose § 154.554 Cargo hose: Bursting pressure. Cargo hose that may be exposed to the pressure in the cargo tank, the cargo pump discharge, or the vapor compressor discharge must have a bursting pressure...

  3. 46 CFR 154.554 - Cargo hose: Bursting pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo hose: Bursting pressure. 154.554 Section 154.554... Hose § 154.554 Cargo hose: Bursting pressure. Cargo hose that may be exposed to the pressure in the cargo tank, the cargo pump discharge, or the vapor compressor discharge must have a bursting pressure...

  4. 46 CFR 154.554 - Cargo hose: Bursting pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cargo hose: Bursting pressure. 154.554 Section 154.554... Hose § 154.554 Cargo hose: Bursting pressure. Cargo hose that may be exposed to the pressure in the cargo tank, the cargo pump discharge, or the vapor compressor discharge must have a bursting pressure...

  5. 46 CFR 154.556 - Cargo hose: Maximum working pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo hose: Maximum working pressure. 154.556 Section... Equipment Cargo Hose § 154.556 Cargo hose: Maximum working pressure. A cargo hose must have a maximum working pressure not less than the maximum pressure to which it may be subjected and at least 1034...

  6. 46 CFR 154.556 - Cargo hose: Maximum working pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cargo hose: Maximum working pressure. 154.556 Section... Equipment Cargo Hose § 154.556 Cargo hose: Maximum working pressure. A cargo hose must have a maximum working pressure not less than the maximum pressure to which it may be subjected and at least 1034...

  7. 46 CFR 154.554 - Cargo hose: Bursting pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cargo hose: Bursting pressure. 154.554 Section 154.554... Hose § 154.554 Cargo hose: Bursting pressure. Cargo hose that may be exposed to the pressure in the cargo tank, the cargo pump discharge, or the vapor compressor discharge must have a bursting pressure...

  8. 46 CFR 154.554 - Cargo hose: Bursting pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... § 154.554 Cargo hose: Bursting pressure. Cargo hose that may be exposed to the pressure in the cargo tank, the cargo pump discharge, or the vapor compressor discharge must have a bursting pressure of at least five times the maximum...

  9. 46 CFR 154.554 - Cargo hose: Bursting pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... § 154.554 Cargo hose: Bursting pressure. Cargo hose that may be exposed to the pressure in the cargo tank, the cargo pump discharge, or the vapor compressor discharge must have a bursting pressure of at least five times the maximum...

  10. 46 CFR 154.554 - Cargo hose: Bursting pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... § 154.554 Cargo hose: Bursting pressure. Cargo hose that may be exposed to the pressure in the cargo tank, the cargo pump discharge, or the vapor compressor discharge must have a bursting pressure of at least five times the maximum...

  11. 46 CFR 154.554 - Cargo hose: Bursting pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... § 154.554 Cargo hose: Bursting pressure. Cargo hose that may be exposed to the pressure in the cargo tank, the cargo pump discharge, or the vapor compressor discharge must have a bursting pressure of at least five times the maximum...

  12. 46 CFR 154.554 - Cargo hose: Bursting pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... § 154.554 Cargo hose: Bursting pressure. Cargo hose that may be exposed to the pressure in the cargo tank, the cargo pump discharge, or the vapor compressor discharge must have a bursting pressure of at least five times the maximum...

  13. High-flexibility, noncollapsing lightweight hose

    DOEpatents

    Williams, David A. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1993-01-01

    A high-flexibility, noncollapsing, lightweight, large-bore, wire-reinforced hose is inside fiber-reinforced PVC tubing that is flexible, lightweight, and abrasion resistant. It provides a strong, kink- and collapse-free conduit for moving large quantities of dangerous fluids, e.g., removing radioactive waste water or processing chemicals.

  14. High-flexibility, noncollapsing lightweight hose

    DOEpatents

    Williams, D.A.

    1993-04-20

    A high-flexibility, noncollapsing, lightweight, large-bore, wire-reinforced hose is inside fiber-reinforced PVC tubing that is flexible, lightweight, and abrasion resistant. It provides a strong, kink- and collapse-free conduit for moving large quantities of dangerous fluids, e.g., removing radioactive waste water or processing chemicals.

  15. 49 CFR 178.337-9 - Pressure relief devices, piping, valves, hoses, and fittings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... affecting § 178.337-9, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of... chlorine service, see paragraph (b)(7) of this section. (2) Pipe joints must be threaded, welded, or... subchapter. (iii) Mark each hose assembly with the month and year of its original pressure test. (8)...

  16. 49 CFR 178.337-9 - Pressure relief devices, piping, valves, hoses, and fittings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... affecting § 178.337-9, see the List of CFR Sections Affected which appears in the Finding Aids section of... chlorine service, see paragraph (b)(7) of this section. (2) Pipe joints must be threaded, welded, or... subchapter. (iii) Mark each hose assembly with the month and year of its original pressure test. (8)...

  17. 30 CFR 56.7802 - Oxygen hose lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Oxygen hose lines. 56.7802 Section 56.7802... Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7802 Oxygen hose lines. Safety chains or other suitable locking devices shall be provided across connections to and between high pressure oxygen hose lines of 1-inch...

  18. 30 CFR 56.7802 - Oxygen hose lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oxygen hose lines. 56.7802 Section 56.7802... Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7802 Oxygen hose lines. Safety chains or other suitable locking devices shall be provided across connections to and between high pressure oxygen hose lines of 1-inch...

  19. 30 CFR 56.7802 - Oxygen hose lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Oxygen hose lines. 56.7802 Section 56.7802... Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7802 Oxygen hose lines. Safety chains or other suitable locking devices shall be provided across connections to and between high pressure oxygen hose lines of 1-inch...

  20. 30 CFR 56.7802 - Oxygen hose lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Oxygen hose lines. 56.7802 Section 56.7802... Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7802 Oxygen hose lines. Safety chains or other suitable locking devices shall be provided across connections to and between high pressure oxygen hose lines of 1-inch...

  1. 30 CFR 56.7802 - Oxygen hose lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Oxygen hose lines. 56.7802 Section 56.7802... Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7802 Oxygen hose lines. Safety chains or other suitable locking devices shall be provided across connections to and between high pressure oxygen hose lines of 1-inch...

  2. 30 CFR 56.7802 - Oxygen hose lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Oxygen hose lines. 56.7802 Section 56... Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7802 Oxygen hose lines. Safety chains or other...connections to and between high pressure oxygen hose lines of 1-inch inside...

  3. 30 CFR 56.7802 - Oxygen hose lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oxygen hose lines. 56.7802 Section 56... Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7802 Oxygen hose lines. Safety chains or other...connections to and between high pressure oxygen hose lines of 1-inch inside...

  4. 30 CFR 57.7802 - Oxygen hose lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Oxygen hose lines. 57.7802 Section 57...Piercing-Surface Only § 57.7802 Oxygen hose lines. Safety chains or other...connections to and between high pressure oxygen hose lines of 1-inch inside...

  5. 30 CFR 57.7802 - Oxygen hose lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oxygen hose lines. 57.7802 Section 57...Piercing-Surface Only § 57.7802 Oxygen hose lines. Safety chains or other...connections to and between high pressure oxygen hose lines of 1-inch inside...

  6. 30 CFR 57.7802 - Oxygen hose lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Oxygen hose lines. 57.7802 Section 57...Piercing-Surface Only § 57.7802 Oxygen hose lines. Safety chains or other...connections to and between high pressure oxygen hose lines of 1-inch inside...

  7. 30 CFR 56.7802 - Oxygen hose lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Oxygen hose lines. 56.7802 Section 56... Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7802 Oxygen hose lines. Safety chains or other...connections to and between high pressure oxygen hose lines of 1-inch inside...

  8. 30 CFR 57.7802 - Oxygen hose lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Oxygen hose lines. 57.7802 Section 57...Piercing-Surface Only § 57.7802 Oxygen hose lines. Safety chains or other...connections to and between high pressure oxygen hose lines of 1-inch inside...

  9. 30 CFR 57.7802 - Oxygen hose lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Oxygen hose lines. 57.7802 Section 57...Piercing-Surface Only § 57.7802 Oxygen hose lines. Safety chains or other...connections to and between high pressure oxygen hose lines of 1-inch inside...

  10. 30 CFR 56.7802 - Oxygen hose lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Oxygen hose lines. 56.7802 Section 56... Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7802 Oxygen hose lines. Safety chains or other...connections to and between high pressure oxygen hose lines of 1-inch inside...

  11. 30 CFR 56.7802 - Oxygen hose lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Oxygen hose lines. 56.7802 Section 56... Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7802 Oxygen hose lines. Safety chains or other...connections to and between high pressure oxygen hose lines of 1-inch inside...

  12. 30 CFR 57.7802 - Oxygen hose lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Oxygen hose lines. 57.7802 Section 57.7802... Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing-Surface Only § 57.7802 Oxygen hose lines. Safety chains or other suitable locking devices shall be provided across connections to and between high pressure oxygen...

  13. 30 CFR 57.7802 - Oxygen hose lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oxygen hose lines. 57.7802 Section 57.7802... Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing-Surface Only § 57.7802 Oxygen hose lines. Safety chains or other suitable locking devices shall be provided across connections to and between high pressure oxygen...

  14. 30 CFR 57.7802 - Oxygen hose lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Oxygen hose lines. 57.7802 Section 57.7802... Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing-Surface Only § 57.7802 Oxygen hose lines. Safety chains or other suitable locking devices shall be provided across connections to and between high pressure oxygen...

  15. 30 CFR 57.7802 - Oxygen hose lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Oxygen hose lines. 57.7802 Section 57.7802... Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing-Surface Only § 57.7802 Oxygen hose lines. Safety chains or other suitable locking devices shall be provided across connections to and between high pressure oxygen...

  16. 30 CFR 57.7802 - Oxygen hose lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Oxygen hose lines. 57.7802 Section 57.7802... Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing-Surface Only § 57.7802 Oxygen hose lines. Safety chains or other suitable locking devices shall be provided across connections to and between high pressure oxygen...

  17. 6. DETAIL OF HIGHPRESSURE COMPRESSED AIR HOSE IN SOUTHWEST CORNER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DETAIL OF HIGH-PRESSURE COMPRESSED AIR HOSE IN SOUTHWEST CORNER OF SHIPPING AND RECEIVING ROOM (109) - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Vehicle Support Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  18. Observation of a Long-Wavelength Hosing Modulation of a High-Intensity Laser Pulse in Underdense Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Kaluza, M. C.; Mangles, S. P. D.; Najmudin, Z.; Dangor, A. E.; Thomas, A. G. R.; Krushelnick, K.; Murphy, C. D.; Collier, J. L.; Divall, E. J.; Foster, P. S.; Hooker, C. J.; Langley, A. J.; Smith, J.

    2010-08-27

    We report the first experimental observation of a long-wavelength hosing modulation of a high-intensity laser pulse. Side-view images of the scattered optical radiation at the fundamental wavelength of the laser reveal a transverse oscillation of the laser pulse during its propagation through underdense plasma. The wavelength of the oscillation {lambda}{sub hosing} depends on the background plasma density n{sub e} and scales as {lambda}{sub hosing{approx}}n{sub e}{sup -3/2}. Comparisons with an analytical model and two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations reveal that this laser hosing can be induced by a spatiotemporal asymmetry of the intensity distribution in the laser focus which can be caused by a misalignment of the parabolic focusing mirror or of the diffraction gratings in the pulse compressor.

  19. 46 CFR 107.257 - Testing of fire hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Testing of fire hose. 107.257 Section 107.257 Shipping... CERTIFICATION Inspection and Certification § 107.257 Testing of fire hose. Each fire hose must be subjected to a..., each fire hose must be subjected to a pressure of at least 100 p.s.i....

  20. Fatigue testing of corrugated and Teflon hoses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benner, Steve M.; Swanson, Theodore D.; Costello, Frederick A.

    1990-01-01

    Single and two-phase heat transport systems for the thermal control of large space facilities require fluid lines that traverse joints and either rotate or move in some other manner. Flexible hoses are being considered as one means of traversing these joints. To test the resilience of flexible hoses to bending stress, a test assembly was constructed to determine the number of flexing cycles the hoses could withstand before losing their ability to maintain a constant pressure. Corrugated metal hoses and Teflon hoses were tested at different pressures with nitrogen gas. The metal hoses had lives ranging from 30,000 to 100,000 flexing cycles. But, even after 400,000 cycles, the Teflon hoses remained essentially intact, though some leakage in the convoluted Teflon is noted.

  1. 49 CFR 178.337-9 - Pressure relief devices, piping, valves, hoses, and fittings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...thermometer wells, and pressure relief valves, each cargo...liquid” or “vapor” to designate whether...that communicates with vapor may be marked “spray-fill” instead of “vapor.” (d) Refrigeration...expansion. The coils must be pressure tested externally...

  2. 46 CFR 197.456 - Breathing supply hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Periodic Tests and Inspections of Diving Equipment § 197.456...supply hoses. (a) The diving supervisor shall insure that...Each breathing supply hose is pressure tested prior to...

  3. 46 CFR 197.456 - Breathing supply hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Periodic Tests and Inspections of Diving Equipment § 197.456...supply hoses. (a) The diving supervisor shall insure that...Each breathing supply hose is pressure tested prior to...

  4. 46 CFR 197.456 - Breathing supply hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Periodic Tests and Inspections of Diving Equipment § 197.456...supply hoses. (a) The diving supervisor shall insure that...Each breathing supply hose is pressure tested prior to...

  5. 46 CFR 197.456 - Breathing supply hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Periodic Tests and Inspections of Diving Equipment § 197.456...supply hoses. (a) The diving supervisor shall insure that...Each breathing supply hose is pressure tested prior to...

  6. 46 CFR 197.456 - Breathing supply hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Periodic Tests and Inspections of Diving Equipment § 197.456...supply hoses. (a) The diving supervisor shall insure that...Each breathing supply hose is pressure tested prior to...

  7. [High Pressure Gas Tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quintana, Rolando

    2002-01-01

    Four high-pressure gas tanks, the basis of this study, were especially made by a private contractor and tested before being delivered to NASA Kennedy Space Center. In order to insure 100% reliability of each individual tank the staff at KSC decided to again submit the four tanks under more rigorous tests. These tests were conducted during a period from April 10 through May 8 at KSC. This application further validates the predictive safety model for accident prevention and system failure in the testing of four high-pressure gas tanks at Kennedy Space Center, called Continuous Hazard Tracking and Failure Prediction Methodology (CHTFPM). It is apparent from the variety of barriers available for a hazard control that some barriers will be more successful than others in providing protection. In order to complete the Barrier Analysis of the system, a Task Analysis and a Biomechanical Study were performed to establish the relationship between the degree of biomechanical non-conformities and the anomalies found within the system on particular joints of the body. This relationship was possible to obtain by conducting a Regression Analysis to the previously generated data. From the information derived the body segment with the lowest percentage of non-conformities was the neck flexion with 46.7%. Intense analysis of the system was conducted including Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA), Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA), and Barrier Analysis. These analyses resulted in the identification of occurrences of conditions, which may be becoming hazardous in the given system. These conditions, known as dendritics, may become hazards and could result in an accident, system malfunction, or unacceptable risk conditions. A total of 56 possible dendritics were identified. Work sampling was performed to observe the occurrence each dendritic. The out of control points generated from a Weighted c control chart along with a Pareto analysis indicate that the dendritics "Personnel not Wearing Proper Protective and Hose/tubing located in high-traffic area" which account for 59.18% of total dendritic frequency need to be addressed to reduce the chance of a hazard from occurring. However, the occurrences of some dendritics are more important than others. As a result immediate, from a Weighted c perspective, corrective action should be taken to ameliorate the cause of the Class A dendritic "Personnel located under suspended or moving loads" rather than just the most commonly occurring dendritics. In any case the vast majority of data obtained indicates that testing operations possess a relatively high degree of safety.

  8. Flexible collapse-resistant and length-stable vaccum hose

    DOEpatents

    Kashy, David H.

    2003-08-19

    A hose for containing a vacuum, which hose has an impermeable flexible tube capable of holding a vacuum and a braided or interwoven flexible interior wall, said wall providing support to said interior wall of said impermeable flexible tube. Optionally, an exterior braided or woven wall may be provided to the hose for protection or to allow the hose to be used as a pressure hose. The hose may delimit a vacuum space through which may travel a thermal transfer line containing, for example, cryogenic fluid.

  9. High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Description of High Blood Pressure Español High blood pressure is a common disease ... defines high blood pressure severity levels. Stages of High Blood Pressure in Adults Stages Systolic (top number) Diastolic (bottom ...

  10. High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Home » High Blood Pressure Heath and Aging High Blood Pressure What Is Blood Pressure? Do You Have High ... is stated as 120/80. Do You Have High Blood Pressure? One reason to have regular visits to the ...

  11. 49 CFR 178.337-9 - Pressure relief devices, piping, valves, hoses, and fittings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...at not less than 225 psig using dry air or inert gas. (c) Marking inlets and outlets. Except for gauging devices, thermometer wells, and pressure relief valves, each cargo tank inlet and outlet must be marked “liquid” or “vapor” to designate...

  12. 49 CFR 178.337-9 - Pressure relief devices, piping, valves, hoses, and fittings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...at not less than 225 psig using dry air or inert gas. (c) Marking inlets and outlets. Except for gauging devices, thermometer wells, and pressure relief valves, each cargo tank inlet and outlet must be marked “liquid” or “vapor” to designate...

  13. 49 CFR 178.337-9 - Pressure relief devices, piping, valves, hoses, and fittings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...at not less than 225 psig using dry air or inert gas. (c) Marking inlets and outlets. Except for gauging devices, thermometer wells, and pressure relief valves, each cargo tank inlet and outlet must be marked “liquid” or “vapor” to designate...

  14. 49 CFR 178.337-9 - Pressure relief devices, piping, valves, hoses, and fittings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...at not less than 225 psig using dry air or inert gas. (c) Marking inlets and outlets. Except for gauging devices, thermometer wells, and pressure relief valves, each cargo tank inlet and outlet must be marked “liquid” or “vapor” to designate...

  15. High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... normal blood pressure 140/90 or higher is high blood pressure Between 120 and 139 for the top number, ... prehypertension. Prehypertension means you may end up with high blood pressure, unless you take steps to prevent it. High ...

  16. High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. High Blood Pressure What Is High Blood Pressure? High blood pressure is a common disease in ... the heart, kidneys, brain, and eyes. Types of High Blood Pressure There are two main types of high blood ...

  17. Fluid Flow through Pipes--Another Look at Fire Hoses and Garden Hoses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouwer, W.; Paranjape, B. V.

    1991-01-01

    The forward force of water on a hose is calculated using only the pressure gradient, the radius and length of the hose. The misconception about recoil on the nozzle is discussed. Dissipation energy and the consequent heat generation in a fluid flow are also described. (KR)

  18. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... En Español Who is at risk? How is high blood pressure treated? Understanding your blood pressure: What do the ...

  19. Model to Design Drip Hose Lateral Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, Rafael; Cury Saad, João Carlos

    2014-05-01

    Introduction The design criterion for non-pressure compensating drip hose is normally to have 10% of flow variation (?q) in the lateral line, corresponding to 20% of head pressure variation (?H). Longer lateral lines in drip irrigation systems using conventional drippers provide cost reduction, but it is necessary to obtain to the uniformity of irrigation [1]. The use of ?q higher levels can provide longer lateral lines. [4] proposes the use of a 30% ?q and he found that this value resulted in distribution uniformity over 80%. [1] considered it is possible to extend the lateral line length using two emitters spacing in different section. He assumed that the spacing changing point would be at 40% of the total length, because this is approximately the location of the average flow according with [2]. [3] found that, for practical purposes, the average pressure is located at 40% of the length of the lateral line and that until this point it has already consumed 75% of total pressure head loss (hf ). In this case, the challenge for designers is getting longer lateral lines with high values of uniformity. Objective The objective of this study was to develop a model to design longer lateral lines using non-pressure compensating drip hose. Using the developed model, the hypotheses to be evaluated were: a) the use of two different spacing between emitters in the same lateral line allows longer length; b) it is possible to get longer lateral lines using high values of pressure variation in the lateral lines since the distribution uniformity stays below allowable limits. Methodology A computer program was developed in Delphi® based on the model developed and it is able to design lateral lines in level using non-pressure compensating drip hose. The input data are: desired distribution uniformity (DU); initial and final pressure in the lateral line; coefficients of relationship between emitter discharge and pressure head; hose internal diameter; pipe cross-sectional area with the dripper; and roughness coefficient for the Hazen-Williams equation. The program allows calculate the lateral line length with three possibilities: selecting two spacing between emitters and defining the exchange point; using two pre-established spacing between emitters and calculating the length of each section with different spacing; using one emitter spacing. Results Results showed that the use of two sections with different spacing between drippers in the lateral line didn't allow longer length but got better uniformity when compared with lateral line with one spacing between emitters. The adoption of two spacing increased the flow rate per meter in the final section which represented approximately 80% of the lateral line total length and this justifies their use. The software allowed DU above 90% with pressure head variation of 40% and the use of two spacing between emitters. Conclusions The developed model/software showed to be accurate, easy to handle and useful for lateral line design using non-pressure compensating drip hose. References [1] ANDRADE, L. A. D. Estudo de uniformidade de emissão de água utilizando diferentes espaçamentos entre gotejadores na linha lateral. 2009. 87 f. Tese (Doutorado em Agronomia/Irigação e Drenagem) - Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas, Universidade Estadual Paulista 'Julio de Mesquita Filho', Botucatu, (2009). [2] KELLER, J.; BLIESNER, R. D. Sprinkle and trickle irrigation. Caldwell: Blackburn Press, (1990). 652 p. [3] TALENS, J. A. M. Riego localizado y fertirrigacion. Madrid: Mundi-Prensa, (2002). 533 p. [4] WU, I. P. An assessment of hydraulic design of micro-irrigation systems. Agricultural Water Management, Amsterdan, v. 32, n. 3

  20. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Visitor Information RePORT NIH Fact Sheets Home > Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) Small Text Medium Text Large Text Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) YESTERDAY Hypertension is a silent killer because it ...

  1. High blood pressure - infants

    MedlinePLUS

    Hypertension - infants ... and blood vessels The health of the kidneys High blood pressure in infants may be due to kidney or ... Bronchopulmonary dysplasia Renal artery stenosis In newborn babies, high blood pressure is often caused by a blood clot in ...

  2. Ion-Hose Instability in a High Current, Long-Pulse Accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Thomas P.; Genoni, Thomas C.

    2002-04-01

    The ion-hose instability is a transverse electrostatic instability which occurs on electron beams in the presence of a low-density ion channel. In the DARHT-2 accelerator, the 2 kA, 2 ?sec beam pulse produces an ion channel through impact ionization of the residual background gas (1.5× 10-7 torr average). A calculation of the linear growth by R. J. Briggs indicated that the instability could be strong enough to affect the radiographic application of DARHT, which requires that transverse oscillations be small compared to the beam radius. We present semi-analytical theory and 3-D particle-in-cell simulations (using the LSP code) of the linear and non-linear growth of the instability, including the effects of the temporal change in the ion density, spatially decreasing beam radius etc. We find that the number of e-foldings for a particular beam slice is given approximately by the analytic expression for a uniform channel using an average value for the channel density. Hence, in the linear regime, the number of e-foldings increases linearly from head to tail of the beam pulse. We also find that growth is suppressed by non-linear effects at relatively small amplitudes of the electron beam. This is because the ion oscillation amplitude is several times larger than that of the beam, allowing non-linear effects to come into play.

  3. High temperature pressure gauge

    DOEpatents

    Echtler, J. Paul (Pittsburgh, PA); Scandrol, Roy O. (Library, PA)

    1981-01-01

    A high temperature pressure gauge comprising a pressure gauge positioned in fluid communication with one end of a conduit which has a diaphragm mounted in its other end. The conduit is filled with a low melting metal alloy above the diaphragm for a portion of its length with a high temperature fluid being positioned in the remaining length of the conduit and in the pressure gauge.

  4. 33 CFR 154.500 - Hose assemblies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...installed) plus the static head pressure of the transfer system, at the point where the...is installed) plus the static head pressure of the transfer system, at the point where the...Each hose used to transfer fuel to a vessel that...

  5. 33 CFR 154.500 - Hose assemblies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...installed) plus the static head pressure of the transfer system, at the point where the...is installed) plus the static head pressure of the transfer system, at the point where the...Each hose used to transfer fuel to a vessel that...

  6. 33 CFR 154.500 - Hose assemblies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...installed) plus the static head pressure of the transfer system, at the point where the...is installed) plus the static head pressure of the transfer system, at the point where the...Each hose used to transfer fuel to a vessel that...

  7. 33 CFR 154.500 - Hose assemblies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...installed) plus the static head pressure of the transfer system, at the point where the...is installed) plus the static head pressure of the transfer system, at the point where the...Each hose used to transfer fuel to a vessel that...

  8. 33 CFR 154.500 - Hose assemblies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...installed) plus the static head pressure of the transfer system, at the point where the...is installed) plus the static head pressure of the transfer system, at the point where the...Each hose used to transfer fuel to a vessel that...

  9. Stroke and High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Stroke and High Blood Pressure Updated:Jan 6,2015 Stroke is a leading ... to heart disease and stroke. Start exploring today ! High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Why HBP ...

  10. High-pressure microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hjort, K.

    2015-03-01

    When using appropriate materials and microfabrication techniques, with the small dimensions the mechanical stability of microstructured devices allows for processes at high pressures without loss in safety. The largest area of applications has been demonstrated in green chemistry and bioprocesses, where extraction, synthesis and analyses often excel at high densities and high temperatures. This is accessible through high pressures. Capillary chemistry has been used since long but, just like in low-pressure applications, there are several potential advantages in using microfluidic platforms, e.g., planar isothermal set-ups, large local variations in geometries, dense form factors, small dead volumes and precisely positioned microstructures for control of reactions, catalysis, mixing and separation. Other potential applications are in, e.g., microhydraulics, exploration, gas driven vehicles, and high-pressure science. From a review of the state-of-art and frontiers of high pressure microfluidics, the focus will be on different solutions demonstrated for microfluidic handling at high pressures and challenges that remain.

  11. High blood pressure medications

    MedlinePLUS

    ... may go away over time. Some common side effects of high blood pressure medicines include: Cough Diarrhea or constipation Dizziness or light-headedness Erection problems Feeling nervous Feeling tired, weak, ...

  12. FireHose Streaming Benchmarks

    SciTech Connect

    2015-01-27

    The FireHose Streaming Benchmarks are a suite of stream-processing benchmarks defined to enable comparison of streaming software and hardware, both quantitatively vis-a-vis the rate at which they can process data, and qualitatively by judging the effort involved to implement and run the benchmarks. Each benchmark has two parts. The first is a generator which produces and outputs datums at a high rate in a specific format. The second is an analytic which reads the stream of datums and is required to perform a well-defined calculation on the collection of datums, typically to find anomalous datums that have been created in the stream by the generator. The FireHose suite provides code for the generators, sample code for the analytics (which users are free to re-implement in their own custom frameworks), and a precise definition of each benchmark calculation.

  13. BIOMACROMOLECULES UNDER HIGH HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE

    E-print Network

    Gruner, Sol M.

    BIOMACROMOLECULES UNDER HIGH HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE A Dissertation Presented to the Faculty HIGH HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE Nozomi Ando, Ph.D. Cornell University 2009 Protein pressure denaturation denaturation studies. Recent studies imply that the mechanism of pressure denaturation is the penetration

  14. Prevention of High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Prevention of High Blood Pressure Healthy lifestyle habits, proper use of medicines, and ... prevent high blood pressure or its complications. Preventing High Blood Pressure Onset Healthy lifestyle habits can help prevent high ...

  15. High Blood Pressure and Women

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More High Blood Pressure and Women Updated:Aug 13,2014 Many people ... content was last reviewed on 08/04/14. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Why HBP ...

  16. Diamondoids under high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, F.; Lin, Y.; Mao, W. L.

    2012-12-01

    Diamondoid molecules are ultra-stable, saturated hydrocarbons consisting of fused carbon cages superimposing on the diamond lattice, originally found in petroleum. These hydrocarbons, especially higher diamondoids, have been of great interest in recent years due to their potential role in nanotechnology, electronics,and medical technologies. However, the large number of possible intermediates, reaction pathways, and complex reaction kinetics make the synthesis of higher diamondoids extremely difficult. Here we report our efforts in investigating the [121] tetramantane at high pressure by combining x-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy up to 20 GPa. XRD shows that the [121] tetramantane in a monoclinic structure starts to transform into a high pressure phase at approximately 6 GPa and the transition was almost complete at around 20 GPa. In addition, the high pressure phase displays a large metastability field upon decompression. Raman studies also confirmed this phase transition and the metastability of the high pressure phase based on the peak splitting and pressure shifts, as well as changes in the relative intensity of the most intense peaks. Our study may have implications for developing alternative approaches to synthesize higher diamondoids.

  17. Controlling High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... that can lead to healthy tomorrows. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Health Statistics High Blood Pressure About MedlinePlus Site Map ... Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page ...

  18. High pressure oxygen furnace

    DOEpatents

    Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

  19. High pressure oxygen furnace

    DOEpatents

    Morris, D.E.

    1992-07-14

    A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized, the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 5 figs.

  20. High pressure furnace

    DOEpatents

    Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

    1993-01-01

    A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

  1. High pressure furnace

    DOEpatents

    Morris, D.E.

    1993-09-14

    A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum)). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 19 figures.

  2. 46 CFR 97.37-15 - Fire hose stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire hose stations. 97.37-15 Section 97.37-15 Shipping... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-15 Fire hose stations. (a) Each fire hydrant shall be identified in red letters and figures at least two inches high “FIRE STATION NO. 1,” “2,” “3,”...

  3. 46 CFR 169.735 - Fire hose stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire hose stations. 169.735 Section 169.735 Shipping... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.735 Fire hose stations. Each fire hydrant must be identified in red letters and figures at least two inches high “FIRE STATION NO. 1,” “2,”...

  4. 46 CFR 97.37-15 - Fire hose stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire hose stations. 97.37-15 Section 97.37-15 Shipping... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-15 Fire hose stations. (a) Each fire hydrant shall be identified in red letters and figures at least two inches high “FIRE STATION NO. 1,” “2,” “3,”...

  5. Living with High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With High Blood Pressure If you have high blood pressure, the best thing to do is to talk ... help you track your blood pressure. Pregnancy Planning High blood pressure can cause problems for mother and baby. High ...

  6. Cryogenic High Pressure Sensor Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, John J. (Inventor); Shams, Qamar A. (Inventor); Powers, William T. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A pressure sensor is provided for cryogenic, high pressure applications. A highly doped silicon piezoresistive pressure sensor is bonded to a silicon substrate in an absolute pressure sensing configuration. The absolute pressure sensor is bonded to an aluminum nitride substrate. Aluminum nitride has appropriate coefficient of thermal expansion for use with highly doped silicon at cryogenic temperatures. A group of sensors, either two sensors on two substrates or four sensors on a single substrate are packaged in a pressure vessel.

  7. Cryogenic, Absolute, High Pressure Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, John J. (Inventor); Shams. Qamar A. (Inventor); Powers, William T. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A pressure sensor is provided for cryogenic, high pressure applications. A highly doped silicon piezoresistive pressure sensor is bonded to a silicon substrate in an absolute pressure sensing configuration. The absolute pressure sensor is bonded to an aluminum nitride substrate. Aluminum nitride has appropriate coefficient of thermal expansion for use with highly doped silicon at cryogenic temperatures. A group of sensors, either two sensors on two substrates or four sensors on a single substrate are packaged in a pressure vessel.

  8. Myths about High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Myths About High Blood Pressure Updated:Aug 12,2014 You CAN manage your ... content was last reviewed on 08/04/2014. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) Introduction What ...

  9. Potassium and High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Potassium and High Blood Pressure Updated:Aug 14,2014 A diet that includes ... content was last reviewed on 08/04/2014. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Why HBP ...

  10. Controlling your high blood pressure

    MedlinePLUS

    Hypertension is another term used to describe high blood pressure. High blood pressure can lead to: Stroke Heart attack Heart failure Kidney disease Early death You are more likely to have high blood ...

  11. Pressure Dome for High-Pressure Electrolyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, Timothy; Schmitt, Edwin

    2012-01-01

    A high-strength, low-weight pressure vessel dome was designed specifically to house a high-pressure [2,000 psi (approx. = 13.8 MPa)] electrolyzer. In operation, the dome is filled with an inert gas pressurized to roughly 100 psi (approx. = 690 kPa) above the high, balanced pressure product oxygen and hydrogen gas streams. The inert gas acts to reduce the clamping load on electrolyzer stack tie bolts since the dome pressure acting axially inward helps offset the outward axial forces from the stack gas pressure. Likewise, radial and circumferential stresses on electrolyzer frames are minimized. Because the dome is operated at a higher pressure than the electrolyzer product gas, any external electrolyzer leak prevents oxygen or hydrogen from leaking into the dome. Instead the affected stack gas stream pressure rises detectably, thereby enabling a system shutdown. All electrical and fluid connections to the stack are made inside the pressure dome and require special plumbing and electrical dome interfaces for this to be accomplished. Further benefits of the dome are that it can act as a containment shield in the unlikely event of a catastrophic failure. Studies indicate that, for a given active area (and hence, cell ID), frame outside diameter must become ever larger to support stresses at higher operating pressures. This can lead to a large footprint and increased costs associated with thicker and/or larger diameter end-plates, tie-rods, and the frames themselves. One solution is to employ rings that fit snugly around the frame. This complicates stack assembly and is sometimes difficult to achieve in practice, as its success is strongly dependent on frame and ring tolerances, gas pressure, and operating temperature. A pressure dome permits an otherwise low-pressure stack to operate at higher pressures without growing the electrolyzer hardware. The pressure dome consists of two machined segments. An O-ring is placed in an O-ring groove in the flange of the bottom segment and is trapped by the flange on the top dome segment when these components are bolted together with high-strength bolts. The pressure dome has several unique features. It is made (to ASME Pressure Vessel guidelines) in a high-strength aluminum alloy with the strength of stainless steel and the weight benefits of aluminum. The flange of the upper dome portion contains specially machined flats for mounting the dome, and other flats dedicated to the special feedthroughs for electrical connections. A pressure dome can be increased in length to house larger stacks (more cells) of the same diameter with the simple addition of a cylindrical segment. To aid in dome assembly, two stainless steel rings are employed. One is used beneath the heads of the high-strength bolts in lieu of individual hardened washers, and another is used instead of individual nuts. Like electrolyzers could be operated at low or high pressures simply by operating the electrolyzer outside or inside a pressurized dome.

