Sample records for high pressure hose

  1. 30 CFR 57.13021 - High-pressure hose connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false High-pressure hose connections. 57.13021...and Boilers § 57.13021 High-pressure hose connections. Except...at connections to machines of high-pressure hose lines of 3/4...

  2. 30 CFR 56.13021 - High-pressure hose connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false High-pressure hose connections. 56.13021...and Boilers § 56.13021 High-pressure hose connections. Except...at connections to machines of high-pressure hose lines of 3/4...

  3. 30 CFR 56.13021 - High-pressure hose connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-pressure hose connections. 56.13021...and Boilers § 56.13021 High-pressure hose connections. Except...at connections to machines of high-pressure hose lines of 3/4...

  4. 30 CFR 57.13021 - High-pressure hose connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false High-pressure hose connections. 57.13021...and Boilers § 57.13021 High-pressure hose connections. Except...at connections to machines of high-pressure hose lines of 3/4...

  5. 30 CFR 57.13021 - High-pressure hose connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false High-pressure hose connections. 57.13021...and Boilers § 57.13021 High-pressure hose connections. Except...at connections to machines of high-pressure hose lines of 3/4...

  6. 30 CFR 56.13021 - High-pressure hose connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false High-pressure hose connections. 56.13021...and Boilers § 56.13021 High-pressure hose connections. Except...at connections to machines of high-pressure hose lines of 3/4...

  7. 30 CFR 56.13021 - High-pressure hose connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false High-pressure hose connections. 56.13021...and Boilers § 56.13021 High-pressure hose connections. Except...at connections to machines of high-pressure hose lines of 3/4...

  8. 30 CFR 56.13021 - High-pressure hose connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false High-pressure hose connections. 56.13021...and Boilers § 56.13021 High-pressure hose connections. Except...at connections to machines of high-pressure hose lines of 3/4...

  9. 30 CFR 57.13021 - High-pressure hose connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-pressure hose connections. 57.13021...and Boilers § 57.13021 High-pressure hose connections. Except...at connections to machines of high-pressure hose lines of 3/4...

  10. 30 CFR 57.13021 - High-pressure hose connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false High-pressure hose connections. 57.13021...and Boilers § 57.13021 High-pressure hose connections. Except...at connections to machines of high-pressure hose lines of 3/4...

  11. The study on leakage reappearance test of high pressure hose for power steering system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Gi-Chun; Kim, Hyoung-Eui; Park, Jong-Won; Jeong, Won-Wook; Lee, Jong-Hwang; Lim, Young-Han; Hwang, Kwon-Tae; Lee, Young-Shin; Kim, Jae-Hoon

    2009-07-01

    Generally, a leakage in a high pressure hose assembly can be determined if hydraulic fluid falls down through fitting which is swaged with a rubber hose. This study tried to visualize leakage, which is considered a failure occurring often in the hydraulic system. In the case of methods which verify leakage paths in the power steering hydraulic system equipped with a high pressure hose assembly, three types of leakage paths, which could be seen by cutting the swaging part, were generally found. However, it was difficult to find out leakage paths by using power steering oil. In this study, four methods, including the thermal burn image method, the hole drilling method of fitting metal, the white paint infiltration method, and the fluorescent infiltration method, were tried to introduce. The thermal burn image method failed to find out the leakage path between the fitting part and the rubber part. The hole drilling method is the way to check a leakage path on the fitting part, which doesn't need to cut a hose assembly. This method succeeds to visualize the leakage path partially but it could not check a sequential path of leakage, either, because it needs to drill more closely. The white paint infiltration method also could find the leakage path partially by using white paint mixed with thinner, which was pressurized by hand pump, instead of power steering oil. This method could check the leakage path by cutting the swaging part. The fluorescent infiltration method could verify the leakage path with naked eyes simply by holding the cutting swaging part closely to the ray of light. Reappearance test methods in the high pressure hose assembly, which include a hole drilling, a white paint infiltration, and a fluorescent infiltration method, can be applied to find the failure mode and to approve the test before the mass production of the high pressure hose.

  12. 46 CFR 154.556 - Cargo hose: Maximum working pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Cargo hose: Maximum working pressure. 154.556 Section 154.556...Hose § 154.556 Cargo hose: Maximum working pressure. A cargo hose must have a maximum working pressure not less than the maximum...

  13. 46 CFR 154.556 - Cargo hose: Maximum working pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Cargo hose: Maximum working pressure. 154.556 Section 154.556...Hose § 154.556 Cargo hose: Maximum working pressure. A cargo hose must have a maximum working pressure not less than the maximum...

  14. Ignition of PTFE-lined flexible hoses by rapid pressurization with oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janoff, Dwight; Bamford, Larry J.; Newton, Barry E.; Bryan, Coleman J.

    A high-volume pneumatic-impact system has been used to test PTFE-lined stainless steel braided hoses, in order to characterize the roles played in the mechanism of oxygen-induced ignition by impact pressure, pressurization rate, and upstream and downstream volumes of the hose. Ignitions are noted to have occurred at impact pressures well below the working pressure of the hoses, as well as at pressurization rates easily obtainable through manual operation of valves. The use of stainless steel hardlines downstream of the hose prevented ignitions at all pressures and pressurization rates; internal observations have shown evidence of shock ionization in the oxygen prior to ignition.

  15. Ignition of PTFE-lined flexible hoses by rapid pressurization with oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janoff, Dwight; Bamford, Larry J.; Newton, Barry E.; Bryan, Coleman J.

    1989-01-01

    A high-volume pneumatic-impact system has been used to test PTFE-lined stainless steel braided hoses, in order to characterize the roles played in the mechanism of oxygen-induced ignition by impact pressure, pressurization rate, and upstream and downstream volumes of the hose. Ignitions are noted to have occurred at impact pressures well below the working pressure of the hoses, as well as at pressurization rates easily obtainable through manual operation of valves. The use of stainless steel hardlines downstream of the hose prevented ignitions at all pressures and pressurization rates; internal observations have shown evidence of shock ionization in the oxygen prior to ignition.

  16. High-flexibility, noncollapsing lightweight hose

    DOEpatents

    Williams, David A. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1993-01-01

    A high-flexibility, noncollapsing, lightweight, large-bore, wire-reinforced hose is inside fiber-reinforced PVC tubing that is flexible, lightweight, and abrasion resistant. It provides a strong, kink- and collapse-free conduit for moving large quantities of dangerous fluids, e.g., removing radioactive waste water or processing chemicals.

  17. High-flexibility, noncollapsing lightweight hose

    DOEpatents

    Williams, D.A.

    1993-04-20

    A high-flexibility, noncollapsing, lightweight, large-bore, wire-reinforced hose is inside fiber-reinforced PVC tubing that is flexible, lightweight, and abrasion resistant. It provides a strong, kink- and collapse-free conduit for moving large quantities of dangerous fluids, e.g., removing radioactive waste water or processing chemicals.

  18. 46 CFR 154.554 - Cargo hose: Bursting pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Cargo Hose § 154.554 ...pressure in the cargo tank, the cargo pump discharge, or the vapor compressor discharge must have a bursting pressure of at least five...

  19. 46 CFR 154.554 - Cargo hose: Bursting pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Cargo Hose § 154.554 ...pressure in the cargo tank, the cargo pump discharge, or the vapor compressor discharge must have a bursting pressure of at least five...

  20. 46 CFR 154.554 - Cargo hose: Bursting pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Cargo Hose § 154.554 ...pressure in the cargo tank, the cargo pump discharge, or the vapor compressor discharge must have a bursting pressure of at least five...

  1. 46 CFR 154.554 - Cargo hose: Bursting pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Cargo Hose § 154.554 ...pressure in the cargo tank, the cargo pump discharge, or the vapor compressor discharge must have a bursting pressure of at least five...

  2. 46 CFR 154.554 - Cargo hose: Bursting pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Cargo Hose § 154.554 ...pressure in the cargo tank, the cargo pump discharge, or the vapor compressor discharge must have a bursting pressure of at least five...

  3. Garden-hose instability in high-beta plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Peter H.

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews the theory of classical garden-hose instability in high-beta plasmas. The garden-hose (or fire-hose) instability is a hydromagnetic instability that is due to the nonresonant wave-particle interaction. Therefore, to the lowest order, it is customary to describe the instability under the assumption of hydromagnetic perturbation. The hydromagnetic assumption implies that the characteristic wave frequency (or the growth rate) is much lower than the ion gyrofrequency, and that the ion gyroradius is sufficiently smaller than the characteristic wavelength associated with the perturbation. As a result, the ion gyroradius is often taken to be zero at the outset. However, it was recently discovered that keeping the ion gyroradius finite (however small it may be) results in a fundamental alteration of the basic property of the instability. The article also reviews the nonlinear theory of the garden-hose instability.

  4. 49 CFR 178.337-9 - Pressure relief devices, piping, valves, hoses, and fittings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pressure relief devices, piping, valves...Transportation § 178.337-9 Pressure relief devices, piping, valves, hoses, and fittings. (a) Pressure relief devices. (1) See §...

  5. 49 CFR 178.337-9 - Pressure relief devices, piping, valves, hoses, and fittings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pressure relief devices, piping, valves...Transportation § 178.337-9 Pressure relief devices, piping, valves, hoses, and fittings. (a) Pressure relief devices. (1) See §...

  6. 49 CFR 178.337-9 - Pressure relief devices, piping, valves, hoses, and fittings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pressure relief devices, piping, valves...Transportation § 178.337-9 Pressure relief devices, piping, valves, hoses, and fittings. (a) Pressure relief devices. (1) See §...

  7. 49 CFR 178.337-9 - Pressure relief devices, piping, valves, hoses, and fittings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pressure relief devices, piping, valves...Transportation § 178.337-9 Pressure relief devices, piping, valves, hoses, and fittings. (a) Pressure relief devices. (1) See §...

  8. 30 CFR 56.7802 - Oxygen hose lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Oxygen hose lines. 56.7802 Section 56... Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7802 Oxygen hose lines. Safety chains or other...connections to and between high pressure oxygen hose lines of 1-inch inside...

  9. 30 CFR 56.7802 - Oxygen hose lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Oxygen hose lines. 56.7802 Section 56... Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7802 Oxygen hose lines. Safety chains or other...connections to and between high pressure oxygen hose lines of 1-inch inside...

  10. 30 CFR 56.7802 - Oxygen hose lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oxygen hose lines. 56.7802 Section 56... Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7802 Oxygen hose lines. Safety chains or other...connections to and between high pressure oxygen hose lines of 1-inch inside...

  11. 30 CFR 56.7802 - Oxygen hose lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Oxygen hose lines. 56.7802 Section 56... Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7802 Oxygen hose lines. Safety chains or other...connections to and between high pressure oxygen hose lines of 1-inch inside...

  12. 30 CFR 57.7802 - Oxygen hose lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oxygen hose lines. 57.7802 Section 57...Piercing-Surface Only § 57.7802 Oxygen hose lines. Safety chains or other...connections to and between high pressure oxygen hose lines of 1-inch inside...

  13. 30 CFR 57.7802 - Oxygen hose lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Oxygen hose lines. 57.7802 Section 57...Piercing-Surface Only § 57.7802 Oxygen hose lines. Safety chains or other...connections to and between high pressure oxygen hose lines of 1-inch inside...

  14. 30 CFR 57.7802 - Oxygen hose lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Oxygen hose lines. 57.7802 Section 57...Piercing-Surface Only § 57.7802 Oxygen hose lines. Safety chains or other...connections to and between high pressure oxygen hose lines of 1-inch inside...

  15. 30 CFR 57.7802 - Oxygen hose lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Oxygen hose lines. 57.7802 Section 57...Piercing-Surface Only § 57.7802 Oxygen hose lines. Safety chains or other...connections to and between high pressure oxygen hose lines of 1-inch inside...

  16. 30 CFR 57.7802 - Oxygen hose lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Oxygen hose lines. 57.7802 Section 57...Piercing-Surface Only § 57.7802 Oxygen hose lines. Safety chains or other...connections to and between high pressure oxygen hose lines of 1-inch inside...

  17. 30 CFR 56.7802 - Oxygen hose lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Oxygen hose lines. 56.7802 Section 56... Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7802 Oxygen hose lines. Safety chains or other...connections to and between high pressure oxygen hose lines of 1-inch inside...

  18. Simulations of Ion-Hose Instability with Pressure Profiles For DARHT-II Long-Pulse Experiments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. C. Dominic Chan; Harold A. Davis; C. A. Ekdahl; T. P. Hughes; T. C. Genoni; Yan Tang; M. E. Schulze

    2005-01-01

    Ion-hose instability growth of the 2-mus electron beam pulses will be studied during the Phase-II commissioning of the DARHT-II Facility. We have done simulations in support of the experiment using pressure profiles estimated for different pumping arrangements along the accelerator. Results of these simulations are reported in this paper and compared to simulation results reported previously using constant pressure profile

  19. 49 CFR 178.337-9 - Pressure relief devices, piping, valves, hoses, and fittings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (b) Piping, valves, hose, and fittings...devices. Malleable metal, stainless steel...construction of primary valve body parts and fittings used in liquid filling or vapor...be of equally strong metal union type. The...

  20. 6. DETAIL OF HIGHPRESSURE COMPRESSED AIR HOSE IN SOUTHWEST CORNER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DETAIL OF HIGH-PRESSURE COMPRESSED AIR HOSE IN SOUTHWEST CORNER OF SHIPPING AND RECEIVING ROOM (109) - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Vehicle Support Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  1. 46 CFR 197.456 - Breathing supply hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Breathing supply hoses. 197.456 Section...Diving Equipment § 197.456 Breathing supply hoses. (a) The diving...shall insure that— (1) Each breathing supply hose is pressure...

  2. 46 CFR 197.456 - Breathing supply hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing supply hoses. 197.456 Section...Diving Equipment § 197.456 Breathing supply hoses. (a) The diving...shall insure that— (1) Each breathing supply hose is pressure...

  3. 46 CFR 197.456 - Breathing supply hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Breathing supply hoses. 197.456 Section...Diving Equipment § 197.456 Breathing supply hoses. (a) The diving...shall insure that— (1) Each breathing supply hose is pressure...

  4. 46 CFR 197.456 - Breathing supply hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Breathing supply hoses. 197.456 Section...Diving Equipment § 197.456 Breathing supply hoses. (a) The diving...shall insure that— (1) Each breathing supply hose is pressure...

  5. 46 CFR 197.456 - Breathing supply hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Breathing supply hoses. 197.456 Section...Diving Equipment § 197.456 Breathing supply hoses. (a) The diving...shall insure that— (1) Each breathing supply hose is pressure...

  6. Observation of a Long-Wavelength Hosing Modulation of a High-Intensity Laser Pulse in Underdense Plasma

    E-print Network

    Kaluza, M C; Thomas, A G R; Najmudin, Z; Dangor, A E; Murphy, C D; Collier, J L; Divall, E J; Foster, P S; Hooker, C J; Langley, A J; Smith, J; Krushelnick, K

    2010-01-01

    We report the first experimental observation of a long-wavelength hosing modulation of a high-intensity laser pulse. Side-view images of the scattered optical radiation at the fundamental wave-length of the laser reveal a transverse oscillation of the laser pulse during its propagation through underdense plasma. The wavelength of the oscillation \\lambda_hosing depends on the background plasma density n_e and scales as \\lambda_hosing~n_e^-3/2. Comparisons with an analytical model and 2-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations reveal that this laser hosing can be induced by a spatio-temporal asymmetry of the intensity distribution in the laser focus which can be caused by a misalignment of the parabolic focussing mirror or of the diffraction gratings in the pulse compressor.

  7. Effect of finite ion gyroradius on the fire-hose instability in a high beta plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Peter H.; Wu, C. S.; de Assis, A. S.

    1993-07-01

    In this paper, a generalized kinetic dispersion equation that supports various hydromagnetic waves and instabilities is derived. The general dispersion equation is derived under the usual assumption of hydromagnetic perturbations , but for arbitrary values of the quantity )l.i= (k~ p~/)2/2= (k~ ~A/fl/)2 ~1/,/2 that appears in the dielectric tensor. Here, p~ i refers to the mean ion gyroradius, and B~ i is the perpendicular ion beta. Otherwise, the dispersion equation is fairly general with no additional approximation, such as ignoring certain off-diagonal dielectric tensor elements (which is usually done in the literature) employed. In the subsequent numerical analysis, special attention is paid to the fire-hose instability in a high beta plasma. The numerical results reveal that the conventional treatment of the fire-hose instability (i.e., taking zero ion gyroradius limit at the outset) is not adequate, and that the effect of finite ion gyroradius results in a significant enhancement of the growth rate over a large range of wave numbers.

  8. Method for predicting frictional loss in metal bellows and flexible hose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleveland, J. R.; Daniels, C. M.

    1966-01-01

    Test date obtained concerning the frictional pressure loss to fluids flowing in unsleeved bellows and flexible hose. This data should be useful in the design of fluid systems where high delivery velocities are involved and flexible hose or bellows must be employed.

  9. Fatigue testing of corrugated and Teflon hoses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benner, Steve M.; Swanson, Theodore D.; Costello, Frederick A.

    1990-01-01

    Single and two-phase heat transport systems for the thermal control of large space facilities require fluid lines that traverse joints and either rotate or move in some other manner. Flexible hoses are being considered as one means of traversing these joints. To test the resilience of flexible hoses to bending stress, a test assembly was constructed to determine the number of flexing cycles the hoses could withstand before losing their ability to maintain a constant pressure. Corrugated metal hoses and Teflon hoses were tested at different pressures with nitrogen gas. The metal hoses had lives ranging from 30,000 to 100,000 flexing cycles. But, even after 400,000 cycles, the Teflon hoses remained essentially intact, though some leakage in the convoluted Teflon is noted.

  10. 33 CFR 154.500 - Hose assemblies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...meet the following requirements: (a) The minimum design burst pressure for each hose assembly must be at least four times...the latest test required by § 156.170. (g) The hose burst pressure and the pressure used for the test required...

  11. Flexible collapse-resistant and length-stable vaccum hose

    DOEpatents

    Kashy, David H.

    2003-08-19

    A hose for containing a vacuum, which hose has an impermeable flexible tube capable of holding a vacuum and a braided or interwoven flexible interior wall, said wall providing support to said interior wall of said impermeable flexible tube. Optionally, an exterior braided or woven wall may be provided to the hose for protection or to allow the hose to be used as a pressure hose. The hose may delimit a vacuum space through which may travel a thermal transfer line containing, for example, cryogenic fluid.

  12. Fluid Flow through Pipes--Another Look at Fire Hoses and Garden Hoses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouwer, W.; Paranjape, B. V.

    1991-01-01

    The forward force of water on a hose is calculated using only the pressure gradient, the radius and length of the hose. The misconception about recoil on the nozzle is discussed. Dissipation energy and the consequent heat generation in a fluid flow are also described. (KR)

  13. [High Pressure Gas Tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quintana, Rolando

    2002-01-01

    Four high-pressure gas tanks, the basis of this study, were especially made by a private contractor and tested before being delivered to NASA Kennedy Space Center. In order to insure 100% reliability of each individual tank the staff at KSC decided to again submit the four tanks under more rigorous tests. These tests were conducted during a period from April 10 through May 8 at KSC. This application further validates the predictive safety model for accident prevention and system failure in the testing of four high-pressure gas tanks at Kennedy Space Center, called Continuous Hazard Tracking and Failure Prediction Methodology (CHTFPM). It is apparent from the variety of barriers available for a hazard control that some barriers will be more successful than others in providing protection. In order to complete the Barrier Analysis of the system, a Task Analysis and a Biomechanical Study were performed to establish the relationship between the degree of biomechanical non-conformities and the anomalies found within the system on particular joints of the body. This relationship was possible to obtain by conducting a Regression Analysis to the previously generated data. From the information derived the body segment with the lowest percentage of non-conformities was the neck flexion with 46.7%. Intense analysis of the system was conducted including Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA), Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA), and Barrier Analysis. These analyses resulted in the identification of occurrences of conditions, which may be becoming hazardous in the given system. These conditions, known as dendritics, may become hazards and could result in an accident, system malfunction, or unacceptable risk conditions. A total of 56 possible dendritics were identified. Work sampling was performed to observe the occurrence each dendritic. The out of control points generated from a Weighted c control chart along with a Pareto analysis indicate that the dendritics "Personnel not Wearing Proper Protective and Hose/tubing located in high-traffic area" which account for 59.18% of total dendritic frequency need to be addressed to reduce the chance of a hazard from occurring. However, the occurrences of some dendritics are more important than others. As a result immediate, from a Weighted c perspective, corrective action should be taken to ameliorate the cause of the Class A dendritic "Personnel located under suspended or moving loads" rather than just the most commonly occurring dendritics. In any case the vast majority of data obtained indicates that testing operations possess a relatively high degree of safety.

  14. Ion-Hose Instability in a High Current, Long-Pulse Accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Thomas P.; Genoni, Thomas C.

    2002-04-01

    The ion-hose instability is a transverse electrostatic instability which occurs on electron beams in the presence of a low-density ion channel. In the DARHT-2 accelerator, the 2 kA, 2 ?sec beam pulse produces an ion channel through impact ionization of the residual background gas (1.5× 10-7 torr average). A calculation of the linear growth by R. J. Briggs indicated that the instability could be strong enough to affect the radiographic application of DARHT, which requires that transverse oscillations be small compared to the beam radius. We present semi-analytical theory and 3-D particle-in-cell simulations (using the LSP code) of the linear and non-linear growth of the instability, including the effects of the temporal change in the ion density, spatially decreasing beam radius etc. We find that the number of e-foldings for a particular beam slice is given approximately by the analytic expression for a uniform channel using an average value for the channel density. Hence, in the linear regime, the number of e-foldings increases linearly from head to tail of the beam pulse. We also find that growth is suppressed by non-linear effects at relatively small amplitudes of the electron beam. This is because the ion oscillation amplitude is several times larger than that of the beam, allowing non-linear effects to come into play.

  15. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... they think about their blood pressure. Understanding Blood Pressure Every person needs blood pressure to live. Without ... women get this condition. How Does High Blood Pressure Affect the Body? High blood pressure adds to ...

  16. Self-sealing, easily purged quick-disconnect hose coupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leyerle, R. B.

    1970-01-01

    Coupling for pressurized hoses handles gas or liquid, is easily purged, and automatically seals the hose when disconnected. Volatile or toxic materials can be isolated before the connection is broken. This device may interest food processors and manufacturers of fluid delivery systems.

  17. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Consumer Information by Audience For Women High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Print and Share (PDF 109 KB) En ... Who is at risk? How is high blood pressure treated? Understanding your blood pressure: What do the ...

  18. MHD aspects of fire-hose type instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, B.; Hau, L.

    2003-12-01

    In a homogeneous anisotropic plasma the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Alfvén wave may become unstable for p? > pperpendicular to + B2/? 0. Recently a new type of fire-hose instability is found by Hellinger and Matsumoto [2000] that has maximum growth rate occurring for oblique propagation and may grow faster than the Alfvén mode. This new mode is compressional and may be more efficient at destroying pressure anisotropy than the standard fire hose. In this study we examines the fire-hose type (p? > pperpendicular to ) instabilities based on the linear and nonlinear double-polytropic MHD theory. It is shown that there exist two types of MHD fire-hose instabilities associated with the intermediate and slow modes, respectively, and with suitable choice of polytropic exponents the linear instability criteria become the same as those based on the Vlasov theory in the hydromagnetic limit. Moreover, the properties of the nonlinear MHD fire-hose instabilities are found to have great similarities with those obtained from the kinetic theory and hybrid simulation. In particular, the classical fire-hose instability evolves toward the linear fire-hose stability threshold while the nonlinear marginal stability associated with the new fire hose is well below the condition of ? ? - ? perpendicular to = 2 but complies with less stringent linear stability threshold for MHD slow-mode wave.

  19. MHD aspects of fire-hose type instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, B. J.; Hau, L. N.

    2003-12-01

    In a homogeneous anisotropic plasma the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shear Alfvén wave may become unstable for p? > p? + B2/?o. Recently, a new type of fire-hose instability was found by Hellinger and Matsumoto [2000] that has maximum growth rate occurring for oblique propagation and may grow faster than the Alfvén mode. This new mode is compressional and may be more efficient at destroying pressure anisotropy than the standard fire hose. This paper examines the fire-hose type (p? > p?) instabilities based on the linear and nonlinear double-polytropic MHD theory. It is shown that there exist two types of MHD fire-hose instabilities, and with suitable choice of polytropic exponents the linear instability criteria become the same as those based on the Vlasov theory in the hydromagnetic limit. Moreover, the properties of the nonlinear MHD fire-hose instabilities are found to have great similarities with those obtained from the kinetic theory and hybrid simulations. In particular, the classical fire-hose instability evolves toward the linear fire-hose stability threshold, while the nonlinear marginal stability associated with the new fire hose is well below the condition of ?? - ?? = 2 but complies with less stringent linear stability threshold for compressible Alfvén waves.

  20. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Nearly 1 in 3 American adults has ... your doctor prescribes it, medicine. What Is Blood Pressure? Blood pressure is the force of blood flow ...

  1. High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... light physical activity or exercise. What Is Blood Pressure? Blood pressure is the force of blood pushing ... as 120/80. Do You Have High Blood Pressure? One reason to have regular visits to the ...

  2. High blood pressure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... body. Hypertension is another term used to describe high blood pressure. Blood pressure readings are given as two numbers. ... than 120/80 mmHg most of the time. High blood pressure (hypertension) is when your blood pressure is 140/ ...

  3. The Garden-Hose Model

    E-print Network

    Harry Buhrman; Serge Fehr; Christian Schaffner; Florian Speelman

    2013-01-10

    We define a new model of communication complexity, called the garden-hose model. Informally, the garden-hose complexity of a function f:{0,1}^n x {0,1}^n to {0,1} is given by the minimal number of water pipes that need to be shared between two parties, Alice and Bob, in order for them to compute the function f as follows: Alice connects her ends of the pipes in a way that is determined solely by her input x \\in {0,1}^n and, similarly, Bob connects his ends of the pipes in a way that is determined solely by his input y \\in {0,1}^n. Alice turns on the water tap that she also connected to one of the pipes. Then, the water comes out on Alice's or Bob's side depending on the function value f(x,y). We prove almost-linear lower bounds on the garden-hose complexity for concrete functions like inner product, majority, and equality, and we show the existence of functions with exponential garden-hose complexity. Furthermore, we show a connection to classical complexity theory by proving that all functions computable in log-space have polynomial garden-hose complexity. We consider a randomized variant of the garden-hose complexity, where Alice and Bob hold pre-shared randomness, and a quantum variant, where Alice and Bob hold pre-shared quantum entanglement, and we show that the randomized garden-hose complexity is within a polynomial factor of the deterministic garden-hose complexity. Examples of (partial) functions are given where the quantum garden-hose complexity is logarithmic in n while the classical garden-hose complexity can be lower bounded by n^c for constant c>0. Finally, we show an interesting connection between the garden-hose model and the (in)security of a certain class of quantum position-verification schemes.

  4. High temperature pressure gauge

    DOEpatents

    Echtler, J. Paul (Pittsburgh, PA); Scandrol, Roy O. (Library, PA)

    1981-01-01

    A high temperature pressure gauge comprising a pressure gauge positioned in fluid communication with one end of a conduit which has a diaphragm mounted in its other end. The conduit is filled with a low melting metal alloy above the diaphragm for a portion of its length with a high temperature fluid being positioned in the remaining length of the conduit and in the pressure gauge.

  5. High pressure counterflow CHF.

    E-print Network

    Walkush, Joseph Patrick

    1975-01-01

    This is a report of the experimental results of a program in countercurrent flow critical heat flux. These experiments were performed with Freon 113 at 200 psia in order to model a high pressure water system. An internally ...

  6. BIOMACROMOLECULES UNDER HIGH HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE

    E-print Network

    Gruner, Sol M.

    BIOMACROMOLECULES UNDER HIGH HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE A Dissertation Presented to the Faculty HIGH HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE Nozomi Ando, Ph.D. Cornell University 2009 Protein pressure denaturation denaturation studies. Recent studies imply that the mechanism of pressure denaturation is the penetration

  7. 29 CFR 1910.158 - Standpipe and hose systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...hose will not decrease the pressure at the nozzle below 30 psi (210 kPa). The dynamic pressure at the nozzle shall be within the range of 30 psi (210 kPa) to 125 psi (860 kPa). (4) Nozzles. The employer shall assure that...

  8. High Blood Pressure

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    American Association for the Advancement of Science (; )

    2004-01-01

    The Science Inside: High Blood PressureThis booklet explains what health professionals know about high blood pressure or hypertension, one of the leading causes of heart disease and stroke. It shows how to prevent high blood pressure, as well as how to care for yourself if you have been diagnosed with the disease. The Science Inside e-book series is intended to be a bridge between the consumer health brochure and the scientific paper, the booklets in this series focus on the science that is inside of, or behind, the disease its cause, its possible cure, its treatment, promising research, and so on. These booklets are designed to appeal to people who have not had the opportunity to study the science and to understand why they may have been given some of the advice that they have been given through some of the more consumer-oriented materials.

  9. Evaluation of Hose in Hose transfer line service life

    SciTech Connect

    EAGLE, O.H.

    2003-05-30

    This document presents a determination for the amount of expected service life from Hose-in-Hose Transfer Lines based on vendor information and past HIHTL experience. Based on the information presented in this report and referenced documentation, we conclude the service life of the inner hose establishes the limits of service life for the finished assemblies. Since the process and environmental conditions to which the transfer line is subjected will not adversely affect the hose, the effective service life is that stated by the vendor--three years from the date of initial transfer. Transfer line assemblies have a shelf life of seven years from the date of hose manufacture, if stored in accordance with Section 2.1. This evaluation provides documentation showing that a three year service life has been justified. In the event that transfer lines are to be operated after three years from the date of initial transfer and within the shelf life of seven years, they must be reevaluated for their ability to perform intended functions.

  10. Investigation of Radiation and Chemical Resistance of Flexible HLW Transfer Hose

    SciTech Connect

    E. Skidmore; Billings, K.; Hubbard, M.

    2010-03-24

    A chemical transfer hose constructed of an EPDM (ethylene-propylene diene monomer) outer covering with a modified cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) lining was evaluated for use in high level radioactive waste transfer applications. Laboratory analysis involved characterization of the hose liner after irradiation to doses of 50 to 300 Mrad and subsequent exposure to 25% NaOH solution at 93 C for 30 days, simulating 6 months intermittent service. The XLPE liner mechanical and structural properties were characterized at varying dose levels. Burst testing of irradiated hose assemblies was also performed. Literature review and test results suggest that radiation effects below doses of 100 kGy are minimal, with acceptable property changes to 500 kGy. Higher doses may be feasible. At a bounding dose of 2.5 MGy, the burst pressure is reduced to the working pressure (1.38 MPa) at room temperature. Radiation exposure slightly reduces liner tensile strength, with more significant decrease in liner elongation. Subsequent exposure to caustic solutions at elevated temperature slightly increases elongation, suggesting an immersion/hydrolytic effect or possible thermal annealing of radiation damage. This paper summarizes the laboratory results and recommendations for field deployment.

  11. High pressure steam pipe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. T. Sun; A. S. Ledger; H. Lo

    1976-01-01

    A detailed dynamic analysis, presented in a series of reports, was conducted on the seismic response and structural safety of key subsystems (steam generator, high pressure steam piping, coal handling equipment, cooling tower, chimney) of Unit No. 3 of TVA at Paradise, Kentucky in order to: (1) determine for the key components the natural frequencies below 50 Hz and the

  12. High pressure furnace

    DOEpatents

    Morris, D.E.

    1993-09-14

    A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum)). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 19 figures.

  13. High pressure oxygen furnace

    DOEpatents

    Morris, D.E.

    1992-07-14

    A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized, the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 5 figs.

  14. High pressure oxygen furnace

    DOEpatents

    Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

  15. High pressure furnace

    DOEpatents

    Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

    1993-01-01

    A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

  16. High Blood Pressure Fact Sheet

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Heart Disease Stroke High Blood Pressure Salt ... blood pressure tests and other chronic disease screening. Web Sites with More Information About High Blood Pressure ...

  17. Pregnancy and High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... the lower right-hand corner of the player. Pregnancy and High Blood Pressure HealthDay January 29, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Page High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy Transcript Does keeping tight control of blood pressure ...

  18. High Blood Pressure and Women

    MedlinePLUS

    High Blood Pressure and Women Updated:Aug 13,2014 Many people mistakenly believe that high blood pressure, also called HBP or ... last reviewed on 08/04/14. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Why HBP ...

  19. Cryogenic High Pressure Sensor Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, John J. (Inventor); Shams, Qamar A. (Inventor); Powers, William T. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A pressure sensor is provided for cryogenic, high pressure applications. A highly doped silicon piezoresistive pressure sensor is bonded to a silicon substrate in an absolute pressure sensing configuration. The absolute pressure sensor is bonded to an aluminum nitride substrate. Aluminum nitride has appropriate coefficient of thermal expansion for use with highly doped silicon at cryogenic temperatures. A group of sensors, either two sensors on two substrates or four sensors on a single substrate are packaged in a pressure vessel.

  20. Cryogenic, Absolute, High Pressure Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, John J. (Inventor); Shams. Qamar A. (Inventor); Powers, William T. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A pressure sensor is provided for cryogenic, high pressure applications. A highly doped silicon piezoresistive pressure sensor is bonded to a silicon substrate in an absolute pressure sensing configuration. The absolute pressure sensor is bonded to an aluminum nitride substrate. Aluminum nitride has appropriate coefficient of thermal expansion for use with highly doped silicon at cryogenic temperatures. A group of sensors, either two sensors on two substrates or four sensors on a single substrate are packaged in a pressure vessel.

  1. The Garden-Hose Model Harry Buhrman

    E-print Network

    Schaffner, Christian

    The Garden-Hose Model Harry Buhrman CWI, University of Amsterdam h.buhrman@cwi.nl Serge Fehr define a new model of communication complexity, called the garden-hose model. Informally, the garden bounds on the garden-hose complexity for concrete functions like inner product, ma- jority, and equality

  2. Controlling your high blood pressure

    MedlinePLUS

    Hypertension is another term used to describe high blood pressure. High blood pressure can lead to stroke, heart attack, heart failure, kidney disease, and early death. You are more likely to have high ...

  3. 46 CFR 153.940 - Standards for marking of cargo hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...the extent internal inspection is possible with both ends of the hose open, no internal deterioration; and (3) Does not burst, bulge, leak, or abnormally distort under static liquid pressure at least as great as the recommended working...

  4. Pressure Dome for High-Pressure Electrolyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, Timothy; Schmitt, Edwin

    2012-01-01

    A high-strength, low-weight pressure vessel dome was designed specifically to house a high-pressure [2,000 psi (approx. = 13.8 MPa)] electrolyzer. In operation, the dome is filled with an inert gas pressurized to roughly 100 psi (approx. = 690 kPa) above the high, balanced pressure product oxygen and hydrogen gas streams. The inert gas acts to reduce the clamping load on electrolyzer stack tie bolts since the dome pressure acting axially inward helps offset the outward axial forces from the stack gas pressure. Likewise, radial and circumferential stresses on electrolyzer frames are minimized. Because the dome is operated at a higher pressure than the electrolyzer product gas, any external electrolyzer leak prevents oxygen or hydrogen from leaking into the dome. Instead the affected stack gas stream pressure rises detectably, thereby enabling a system shutdown. All electrical and fluid connections to the stack are made inside the pressure dome and require special plumbing and electrical dome interfaces for this to be accomplished. Further benefits of the dome are that it can act as a containment shield in the unlikely event of a catastrophic failure. Studies indicate that, for a given active area (and hence, cell ID), frame outside diameter must become ever larger to support stresses at higher operating pressures. This can lead to a large footprint and increased costs associated with thicker and/or larger diameter end-plates, tie-rods, and the frames themselves. One solution is to employ rings that fit snugly around the frame. This complicates stack assembly and is sometimes difficult to achieve in practice, as its success is strongly dependent on frame and ring tolerances, gas pressure, and operating temperature. A pressure dome permits an otherwise low-pressure stack to operate at higher pressures without growing the electrolyzer hardware. The pressure dome consists of two machined segments. An O-ring is placed in an O-ring groove in the flange of the bottom segment and is trapped by the flange on the top dome segment when these components are bolted together with high-strength bolts. The pressure dome has several unique features. It is made (to ASME Pressure Vessel guidelines) in a high-strength aluminum alloy with the strength of stainless steel and the weight benefits of aluminum. The flange of the upper dome portion contains specially machined flats for mounting the dome, and other flats dedicated to the special feedthroughs for electrical connections. A pressure dome can be increased in length to house larger stacks (more cells) of the same diameter with the simple addition of a cylindrical segment. To aid in dome assembly, two stainless steel rings are employed. One is used beneath the heads of the high-strength bolts in lieu of individual hardened washers, and another is used instead of individual nuts. Like electrolyzers could be operated at low or high pressures simply by operating the electrolyzer outside or inside a pressurized dome.

  5. Medications for High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... For Consumers Consumer Updates Medications for High Blood Pressure Search the Consumer Updates Section Hypertension tends to ... you cannot tell if you have high blood pressure by the way you feel, so have your ...

  6. Cylindrical High Temperature, High Pressure Apparatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. J. Witteman; Th. Werkman

    1964-01-01

    A description is given of a cylinderical high pressure apparatus which can be used in the pressure range of up to 100 000 atm and for temperatures of up to 1500°C. The high pressures are generated by means of a pressurized rubber tire acting on three identical segments. Each segment is provided, near the center of the apparatus, with a

  7. High pressure capillary connector

    DOEpatents

    Renzi, Ronald F.

    2005-08-09

    A high pressure connector capable of operating at pressures of 40,000 psi or higher is provided. This connector can be employed to position a first fluid-bearing conduit that has a proximal end and a distal end to a second fluid-bearing conduit thereby providing fluid communication between the first and second fluid-bearing conduits. The connector includes (a) an internal fitting assembly having a body cavity with (i) a lower segment that defines a lower segment aperture and (ii) an interiorly threaded upper segment, (b) a first member having a first member aperture that traverses its length wherein the first member aperture is configured to accommodate the first fluid-bearing conduit and wherein the first member is positioned in the lower segment of the internal fitting assembly, and (c) a second member having a second member aperture that traverses its length wherein the second member is positioned in the upper segment of the fitting assembly and wherein a lower surface of the second member is in contact with an upper surface of the first member to assert a compressive force onto the first member and wherein the first member aperture and the second member aperture are coaxial.

  8. High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... pressure - a hypertension Google+ hangout in honor of World Hypertension Day 10/15/2014 The NHLBI "Grand ... pressure - a hypertension Google+ hangout in honor of World Hypertension Day 10/15/2014 The NHLBI "Grand ...