  12. Chromium at High Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaramillo, Rafael

    2012-02-01

    Chromium has long served as the archetype of spin density wave magnetism. Recently, Jaramillo and collaborators have shown that Cr also serves as an archetype of magnetic quantum criticality. Using a combination of x-ray diffraction and electrical transport measurements at high pressures and cryogenic temperatures in a diamond anvil cell, they have demonstrated that the N'eel transition (TN) can be continuously suppressed to zero, with no sign of a concurrent structural transition. The order parameter undergoes a broad regime of exponential suppression, consistent with the weak coupling paradigm, before deviating from a BCS-like ground state within a narrow but accessible quantum critical regime. The quantum criticality is characterized by mean field scaling of TN and non mean field scaling of the transport coefficients, which points to a fluctuation-induced reconstruction of the critical Fermi surface. A comparison between pressure and chemical doping as means to suppress TN sheds light on different routes to the quantum critical point and the relevance of Fermi surface nesting and disorder at this quantum phase transition. The work by Jaramillo et al. is broadly relevant to the study of magnetic quantum criticality in a physically pure and theoretically tractable system that balances elements of weak and strong coupling. [4pt] [1] R. Jaramillo, Y. Feng, J. Wang & T. F. Rosenbaum. Signatures of quantum criticality in pure Cr at high pressure. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 13631 (2010). [0pt] [2] R. Jaramillo, Y. Feng, J. C. Lang, Z. Islam, G. Srajer, P. B. Littlewood, D. B. McWhan & T. F. Rosenbaum. Breakdown of the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer ground state at a quantum phase transition. Nature 459, 405 (2009).

  13. High Blood Pressure Fact Sheet

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Heart Disease Stroke High Blood Pressure Salt ... Prevent and Control Chronic Diseases Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Web Sites with More Information About High Blood Pressure ...

  14. What Causes High Blood Pressure?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Causes of High Blood Pressure Changes, either from genes or the environment, in ... and blood vessel structure and function. Biology and High Blood Pressure Researchers continue to study how various changes in ...

  15. Medications for High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Medications for High Blood Pressure Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... age and you cannot tell if you have high blood pressure by the way you feel, so have your ...

  16. Melting at High Pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, R. E.; Vorberger, J.; Militzer, B.; Caracas, R.; Gygi, F.

    2008-12-01

    At high pressures, melts tend to become more similar to the crystalline solid phases. In general, the change in volume with melting, ? V, becomes small and the entropy of melting, ? S, becomes constant leading to a melting curve that bends over and approaches a constant. [1] Solids near melting also show approaching dynamical instabilities near melting, such as enhanced diffusivities in a premelting region. [2] Some materials display different behavior. Na, for example, shows a melting curve with a maximum followed by a negative pressure slope down to low temperatures. [3] Raty et al. proposed that the electronic structure of liquid and solid sodium are different, due to opening of a pseudogap in liquid Na, leading to increased density of the liquid and a negative melting slope. [4] We have performed first-principles molecular dynamics simulations for solid and liquid sodium as a function of P and T, and find no evidence of a pseudogap or electronic transition in Na. Rather we find that liquid Na is denser due to closer first neighbors with icosohedral packing due to softening of the potential such as occurs in a Gaussian core potential. We are also performing first-principles MD for Mg2SiO4 liquid to understand diffusivity and dynamical properties of the melt using the QBOX code. Initial results show D=(14, 3.2, 16) 10-6 m2/s for (Mg,Si,O) at P=0 and 6000K and D=(5.7, 1.9, 9.2) 10-6 m2/s at 5000K. Lower temperature and higher pressure simulations are in progress. [1] R. E. Cohen, and Z. Gong, Phys. Rev. B 50, 12301 (1994). [2] R. E. Cohen, and J. Weitz, in Properties of Earth and Planetary Materials at High Pressure and Temperature, edited by M. H. Manghnani, and T. Yagi (AGU, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 185. [3] E. Gregoryanz et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 185502 (2005). [4] J.-Y. Raty, E. Schwegler, and S. A. Bonev, Nature 449, 448 (2007). [5] F. H. Stillinger, and P. G. Debenedetti, Biophysical Chemistry 105, 211 (2003).

  17. High pressure mechanical seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babel, Henry W. (Inventor); Anderson, Raymond H. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A relatively impervious mechanical seal is formed between the outer surface of a tube and the inside surface of a mechanical fitting of a high pressure fluid or hydraulic system by applying a very thin soft metal layer onto the outer surface of the hard metal tube and/or inner surface of the hard metal fitting. The thickness of such thin metal layer is independent of the size of the tube and/or fittings. Many metals and alloys of those metals exhibit the requisite softness, including silver, gold, tin, platinum, indium, rhodium and cadmium. Suitably, the coating is about 0.0025 millimeters (0.10 mils) in thickness. After compression, the tube and fitting combination exhibits very low leak rates on the order or 10.sup.-8 cubic centimeters per second or less as measured using the Helium leak test.

  18. High pressure mechanical seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babel, Henry W. (Inventor); Fuson, Phillip L. (Inventor); Chickles, Colin D. (Inventor); Jones, Cherie A. (Inventor); Anderson, Raymond H. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A relatively impervious mechanical seal is formed between the outer surface of a tube and the inside surface of a mechanical fitting of a high pressure fluid or hydraulic system by applying a very thin soft metal layer onto the outer surface of the hard metal tube and/or inner surface of the hard metal fitting, prior to swaging the fitting onto the tube. The thickness of such thin metal layer is independent of the size of the tube and/or fittings. Many metals and alloys of those metals exhibit the requisite softness, including silver, gold, nickel, tin, platinum, indium, rhodium and cadmium. Suitably, the coating is about 0.0025 millimeters (0.10 mils) in thickness. After swaging, the tube and fitting combination exhibits very low leak rates on the order or 10.sup.-8 cubic centimeters per second or less as meaured using the Helium leak test.

  19. High pressure, high temperature transducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vrolyk, John J. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    The pressure measurement system utilizes two bourdon tubes with an active side connected to a test specimen and a reference side connected to an outside source. The tubes are attached to a single extensometer measuring relative displacement. The active side deflects when gases vent a specimen failure. The reference side is independently pressurized to a test pressure and provides a zero reference while providing a pressure calibration reference for the active side. The deflection noted by the active side at specimen failure is duplicated on the reference side by venting until an appropriate magnitude of pressure versus deflection is determined. In this way the pressure which existed inside the specimen prior to failure can be determined.

  20. The Garden-Hose Model

    E-print Network

    Harry Buhrman; Serge Fehr; Christian Schaffner; Florian Speelman

    2013-01-10

    We define a new model of communication complexity, called the garden-hose model. Informally, the garden-hose complexity of a function f:{0,1}^n x {0,1}^n to {0,1} is given by the minimal number of water pipes that need to be shared between two parties, Alice and Bob, in order for them to compute the function f as follows: Alice connects her ends of the pipes in a way that is determined solely by her input x \\in {0,1}^n and, similarly, Bob connects his ends of the pipes in a way that is determined solely by his input y \\in {0,1}^n. Alice turns on the water tap that she also connected to one of the pipes. Then, the water comes out on Alice's or Bob's side depending on the function value f(x,y). We prove almost-linear lower bounds on the garden-hose complexity for concrete functions like inner product, majority, and equality, and we show the existence of functions with exponential garden-hose complexity. Furthermore, we show a connection to classical complexity theory by proving that all functions computable in log-space have polynomial garden-hose complexity. We consider a randomized variant of the garden-hose complexity, where Alice and Bob hold pre-shared randomness, and a quantum variant, where Alice and Bob hold pre-shared quantum entanglement, and we show that the randomized garden-hose complexity is within a polynomial factor of the deterministic garden-hose complexity. Examples of (partial) functions are given where the quantum garden-hose complexity is logarithmic in n while the classical garden-hose complexity can be lower bounded by n^c for constant c>0. Finally, we show an interesting connection between the garden-hose model and the (in)security of a certain class of quantum position-verification schemes.

  1. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... above. Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless and can be done ... provider’s office or clinic. To prepare for the test: Don’t drink coffee or smoke cigarettes for ...

  2. High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of the baby. Controlling your blood pressure during pregnancy and getting regular prenatal care are important for ... your baby. Treatments for high blood pressure in pregnancy may include close monitoring of the baby, lifestyle ...

  3. High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... risk for stroke, heart disease, heart attack, and kidney failure. Controlling your blood pressure can reduce these risks. ... risks and benefits of taking this medicine? Could alternative therapies such as meditation, yoga or acupuncture help lower ...

  4. Electrokinetically pumped high pressure sprays

    SciTech Connect

    Schoeniger, Joseph S.; Paul, Phillip H.; Schoeniger, Luke

    2005-11-01

    An electrokinetic pump capable of producing high pressure is combined with a nozzle having a submicron orifice to provide a high pressure spray device. Because of its small size, the device can be contained within medical devices such as an endoscope for delivering biological materials such as DNA, chemo therapeutic agents, or vaccines to tissues and cells.

  5. Electrokinetically pumped high pressure sprays

    SciTech Connect

    Schoeniger, Joseph S.; Paul, Phillip H.; Schoeniger, Luke

    2002-01-01

    An electrokinetic pump capable of producing high pressure is combined with a nozzle having a submicron orifice to provide a high pressure spray device. Because of its small size, the device can be contained within medical devices such as an endoscope for delivering biological materials such as DNA, chemo therapeutic agents, or vaccines to tissues and cells.

  6. Fundamentals of high pressure adsorption

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Y.P.; Zhou, L.

    2009-12-15

    High-pressure adsorption attracts research interests following the world's attention to alternative fuels, and it exerts essential effect on the study of hydrogen/methane storage and the development of novel materials addressing to the storage. However, theoretical puzzles in high-pressure adsorption hindered the progress of application studies. Therefore, the present paper addresses the major theoretical problems that challenged researchers: i.e., how to model the isotherms with maximum observed in high-pressure adsorption; what is the adsorption mechanism at high pressures; how do we determine the quantity of absolute adsorption based on experimental data. Ideology and methods to tackle these problems are elucidated, which lead to new insights into the nature of high-pressure adsorption and progress in application studies, for example, in modeling multicomponent adsorption, hydrogen storage, natural gas storage, and coalbed methane enrichment, was achieved.

  7. Investigation of Radiation and Chemical Resistance of Flexible HLW Transfer Hose

    SciTech Connect

    E. Skidmore; Billings, K.; Hubbard, M.

    2010-03-24

    A chemical transfer hose constructed of an EPDM (ethylene-propylene diene monomer) outer covering with a modified cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) lining was evaluated for use in high level radioactive waste transfer applications. Laboratory analysis involved characterization of the hose liner after irradiation to doses of 50 to 300 Mrad and subsequent exposure to 25% NaOH solution at 93 C for 30 days, simulating 6 months intermittent service. The XLPE liner mechanical and structural properties were characterized at varying dose levels. Burst testing of irradiated hose assemblies was also performed. Literature review and test results suggest that radiation effects below doses of 100 kGy are minimal, with acceptable property changes to 500 kGy. Higher doses may be feasible. At a bounding dose of 2.5 MGy, the burst pressure is reduced to the working pressure (1.38 MPa) at room temperature. Radiation exposure slightly reduces liner tensile strength, with more significant decrease in liner elongation. Subsequent exposure to caustic solutions at elevated temperature slightly increases elongation, suggesting an immersion/hydrolytic effect or possible thermal annealing of radiation damage. This paper summarizes the laboratory results and recommendations for field deployment.

  8. High pressure storage vessel

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Qiang

    2013-08-27

    Disclosed herein is a composite pressure vessel with a liner having a polar boss and a blind boss a shell is formed around the liner via one or more filament wrappings continuously disposed around at least a substantial portion of the liner assembly combined the liner and filament wrapping have a support profile. To reduce susceptible to rupture a locally disposed filament fiber is added.

  9. High-Pressure Fluorescence Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Maeno, Akihiro; Akasaka, Kazuyuki

    2015-01-01

    The combination of fluorescence and pressure perturbation is a widely used technique to study the effect of pressure on a protein system to obtain thermodynamic, structural and kinetic information on proteins. However, we often encounter the situation where the available pressure range up to 400 MPa of most commercial high-pressure fluorescence spectrometers is insufficient for studying highly pressure-stable proteins like inhibitors and allergenic proteins. To overcome the difficulty, we have recently developed a new high-pressure fluorescence system that allows fluorescence measurements up to 700 MPa. Here we describe the basic design of the apparatus and its application to study structural and thermodynamic properties of a couple of highly stable allergenic proteins, hen lysozyme and ovomucoid, using Tryptophan and Tyrosine/Tyrosinate fluorescence, respectively. Finally, we discuss the utility and the limitation of Trp and Tyr fluorescence. We discuss pitfalls of fluorescence technique and importance of simultaneous use of other high-pressure spectroscopy, particularly high-pressure NMR spectroscopy. PMID:26174405

  10. High pressure ices

    PubMed Central

    Hermann, Andreas; Ashcroft, N. W.; Hoffmann, Roald

    2012-01-01

    H2O will be more resistant to metallization than previously thought. From computational evolutionary structure searches, we find a sequence of new stable and meta-stable structures for the ground state of ice in the 1–5 TPa (10 to 50 Mbar) regime, in the static approximation. The previously proposed Pbcm structure is superseded by a Pmc21 phase at p = 930 GPa, followed by a predicted transition to a P21 crystal structure at p = 1.3 TPa. This phase, featuring higher coordination at O and H, is stable over a wide pressure range, reaching 4.8 TPa. We analyze carefully the geometrical changes in the calculated structures, especially the buckling at the H in O-H-O motifs. All structures are insulating—chemistry burns a deep and (with pressure increase) lasting hole in the density of states near the highest occupied electronic levels of what might be component metallic lattices. Metallization of ice in our calculations occurs only near 4.8 TPa, where the metallic C2/m phase becomes most stable. In this regime, zero-point energies much larger than typical enthalpy differences suggest possible melting of the H sublattice, or even the entire crystal. PMID:22207625

  11. Ion channels under high pressure.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, A G

    2002-03-01

    Hydrostatic pressure (<100 MPa) affects the kinetics of ion channels but not their conductance. In voltage-gated channels, pressure acts on the movement of the charge sensor and on the conformational change involved in opening the channel pore. It has also been shown to act on N-type inactivation ball-binding, C-type inactivation and to activate BK channels. There is little doubt that these are sites of adaptation to high pressure in the channels of deep-sea animals. Pressure studies should not be regarded in isolation; they relate well to experiments using other variables such as osmotic pressure, solvent viscosity and temperature. Furthermore ion channels could transduce pressure in the sensory system of aquatic animals, providing information about the animals' depth, a prediction supported by our knowledge of heat-activated channels in mammals. PMID:11867284

  12. Steam Oxidation at High Pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, Gordon R.; Carney, Casey

    2013-07-19

    A first high pressure test was completed: 293 hr at 267 bar and 670{degrees}C; A parallel 1 bar test was done for comparison; Mass gains were higher for all alloys at 267 bar than at 1 bar; Longer term exposures, over a range of temperatures and pressures, are planned to provide information as to the commercial implications of pressure effects; The planned tests are at a higher combination of temperatures and pressures than in the existing literature. A comparison was made with longer-term literature data: The short term exposures are largely consistent with the longer-term corrosion literature; Ferritic steels--no consistent pressure effect; Austenitic steels--fine grain alloys less able to maintain protective chromia scale as pressure increases; Ni-base alloys--more mass gains above 105 bar than below. Not based on many data points.

  13. 49 CFR 571.106 - Standard No. 106; Brake hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...trailers, and motorcycles, and to hydraulic, air, and vacuum brake hose, brake...metal tubing. S5. Requirements—hydraulic brake hose, brake hose assemblies... S5.1 Construction. (a) Each hydraulic brake hose assembly shall have...

  14. High blood pressure and diet

    MedlinePLUS

    Hypertension - diet ... diet is a proven way to help control high blood pressure . These changes can also help you lose weight ... DIET The low-salt Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet is proven to help lower blood ...

  15. High pressure synthesis gas fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The construction of the high pressure gas phase fermentation system has been completed. Photographs of the various components of the system are presented, along with an operating procedure for the equipment.

  16. Electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic system

    DOEpatents

    Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Rakestraw, David J. (Fremont, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A compact high pressure hydraulic pump having no moving mechanical parts for converting electric potential to hydraulic force. The electrokinetic pump, which can generate hydraulic pressures greater than 2500 psi, can be employed to compress a fluid, either liquid or gas, and manipulate fluid flow. The pump is particularly useful for capillary-base systems. By combining the electrokinetic pump with a housing having chambers separated by a flexible member, fluid flow, including high pressure fluids, is controlled by the application of an electric potential, that can vary with time.

  17. Hazards in high pressure systems

    SciTech Connect

    Priddy, T.G.

    1985-08-01

    The High Pressure Systems Committee (HPSC) of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers is writing a set of rules and guides which will eventually be approved for treatment of safety concerns in high pressure operations. An introductory section of the proposed standard is being written to describe the hazards in high pressure. This paper is an edited version of the early draft of that section which is numbered 2000. Taking Section 2000 out of context (separately printing it from the remainder of the proposed standard) poses a possible misunderstanding in that high pressure is not necessarily synonymous with a lack of safety. There are many high pressure systems in operation with very acceptable safety records. However, when the potential for damage is great, it becomes more essential that safety be comprehensively engineered and practiced. Everyone concerned should be aware to some degree of the dangers that could happen in such operations. This paper is written in an attempt to share the concerns (appraisal of the risks) that members of the HPSC have for high pressure as interpreted and edited by this author. 22 refs.

  18. Hazards in high pressure systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priddy, T. G.

    1985-08-01

    The High Pressure Systems Committee (HPSC) of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers is writing a set of rules and guides which will eventually be approved for treatment of safety concerns in high pressure operations. An introductory section of the proposed standard is being written to describe the hazards in high pressure. This paper is an edited version of the early draft of that section which is numbered 2000. Taking Section 2000 out of context (separately printing it from the remainder of the proposed standard) poses a possible misunderstanding in that high pressure is not necessarily synonymous with a lack of safety. There are many high pressure systems in operation with very acceptable safety records. However, when the potential for damage is great, it becomes more essential that safety be comprehensively engineered and practiced. Everyone concerned should be aware to some degree of the dangers that could happen in such operations. This paper is written in an attempt to share the concerns (appraisal of the risks) that members of the HPSC have for high pressure as interpreted and edited by this author.

  19. 29 CFR 1910.158 - Standpipe and hose systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...needed. (ii) Standpipe systems installed after January 1...may remain in use on existing systems. However, after the effective...below 30 psi (210 kPa). The dynamic pressure at the nozzle shall...supply for standpipe and hose systems, which are provided for...

  20. 29 CFR 1910.158 - Standpipe and hose systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...needed. (ii) Standpipe systems installed after January 1...may remain in use on existing systems. However, after the effective...below 30 psi (210 kPa). The dynamic pressure at the nozzle shall...supply for standpipe and hose systems, which are provided for...

  1. 29 CFR 1910.158 - Standpipe and hose systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...needed. (ii) Standpipe systems installed after January 1...may remain in use on existing systems. However, after the effective...below 30 psi (210 kPa). The dynamic pressure at the nozzle shall...supply for standpipe and hose systems, which are provided for...

  2. 29 CFR 1910.158 - Standpipe and hose systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...needed. (ii) Standpipe systems installed after January 1...may remain in use on existing systems. However, after the effective...below 30 psi (210 kPa). The dynamic pressure at the nozzle shall...supply for standpipe and hose systems, which are provided for...

  3. 29 CFR 1910.158 - Standpipe and hose systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...needed. (ii) Standpipe systems installed after January 1...may remain in use on existing systems. However, after the effective...below 30 psi (210 kPa). The dynamic pressure at the nozzle shall...supply for standpipe and hose systems, which are provided for...

  4. Electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic system

    DOEpatents

    Paul, Phillip H.; Rakestraw, David J.; Arnold, Don W.; Hencken, Kenneth R.; Schoeniger, Joseph S.; Neyer, David W.

    2003-06-03

    An electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic pump for manipulating fluids in capillary-based system. The pump uses electro-osmotic flow to provide a high pressure hydraulic system, having no moving mechanical parts, for pumping and/or compressing fluids, for providing valve means and means for opening and closing valves, for controlling fluid flow rate, and manipulating fluid flow generally and in capillary-based systems (microsystems), in particular. The compact nature of the inventive high pressure hydraulic pump provides the ability to construct a micro-scale or capillary-based HPLC system that fulfills the desire for small sample quantity, low solvent consumption, improved efficiency, the ability to run samples in parallel, and field portability. Control of pressure and solvent flow rate is achieved by controlling the voltage applied to an electrokinetic pump.

  5. Electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic system

    DOEpatents

    Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Rakestraw, David J. (Fremont, CA); Arnold, Don W. (Livermore, CA); Hencken, Kenneth R. (Pleasanton, CA); Schoeniger, Joseph S. (Oakland, CA); Neyer, David W. (Castro Valley, CA)

    2001-01-01

    An electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic pump for manipulating fluids in capillary-based systems. The pump uses electro-osmotic flow to provide a high pressure hydraulic system, having no moving mechanical parts, for pumping and/or compressing fluids, for providing valve means and means for opening and closing valves, for controlling fluid flow rate, and manipulating fluid flow generally and in capillary-based systems (Microsystems), in particular. The compact nature of the inventive high pressure hydraulic pump provides the ability to construct a micro-scale or capillary-based HPLC system that fulfills the desire for small sample quantity, low solvent consumption, improved efficiency, the ability to run samples in parallel, and field portability. Control of pressure and solvent flow rate is achieved by controlling the voltage applied to an electrokinetic pump.

  6. High pressure ceramic joint

    DOEpatents

    Ward, M.E.; Harkins, B.D.

    1993-11-30

    Many recuperators have components which react to corrosive gases and are used in applications where the donor fluid includes highly corrosive gases. These recuperators have suffered reduced life, increased service or maintenance, and resulted in increased cost. The present joint when used with recuperators increases the use of ceramic components which do not react to highly corrosive gases. Thus, the present joint used with the present recuperator increases the life, reduces the service and maintenance, and reduces the increased cost associated with corrosive action of components used to manufacture recuperators. The present joint is comprised of a first ceramic member, a second ceramic member, a mechanical locking device having a groove defined in one of the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The joint and the mechanical locking device is further comprised of a refractory material disposed in the groove and contacting the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The present joint mechanically provides a high strength load bearing joint having good thermal cycling characteristics, good resistance to a corrosive environment and good steady state strength at elevated temperatures. 4 figures.

  7. High pressure ceramic joint

    DOEpatents

    Ward, Michael E. (Poway, CA); Harkins, Bruce D. (San Diego, CA)

    1993-01-01

    Many recuperators have components which react to corrosive gases and are used in applications where the donor fluid includes highly corrosive gases. These recuperators have suffered reduced life, increased service or maintenance, and resulted in increased cost. The present joint when used with recuperators increases the use of ceramic components which do not react to highly corrosive gases. Thus, the present joint used with the present recuperator increases the life, reduces the service and maintenance, and reduces the increased cost associated with corrosive action of components used to manufacture recuperators. The present joint is comprised of a first ceramic member, a second ceramic member, a mechanical locking device having a groove defined in one of the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The joint and the mechanical locking device is further comprised of a refractory material disposed in the groove and contacting the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The present joint mechanically provides a high strength load bearing joint having good thermal cycling characteristics, good resistance to a corrosive environment and good steady state strength at elevated temperatures.

  8. High pressure synthesis gas conversion. Task 3: High pressure profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The purpose of this research project was to build and test a high pressure fermentation system for the production of ethanol from synthesis gas. The fermenters, pumps, controls, and analytical system were procured or fabricated and assembled in our laboratory. This system was then used to determine the effects of high pressure on growth and ethanol production by C. 1jungdahlii. The limits of cell concentration and mass transport relationships were found in CSTR and immobilized cell reactors (ICR). The minimum retention times and reactor volumes were found for ethanol production in these reactors.

  9. High Blood Pressure and Metabolic Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More High Blood Pressure and Metabolic Syndrome Updated:Aug 12,2014 Metabolic ... content was last reviewed on 08/04/2014. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) Introduction What ...

  10. Avoid the Consequences of High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Tools & Resources Stroke More Avoid the Consequences of High Blood Pressure Infographic Updated:Jun 19,2014 View a downloadable version of this infographic High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Why HBP ...

  11. 46 CFR 148.410 - Fire hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire hoses. 148.410 Section 148.410 Shipping COAST GUARD... SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.410 Fire hoses. When Table 148.10 of this part associates a material with a reference to this section, a fire hose must be available at each hatch...

  12. 46 CFR 148.410 - Fire hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire hoses. 148.410 Section 148.410 Shipping COAST GUARD... SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.410 Fire hoses. When Table 148.10 of this part associates a material with a reference to this section, a fire hose must be available at each hatch...

  13. 46 CFR 148.410 - Fire hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire hoses. 148.410 Section 148.410 Shipping COAST GUARD... SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.410 Fire hoses. When Table 148.10 of this part associates a material with a reference to this section, a fire hose must be available at each hatch...

  14. 46 CFR 148.410 - Fire hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire hoses. 148.410 Section 148.410 Shipping COAST GUARD... SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.410 Fire hoses. When Table 148.10 of this part associates a material with a reference to this section, a fire hose must be available at each hatch...

  15. High pressure neon arc lamp

    DOEpatents

    Sze, Robert C.; Bigio, Irving J.

    2003-07-15

    A high pressure neon arc lamp and method of using the same for photodynamic therapies is provided. The high pressure neon arc lamp includes a housing that encloses a quantity of neon gas pressurized to about 500 Torr to about 22,000 Torr. At each end of the housing the lamp is connected by electrodes and wires to a pulse generator. The pulse generator generates an initial pulse voltage to breakdown the impedance of the neon gas. Then the pulse generator delivers a current through the neon gas to create an electrical arc that emits light having wavelengths from about 620 nanometers to about 645 nanometers. A method for activating a photosensitizer is provided. Initially, a photosensitizer is administered to a patient and allowed time to be absorbed into target cells. Then the high pressure neon arc lamp is used to illuminate the target cells with red light having wavelengths from about 620 nanometers to about 645 nanometers. The red light activates the photosensitizers to start a chain reaction that may involve oxygen free radicals to destroy the target cells. In this manner, a high pressure neon arc lamp that is inexpensive and efficiently generates red light useful in photodynamic therapy is provided.

  16. High pressure liquid level monitor

    DOEpatents

    Bean, Vern E. (Frederick, MD); Long, Frederick G. (Ijamsville, MD)

    1984-01-01

    A liquid level monitor for tracking the level of a coal slurry in a high-pressure vessel including a toroidal-shaped float with magnetically permeable bands thereon disposed within the vessel, two pairs of magnetic field generators and detectors disposed outside the vessel adjacent the top and bottom thereof and magnetically coupled to the magnetically permeable bands on the float, and signal processing circuitry for combining signals from the top and bottom detectors for generating a monotonically increasing analog control signal which is a function of liquid level. The control signal may be utilized to operate high-pressure control valves associated with processes in which the high-pressure vessel is used.

  17. Preeclampsia and High Blood Pressure During Pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ034 PREGNANCY Preeclampsia and High Blood Pressure During Pregnancy • What is high blood pressure? • What is chronic hypertension? • What is gestational hypertension? • ...

  18. 29 CFR 1910.158 - Standpipe and hose systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the nozzle below 30 psi (210 kPa). The dynamic pressure at the nozzle shall be within the range of 30 psi (210 kPa) to 125 psi (860 kPa). (4) Nozzles. The employer shall assure that standpipe hose is... less than 200 psi (1380 kPa), or at least 50 psi (340 kPa) in excess of normal pressure when...

  19. 29 CFR 1910.158 - Standpipe and hose systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the nozzle below 30 psi (210 kPa). The dynamic pressure at the nozzle shall be within the range of 30 psi (210 kPa) to 125 psi (860 kPa). (4) Nozzles. The employer shall assure that standpipe hose is... less than 200 psi (1380 kPa), or at least 50 psi (340 kPa) in excess of normal pressure when...

  20. 29 CFR 1910.158 - Standpipe and hose systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the nozzle below 30 psi (210 kPa). The dynamic pressure at the nozzle shall be within the range of 30 psi (210 kPa) to 125 psi (860 kPa). (4) Nozzles. The employer shall assure that standpipe hose is... less than 200 psi (1380 kPa), or at least 50 psi (340 kPa) in excess of normal pressure when...

  1. 29 CFR 1910.158 - Standpipe and hose systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the nozzle below 30 psi (210 kPa). The dynamic pressure at the nozzle shall be within the range of 30 psi (210 kPa) to 125 psi (860 kPa). (4) Nozzles. The employer shall assure that standpipe hose is... less than 200 psi (1380 kPa), or at least 50 psi (340 kPa) in excess of normal pressure when...

  2. 29 CFR 1910.158 - Standpipe and hose systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the nozzle below 30 psi (210 kPa). The dynamic pressure at the nozzle shall be within the range of 30 psi (210 kPa) to 125 psi (860 kPa). (4) Nozzles. The employer shall assure that standpipe hose is... less than 200 psi (1380 kPa), or at least 50 psi (340 kPa) in excess of normal pressure when...

  3. High-pressure water facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    NASA Test Operations Group employees, from left, Todd Pearson, Tim Delcuze and Rodney Wilkinson maintain a water pump in Stennis Space Center's high-pressure water facility. The three were part of a group of employees who rode out Hurricane Katrina at the facility and helped protect NASA's rocket engine test complex.

  4. High blood pressure and eye disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Hypertensive retinopathy is damage to the retina from high blood pressure. The retina is the layer of tissue at ... High blood pressure can damage blood vessels in the retina. The higher the blood pressure and the longer it ...

  5. High pressure and high temperature apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Voronov, Oleg A.

    2005-09-13

    A design for high pressure/high temperature apparatus and reaction cell to achieve .about.30 GPa pressure in .about.1 cm volume and .about.100 GPa pressure in .about.1 mm volumes and 20-5000.degree. C. temperatures in a static regime. The device includes profiled anvils (28) action on a reaction cell (14, 16) containing the material (26) to be processed. The reaction cell includes a heater (18) surrounded by insulating layers and screens. Surrounding the anvils are cylindrical inserts and supporting rings (30-48) whose hardness increases towards the reaction cell. These volumes may be increased considerably if applications require it, making use of presses that have larger loading force capability, larger frames and using larger anvils.

  6. High pressure paint gun injuries.

    PubMed Central

    Booth, C M

    1977-01-01

    Despite their use for the past 20 years the dangers of injuries from high pressure paint guns are not widely known. Two cases treated incorrectly through ignorance in our casualty department resulted in amputation of digits. Paint solvents are far moe damaging than paint of grease injection. All cases should be treated urgently by an experienced surgeon as fairly extensive surgery may be needed. Images FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 FIG 4 PMID:589172

  7. High-Pressure Protein Crystallography and NMR

    E-print Network

    Gruner, Sol M.

    High-Pressure Protein Crystallography and NMR to Explore Protein Conformations Marcus D. Collins,1, energy landscape, protein thermodynamics, pressure cryocooling Abstract High-pressure methods for solving's native conformation, but also the higher free energy conformations. The ability of high-pressure meth

  8. High pressure xenon ionization detector

    DOEpatents

    Markey, J.K.

    1989-11-14

    A method is provided for detecting ionization comprising allowing particles that cause ionization to contact high pressure xenon maintained at or near its critical point and measuring the amount of ionization. An apparatus is provided for detecting ionization, the apparatus comprising a vessel containing a ionizable medium, the vessel having an inlet to allow high pressure ionizable medium to enter the vessel, a means to permit particles that cause ionization of the medium to enter the vessel, an anode, a cathode, a grid and a plurality of annular field shaping rings, the field shaping rings being electrically isolated from one another, the anode, cathode, grid and field shaping rings being electrically isolated from one another in order to form an electric field between the cathode and the anode, the electric field originating at the anode and terminating at the cathode, the grid being disposed between the cathode and the anode, the field shaping rings being disposed between the cathode and the grid, the improvement comprising the medium being xenon and the vessel being maintained at a pressure of 50 to 70 atmospheres and a temperature of 0 to 30 C. 2 figs.

  9. High pressure xenon ionization detector

    DOEpatents

    Markey, John K. (New Haven, CT)

    1989-01-01

    A method is provided for detecting ionization comprising allowing particles that cause ionization to contact high pressure xenon maintained at or near its critical point and measuring the amount of ionization. An apparatus is provided for detecting ionization, the apparatus comprising a vessel containing a ionizable medium, the vessel having an inlet to allow high pressure ionizable medium to enter the vessel, a means to permit particles that cause ionization of the medium to enter the vessel, an anode, a cathode, a grid and a plurality of annular field shaping rings, the field shaping rings being electrically isolated from one another, the anode, cathode, grid and field shaping rings being electrically isolated from one another in order to form an electric field between the cathode and the anode, the electric field originating at the anode and terminating at the cathode, the grid being disposed between the cathode and the anode, the field shaping rings being disposed between the cathode and the grid, the improvement comprising the medium being xenon and the vessel being maintained at a pressure of 50 to 70 atmospheres and a temperature of 0.degree. to 30.degree. C.

  10. High Pressure Electrolyzer System Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prokopius, Kevin; Coloza, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    This report documents the continuing efforts to evaluate the operational state of a high pressure PEM based electrolyzer located at the NASA Glenn Research Center. This electrolyzer is a prototype system built by General Electric and refurbished by Hamilton Standard (now named Hamilton Sunstrand). It is capable of producing hydrogen and oxygen at an output pressure of 3000 psi. The electrolyzer has been in storage for a number of years. Evaluation and testing was performed to determine the state of the electrolyzer and provide an estimate of the cost for refurbishment. Pressure testing was performed using nitrogen gas through the oxygen ports to ascertain the status of the internal membranes and seals. It was determined that the integrity of the electrolyzer stack was good as there were no appreciable leaks in the membranes or seals within the stack. In addition to the integrity testing, an itemized list and part cost estimate was produced for the components of the electrolyzer system. An evaluation of the system s present state and an estimate of the cost to bring it back to operational status was also produced.

  11. 46 CFR 154.1170 - Hand hose line: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hand hose line: General. 154.1170 Section...Firefighting System: Dry Chemical § 154.1170 Hand hose line: General. Each dry chemical hand hose line must: (a) Not be longer...

  12. 46 CFR 154.1170 - Hand hose line: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hand hose line: General. 154.1170 Section...Firefighting System: Dry Chemical § 154.1170 Hand hose line: General. Each dry chemical hand hose line must: (a) Not be longer...

  13. 46 CFR 154.1170 - Hand hose line: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hand hose line: General. 154.1170 Section...Firefighting System: Dry Chemical § 154.1170 Hand hose line: General. Each dry chemical hand hose line must: (a) Not be longer...

  14. 46 CFR 154.1170 - Hand hose line: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hand hose line: General. 154.1170 Section...Firefighting System: Dry Chemical § 154.1170 Hand hose line: General. Each dry chemical hand hose line must: (a) Not be longer...

  15. 46 CFR 154.1170 - Hand hose line: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hand hose line: General. 154.1170 Section...Firefighting System: Dry Chemical § 154.1170 Hand hose line: General. Each dry chemical hand hose line must: (a) Not be longer...

  16. 46 CFR 105.35-15 - Fire hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire hose. 105.35-15 Section 105.35-15...FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Fire Extinguishing Equipment § 105.35-15 Fire hose. (a) One length of fire hose...

  17. 46 CFR 105.35-15 - Fire hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire hose. 105.35-15 Section 105.35-15...FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Fire Extinguishing Equipment § 105.35-15 Fire hose. (a) One length of fire hose...

  18. 46 CFR 105.35-15 - Fire hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire hose. 105.35-15 Section 105.35-15...FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Fire Extinguishing Equipment § 105.35-15 Fire hose. (a) One length of fire hose...

  19. 46 CFR 105.35-15 - Fire hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire hose. 105.35-15 Section 105.35-15...FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Fire Extinguishing Equipment § 105.35-15 Fire hose. (a) One length of fire hose...

  20. 46 CFR 105.35-15 - Fire hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire hose. 105.35-15 Section 105.35-15...FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Fire Extinguishing Equipment § 105.35-15 Fire hose. (a) One length of fire hose...

  1. Improved high pressure turbine shroud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bessen, I. I.; Rigney, D. V.; Schwab, R. C.

    1977-01-01

    A new high pressure turbine shroud material has been developed from the consolidation of prealloyed powders of Ni, Cr, Al and Y. The new material, a filler for cast turbine shroud body segments, is called Genaseal. The development followed the identification of oxidation resistance as the primary cause of prior shroud deterioration, since conversion to oxides reduces erosion resistance and increases spalling under thermal cycled engine conditions. The NICrAlY composition was selected in preference to NIAL and FeCRALY alloys, and was formulated to a prescribed density range that offers suitable erosion resistance, thermal conductivity and elastic modulus for improved behavior as a shroud.

  2. Electokinetic high pressure hydraulic system

    DOEpatents

    Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Rakestraw, David J. (Fremont, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A compact high pressure hydraulic system having no moving parts for converting electric potential to hydraulic force and for manipulating fluids. Electro-osmotic flow is used to provide a valve and means to compress a fluid or gas in a capillary-based system. By electro-osmotically moving an electrolyte between a first position opening communication between a fluid inlet and outlet and a second position closing communication between the fluid inlet and outlet the system can be configured as a valve. The system can also be used to generate forces as large as 2500 psi that can be used to compress a fluid, either a liquid or a gas.

  3. Automated Facility For Cleaning Large Flex Hoses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landry, Louis E.

    1995-01-01

    Technicians no longer exposed to hazardous cleaning materials. Proposed computer-controlled facility cleans bellow-type expansion joints and large flex hoses. Major portions of automated cleaning facility contained in clean room. One piece of equipment in clean room tower in which hose or expansion joint to be cleaned hoisted by hydraulic machinery and hung vertically. Once hose or expansion joint hung in required position, technician initiates programmed cleaning procedure from console on computer monitoring system. Procedure includes degreasing, cleaning with detergents, rinsing, pickling, and passivating operations. After cleaning completed, technician removes hose or expansion joint from tower and wraps open ends to prevent recontamination of interior.

  4. Method of producing a high pressure gas

    DOEpatents

    Bingham, Dennis N.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Zollinger, William T.

    2006-07-18

    A method of producing a high pressure gas is disclosed and which includes providing a container; supplying the container with a liquid such as water; increasing the pressure of the liquid within the container; supplying a reactant composition such as a chemical hydride to the liquid under pressure in the container and which chemically reacts with the liquid to produce a resulting high pressure gas such as hydrogen at a pressure of greater than about 100 pounds per square inch of pressure; and drawing the resulting high pressure gas from the container.

  5. Electrical Transport Experiments at High Pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Weir, S

    2009-02-11

    High-pressure electrical measurements have a long history of use in the study of materials under ultra-high pressures. In recent years, electrical transport experiments have played a key role in the study of many interesting high pressure phenomena including pressure-induced superconductivity, insulator-to-metal transitions, and quantum critical behavior. High-pressure electrical transport experiments also play an important function in geophysics and the study of the Earth's interior. Besides electrical conductivity measurements, electrical transport experiments also encompass techniques for the study of the optoelectronic and thermoelectric properties of materials under high pressures. In addition, electrical transport techniques, i.e., the ability to extend electrically conductive wires from outside instrumentation into the high pressure sample chamber have been utilized to perform other types of experiments as well, such as high-pressure magnetic susceptibility and de Haas-van Alphen Fermi surface experiments. Finally, electrical transport techniques have also been utilized for delivering significant amounts of electrical power to high pressure samples, for the purpose of performing high-pressure and -temperature experiments. Thus, not only do high-pressure electrical transport experiments provide much interesting and valuable data on the physical properties of materials extreme compression, but the underlying high-pressure electrical transport techniques can be used in a number of ways to develop additional diagnostic techniques and to advance high pressure capabilities.

  6. Safety Modification of Cam-and-Groove Hose Coupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwindt, Paul; Littlefield, Alan

    2008-01-01

    A modification has been made in the mating halves of a cam-and-groove hose coupling to prevent rapid separation of the halves in the event that the cam levers are released while the fluid in the hose is pressurized. The need for this modification arises because commercial off-the-shelf cam-and-groove hose-coupling halves do not incorporate safety features to prevent separation in the pressurized state. Especially when the pressurized fluid is compressible (e.g., steam or compressed air), the separated halves can be propelled with considerable energy, causing personal injury and/or property damage. Therefore, one purpose served by the modification is to provide for venting to release compressive energy in a contained and safe manner while preventing personal injury and/or property damage. Another purpose served by the modification, during the process of connecting the coupling halves, is to ensure that the coupling halves are properly aligned before the cam levers can be locked into position.

  7. Prevent and Control High Blood Pressure

    E-print Network

    Shen, Jun

    Prevent and Control High Blood Pressure Vietnamese Aspire For Healthy Hearts #12;Steps to Monitor, encourage your family and friends to join. Follow these tips to learn how. Get Checked High blood pressure, also called hypertension, is a risk factor for heart disease. High blood pressure usually has NO signs

  8. National High Blood Pressure Education Program Prevention,

    E-print Network

    Shen, Jun

    National High Blood Pressure Education Program Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Complete Report U . S . D E Institutes of Health National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute National High Blood Pressure Education Program

  9. Internal Thermal Control System Hose Heat Transfer Fluid Thermal Expansion Evaluation Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wieland, P. O.; Hawk, H. D.

    2001-01-01

    During assembly of the International Space Station, the Internal Thermal Control Systems in adjacent modules are connected by jumper hoses referred to as integrated hose assemblies (IHAs). A test of an IHA has been performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center to determine whether the pressure in an IHA filled with heat transfer fluid would exceed the maximum design pressure when subjected to elevated temperatures (up to 60 C (140 F)) that may be experienced during storage or transportation. The results of the test show that the pressure in the IHA remains below 227 kPa (33 psia) (well below the 689 kPa (100 psia) maximum design pressure) even at a temperature of 71 C (160 F), with no indication of leakage or damage to the hose. Therefore, based on the results of this test, the IHA can safely be filled with coolant prior to launch. The test and results are documented in this Technical Memorandum.

  10. High-pressure microhydraulic actuator

    DOEpatents

    Mosier, Bruce P. (San Francisco, CA) [San Francisco, CA; Crocker, Robert W. (Fremont, CA) [Fremont, CA; Patel, Kamlesh D. (Dublin, CA) [Dublin, CA

    2008-06-10

    Electrokinetic ("EK") pumps convert electric to mechanical work when an electric field exerts a body force on ions in the Debye layer of a fluid in a packed bed, which then viscously drags the fluid. Porous silica and polymer monoliths (2.5-mm O.D., and 6-mm to 10-mm length) having a narrow pore size distribution have been developed that are capable of large pressure gradients (250-500 psi/mm) when large electric fields (1000-1500 V/cm) are applied. Flowrates up to 200 .mu.L/min and delivery pressures up to 1200 psi have been demonstrated. Forces up to 5 lb-force at 0.5 mm/s (12 mW) have been demonstrated with a battery-powered DC-DC converter. Hydraulic power of 17 mW (900 psi@ 180 uL/min) has been demonstrated with wall-powered high voltage supplies. The force and stroke delivered by an actuator utilizing an EK pump are shown to exceed the output of solenoids, stepper motors, and DC motors of similar size, despite the low thermodynamic efficiency.

  11. Manufacturing Diamond Under Very High Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voronov, Oleg

    2007-01-01

    A process for manufacturing bulk diamond has been made practical by the invention of the High Pressure and Temperature Apparatus capable of applying the combination of very high temperature and high pressure needed to melt carbon in a sufficiently large volume. The apparatus includes a reaction cell wherein a controlled static pressure as high as 20 GPa and a controlled temperature as high as 5,000 C can be maintained.

  12. High-Pressure Lightweight Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Richard; McKechnie, Timothy; Shchetkovskiy, Anatoliy; Smirnov, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Returning samples of Martian soil and rock to Earth is of great interest to scientists. There were numerous studies to evaluate Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission architectures, technology needs, development plans, and requirements. The largest propulsion risk element of the MSR mission is the Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV). Along with the baseline solid-propellant vehicle, liquid propellants have been considered. Similar requirements apply to other lander ascent engines and reaction control systems. The performance of current state-ofthe- art liquid propellant engines can be significantly improved by increasing both combustion temperature and pressure. Pump-fed propulsion is suggested for a single-stage bipropellant MAV. Achieving a 90-percent stage propellant fraction is thought to be possible on a 100-kg scale, including sufficient thrust for lifting off Mars. To increase the performance of storable bipropellant rocket engines, a high-pressure, lightweight combustion chamber was designed. Iridium liner electrodeposition was investigated on complex-shaped thrust chamber mandrels. Dense, uniform iridium liners were produced on chamber and cylindrical mandrels. Carbon/carbon composite (C/C) structures were braided over iridium-lined mandrels and densified by chemical vapor infiltration. Niobium deposition was evaluated for forming a metallic attachment flange on the carbon/ carbon structure. The new thrust chamber was designed to exceed state-of-the-art performance, and was manufactured with an 83-percent weight savings. High-performance C/Cs possess a unique set of properties that make them desirable materials for high-temperature structures used in rocket propulsion components, hypersonic vehicles, and aircraft brakes. In particular, more attention is focused on 3D braided C/Cs due to their mesh-work structure. Research on the properties of C/Cs has shown that the strength of composites is strongly affected by the fiber-matrix interfacial bonding, and that weakening interface realizes pseudo-plastic behavior with significant increase in the tensile strength. The investigation of high-temperature strength of C/Cs under high-rate heating (critical for thrust chambers) shows that tensile and compression strength increases from 70 MPa at room temperature to 110 MPa at 1,773 K, and up to 125 MPa at 2,473 K. Despite these unique properties, the use of C/Cs is limited by its high oxidation rate at elevated temperatures. Lining carbon/carbon chambers with a thin layer of iridium or iridium and rhenium is an innovative way to use proven refractory metals and provide the oxidation barrier necessary to enable the use of carbon/ carbon composites. Due to the lower density of C/Cs as compared to SiC/SiC composites, an iridium liner can be added to the C/C structure and still be below the overall thruster weight. Weight calculations show that C/C, C/C with 50 microns of Ir, and C/C with 100 microns of Ir are of less weight than alternative materials for the same construction.

  13. 46 CFR 105.35-15 - Fire hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire hose. 105.35-15 Section 105.35-15 Shipping COAST... VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Fire Extinguishing Equipment § 105.35-15 Fire hose. (a) One length of fire hose shall be provided for each fire hydrant required. (b) Fire hose may be commercial...

  14. 46 CFR 105.35-15 - Fire hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire hose. 105.35-15 Section 105.35-15 Shipping COAST... VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Fire Extinguishing Equipment § 105.35-15 Fire hose. (a) One length of fire hose shall be provided for each fire hydrant required. (b) Fire hose may be commercial...

  15. 46 CFR 105.35-15 - Fire hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire hose. 105.35-15 Section 105.35-15 Shipping COAST... VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Fire Extinguishing Equipment § 105.35-15 Fire hose. (a) One length of fire hose shall be provided for each fire hydrant required. (b) Fire hose may be commercial...

  16. 46 CFR 105.35-15 - Fire hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire hose. 105.35-15 Section 105.35-15 Shipping COAST... VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Fire Extinguishing Equipment § 105.35-15 Fire hose. (a) One length of fire hose shall be provided for each fire hydrant required. (b) Fire hose may be commercial...

  17. 46 CFR 181.320 - Fire hoses and nozzles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... fire hose that conforms to UL 19 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600) or hose that is listed... by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600) or other standard specified by the Commandant. (c) Each fire hose... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire hoses and nozzles. 181.320 Section 181.320...

  18. 46 CFR 105.35-15 - Fire hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire hose. 105.35-15 Section 105.35-15 Shipping COAST... VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Fire Extinguishing Equipment § 105.35-15 Fire hose. (a) One length of fire hose shall be provided for each fire hydrant required. (b) Fire hose may be commercial...

  19. High Pressure-High Temperature Decomposition of Cyclotrimethylene Trinitramine

    E-print Network

    McCluskey, Matthew

    High Pressure-High Temperature Decomposition of Cyclotrimethylene Trinitramine Zbigniew A. Dreger of -cyclotrimethylene trinitramine (-RDX) under high pressure-high temperature conditions was examined to elucidate in a diamond anvil cell (DAC) at pressures from 6 to 12 GPa and temperatures up to 600 K. Global decomposition

  20. High pressure synthesis gas conversion. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The purpose of this research project is to build and test a high pressure fermentation system for the production of ethanol from synthesis gas. The fermenters, pumps, controls, and analytical system were procured or fabricated and assembled in our laboratory. This system was then used to determine the effects of high pressure on growth and ethanol production by Clostridium ljungdahlii. The limits of cell concentration and mass transport relationships were found in CSTR and immobilized cell reactors (ICR). The minimum retention times and reactor volumes were found for ethanol production in these reactors. A maximum operating pressure of 150 psig has been shown to be possible for C. ljungdahlli with the medium of Phillips et al. This medium was developed for atmospheric pressure operation in the CSTR to yield maximum ethanol concentrations and thus is not best for operation at elevated pressures. It is recommended that a medium development study be performed for C. ljungdahlii at increased pressure. Cell concentration, gas conversion and product concentration profiles were presented for C. ljungdahlii as a function of gas flow rate, the variable which affects bacterium performance the most. This pressure was chosen as a representative pressure over the 0--150 psig operating pressure range for the bacterium. Increased pressure negatively affected ethanol productivity probably due to the fact that medium composition was designed for atmospheric pressure operation. Medium development at increased pressure is necessary for high pressure development of the system.

  1. High pressure pulsed capillary viscometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. L.; Walowitt, J. A.; Pan, C. H. T.

    1972-01-01

    An analytical and test program was conducted in order to establish the feasibility of a multichamber pulsed-capillary viscometer. The initial design incorporated a piston, ram, and seals which produced measured pulses up to 30,000 psi in the closed chamber system. Pressure pulses from one to ten milliseconds were investigated in a system volume of 1 cuin. Four test fluids: a MIL-L-7808, a 5P4E polyphenyl ether, a MIL-L-23699A, and a synthetic hydrocarbon were examined in the test pressure assembly. The pressure-viscosity coefficient and viscosity delay time were determined for the MIL-L-7808 lubricant tested.

  2. High-speed fiber grating pressure sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udd, Eric; Rodriguez, George; Sandberg, Richard L.

    2014-06-01

    Fiber grating pressure sensors have been used to support pressure measurements associated with burn, deflagration and detonation of energetic materials. This paper provides an overview of this technology and serves as a companion paper to the application of this technology to measuring pressure during high speed impacts.

  3. High Precision Pressure Measurement with a Funnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Arias, T.; Gratton, L. M.; Oss, S.

    2008-01-01

    A simple experimental device for high precision differential pressure measurements is presented. Its working mechanism recalls that of a hydraulic press, where pressure is supplied by insufflating air under a funnel. As an application, we measure air pressure inside a soap bubble. The soap bubble is inflated and connected to a funnel which is…

  4. High-pressure gas hydrates 

    E-print Network

    Loveday, J. S.; Nelmes, R. J.

    pressures. Clathrate hydrates have been extensively studied because they occur widely in nature, have important industrial applications, and provide insight into water-guest hydrophobic interactions. Until recently, the expectation-based on calculations...

  5. NETL- High-Pressure Combustion Research Facility

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2014-06-26

    NETL's High-Pressure Combustion Facility is a unique resource within the National Laboratories system. It provides the test capabilities needed to evaluate new combustion concepts for high-pressure, high-temperature hydrogen and natural gas turbines. These concepts will be critical for the next generation of ultra clean, ultra efficient power systems.

  6. NETL- High-Pressure Combustion Research Facility

    SciTech Connect

    2013-07-08

    NETL's High-Pressure Combustion Facility is a unique resource within the National Laboratories system. It provides the test capabilities needed to evaluate new combustion concepts for high-pressure, high-temperature hydrogen and natural gas turbines. These concepts will be critical for the next generation of ultra clean, ultra efficient power systems.

  7. High-pressure high-temperature transducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vrolyk, J. J.

    1977-01-01

    Compact instrument has active and reference sides consisting of tubes that elongate in response to increasing interior pressures. Relative displacement of tubes is measured by linear variable differential transformer to determine pressure on active side. Device needs no internal cooling, thus eliminating condensation problem with gases containing saturated steam.

  8. Zirconate pyrochlores under high pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Haiyan; Zhang, Fuxiang; Gao, Fei; Ewing, Rodney C.; Weber, William J

    2010-01-01

    Ab initio total-energy calculations and x-ray diffraction measurements have been combined to study the phase stability of zirconate pyrochlores (A2Zr2O7; A=La, Nd and Sm) under pressures up to 50 GPa. Phase transformations to the defect-cotunnite structure are theoretically predicted at pressures of 22, 20 and 18 GPa, in excellent agreement with the experimentally determined values of 21, 22 and 18 GPa for La2Zr2O7, Nd2Zr2O7 and Sm2Zr2O7, respectively. Analysis of the elastic properties indicate that elastic anisotropy may be one of the driving forces for the pressure-induced cubic-to-noncubic phase transformation.

  9. Zirconate pyrochlores under high pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Haiyan Y.; Zhang, F. X.; Gao, Fei; Lang, Maik; Ewing, Rodney C.; Weber, William J.

    2010-07-12

    Ab initio total-energy calculations and x-ray diffraction measurements have been combined to study the phase stability of zirconate pyrochlores (A2Zr2O7; A=La, Nd and Sm) under pressures up to 50 GPa. Phase transformations to the defect-cotunnite structure are theoretically predicted at pressures of 22, 20 and 18 GPa, in excellent agreement with the experimentally determined values of 21, 22 and 18 GPa for La2Zr2O7, Nd2Zr2O7 and Sm2Zr2O7, respectively. Analysis of the elastic properties indicates that elastic anisotropy may be one of the driving forces for the pressure-induced cubic-to-noncubic phase transformation.

  10. Highly crystallized poly (lactic acid) under high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jin; Yan, Ding-Xiang; Xu, Jia-Zhuang; Huang, Hua-Dong; Lei, Jun; Li, Zhong-Ming

    2012-12-01

    Biodegradable poly (lactic acid) (PLA) usually has a crystallinity less than 10% due to its poor crystallization ability. In this work, we found high pressure could significantly facilitate formation of crystallites of PLA, resulting in a crystallinity high up to 66.3% at pressure and temperature of 300 MPa and 185 °C. High-pressure induced crystalline reorganization and lamellar thickening led to two melting temperatures in the highly crystallized PLA but without cold crystallization compared to the normal-pressure crystallized PLA. Temperature dependence of high-pressure crystallization of PLA suggested desirable crystallization temperatures for highly crystallized PLA products.

  11. Multicomponent fuel vaporization at high pressures.

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, D. J.; O'Rourke, P. J.

    2002-01-01

    We extend our multicomponent fuel model to high pressures using a Peng-Robinson equation of state, and implement the model into KIVA-3V. Phase equilibrium is achieved by equating liquid and vapor fugacities. The latent heat of vaporization and fuel enthalpies are also corrected for at high pressures. Numerical simulations of multicomponent evaporation are performed for single droplets for a diesel fuel surrogate at different pressures.

  12. Fuel droplet burning rates at high pressures.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canada, G. S.; Faeth, G. M.

    1973-01-01

    Combustion of methanol, ethanol, propanol-1, n-pentane, n-heptane, and n-decane was observed in air under natural convection conditions, at pressures up to 100 atm. The droplets were simulated by porous spheres, with diameters in the range from 0.63 to 1.90 cm. The pressure levels of the tests were high enough so that near-critical combustion was observed for methanol and ethanol. Due to the high pressures, the phase-equilibrium models of the analysis included both the conventional low-pressure approach as well as high-pressure versions, allowing for real gas effects and the solubility of combustion-product gases in the liquid phase. The burning-rate predictions of the various theories were similar, and in fair agreement with the data. The high-pressure theory gave the best prediction for the liquid-surface temperatures of ethanol and propanol-1 at high pressure. The experiments indicated the approach of critical burning conditions for methanol and ethanol at pressures on the order of 80 to 100 atm, which was in good agreement with the predictions of both the low- and high-pressure analysis.

  13. Structural behaviour of YGa under high pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Sekar, M. Shekar, N. V. Chandra Sahu, P. Ch.; Babu, R.

    2014-04-24

    High pressure X-ray diffraction studies on rare-earth gallide YGa was carried up to a pressure of ? 33 GPa using rotating anode x-ray source in an angle dispersive mode. YGa exhibits CrB (B33) type orthorhombic structure (space group Cmcm) at ambient pressure. It undergoes a reversible structural phase transition from orthorhombic to tetragonal structure at ? 8.8 GPa. Both the phases coexist up to the highest pressure studied. The zero pressure bulk modulus and its derivative for parent phase have been estimated to be B{sub o} = 60 ± 3 GPa, B{sub o}' = 4.6 ± 1.5.

  14. Laser techniques in high-pressure geophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemley, R. J.; Bell, P. M.; Mao, H. K.

    1987-01-01

    Laser techniques in conjunction with the diamond-anvil cell can be used to study high-pressure properties of materials important to a wide range of problems in earth and planetary science. Spontaneous Raman scattering of crystalline and amorphous solids at high pressure demonstrates that dramatic changes in structure and bonding occur on compression. High-pressure Brillouin scattering is sensitive to the pressure variations of single-crystal elastic moduli and acoustic velocities. Laser heating techniques with the diamond-anvil cell can be used to study phase transitions, including melting, under deep-earth conditions. Finally, laser-induced ruby fluorescence has been essential for the development of techniques for generating the maximum pressures now possible with the diamond-anvil cell, and currently provides a calibrated in situ measure of pressure well above 100 gigapascals.

  15. Risk Factors for High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Share this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Risk Factors for High Blood Pressure Anyone can develop high ... this condition are why family history is a risk factor for this condition. Rate This Content: NEXT >> Updated: ...

  16. PARTICLE COLLECTION IN CYCLONES AT HIGH TEMPERATURE AND HIGH PRESSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of an experimental study of cyclone efficiency and pressure drop at temperatures up to 700C and pressures up to 25 atm. The cyclone efficiency was found to decrease at high temperature and increase at high pressure for a constant inlet velocity. Available ...

  17. Abnormally high formation pressures, Potwar Plateau, Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Shah, S.H.A.; Malik, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormally high formation pressures in the Potwar Plateau of north-central Pakistan are major obstacles to oil and gas exploration. Severe drilling problems associated with high pressures have, in some cases, prevented adequate evaluation of reservoirs and significantly increased drilling costs. Previous investigations of abnormal pressure in the Potwar Plateau have only identified abnormal pressures in Neogene rocks. We have identified two distinct pressure regimes in this Himalayan foreland fold and thrust belt basin: one in Neogene rocks and another in pre-Neogene rocks. Pore pressures in Neogene rocks are as high as lithostatic and are interpreted to be due to tectonic compression and compaction disequilibrium associated with high rates of sedimentation. Pore pressure gradients in pre-Neogene rocks are generally less than those in Neogene rocks, commonly ranging from 0.5 to 0.7 psi/ft (11.3 to 15.8 kPa/m) and are most likely due to a combination of tectonic compression and hydrocarbon generation. The top of abnormally high pressure is highly variable and doesn't appear to be related to any specific lithologic seal. Consequently, attempts to predict the depth to the top of overpressure prior to drilling are precluded.

  18. Portable high precision pressure transducer system

    DOEpatents

    Piper, T.C.; Morgan, J.P.; Marchant, N.J.; Bolton, S.M.

    1994-04-26

    A high precision pressure transducer system is described for checking the reliability of a second pressure transducer system used to monitor the level of a fluid confined in a holding tank. Since the response of the pressure transducer is temperature sensitive, it is continually housed in an battery powered oven which is configured to provide a temperature stable environment at specified temperature for an extended period of time. Further, a high precision temperature stabilized oscillator and counter are coupled to a single board computer to accurately determine the pressure transducer oscillation frequency and convert it to an applied pressure. All of the components are powered by the batteries which during periods of availability of line power are charged by an on board battery charger. The pressure readings outputs are transmitted to a line printer and a vacuum fluorescent display. 2 figures.

  19. Portable high precision pressure transducer system

    DOEpatents

    Piper, Thomas C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Morgan, John P. (Idaho Falls, ID); Marchant, Norman J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Bolton, Steven M. (Pocatello, ID)

    1994-01-01

    A high precision pressure transducer system for checking the reliability of a second pressure transducer system used to monitor the level of a fluid confined in a holding tank. Since the response of the pressure transducer is temperature sensitive, it is continually housed in an battery powered oven which is configured to provide a temperature stable environment at specified temperature for an extended period of time. Further, a high precision temperature stabilized oscillator and counter are coupled to a single board computer to accurately determine the pressure transducer oscillation frequency and convert it to an applied pressure. All of the components are powered by the batteries which during periods of availability of line power are charged by an on board battery charger. The pressure readings outputs are transmitted to a line printer and a vacuum florescent display.

  20. Combustion of liquid sprays at high pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shearer, A. J.; Faeth, G. M.

    1977-01-01

    The combustion of pressure atomized fuel sprays in high pressure stagnant air was studied. Measurements were made of flame and spray boundaries at pressures in the range 0.1-9 MPa for methanol and n-pentane. At the higher test pressure levels, critical phenomena are important. The experiments are compared with theoretical predictions based on a locally homogeneous two-phase flow model. The theory correctly predicted the trends of the data, but underestimates flame and spray boundaries by 30-50 percent, indicating that slip is still important for the present experiments (Sauter mean diameters of 30 microns at atmospheric pressure under cold flow conditions). Since the sprays are shorter at high pressures, slip effects are still important even though the density ratio of the phases approach one another as the droplets heat up. The model indicates the presence of a region where condensed water is present within the spray and provides a convenient means of treating supercritical phenomena.

  1. High-pressure mechanical instability in rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Byerlee, J.D.; Brace, W.F.

    1969-01-01

    At a confining pressure of a few kilobars, deformation of many sedimentary rocks, altered mafic rocks, porous volcanic rocks, and sand is ductile, in that instabilities leading to audible elastic shocks are absent. At pressures of 7 to 10 kilobars, however, unstable faulting and stick-slip in certain of these rocks was observed. This high pressure-low temperature instability might be responsible for earthquakes in deeply buried sedimentary or volcanic sequences.

  2. HIGH-TEMPERATURE AND HIGH-PRESSURE PARTICULATE CONTROL REQUIREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report reviews and evaluates high-temperature and high-pressure particulate cleanup requirements of existing and proposed energy processes. The study's aims are to define specific high-temperature and high-pressure particle removal problems, to indicate potential solutions, a...

  3. Small, high-pressure liquid hydrogen turbopump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Csomor, A.; Sutton, R.

    1977-01-01

    A high pressure, liquid hydrogen turbopump was designed, fabricated, and tested to a maximum speed of 9739 rad/s and a maximum pump discharge pressure of 2861 N/sq. cm. The approaches used in the analysis and design of the turbopump are described, and fabrication methods are discussed. Data obtained from gas generator tests, turbine performance calibration, and turbopump testing are presented.

  4. High Pressure Solution Kinetics of Metal Complexes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suvachittanont, Surapong

    1983-01-01

    Describes use of activation volumes derived from the effect of pressure reaction rates in aiding the understanding of reaction mechanism. Topics discussed include determination and interpretation of activation volumes, high pressure equipment/techniques, and application of activation volumes in mechanistic elucidation of several inorganic…

  5. Raman Study of SWNT Under High Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkateswaran, U.; Rao, A. M.; Richter, E.; Eklund, P. C.; Smalley, R. E.

    1998-03-01

    A gasketed Merrill-Bassett-type diamond anvil cell was used for high pressure Raman measurements at room temperature. A 4:1 methanol-ethanol mixture served as the pressure transmitting medium. The radial mode (denoted as R, occuring at 186 cm-1 at 1 bar) and tangential modes (designated T_1, T_2, and T_3, located, respectively, at 1550, 1567, and 1593 cm-1 at 1 bar) were recorded for several representative pressures. With increasing pressure, both the R and T modes shift to higher frequencies with gradual weakening of intensity and broadening of linewidth. The radial mode disappears around ~ 2 GPa whereas the tangential modes, albeit weak in intensity, persist until 5.2 GPa. The decrease in Raman intensity under pressure can be attributed to a loss of resonance, since the strong Raman signals observed at ambient pressure have been interpreted as due a resonance with the electronic bands [1]. The R and T mode frequencies are fit to quadratic function of pressure i.e., ?=?(0)+aP+bP^2 where `a' represents the linear pressure shift of the mode frequency which is proportional to the mode Gruneisen parameter. The linear pressure coefficient for the R mode is found to be nearly twice that of the high frequency T mode. A. M. Rao et al., Science 275, 187, 1997

  6. Fire hose gripping device and process for fighting fires in oil refineries and the like

    SciTech Connect

    Lancaster, D.R.; Everding, R.J.

    1989-08-15

    This patent describes a firefighting process. It comprises the steps of: attaching one end of a fire hose to a fire hydrant when the end of the fire hose is in a generally collapsed flattened position; uncoiling the fire hose; attaching a manually grippable spray nozzle to the other end of the fire hose; inflating and substantially filling the fire hose with water from the water supply means to expand the hose to a semirigid expanded position; grasping, lifting, and carrying the filled fire hose with one hand; gripping a vertical elastomeric handle of a hose clamp with the other hand. The hose clamp having a generally U-shaped hose-engaging member. The U-shaped hose-engaging member having an open end defining an access opening for receiving the hose. The access opening being larger than the maximum diameter and transverse span of the uncoiled filled fire hose: inserting the hose-engaging member on the fire hose such that there is sufficient clearance between the hose-engaging member and the fire hose to side hose clamp to another position; moving the hose clamp at an acute angle of inclination relative to the hose to detachable secure and inter-lockingly engage the hose-engaging member to the filled fire hose; manually lifting the vertical elastomeric handle of the hose clamp to elevate the fire hose; pointing the nozzle towards the fire; and spraying water from the nozzle on the fire.

  7. High Blood Pressure and Kidney Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Information Center National Kidney Foundation Smokefree.gov MedlinePlus Kidney and Urologic Disease Organizations Many organizations provide support ... Alternate Language URL Español High Blood Pressure and Kidney Disease Page Content On this page: What is ...

  8. Design of high pressure waterjet nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazzoleni, Andre P.

    1994-01-01

    The Hydroblast Research Cell at Marshall Space Flight Center is used to investigate the use of high pressure waterjets to strip paint, grease, adhesive and thermal spray coatings from various substrates. Current methods of cleaning often use ozone depleting chemicals (ODC) such as chlorinated solvents. High pressure waterjet cleaning has proven to be a viable alternative to the use of solvents. A popular method of waterjet cleaning involves the use of a rotating, multijet, high pressure water nozzle which is robotically controlled. This method enables rapid cleaning of a large area, but problems such as incomplete coverage and damage to the substrate from the waterjet have been observed. This report summarizes research consisting of identifying and investigating the basic properties of rotating, multijet, high pressure water nozzles, and how particular designs and modes of operation affect such things as stripping rate, standoff distance and completeness of coverage. The study involved computer simulations, an extensive literature review, and experimental studies of different nozzle designs.

  9. High-pressure studies of ammonia hydrates 

    E-print Network

    Wilson, Craig W.

    2014-06-28

    Ammonia and water are major components of many planetary bodies, from comets and icy moons such as Saturn's Titan to the interiors of the planets Neptune and Uranus. Under a range of high pressures and/or low temperatures known ...

  10. High-pressure treatment of polytene chromosomes

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    High-pressure treatment of polytene chromosomes improves structural resolution Dmitri V Novikov1 to the heat-shock puff boundaries remains debated years after their discovery7. All polytene chromosome

  11. High-pressure synthesis of electronic materials 

    E-print Network

    Penny, George B. S.

    2010-01-01

    High-pressure techniques have become increasingly important in the synthesis of ceramic and metallic solids allowing the discovery of new materials with interesting properties. In this research dense solid oxides have ...

  12. Stability of xenon oxides at high pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Qiang; Jung, Daniel Y.; Oganov, Artem R.; Glass, Colin W.; Gatti, Carlo; Lyakhov, Andriy O.

    2013-01-01

    Xenon, which is quite inert under ambient conditions, may become reactive under pressure. The possibility of the formation of stable xenon oxides and silicates in the interior of the Earth could explain the atmospheric missing xenon paradox. Using an ab initio evolutionary algorithm, we predict the existence of thermodynamically stable Xe-O compounds at high pressures (XeO, XeO2 and XeO3 become stable at pressures above 83, 102 and 114 GPa, respectively). Our calculations indicate large charge transfer in these oxides, suggesting that large electronegativity difference and high pressure are the key factors favouring the formation of xenon compounds. However, xenon compounds cannot exist in the Earth's mantle: xenon oxides are unstable in equilibrium with the metallic iron occurring in the lower mantle, and xenon silicates are predicted to decompose spontaneously at all mantle pressures (<136 GPa). However, it is possible that xenon atoms may be retained at defects in mantle silicates and oxides.

  13. High Pressure Physics at Brigham Young University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decker, Daniel

    2000-09-01

    I will discuss the high pressure research of Drs. J. Dean Barnett, Daniel L. Decker and Howard B. Vanfleet of the department of Physics and Astronomy at Brigham Young University and their many graduate students. I will begin by giving a brief history of the beginning of high pressure research at Brigham Young University when H. Tracy Hall came to the University from General Elecrtric Labs. and then follow the work as it progressed from high pressure x-ray diffraction experiments, melting curve measurements under pressure to pressure effects on tracer diffusion and Mossbauer effect spectra. This will be followed by showing the development of pressure calibration techniques from the Decker equation of state of NaCl to the ruby fluorescence spectroscopy and a short discussion of using a liquid cell for hydrostatic measurements and temperature control for precision high pressure measurements. Then I will conclude with a description of thermoelectric measuremnts, critical phenomena at the magnetic Curie point, and the tricritical point of BaTiO_3.

  14. High frequency pressure oscillator for microcryocoolers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanapalli, S.; ter Brake, H. J. M.; Jansen, H. V.; Zhao, Y.; Holland, H. J.; Burger, J. F.; Elwenspoek, M. C.