  9. High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePLUS

    Blood pressure is the force of your blood pushing against the walls of your arteries. Each time your heart ... it pumps blood into the arteries. Your blood pressure is highest when your heart beats, pumping the ...

  10. High pressure mechanical seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babel, Henry W. (Inventor); Anderson, Raymond H. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A relatively impervious mechanical seal is formed between the outer surface of a tube and the inside surface of a mechanical fitting of a high pressure fluid or hydraulic system by applying a very thin soft metal layer onto the outer surface of the hard metal tube and/or inner surface of the hard metal fitting. The thickness of such thin metal layer is independent of the size of the tube and/or fittings. Many metals and alloys of those metals exhibit the requisite softness, including silver, gold, tin, platinum, indium, rhodium and cadmium. Suitably, the coating is about 0.0025 millimeters (0.10 mils) in thickness. After compression, the tube and fitting combination exhibits very low leak rates on the order or 10.sup.-8 cubic centimeters per second or less as measured using the Helium leak test.

  11. High pressure mechanical seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babel, Henry W. (Inventor); Fuson, Phillip L. (Inventor); Chickles, Colin D. (Inventor); Jones, Cherie A. (Inventor); Anderson, Raymond H. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A relatively impervious mechanical seal is formed between the outer surface of a tube and the inside surface of a mechanical fitting of a high pressure fluid or hydraulic system by applying a very thin soft metal layer onto the outer surface of the hard metal tube and/or inner surface of the hard metal fitting, prior to swaging the fitting onto the tube. The thickness of such thin metal layer is independent of the size of the tube and/or fittings. Many metals and alloys of those metals exhibit the requisite softness, including silver, gold, nickel, tin, platinum, indium, rhodium and cadmium. Suitably, the coating is about 0.0025 millimeters (0.10 mils) in thickness. After swaging, the tube and fitting combination exhibits very low leak rates on the order or 10.sup.-8 cubic centimeters per second or less as meaured using the Helium leak test.

  12. Alloys For Flexible Hoses In A Corrosive Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdowell, Louis G., III; Ontiveros, Cordelia

    1992-01-01

    High-nickel alloy resists pitting corrosion. Report evaluates metal alloys for flexible hoses in corrosive environment. Tested to find alternatives to 304L stainless steel. Nineteen alloys selected for testing on basis of reputation for resistance to corrosion. Top five, in order of decreasing resistance to corrosion: Hastelloy(R) C-22, Inconel(R) 625, Hastelloy(R) C-276, Hastelloy(R) C-4, and Inco(R) alloy G-3. Of these, Hastelloy(R) C-22 found best for flexible-hose application.

  13. High pressure, high temperature transducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vrolyk, John J. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    The pressure measurement system utilizes two bourdon tubes with an active side connected to a test specimen and a reference side connected to an outside source. The tubes are attached to a single extensometer measuring relative displacement. The active side deflects when gases vent a specimen failure. The reference side is independently pressurized to a test pressure and provides a zero reference while providing a pressure calibration reference for the active side. The deflection noted by the active side at specimen failure is duplicated on the reference side by venting until an appropriate magnitude of pressure versus deflection is determined. In this way the pressure which existed inside the specimen prior to failure can be determined.

  14. High-pressure neutron diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Hongwu [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-10

    This lecture will cover progress and prospect of applications of high-pressure neutron diffraction techniques to Earth and materials sciences. I will first introduce general high-pressure research topics and available in-situ high-pressure techniques. Then I'll talk about high-pressure neutron diffraction techniques using two types of pressure cells: fluid-driven and anvil-type cells. Lastly, I will give several case studies using these techniques, particularly, those on hydrogen-bearing materials and magnetic transitions.

  15. High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of the baby. Controlling your blood pressure during pregnancy and getting regular prenatal care are important for ... your baby. Treatments for high blood pressure in pregnancy may include close monitoring of the baby, lifestyle ...

  16. Failure analysis of braided U-shaped metal bellows flexible hoses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, Stephen O.

    Most of the research performed extensively reviews the effects of non-reinforced metal bellows and their pressurized characteristics. However, the majority of flex hoses are manufactured with reinforcement by the means of interweaved wire braids. For this research, the outer braid reinforced metal bellows flex hoses will be examined for their failure at differing lengths. The relationship with the bellows expansion joints is such that as the length of the flex hoses increases, the pressure at which squirm occurs decreases. As such, for the testing being performed, the same approach to failure is expected. As the length of the flex hose increases, it is predicted that the hose will fail at a decreasing pressure. Since the braid is the only thing that prevents the squirm from occurring, more of the load will be displaced from the bellows and into the braid. This will ultimately cause failure of the braid to occur at a lower pressure as the length of the hoses increase due to more of the load being transmitted from the bellows and into the braid.

  17. Protein crystallization under high pressure.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yoshihisa; Sazaki, Gen; Miyashita, Satoru; Sawada, Tsutomu; Tamura, Katsuhiro; Komatsu, Hiroshi

    2002-03-25

    Pressure is expected to be an important parameter to control protein crystallization, since hydrostatic pressure affects the whole system uniformly and can be changed very rapidly. So far, a lot of studies on protein crystallization have been done. Solubility of protein depends on pressure. For instance, the solubility of tetragonal lysozyme crystal increased with increasing pressure, while that of orthorhombic crystal decreased. The solubility of subtilisin increased with increasing pressure. Crystal growth rates of protein also depend on pressure. The growth rate of glucose isomerase was significantly enhanced with increasing pressure. The growth rate of tetragonal lysozyme crystal and subtilisin decreased with increasing pressure. To study the effects of pressure on the crystallization more precisely and systematically, hen egg white lysozyme is the most suitable protein at this stage, since a lot of data can be used. We focused on growth kinetics under high pressure, since extensive studies on growth kinetics have already been done at atmospheric pressure, and almost all of them have explained the growth mechanisms well. The growth rates of tetragonal lysozyme decreased with pressure under the same supersaturation. This means that the surface growth kinetics significantly depends on pressure. By analyzing the dependence of supersaturation on growth rate, it was found that the increase in average ledge surface energy of the two-dimensional nuclei with pressure explained the decrease in growth rate. At this stage, it is not clear whether the increase in surface energy with increasing pressure is the main reason or not. Fundamental studies on protein crystallization under high pressure will be useful for high pressure crystallography and high pressure protein science. PMID:11983407

  18. Automated Facility For Cleaning Large Flex Hoses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landry, Louis E.

    1995-01-01

    Technicians no longer exposed to hazardous cleaning materials. Proposed computer-controlled facility cleans bellow-type expansion joints and large flex hoses. Major portions of automated cleaning facility contained in clean room. One piece of equipment in clean room tower in which hose or expansion joint to be cleaned hoisted by hydraulic machinery and hung vertically. Once hose or expansion joint hung in required position, technician initiates programmed cleaning procedure from console on computer monitoring system. Procedure includes degreasing, cleaning with detergents, rinsing, pickling, and passivating operations. After cleaning completed, technician removes hose or expansion joint from tower and wraps open ends to prevent recontamination of interior.

  19. 46 CFR 105.35-15 - Fire hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire hose. 105.35-15 Section 105.35-15...FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Fire Extinguishing Equipment § 105.35-15 Fire hose. (a) One length of fire hose...

  20. 46 CFR 105.35-15 - Fire hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire hose. 105.35-15 Section 105.35-15...FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Fire Extinguishing Equipment § 105.35-15 Fire hose. (a) One length of fire hose...

  1. 46 CFR 105.35-15 - Fire hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire hose. 105.35-15 Section 105.35-15...FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Fire Extinguishing Equipment § 105.35-15 Fire hose. (a) One length of fire hose...

  2. 46 CFR 105.35-15 - Fire hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire hose. 105.35-15 Section 105.35-15...FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Fire Extinguishing Equipment § 105.35-15 Fire hose. (a) One length of fire hose...

  3. 46 CFR 105.35-15 - Fire hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire hose. 105.35-15 Section 105.35-15...FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Fire Extinguishing Equipment § 105.35-15 Fire hose. (a) One length of fire hose...

  4. Modeling of high pressure thawing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Chourot; R. Lemaire; G. Cornier; A. Le Bail

    1996-01-01

    Modeling of freezing and thawing of foodstuffs has been extensively studied. Our application looks at thawing of foodstuffs under high pressure (HP). The phase change temperature of water to ice decreases with increasing pressure below 220 MPa [1] and then allows to achieve higher thawing rate than at atmospheric pressure. Experimental thawing was realised in a HP vessel with pure

  5. High Pressure Synthetic Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagen, Arnulf P.

    1978-01-01

    Describes several experimental results selected from typical inorganic and organic reaction systems, along with a brief description of the physical parameters needed to determine if a pressure increase will help solve a synthetic problem. (HM)

  6. New kinetic instability: Oblique Alfvén fire hose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellinger, P.; Matsumoto, H.

    2000-05-01

    Two instabilities could take place in plasma with a bi-Maxwellian proton distribution function with Tp?>Tp?, where Tp? and Tp? are proton temperatures, parallel and perpendicular, respectively, to the background magnetic field. The first instability is the fire hose (or whistler fire hose), generating low-frequency whistler waves at parallel propagation. We found a new, second instability, the Alfvén fire hose, that generates zero-frequency waves of the Alfvén branch at strongly oblique propagation. The Alfvén fire hose has a linear growth rate comparable to or even greater than that of the whistler fire hose. The two instabilities with the same initial plasma parameters are examined via one-dimensional hybrid simulations and turn out to have behavior very different from each other. The whistler fire hose has an overall quasi-linear evolution, while the evolution of the Alfvén fire hose is more complicated: Initially, unstable zero-frequency waves are gradually transformed into propagating Alfvén waves; during this process the waves are strongly damped and heat protons in a perpendicular direction. Consequently, the Alfvén fire hose is very efficient at destroying proton anisotropy.

  7. High Blood Pressure Medicines

    MedlinePLUS

    ... help your body get rid of extra sodium (salt) and water so your blood vessels don't have to hold so much fluid. Renin inhibitors slow down your body’s production of renin, the enzyme that starts the many chemical reactions that raise your blood pressure. Do these medicines ...

  8. High Blood Pressure: Using an Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitor

    MedlinePLUS

    MENU Return to Web version High Blood Pressure | Using an Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitor What is an ambulatory blood pressure monitor? An ambulatory blood pressure monitor is a small machine, about ...

  9. Electrokinetically pumped high pressure sprays

    DOEpatents

    Schoeniger, Joseph S. (Oakland, CA); Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Schoeniger, Luke (Pittsford, NY)

    2002-01-01

    An electrokinetic pump capable of producing high pressure is combined with a nozzle having a submicron orifice to provide a high pressure spray device. Because of its small size, the device can be contained within medical devices such as an endoscope for delivering biological materials such as DNA, chemo therapeutic agents, or vaccines to tissues and cells.

  10. High blood pressure and diet

    MedlinePLUS

    ... diet is a proven way to help control high blood pressure . These changes can also help you lose weight ... meal plan. Ask your doctor what your blood pressure target is. ... limit foods that are high in saturated fat (more than 20% of the ...

  11. Electrokinetically pumped high pressure sprays

    DOEpatents

    Schoeniger, Joseph S. (Oakland, CA); Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Schoeniger, Luke (Pittsford, NY)

    2005-11-01

    An electrokinetic pump capable of producing high pressure is combined with a nozzle having a submicron orifice to provide a high pressure spray device. Because of its small size, the device can be contained within medical devices such as an endoscope for delivering biological materials such as DNA, chemo therapeutic agents, or vaccines to tissues and cells.

  12. High pressure storage vessel

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Qiang

    2013-08-27

    Disclosed herein is a composite pressure vessel with a liner having a polar boss and a blind boss a shell is formed around the liner via one or more filament wrappings continuously disposed around at least a substantial portion of the liner assembly combined the liner and filament wrapping have a support profile. To reduce susceptible to rupture a locally disposed filament fiber is added.

  13. High pressure synthesis gas fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Construction of the high pressure gas phase fermentation system is nearing completion. All non-explosion proof components will be housed separately in a gas-monitored plexiglas cabinet. A gas-monitoring system has been designed to ensure the safety of the operations in case of small or large accidental gas releases. Preliminary experiments investigating the effects of high pressure on Clostridium 1jungdahlii have shown that growth and CO uptake are not negatively affected and CO uptake by an increased total pressure of 100 psig at a syngas partial pressure of 10 psig.

  14. Prediction of flow-induced failures of braided flexible hoses and bellows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sack, L. E.; Nelson, R. L.; Mason, D. R.; Cooper, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    Analytical techniques were developed to evaluate braided hoses and bellows for possibility of flow induced resonance. These techniques determine likelihood of high cycle fatigue failure when such resonance exists.

  15. Internal Thermal Control System Hose Heat Transfer Fluid Thermal Expansion Evaluation Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wieland, P. O.; Hawk, H. D.

    2001-01-01

    During assembly of the International Space Station, the Internal Thermal Control Systems in adjacent modules are connected by jumper hoses referred to as integrated hose assemblies (IHAs). A test of an IHA has been performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center to determine whether the pressure in an IHA filled with heat transfer fluid would exceed the maximum design pressure when subjected to elevated temperatures (up to 60 C (140 F)) that may be experienced during storage or transportation. The results of the test show that the pressure in the IHA remains below 227 kPa (33 psia) (well below the 689 kPa (100 psia) maximum design pressure) even at a temperature of 71 C (160 F), with no indication of leakage or damage to the hose. Therefore, based on the results of this test, the IHA can safely be filled with coolant prior to launch. The test and results are documented in this Technical Memorandum.

  16. High pressure ices

    PubMed Central

    Hermann, Andreas; Ashcroft, N. W.; Hoffmann, Roald

    2012-01-01

    H2O will be more resistant to metallization than previously thought. From computational evolutionary structure searches, we find a sequence of new stable and meta-stable structures for the ground state of ice in the 1–5 TPa (10 to 50 Mbar) regime, in the static approximation. The previously proposed Pbcm structure is superseded by a Pmc21 phase at p = 930 GPa, followed by a predicted transition to a P21 crystal structure at p = 1.3 TPa. This phase, featuring higher coordination at O and H, is stable over a wide pressure range, reaching 4.8 TPa. We analyze carefully the geometrical changes in the calculated structures, especially the buckling at the H in O-H-O motifs. All structures are insulating—chemistry burns a deep and (with pressure increase) lasting hole in the density of states near the highest occupied electronic levels of what might be component metallic lattices. Metallization of ice in our calculations occurs only near 4.8 TPa, where the metallic C2/m phase becomes most stable. In this regime, zero-point energies much larger than typical enthalpy differences suggest possible melting of the H sublattice, or even the entire crystal. PMID:22207625

  17. High pressure gas transmission compressor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deminski

    1987-01-01

    A high-pressure gas transmission compressor is described for admitting gas at a suction inlet and discharging gas at increased pressure from a discharge outlet comprising: a block-like compressor housing having a substantially horizontal elongated smooth bore cylindrical cylinder extending longitudinally therethrough; cylindrical piston slidably received for reciprocating movement within the cylinder; a pair of vertically extending spaced valve housings positioned

  18. 46 CFR 193.10-10 - Fire hydrants and hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...The size of fire hydrants, hose, and nozzles and the length of hose required shall...provided with a single length of hose with nozzle attached and a spanner. A suitable hose...combination solid stream and water spray nozzle that is approved under subpart...

  19. Steam Oxidation at High Pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, Gordon R. [NETL; Carney, Casey [URS

    2013-07-19

    A first high pressure test was completed: 293 hr at 267 bar and 670{degrees}C; A parallel 1 bar test was done for comparison; Mass gains were higher for all alloys at 267 bar than at 1 bar; Longer term exposures, over a range of temperatures and pressures, are planned to provide information as to the commercial implications of pressure effects; The planned tests are at a higher combination of temperatures and pressures than in the existing literature. A comparison was made with longer-term literature data: The short term exposures are largely consistent with the longer-term corrosion literature; Ferritic steels--no consistent pressure effect; Austenitic steels--fine grain alloys less able to maintain protective chromia scale as pressure increases; Ni-base alloys--more mass gains above 105 bar than below. Not based on many data points.

  20. Psoriasis and High Blood Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Salihbegovic, Eldina Malkic; Hadzigrahic, Nermina; Suljagic, Edin; Kurtalic, Nermina; Sadic, Sena; Zejcirovic, Alema; Mujacic, Almina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Psoriasis is a chronic skin ailment which can be connected with an increased occurrence of other illnesses, including high blood pressure. Examinees and methods: A prospective study has been conducted which included 70 patients affected by psoriasis, both genders, older than 18 years. Average age being 47,14 (SD= ±15,41) years, from that there were 36 men or 51,43 and 34 women or 48,57%. Average duration of psoriasis was 15,52 (SD=±12,54) years. Results: Frequency of high blood pressure in those affected by psoriasis was 54,28%. Average age of the patients with psoriasis and high blood pressure was 53,79 year (SD=±14,15) and average duration of psoriasis was 17,19 years (SD=±13,51). Average values of PASI score were 16,65. Increase in values of PASI score and high blood pressure were statistically highly related (r=0,36, p=0,0001). Conclusion: Psoriasis was related to high blood pressure and there was a correlation between the severity of psoriasis and high blood pressure.

  1. High pressure synthesis gas fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The construction of the high pressure gas phase fermentation system has been completed. Photographs of the various components of the system are presented, along with an operating procedure for the equipment.

  2. Laser hosing in relativistically hot plasmas.

    PubMed

    Li, G; Mori, W B; Ren, C

    2013-04-12

    Electron response in an intense laser is studied in the regime where the electron temperature is relativistic. Equations for laser envelope and plasma density evolution, both in the electron plasma wave and ion acoustic wave regimes, are rederived from the relativistic fluid equations to include relativistic plasma temperature effect. These equations are used to study short-pulse and long-pulse laser hosing instabilities using a variational method approach. The analysis shows that relativistic electron temperatures reduce the hosing growth rates and shift the fastest-growing modes to longer wavelengths. These results resolve a long-standing discrepancy between previous nonrelativistic theory and simulations or experiments on hosing. PMID:25167277

  3. Electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic system

    DOEpatents

    Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Rakestraw, David J. (Fremont, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A compact high pressure hydraulic pump having no moving mechanical parts for converting electric potential to hydraulic force. The electrokinetic pump, which can generate hydraulic pressures greater than 2500 psi, can be employed to compress a fluid, either liquid or gas, and manipulate fluid flow. The pump is particularly useful for capillary-base systems. By combining the electrokinetic pump with a housing having chambers separated by a flexible member, fluid flow, including high pressure fluids, is controlled by the application of an electric potential, that can vary with time.

  4. Hazards in high pressure systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priddy, T. G.

    1985-08-01

    The High Pressure Systems Committee (HPSC) of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers is writing a set of rules and guides which will eventually be approved for treatment of safety concerns in high pressure operations. An introductory section of the proposed standard is being written to describe the hazards in high pressure. This paper is an edited version of the early draft of that section which is numbered 2000. Taking Section 2000 out of context (separately printing it from the remainder of the proposed standard) poses a possible misunderstanding in that high pressure is not necessarily synonymous with a lack of safety. There are many high pressure systems in operation with very acceptable safety records. However, when the potential for damage is great, it becomes more essential that safety be comprehensively engineered and practiced. Everyone concerned should be aware to some degree of the dangers that could happen in such operations. This paper is written in an attempt to share the concerns (appraisal of the risks) that members of the HPSC have for high pressure as interpreted and edited by this author.

  5. Electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic system

    DOEpatents

    Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Rakestraw, David J. (Fremont, CA); Arnold, Don W. (Livermore, CA); Hencken, Kenneth R. (Pleasanton, CA); Schoeniger, Joseph S. (Oakland, CA); Neyer, David W. (Castro Valley, CA)

    2001-01-01

    An electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic pump for manipulating fluids in capillary-based systems. The pump uses electro-osmotic flow to provide a high pressure hydraulic system, having no moving mechanical parts, for pumping and/or compressing fluids, for providing valve means and means for opening and closing valves, for controlling fluid flow rate, and manipulating fluid flow generally and in capillary-based systems (Microsystems), in particular. The compact nature of the inventive high pressure hydraulic pump provides the ability to construct a micro-scale or capillary-based HPLC system that fulfills the desire for small sample quantity, low solvent consumption, improved efficiency, the ability to run samples in parallel, and field portability. Control of pressure and solvent flow rate is achieved by controlling the voltage applied to an electrokinetic pump.

  6. Electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic system

    DOEpatents

    Paul, Phillip H.; Rakestraw, David J.; Arnold, Don W.; Hencken, Kenneth R.; Schoeniger, Joseph S.; Neyer, David W.

    2003-06-03

    An electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic pump for manipulating fluids in capillary-based system. The pump uses electro-osmotic flow to provide a high pressure hydraulic system, having no moving mechanical parts, for pumping and/or compressing fluids, for providing valve means and means for opening and closing valves, for controlling fluid flow rate, and manipulating fluid flow generally and in capillary-based systems (microsystems), in particular. The compact nature of the inventive high pressure hydraulic pump provides the ability to construct a micro-scale or capillary-based HPLC system that fulfills the desire for small sample quantity, low solvent consumption, improved efficiency, the ability to run samples in parallel, and field portability. Control of pressure and solvent flow rate is achieved by controlling the voltage applied to an electrokinetic pump.

  7. High pressure ceramic joint

    DOEpatents

    Ward, M.E.; Harkins, B.D.

    1993-11-30

    Many recuperators have components which react to corrosive gases and are used in applications where the donor fluid includes highly corrosive gases. These recuperators have suffered reduced life, increased service or maintenance, and resulted in increased cost. The present joint when used with recuperators increases the use of ceramic components which do not react to highly corrosive gases. Thus, the present joint used with the present recuperator increases the life, reduces the service and maintenance, and reduces the increased cost associated with corrosive action of components used to manufacture recuperators. The present joint is comprised of a first ceramic member, a second ceramic member, a mechanical locking device having a groove defined in one of the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The joint and the mechanical locking device is further comprised of a refractory material disposed in the groove and contacting the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The present joint mechanically provides a high strength load bearing joint having good thermal cycling characteristics, good resistance to a corrosive environment and good steady state strength at elevated temperatures. 4 figures.

  8. Avoid the Consequences of High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Stroke More Avoid the Consequences of High Blood Pressure Infographic Updated:Jun 19,2014 View a downloadable version of this infographic High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Why HBP ...

  9. High pressure neon arc lamp

    DOEpatents

    Sze, Robert C.; Bigio, Irving J.

    2003-07-15

    A high pressure neon arc lamp and method of using the same for photodynamic therapies is provided. The high pressure neon arc lamp includes a housing that encloses a quantity of neon gas pressurized to about 500 Torr to about 22,000 Torr. At each end of the housing the lamp is connected by electrodes and wires to a pulse generator. The pulse generator generates an initial pulse voltage to breakdown the impedance of the neon gas. Then the pulse generator delivers a current through the neon gas to create an electrical arc that emits light having wavelengths from about 620 nanometers to about 645 nanometers. A method for activating a photosensitizer is provided. Initially, a photosensitizer is administered to a patient and allowed time to be absorbed into target cells. Then the high pressure neon arc lamp is used to illuminate the target cells with red light having wavelengths from about 620 nanometers to about 645 nanometers. The red light activates the photosensitizers to start a chain reaction that may involve oxygen free radicals to destroy the target cells. In this manner, a high pressure neon arc lamp that is inexpensive and efficiently generates red light useful in photodynamic therapy is provided.

  10. High-pressure water facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    NASA Test Operations Group employees, from left, Todd Pearson, Tim Delcuze and Rodney Wilkinson maintain a water pump in Stennis Space Center's high-pressure water facility. The three were part of a group of employees who rode out Hurricane Katrina at the facility and helped protect NASA's rocket engine test complex.

  11. Stroke and High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... hurts the brain's ability to think and control body functions. Strokes can affect language, memory and vision as well as cause paralysis and other health issues. How does high blood pressure cause a stroke? ... can damage arteries throughout the body. Weakened arteries in the brain put you at ...

  12. High blood pressure and eye disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Hypertensive retinopathy is damage to the retina from high blood pressure. The retina is the layer of tissue at ... High blood pressure can damage blood vessels in the retina. The higher the blood pressure and the longer it ...

  13. High-pressure denaturation of apomyoglobin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah E Bondos; Stephen Sligar; Jiri Jonas

    2000-01-01

    The pressure denaturation of wild type and mutant apomyoglobin (apoMb) was investigated using a high-pressure, high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance and high-pressure fluorescence techniques. Wild type apoMb is resistant to pressures up to 80 MPa, and denatures to a high-pressure intermediate, Ip, between 80 and 200 MPa. A further increase of pressure to 500 MPa results in denaturation of the intermediate.

  14. High pressure and high temperature apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Voronov, Oleg A.

    2005-09-13

    A design for high pressure/high temperature apparatus and reaction cell to achieve .about.30 GPa pressure in .about.1 cm volume and .about.100 GPa pressure in .about.1 mm volumes and 20-5000.degree. C. temperatures in a static regime. The device includes profiled anvils (28) action on a reaction cell (14, 16) containing the material (26) to be processed. The reaction cell includes a heater (18) surrounded by insulating layers and screens. Surrounding the anvils are cylindrical inserts and supporting rings (30-48) whose hardness increases towards the reaction cell. These volumes may be increased considerably if applications require it, making use of presses that have larger loading force capability, larger frames and using larger anvils.

  15. Fire hose gripping device and process for fighting fires in oil refineries and the like

    SciTech Connect

    Lancaster, D.R.; Everding, R.J.

    1989-08-15

    This patent describes a firefighting process. It comprises the steps of: attaching one end of a fire hose to a fire hydrant when the end of the fire hose is in a generally collapsed flattened position; uncoiling the fire hose; attaching a manually grippable spray nozzle to the other end of the fire hose; inflating and substantially filling the fire hose with water from the water supply means to expand the hose to a semirigid expanded position; grasping, lifting, and carrying the filled fire hose with one hand; gripping a vertical elastomeric handle of a hose clamp with the other hand. The hose clamp having a generally U-shaped hose-engaging member. The U-shaped hose-engaging member having an open end defining an access opening for receiving the hose. The access opening being larger than the maximum diameter and transverse span of the uncoiled filled fire hose: inserting the hose-engaging member on the fire hose such that there is sufficient clearance between the hose-engaging member and the fire hose to side hose clamp to another position; moving the hose clamp at an acute angle of inclination relative to the hose to detachable secure and inter-lockingly engage the hose-engaging member to the filled fire hose; manually lifting the vertical elastomeric handle of the hose clamp to elevate the fire hose; pointing the nozzle towards the fire; and spraying water from the nozzle on the fire.

  16. 46 CFR 95.10-10 - Fire hydrants and hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...The size of fire hydrants, hose, and nozzles and the length of hose required shall...solid stream and water spray firehose nozzle approved under subpart 162.027 of this chapter. Firehose nozzles previously approved under subpart...

  17. 49 CFR 193.2621 - Testing transfer hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2621 Testing transfer hoses. Hoses used in LNG or flammable refrigerant transfer systems must be: (a) Tested once each calendar year, but with intervals not...

  18. High-Pressure Protein Crystallography and NMR

    E-print Network

    Gruner, Sol M.

    High-Pressure Protein Crystallography and NMR to Explore Protein Conformations Marcus D. Collins,1, energy landscape, protein thermodynamics, pressure cryocooling Abstract High-pressure methods for solving's native conformation, but also the higher free energy conformations. The ability of high-pressure meth

  19. 29 CFR 1910.158 - Standpipe and hose systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...cm) or smaller hose outlet used to meet this standard is equipped with hose connected and ready for use. In extremely cold climates where such installation may result in damaged equipment, the hose may be stored in another location provided it is...

  20. 46 CFR 118.320 - Fire hoses and nozzles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire hoses and nozzles. 118.320 Section 118.320 Shipping...Fire Main System § 118.320 Fire hoses and nozzles. (a) A fire hose with a nozzle must be attached to each fire hydrant...

  1. 46 CFR 181.320 - Fire hoses and nozzles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire hoses and nozzles. 181.320 Section 181.320 Shipping...Fire Main System § 181.320 Fire hoses and nozzles. (a) A fire hose with a nozzle must be attached to each fire hydrant...

  2. 30 CFR 18.65 - Flame test of hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Flame test of hose. 18.65 Section 18...Inspections and Tests § 18.65 Flame test of hose. (a) Size of test specimen...by thickness of the hose. (b) Flame-test apparatus. The principal...

  3. 30 CFR 18.65 - Flame test of hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Flame test of hose. 18.65 Section 18...Inspections and Tests § 18.65 Flame test of hose. (a) Size of test specimen...by thickness of the hose. (b) Flame-test apparatus. The principal...

  4. 30 CFR 18.65 - Flame test of hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Flame test of hose. 18.65 Section 18...Inspections and Tests § 18.65 Flame test of hose. (a) Size of test specimen...by thickness of the hose. (b) Flame-test apparatus. The principal...

  5. Algorithms for provisioning virtual private networks in the hose model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amit Kumar; Rajeev Rastogi; Abraham Silberschatz; Bülent Yener

    2001-01-01

    Virtual Private Networks(VPNs) provide customers with predictable and secure network connections over a shared network. The recently proposed hose model for VPNs allows for greater flexibility since it permits traffic to and from a hose endpoint to be arbitrarily distributed to other endpoints. In this paper, we develop novel algorithms for provisioning VPNs in the hose model. We connect VPN

  6. High pressure xenon ionization detector

    DOEpatents

    Markey, John K. (New Haven, CT)

    1989-01-01

    A method is provided for detecting ionization comprising allowing particles that cause ionization to contact high pressure xenon maintained at or near its critical point and measuring the amount of ionization. An apparatus is provided for detecting ionization, the apparatus comprising a vessel containing a ionizable medium, the vessel having an inlet to allow high pressure ionizable medium to enter the vessel, a means to permit particles that cause ionization of the medium to enter the vessel, an anode, a cathode, a grid and a plurality of annular field shaping rings, the field shaping rings being electrically isolated from one another, the anode, cathode, grid and field shaping rings being electrically isolated from one another in order to form an electric field between the cathode and the anode, the electric field originating at the anode and terminating at the cathode, the grid being disposed between the cathode and the anode, the field shaping rings being disposed between the cathode and the grid, the improvement comprising the medium being xenon and the vessel being maintained at a pressure of 50 to 70 atmospheres and a temperature of 0.degree. to 30.degree. C.

  7. High pressure xenon ionization detector

    DOEpatents

    Markey, J.K.

    1989-11-14

    A method is provided for detecting ionization comprising allowing particles that cause ionization to contact high pressure xenon maintained at or near its critical point and measuring the amount of ionization. An apparatus is provided for detecting ionization, the apparatus comprising a vessel containing a ionizable medium, the vessel having an inlet to allow high pressure ionizable medium to enter the vessel, a means to permit particles that cause ionization of the medium to enter the vessel, an anode, a cathode, a grid and a plurality of annular field shaping rings, the field shaping rings being electrically isolated from one another, the anode, cathode, grid and field shaping rings being electrically isolated from one another in order to form an electric field between the cathode and the anode, the electric field originating at the anode and terminating at the cathode, the grid being disposed between the cathode and the anode, the field shaping rings being disposed between the cathode and the grid, the improvement comprising the medium being xenon and the vessel being maintained at a pressure of 50 to 70 atmospheres and a temperature of 0 to 30 C. 2 figs.

  8. High pressure equipment for food processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Westerlund

    1994-01-01

    Processing food with pressure improves the quality and shelf life of the product. The pressure required is normally 600 to 900 MPa (approximately 6000 to 9000 atm). Equipment for high pressure food processing is available today from ABB Pressure Systems AB. The plant can have a through-put of 300 to 6000 litres per hour at 600 MPa pressure depending on

  9. High pressure synthesis gas fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this research project is to build and test a pressure fermentation system for the production of ethanol from synthesis gas. The fermenters, pumps, controls, and analytical system will be procured or fabricated and assembled in our laboratory. This system will then be used to determine the effects of high pressure on growth and ethanol production by clostridium ljungdahlii. The limits of cell concentration and mass transport relationships will be found in continuous stirred tank reactor and immobilized cell reactors. The minimum retention times and reactor volumes will be found for ethanol production in these reactors. Retention times of a few seconds are expected to result from these experiments. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. High-pressure regulating system prevents pressure surges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, O. F.; Mac Glashan, W. F.

    1964-01-01

    Gas flow is controlled by means of a pressure regulating system which prevents pressure surges. A high-pressure fluid source, a spring-loaded fluid-damped regulator valve, an accumulator, a conventional normally closed command valve, and a control valve are the main components.

  11. Preeclampsia and High Blood Pressure During Pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    What is high blood pressure? Blood pressure is the pressure of the blood against the blood vessel walls each time the heart contracts ( ... of developing hypertension in the future. • What is high blood pressure? • What is chronic hypertension? • What is gestational hypertension? • ...

  12. High Pressure Electrolyzer System Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prokopius, Kevin; Coloza, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    This report documents the continuing efforts to evaluate the operational state of a high pressure PEM based electrolyzer located at the NASA Glenn Research Center. This electrolyzer is a prototype system built by General Electric and refurbished by Hamilton Standard (now named Hamilton Sunstrand). It is capable of producing hydrogen and oxygen at an output pressure of 3000 psi. The electrolyzer has been in storage for a number of years. Evaluation and testing was performed to determine the state of the electrolyzer and provide an estimate of the cost for refurbishment. Pressure testing was performed using nitrogen gas through the oxygen ports to ascertain the status of the internal membranes and seals. It was determined that the integrity of the electrolyzer stack was good as there were no appreciable leaks in the membranes or seals within the stack. In addition to the integrity testing, an itemized list and part cost estimate was produced for the components of the electrolyzer system. An evaluation of the system s present state and an estimate of the cost to bring it back to operational status was also produced.

  13. Electokinetic high pressure hydraulic system

    DOEpatents

    Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Rakestraw, David J. (Fremont, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A compact high pressure hydraulic system having no moving parts for converting electric potential to hydraulic force and for manipulating fluids. Electro-osmotic flow is used to provide a valve and means to compress a fluid or gas in a capillary-based system. By electro-osmotically moving an electrolyte between a first position opening communication between a fluid inlet and outlet and a second position closing communication between the fluid inlet and outlet the system can be configured as a valve. The system can also be used to generate forces as large as 2500 psi that can be used to compress a fluid, either a liquid or a gas.

  14. Evaluation of Hose in Hose Transfer Line Service Life for Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program

    SciTech Connect

    TORRES, T.D.

    2000-08-24

    RPP-6153, Engineering Task Plan for Hose-in-Hose Transfer System for the Interim Stabilization Program, defines the programmatic goals, functional requirements, and technical criteria for the development and subsequent installation of transfer line equipment to support Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program. RPP-6028, Specification for Hose in Hose Transfer Lines for Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program, has been issued to define the specific requirements for the design, manufacture, and verification of transfer line assemblies for specific waste transfer applications. Included in RPP-6028 are tables defining the chemical constituents of concern to which transfer lines will be exposed. Current Interim Stabilization Program planning forecasts that the at-grade transfer lines will be required to convey pumpable waste for as much as three years after commissioning. Prudent engineering dictates that the equipment placed in service have a working life in excess of this forecasted time period, with some margin to allow for future adjustments to the planned schedule. This document evaluates the effective service life of the Hose-in-Hose Transfer Lines, based on information submitted by the manufacturer and published literature. The effective service life of transfer line assemblies is a function of several factors. Foremost among these are process fluid characteristics, ambient environmental conditions, and the manufacturer's stated shelf life. This evaluation examines the manufacturer's certification of shelf life, the manufacturer's certifications of chemical compatibility with waste, and published literature on the effects of exposure to ionizing radiation on the mechanical properties of elastomeric materials to evaluate transfer line service life.

  15. Method of producing a high pressure gas

    DOEpatents

    Bingham, Dennis N.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Zollinger, William T.

    2006-07-18

    A method of producing a high pressure gas is disclosed and which includes providing a container; supplying the container with a liquid such as water; increasing the pressure of the liquid within the container; supplying a reactant composition such as a chemical hydride to the liquid under pressure in the container and which chemically reacts with the liquid to produce a resulting high pressure gas such as hydrogen at a pressure of greater than about 100 pounds per square inch of pressure; and drawing the resulting high pressure gas from the container.

  16. Electrical Transport Experiments at High Pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Weir, S

    2009-02-11

    High-pressure electrical measurements have a long history of use in the study of materials under ultra-high pressures. In recent years, electrical transport experiments have played a key role in the study of many interesting high pressure phenomena including pressure-induced superconductivity, insulator-to-metal transitions, and quantum critical behavior. High-pressure electrical transport experiments also play an important function in geophysics and the study of the Earth's interior. Besides electrical conductivity measurements, electrical transport experiments also encompass techniques for the study of the optoelectronic and thermoelectric properties of materials under high pressures. In addition, electrical transport techniques, i.e., the ability to extend electrically conductive wires from outside instrumentation into the high pressure sample chamber have been utilized to perform other types of experiments as well, such as high-pressure magnetic susceptibility and de Haas-van Alphen Fermi surface experiments. Finally, electrical transport techniques have also been utilized for delivering significant amounts of electrical power to high pressure samples, for the purpose of performing high-pressure and -temperature experiments. Thus, not only do high-pressure electrical transport experiments provide much interesting and valuable data on the physical properties of materials extreme compression, but the underlying high-pressure electrical transport techniques can be used in a number of ways to develop additional diagnostic techniques and to advance high pressure capabilities.

  17. Protein crystallization under high pressure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshihisa Suzuki; Gen Sazaki; Satoru Miyashita; Tsutomu Sawada; Katsuhiro Tamura; Hiroshi Komatsu

    2002-01-01

    Pressure is expected to be an important parameter to control protein crystallization, since hydrostatic pressure affects the whole system uniformly and can be changed very rapidly. So far, a lot of studies on protein crystallization have been done. Solubility of protein depends on pressure. For instance, the solubility of tetragonal lysozyme crystal increased with increasing pressure, while that of orthorhombic

  18. High Blood Pressure and Kidney Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Info Statistics Research Resources About Us Español National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse Publications Tools and ... Pressure and Kidney Disease High Blood Pressure and Kidney Disease On this page: What is high blood ...

  19. Depth Gauge for Liquids Under High Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuckerwar, A. J.; Mazel, D. S.

    1987-01-01

    Piezoelectric element mounted in hole drilled in high-pressure plug. Transducer used to measure depth of liquid when pressure in vessel high. New configuration transmits ultrasonic vibration directly into liquid, enhancing signal strength, accuracy, and range, yet piezoelectric element protected from high-pressure liquid.

  20. High pressure gas transmission compressor

    SciTech Connect

    Deminski, R.M.

    1987-04-28

    A high-pressure gas transmission compressor is described for admitting gas at a suction inlet and discharging gas at increased pressure from a discharge outlet comprising: a block-like compressor housing having a substantially horizontal elongated smooth bore cylindrical cylinder extending longitudinally therethrough; cylindrical piston slidably received for reciprocating movement within the cylinder; a pair of vertically extending spaced valve housings positioned on each side of the cylinder and formed within the compressor housing, each of the valve housings enclosing a vertically oriented hollow elongated valve chamber positioned so that the upper and lower ends of each of the chambers extend above and below, respectively, the cylinder, the valve chambers being parallel to each other such that the center line of the cylinder is perpendicular to and non-intersecting with the center lines of the valve chambers; spaced openings extending through the side walls of the cylinder; and a gas passageway connecting each of the openings with one of the valve chambers.

  1. High-pressure microhydraulic actuator

    DOEpatents

    Mosier, Bruce P. (San Francisco, CA) [San Francisco, CA; Crocker, Robert W. (Fremont, CA) [Fremont, CA; Patel, Kamlesh D. (Dublin, CA) [Dublin, CA

    2008-06-10

    Electrokinetic ("EK") pumps convert electric to mechanical work when an electric field exerts a body force on ions in the Debye layer of a fluid in a packed bed, which then viscously drags the fluid. Porous silica and polymer monoliths (2.5-mm O.D., and 6-mm to 10-mm length) having a narrow pore size distribution have been developed that are capable of large pressure gradients (250-500 psi/mm) when large electric fields (1000-1500 V/cm) are applied. Flowrates up to 200 .mu.L/min and delivery pressures up to 1200 psi have been demonstrated. Forces up to 5 lb-force at 0.5 mm/s (12 mW) have been demonstrated with a battery-powered DC-DC converter. Hydraulic power of 17 mW (900 psi@ 180 uL/min) has been demonstrated with wall-powered high voltage supplies. The force and stroke delivered by an actuator utilizing an EK pump are shown to exceed the output of solenoids, stepper motors, and DC motors of similar size, despite the low thermodynamic efficiency.

  2. What Causes High Blood Pressure?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... pressure - a hypertension Google+ hangout in honor of World Hypertension Day 10/15/2014 The NHLBI "Grand ... pressure - a hypertension Google+ hangout in honor of World Hypertension Day 10/15/2014 The NHLBI "Grand ...

  3. Living with High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... pressure - a hypertension Google+ hangout in honor of World Hypertension Day 10/15/2014 The NHLBI "Grand ... pressure - a hypertension Google+ hangout in honor of World Hypertension Day 10/15/2014 The NHLBI "Grand ...

  4. Heterotrophic bacterial growth on hoses in a neonatal water distribution system.

    PubMed

    Buffet-Bataillon, Sylvie; Bonnaure-Mallet, Martine; de la Pintiere, Armelle; Defawe, Guy; Gautier-Lerestif, Anne-Lise; Fauveau, Severine; Minet, Jacques

    2010-04-01

    After preliminary tests indicated an increased number of heterotrophic bacteria, we investigated possible sources of contamination in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) water distribution system. Scanning electron microscopic examination of flexible metallic hoses associated with the system revealed the presence of a biofilm; partial 16S rDNA sequencing revealed that the biofilm contained Blastomonas natatoria. Purgation of the water system three times a day, reinforced faucet cleaning, decreasing the cold water temperature to 12 degrees , and six repeated chlorinations at concentrations as high as 2 mg/L were not sufficient to eradicate the bacterial contamination. Replacing all of the rubber-interior flexible metallic hoses with teflon-lined hoses followed by heating the water to 70 degrees successfully controlled the bacteria. PMID:20467253

  5. Evaluation of high temperature pressure sensors.

    PubMed

    Choi, In-Mook; Woo, Sam-Yong; Kim, Yong-Kyu

    2011-03-01

    It is becoming more important to measure the pressure in high temperature environments in many industrial fields. However, there is no appropriate evaluation system and compensation method for high temperature pressure sensors since most pressure standards have been established at room temperature. In order to evaluate the high temperature pressure sensors used in harsh environments, such as high temperatures above 250 °C, a specialized system has been constructed and evaluated in this study. The pressure standard established at room temperature is connected to a high temperature pressure sensor through a chiller. The sensor can be evaluated in conditions of changing standard pressures at constant temperatures and of changing temperatures at constant pressures. According to the evaluation conditions, two compensation methods are proposed to eliminate deviation due to sensitivity changes and nonlinear behaviors except thermal hysteresis. PMID:21456794

  6. Manufacturing Diamond Under Very High Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voronov, Oleg

    2007-01-01

    A process for manufacturing bulk diamond has been made practical by the invention of the High Pressure and Temperature Apparatus capable of applying the combination of very high temperature and high pressure needed to melt carbon in a sufficiently large volume. The apparatus includes a reaction cell wherein a controlled static pressure as high as 20 GPa and a controlled temperature as high as 5,000 C can be maintained.

  7. High-Pressure Lightweight Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Richard; McKechnie, Timothy; Shchetkovskiy, Anatoliy; Smirnov, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Returning samples of Martian soil and rock to Earth is of great interest to scientists. There were numerous studies to evaluate Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission architectures, technology needs, development plans, and requirements. The largest propulsion risk element of the MSR mission is the Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV). Along with the baseline solid-propellant vehicle, liquid propellants have been considered. Similar requirements apply to other lander ascent engines and reaction control systems. The performance of current state-ofthe- art liquid propellant engines can be significantly improved by increasing both combustion temperature and pressure. Pump-fed propulsion is suggested for a single-stage bipropellant MAV. Achieving a 90-percent stage propellant fraction is thought to be possible on a 100-kg scale, including sufficient thrust for lifting off Mars. To increase the performance of storable bipropellant rocket engines, a high-pressure, lightweight combustion chamber was designed. Iridium liner electrodeposition was investigated on complex-shaped thrust chamber mandrels. Dense, uniform iridium liners were produced on chamber and cylindrical mandrels. Carbon/carbon composite (C/C) structures were braided over iridium-lined mandrels and densified by chemical vapor infiltration. Niobium deposition was evaluated for forming a metallic attachment flange on the carbon/ carbon structure. The new thrust chamber was designed to exceed state-of-the-art performance, and was manufactured with an 83-percent weight savings. High-performance C/Cs possess a unique set of properties that make them desirable materials for high-temperature structures used in rocket propulsion components, hypersonic vehicles, and aircraft brakes. In particular, more attention is focused on 3D braided C/Cs due to their mesh-work structure. Research on the properties of C/Cs has shown that the strength of composites is strongly affected by the fiber-matrix interfacial bonding, and that weakening interface realizes pseudo-plastic behavior with significant increase in the tensile strength. The investigation of high-temperature strength of C/Cs under high-rate heating (critical for thrust chambers) shows that tensile and compression strength increases from 70 MPa at room temperature to 110 MPa at 1,773 K, and up to 125 MPa at 2,473 K. Despite these unique properties, the use of C/Cs is limited by its high oxidation rate at elevated temperatures. Lining carbon/carbon chambers with a thin layer of iridium or iridium and rhenium is an innovative way to use proven refractory metals and provide the oxidation barrier necessary to enable the use of carbon/ carbon composites. Due to the lower density of C/Cs as compared to SiC/SiC composites, an iridium liner can be added to the C/C structure and still be below the overall thruster weight. Weight calculations show that C/C, C/C with 50 microns of Ir, and C/C with 100 microns of Ir are of less weight than alternative materials for the same construction.

  8. High Pressure Research Questionnaire National High Magnetic Field Laboratory

    E-print Network

    Weston, Ken

    High Pressure Research Questionnaire National High Magnetic Field Laboratory Operated by Florida users' have the best chance for success with their high pressure experiments. Each user should take time, is email, phone, or FAX preferred? #12;High Pressure Questionnaire Contact Dr. Stan Tozer tozer

  9. High Pressure-High Temperature Decomposition of Cyclotrimethylene Trinitramine

    E-print Network

    McCluskey, Matthew

    High Pressure-High Temperature Decomposition of Cyclotrimethylene Trinitramine Zbigniew A. Dreger of -cyclotrimethylene trinitramine (-RDX) under high pressure-high temperature conditions was examined to elucidate in a diamond anvil cell (DAC) at pressures from 6 to 12 GPa and temperatures up to 600 K. Global decomposition

  10. High pressure synthesis gas conversion. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The purpose of this research project is to build and test a high pressure fermentation system for the production of ethanol from synthesis gas. The fermenters, pumps, controls, and analytical system were procured or fabricated and assembled in our laboratory. This system was then used to determine the effects of high pressure on growth and ethanol production by Clostridium ljungdahlii. The limits of cell concentration and mass transport relationships were found in CSTR and immobilized cell reactors (ICR). The minimum retention times and reactor volumes were found for ethanol production in these reactors. A maximum operating pressure of 150 psig has been shown to be possible for C. ljungdahlli with the medium of Phillips et al. This medium was developed for atmospheric pressure operation in the CSTR to yield maximum ethanol concentrations and thus is not best for operation at elevated pressures. It is recommended that a medium development study be performed for C. ljungdahlii at increased pressure. Cell concentration, gas conversion and product concentration profiles were presented for C. ljungdahlii as a function of gas flow rate, the variable which affects bacterium performance the most. This pressure was chosen as a representative pressure over the 0--150 psig operating pressure range for the bacterium. Increased pressure negatively affected ethanol productivity probably due to the fact that medium composition was designed for atmospheric pressure operation. Medium development at increased pressure is necessary for high pressure development of the system.

  11. High pressure pulsed capillary viscometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. L.; Walowitt, J. A.; Pan, C. H. T.

    1972-01-01

    An analytical and test program was conducted in order to establish the feasibility of a multichamber pulsed-capillary viscometer. The initial design incorporated a piston, ram, and seals which produced measured pulses up to 30,000 psi in the closed chamber system. Pressure pulses from one to ten milliseconds were investigated in a system volume of 1 cuin. Four test fluids: a MIL-L-7808, a 5P4E polyphenyl ether, a MIL-L-23699A, and a synthetic hydrocarbon were examined in the test pressure assembly. The pressure-viscosity coefficient and viscosity delay time were determined for the MIL-L-7808 lubricant tested.

  12. Mechanical properties of clays at high pressure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chi-yuen Wang; Nai-hsien Mao; Francis T. Wu

    1980-01-01

    The mechanical properties of preconsolidated clays are studied at high pressures under undrained, triaxial conditions. At confining pressures equivalent to those at midcrust, different calys have the following common characteristics which differ significantly from those at low pressures: (1) the clays possess significant strength of several hundred bars (10 bars=1 MPa); (2) the constitutive relations are marked by ductile yielding

  13. High Precision Pressure Measurement with a Funnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Arias, T.; Gratton, L. M.; Oss, S.

    2008-01-01

    A simple experimental device for high precision differential pressure measurements is presented. Its working mechanism recalls that of a hydraulic press, where pressure is supplied by insufflating air under a funnel. As an application, we measure air pressure inside a soap bubble. The soap bubble is inflated and connected to a funnel which is…

  14. Potassium and High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePLUS

    A diet that includes natural sources of potassium is important in controlling blood pressure because potassium lessens the effects of sodium. The recommended daily intake of potassium for an average adult ...

  15. High-pressure gas hydrates 

    E-print Network

    Loveday, J. S.; Nelmes, R. J.

    pressures. Clathrate hydrates have been extensively studied because they occur widely in nature, have important industrial applications, and provide insight into water-guest hydrophobic interactions. Until recently, the expectation-based on calculations...

  16. NETL- High-Pressure Combustion Research Facility

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2013-07-08

    NETL's High-Pressure Combustion Facility is a unique resource within the National Laboratories system. It provides the test capabilities needed to evaluate new combustion concepts for high-pressure, high-temperature hydrogen and natural gas turbines. These concepts will be critical for the next generation of ultra clean, ultra efficient power systems.

  17. NETL- High-Pressure Combustion Research Facility

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2014-06-26

    NETL's High-Pressure Combustion Facility is a unique resource within the National Laboratories system. It provides the test capabilities needed to evaluate new combustion concepts for high-pressure, high-temperature hydrogen and natural gas turbines. These concepts will be critical for the next generation of ultra clean, ultra efficient power systems.

  18. BIBLIOGRAPHY ON HIGH PRESSURE SYSTEMS AND HIGH PRESSURE-HIGH TEMPERATURE SYSTEMS TECHNIQUES, APPARATUS AND EXPERIMENTAL DATA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lakner; J. F. comp

    1958-01-01

    The bibliography on high pressure-high temperature and high pressure ; systems is the result of an investigation into the equipment and experimental ; technique needed to ine compounds which possess a high vapor pressure of hydrogen ; at moderate temperatures and pressures. Particular emphasls was given to those ; articles which discussed the pressure vessel construction in detail, method of

  19. High-pressure high-temperature transducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vrolyk, J. J.

    1977-01-01

    Compact instrument has active and reference sides consisting of tubes that elongate in response to increasing interior pressures. Relative displacement of tubes is measured by linear variable differential transformer to determine pressure on active side. Device needs no internal cooling, thus eliminating condensation problem with gases containing saturated steam.

  20. Zirconate pyrochlores under high pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Haiyan [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Zhang, Fuxiang [University of Michigan; Gao, Fei [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Ewing, Rodney C. [University of Michigan; Weber, William J [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Ab initio total-energy calculations and x-ray diffraction measurements have been combined to study the phase stability of zirconate pyrochlores (A2Zr2O7; A=La, Nd and Sm) under pressures up to 50 GPa. Phase transformations to the defect-cotunnite structure are theoretically predicted at pressures of 22, 20 and 18 GPa, in excellent agreement with the experimentally determined values of 21, 22 and 18 GPa for La2Zr2O7, Nd2Zr2O7 and Sm2Zr2O7, respectively. Analysis of the elastic properties indicate that elastic anisotropy may be one of the driving forces for the pressure-induced cubic-to-noncubic phase transformation.

  1. Zirconate pyrochlores under high pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Haiyan Y.; Zhang, F. X.; Gao, Fei; Lang, Maik; Ewing, Rodney C.; Weber, William J.

    2010-07-12

    Ab initio total-energy calculations and x-ray diffraction measurements have been combined to study the phase stability of zirconate pyrochlores (A2Zr2O7; A=La, Nd and Sm) under pressures up to 50 GPa. Phase transformations to the defect-cotunnite structure are theoretically predicted at pressures of 22, 20 and 18 GPa, in excellent agreement with the experimentally determined values of 21, 22 and 18 GPa for La2Zr2O7, Nd2Zr2O7 and Sm2Zr2O7, respectively. Analysis of the elastic properties indicates that elastic anisotropy may be one of the driving forces for the pressure-induced cubic-to-noncubic phase transformation.

  2. Cagelike diamondoid nitrogen at high pressures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoli; Wang, Yanchao; Miao, Maosheng; Zhong, Xin; Lv, Jian; Cui, Tian; Li, Jianfu; Chen, Li; Pickard, Chris J; Ma, Yanming

    2012-10-26

    Under high pressure, triply bonded molecular nitrogen dissociates into singly bonded polymeric nitrogen, a potential high-energy-density material. The discovery of stable high-pressure forms of polymeric nitrogen is of great interest. We report the striking stabilization of cagelike diamondoid nitrogen at high pressures predicted by first-principles structural searches. The diamondoid structure of polymeric nitrogen has not been seen in any other elements, and it adopts a highly symmetric body-centered cubic structure with lattice sites occupied by diamondoids, each of which consists of ten nitrogen atoms, forming a N(10) tetracyclic cage. Diamondoid nitrogen possesses a wide energy gap and is energetically most stable among all known polymeric structures above 263 GPa, a pressure that is accessible to a high-pressure experiment. Our findings represent a significant step toward the understanding of the behavior of solid nitrogen at extreme conditions. PMID:23215200

  3. Effects of high pressure on proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claude Balny; Patrick Masson

    1993-01-01

    The recent interest of the food industry in the high?pressure processing of food materials as an alternative or in addition to temperature treatment requires fundamental studies on the pressure?temperature behavior of macromolecular food constituents such as proteins. In this paper we review some basic knowledge on the effects of high pressure on proteins. These effects are reversible or nonre?versible and

  4. Microbial inactivation by high-pressure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Spilimbergo; N Elvassore; A Bertucco

    2002-01-01

    High-pressure treatments are receiving a great deal of attention for the inactivation of micro-organisms in foodstuff processing, pressure instead of temperature is used as stabilizing factor. In this context, high hydrostatic pressure treatment is the most studied alternative process, many works reported successful results in inactivating a wide range of micro-organisms under different operative conditions such as temperature, cycles of

  5. Fuel droplet burning rates at high pressures.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canada, G. S.; Faeth, G. M.

    1973-01-01

    Combustion of methanol, ethanol, propanol-1, n-pentane, n-heptane, and n-decane was observed in air under natural convection conditions, at pressures up to 100 atm. The droplets were simulated by porous spheres, with diameters in the range from 0.63 to 1.90 cm. The pressure levels of the tests were high enough so that near-critical combustion was observed for methanol and ethanol. Due to the high pressures, the phase-equilibrium models of the analysis included both the conventional low-pressure approach as well as high-pressure versions, allowing for real gas effects and the solubility of combustion-product gases in the liquid phase. The burning-rate predictions of the various theories were similar, and in fair agreement with the data. The high-pressure theory gave the best prediction for the liquid-surface temperatures of ethanol and propanol-1 at high pressure. The experiments indicated the approach of critical burning conditions for methanol and ethanol at pressures on the order of 80 to 100 atm, which was in good agreement with the predictions of both the low- and high-pressure analysis.

  6. Mechanism of High Pressure Denaturation of Proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isao Hayakawa; Yu-Yen Linko; Pekka Linko

    1996-01-01

    High pressure denaturation of ovalbumin, bovine serum albumin (BSA) and ?-lactoglobulin was assessed by spectrofluorometry, specific rotation analysis and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and compared with heat and chemical denaturation. In all cases the denaturation caused by high pressure was similar to that caused by the cleavage of hydrogen bonds with urea or guanidine hydrochloride.

  7. Elastomers Compatible With High-Pressure Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Jon W.

    1987-01-01

    Compatibility increased by fluorination. Report describes experiments aimed at improving compatibility of some fluorinated elastomers with high-pressure oxygen. Such elastomers needed for seals, gaskets, and positive-expulsion devices used with high-pressure oxygen. Oxygen - compatibility tests carried out on five elastomers chosen on the basis of literature survey.

  8. Vaporizing high pressure fluids: Energy release comparisons

    SciTech Connect

    Aggarwal, M.C. [Gannon Univ., Erie, PA (United States); Fryer, D.M. [High Pressure Engineering and Safety, Fairview, PA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    This paper utilizes a method previously presented for estimating potential energy which might be released as a shock wave from sudden failure of vessels containing fluids at high pressure supercritical conditions. Data are presented for several fluids and comparisons are made illustrating the relative hazard of these fluids at a typical condition of high pressure and temperature.

  9. Structural behaviour of YGa under high pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Sekar, M., E-mail: sekarm@igcar.gov.in; Shekar, N. V. Chandra, E-mail: sekarm@igcar.gov.in; Sahu, P. Ch., E-mail: sekarm@igcar.gov.in [Condensed Matter Physics Division, Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam- 603 102 Tamil Nadu (India); Babu, R. [Fuel Chemistry Division, Chemistry Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam- 603 102 Tamil Nadu (India)

    2014-04-24

    High pressure X-ray diffraction studies on rare-earth gallide YGa was carried up to a pressure of ? 33 GPa using rotating anode x-ray source in an angle dispersive mode. YGa exhibits CrB (B33) type orthorhombic structure (space group Cmcm) at ambient pressure. It undergoes a reversible structural phase transition from orthorhombic to tetragonal structure at ? 8.8 GPa. Both the phases coexist up to the highest pressure studied. The zero pressure bulk modulus and its derivative for parent phase have been estimated to be B{sub o} = 60 ± 3 GPa, B{sub o}' = 4.6 ± 1.5.

  10. Design optimization of high pressure and high temperature piezoresistive pressure sensor for high sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Zhe; Zhao, Yulong; Tian, Bian

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a design method for optimizing sensitivity of piezoresistive pressure sensor in high-pressure and high-temperature environment. In order to prove the method, a piezoresistive pressure sensor (HPTSS) is designed. With the purpose of increasing sensitivity and to improve the measurement range, the piezoresistive sensor adopts rectangular membrane and thick film structure. The configuration of piezoresistors is arranged according to the characteristic of the rectangular membrane. The structure and configuration of the sensor chip are analyzed theoretically and simulated by the finite element method. This design enables the sensor chip to operate in high pressure condition (such as 150 MPa) with a high sensitivity and accuracy. The silicon on insulator wafer is selected to guarantee the thermo stability of the sensor chip. In order to optimize the fabrication and improve the yield of production, an electric conduction step is devised. Series of experiments demonstrates a favorable linearity of 0.13% and a high accuracy of 0.48%. And the sensitivity of HTPSS is about six times as high as a conventional square-membrane sensor chip in the experiment. Compared with the square-membrane pressure sensor and current production, the strength of HPTTS lies in sensitivity and measurement. The performance of the HPTSS indicates that it could be an ideal candidate for high-pressure and high-temperature sensing in real application.

  11. Laser techniques in high-pressure geophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemley, R. J.; Bell, P. M.; Mao, H. K.

    1987-01-01

    Laser techniques in conjunction with the diamond-anvil cell can be used to study high-pressure properties of materials important to a wide range of problems in earth and planetary science. Spontaneous Raman scattering of crystalline and amorphous solids at high pressure demonstrates that dramatic changes in structure and bonding occur on compression. High-pressure Brillouin scattering is sensitive to the pressure variations of single-crystal elastic moduli and acoustic velocities. Laser heating techniques with the diamond-anvil cell can be used to study phase transitions, including melting, under deep-earth conditions. Finally, laser-induced ruby fluorescence has been essential for the development of techniques for generating the maximum pressures now possible with the diamond-anvil cell, and currently provides a calibrated in situ measure of pressure well above 100 gigapascals.

  12. 46 CFR 154.1170 - Hand hose line: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...unwound from a hose reel or removed from a hose cabinet; (c) Be non-kinkable; (d) Have a nozzle with a valve to start and stop the flow of chemical; (e) Have a capacity of at least 3.5 kg/sec (7.7 lb./sec); and...

  13. 46 CFR 154.1170 - Hand hose line: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...unwound from a hose reel or removed from a hose cabinet; (c) Be non-kinkable; (d) Have a nozzle with a valve to start and stop the flow of chemical; (e) Have a capacity of at least 3.5 kg/sec (7.7 lb./sec); and...

  14. 46 CFR 181.320 - Fire hoses and nozzles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire hoses and nozzles. 181.320 Section 181.320...SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main System § 181.320 Fire hoses and...

  15. 46 CFR 181.320 - Fire hoses and nozzles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

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  16. 46 CFR 118.320 - Fire hoses and nozzles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire hoses and nozzles. 118.320 Section 118.320...OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main System § 118.320 Fire hoses and...

  17. 46 CFR 108.425 - Fire hoses and associated equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire hoses and associated equipment. 108.425 Section...A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fire Main System § 108.425 Fire hoses and...

  18. 46 CFR 181.320 - Fire hoses and nozzles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire hoses and nozzles. 181.320 Section 181.320...SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main System § 181.320 Fire hoses and...

  19. 46 CFR 118.320 - Fire hoses and nozzles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire hoses and nozzles. 118.320 Section 118.320...OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main System § 118.320 Fire hoses and...

  20. 46 CFR 181.320 - Fire hoses and nozzles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire hoses and nozzles. 181.320 Section 181.320...SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main System § 181.320 Fire hoses and...

  1. 46 CFR 108.425 - Fire hoses and associated equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire hoses and associated equipment. 108.425 Section...A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fire Main System § 108.425 Fire hoses and...

  2. 46 CFR 108.425 - Fire hoses and associated equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire hoses and associated equipment. 108.425 Section...A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fire Main System § 108.425 Fire hoses and...

  3. 46 CFR 118.320 - Fire hoses and nozzles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire hoses and nozzles. 118.320 Section 118.320...OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main System § 118.320 Fire hoses and...

  4. 46 CFR 108.425 - Fire hoses and associated equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire hoses and associated equipment. 108.425 Section...A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fire Main System § 108.425 Fire hoses and...

  5. 46 CFR 118.320 - Fire hoses and nozzles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire hoses and nozzles. 118.320 Section 118.320...OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main System § 118.320 Fire hoses and...

  6. High-pressure, high-temperature opposed anvil device described

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi He; Songtao Wang; Zhicheng Qin; Yaoji Wang; Wenkui Wang

    1985-01-01

    Static high-temperature, high-pressure technology is an important technique for researching solid state phase changes and synthesis of materials. At present, many kinds of devices are used for conducting different high-temperature, high-pressure experiments. The structure of the Bridgman type hard alloy opposed anvil is simple but it can withstand high pressure above 100kbar, and using internal heating method, the temperature can

  7. Abnormally high formation pressures, Potwar Plateau, Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Shah, S.H.A.; Malik, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormally high formation pressures in the Potwar Plateau of north-central Pakistan are major obstacles to oil and gas exploration. Severe drilling problems associated with high pressures have, in some cases, prevented adequate evaluation of reservoirs and significantly increased drilling costs. Previous investigations of abnormal pressure in the Potwar Plateau have only identified abnormal pressures in Neogene rocks. We have identified two distinct pressure regimes in this Himalayan foreland fold and thrust belt basin: one in Neogene rocks and another in pre-Neogene rocks. Pore pressures in Neogene rocks are as high as lithostatic and are interpreted to be due to tectonic compression and compaction disequilibrium associated with high rates of sedimentation. Pore pressure gradients in pre-Neogene rocks are generally less than those in Neogene rocks, commonly ranging from 0.5 to 0.7 psi/ft (11.3 to 15.8 kPa/m) and are most likely due to a combination of tectonic compression and hydrocarbon generation. The top of abnormally high pressure is highly variable and doesn't appear to be related to any specific lithologic seal. Consequently, attempts to predict the depth to the top of overpressure prior to drilling are precluded.

  8. Portable high precision pressure transducer system

    DOEpatents

    Piper, Thomas C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Morgan, John P. (Idaho Falls, ID); Marchant, Norman J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Bolton, Steven M. (Pocatello, ID)

    1994-01-01

    A high precision pressure transducer system for checking the reliability of a second pressure transducer system used to monitor the level of a fluid confined in a holding tank. Since the response of the pressure transducer is temperature sensitive, it is continually housed in an battery powered oven which is configured to provide a temperature stable environment at specified temperature for an extended period of time. Further, a high precision temperature stabilized oscillator and counter are coupled to a single board computer to accurately determine the pressure transducer oscillation frequency and convert it to an applied pressure. All of the components are powered by the batteries which during periods of availability of line power are charged by an on board battery charger. The pressure readings outputs are transmitted to a line printer and a vacuum florescent display.

  9. Combustion of liquid sprays at high pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shearer, A. J.; Faeth, G. M.

    1977-01-01

    The combustion of pressure atomized fuel sprays in high pressure stagnant air was studied. Measurements were made of flame and spray boundaries at pressures in the range 0.1-9 MPa for methanol and n-pentane. At the higher test pressure levels, critical phenomena are important. The experiments are compared with theoretical predictions based on a locally homogeneous two-phase flow model. The theory correctly predicted the trends of the data, but underestimates flame and spray boundaries by 30-50 percent, indicating that slip is still important for the present experiments (Sauter mean diameters of 30 microns at atmospheric pressure under cold flow conditions). Since the sprays are shorter at high pressures, slip effects are still important even though the density ratio of the phases approach one another as the droplets heat up. The model indicates the presence of a region where condensed water is present within the spray and provides a convenient means of treating supercritical phenomena.

  10. Experimental studies of high pressure RF discharges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. W. Herrmann; I. Henius; G. S. Selwyn

    1998-01-01

    Summary form only given, as follows. Experimental studies on RF discharges at 13.56 MHz have been performed at very high gas pressures between 1 Torr to atmospheric pressure. Plasma parameters, comparable to low pressure discharges, are estimated in He discharges by optical emission spectroscopy and Langmuir probe measurements. The estimated electron density of 1-10×1011 cm-3 and electron temperature of 1-2

  11. High-pressure mechanical instability in rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Byerlee, J.D.; Brace, W.F.

    1969-01-01

    At a confining pressure of a few kilobars, deformation of many sedimentary rocks, altered mafic rocks, porous volcanic rocks, and sand is ductile, in that instabilities leading to audible elastic shocks are absent. At pressures of 7 to 10 kilobars, however, unstable faulting and stick-slip in certain of these rocks was observed. This high pressure-low temperature instability might be responsible for earthquakes in deeply buried sedimentary or volcanic sequences.

  12. HIGH-TEMPERATURE AND HIGH-PRESSURE PARTICULATE CONTROL REQUIREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report reviews and evaluates high-temperature and high-pressure particulate cleanup requirements of existing and proposed energy processes. The study's aims are to define specific high-temperature and high-pressure particle removal problems, to indicate potential solutions, a...

  13. Carbon in iron phases under high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, L.; Skorodumova, N. V.; Belonoshko, A. B.; Johansson, B.; Ahuja, R.

    2005-11-01

    The influence of carbon impurities on the properties of iron phases (bcc, hcp, dhcp, fcc) has been studied using the first-principles projector augmented-wave (PAW) method for a wide pressure range. It is shown that the presence of ~6 at. % of interstitial carbon has a little effect on the calculated structural sequence of the iron phases under high pressure. The bcc -> hcp transition both for pure iron and iron containing carbon takes place around 9 GPa. According to the enthalpies comparison, the solubility of carbon into the iron solid is decreased by high pressure. The coexistence of iron carbide (Fe3C) + pure hcp Fe is most stable phase at high pressure compared with other phases. Based on the analysis of the pressure-density dependences for Fe3C and hcp Fe, we suggest that there might be some fraction of iron carbide present in the core.

  14. Small, high-pressure liquid hydrogen turbopump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Csomor, A.; Sutton, R.

    1977-01-01

    A high pressure, liquid hydrogen turbopump was designed, fabricated, and tested to a maximum speed of 9739 rad/s and a maximum pump discharge pressure of 2861 N/sq. cm. The approaches used in the analysis and design of the turbopump are described, and fabrication methods are discussed. Data obtained from gas generator tests, turbine performance calibration, and turbopump testing are presented.

  15. High Pressure and Protein Oligomeric Dissociation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claude Balny

    2002-01-01

    High hydrostatic pressure techniques - in the absence or presence of externally added chaotropes - are increasingly used as tools to study dissociation and unfolding of protein aggregates [1]. G. Weber had reported some causes for the pressure-induced dissociation of oligomeric proteins: imperfect van der Waals contact between monomers, solvent electrostriction at the level of salt linkages at the interfaces

  16. High Pressure Solution Growth of Gallium Nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bo?kowski, Michal; Str?k, Pawel; Grzegory, Izabella; Porowski, Sylwester

    State-of-the-art high pressure solution (HPS) growth of gallium nitride is presented in this chapter. The spontaneous crystallization and seeded growth are described in detail from the technological point of view. Two classes of pressure-grown crystals and their use as substrates for blue laser diodes (LDs) are demonstrated.

  17. High gas pressure effects on yeast.

    PubMed

    Espinasse, V; Perrier-Cornet, J-M; Marecat, A; Gervais, P

    2008-11-01

    Dried microorganisms are particularly resistant to high hydrostatic pressure effects. However, exposure to high pressures of nitrogen proved to be effective in inactivating dried yeasts. In this study, we tried to elucidate this mechanism on Saccharomyces cerevisiae. High-pressure treatments were performed using different inert gases at 150 MPa and 25 degrees C with holding time values up to 12 months. The influence of cell hydration was also investigated. For fully hydrated cells, pressurized gases had little specific effect: cell inactivation was mainly due to compression effects. However, dried cells were sensitive to high pressure of gases. In this latter case, two inactivation kinetics were observed. For holding time up to 1 h, the inactivation rate increased to 4 log and was linked to a loss of membrane integrity and the presence of damage on the cell wall. In such case cell inactivation would be due to gas sorption and desorption phenomena which would rupture dried cells during a fast pressure release. Gas sorption would occur in cell lipid phases. For longer holding times, the inactivation rate increased more slightly due to compression effects and/or to a slower gas sorption. Water therefore played a key role in cell sensitivity to fast gas pressure release. Two hypotheses were proposed to explain this phenomenon: the rigidity of vitrified dried cells and the presence of glassy solid phases which would favor intracellular gas expansion. Our results showed that dried microorganisms can be ruptured and inactivated by a fast pressure release with gases. PMID:18814287

  18. High temperature vapor pressure of pure plutonium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. H. Bradbury; R. W. Ohse

    1979-01-01

    High temperature vapor pressure measurements have been made on pure plutonium metal by the Knudsen effusion technique. The reported experimental results extend into the transition region between molecular and viscous or hydrodynamic flow. Under the conditions used, linearity was observed up to temperatures in excess of 2200 K where pressures approaching 100 Pa were measured. The results over the temperature

  19. 49 CFR 192.621 - Maximum allowable operating pressure: High-pressure distribution systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Maximum allowable operating pressure: High-pressure distribution systems. 192.621 Section 192...Operations § 192.621 Maximum allowable operating pressure: High-pressure distribution systems....

  20. 49 CFR 192.621 - Maximum allowable operating pressure: High-pressure distribution systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Maximum allowable operating pressure: High-pressure distribution systems. 192.621 Section 192...Operations § 192.621 Maximum allowable operating pressure: High-pressure distribution systems....

  1. 49 CFR 192.621 - Maximum allowable operating pressure: High-pressure distribution systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Maximum allowable operating pressure: High-pressure distribution systems. 192.621 Section 192...Operations § 192.621 Maximum allowable operating pressure: High-pressure distribution systems....

  2. 49 CFR 192.621 - Maximum allowable operating pressure: High-pressure distribution systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Maximum allowable operating pressure: High-pressure distribution systems. 192.621 Section 192...Operations § 192.621 Maximum allowable operating pressure: High-pressure distribution systems....

  3. 49 CFR 192.621 - Maximum allowable operating pressure: High-pressure distribution systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Maximum allowable operating pressure: High-pressure distribution systems. 192.621 Section 192...Operations § 192.621 Maximum allowable operating pressure: High-pressure distribution systems....

  4. High Temperature, High Pressure Water Level Sensor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. N. Miller; R. L. Anderson; S. C. Rogers; L. C. Lynnworth; W. B. Studley; W. R. Wade

    1980-01-01

    A sensor was developed to measure water level over a range of 750 mm with an uncertainty of +- 20 mm at a temperature from 20 to 250°C and pressure up to 15.2 MPa. The sensor is type 304, flattened stainless steel rod. Its cross section is 1.6 x 3.2 mm, and its measured torsional transit time is a function

  5. Design of high pressure waterjet nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazzoleni, Andre P.

    1994-01-01

    The Hydroblast Research Cell at Marshall Space Flight Center is used to investigate the use of high pressure waterjets to strip paint, grease, adhesive and thermal spray coatings from various substrates. Current methods of cleaning often use ozone depleting chemicals (ODC) such as chlorinated solvents. High pressure waterjet cleaning has proven to be a viable alternative to the use of solvents. A popular method of waterjet cleaning involves the use of a rotating, multijet, high pressure water nozzle which is robotically controlled. This method enables rapid cleaning of a large area, but problems such as incomplete coverage and damage to the substrate from the waterjet have been observed. This report summarizes research consisting of identifying and investigating the basic properties of rotating, multijet, high pressure water nozzles, and how particular designs and modes of operation affect such things as stripping rate, standoff distance and completeness of coverage. The study involved computer simulations, an extensive literature review, and experimental studies of different nozzle designs.

  6. High Blood Pressure: Unique to Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to help this. High Blood Pressure and Vascular Ulcers : Vascular ulcers are skin sores that can appear in your ... nutrition to the skin and can lead to ulcers. You are at risk of developing vascular ulcers ...

  7. High-pressure synthesis of electronic materials 

    E-print Network

    Penny, George B. S.

    2010-01-01

    High-pressure techniques have become increasingly important in the synthesis of ceramic and metallic solids allowing the discovery of new materials with interesting properties. In this research dense solid oxides have ...

  8. High-pressure studies of ammonia hydrates 

    E-print Network

    Wilson, Craig W.

    2014-06-28

    Ammonia and water are major components of many planetary bodies, from comets and icy moons such as Saturn's Titan to the interiors of the planets Neptune and Uranus. Under a range of high pressures and/or low temperatures known ...

  9. Design of high pressure waterjet nozzles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzoleni, Andre P.

    1994-10-01

    The Hydroblast Research Cell at Marshall Space Flight Center is used to investigate the use of high pressure waterjets to strip paint, grease, adhesive and thermal spray coatings from various substrates. Current methods of cleaning often use ozone depleting chemicals (ODC) such as chlorinated solvents. High pressure waterjet cleaning has proven to be a viable alternative to the use of solvents. A popular method of waterjet cleaning involves the use of a rotating, multijet, high pressure water nozzle which is robotically controlled. This method enables rapid cleaning of a large area, but problems such as incomplete coverage and damage to the substrate from the waterjet have been observed. This report summarizes research consisting of identifying and investigating the basic properties of rotating, multijet, high pressure water nozzles, and how particular designs and modes of operation affect such things as stripping rate, standoff distance and completeness of coverage. The study involved computer simulations, an extensive literature review, and experimental studies of different nozzle designs.

  10. Myths about High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... sodium – and count the same toward total sodium consumption. Table salt is a combination of the two ... can be highly addictive. If you drink, limit consumption to no more than two drinks per day ...

  11. 46 CFR 76.10-10 - Fire station hydrants, hose and nozzles-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...false Fire station hydrants, hose and nozzles-T/ALL. 76.10-10 Section 76...10-10 Fire station hydrants, hose and nozzles-T/ALL. (a) The size of fire hydrants, hose, and nozzles and the length of hose required...