    2008-04-01

    Microminiature pulse tube cryocoolers should operate at a frequency of an order higher than the conventional macro ones because the pulse tube cryocooler operating frequency scales inversely with the square of the pulse tube diameter. In this paper, the design and experiments of a high frequency pressure oscillator is presented with the aim to power a micropulse tube cryocooler operating between 300 and 80K, delivering a cooling power of 10mW. Piezoelectric actuators operate efficiently at high frequencies and have high power density making them good candidates as drivers for high frequency pressure oscillator. The pressure oscillator described in this work consists of a membrane driven by a piezoelectric actuator. A pressure ratio of about 1.11 was achieved with a filling pressure of 2.5MPa and compression volume of about 22.6mm3 when operating the actuator with a peak-to-peak sinusoidal voltage of 100V at a frequency of 1kHz. The electrical power input was 2.73W. The high pressure ratio and low electrical input power at high frequencies would herald development of microminiature cryocoolers.

  15. 46 CFR 98.25-80 - Cargo hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION, ARRANGEMENT, AND OTHER PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk § 98.25-80 Cargo hose. (a) Cargo hose fabricated of seamless steel pipe with swivel joints,...

  16. 46 CFR 98.25-80 - Cargo hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION, ARRANGEMENT, AND OTHER PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk § 98.25-80 Cargo hose. (a) Cargo hose fabricated of seamless steel pipe with swivel joints,...

  17. 46 CFR 98.25-80 - Cargo hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION, ARRANGEMENT, AND OTHER PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk § 98.25-80 Cargo hose. (a) Cargo hose fabricated of seamless steel pipe with swivel joints,...

  18. 46 CFR 98.25-80 - Cargo hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION, ARRANGEMENT, AND OTHER PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk § 98.25-80 Cargo hose. (a) Cargo hose fabricated of seamless steel pipe with swivel joints,...

  19. 46 CFR 98.25-80 - Cargo hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION, ARRANGEMENT, AND OTHER PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk § 98.25-80 Cargo hose. (a) Cargo hose fabricated of seamless steel pipe with swivel joints,...

  20. High pressure ceramic heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Harkins, Bruce D. (San Diego, CA); Ward, Michael E. (Poway, CA)

    1999-01-01

    Many recuperators have components which react to corrosive gases and are used in applications where the donor fluid includes highly corrosive gases. These recuperators have suffered reduced life, increased service or maintenance, and resulted in increased cost. The present header assembly when used with recuperators reduces the brittle effect of a portion of the ceramic components. Thus, the present header assembly used with the present recuperator increases the life, reduces the service and maintenance, and reduces the increased cost associated with corrosive action of components used to manufacture recuperators. The present header assembly is comprised of a first ceramic member, a second ceramic member, a reinforcing member being in spaced relationship to the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The header assembly is further comprised of a refractory material disposed in contacting relationship with the first ceramic member, the second ceramic member and the reinforcing member and having a strengthening member wrapped around the refractory material. The present header assembly provides a high strength load bearing header assembly having good thermal cycling characteristics, good resistance to a corrosive environment and good steady state strength at elevated temperatures.

  1. High pressure ceramic heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Harkins, B.D.; Ward, M.E.

    1998-09-22

    Many recuperators have components which react to corrosive gases and are used in applications where the donor fluid includes highly corrosive gases. These recuperators have suffered reduced life, increased service or maintenance, and resulted in increased cost. The present header assembly when used with recuperators reduces the brittle effect of a portion of the ceramic components. Thus, the present header assembly used with the present recuperator increases the life, reduces the service and maintenance, and reduces the increased cost associated with corrosive action of components used to manufacture recuperators. The present header assembly is comprised of a first ceramic member, a second ceramic member, a strengthening reinforcing member being in spaced relationship to the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The header assembly is further comprised of a refractory material disposed in contacting relationship with the first ceramic member, the second ceramic member and the strengthening reinforcing member. The present header assembly provides a high strength load bearing header assembly having good thermal cycling characteristics, good resistance to a corrosive environment and good steady state strength at elevated temperatures. 5 figs.

  2. High pressure ceramic heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Harkins, Bruce D. (San Diego, CA); Ward, Michael E. (Poway, CA)

    1998-01-01

    Many recuperators have components which react to corrosive gases and are used in applications where the donor fluid includes highly corrosive gases. These recuperators have suffered reduced life, increased service or maintenance, and resulted in increased cost. The present header assembly when used with recuperators reduces the brittle effect of a portion of the ceramic components. Thus, the present header assembly used with the present recuperator increases the life, reduces the service and maintenance, and reduces the increased cost associated with corrosive action of components used to manufacture recuperators. The present header assembly is comprised of a first ceramic member, a second ceramic member, a strengthening reinforcing member being in spaced relationship to the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The header assembly is further comprised of a refractory material disposed in contacting relationship with the first ceramic member, the second ceramic member and the strengthening reinforcing member. The present header assembly provides a high strength load bearing header assembly having good thermal cycling characteristics, good resistance to a corrosive environment and good steady state strength at elevated temperatures.

  3. 46 CFR 154.1155 - Hand hose line: Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hand hose line: Coverage. 154.1155 Section...Firefighting System: Dry Chemical § 154.1155 Hand hose line: Coverage. The coverage for the area for a hand hose line under § 154.1150 must not...

  4. 46 CFR 154.1155 - Hand hose line: Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hand hose line: Coverage. 154.1155 Section...Firefighting System: Dry Chemical § 154.1155 Hand hose line: Coverage. The coverage for the area for a hand hose line under § 154.1150 must not...

  5. 46 CFR 154.1155 - Hand hose line: Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hand hose line: Coverage. 154.1155 Section...Firefighting System: Dry Chemical § 154.1155 Hand hose line: Coverage. The coverage for the area for a hand hose line under § 154.1150 must not...

  6. 46 CFR 154.1155 - Hand hose line: Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hand hose line: Coverage. 154.1155 Section...Firefighting System: Dry Chemical § 154.1155 Hand hose line: Coverage. The coverage for the area for a hand hose line under § 154.1150 must not...

  7. 46 CFR 154.1155 - Hand hose line: Coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hand hose line: Coverage. 154.1155 Section...Firefighting System: Dry Chemical § 154.1155 Hand hose line: Coverage. The coverage for the area for a hand hose line under § 154.1150 must not...

  8. 46 CFR 108.425 - Fire hoses and associated equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire hoses and associated equipment. 108.425 Section 108.425 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fire Main System § 108.425 Fire hoses and associated equipment. (a) Each length of fire hose in...

  9. 46 CFR 98.33-7 - Pipe and hose connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pipe and hose connections. 98.33-7 ...Other Regulated Materials § 98.33-7 Pipe and hose connections. If a portable...under § 98.33-5 of this part has a pipe or hose connection in its bottom, the...

  10. 46 CFR 98.33-7 - Pipe and hose connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pipe and hose connections. 98.33-7 ...Other Regulated Materials § 98.33-7 Pipe and hose connections. If a portable...under § 98.33-5 of this part has a pipe or hose connection in its bottom, the...

  11. 46 CFR 167.45-10 - Couplings on fire hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Couplings on fire hose. 167.45-10 Section 167.45-10...NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Special Firefighting and Fire Prevention Requirements § 167.45-10 Couplings on fire hose. The couplings on fire hose...

  12. 46 CFR 167.45-10 - Couplings on fire hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Couplings on fire hose. 167.45-10 Section 167.45-10...NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Special Firefighting and Fire Prevention Requirements § 167.45-10 Couplings on fire hose. The couplings on fire hose...

  13. 46 CFR 167.45-10 - Couplings on fire hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Couplings on fire hose. 167.45-10 Section 167.45-10... SHIPS Special Firefighting and Fire Prevention Requirements § 167.45-10 Couplings on fire hose. The couplings on fire hose shall be of brass, copper, or composition material. All hydrants shall be...

  14. 46 CFR 167.45-10 - Couplings on fire hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Couplings on fire hose. 167.45-10 Section 167.45-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Special Firefighting and Fire Prevention Requirements § 167.45-10 Couplings on fire hose. The couplings on fire hose shall be of brass,...

  15. Predicting Flow-Induced Vibrations In A Convoluted Hose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, Stuart A.

    1994-01-01

    Composite model constructed from two less accurate models. Predicts approximately frequencies and modes of vibrations induced by flows of various fluids in convoluted hose. Based partly on spring-and-lumped-mass representation of dynamics involving springiness and mass of convolution of hose and density of fluid in hose.

  16. 46 CFR 131.880 - Fire hoses and axes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire hoses and axes. 131.880 Section 131.880 Shipping COAST GUARD...Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.880 Fire hoses and axes. Each fire hose and axe must be marked with the...

  17. 46 CFR 167.45-10 - Couplings on fire hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SHIPS Special Firefighting and Fire Prevention Requirements § 167.45-10 Couplings on fire hose. The couplings on fire hose shall be of brass, copper, or composition material. All hydrants shall be provided... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Couplings on fire hose. 167.45-10 Section...

  18. Cobalt ferrite nanoparticles under high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saccone, F. D.; Ferrari, S.; Errandonea, D.; Grinblat, F.; Bilovol, V.; Agouram, S.

    2015-08-01

    We report by the first time a high pressure X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy study of cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanoparticles carried out at room temperature up to 17 GPa. In contrast with previous studies of nanoparticles, which proposed the transition pressure to be reduced from 20-27 GPa to 7.5-12.5 GPa (depending on particle size), we found that cobalt ferrite nanoparticles remain in the spinel structure up to the highest pressure covered by our experiments. In addition, we report the pressure dependence of the unit-cell parameter and Raman modes of the studied sample. We found that under quasi-hydrostatic conditions, the bulk modulus of the nanoparticles (B0 = 204 GPa) is considerably larger than the value previously reported for bulk CoFe2O4 (B0 = 172 GPa). In addition, when the pressure medium becomes non-hydrostatic and deviatoric stresses affect the experiments, there is a noticeable decrease of the compressibility of the studied sample (B0 = 284 GPa). After decompression, the cobalt ferrite lattice parameter does not revert to its initial value, evidencing a unit cell contraction after pressure was removed. Finally, Raman spectroscopy provides information on the pressure dependence of all Raman-active modes and evidences that cation inversion is enhanced by pressure under non-hydrostatic conditions, being this effect not fully reversible.

  19. Sample injector for high pressure liquid chromatography

    DOEpatents

    Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Arnold, Don W. (Livermore, CA); Neyer, David W. (Castro Valley, CA)

    2001-01-01

    Apparatus and method for driving a sample, having a well-defined volume, under pressure into a chromatography column. A conventional high pressure sampling valve is replaced by a sample injector composed of a pair of injector components connected in series to a common junction. The injector components are containers of porous dielectric material constructed so as to provide for electroosmotic flow of a sample into the junction. At an appropriate time, a pressure pulse from a high pressure source, that can be an electrokinetic pump, connected to the common junction, drives a portion of the sample, whose size is determined by the dead volume of the common junction, into the chromatographic column for subsequent separation and analysis. The apparatus can be fabricated on a substrate for microanalytical applications.

  20. (High-pressure structural studies of promethium)

    SciTech Connect

    Haire, R.G.

    1988-11-15

    The primary object of the foreign travel was to carry out collaborative high-pressure structural studies at the European Institute for Transuranium Elements (EITU), Karlsruhe, Federal Republic of Germany. These studies reestablished previous collaborative investigations by ORNL and EITU that have been very productive scientifically during the past few years. The study during the present travel period was limited to a structural study of promethium metal under pressure.

  1. Efficient High-Pressure State Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harstad, Kenneth G.; Miller, Richard S.; Bellan, Josette

    1997-01-01

    A method is presented for a relatively accurate, noniterative, computationally efficient calculation of high-pressure fluid-mixture equations of state, especially targeted to gas turbines and rocket engines. Pressures above I bar and temperatures above 100 K are addressed The method is based on curve fitting an effective reference state relative to departure functions formed using the Peng-Robinson cubic state equation Fit parameters for H2, O2, N2, propane, methane, n-heptane, and methanol are given.

  2. A high-temperature wideband pressure transducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuckerwar, A. J.

    1975-01-01

    Progress in the development of a pressure transducer for measurement of the pressure fluctuations in the high temperature environment of a jet exhaust is reported. A condenser microphone carrier system was adapted to meet the specifications. A theoretical analysis is presented which describes the operation of the condenser microphone in terms of geometry, materials, and other physical properties. The analysis was used as the basis for design of a prototype high temperature microphone. The feasibility of connecting the microphone to a converter over a high temperature cable operating as a half-wavelength transmission line was also examined.

  3. ALTERNATIVES FOR HIGH-TEMPERATURE/HIGH-PRESSURE PARTICULATE CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives the status of the most promising high-temperature/high-pressure (HTP) particulate control devices being developed. Data are presented and anticipated performance and development problems are discussed. HTP particulate control offers efficiency and potential econo...

  4. Single Molecule Raman Spectroscopy Under High Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yuanxi; Dlott, Dana

    2014-06-01

    Pressure effects on surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectra of Rhdoamine 6G adsorbed on silver nanoparticle surfaces was studied using a confocal Raman microscope. Colloidal silver nanoparticles were treated with Rhodamine 6G (R6G) and its isotopically substituted partner, R6G-d4. Mixed isotopomers let us identify single-molecule spectra, since multiple-molecule spectra would show vibrational transitions from both species. The nanoparticles were embedded into a poly vinyl alcohol film, and loaded into a diamond anvil cell for the high-pressure Raman scattering measurement. Argon was the pressure medium. Ambient pressure Raman scattering spectra showed few single-molecule spectra. At moderately high pressure ( 1GPa), a surprising effect was observed. The number of sites with observable spectra decreased dramatically, and most of the spectra that could be observed were due to single molecules. The effects of high pressure suppressed the multiple-molecule Raman sites, leaving only the single-molecule sites to be observed.

  5. High Temperature Dynamic Pressure Measurements Using Silicon Carbide Pressure Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okojie, Robert S.; Meredith, Roger D.; Chang, Clarence T.; Savrun, Ender

    2014-01-01

    Un-cooled, MEMS-based silicon carbide (SiC) static pressure sensors were used for the first time to measure pressure perturbations at temperatures as high as 600 C during laboratory characterization, and subsequently evaluated in a combustor rig operated under various engine conditions to extract the frequencies that are associated with thermoacoustic instabilities. One SiC sensor was placed directly in the flow stream of the combustor rig while a benchmark commercial water-cooled piezoceramic dynamic pressure transducer was co-located axially but kept some distance away from the hot flow stream. In the combustor rig test, the SiC sensor detected thermoacoustic instabilities across a range of engine operating conditions, amplitude magnitude as low as 0.5 psi at 585 C, in good agreement with the benchmark piezoceramic sensor. The SiC sensor experienced low signal to noise ratio at higher temperature, primarily due to the fact that it was a static sensor with low sensitivity.

  6. High pressure and high temperature behaviour of ZnO

    SciTech Connect

    Thakar, Nilesh A.; Bhatt, Apoorva D.; Pandya, Tushar C.

    2014-04-24

    The thermodynamic properties with the wurtzite (B4) and rocksalt (B1) phases of ZnO under high pressures and high temperatures have been investigated using Tait's Equation of state (EOS). The effects of pressures and temperatures on thermodynamic properties such as bulk modulus, thermal expansivity and thermal pressure are explored for both two structures. It is found that ZnO material gradually softens with increase of temperature while it hardens with the increment of the pressure. Our predicted results of thermodynamics properties for both the phases of ZnO are in overall agreement with the available data in the literature.

  7. varicose veins smoking obesity swine flu high blood pressure

    E-print Network

    Rambaut, Andrew

    varicose veins smoking obesity swine flu high blood pressure parkinson's stress depression muscle smoking obesity swine flu high blood pressure parkinson's stress depression muscle stiffness heart attack asthma low blood pressure alzheimer's cancer diabetes kidney failure dementia thrombosis high colesterol

  8. What about African Americans and High Blood Pressure?

    MedlinePLUS

    ANSWERS by heart Lifestyle + Risk Reduction High Blood Pressure What About African Americans and High Blood Pressure? The prevalence of high blood pressure in African Americans is among the highest in ...

  9. Vibrational spectroscopy of polymers at high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmons, Erik David

    High-pressure vibrational spectroscopy of amorphous and semi-crystalline polymers was performed in a diamond anvil cell (DAC). Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) absorption and Raman spectroscopies were used to measure the shifts in the vibrational modes as a function of pressure. The measurements were performed using microspectroscopy techniques due to the limitation of the small size of the samples that can be studied inside a DAC. Vibrational spectroscopy is a powerful tool to elucidate the structure of polymers. Detailed information can be obtained about properties such as the polymer conformations, tacticity, and crystallinity. Measuring the spectrum as a function of pressure allows one to obtain mode Gruneisen parameters, which are a measure of anharmonicities in the molecular vibrations, as well as observe possible phase transitions. Besides being of fundamental scientific interest, such measurements are also important due to increasing number of applications in which polymers are exposed to extreme conditions of high temperatures and pressures, such as shock compression experiments and their use as binder materials in high explosives. In this dissertation three different types of polymeric systems were studied. First, the amorphous polymer poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) was studied using infrared microspectroscopy. PMMA, commonly known as Plexiglas, is frequently used as a transparent window material in shock compression experiments, so its properties under high pressure are of interest to the scientific community. Second, three different types of semi-crystalline polyethylene were studied using infrared and Raman spectroscopies to see if they behaved differently under high pressure. These included a high-density polyethylene, a crosslinked polyethylene, and an ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene. Finally, Raman spectroscopy measurements were performed on a fluoropolymer, THV-500, a terpolymer of tetrafluoroethylene-hexafluoropropylenevinylidene fluoride.

  10. High pressure, high current, low inductance, high reliability sealed terminals

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, John S. (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; McKeever, John W. (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-03-23

    The invention is a terminal assembly having a casing with at least one delivery tapered-cone conductor and at least one return tapered-cone conductor routed there-through. The delivery and return tapered-cone conductors are electrically isolated from each other and positioned in the annuluses of ordered concentric cones at an off-normal angle. The tapered cone conductor service can be AC phase conductors and DC link conductors. The center core has at least one service conduit of gate signal leads, diagnostic signal wires, and refrigerant tubing routed there-through. A seal material is in direct contact with the casing inner surface, the tapered-cone conductors, and the service conduits thereby hermetically filling the interstitial space in the casing interior core and center core. The assembly provides simultaneous high-current, high-pressure, low-inductance, and high-reliability service.

  11. Fluid hydrogen at high density - Pressure dissociation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saumon, Didier; Chabrier, Gilles

    1991-01-01

    A model for the Helmholtz free energy of fluid hydrogen at high density and high temperature is developed. This model aims at describing both pressure and temperature dissociation and ionization and bears directly on equations of state of partially ionized plasmas, as encountered in astrophysical situations and high-pressure experiments. This paper focuses on a mixture of hydrogen atoms and molecules and is devoted to the study of the phenomenon of pressure dissociation at finite temperatures. In the present model, the strong interactions are described with realistic potentials and are computed with a modified Weeks-Chandler-Andersen fluid perturbation theory that reproduces Monte Carlo simulations to better than 3 percent. Theoretical Hugoniot curves derived from the model are in excellent agreement with experimental data.

  12. Superconductivity of Alkali Metals under High Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Lei; Papaconstantopoulos, Dimitrios

    2006-03-01

    We calculated the superconductivity properties of alkali metals under high pressure using the results of band theory and the rigid-muffin theory of Gaspari and Gyorffy. Our results suggest that at high pressures Lithium, Potassium, Rubidium and Cesium would be superconductors with transition temperatures approaching 10-20 K. Our calculations also show that Sodium would not be a superconductor under high pressure even if compressed to less than half of its equilibrium volume. We found that the compression of the lattice strengthens the electron-phonon coupling through a delicately balanced increase of both the electronic and phononic components of this coupling. This increase of the electron-phonon coupling in Li is due to an enhancement of the s-p channel of the interaction, while in the heavier elements the p-d channel is the dominant component.

  13. Exotic stable cesium polynitrides at high pressure

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Feng; Han, Yunxia; Liu, Hanyu; Yao, Yansun

    2015-01-01

    New polynitrides containing metastable forms of nitrogen are actively investigated as potential high-energy-density materials. Using a structure search method based on the CALYPSO methodology, we investigated the stable stoichiometries and structures of cesium polynitrides at high pressures. Along with the CsN3, we identified five new stoichiometric compounds (Cs3N, Cs2N, CsN, CsN2, and CsN5) with interesting structures that may be experimentally synthesizable at modest pressures (i.e., less than 50?GPa). Nitrogen species in the predicted structures have various structural forms ranging from single atom (N) to highly endothermic molecules (N2, N3, N4, N5, N6) and chains (N?). Polymeric chains of nitrogen were found in the high-pressure C2/c phase of CsN2. This structure contains a substantially high content of single N-N bonds that exceeds the previously known nitrogen chains in pure forms, and also exhibit metastability at ambient conditions. We also identified a very interesting CsN crystal that contains novel N44? anion. To our best knowledge, this is the first time a charged N4 species being reported. Results of the present study suggest that it is possible to obtain energetic polynitrogens in main-group nitrides under high pressure. PMID:26581175

  14. Exotic stable cesium polynitrides at high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Feng; Han, Yunxia; Liu, Hanyu; Yao, Yansun

    2015-11-01

    New polynitrides containing metastable forms of nitrogen are actively investigated as potential high-energy-density materials. Using a structure search method based on the CALYPSO methodology, we investigated the stable stoichiometries and structures of cesium polynitrides at high pressures. Along with the CsN3, we identified five new stoichiometric compounds (Cs3N, Cs2N, CsN, CsN2, and CsN5) with interesting structures that may be experimentally synthesizable at modest pressures (i.e., less than 50?GPa). Nitrogen species in the predicted structures have various structural forms ranging from single atom (N) to highly endothermic molecules (N2, N3, N4, N5, N6) and chains (N?). Polymeric chains of nitrogen were found in the high-pressure C2/c phase of CsN2. This structure contains a substantially high content of single N-N bonds that exceeds the previously known nitrogen chains in pure forms, and also exhibit metastability at ambient conditions. We also identified a very interesting CsN crystal that contains novel N44? anion. To our best knowledge, this is the first time a charged N4 species being reported. Results of the present study suggest that it is possible to obtain energetic polynitrogens in main-group nitrides under high pressure.

  15. Exotic stable cesium polynitrides at high pressure.

    PubMed

    Peng, Feng; Han, Yunxia; Liu, Hanyu; Yao, Yansun

    2015-01-01

    New polynitrides containing metastable forms of nitrogen are actively investigated as potential high-energy-density materials. Using a structure search method based on the CALYPSO methodology, we investigated the stable stoichiometries and structures of cesium polynitrides at high pressures. Along with the CsN3, we identified five new stoichiometric compounds (Cs3N, Cs2N, CsN, CsN2, and CsN5) with interesting structures that may be experimentally synthesizable at modest pressures (i.e., less than 50?GPa). Nitrogen species in the predicted structures have various structural forms ranging from single atom (N) to highly endothermic molecules (N2, N3, N4, N5, N6) and chains (N?). Polymeric chains of nitrogen were found in the high-pressure C2/c phase of CsN2. This structure contains a substantially high content of single N-N bonds that exceeds the previously known nitrogen chains in pure forms, and also exhibit metastability at ambient conditions. We also identified a very interesting CsN crystal that contains novel N4(4-) anion. To our best knowledge, this is the first time a charged N4 species being reported. Results of the present study suggest that it is possible to obtain energetic polynitrogens in main-group nitrides under high pressure. PMID:26581175

  16. High pressure water jet cutting and stripping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoppe, David T.; Babai, Majid K.

    1991-01-01

    High pressure water cutting techniques have a wide range of applications to the American space effort. Hydroblasting techniques are commonly used during the refurbishment of the reusable solid rocket motors. The process can be controlled to strip a thermal protective ablator without incurring any damage to the painted surface underneath by using a variation of possible parameters. Hydroblasting is a technique which is easily automated. Automation removes personnel from the hostile environment of the high pressure water. Computer controlled robots can perform the same task in a fraction of the time that would be required by manual operation.

  17. High pressure water jet mining machine

    DOEpatents

    Barker, Clark R. (Rolla, MO)

    1981-05-05

    A high pressure water jet mining machine for the longwall mining of coal is described. The machine is generally in the shape of a plowshare and is advanced in the direction in which the coal is cut. The machine has mounted thereon a plurality of nozzle modules each containing a high pressure water jet nozzle disposed to oscillate in a particular plane. The nozzle modules are oriented to cut in vertical and horizontal planes on the leading edge of the machine and the coal so cut is cleaved off by the wedge-shaped body.

  18. High Blood Pressure - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ?????? ??? ???? - ??????? Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Bosnian (Bosanski) High Blood Pressure Visoki krvni tlak - Bosanski (Bosnian) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese - Simplified (????) High Blood Pressure ??? - ???? ( ...

  19. Evaluation of Hose in Hose Transfer Line Service Life for Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program

    SciTech Connect

    TORRES, T.D.

    2000-08-24

    RPP-6153, Engineering Task Plan for Hose-in-Hose Transfer System for the Interim Stabilization Program, defines the programmatic goals, functional requirements, and technical criteria for the development and subsequent installation of transfer line equipment to support Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program. RPP-6028, Specification for Hose in Hose Transfer Lines for Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program, has been issued to define the specific requirements for the design, manufacture, and verification of transfer line assemblies for specific waste transfer applications. Included in RPP-6028 are tables defining the chemical constituents of concern to which transfer lines will be exposed. Current Interim Stabilization Program planning forecasts that the at-grade transfer lines will be required to convey pumpable waste for as much as three years after commissioning. Prudent engineering dictates that the equipment placed in service have a working life in excess of this forecasted time period, with some margin to allow for future adjustments to the planned schedule. This document evaluates the effective service life of the Hose-in-Hose Transfer Lines, based on information submitted by the manufacturer and published literature. The effective service life of transfer line assemblies is a function of several factors. Foremost among these are process fluid characteristics, ambient environmental conditions, and the manufacturer's stated shelf life. This evaluation examines the manufacturer's certification of shelf life, the manufacturer's certifications of chemical compatibility with waste, and published literature on the effects of exposure to ionizing radiation on the mechanical properties of elastomeric materials to evaluate transfer line service life.

  20. High pressure turbomachinery ground test facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuermann, Patrick E.

    1992-01-01

    Turbomachinery test facilities are at present scarce to non-existent world-wide. The turbomachinery test facility at Stennis Space Center will provide for advanced development and research and development capabilities for liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen propellant rocket engine components. The facility will provide ultra-high pressure via gas generators to deliver the needed turbine drive on various turbomachinery. State of the art process control systems will provide the vital pressure, temperature and flow requirements during tests. These systems will better control adverse transient conditions during start-up and shutdown, and by using advanced control theory, as well as incorporate test article health monitoring. Also, digital data acquisition systems will obtain high frequency (up to 20 KHz) and low frequency (up to 1 KHz) data during the test. Pressures of up to 15,000 psi will be generated to pressurize high pressure tanks supplying cryogens to various test article inlets thus pushing turbopump materials and manufacturing processes to their limits. By planning for future projects the test facility will be easily adaptable to multi-program test configurations over a range of thermodynamic positions.

  1. Raman study of opal at high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farfan, G.; Wang, S.; Mao, W. L.

    2011-12-01

    More commonly known for their beauty and lore as gemstones, opals are also intriguing geological materials which may have potential for materials science applications. Opal lacks a definite crystalline structure, and is composed of an amorphous packing of hydrated silica (SiO2) spheroids, which provides us with a unique nano-scaled mineraloid with properties unlike those of other amorphous materials like glass. Opals from different localities were studied at high pressure using a diamond anvil cell to apply pressure and Raman spectroscopy to look at changes in bonding as pressure was increased. We first tested different samples from Virgin Valley, NV, Spencer, ID, Juniper Ridge, OR, and Australia, which contain varying amounts of water at ambient conditions, using Raman spectroscopy to determine if they were opal-CT (semicrystalline cristobalite-trydimite volcanic origin) or opal-A (amorphous sedimentary origin). We then used x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy in a diamond anvil cell to see how their bonding and structure changed under compression and to determine what effect water content had on their high pressure behavior. Comparison of our results on opal to other high pressure studies of amorphous materials like glass has implications from a geological and materials science standpoint.

  2. Introduction to High-Pressure Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dera, Przemyslaw

    To a common person pressure is just one of the parameters that describe a thermodynamic state. We all hear about it in everyday weather forecasts, and most of us do not associate it with anything particularly unique. Probably the most intuitive idea of the effect of high-pressure comes from movies, where submarine sinking to the bottom of the ocean is gradually crushed by the surrounding water, until its hull implodes. Why, then hundreds of scientists throughout the world spent their lifelong careers studying high-pressure phenomena? Despite all the developments in experimental technologies and instrumentation, modern scientist has very few tools that allow him or her to "grab" two atoms and bring them, in a very controllable way, closer together. Being able to achieve this task means the ability to directly probe interatomic interaction potentials and can cause transformations as dramatic as turning of a common gas into solid metal. Before the reader delves into more advanced topics described later in this book, this introductory chapter aims to explain several elementary, but extremely important concepts in high-pressure science. We will start with a brief discussion of laboratory devices used to produce pressure, address the issue of hydrostaticity, elastic and plastic compression, and will conclude with a short discussion of unique effects of anisotropic stress.

  3. HIGH PRESSURE COAL COMBUSTON KINETICS PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Stefano Orsino

    2005-03-30

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) initiative to improve the efficiency of coal-fired power plants and reduce the pollution generated by these facilities, DOE has funded the High-Pressure Coal Combustion Kinetics (HPCCK) Projects. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted on selected pulverized coals at elevated pressures with the specific goals to provide new data for pressurized coal combustion that will help extend to high pressure and validate models for burnout, pollutant formation, and generate samples of solid combustion products for analyses to fill crucial gaps in knowledge of char morphology and fly ash formation. Two series of high-pressure coal combustion experiments were performed using SRI's pressurized radiant coal flow reactor. The first series of tests characterized the near burner flame zone (NBFZ). Three coals were tested, two high volatile bituminous (Pittsburgh No.8 and Illinois No.6), and one sub-bituminous (Powder River Basin), at pressures of 1, 2, and 3 MPa (10, 20, and 30 atm). The second series of experiments, which covered high-pressure burnout (HPBO) conditions, utilized a range of substantially longer combustion residence times to produce char burnout levels from 50% to 100%. The same three coals were tested at 1, 2, and 3 MPa, as well as at 0.2 MPa. Tests were also conducted on Pittsburgh No.8 coal in CO2 entrainment gas at 0.2, 1, and 2 MPa to begin establishing a database of experiments relevant to carbon sequestration techniques. The HPBO test series included use of an impactor-type particle sampler to measure the particle size distribution of fly ash produced under complete burnout conditions. The collected data have been interpreted with the help of CFD and detailed kinetics simulation to extend and validate devolatilization, char combustion and pollutant model at elevated pressure. A global NOX production sub-model has been proposed. The submodel reproduces the performance of the detailed chemical reaction mechanism for the NBFZ tests.

  4. Advanced Diagnostics for High Pressure Spray Combustion.

    SciTech Connect

    Skeen, Scott A.; Manin, Julien Luc; Pickett, Lyle M.

    2014-06-01

    The development of accurate predictive engine simulations requires experimental data to both inform and validate the models, but very limited information is presently available about the chemical structure of high pressure spray flames under engine- relevant conditions. Probing such flames for chemical information using non- intrusive optical methods or intrusive sampling techniques, however, is challenging because of the physical and optical harshness of the environment. This work details two new diagnostics that have been developed and deployed to obtain quantitative species concentrations and soot volume fractions from a high-pressure combusting spray. A high-speed, high-pressure sampling system was developed to extract gaseous species (including soot precursor species) from within the flame for offline analysis by time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A high-speed multi-wavelength optical extinction diagnostic was also developed to quantify transient and quasi-steady soot processes. High-pressure sampling and offline characterization of gas-phase species formed following the pre-burn event was accomplished as well as characterization of gas-phase species present in the lift-off region of a high-pressure n-dodecane spray flame. For the initial samples discussed in this work several species were identified, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH); however, quantitative mole fractions were not determined. Nevertheless, the diagnostic developed here does have this capability. Quantitative, time-resolved measurements of soot extinction were also accomplished and the novel use of multiple incident wavelengths proved valuable toward characterizing changes in soot optical properties within different regions of the spray flame.

  5. Design guide for high pressure oxygen systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, A. C.; Pohl, H. O.; Chaffee, N. H.; Guy, W. W.; Allton, C. S.; Johnston, R. L.; Castner, W. L.; Stradling, J. S.

    1983-01-01

    A repository for critical and important detailed design data and information, hitherto unpublished, along with significant data on oxygen reactivity phenomena with metallic and nonmetallic materials in moderate to very high pressure environments is documented. This data and information provide a ready and easy to use reference for the guidance of designers of propulsion, power, and life support systems for use in space flight. The document is also applicable to designs for industrial and civilian uses of high pressure oxygen systems. The information presented herein are derived from data and design practices involving oxygen usage at pressures ranging from about 20 psia to 8000 psia equal with thermal conditions ranging from room temperatures up to 500 F.

  6. High temperature pressure coupled ultrasonic waveguide

    DOEpatents

    Caines, Michael J. (Forest Park, IL)

    1983-01-01

    A pressure coupled ultrasonic waveguide is provided to which one end may be attached a transducer and at the other end a high temperature material for continuous ultrasonic testing of the material. The ultrasonic signal is coupled from the waveguide into the material through a thin, dry copper foil.

  7. High pressure studies of planetary matter

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, M.

    1989-06-01

    Those materials which are of greatest interest to the physics of the deep planetary interiors are Fe, H/sub 2/, He and the Ices. These are sufficiently diverse and intensively studied to offer an overview of present day high pressure research. 13 refs., 1 fig.

  8. High Pressure Inactivation of HAV within Mussels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potential of hepatitis A virus (HAV) to be inactivated within Mediterranean mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) by high pressure processing was evaluated. HAV was bioaccumulated within mussels to approximately 6-log10 PFU by exposure of mussels to HAV-contamina...

  9. Sounding experiments of high pressure gas discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Biele, Joachim K.

    1998-07-10

    A high pressure discharge experiment (200 MPa, 5{center_dot}10{sup 21} molecules/cm{sup 3}, 3000 K) has been set up to study electrically induced shock waves. The apparatus consists of the combustion chamber (4.2 cm{sup 3}) to produce high pressure gas by burning solid propellant grains to fill the electrical pump chamber (2.5 cm{sup 3}) containing an insulated coaxial electrode. Electrical pump energy up to 7.8 kJ at 10 kV, which is roughly three times of the gas energy in the pump chamber, was delivered by a capacitor bank. From the current-voltage relationship the discharge develops at rapidly decreasing voltage. Pressure at the combustion chamber indicating significant underpressure as well as overpressure peaks is followed by an increase of static pressure level. These data are not yet completely understood. However, Lorentz forces are believed to generate pinching with subsequent pinch heating, resulting in fast pressure variations to be propagated as rarefaction and shock waves, respectively. Utilizing pure axisymmetric electrode initiation rather than often used exploding wire technology in the pump chamber, repeatable experiments were achieved.

  10. (Ultra) High Pressure Homogenization for Continuous High Pressure Sterilization of Pumpable Foods – A Review

    PubMed Central

    Georget, Erika; Miller, Brittany; Callanan, Michael; Heinz, Volker; Mathys, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial spores have a strong resistance to both chemical and physical hurdles and create a risk for the food industry, which has been tackled by applying high thermal intensity treatments to sterilize food. These strong thermal treatments lead to a reduction of the organoleptic and nutritional properties of food and alternatives are actively searched for. Innovative hurdles offer an alternative to inactivate bacterial spores. In particular, recent technological developments have enabled a new generation of high pressure homogenizer working at pressures up to 400?MPa and thus, opening new opportunities for high pressure sterilization of foods. In this short review, we summarize the work conducted on (ultra) high pressure homogenization (U)HPH to inactivate endospores in model and food systems. Specific attention is given to process parameters (pressure, inlet, and valve temperatures). This review gathers the current state of the art and underlines the potential of UHPH sterilization of pumpable foods while highlighting the needs for future work. PMID:25988118

  11. Research at Very High Pressures and High Temperatures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bundy, Francis P.

    1977-01-01

    Reviews research and apparatus utilized in the study of the states and characteristics of materials at very high temperatures and pressures. Includes three examples of the research being conducted. (SL)

  12. A high temperature high pressure cell for quasielastic neutron scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, F.; Meyer, A.; Kaplonski, J.; Unruh, T.; Mamontov, E.

    2011-08-15

    We present our recent development of a high temperature high pressure cell for neutron scattering. Combining a water cooled Nb1Zr pressure cell body with an internal heating furnace, the sample environment can reach temperatures of up to 1500 K at a pressure of up to 200 MPa at the sample position, with an available sample volume of about 700 mm{sup 3}. The cell material Nb1Zr is specifically chosen due to its reasonable mechanical strength at elevated temperatures and fairly small neutron absorption and incoherent scattering cross sections. With this design, an acceptable signal-to-noise ratio of about 10:1 can be achieved. This opens new possibilities for quasielastic neutron scattering studies on different types of neutron spectrometers under high temperature high pressure conditions, which is particularly interesting for geological research on, e.g., water dynamics in silicate melts.

  13. LHDAC setup for high temperature and high pressure studies

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, Nishant N. Meenakshi, S. Sharma, Surinder M.

    2014-04-24

    A ytterbium fibre laser (? = 1.07 ?m) based laser heated diamond anvil cell (LHDAC) facility has been recently set up at HP and SRPD, BARC for simultaneous high temperature and high pressure investigation of material properties. Synthesis of GaN was carried out at pressure of ?9 GPa and temperature of ?1925 K in a Mao-Bell type diamond anvil cell (DAC) using the LHDAC facility. The retrieved sample has been characterized using our laboratory based micro Raman setup.

  14. Apparatus for testing high pressure injector elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, William Neill (inventor); Scott, Ewell M. (inventor); Forbes, John C. (inventor); Shadoan, Michael D. (inventor)

    1995-01-01

    An apparatus for testing and evaluating the spray pattern of high pressure fuel injector elements for use in supplying fuel to combustion engines is presented. Prior art fuel injector elements were normally tested by use of low pressure apparatuses which did not provide a purge to prevent mist from obscuring the injector element or to prevent frosting of the view windows; could utilize only one fluid during each test; and had their viewing ports positioned one hundred eighty (180 deg) apart, thus preventing optimum use of laser diagnostics. The high pressure fluid injector test apparatus includes an upper hub, an upper weldment or housing, a first clamp and stud/nut assembly for securing the upper hub to the upper weldment, a standoff assembly within the upper weldment, a pair of window housings having view glasses within the upper weldment, an injector block assembly and purge plate within the upper weldment for holding an injector element to be tested and evaluated, a lower weldment or housing, a second clamp and stud/nut assembly for securing the lower weldment to the upper hub, a third clamp and stud/nut assembly for securing the lower hub to the lower weldment, mechanisms for introducing fluid under high pressure for testing an injector element, and mechanisms for purging the apparatus to prevent frosting of view glasses within the window housings and to permit unobstructed viewing of the injector element.

  15. Apparatus for testing high pressure injector elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, William Neill (inventor); Scott, Ewell M. (inventor); Forbes, John C. (inventor); Shadoan, Michael D. (inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An apparatus for testing and evaluating the spray pattern of high pressure fuel injector elements for use in supplying fuel to combustion engines is presented. Prior art fuel injector elements were normally tested by use of low pressure apparatuses which did not provide a purge to prevent mist from obscuring the injector element or to prevent frosting of the view windows; could utilize only one fluid during each test; and had their viewing ports positioned one hundred eighty (180 deg) apart, thus preventing optimum use of laser diagnostics. The high pressure fluid injector test apparatus includes an upper hub, an upper weldment or housing, a first clamp and stud/nut assembly for securing the upper hub to the upper weldment, a standoff assembly within the upper weldment, a pair of window housings having view glasses within the upper weldment, an injector block assembly and purge plate within the upper weldment for holding an injector element to be tested and evaluated, a lower weldment or housing, a second clamp and stud/nut assembly for securing the lower weldment to the upper weldment, a lower hub, a third clamp and stud/nut assembly for securing the lower hub to the lower weldment, mechanisms for introducing fluid under high pressure for testing an injector element, and mechanisms for purging the apparatus to prevent frosting of view glasses within the window housings and to permit unobstructed viewing of the injector element.

  16. High Pressure Study on Natural Chromite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shieh, S. R.; Ali, W.; Xiong, Z.

    2013-12-01

    Spinel phase is generally found at crust and upper mantle. Moreover, spinel phase and its modified form play an important role at transition zone and therefore are geologically importance. Besides, spinel phase usually exhibits with solid-solution from a wide range of different size of cations and therefore study of the substation of cations within spinel structure and its high-pressure form are important to better understand the structure and evolution of the deep mantle. In this study, a natural chromite sample, a Cr-rich spinel and an important resource for chromium and iron, was investigated in a diamond anvil cell using synchrotron x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. In situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction was performed at GSECARS, Advance Photon Source and X17C, National Synchrotron Light Source. Our high-pressure x-ray diffraction study showed a new phase emerging at about 20 GPa which is slightly higher than previously reported transition pressure at about 12 GPa when using a synthetic chromite sample. Furthermore, our Raman study on chromite also did not observe any phase transition at 12 GPa. Instead, our Raman data shows several broad peaks at ambient and continuously observed at high pressures till 30 GPa. Above 30 GPa, the Raman signals of chromite showed new feature and became very weak. Our results suggest that the impurity within chromite may play a critical role for the phase transition.

  17. Apparatus for testing high pressure injector elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, William Neill; Scott, Ewell M.; Forbes, John C.; Shadoan, Michael D.

    1995-05-01

    An apparatus for testing and evaluating the spray pattern of high pressure fuel injector elements for use in supplying fuel to combustion engines is presented. Prior art fuel injector elements were normally tested by use of low pressure apparatuses which did not provide a purge to prevent mist from obscuring the injector element or to prevent frosting of the view windows; could utilize only one fluid during each test; and had their viewing ports positioned one hundred eighty (180 deg) apart, thus preventing optimum use of laser diagnostics. The high pressure fluid injector test apparatus includes an upper hub, an upper weldment or housing, a first clamp and stud/nut assembly for securing the upper hub to the upper weldment, a standoff assembly within the upper weldment, a pair of window housings having view glasses within the upper weldment, an injector block assembly and purge plate within the upper weldment for holding an injector element to be tested and evaluated, a lower weldment or housing, a second clamp and stud/nut assembly for securing the lower weldment to the upper hub, a third clamp and stud/nut assembly for securing the lower hub to the lower weldment, mechanisms for introducing fluid under high pressure for testing an injector element, and mechanisms for purging the apparatus to prevent frosting of view glasses within the window housings and to permit unobstructed viewing of the injector element.

  18. Apparatus for testing high pressure injector elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, William Neill; Scott, Ewell M.; Forbes, John C.; Shadoan, Michael D.

    1993-09-01

    An apparatus for testing and evaluating the spray pattern of high pressure fuel injector elements for use in supplying fuel to combustion engines is presented. Prior art fuel injector elements were normally tested by use of low pressure apparatuses which did not provide a purge to prevent mist from obscuring the injector element or to prevent frosting of the view windows; could utilize only one fluid during each test; and had their viewing ports positioned one hundred eighty (180 deg) apart, thus preventing optimum use of laser diagnostics. The high pressure fluid injector test apparatus includes an upper hub, an upper weldment or housing, a first clamp and stud/nut assembly for securing the upper hub to the upper weldment, a standoff assembly within the upper weldment, a pair of window housings having view glasses within the upper weldment, an injector block assembly and purge plate within the upper weldment for holding an injector element to be tested and evaluated, a lower weldment or housing, a second clamp and stud/nut assembly for securing the lower weldment to the upper weldment, a lower hub, a third clamp and stud/nut assembly for securing the lower hub to the lower weldment, mechanisms for introducing fluid under high pressure for testing an injector element, and mechanisms for purging the apparatus to prevent frosting of view glasses within the window housings and to permit unobstructed viewing of the injector element.

  19. Small, high-pressure liquid oxygen turbopump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Csomor, A.; Sutton, R.

    1977-01-01

    A small, high-pressure, liquid oxygen turbopump was designed, fabricated, and tested. The pump was of a single-stage, centrifugal type; power to the pump was supplied by a single-stage, partial emission, axial-impulse turbine. Design conditions included an operating speed of 70,000 rpm, pump discharge pressure of 2977 N/sq cm (4318 psia), and a pump flowrate of 16.4 kg/s (36.21 lb/sec). The turbine was propelled by LO2/LH2 combustion products at 1041 K (1874 R) inlet temperature, and at a design pressure ratio of 1.424. The approaches used in the detail analysis and design of the turbopump are described, and fabrication methods are discussed. Data obtained from gas generator tests, turbine performance calibration, and turbopump testing are presented.

  20. Small, high-pressure, liquid oxygen turbopump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Csomor, A.

    1978-01-01

    A small, high-pressure, LOX turbopump was designed, fabricated, and tested. The pump was of a single-stage, centrifugal type; power to the pump was supplied by a single-stage, partial-admission, axial-impulse turbine. Design conditions included an operating speed of 7330 rad/sec (70,000 rpm) pump discharge pressure of 2977 N/sq cm (4318 psia), and a pump flowrate of 16.4 kg/s (36.21 lb/sec). The turbine was propelled by LOX/LH2 combustion products at 1041 K (1874 R) inlet temperature, and at a design pressure ratio of 1.424. Test data obtained with the turbopump are presented and mechanical performance is discussed.

  1. Topaz and Kyanite Luminescence Under High Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Bannon, E. F., III; Williams, Q. C.

    2014-12-01

    The luminescence spectra of Cr3+ in heat-treated topaz Al2SiO4(OH,F)2 and natural kyanite Al2SiO5 were measured from 650 - 800 nm in a hydrostatic environment up to pressures of 15 GPa. The R1 and R2 peaks of topaz shift at average rates of 0.30 nm/GPa and 0.22 nm/GPa, respectively, implying that the deformation of the Cr3+ octahedra increases with pressure. Three peaks are fit under each R line of topaz at both room and high pressure, and these peaks are associated with different Al sites into which the Cr substitutes. The shift of the R lines in topaz under pressure is remarkably linear, which appears to be a general feature of many Cr3+-bearing oxides: the underlying cause of this linearity may lie in anharmonic coupling with lattice vibrations. In this context, we also characterize the frequency shifts of two vibronic peaks within topaz. The R1 and R2 peaks of kyanite shift at 0.37 nm/GPa and 0.88 nm/GPa respectively. Two peaks are fit under R1 and three peaks are fit under R2 of kyanite at both room and high pressure; this result is also consistent with three different Cr3+ sites in this material. The R lines in kyanite are notably optically anisotropic, depending strongly on crystallographic orientation: this is most strongly manifested in the R2 peak. The Cr3+ luminescence in these materials provides a sensitive probe of pressure-dependent shifts in the local geometry of the Al-sites in these materials, which are analyzed in the context of previous single-crystal x-ray diffraction measurements.

  2. High Pressure Behavior of FeOOH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reagan, M. M.; Gleason, A. E.; Mao, W. L.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the stability and properties of simple hydroxides at high pressures and temperatures offers an important first step toward quantifying more complex hydrogen-bearing compounds relevant to the Earth's interior. We focus on iron-oxy-hydroxides because they may be an important Fe and water bearing component in the deep Earth. Goethite (?-FeOOH) transforms to a high-pressure phase, ?-FeOOH, which is isostructural with ?-AlOOH, a material which may transport hydrogen to the core-mantle boundary. Here we present XES spectroscopy data of powder samples of synthesized alpha-FeOOH, beta-FeOOH and gamma-FeOOH monitoring their electronic spin transition. The samples was loaded into a Beryllium gasket, where a 50 micron hole served as the sample chamber with 300 micron culet diamond paired with a beveled 150 micron diamond in a diamond-anvil cell (DAC) without a pressure transmitting medium. Pressure was determined using ruby fluorescence (Mao et al. 1978). Using the incident X-ray energy centered at 11.3 KeV from the Advanced Photon Source, beam line HPCAT 16-ID-D, we measured Fe K-? 13 emission to pressures greater than 73 GPa. For alpha-FeOOH, we saw a clear shift in the main peak to lower energy, and an increasingly diminishing K beta prime peak intensity, indicating the sample was undergoing an electronic spin transition. The K beta prime peak completely disappeared at a pressure greater than 73 GPa. Beta-FeOOH showed no evidence of the beginnings of a spin transition, while gamma- FeOOH underwent an incomplete transition.

  3. 7 CFR 58.219 - High pressure pumps and lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false High pressure pumps and lines. 58.219 Section 58.219....219 High pressure pumps and lines. High pressure lines may be cleaned-in-place and shall be of such construction that dead ends, valves and the high pressure pumps can be disassembled for hand cleaning. The...

  4. Engine having a high pressure hydraulic system and low pressure lubricating system

    DOEpatents

    Bartley, Bradley E. (Manito, IL); Blass, James R. (Bloomington, IL); Gibson, Dennis H. (Chillicothe, IL)

    2000-01-01

    An engine includes a high pressure hydraulic system having a high pressure pump and at least one hydraulically-actuated device attached to an engine housing. A low pressure engine lubricating system is attached to the engine housing and includes a circulation conduit fluidly connected to an outlet from the high pressure pump.

  5. High-pressure droplet combustion studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikami, Masato; Kono, M.; Sato, Junichi; Dietrich, Daniel L.; Williams, Forman A.

    1993-01-01

    This is a joint research program, pursued by investigators at the University of Tokyo, UCSD, and NASA Lewis Research Center. The focus is on high-pressure combustion of miscible binary fuel droplets. It involves construction of an experimental apparatus in Tokyo, mating of the apparatus to a NASA-Lewis 2.2-second drop-tower frame in San Diego, and performing experiments in the 2.2-second tower in Cleveland, with experimental results analyzed jointly by the Tokyo, UCSD, and NASA investigators. The project was initiated in December, 1990 and has now involved three periods of drop-tower testing by Mikami at Lewis. The research accomplished thus far concerns the combustion of individual fiber-supported droplets of mixtures of n-heptane and n-hexadecane, initially about 1 mm diameter, under free-fall microgravity conditions. Ambient pressures ranged up to 3.0 MPa, extending above the critical pressures of both pure fuels, in room-temperature nitrogen-oxygen atmospheres having oxygen mole fractions X of 0.12 and 0.13. The general objective is to study near-critical and super-critical combustion of these droplets and to see whether three-stage burning, observed at normal gravity, persists at high pressures in microgravity. Results of these investigations will be summarized here; a more complete account soon will be published.

  6. Diffusion creep of enstatite at high pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, G.; Mei, S.; Kohlstedt, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    Deformation behavior of fine-grained enstatite (g.s. ~ 8 ?m) was investigated with triaxial compressive creep experiments at high pressures (4.2 - 6.9 GPa) and high temperatures (1373 - 1573 K) using a deformation-DIA apparatus. Experiments were carried out under anhydrous conditions. In each experiment, a sample column composed of a sample and alumina pistons was assembled with a boron nitride sleeve and graphite resistance heater into a 6.2-mm edge length cubic pressure medium. Experiments were carried out at the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory. In a run, differential stress and sample displacement were monitored in-situ using synchrotron x-ray diffraction and radiography, respectively. Based on results from this study, the deformation behavior of enstatite under anhydrous conditions has been quantitatively presented in the form of a flow law that describes the dependence of deformation rate on stress, temperature, and pressure. Specifically, data fitting yields the dependence of creep rate on stress with an exponent of n ? 1; indicating samples were deformed in the regime of diffusion creep. Experimental results also yield the dependences of creep rate on temperature and pressure with an activation energy of ~250 kJ/mol and activation volume of ~3.5×10-6 m3/mol, respectively. The flow laws for enstatite, one important constituent component for the upper mantle, quantified from this study provides a necessary constraint for modeling the dynamic activities occurring within Earth's interior.

  7. Picosecond High Pressure Gas Switch experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Cravey, W.R.; Freytag, E.K.; Goerz, D.A.; Poulsen, P.; Pincosy, P.A.

    1993-08-01

    A high Pressure Gas Switch has been developed and tested at LLNL. Risetimes on the order of 200 picoseconds have been observed at 1 kHz prf and 1 atmosphere pressures. Calculations show that switching closure times on the order of tens of picoseconds can be achieved at higher pressures and electric fields. A voltage hold-off of 1 MV/cm has been measured at 10 atmospheres and several MV/cm appears possible with the HPGS. With such high electric field levels, energy storage of tens of Joules in a reasonably sized package is achievable. Initial HPGS performance has been characterized using the WASP pulse generator at LLNL. A detailed description of the switch used for initial testing is given. Switch recovery times of 1-ms have been measured at 1 atmosphere. Data on the switching uniformity, voltage hold-off recovery, and pulse repeatability, is presented. In addition, a physics switch model is described and results are compared with experimental data. Modifications made to the WASP HV pulser in order to drive the HPGS will also be discussed. Recovery times of less than 1 ms were recorded without gas flow in the switch chambers. Low pressure synthetic air was used as the switch dielectric. Longer recovery times were required when it was necessary to over-voltage the switch.

  8. High pressure liquid chromatographic gradient mixer

    DOEpatents

    Daughton, Christian G. (San Pablo, CA); Sakaji, Richard H. (El Cerrito, CA)

    1985-01-01

    A gradient mixer which effects the continuous mixing of any two miscible solvents without excessive decay or dispersion of the resultant isocratic effluent or of a linear or exponential gradient. The two solvents are fed under low or high pressure by means of two high performance liquid chromatographic pumps. The mixer comprises a series of ultra-low dead volume stainless steel tubes and low dead volume chambers. The two solvent streams impinge head-on at high fluxes. This initial nonhomogeneous mixture is then passed through a chamber packed with spirally-wound wires which cause turbulent mixing thereby homogenizing the mixture with minimum "band-broadening".

  9. High-pressure liquid chromatographic gradient mixer

    DOEpatents

    Daughton, C.G.; Sakaji, R.H.

    1982-09-08

    A gradient mixer effects the continuous mixing of any two miscible solvents without excessive decay or dispersion of the resultant isocratic effluent or of a linear or exponential gradient. The two solvents are fed under low or high pressure by means of two high performance liquid chromatographic pumps. The mixer comprises a series of ultra-low dead volume stainless steel tubes and low dead volume chambers. The two solvent streams impinge head-on at high fluxes. This initial nonhomogeneous mixture is then passed through a chamber packed with spirally-wound wires which cause turbulent mixing thereby homogenizing the mixture with minimum band-broadening.

  10. High-Pressure Crystal Chemistry of Norbergite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindoo, A. N.; Gramsch, S. A.; Kyono, A.

    2010-12-01

    Humite intergrowths in olivine have been found in several important ultrahigh pressure (UHP) metamorphic terranes, and have been considered, according to some models, responsible for ilmenite exsolution during metamorphism. Norbergite, the simplest member of the humite group, possesses structural features found in the more complicated members of the series. In this work, we sought to uncover any possible structural discontinuity in the compression of norbergite that may assist in the exsolution process at depth in the higher members of the humite group. The primary goal was to observe the response of the polyhedral network as a whole during compression. In an effort to extend the analysis of Kuribyashi, et al. (2008), the structure of a natural norbergite crystal was examined using single crystal x-ray diffraction analysis up to a pressure of 8.5 GPa. Pressure was increased from ambient to 2.5, 4.5, 6.5 and 8.5 GPa yielding R-values of 3.7, 6.5, 3.8, and 5.9%. Norbergiteunit-cell parameters were refined by least-squares methods using 15-20 reflections. Between 4.5 and 6.5 GPa it was found that the edge-sharing octahedral chains, the principal feature of of the norbergite structure, buckle and dramatically distort. Pressure-volume data for the mineral also suggests a change in the compression mechanism around these pressures. Analysis of the structure with increasing pressure suggests that this is the result of a discontinuous decrease in free volume between the polyhedral frameworks. The similarities in structural features between norbergite and the more complex humites further suggests that they will respond similarly to compression. If this structural discontinuity plays a role in ilmenite exsolution, this result would be consistent with previous pressure estimates for UHPM around 3-4GPa. Modeling of the energetics of norbergite compression using the a simple electrostatic potential model reveal an instability in the norbergite structure at around 18 GPa. To further investigate this possibility, powder diffraction data was collected on the same natural norbergite sample at station 16-ID-B (HPCAT) at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory. Diffraction patterns were collected at 5.6, 14.8, 18.3, and 20.0 GPa. Significant changes in the diffraction pattern are evident between 15 and 20, indicating the existence of a phase transition in norbergite at these pressures. Kuribyashi, T., et al. (2008) Synchrotron x-ray analysis of the norbergite structure at high pressure up to 8.2 GPa. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals, 35: 559-568.

  11. High pressure polymorphism of ?-TaON.

    PubMed

    Woodhead, K; Pascarelli, S; Hector, A L; Briggs, R; Alderman, N; McMillan, P F

    2014-07-01

    The high pressure behavior of TaON was studied using a combination of Raman scattering, synchrotron X-ray diffraction, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy in diamond anvil cells to 70 GPa at ambient temperature. A Birch-Murnaghan equation of state fit for baddeleyite structured ?-TaON indicates a high bulk modulus value Ko = 328 ± 4 GPa with K = 4.3. EXAFS analysis of the high pressure XAS data provides additional information on changes in the Ta-(O,N) and Ta-Ta distances. Changes in the X-ray diffraction patterns and Raman spectra indicate onset of a pressure induced phase transition near 33 GPa. Our analysis indicates that the new phase has an orthorhombic cotunnite-type structure but that the phase transition may not be complete even by 70 GPa. Similar sluggish transformation kinetics are observed for the isostructural ZrO2 phase. Analysis of compressibility data for the new cotunnite-type TaON phase indicate a very high bulk modulus Ko ? 370 GPa, close to the theoretically predicted value. PMID:24831960

  12. Prediction of Production Power for High-pressure Hydrogen by High-pressure Water Electrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyakuno, Takahiro; Hattori, Kikuo; Ito, Kohei; Onda, Kazuo

    Recently the high attention for fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) is pushing to construct the hydrogen supplying station for FCEV in the world. The hydrogen pressure supplied at the current test station is intended to be high for increasing the FCEV’s driving distance. The water electrolysis can produce cleanly the hydrogen by utilizing the electricity from renewable energy without emitting CO2 to atmosphere, when it is compared to be the popular reforming process of fossil fuel in the industry. The power required for the high-pressure water electrolysis, where water is pumped up to high-pressure, may be smaller than the power for the atmospheric water electrolysis, where the produced atmospheric hydrogen is pumped up by compressor, since the compression power for water is much smaller than that for hydrogen gas. In this study the ideal water electrolysis voltage up to 70MPa and 523K is estimated referring to both the results by LeRoy et al up to 10MPa and 523K, and to the latest steam table. By using this high-pressure water electrolysis voltage, the power required for high-pressure hydrogen produced by the high-pressure water electrolysis method is estimated to be about 5% smaller than that by the atmospheric water electrolysis method, by assuming the compressor and pump efficiency of 50%.

  13. Possible Pressure Waves of Supersolid Helium at High Pressure

    E-print Network

    Kwang-Hua W. Chu

    2006-10-02

    We make comments on Kim and Chan's [{\\it Phys. Rev. Lett.} 97, 115302 (2006)] letter. Based on their pressure-dependent measurements (by a torsional oscillator technique), we propose that the {\\it supersolid} fraction ($\\rho_s/\\rho$) might be relevant to an sound absorption or attenuation (fluctuations of pressure waves) in microscopic domain since there is no apparent change in $T_c$ with pressure.

  14. High pressure coal gasifier feeding apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Bretz, G.M.

    1980-04-08

    A centrifugal pump for feeding pulverized coal into a reactor of a high pressure coal gasification system is disclosed. The coal is pulverized and fed by conventional means into a hopper wherein that coal is mechanically pumped, by a modified screw which compacts the coal and releases entrained air and gases from that coal, to an impeller which serves to centrifugally sling the coal at high velocity into the reactor. Gases of the required type, pressure and quantity are combined with the coal at the point at which the coal is slung from the impeller in such a manner that the coal sufficiently dispersed and mixed with those gases and in proper form for gasification.

  15. Stable Lithium Argon compounds under high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaofeng; Hermann, Andreas; Peng, Feng; Lv, Jian; Wang, Yanchao; Wang, Hui; Ma, Yanming

    2015-11-01

    High pressure can fundamentally alter the bonding patterns of chemical elements. Its effects include stimulating elements thought to be “inactive” to form unexpectedly stable compounds with unusual chemical and physical properties. Here, using an unbiased structure search method based on CALYPSO methodology and density functional total energy calculations, the phase stabilities and crystal structures of Li?Ar compounds are systematically investigated at high pressure up to 300?GPa. Two unexpected LimArn compounds (LiAr and Li3Ar) are predicted to be stable above 112?GPa and 119?GPa, respectively. A detailed analysis of the electronic structure of LiAr and Li3Ar shows that Ar in these compounds attracts electrons and thus behaves as an oxidizing agent. This is markedly different from the hitherto established chemical reactivity of Ar. Moreover, we predict that the P4/mmm phase of Li3Ar has a superconducting transition temperature of 17.6?K at 120?GPa.

  16. High Pressure Research, 2002, Vol. 22, pp. 121126 PRESSURE EFFECTS ON THE COOPERATIVE

    E-print Network

    Rodríguez, Fernando

    High Pressure Research, 2002, Vol. 22, pp. 121­126 PRESSURE EFFECTS ON THE COOPERATIVE JAHN variation with the pressure. We show that the crystal-field transition energies and their pressure shifts it changes with the pressure, once the correlations between crystal-field electronic structure

  17. High pressure hydrogen time projection chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Goulianos, K.

    1983-01-01

    We describe a high pressure hydrogen gas time projection chamber which consists of two cylindrical drift regions each 45 cm in diameter and 75 cm long. Typically, at 15 atm of H/sub 2/ with 2 kV/cm drift field and 7 kV on the 35..mu.. sense wires, the drift velocity is about 0.5 cm/..mu..sec and the spatial resolution +-200..mu...

  18. Small, high pressure liquid hydrogen turbopump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Csomor, A.; Warren, D. J.

    1980-01-01

    A high pressure, low capacity, liquid hydrogen turbopump was designed, fabricated, and tested. The design configuration of the turbopump is summarized and the results of the analytical and test efforts are presented. Approaches used to pin point the cause of poor suction performance with the original design are described and performance data are included with an axial inlet design which results in excellent suction capability.

  19. Prediction of production power for high-pressure hydrogen by high-pressure water electrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onda, Kazuo; Kyakuno, Takahiro; Hattori, Kikuo; Ito, Kohei

    Recent attention focused on fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) has created demand for the construction of hydrogen supply stations for FCEVs throughout the world. The hydrogen pressure supplied at the supply stations is intentionally high to increase the FCEVs driving mileage. Water electrolysis can produce clean hydrogen by utilizing electricity from renewable energy without CO 2 emission to the atmosphere when compared with the industrial fossil fuel reforming process. The power required for high-pressure water electrolysis, wherein water is pumped up to a high-pressure, may be less than the power required for atmospheric water electrolysis, wherein the produced atmospheric hydrogen is pumped by a compressor, since the compression power for water is much less than that for hydrogen-gas. In this study, the ideal water electrolysis voltage of up to 70 MPa and 250 °C is estimated by referring to both the results of LeRoy et al. up to 10 MPa and 250 °C, and the latest steam tables. Using this high-pressure water electrolysis voltage, the power required to produce high-pressure hydrogen by high-pressure water electrolysis is estimated to be about 5% less than that required for atmospheric water electrolysis, assuming compressor and pump efficiencies of 50%.

  20. Talk with Your Health Care Provider about High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Circulation Talk With Your Health Care Provider About High Blood Pressure Why is high blood pressure dangerous? Blood pressure is the force of blood ... pur-TEN-shun”). If it is not controlled, high blood pressure can cause: yy Stroke yy Kidney yy Heart ...

  1. Biomolecular electron transfer under high hydrostatic pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tars, Märt; Ellervee, Aleksandr; Wasielewski, Michael R.; Freiberg, Arvi

    1998-08-01

    The dependence of the photoinduced electron transfer rate on hydrostatic pressure up to 8 kbar was studied at 295 K in a bridged Zn-porphyrin donor and pyromellitimide acceptor supermolecule dissolved in toluene. A picosecond fluorescence emission kinetics of the donor, limited by the electron transfer rate, was detected by using synchroscan streak camera. The experiment was complemented with model calculations based on modified classical and semi-classical nonadiabatic electron transfer theory. A peculiar asymmetric inverted parabola-like dependence of the electron transfer rate on pressure was observed. The dependence was successfully reproduced by nonadiabatic theory in the high-temperature limit assuming that the reorganisation free energy or both the reorganisation free energy and the reaction driving force (linearly) changed with pressure. The reaction driving force dependence on pressure alone failed to explain the asymmetry, suggesting that the electron transfer was accompanied with vibration frequency changes. It was inferred that the effective frequency in the product state should be larger than in the reactant state. The usage of the nonadiabatic theory is well justified due to the fulfilment of the inequalities V? kBT and V?< ?L> -1 ( V is the electronic coupling matrix element, < ?L> -1 is the solvent relaxation rate). The influence of the donor-acceptor distance reduction under compression on the electron transfer rate was found to be minor.

  2. Very high-pressure orogenic garnet peridotites

    PubMed Central

    Liou, J. G.; Zhang, R. Y.; Ernst, W. G.

    2007-01-01

    Mantle-derived garnet peridotites are a minor component in many very high-pressure metamorphic terranes that formed during continental subduction and collision. Some of these mantle rocks contain trace amounts of zircon and micrometer-sized inclusions. The constituent minerals exhibit pre- and postsubduction microstructures, including polymorphic transformation and mineral exsolution. Experimental, mineralogical, petrochemical, and geochronological characterizations using novel techniques with high spatial, temporal, and energy resolutions are resulting in unexpected discoveries of new phases, providing better constraints on deep mantle processes. PMID:17519341

  3. 49 CFR 192.621 - Maximum allowable operating pressure: High-pressure distribution systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Maximum allowable operating pressure: High-pressure distribution systems. 192.621 Section 192.621 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... STANDARDS Operations § 192.621 Maximum allowable operating pressure: High-pressure distribution systems....

  4. Dissociation of methane under high pressure.

    PubMed

    Gao, Guoying; Oganov, Artem R; Ma, Yanming; Wang, Hui; Li, Peifang; Li, Yinwei; Iitaka, Toshiaki; Zou, Guangtian

    2010-10-14

    Methane is an extremely important energy source with a great abundance in nature and plays a significant role in planetary physics, being one of the major constituents of giant planets Uranus and Neptune. The stable crystal forms of methane under extreme conditions are of great fundamental interest. Using the ab initio evolutionary algorithm for crystal structure prediction, we found three novel insulating molecular structures with P2(1)2(1)2(1), Pnma, and Cmcm space groups. Remarkably, under high pressure, methane becomes unstable and dissociates into ethane (C(2)H(6)) at 95 GPa, butane (C(4)H(10)) at 158 GPa, and further, carbon (diamond) and hydrogen above 287 GPa at zero temperature. We have computed the pressure-temperature phase diagram, which sheds light into the seemingly conflicting observations of the unusually low formation pressure of diamond at high temperature and the failure of experimental observation of dissociation at room temperature. Our results support the idea of diamond formation in the interiors of giant planets such as Neptune. PMID:20950018

  5. 42 CFR 84.149 - Type C supplied-air respirator, demand and pressure demand class; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air...air-supply hose to the air-supply system, and the range of hose length...the hose to the air-supply system shall not exceed 863 kN/m...pressure in the air-supply system exceeds 863 kN/m.2...

  6. 42 CFR 84.149 - Type C supplied-air respirator, demand and pressure demand class; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air...air-supply hose to the air-supply system, and the range of hose length...the hose to the air-supply system shall not exceed 863 kN/m...pressure in the air-supply system exceeds 863 kN/m.2...

  7. 42 CFR 84.149 - Type C supplied-air respirator, demand and pressure demand class; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air...air-supply hose to the air-supply system, and the range of hose length...the hose to the air-supply system shall not exceed 863 kN/m...pressure in the air-supply system exceeds 863 kN/m.2...

  8. 42 CFR 84.149 - Type C supplied-air respirator, demand and pressure demand class; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air...air-supply hose to the air-supply system, and the range of hose length...the hose to the air-supply system shall not exceed 863 kN/m...pressure in the air-supply system exceeds 863 kN/m.2...

  9. 42 CFR 84.149 - Type C supplied-air respirator, demand and pressure demand class; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air...air-supply hose to the air-supply system, and the range of hose length...the hose to the air-supply system shall not exceed 863 kN/m...pressure in the air-supply system exceeds 863 kN/m.2...

  10. High Pressure Research Vol. 28, No. 3, September 2008, 273292

    E-print Network

    Jacobsen, Steven D.

    High Pressure Research Vol. 28, No. 3, September 2008, 273­292 The COMPRES/GSECARS gas have designed and constructed a new system for loading gases at high pressure into diamond anvil cells at pressures up to 200 MPa. The gases are used either as quasi-hydrostatic pressure media surrounding

  11. High-pressure transformations in xenon hydrates

    PubMed Central

    Sanloup, Chrystèle; Mao, Ho-kwang; Hemley, Russell J.