  12. Comments on Trends in High Pressure Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Winter; J. Jonas

    \\u000a One can identify two main goals of this session dealing with current trends in high pressure research. First, one would like\\u000a to illustrate on specific examples the wide range of problems that can be studied by high pressure techniques. Secondly, these\\u000a comments should inform the researcher about promising developments in various subfields, and possible future trends. Indeed,\\u000a these comments cover

  13. High pressure techniques at low temperatures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Ramaseshan; G. Parthasarthy; E S R Gopal

    1987-01-01

    The article reviews the experimental techniques used in high pressure-low temperature investigations to study a variety of\\u000a physico-chemical phenomena. The general principles of producing high pressures at low temperatures, the methods of measuring\\u000a P and T, the materials used for construction and the diamond anvil cell (DAC) are briefly given first. Specific pieces of\\u000a apparatus to measure the mechanical properties,

  14. Optical pressure sensors for high-pressure-high-temperature studies in a diamond anvil cell

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Datchi; A. Dewaele; P. Loubeyre; R. Letoullec; Y. Le Godec; B. Canny

    2007-01-01

    We review the various optical pressure sensors that are suitable for high-pressure and high-temperature studies in a diamond anvil cell. Two different kinds of sensors are considered: those based on the pressure shift of a fluorescence line (ruby, SrB4O7:Sm) and those based on the pressure shift of a Raman line (c-BN, diamond). The calibration of those sensors are presented in

  15. Field Trial Results of Annular Pressure Behavior in a High-Pressure\\/High-Temperature Well

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pieter Oudeman; L. J. Bacarreza

    1995-01-01

    The problem of annular pressure buildup due to heating of the strings by the (hot) well effluent, will typically be of concern in the design of casing strings for high-pressure\\/high-temperature (HP\\/HT) subsea wells. In such completions bleeding off the pressure through the wellhead, as done routinely with surface wells, is not possible. Theoretical studies indicated that, potentially, extreme pressures could

  16. High-Resolution, High-Pressure NMR Studies of Proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Jonas; L. Ballard; D. Nash

    1998-01-01

    Advanced high-resolution NMR spectroscopy, including two-dimensional NMR techniques, combined with high pressure capability, represents a powerful new tool in the study of proteins. This contribution is organized in the following way. First, the specialized instrumentation needed for high-pressure NMR experiments is discussed, with specific emphasis on the design features and performance characteristics of a high-sensitivity, high-resolution, variable-temperature NMR probe operating

  17. Fluid hydrogen at high density - Pressure ionization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saumon, Didier; Chabrier, Gilles

    1992-01-01

    The Helmholtz-free-energy model for nonideal mixtures of hydrogen atoms and molecules by Saumon and Chabrier (1991) is extended to describe dissociation and ionization in similar mixtures in chemical equilibrium. A free-energy model is given that describes partial ionization in the pressure and temperature ionization region. The plasma-phase transition predicted by the model is described for hydrogen mixtures including such components as H2, H, H(+), and e(-). The plasma-phase transition has a critical point at Tc = 15,300 K and Pc = 0.614 Mbar, and thermodynamic instability is noted in the pressure-ionization regime. The pressure dissociation and ionization of fluid hydrogen are described well with the model yielding information on the nature of the plasma-phase transition. The model is shown to be valuable for studying dissociation and ionization in astrophysical objects and in high-pressure studies where pressure and temperature effects are significant.

  18. High pressure ceramic heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Harkins, Bruce D. (San Diego, CA); Ward, Michael E. (Poway, CA)

    1999-01-01

    Many recuperators have components which react to corrosive gases and are used in applications where the donor fluid includes highly corrosive gases. These recuperators have suffered reduced life, increased service or maintenance, and resulted in increased cost. The present header assembly when used with recuperators reduces the brittle effect of a portion of the ceramic components. Thus, the present header assembly used with the present recuperator increases the life, reduces the service and maintenance, and reduces the increased cost associated with corrosive action of components used to manufacture recuperators. The present header assembly is comprised of a first ceramic member, a second ceramic member, a reinforcing member being in spaced relationship to the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The header assembly is further comprised of a refractory material disposed in contacting relationship with the first ceramic member, the second ceramic member and the reinforcing member and having a strengthening member wrapped around the refractory material. The present header assembly provides a high strength load bearing header assembly having good thermal cycling characteristics, good resistance to a corrosive environment and good steady state strength at elevated temperatures.

  19. High pressure ceramic heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Harkins, Bruce D. (San Diego, CA); Ward, Michael E. (Poway, CA)

    1998-01-01

    Many recuperators have components which react to corrosive gases and are used in applications where the donor fluid includes highly corrosive gases. These recuperators have suffered reduced life, increased service or maintenance, and resulted in increased cost. The present header assembly when used with recuperators reduces the brittle effect of a portion of the ceramic components. Thus, the present header assembly used with the present recuperator increases the life, reduces the service and maintenance, and reduces the increased cost associated with corrosive action of components used to manufacture recuperators. The present header assembly is comprised of a first ceramic member, a second ceramic member, a strengthening reinforcing member being in spaced relationship to the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The header assembly is further comprised of a refractory material disposed in contacting relationship with the first ceramic member, the second ceramic member and the strengthening reinforcing member. The present header assembly provides a high strength load bearing header assembly having good thermal cycling characteristics, good resistance to a corrosive environment and good steady state strength at elevated temperatures.

  20. High pressure ceramic heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Harkins, B.D.; Ward, M.E.

    1998-09-22

    Many recuperators have components which react to corrosive gases and are used in applications where the donor fluid includes highly corrosive gases. These recuperators have suffered reduced life, increased service or maintenance, and resulted in increased cost. The present header assembly when used with recuperators reduces the brittle effect of a portion of the ceramic components. Thus, the present header assembly used with the present recuperator increases the life, reduces the service and maintenance, and reduces the increased cost associated with corrosive action of components used to manufacture recuperators. The present header assembly is comprised of a first ceramic member, a second ceramic member, a strengthening reinforcing member being in spaced relationship to the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The header assembly is further comprised of a refractory material disposed in contacting relationship with the first ceramic member, the second ceramic member and the strengthening reinforcing member. The present header assembly provides a high strength load bearing header assembly having good thermal cycling characteristics, good resistance to a corrosive environment and good steady state strength at elevated temperatures. 5 figs.

  1. Inverse estimation of the acoustic impedance of a porous woven hose from measured transmission coefficients.

    PubMed

    Park, Chul-Min; Ih, Jeong-Guon; Nakayama, Yoshio; Takao, Hideo

    2003-01-01

    A porous tube, comprised of a resin-coated woven fabric has recently been used as an effective component for use in intake systems of internal combustion engines to reduce the intake noise. For the prediction of the acoustic performance of an engine intake system with a porous woven hose, the acoustic wall impedance of the hose must be known. However, the accurate measurement of the wall impedance of a porous woven hose is not easy because of its peculiar acoustical and structural characteristics. A new measurement technique is proposed herein, that is valid over the low to mid frequency ranges. The acoustics impedance is inversely estimated from an overdetermined set of measured pressure transmission coefficients for specimens of different lengths and the reflection coefficient of end termination. The method involves only one measurement setup, and, as a result, it is very simple. A variation of the proposed method, an inverse estimation method using one of the four-pole parameters is also proposed. An error sensitivity analysis was performed to investigate the effect of measurement error on the accuracy of the final result. The measured TL for samples with arbitrary lengths and arbitrary porous frequency are in reasonably good agreement with values predicted from curve-fitted impedance data. PMID:12558253

  2. Device for Ultra-High-Pressure High-Temperature Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. B. Wilson

    1960-01-01

    A new device has been developed for materials research at high pressures and high temperatures. The unit may be described as an extension of the Bridgman ``anvil,'' modified to permit internal heating. The principle of ``massive support'' is retained with pressure being achieved through the elasticity of multiple binding rings, rather than through the ``compressible'' gasket effect. The unit has

  3. Sample injector for high pressure liquid chromatography

    DOEpatents

    Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Arnold, Don W. (Livermore, CA); Neyer, David W. (Castro Valley, CA)

    2001-01-01

    Apparatus and method for driving a sample, having a well-defined volume, under pressure into a chromatography column. A conventional high pressure sampling valve is replaced by a sample injector composed of a pair of injector components connected in series to a common junction. The injector components are containers of porous dielectric material constructed so as to provide for electroosmotic flow of a sample into the junction. At an appropriate time, a pressure pulse from a high pressure source, that can be an electrokinetic pump, connected to the common junction, drives a portion of the sample, whose size is determined by the dead volume of the common junction, into the chromatographic column for subsequent separation and analysis. The apparatus can be fabricated on a substrate for microanalytical applications.

  4. Polymerization of formic acid under high pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Goncharov, A.F.; Manaa, M.R.; Zaug, J.M.; Gee, R.H.; Fried, L.E.; Montgomery, W.B. (UCB); (LLNL)

    2010-07-19

    We report Raman, infrared, and x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements, along with ab initio calculations on formic acid (FA) under pressure up to 50 GPa. We find an infinite chain Pna2{sub 1} structure to be a high-pressure phase at room temperature. Our data indicate the symmetrization and a partially covalent character of the intrachain hydrogen bonds above approximately 20 GPa. Raman spectra and XRD patterns indicate a loss of long-range order at pressures above 40 GPa, with a large hysteresis upon decompression. We attribute this behavior to a three-dimensional polymerization of FA.

  5. Studies on High Pressure RF Glow Discharges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaeyoung Park; I. Henins; G. S. Selwyn

    1997-01-01

    Experimental Studies on RF discharges at (13.56 MHz) in helium and helium + oxygen have been performed in very high gas pressures between 1 torr to 600 torr. Plasma parameters, comparable to the low pressure discharges, are observed in He discharges by optical emission spectroscopy and a Langmuir probe measurement. The observed electron density of 1- 5x10^11 cm-3 and electron

  6. Studies on High Pressure RF discharges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaeyoung Park; Ivars Henins; Kevin Wilson; Gary S. Selwyn

    1997-01-01

    Experimental Studies on RF discharges at 13.56 MHz in helium and helium + oxygen have been performed in very high gas pressures between 1 Torr to 600 Torr. From optical emission spectroscopy and a Langmuir probe measurement, electron density of 1--5× 10^11 cm-3 and electron temperature of 1--2 eV is estimated in the discharge region. By increasing the gas pressure,

  7. High-Pressure Studies of Energetic Materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Colin R. Pulham; David I. A. Millar; Iain D. H. Oswald; William G. Marshall

    \\u000a High-pressure studies of energetic materials provide valuable information about how these compounds behave under the extreme\\u000a conditions experienced during detonation. Spectroscopic and diffraction techniques, augmented by computational methods, provide\\u000a insight into the effects of pressure on intermolecular interactions and phase transitions. Some examples of studies on representative\\u000a compounds are presented here.

  8. ALTERNATIVES FOR HIGH-TEMPERATURE/HIGH-PRESSURE PARTICULATE CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives the status of the most promising high-temperature/high-pressure (HTP) particulate control devices being developed. Data are presented and anticipated performance and development problems are discussed. HTP particulate control offers efficiency and potential econo...

  9. A high-temperature wideband pressure transducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuckerwar, A. J.

    1975-01-01

    Progress in the development of a pressure transducer for measurement of the pressure fluctuations in the high temperature environment of a jet exhaust is reported. A condenser microphone carrier system was adapted to meet the specifications. A theoretical analysis is presented which describes the operation of the condenser microphone in terms of geometry, materials, and other physical properties. The analysis was used as the basis for design of a prototype high temperature microphone. The feasibility of connecting the microphone to a converter over a high temperature cable operating as a half-wavelength transmission line was also examined.

  10. 48. View looking northwest across lock. Hose cleaning of east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. View looking northwest across lock. Hose cleaning of east forebay before pulling spikes. - Wabash & Erie Canal, Lock No. 2, 8 miles east of Fort Wayne, adjacent to U.S. Route 24, New Haven, Allen County, IN

  11. HIGH PRESSURE CRYOCOOLING FOR MACROMOLECULAR CRYSTALLOGRAPHY

    E-print Network

    Gruner, Sol M.

    Science High School and continued his education in Seoul National University (SNU) majoring in Physics for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy by Chae Un Kim January 2008 #12;© 2008 Chae Un Kim #12;HIGH PRESSUREHIGH PRESSURE CRYOCOOLING FOR MACROMOLECULAR CRYSTALLOGRAPHY A Dissertation Presented

  12. An experimental investigation of high temperature, high pressure paper drying

    E-print Network

    Patel, Kamal Raoji

    1994-01-01

    of efficient drying passes was reached enabling determination of a diminishing drying rate. Diminishing drying rate dictates the required number of high temperature, high pressure drying cylinders for a more efficient heat-press roll drying facility... by alternate side drying results which indicated greater amounts of water removal and caliper loss compared to same side drying. High temperature, high pressure paper drying provides a more efficient means to dry paper while maintaining good paper quality...

  13. Effect of High Pressure on Uranyl Nanocages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, K. M.; Zhang, F.; Pellegrini, K.; McGrail, B. T.; Burns, P. C.; Ewing, R. C.

    2013-12-01

    Uranyl nanocages U24Py12, U60, and U24 were studied in situ at high pressure in order to understand the response of these structures to pressure. Single crystals of the nanocage structures were analyzed by in situ Raman spectroscopy, synchrotron X-ray diffraction and small angle X-Ray scattering in diamond anvil cells, as well as electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. At ambient pressure conditions, U24Py12 is tetragonal (P42/mnm: a = 22.746(2) Å, c = 30.426(4) Å), U60 is isometric (Fm-3: a=37.884(2) Å), and U24 is triclinic (P1-: a=19.2111(11), b=31.003(2), c=32.252(2), ?=102.404(4)°, ?=99.506(4) °, ?=95.362(4) °). Pressures ranged from ambient to 50 GPa; single crystals less than 200 microns in diameter were used. Two symmetric stretch modes of the uranyl ion are evident in the Raman spectra of all three nanocages with Raman shifts of 810 and 830 cm-1. The modes are clearly evident at pressures ranging from ambient to 4-8 GPa. At pressures higher than this range, the uranyl ion vibrational mode broadens further and shifts to higher stretching frequencies. The signal for U60 is irreversibly lost at 17 GPa, but for U24 and U24Py12, the signal persists and continues to broaden at pressures up to 50 GPa. After pressure quenching, there was still no signal from the U60, but U24 and U24Py12 both show one broad Raman mode at 840 cm-1. High pressure synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements were completed at Argonne National Laboratory to quantify structural unit cell changes over the pressure ranges investigated. U24Py12 undergoes a phase transition to higher symmetry at approximately 5 GPa, and eventually partially amorphizes at 17 GPa, irreversibly. U60 undergoes a phase transition from isometric to tetragonal at 4.4 GPa, and amorphizes irreversibly at 10 GPa. Small angle X-ray scattering measurements show that the cluster topology is maintained even after amorphization of U24Py12 and U60. Mass spectrometry data indicate that these clusters remain intact at high pressures, despite the loss of long-range periodicity. These experiments provide insight into the stability of different types of uranyl nanocages, as well the relation between cluster topology and stability with increasing pressure.

  14. High Temperature Dynamic Pressure Measurements Using Silicon Carbide Pressure Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okojie, Robert S.; Meredith, Roger D.; Chang, Clarence T.; Savrun, Ender

    2014-01-01

    Un-cooled, MEMS-based silicon carbide (SiC) static pressure sensors were used for the first time to measure pressure perturbations at temperatures as high as 600 C during laboratory characterization, and subsequently evaluated in a combustor rig operated under various engine conditions to extract the frequencies that are associated with thermoacoustic instabilities. One SiC sensor was placed directly in the flow stream of the combustor rig while a benchmark commercial water-cooled piezoceramic dynamic pressure transducer was co-located axially but kept some distance away from the hot flow stream. In the combustor rig test, the SiC sensor detected thermoacoustic instabilities across a range of engine operating conditions, amplitude magnitude as low as 0.5 psi at 585 C, in good agreement with the benchmark piezoceramic sensor. The SiC sensor experienced low signal to noise ratio at higher temperature, primarily due to the fact that it was a static sensor with low sensitivity.

  15. High pressure and high temperature behaviour of ZnO

    SciTech Connect

    Thakar, Nilesh A. [K. K. Shah Jarodwala Maninagar Science College, Rambaug, Maninagar, Ahmedabad-380008 (India); Bhatt, Apoorva D. [Department of Physics, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad-380009 (India); Pandya, Tushar C., E-mail: pandyatc@gmail.com [St. Xavier's College, Navrangpura, Ahmedabad-380009 (India)

    2014-04-24

    The thermodynamic properties with the wurtzite (B4) and rocksalt (B1) phases of ZnO under high pressures and high temperatures have been investigated using Tait's Equation of state (EOS). The effects of pressures and temperatures on thermodynamic properties such as bulk modulus, thermal expansivity and thermal pressure are explored for both two structures. It is found that ZnO material gradually softens with increase of temperature while it hardens with the increment of the pressure. Our predicted results of thermodynamics properties for both the phases of ZnO are in overall agreement with the available data in the literature.

  16. High pressure, high current, low inductance, high reliability sealed terminals

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, John S. (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; McKeever, John W. (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-03-23

    The invention is a terminal assembly having a casing with at least one delivery tapered-cone conductor and at least one return tapered-cone conductor routed there-through. The delivery and return tapered-cone conductors are electrically isolated from each other and positioned in the annuluses of ordered concentric cones at an off-normal angle. The tapered cone conductor service can be AC phase conductors and DC link conductors. The center core has at least one service conduit of gate signal leads, diagnostic signal wires, and refrigerant tubing routed there-through. A seal material is in direct contact with the casing inner surface, the tapered-cone conductors, and the service conduits thereby hermetically filling the interstitial space in the casing interior core and center core. The assembly provides simultaneous high-current, high-pressure, low-inductance, and high-reliability service.

  17. Optically accessible high-pressure combustion apparatus Stephen D. Tsea)

    E-print Network

    Tse, Stephen D.

    Optically accessible high-pressure combustion apparatus Stephen D. Tsea) Department of Mechanical optically accessible high-pressure combustion apparatus is presented. The apparatus provides optical access measurements, alleviating the extreme overpressures encountered in high-pressure combustion processes within

  18. 76 FR 38697 - High Pressure Steel Cylinders From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ...731-TA-1188; Preliminary] High Pressure Steel Cylinders From China Determinations...reason of imports from China of high pressure steel cylinders, provided for in subheading...of LTFV and subsidized imports of high pressure steel cylinders from China....

  19. 77 FR 37712 - High Pressure Steel Cylinders From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-22

    ...and 731-TA-1188 (Final)] High Pressure Steel Cylinders From China Determinations...injured by reason of imports of high pressure steel cylinders from China, provided...determinations by Commerce that imports of high pressure steel cylinders from China were...

  20. Over-the-Counter Medications and High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... iOS | Android | Kindle Fire | PDF Interactive High Blood Pressure Guide Find videos, quizzes, trackers and more with ... Also available as a downloadable PDF . High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Why HBP ...

  1. High pressure chemistry of substituted acetylenes

    SciTech Connect

    Chellappa, Raja [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dattelbaum, Dana [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sheffield, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Robbins, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-25

    High pressure in situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction experiments were performed on substituted polyacetylenes: tert-butyl acetylene [TBA: (CH{sub 3}){sub 3}-C{triple_bond}CH] and ethynyl trimethylsilane [ETMS: (CH{sub 3}){sub 3}-Si{triple_bond}CH] to investigate pressure-induced chemical reactions. The starting samples were the low temperature crystalline phases which persisted metastably at room temperature and polymerized beyond 11 GPa and 26 GPa for TBA and ETMS respectively. These reaction onset pressures are considerably higher than what we observed in the shockwave studies (6.1 GPa for TBA and 6.6 GPa for ETMS). Interestingly, in the case of ETMS, it was observed with fluid ETMS as starting sample, reacts to form a semi-crystalline polymer (crystalline domains corresponding to the low-T phase) at pressures less than {approx}2 GPa. Further characterization using vibrational spectroscopy is in progress.

  2. Shanker formulation needs modification at high pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Manoj; Kumar, M.

    2007-04-01

    It is found that the Shanker formulation widely used in the literature to study the thermal expansion of solids (at constant pressure) works under the effect of pressure (at constant temperature) up to a limited range (?30 kbar). Large deviations occur, when the pressure range is increased, demonstrating the failure of the relation under high pressure (at constant temperature). We, therefore, propose the modification in the formulation on an empirical basis. The modified relation is used to study the compression behavior of ionic solids viz. NaF, NaCl, NaBr and NaI crystals. The results obtained with the modified relation are compared with the experimental data in the light of the results obtained from Shanker formulation and Birch Murnaghan equation of state. A good agreement between theory and experiment demonstrates the validity of the modification presented in the present note.

  3. The influence of pressure on high-pressure, high-temperature annealing of type Ia diamond

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. De Weerdt; A. T. Collins

    2003-01-01

    The influence of temperature and pressure conditions during high-pressure, high-temperature (HPHT) annealing on the dissociation of nitrogen aggregates is investigated, and special attention is paid to the influence of pressure. When PT conditions are above the diamond–graphite equilibrium line, an activation energy of 5.6±1.4 eV is calculated from the Arrhenius plot of the dissociation rate of A centres by assuming

  4. Sonoluminescence and high-pressure gas scintillators

    SciTech Connect

    Tornow, W. [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); [Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Duke Station, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)

    1996-05-01

    We point out striking similarities between the light emitted in single-bubble sonoluminescence and high-pressure gas scintillators. This observation can account for important and largely unexplained phenomena surrounding sonoluminescence. Especially, it explains the observed dramatic effects of the noble gas content on the spectral density of the light emitted from a sonoluminescence bubble in water. Based on studies with high-pressure gas scintillators, we also propose an alternative explanation for the extreme temperature sensitivity of sonoluminescence. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  5. High pressure water jet cutting and stripping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoppe, David T.; Babai, Majid K.

    1991-01-01

    High pressure water cutting techniques have a wide range of applications to the American space effort. Hydroblasting techniques are commonly used during the refurbishment of the reusable solid rocket motors. The process can be controlled to strip a thermal protective ablator without incurring any damage to the painted surface underneath by using a variation of possible parameters. Hydroblasting is a technique which is easily automated. Automation removes personnel from the hostile environment of the high pressure water. Computer controlled robots can perform the same task in a fraction of the time that would be required by manual operation.

  6. High pressure turbomachinery ground test facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuermann, Patrick E.

    1992-01-01

    Turbomachinery test facilities are at present scarce to non-existent world-wide. The turbomachinery test facility at Stennis Space Center will provide for advanced development and research and development capabilities for liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen propellant rocket engine components. The facility will provide ultra-high pressure via gas generators to deliver the needed turbine drive on various turbomachinery. State of the art process control systems will provide the vital pressure, temperature and flow requirements during tests. These systems will better control adverse transient conditions during start-up and shutdown, and by using advanced control theory, as well as incorporate test article health monitoring. Also, digital data acquisition systems will obtain high frequency (up to 20 KHz) and low frequency (up to 1 KHz) data during the test. Pressures of up to 15,000 psi will be generated to pressurize high pressure tanks supplying cryogens to various test article inlets thus pushing turbopump materials and manufacturing processes to their limits. By planning for future projects the test facility will be easily adaptable to multi-program test configurations over a range of thermodynamic positions.

  7. HIGH PRESSURE COAL COMBUSTON KINETICS PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Stefano Orsino

    2005-03-30

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) initiative to improve the efficiency of coal-fired power plants and reduce the pollution generated by these facilities, DOE has funded the High-Pressure Coal Combustion Kinetics (HPCCK) Projects. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted on selected pulverized coals at elevated pressures with the specific goals to provide new data for pressurized coal combustion that will help extend to high pressure and validate models for burnout, pollutant formation, and generate samples of solid combustion products for analyses to fill crucial gaps in knowledge of char morphology and fly ash formation. Two series of high-pressure coal combustion experiments were performed using SRI's pressurized radiant coal flow reactor. The first series of tests characterized the near burner flame zone (NBFZ). Three coals were tested, two high volatile bituminous (Pittsburgh No.8 and Illinois No.6), and one sub-bituminous (Powder River Basin), at pressures of 1, 2, and 3 MPa (10, 20, and 30 atm). The second series of experiments, which covered high-pressure burnout (HPBO) conditions, utilized a range of substantially longer combustion residence times to produce char burnout levels from 50% to 100%. The same three coals were tested at 1, 2, and 3 MPa, as well as at 0.2 MPa. Tests were also conducted on Pittsburgh No.8 coal in CO2 entrainment gas at 0.2, 1, and 2 MPa to begin establishing a database of experiments relevant to carbon sequestration techniques. The HPBO test series included use of an impactor-type particle sampler to measure the particle size distribution of fly ash produced under complete burnout conditions. The collected data have been interpreted with the help of CFD and detailed kinetics simulation to extend and validate devolatilization, char combustion and pollutant model at elevated pressure. A global NOX production sub-model has been proposed. The submodel reproduces the performance of the detailed chemical reaction mechanism for the NBFZ tests.

  8. Advanced Diagnostics for High Pressure Spray Combustion.

    SciTech Connect

    Skeen, Scott A.; Manin, Julien Luc; Pickett, Lyle M.

    2014-06-01

    The development of accurate predictive engine simulations requires experimental data to both inform and validate the models, but very limited information is presently available about the chemical structure of high pressure spray flames under engine- relevant conditions. Probing such flames for chemical information using non- intrusive optical methods or intrusive sampling techniques, however, is challenging because of the physical and optical harshness of the environment. This work details two new diagnostics that have been developed and deployed to obtain quantitative species concentrations and soot volume fractions from a high-pressure combusting spray. A high-speed, high-pressure sampling system was developed to extract gaseous species (including soot precursor species) from within the flame for offline analysis by time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A high-speed multi-wavelength optical extinction diagnostic was also developed to quantify transient and quasi-steady soot processes. High-pressure sampling and offline characterization of gas-phase species formed following the pre-burn event was accomplished as well as characterization of gas-phase species present in the lift-off region of a high-pressure n-dodecane spray flame. For the initial samples discussed in this work several species were identified, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH); however, quantitative mole fractions were not determined. Nevertheless, the diagnostic developed here does have this capability. Quantitative, time-resolved measurements of soot extinction were also accomplished and the novel use of multiple incident wavelengths proved valuable toward characterizing changes in soot optical properties within different regions of the spray flame.

  9. High Pressure Fosters Protein Refolding from Aggregates at High Concentrations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard J. St. John; John F. Carpenter; Theodore W. Randolph

    1999-01-01

    High hydrostatic pressures (1-2 kbar), combined with low, nondenaturing concentrations of guanidine hydrochloride (GdmHCl) foster disaggregation and refolding of denatured and aggregated human growth hormone and lysozyme, and beta -lactamase inclusion bodies. One hundred percent recovery of properly folded protein can be obtained by applying pressures of 2 kbar to suspensions containing aggregates of recombinant human growth hormone (up to

  10. Superconducting high-pressure phases of disilane

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xilian; Meng, Xing; He, Zhi; Ma, Yanming; Liu, Bingbing; Cui, Tian; Zou, Guangtian; Mao, Ho-kwang

    2010-01-01

    High-pressure structures of disilane (Si2H6) are investigated extensively by means of first-principles density functional theory and a random structure-searching method. Three metallic structures with P-1, Pm-3m, and C2/c symmetries are found, which are more stable than those of XY3-type candidates under high pressure. Enthalpy calculations suggest a remarkably wide decomposition (Si and H2) pressure range below 135 GPa, above which three metallic structures are stable. Perturbative linear-response calculations for Pm-3m disilane at 275 GPa show a large electron-phonon coupling parameter ? of 1.397 and the resulting superconducting critical temperature beyond the order of 102 K. PMID:20479272

  11. High pressure injection of dimethyl ether

    SciTech Connect

    Glensvig, M.; Sorenson, S.C. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of Energy Engineering; Abata, D. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Engineering Mechanics

    1996-12-31

    Partially oxygenated hydrocarbons produced from natural gas have been shown to be viable alternate fuels for the diesel engine, showing favorable combustion characteristics similar to that of diesel fuel but without exhaust particulates and with significantly reduced NO{sub x} emissions and lower engine noise. Further, engine studies have demonstrated that such compounds, like dimethyl ether (DME), can be injected at much lower pressures than conventional diesel fuel with better overall performance. This experimental study compares the injection of DME to that of conventional diesel fuel. Both fuels were injected into a quiescent high pressure chamber containing Nitrogen at pressures up to 25 atmospheres at room temperature with a pintle nozzle and jerk pump. Comparisons were obtained with high speed photography using a Hycam camera. Results indicate that there are significant differences in spray geometry and penetration which are not predictable with analytical models currently used for diesel fuels.

  12. Design guide for high pressure oxygen systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, A. C.; Pohl, H. O.; Chaffee, N. H.; Guy, W. W.; Allton, C. S.; Johnston, R. L.; Castner, W. L.; Stradling, J. S.

    1983-01-01

    A repository for critical and important detailed design data and information, hitherto unpublished, along with significant data on oxygen reactivity phenomena with metallic and nonmetallic materials in moderate to very high pressure environments is documented. This data and information provide a ready and easy to use reference for the guidance of designers of propulsion, power, and life support systems for use in space flight. The document is also applicable to designs for industrial and civilian uses of high pressure oxygen systems. The information presented herein are derived from data and design practices involving oxygen usage at pressures ranging from about 20 psia to 8000 psia equal with thermal conditions ranging from room temperatures up to 500 F.

  13. Test facility for high pressure plasmas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Block; M. Laroussi; K. H. Schoenbach

    1999-01-01

    Summary form only given. High pressure nonthermal plasmas are gaining increasing importance because of their wide range of applications, e.g. in air plasma ramparts, gas processing, surface treatment, thin film deposition, and chemical and biological decontamination. In order to compare various methods of plasma generation with respect to efficiency, development of instabilities, homogeneity, lifetime etc., a central test facility for

  14. High Pressure Inactivation of HAV within Mussels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potential of hepatitis A virus (HAV) to be inactivated within Mediterranean mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) by high pressure processing was evaluated. HAV was bioaccumulated within mussels to approximately 6-log10 PFU by exposure of mussels to HAV-contamina...

  15. Hurricane risk mitigation - High Pressure Gas Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    A worker pours concrete as part of a nitrogen risk mitigation project at the High Pressure Gas Facility at Stennis Space Center. The concrete slab will provide the foundation needed to place new pumps at the site and is part of ongoing hurricane-related mitigation work at Stennis.

  16. Food Processing by High Hydrostatic Pressure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. F. San Martín; G. V. Barbosa-Cánovas; B. G. Swanson

    2002-01-01

    The use of high hydrostatic pressures (HHP) for food processing is finding increased application within the food industry. One of the advantages of this technology is that because it does not use heat, sensory, and nutritional attributes of the product remain virtually unaffected, thus yielding products with better quality than those processed traditional methods. HHP have the ability to inactivate

  17. BILIWG Meeting: High Pressure Steam Reforming of

    E-print Network

    or H2) High pressure reforming is advantageous for subsequent separations and hydrogen purification reforming bio-derived liquid fuels ­ Metric: · Improved efficiency of the hydrogen production / purification combustion zone with air zone? 6 #12;Membrane reactor testing apparatus Rated for 1,000 psi, 800°C 6.4 mm

  18. High-pressure treatment of polytene chromosomes

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    High-pressure treatment of polytene chromosomes improves structural resolution Dmitri V Novikov1, Igor Kireev1,2 & Andrew S Belmont1 The exceptional cytology provided by polytene chromosomes has made Drosophila melanogaster a premier model for chromosome studies, but full exploitation of polytene cytology

  19. High pressure: Bacteria survive inside diamond anvil

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Editor-in-Chief Culliton J. Barbara

    This is a summary of a research paper describing experiments conducted to study bacterial survival at extremely high pressure. This web article published by the Genome News Network is a review of the original publication found in Science magazine. A link to the original publication is found at the end of the article.

  20. Nanoshells as a high-pressure gauge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tempere, Jacques; van den Broeck, Nick; Putteneers, Katrijn; Silvera, Isaac

    2012-02-01

    Nanoshells, consisting of multiple spherical layers, have an extensive list of applications, usually performing the function of a probe. We add a new application to this list in the form of a high-pressure gauge in a Diamond Anvil Cell (DAC). In a DAC, where high pressures are reached by pressing two diamonds together, existing gauges fail at higher pressures because of calibration difficulties and obscuring effects in the diamonds. The nanoshell gauge does not face this issue since its optical spectrum can be engineered by altering the thickness of its layers. Furthermore their properties are measured by broad band optical transmission spectroscopy leading to a very large signal-to-noise ratio even in the multi-megabar pressure regime where ruby measurements become challenging. Theoretical calculations based on the Maxwell equations in a spherical geometry combined with the Vinet equation of state show that a three-layer geometry (SiO2-Au-SiO2) indeed has a measurable pressure-dependent optical response desirable for gauges.

  1. Ceramic cells for high pressure NMR spectroscopy of proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Markus Beck Erlach; Claudia E. Munte; Werner Kremer; Rainer Hartl; Dörte Rochelt; Dieter Niesner; Hans Robert Kalbitzer

    2010-01-01

    Application of high pressure to biological macromolecules can be used to find new structural states with a smaller specific volume of the system. High pressure NMR spectroscopy is a most promising analytical tool for the study of these states at atomic resolution. High pressure quartz cells are difficult to handle, high quality sapphire high pressure cells are difficult to obtain

  2. LHDAC setup for high temperature and high pressure studies

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, Nishant N., E-mail: nnpatel@barc.gov.in; Meenakshi, S., E-mail: nnpatel@barc.gov.in; Sharma, Surinder M., E-mail: nnpatel@barc.gov.in [High Pressure and Synchrotron Radiation Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India)

    2014-04-24

    A ytterbium fibre laser (? = 1.07 ?m) based laser heated diamond anvil cell (LHDAC) facility has been recently set up at HP and SRPD, BARC for simultaneous high temperature and high pressure investigation of material properties. Synthesis of GaN was carried out at pressure of ?9 GPa and temperature of ?1925 K in a Mao-Bell type diamond anvil cell (DAC) using the LHDAC facility. The retrieved sample has been characterized using our laboratory based micro Raman setup.

  3. Climatic impacts of fresh water hosing under Last Glacial Maximum conditions: a multi-model study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kageyama, M.; Merkel, U.; Otto-Bliesner, B.; Prange, M.; Abe-Ouchi, A.; Lohmann, G.; Roche, D. M.; Singarayer, J.; Swingedouw, D.; Zhang, X.

    2012-08-01

    Fresh water hosing simulations, in which a fresh water flux is imposed in the North Atlantic to force fluctuations of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation, have been routinely performed, first to study the climatic signature of different states of this circulation, then, under present or future conditions, to investigate the potential impact of a partial melting of the Greenland ice sheet. The most compelling examples of climatic changes potentially related to AMOC abrupt variations, however, are found in high resolution palaeo-records from around the globe for the last glacial period. To study those more specifically, more and more fresh water hosing experiments have been performed under glacial conditions in the recent years. Here we compare an ensemble constituted by 11 such simulations run with 6 different climate models. All simulations follow a slightly different design but are sufficiently close in their design to be compared. All study the impact of a fresh water hosing imposed in the extra-tropical North Atlantic. Common features in the model responses to hosing are the cooling over the North Atlantic, extending along the sub-tropical gyre in the tropical North Atlantic, the southward shift of the Atlantic ITCZ and the weakening of the African and Indian monsoons. On the other hand, the expression of the bipolar see-saw, i.e. warming in the Southern Hemisphere, differs from model to model, with some restricting it to the South Atlantic and specific regions of the Southern Ocean while others simulate a wide spread Southern Ocean warming. The relationships between the features common to most models, i.e. climate changes over the North and tropical Atlantic, African and Asian monsoon regions, are further quantified. These suggest a tight correlation between the temperature and precipitation changes over the extra-tropical North Atlantic, but different pathways for the teleconnections between the AMOC/North Atlantic region and the African and Indian monsoon regions.

  4. Climatic impacts of fresh water hosing under Last Glacial Maximum conditions: a multi-model study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kageyama, M.; Merkel, U.; Otto-Bliesner, B.; Prange, M.; Abe-Ouchi, A.; Lohmann, G.; Ohgaito, R.; Roche, D. M.; Singarayer, J.; Swingedouw, D.; Zhang, X.

    2013-04-01

    Fresh water hosing simulations, in which a fresh water flux is imposed in the North Atlantic to force fluctuations of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation, have been routinely performed, first to study the climatic signature of different states of this circulation, then, under present or future conditions, to investigate the potential impact of a partial melting of the Greenland ice sheet. The most compelling examples of climatic changes potentially related to AMOC abrupt variations, however, are found in high resolution palaeo-records from around the globe for the last glacial period. To study those more specifically, more and more fresh water hosing experiments have been performed under glacial conditions in the recent years. Here we compare an ensemble constituted by 11 such simulations run with 6 different climate models. All simulations follow a slightly different design, but are sufficiently close in their design to be compared. They all study the impact of a fresh water hosing imposed in the extra-tropical North Atlantic. Common features in the model responses to hosing are the cooling over the North Atlantic, extending along the sub-tropical gyre in the tropical North Atlantic, the southward shift of the Atlantic ITCZ and the weakening of the African and Indian monsoons. On the other hand, the expression of the bipolar see-saw, i.e., warming in the Southern Hemisphere, differs from model to model, with some restricting it to the South Atlantic and specific regions of the southern ocean while others simulate a widespread southern ocean warming. The relationships between the features common to most models, i.e., climate changes over the north and tropical Atlantic, African and Asian monsoon regions, are further quantified. These suggest a tight correlation between the temperature and precipitation changes over the extra-tropical North Atlantic, but different pathways for the teleconnections between the AMOC/North Atlantic region and the African and Indian monsoon regions.

  5. Apparatus for testing high pressure injector elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, William Neill (inventor); Scott, Ewell M. (inventor); Forbes, John C. (inventor); Shadoan, Michael D. (inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An apparatus for testing and evaluating the spray pattern of high pressure fuel injector elements for use in supplying fuel to combustion engines is presented. Prior art fuel injector elements were normally tested by use of low pressure apparatuses which did not provide a purge to prevent mist from obscuring the injector element or to prevent frosting of the view windows; could utilize only one fluid during each test; and had their viewing ports positioned one hundred eighty (180 deg) apart, thus preventing optimum use of laser diagnostics. The high pressure fluid injector test apparatus includes an upper hub, an upper weldment or housing, a first clamp and stud/nut assembly for securing the upper hub to the upper weldment, a standoff assembly within the upper weldment, a pair of window housings having view glasses within the upper weldment, an injector block assembly and purge plate within the upper weldment for holding an injector element to be tested and evaluated, a lower weldment or housing, a second clamp and stud/nut assembly for securing the lower weldment to the upper weldment, a lower hub, a third clamp and stud/nut assembly for securing the lower hub to the lower weldment, mechanisms for introducing fluid under high pressure for testing an injector element, and mechanisms for purging the apparatus to prevent frosting of view glasses within the window housings and to permit unobstructed viewing of the injector element.

  6. Small, high-pressure liquid oxygen turbopump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Csomor, A.; Sutton, R.

    1977-01-01

    A small, high-pressure, liquid oxygen turbopump was designed, fabricated, and tested. The pump was of a single-stage, centrifugal type; power to the pump was supplied by a single-stage, partial emission, axial-impulse turbine. Design conditions included an operating speed of 70,000 rpm, pump discharge pressure of 2977 N/sq cm (4318 psia), and a pump flowrate of 16.4 kg/s (36.21 lb/sec). The turbine was propelled by LO2/LH2 combustion products at 1041 K (1874 R) inlet temperature, and at a design pressure ratio of 1.424. The approaches used in the detail analysis and design of the turbopump are described, and fabrication methods are discussed. Data obtained from gas generator tests, turbine performance calibration, and turbopump testing are presented.

  7. Polymerization of Formic Acid under High Pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Goncharov, A F; Manaa, M R; Zaug, J M; Fried, L E; Montgomery, W B

    2004-08-23

    We report combined Raman, infrared (IR) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements, along with ab initio calculations on formic acid under pressure up to 50 GPa. Contrary to the report of Allan and Clark (PRL 82, 3464 (1999)), we find an infinite chain low-temperature Pna2{sub 1} structure consisting of trans molecules to be a high-pressure phase at room temperature. Our data indicate the symmetrization and a partially covalent character of the intra-chain hydrogen bonds above approximately 20 GPa. Raman spectra and XRD patterns indicate a loss of the long-range order at pressures above 40 GPa with a large hysteresis at decompression. We attribute this behavior to a three-dimensional polymerization of formic acid.

  8. Experimental studies of high pressure RF discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, H.W.; Park, J.; Henins, I.; Selwyn, G.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Experimental studies on RF discharges at 13.56 MHz have been performed at very high gas pressures between 1 Torr to atmospheric pressure. Plasma parameters, comparable to low pressure discharges, are estimated in He discharges by optical emission spectroscopy and Langmuir probe measurements. The estimated electron density of 1--10 {times} 1011 cm{sup {minus}3} and electron temperature of 1--2 eV is consistent with a 1-D model of plasma impedance and particle balance. The plasma conditions change substantially as oxygen is introduced into the discharge. A decrease in electron density is observed, which is attributed to the electronegativity of oxygen. In addition, formation of oxygen atoms and metastable oxygen molecules is observed by optical emission spectroscopy. A further increase in the oxygen flow results in the extinction of the discharge or arcing. A detailed analysis of the experimental results will be presented.

  9. High Pressure Behavior of FeOOH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reagan, M. M.; Gleason, A. E.; Mao, W. L.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the stability and properties of simple hydroxides at high pressures and temperatures offers an important first step toward quantifying more complex hydrogen-bearing compounds relevant to the Earth's interior. We focus on iron-oxy-hydroxides because they may be an important Fe and water bearing component in the deep Earth. Goethite (?-FeOOH) transforms to a high-pressure phase, ?-FeOOH, which is isostructural with ?-AlOOH, a material which may transport hydrogen to the core-mantle boundary. Here we present XES spectroscopy data of powder samples of synthesized alpha-FeOOH, beta-FeOOH and gamma-FeOOH monitoring their electronic spin transition. The samples was loaded into a Beryllium gasket, where a 50 micron hole served as the sample chamber with 300 micron culet diamond paired with a beveled 150 micron diamond in a diamond-anvil cell (DAC) without a pressure transmitting medium. Pressure was determined using ruby fluorescence (Mao et al. 1978). Using the incident X-ray energy centered at 11.3 KeV from the Advanced Photon Source, beam line HPCAT 16-ID-D, we measured Fe K-? 13 emission to pressures greater than 73 GPa. For alpha-FeOOH, we saw a clear shift in the main peak to lower energy, and an increasingly diminishing K beta prime peak intensity, indicating the sample was undergoing an electronic spin transition. The K beta prime peak completely disappeared at a pressure greater than 73 GPa. Beta-FeOOH showed no evidence of the beginnings of a spin transition, while gamma- FeOOH underwent an incomplete transition.

  10. Metallic and superconducting gallane under high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Guoying; Wang, Hui; Bergara, Aitor; Li, Yinwei; Liu, Guangtao; Ma, Yanming

    2011-08-01

    Using our newly developed particle swarm optimization algorithm on crystal structural prediction, we characterized the pressure-induced structural transition sequence of gallane (GaH3). As has been observed in alane (AlH3), enthalpy calculations reveal that the Pm3¯n structure of GaH3 becomes stable above 160 GPa, below which it is unstable with respect to elemental decomposition. Interestingly, the Pm3¯n structure is metallic, and the application of the Allen-Dynes modified McMillan equation reveals a high superconducting transition temperature (Tc), which reaches 86 K at 160 GPa and increases with decreasing pressure (Tc = 102 K at 120 GPa). Our band structure calculations demonstrate that GaH3 within the Pm3¯n structure is a highly ionic solid, where the ionicity of H atoms plays an important role in the predicted high temperature superconductivity.

  11. Keep the Beat: Control Your High Blood Pressure

    E-print Network

    Bandettini, Peter A.

    Keep the Beat: Control Your High Blood Pressure Healthy Hearts, Healthy Homes #12;Read other at www.nhlbi.nih.gov. #12;Keep the Beat: Control Your High Blood Pressure Delicious Heart Healthy Latino Homes #12;Keep the Beat: Control Your High Blood Pressure 1 Did you know that high blood pressure

  12. High pressure in solid-state chemistry Grard Demazeau

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 High pressure in solid-state chemistry Gérard Demazeau 1. Introduction In solid-state chemistry, high pressures can be used in two different ways. The application of high pressures to existing with the compressibility of the solid. On the other hand, high pressures can play an important role in the synthesis of new

  13. Engine having a high pressure hydraulic system and low pressure lubricating system

    DOEpatents

    Bartley, Bradley E. (Manito, IL); Blass, James R. (Bloomington, IL); Gibson, Dennis H. (Chillicothe, IL)

    2000-01-01

    An engine includes a high pressure hydraulic system having a high pressure pump and at least one hydraulically-actuated device attached to an engine housing. A low pressure engine lubricating system is attached to the engine housing and includes a circulation conduit fluidly connected to an outlet from the high pressure pump.

  14. Dynamics of Low-Pressure and High-Pressure Fuel Cell Air Supply System1

    E-print Network

    Peng, Huei

    Dynamics of Low-Pressure and High-Pressure Fuel Cell Air Supply System1 Sylvain Gelfi2 , Anna G 48109 Abstract Choosing an operating pressure is a critical decision that de- fines many characteristics of the fuel cell system. High stack power density is the main selling point of high-pressure sys- tems

  15. High pressure effects in anaesthesia and narcosis.

    PubMed

    Wlodarczyk, Agnieszka; McMillan, Paul F; Greenfield, Susan A

    2006-10-01

    There is growing interest in determining the effects of high pressure on biological functions. Studies of brain processes under hyperbaric conditions can give a unique insight into phenomena such as nitrogen narcosis, inert gas anaesthesia, and pressure reversal of the effects of anaesthetic and narcotic agents. Such research may shed light on the action of anaesthetics, which remains poorly understood, and on the nature of consciousness itself. Various studies have established the behavioural response of organisms to hyperbaric conditions, in the presence or absence of anaesthetic agents. At the molecular level, X-ray crystallography has been used to investigate the incorporation of species like Xe in hydrophobic pockets within model ion channels that may account for pressure effects on neuronal transmission. New magnetic resonance imaging techniques are providing tomographic three-dimensional images that detail brain structure and function, and that can be correlated with behavioural studies and psychological test results. Such whole organ techniques are linked to the molecular scale via voltage-sensitive dye (VSD) imaging studies on brain slices that provide time-resolved images of the dynamic formation and interconnection of inter-neuronal complexes. The VSD experiments are readily adapted to in situ studies under high pressure conditions. In this tutorial review we review the current state of knowledge of hyperbaric effects on brain processes: anaesthesia and narcosis, recent studies at the molecular level via protein crystallography at high pressure in a Xe atmosphere, and we also present some preliminary results of VSD imaging of brain slices under hyperbaric conditions. PMID:17003895

  16. High-pressure liquid chromatographic gradient mixer

    DOEpatents

    Daughton, C.G.; Sakaji, R.H.

    1982-09-08

    A gradient mixer effects the continuous mixing of any two miscible solvents without excessive decay or dispersion of the resultant isocratic effluent or of a linear or exponential gradient. The two solvents are fed under low or high pressure by means of two high performance liquid chromatographic pumps. The mixer comprises a series of ultra-low dead volume stainless steel tubes and low dead volume chambers. The two solvent streams impinge head-on at high fluxes. This initial nonhomogeneous mixture is then passed through a chamber packed with spirally-wound wires which cause turbulent mixing thereby homogenizing the mixture with minimum band-broadening.

  17. High pressure liquid chromatographic gradient mixer

    DOEpatents

    Daughton, Christian G. (San Pablo, CA); Sakaji, Richard H. (El Cerrito, CA)

    1985-01-01

    A gradient mixer which effects the continuous mixing of any two miscible solvents without excessive decay or dispersion of the resultant isocratic effluent or of a linear or exponential gradient. The two solvents are fed under low or high pressure by means of two high performance liquid chromatographic pumps. The mixer comprises a series of ultra-low dead volume stainless steel tubes and low dead volume chambers. The two solvent streams impinge head-on at high fluxes. This initial nonhomogeneous mixture is then passed through a chamber packed with spirally-wound wires which cause turbulent mixing thereby homogenizing the mixture with minimum "band-broadening".

  18. High pressure polymorphism of ?-TaON.

    PubMed

    Woodhead, K; Pascarelli, S; Hector, A L; Briggs, R; Alderman, N; McMillan, P F

    2014-07-01

    The high pressure behavior of TaON was studied using a combination of Raman scattering, synchrotron X-ray diffraction, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy in diamond anvil cells to 70 GPa at ambient temperature. A Birch-Murnaghan equation of state fit for baddeleyite structured ?-TaON indicates a high bulk modulus value Ko = 328 ± 4 GPa with K = 4.3. EXAFS analysis of the high pressure XAS data provides additional information on changes in the Ta-(O,N) and Ta-Ta distances. Changes in the X-ray diffraction patterns and Raman spectra indicate onset of a pressure induced phase transition near 33 GPa. Our analysis indicates that the new phase has an orthorhombic cotunnite-type structure but that the phase transition may not be complete even by 70 GPa. Similar sluggish transformation kinetics are observed for the isostructural ZrO2 phase. Analysis of compressibility data for the new cotunnite-type TaON phase indicate a very high bulk modulus Ko ? 370 GPa, close to the theoretically predicted value. PMID:24831960

  19. High Pressure Effect on Meat and Lupin Protein Digestibility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. de Lamballerie-Anton; S. Delépine; N. Chapleau

    2002-01-01

    High pressure treatment is a mild treatment concerning the nutritional characteristics: for instance vitamins content is very few affected by high-pressure treatment. But the impact of high-pressure on protein digestibility remains poorly understood. This work presents effect of high-pressure treatment on in vitro digestibility of meat and lupin proteins. Two high-pressure conditions (200 and 500 MPa 10 min.) and a

  20. Possible Pressure Waves of Supersolid Helium at High Pressure

    E-print Network

    Kwang-Hua W. Chu

    2006-10-02

    We make comments on Kim and Chan's [{\\it Phys. Rev. Lett.} 97, 115302 (2006)] letter. Based on their pressure-dependent measurements (by a torsional oscillator technique), we propose that the {\\it supersolid} fraction ($\\rho_s/\\rho$) might be relevant to an sound absorption or attenuation (fluctuations of pressure waves) in microscopic domain since there is no apparent change in $T_c$ with pressure.

  1. Cavity closure arrangement for high pressure vessels

    DOEpatents

    Amtmann, Hans H. (San Diego, CA)

    1981-01-01

    A closure arrangement for a pressure vessel such as the pressure vessel of a high temperature gas-cooled reactor wherein a liner is disposed within a cavity penetration in the reactor vessel and defines an access opening therein. A closure is adapted for sealing relation with an annular mounting flange formed on the penetration liner and has a plurality of radially movable locking blocks thereon having outer serrations adapted for releasable interlocking engagement with serrations formed internally of the upper end of the penetration liner so as to effect high strength closure hold-down. In one embodiment, ramping surfaces are formed on the locking block serrations to bias the closure into sealed relation with the mounting flange when the locking blocks are actuated to locking positions.

  2. Fundamentals of High Pressure Combustion Chapter in High Pressure Processes in Chemical Engineering, Edited by Maximillian Lackner,

    E-print Network

    Miller, Richard S.

    Fundamentals of High Pressure Combustion Chapter in High Pressure Processes in Chemical Engineering of the following chapter is to present an overview of the fundamentals of combustion processes in high pressure experimental studies typically address fuel jets or atomizers issuing into high pressure chambers

  3. High-pressure coal fuel processor development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. L. Greenhalgh; C. S. Wen; L. Smith

    1992-01-01

    Caterpillar shares DOE\\/METC interest in demonstrating the technology required to displace petroleum-based engine fuels with various forms of low cost coal. Current DOE\\/METC programs on mild gasification and coal-water-slurries are addressing two approaches to this end. Engine and fuel processor system concept studies by Caterpillar have identified a third, potentially promising, option. This option includes high-pressure fuel processing of run-of-the-mine

  4. High pressure effects on myofibrillar proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Chapleau; S. Jung; M. de Lamballerie-Anton

    2000-01-01

    Myofibrillar proteins were extracted from post rigor bovine meat with a potassium phosphate\\/potassium chloride buffer. Viscoelastic properties of myofibrillar properties were studied in a 0.6MKCl buffer, at pH = 6, used in an oscillating mode. Enthalpy patterns were determined with a differential scanning calorimeter. SDS PAGE was performed.Results show that high pressure processing denatures myofibrillar proteins, which result in a

  5. High-Pressure Crystallogaphy Habilitation Thesis

    E-print Network

    Oganov, Artem R.

    . (2004). Theoretical and experimental evidence for a post-perovskite phase of MgSiO3 in Earth's D" layer). Anisotropy of Earth's D" layer and stacking faults in the MgSiO3 post-perovskite phase. Nature 438, 1142-1144. Paper 3. Oganov A.R., S. Ono (2005). The high-pressure phase of alumina and implications for Earth's D

  6. High Pressure Research, 2002, Vol. 22, pp. 121126 PRESSURE EFFECTS ON THE COOPERATIVE

    E-print Network

    Rodríguez, Fernando

    High Pressure Research, 2002, Vol. 22, pp. 121­126 PRESSURE EFFECTS ON THE COOPERATIVE JAHN variation with the pressure. We show that the crystal-field transition energies and their pressure shifts it changes with the pressure, once the correlations between crystal-field electronic structure

  7. Ion-hose instability in a long-pulse linear induction accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genoni, Thomas C.; Hughes, Thomas P.

    2003-03-01

    The ion-hose instability is a transverse electrostatic instability which occurs on electron beams in the presence of a low-density ion channel. It is a phenomenon quite similar to the interaction between electron clouds and proton or positron beams in high-energy accelerators and storage rings. In the DARHT-2 accelerator, the 2-kA, 2-?s beam pulse produces an ion channel through impact ionization of the residual background gas (10-7 10-6 torr). A calculation of the linear growth by Briggs indicates that the instability could be strong enough to affect the radiographic application of DARHT, which requires that transverse oscillations be small compared to the beam radius. We present semianalytical theory and 3D particle-in-cell simulations (using the Lsp code) of the linear and nonlinear growth of the instability, including the effects of the temporal change in the ion density and spatially decreasing beam radius. We find that the number of e-foldings experienced by a given beam slice is given approximately by an analytic expression using the local channel density at the beam slice. Hence, in the linear regime, the number of e-foldings increases linearly from head to tail of the beam pulse since it is proportional to the ion density. We also find that growth is strongly suppressed by nonlinear effects at relatively small oscillation amplitudes of the electron beam. This is because the ion oscillation amplitude is several times larger than that of the beam, allowing nonlinear effects to come into play. An analogous effect has recently been noted in electron-proton instabilities in high-energy accelerators and storage rings. For DARHT-2 parameters, we find that a pressure of ?1.5×10-7 torr is needed to keep the transverse beam oscillation amplitude less than about 20% of the rms beam radius.

  8. Oblique electron fire hose instability: Particle-in-cell simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellinger, Petr; Trávní?ek, Pavel M.; Decyk, Victor K.; Schriver, David

    2014-01-01

    Nonlinear properties of the oblique resonant electron fire hose instability are investigated using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations in the Darwin approximation for weak initial growth rates. The weak electron fire hose instability has a self-destructive nonlinear behavior; it destabilizes a nonpropagating branch which only exists for a sufficiently strong temperature anisotropy. The nonlinear evolution leads to generation of nonpropagating waves which in turn scatter electrons and reduce their temperature anisotropy. As the temperature anisotropy is being reduced, the nonpropagating branch disappears and the generated standing waves are transformed to propagating whistler waves which are rapidly damped. Consequently, the oblique electron fire hose efficiently reduces the electron temperature anisotropy.

  9. Apparatus and methods for splicing conduits and hoses subsea

    DOEpatents

    Slocum, Alexander Henry; Gutierrez, Luis Javier

    2014-03-11

    A hose connection system comprises a body including an internal cavity and a port in fluid communication with a portion of the internal cavity. In addition, the system comprises a hose end fitting positioned in the cavity. The hose end fitting includes an inner tubular member and an outer tubular member concentrically disposed about the inner tubular member. The outer tubular member includes a plurality of circumferentially spaced axial slits. Further, the system comprises a plurality of wedge members arranged circumferentially about the outer tubular member. Still further, the system comprises an annular piston movably disposed within the internal cavity of the body. An end of the piston has an inner frustoconical surface that slidingly engages the plurality of wedge members. The piston is configured to move axially through the body and compress the wedge members and the outer tubular member radially inward.

  10. High pressure crystallization of Purafect(RTM) subtilisin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruta Yeshwant Waghmare

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of high pressure on kinetics of subtilisin crystallization and to use high pressure as a means to better understand the mechanism of crystallization. It is known that the effect of hydrostatic pressure on conformation varies with the protein being studied. To determine the effect of high pressure on the conformation

  11. Hydrous silicate melt at high pressure Mainak Mookherjee1

    E-print Network

    Stixrude, Lars

    LETTERS Hydrous silicate melt at high pressure Mainak Mookherjee1 , Lars Stixrude2 & Bijaya Karki3 and water molecules at low pressure4 to extended structures at high pressure. We link this change in structure to our finding that the water­silicate system becomes increasingly ideal at high pressure: we find

  12. Graphene Synthesis via the High Pressure - High Temperature Growth Process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Parvizi; D. Teweldebrhan; S. Ghosh; I. Calizo; A. A. Balandin; H. Zhu; R. Abbaschian

    2008-01-01

    We report on a new method for graphene synthesis and assessment of the properties of the resulting large-area graphene layers. Graphene was produced by the high pressure - high temperature growth from the natural graphitic source by utilizing the molten Fe-Ni catalysts for dissolution of carbon. The resulting large-area graphene flakes were transferred to the silicon - silicon oxide substrates

  13. Very high-pressure orogenic garnet peridotites

    PubMed Central

    Liou, J. G.; Zhang, R. Y.; Ernst, W. G.

    2007-01-01

    Mantle-derived garnet peridotites are a minor component in many very high-pressure metamorphic terranes that formed during continental subduction and collision. Some of these mantle rocks contain trace amounts of zircon and micrometer-sized inclusions. The constituent minerals exhibit pre- and postsubduction microstructures, including polymorphic transformation and mineral exsolution. Experimental, mineralogical, petrochemical, and geochronological characterizations using novel techniques with high spatial, temporal, and energy resolutions are resulting in unexpected discoveries of new phases, providing better constraints on deep mantle processes. PMID:17519341

  14. Status of Plasma Electron Hose Instability Studies in FACET

    SciTech Connect

    Adli, Erik; /U. Oslo; England, Robert Joel; Frederico, Joel; Hogan, Mark; Li, Selina Zhao; Litos, Michael Dennis; Nosochkov, Yuri; /SLAC; An, Weiming; Mori, Warren; /UCLA

    2011-12-13

    In the FACET plasma-wakefield acceleration experiment a dense 23 GeV electron beam will interact with lithium and cesium plasmas, leading to plasma ion-channel formation. The interaction between the electron beam and the plasma sheath-electrons may lead to a fast growing electron hose instability. By using optics dispersion knobs to induce a controlled z-x tilt along the beam entering the plasma, we investigate the transverse behavior of the beam in the plasma as function of the tilt. We seek to quantify limits on the instability in order to further explore potential limitations on future plasma wakefield accelerators due to the electron hose instability. The FACET plasma-wakefield experiment at SLAC will study beam driven plasma wakefield acceleration. A dense 23 GeV electron beam will interact with lithium or cesium plasma, leading to plasma ion-channel formation. The interaction between the electron beam and the plasma sheath-electrons drives the electron hose instability, as first studied by Whittum. While Ref. [2] indicates the possibility of a large instability growth rate for typical beam and plasma parameters, other studies including have shown that several physical effects may mitigate the hosing growth rate substantially. So far there has been no quantitative benchmarking of experimentally observed hosing in previous experiments. At FACET we aim to perform such benchmarking by for example inducing a controlled z-x tilt along the beamentering the plasma, and observing the transverse behavior of the beam in the plasma as function. The long-term objective of these studies is to quantify potential limitations on future plasma wakefield accelerators due to the electron hose instability.

  15. High temperature and pressure electrochemical test station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatzichristodoulou, C.; Allebrod, F.; Mogensen, M.

    2013-05-01

    An electrochemical test station capable of operating at pressures up to 100 bars and temperatures up to 400 °C has been established. It enables control of the partial pressures and mass flow of O2, N2, H2, CO2, and H2O in a single or dual environment arrangement, measurements with highly corrosive media, as well as localized sampling of gas evolved at the electrodes for gas analysis. A number of safety and engineering design challenges have been addressed. Furthermore, we present a series of electrochemical cell holders that have been constructed in order to accommodate different types of cells and facilitate different types of electrochemical measurements. Selected examples of materials and electrochemical cells examined in the test station are provided, ranging from the evaluation of the ionic conductivity of liquid electrolytic solutions immobilized in mesoporous ceramic structures, to the electrochemical characterization of high temperature and pressure alkaline electrolysis cells and the use of pseudo-reference electrodes for the separation of each electrode contribution. A future perspective of various electrochemical processes and devices that can be developed with the use of the established test station is provided.

  16. Mill Race high altitude pressure measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Banister, J.R.; Hereford, W.V.; Robinett, R.D.

    1982-01-01

    An extensive set of measurements were made to examine the changes of the ionosphere caused by Mill Race. As a part of this program, we obtained time histories of the blast wave at high altitudes. These histories can then be used as input for calculating pulse shapes at greater heights. These data and their scaling implications are discussed in this preliminary report. The high altitude pressure measurements on Mill Race were quite successful. Three pressure measurements were achieved and the fourth pressure history was recovered from the acceleration record. The blast wave showed a classical behavior except for the shock which developed in the negative phase. The close agreement between observation and theory suggests the far field blast wave was symmetric. Observed peak overpressures were consistent with those predicted by using Modified Sachs Scaling. The best agreement was with the curve from nuclear explosion analysis; the observed values were about 15% less than the extrapolated values for AN/FO theoretical curve. The observed positive phase durations were about the values predicted by Sachs Scaling rather than Modified Sachs Scaling. More work will be necessary to understand some aspects of the data, such as the second shock.

  17. Dissociation of methane under high pressure.

    PubMed

    Gao, Guoying; Oganov, Artem R; Ma, Yanming; Wang, Hui; Li, Peifang; Li, Yinwei; Iitaka, Toshiaki; Zou, Guangtian

    2010-10-14

    Methane is an extremely important energy source with a great abundance in nature and plays a significant role in planetary physics, being one of the major constituents of giant planets Uranus and Neptune. The stable crystal forms of methane under extreme conditions are of great fundamental interest. Using the ab initio evolutionary algorithm for crystal structure prediction, we found three novel insulating molecular structures with P2(1)2(1)2(1), Pnma, and Cmcm space groups. Remarkably, under high pressure, methane becomes unstable and dissociates into ethane (C(2)H(6)) at 95 GPa, butane (C(4)H(10)) at 158 GPa, and further, carbon (diamond) and hydrogen above 287 GPa at zero temperature. We have computed the pressure-temperature phase diagram, which sheds light into the seemingly conflicting observations of the unusually low formation pressure of diamond at high temperature and the failure of experimental observation of dissociation at room temperature. Our results support the idea of diamond formation in the interiors of giant planets such as Neptune. PMID:20950018

  18. CDC Vital Signs: High Blood Pressure and Cholesterol

    MedlinePLUS

    ... CDC.gov . Vital Signs Share Compartir High Blood Pressure and Cholesterol Out of Control February 2011 39 ... http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov/GISCVH2/ High Blood Pressure and High Cholesterol Among US Adults SOURCES: National ...

  19. Neuroscience Meets Cryptography: Designing Crypto Primitives Secure Against Rubber Hose Attacks

    E-print Network

    Stehr, Mark-Oliver

    Neuroscience Meets Cryptography: Designing Crypto Primitives Secure Against Rubber Hose Attacks is forcibly asked by an attacker to reveal the key. These attacks, known as rubber hose cryptanalysis with conference proceedings. So-called rubber hose attacks have long been the bane of security systems

  20. 46 CFR 35.40-15 - Fire hose stations-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Fire hose stations-TB/ALL. 35.40-15 Section 35.40-15 Shipping...OPERATIONS Posting and Marking Requirements-TB/ALL. § 35.40-15 Fire hose stations—TB/ALL. At each fire hose valve there shall be...

  1. Treating High Blood Pressure in People with Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    Treating High Blood Pressure in People with Diabetes American Diabetes Association? ? 1–800–DIABETES (342–2383)? ? www.diabetes.org ©2009 by ... having your blood pressure checked regularly. What is high blood pressure? Blood pressure is the force of blood flow ...

  2. Modelling heat transfer in high pressure food processing: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura Otero; Pedro D. Sanz

    2003-01-01

    The most claimed advantage of high-pressure food processing as compared to thermal processing is that pressure acts instantaneously and uniformly through a mass of food independently of its size, shape or composition. Nevertheless, thermal gradients are established in the products after compression and cause inhomogeneities in the pursued pressure effect. Modelling heat transfer in high-pressure food processes can be a

  3. High Pressure Research Vol. 28, No. 3, September 2008, 273292

    E-print Network

    Jacobsen, Steven D.

    High Pressure Research Vol. 28, No. 3, September 2008, 273­292 The COMPRES/GSECARS gas have designed and constructed a new system for loading gases at high pressure into diamond anvil cells at pressures up to 200 MPa. The gases are used either as quasi-hydrostatic pressure media surrounding

  4. High-pressure promoted combustion chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rucker, Michelle A. (inventor); Stoltzfus, Joel M. (inventor)

    1991-01-01

    In the preferred embodiment of the promoted combusiton chamber disclosed herein, a thick-walled tubular body that is capable of withstanding extreme pressures is arranged with removable upper and lower end closures to provide access to the chamber for dependently supporting a test sample of a material being evaluated in the chamber. To facilitate the real-time analysis of a test sample, several pressure-tight viewing ports capable of withstanding the simulated environmental conditions are arranged in the walls of the tubular body for observing the test sample during the course of the test. A replaceable heat-resistant tubular member and replaceable flame-resistant internal liners are arranged to be fitted inside of the chamber for protecting the interior wall surfaces of the combustion chamber during the evaluation tests. Inlet and outlet ports are provided for admitting high-pressure gases into the chamber as needed for performing dynamic analyses of the test sample during the course of an evaluation test.

  5. Test facility for high pressure plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Block, R.; Laroussi, M.; Schoenbach, K.H.

    1999-07-01

    High pressure nonthermal plasmas are gaining increasing importance because of their wide range of applications, e.g. in air plasma ramparts, gas processing, surface treatment, thin film deposition, and chemical and biological decontamination. In order to compare various methods of plasma generation with respect to efficiency, development of instabilities, homogeneity, lifetime etc., a central test facility for high pressure plasmas is being established. The facility will allow one to study large volume (> 100 cm{sup 3}), nonthermal (gas temperature: < 2,000 K) plasmas over a large pressure range (10{sup {minus}6} Torr up to more than 1 atmosphere) in a standardized discharge cell. The setup was designed to generate plasmas in air as well as in gas mixtures. The available voltage range extends to 25 kV dc (10 kW power). The electrodes can be water cooled. Electrical diagnostics include a 400 Mhz, 2 GS/s 4-channel oscilloscope for current and voltage measurements and the detection of the onset of instabilities. For optical diagnostics, a CCD video camera is used to record the appearance of dc discharges. A high-speed light intensified CCD-camera (25 mm MCP with photocathode, gating speed: 200 ps, adjustable in 10 ps steps) allows to study the development of instabilities and can also be utilized in temporally resolved spectroscopic measurements. Optical emission spectroscopy allows one to determine plasma parameters such as electron density (through Stark broadening measurements) and gas temperature measurements. Interferometry is well suited for electron density measurements especially in weakly ionized plasmas.

  6. Bubble Pinch-off at High Pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, J. C.; Taborek, P.

    2008-03-01

    Previously we have studied the pinch-off of conventional air bubbles in water [1]. For inviscid fluids, the shrinking of the neck radius of the bubble can be described by a power-law in time with an exponent close to 1/2. As the density of the interior gas is increased, instabilities are expected to occur in the liquid/gas interface [2]. We present high-speed videos and numerical simulations of the pinch-off of high-pressure gaseous bubbles in and exterior inviscid fluid. The density ratio between the exterior fluid and interior gas is D=?ext/?int. In the simple case of small D˜0.001, the pinch-off is similar to that of a water drop pinching-off in air, while at large D˜1000, the pinch-off is that of an air bubble in water. By using sulfur hexafluoride as a working gas, we are able to span a wide ranging of density ratios simply by increasing the pressure of the gas. A high-pressure (˜30 atm) chamber with optical access through sapphire windows was constructed in order to view the pinch-off. The numerical simulations are performed assuming perfectly inviscid fluids using boundary-integral techniques. Instabilities in the interface are seen for intermediate density ratios. Comparisons between experimental and numerical results will be discussed. [1] J.C. Burton, R. Waldrep, and P. Taborek. Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 184502, (2005). [2] D. Leppinen and J.R. Lister. Phys. Fluids 15, 568, (2003).

  7. HIGH PRESSURE COAL COMBUSTION KINETICS PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Chris Guenther, Ph.D.

    2003-01-28

    SRI has completed the NBFZ test program, made modification to the experimental furnace for the HPBO test. The NBFZ datasets provide the information NEA needs to simulate the combustion and fuel-N conversion with detailed chemical reaction mechanisms. BU has determined a linear swell of 1.55 corresponding to a volumetric increase of a factor of 3.7 and a decrease in char density by the same factor. These results are highly significant, and indicate significantly faster burnout at elevated pressure due to the low char density and large diameter.

  8. Let's Talk about High Blood Pressure and Stroke

    MedlinePLUS

    Let's Talk About High Blood Pressure and Stroke Updated:Feb 8,2013 What is high blood pressure (HBP)? High blood pressure means that the force of the ... sides of your arteries is consistently in the high range. This can lead to stroke, heart attack, ...

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF A HIGH-TEMPERATURE/HIGH-PRESSURE ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a laboratory test demonstrating the feasibility of electrostatic precipitation at high temperatures (to 1366 K) and pressures (to 3550 kPa): corona currents were stable at all temperatures. Detailed current/voltage characteristics under negative and po...

  10. Pyridinium salt investigations under high pressure: pressure-induced phase transitions in ferroelectric pyridinium perrhenate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Czarnecki; A. I. Beskrovny; L. Bobrowicz-Sarga; S. Lewicki; J. Wasicki

    2005-01-01

    The properties of pyridinium perrhenate have been studied by three methods: dielectric spectroscopy, neutron powder diffractometry and NMR spectrometry under high pressure. It has been shown that under high pressure the temperatures of the two phase transitions in the crystal are shifted towards lower ones. Moreover, the results have shown the occurrence of a new high pressure phase with a

  11. 46 CFR 193.10-10 - Fire hydrants and hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...either be protected against freezing or be fitted with cutout...be shut off and drained in freezing weather. Except when closed to prevent freezing, such valves shall be sealed...vessel of 1000 gross tons or more—the length of each applicator...section of fire hose used after January 1, 1980 must...

  12. 46 CFR 193.10-10 - Fire hydrants and hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...either be protected against freezing or be fitted with cutout...be shut off and drained in freezing weather. Except when closed to prevent freezing, such valves shall be sealed...vessel of 1000 gross tons or more—the length of each applicator...section of fire hose used after January 1, 1980 must...

  13. 46 CFR 193.10-10 - Fire hydrants and hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...either be protected against freezing or be fitted with cutout...be shut off and drained in freezing weather. Except when closed to prevent freezing, such valves shall be sealed...vessel of 1000 gross tons or more—the length of each applicator...section of fire hose used after January 1, 1980 must...

  14. 46 CFR 193.10-10 - Fire hydrants and hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...either be protected against freezing or be fitted with cutout...be shut off and drained in freezing weather. Except when closed to prevent freezing, such valves shall be sealed...vessel of 1000 gross tons or more—the length of each applicator...section of fire hose used after January 1, 1980 must...

  15. Implementing fair bandwidth allocation schemes in hose-modelled VPN

    E-print Network

    Ansari, Nirwan

    Implementing fair bandwidth allocation schemes in hose-modelled VPN D. Wei and N. Ansari Abstract: The virtual private network (VPN) provides customers with predictable and secure network connections over allocation scheme introduces the issue of low overall utilisation in this model; furthermore, when the VPN

  16. High-pressure coal fuel processor development

    SciTech Connect

    Greenhalgh, M.L.

    1992-11-01

    The objective of Subtask 1.1 Engine Feasibility was to conduct research needed to establish the technical feasibility of ignition and stable combustion of directly injected, 3,000 psi, low-Btu gas with glow plug ignition assist at diesel engine compression ratios. This objective was accomplished by designing, fabricating, testing and analyzing the combustion performance of synthesized low-Btu coal gas in a single-cylinder test engine combustion rig located at the Caterpillar Technical Center engine lab in Mossville, Illinois. The objective of Subtask 1.2 Fuel Processor Feasibility was to conduct research needed to establish the technical feasibility of air-blown, fixed-bed, high-pressure coal fuel processing at up to 3,000 psi operating pressure, incorporating in-bed sulfur and particulate capture. This objective was accomplished by designing, fabricating, testing and analyzing the performance of bench-scale processors located at Coal Technology Corporation (subcontractor) facilities in Bristol, Virginia. These two subtasks were carried out at widely separated locations and will be discussed in separate sections of this report. They were, however, independent in that the composition of the synthetic coal gas used to fuel the combustion rig was adjusted to reflect the range of exit gas compositions being produced on the fuel processor rig. Two major conclusions resulted from this task. First, direct injected, ignition assisted Diesel cycle engine combustion systems can be suitably modified to efficiently utilize these low-Btu gas fuels. Second, high pressure gasification of selected run-of-the-mine coals in batch-loaded fuel processors is feasible. These two findings, taken together, significantly reduce the perceived technical risks associated with the further development of the proposed coal gas fueled Diesel cycle power plant concept.

  17. High blood pressure and visual sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisner, Alvin; Samples, John R.

    2003-09-01

    The study had two main purposes: (1) to determine whether the foveal visual sensitivities of people treated for high blood pressure (vascular hypertension) differ from the sensitivities of people who have not been diagnosed with high blood pressure and (2) to understand how visual adaptation is related to standard measures of systemic cardiovascular function. Two groups of middle-aged subjects-hypertensive and normotensive-were examined with a series of test/background stimulus combinations. All subjects met rigorous inclusion criteria for excellent ocular health. Although the visual sensitivities of the two subject groups overlapped extensively, the age-related rate of sensitivity loss was, for some measures, greater for the hypertensive subjects, possibly because of adaptation differences between the two groups. Overall, the degree of steady-state sensitivity loss resulting from an increase of background illuminance (for 580-nm backgrounds) was slightly less for the hypertensive subjects. Among normotensive subjects, the ability of a bright (3.8-log-td), long-wavelength (640-nm) adapting background to selectively suppress the flicker response of long-wavelength-sensitive (LWS) cones was related inversely to the ratio of mean arterial blood pressure to heart rate. The degree of selective suppression was also related to heart rate alone, and there was evidence that short-term changes of cardiovascular response were important. The results suggest that (1) vascular hypertension, or possibly its treatment, subtly affects visual function even in the absence of eye disease and (2) changes in blood flow affect retinal light-adaptation processes involved in the selective suppression of the flicker response from LWS cones caused by bright, long-wavelength backgrounds.

  18. Pressure Distribution Over Airfoils at High Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, L J; Dryden, H L

    1927-01-01

    This report deals with the pressure distribution over airfoils at high speeds, and describes an extension of an investigation of the aerodynamic characteristics of certain airfoils which was presented in NACA Technical Report no. 207. The results presented in report no. 207 have been confirmed and extended to higher speeds through a more extensive and systematic series of tests. Observations were also made of the air flow near the surface of the airfoils, and the large changes in lift coefficients were shown to be associated with a sudden breaking away of the flow from the upper surface. The tests were made on models of 1-inch chord and comparison with the earlier measurements on models of 3-inch chord shows that the sudden change in the lift coefficient is due to compressibility and not to a change in the Reynolds number. The Reynolds number still has a large effect, however, on the drag coefficient. The pressure distribution observations furnish the propeller designer with data on the load distribution at high speeds, and also give a better picture of the air-flow changes.

  19. High temperature and pressure particulate flow loop

    SciTech Connect

    Wegrzyn, J.

    1985-04-01

    A 1700/sup 0/F and 300 psi particulate laden flow loop for flows up to 3000 SCFM has been built at Brookhaven National Laboratory and installed at the Department of Energy's Morgantown Energy Technology Center. The purpose of this test facility is the investigation of multiphase particle/gas flow phenomena, high temperature erosion studies, and on-line instrument calibration. The salient features of this flow loop are in its closed loop design, which then permits a low volumetric particle feed rate, in its application of a on-line particle/gas separator and finally in its use of a pneumatic air flow amplifier (eductor). The loop is similar in category to an extrained bed reactor since the feed particles are continuously entrained in the flow and where only a portion of the gas stream is exhausted to maintain a constant pressure level. This presentation discusses the design strategy, the flow and temperature control, as well as the instrumentation that went into the construction of this particle/gas high temperature and pressure test facility.