    2002-01-01

    A high-pressure investigation of the Xe?H2O chemical system was conducted by using diamond-anvil cell techniques combined with in situ Raman spectroscopy, synchrotron x-ray diffraction, and laser heating. Structure I xenon clathrate was observed to be stable up to 1.8 GPa, at which pressure it transforms to a new Xe clathrate phase stable up to 2.5 GPa before breaking down to ice VII plus solid xenon. The bulk modulus and structure of both phases were determined: 9 ± 1 GPa for Xe clathrate A with structure I (cubic, a = 11.595 ± 0.003 ?, V = 1,558.9 ± 1.2 ?3 at 1.1 GPa) and 45 ± 5 GPa for Xe clathrate B (tetragonal, a = 8.320 ± 0.004 ?, c = 10.287 ± 0.007 ?, V = 712.1 ± 1.2 ?3 at 2.2 GPa). The extended pressure stability field of Xe clathrate structure I (A) and the discovery of a second Xe clathrate (B) above 1.8 GPa have implications for xenon in terrestrial and planetary interiors. PMID:11756690

  12. High-pressure promoted combustion chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rucker, Michelle A. (inventor); Stoltzfus, Joel M. (inventor)

    1991-01-01

    In the preferred embodiment of the promoted combusiton chamber disclosed herein, a thick-walled tubular body that is capable of withstanding extreme pressures is arranged with removable upper and lower end closures to provide access to the chamber for dependently supporting a test sample of a material being evaluated in the chamber. To facilitate the real-time analysis of a test sample, several pressure-tight viewing ports capable of withstanding the simulated environmental conditions are arranged in the walls of the tubular body for observing the test sample during the course of the test. A replaceable heat-resistant tubular member and replaceable flame-resistant internal liners are arranged to be fitted inside of the chamber for protecting the interior wall surfaces of the combustion chamber during the evaluation tests. Inlet and outlet ports are provided for admitting high-pressure gases into the chamber as needed for performing dynamic analyses of the test sample during the course of an evaluation test.

  13. A picosecond high pressure gas switch

    SciTech Connect

    Cravey, W.R.; Poulsen, P.P.; Pincosy, P.A.

    1992-06-01

    Work is being done to develop a high pressure gas switch (HPGS) with picosecond risetimes for UWB applications. Pulse risetimes on the order of 200 picoseconds have been observed at 1 kHz prf and 1 atmosphere. Calculations show that switching closure times on the order of tens of picoseconds can be achieved at high pressures and higher electric fields. A voltage hold-off of 1 MV/cm has been measured at 10 atmospheres and several MV/cm appears possible with the HPGS. With these high electric field levels, energy storage of tens of Joules in a reasonably sized package is achievable. Initial HPGS performance has been characterized on the WASP pulse generator at LLNL. A detailed description of the switch used for initial testing is given. Switch recovery times of 1-ms have been measured at 1 atmosphere. Data on the switching uniformity, voltage hold-off recovery, and pulse repeatability, is presented. In addition, a physics switch model is described and results are compared with lab data.

  14. Theory of high pressure hydrogen, made simple

    E-print Network

    Magdau, Ioan B; Ackland, Graeme J

    2015-01-01

    Phase I of hydrogen has several peculiarities. Despite having a close-packed crystal structure, it is less dense than either the low temperature Phase II or the liquid phase. At high pressure, it transforms into either phase III or IV, depending on the temperature. Moreover, spectroscopy suggests that the quantum rotor behaviour disappears with pressurisation, without any apparent phase transition. Here we present a simple thermodynamic model for this behaviour based on packing atoms and molecules and discuss the thermodynamics of the phase boundaries. We also report first principles molecular dynamics calculations for a more detailed look at the same phase transitions.

  15. HIGH PRESSURE COAL COMBUSTION KINETICS PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Chris Guenther, Ph.D.

    2003-01-28

    SRI has completed the NBFZ test program, made modification to the experimental furnace for the HPBO test. The NBFZ datasets provide the information NEA needs to simulate the combustion and fuel-N conversion with detailed chemical reaction mechanisms. BU has determined a linear swell of 1.55 corresponding to a volumetric increase of a factor of 3.7 and a decrease in char density by the same factor. These results are highly significant, and indicate significantly faster burnout at elevated pressure due to the low char density and large diameter.

  16. Method transfer from high-pressure liquid chromatography to ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography. II. Temperature and pressure effects.

    PubMed

    Åsberg, Dennis; Samuelsson, Jörgen; Le?ko, Marek; Cavazzini, Alberto; Kaczmarski, Krzysztof; Fornstedt, Torgny

    2015-07-01

    The importance of the generated temperature and pressure gradients in ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) are investigated and compared to high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The drug Omeprazole, together with three other model compounds (with different chemical characteristics, namely uncharged, positively and negatively charged) were used. Calculations of the complete temperature profile in the column at UHPLC conditions showed, in our experiments, a temperature difference between the inlet and outlet of 16 °C and a difference of 2 °C between the column center and the wall. Through van't Hoff plots, this information was used to single out the decrease in retention factor (k) solely due to the temperature gradient. The uncharged solute was least affected by temperature with a decrease in k of about 5% while for charged solutes the effect was more pronounced, with k decreases up to 14%. A pressure increase of 500 bar gave roughly 5% increase in k for the uncharged solute, while omeprazole and the other two charged solutes gave about 25, 20 and 15% increases in k, respectively. The stochastic model of chromatography was applied to estimate the dependence of the average number of adsorption/desorption events (n) and the average time spent by a molecule in the stationary phase (?s) on temperature and pressure on peak shape for the tailing, basic solute. Increasing the temperature yielded an increase in n and decrease in ?s which resulted in less skew at high temperatures. With increasing pressure, the stochastic modeling gave interesting results for the basic solute showing that the skew of the peak increased with pressure. The conclusion is that pressure effects are more pronounced for both retention and peak shape than the temperature effects for the polar or charged compounds in our study. PMID:26003622

  17. Modeling of thermal processes in high pressure liquid chromatography II. Thermal heterogeneity at very high pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Kaczmarski, Krzysztof; Gritti, Fabrice; Guiochon, Georges A

    2009-01-01

    Advanced instruments for liquid chromatography enables the operation of columns packed with sub-2 {micro}m particles at the very high inlet pressures, up to 1000 bar, that are necessary to achieve the high column efficiency and the short analysis times that can be provided by the use of these columns. However, operating rather short columns at high mobile phase velocities, under high pressure gradients causes the production of a large amount of heat due to the viscous friction of the eluent percolating through the column bed. The evacuation of this heat causes the formation of significant axial and radial temperature gradients. Due to these thermal gradients, the retention factors of analytes and the mobile phase velocity are no longer constant throughout the column. The consequence of this heat production is a loss of column efficiency. We previously developed a model combining the heat and mass balance of the column, the equations of flow through porous media, and a linear isotherm model of the analyte. This model was solved and validated for conventional columns operated under moderate pressures. We report here on the results obtained when this model is applied to columns packed with very fine particles, operated under very high pressures. These results prove that our model accounts well for all the experimental results. The same column that elutes symmetrical, nearly Gaussian peaks at low flow rates, under relatively low pressure drops, provides strongly deformed, unsymmetrical peaks when operated at high flow rates, under high pressures, and under different thermal environments. The loss in column efficiency is particularly important when the column wall is kept at constant temperature, by immersing the column in a water bath.

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF A HIGH-TEMPERATURE/HIGH-PRESSURE ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a laboratory test demonstrating the feasibility of electrostatic precipitation at high temperatures (to 1366 K) and pressures (to 3550 kPa): corona currents were stable at all temperatures. Detailed current/voltage characteristics under negative and po...

  19. Stable magnesium peroxide at high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobanov, Sergey S.; Zhu, Qiang; Holtgrewe, Nicholas; Prescher, Clemens; Prakapenka, Vitali B.; Oganov, Artem R.; Goncharov, Alexander F.

    2015-09-01

    Rocky planets are thought to comprise compounds of Mg and O as these are among the most abundant elements, but knowledge of their stable phases may be incomplete. MgO is known to be remarkably stable to very high pressure and chemically inert under reduced condition of the Earth’s lower mantle. However, in exoplanets oxygen may be a more abundant constituent. Here, using synchrotron x-ray diffraction in laser-heated diamond anvil cells, we show that MgO and oxygen react at pressures above 96?GPa and T?=?2150?K with the formation of I4/mcm MgO2. Raman spectroscopy detects the presence of a peroxide ion (O22-) in the synthesized material as well as in the recovered specimen. Likewise, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy confirms that the recovered sample has higher oxygen content than pure MgO. Our finding suggests that MgO2 may be present together or instead of MgO in rocky mantles and rocky planetary cores under highly oxidized conditions.

  20. Stable magnesium peroxide at high pressure.

    PubMed

    Lobanov, Sergey S; Zhu, Qiang; Holtgrewe, Nicholas; Prescher, Clemens; Prakapenka, Vitali B; Oganov, Artem R; Goncharov, Alexander F

    2015-01-01

    Rocky planets are thought to comprise compounds of Mg and O as these are among the most abundant elements, but knowledge of their stable phases may be incomplete. MgO is known to be remarkably stable to very high pressure and chemically inert under reduced condition of the Earth's lower mantle. However, in exoplanets oxygen may be a more abundant constituent. Here, using synchrotron x-ray diffraction in laser-heated diamond anvil cells, we show that MgO and oxygen react at pressures above 96 GPa and T = 2150 K with the formation of I4/mcm MgO2. Raman spectroscopy detects the presence of a peroxide ion (O2(2-)) in the synthesized material as well as in the recovered specimen. Likewise, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy confirms that the recovered sample has higher oxygen content than pure MgO. Our finding suggests that MgO2 may be present together or instead of MgO in rocky mantles and rocky planetary cores under highly oxidized conditions. PMID:26323635

  1. Stable Lithium Argon compounds under high pressure

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaofeng; Hermann, Andreas; Peng, Feng; Lv, Jian; Wang, Yanchao; Wang, Hui; Ma, Yanming

    2015-01-01

    High pressure can fundamentally alter the bonding patterns of chemical elements. Its effects include stimulating elements thought to be “inactive” to form unexpectedly stable compounds with unusual chemical and physical properties. Here, using an unbiased structure search method based on CALYPSO methodology and density functional total energy calculations, the phase stabilities and crystal structures of Li?Ar compounds are systematically investigated at high pressure up to 300?GPa. Two unexpected LimArn compounds (LiAr and Li3Ar) are predicted to be stable above 112?GPa and 119?GPa, respectively. A detailed analysis of the electronic structure of LiAr and Li3Ar shows that Ar in these compounds attracts electrons and thus behaves as an oxidizing agent. This is markedly different from the hitherto established chemical reactivity of Ar. Moreover, we predict that the P4/mmm phase of Li3Ar has a superconducting transition temperature of 17.6?K at 120?GPa. PMID:26582083

  2. Stable Lithium Argon compounds under high pressure.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaofeng; Hermann, Andreas; Peng, Feng; Lv, Jian; Wang, Yanchao; Wang, Hui; Ma, Yanming

    2015-01-01

    High pressure can fundamentally alter the bonding patterns of chemical elements. Its effects include stimulating elements thought to be "inactive" to form unexpectedly stable compounds with unusual chemical and physical properties. Here, using an unbiased structure search method based on CALYPSO methodology and density functional total energy calculations, the phase stabilities and crystal structures of Li-Ar compounds are systematically investigated at high pressure up to 300?GPa. Two unexpected LimArn compounds (LiAr and Li3Ar) are predicted to be stable above 112?GPa and 119?GPa, respectively. A detailed analysis of the electronic structure of LiAr and Li3Ar shows that Ar in these compounds attracts electrons and thus behaves as an oxidizing agent. This is markedly different from the hitherto established chemical reactivity of Ar. Moreover, we predict that the P4/mmm phase of Li3Ar has a superconducting transition temperature of 17.6?K at 120?GPa. PMID:26582083

  3. High pressure-resistant nonincendive emulsion explosive

    DOEpatents

    Ruhe, Thomas C. (Duquesne, PA); Rao, Pilaka P. (Baghlingampalli, IN)

    1994-01-01

    An improved emulsion explosive composition including hollow microspheres/bulking agents having high density and high strength. The hollow microspheres/bulking agents have true particle densities of about 0.2 grams per cubic centimeter or greater and include glass, siliceous, ceramic and synthetic resin microspheres, expanded minerals, and mixtures thereof. The preferred weight percentage of hollow microspheres/bulking agents in the composition ranges from 3.0 to 10.0 A chlorinated paraffin oil, also present in the improved emulsion explosive composition, imparts a higher film strength to the oil phase in the emulsion. The emulsion is rendered nonincendive by the production of sodium chloride in situ via the decomposition of sodium nitrate, a chlorinated paraffin oil, and sodium perchlorate. The air-gap sensitivity is improved by the in situ formation of monomethylamine perchlorate from dissolved monomethylamine nitrate and sodium perchlorate. The emulsion explosive composition can withstand static pressures to 139 bars and dynamic pressure loads on the order of 567 bars.

  4. Stable magnesium peroxide at high pressure

    PubMed Central

    Lobanov, Sergey S.; Zhu, Qiang; Holtgrewe, Nicholas; Prescher, Clemens; Prakapenka, Vitali B.; Oganov, Artem R.; Goncharov, Alexander F.

    2015-01-01

    Rocky planets are thought to comprise compounds of Mg and O as these are among the most abundant elements, but knowledge of their stable phases may be incomplete. MgO is known to be remarkably stable to very high pressure and chemically inert under reduced condition of the Earth’s lower mantle. However, in exoplanets oxygen may be a more abundant constituent. Here, using synchrotron x-ray diffraction in laser-heated diamond anvil cells, we show that MgO and oxygen react at pressures above 96?GPa and T?=?2150?K with the formation of I4/mcm MgO2. Raman spectroscopy detects the presence of a peroxide ion (O22?) in the synthesized material as well as in the recovered specimen. Likewise, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy confirms that the recovered sample has higher oxygen content than pure MgO. Our finding suggests that MgO2 may be present together or instead of MgO in rocky mantles and rocky planetary cores under highly oxidized conditions. PMID:26323635

  5. High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ???? ????? ????? - ??????? Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Bosnian (Bosanski) High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy Visok ... u trudno?i - Bosanski (Bosnian) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese - Simplified (????) High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy ...

  6. A Nutritional Strategy for the Treatment of High Blood Pressure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podell, Richard N.

    1984-01-01

    Some physicians wonder if high blood pressure can be controlled without the use of drugs and their potential side effects. Current findings concerning nutrition and high blood pressure are presented. (RM)

  7. High blood pressure - what to ask your doctor

    MedlinePLUS

    What to ask your doctor about high blood pressure; Hypertension - what to ask your doctor ... problems? What medicines am I taking to treat high blood pressure? Do they have any side effects? What should ...

  8. High-pressure coal fuel processor development

    SciTech Connect

    Greenhalgh, M.L.; Wen, C.S.; Smith, L.

    1992-12-31

    Caterpillar shares DOE/METC interest in demonstrating the technology required to displace petroleum-based engine fuels with various forms of low cost coal. Current DOE/METC programs on mild gasification and coal-water-slurries are addressing two approaches to this end. Engine and fuel processor system concept studies by Caterpillar have identified a third, potentially promising, option. This option includes high-pressure fuel processing of run-of-the-mine coal and direct injection of the resulting low-Btu gas stream into an ignition assisted, high compression ratio diesel engine. The compactness and predicted efficiency of the system make it suitable for application to line-haul railroad locomotives. A successful conclusion of the program will enable further component development work and full-scale system demonstrations of this potentially important technology. This paper covers the work on fuel processor rig testing completed in FY92.

  9. High-pressure coal fuel processor development

    SciTech Connect

    Greenhalgh, M.L.; Wen, C.S.; Smith, L.

    1992-01-01

    Caterpillar shares DOE/METC interest in demonstrating the technology required to displace petroleum-based engine fuels with various forms of low cost coal. Current DOE/METC programs on mild gasification and coal-water-slurries are addressing two approaches to this end. Engine and fuel processor system concept studies by Caterpillar have identified a third, potentially promising, option. This option includes high-pressure fuel processing of run-of-the-mine coal and direct injection of the resulting low-Btu gas stream into an ignition assisted, high compression ratio diesel engine. The compactness and predicted efficiency of the system make it suitable for application to line-haul railroad locomotives. A successful conclusion of the program will enable further component development work and full-scale system demonstrations of this potentially important technology. This paper covers the work on fuel processor rig testing completed in FY92.

  10. New developments in high pressure x-ray spectroscopy beamline at High Pressure Collaborative Access Team

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Y. M.; Chow, P.; Boman, G.; Bai, L. G.; Rod, E.; Bommannavar, A.; Kenney-Benson, C.; Sinogeikin, S.; Shen, G. Y.

    2015-07-01

    The 16 ID-D (Insertion Device - D station) beamline of the High Pressure Collaborative Access Team at the Advanced Photon Source is dedicated to high pressure research using X-ray spectroscopy techniques typically integrated with diamond anvil cells. The beamline provides X-rays of 4.5-37 keV, and current available techniques include X-ray emission spectroscopy, inelastic X-ray scattering, and nuclear resonant scattering. The recent developments include a canted undulator upgrade, 17-element analyzer array for inelastic X-ray scattering, and an emission spectrometer using a polycapillary half-lens. Recent development projects and future prospects are also discussed.

  11. Rheological assessment of nanofluids at high pressure high temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanjirakat, Anoop; Sadr, Reza

    2013-11-01

    High pressure high temperature (HPHT) fluids are commonly encountered in industry, for example in cooling and/or lubrications applications. Nanofluids, engineered suspensions of nano-sized particles dispersed in a base fluid, have shown prospective as industrial cooling fluids due to their enhanced rheological and heat transfer properties. Nanofluids can be potentially utilized in oil industry for drilling fluids and for high pressure water jet cooling/lubrication in machining. In present work rheological characteristics of oil based nanofluids are investigated at HPHT condition. Nanofluids used in this study are prepared by dispersing commercially available SiO2 nanoparticles (~20 nm) in a mineral oil. The basefluid and nanofluids with two concentrations, namely 1%, and 2%, by volume, are considered in this investigation. The rheological characteristics of base fluid and the nanofluids are measured using an industrial HPHT viscometer. Viscosity values of the nanofluids are measured at pressures of 100 kPa to 42 MPa and temperatures ranging from 25°C to 140°C. The viscosity values of both nanofluids as well as basefluid are observed to have increased with the increase in pressure. Funded by Qatar National Research Fund (NPRP 08-574-2-239).

  12. 46 CFR 108.425 - Fire hoses and associated equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

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  13. 46 CFR 118.320 - Fire hoses and nozzles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

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  14. 46 CFR 181.320 - Fire hoses and nozzles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire hoses and nozzles. 181.320 Section 181.320...SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main System § 181.320 Fire hoses and...

  15. 46 CFR 108.425 - Fire hoses and associated equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

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  16. 46 CFR 108.425 - Fire hoses and associated equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

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  17. 46 CFR 181.320 - Fire hoses and nozzles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire hoses and nozzles. 181.320 Section 181.320...SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main System § 181.320 Fire hoses and...

  18. 46 CFR 108.425 - Fire hoses and associated equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire hoses and associated equipment. 108.425 Section...A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fire Main System § 108.425 Fire hoses and...

  19. 46 CFR 118.320 - Fire hoses and nozzles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire hoses and nozzles. 118.320 Section 118.320...OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main System § 118.320 Fire hoses and...

  20. 46 CFR 118.320 - Fire hoses and nozzles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire hoses and nozzles. 118.320 Section 118.320...OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main System § 118.320 Fire hoses and...

  1. 46 CFR 108.425 - Fire hoses and associated equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire hoses and associated equipment. 108.425 Section...A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fire Main System § 108.425 Fire hoses and...

  2. 46 CFR 181.320 - Fire hoses and nozzles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire hoses and nozzles. 181.320 Section 181.320...SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main System § 181.320 Fire hoses and...

  3. 46 CFR 118.320 - Fire hoses and nozzles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire hoses and nozzles. 118.320 Section 118.320...OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main System § 118.320 Fire hoses and...

  4. 46 CFR 181.320 - Fire hoses and nozzles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire hoses and nozzles. 181.320 Section 181.320...SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main System § 181.320 Fire hoses and...

  5. 46 CFR 118.320 - Fire hoses and nozzles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire hoses and nozzles. 118.320 Section 118.320...OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main System § 118.320 Fire hoses and...

  6. 46 CFR 181.320 - Fire hoses and nozzles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

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  7. 46 CFR 78.47-20 - Fire hose stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire hose stations. 78.47-20 Section 78.47-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-20 Fire hose stations. (a) Each fire hydrant shall be...

  8. 46 CFR 193.10-10 - Fire hydrants and hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

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  9. 33 CFR 183.540 - Hoses: Standards and markings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 1 hose has a permeation rating of 100 grams or less fuel loss per square meter of interior surface in 24 hours. SAE Class 2 hose has a permeation rating of 300 grams or less fuel loss per square meter.... (g) Each character must be block capital letters and numerals that are at least one eighth-inch...

  10. 46 CFR 181.320 - Fire hoses and nozzles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... fire hose that conforms to UL 19 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600) or hose that is listed... fittings of brass or other suitable corrosion-resistant material that comply with NFPA 1963 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600) or other standard specified by the Commandant. (c) Each fire...

  11. 46 CFR 181.320 - Fire hoses and nozzles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... fire hose that conforms to UL 19 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600) or hose that is listed... fittings of brass or other suitable corrosion-resistant material that comply with NFPA 1963 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600) or other standard specified by the Commandant. (c) Each fire...

  12. 46 CFR 181.320 - Fire hoses and nozzles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... fire hose that conforms to UL 19 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600) or hose that is listed... fittings of brass or other suitable corrosion-resistant material that comply with NFPA 1963 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600) or other standard specified by the Commandant. (c) Each fire...

  13. 46 CFR 181.320 - Fire hoses and nozzles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... fire hose that conforms to UL 19 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600) or hose that is listed... fittings of brass or other suitable corrosion-resistant material that comply with NFPA 1963 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600) or other standard specified by the Commandant. (c) Each fire...

  14. 30 CFR 18.65 - Flame test of hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Flame test of hose. 18.65 Section 18.65 Mineral... MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Inspections and Tests § 18.65 Flame... wide by thickness of the hose. (b) Flame-test apparatus. The principal parts of the apparatus...

  15. 30 CFR 18.65 - Flame test of hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

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  16. 30 CFR 18.65 - Flame test of hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Flame test of hose. 18.65 Section 18.65 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Inspections and Tests § 18.65 Flame test of hose. (a) Size of...

  17. 30 CFR 18.65 - Flame test of hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

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  18. 30 CFR 18.65 - Flame test of hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Flame test of hose. 18.65 Section 18.65 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Inspections and Tests § 18.65 Flame test of hose. (a) Size of...

  19. Stable xenon nitride at high pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Feng; Wang, Yanchao; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Yunwei; Ma, Yanming

    2015-09-01

    Nitrides in many ways are fascinating since they often appear as superconductors, high-energy density, and hard materials. Though there exist a large variety of nitrides, noble gas nitrides are missing in nature. Pursuit of noble gas nitrides has therefore become the subject of topical interests, but remains as a great challenge since molecular nitrogen (N2, a major form of nitrogen) and noble gases are both inert systems and do not interact at normal conditions. We show through a first-principles swarm-structure search that high pressure enables a direct interaction of N2 and xenon (Xe) above 146 GPa. The resultant Xe nitride has a peculiar stoichiometry of XeN6, possessing a high-energy density of approximately 2.4 kJg -1, rivaling that of the modern explosives. Structurally, XeN6 is intriguing with the appearance of chaired N6 hexagons and unusually high 12-coordination of Xe bonded with N. Our work opens up the possibility of achieving Xe nitride with superior high-energy density whose formation is long sought as impossible.

  20. High pressure magnetic resonance imaging with metallic vessels.

    PubMed

    Han, Hui; Ouellette, Matthew; MacMillan, Bryce; Goora, Frederic; MacGregor, Rodney; Green, Derrick; Balcom, Bruce J

    2011-12-01

    High pressure measurements in most scientific fields rely on metal vessels given the superior tensile strength of metals. We introduce high pressure magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements with metallic vessels. The developed MRI compatible metallic pressure vessel concept is very general in application. Macroscopic physical systems are now amenable to spatially resolved nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) study at variable pressure and temperature. Metallic pressure vessels not only provide inherently high tensile strengths and efficient temperature control, they also permit optimization of the MRI RF probe sensitivity. An MRI compatible pressure vessel is demonstrated with a rock core holder fabricated using non-magnetic stainless steel. Water flooding through a porous rock under pressure is shown as an example of its applications. High pressure NMR spectroscopy plays an indispensable role in several science fields. This work will open new vistas of study for high pressure material science MRI and MR. PMID:21962929

  1. High pressure magnetic resonance imaging with metallic vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Hui; Ouellette, Matthew; MacMillan, Bryce; Goora, Frederic; MacGregor, Rodney; Green, Derrick; Balcom, Bruce J.

    2011-12-01

    High pressure measurements in most scientific fields rely on metal vessels given the superior tensile strength of metals. We introduce high pressure magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements with metallic vessels. The developed MRI compatible metallic pressure vessel concept is very general in application. Macroscopic physical systems are now amenable to spatially resolved nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) study at variable pressure and temperature. Metallic pressure vessels not only provide inherently high tensile strengths and efficient temperature control, they also permit optimization of the MRI RF probe sensitivity. An MRI compatible pressure vessel is demonstrated with a rock core holder fabricated using non-magnetic stainless steel. Water flooding through a porous rock under pressure is shown as an example of its applications. High pressure NMR spectroscopy plays an indispensable role in several science fields. This work will open new vistas of study for high pressure material science MRI and MR.

  2. Effect of high pressure on mesophilic lactic fermentation streptococci

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reps, A.; Ku?micka, M.; Wi?niewska, K.

    2008-07-01

    The research concerned the effect of high pressure on mesophilic lactic fermentation streptococci, present in two cheese-making commercial inocula produced by Christian-Hansen. Water solutions of inocula were pressurized at 50-800 MPa, at room temperature, for 30-120 min. Pressurization at 50-100 MPa slightly increased or reduced the number of lactic streptococci, depending on the inoculum and pressurization time. Pressurization at 200 MPa caused a reduction in the number of streptococci by over 99.9%, whereas the pressure of 400 MPa and above almost completely inactivated streptococci. Pressurization also reduced the dynamics of microorganism growth and acidification, to the degree depending on the pressure.

  3. Lead plated aluminum ring provides static high pressure seal for large diameter pressure vessel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locke, J. N.

    1967-01-01

    Lead plated aluminum ring provides a positive static seal for a large diameter pressure vessel for use in a hazardous environment at cryogenic temperatures with high pressure fluid flow. This design can be used in high and low pressure lines of any diameter for any fluid, with appropriate material modification.

  4. System design for buried high-pressure/high-temperature pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    A pipeline expands or contracts when temperatures or pressures vary from the conditions at the time the pipeline was installed. Buried pipelines operating at high temperatures and pressures experience extreme compressive loads. Because radial expansion is limited by soil restraint, buried pipelines expand axially. High axial forces combined with imperfections in the seabed may overstress the pipeline or result in upheaval buckling. Methods to control expansion and upheaval buckling were investigated for the design of a buried high-pressure/high temperature (HP/HT) sour-gas flowline in Mobile Bay, Alabama. After investigating conventional and unconventional methods, the decision was made to use expansion loops over the length of the pipeline to protect the risers and reduce axial force in the middle of the pipeline. Expansion loops and doglegs act as springs to absorb pipeline expansion. Methods were investigated to prevent soil from accumulating around the buried expansion loops. Commercially available concrete dog houses used to protect pipelines and expansion loops from dropped objects were not suitable for burial, and fabrication of custom concrete housing was expensive. Fabrication of a steel enclosure was the solution chosen. A mathematical model based on internal-design guidelines and ultimate soil friction was used to determine placement and size of the expansion loops.

  5. Development of novel high pressure instrumentation 

    E-print Network

    Wang, Xiao

    2015-06-29

    The application of pressure to chemical substances can change their physical properties (optical, magnetic, and electrical) and it can also be used to alter some chemical reactions. The need for compatible pressure generating instruments...

  6. Effect of high pressure on structural oddities 

    E-print Network

    Johnstone, Russell D. L.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis describes the effect of pressure on crystal structures that are in some way unusual. The aim was to investigate whether pressure could be used to force these ‘structural oddities’ to conform to more conventional ...

  7. High Blood Pressure: Unique to Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... lead to a type of dementia known as vascular dementia. Medications to reduce systolic blood pressure have been ... pressure, you have an increased chance of developing vascular dementia, which is second only to Alzheimer’s disease as ...

  8. Reversible high-pressure carbon nanotube vessel

    E-print Network

    Wang, Lifeng

    Applying a full pressure loop, i.e., loading and unloading, on a nanocrystal with in situ observation remains a challenge to experimentalists up until now. Using a multiwalled carbon nanotube, we realize the pressure loop ...

  9. Urea and deuterium mixtures at high pressures.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, M; Bull, C L; Husband, R J; Frantzana, A D; Klotz, S; Loveday, J S

    2015-03-28

    Urea, like many network forming compounds, has long been known to form inclusion (guest-host) compounds. Unlike other network formers like water, urea is not known to form such inclusion compounds with simple molecules like hydrogen. Such compounds if they existed would be of interest both for the fundamental insight they provide into molecular bonding and as potential gas storage systems. Urea has been proposed as a potential hydrogen storage material [T. A. Strobel et al., Chem. Phys. Lett. 478, 97 (2009)]. Here, we report the results of high-pressure neutron diffraction studies of urea and D2 mixtures that indicate no inclusion compound forms up to 3.7 GPa. PMID:25833592

  10. Ceramic high pressure gas path seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liotta, G. C.

    1987-01-01

    Stage 1 ceramic shrouds (high pressure turbine gas path seal) were developed for the GE T700 turbine helicopter engine under the Army/NASA Contract NAS3-23174. This contract successfully proved the viability and benefits of a Stage 1 ceramic shroud for production application. Stage 1 ceramic shrouds were proven by extensive component and engine testing. This Stage 1 ceramic shroud, plasma sprayed ceramic (ZrOs-BY2O3) and bond coating (NiCrAlY) onto a cast metal backing, offers significant engine performance improvement. Due to the ceramic coating, the amount of cooling air required is reduced 20% resulting in a 0.5% increase in horsepower and a 0.3% decrease in specific fuel consumption. This is accomplished with a component which is lower in cost than the current production shroud. Stage 1 ceramic shrouds will be introduced into field service in late 1987.

  11. Condensed matter at high shock pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Nellis, W.J.; Holmes, N.C.; Mitchell, A.C.; Radousky, H.B.; Hamilton, D.

    1985-07-12

    Experimental techniques are described for shock waves in liquids: Hugoniot equation-of-state, shock temperature and emission spectroscopy, electrical conductivity, and Raman spectroscopy. Experimental data are reviewed and presented in terms of phenomena that occur at high densities and temperatures in shocked He, Ar, N/sub 2/, CO, SiO/sub 2/-aerogel, H/sub 2/O, and C/sub 6/H/sub 6/. The superconducting properties of Nb metal shocked to 100 GPa (1 Mbar) and recovered intact are discussed in terms of prospects for synthesizing novel, metastable materials. Ultrahigh pressure data for Cu is reviewed in the range 0.3 to 6TPa (3 to 60 Mbar). 56 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Low energy high pressure miniature screw valve

    DOEpatents

    Fischer, Gary J. (Sandia Park, NM); Spletzer, Barry L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-12-12

    A low energy high pressure screw valve having a valve body having an upper portion and a lower portion, said lower portion of said valve body defining an inlet flow passage and an outlet flow passage traversing said valve body to a valve seat, said upper portion of said valve body defining a cavity at said valve seat, a diaphragm restricting flow between said upper portion of said valve body and said lower portion, said diaphragm capable of engaging said valve seat to restrict fluid communication between said inlet passage and said outlet passage, a plunger within said cavity supporting said diaphragm, said plunger being capable of engaging said diaphragm with said valve seat at said inlet and outlet fluid passages, said plunger being in point contact with a drive screw having threads engaged with opposing threads within said upper portion of said valve body such engagement allowing motion of said drive screw within said valve body.

  13. Urea and deuterium mixtures at high pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Donnelly, M. Husband, R. J.; Frantzana, A. D.; Loveday, J. S.; Bull, C. L.; Klotz, S.

    2015-03-28

    Urea, like many network forming compounds, has long been known to form inclusion (guest-host) compounds. Unlike other network formers like water, urea is not known to form such inclusion compounds with simple molecules like hydrogen. Such compounds if they existed would be of interest both for the fundamental insight they provide into molecular bonding and as potential gas storage systems. Urea has been proposed as a potential hydrogen storage material [T. A. Strobel et al., Chem. Phys. Lett. 478, 97 (2009)]. Here, we report the results of high-pressure neutron diffraction studies of urea and D{sub 2} mixtures that indicate no inclusion compound forms up to 3.7 GPa.

  14. High pressure fiber optic sensor system

    DOEpatents

    Guida, Renato; Xia, Hua; Lee, Boon K; Dekate, Sachin N

    2013-11-26

    The present application provides a fiber optic sensor system. The fiber optic sensor system may include a small diameter bellows, a large diameter bellows, and a fiber optic pressure sensor attached to the small diameter bellows. Contraction of the large diameter bellows under an applied pressure may cause the small diameter bellows to expand such that the fiber optic pressure sensor may measure the applied pressure.

  15. Calculating Mass Diffusion in High-Pressure Binary Fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellan, Josette; Harstad, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    A comprehensive mathematical model of mass diffusion has been developed for binary fluids at high pressures, including critical and supercritical pressures. Heretofore, diverse expressions, valid for limited parameter ranges, have been used to correlate high-pressure binary mass-diffusion-coefficient data. This model will likely be especially useful in the computational simulation and analysis of combustion phenomena in diesel engines, gas turbines, and liquid rocket engines, wherein mass diffusion at high pressure plays a major role.

  16. 49 CFR 192.197 - Control of the pressure of gas delivered from high-pressure distribution systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...false Control of the pressure of gas delivered from high-pressure distribution...PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY...197 Control of the pressure of gas delivered from high-pressure...

  17. 49 CFR 192.197 - Control of the pressure of gas delivered from high-pressure distribution systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...false Control of the pressure of gas delivered from high-pressure distribution...PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY...197 Control of the pressure of gas delivered from high-pressure...

  18. 49 CFR 192.197 - Control of the pressure of gas delivered from high-pressure distribution systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...false Control of the pressure of gas delivered from high-pressure distribution...PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY...197 Control of the pressure of gas delivered from high-pressure...

  19. 49 CFR 192.197 - Control of the pressure of gas delivered from high-pressure distribution systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...false Control of the pressure of gas delivered from high-pressure distribution...PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY...197 Control of the pressure of gas delivered from high-pressure...

  20. 49 CFR 192.197 - Control of the pressure of gas delivered from high-pressure distribution systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...false Control of the pressure of gas delivered from high-pressure distribution...PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY...197 Control of the pressure of gas delivered from high-pressure...

  1. 33 CFR 183.530 - Spud, pipe, and hose fitting configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Spud, pipe, and hose fitting configuration. 183...Equipment Standards § 183.530 Spud, pipe, and hose fitting configuration. Except...used for a tank fill line, each spud, pipe, or hose fitting used with hose...

  2. 33 CFR 183.530 - Spud, pipe, and hose fitting configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Spud, pipe, and hose fitting configuration. 183...Equipment Standards § 183.530 Spud, pipe, and hose fitting configuration. Except...used for a tank fill line, each spud, pipe, or hose fitting used with hose...

  3. What Are the Signs, Symptoms, and Complications of High Blood Pressure?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... What Are the Signs, Symptoms, and Complications of High Blood Pressure? Because diagnosis is based on blood pressure readings, ... damaged from chronic high blood pressure. Complications of High Blood Pressure When blood pressure stays high over time, it ...