  20. High pressure-resistant nonincendive emulsion explosive

    DOEpatents

    Ruhe, Thomas C. (Duquesne, PA); Rao, Pilaka P. (Baghlingampalli, IN)

    1994-01-01

    An improved emulsion explosive composition including hollow microspheres/bulking agents having high density and high strength. The hollow microspheres/bulking agents have true particle densities of about 0.2 grams per cubic centimeter or greater and include glass, siliceous, ceramic and synthetic resin microspheres, expanded minerals, and mixtures thereof. The preferred weight percentage of hollow microspheres/bulking agents in the composition ranges from 3.0 to 10.0 A chlorinated paraffin oil, also present in the improved emulsion explosive composition, imparts a higher film strength to the oil phase in the emulsion. The emulsion is rendered nonincendive by the production of sodium chloride in situ via the decomposition of sodium nitrate, a chlorinated paraffin oil, and sodium perchlorate. The air-gap sensitivity is improved by the in situ formation of monomethylamine perchlorate from dissolved monomethylamine nitrate and sodium perchlorate. The emulsion explosive composition can withstand static pressures to 139 bars and dynamic pressure loads on the order of 567 bars.

  1. High-pressure coal fuel processor development

    SciTech Connect

    Greenhalgh, M.L.; Wen, C.S.; Smith, L.

    1992-12-31

    Caterpillar shares DOE/METC interest in demonstrating the technology required to displace petroleum-based engine fuels with various forms of low cost coal. Current DOE/METC programs on mild gasification and coal-water-slurries are addressing two approaches to this end. Engine and fuel processor system concept studies by Caterpillar have identified a third, potentially promising, option. This option includes high-pressure fuel processing of run-of-the-mine coal and direct injection of the resulting low-Btu gas stream into an ignition assisted, high compression ratio diesel engine. The compactness and predicted efficiency of the system make it suitable for application to line-haul railroad locomotives. A successful conclusion of the program will enable further component development work and full-scale system demonstrations of this potentially important technology. This paper covers the work on fuel processor rig testing completed in FY92.

  2. High-pressure coal fuel processor development

    SciTech Connect

    Greenhalgh, M.L.; Wen, C.S.; Smith, L.

    1992-01-01

    Caterpillar shares DOE/METC interest in demonstrating the technology required to displace petroleum-based engine fuels with various forms of low cost coal. Current DOE/METC programs on mild gasification and coal-water-slurries are addressing two approaches to this end. Engine and fuel processor system concept studies by Caterpillar have identified a third, potentially promising, option. This option includes high-pressure fuel processing of run-of-the-mine coal and direct injection of the resulting low-Btu gas stream into an ignition assisted, high compression ratio diesel engine. The compactness and predicted efficiency of the system make it suitable for application to line-haul railroad locomotives. A successful conclusion of the program will enable further component development work and full-scale system demonstrations of this potentially important technology. This paper covers the work on fuel processor rig testing completed in FY92.

  3. High Blood Pressure - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... High Blood Pressure - Multiple Languages Arabic (???????) Bosnian (Bosanski) Chinese - Simplified (????) Chinese - Traditional (????) French (français) ... Arabic) ??????? Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Bosnian (Bosanski) High Blood Pressure Visoki krvni tlak - Bosanski (Bosnian) ...

  4. Who is at Risk for High Blood Pressure?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Who Is at Risk for High Blood Pressure? High blood pressure (HBP) ... your diet Lack of physical activity Smoking Other Risk Factors A family history of HBP raises your ...

  5. Talk with Your Health Care Provider about High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nurse. Talk With Your Health Care Provider About High Blood Pressure Partnership for HEALTH Here are some questions to ... What can you do to prevent or control high blood pressure? 1. Quit smoking and/or chewing tobacco. Ask ...

  6. High blood pressure - what to ask your doctor

    MedlinePLUS

    What to ask your doctor about high blood pressure; Hypertension - what to ask your doctor ... problems? What medicines am I taking to treat high blood pressure? Do they have any side effects? What should ...

  7. High Blood Pressure, Afib and Your Risk of Stroke

    MedlinePLUS

    ... have a stroke for the first time have high blood pressure . And an irregular atrial heart rhythm — a condition ... 800,000 Americans suffer a stroke each year. High blood pressure is the chief culprit, and atrial fibrillation isn’ ...

  8. What about African Americans and High Blood Pressure?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... vision. The prevalence of high blood pressure in African Americans is among the highest in the world. High blood pressure affects more than 40 percent of African Americans. It also develops earlier in life in blacks ...

  9. Insomnia Linked to High Blood Pressure in Study

    MedlinePLUS

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Insomnia Linked to High Blood Pressure in Study But ... 26, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages High Blood Pressure Insomnia MONDAY, Jan. 26, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- People with ...

  10. Newly Diagnosed with High Blood Pressure? 3 Factors Affect Prognosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... please enable JavaScript. Newly Diagnosed With High Blood Pressure? 3 Factors Affect Prognosis Systolic reading of 150 ... 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Heart Attack High Blood Pressure Stroke THURSDAY, Feb. 5, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Prompt ...

  11. High Pressure Cryocooling of Protein Crystals: The Enigma of Water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sol M. Gruner

    2010-01-01

    A novel high-pressure cryocooling technique for preparation biological samples for x-ray analysis is described. The method, high-pressure cryocooling, involves cooling samples to cryogenic temperatures (e.g., 100 K) in high-pressure Helium gas (up to 200 MPa). It bears both similarities and differences to high-pressure cooling methods that have been used to prepare samples for electron microscopy, and has been especially useful

  12. Elasticity of Unquenchable High-Pressure Clinopyroxene at High Pressures and Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kung, J.; Li, B.; Uchida, T.; Wang, Y.

    2003-12-01

    A phase transformation in (Mg,Fe)SiO3, one of the common constituent of the Earth's crust and upper mantle, from orthorhombic (OEN) to monoclinic symmetry is likely to occur in the deeper portions of the upper mantle (Pacalo and Gasparik, 1990; Kanzaki, 1991). Angel et al. (1992) confirmed that the clinoenstatite phase above 8 GPa is an unquenchable high pressure monoclinic phase (HP-CEN), space group C2/c. Due to its unquenchable nature, this high pressure clinoenstatite has to be synthesized within its stability field in order to study its elasticity. The elasticity measurements were carried out using the ultrasonic technique in the large volume apparatus in conjunction with in-situ X-radiation techniques (X-ray diffraction and X-radiography). The experimental setup has made possible to monitor the length change of sample during experiment, as well as the measurements of travel times and density of the sample simultaneously. The starting material for the acoustic experiment was a well-sintered OEN polycrystalline specimen, which was hot-pressed at conditions of 5 GPa, 1000 degree C for an hour prior the experiment. After the OEN fully transformed to the HP-CEN at pressure of 13 GPa, 1000 degree C during the acoustic experiment, elasticity and X-ray data have been collected along a series of heating/cooling cycles at different pressures during the decompression. The data collection was stopped at 6.5 GPa because of the phase transition from HP-CEN to LP-CEN at lower pressure. The resulting bulk and shear moduli at different P-T conditions were treated as linear functions of both pressure and temperature with adjustable parameters: moduli at 6.5 GPa, room temperature, the pressure derivatives at constant temperatures, and the temperature derivatives at constant pressures. Compared with OEN (Flesch et al., 1998), our results show that the pressure derivatives of the bulk and shear moduli of HP-CEN are similar to those of OEN when the conditions of 6.5 GPa, room temperature. We also compared the elasticity of HP-CEN to those of olivine at high pressure and temperature (Li et al., 2003). Reference: Pacalo and Gasparik, J. Geophys. Res., 95, 15853-15858, 1990.Kanzaki, M.,Phys.Chem. Min., 17, 726-730, 1991. Angel et al., Nature, 358, 322-324, 1992. Flesch et al., Am. Miner. 83, 444-450, 1998. Li et al., submitted Phys. Earth, Plant. Inter., 2003.

  13. Neutron scattering at high pressure D. B. McWhan

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    715 Neutron scattering at high pressure D. B. McWhan Room 1D-234, Murray Hill, New Jersey 07974, U-ray scattering at high pressure using rotating anode or synchrotron sources. Revue Phys. Appl. 19 (1984) 715 the types of pro- blems which have been studied. X-ray scattering at high pressure is the subject of two

  14. HIGH-PRESSURE CRYSTAL CHEMISTRY Charles T. Prewitt

    E-print Network

    Downs, Robert T.

    Chapter 9 HIGH-PRESSURE CRYSTAL CHEMISTRY Charles T. Prewitt Geophysical Laboratory and Center for High Pressure Research Carnegie Institution of Washington 5251 Broad Branch Road, NW Washington, DC as major components. As a result, much current research at high pressure involves these elements

  15. 7 CFR 58.219 - High pressure pumps and lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false High pressure pumps and lines. 58.219 Section 58...Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.219 High pressure pumps and lines. High pressure lines may be cleaned-in-place and...

  16. 7 CFR 58.219 - High pressure pumps and lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false High pressure pumps and lines. 58.219 Section 58...Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.219 High pressure pumps and lines. High pressure lines may be cleaned-in-place and...

  17. INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF CONJUGATED ORGANIC MOLECULES UNDER HIGH PRESSURE

    E-print Network

    Collins, Gary S.

    INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF CONJUGATED ORGANIC MOLECULES UNDER HIGH PRESSURE By KIRILL KHAMIDOVICH. iii #12;INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF CONJUGATED ORGANIC MOLECULES UNDER HIGH PRESSURE Abstract By Kirill the p-terphenyl structure in the twisted conformation. They also demonstrated that high-pressure IR

  18. 7 CFR 58.219 - High pressure pumps and lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false High pressure pumps and lines. 58.219 Section 58...Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.219 High pressure pumps and lines. High pressure lines may be cleaned-in-place and...

  19. RESEARCH Open Access High-pressure intrapleural chemotherapy

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    RESEARCH Open Access High-pressure intrapleural chemotherapy: feasibility in the pig model Olivier antitumor efficacy, we applied the concept of high-pressure intracavitary chemotherapy to the pleural space/l) was highly cytotoxic in vitro. The maximum tolerated pressure was 20 cm H20, due to haemodynamic failure

  20. 7 CFR 58.219 - High pressure pumps and lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false High pressure pumps and lines. 58.219 Section 58...Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.219 High pressure pumps and lines. High pressure lines may be cleaned-in-place and...

  1. 7 CFR 58.219 - High pressure pumps and lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false High pressure pumps and lines. 58.219 Section 58...Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.219 High pressure pumps and lines. High pressure lines may be cleaned-in-place and...

  2. Dissociation of methane under high pressure Guoying Gao,1,a

    E-print Network

    Oganov, Artem R.

    Dissociation of methane under high pressure Guoying Gao,1,a Artem R. Oganov,2,a Yanming Ma,1,b Hui212121, Pnma, and Cmcm space groups. Remarkably, under high pressure, methane becomes unstable American Institute of Physics. doi:10.1063/1.3488102 I. INTRODUCTION The high-pressure behavior of methane

  3. High-pressure coal fuel processor development

    SciTech Connect

    Greenhalgh, M.L. (Caterpillar, Inc., Peoria, IL (United States))

    1992-12-01

    Caterpillar shares DOE/METC interest in demonstrating the technology required to displace petroleum-based engine fuels with various forms of low cost coal. Current DOE/METC programs on mild gasification and coal-water-slurries are addressing two approaches to this end. Engine and fuel processor system concept studies by Caterpillar have identified a third, potentially promising, option. This option includes high-pressure fuel processing of run-of-the-mine coal and direct injection of the resulting low-Btu gas stream into an ignition assisted, high compression ratio diesel engine. The compactness and predicted efficiency of the system make it suitable for application to line-haul railroad locomotives. Two overall conclusions resulted from Task 1. First direct injected, ignition assisted Diesel cycle engine combustion systems can be suitably modified to efficiently utilize low-Btu gas fuels. Second, high pressure gasification of selected run-of-the-mine coals in batch-loaded fuel processors is feasible. These two findings, taken together, significantly reduce the perceived technical risk associated with the further development of the proposed coal gas fueled Diesel cycle power plant concept. The significant conclusions from Task 2 were: An engine concept, derived from a Caterpillar 3600 series engine, and a fuel processor concept, based on scaling up a removable-canister configuration from the test rig, appear feasible; and although the results of this concept study are encouraging, further, full-scale component research and development are required before attempting a full-scale integrated system demonstration effort.

  4. Effect of high pressure on mesophilic lactic fermentation streptococci

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reps, A.; Ku?micka, M.; Wi?niewska, K.

    2008-07-01

    The research concerned the effect of high pressure on mesophilic lactic fermentation streptococci, present in two cheese-making commercial inocula produced by Christian-Hansen. Water solutions of inocula were pressurized at 50-800 MPa, at room temperature, for 30-120 min. Pressurization at 50-100 MPa slightly increased or reduced the number of lactic streptococci, depending on the inoculum and pressurization time. Pressurization at 200 MPa caused a reduction in the number of streptococci by over 99.9%, whereas the pressure of 400 MPa and above almost completely inactivated streptococci. Pressurization also reduced the dynamics of microorganism growth and acidification, to the degree depending on the pressure.

  5. Investigating cavity pressure behavior in high-pressure RTM process variants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, P.; Chaudhari, R.; Karcher, M.; Henning, F.; Elsner, P.

    2014-05-01

    The paper addresses new variants of the high pressure resin transfer molding (HP-RTM) process namely high pressure injection RTM (HP-IRTM) and high pressure compression RTM (HP-CRTM) for manufacturing of carbon fiber reinforced composites with high fiber volume content. Both these processes utilize high-pressure RTM equipment for precise dosing and mixing of highly reactive epoxy resin and amine hardener with relatively high throughput rates. The paper addresses results of a study which investigated cavity pressure measurement for both the HP-RTM process variants using a specially designed highpressure RTM mold. The investigations indicate that the cavity pressure built up is a characteristic of the selected process variant. Further the relationship between the applied press force and the cavity pressure in HP-CRTM process was studied.

  6. Transportable, small high-pressure preservation vessel for cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Kamimura; S. Sotome; K. Nakajima; Y. Yoshimura; A. Shimizu

    2010-01-01

    We have previously reported that the survival rate of astrocytes increases under high-pressure conditions at 4°C. However, pressure vessels generally have numerous problems for use in cell preservation and transportation: (1) they cannot be readily separated from the pressurizing pump in the pressurized state; (2) they are typically heavy and expensive due the use of materials such as stainless steel;

  7. How Is High Blood Pressure Treated?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... pressure - a hypertension Google+ hangout in honor of World Hypertension Day 10/15/2014 The NHLBI "Grand ... pressure - a hypertension Google+ hangout in honor of World Hypertension Day 10/15/2014 The NHLBI "Grand ...

  8. How Can High Blood Pressure Be Prevented?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... pressure - a hypertension Google+ hangout in honor of World Hypertension Day 10/15/2014 The NHLBI "Grand ... pressure - a hypertension Google+ hangout in honor of World Hypertension Day 10/15/2014 The NHLBI "Grand ...

  9. Effect of high pressure on structural oddities 

    E-print Network

    Johnstone, Russell D. L.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis describes the effect of pressure on crystal structures that are in some way unusual. The aim was to investigate whether pressure could be used to force these ‘structural oddities’ to conform to more conventional ...

  10. Urea and deuterium mixtures at high pressures.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, M; Bull, C L; Husband, R J; Frantzana, A D; Klotz, S; Loveday, J S

    2015-03-28

    Urea, like many network forming compounds, has long been known to form inclusion (guest-host) compounds. Unlike other network formers like water, urea is not known to form such inclusion compounds with simple molecules like hydrogen. Such compounds if they existed would be of interest both for the fundamental insight they provide into molecular bonding and as potential gas storage systems. Urea has been proposed as a potential hydrogen storage material [T. A. Strobel et al., Chem. Phys. Lett. 478, 97 (2009)]. Here, we report the results of high-pressure neutron diffraction studies of urea and D2 mixtures that indicate no inclusion compound forms up to 3.7 GPa. PMID:25833592

  11. High Pressure Quick Disconnect Particle Impact Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosales, Keisa R.; Stoltzfus, Joel M.

    2009-01-01

    NASA Johnson Space Center White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) performed particle impact testing to determine whether there is a particle impact ignition hazard in the quick disconnects (QDs) in the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) on the International Space Station (ISS). Testing included standard supersonic and subsonic particle impact tests on 15-5 PH stainless steel, as well as tests performed on a QD simulator. This paper summarizes the particle impact tests completed at WSTF. Although there was an ignition in Test Series 4, it was determined the ignition was caused by the presence of a machining imperfection. The sum of all the test results indicates that there is no particle impact ignition hazard in the ISS ECLSS QDs. KEYWORDS: quick disconnect, high pressure, particle impact testing, stainless steel

  12. Safety improvements in high pressure thermal machines

    SciTech Connect

    Otters, J.L.

    1988-02-09

    In a thermal machine of the type including a machine body having a main axis extending between a thermal end and a work end, a working fluid at relatively high pressure in a working fluid chamber defined in the body and a displacer element reciprocable within the chamber for subjecting the fluid to a thermodynamic cycle in cooperation with a reciprocable work piston, the improvement is described comprising outer shell means enclosing the machine body for maintaining a substantially sealed atmosphere about the machine body, and diffuser means arranged between the machine body and the outer shell means for diffusing a shock wave traveling towards the outer shell means resulting from explosive failure of the machine body and for shielding the outer shell means against fragments projected upon such failure.

  13. Low energy high pressure miniature screw valve

    DOEpatents

    Fischer, Gary J. (Sandia Park, NM); Spletzer, Barry L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-12-12

    A low energy high pressure screw valve having a valve body having an upper portion and a lower portion, said lower portion of said valve body defining an inlet flow passage and an outlet flow passage traversing said valve body to a valve seat, said upper portion of said valve body defining a cavity at said valve seat, a diaphragm restricting flow between said upper portion of said valve body and said lower portion, said diaphragm capable of engaging said valve seat to restrict fluid communication between said inlet passage and said outlet passage, a plunger within said cavity supporting said diaphragm, said plunger being capable of engaging said diaphragm with said valve seat at said inlet and outlet fluid passages, said plunger being in point contact with a drive screw having threads engaged with opposing threads within said upper portion of said valve body such engagement allowing motion of said drive screw within said valve body.

  14. High pressure fiber optic sensor system

    DOEpatents

    Guida, Renato; Xia, Hua; Lee, Boon K; Dekate, Sachin N

    2013-11-26

    The present application provides a fiber optic sensor system. The fiber optic sensor system may include a small diameter bellows, a large diameter bellows, and a fiber optic pressure sensor attached to the small diameter bellows. Contraction of the large diameter bellows under an applied pressure may cause the small diameter bellows to expand such that the fiber optic pressure sensor may measure the applied pressure.

  15. Behavior of magnesium at high pressures and high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cynn, H.; Evans, W.; Yoo, C. S.; Ohishi, Y.; Sata, N.; Shimomura, O.

    2004-03-01

    Structural stability relationship manifested by 3-, 4-, 5d-electron transition metals also appears in so-called nearly free electron metal, magnesium as exampled by HCP to BCC structure change at high pressures. This transition has been examined by theory and confirmed by experiment. Recently, HCP to DHCP crystal structure change has been reported at high temperatures below 20 GPa. However, this type of structure change is rather common in 4f-electron lanthanides. In this study, we used synchrotron x-ray diffraction to find out the relationship between BCC and DHCP employing a diamond anvil cell technique coupled with external and laser heating methods. We also examined pressure gradient effects in relation with the existence of DHCP. This work has been supported by PDRP program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, University of California under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. W-7405-ENG-48

  16. Calculating Mass Diffusion in High-Pressure Binary Fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellan, Josette; Harstad, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    A comprehensive mathematical model of mass diffusion has been developed for binary fluids at high pressures, including critical and supercritical pressures. Heretofore, diverse expressions, valid for limited parameter ranges, have been used to correlate high-pressure binary mass-diffusion-coefficient data. This model will likely be especially useful in the computational simulation and analysis of combustion phenomena in diesel engines, gas turbines, and liquid rocket engines, wherein mass diffusion at high pressure plays a major role.

  17. Metabolic Activity of Bacteria at High Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picard, A.; Daniel, I.; Oger, P.

    2008-12-01

    Over the last 20 years, there has been increasing evidence for the presence of a large number of microbes in the oceanic subsurface. Such a habitat has a very low energy input because it is deprived of light. A few meters below the sediment surface, conditions are already anoxic in most cases, sulfate reduction and/or methanogenesis becoming thus the primary respiratory reactions of organic matter. Neither the fate of methanogenesis, nor the fate of Dissimilatory Metal-Reduction (DMR) has been investigated so far as a function of pressure. For this reason, we measured experimentally the pressure limits of microbial anaerobic energetic metabolism. In practice, we measured in situ the kinetics of selenite respiration by the bacterial model Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 under high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) between 0 and 150 MPa at 30°C. MR-1 stationary-phase cells were used in Luria-Bertani (LB) medium amended with lactate as an additional electron donor and sodium selenite as an electron acceptor. In situ measurements were performed by X- ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure (XANES) spectroscopy in both a diamond-anvil cell and an autoclave. A red precipitate of amorphous Se(0) was virtually observed at any pressure to 150 MPa. A progressive reduction of selenite Se(IV) into selenium Se(0) was also observed in the evolution of XANES spectra with time. All kinetics between 0.1 and 150 MPa can be adjusted to a first order kinetic law. MR-1 respires all available selenite up to 60 MPa. Above 60 MPa, the respiration yield decreases linearly as a function of pressure and reaches 0 at 155 ±5 MPa. This indicates that selenite respiration by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 stops at about 155 MPa, whereas its growth is arrested at 50 MPa. Hence, the present results show that the respiration of selenium by the strain MR-1 occurs efficiently up to 60 MPa and 30°C, i.e. from the surface of a continental sediment to an equivalent depth of about 2 km, or beneath a 5-km water column and a depth of marine sediment of 500 m, or even beneath a water column of 6 km in surface sediments. This suggests that the metabolic activity of surface microorganisms that receive nutrients through sea water percolation into the deeper parts of the sediment, or that sink with the sediment, may represent a significant fraction of the total activity observed in subsurface environments. The present results indicate also that cells in stationary phase at HHP, which preclude growth, can still have a short-term metabolic activity independent of the growth-related activity. Consequently, surface microorganisms have the ability to impact significantly and rapidly on biogeochemical cycles in deep environments.

  18. Probing Hydrogen Diffusion under High Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bove, L. E.; Klotz, S.; Strassle, T.; Saitta, M.

    2012-12-01

    The study of the microscopic mechanism governing hydrogen and hydrogen-based liquids (as water, ammonia and methane) diffusion is crucial for a variety of scientific issues spanning most of natural sciences. As an example, characterizing hydrogen diffusion in a confined medium, like in porous systems or zeolites, is fundamental in problems relating to environment, hydrogen storage and industrial applications [1]. The presence of water diffusion in the minerals of the Earth's mantle have strong incidence on the processes governing volcanic eruptions and intermediate-depth seismicity. As last example, knowing in details the microscopic dynamics of hydrogen-based simple liquids under extreme conditions is essential in order to interpret observations and develop models of planet interiors [2]. On the other hand, water and other simple hydrogen-based liquids have always been key systems in the development of modern condensed-matter physics, because of their simple electronic structure and the peculiar properties deriving from the hydrogen-bond network. Their high compressibility and chemical reactivity have made these systems very challenging to study experimentally under static high P-T conditions. In the last few years, a large effort has been undertaken by several groups around the world [2] to extend the static and dynamic techniques to high temperatures and pressures, a program in which our group has been actively involved [3-6]. However, while the structure of water and other hydrogenated liquids of geological interest, is now known up to almost 20 GPa, the study of their transport properties greatly lags behind. We have recently developed a new large-volume gasket-anvil ensemble for the Paris-Edinburgh press based on a novel toroidal design [7], which allows to perform quasi elastic neutron scattering measurements on hydrogen based liquids up to one order of magnitude higher pressures (5 GPa) respect to what was achievable with standard methods [8]. The large volume HP press can be now warmed up to 600K and the peculiar geometry of the gasket assure an excellent signal to background ratio. This new device has been recently settled up on neutron scattering facilities (PSI, ILL), successfully showing that very high quality data can be obtained on liquid water, and more generally on hydrogenated liquids dynamics under high pressure. Some new exciting results on the diffusion mechanism in hot dense water will be presented [9]. Possible future implementation of the device to reach the 20GPa and 1000K conditions will be also discussed. References [1] C. Cavazzoni et al., Science 283, 44 (1999) ; T. Guillot, Science 286 (1999), 72 . 77. [2] Some of the most active groups in this field are the Geophysical Laboratory (USA), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (USA), CEA/DAM (France) and the Bayerisches Geoinstitut (Allemagne). [3] Klotz S et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 149602, 2006. [4] Nelmes R J Nature Phys. 2 414, 2006. [5] S. Klotz, L. Bove et al., Nature Mat. 8, 405 (2009). [6] L.E. Bove et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 106 (2011) . [7] L. E. Bove et al., Phys. Appl. Lett., in preparation (2012). [8] A. Cunsolo et al., Journal of Chem. Phys. 124, 084503 (2006). [9] L.E. Bove et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., submitted (2012) .

  19. High Pressure Nmr Studies of Chemical and Biochemical Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiri Jonas

    \\u000a Nuclear magnetic measurements at high pressure provide unique information about the microscopic behavior of chemical and biochemical\\u000a systems. In view of the high information content of advanced high resolution NMR techniques including 2D and 3D NMR, the ability\\u000a of performing these experiments at high pressure opens a very promising direction in high pressure research.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a This review is organized in the

  20. Infrared Microspectroscopy study of insulin crystals at high pressure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F Piccirilli; S Mangialardo; S Lupi; P Postorino; A Perucchi

    2012-01-01

    During the last years the coupling of high pressure techniques and infrared spectroscopy has proven to be a very powerful tool in the study of conformational changes of proteins. Protein unfolding and monomerization are events that are expected to take place at high pressure due to the peculiarity of pressure to shift the system towards the state that occupies the

  1. Temperature control for high pressure processes up to 1400 MPa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Reineke; A. Mathys; V. Heinz; D. Knorr

    2008-01-01

    Pressure- assisted sterilisation is an emerging technology. Hydrostatic high pressure can reduce the thermal load of the product and this allows quality retention in food products. To guarantee the safety of the sterilisation process it is necessary to investigate inactivation kinetics especially of bacterial spores. A significant roll during the inactivation of microorganisms under high pressure has the thermodynamic effect

  2. Structure of crystalline methanol at high pressure David R. Allan

    E-print Network

    Vos, Willem L.

    Structure of crystalline methanol at high pressure David R. Allan Department of Physics structure, including all atomic positions, of methanol at high pressure and room temperature pressure of methanol is 3.5 GPa. In practice however, it is very easy to superpress the liquid phase

  3. High Pressure Research Vol. 29, No. 2, June 2009, 235244

    E-print Network

    Steinle-Neumann, Gerd

    and (or) pressure conditions, the marcasite-type compounds have a number of different polymorphs. Pyrite], and a high-pressure pyrite-type phase of NiP2 has been synthesized [7]. At high temperature and pressure, Cr atoms and two Cr atoms [8,9]. Goodenough [10] has described energy bands of MX2 compounds with pyrite

  4. Structural behaviour of niobium oxynitride under high pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Bharat Bhooshan, E-mail: bbs86phy@gmail.com; Poswal, H. K., E-mail: bbs86phy@gmail.com; Pandey, K. K., E-mail: bbs86phy@gmail.com; Sharma, Surinder M., E-mail: bbs86phy@gmail.com [High Pressure and Synchrotron Radiation Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai-400085 (India); Yakhmi, J. V. [Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai - 400094 (India); Ohashi, Y.; Kikkawa, S. [Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N13W8, Sapporo 080-8628 (Japan)

    2014-04-24

    High pressure investigation of niobium oxynitrides (NbN{sub 0.98}O{sub 0.02}) employing synchrotron based angle dispersive x-ray diffraction experiments was carried out in very fine pressure steps using membrane driven diamond anvil cell. Ambient cubic phase was found to be stable up to ?18 GPa. At further high pressure cubic phase showed rhombohedral distortion.

  5. Do Pregnant Women Need High Blood Pressure Treatment?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... enable JavaScript. Do Pregnant Women Need High Blood Pressure Treatment? Controlling blood pressure doesn't seem to affect baby, but may ... January 28, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Page High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy WEDNESDAY, Jan. 28, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- ...

  6. High pressure, high-temperature vessel, especially for nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Mitterbacher, P.; Schoning, J.; Schwiers, H.G.

    1980-09-23

    A pressure vessel susceptible to high temperatures, especially for containment of a nuclear-reactor core, is constituted of a cylindrical shell from a cast material such as cast steel, cast iron or concrete, and is prestressed by vertical cables which extend parallel to generatrices of the shell. Peripheral (Circumferential) prestressing cables are provided around the shell which can be externally insulated. The peripheral tensioning cables are exposed externally of the insulation material and bear upon the shell of the vessel with heatresistant elements of high compressive strength which extend through the external insulation.

  7. Automated high pressure cell for pressure jump x-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, Nicholas J.; Gauthe, Beatrice L. L. E.; Templer, Richard H.; Ces, Oscar; Seddon, John M. [Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Terrill, Nick J. [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Rogers, Sarah E. [ISIS, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-15

    A high pressure cell for small and wide-angle x-ray diffraction measurements of soft condensed matter samples has been developed, incorporating a fully automated pressure generating network. The system allows both static and pressure jump measurements in the range of 0.1-500 MPa. Pressure jumps can be performed as quickly as 5 ms, both with increasing and decreasing pressures. Pressure is generated by a motorized high pressure pump, and the system is controlled remotely via a graphical user interface to allow operation by a broad user base, many of whom may have little previous experience of high pressure technology. Samples are loaded through a dedicated port allowing the x-ray windows to remain in place throughout an experiment; this facilitates accurate subtraction of background scattering. The system has been designed specifically for use at beamline I22 at the Diamond Light Source, United Kingdom, and has been fully integrated with the I22 beamline control systems.

  8. High Pressure Rotary Shaft Sealing Mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Dietle, Lannie (Sugar Land, TX); Gobeli, Jeffrey D. (Houston, TX)

    2001-05-08

    A laterally translatable pressure staged rotary shaft sealing mechanism having a seal housing with a shaft passage therein being exposed to a fluid pressure P1 and with a rotary shaft being located within the shaft passage. At least one annular laterally translatable seal carrier is provided. First and second annular resilient sealing elements are supported in axially spaced relation by the annular seal carriers and have sealing relation with the rotary shaft. The seal housing and at least one seal carrier define a first pressure staging chamber exposed to the first annular resilient sealing element and a second pressure staging chamber located between and exposed to the first and second annular resilient sealing elements. A first fluid is circulated to the first pressure chamber at a pressure P1, and a second staging pressure fluid is circulated to the second pressure chamber at a fraction of pressure P1 to achieve pressure staging, cooling of the seals. Seal placement provides hydraulic force balancing of the annular seal carriers.

  9. Preliminary results of MUNDO high altitude pressure measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Banister, J.R.; Hereford, W.V.; Solomon, O.M.

    1987-01-01

    Four high altitude pressure measurement canisters were deployed for the MUNDO event. All canister parachutes deployed and the placement of instruments was quite satisfactory in spite of an unusual wind change. Fouled leak plugs caused the two intermediate pressure transducers to be driven out of range but a new and reasonably successful procedure was developed for recovering the pressure histories of these canisters from acceleration histories. The measurements bridged across from the central radiation cone to the transition region. Pressure levels and pressure histories at outer stations are atypical with the unexpected appearances of shock fronts. Pressure histories were more complicated with peak pressures lower than observed on RUMMY.

  10. Hose in Hose, an S locus-linked mutant of Primula vulgaris, is caused by an unstable mutation at the Globosa locus.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinhong; Dudas, Brigitta; Webster, Margaret A; Cook, Holly E; Davies, Brendan H; Gilmartin, Philip M

    2010-03-23

    Hose in Hose mutants of primrose and cowslip have been cultivated since the early 17th century and show dominant homeotic conversion of sepals to petals. The phenotype shows variable penetrance and expressivity and is linked to the S locus, which controls floral heteromorphy in Primula species. Here we demonstrate that the homeotic conversion of sepals to petals in Hose in Hose is associated with up-regulation of both Primula B-function MADS box genes PvDef and PvGlo in the first floral whorl. We have defined a restriction fragment length polymorphism associated with PvGlo that cosegregates with the Hose in Hose phenotype and have also identified and characterized a retrotransposon insertion in the PvGlo promoter which is associated with the up-regulated expression of PvGlo. Excision of this retrotransposon, associated with epigenetic changes at the locus, causes reversion toward normal calyces and restores wild-type flower development. These data define the molecular basis of the Hose in Hose mutation and provide an explanation for its long-documented phenotypic instability. PMID:20212126

  11. High pressure high temperature elasticity study of sodium disilicate glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, T.; Kono, Y.; Sakamaki, T.; Jing, Z.; Wang, Y.; Shen, G.

    2011-12-01

    Many deep earth geophysical phenomena observed are related to physical properties of silicate melts under extreme conditions. Understanding the structures and physical properties of silicate melts at a fundamental level is essential to help us understand the dynamics of mineral crystallization and fractionation, thermal transport, etc. inside the Earth. Sodium disilicate (Na2Si2O5) glass is a good analog for studying amorphous phase basalt since they have similar ratios of non-bridging oxygen to tetrahedrally coordinated cations (NBO/T). Besides, sodium disilicate is not only simple in chemistry but also has a low melting point, thus permitting detailed experimental studies using currently available techniques. Synthesized sodium disilicate glass was ground into powder and loaded into a Paris-Edinburgh (PE) cell. The PE high pressure apparatus was installed inside the 16-BM-B hutch at the Advanced Photon Source. In our experiment, the glass sample was pressed up to 2GPa and heated up to 1000oC. At various pressure and temperature conditions, ultrasonic elastic wave velocities of the amorphous sample were collected using the pulse reflection method with a 10o Y-cut LiNbO3 transducer mounted on one end of the PE anvil. White beam x-ray radiographs that covered the entire length of the sample were also collected to determine the elastic wave travel distance. Experimental results show that before the glass transition temperature (~700oC at ambient pressure), the transverse wave velocity remains nearly constant with increasing temperature, while the longitudinal wave velocity decreases monotonically. A sudden drop in transverse wave velocity is observed above the glass transition temperature at 800oC. Within the 2GPa pressure range, we did not observe clear pressure dependence of the elastic wave velocities in sodium disilicate glass.

  12. High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Pressure in Pregnancy - Multiple Languages Arabic (???????) Bosnian (Bosanski) Chinese - Simplified (????) Chinese - Traditional (????) French (français) ... ????? - ??????? Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Bosnian (Bosanski) High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy Visok krvni pritisak ...

  13. 9. General view of engine between cylinders with high pressure ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. General view of engine between cylinders with high pressure cylinder on left and low pressure cylinder on right. - Carnegie Steel-Ohio Works, Steam Engines, 912 Salt Springs Road, Youngstown, Mahoning County, OH

  14. PS foams at high pressure drop rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tammaro, Daniele; De Maio, Attilio; Carbone, Maria Giovanna Pastore; Di Maio, Ernesto; Iannace, Salvatore

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we report data on PS foamed at 100 °C after CO2 saturation at 10 MPa in a new physical foaming batch that achieves pressure drop rates up to 120 MPa/s. Results show how average cell size of the foam nicely fit a linear behavior with the pressure drop rate in a double logarithmic plot. Furthermore, foam density initially decreases with the pressure drop rate, attaining a constant value at pressure drop rates higher than 40 MPa/s. Interestingly, furthermore, we observed that the shape of the pressure release curve has a large effect on the final foam morphology, as observed in tests in which the maximum pressure release rate was kept constant but the shape of the curve changed. These results allow for a fine tuning of the foam density and morphology for specific applications.

  15. High-temperature, high-pressure optical cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, L. R.; Smith, R.; Harris, R. P.

    1983-01-01

    For measuring the thermal diffusivity of HgCdTe melts by the laser-pulse method, an infrared transparent cell with flat windows of sufficient strength to withstand the high-vapor pressure of mercury had to be developed. Since mercury telluride expands on freezing, certain difficulties arose in returning the cell to room temperature without cracking it. T08 commercial fused silica is used in the construction of the cell, and the cells are transparent for wavelengths from about 3.5 microns in the infrared to 260 nm in the ultraviolet. The construction procedure for the required cells has been laborious. However, the obtained cell has routinely withstood internal pressures in excess of 60 atm at 900 C. Attention is given to the design of the windows, aspects of cell construction, and questions of loading.

  16. Incommensurately Modulated Phase of Iodine Under High Pressure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. TAKEMURA; K. SATO; H. FUJIHISA; M. ONODA

    2004-01-01

    High-pressure powder x-ray diffraction experiments have been carried out on iodine at room temperature with a helium-pressure medium. A new high-pressure phase has been found in the pressure range 24–28 GPa, in the close vicinity of the molecular dissociation. The structure is incommensurately modulated, which we interpret as a transient state between molecular and monatomic ones.

  17. High-pressure study of neptunium and plutonium compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Dabos-Seignon; U. Benedict

    1990-01-01

    Neptunium and plutonium monopnictides and monochalcogenides were studied by x-ray diffraction at pressures up to 57 GPa. All of them exhibit structural phase transitions under pressure. The arsenides and tellurides have a CsCl (B2) type high-pressure structure. Sb as an anion favours a tetragonal high-pressure structure. The compressibilities were determined for all of the compounds studied. The results are compared

  18. Liquid Rocket Lines, Bellows, Flexible Hoses, and Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Fluid-flow components in a liquid propellant rocket engine and the rocket vehicle which it propels are interconnected by lines, bellows, and flexible hoses. Elements involved in the successful design of these components are identified and current technologies pertaining to these elements are reviewed, assessed, and summarized to provide a technology base for a checklist of rules to be followed by project managers in guiding a design or assessing its adequacy. Recommended procedures for satisfying each of the design criteria are included.

  19. Dynamical stability analysis of a hose to the sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosselin, Frédérick P.; Païdoussis, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    The Stratospheric Shield was proposed as a geoengineering concept to control the Earth's climate and reverse global warming. This approach seeks to release sulphur dioxide (SO2) aerosols in the stratosphere to decrease the amount of sunlight that reaches the surface of the Earth. It was proposed that this can be done by pumping liquefied SO2 from the ground to the stratosphere in a 30 km long hose supported by aerostats.