  4. Summary Report NATIONAL HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE EDUCATION PROGRAM

    E-print Network

    Shen, Jun

    Summary Report NATIONAL HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE EDUCATION PROGRAM (NHBPEP)/NATIONAL HEART, LUNG .......................................................................................... 27 #12;3 National High Blood Pressure Education Program (NHBPEP)/ National Heart, Lung, and Blood, AND BLOOD INSTITUTE (NHLBI) AND AMERICAN HEART ASSOCIATION (AHA) WORKING MEETING ON BLOOD PRESSURE

  5. Structure of crystalline methanol at high pressure David R. Allan

    E-print Network

    Vos, Willem L.

    Structure of crystalline methanol at high pressure David R. Allan Department of Physics structure, including all atomic positions, of methanol at high pressure and room temperature pressure of methanol is 3.5 GPa. In practice however, it is very easy to superpress the liquid phase

  6. High Pressure Research Vol. 29, No. 2, June 2009, 235244

    E-print Network

    Steinle-Neumann, Gerd

    and (or) pressure conditions, the marcasite-type compounds have a number of different polymorphs. Pyrite], and a high-pressure pyrite-type phase of NiP2 has been synthesized [7]. At high temperature and pressure, Cr atoms and two Cr atoms [8,9]. Goodenough [10] has described energy bands of MX2 compounds with pyrite

  7. Copyright TWI Ltd 2013 Overview of TWI's High Pressure

    E-print Network

    Siefert, Chris

    Copyright © TWI Ltd 2013 Overview of TWI's High Pressure Hydrogen Testing Facility 2 day in high purity hydrogen gas at pressures up to 1000bar (14500psi) · Testing can be conducted at elevated · Supporting, eg analytical, facilities. #12;Copyright © TWI Ltd 2013 450bar test vessel · Atmospheric pressure

  8. HIGH-PRESSURE CRYSTAL CHEMISTRY Charles T. Prewitt

    E-print Network

    Downs, Robert T.

    Chapter 9 HIGH-PRESSURE CRYSTAL CHEMISTRY Charles T. Prewitt Geophysical Laboratory and Center for High Pressure Research Carnegie Institution of Washington 5251 Broad Branch Road, NW Washington, DC The response of earth materials to increasing pressures and temperatures is an area of research

  9. Structural behaviour of niobium oxynitride under high pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Bharat Bhooshan Poswal, H. K. Pandey, K. K. Sharma, Surinder M.; Yakhmi, J. V.; Ohashi, Y.; Kikkawa, S.

    2014-04-24

    High pressure investigation of niobium oxynitrides (NbN{sub 0.98}O{sub 0.02}) employing synchrotron based angle dispersive x-ray diffraction experiments was carried out in very fine pressure steps using membrane driven diamond anvil cell. Ambient cubic phase was found to be stable up to ?18 GPa. At further high pressure cubic phase showed rhombohedral distortion.

  10. Automated high pressure cell for pressure jump x-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, Nicholas J.; Gauthe, Beatrice L. L. E.; Templer, Richard H.; Ces, Oscar; Seddon, John M.; Terrill, Nick J.; Rogers, Sarah E.

    2010-06-15

    A high pressure cell for small and wide-angle x-ray diffraction measurements of soft condensed matter samples has been developed, incorporating a fully automated pressure generating network. The system allows both static and pressure jump measurements in the range of 0.1-500 MPa. Pressure jumps can be performed as quickly as 5 ms, both with increasing and decreasing pressures. Pressure is generated by a motorized high pressure pump, and the system is controlled remotely via a graphical user interface to allow operation by a broad user base, many of whom may have little previous experience of high pressure technology. Samples are loaded through a dedicated port allowing the x-ray windows to remain in place throughout an experiment; this facilitates accurate subtraction of background scattering. The system has been designed specifically for use at beamline I22 at the Diamond Light Source, United Kingdom, and has been fully integrated with the I22 beamline control systems.

  11. High Pressure Rotary Shaft Sealing Mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Dietle, Lannie (Sugar Land, TX); Gobeli, Jeffrey D. (Houston, TX)

    2001-05-08

    A laterally translatable pressure staged rotary shaft sealing mechanism having a seal housing with a shaft passage therein being exposed to a fluid pressure P1 and with a rotary shaft being located within the shaft passage. At least one annular laterally translatable seal carrier is provided. First and second annular resilient sealing elements are supported in axially spaced relation by the annular seal carriers and have sealing relation with the rotary shaft. The seal housing and at least one seal carrier define a first pressure staging chamber exposed to the first annular resilient sealing element and a second pressure staging chamber located between and exposed to the first and second annular resilient sealing elements. A first fluid is circulated to the first pressure chamber at a pressure P1, and a second staging pressure fluid is circulated to the second pressure chamber at a fraction of pressure P1 to achieve pressure staging, cooling of the seals. Seal placement provides hydraulic force balancing of the annular seal carriers.

  12. 9. General view of engine between cylinders with high pressure ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. General view of engine between cylinders with high pressure cylinder on left and low pressure cylinder on right. - Carnegie Steel-Ohio Works, Steam Engines, 912 Salt Springs Road, Youngstown, Mahoning County, OH

  13. Notes 11. High pressure floating ring seals 

    E-print Network

    San Andres, Luis

    2009-01-01

    adjacent film lands!! Conclusions: ? The dynamic pressure field in deep grooves may be difficult to measure for most practical excitation frequency ranges. (fluid inertia pressures are proportional to ?2). ? Deep grooves do generate dynamic pressures....pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 A Linear Fluid Inertia Model for Improved Prediction of Force Coefficients in Grooved Squeeze Film Dampers and Grooved Oil Seal Rings Modern Lubrication ? Appendix to Notes 11 & 13 Luis San Andres...

  14. Spinning glass cell for high-pressure high-resolution NMR measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, H.; Nakatsuka, M.; Yamochi, H.; Sawamura, M.; Sera, A.

    1991-03-01

    A full description of the rotatable high-pressure glass cell method for the NMR measurements is presented. This simple device eliminates the use of massive high-pressure apparatus such as the oil pump, the Bourdon gauge, and the high-pressure tubing and valves in performing the high-pressure experiments. This system also demonstrates capability of realizing an extremely high-resolution level in the NMR measurements at high pressure otherwise not easily attainable.

  15. Development of high pressure gas cells at ISIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirichek, O.; Done, R.; Goodway, C. M.; Kibble, M. G.; Evans, B.; Bowden, Z. A.

    2012-02-01

    High-pressure research is one of the fastest-growing areas of natural science, and one that attracts as diverse communities as those of physics, bio-physics, chemistry, materials science and earth science. In condensed matter physics there are a number of highly topical areas, such as quantum criticality, pressure-induced superconductivity or non-Fermi liquid behaviour, where pressure is a fundamental parameter. Reliable, safe and user-friendly high pressure gas handling systems with gas pressures up to 1GPa should make a significant impact on the range of science possible. The ISIS facility is participating in the NMI3 FP7 sample environment project supported by the European Commission which includes high pressure gas cell development. In this paper the progress in designing, manufacturing and testing a new generation of high pressure gas cells for neutron scattering experiments is discussed.

  16. Single stage high pressure centrifugal slurry pump

    DOEpatents

    Meyer, John W. (Palo Alto, CA); Bonin, John H. (Sunnyvale, CA); Daniel, Arnold D. (Alameda, CA)

    1984-03-27

    Apparatus is shown for feeding a slurry to a pressurized housing. An impeller that includes radial passages is mounted in the loose fitting housing. The impeller hub is connected to a drive means and a slurry supply means which extends through the housing. Pressured gas is fed into the housing for substantially enveloping the impeller in a bubble of gas.

  17. Single stage high pressure centrifugal slurry pump

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, J.W.; Bonin, J.H.; Daniel, A.D.

    1984-03-27

    Apparatus is shown for feeding a slurry to a pressurized housing. An impeller that includes radial passages is mounted in the loose fitting housing. The impeller hub is connected to a drive means and a slurry supply means which extends through the housing. Pressured gas is fed into the housing for substantially enveloping the impeller in a bubble of gas. 9 figs.

  18. Impact of high pressures in solvothermal processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demazeau, Gérard

    2010-03-01

    A solvothermal process can be define as a chemical reaction in a close system involving different reactants in presence of a solvent (aqueous or non aqueous) at a temperature higher than its boiling temperature. Consequently pressure is involved. Two different cases are possible :(i) pressure is autogeneous and closely dependent of the percentage of filling for the reaction vessel and of temperature, (ii) pressure is imposed. Solvothermal processes are governed by different key factors : (i) the composition of the reactants, (ii) the nature of the solvent (in particular its physico-chemical properties), (iii) the additives used and (iv) the thermodynamical parameters : temperature and pressure. The main objective being to control the chemical mechanisms governing the preparation of the target material the selection of the key parameters is an important challenge for Solvothermal processes. Solvothermal processes have been developed in different scientific fields as : (i) the synthesis of novel materials -in particular metastable materials with specific physical properties-, (ii) the crystal growth of functional materials for industrial applications, (iii) the preparation of nano-crystallites well defined in size and morphology and nano-composite systems, (iv) the deposition of thin nano-structured films... During these last fifteen years, pressure was in the major cases an autogeneous pressure (pressure developed in the reaction vessel by only the thermal expansion of the liquid phase versus temperature). An important challenge for the near future is to evaluate how pressure parameter can help the control of the reaction mechanisms governing the formation of the target product.

  19. Osmium Metal Studied under High Pressure and Nonhydrostatic Stress

    SciTech Connect

    Weinberger,M.; Tolbert, S.; Kavner, A.

    2008-01-01

    Interest in osmium as an ultra-incompressible material and as an analog for the behavior of iron at high pressure has inspired recent studies of its mechanical properties. We have measured elastic and plastic deformation of Os metal at high pressures using in situ high pressure x-ray diffraction in the radial geometry. We show that Os has the highest yield strength observed for any pure metal, supporting up to 10 GPa at a pressure of 26 GPa. Furthermore, our data indicate changes in the nonhydrostatic apparent c/a ratio and clear lattice preferred orientation effects at pressures above 15 GPa.

  20. Selected studies of magnetism at high pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Hearne, G.R.; Pasternak, M.P.; Taylor, R.D.

    1995-09-01

    Most previous studies of magnetism in various compounds under extreme conditions have been conducted over a wide pressure range at room temperature or over a wide range of cryogenic temperatures at pressures below 20 GPa (200 kbar). We present some of the most recent studies of magnetism over an extended range of temperatures and pressures far beyond 20 GPa, i.e., in regions of pressure-temperature (P-T) where magnetism has been largely unexplored. Recent techniques have permitted investigations of magnetism in selected 3d transition metal compounds in regions of P-T where physical properties may be drastically modified; related effects have often been seen in selected doping studies at ambient pressures.

  1. Elastic properties of anorthite at high temperature and high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsukage, K. N.; Nishihara, Y.; Noritake, F.; Tsujino, N.; Sakurai, M.; Higo, Y.; Kawamura, K.; Takahashi, E.

    2012-12-01

    To understand the elastic properties of subducted crustal minerals at P-T conditions of crust and upper most mantle, we performed in situ measurement of the elastic wave velocities of anorthite at temperatures up to 1100 oC at less than 2.0 GPa (in stability field) and up to 500 oC at 2.0-7.0 GPa. A fine grained polycrystalline anorthite was synthesised by using gas pressure apparatus installed at magma factory in Tokyo Institute of Technology. The quenched glass with anorthite composition was ground in ethanol and was loaded into a sealed Pt tube (3.0 mm inner diameter and 0.2 mm thickness) container. The sample was preheated at 900°C for 2 hours, and then keep at 1100°C for 20 hours at pressure of 0.3 GPa. The maximum grain size of the synthesized polycrystalline anorthite was about 15?m. The experiments were performed using the SPEED-1500 apparatus installed on beam line BL04B1 at synchrotron facility of SPring-8, Japan (Utsumi et al. 1998). The experimental design for in situ elastic wave velocities measurement at BL04B1 was presented by Higo et al. (2009). Pressure was generated by eight 26 mm tungsten carbide anvils with 11 mm truncated edge length. A Co-doped semi-sintered MgO octahedron with an 18 mm edge length was used as a pressure medium. The sample was enclosed in a BN sleeve container, and was placed in the central part (hot spot) of the furnace. Platinum foils (2.5 ?m in thickness) were inserted at the both side of the sample for determination of sample length by using X-ray radiographic imaging techniques. An Al2O3 rod (5.3 mm in length and 2.0 mm in diameter) was used as buffer rod which transmit ultrasonic wave to the sample. Temperature was measured by a W97Re3-W75Re25 thermocouple. MgO was used as a pressure marker, and it was mixed with BN (MgO:BN = 1:1 by weight) to prevent grain growth at high temperatures. The ultrasonic signals were generated and received by 10oY-cut LiNbO3 transducer of 50 ?m in thickness and 3.2 mm in diameter. We used the ultrasonic wave of the frequencies 30-60MHz with 3-5cycle. The P and S wave velocities of anorthite at room pressure and temperature calculated by using our data are 7.01 km/s and 3.75 km/s, respectively. In this study, we found a drop of elastic wave velocities at ~240oC in <2.5GPa, and gradual decrease of the velocities in >3GPa and <500oC. These velocity changes are considered to be caused by the elastic softening by the phase transitions from P(-1) to high-temperature I(-1), and P(-1) to high-pressure I(-1) , respectively.

  2. Effects of high pressure hydrogen on metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, W. T.; Walter, R. J.

    1970-01-01

    Hydrogen environment embrittlement causes failure of hydrogen storage vessels at and below design pressures of 5000 to 6000 psi. Investigation of thirty-five alloys determines their susceptibility to such embrittlement.

  3. High Pressure Inactivation of Food-borne Viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the past half dozen years or so, the USDA Seafood Safety laboratory has endeavored to evaluate the potential of high pressure processing (HPP) for inactivation of food-borne viruses. As a commercial food technology, high pressure processing is highly advantageous because it can inactivate path...

  4. High-pressure Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Hoyt, David W.; Turcu, Romulus VF; Sears, Jesse A.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Burton, Sarah D.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Hu, Jian Z.

    2011-10-01

    A high-pressure magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR capability, consisting of a reusable high-pressure MAS rotor, a high-pressure loading/reaction chamber for in situ sealing and re-opening of the high-pressure MAS rotor, and a MAS probe with a localized RF coil for background signal suppression, is reported. The unusual technical challenges associated with development of a reusable high-pressure MAS rotor are addressed in part by modifying standard ceramics for the rotor sleeve to include micro-groves at the internal surface at both ends of the cylinder. In this way, not only is the advantage of ceramic cylinders for withstanding very high-pressure utilized, but also plastic bushings can be glued tightly in place so that other plastic sealing mechanisms/components and O-rings can be mounted to create the desired high-pressure seal. Using this strategy, sealed internal pressures exceeding 150 bars have been achieved and sustained under ambient external pressure with minimal penetration loss of pressure for 72 hours. As an application example, in situ 13C MAS NMR studies of mineral carbonation reaction intermediates and final products of forsterite (Mg2SiO4) reacted with supercritical CO2 and H2O at 150 bar and 50?C are reported, with relevance to geological sequestration of carbon dioxide.

  5. High-pressure magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Hoyt, David W; Turcu, Romulus V F; Sears, Jesse A; Rosso, Kevin M; Burton, Sarah D; Felmy, Andrew R; Hu, Jian Zhi

    2011-10-01

    A high-pressure magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR capability, consisting of a reusable high-pressure MAS rotor, a high-pressure rotor loading/reaction chamber for in situ sealing and re-opening of the high-pressure MAS rotor, and a MAS probe with a localized RF coil for background signal suppression, is reported. The unusual technical challenges associated with development of a reusable high-pressure MAS rotor are addressed in part by modifying standard ceramics for the rotor sleeve by abrading the internal surface at both ends of the cylinder. In this way, not only is the advantage of ceramic cylinders for withstanding very high-pressure utilized, but also plastic bushings can be glued tightly in place so that other removable plastic sealing mechanisms/components and O-rings can be mounted to create the desired high-pressure seal. Using this strategy, sealed internal pressures exceeding 150 bars have been achieved and sustained under ambient external pressure with minimal loss of pressure for 72 h. As an application example, in situ(13)C MAS NMR studies of mineral carbonation reaction intermediates and final products of forsterite (Mg(2)SiO(4)) reacted with supercritical CO(2) and H(2)O at 150 bar and 50°C are reported, with relevance to geological sequestration of carbon dioxide. PMID:21862372

  6. 46 CFR 169.735 - Fire hose stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...169.735 Section 169.735 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.735 Fire hose stations....

  7. 46 CFR 169.735 - Fire hose stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...169.735 Section 169.735 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.735 Fire hose stations....

  8. 46 CFR 169.735 - Fire hose stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...169.735 Section 169.735 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.735 Fire hose stations....

  9. 46 CFR 169.735 - Fire hose stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...169.735 Section 169.735 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.735 Fire hose stations....

  10. 46 CFR 95.10-10 - Fire hydrants and hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire hydrants and hose. 95.10-10 Section 95...CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main System, Details § 95.10-10 Fire...

  11. 46 CFR 95.10-10 - Fire hydrants and hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire hydrants and hose. 95.10-10 Section 95...CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main System, Details § 95.10-10 Fire...

  12. 46 CFR 193.10-10 - Fire hydrants and hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire hydrants and hose. 193.10-10 Section 193...CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main System, Details § 193.10-10 Fire...

  13. 46 CFR 95.10-10 - Fire hydrants and hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire hydrants and hose. 95.10-10 Section 95...CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main System, Details § 95.10-10 Fire...

  14. 46 CFR 193.10-10 - Fire hydrants and hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire hydrants and hose. 193.10-10 Section 193...CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main System, Details § 193.10-10 Fire...

  15. 46 CFR 95.10-10 - Fire hydrants and hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire hydrants and hose. 95.10-10 Section 95...CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main System, Details § 95.10-10 Fire...

  16. 46 CFR 193.10-10 - Fire hydrants and hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire hydrants and hose. 193.10-10 Section 193...CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main System, Details § 193.10-10 Fire...

  17. 46 CFR 193.10-10 - Fire hydrants and hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire hydrants and hose. 193.10-10 Section 193...CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main System, Details § 193.10-10 Fire...

  18. 46 CFR 95.10-10 - Fire hydrants and hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire hydrants and hose. 95.10-10 Section 95...CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main System, Details § 95.10-10 Fire...

  19. 46 CFR 193.10-10 - Fire hydrants and hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire hydrants and hose. 193.10-10 Section 193...CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main System, Details § 193.10-10 Fire...

  20. 13. PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF HISTORIC POSTCARD, THE HOSE FIGHT, HOMECOMING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF HISTORIC POSTCARD, THE HOSE FIGHT, HOMECOMING, 1911 (Original copy in possession of Mrs. Elizabeth C. Arnesi) - Bridge Street Bridge, Spanning Grand River at Bridge Street, Portland, Ionia County, MI

  1. 46 CFR 193.10-10 - Fire hydrants and hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... a garden hose nozzle that is bronze or metal with strength and corrosion resistance equivalent to... the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection. (j) When the firehose nozzle in the below locations...

  2. HIGH TEMPERATURE HIGH PRESSURE THERMODYNAMIC MEASUREMENTS FOR COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS

    SciTech Connect

    Vinayak N. Kabadi

    2000-05-01

    The Vapor Liquid Equilibrium measurement setup of this work was first established several years ago. It is a flow type high temperature high pressure apparatus which was designed to operate below 500 C temperature and 2000 psia pressure. Compared with the static method, this method has three major advantages: the first is that large quantity of sample can be obtained from the system without disturbing the equilibrium state which was established before; the second is that the residence time of the sample in the equilibrium cell is greatly reduced, thus decomposition or contamination of the sample can be effectively prevented; the third is that the flow system allows the sample to degas as it heats up since any non condensable gas will exit in the vapor stream, accumulate in the vapor condenser, and not be recirculated. The first few runs were made with Quinoline-Tetralin system, the results were fairly in agreement with the literature data . The former graduate student Amad used the same apparatus acquired the Benzene-Ethylbenzene system VLE data. This work used basically the same setup (several modifications had been made) to get the VLE data of Ethylbenzene-Quinoline system.

  3. Calcium peroxide from ambient to high pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Joseph R.; Needs, Richard J.; Pickard, Chris J.

    Structures of calcium peroxide (CaO2) are investigated in the pressure range 0-200 GPa using the ab initio random structure searching (AIRSS) method and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. At 0 GPa, there are several CaO2 structures very close in enthalpy, with the ground-state structure dependent on the choice of exchange-correlation functional. Further stable structures for CaO2 with C2/c, I4/mcm and P21/c symmetries emerge at pressures below 40 GPa. These phases are thermodynamically stable against decomposition into CaO and O2. The stability of CaO2 with respect to decomposition increases with pressure, with peak stability occurring at the CaO B1-B2 phase transition at 65 GPa. Phonon calculations using the quasiharmonic approximation show that CaO2 is a stable oxide of calcium at mantle temperatures and pressures, highlighting a possible role for CaO2 in planetary geochemistry. We sketch the phase diagram for CaO2, and find at least five new stable phases in the pressure/temperature ranges 0pressure ground state structure.

  4. Calcium peroxide from ambient to high pressures.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Joseph R; Needs, Richard J; Pickard, Chris J

    2015-03-14

    Structures of calcium peroxide (CaO2) are investigated in the pressure range 0-200 GPa using the ab initio random structure searching (AIRSS) method and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. At 0 GPa, there are several CaO2 structures very close in enthalpy, with the ground-state structure dependent on the choice of exchange-correlation functional. Further stable structures for CaO2 with C2/c, I4/mcm and P21/c symmetries emerge at pressures below 40 GPa. These phases are thermodynamically stable against decomposition into CaO and O2. The stability of CaO2 with respect to decomposition increases with pressure, with peak stability occurring at the CaO B1-B2 phase transition at 65 GPa. Phonon calculations using the quasiharmonic approximation show that CaO2 is a stable oxide of calcium at mantle temperatures and pressures, highlighting a possible role for CaO2 in planetary geochemistry. We sketch the phase diagram for CaO2, and find at least five new stable phases in the pressure-temperature ranges 0 ? P ? 60 GPa, 0 ? T ? 600 K, including two new candidates for the zero-pressure ground state structure. PMID:25673010

  5. Transportable, small high-pressure preservation vessel for cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamimura, N.; Sotome, S.; Nakajima, K.; Yoshimura, Y.; Shimizu, A.

    2010-03-01

    We have previously reported that the survival rate of astrocytes increases under high-pressure conditions at 4°C. However, pressure vessels generally have numerous problems for use in cell preservation and transportation: (1) they cannot be readily separated from the pressurizing pump in the pressurized state; (2) they are typically heavy and expensive due the use of materials such as stainless steel; and (3) it is difficult to regulate pressurization rate with hand pumps. Therefore, we developed a transportable high-pressure system suitable for cell preservation under high-pressure conditions. This high-pressure vessel has the following characteristics: (1) it can be easily separated from the pressurizing pump due to the use of a cock-type stop valve; (2) it is small and compact, is made of PEEK and weighs less than 200 g; and (3) pressurization rate is regulated by an electric pump instead of a hand pump. Using this transportable high-pressure vessel for cell preservation, we found that astrocytes can survive for 4 days at 1.6 MPa and 4°C.

  6. High-temperature, high-pressure optical cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, R. P. (inventor); Holland, L. R. (inventor); Smith, R. E. (inventor)

    1986-01-01

    The invention is an optical cell for containment of chemicals under conditions of high temperature and high pressure. The cell is formed of a vitreous silica tube, two optical windows comprising a vitreous silica rod inserted into the ends of a tube, and fused into position in the tube ends. Windows are spaced apart to form a cavity enclosed by the tube and the windows. A hole is drilled radially through the tube and into the cavity. Another vitreous silica tube is fused to the silica tube around the hole to form the stem, which is perpendicular to the long axis of the tube. The open end of the stem is used to load chemicals into the cavity. Then the stem may be sealed, and if desired, it may be shortened in order to reduce the volume of the cavity, which extends into the stem.

  7. High-temperature, high-pressure optical cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, R. P.; Holland, L. R.; Smith, R. E.

    1986-09-01

    The invention is an optical cell for containment of chemicals under conditions of high temperature and high pressure. The cell is formed of a vitreous silica tube, two optical windows comprising a vitreous silica rod inserted into the ends of a tube, and fused into position in the tube ends. Windows are spaced apart to form a cavity enclosed by the tube and the windows. A hole is drilled radially through the tube and into the cavity. Another vitreous silica tube is fused to the silica tube around the hole to form the stem, which is perpendicular to the long axis of the tube. The open end of the stem is used to load chemicals into the cavity. Then the stem may be sealed, and if desired, it may be shortened in order to reduce the volume of the cavity, which extends into the stem.

  8. High-pressure Infrared Spectra of Tal and Lawsonite

    SciTech Connect

    Scott,H.; Liu, Z.; Hemley, R.; Williams, Q.

    2007-01-01

    We present high-pressure infrared spectra of two geologically important hydrous minerals: talc, Mg3Si4O10(OH)2 and lawsonite, CaAl2Si2O7(OH)2{center_dot}H2O,{center_dot}at room temperature. For lawsonite, our data span the far infrared region from 150 to 550 cm-1 and extend to 25 GPa. We combine our new spectroscopic data with previously published high-pressure mid-infrared and Raman data to constrain the Gr{umlt u}neisen parameter and vibrational density of states under pressure. In the case of talc, we present high-pressure infrared data that span both the mid and far infrared from 150 to 3800 cm-1 covering lattice, silicate, and hydroxyl stretching vibrations to a maximum pressure of 30 GPa. Both phases show remarkable metastability well beyond their nominal maximum thermodynamic stability at simultaneous high-pressure and high-temperature conditions.

  9. High pressure/high temperature thermogravimetric apparatus. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Calo, J.M.; Suuberg, E.M.

    1999-12-01

    The purpose of this instrumentation grant was to acquire a state-of-the-art, high pressure, high temperature thermogravimetric apparatus (HP/HT TGA) system for the study of the interactions between gases and carbonaceous solids for the purpose of solving problems related to coal utilization and applications of carbon materials. The instrument that we identified for this purpose was manufactured by DMT (Deutsche Montan Technologies)--Institute of Cokemaking and Coal Chemistry of Essen, Germany. Particular features of note include: Two reactors: a standard TGA reactor, capable of 1100 C at 100 bar; and a high temperature (HT) reactor, capable of operation at 1600 C and 100 bar; A steam generator capable of generating steam to 100 bar; Flow controllers and gas mixing system for up to three reaction gases, plus a separate circuit for steam, and another for purge gas; and An automated software system for data acquisition and control. The HP/TP DMT-TGA apparatus was purchased in 1996 and installed and commissioned during the summer of 1996. The apparatus was located in Room 128 of the Prince Engineering Building at Brown University. A hydrogen alarm and vent system were added for safety considerations. The system has been interfaced to an Ametek quadruple mass spectrometer (MA 100), pumped by a Varian V250 turbomolecular pump, as provided for in the original proposed. With this capability, a number of gas phase species of interest can be monitored in a near-simultaneous fashion. The MS can be used in a few different modes. During high pressure, steady-state gasification experiments, it is used to sample, measure, and monitor the reactant/product gases. It can also be used to monitor gas phase species during nonisothermal temperature programmed reaction (TPR) or temperature programmed desorption (TPD) experiments.

  10. Synthesis, structure and properties of high pressure and ambient pressure ternary vanadium oxides 

    E-print Network

    Markkula, Mikael

    2013-11-28

    Transition metal oxides have been extensively studied during past decades. The purpose of this research was to synthesize new or little characterised transition metal oxides using high-pressure/high-temperature (HPHT) ...

  11. EVALUATION OF CERAMIC FILTERS FOR HIGH-TEMPERATURE/HIGH-PRESSURE FINE PARTICULATE CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    High temperature gas turbines used to generate electric power require gas streams virtually free of particulate matter. Gas streams from high temperature, high pressure coal processes, such as low Btu gasification and pressurized fluidized bed combustion, require considerable par...

  12. Transient High-Pressure Fuel Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarrahbashi, Dorrin

    Break-up and atomization of liquid fuel jet during transient injection process has a significant effect on the Diesel engine combustion efficiency and pollution. The mechanisms responsible for liquid jet instability and break-up at high pressure, during the transient start-up and steady mass flux periods, has been investigated using Navier-Stokes and level-set computations. Via post-processing, the role of vorticity dynamics is examined and shown to reveal crucial new insights. An unsteady, axisymmetric full-jet case is solved. Then, a less computationally intensive case is studied with a segment of the jet core undergoing temporal instability; agreement with the full-jet calculation is satisfactory justifying the segment analysis for three-dimensional computation. The results for surface-shape development are in agreement with experimental observations and other three-dimensional computations; the initial, axisymmetric waves at the jet surface created by Kelvin-Helmholtz instability distort to cone shapes; next, three-dimensional character develops through an azimuthal instability that leads to the creation of streamwise vorticity, lobe shapes on the cones, and formation of liquid ligaments which extend from lobes on the cones. The cause of this azimuthal instability has been widely described as a Rayleigh-Taylor instability. However, additional and sometimes more important causes are identified here. Counter-rotating, streamwise vortices within and around the ligaments show a relationship in the instability behavior for jets flowing into like-density fluid; thus, density difference cannot explain fully the three-dimensional instability as previously suggested. Furthermore, the formation of ligaments that eventually break into droplets and the formation of streamwise vorticity are caused by the same vortical dynamics. Waviness is identified on the ligaments which should result in droplet formation. The nonlinear development of the shorter azimuthal waves and ligament waves explains the experimental results that droplet sizes are usually smaller than KH wavelengths. The higher the relative velocity and/or the lower the surface tension the shorter are the values of the most unstable wavelengths.

  13. High temperature pressurized high frequency testing rig and test method

    DOEpatents

    De La Cruz, Jose; Lacey, Paul

    2003-04-15

    An apparatus is described which permits the lubricity of fuel compositions at or near temperatures and pressures experienced by compression ignition fuel injector components during operation in a running engine. The apparatus consists of means to apply a measured force between two surfaces and oscillate them at high frequency while wetted with a sample of the fuel composition heated to an operator selected temperature. Provision is made to permit operation at or near the flash point of the fuel compositions. Additionally a method of using the subject apparatus to simulate ASTM Testing Method D6079 is disclosed, said method involving using the disclosed apparatus to contact the faces of prepared workpieces under a measured load, sealing the workface contact point into the disclosed apparatus while immersing said contact point between said workfaces in a lubricating media to be tested, pressurizing and heating the chamber and thereby the fluid and workfaces therewithin, using the disclosed apparatus to impart a differential linear motion between the workpieces at their contact point until a measurable scar is imparted to at least one workpiece workface, and then evaluating the workface scar.

  14. Structural stability of WS2 under high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandaru, Nirup; Kumar, Ravhi S.; Baker, Jason; Tschauner, Oliver; Hartmann, Thomas; Zhao, Yusheng; Venkat, Rama

    2014-07-01

    Structural behavior of bulk WS2 under high pressure was investigated using synchrotron X-ray diffraction and diamond anvil cell up to 52 GPa along with high temperature X-ray diffraction and high pressure Raman spectroscopy analysis. The high pressure results obtained from X-ray diffraction and Raman analysis did not show any pressure induced structural phase transformations up to 52 GPa. The high temperature results show that the WS2 crystal structure is stable upon heating up to 600°C. Furthermore, the powder X-ray diffraction obtained on shock subjected WS2 to high pressures up to 10 GPa also did not reveal any structural changes. Our results suggest that even though WS2 is less compressible than the isostructural MoS2, its crystal structure is stable under static and dynamic compressions up to the experimental limit.

  15. Diamond anvil cell and high-pressure physical investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayaraman, A.

    1983-01-01

    The present status of high-pressure research with the diamond anvil cell (DAC) is reviewed in this article, mainly from an experimental aspect. After a brief description of the different types of DAC's that are currently in vogue, the techniques used in conjunction with the DAC in modern high-pressure research are presented. These include techniques for low- and high-temperature studies, x-ray diffractometry, spectroscopy with the DAC, and other measurements. Results on selected materials, with a view to illustrating the physics behind high-pressure phenomena, are presented and discussed. These include metal-semiconductor transitions, electronic transitions, phonons and high-pressure lattice dynamics, and phase transitions. A whole section is devoted to the behavior of condensed gases, principally H2, D2, O2, N2, and rare-gas solids. The concluding section briefly deals with speculations on ultra-high-pressure research with the DAC in the future.

  16. Study of high pressure carbon dioxide clathrates hydrates on Ganymede

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izquierdo Ruiz, F.; Méndez, A. S. J.; Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Recio, J. M.

    2015-10-01

    We present a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of carbon dioxide clathrate hydrates at high pressure. Experimental studies are carried out using several high pressure chambers reaching pressures up to 1 GPa. Using finite cluster and periodic models, we perform computer simulations under the density functional theory approximation that complement and provide a microscopic interpretation of these experiments, thus improving our knowledge of icy satellites such as Ganymede

  17. Calcium peroxide from ambient to high pressures

    E-print Network

    Nelson, Joseph R.; Needs, Richard J.; Pickard, Chris J.

    2015-02-06

    Structures of calcium peroxide (CaO2) are investigated in the pressure range 0–200 GPa using the ab initio random structure searching (AIRSS) method and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. At 0 GPa, there are several CaO2 structures very...

  18. High-pressure chemistry of nitride-based materials.

    PubMed

    Horvath-Bordon, Elisabeta; Riedel, Ralf; Zerr, Andreas; McMillan, Paul F; Auffermann, Gudrun; Prots, Yurii; Bronger, Welf; Kniep, Rüdiger; Kroll, Peter

    2006-10-01

    Besides temperature at one atmosphere, the applied pressure is another important parameter for influencing and controlling reaction pathways and final reaction products. This is relevant not only for the genesis of natural minerals, but also for synthetic chemical products and technological materials. The present critical review (316 references) highlights recent developments that utilise high pressures and high-temperatures for the synthesis of new materials with unique properties, such as high hardness, or interesting magnetic or optoelectronic features. Novel metal nitrides, oxonitrides as well as the new class of nitride-diazenide compounds, all formed under high-pressure conditions, are highlighted. Pure oxides and carbides are not considered here. Moreover, syntheses under high-pressure conditions require special equipment and preparation techniques, completely different from those used for conventional synthetic approaches at ambient pressure. Therefore, we also summarize the high-pressure techniques used for the synthesis of new materials on a laboratory scale. In particular, our attention is focused on reactive gas pressure devices with pressures between 1.2 and 600 MPa, multi-anvil apparatus at P < 25 GPa and the diamond anvil cell, which allows work at pressures of 100 GPa and higher. For example, some of these techniques have been successfully upgraded to an industrial scale for the synthesis of diamond and cubic boron nitride. PMID:17003902

  19. [Genesis study of omphacite at high pressure and high temperature].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ben-Fu; Yi, Li; Wang, Duo-Jun; Xie, Chao; Tang, Xue-Wu; Liu, Lei; Cui, Yue-Ju

    2013-11-01

    The melting and recrystallizing experiments of alkali basalt powder and mixture of pure oxides mixed as stoichiometry were performed at 3 GPa and 1 200 degrees C. Electronic microprobe analysis and Raman spectra showed that the recrystallized products were omphacites, the FWHM (full width at half maximum) of the Raman peak was narrow and its shape was sharp, which is attributed to the stable Si-O tetrahedral structure and the high degree of order in omphacite. Based on the results of previous studies, the influencing factors of omphacite genesis and its primary magma were discussed. The results showed that the formation of omphacite could be affected by many factors, such as the composition of parent rocks, the concentration of fluid in the system and the conditions of pressure and temperature. This result could support some experimental evidences on the genesis studies of omphacite and eclogite. PMID:24555367

  20. High Pressure Elastic Constants of High-Pressure Iron Analog Osmium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godwal, B. K.; Geballe, Z.; Jeanloz, R.