  20. Packaging under pressure: Effects of high pressure, high temperature processing on the barrier properties of commonly available packaging materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. K. Bull; R. J. Steele; M. Kelly; S. A. Olivier; B. Chapman

    2010-01-01

    High pressure thermal (HPT) processing has the potential to deliver quality benefits to a range of processed foods. By exploiting the rapid temperature increase\\/decrease that accompanies pressurization\\/depressurization, commercial sterilization of foods can potentially be achieved by HPT with an overall reduced thermal exposure compared with conventional thermal processing technologies. High pressure thermal sterilization (HPTS) of foods is yet to be

  1. Know Your Blood Pressure Many people with diabetes also have high blood pressure.

    E-print Network

    Know Your Blood Pressure Many people with diabetes also have high blood pressure. Blood pressure. If you have diabetes, your goal is to keep the first number 0 or less. If you have diabetes, your goal: · It runs in their family. · They eat too much salt. · They are overweight and do not get enough exercise

  2. Spinning glass cell for high-pressure high-resolution NMR measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, H.; Nakatsuka, M.; Yamochi, H.; Sawamura, M.; Sera, A.

    1991-03-01

    A full description of the rotatable high-pressure glass cell method for the NMR measurements is presented. This simple device eliminates the use of massive high-pressure apparatus such as the oil pump, the Bourdon gauge, and the high-pressure tubing and valves in performing the high-pressure experiments. This system also demonstrates capability of realizing an extremely high-resolution level in the NMR measurements at high pressure otherwise not easily attainable.

  3. Safety valve for high-pressure systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. P. Kurshin; B. É. Kanishchev

    1985-01-01

    rigidly connected large 3 and small cylinders 7 of the intensifier, and the pressure setting mechanism i. The pressure setting mechanism is connected with the chamber above the piston 2 of the large cylinder. The chamber below the piston of the large cylinder communicates through holes 5 with the atmosphere. The small cylinder of the intensifier communicates through channel 8

  4. A high pressure apparatus for optical measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N B Owen

    1966-01-01

    A modification to a multiple anvil device is described which allows optical transmission through a specimen whilst it is subjected to a pressure of up to 50 kb and a temperature exceeding 1000°C. The pressure cell is a pyrophyllite cube which is squeezed by six anvils located between a pair of wedge cones. The specimen is contained in the cubic

  5. High hydrostatic pressure effects on Spirostomum ambiguum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saul M. Bien

    1967-01-01

    The effects of hydrostatic pressure on the ciliateSpirostomum ambiguum, when the organism is uncalcified in the early stage of culture and when it is calcified after periods of time are described. Uncalcified cells are sensitive to pressure, becoming quiescent at 250 atm, distorting at 300 atm and disrupting at 550 atm. In contrast, the mature calcified animals show no changes

  6. Studies of basic mechanisms in high pressure gases: Applications to high efficiency high power lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verdeyen, J. T.; Cherrington, B. E.; Leslie, S. G.; Millar, W. S.; Edwards, B. E.

    1976-01-01

    A high power pulsed dye laser was used to optically excite high pressure cesium-xenon mixtures and the resulting measurements are presented. A microwave discharge in rubidium at relatively high xenon pressure was achieved. Preliminary studies of cadium-rare gas mixtures are discussed and a detailed description of the entire experimental apparatus is given.

  7. High Pressure Source/Cryostat Relief Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Wintercorn, S.J.; Mulholland, G.T.; /Fermilab

    1987-08-13

    This report addresses solutions to the potential problem of cryostat over pressurization by the nominal 65 psi MWAP LAr source dewar. Uncontrolled (by reason of failure) filling of a 15 psi MW AP cryostat by the LAr fill line could cause over pressurization by overwhelming the provided cryostat relief system. Three levels of protection against over pressurization by the source dewar are mentioned in this report; the reduced (operational) relief pressure, the source pressure regulator, and the LAr dewar cooling loop. Only the first of these is recognized by the ASME code as sufficient protection, the others provide operational convenience and avoid the loss of detector fluid. Flow limiting device solutions are not considered because of the conflicting requirement to empty and fill the cryostats rapidly (within one eight hour shift), e.g. the movement of the cryostat from the assembly hall to the collision hall, or the inverse operation.

  8. Selected studies of magnetism at high pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Hearne, G.R. [University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Dept. of Physics; Pasternak, M.P. [Tel-Aviv Univ. (Israel). School of Physics and Astronomy; Taylor, R.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Most previous studies of magnetism in various compounds under extreme conditions have been conducted over a wide pressure range at room temperature or over a wide range of cryogenic temperatures at pressures below 20 GPa (200 kbar). We present some of the most recent studies of magnetism over an extended range of temperatures and pressures far beyond 20 GPa, i.e., in regions of pressure-temperature (P-T) where magnetism has been largely unexplored. Recent techniques have permitted investigations of magnetism in selected 3d transition metal compounds in regions of P-T where physical properties may be drastically modified; related effects have often been seen in selected doping studies at ambient pressures.

  9. Elastic properties of anorthite at high temperature and high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsukage, K. N.; Nishihara, Y.; Noritake, F.; Tsujino, N.; Sakurai, M.; Higo, Y.; Kawamura, K.; Takahashi, E.

    2012-12-01

    To understand the elastic properties of subducted crustal minerals at P-T conditions of crust and upper most mantle, we performed in situ measurement of the elastic wave velocities of anorthite at temperatures up to 1100 oC at less than 2.0 GPa (in stability field) and up to 500 oC at 2.0-7.0 GPa. A fine grained polycrystalline anorthite was synthesised by using gas pressure apparatus installed at magma factory in Tokyo Institute of Technology. The quenched glass with anorthite composition was ground in ethanol and was loaded into a sealed Pt tube (3.0 mm inner diameter and 0.2 mm thickness) container. The sample was preheated at 900°C for 2 hours, and then keep at 1100°C for 20 hours at pressure of 0.3 GPa. The maximum grain size of the synthesized polycrystalline anorthite was about 15?m. The experiments were performed using the SPEED-1500 apparatus installed on beam line BL04B1 at synchrotron facility of SPring-8, Japan (Utsumi et al. 1998). The experimental design for in situ elastic wave velocities measurement at BL04B1 was presented by Higo et al. (2009). Pressure was generated by eight 26 mm tungsten carbide anvils with 11 mm truncated edge length. A Co-doped semi-sintered MgO octahedron with an 18 mm edge length was used as a pressure medium. The sample was enclosed in a BN sleeve container, and was placed in the central part (hot spot) of the furnace. Platinum foils (2.5 ?m in thickness) were inserted at the both side of the sample for determination of sample length by using X-ray radiographic imaging techniques. An Al2O3 rod (5.3 mm in length and 2.0 mm in diameter) was used as buffer rod which transmit ultrasonic wave to the sample. Temperature was measured by a W97Re3-W75Re25 thermocouple. MgO was used as a pressure marker, and it was mixed with BN (MgO:BN = 1:1 by weight) to prevent grain growth at high temperatures. The ultrasonic signals were generated and received by 10oY-cut LiNbO3 transducer of 50 ?m in thickness and 3.2 mm in diameter. We used the ultrasonic wave of the frequencies 30-60MHz with 3-5cycle. The P and S wave velocities of anorthite at room pressure and temperature calculated by using our data are 7.01 km/s and 3.75 km/s, respectively. In this study, we found a drop of elastic wave velocities at ~240oC in <2.5GPa, and gradual decrease of the velocities in >3GPa and <500oC. These velocity changes are considered to be caused by the elastic softening by the phase transitions from P(-1) to high-temperature I(-1), and P(-1) to high-pressure I(-1) , respectively.

  10. Thermal decomposition of ammonia borane at high pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nylén, Johanna; Sato, Toyoto; Soignard, Emmanuel; Yarger, Jeffery L.; Stoyanov, Emil; Häussermann, Ulrich

    2009-09-01

    The effects of high pressure (up to 9 GPa) on the thermal decomposition of ammonia borane, BH3NH3, were studied in situ by Raman spectroscopy in a diamond anvil cell. In contrast with the three-step decomposition at ambient pressure, thermolysis under pressure releases almost the entire hydrogen content of the molecule in two distinct steps. The residual of the first decomposition is polymeric aminoborane, (BH2NH2)x, which is also observed at ambient pressure. The residual after the second decomposition is unique to high pressure. Presumably it corresponds to a precursor to hexagonal BN where macromolecular fragments of planar hexagon layers formed by B and N atoms are terminated by H atoms. Increasing pressure increases the temperature of both decomposition steps. Due to the increased first decomposition temperature it becomes possible to observe a new high pressure, high temperature phase of BH3NH3 which may represent melting.

  11. Al Coordination Changes in High-Pressure Aluminosilicate Liquids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Yarger; K. H. Smith; R. A. Nieman; J. Diefenbacher; G. H. Wolf; B. T. Poe; P. F. McMillan

    1995-01-01

    Understanding the effect of pressure on aluminosilicate glass and liquid structure is critical to understanding magma flow at depth. Aluminum coordination has been predicted by mineral phase analysis and molecular dynamic calculations to change with increasing pressure. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of glasses quenched from high pressure provide clear evidence for an increase in the average coordination of Al with

  12. High Hydrostatic Pressure Processing of Fruit and Vegetable Products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José A. Guerrero-Beltrán; Gustavo V. Barbosa-Cánovas; Barry G. Swanson

    2005-01-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) as a minimal thermal technology is a valuable tool for microbiologically safe and shelf-stable fruit and vegetable production. Microorganisms and deteriorative enzymes can be inhibited or inactivated depending on the amount of pressure and time applied to the product. The resistance of microorganisms and enzymes to pressure in fruit and vegetable products also is dependent on

  13. How Is High Blood Pressure Diagnosed?

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... with HBP. If you have diabetes or chronic kidney disease, a blood pressure of 130/80 mmHg ... avoid problems such as heart attack , stroke , and kidney failure . Rate This Content: Next >> Featured Video Myth- ...

  14. Notes 11. High pressure floating ring seals

    E-print Network

    San Andres, Luis

    2009-01-01

    Floating ring seals for compressors: leakage and force coefficients, seal lock up and effect on rotor stability, recommendations to reduce seal cross-coupled effects. Long oil seals as pressure barriers in industrial mixers: leakage and force...

  15. High pressure studies of cerium hexaboride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. B. Brandt; V. V. Moshchalkov; S. N. Pashkevich; M. G. Vybornov; M. V. Semenov; T. N. Kolobyanina; E. S. Konovalova; Yu. B. Paderno

    1985-01-01

    Magnetic susceptibility and magnetoresistance of CeB6 have been measured in magnetic fields H<50 kOe for H II (100) and H II (110) under hydrostatic pressure p up to 12 kbar. Applying pressure has been found to induce the noticeable expansion of the phase II of the magnetic field --- temperature phase diagram. Also reported are results of the X-ray studies

  16. High-pressure magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyt, David W.; Turcu, Romulus V. F.; Sears, Jesse A.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Burton, Sarah D.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Hu, Jian Zhi

    2011-10-01

    A high-pressure magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR capability, consisting of a reusable high-pressure MAS rotor, a high-pressure rotor loading/reaction chamber for in situ sealing and re-opening of the high-pressure MAS rotor, and a MAS probe with a localized RF coil for background signal suppression, is reported. The unusual technical challenges associated with development of a reusable high-pressure MAS rotor are addressed in part by modifying standard ceramics for the rotor sleeve by abrading the internal surface at both ends of the cylinder. In this way, not only is the advantage of ceramic cylinders for withstanding very high-pressure utilized, but also plastic bushings can be glued tightly in place so that other removable plastic sealing mechanisms/components and O-rings can be mounted to create the desired high-pressure seal. Using this strategy, sealed internal pressures exceeding 150 bars have been achieved and sustained under ambient external pressure with minimal loss of pressure for 72 h. As an application example, in situ13C MAS NMR studies of mineral carbonation reaction intermediates and final products of forsterite (Mg 2SiO 4) reacted with supercritical CO 2 and H 2O at 150 bar and 50 °C are reported, with relevance to geological sequestration of carbon dioxide.

  17. Terahertz transmission spectroscopy of high-pressure flames

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Naftaly; M. R. Stringer; R. E. Miles; J. Bassi; Y. Zhang

    2005-01-01

    Laser spectroscopy in the visible and NIR is widely used to study flame behaviour in internal combustion engines and turbines, but is inapplicable at high pressures because high soot concentration renders flames opaque; however they remain transparent to THz radiation. We use THz time-domain transmission spectroscopy to characterise gaseous species in flames. A specially designed high-pressure burner vessel has been

  18. Calcium peroxide from ambient to high pressures.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Joseph R; Needs, Richard J; Pickard, Chris J

    2015-02-25

    Structures of calcium peroxide (CaO2) are investigated in the pressure range 0-200 GPa using the ab initio random structure searching (AIRSS) method and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. At 0 GPa, there are several CaO2 structures very close in enthalpy, with the ground-state structure dependent on the choice of exchange-correlation functional. Further stable structures for CaO2 with C2/c, I4/mcm and P21/c symmetries emerge at pressures below 40 GPa. These phases are thermodynamically stable against decomposition into CaO and O2. The stability of CaO2 with respect to decomposition increases with pressure, with peak stability occurring at the CaO B1-B2 phase transition at 65 GPa. Phonon calculations using the quasiharmonic approximation show that CaO2 is a stable oxide of calcium at mantle temperatures and pressures, highlighting a possible role for CaO2 in planetary geochemistry. We sketch the phase diagram for CaO2, and find at least five new stable phases in the pressure-temperature ranges 0 ? P ? 60 GPa, 0 ? T ? 600 K, including two new candidates for the zero-pressure ground state structure. PMID:25673010

  19. Transportable, small high-pressure preservation vessel for cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamimura, N.; Sotome, S.; Nakajima, K.; Yoshimura, Y.; Shimizu, A.

    2010-03-01

    We have previously reported that the survival rate of astrocytes increases under high-pressure conditions at 4°C. However, pressure vessels generally have numerous problems for use in cell preservation and transportation: (1) they cannot be readily separated from the pressurizing pump in the pressurized state; (2) they are typically heavy and expensive due the use of materials such as stainless steel; and (3) it is difficult to regulate pressurization rate with hand pumps. Therefore, we developed a transportable high-pressure system suitable for cell preservation under high-pressure conditions. This high-pressure vessel has the following characteristics: (1) it can be easily separated from the pressurizing pump due to the use of a cock-type stop valve; (2) it is small and compact, is made of PEEK and weighs less than 200 g; and (3) pressurization rate is regulated by an electric pump instead of a hand pump. Using this transportable high-pressure vessel for cell preservation, we found that astrocytes can survive for 4 days at 1.6 MPa and 4°C.

  20. High-temperature, high-pressure optical cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, R. P. (inventor); Holland, L. R. (inventor); Smith, R. E. (inventor)

    1986-01-01

    The invention is an optical cell for containment of chemicals under conditions of high temperature and high pressure. The cell is formed of a vitreous silica tube, two optical windows comprising a vitreous silica rod inserted into the ends of a tube, and fused into position in the tube ends. Windows are spaced apart to form a cavity enclosed by the tube and the windows. A hole is drilled radially through the tube and into the cavity. Another vitreous silica tube is fused to the silica tube around the hole to form the stem, which is perpendicular to the long axis of the tube. The open end of the stem is used to load chemicals into the cavity. Then the stem may be sealed, and if desired, it may be shortened in order to reduce the volume of the cavity, which extends into the stem.

  1. STS-32 crewmembers use water hoses during fire fighting training at JSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    STS-32 crewmembers use water hoses during fire fighting exercises at JSC's Fire Training Pit across from the Gilruth Center Bldg 207. Mission Specialist (MS) G. David Low with nozzle open directs water into the fire as fire/ security personnel coaches and instructs him on his attempt to extinguish the blaze. MS Bonnie J. Dunbar maneuvers the hose behind Low. A second group of crewmembers alongside Low and Dunbar, MS Marsha S. Ivins, holding hose nozzle, Commander Daniel C. Brandenstein, and Pilot James D. Wetherbee position themselves before opening hose nozzle.

  2. Coupled beam hose and self-modulation instabilities in overdense plasma.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, C B; Benedetti, C; Esarey, E; Grüner, F J; Leemans, W P

    2012-08-01

    Transverse stability of the drive beam is critical to plasma wakefield accelerators. A long, relativistic particle beam propagating in an overdense plasma is subject to beam envelope modulation and centroid displacement (hosing) instabilities. Coupled equations for the beam centroid and envelope are derived and solved. It is shown that the hosing growth rate is comparable to self-modulation, and coupling of the self-modulation enhances beam hosing and induces harmonic content. Large amounts of hosing significantly alters the structure of the plasma wakefields. PMID:23005864

  3. High pressure/high temperature thermogravimetric apparatus. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Calo, J.M.; Suuberg, E.M.

    1999-12-01

    The purpose of this instrumentation grant was to acquire a state-of-the-art, high pressure, high temperature thermogravimetric apparatus (HP/HT TGA) system for the study of the interactions between gases and carbonaceous solids for the purpose of solving problems related to coal utilization and applications of carbon materials. The instrument that we identified for this purpose was manufactured by DMT (Deutsche Montan Technologies)--Institute of Cokemaking and Coal Chemistry of Essen, Germany. Particular features of note include: Two reactors: a standard TGA reactor, capable of 1100 C at 100 bar; and a high temperature (HT) reactor, capable of operation at 1600 C and 100 bar; A steam generator capable of generating steam to 100 bar; Flow controllers and gas mixing system for up to three reaction gases, plus a separate circuit for steam, and another for purge gas; and An automated software system for data acquisition and control. The HP/TP DMT-TGA apparatus was purchased in 1996 and installed and commissioned during the summer of 1996. The apparatus was located in Room 128 of the Prince Engineering Building at Brown University. A hydrogen alarm and vent system were added for safety considerations. The system has been interfaced to an Ametek quadruple mass spectrometer (MA 100), pumped by a Varian V250 turbomolecular pump, as provided for in the original proposed. With this capability, a number of gas phase species of interest can be monitored in a near-simultaneous fashion. The MS can be used in a few different modes. During high pressure, steady-state gasification experiments, it is used to sample, measure, and monitor the reactant/product gases. It can also be used to monitor gas phase species during nonisothermal temperature programmed reaction (TPR) or temperature programmed desorption (TPD) experiments.

  4. Two-Phase Flow and Heat Transfer During Chilldown of a Simulated Flexible Metal Hose Using Liquid Nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Hong; Wijeratne, Thilan K.; Chung, J. N.

    2014-03-01

    For many industrial, medical and space technologies, cryogenic fluids play irreplaceable roles. When any cryogenic system is initially started, it must go through a transient chill down period prior to normal operation. Chilldown is the process of introducing the cryogenic liquid into the system, and allowing the system components to cool down to several hundred degrees below the ambient temperature. The chilldown process is an important initial stage before a system begins functioning. The objective of this paper is to investigate the chilldown process associated with a flexible hose that was simulated by a channel with saw-teeth inner wall surface structure in the current study. We have investigated the fundamental physics of the two-phase flow and quenching heat transfer during cryogenic chilldown inside the simulated flexible hose through flow visualization, data measurement and analysis. The flow pattern developed inside the channel was recorded by a high speed camera for flow pattern investigation. The experimental results indicate that the chilldown process that is composed of unsteady vapor-liquid two-phase flow and phase-change heat transfer is modified by the inner wall surface wavy structure. Based on the measurement of the channel wall temperature, the teeth structure and the associated cavities generally reduce the heat transfer efficiency compared to the straight hose. Furthermore, based on the measured data, a complete series of correlations on the heat transfer coefficient for each heat transfer regime was developed and reported.

  5. High-pressure vibrational properties of polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontana, Luca; Santoro, Mario; Bini, Roberto; Vinh, Diep Q.; Scandolo, Sandro

    2010-11-01

    The pressure evolution of the vibrational spectrum of polyethylene was investigated up to 50 GPa along different isotherms by Fourier-transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy and at 0 K by density-functional theory calculations. The infrared data allow for the detection of the orthorhombic Pnam to monoclinic P21/m phase transition which is characterized by a strong hysteresis both on compression and decompression experiments. However, an upper and lower boundary for the transition pressure are identified. An even more pronounced hysteresis is observed for the higher-pressure transition to the monoclinic A2/m phase. The hysteresis does not allow in this case the determination of a well defined P-T transition line. The ambient structural properties of polyethylene are fully recovered after compression/decompression cycles indicating that the polymer is structurally and chemically stable up to 50 GPa. A phase diagram of polyethylene up to 50 GPa and 650 K is proposed. Analysis of the pressure evolution of the Davydov splittings and of the anomalous intensification with pressure of the IR active wagging mode provides insight about the nature of the intermolecular interactions in crystalline polyethylene.

  6. Synthesis, structure and properties of high pressure and ambient pressure ternary vanadium oxides 

    E-print Network

    Markkula, Mikael

    2013-11-28

    Transition metal oxides have been extensively studied during past decades. The purpose of this research was to synthesize new or little characterised transition metal oxides using high-pressure/high-temperature (HPHT) ...

  7. Synthesis of vanadium sulfides under high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Masao; Yoshimura, Masahiro; Wakihara, Masataka; Somiya, Shigeyuki; Taniguchi, Masao

    1985-11-01

    Vanadium sulfides were synthesized in a temperature range of 350-750°C and in a pressure range of 10-250 MPa (1 MPa = 9.87 atm), with an apparatus used for hydrothermal synthesis. The nonstoichiometric compositional range of the V 1+ xS 2 phase, which cannot be prepared under atmospheric pressure, is VS 1.661?VS 1.732 (0.155 < x < 0.204). It was impossible to synthesize vanadium disulfide VS 2 under the present experimental conditions. Equilibrium phase diagrams for the V 5S 8?S system under 100 and 200 MPa have been proposed on the basis of the present results. Also, the phase relationship between V 5S 8 and V 1+ xS 2 has been established and a pressure-temperature phase diagram for the V?S system has been drawn.

  8. EVALUATION OF CERAMIC FILTERS FOR HIGH-TEMPERATURE/HIGH-PRESSURE FINE PARTICULATE CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    High temperature gas turbines used to generate electric power require gas streams virtually free of particulate matter. Gas streams from high temperature, high pressure coal processes, such as low Btu gasification and pressurized fluidized bed combustion, require considerable par...

  9. Structural changes in thermoelectric SnSe at high pressures.

    PubMed

    Loa, I; Husband, R J; Downie, R A; Popuri, S R; Bos, J-W G

    2015-02-25

    The crystal structure of the thermoelectric material tin selenide has been investigated with angle-dispersive synchrotron x-ray powder diffraction under hydrostatic pressure up to 27 GPa. With increasing pressure, a continuous evolution of the crystal structure from the GeS type to the higher-symmetry TlI type was observed, with a critical pressure of 10.5(3) GPa. The orthorhombic high-pressure modification, ?'-SnSe, is closely related to the pseudo-tetragonal high-temperature modification at ambient pressure. The similarity between the changes of the crystal structure at elevated temperatures and at high pressures suggests the possibility that strained thin films of SnSe may provide a route to overcoming the problem of the limited thermal stability of ?-SnSe at high temperatures. PMID:25629387

  10. 1 6 High-Temperature-High-Pressure Diffractometry R. J. Angel*

    E-print Network

    Downs, Robert T.

    1 6 High- Temperature-High-Pressure Diffractometry R. J. Angel* Bayerisches Geoinstitut INTRODUCTION Effective techniques for conducting high-pressure and high-temperature single-crystal X published that defined optimal methods for operating diffractometers, especially for high-pressure

  11. Transient High-Pressure Fuel Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarrahbashi, Dorrin

    Break-up and atomization of liquid fuel jet during transient injection process has a significant effect on the Diesel engine combustion efficiency and pollution. The mechanisms responsible for liquid jet instability and break-up at high pressure, during the transient start-up and steady mass flux periods, has been investigated using Navier-Stokes and level-set computations. Via post-processing, the role of vorticity dynamics is examined and shown to reveal crucial new insights. An unsteady, axisymmetric full-jet case is solved. Then, a less computationally intensive case is studied with a segment of the jet core undergoing temporal instability; agreement with the full-jet calculation is satisfactory justifying the segment analysis for three-dimensional computation. The results for surface-shape development are in agreement with experimental observations and other three-dimensional computations; the initial, axisymmetric waves at the jet surface created by Kelvin-Helmholtz instability distort to cone shapes; next, three-dimensional character develops through an azimuthal instability that leads to the creation of streamwise vorticity, lobe shapes on the cones, and formation of liquid ligaments which extend from lobes on the cones. The cause of this azimuthal instability has been widely described as a Rayleigh-Taylor instability. However, additional and sometimes more important causes are identified here. Counter-rotating, streamwise vortices within and around the ligaments show a relationship in the instability behavior for jets flowing into like-density fluid; thus, density difference cannot explain fully the three-dimensional instability as previously suggested. Furthermore, the formation of ligaments that eventually break into droplets and the formation of streamwise vorticity are caused by the same vortical dynamics. Waviness is identified on the ligaments which should result in droplet formation. The nonlinear development of the shorter azimuthal waves and ligament waves explains the experimental results that droplet sizes are usually smaller than KH wavelengths. The higher the relative velocity and/or the lower the surface tension the shorter are the values of the most unstable wavelengths.

  12. High pressure phase transitions in tetrahedrally coordinated semiconducting compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, S. C.; Spain, I. L.; Skelton, E. F.

    1978-01-01

    New experimental results are reported for structural transitions at high pressure in several III-V compounds and two II-VI compounds. These data, together with earlier results, are then compared with the predictions of model calculations of Van Vechten. Experimental transition pressures are often at variance with calculated values. However, his calculation assumes that the high pressure phase is metallic, with the beta-Sn structure. The present results show that several compounds assume an ionic NaCl structure at high pressure, while others have neither the beta-Sn nor NaCl structure.

  13. Recent progress in high pressure metrology in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabuga, Wladimir; Pražák, Dominik; Rabault, Thierry

    2014-08-01

    Five European national metrology institutes in collaboration with a university, a research institute and five industrial companies are working on a joint research project within a framework of the European Metrology Research Programme aimed at development of 1.6 GPa primary and 1.5 GPa transfer pressure standards. Two primary pressure standards were realised as pressure-measuring multipliers, each consisting of a low pressure and a high pressure (HP) piston-cylinder assembly (PCA). A special design of the HP PCAs was developed in which a tungsten carbide cylinder is supported by two thermally shrunk steel sleeves and, additionally, by jacket pressure applied to the outside of the outer sleeve. Stress-strain finite element analysis (FEA) was performed to predict behaviour of the multipliers and a pressure generation system. With FEA, the pressure distortion coefficient was determined, taking into account irregularities of the piston-cylinder gap. Transfer pressure standards up to 1.5 GPa are developed on the basis of modern 1.5 GPa pressure transducers. This project shall solve a discrepancy between the growing needs of the industry demanding precise traceable calibrations of the high pressure transducers and the absence of adequate primary standards for pressures higher than 1 GPa in the European Union today.

  14. Structural stability of WS2 under high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandaru, Nirup; Kumar, Ravhi S.; Baker, Jason; Tschauner, Oliver; Hartmann, Thomas; Zhao, Yusheng; Venkat, Rama

    2014-07-01

    Structural behavior of bulk WS2 under high pressure was investigated using synchrotron X-ray diffraction and diamond anvil cell up to 52 GPa along with high temperature X-ray diffraction and high pressure Raman spectroscopy analysis. The high pressure results obtained from X-ray diffraction and Raman analysis did not show any pressure induced structural phase transformations up to 52 GPa. The high temperature results show that the WS2 crystal structure is stable upon heating up to 600°C. Furthermore, the powder X-ray diffraction obtained on shock subjected WS2 to high pressures up to 10 GPa also did not reveal any structural changes. Our results suggest that even though WS2 is less compressible than the isostructural MoS2, its crystal structure is stable under static and dynamic compressions up to the experimental limit.

  15. Raman spectroscopy on carbon nanotubes at high pressure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Loa

    2003-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy has been the most extensively employed method to study carbon nanotubes at high pressures. This review covers reversible pressure-induced changes of the lattice dynamics and structure of single- and multi-wall carbon nanotubes as well as irreversible transformations induced by high pressures. The interplay of covalent and van-der-Waals bonding in single-wall nanotube bundles and a structural distortion near 2

  16. High performance universal test system for pressure vessel sealing property

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yonghua Wang; Hao Jiang; Xiali Liu

    2011-01-01

    Based on a general control plan, from 0.1MPa to 45MPa of pressure resistance value, the various pressure vessel's sealing property examination was completed with high intellectualization; the real-time display , the storage of data acquisition, as well as curve analysis were fulfilled. Using the micro motor and the encoder in the system, the high pressure hand operated valve has successfully

  17. [Genesis study of omphacite at high pressure and high temperature].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ben-Fu; Yi, Li; Wang, Duo-Jun; Xie, Chao; Tang, Xue-Wu; Liu, Lei; Cui, Yue-Ju

    2013-11-01

    The melting and recrystallizing experiments of alkali basalt powder and mixture of pure oxides mixed as stoichiometry were performed at 3 GPa and 1 200 degrees C. Electronic microprobe analysis and Raman spectra showed that the recrystallized products were omphacites, the FWHM (full width at half maximum) of the Raman peak was narrow and its shape was sharp, which is attributed to the stable Si-O tetrahedral structure and the high degree of order in omphacite. Based on the results of previous studies, the influencing factors of omphacite genesis and its primary magma were discussed. The results showed that the formation of omphacite could be affected by many factors, such as the composition of parent rocks, the concentration of fluid in the system and the conditions of pressure and temperature. This result could support some experimental evidences on the genesis studies of omphacite and eclogite. PMID:24555367

  18. Dissociation of silica at high pressure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Damien Hicks; Tom Boehly

    2005-01-01

    Measurements of the temperature and optical reflectivity of quartz and fused silica under shock loading from 100 to 1000 GPa have revealed evidence for dissociation of silica between ˜150 and 400 GPa. Using attenuating laser-driven shock waves a continuous record of the temperature and reflectivity dependence on pressure has been obtained in both materials allowing the specific heat capacity and

  19. Probe Measurements on High Pressure Arcs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. C. Mason

    1937-01-01

    The introduction of a probe in a carbon arc in air at atmospheric pressure has been found to increase the arc voltage by several volts, the increase being almost independent of the velocity with which the probe is moved, but being a function of probe perimeter. Observation showed that the probe was surrounded by a dark space, with a fairly

  20. Effects of high pressure on meat: A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Claude Cheftel; Joseph Culioli

    1997-01-01

    Extensive investigations in the last decade have revealed the potential benefits of high pressure processing (100–800 MPa) for the preservation and modification of foods. Simultaneously, a few pressurised foods have become commercially available in Japan, Europe and the USA. In the present review, the basic principles underlying the effects of high pressure on food constituents and quality attributes are first

  1. High Pressure Processing for Preservation, Modification and Transformation of Foods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dietrich Knorr

    2002-01-01

    Commercial, high pressure treated food products have been delivered to the Japanese, the US and the European market. Parallel to these development activities intensive research work has been carried out. Within the European Union three major research projects devoted to high pressure research have been completed and a sound knowledge base has been accumulated on inactivation kinetics of microorganisms and

  2. High-pressure treatment effects on proteins in soy milk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongkang Zhang; Lite Li; Eizo Tatsumi; Seiichiro Isobe

    2005-01-01

    Effects of high-pressure treatment on the modifications of soy protein in soy milk were studied using various analytical techniques. Blue shifts of ?max could be observed in the fluorescence spectra. Spectrofluorimetry revealed that the soy protein exhibited more hydrophobic regions after high-pressure treatment. Electrophoretic analysis showed the change of soy protein clearly and indicated that soy proteins were dissociated by

  3. 6. Fire Protection (high pressure), view to the east. Located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Fire Protection (high pressure), view to the east. Located on the pipe floor between Unit 3 and Unit 4, the high pressure CO2 tanks are connected to the generator barrel of all four units. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Cabinet Gorge Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, North Bank of Clark Fork River at Cabinet Gorge, Cabinet, Bonner County, ID

  4. More Cases of High Blood Pressure in Less Affluent States

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this page, please enable JavaScript. More Cases of High Blood Pressure in Less Affluent States The unemployed seemed to ... February 26, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Health Disparities High Blood Pressure THURSDAY, Feb. 26, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Your odds ...

  5. 15. VIEW OF MODULE H, THE HIGH PRESSURE ASSEMBLY AREA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. VIEW OF MODULE H, THE HIGH PRESSURE ASSEMBLY AREA. PROCESSES IN THIS MODULE OCCURRED UNDER HIGH PRESSURES AND TEMPERATURES. (5/70) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Manufacturing Facility, North-central section of Plant, just south of Building 776/777, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  6. Pressure sensitive paint suitable to high Knudsen number regime

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hideo Mori; Tomohide Niimi; Madoka Hirako; Hiroyuki Uenishi

    2006-01-01

    Pressure sensitive paint (PSP) techniques have the capability to be applied to high Knudsen number flows, such as low density gas flows, micro-flows, and so on. In this study, to inspect the feasibility of PSP for measurement of pressure on a solid surface in high Knudsen number flows, the fundamental properties of PSPs are examined, especially in the range of

  7. Journey to the Center of the Earth: Exploring High Pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, Wendy

    2009-09-29

    The deeper we go into the Earth, the higher the pressure. At the pressures found within the center of our planet, minerals do not simply compress. Pressure dramatically alters all materials properties, in the process creating numerous novel phases not found on the surface. This lecture will describe how we simulate the conditions found in planetary interiors in the lab, what kinds of new behavior we find, and how these observations can explain what is going on within the Earth. High pressure explorations also lead to discoveries of novel materials with potential for practical applications in our low-pressure, environment.

  8. High-pressure studies of pharmaceutical compounds and energetic materials.

    PubMed

    Fabbiani, Francesca P A; Pulham, Colin R

    2006-10-01

    The effects of high pressure on pharmaceutical compounds and energetic materials can have important implications for both the properties and performance of these important classes of material. Pharmaceutical compounds are frequently subjected to pressure during processing and formulation, causing interconversion between solid forms that may affect properties such as solubility and bio-availability. Energetic materials experience extremes of both pressure and temperature under conditions of detonation and deflagration, causing changes in properties such as sensitivity to shock and chemical reactivity. This tutorial review outlines the various methods used to study these materials at high pressure, describes how pressure can be used to explore polymorphism, and provides examples of compounds that have been studied at high pressure. PMID:17003899

  9. High-Pressure Oxygen Generation for Outpost EVA Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeng, Frank F.; Conger, Bruce; Ewert, Michael K.; Anderson, Molly S.

    2009-01-01

    The amount of oxygen consumption for crew extravehicular activity (EVA) in future lunar exploration missions will be significant. Eight technologies to provide high pressure EVA O2 were investigated. They are: high pressure O2 storage, liquid oxygen (LOX) storage followed by vaporization, scavenging LOX from Lander followed by vaporization, LOX delivery followed by sorption compression, water electrolysis followed by compression, stand-alone high pressure water electrolyzer, Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) and Power Elements sharing a high pressure water electrolyzer, and ECLSS and In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) Elements sharing a high pressure electrolyzer. A trade analysis was conducted comparing launch mass and equivalent system mass (ESM) of the eight technologies in open and closed ECLSS architectures. Technologies considered appropriate for the two architectures were selected and suggested for development.

  10. SulA-dependent hypersensitivity to high pressure and hyperfilamentation after high-pressure treatment of Escherichia coli lon mutants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abram Aertsen; Chris W. Michiels

    2005-01-01

    High-pressure treatment (>100 MPa) is known to induce several heat shock proteins as well as an SOS response in Escherichia coli. In the current work, we have investigated properties with respect to high-pressure treatment of mutants-deficient in Lon, a pressure-induced ATP-dependent protease that belongs to the heat shock regulon but that also has a link to the SOS regulon. We report

  11. Is exercise good for high blood pressure?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R G Wilcox; T Bennett; A M Brown; I A Macdonald

    1982-01-01

    Ten men with uncomplicated essential hypertension (mean standing blood pressure 165\\/109 mm Hg) and 10 normal controls matched for age and weight were studied for the hypotensive potential of moderate exercise. Tests were conducted on a treadmill set to induce a steady heart rate of 120 beats\\/min and performed over five 10-minute periods separated by three minutes' rest and finishing

  12. Report of the National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group on High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2000-01-01

    This report updates the 1990 “National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group Report on High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy” and focuses on classification, pathophysiologic features, and management of the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Through a combination of evidence-based medicine and consensus this report updates contemporary approaches to hypertension control during pregnancy by expanding on recommendations made in “The Sixth

  13. 46 CFR 34.10-10 - Fire station hydrants, hose and nozzles-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...false Fire station hydrants, hose and nozzles-T/ALL. 34.10-10 Section 34...10-10 Fire station hydrants, hose and nozzles—T/ALL. (a) The size of fire...solid stream and water spray firehose nozzle that meets the requirements in...

  14. Fire Hose, Nozzles and Applicances. Fire Service Certification Series. Unit FSCS-FF-8-80.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pribyl, Paul F.

    This training unit on fire hose, nozzles, and appliances is part of a 17-unit course package written to aid instructors in the development, teaching, and evaluation of fire fighters in the Wisconsin Fire Service Certification Series. The purpose stated for the 18-hour unit is to present accepted hose practices that meet federal standards and can…

  15. 46 CFR 28.315 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...per square millimeter) and a flow rate of at least 80 gpm (303...main, hydrants, hoses and nozzles. (1) A vessel required...commercial grade and be fitted with a nozzle of corrosion resistant material...fire hose and be fitted with a nozzle made of corrosion...

  16. 46 CFR 153.1104 - Draining of cargo hose: Categories A, B, C, and D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Draining of cargo hose: Categories A, B, C, and D. 153.1104 Section...Approval of Surveyors and Handling of Categories A, B, C, and D Cargo and Nls Residue...153.1104 Draining of cargo hose: Categories A, B, C, and D. Before a...

  17. High-pressure applications in medicine and pharmacology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Jerson L.; Foguel, Debora; Suarez, Marisa; Gomes, Andre M. O.; Oliveira, Andréa C.

    2004-04-01

    High pressure has emerged as an important tool to tackle several problems in medicine and biotechnology. Misfolded proteins, aggregates and amyloids have been studied, which point toward the understanding of the protein misfolding diseases. High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) has also been used to dissociate non-amyloid aggregates and inclusion bodies. The diverse range of diseases that result from protein misfolding has made this theme an important research focus for pharmaceutical and biotech companies. The use of high pressure promises to contribute to identifying the mechanisms behind these defects and creating therapies against these diseases. High pressure has also been used to study viruses and other infectious agents for the purpose of sterilization and in the development of vaccines. Using pressure, we have detected the presence of a ribonucleoprotein intermediate, where the coat protein is partially unfolded but bound to RNA. These intermediates are potential targets for antiviral compounds. The ability of pressure to inactivate viruses, prions and bacteria has been evaluated with a view toward the applications of vaccine development and virus sterilization. Recent studies demonstrate that pressure causes virus inactivation while preserving the immunogenic properties. There is increasing evidence that a high-pressure cycle traps a virus in the 'fusion intermediate state', not infectious but highly immunogenic.

  18. Fate of Staphylococcus aureus in Cheese Treated by Ultrahigh Pressure Homogenization and High Hydrostatic Pressure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. López-Pedemonte; A. X. Roig-Sagués; B. Guamis

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the influence of ultrahigh pressure ho- mogenization (UHPH) treatment applied to milk con- taining Staphylococcus aureus CECT 976 before cheese making, and the benefit of applying a further high hy- drostatic pressure (HHP) treatment to cheese. The evo- lution of Staph. aureus counts during 30 d of storage at 8°C and the formation of staphylococcal enterotoxins were also

  19. Strength of solid pressure media and implications for high pressure apparatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Edmond; M. S. Paterson

    1971-01-01

    The stress-strain properties of talc, pyrophyllite, silver chloride, sodium chloride, boron nitride and graphite have been measured under confining pressures up to 8 or 10 kb at room temperature, and, in the case of talc, also at temperatures up to 900° C. The extrapolation and application of these results to solid medium high pressure apparatus of pistoncylinder type is discussed

  20. Temperature control for high pressure processes up to 1400 MPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reineke, K.; Mathys, A.; Heinz, V.; Knorr, D.

    2008-07-01

    Pressure- assisted sterilisation is an emerging technology. Hydrostatic high pressure can reduce the thermal load of the product and this allows quality retention in food products. To guarantee the safety of the sterilisation process it is necessary to investigate inactivation kinetics especially of bacterial spores. A significant roll during the inactivation of microorganisms under high pressure has the thermodynamic effect of the adiabatic heating. To analyse the individual effect of pressure and temperature on microorganism inactivation an exact temperature control of the sample to reach ideal adiabatic conditions and isothermal dwell times is necessary. Hence a heating/cooling block for a high pressure unit (Stansted Mini-Food-lab; high pressure capillary with 300 ?L sample volume) was constructed. Without temperature control the sample would be cooled down during pressure built up, because of the non-adiabatic heating of the steel made vessel. The heating/cooling block allows an ideal adiabatic heat up and cooling of the pressure vessel during compression and decompression. The high pressure unit has a pressure build-up rate up to 250 MPa s-1 and a maximum pressure of 1400 MPa. Sebacate acid was chosen as pressure transmitting medium because it had no phase shift over the investigate pressure and temperature range. To eliminate the temperature difference between sample and vessel during compression and decompression phase, the mathematical model of the adiabatic heating/cooling of water and sebacate acid was implemented into a computational routine, written in Test Point. The calculated temperature is the setpoint of the PID controller for the heating/cooling block. This software allows an online measurement of the pressure and temperature in the vessel and the temperature at the outer wall of the vessel. The accurate temperature control, including the model of the adiabatic heating opens up the possibility to realise an ideal adiabatic heating and cooling as well as isotherm dwell time of the sample under high pressure. This research offers a useful tool to investigate the additive effect of high pressure and thermal treatment on the inactivation of microorganisms.

  1. Constraining molecules at the closest approach: chemistry at high pressure.

    PubMed

    Schettino, Vincenzo; Bini, Roberto

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this tutorial review is to illustrate the effects that the application of high pressures can have on chemical reactions involving highly compressible molecular materials. The essentials of the high-pressure technology (generation and in situ control of high pressures) are described with particular attention to the versatile diamond anvil cell (DAC) apparatus. The general effects of pressure on chemical equilibrium, reaction rate and reaction mechanism are discussed. The motivation for application of high-pressure methods (in the 1-300 MPa range) to chemical synthesis and in biochemistry are illustrated focusing the attention on environmental effects and with an excursus on developing biotechnological applications. The peculiarities and the unexpected outcomes of chemical reactions occurring at very high pressures (>or=300 MPa) are discussed considering the extraordinary results obtained in polymerization and amorphization of simple molecules and of unsaturated hydrocarbons. The possible connection of the high temperature-high pressure thresholds for chemical reactions with microscopic counterparts (intermolecular distances, molecular orientations) is also discussed. PMID:17534474

  2. The effect of high pressure on nitrogen compounds of milk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kielczewska, Katarzyna; Czerniewicz, Maria; Michalak, Joanna; Brandt, Waldemar

    2004-04-01

    The effect of pressurization at different pressures (from 200 to 1000 MPa, at 200 MPa intervals, tconst. = 15 min) and periods of time (from 15 to 35 min, at 10 min intervals, pconst. = 800 MPa) on the changes of proteins and nitrogen compounds of skimmed milk was studied. The pressurization caused an increase in the amount of soluble casein and denaturation of whey proteins. The level of nonprotein nitrogen compounds and proteoso-peptone nitrogen compounds increased as a result of the high-pressure treatment. These changes increased with an increase in pressure and exposure time. High-pressure treatment considerably affected the changes in the conformation of milk proteins, which was reflected in the changes in the content of proteins sedimenting and an increase in their degree of hydration.

  3. Cryogenic Transport of High-Pressure-System Recharge Gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ungar, Eugene K,; Ruemmele, Warren P.; Bohannon, Carl

    2010-01-01

    A method of relatively safe, compact, efficient recharging of a high-pressure room-temperature gas supply has been proposed. In this method, the gas would be liquefied at the source for transport as a cryogenic fluid at or slightly above atmospheric pressure. Upon reaching the destination, a simple heating/expansion process would be used to (1) convert the transported cryogenic fluid to the room-temperature, high-pressure gaseous form in which it is intended to be utilized and (2) transfer the resulting gas to the storage tank of the system to be recharged. In conventional practice for recharging high-pressure-gas systems, gases are transported at room temperature in high-pressure tanks. For recharging a given system to a specified pressure, a transport tank must contain the recharge gas at a much higher pressure. At the destination, the transport tank is connected to the system storage tank to be recharged, and the pressures in the transport tank and the system storage tank are allowed to equalize. One major disadvantage of the conventional approach is that the high transport pressure poses a hazard. Another disadvantage is the waste of a significant amount of recharge gas. Because the transport tank is disconnected from the system storage tank when it is at the specified system recharge pressure, the transport tank still contains a significant amount of recharge gas (typically on the order of half of the amount transported) that cannot be used. In the proposed method, the cryogenic fluid would be transported in a suitably thermally insulated tank that would be capable of withstanding the recharge pressure of the destination tank. The tank would be equipped with quick-disconnect fluid-transfer fittings and with a low-power electric heater (which would not be used during transport). In preparation for transport, a relief valve would be attached via one of the quick-disconnect fittings (see figure). During transport, the interior of the tank would be kept at a near-ambient pressure far below the recharge pressure. As leakage of heat into the tank caused vaporization of the cryogenic fluid, the resulting gas would be vented through the relief valve, which would be set to maintain the pressure in the tank at the transport value. Inasmuch as the density of a cryogenic fluid at atmospheric pressure greatly exceeds that of the corresponding gas in a practical high-pressure tank at room temperature, a tank for transporting a given mass of gas according to the proposed method could be smaller (and, hence, less massive) than is a tank needed for transporting the same mass of gas according to the conventional method.

  4. Viscosity of Gaseous HFC125 (Pentafluoroethane) Under High Pressures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Takahashi; N. Shibasaki-Kitakawa; C. Yokoyama

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports experimental results lor the viscosity of gaseous HFC-125 (pentafluoroethane) under high pressures. The measurements were carried out with an oscillating-disk viscometer of the Maxwell type at temperatures from 298.15 to 423.15 K and at pressures up to the saturated vapor pressures at each temperature at subcritical conditions or up to 9 MPa at supercritical temperatures. Intermolecular scaling

  5. Characterization of quartz Bourdon-type high-pressure transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobata, Tokihiko

    2005-12-01

    The characteristics of commercially available pressure monitors were evaluated. The pressure range of these pressure monitors is up to 100 MPa and the resolution of the transducer is 0.1 kPa. The pressure monitor includes a quartz Bourdon-type high-precision electronic pressure transducer inside the body. The sensing element of the transducer is a precision quartz crystal resonator and the frequency of oscillation varies with pressure-induced stress. In total, six pressure monitors were prepared for this study. During 15 months, the six monitors were calibrated simultaneously using a hydraulic pressure balance 11 times in total. The effects on the readings of the monitors by setting parameters and environmental conditions were evaluated. The important characteristics for the pressure transducer such as the temperature coefficient of the span reading and long-term stability were also evaluated quantitatively. From the evaluation results, the behaviours of the transducers during the period were well characterized. The standard deviation of the relative deviations from the least-squares best-fitting function for each pressure transducer was less than 6 × 10-6 in the pressure range of 30 MPa to 100 MPa and had a maximum of 11 × 10-6 at 10 MPa. In this article, the details of the characterization are described.

  6. High pressure synthesis gas conversion. Task 2: Determination of maximum operating pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The purpose of this research project was to build and test a high pressure fermentation system for the production of ethanol from synthesis gas. The fermenters, pumps, controls, and analytical system were procured or fabricated and assembled in our laboratory. This system was then used to determine the effects of high pressure on growth and ethanol production by C. ljungdahlil. The limits of cell concentration and mass transport relationships were found in CSTR and immobilized cell reactors (ICR). The minimum retention times and reactor volumes were found for ethanol production in these reactors. The purpose of this report was to present the results of high pressure experiments aimed at determining the maximum operating pressure of C. ljungdahlil. Preliminary experiments carried out in approaching the pressure maximum are presented, as well as experimental results at the maximum pressure of 150 psig. This latter pressure was the maximum operating pressure when using the defined medium of Phillips et al., and is expected to change if alternative media are employed.

  7. Laboratory investigation of high pressure survival in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 into the gigapascal pressure range

    PubMed Central

    Hazael, Rachael; Foglia, Fabrizia; Kardzhaliyska, Liya; Daniel, Isabelle; Meersman, Filip; McMillan, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The survival of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 at up to 1500 MPa was investigated by laboratory studies involving exposure to high pressure followed by evaluation of survivors as the number (N) of colony forming units (CFU) that could be cultured following recovery to ambient conditions. Exposing the wild type (WT) bacteria to 250 MPa resulted in only a minor (0.7 log N units) drop in survival compared with the initial concentration of 108 cells/ml. Raising the pressure to above 500 MPa caused a large reduction in the number of viable cells observed following recovery to ambient pressure. Additional pressure increase caused a further decrease in survivability, with approximately 102 CFU/ml recorded following exposure to 1000 MPa (1 GPa) and 1.5 GPa. Pressurizing samples from colonies resuscitated from survivors that had been previously exposed to high pressure resulted in substantially greater survivor counts. Experiments were carried out to examine potential interactions between pressure and temperature variables in determining bacterial survival. One generation of survivors previously exposed to 1 GPa was compared with WT samples to investigate survival between 37 and 8°C. The results did not reveal any coupling between acquired high pressure resistance and temperature effects on growth. PMID:25452750

  8. Criterion for Identifying Vortices in High-Pressure Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellan, Josette; Okong'o, Nora

    2007-01-01

    A study of four previously published computational criteria for identifying vortices in high-pressure flows has led to the selection of one of them as the best. This development can be expected to contribute to understanding of high-pressure flows, which occur in diverse settings, including diesel, gas turbine, and rocket engines and the atmospheres of Jupiter and other large gaseous planets. Information on the atmospheres of gaseous planets consists mainly of visual and thermal images of the flows over the planets. Also, validation of recently proposed computational models of high-pressure flows entails comparison with measurements, which are mainly of visual nature. Heretofore, the interpretation of images of high-pressure flows to identify vortices has been based on experience with low-pressure flows. However, high-pressure flows have features distinct from those of low-pressure flows, particularly in regions of high pressure gradient magnitude caused by dynamic turbulent effects and by thermodynamic mixing of chemical species. Therefore, interpretations based on low-pressure behavior may lead to misidentification of vortices and other flow structures in high-pressure flows. The study reported here was performed in recognition of the need for one or more quantitative criteria for identifying coherent flow structures - especially vortices - from previously generated flow-field data, to complement or supersede the determination of flow structures by visual inspection of instantaneous fields or flow animations. The focus in the study was on correlating visible images of flow features with various quantities computed from flow-field data.

  9. Diamond anvil cell and high-pressure physical investigations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Jayaraman

    1983-01-01

    The present status of high-pressure research with the diamond anvil cell (DAC) is reviewed in this article, mainly from an experimental aspect. After a brief description of the different types of DAC's that are currently in vogue, the techniques used in conjunction with the DAC in modern high-pressure research are presented. These include techniques for low- and high-temperature studies, x-ray

  10. General formulation for magnetohydrodynamic wave propagation, fire-hose, and mirror instabilities in Harris-type current sheets

    SciTech Connect

    Hau, L.-N. [Institute of Space Science, National Central University, Jhongli, Taiwan (China); Department of Physics, National Central University, Jhongli, Taiwan (China); Lai, Y.-T. [Institute of Space Science, National Central University, Jhongli, Taiwan (China)

    2013-02-15

    Harris-type current sheets with the magnetic field model of B-vector=B{sub x}(z)x-caret+B{sub y}(z)y-caret have many important applications to space, astrophysical, and laboratory plasmas for which the temperature or pressure usually exhibits the gyrotropic form of p{r_reversible}=p{sub Parallel-To }b-caretb-caret+p{sub Up-Tack }(I{r_reversible}-b-caretb-caret). Here, p{sub Parallel-To} and p{sub Up-Tack} are, respectively, to be the pressure component along and perpendicular to the local magnetic field, b-caret=B-vector/B. This study presents the general formulation for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) wave propagation, fire-hose, and mirror instabilities in general Harris-type current sheets. The wave equations are expressed in terms of the four MHD characteristic speeds of fast, intermediate, slow, and cusp waves, and in the local (k{sub Parallel-To },k{sub Up-Tack },z) coordinates. Here, k{sub Parallel-To} and k{sub Up-Tack} are, respectively, to be the wave vector along and perpendicular to the local magnetic field. The parameter regimes for the existence of discrete and resonant modes are identified, which may become unstable at the local fire-hose and mirror instability thresholds. Numerical solutions for discrete eigenmodes are shown for stable and unstable cases. The results have important implications for the anomalous heating and stability of thin current sheets.

  11. Studies of Alkali Sorption Kinetics for Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion by High Pressure Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, K.J.; Willenborg, W.; Fricke, C.; Prikhodovsky, A.; Hilpert, K.; Singheiser, L.

    2002-09-20

    This work describes the first approach to use High Pressure Mass Spectrometry (HPMS) for the quantification and analysis of alkali species in a gas stream downstream a sorbent bed of different tested alumosilicates.

  12. Germination of vegetable seeds exposed to very high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Y.; Yokota, S.; Ono, F.

    2012-07-01

    Effects of high hydrostatic pressure were investigated on vegetable seeds in the GPa range to examine the potentialities of breed improvement by high-pressure processing. Specimens of several seeds of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), Turnip leaf (Brassica rapa var. perviridis) and Potherb Mustard (Brassica rapa var. nipposinica) were put in a teflon capsule with liquid high pressure medium, fluorinate, and inserted into a pyrophillite cube. By using a cubic anvil press a hydrostatic pressure of 5.5 GP a was applied to these seeds for 15 minutes. After being brought back to ambient pressure, they were seeded on humid soil in a plant pot. Many of these vegetable seeds began to germinate within 6 days after seeded.

  13. Underground storage systems for high-pressure air and gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beam, B. H.; Giovannetti, A.

    1975-01-01

    This paper is a discussion of the safety and cost of underground high-pressure air and gas storage systems based on recent experience with a high-pressure air system installed at Moffett Field, California. The system described used threaded and coupled oil well casings installed vertically to a depth of 1200 ft. Maximum pressure was 3000 psi and capacity was 500,000 lb of air. A failure mode analysis is presented, and it is shown that underground storage offers advantages in avoiding catastrophic consequences from pressure vessel failure. Certain problems such as corrosion, fatigue, and electrolysis are discussed in terms of the economic life of such vessels. A cost analysis shows that where favorable drilling conditions exist, the cost of underground high-pressure storage is approximately one-quarter that of equivalent aboveground storage.

  14. HIGH TEMPERATURE HIGH PRESSURE THERMODYNAMIC MEASUREMENTS FOR COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS

    SciTech Connect

    Vinayak N. Kabadi

    2000-05-01

    The flow VLE apparatus designed and built for a previous project was upgraded and recalibrated for data measurements for this project. The modifications include better and more accurate sampling technique, addition of a digital recorder to monitor temperature and pressure inside the VLE cell, and a new technique for remote sensing of the liquid level in the cell. VLE data measurements for three binary systems, tetralin-quinoline, benzene--ethylbenzene and ethylbenzene--quinoline, have been completed. The temperature ranges of data measurements were 325 C to 370 C for the first system, 180 C to 300 C for the second system, and 225 C to 380 C for the third system. The smoothed data were found to be fairly well behaved when subjected to thermodynamic consistency tests. SETARAM C-80 calorimeter was used for incremental enthalpy and heat capacity measurements for benzene--ethylbenzene binary liquid mixtures. Data were measured from 30 C to 285 C for liquid mixtures covering the entire composition range. An apparatus has been designed for simultaneous measurement of excess volume and incremental enthalpy of liquid mixtures at temperatures from 30 C to 300 C. The apparatus has been tested and is ready for data measurements. A flow apparatus for measurement of heat of mixing of liquid mixtures at high temperatures has also been designed, and is currently being tested and calibrated.

  15. Rotational viscometer for high-pressure, high-temperature fluids

    DOEpatents

    Carr, K.R.

    1983-06-06

    The invention is a novel rotational viscometer which is well adapted for use with fluids at high temperatures and/or pressures. In one embodiment, the viscometer include a substantially non-magnetic tube having a closed end and having an open end in communication with a fluid whose viscosity is to be determined. An annular drive magnet is mounted for rotation about the tube. The tube encompasses and supports a rotatable shaft assembly which carries a rotor, or bob, for insertion in the fluid. Affixed to the shaft are (a) a second magnet which is magnetically coupled to the drive magnet and (b) a third magnet. In a typical operation, the drive magnet is rotated to turn the shaft assembly while the shaft rotor is immersed in the fluid. The viscous drag on the rotor causes the shaft assembly to lag the rotation of the drive magnet by an amount which is a function of the amount of viscous drag. A first magnetic pickup generates a waveform whose phase is a function of the angular position of the drive magnet. A second magnetic pickup generates a waveform whose phase is a function of the angular position of the third magnet. Means are provided to generate an output indicative of the phase difference between the two waveforms. The viscometer is comparatively simple, inexpensive, rugged, and does not require shaft seals.

  16. Rotational viscometer for high-pressure high-temperature fluids

    DOEpatents

    Carr, Kenneth R. (Knoxville, TN)

    1985-01-01

    The invention is a novel rotational viscometer which is well adapted for use with fluids at high temperatures and/or pressures. In one embodiment, the viscometer includes a substantially non-magnetic tube having a closed end and having an open end in communication with a fluid whose viscosity is to be determined. An annular drive magnet is mounted for rotation about the tube. The tube encompasses and supports a rotatable shaft assembly which carries a rotor, or bob, for insertion in the fluid. Affixed to the shaft are (a) a second magnet which is magnetically coupled to the drive magnet and (b) a third magnet. In a typical operation, the drive magnet is rotated to turn the shaft assembly while the shaft rotor is immersed in the fluid. The viscous drag on the rotor causes the shaft assembly to lag the rotation of the drive magnet by an amount which is a function of the amount of viscous drag. A first magnetic pickup generates a waveform whose phase is a function of the angular position of the drive magnet. A second magnetic pickup generates a waveform whose phase is a function of the angular position of the third magnet. An output is generated indicative of the phase difference between the two waveforms.

  17. High pressure testing of see-through labyrinth seals

    E-print Network

    Picardo, Arthur Michael

    2003-01-01

    Detailed results are presented for teeth-on-stator labyrinth seals tested under high pressure of 70 bar-a (1015 psi-a) and 52 bar-a (754 psi-a) in the centered position. The seals were tested at pressure ratios of 0.52, 0.36 and 0.16, speeds of 10...

  18. Temperature effects for high pressure processing of Picornaviruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Investigation of the effects of pre-pressurization temperature on the high pressure inactivation for single strains of aichivirus (AiV), coxsackievirus A9 (CAV9) and B5 (CBV5) viruses, as well as human parechovirus -1 (HPeV), was performed. For CAV9, an average 1.99 log10 greater inactivation was ...

  19. Determination of impact sensitivity of materials at high pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, L.; Pippen, D.; Stradling, J.; Whitaker, D.

    1972-01-01

    Compact device is used to determine impact sensitivity of material in static, high pressure, gaseous environment. It can also be instrumented to monitor and record pressure, temperature, and striker impact force. Device is used in conjunction with commercially available liquid oxygen impact tester which provides impact energy.

  20. Reversible Stalling of Transcription Elongation Complexes by High Pressure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonardo Erijman; Robert M. Clegg

    1998-01-01

    We have investigated the effect of high hydrostatic pressure on the stability of RNA polymerase molecules during transcription. RNA polymerase molecules participating in stalled or active ternary transcribing complexes do not dissociate from the template DNA and nascent RNA at pressures up to 180MPa. A lower limit for the free energy of stabilization of an elongating ternary complex relative to

  1. Influence of high pressure processing on protein solutions and emulsions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vanda B Galazka; Eric Dickinson; Dave A Ledward

    2000-01-01

    Static high-pressure technology is likely to be used increasingly over the next few years in the preservation and processing of food. This ‘clean’ technology offers an effective and safe method of modifying protein structure, and self-assembly properties. Pressure processing can lead to globular protein denaturation, and different states of aggregation or gelation depending on the protein system, the treatment temperature,

  2. Heat-resistant pressure probe with high-frequency response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogero, R. S.

    1970-01-01

    Probe, having a sensor at its inner tip in intimate contact with pressure transients, measures pressure wave fluctuations through an engine's combustion chamber. A film of flexible opaque material on the face of the sensor prevents high radiation fluxes from heating the quartz crystal and thus changing the electrical characteristics.

  3. Detail view of unit 43 with high pressure stage compressor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of unit 43 with high pressure stage compressor in left foreground and low pressure stage compressor in right background. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  4. High-pressure and temperature investigations of energetic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gump, J. C.

    2014-05-01

    Static high-pressure measurements are extremely useful for obtaining thermodynamic and phase stability information from a wide variety of materials. However, studying energetic materials can be challenging when extracting information from static high-pressure measurements. Energetic materials are traditionally C, H, N, O compounds with low crystalline symmetry, producing weak signal in commonly performed x-ray diffraction measurements. The small sample volume available in a static high-pressure cell exacerbates this issue. Additionally, typical hydrostatic compression media, such as methanol/ethanol, may react with many energetic materials. However, characterization of their thermodynamic parameters and phase stability is critical to understanding explosive performance and sensitivity. Crystalline properties, such as bulk modulus and thermal expansion, are necessary to accurately predict the behaviour of shocked solids using hydrodynamic codes. In order to obtain these values, equations of state of various energetic materials were investigated using synchrotron angle-dispersive x-ray diffraction experiments at static high-pressure and temperature. Intense synchrotron radiation overcomes the weak x-ray scattering of energetic materials in a pressure cell. The samples were hydrostatically compressed using a non-reactive hydrostatic medium and heated using a heated diamond anvil cell. Pressure - volume data for the materials were fit to the Birch-Murnaghan and Vinet formalisms to obtain bulk modulus and its first pressure derivative. Temperature - volume data at ambient pressure were fit to obtain the volume thermal expansion coefficient. Data from several energetic materials will be presented and compared.

  5. A high-temperature wideband pressure transducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuckerwar, A. J.

    1977-01-01

    A condenser microphone AM carrier system, which has been developed to measure pressure fluctuations at elevated temperatures, consists of the following components: a condenser microphone designed for operation at elevated temperatures; existing carrier electronics developed under two previous research grants but adapted to meet present requirements; a 6 m cable operating as a half-wavelength transmission line between the microphone and carrier electronics; and a voltage-controlled oscillator used in a feedback loop for automatic tuning control. Both theoretical and practical aspects of the development program are considered. The three predominant effects of temperature changes are changes in the membrane-backplate gap, membrane tension, and air viscosity. The microphone is designed so that changes in gap and membrane tension tend to have compensating effects upon the microphone sensitivity.

  6. High pressure compressor component performance report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cline, S. J.; Fesler, W.; Liu, H. S.; Lovell, R. C.; Shaffer, S. J.

    1983-01-01

    A compressor optimization study defined a 10 stage configuration with a 22.6:1 pressure ratio, an adiabatic efficiency goal of 86.1%, and a polytropic efficiency of 90.6%; the corrected airflow is 53.5 kg/s. Subsequent component testing included three full scale tests: a six stage rig test, a 10 stage rig test, and another 10 stage rig test completed in the second quarter of 1982. Information from these tests is used to select the configuration for a core engine test and an integrated core/low spool test. The test results will also provide data base for the flight propulsion system. The results of the test series with both aerodynamic and mechanical performance of each compressor build are presented. The second 10 stage compressor adiabatic efficiency was 0.848 at a cruise operating point versus a test goal of 0.846.

  7. Chemistry of nitromethane at very high pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Agnew, S.F.; Swanson, B.I.; Kenney, J.; Kenney, I.

    1989-01-01

    Decomposition of nitromethane is reported over the range of 115- 180/degree/C and 0.6-8.5 GPa. About 5 /mu/g of nitromethane is compressed with a diamond-anvil cell, heated to the point that reaction occurs, and held typically 10-20 minutes at the reaction temperature. The cell is cooled and the volatile contents of the cell are frozen as a thin layer in vacuo and an infrared absorption spectrum is recorded. The three volatile products observed are N/sub 2/O, CO/sub 2/, and water, with N/sub 2/O production peaking at 1.5 GPa, 135/degree/C, and 35% of NME; CO/sub 2/ production peaking at 3.5 GPa, 135/degree/C, and 65% of NME, and water yields at 20-50% of NME at the highest pressure measured, 8.5 GPa and 175/degree/C. Water yields were difficult to quantify due to background contamination. Results indicate three different reactions for solid NME dependent primarily on the pressure of the reaction, and that fluid NME does not decompose at 0.6 GPa and 175/degree/C, although the solid decomposes readily at 1.1 GPa and 120/degree/C. The authors conclude that, while various decomposition mechanisms are possible, the initial step CH/sub 3/NO/sub 2/ /yields/ /center dot/CH/sub 3/ + /center dot/NO/sub 2/ is very unlikely. 14 refs., 5 figs.

  8. Purification of organic crystals by high-pressure sweating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louhi, M.; Kaipainen, E.; Niemi, H.; Silventoinen, I.; Palosaari, S.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of high pressure combined with a sweating technique was studied in purification of organic crystalline chemicals. The dependence of product purity and yield on pressure, pressing period, and mass of charge were determined. Mixtures studied were guaiacol glycerin ether with guaiacol as impurity and naphthalene with diphenyl as impurity. Purity of these mixtures was in both cases about 90 wt%. The mixtures were placed at an elevated pressure close to their equilibrium liquidus point. The purity of 98 wt% was achieved by using pressures between 300-700 bar and pressing periods of 20 and 40 min. Yield of the purified compound was higher than 80%.

  9. Digital pressure transducer for use at high temperatures

    DOEpatents

    Karplus, Henry H. B. (Hinsdale, IL)

    1981-01-01

    A digital pressure sensor for measuring fluid pressures at relatively high temperatures includes an electrically conducting fiber coupled to the fluid by a force disc that causes tension in the fiber to be a function of fluid pressure. The tension causes changes in the mechanical resonant frequency of the fiber, which is caused to vibrate in a magnetic field to produce an electrical signal from a positive-feedback amplifier at the resonant frequency. A count of this frequency provides a measure of the fluid pressure.

  10. High pressure structural studies on nanophase praseodymium oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saranya, L.; Chandra Shekar, N. V.; Amirthapandian, S.; Hussain, Shamima; Arulraj, A.; Sahu, P. Ch.

    2014-09-01

    The phase stability of nanocrystalline Pr2O3 has been investigated under pressure by in-situ high pressure X-ray diffraction using Mao-Bell type diamond anvil cell. The ambient structure and phase of the praseodymium oxide have been resolved unambiguously using x-ray diffraction, SEM and TEM techniques. Under the action of pressure the cubic phase of the system is retained up to 15 GPa. This is unusual as other isostructural rare earth oxides show structural transformations even at lower pressures. From the best fit to the P-V data with the Murnaghan equation of state yields a bulk modulus of 171 GPa.

  11. Effect of osmolytes on pressure-induced unfolding of proteins: a high-pressure SAXS study.

    PubMed

    Krywka, Christina; Sternemann, Christian; Paulus, Michael; Tolan, Metin; Royer, Catherine; Winter, Roland

    2008-12-22

    Herein, we explore the effect of different types of osmolytes on the high-pressure stability and tertiary structure of a well-characterized monomeric protein, staphylococcal nuclease (SNase). Changes in the denaturation pressure and the radius of gyration are obtained in the presence of different concentrations of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), glycerol and urea. To reveal structural changes in the protein upon compression at various osmolyte conditions, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) experiments were carried out. To this end, a new high-pressure cell suitable for high-precision SAXS studies at synchrotron sources was built, which allows one to carry out scattering experiments up to maximum pressures of about 7 kbar. Our data clearly indicate that the osmolytes that stabilize proteins against temperature-induced unfolding drastically increase their pressure stability and that the elliptically shaped curve of the pressure-temperature-stability diagram of proteins is shifted to higher temperatures and pressures with increasing osmolyte concentration. A drastic stabilization is observed for the osmolyte TMAO, which exhibits not only a significant stabilization against temperature-induced unfolding, but also a particularly strong stabilization of the protein against pressure. In fact, such findings are in accordance with in vivo studies (for example P. J. Yancey, J. Exp. Biol. 2005, 208, 2819-2830), where unusually high TMAO concentrations in some deep-sea animals were found. Conversely, chaotropic agents such as urea have a strong destabilizing effect on both the temperature and pressure stability of the protein. Our data also indicate that sufficiently high TMAO concentrations might be able to largely offset the destabilizing effect of urea. The different scenarios observed are discussed in the context of recent experimental and theoretical studies. PMID:18924198

  12. 42 CFR 84.163 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type C supplied-air respirators, demand and pressure-demand...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...supplied-air respirators, demand and pressure-demand classes; test requirements...supplied-air respirators, demand and pressure-demand classes; test requirements...test will be conducted at the minimum pressure with the maximum hose length and...

  13. 42 CFR 84.163 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type C supplied-air respirators, demand and pressure-demand...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...supplied-air respirators, demand and pressure-demand classes; test requirements...supplied-air respirators, demand and pressure-demand classes; test requirements...test will be conducted at the minimum pressure with the maximum hose length and...

  14. 42 CFR 84.163 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type C supplied-air respirators, demand and pressure-demand...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...supplied-air respirators, demand and pressure-demand classes; test requirements...supplied-air respirators, demand and pressure-demand classes; test requirements...test will be conducted at the minimum pressure with the maximum hose length and...

  15. Evaluation of candidate alloys for the construction of metal flex hoses in the STS launch environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdowell, Louis G., III; Ontiveros, Cordelia

    1988-01-01

    Various vacuum jacketed cryogenic supply lines at the Shuttle launch site use convoluted flexible expansion joints. The atmosphere at the launch site has a very high salt content, and during a launch fuel combustion products include hydrochloric acid. This extremely corrosive environment has caused pitting corrosion failure in the flex hoses, which were made out of 304L stainless steel. A search was done to find a more corrosion resistant replacement material. Nineteen metal alloys were tested. Tests which were performed include electrochemical corrosion testing, accelerated corrosion testing in a salt fog chamber, long term exposure at the beach corrosion testing site, and pitting corrosion tests in ferric chloride solution. Based on the results, the most corrosion resistant alloys were found to be, in order, Hastelloy C-22, Inconel 625, Hastelloy C-276, Hastelloy C-4, and Inco Alloy G-3. Of these top five alloys, the Hastelloy C-22 stands out as being the best of the alloys tested.

  16. Laser-machined microcavities for simultaneous measurement of high-temperature and high-pressure.

    PubMed

    Ran, Zengling; Liu, Shan; Liu, Qin; Huang, Ya; Bao, Haihong; Wang, Yanjun; Luo, Shucheng; Yang, Huiqin; Rao, Yunjiang

    2014-01-01

    Laser-machined microcavities for simultaneous measurement of high-temperature and high-pressure are demonstrated. These two cascaded microcavities are an air cavity and a composite cavity including a section of fiber and an air cavity. They are both placed into a pressure chamber inside a furnace to perform simultaneous pressure and high-temperature tests. The thermal and pressure coefficients of the short air cavity are ~0.0779 nm/°C and ~1.14 nm/MPa, respectively. The thermal and pressure coefficients of the composite cavity are ~32.3 nm/°C and ~24.4 nm/MPa, respectively. The sensor could be used to separate temperature and pressure due to their different thermal and pressure coefficients. The excellent feature of such a sensor head is that it can withstand high temperatures of up to 400 °C and achieve precise measurement of high-pressure under high temperature conditions. PMID:25106018

  17. Laser-Machined Microcavities for Simultaneous Measurement of High-Temperature and High-Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Ran, Zengling; Liu, Shan; Liu, Qin; Huang, Ya; Bao, Haihong; Wang, Yanjun; Luo, Shucheng; Yang, Huiqin; Rao, Yunjiang

    2014-01-01

    Laser-machined microcavities for simultaneous measurement of high-temperature and high-pressure are demonstrated. These two cascaded microcavities are an air cavity and a composite cavity including a section of fiber and an air cavity. They are both placed into a pressure chamber inside a furnace to perform simultaneous pressure and high-temperature tests. The thermal and pressure coefficients of the short air cavity are ?0.0779 nm/°C and ?1.14 nm/MPa, respectively. The thermal and pressure coefficients of the composite cavity are ?32.3 nm/°C and ?24.4 nm/MPa, respectively. The sensor could be used to separate temperature and pressure due to their different thermal and pressure coefficients. The excellent feature of such a sensor head is that it can withstand high temperatures of up to 400 °C and achieve precise measurement of high-pressure under high temperature conditions. PMID:25106018

  18. Applications and development of high pressure PEM systems

    SciTech Connect

    Leonida, A; Militsky, F; Myers, B; Weisberg, A H

    1999-06-01

    Many portable fuel cell applications require high pressure hydrogen, oxygen, or both. High pressure PEM systems that were originally designed and developed primarily for aerospace applications are being redesigned for use in portable applications. Historically, applications can be broken into weight sensitive and weight insensitive cell stack designs. Variants of the weight sensitive designs have been considered to refill oxygen bottles for space suits, to provide oxygen for space shuttle, to provide oxygen and/or reboost propellants to the space station, and to recharge oxygen bottles for commercial aviation. A long operating history has been generated for weight insensitive designs that serve as oxygen generators for submarines. Exciting future vehicle concepts and portable applications are enabled by carefully designing lightweight stacks which do not require additional pressure containment. These include high altitude long endurance solar rechargeable aircraft and airships, water refuelable spacecraft, and a variety of field portable systems. High pressure electrolyzers can refill compressed hydrogen storage tanks for fuel cell powered vehicles or portable fuel cells. Hamilton Standard has demonstrated many high pressure PEM water electrolyzer designs for a variety of applications. Electrolyzers with operational pressures up to 3000 psi (20.7 MPa) are currently used for US Navy submarine oxygen generators. An aerospace version has been demonstrated in the Integrated Propulsion Test Article (IPTA) program. Electrolyzers with operational pressures up to 6000 psi (41.4 MPa) have also been demonstrated in the High Pressure Oxygen Recharge System (HPORS). Onboard oxygen generator systems (OBOGS) that generate up to 2000 psi (13.8 MPa) oxygen and refill breathable oxygen tanks for commercial aviation have been designed and successfully demonstrated. Other hardware applications that require high pressure PEM devices are related to these proven applications.

  19. Energy Systems High Pressure Test Laboratory (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    This fact sheet describes the purpose, lab specifications, applications scenarios, and information on how to partner with NREL's Energy Systems High Pressure Test Laboratory at the Energy Systems Integration Facility. The purpose of the Energy Systems High Pressure Test Laboratory at NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) is to provide space where high pressure hydrogen components can be safely tested. High pressure hydrogen storage is an integral part of energy storage technology for use in fuel cell and in other distributed energy scenarios designed to effectively utilize the variability inherent with renewable energy sources. The high pressure storage laboratory is co-located with energy storage activities such as ultra-capacitors, super conducting magnetic flywheel and mechanical energy storage systems laboratories for an integrated approach to system development and demonstration. Hazards associated with hydrogen storage at pressures up to 10,000 psi include oxygen displacement, combustion, explosion, and pressurization of room air due to fast release and physical hazards associated with burst failure modes. A critical understanding of component failure modes is essential in developing reliable, robust designs that will minimize failure risk beyond the end of service life. Development of test protocol for accelerated life testing to accurately scale to real world operating conditions is essential for developing regulations, codes and standards required for safe operation. NREL works closely with industry partners in providing support of advanced hydrogen technologies. Innovative approaches to product design will accelerate commercialization into new markets. NREL works with all phases of the product design life cycle from early prototype development to final certification testing. High pressure tests are performed on hydrogen components, primarily for the validation of developing new codes and standards for high pressure hydrogen applications. The following types of tests can be performed: Performance, Component and system level efficiency, Strength of materials and hydrogen compatibility, Safety demonstration, Model validation, and Life cycle reliability.

  20. Structural study of helical polyfluorene under high quasihydrostatic pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knaapila, M.; Konôpková, Z.; Torkkeli, M.; Haase, D.; Liermann, H.-P.; Guha, S.; Scherf, U.

    2013-02-01

    We report on an x-ray diffraction (XRD) study of helical poly[9,9-bis(2-ethylhexyl)fluorene] (PF2/6) under high quasihydrostatic pressure and show an effect of pressure on the torsion angle (dihedral angle) between adjunct repeat units and on the hexagonal unit cell. A model for helical backbone conformation is constructed. The theoretical position for the most prominent 00l x-ray reflection is calculated as a function of torsion angle. The XRD of high molecular weight PF2/6 (Mn=30 kg/mol) is measured through a diamond anvil cell upon pressure increase from 1 to 10 GPa. The theoretically considered 00l reflection is experimentally identified, and its shift with the increasing pressure is found to be consistent with the decreasing torsion angle between 2 and 6 GPa. This indicates partial backbone planarization towards a more open helical structure. The h00 peak is identified, and its shift together with the broadening of 00l implies impairment of the ambient hexagonal order, which begins at or below 2 GPa. Previously collected high-pressure photoluminescence data are reanalyzed and are found to be qualitatively consistent with the XRD data. This paper provides an example of how the helical ?-conjugated backbone structure can be controlled by applying high quasihydrostatic pressure without modifications in its chemical structure. Moreover, it paves the way for wider use of high-pressure x-ray scattering in the research of ?-conjugated polymers.