    2011-12-01

    Understanding the elasticity of hcp iron is important both for ascertaining the stable phase and for explaining the observed seismic anomalies of Earth's inner core. A systematic experimental study of analog materials is warranted because experiments at inner-core conditions remain exceptionally challenging and theory has yielded conflicting results for iron. The deformation of hexagonal close-packed (hcp) Os, an analog for the high-pressure hcp form of Fe, has been characterized under non-hydrostatic stresses using synchrotron-based angular-dispersive radial x-ray diffraction to pressures of 60 GPa at room temperature. Starting with published ultrasonic values of elastic constants and previous measurements of linear and volume compressibilities, we estimate the single-crystal elasticity tensor of osmium to 60 GPa and find that the crystal orientation with the largest shear modulus, (002), accommodates the largest shear stress (10 GPa) and a differential strain surpassing the Voigt iso-strain limit. We find the conventional elastic model, bounded by Reuss (iso-stress) and Voigt limits, inadequate for explaining our measurements. Instead, we infer that plastic deformation limits the amount of shear stress supported by the crystal planes near the a-axis, causing the more elastically strong c-axis to support the majority of the differential strain. This conclusion is consistent with the elasto-plastic self-consistent approach used to model the effect of plasticity on the high-pressure deformation of hcp-Co (Merkel et al, PRB 79, 064110 (2009)). Importantly, we document a strength anisotropy so large that the Voigt (elastic) limit is clearly surpassed.

  1. 15. VIEW OF MODULE H, THE HIGH PRESSURE ASSEMBLY AREA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. VIEW OF MODULE H, THE HIGH PRESSURE ASSEMBLY AREA. PROCESSES IN THIS MODULE OCCURRED UNDER HIGH PRESSURES AND TEMPERATURES. (5/70) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Manufacturing Facility, North-central section of Plant, just south of Building 776/777, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  2. 6. Fire Protection (high pressure), view to the east. Located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Fire Protection (high pressure), view to the east. Located on the pipe floor between Unit 3 and Unit 4, the high pressure CO2 tanks are connected to the generator barrel of all four units. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Cabinet Gorge Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, North Bank of Clark Fork River at Cabinet Gorge, Cabinet, Bonner County, ID

  3. 76 FR 38697 - High Pressure Steel Cylinders From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ..., 2011 (76 FR 28807). The conference was held in Washington, DC, on June 1, 2011, and all persons who... High Pressure Steel Cylinders From China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... reason of imports from China of high pressure steel cylinders, provided for in subheading 7311.00.00...

  4. 77 FR 37712 - High Pressure Steel Cylinders From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-22

    ... Commission, Washington, DC, and by publishing the notice in the Federal Register on January 23, 2012 (77 FR... COMMISSION High Pressure Steel Cylinders From China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed... imports of high pressure steel cylinders from China, provided for in subheading 7311.00.00 of...

  5. Journey to the Center of the Earth: Exploring High Pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, Wendy

    2009-09-29

    The deeper we go into the Earth, the higher the pressure. At the pressures found within the center of our planet, minerals do not simply compress. Pressure dramatically alters all materials properties, in the process creating numerous novel phases not found on the surface. This lecture will describe how we simulate the conditions found in planetary interiors in the lab, what kinds of new behavior we find, and how these observations can explain what is going on within the Earth. High pressure explorations also lead to discoveries of novel materials with potential for practical applications in our low-pressure, environment.

  6. High-pressure studies of pharmaceutical compounds and energetic materials.

    PubMed

    Fabbiani, Francesca P A; Pulham, Colin R

    2006-10-01

    The effects of high pressure on pharmaceutical compounds and energetic materials can have important implications for both the properties and performance of these important classes of material. Pharmaceutical compounds are frequently subjected to pressure during processing and formulation, causing interconversion between solid forms that may affect properties such as solubility and bio-availability. Energetic materials experience extremes of both pressure and temperature under conditions of detonation and deflagration, causing changes in properties such as sensitivity to shock and chemical reactivity. This tutorial review outlines the various methods used to study these materials at high pressure, describes how pressure can be used to explore polymorphism, and provides examples of compounds that have been studied at high pressure. PMID:17003899

  7. Strong environmental tolerance of Artemia under very high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minami, K.; Ono, F.; Mori, Y.; Takarabe, K.; Saigusa, M.; Matsushima, Y.; Saini, N. L.; Yamashita, M.

    2010-03-01

    It was shown by the present authors group that a tardigrade in its tun-state can survive after exposed to 7.5 GPa for 13 hours. We have extended this experiment to other tiny animals searching for lives under extreme conditions of high hydrostatic pressure. Artemia, a kind of planktons, in its dried egg-state have strong environmental tolerance. Dozens of Artemia eggs were sealed in a small Teflon capsule together with a liquid pressure medium, and exposed to the high hydrostatic pressure of 7.5 GPa. After the pressure was released, they were soaked in seawater to observe hatching rate. It was proved that 80-90% of the Artemia eggs were alive and hatched into Nauplii after exposed to the maximum pressure of 7.5 GPa for up to 48 hours. Comparing with Tardigrades, Artemia are four-times stronger against high pressure.

  8. Experimental investigation on pressurization performance of cryogenic tank during high-temperature helium pressurization process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Wang; Yanzhong, Li; Yonghua, Jin; Yuan, Ma

    2015-03-01

    Sufficient knowledge of thermal performance and pressurization behaviors in cryogenic tanks during rocket launching period is of importance to the design and optimization of a pressurization system. In this paper, ground experiments with liquid oxygen (LO2) as the cryogenic propellant, high-temperature helium exceeding 600 K as the pressurant gas, and radial diffuser and anti-cone diffuser respectively at the tank inlet were performed. The pressurant gas requirements, axial and radial temperature distributions, and energy distributions inside the propellant tank were obtained and analyzed to evaluate the comprehensive performance of the pressurization system. It was found that the pressurization system with high-temperature helium as the pressurant gas could work well that the tank pressure was controlled within a specified range and a stable discharging liquid rate was achieved. For the radial diffuser case, the injected gas had a direct impact on the tank inner wall. The severe gas-wall heat transfer resulted in about 59% of the total input energy absorbed by the tank wall. For the pressurization case with anti-cone diffuser, the direct impact of high-temperature gas flowing toward the liquid surface resulted in a greater deal of energy transferred to the liquid propellant, and the percentage even reached up to 38%. Moreover, both of the two cases showed that the proportion of energy left in ullage to the total input energy was quite small, and the percentage was only about 22-24%. This may indicate that a more efficient diffuser should be developed to improve the pressurization effect. Generally, the present experimental results are beneficial to the design and optimization of the pressurization system with high-temperature gas supplying the pressurization effect.

  9. Structure and stability of hydrous minerals at high pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duffy, T. S.; Fei, Y.; Meade, C.; Hemley, R. J.; Mao, H. K.

    1994-01-01

    The presence of even small amounts of hydrogen in the Earth's deep interior may have profound effects on mantle melting, rheology, and electrical conductivity. The recent discovery of a large class of high-pressure H-bearing silicates further underscores the potentially important role for hydrous minerals in the Earth's mantle. Hydrogen may also be a significant component of the Earth's core, as has been recently documented by studies of iron hydride at high pressure. In this study, we explore the role of H in crystal structures at high pressure through detailed Raman spectroscopic and x ray diffraction studies of hydrous minerals compressed in diamond anvil cells. Brucite, Mg(OH)2, has a simple structure and serves as an analogue for the more complex hydrous silicates. Over the past five years, this material has been studied at high pressure using shock-compression, powder x ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and neutron diffraction. In addition, we have recently carried out single-crystal synchrotron x-ray diffraction on Mg(OH)2 and Raman spectroscopy on Mg(OD)2 at elevated pressure. From all these studies, an interesting picture of the crystal chemical behavior of this material at high pressure is beginning to emerge. Some of the primary conclusions are as follows: First, hydrogen bonding is enhanced by the application of pressure. Second, layered minerals which are elastically anisotropic at low pressure may not be so at high pressure. Furthermore, the brucite data place constraints on the effect of hydrogen on seismic velocities and density at very high pressure. Third, the stability of hydrous minerals may be enhanced at high P by subtle structural rearrangements that are difficult to detect using traditional probes and require detailed spectroscopic analyses. Finally, brucite appears to be unique in that it undergoes pressure-induced disordering that is confined solely to the H-containing layers of the structure.

  10. High-Pressure Study on Lead Fluorapatite

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, X.; Shieh, S; Fleet, M; Akhmetov, A

    2008-01-01

    The compressional behavior of a synthetic lead fluorapatite [Pb9.35(PO4)6F2] has been investigated in situ up to about 16.7 GPa at 300 K, using a diamond-anvil cell and synchrotron X-ray diffraction. We find that the compressibility of lead fluorapatite is significantly different from that of fluorapatite [Ca10(PO4)6F2], chlorapatite [Ca10(PO4)6Cl2], and hydroxylapatite [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2]: lead fluorapatite is much more compressible, and elastically isotropic in the investigated pressure range. The pressure-volume data fitted to the third-order Birch-Murnaghan equation yield an isothermal bulk modulus (KT) of 54.3(18) GPa and the pressure derivative (KT') of 8.1(6). If KT' is fixed at 4, the obtained KT is 68.4(16) GPa, which is approximately only two-thirds of the isothermal bulk modulus of the calcium apatites.

  11. Effect of high pressure on hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria.

    PubMed

    Schedler, Martina; Hiessl, Robert; Valladares Juárez, Ana Gabriela; Gust, Giselher; Müller, Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    The blowout of the Deepwater Horizon in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010 occurred at a depth of 1500 m, corresponding to a hydrostatic pressure of 15 MPa. Up to now, knowledge about the impact of high pressure on oil-degrading bacteria has been scarce. To investigate how the biodegradation of crude oil and its components is influenced by high pressures, like those in deep-sea environments, hydrocarbon degradation and growth of two model strains were studied in high-pressure reactors. The alkane-degrading strain Rhodococcus qingshengii TUHH-12 grew well on n-hexadecane at 15 MPa at a rate of 0.16 h(-1), although slightly slower than at ambient pressure (0.36 h(-1)). In contrast, the growth of the aromatic hydrocarbon degrading strain Sphingobium yanoikuyae B1 was highly affected by elevated pressures. Pressures of up to 8.8 MPa had little effect on growth of this strain. However, above this pressure growth decreased and at 12 MPa or more no more growth was observed. Nevertheless, S. yanoikuyae continued to convert naphthalene at pressure >12 MPa, although at a lower rate than at 0.1 MPa. This suggests that certain metabolic functions of this bacterium were inhibited by pressure to a greater extent than the enzymes responsible for naphthalene degradation. These results show that high pressure has a strong influence on the biodegradation of crude oil components and that, contrary to previous assumptions, the role of pressure cannot be discounted when estimating the biodegradation and ultimate fate of deep-sea oil releases such as the Deepwater Horizon event. PMID:25401077

  12. Effect of high pressure on hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The blowout of the Deepwater Horizon in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010 occurred at a depth of 1500 m, corresponding to a hydrostatic pressure of 15 MPa. Up to now, knowledge about the impact of high pressure on oil-degrading bacteria has been scarce. To investigate how the biodegradation of crude oil and its components is influenced by high pressures, like those in deep-sea environments, hydrocarbon degradation and growth of two model strains were studied in high-pressure reactors. The alkane-degrading strain Rhodococcus qingshengii TUHH-12 grew well on n-hexadecane at 15 MPa at a rate of 0.16 h?1, although slightly slower than at ambient pressure (0.36 h?1). In contrast, the growth of the aromatic hydrocarbon degrading strain Sphingobium yanoikuyae B1 was highly affected by elevated pressures. Pressures of up to 8.8 MPa had little effect on growth of this strain. However, above this pressure growth decreased and at 12 MPa or more no more growth was observed. Nevertheless, S. yanoikuyae continued to convert naphthalene at pressure >12 MPa, although at a lower rate than at 0.1 MPa. This suggests that certain metabolic functions of this bacterium were inhibited by pressure to a greater extent than the enzymes responsible for naphthalene degradation. These results show that high pressure has a strong influence on the biodegradation of crude oil components and that, contrary to previous assumptions, the role of pressure cannot be discounted when estimating the biodegradation and ultimate fate of deep-sea oil releases such as the Deepwater Horizon event. PMID:25401077

  13. Temperature control for high pressure processes up to 1400 MPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reineke, K.; Mathys, A.; Heinz, V.; Knorr, D.

    2008-07-01

    Pressure- assisted sterilisation is an emerging technology. Hydrostatic high pressure can reduce the thermal load of the product and this allows quality retention in food products. To guarantee the safety of the sterilisation process it is necessary to investigate inactivation kinetics especially of bacterial spores. A significant roll during the inactivation of microorganisms under high pressure has the thermodynamic effect of the adiabatic heating. To analyse the individual effect of pressure and temperature on microorganism inactivation an exact temperature control of the sample to reach ideal adiabatic conditions and isothermal dwell times is necessary. Hence a heating/cooling block for a high pressure unit (Stansted Mini-Food-lab; high pressure capillary with 300 ?L sample volume) was constructed. Without temperature control the sample would be cooled down during pressure built up, because of the non-adiabatic heating of the steel made vessel. The heating/cooling block allows an ideal adiabatic heat up and cooling of the pressure vessel during compression and decompression. The high pressure unit has a pressure build-up rate up to 250 MPa s-1 and a maximum pressure of 1400 MPa. Sebacate acid was chosen as pressure transmitting medium because it had no phase shift over the investigate pressure and temperature range. To eliminate the temperature difference between sample and vessel during compression and decompression phase, the mathematical model of the adiabatic heating/cooling of water and sebacate acid was implemented into a computational routine, written in Test Point. The calculated temperature is the setpoint of the PID controller for the heating/cooling block. This software allows an online measurement of the pressure and temperature in the vessel and the temperature at the outer wall of the vessel. The accurate temperature control, including the model of the adiabatic heating opens up the possibility to realise an ideal adiabatic heating and cooling as well as isotherm dwell time of the sample under high pressure. This research offers a useful tool to investigate the additive effect of high pressure and thermal treatment on the inactivation of microorganisms.

  14. Ion-hose instability in a long-pulse linear induction accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genoni, Thomas C.; Hughes, Thomas P.

    2003-03-01

    The ion-hose instability is a transverse electrostatic instability which occurs on electron beams in the presence of a low-density ion channel. It is a phenomenon quite similar to the interaction between electron clouds and proton or positron beams in high-energy accelerators and storage rings. In the DARHT-2 accelerator, the 2-kA, 2-?s beam pulse produces an ion channel through impact ionization of the residual background gas (10-7 10-6 torr). A calculation of the linear growth by Briggs indicates that the instability could be strong enough to affect the radiographic application of DARHT, which requires that transverse oscillations be small compared to the beam radius. We present semianalytical theory and 3D particle-in-cell simulations (using the Lsp code) of the linear and nonlinear growth of the instability, including the effects of the temporal change in the ion density and spatially decreasing beam radius. We find that the number of e-foldings experienced by a given beam slice is given approximately by an analytic expression using the local channel density at the beam slice. Hence, in the linear regime, the number of e-foldings increases linearly from head to tail of the beam pulse since it is proportional to the ion density. We also find that growth is strongly suppressed by nonlinear effects at relatively small oscillation amplitudes of the electron beam. This is because the ion oscillation amplitude is several times larger than that of the beam, allowing nonlinear effects to come into play. An analogous effect has recently been noted in electron-proton instabilities in high-energy accelerators and storage rings. For DARHT-2 parameters, we find that a pressure of ?1.5×10-7 torr is needed to keep the transverse beam oscillation amplitude less than about 20% of the rms beam radius.

  15. The effect of high pressure on nitrogen compounds of milk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kielczewska, Katarzyna; Czerniewicz, Maria; Michalak, Joanna; Brandt, Waldemar

    2004-04-01

    The effect of pressurization at different pressures (from 200 to 1000 MPa, at 200 MPa intervals, tconst. = 15 min) and periods of time (from 15 to 35 min, at 10 min intervals, pconst. = 800 MPa) on the changes of proteins and nitrogen compounds of skimmed milk was studied. The pressurization caused an increase in the amount of soluble casein and denaturation of whey proteins. The level of nonprotein nitrogen compounds and proteoso-peptone nitrogen compounds increased as a result of the high-pressure treatment. These changes increased with an increase in pressure and exposure time. High-pressure treatment considerably affected the changes in the conformation of milk proteins, which was reflected in the changes in the content of proteins sedimenting and an increase in their degree of hydration.

  16. An experimental investigation of single and multiple pass high temperature, high pressure paper drying 

    E-print Network

    Simonson, Eric Howard

    1994-01-01

    pressure drying. The present experimental investigation considers the effects of high temperature, high pressure single and multiple pass drying on moisture removal. An apparatus was designed and constructed for the testing of wet paper specimens under...

  17. Polyhedral carbon nanoparticles at high pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davydov, V. A.; Shiryaev, A. A.; Rakhmanina, A. V.; Filonenko, V. P.; Vasil'ev, A. L.; Autret, C.; Agafonov, V. N.; Khabashesku, V. N.

    2010-12-01

    The solid-phase transformations of polyhedral nanoparticles at a pressure of 8.0 GPa and various temperatures have been investigated by X-ray diffraction, small-angle X-ray scattering, and transmission electron microscopy. It has been found that the graphene layers of the inner cavities of polyhedral particles are transformed into onion-like structures at temperatures above ˜1000°C. This transformation gives rise to the formation of hybrid-type sp2 carbon nanoparticles, which combine the outer polyhedral shape with the quasispherical onion-like core. Polyhedral nanoparticles smaller than ˜40 nm are completely transformed into onion-like particles at 1600°C.

  18. Polyhedral carbon nanoparticles at high pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davydov, V. A.; Shiryaev, A. A.; Rakhmanina, A. V.; Filonenko, V. P.; Vasil'Ev, A. L.; Autret, C.; Agafonov, V. N.; Khabashesku, V. N.

    2009-12-01

    The solid-phase transformations of polyhedral nanoparticles at a pressure of 8.0 GPa and various temperatures have been investigated by X-ray diffraction, small-angle X-ray scattering, and transmission electron microscopy. It has been found that the graphene layers of the inner cavities of polyhedral particles are transformed into onion-like structures at temperatures above ˜1000°C. This transformation gives rise to the formation of hybrid-type sp2 carbon nanoparticles, which combine the outer polyhedral shape with the quasispherical onion-like core. Polyhedral nanoparticles smaller than ˜40 nm are completely transformed into onion-like particles at 1600°C.

  19. Characterization of quartz Bourdon-type high-pressure transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobata, Tokihiko

    2005-12-01

    The characteristics of commercially available pressure monitors were evaluated. The pressure range of these pressure monitors is up to 100 MPa and the resolution of the transducer is 0.1 kPa. The pressure monitor includes a quartz Bourdon-type high-precision electronic pressure transducer inside the body. The sensing element of the transducer is a precision quartz crystal resonator and the frequency of oscillation varies with pressure-induced stress. In total, six pressure monitors were prepared for this study. During 15 months, the six monitors were calibrated simultaneously using a hydraulic pressure balance 11 times in total. The effects on the readings of the monitors by setting parameters and environmental conditions were evaluated. The important characteristics for the pressure transducer such as the temperature coefficient of the span reading and long-term stability were also evaluated quantitatively. From the evaluation results, the behaviours of the transducers during the period were well characterized. The standard deviation of the relative deviations from the least-squares best-fitting function for each pressure transducer was less than 6 × 10-6 in the pressure range of 30 MPa to 100 MPa and had a maximum of 11 × 10-6 at 10 MPa. In this article, the details of the characterization are described.

  20. Criterion for Identifying Vortices in High-Pressure Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellan, Josette; Okong'o, Nora

    2007-01-01

    A study of four previously published computational criteria for identifying vortices in high-pressure flows has led to the selection of one of them as the best. This development can be expected to contribute to understanding of high-pressure flows, which occur in diverse settings, including diesel, gas turbine, and rocket engines and the atmospheres of Jupiter and other large gaseous planets. Information on the atmospheres of gaseous planets consists mainly of visual and thermal images of the flows over the planets. Also, validation of recently proposed computational models of high-pressure flows entails comparison with measurements, which are mainly of visual nature. Heretofore, the interpretation of images of high-pressure flows to identify vortices has been based on experience with low-pressure flows. However, high-pressure flows have features distinct from those of low-pressure flows, particularly in regions of high pressure gradient magnitude caused by dynamic turbulent effects and by thermodynamic mixing of chemical species. Therefore, interpretations based on low-pressure behavior may lead to misidentification of vortices and other flow structures in high-pressure flows. The study reported here was performed in recognition of the need for one or more quantitative criteria for identifying coherent flow structures - especially vortices - from previously generated flow-field data, to complement or supersede the determination of flow structures by visual inspection of instantaneous fields or flow animations. The focus in the study was on correlating visible images of flow features with various quantities computed from flow-field data.

  1. Studies of Alkali Sorption Kinetics for Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion by High Pressure Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, K.J.; Willenborg, W.; Fricke, C.; Prikhodovsky, A.; Hilpert, K.; Singheiser, L.

    2002-09-20

    This work describes the first approach to use High Pressure Mass Spectrometry (HPMS) for the quantification and analysis of alkali species in a gas stream downstream a sorbent bed of different tested alumosilicates.

  2. Underground storage systems for high-pressure air and gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beam, B. H.; Giovannetti, A.

    1975-01-01

    This paper is a discussion of the safety and cost of underground high-pressure air and gas storage systems based on recent experience with a high-pressure air system installed at Moffett Field, California. The system described used threaded and coupled oil well casings installed vertically to a depth of 1200 ft. Maximum pressure was 3000 psi and capacity was 500,000 lb of air. A failure mode analysis is presented, and it is shown that underground storage offers advantages in avoiding catastrophic consequences from pressure vessel failure. Certain problems such as corrosion, fatigue, and electrolysis are discussed in terms of the economic life of such vessels. A cost analysis shows that where favorable drilling conditions exist, the cost of underground high-pressure storage is approximately one-quarter that of equivalent aboveground storage.

  3. Germination of vegetable seeds exposed to very high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Y.; Yokota, S.; Ono, F.

    2012-07-01

    Effects of high hydrostatic pressure were investigated on vegetable seeds in the GPa range to examine the potentialities of breed improvement by high-pressure processing. Specimens of several seeds of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), Turnip leaf (Brassica rapa var. perviridis) and Potherb Mustard (Brassica rapa var. nipposinica) were put in a teflon capsule with liquid high pressure medium, fluorinate, and inserted into a pyrophillite cube. By using a cubic anvil press a hydrostatic pressure of 5.5 GP a was applied to these seeds for 15 minutes. After being brought back to ambient pressure, they were seeded on humid soil in a plant pot. Many of these vegetable seeds began to germinate within 6 days after seeded.

  4. 46 CFR 167.45-25 - Fire mains and hose connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire mains and hose connections. 167.45-25...NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Special Firefighting and Fire Prevention Requirements § 167.45-25 Fire mains and hose connections. All pipes...

  5. 46 CFR 167.45-25 - Fire mains and hose connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire mains and hose connections. 167.45-25...NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Special Firefighting and Fire Prevention Requirements § 167.45-25 Fire mains and hose connections. All pipes...

  6. Equation of state of liquid Indium under high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huaming; Sun, Yongli; Li, Mo

    2015-09-01

    We apply an equation of state of a power law form to liquid Indium to study its thermodynamic properties under high temperature and high pressure. Molar volume of molten indium is calculated along the isothermal line at 710K within good precision as compared with the experimental data in an externally heated diamond anvil cell. Bulk modulus, thermal expansion and internal pressure are obtained for isothermal compression. Other thermodynamic properties are also calculated along the fitted high pressure melting line. While our results suggest that the power law form may be a better choice for the equation of state of liquids, these detailed predictions are yet to be confirmed by further experiment.

  7. Rotational viscometer for high-pressure, high-temperature fluids

    DOEpatents

    Carr, K.R.

    1983-06-06

    The invention is a novel rotational viscometer which is well adapted for use with fluids at high temperatures and/or pressures. In one embodiment, the viscometer include a substantially non-magnetic tube having a closed end and having an open end in communication with a fluid whose viscosity is to be determined. An annular drive magnet is mounted for rotation about the tube. The tube encompasses and supports a rotatable shaft assembly which carries a rotor, or bob, for insertion in the fluid. Affixed to the shaft are (a) a second magnet which is magnetically coupled to the drive magnet and (b) a third magnet. In a typical operation, the drive magnet is rotated to turn the shaft assembly while the shaft rotor is immersed in the fluid. The viscous drag on the rotor causes the shaft assembly to lag the rotation of the drive magnet by an amount which is a function of the amount of viscous drag. A first magnetic pickup generates a waveform whose phase is a function of the angular position of the drive magnet. A second magnetic pickup generates a waveform whose phase is a function of the angular position of the third magnet. Means are provided to generate an output indicative of the phase difference between the two waveforms. The viscometer is comparatively simple, inexpensive, rugged, and does not require shaft seals.

  8. Rotational viscometer for high-pressure high-temperature fluids

    DOEpatents

    Carr, Kenneth R. (Knoxville, TN)

    1985-01-01

    The invention is a novel rotational viscometer which is well adapted for use with fluids at high temperatures and/or pressures. In one embodiment, the viscometer includes a substantially non-magnetic tube having a closed end and having an open end in communication with a fluid whose viscosity is to be determined. An annular drive magnet is mounted for rotation about the tube. The tube encompasses and supports a rotatable shaft assembly which carries a rotor, or bob, for insertion in the fluid. Affixed to the shaft are (a) a second magnet which is magnetically coupled to the drive magnet and (b) a third magnet. In a typical operation, the drive magnet is rotated to turn the shaft assembly while the shaft rotor is immersed in the fluid. The viscous drag on the rotor causes the shaft assembly to lag the rotation of the drive magnet by an amount which is a function of the amount of viscous drag. A first magnetic pickup generates a waveform whose phase is a function of the angular position of the drive magnet. A second magnetic pickup generates a waveform whose phase is a function of the angular position of the third magnet. An output is generated indicative of the phase difference between the two waveforms.

  9. HIGH TEMPERATURE HIGH PRESSURE THERMODYNAMIC MEASUREMENTS FOR COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS

    SciTech Connect

    Vinayak N. Kabadi

    2000-05-01

    The flow VLE apparatus designed and built for a previous project was upgraded and recalibrated for data measurements for this project. The modifications include better and more accurate sampling technique, addition of a digital recorder to monitor temperature and pressure inside the VLE cell, and a new technique for remote sensing of the liquid level in the cell. VLE data measurements for three binary systems, tetralin-quinoline, benzene--ethylbenzene and ethylbenzene--quinoline, have been completed. The temperature ranges of data measurements were 325 C to 370 C for the first system, 180 C to 300 C for the second system, and 225 C to 380 C for the third system. The smoothed data were found to be fairly well behaved when subjected to thermodynamic consistency tests. SETARAM C-80 calorimeter was used for incremental enthalpy and heat capacity measurements for benzene--ethylbenzene binary liquid mixtures. Data were measured from 30 C to 285 C for liquid mixtures covering the entire composition range. An apparatus has been designed for simultaneous measurement of excess volume and incremental enthalpy of liquid mixtures at temperatures from 30 C to 300 C. The apparatus has been tested and is ready for data measurements. A flow apparatus for measurement of heat of mixing of liquid mixtures at high temperatures has also been designed, and is currently being tested and calibrated.

  10. High pressure sample cell for total internal reflection fluorescence spectroscopy at pressures up to 2500 bar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Juny; Czeslik, Claus

    2012-08-01

    Total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) spectroscopy is a surface sensitive technique that is widely used to characterize the structure and dynamics of molecules at planar liquid-solid interfaces. In particular, biomolecular systems, such as protein adsorbates and lipid membranes can easily be studied by TIRF spectroscopy. Applying pressure to molecular systems offers access to all kinds of volume changes occurring during assembly of molecules, phase transitions, and chemical reactions. So far, most of these volume changes have been characterized in bulk solution, only. Here, we describe the design and performance of a high pressure sample cell that allows for TIRF spectroscopy under high pressures up to 2500 bar (2.5 × 108 Pa), in order to expand the understanding of volume effects from the bulk phase to liquid-solid interfaces. The new sample cell is based on a cylindrical body made of Nimonic 90 alloy and incorporates a pressure transmitting sample cuvette. This cuvette is composed of a fused silica prism and a flexible rubber gasket. It contains the sample solution and ensures a complete separation of the sample from the liquid pressure medium. The sample solution is in contact with the inner wall of the prism forming the interface under study, where fluorescent molecules are immobilized. In this way, the new high pressure TIRF sample cell is very useful for studying any biomolecular layer that can be deposited at a planar water-silica interface. As examples, high pressure TIRF data of adsorbed lysozyme and two phospholipid membranes are presented.

  11. High pressure pump for electro-rheological fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiffler, Mark E.; Loy, Luke W.

    1993-07-01

    A high-pressure pump for electrorheological fluids in which the pump components operate with relatively large clearances and rely on the electrorheological fluid effect for sealing. Preferably, the electrorheological effect is induced in the fluid only in the region where a seal between relatively merging pump parts is required to generate a fluid pressure increase.

  12. High-pressure and temperature investigations of energetic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gump, J. C.

    2014-05-01

    Static high-pressure measurements are extremely useful for obtaining thermodynamic and phase stability information from a wide variety of materials. However, studying energetic materials can be challenging when extracting information from static high-pressure measurements. Energetic materials are traditionally C, H, N, O compounds with low crystalline symmetry, producing weak signal in commonly performed x-ray diffraction measurements. The small sample volume available in a static high-pressure cell exacerbates this issue. Additionally, typical hydrostatic compression media, such as methanol/ethanol, may react with many energetic materials. However, characterization of their thermodynamic parameters and phase stability is critical to understanding explosive performance and sensitivity. Crystalline properties, such as bulk modulus and thermal expansion, are necessary to accurately predict the behaviour of shocked solids using hydrodynamic codes. In order to obtain these values, equations of state of various energetic materials were investigated using synchrotron angle-dispersive x-ray diffraction experiments at static high-pressure and temperature. Intense synchrotron radiation overcomes the weak x-ray scattering of energetic materials in a pressure cell. The samples were hydrostatically compressed using a non-reactive hydrostatic medium and heated using a heated diamond anvil cell. Pressure - volume data for the materials were fit to the Birch-Murnaghan and Vinet formalisms to obtain bulk modulus and its first pressure derivative. Temperature - volume data at ambient pressure were fit to obtain the volume thermal expansion coefficient. Data from several energetic materials will be presented and compared.

  13. High-pressure and temperature investigations of energetic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gump, Jared

    2013-06-01

    Static high-pressure measurements are extremely useful for obtaining thermodynamic and phase stability information from a wide variety of materials. However, studying energetic materials can be challenging when extracting information from static high-pressure measurements. Energetic materials are traditionally C, H, N, O compounds with low crystalline symmetry, producing weak signal in commonly performed x-ray diffraction measurements. The small sample volume available in a static high-pressure cell exacerbates this issue. Additionally, typical hydrostatic compression media, such as methanol/ethanol, may react with many energetic materials. However, characterization of their thermodynamic parameters and phase stability is critical to understanding explosive performance and sensitivity. Crystalline properties, such as bulk modulus and thermal expansion, are necessary to accurately predict the behavior of shocked solids using hydrodynamic codes. In order to obtain these values, equations of state of various energetic materials were investigated using synchrotron angle-dispersive x-ray diffraction experiments at static high-pressure and temperature. Intense synchrotron radiation overcomes the weak x-ray scattering of energetic materials in a pressure cell. The samples were hydrostatically compressed using a non-reactive hydrostatic medium and heated using a heated diamond anvil cell. Pressure - volume data for the materials were fit to the Birch-Murnaghan and Vinet formalisms to obtain bulk modulus and its first pressure derivative. Temperature - volume data at ambient pressure were fit to obtain the volume thermal expansion coefficient. Data from several energetic materials will be presented and compared.

  14. High Pressure Research Vol. 25, No. 2, June 2005, 107118

    E-print Network

    Alfè, Dario

    High Pressure Research Vol. 25, No. 2, June 2005, 107­118 A new belt-type apparatus for neutron, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL, UK §Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London. The pressure cell consists of a simple belt design and fits in a modified 250 tonne Paris­Edinburgh press

  15. Rotordynamic stability problems and solutions in high pressure turbocompressors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmied, J.

    1989-01-01

    The stability of a high pressure compressor is investigated with special regard to the self-exciting effects in oil seals and labyrinths. It is shown how to stabilize a rotor in spite of these effects and even increase its stability with increasing pressure.

  16. Detail view of unit 43 with high pressure stage compressor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of unit 43 with high pressure stage compressor in left foreground and low pressure stage compressor in right background. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  17. High pressure testing of see-through labyrinth seals 

    E-print Network

    Picardo, Arthur Michael

    2003-01-01

    Detailed results are presented for teeth-on-stator labyrinth seals tested under high pressure of 70 bar-a (1015 psi-a) and 52 bar-a (754 psi-a) in the centered position. The seals were tested at pressure ratios of 0.52, 0.36 and 0.16, speeds of 10...

  18. h d h f lh d h f lPhysics and Chemistry of MaterialsPhysics and Chemistry of Materials Under High PressureUnder High PressureUnder High PressureUnder High Pressure

    E-print Network

    Oganov, Artem R.

    dwarfs100 Mbar · deep interiors of giant planets and Planetary impacts sub-stellar objects (e.g., brown dwarfs), · final stages of planet formation (giant impacts) #12;Effects of PressureEffects of Pressure technologies require new materials with superior properties high energy-density conducting & superconducting

  19. Inactivation of a Norovirus by High Pressure Processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Murine norovirus (strain MNV-1), a propagable norovirus, was evaluated for susceptibility to high pressure processing. Experiments with virus stocks in DMEM media demonstrated that at room temperature (20 degree C), the virus was inactivated over a pressure range of 350 to 450 MegaPascals (MPa), wi...

  20. Temperature effects for high pressure processing of Picornaviruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Investigation of the effects of pre-pressurization temperature on the high pressure inactivation for single strains of aichivirus (AiV), coxsackievirus A9 (CAV9) and B5 (CBV5) viruses, as well as human parechovirus -1 (HPeV), was performed. For CAV9, an average 1.99 log10 greater inactivation was ...